WorldWideScience

Sample records for apartheid-like social structure

  1. Implications of social structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Josefine Bohr

    Social systems in nature are characterised by heterogeneous social structures. The pattern of social interactions or associations between individuals within populations (i.e. their social network) is typically non-random. Such structuring may have important implications for the expression and...... four separate studies. In the first study, we propose a simple framework that may be used as a base when studying the link between social structure and fitness. We furthermore review current evidence for fitness effects of social structure, and find good support for such effects. In the second study...... evolution of behaviour, and for individual fitness. In this thesis I investigated implications of social structure for fitness and behaviour, with focus on three main areas: social structure & fitness, social structure & communication, and social structure & cooperation. These areas were investigated in...

  2. Social Structure and Child Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriss, Abbott L.

    2006-01-01

    Child poverty, as a critical indicator of the QOL, is intricately related to the social structure of the community. This hypothesis is explored for the 159 counties of Georgia for the year 2000. The influence of demographic, economic, family and health factors upon child poverty are explored through models of total, black and white child poverty.…

  3. Objectifying Social Structures. Network visualization as means of social optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Social network analysis offers a broad range of formal and interpretative methodologies to deal with social structures, not only by discursive, but also by visual means. Sociograms, depicting social relations as nodes and lines, have played an important part in the reification of social structures since the beginnings of sociometry. This paper brings together two strands of analysis: first, a historical perspective on the development of social network visualization; and, second, exemplary sto...

  4. Social structure of Facebook networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traud, Amanda L.; Mucha, Peter J.; Porter, Mason A.

    2012-08-01

    We study the social structure of Facebook “friendship” networks at one hundred American colleges and universities at a single point in time, and we examine the roles of user attributes-gender, class year, major, high school, and residence-at these institutions. We investigate the influence of common attributes at the dyad level in terms of assortativity coefficients and regression models. We then examine larger-scale groupings by detecting communities algorithmically and comparing them to network partitions based on user characteristics. We thereby examine the relative importance of different characteristics at different institutions, finding for example that common high school is more important to the social organization of large institutions and that the importance of common major varies significantly between institutions. Our calculations illustrate how microscopic and macroscopic perspectives give complementary insights on the social organization at universities and suggest future studies to investigate such phenomena further.

  5. Social Structure of Facebook Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Traud, Amanda L.; Mucha, Peter J.; Mason A. Porter

    2011-01-01

    We study the social structure of Facebook "friendship" networks at one hundred American colleges and universities at a single point in time, and we examine the roles of user attributes - gender, class year, major, high school, and residence - at these institutions. We investigate the influence of common attributes at the dyad level in terms of assortativity coefficients and regression models. We then examine larger-scale groupings by detecting communities algorithmically and comparing them to...

  6. Social inheritance can explain the structure of animal social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilany, Amiyaal; Akçay, Erol

    2016-01-01

    The social network structure of animal populations has major implications for survival, reproductive success, sexual selection and pathogen transmission of individuals. But as of yet, no general theory of social network structure exists that can explain the diversity of social networks observed in nature, and serve as a null model for detecting species and population-specific factors. Here we propose a simple and generally applicable model of social network structure. We consider the emergence of network structure as a result of social inheritance, in which newborns are likely to bond with maternal contacts, and via forming bonds randomly. We compare model output with data from several species, showing that it can generate networks with properties such as those observed in real social systems. Our model demonstrates that important observed properties of social networks, including heritability of network position or assortative associations, can be understood as consequences of social inheritance. PMID:27352101

  7. Social structure, socialization and the self

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Victor Pereira da; Lamy, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Norbert Elias’(1998; 2000) argument that in European societies, from the period of medieval times until the mid-20th century, the self became more individuated and self-regulation more internalized as these societies became more socially differentiated and complex is critically analyzed. His perspective is applied beyond these initial parameters to the emergent globalized world in which we now live. Norbert Elias (1998; 2000) postula que, nas sociedades europeias, da Idade Média até me...

  8. Social Work, Structured Fun and the Jokes of Social Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    The topic of social work does not normally inspire laughter. So it is perhaps not surprising that research into the culture of social work rarely pursues its humorous aspect—the role of irony and laughter, for example. But if Michael Mulkay (1988) is right in suggesting that the domain of humor a...

  9. Modelling the Evolution of Social Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, A. G.; Dunbar, R. I. M.; Wang, D.

    2016-01-01

    Although simple social structures are more common in animal societies, some taxa (mainly mammals) have complex, multi-level social systems, in which the levels reflect differential association. We develop a simulation model to explore the conditions under which multi-level social systems of this kind evolve. Our model focuses on the evolutionary trade-offs between foraging and social interaction, and explores the impact of alternative strategies for distributing social interaction, with fitness criteria for wellbeing, alliance formation, risk, stress and access to food resources that reward social strategies differentially. The results suggest that multi-level social structures characterised by a few strong relationships, more medium ties and large numbers of weak ties emerge only in a small part of the overall fitness landscape, namely where there are significant fitness benefits from wellbeing and alliance formation and there are high levels of social interaction. In contrast, ‘favour-the-few’ strategies are more competitive under a wide range of fitness conditions, including those producing homogeneous, single-level societies of the kind found in many birds and mammals. The simulations suggest that the development of complex, multi-level social structures of the kind found in many primates (including humans) depends on a capacity for high investment in social time, preferential social interaction strategies, high mortality risk and/or differential reproduction. These conditions are characteristic of only a few mammalian taxa. PMID:27427758

  10. Modelling the Evolution of Social Structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G Sutcliffe

    Full Text Available Although simple social structures are more common in animal societies, some taxa (mainly mammals have complex, multi-level social systems, in which the levels reflect differential association. We develop a simulation model to explore the conditions under which multi-level social systems of this kind evolve. Our model focuses on the evolutionary trade-offs between foraging and social interaction, and explores the impact of alternative strategies for distributing social interaction, with fitness criteria for wellbeing, alliance formation, risk, stress and access to food resources that reward social strategies differentially. The results suggest that multi-level social structures characterised by a few strong relationships, more medium ties and large numbers of weak ties emerge only in a small part of the overall fitness landscape, namely where there are significant fitness benefits from wellbeing and alliance formation and there are high levels of social interaction. In contrast, 'favour-the-few' strategies are more competitive under a wide range of fitness conditions, including those producing homogeneous, single-level societies of the kind found in many birds and mammals. The simulations suggest that the development of complex, multi-level social structures of the kind found in many primates (including humans depends on a capacity for high investment in social time, preferential social interaction strategies, high mortality risk and/or differential reproduction. These conditions are characteristic of only a few mammalian taxa.

  11. Social significance of community structure: Statistical view

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hui-Jia

    2015-01-01

    Community structure analysis is a powerful tool for social networks, which can simplify their topological and functional analysis considerably. However, since community detection methods have random factors and real social networks obtained from complex systems always contain error edges, evaluating the significance of community structure partitioned is an urgent and important question. In this paper, integrating the specific characteristics of real society, we present a novel framework analyzing the significance of social community specially. The dynamics of social interactions are modeled by identifying social leaders and corresponding hierarchical structures. Instead of a direct comparison with the average outcome of a random model, we compute the similarity of a given node with the leader by the number of common neighbors. To determine the membership vector, an efficient community detection algorithm is proposed based on the position of nodes and their corresponding leaders. Then, using log-likelihood sco...

  12. Matching Community Structure Across Online Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of community structure in networks is a problem of considerable interest in recent years. In online social networks, often times, users are simultaneously involved in multiple social media sites, some of which share common social relationships. It is of great interest to uncover a shared community structure across these networks. However, in reality, users typically identify themselves with different usernames across social media sites. This creates a great difficulty in detecting the community structure. In this paper, we explore several approaches for community detection across online social networks with limited knowledge of username alignment across the networks. We refer to the known alignment of usernames as seeds. We investigate strategies for seed selection and its impact on networks with a different fraction of overlapping vertices. The goal is to study the interplay between network topologies and seed selection strategies, and to understand how it affects the detected community structu...

  13. Family Structure and Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Dawn R.

    Regardless of family form, there is a universal belief that one's family is the most powerful agent of socialization. A sample of 38 junior high school students from single parent and nuclear families completed a questionnaire in order to examine the relative effects of peer influence and family influence in single parent and nuclear families.…

  14. The fundamental structures of dynamic social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sekara, Vedran; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Lehmann, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Networks provide a powerful mathematical framework for analyzing the structure and dynamics of complex systems (1-3). The study of group behavior has deep roots in the social science literature (4,5) and community detection is a central part of modern network science. Network communities have been found to be highly overlapping and organized in a hierarchical structure (6-9). Recent technological advances have provided a toolset for measuring the detailed social dynamics at scale (10,11). In ...

  15. Social structure bureaucracy and corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jellal, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Using the principal-agent- supervisor paradigm, this paper examines the occurrence of collusion in a setting where the principal has no information about the supervisor and the agent does not necessarily know the supervisor’s preferences. We formally prove the occurrence of collusion is more likely when the agent has information about the preferences of the supervisor. This result suggests that corruption, which is likely to emerge in long term social reciprocal relationships between public o...

  16. Fundamental structures of dynamic social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekara, Vedran; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Lehmann, Sune

    2016-09-01

    Social systems are in a constant state of flux, with dynamics spanning from minute-by-minute changes to patterns present on the timescale of years. Accurate models of social dynamics are important for understanding the spreading of influence or diseases, formation of friendships, and the productivity of teams. Although there has been much progress on understanding complex networks over the past decade, little is known about the regularities governing the microdynamics of social networks. Here, we explore the dynamic social network of a densely-connected population of ∼1,000 individuals and their interactions in the network of real-world person-to-person proximity measured via Bluetooth, as well as their telecommunication networks, online social media contacts, geolocation, and demographic data. These high-resolution data allow us to observe social groups directly, rendering community detection unnecessary. Starting from 5-min time slices, we uncover dynamic social structures expressed on multiple timescales. On the hourly timescale, we find that gatherings are fluid, with members coming and going, but organized via a stable core of individuals. Each core represents a social context. Cores exhibit a pattern of recurring meetings across weeks and months, each with varying degrees of regularity. Taken together, these findings provide a powerful simplification of the social network, where cores represent fundamental structures expressed with strong temporal and spatial regularity. Using this framework, we explore the complex interplay between social and geospatial behavior, documenting how the formation of cores is preceded by coordination behavior in the communication networks and demonstrating that social behavior can be predicted with high precision. PMID:27555584

  17. The Economic Consequences of Social Network Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Matthew O.; Rogers, Brian; Zenou, Yves

    2015-01-01

    We survey the literatures on the economic consequences of the structure of social networks. We develop a taxonomy of 'macro' and 'micro' characteristics of social inter-action networks and discuss both the theoretical and empirical findings concerning the role of those characteristics in determining learning, diffusion, decisions, and resulting behaviors. We also discuss the challenges of accounting for the endogeneity of networks in assessing the relationship between the patterns of interact...

  18. The fundamental structures of dynamic social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sekara, Vedran; Lehmann, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Networks provide a powerful mathematical framework for analyzing the structure and dynamics of complex systems (1-3). The study of group behavior has deep roots in the social science literature (4,5) and community detection is a central part of modern network science. Network communities have been found to be highly overlapping and organized in a hierarchical structure (6-9). Recent technological advances have provided a toolset for measuring the detailed social dynamics at scale (10,11). In spite of great progress, a quantitative description of the complex temporal behavior of social groups-with dynamics spanning from minute-by-minute changes to patterns expressed on the timescale of years-is still absent. Here we uncover a class of fundamental structures embedded within highly dynamic social networks. On the shortest time-scale, we find that social gatherings are fluid, with members coming and going, but organized via a stable core of individuals. We show that cores represent social contexts (9), with recur...

  19. Competition in a Social Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Longjas, Anthony; Batac, Rene

    Complex adaptive agents develop strategies in the presence of competition. In modern human societies, there is an inherent sense of locality when describing inter-agent dynamics because of its network structure. One then wonders whether the traditional advertising schemes that are globally publicized and target random individuals are as effective in attracting a larger portion of the population as those that take advantage of local neighborhoods, such as "word-of-mouth" marketing schemes. Here, we demonstrate using a differential equation model that schemes targeting local cliques within the network are more successful at gaining a larger share of the population than those that target users randomly at a global scale (e.g., television commercials, print ads, etc.). This suggests that success in the competition is dependent not only on the number of individuals in the population but also on how they are connected in the network. We further show that the model is general in nature by considering examples of competition dynamics, particularly those of business competition and language death.

  20. Malaysia : Social and Structural Review Update

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2001-01-01

    A Structural Policy Review (SPR) for Malaysia, prepared in late 1998 and early 1999, was shared with the government of Malaysia in February 1999 and subsequently appeared in gray cover in June 1999 (report no. 18647). The report covered developments in the following six areas: 1) maintaining sound macroeconomic policies and resuming growth; 2) managing the social impact of the crisis; 3) f...

  1. Social Network Structures among Groundnut Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…

  2. Exploring Social Structures in Extended Team Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Ali Babar, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Extended Team Model (ETM) as a type of offshore outsourcing is increasingly becoming popular mode of Global Software Development (GSD). There is little knowledge about the social structures in ETM and their impact on collaboration. Within a large interdisciplinary project to develop the next...

  3. SOCIAL POLICIES AND STRUCTURAL REFORMS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Brunet Cid

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the social and structural policies in contemporary Europe. The presentation is organized in four sections. First, we discuss the emerging Europe, the new unity based on democracy and the market economy, the special European Union formula, and comparisons with America. Second, we analyze the dynamics of the European economy, the convergence process, the gaps between United States in productivity and standard of living, competitiveness issues, and the emergence of a new European economy and new European policy mix.Third, we consider European social conditions, the stationary and aging population, Europe’s low employment rate and permanently high unemployment. European economic growth could draw on two major sources: the labor reserves and reforms in factor, product and service markets. In a monetary union, advanced industrial relations should promote labor mobility and salary flexibility. The social security systems permit the redistribution and cohesion which defines the European model.Fourth, for the new Europe, the structural reform strategy is the way forward for the challenge of European economic policy and social policy: more and better jobs thanks to sustainable growth in a dynamic and competitive knowledge-based economy, favoring greater social cohesion.

  4. Information diffusion in structured online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Zhang, Yini; Qiao, Fengcai; Wang, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, due to the word-of-mouth effect, online social networks have been considered to be efficient approaches to conduct viral marketing, which makes it of great importance to understand the diffusion dynamics in online social networks. However, most research on diffusion dynamics in epidemiology and existing social networks cannot be applied directly to characterize online social networks. In this paper, we propose models to characterize the information diffusion in structured online social networks with push-based forwarding mechanism. We introduce the term user influence to characterize the average number of times that messages are browsed which is incurred by a given type user generating a message, and study the diffusion threshold, above which the user influence of generating a message will approach infinity. We conduct simulations and provide the simulation results, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis results perfectly. These results are of use in understanding the diffusion dynamics in online social networks and also critical for advertisers in viral marketing who want to estimate the user influence before posting an advertisement.

  5. Emergent Community Structure in Social Tagging Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cattuto, Ciro; Servedio, Vito D P; Loreto, Vittorio

    2008-01-01

    A distributed classification paradigm known as collaborative tagging has been widely adopted in new Web applications designed to manage and share online resources. Users of these applications organize resources (Web pages, digital photographs, academic papers) by associating with them freely chosen text labels, or tags. Here we leverage the social aspects of collaborative tagging and introduce a notion of resource distance based on the collective tagging activity of users. We collect data from a popular system and perform experiments showing that our definition of distance can be used to build a weighted network of resources with a detectable community structure. We show that this community structure clearly exposes the semantic relations among resources. The communities of resources that we observe are a genuinely emergent feature, resulting from the uncoordinated activity of a large number of users, and their detection paves the way for mapping emergent semantics in social tagging systems.

  6. For social movements, the online world replicates traditional offline structures and networks of social capital

    OpenAIRE

    Sajuria, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Many have hailed the rise of social media as the beginning of new ways of constructing social networks that are unconstrained by traditional forms of structure and organisation. In new research, Javier Sajuria examines social capital and social behavior via Twitter use in three campaigns in Chile, the UK, and the US. He finds that far from creating new social structures, traditional structures seen offline are replicated online.

  7. Analyzing Social Influence through Social Media: A Structured Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Snijders, R.; Helms, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of social media enables billions of people to share their content and in doing so they influence others and are being influenced themselves. This virtual environment provides a new perspective for the current social influence theories. In this study, the state-of-the-art literature on social influence through social media is reviewed. We find that social influence metrics, influence maximization, mobilization, Word-Of-Mouth and Online Reputation Management are important trends i...

  8. Measuring The Social Relations: Social Distance in Social Structure - A Study of Prison Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Social relations and their influence on various phenomena are one of the key issues not only in sociology. The crucial problem, however, is how to measure the social relations and their implications in society. We try to adapt a physical perspective to the ''typical'' sociological analysis and to measure the qualitative nature of human community adapting the category of social distance. This category is used to explore the properties of social relations in the structure and the communication system of prison community. The issues that are discussed: the specific properties of social relations as the constitutive factors for different type of group structure and type of communication. How the elementary social networks (short-range group structures) form the dynamics of prison community? What is the role of the numerical force of the group for prison community? Is there the interplay between the microstructures and macrostructures? The work is based on our research carried out in 17 prisons in Poland in 2003, 2004 and 2005. There were about 2000 prisoners in the sample. (author)

  9. Community structure and dynamics in social systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Dennis M.

    This thesis presents applications of statistical physics to the study of the structure and dynamics of social systems, that is, systems whose interactions are based on information exchange. Social systems typically possess a community structure arising from the self organization of groups of interacting components into tightly-knit clusters. An automated method of identifying communities within a network of interactions is first presented. The method includes a statistical component crucial to obtaining accurate results in large, complex systems. It is applied to two real-world social networks, a network of email interactions and a network of related articles in the biomedical literature. The clusters it identifies within these networks are shown to correspond to communities of interrelated components. Next, the dynamics of cooperative problem solving processes on social systems are studied. A simple stochastic model is proposed which captures key aspects of the dynamics which have been empirically observed. Most important among these are the increase in average time to solution and in likelihood of long delays as the system size increases, as well as the log-normal distribution of times to solution. It is shown that a community structure both reduces the average time to solution and decreases the probability of delay. In cases where a system of cooperative efforts does not possess an inherent community structure, the effect of imposing communities is examined. The factor which most affects the dynamics when communities are imposed is shown to be the degree to which individuals neglect information from outside their own communities. The theory of stochastic vector processes is central to the dynamics of social systems and a mathematical study of this subject is presented. Expressions describing the evolution of the moments in the neighborhood of fixed points are obtained for arbitrary systems. Approximation techniques are applied in the small and large noise limits

  10. Social network structures and bank runs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shouwei; Li, Jiaheng

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the impact of social network structures of depositors on bank runs. The analyzed network structures include random networks, small-world networks and scale-free networks. Simulation results show that the probability of bank run occurrence in random networks is larger than that in small-world networks, but the probability of bank run occurrence in scale-free networks drops from the highest to the lowest among the three types of network structures with the increase of the proportion of impatient depositors. The average degree of depositor networks has a significant impact on bank runs, but this impact is related to the proportion of impatient depositors and the confidence levels of depositors in banks.

  11. Structural Violence; Critical Criminology; Social Harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Rivera Beiras

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this Paper is to analyze three epistemological tools to develop a contemporary and global Critical Criminology. In that sense, by the one hand, we examine the concept of structural violence as the material meaning of fundamental rights and its deprivation. By the other hand, we develop the sociological category of collective memory to try to understand the importance of this tool with the function to fight against impunity of state and corporate crimes. Finally, we examine the concept of social harm in order to go beyond penal and criminological sciences.

  12. Community Structure in Online Collegiate Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traud, Amanda; Kelsic, Eric; Mucha, Peter; Porter, Mason

    2009-03-01

    Online social networking sites have become increasingly popular with college students. The networks we studied are defined through ``friendships'' indicated by Facebook users from UNC, Oklahoma, Caltech, Georgetown, and Princeton. We apply the tools of network science to study the Facebook networks from these five different universities at a single point in time. We investigate each single-institution network's community structure, which we obtain through partitioning the graph using an eigenvector method. We use both graphical and quantitative tools, including pair-counting methods, which we interpret through statistical analysis and permutation tests to measure the correlations between the network communities and a set of characteristics given by each user (residence, class year, major, and high school). We also analyze the single gender subsets of these networks, and the impact of missing demographical data. Our study allows us to compare the online social networks for the five schools as well as infer differences in offline social interactions. At the schools studied, we were able to define which characteristics of the Facebook users correlate best with friendships.

  13. Health and the Structure of Adolescent Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Steven A.; Schaefer, David R.; Kornienko, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Much research has explored the role of social networks in promoting health through the provision of social support. However, little work has examined how social networks themselves may be structured by health. This article investigates the link between individuals' health and the characteristics of their social network positions.We first develop…

  14. Finding Community Structures In Social Activity Data

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2015-05-19

    Social activity data sets are increasing in number and volume. Finding community structure in such data is valuable in many applications. For example, understand- ing the community structure of social networks may reduce the spread of epidemics or boost advertising revenue; discovering partitions in tra c networks can help to optimize routing and to reduce congestion; finding a group of users with common interests can allow a system to recommend useful items. Among many aspects, qual- ity of inference and e ciency in finding community structures in such data sets are of paramount concern. In this thesis, we propose several approaches to improve com- munity detection in these aspects. The first approach utilizes the concept of K-cores to reduce the size of the problem. The K-core of a graph is the largest subgraph within which each node has at least K connections. We propose a framework that accelerates community detection. It first applies a traditional algorithm that is relatively slow to the K-core, and then uses a fast heuristic to infer community labels for the remaining nodes. The second approach is to scale the algorithm to multi-processor systems. We de- vise a scalable community detection algorithm for large networks based on stochastic block models. It is an alternating iterative algorithm using a maximum likelihood ap- proach. Compared with traditional inference algorithms for stochastic block models, our algorithm can scale to large networks and run on multi-processor systems. The time complexity is linear in the number of edges of the input network. The third approach is to improve the quality. We propose a framework for non- negative matrix factorization that allows the imposition of linear or approximately linear constraints on each factor. An example of the applications is to find community structures in bipartite networks, which is useful in recommender systems. Our algorithms are compared with the results in recent papers and their quality and e

  15. Analyzing Social Influence through Social Media: A Structured Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, R.; Helms, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of social media enables billions of people to share their content and in doing so they influence others and are being influenced themselves. This virtual environment provides a new perspective for the current social influence theories. In this study, the state-of-the-art literature on

  16. Social circles: a simple structure for agent-based social network models

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, GN; Hamill, L

    2009-01-01

    None of the standard network models fit well with sociological observations of real social networks. This paper presents a simple structure for use in agent-based models of large social networks. Taking the idea of social circles, it incorporates key aspects of large social networks such as low density, high clustering and assortativity of degree of connectivity. The model is very flexible and can be used to create a wide variety of artificial social worlds.

  17. The association between perceived social support and amygdala structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Kubota, Yasutaka; Uono, Shota; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2016-05-01

    The subjective perception of social support plays a crucial role in human well-being. However, its structural neural substrates remain unknown. We hypothesized that the amygdala, specifically its laterobasal and superficial subregions, which have been suggested to serve social functions, could be associated with the level of perceived social support. To test this hypothesis, we assessed perceived social support using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. In addition, we measured the volume and shape of the amygdala using structural magnetic resonance imaging in 49 healthy participants. Global amygdala volume in the left hemisphere was positively associated with the perceived social support score after adjusting for total cerebral volume, sex, age, intelligence, and five-factor personality domains. The local shape of the laterobasal and superficial subregions of the left amygdala showed the same association with perceived social support. These data suggest that the social subregions of the left amygdala are associated with the implementation of perceived social support. PMID:27039164

  18. Retail Structured Products for Socially Responsible Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    Institutional investors are the main drivers of demand for socially responsible investment (SRI). Preferences for non- nancial goals such as social and environmental sustainability are also held by small retail agents who, nonetheless, are almost non-existent in the market. This paper studies how...... with mutual advantages; an improved preference match for responsible investors and social/environmental benefits....

  19. Social Capital in Organizations - Beyond Structure and Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrøm, Christian

    2003-01-01

    in future research before social capital can move definitively beyond being merely a metaphor for advantage. First, the unresolved issue of causality is a barrier in the study of social structure and social capital alike, and hampers both measuring scales and implications drawn from empirical...

  20. The Structure and Validity of the Multidimensional Social Support Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Patrick H.; Richardson, George B.

    2012-01-01

    The factor structure and concurrent validity of the Multidimensional Social Support Questionnaire, a brief measure of perceived social support for use with adolescents, was examined. Findings suggest that four dimensions of perceived social support may yield more information than assessments of the unitary construct of support. (Contains 8 tables…

  1. Values: Great challenge for construction of social structure with social institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susran Erkan Eroğlu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Values and social institutions are inseparable in the construction of the social structure. There are 5 main social institutions; namely, family, education, religion, economy and politics. These institutions have their own structures and these structures were shaped by values. The scope of this study is to observe value system in general. Thus, it is possible to understand the motivations behind attitudes and behaviors related to values and to observe social interaction processes, institutional structure of key entities in the society and to understand cultural trends in the society general

  2. Social Cohesion, Structural Holes, and a Tale of Two Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latora, V.; Nicosia, V.; Panzarasa, P.

    2013-05-01

    In the social sciences, the debate over the structural foundations of social capital has long vacillated between two positions on the relative benefits associated with two types of social structures: closed structures, rich in third-party relationships, and open structures, rich in structural holes and brokerage opportunities. In this paper, we engage with this debate by focusing on the measures typically used for formalising the two conceptions of social capital: clustering and effective size. We show that these two measures are simply two sides of the same coin, as they can be expressed one in terms of the other through a simple functional relation. Building on this relation, we then attempt to reconcile closed and open structures by proposing a new measure, Simmelian brokerage, that captures opportunities of brokerage between otherwise disconnected cohesive groups of contacts. Implications of our findings for research on social capital and complex networks are discussed.

  3. Social cohesion, structural holes, and a tale of two measures

    CERN Document Server

    Latora, Vito; Panzarasa, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    In the social sciences, the debate over the structural foundations of social capital has long vacillated between two positions on the relative benefits associated with two types of social structures: closed structures, rich in third-party relationships; and open structures, rich in structural holes and brokerage opportunities. In this paper, we engage with this debate by focusing on the measures typically used for formalising the two conceptions of social capital: clustering and effective size. We show that these two measures are simply two sides of the same coin, as they can be expressed one in terms of the other through a simple functional relation. Building on this relation, we then attempt to reconcile closed and open structures by proposing a new measure, Simmelian brokerage, that captures opportunities of brokerage between otherwise disconnected cohesive groups of contacts. Implications of our findings for research on social capital and complex networks are discussed.

  4. Mass Media Influence Spreading in Social Networks with Community Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Candia, Julián; Mazzitello, Karina I.

    2008-01-01

    We study an extension of Axelrod's model for social influence, in which cultural drift is represented as random perturbations, while mass media are introduced by means of an external field. In this scenario, we investigate how the modular structure of social networks affects the propagation of mass media messages across the society. The community structure of social networks is represented by coupled random networks, in which two random graphs are connected by intercommunity links. Considerin...

  5. Modern Social Support Structures: Online Social Networks and their Implications for Social Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Kala Chakradhar; Victor Raj; Arabella Raj

    2009-01-01

    Mapping and assessing social networks and the quality of their social support is a valuable intervention strategy for social workers. These networks have now spread onto the digital realm in the form of Online Social Networks (OSNs). This study investigated the nature of social support provided by such networks to their users in a rural mid-South University (USA) and explored parallels with the current understanding of social support in conventional social networks. A web-based survey adminis...

  6. Social networks: modeling structure and dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Toivonen, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    The study of networks of social interaction can be seen to originate from the work of Jacob Moreno in the 1920's. At the turn of the millennium new actors entered the field, researchers with a background in physics and computer science, who brought with them a new set of tools that could be used to collect and analyse large sets of data. Analysis of large scale social network data from various sources has increased our knowledge of the common features of various social networks, observed in n...

  7. Globalization, financial capitalism, and corporate social responsibility: Structural tensions

    OpenAIRE

    David Barbosa Ramírez; Christian Medina López; Myriam Vargas López

    2014-01-01

    Globalization and financial capitalism keep a synergy in a global context whose problems such as environmental degradation, social inequity, economic crises and corruption are intensified. Corporate Social Responsibility emerges as a mechanism that seeks to mitigate some of these problems, although its effectiveness and impact today are challenged. The system which globalization, financial capitalism and social responsibility are a part of, is currently facing a number of structural tensions ...

  8. Merit, Approbation and the Evolution of Social Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, Robin; Jonard, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study a society in which individuals gain utility from income and from social approbation. Income is correlated with class. Approbation is given to an unobservable trait, which must be signalled through the agent’s social mobility, i.e. class change. Mobility is driven by a simple mechanism involving inheritance, effort and ability. Thus social structure (class composition) is affected by individuals’ quest for approbation, and we study how that affects the emergence and mult...

  9. Structural social capital and health in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorillo, Damiano; Sabatini, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the first empirical assessment of the causal relationship between social capital and health in Italy. The analysis draws on the 2000 wave of the Multipurpose Survey on Household conducted by the Italian Institute of Statistics on a representative sample of the population (n=46,868). Our measure of social capital is the frequency of meetings with friends. Based on IV and bivariate probit estimates, we find that individuals who meet friends every day or more time times a week are approximately 11-16% more likely to report good health. PMID:25805101

  10. The structure of the Social Self-Concept (SSC Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantza Fernández-Zabala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the factorial structure of the newly-created Cuestionario de Autoconcepto Social - AUSO (from here on the Social Self-concept Questionnaire, or AUSO, which consists of two scales measuring social responsibility and social competence. The theoretical proposal which posits that social self-concept is the result of the combination of two basic self-perceptions: competence in social relations and response to the demands of social functioning, is based on a review of human social development theories and previous attempts to measure social self-concept. Participants were 818 students aged between 17 and 52. The results obtained though confirmatory factor analyses support the hypothesis of a structure made up of two correlated factors. In addition to providing a new measurement instrument with appropriate psychometric characteristics and valid criteria that justify its use in both applied practice and research, this study also enhances our understanding of the internal nature of the social domain of self-concept.

  11. Modern Social Support Structures: Online Social Networks and their Implications for Social Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kala Chakradhar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mapping and assessing social networks and the quality of their social support is a valuable intervention strategy for social workers. These networks have now spread onto the digital realm in the form of Online Social Networks (OSNs. This study investigated the nature of social support provided by such networks to their users in a rural mid-South University (USA and explored parallels with the current understanding of social support in conventional social networks. A web-based survey administered to college students revealed that users of these online networks were predominantly undergraduate first year students, female, single, unemployed and from a variety of academic disciplines. The examination of the components of OSNs appears to mirror those of offline networks. They also seem to complement the effects of each other while contributing to an individual's support system. The paper concludes with critical implications of such online social networking for University students and social workers in practice and education.

  12. Social policies and structures under transition: cohesion and tensions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večerník, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2004), s. 310-322. ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS7028351 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7028912 Keywords : social policy * social structure * cohesion Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  13. Securing Social Media: A Network Structure Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiluka, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Due to its democratized nature, online social media (OSM) attracts millions of users to publish and share their content with friends as well as a wider audience at little cost. Such a vast user base and a wealth of content, however, presents its own challenges. First, the amount of user-generated co

  14. Experiences with structuring corporate social responsibility in Dutch industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This article reflects upon the practical experiences gained by the 19 companies with structuring corporate social responsibility within the framework of the programme ‘From financial to sustainable profit’ of the National Initiative for Sustainable Development (NIDO), running from May 2000 till December 2002. Based on the available literature and the views of the participating companies a structured approach towards corporate social responsibility has been designed and tested in practice. In ...

  15. "Kracking" the Missing Data Problem: Applying Krackhardt's Cognitive Social Structures to School-Based Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jennifer Watling

    2008-01-01

    Social network analysis can enrich school-based research on children's peer relationships. Unfortunately, accurate network analysis requires near-complete data on all students and is underutilized in school-based research because of low rates of parental consent. This article advocates Krackhardt's cognitive social structures (CSS) as a solution…

  16. Social structure bureaucracy and corruptionA

    OpenAIRE

    Jellal, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Using the principal-agent- supervisor paradigm, this paper examines the occurrence of collusion in a setting where the principal has no information about the supervisor and the agent does not necessarily know the supervisor’s preferences. We formally prove the occurrence of collusion is more likely when the agent has information about the preferences of the supervisor. This result suggests that corruption, which is likely to emerge in long term social reciprocal relationships between public o...

  17. EMERGENT COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN SOCIAL TAGGING SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    CIRO CATTUTO; ANDREA BALDASSARRI; Vito D P Servedio; VITTORIO LORETO

    2008-01-01

    A distributed classification paradigm known as collaborative tagging has been widely adopted in new Web applications designed to manage and share online resources. Users of these applications organize resources (Web pages, digital photographs, academic papers) by associating with them freely chosen text labels, or tags. Here we leverage the social aspects of collaborative tagging and introduce a notion of resource distance based on the collective tagging activity of users. We collect data fro...

  18. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY TREND OR STRUCTURAL CONCERN?

    OpenAIRE

    ALECXANDRINA DEACONU; LAVINIA RASCA; OANA FIRICA

    2011-01-01

    The image of a company, the corporate identity and the organizational culture have become essential today. A company that wants to provide not only commercial success but also the respect of the society in which it operates should be involved in the community’s life. There are many voices saying that sustainable development of companies within ethical, community or social limits, has become increasingly important in the culture of the global business. The concept of sustainable corporate deve...

  19. Social Capital, Institutional Structures and Political Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Walmsley, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    For decades there has been a concern that citizens in Britain and other western democracies are disengaging from political processes. Furthermore, Robert Putnam (2000) argues that the decline in engagement is connected to a decline in social capital. Recent citizenship philosophies from authors such as Etzioni (2000) and Blond (2009) attempt to address this concern by arguing for the development of mutual and associative communities. Although Etzioni (2000) and Putnam (2000) argue that the st...

  20. The complex structure of hunter–gatherer social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Marcus J.; Milne, Bruce T.; Walker, Robert S.; Burger, Oskar; Brown, James H

    2007-01-01

    In nature, many different types of complex system form hierarchical, self-similar or fractal-like structures that have evolved to maximize internal efficiency. In this paper, we ask whether hunter-gatherer societies show similar structural properties. We use fractal network theory to analyse the statistical structure of 1189 social groups in 339 hunter-gatherer societies from a published compilation of ethnographies. We show that population structure is indeed self-similar or fractal-like wit...

  1. [The structure of social representations on health and illness among members of social movements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Helena Eri; Silva, Jessica Reis E; de Moura, Luciana Melo; Bermúdez, Ximena Pamela Días; Odeh, Muna Muhammad

    2015-09-01

    The scope of the study was to identify the structure of social representations regarding health and illness as expressed by representatives of social movements. The study included 66 members of social movements in the Federal District of Brazil. A questionnaire was applied to obtain the socio-economic profile of the participants and the free association technique was used in order to identify the likely peripheral and central core of the social representations analyzed by version 2000 EVOC software (Ensemble de Programmes Permettant l'Analyse des Évocations). The study results indicate that the majority of the participants have been activists for longer than six years, male, young adults, with above high school level education, monthly income over two minimum salaries, and are users of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Concerning the social representations of health structure, it was found that "quality of life" comprised the core system, while in the case of the social representations of illness, the core was found to be "suffering." The study suggests that the respondents' social representations of health and illness remain distant from a Social Determinants paradigm considered necessary for the assertion of the right to health and for achieving quality of life. PMID:26331521

  2. Structural comparison of inequality and social structures: Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večerník, Jiří

    Oxford : Palgrave Macmillan, 2003 - (Mikhalev, V.), s. 211-241 ISBN 0-333-96424-1 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS7028351 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7028912 Keywords : economic inequality * social stratification * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  3. Structural Precursors to Identity Processes: The Role of Proximate Social Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolla, David M.; Serpe, Richard T.; Stryker, Sheldon; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates how participation in college-based science-training programs increases student intention to pursue a scientific career. Using identity theory, we delineate three levels of social structure and conceptualize science-training programs as proximate social structures. Results from a sample of 892 undergraduate science…

  4. Mass media influence spreading in social networks with community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia, Julián; Mazzitello, Karina I.

    2008-07-01

    We study an extension of Axelrod's model for social influence, in which cultural drift is represented as random perturbations, while mass media are introduced by means of an external field. In this scenario, we investigate how the modular structure of social networks affects the propagation of mass media messages across a society. The community structure of social networks is represented by coupled random networks, in which two random graphs are connected by intercommunity links. Considering inhomogeneous mass media fields, we study the conditions for successful message spreading and find a novel phase diagram in the multidimensional parameter space. These findings show that social modularity effects are of paramount importance for designing successful, cost-effective advertising campaigns.

  5. Political behavior, social responsibility, and perceived corruption: a structuration perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yadong Luo

    2006-01-01

    This study unites the three lenses – political behavior, corporate social responsibility, and corruption – and evaluates the way in which multinational enterprises (MNEs) manage political and social forces in a foreign emerging market. Using the theory of structuration as the conceptual foundation, we propose that an MNE's propensity to cooperate with the host government is positively related to its philanthropic contribution and resource accommodation, whereas its propensity to be assertive ...

  6. STRUCTURAL WEAKNESSES AS BARRIERS TO SOCIAL PROGRESS IN ESTONIA

    OpenAIRE

    Janno Reiljan; Claus-Friedrich Laaser; Klaus Schrader

    2014-01-01

    Although Estonia developed a functioning market economy, it has hardly succeeded in catching-up economically with the richer countries of the euro area. Correspondingly, the level of social security is still rather limited. To improve the income situation and enhance the social security systems it is essential to overcome the structural weaknesses of the Estonian economy, which is mirrored in the apparently low productivity level. The challenge for the Estonian policy is to create a suitable ...

  7. Time allocation in social networks: correlation between social structure and human communication dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Miritello, Giovanna; Moro, Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown the deep impact of the dynamics of human interactions (or temporal social networks) on the spreading of information, opinion formation, etc. In general, the bursty nature of human interactions lowers the interaction between people to the extent that both the speed and reach of information diffusion are diminished. Using a large database of 20 million users of mobile phone calls we show evidence this effect is not homogeneous in the social network but in fact, there is a large correlation between this effect and the social topological structure around a given individual. In particular, we show that social relations of hubs in a network are relatively weaker from the dynamical point than those that are poorer connected in the information diffusion process. Our results show the importance of the temporal patterns of communication when analyzing and modeling dynamical process on social networks.

  8. Hierarchical community structure in complex (social) networks

    CERN Document Server

    Massaro, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of community structure in networks is a task of great importance in many disciplines, namely physics, sociology, biology and computer science where systems are often represented as graphs. One of the challenges is to find local communities from a local viewpoint in a graph without global information in order to reproduce the subjective hierarchical vision for each vertex. In this paper we present the improvement of an information dynamics algorithm in which the label propagation of nodes is based on the Markovian flow of information in the network under cognitive-inspired constraints \\cite{Massaro2012}. In this framework we have introduced two more complex heuristics that allow the algorithm to detect the multi-resolution hierarchical community structure of networks from a source vertex or communities adopting fixed values of model's parameters. Experimental results show that the proposed methods are efficient and well-behaved in both real-world and synthetic networks.

  9. Structural Violence; Critical Criminology; Social Harm

    OpenAIRE

    Iñaki Rivera Beiras

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this Paper is to analyze three epistemological tools to develop a contemporary and global Critical Criminology. In that sense, by the one hand, we examine the concept of structural violence as the material meaning of fundamental rights and its deprivation. By the other hand, we develop the sociological category of collective memory to try to understand the importance of this tool with the function to fight against impunity of state and corporate crimes. Finally, we examine the conc...

  10. Modelling group navigation: transitive social structures improve navigational performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Andrea; Biro, Dora; Guilford, Tim; Freeman, Robin

    2015-07-01

    Collective navigation demands that group members reach consensus on which path to follow, a task that might become more challenging when the group's members have different social connections. Group decision-making mechanisms have been studied successfully in the past using individual-based modelling, although many of these studies have neglected the role of social connections between the group's interacting members. Nevertheless, empirical studies have demonstrated that individual recognition, previous shared experiences and inter-individual familiarity can influence the cohesion and the dynamics of the group as well as the relative spatial positions of specific individuals within it. Here, we use models of collective motion to study the impact of social relationships on group navigation by introducing social network structures into a model of collective motion. Our results show that groups consisting of equally informed individuals achieve the highest level of accuracy when they are hierarchically organized with the minimum number of preferred connections per individual. We also observe that the navigational accuracy of a group will depend strongly on detailed aspects of its social organization. More specifically, group navigation does not only depend on the underlying social relationships, but also on how much weight leading individuals put on following others. Also, we show that groups with certain social structures can compensate better for an increased level of navigational error. The results have broader implications for studies on collective navigation and motion because they show that only by considering a group's social system can we fully elucidate the dynamics and advantages of joint movements. PMID:26063820

  11. Virality Prediction and Community Structure in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2013-08-01

    How does network structure affect diffusion? Recent studies suggest that the answer depends on the type of contagion. Complex contagions, unlike infectious diseases (simple contagions), are affected by social reinforcement and homophily. Hence, the spread within highly clustered communities is enhanced, while diffusion across communities is hampered. A common hypothesis is that memes and behaviors are complex contagions. We show that, while most memes indeed spread like complex contagions, a few viral memes spread across many communities, like diseases. We demonstrate that the future popularity of a meme can be predicted by quantifying its early spreading pattern in terms of community concentration. The more communities a meme permeates, the more viral it is. We present a practical method to translate data about community structure into predictive knowledge about what information will spread widely. This connection contributes to our understanding in computational social science, social media analytics, and marketing applications.

  12. Experiences with structuring corporate social responsibility in Dutch industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This article reflects upon the practical experiences gained by the 19 companies with structuring corporate social responsibility within the framework of the programme ‘From financial to sustainable profit’ of the National Initiative for Sustainable Development (NIDO), running from May 2000 till Dece

  13. Genetic structure and breeding system in a social wasp and its social parasite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs Jennifer L

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social insects dominate ecological communities because of their sophisticated group behaviors. However, the intricate behaviors of social insects may be exploited by social parasites, which manipulate insect societies for their own benefit. Interactions between social parasites and their hosts lead to unusual coevolutionary dynamics that ultimately affect the breeding systems and population structures of both species. This study represents one of the first attempts to understand the population and colony genetic structure of a parasite and its host in a social wasp system. Results We used DNA microsatellite markers to investigate gene flow, genetic variation, and mating behavior of the facultative social parasite Vespula squamosa and its primary host, V. maculifrons. Our analyses of genetic variability uncovered that both species possessed similar amounts of genetic variation and failed to show genetic structure over the sampling area. Our analysis of mating system of V. maculifrons and V. squamosa revealed high levels of polyandry and no evidence for inbreeding in the two species. Moreover, we found no significant differences between estimates of worker relatedness in this study and a previous investigation conducted over two decades ago, suggesting that the selective pressures operating on queen mate number have remained constant. Finally, the distribution of queen mate number in both species deviated from simple expectations suggesting that mate number may be under stabilizing selection. Conclusion The general biology of V. squamosa has not changed substantially from that of a typical, nonparasitic Vespula wasp. For example, population sizes of the host and its parasite appear to be similar, in contrast to other social parasites, which often display lower population sizes than their hosts. In addition, parasitism has not caused the mating behavior of V. squamosa queens to deviate from the high levels of multiple mating

  14. Mesoscopic structure conditions the emergence of cooperation on social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, S; Sánchez, A; Lozano, Sergi; Arenas, Alex; Sanchez, Angel

    2006-01-01

    We study the evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma on two social networks obtained from actual relational data. We find very different cooperation levels on each of them that can not be easily understood in terms of global statistical properties of both networks. We propose to look instead at the mesoscopic scale, specifically to the community structure of the networks, and show that the reason for this different cooperation behavior can be traced back to their intermediate-scale features. We explain the dependence of the cooperation level on the temptation parameter in terms of the internal structure of the communities and their interconnections. Our results support the conclusion that studies of games on model networks and their interpretation in terms of global properties may not be sufficient to study specific, real social systems. In addition, the community perspective may be helpful to interpret the origin and behavior of existing networks as well as to design structures that show resilient cooperative behavi...

  15. Dangerous and endangered youth: social structures and determinants of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheper-Hughes, Nancy

    2004-12-01

    Structural violence is violence that is permissible, even encouraged. It refers to the invisible social machinery of inequality that reproduces social relations of exclusion and marginalization via ideologies, stigmas, and dangerous discourses (such as "youth violence" itself) attendant to race, class, sex, and other invidious distinctions. Structural violence "naturalizes" poverty, sickness, hunger, and premature death, erasing their social and political origins so that they are taken for granted and no one is held accountable except the poor themselves. Structural violence also refers to the ease with which humans are capable of reducing the socially vulnerable (even those from their own class and community) into expendable non-persons, thus allowing the licence--even the duty--to kill them. I exemplify this through two ethnographic critical case studies: the operation of a virulent death squad in Northeast Brazil that mobilized the support of ordinary people in an almost genocidal attack against Afro-Brazilian street kids and young "marginals"; and the uneasy truce with, and incomplete integration of "dangerous and endangered" youth still living in squatter camps and shack communities of urban South Africa. PMID:15817729

  16. CONSUMPTION AS A SOCIAL STATUS SYMBOL IN STRUCTURALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Naydenov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at the basic theoretical concepts of the political economy of the sign (structuralism, postmodernity and their development in the theory of power based on the work by J. Baudrillard ‘For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign’. The study is focused on consumption as the person’s social status symbol, it compares and contrasts basic concepts of structuralism and neo-liberalism.According to structuralism social structure is reproduced through the reproduction of objects/signs. It is important that not only things or money but mathematical formulas, linguistic constructions and people can act as signs. Structuralism views consumption as a person’s social status symbol. Respectively, exchange is viewed as the exchange of symbols.  The society needs the diversity of signs and manipulating the signs is one of the modern society’s illnesses.Liberalism is a social movement, which confronts the person’s enslavement by communal ties and limitations within the limits of property and in the aspects where the individual is helpless in front of the society. Neoliberalism proclaims the liberal model of an individual, who is primarily concerned with their belonging to their society and the struggle between the signs is significant. Assigning a certain value to the symbol is typical both for structuralism and neo-modernism.The authors find it necessary to raise the symbolic diversity of the Russian society trough increasing the forms of consumption. At the same time we should not forget that the society is based on material production.

  17. Latent structure of the social anxiety scale and relations between social anxiety and irrational beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovilović Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The research which was realized belongs to one of three research fields within framework of rational-emotional-behavioral therapy (REBT - to the theory of emotional disorders. It was undertaken with the aim to establish presence and nature of relations between social anxiety, treated as dimension and the construct of irrational beliefs from REBT theory. The research was carried out on the sample of 261 students of Novi Sad University, both genders, age 18 to 26. First of all, the latent structure of newly constructed Scale of Social Anxiety (SA of the author Tovilović S. was tested. SA scale was proved to be of satisfying reliability (α =0.92. Principal-component factor analysis was conducted under gathered data. Four factors of social anxiety, which explain 44,09% of total variance of the items of SA scale, were named: social-evaluation anxiety, inhibition in social-uncertain situations, low self-respect and hypersensitivity on rejection. The other test that was used is Scale of General Attitudes and Beliefs of the author Marić Z. Reliability of the sub-scale of irrational beliefs that was got on our sample is α =0.91 yet the subscale of rational beliefs is α =0.70. Canonical correlational analysis was conducted under manifest variables of both scales. Three pairs of statistically significant canonical factors were got, with correlations within the span between Rc=0.78 and Rc=0.64. We discussed nature of correlation between social anxiety and irrational beliefs in the light of REBT model of social phobia, REBT theory of emotional disorder, researches and model of social anxiety in wider, cognitive-behavioral framework.

  18. Social and population structure in the ant Cataglyphis emmae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Jowers

    Full Text Available Dispersal has consequences not only for individual fitness, but also for population dynamics, population genetics and species distribution. Social Hymenoptera show two contrasting colony reproductive strategies, dependent and independent colony foundation modes, and these are often associated to the population structures derived from inter and intra-population gene flow processes conditioned by alternative dispersal strategies. Here we employ microsatellite and mitochondrial markers to investigate the population and social genetic structure and dispersal patterns in the ant Cataglyphis emmae at both, local and regional scales. We find that C. emmae is monogynous and polyandrous. Lack of detection of any population viscosity and population structure with nuclear markers at the local scale suggests efficient dispersal, in agreement with a lack of inbreeding. Contrasting demographic differences before and during the mating seasons suggest that C. emmae workers raise sexuals in peripheric nest chambers to reduce intracolonial conflicts. The high genetic differentiation recovered from the mtDNA haplotypes, together with the significant correlation of such to geographic distance, and presence of new nuclear alleles between areas (valleys suggest long-term historical isolation between these regions, indicative of limited dispersal at the regional scale. Our findings on the ecological, social and population structure of this species increases our understanding of the patterns and processes involved under independent colony foundation.

  19. Social and population structure in the ant Cataglyphis emmae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowers, Michael J; Leniaud, Laurianne; Cerdá, Xim; Alasaad, Samer; Caut, Stephane; Amor, Fernando; Aron, Serge; Boulay, Raphaël R

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal has consequences not only for individual fitness, but also for population dynamics, population genetics and species distribution. Social Hymenoptera show two contrasting colony reproductive strategies, dependent and independent colony foundation modes, and these are often associated to the population structures derived from inter and intra-population gene flow processes conditioned by alternative dispersal strategies. Here we employ microsatellite and mitochondrial markers to investigate the population and social genetic structure and dispersal patterns in the ant Cataglyphis emmae at both, local and regional scales. We find that C. emmae is monogynous and polyandrous. Lack of detection of any population viscosity and population structure with nuclear markers at the local scale suggests efficient dispersal, in agreement with a lack of inbreeding. Contrasting demographic differences before and during the mating seasons suggest that C. emmae workers raise sexuals in peripheric nest chambers to reduce intracolonial conflicts. The high genetic differentiation recovered from the mtDNA haplotypes, together with the significant correlation of such to geographic distance, and presence of new nuclear alleles between areas (valleys) suggest long-term historical isolation between these regions, indicative of limited dispersal at the regional scale. Our findings on the ecological, social and population structure of this species increases our understanding of the patterns and processes involved under independent colony foundation. PMID:24039827

  20. Competing Structure, Competing Views: The Role of Formal and Informal Social Structures in Shaping Stakeholder Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Hubacek

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available What is social structure, and how does it influence the views and behaviors of land managers? In this paper, we unpack the term "social structure" in the context of current research on institutions, social networks, and their role(s in resource management. We identify two different kinds of structure, formal and informal, and explore how these link to views of land management and management practice. Formal structures refer to intentionally designed organizations that arise out of larger institutional arrangements; informal ones refer to social networks, based on the communication contacts individuals possess. Our findings show significant correlations between respondents' views regarding land management and their social networks; it is these informal structures that have greater influence on what stakeholders perceive. These findings suggest that stakeholders are less influenced by their particular organizational affiliation or category (e.g., "conservationist" versus "farmer", and more by whom they speak with on a regular basis regarding land management. We conclude with a discussion on the practical implications for resource managers wishing to "design" participatory management, arguing that, if "diversity" is the goal in designing such participatory processes, then diversity needs to translate beyond stakeholder categories to include consideration for the personal, social networks surrounding stakeholders.

  1. Optimizing Organizational Structure: Hausdorff Benchmark for Complex Social Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schwaninger, Markus

    2001-01-01

    The search of optimal structures for social organizations has been an ongoing concern of management science, but reliable answers have not been given. Optimization theory has provided solutions, but these have always addressed very specific organizational problems, not the issue of overall optimality in terms of the fitness of the organization as a whole. In this paper, a new approach, grounded in system theory is suggested for assessing and ultimately also for pursuing such a general optimal...

  2. Potential Networks, Contagious Communities, and Understanding Social Network Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenebeck, Grant

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study how the network of agents adopting a particular technology relates to the structure of the underlying network over which the technology adoption spreads. We develop a model and show that the network of agents adopting a particular technology may have characteristics that differ significantly from the social network of agents over which the technology spreads. For example, the network induced by a cascade may have a heavy-tailed degree distribution even if the original n...

  3. Mesoscopic structure conditions the emergence of cooperation on social networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, S.; Arenas, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2008-12-01

    We study the evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma on two social networks substrates obtained from actual relational data. We find very different cooperation levels on each of them that cannot be easily understood in terms of global statistical properties of both networks. We claim that the result can be understood at the mesoscopic scale, by studying the community structure of the networks. We explain the dependence of the cooperation level on the temptation parameter in terms of the internal structure of the communities and their interconnections. We then test our results on community-structured, specifically designed artificial networks, finding a good agreement with the observations in both real substrates. Our results support the conclusion that studies of evolutionary games on model networks and their interpretation in terms of global properties may not be sufficient to study specific, real social systems. Further, the study allows us to define new quantitative parameters that summarize the mesoscopic structure of any network. In addition, the community perspective may be helpful to interpret the origin and behavior of existing networks as well as to design structures that show resilient cooperative behavior.

  4. Socially Constrained Structural Learning for Groups Detection in Crowd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solera, Francesco; Calderara, Simone; Cucchiara, Rita

    2016-05-01

    Modern crowd theories agree that collective behavior is the result of the underlying interactions among small groups of individuals. In this work, we propose a novel algorithm for detecting social groups in crowds by means of a Correlation Clustering procedure on people trajectories. The affinity between crowd members is learned through an online formulation of the Structural SVM framework and a set of specifically designed features characterizing both their physical and social identity, inspired by Proxemic theory, Granger causality, DTW and Heat-maps. To adhere to sociological observations, we introduce a loss function ( G -MITRE) able to deal with the complexity of evaluating group detection performances. We show our algorithm achieves state-of-the-art results when relying on both ground truth trajectories and tracklets previously extracted by available detector/tracker systems. PMID:27046841

  5. Transforming social structures and environments to help in HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Interest in social and structural interventions for HIV prevention is growing. Such approaches modify social norms, institutions, laws, and policies to reduce vulnerability and create environments in which individuals can protect themselves against HIV infection. Examples include expanding access to sterile syringes for injecting drug users and subsidizing stable housing for low-income people. Evidence of the effectiveness of such interventions is emerging despite scientific and political obstacles to their development, implementation, and evaluation. The U.S. government can help build the evidence base for such interventions. It can also implement those with demonstrated or promising results as part of a cost-effective HIV prevention strategy domestically and globally. PMID:19887406

  6. A dynamic social systems model for considering structural factors in HIV prevention and detection

    OpenAIRE

    Latkin, Carl; Weeks, Margaret; Glasman, Laura; Galletly, Carol; Albarracin, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    We present a model for HIV-related behaviors that emphasizes the dynamic and social nature of the structural factors that influence HIV prevention and detection. Key structural dimensions of the model include resources, science and technology, formal social control, informal social influences and control, social interconnectedness, and settings. These six dimensions can be conceptualized on macro, meso, and micro levels. Given the inherent complexity of structural factors and their interrelat...

  7. Mining User Profiles to Support Structure and Explanation in Open Social Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Avare; Diaz-Aviles, Ernesto; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The proliferation of media sharing and social networking websites has brought with it vast collections of site-specific user generated content. The result is a Social Networking Divide in which the concepts and structure common across different sites are hidden. The knowledge and structures from one social site are not adequately exploited to provide new information and resources to the same or different users in comparable social sites. For music bloggers, this latent structure, forces blogg...

  8. Social learning of vocal structure in a nonhuman primate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemasson Alban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-human primate communication is thought to be fundamentally different from human speech, mainly due to vast differences in vocal control. The lack of these abilities in non-human primates is especially striking if compared to some marine mammals and bird species, which has generated somewhat of an evolutionary conundrum. What are the biological roots and underlying evolutionary pressures of the human ability to voluntarily control sound production and learn the vocal utterances of others? One hypothesis is that this capacity has evolved gradually in humans from an ancestral stage that resembled the vocal behavior of modern primates. Support for this has come from studies that have documented limited vocal flexibility and convergence in different primate species, typically in calls used during social interactions. The mechanisms underlying these patterns, however, are currently unknown. Specifically, it has been difficult to rule out explanations based on genetic relatedness, suggesting that such vocal flexibility may not be the result of social learning. Results To address this point, we compared the degree of acoustic similarity of contact calls in free-ranging Campbell's monkeys as a function of their social bonds and genetic relatedness. We calculated three different indices to compare the similarities between the calls' frequency contours, the duration of grooming interactions and the microsatellite-based genetic relatedness between partners. We found a significantly positive relation between bond strength and acoustic similarity that was independent of genetic relatedness. Conclusion Genetic factors determine the general species-specific call repertoire of a primate species, while social factors can influence the fine structure of some the call types. The finding is in line with the more general hypothesis that human speech has evolved gradually from earlier primate-like vocal communication.

  9. Social Structure, Anomie, and National Levels of Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Lonnie M; Altheimer, Irshad

    2016-06-01

    Merton's "Social Structure and Anomie" seeks to explain how "socio-cultural" influences exert "definite pressures" to engage in non-conformity. Despite having a significant influence, few studies have assessed the degree to which Merton's propositions explain cross-national variation in levels of crime. Using data on national levels of homicide, data from the World Values Survey, and other structural controls, the present study assesses the degree to which deinstitutionalization, demoralization, and blocked opportunity interact to explain crime cross-nationally. Results provide a high degree of support for Merton's assertion that societal types characterized by relatively high levels of materialism and/or demoralization or deinstitutionalization suffer from higher levels of homicide. However, there is less support for Merton's assertion that inequality interacts with various societal patterns of means/ends integration in a meaningful way. Findings and implications for the utility of classical anomie as a general macro-level theory are discussed. PMID:26216918

  10. Social dilemma structures hidden behind traffic flow with lane changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming to merge traffic flow analysis with evolutionary game theory, we investigated the question of whether such structures can be formed from frequent lane changes in usual traffic flow without any explicit bottlenecks. In our model system, two classes of driver-agents coexist: C-agents (cooperative strategy) always remain in the lane they are initially assigned, whereas D-agents (defective strategy) try to change lanes to move ahead. In relatively high-density flows, such as the metastable and high-density phases, we found structures that correspond to either n-person prisoner dilemma (n-PD) games or quasi-PD games. In these situations, lane changes by D-agents create heavy traffic jams that reduce social efficiency. (paper)

  11. Different perceptions of social dilemmas: Evolutionary multigames in structured populations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhen; Perc, Matjaz

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the fact that the same social dilemma can be perceived differently by different players, we here study evolutionary multigames in structured populations. While the core game is the weak prisoner's dilemma, a fraction of the population adopts either a positive or a negative value of the sucker's payoff, thus playing either the traditional prisoner's dilemma or the snowdrift game. We show that the higher the fraction of the population adopting a different payoff matrix, the more the evolution of cooperation is promoted. The microscopic mechanism responsible for this outcome is unique to structured populations, and it is due to the payoff heterogeneity, which spontaneously introduces strong cooperative leaders that give rise to an asymmetric strategy imitation flow in favor of cooperation. We demonstrate that the reported evolutionary outcomes are robust against variations of the interaction network, and they also remain valid if players are allowed to vary which game they play over time. These resu...

  12. Dynamical Structure of a Traditional Amazonian Social Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L. Hooper

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reciprocity is a vital feature of social networks, but relatively little is known about its temporal structure or the mechanisms underlying its persistence in real world behavior. In pursuit of these two questions, we study the stationary and dynamical signals of reciprocity in a network of manioc beer (Spanish: chicha; Tsimane’: shocdye’ drinking events in a Tsimane’ village in lowland Bolivia. At the stationary level, our analysis reveals that social exchange within the community is heterogeneously patterned according to kinship and spatial proximity. A positive relationship between the frequencies at which two families host each other, controlling for kinship and proximity, provides evidence for stationary reciprocity. Our analysis of the dynamical structure of this network presents a novel method for the study of conditional, or non-stationary, reciprocity effects. We find evidence that short-timescale reciprocity (within three days is present among non- and distant-kin pairs; conversely, we find that levels of cooperation among close kin can be accounted for on the stationary hypothesis alone.

  13. Different perceptions of social dilemmas: Evolutionary multigames in structured populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the same social dilemma can be perceived differently by different players, we here study evolutionary multigames in structured populations. While the core game is the weak prisoner's dilemma, a fraction of the population adopts either a positive or a negative value of the sucker's payoff, thus playing either the traditional prisoner's dilemma or the snowdrift game. We show that the higher the fraction of the population adopting a different payoff matrix the more the evolution of cooperation is promoted. The microscopic mechanism responsible for this outcome is unique to structured populations, and it is due to the payoff heterogeneity, which spontaneously introduces strong cooperative leaders that give rise to an asymmetric strategy imitation flow in favor of cooperation. We demonstrate that the reported evolutionary outcomes are robust against variations of the interaction network, and they also remain valid if players are allowed to vary which game they play over time. These results corroborate existing evidence in favor of heterogeneity-enhanced network reciprocity, and they reveal how different perceptions of social dilemmas may contribute to their resolution.

  14. Factor Structure of Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: Is Empathy Preserved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Corbera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Social cognitive impairments are core features of schizophrenia and are closely associated with poor functional outcome. This study sought to identify specific aspects of social cognition and their relationships to measures of social function, quality of life, and neurocognition. Principal component analysis was performed using social cognitive measures in patients with schizophrenia and healthy matched controls and revealed three factors: Interpersonal Discomfort, Basic Social Cognition, and Empathy. Patients had higher scores on Interpersonal Discomfort and lower scores on Basic Social Cognition than controls, but the two groups were the same on Empathy. Lower social performance was significantly correlated with poor Basic Social Cognition in patients and with high Interpersonal Discomfort in controls. While neurocognition was significantly associated with Basic Social Cognition in both groups, it was not associated with Empathy. Social cognitive interventions should emphasize improving basic social cognitive processing deficits, managing Interpersonal Discomfort, and utilizing preserved capacity for empathy as a potential strength in social interactions.

  15. Social axioms among Romanians: Structure and demographic differences

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Yanjun; Bond, Michael Harris; Dinca, Margareta; Iliescu, Dragos

    2010-01-01

    Social axioms are beliefs about the material, social and spiritual world, assessing what the person regards as true. Following a functionalist orientation, we propose that social axioms serve as a reflection of social reality and provide guidance for living to people in different demographic groups. This study investigated the dimensionality of a measure of such beliefs, the Social Axioms Survey (SAS), and demographic differences in the resulting factor scores for groups of Romanians. Results...

  16. The social structure of microbial community involved in colonization resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuesong; McLean, Jeffrey S; Guo, Lihong; Lux, Renate; Shi, Wenyuan

    2014-03-01

    It is well established that host-associated microbial communities can interfere with the colonization and establishment of microbes of foreign origins, a phenomenon often referred to as bacterial interference or colonization resistance. However, due to the complexity of the indigenous microbiota, it has been extremely difficult to elucidate the community colonization resistance mechanisms and identify the bacterial species involved. In a recent study, we have established an in vitro mice oral microbial community (O-mix) and demonstrated its colonization resistance against an Escherichia coli strain of mice gut origin. In this study, we further analyzed the community structure of the O-mix by using a dilution/regrowth approach and identified the bacterial species involved in colonization resistance against E. coli. Our results revealed that, within the O-mix there were three different types of bacterial species forming unique social structure. They act as 'Sensor', 'Mediator' and 'Killer', respectively, and have coordinated roles in initiating the antagonistic action and preventing the integration of E. coli. The functional role of each identified bacterial species was further confirmed by E. coli-specific responsiveness of the synthetic communities composed of different combination of the identified players. The study reveals for the first time the sophisticated structural and functional organization of a colonization resistance pathway within a microbial community. Furthermore, our results emphasize the importance of 'Facilitation' or positive interactions in the development of community-level functions, such as colonization resistance. PMID:24088624

  17. Social dilemmas in an online social network: The structure and evolution of cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate two paradigms for studying the evolution of cooperation-Prisoner's Dilemma and Snowdrift game in an online friendship network, obtained from a social networking site. By structural analysis, it is revealed that the empirical social network has small-world and scale-free properties. Besides, it exhibits assortative mixing pattern. Then, we study the evolutionary version of the two types of games on it. It is found that cooperation is substantially promoted with small values of game matrix parameters in both games. Whereas the competent cooperators induced by the underlying network of contacts will be dramatically inhibited with increasing values of the game parameters. Further, we explore the role of assortativity in evolution of cooperation by random edge rewiring. We find that increasing amount of assortativity will to a certain extent diminish the cooperation level. We also show that connected large hubs are capable of maintaining cooperation. The evolution of cooperation on empirical networks is influenced by various network effects in a combined manner, compared with that on model networks. Our results can help understand the cooperative behaviors in human groups and society

  18. The critical effect of social grooming costs on structures of social relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    The number of possible social relationships a single human being can be involved in is limited, and the distribution of strengths of such relationships show significant skew. This skewness suggests that costs and benefits of the social interactions required to bond with others (social grooming) depend on the strength of the social relationships: if it involved uniform costs and benefits, the distribution would not be skew. In this paper, we show that the cost of social grooming increases with the strength of social relationships, and its gradient increases the width and shallowness of these relationships as evident from an analysis of data from six communication systems. We show that narrow and deep social relationships require higher costs per relationship than do wide and shallow ones, using a comparison with a null model where social grooming costs were assumed to be independent of the strength of social relationships. This may be due to increase in communication volumes, such as number of characters and d...

  19. The Space for Social Media in Structured Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Gilly; Ross, Bella; Pechenkina, Ekaterina; Chase, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the benefits of using social media in an online educational setting, with a particular focus on the use of Facebook and Twitter by participants in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) developed to enable educators to learn about the Carpe Diem learning design process. We define social media as digital social tools and…

  20. Recent development of Slovene towns - social structure and transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Rebernik

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In Slovene towns and urban areas several processes of social transformation and change have been present in the last decade. As a consequence of political and economic transition increased social differentiation resulted in increased social segregation in urban areas. Some areas such as high-rise housing estates and part of older inner city areas were affected by social degradation and concentration of low-income population and ethnical minorities. In some parts of inner cities processes of reurbanisation and gentrification are taking place. However, the degree of social segragation is lower than in the cities of most transitional countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

  1. Study on Construction of Forestry Socialized Service Systems Based on Barnard's Organizational Structure Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Can-fu; CHENG Xiao-qiu

    2011-01-01

    Construction of forestry socialized service systems is the important content for reform of collective forestry tenure systems.Based on the necessity, possibility and problem of construction of forestry socialized service system, according to Barnard's Organizational Structure theory, the path and countermeasure of forestry socialized service system in China are discussed.

  2. Delinquency, Social Skills and the Structure of Peer Relations: Assessing Criminological Theories by Social Network Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smangs, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the plausibility of the conflicting theoretical assumptions underlying the main criminological perspectives on juvenile delinquents, their peer relations and social skills: the social ability model, represented by Sutherland's theory of differential associations, and the social disability model, represented by Hirschi's…

  3. Social cognition in schizophrenia: Factor structure of emotion processing and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Julia; Penn, David L; Raykov, Tenko; Pinkham, Amy E; Kelsven, Skylar; Buck, Benjamin; Harvey, Philip D

    2016-08-30

    Factor analytic studies examining social cognition in schizophrenia have yielded inconsistent results most likely due to the varying number and quality of measures. With the recent conclusion of Phase 3 of the Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) Study, the most psychometrically sound measures of social cognition have been identified. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to: 1) examine the factor structure of social cognition in schizophrenia through the utilization of psychometrically sound measures, 2) examine the stability of the factor structure across two study visits, 3) compare the factor structure of social cognition in schizophrenia to that in healthy controls, and 4) examine the relationship between the factors and relevant outcome measures including social functioning and symptoms. Results supported a one-factor model for the patient and healthy control samples at both visits. This single factor was significantly associated with negative symptoms in the schizophrenia sample and with social functioning in both groups at both study visits. PMID:27280525

  4. The Embeddedness of Adolescent Friendship Nominations: The Formation of Social Capital in Emergent Network Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Kenneth A.; Muller, Chandra; Mueller, Anna S.

    2013-01-01

    Although research on social embeddedness and social capital con-firms the value of friendship networks, little has been written about how social relations form and are structured by social institutions. Using data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors show that the odds of a new friendship nomination were 1.77 times greater within clusters of high school students taking courses together...

  5. The influence of repressive legislation on the structure of a social media network

    OpenAIRE

    Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David

    2013-01-01

    Social media have been widely used to organize citizen movements. In 2012, 75% university and college students in Quebec, Canada, participated in mass protests against an increase in tuition fees, mainly organized using social media. To reduce public disruption, the government introduced special legislation designed to impede protest organization. Here, we show that the legislation changed the behaviour of social media users but not the overall structure of their social network on Twitter. Th...

  6. Hitchhiker's guide to genetic diversity in socially structured populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.S.PREMO

    2012-01-01

    When selection increases the frequency of a beneficial gene substitution it can also increase the frequencies of linked neutral alleles through a process called genetic hitchhiking.A model built to investigate reduced genetic diversity in Pleistocene hominins shows that genetic hitchhiking can have a strong effect on neutral diversity in the presence of culturally mediated migration.Under conditions in which genetic and cultural variants are transmitted symmetrically,neutral genes may also hitchhike to higher frequencies on the coattails of adaptive cultural traits through a process called cultural hitchhiking.Cultural hitchhiking has been proposed to explain why some species of matrilineal whales display relatively low levels of mitochondrial DNA diversity,and it may be applicable to humans as well.This paper provides a critical review of recent models of both types of hitchhiking in socially structured populations.The models' assumptions and predictions are compared and discussed in the hope that studies of reduced genetic diversity in humans might improve our understanding of reduced genetic diversity in other species,and vice versa [Current Zoology 58 (1):287-297,2012].

  7. The space for social media in structured online learning

    OpenAIRE

    Salmon, Gilly; Ross, Bella; Pechenkina, Ekaterina; Chase, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the benefits of using social media in an online educational setting, with a particular focus on the use of Facebook and Twitter by participants in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) developed to enable educators to learn about the Carpe Diem learning design process. We define social media as digital social tools and environments located outside of the provision of a formal university-provided Learning Management System. We use data collected via interviews and surve...

  8. Inferring a district-based hierarchical structure of social contacts from census data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Yu

    Full Text Available Researchers have recently paid attention to social contact patterns among individuals due to their useful applications in such areas as epidemic evaluation and control, public health decisions, chronic disease research and social network research. Although some studies have estimated social contact patterns from social networks and surveys, few have considered how to infer the hierarchical structure of social contacts directly from census data. In this paper, we focus on inferring an individual's social contact patterns from detailed census data, and generate various types of social contact patterns such as hierarchical-district-structure-based, cross-district and age-district-based patterns. We evaluate newly generated contact patterns derived from detailed 2011 Hong Kong census data by incorporating them into a model and simulation of the 2009 Hong Kong H1N1 epidemic. We then compare the newly generated social contact patterns with the mixing patterns that are often used in the literature, and draw the following conclusions. First, the generation of social contact patterns based on a hierarchical district structure allows for simulations at different district levels. Second, the newly generated social contact patterns reflect individuals social contacts. Third, the newly generated social contact patterns improve the accuracy of the SEIR-based epidemic model.

  9. Recent development of Slovene towns - social structure and transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Rebernik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In Slovene towns and urban areas severalprocesses of social transformation and change have been present in the lastdecade. As a consequence of political and economic transition increasedsocialdifferentiation resulted in increased social segregation in urbanareas.Some areas such as high-rise housing estates and part of older innercity areas were affected by social degradation and concentration oflow-incomepopulation and ethnical minorities. In some parts of inner citiesprocesses of reurbanisation and gentrification are taking place. However,the degree of social segragation is lower than in the cities of mosttransitional countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

  10. The space for social media in structured online learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly Salmon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the benefits of using social media in an online educational setting, with a particular focus on the use of Facebook and Twitter by participants in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC developed to enable educators to learn about the Carpe Diem learning design process. We define social media as digital social tools and environments located outside of the provision of a formal university-provided Learning Management System. We use data collected via interviews and surveys with the MOOC participants as well as social media postings made by the participants throughout the MOOC to offer insights into how participants’ usage and perception of social media in their online learning experiences differed and why. We identified that, although some participants benefitted from social media by crediting it, for example, with networking and knowledge-sharing opportunities, others objected or refused to engage with social media, perceiving it as a waste of their time. We make recommendations for the usage of social media for educational purposes within MOOCs and formal digital learning environments.

  11. On the dynamics of social ties structures in groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Sonnemans; F. van Dijk; F.A.A.M. van Winden

    2006-01-01

    Economic behavior often takes place in small groups of people interacting with each other (like work teams and boards of directors, but also social networks and neighborhoods). Characteristic of such interaction is the development of (affective) interpersonal relationships, or social ties. The embed

  12. Dance and Social Structure: The Ubakala of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Judith Lynne

    1979-01-01

    Focuses on some associations between movement and social relations using as an example the dance-play (nkwa) of the Ubakala Igbo of the former Eastern Region of Nigeria. Discusses how the dance is used to promote self-identity, prescribe and assert social values and roles, and mediate between persons and their situations. (JMF)

  13. Seeking and Sharing Knowledge Using Social Media in an Organization: The Impact of Social Influence, Organization Structure and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    The prolific use of social media tools such as blogs and wikis is leading several organizations to adopt these tools. However, success of social media depends on its use by employees to share and seek knowledge. Based on a unique data set obtained from a large multi-national corporation, I examined three different aspects of knowledge seeking and…

  14. Song trait similarity in great tits varies with social structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysanne Snijders

    Full Text Available For many animals, long-range signalling is essential to maintain contact with conspecifics. In territorial species, individuals often have to balance signalling towards unfamiliar potential competitors (to solely broadcast territory ownership with signalling towards familiar immediate neighbours (to also maintain so-called "dear enemy" relations. Hence, to understand how signals evolve due to these multilevel relationships, it is important to understand how general signal traits vary in relation to the overall social environment. For many territorial songbirds dawn is a key signalling period, with several neighbouring individuals singing simultaneously without immediate conflict. In this study we tested whether sharing a territory boundary, rather than spatial proximity, is related to similarity in dawn song traits between territorial great tits (Parus major in a wild personality-typed population. We collected a large dataset of automatized dawn song recordings from 72 unique male great tits, during the fertile period of their mate, and compared specific song traits between neighbours and non-neighbours. We show here that both song rate and start time of dawn song were repeatable song traits. Moreover, neighbours were significantly more dissimilar in song rate compared to non-neighbours, while there was no effect of proximity on song rate similarity. Additionally, similarity in start time of dawn song was unrelated to sharing a territory boundary, but birds were significantly more similar in start time of dawn song when they were breeding in close proximity of each other. We suggest that the dissimilarity in dawn song rate between neighbours is either the result of neighbouring great tits actively avoiding similar song rates to possibly prevent interference, or a passive consequence of territory settlement preferences relative to the types of neighbours. Neighbourhood structuring is therefore likely to be a relevant selection pressure shaping

  15. Song trait similarity in great tits varies with social structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Lysanne; van der Eijk, Jerine; van Rooij, Erica P; de Goede, Piet; van Oers, Kees; Naguib, Marc

    2015-01-01

    For many animals, long-range signalling is essential to maintain contact with conspecifics. In territorial species, individuals often have to balance signalling towards unfamiliar potential competitors (to solely broadcast territory ownership) with signalling towards familiar immediate neighbours (to also maintain so-called "dear enemy" relations). Hence, to understand how signals evolve due to these multilevel relationships, it is important to understand how general signal traits vary in relation to the overall social environment. For many territorial songbirds dawn is a key signalling period, with several neighbouring individuals singing simultaneously without immediate conflict. In this study we tested whether sharing a territory boundary, rather than spatial proximity, is related to similarity in dawn song traits between territorial great tits (Parus major) in a wild personality-typed population. We collected a large dataset of automatized dawn song recordings from 72 unique male great tits, during the fertile period of their mate, and compared specific song traits between neighbours and non-neighbours. We show here that both song rate and start time of dawn song were repeatable song traits. Moreover, neighbours were significantly more dissimilar in song rate compared to non-neighbours, while there was no effect of proximity on song rate similarity. Additionally, similarity in start time of dawn song was unrelated to sharing a territory boundary, but birds were significantly more similar in start time of dawn song when they were breeding in close proximity of each other. We suggest that the dissimilarity in dawn song rate between neighbours is either the result of neighbouring great tits actively avoiding similar song rates to possibly prevent interference, or a passive consequence of territory settlement preferences relative to the types of neighbours. Neighbourhood structuring is therefore likely to be a relevant selection pressure shaping variation in

  16. Categorizing Others and the Self: How Social Memory Structures Guide Social Perception and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Kimberly A.; Rosenthal, Harriet E. S.

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the special issue theme of "Remembering the Future," this article provides a selective review of research on how memory for social information (i.e., social category representation) influences future processing and behavior. Specifically, the authors focus on how categorization and stereotyping affect how we perceive others and…

  17. Advertising on Social Network Sites: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Anant Saxena; Uday Khanna

    2013-01-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) emerged as one of the most powerful media for advertising across the globe. Globally, companies are shifting a larger pie of their advertising budgets towards social networking sites for better reach and interactive platform. The companies are also looking at it as a low-cost model, which could reap results in minimum time possible for the targeted ‘Facebook generation’. These very facts motivate researchers to study the value of advertisements on social net...

  18. Predicting Hierarchical Structure in Small World Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2009-01-01

    Typisk analytisk foranstaltninger i grafteori gerne grad centralitet, betweenness og nærhed centralities er meget almindelige og har lang tradition for deres vellykkede brug. Men modellering af skjult, terrorister eller kriminelle netværk gennem sociale grafer ikke rigtig give den hierarkiske str...... udnyttet til at forudsige den kommandostruktur af nettet. Nøgleord: Social Networks Analyse, Bayes Teorem, entropi, hierarkisk struktur.......Typisk analytisk foranstaltninger i grafteori gerne grad centralitet, betweenness og nærhed centralities er meget almindelige og har lang tradition for deres vellykkede brug. Men modellering af skjult, terrorister eller kriminelle netværk gennem sociale grafer ikke rigtig give den hierarkiske...

  19. Social Networks in Natural Resource Management: What Is There to Learn from a Structural Perspective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Ernstson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networks among actors and stakeholders are gaining attention in studies of natural resource management, particularly those of adaptive management based on different forms of participation and co-management. In this sense, social networks have primarily been envisioned as enabling different actors to collaborate and coordinate management efforts. Here, we continue the discussion initiated by Newman and Dale (2005, which highlighted the fact that not all social networks are created equal. We discuss the relation between some structural characteristics and functions of social networks with respect to natural resource management, thus focusing on structural implications that are often overlooked when studying social networks within the context of natural resource management. We present several network measures used to quantify structural characteristics of social networks and link them to a number of features such as learning, leadership, and trust, which are identified as important in natural resource management. We show schematically that there may be inherent juxtapositions among different structural characteristics that need to be balanced in what we envision as social network structures conducive to adaptive co-management of natural resources. We argue that it is essential to develop an understanding of the effects that different structural characteristics of social networks have on natural resource management.

  20. Social Construction of Poverty in Ghana: A Structural Sociological Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    William Boateng

    2014-01-01

    Poverty is a social construct largely based on the culture of poverty paradigm where the poor are blamed for their plight. Poverty constructed this way diverts attention from the social forces responsible for it. In order to thoroughly understand poverty in Ghana, therefore, we need to engage in the sociological imagination to see if poverty is a personal problem or a public issue. This paper aims to disprove the culture of poverty paradigm, which defines poverty as a personal problem, and re...

  1. Network Structure of Social Coding in GitHub

    OpenAIRE

    Thung, Ferdian; Bissyandé, Tegawendé F.; Lo, David; Jiang, Lingxiao

    2013-01-01

    International audience Social coding enables a different experience of software development as the activities and interests of one developer are easily advertized to other developers. Developers can thus track the activities relevant to various projects in one umbrella site. Such a major change in collaborative software development makes an investigation of networkings on social coding sites valuable. Furthermore, project hosting platforms promoting this development paradigm have been thri...

  2. Statistical Structures Underlying Quantum Mechanics and Social Science

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Ron

    2003-01-01

    Common observations of the unpredictability of human behavior and the influence of one question on the answer to another suggest social science experiments are probabilistic and may be mutually incompatible with one another, characteristics attributed to quantum mechanics (as distinguished from classical mechanics). This paper examines this superficial similarity in depth using the Foulis-Randall Operational Statistics language. In contradistinction to physics, social science deals with compl...

  3. Human Infants' Learning of Social Structures: The Case of Dominance Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Mascaro, O.; Csibra, G.

    2014-01-01

    We tested 15-month-olds’ capacity to represent social-dominance hierarchies with more than two agents. Our results showed that infants found it harder to memorize dominance relations that were presented in an order that hindered the incremental formation of a single structure (Study 1). These results suggest that infants attempt to build structures incrementally, relation by relation, thereby simplifying the complex problem of recognizing a social structure. Infants also found circular domina...

  4. Cognitive indicators of social anxiety in youth: a structural equation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Brittany M; Davis, Thompson E; Matthews, Russell A

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated significant relationships among various cognitive variables such as negative cognition, self-efficacy, and social anxiety. Unfortunately, few studies focus on the role of cognition among youth, and researchers often fail to use domain-specific measures when examining cognitive variables. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine domain-specific cognitive variables (i.e., socially oriented negative self-referent cognition and social self-efficacy) and their relationships to social anxiety in children and adolescents using structural equation modeling techniques. A community sample of children and adolescents (n=245; 55.9% female; 83.3% Caucasian, 9.4% African American, 2% Asian, 2% Hispanic, 2% "other," and 1.2% not reported) completed questionnaires assessing social cognition and social anxiety symptomology. Three latent variables were created to examine the constructs of socially oriented negative self-referent cognition (as measured by the SONAS scale), social self-efficacy (as measured by the SEQSS-C), and social anxiety (as measured by the SPAI-C and the Brief SA). The resulting measurement model of latent variables fit the data well. Additionally, consistent with the study hypothesis, results indicated that social self-efficacy likely mediates the relationship between socially oriented negative self-referent cognition and social anxiety, and socially oriented negative self-referent cognition yields significant direct and indirect effects on social anxiety. These findings indicate that socially oriented negative cognitions are associated with youth's beliefs about social abilities and the experience of social anxiety. Future directions for research and study limitations, including use of cross-sectional data, are discussed. PMID:24411119

  5. Agency-Structure Relation in Social Sciences: Reflections on Policy Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    D. Daniel Kipo

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses important and highly contested agency and structure issue in philosophy of social science. The agency-structure relation focuses on autonomy and control. It draws more insights from Giddens thinking. Also, the paper discusses agency-structure relation in policy implementation. Discussions start with conceptualizations of agents, agency, structure and power relations between agency-structure. The paper specifically highlights problematics in agency-structure and relates the...

  6. Identification and Assessment of Social Subgroups or Community Structure on Social Networking Websites

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Prakash Verma,; Dr.Deepak Arora

    2014-01-01

    Social Networking Analysis is gaining more popularity day by day due to its major contribution towards business marketing analytics and future decision policies for any large organization. These kinds of assessments have their potential advantages towards designing future business strategies for a particular product/object available in the market. The social media is now open for all kind of blogs, independent views and open communities. People are free to express their ideas ...

  7. Social Cognition in Psychosis: Multidimensional Structure, Clinical Correlates, and Relationship With Functional Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Mancuso, Francesco; Horan, William P.; Kern, Robert S.; Green, Michael F

    2010-01-01

    Social cognitive impairments are common, detectable across a wide range of tasks, and appear to play a key role in explaining poor outcome in schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. However, little is known about the underlying factor structure of social cognition in people with psychotic disorders due to a lack of exploratory factor analyses using a relatively comprehensive social cognitive assessment battery. In a sample of 85 outpatients with psychosis, we examined the factor struct...

  8. MODEL PERSAMAAN STRUKTURAL (STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODEL) PENGUJIAN MODEL HUBUNGAN SOCIAL IDENTITY DENGAN GROUP DECISION MAKING

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya Yahya

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the model theory of out-group threaths, Social Identity and Group Decision Makings and finds out the contribution of out-group threaths and Social Identity toward the decision makings process by applying structural equation model, AMOS 6. Results showed that while out-group threats are salients influenced the positive of social identit which affected to the group decision making process.  These findings support previous research conducted by Thompson dan Kray (1998) foun...

  9. Emergence of Scale-Free leadership structure in social recommender systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou T.; Medo M.; Cimini G.; Zhang Z.-K.; Zhang Y.-C.

    2011-01-01

    The study of the organization of social networks is important for the understanding of opinion formation, rumor spreading, and the emergence of trends and fashion. This paper reports empirical analysis of networks extracted from four leading sites with social functionality (Delicious, Flickr, Twitter and YouTube) and shows that they all display a scale-free leadership structure. To reproduce this feature, we propose an adaptive network model driven by social recommending. Artificial agent-bas...

  10. IMPROVING THE ECONOMICAL ACTIVITIES OF SOCIAL ECONOMY STRUCTURES AND GATHERING EXPERIENCE THROUGH DEDICATED EVENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Steliana Munteanu

    2012-01-01

    For the third consecutive year, ADV Romania has organized the National Fair of Shelter Units, event which brings together different social economy structures. Each year we research its impact on another type of audience or we try to emphasize the social product through different means. Associated with the event we also develop the Conference “ Policies and tendencies in social economy” – thechance to bring together specialists and to discuss topics of interest in the field. The conclusions to...

  11. Pathways of information transmission among wild songbirds follow experimentally imposed changes in social foraging structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Ben C.

    2016-01-01

    Animals regularly use information from others to shape their decisions. Yet, determining how changes in social structure affect information flow and social learning strategies has remained challenging. We manipulated the social structure of a large community of wild songbirds by controlling which individuals could feed together at automated feeding stations (selective feeders). We then provided novel ephemeral food patches freely accessible to all birds and recorded the spread of this new information. We demonstrate that the discovery of new food patches followed the experimentally imposed social structure and that birds disproportionately learnt from those whom they could forage with at the selective feeders. The selective feeders reduced the number of conspecific information sources available and birds subsequently increased their use of information provided by heterospecifics. Our study demonstrates that changes to social systems carry over into pathways of information transfer and that individuals learn from tutors that provide relevant information in other contexts. PMID:27247439

  12. Limits of the applicability of the social structural model in Czech rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kopriva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the voting behaviour of citizens in rural areas of the Czech Republic. Within thetheoretical embodiment of the relationships between the individual in a social structure and voting behaviour, aso-called social-structural model for voting behaviour is often mentioned. However, when explaining thebehaviour of the voting behaviour of citizens living under the conditions of the Czech Republic the applicabilityof this model is of course disputable. Due to the predominant inconsistencies of the social status of citizens ofrural areas, it is not at all possible to determine the hypothesis of the applicability of a social-structural model ofvoting behaviour for citizens living in the conditions of the Czech rural countryside. The aim of this article is,through a case study of Zatec region, to prove the predominant (inconsistency of the social status of the givenpopulation.

  13. The social structural production of HIV risk among injecting drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Tim; Singer, Merrill; Bourgois, Philippe; Friedman, Samuel R; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2005-09-01

    There is increasing appreciation of the need to understand how social and structural factors shape HIV risk. Drawing on a review of recently published literature, we seek to describe the social structural production of HIV risk associated with injecting drug use. We adopt an inclusive definition of the HIV 'risk environment' as the space, whether social or physical, in which a variety of factors exogenous to the individual interact to increase vulnerability to HIV. We identify the following factors as critical in the social structural production of HIV risk associated with drug injecting: cross-border trade and transport links; population movement and mixing; urban or neighbourhood deprivation and disadvantage; specific injecting environments (including shooting galleries and prisons); the role of peer groups and social networks; the relevance of 'social capital' at the level of networks, communities and neighbourhoods; the role of macro-social change and political or economic transition; political, social and economic inequities in relation to ethnicity, gender and sexuality; the role of social stigma and discrimination in reproducing inequity and vulnerability; the role of policies, laws and policing; and the role of complex emergencies such as armed conflict and natural disasters. We argue that the HIV risk environment is a product of interplay in which social and structural factors intermingle but where political-economic factors may play a predominant role. We therefore emphasise that much of the most needed 'structural HIV prevention' is unavoidably political in that it calls for community actions and structural changes within a broad framework concerned to alleviate inequity in health, welfare and human rights. PMID:15955404

  14. Structural Relationships between Social Activities and Longitudinal Trajectories of Depression among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Song-Iee; Hasche, Leslie; Bowland, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the structural relationships between social activities and trajectories of late-life depression. Design and Methods: Latent class analysis was used with a nationally representative sample of older adults (N = 5,294) from the Longitudinal Study on Aging II to classify patterns of social activities. A latent growth curve…

  15. Entrepreneur online social networks: structure, diversity and impact on start-up survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Song; T. Vinig

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the results of a pilot study in which we use a novel approach to collect entrepreneur online social network data from LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter. We studied the size and structure of entrepreneur social networks by analysing the online network industry and location dive

  16. Transactions between Child Social Wariness and Observed Structured Parenting: Evidence from a Prospective Adoption Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Ganiban, Jody; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the mutual influences between structured parenting and child social wariness during toddlerhood using a longitudinal adoption design. The sample consisted of 361 adoption-linked families, each including an adopted child, adoptive parents, and a birth mother. Heightened social wariness in children at age 18 months…

  17. Social-structural indices and between-nation differences in HIV prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Judy Y; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Pratto, Felicia; Rosenthal, Lisa; Kalichman, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Research emphasises the role that social structures play in shaping national HIV prevalence. This study examined how social, economic, and political contexts that may represent the confluence of individual capabilities and environmental affordances or constraints are associated with national HIV prevalence. Based on social-ecological perspectives, we examined social-structural dimensions in relation to national HIV prevalence. The study identified six publicly available nation-level social, political, and economic indices and examined their associations with national 2009 HIV prevalence across 225 nations. National indices, (a) education expenditures, (b) unemployment rate, (c) homicide rate, (d) freedom of religion, and (e) women's social rights, altogether explained 43% of the variability in national HIV prevalence. Education expenditures, homicide rate, and freedom of religion were significant predictors of national HIV prevalence in the multivariate analysis. The present study identified nation-level factors that capture social, economic, and political contexts to explain between-nation differences in HIV prevalence. Findings extend current literature on the social-structural foundation of HIV-risk and the relationship between human rights and health. National safeguards that afford individuals the power to promote general quality of life and protection from structural violence may be most important to lowering overall rates of HIV transmission. PMID:24700198

  18. Emergence of scale-free close-knit friendship structure in online social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Ai-xiang; Tang, Ming; Fu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The structures of online social networks have attracted considerable attention in recent years, but the close-knit friendship structures are still in question. In this study, we mainly concentrate on how these mesoscale structures are influenced by both global and local structure properties. We first empirically analyze the structure properties of several large-scale online social networks, and find that both local structures (i. e., indegree, outdegree, and reciprocal degree) and mesoscale structures (i. e., close-knit friendship structures) show scale-free properties. Surprisingly, indegree, outdegree, and reciprocal degree distributions in local-scale follow almost the same power law, and the distributions of four close-knit friendship structures in mesoscale display the same scaling law. To explain this fully, we propose a simplified directed network model with external reciprocation and internal evolution processes. Through rate equation analysis, the local-scale and mesoscale structure properties are de...

  19. Education, Social Structure and Development: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Bill

    The book examines the role of education in social and economic development. Seven chapters comprise the document. Chapter I examines the relation of education to socioeconomic development. Topics include rural-urban imbalance in education, relevance in curriculum, and ways in which the educational system legitimates equality or inequality. In…

  20. Science & education: Genetic analysis of winter social structure and social traits in a migratory sparrow & teaching argumentation in STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnberg, Nina N.

    Stable social organization in a wide variety of organisms has been linked to kinship, which can minimize conflict due to the indirect fitness benefits from cooperating with relatives. In birds, kin selection has been mostly studied in the context of reproduction or in species that are social year round. Many birds however are migratory and the role of kinship in the winter societies of these species is virtually unexplored. A previous study detected striking social complexity and stability in wintering populations of migratory golden-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia atricapilla)---individuals repeatedly form close associations with the same social partners, including across multiple winters. In chapter one I test the possibility that kinship might be involved in these close and stable social affiliations. I examine the relationship between kinship and social structure for two of the consecutive wintering seasons from the previous study. I found no evidence that social structure was influenced by kinship---relatedness between most pairs of individuals was at most that of first cousins (and mostly far lower) and Mantel tests revealed no relationship between kinship and pairwise interaction frequency. Kinship also failed to predict social structure in more fine-grained analyses, including analyses of each sex separately (in the event that sex-biased migration might limit kin selection to one sex) and separate analyses for each social community. The complex winter societies of golden-crowned sparrows appear to be based on cooperative benefits unrelated to kin selection. Although the complex social structure detected in wintering golden-crowned sparrows is not predicted by kinship, genetic variation may play a role in variation of winter social traits. In chapter two, I investigate the genetic causes of variation in fitness-related traits in a winter population of golden-crowned sparrows. Individuals show great variation in morphological and behavioral traits that may play

  1. The power of social structure: how we became an intelligent lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa António, Marina Resendes; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    New findings pertinent to the human lineage origin (Ardipithecus ramidus) prompt a new analysis of the extrapolation of the social behavior of our closest relatives, the great apes, into human ‘natural social behavior’. With the new findings it becomes clear that human ancestors had very divergent social arrangements from the ones we observe today in our closest genetic relatives. The social structure of chimpanzees and gorillas is characterized by male competition. Aggression and the instigation of fear are common place. The morphology of A. ramidus points in the direction of a social system characterized by female-choice instead of male-male competition. This system tends to be characterized by reduced aggression levels, leading to more stable arrangements. It is postulated here that the social stability with accompanying group cohesion propitiated by this setting is favorable to the investment in more complex behaviors, the development of innovative approaches to solve familiar problems, an increase in exploratory behavior, and eventually higher intelligence and the use of sophisticated tools and technology. The concentration of research efforts into the study of social animals with similar social systems (e.g., New World social monkeys (Callitrichidae), social canids (Canidae) and social rodents (Rodentia)) are likely to provide new insights into the understanding of what factors determined our evolution into an intelligent species capable of advanced technology.

  2. Children's Imaginative and Social Play in Relation to Family Structure, Maternal Stress, and Attitudes about Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Georgianna

    1988-01-01

    Examines the level of imaginative and social play of children in relation to family structure (single parent household versus dual parent household), maternal level of stress, and mothers' beliefs and attitudes about play. (BB)

  3. Transactions Between Child Social Wariness and Observed Structured Parenting: Evidence From a Prospective Adoption Study

    OpenAIRE

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Ganiban, Jody; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the mutual influences between structured parenting and child social wariness during toddlerhood using a longitudinal adoption design. The sample consisted of 361 adoption-linked families, each including an adopted child, adoptive parents, and a birth mother. Heightened social wariness in children at age 18 months predicted reduced levels of observed structured parenting (i.e., less directive parenting with fewer commands and requests) in adoptive mothers at age 27 ...

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF THE INTEGRATED MODEL OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION STRUCTURE ON THE PUBLIC PARTICIPATING NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Tien Huang; Ming-Shen Wang

    2013-01-01

    The main body of social stratification structure in Taiwan is transformed with social mobility. By transforming the social stratification structure, the function of non-profit organizations is operating steadily. How does peopleâs awareness of social strata directly or indirectly influence the operation of non-profit organizations? How do non-profit organizations and governments respond to the transformation of social stratum compositions? And how promotion and policy marketing could guide th...

  5. Identification and Assessment of Social Subgroups or Community Structure on Social Networking Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Prakash Verma,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Social Networking Analysis is gaining more popularity day by day due to its major contribution towards business marketing analytics and future decision policies for any large organization. These kinds of assessments have their potential advantages towards designing future business strategies for a particular product/object available in the market. The social media is now open for all kind of blogs, independent views and open communities. People are free to express their ideas or opinion for any specific product. Now social media has become a widely accepted platform to establish an opinion set for a particular product. The author have described various strategies to gather data from these social communities and try to find the specific interest group/subgroup for any product or person or any object. In this paper, the authors have used an open source tool NodeXL for analysis of twitter tweets and find out most effective group or community individually. This analysis is targeted on the factor of centrality and clustering coefficient analysis.

  6. Social and Structural HIV Prevention in Alcohol-Serving Establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use is associated with risks for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS. People meet new sex partners at bars and other places where alcohol is served, and drinking venues facilitate STI transmission through sexual relationships within closely knit sexual networks. This paper reviews HIV prevention interventions conducted in bars, taverns, and informal drinking venues. Interventions designed to reduce HIV risk by altering the social interactions within drinking env...

  7. Affiliative structures and social competence in Portuguese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, João R; Santos, António J; Peceguina, Inês; Vaughn, Brian E

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether peer social competence (SC), defined as the capacity to use behavioral, cognitive, and emotional resources in the service of achieving personal goals within preschool peer groups, was related to the type of affiliative subgroups to which children belonged. Two hundred forty Portuguese preschool children (152 seen in consecutive years of data collection) from middle-class families participated. Affiliative subgroup type was assessed from observed proximity data. Social competence was assessed using observational and sociometric measures. Children in more cohesive affiliative subgroups had higher levels of SC, whereas ungrouped children had the lowest SC scores. Follow-up analyses indicated that 2 of the measured SC domains (social engagement/motivation, profiles of behavior/personality attributes) were responsible for the overall difference in SC. Further, membership in a more cohesive subgroup in 1 year contributed to increases in scores for 2 of 3 SC domains (i.e., profiles of behavior/personality attributes and peer acceptance) in the following year. Results suggest that affiliative subgroups both reflect and support individual differences in peer SC during early childhood. PMID:26098580

  8. The influence of repressive legislation on the structure of a social media network

    CERN Document Server

    Marcoux, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Social media have been widely used to organize citizen movements. In 2012, 75% university and college students in Quebec, Canada, participated in mass protests against an increase in tuition fees, mainly organized using social media. To reduce public disruption, the government introduced special legislation designed to impede protest organization. Here, we show that the legislation changed the behaviour of social media users but not the overall structure of their social network on Twitter. Thus, users were still able to spread information to efficiently organize demonstrations using their social network. This natural experiment shows the power of social media in political mobilization, as well as behavioural flexibility in information flow over a large number of individuals.

  9. Social dilemmas in an online social network: the structure and evolution of cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, F; Liu, L; Wang, L; Chen, Xiaojie; Fu, Feng; Liu, Lianghuan; Wang, Long

    2007-01-01

    We investigate two paradigms for studying the evolution of cooperation--Prisoner's Dilemma and Snowdrift game in an online friendship network obtained from a social networking site. We demonstrate that such social network has small-world property and degree distribution has a power-law tail. Besides, it has hierarchical organizations and exhibits disassortative mixing pattern. We study the evolutionary version of the two types of games on it. It is found that enhancement and sustainment of cooperative behaviors are attributable to the underlying network topological organization. It is also shown that cooperators can survive when confronted with the invasion of defectors throughout the entire ranges of parameters of both games. The evolution of cooperation on empirical networks is influenced by various network effects in a combined manner, compared with that on model networks. Our results can help understand the cooperative behaviors in human groups and society.

  10. Transient Structures. Layers of Social Meaning in Conceptual Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian BROSCATEAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the conceptual framework of WLC 2016 we have chosen to explore a transdisciplinary approach of postmodern clothing. Fashion has always been a domain in which sociological, philosophical, political, cultural approaches have spoken about its contents and contexts. Recent sociological studies of fashion have revealed the deep meanings of conceptual clothing and the interwoven network of thoughts that is the starting point for such intellectual approaches. Fashion scholars such as Bradley Quinn, Caroline Evans, Valerie Steele or Malcolm Barnard have underlined the role of conceptual clothing in casting a light upon various social issues and symptoms. Through this paper we want to argument how layers of social meaning transform certain fashion projects in reflexions of the Zeitgeist. In the current socio-political context such investigations do not necessarily offer pertinent answers, but certainly raise more questions and awareness. By focusing on the works of Lucy and Jorge Orta, and Hussein Chalayan, our aim is to explore the different ways in which social changes, urban reconfigurations, and geographical dislocation question our notions of space, form, mobility, and identity. Our research will be a transdisciplinary one, analysing a consistent part of their work from different perspectives in order to reveal their influence on the way in which the design of clothing has taken the responsibility of becoming a shelter, a refuge, a mean of protection against the transient nature of contemporary societies. We will be analyzing Chalayan’s three projects, Afterwords (2000, Temporal Meditations (2003, and Absent Presence (2005, and Orta’s Refugee Wear (1992, Modular Architecture (1996, and Nexus Architecture (1993–2002. In investigating their works we shall focus on the character of artistic process, employed by both Chalayan and Orta, by using the objects (garments and the mechanisms of fashion (runway collection for Chalayan, and the

  11. Social network structure in wintering golden-crowned sparrows is not correlated with kinship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnberg, Nina N; Shizuka, Daizaburo; Chaine, Alexis S; Lyon, Bruce E

    2015-10-01

    Stable social organization in a wide variety of organisms has been linked to kinship, which can minimize conflict due to the indirect fitness benefits from cooperating with relatives. In birds, kin selection has been mostly studied in the context of reproduction or in species that are social year round. Many birds however are migratory, and the role of kinship in the winter societies of these species is virtually unexplored. In a previous study, we discovered striking social complexity and stability in a wintering population of migratory golden-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia atricapilla) - individuals repeatedly form close associations with the same social partners, including across multiple winters. Here, we test the possibility that kinship might be involved in these close and stable social affiliations. We examine the relationship between kinship and social structure for two of the consecutive wintering seasons from the previous study. We found no evidence that social structure was influenced by kinship. Relatedness between most pairs of individuals was at most that of first cousins (and mostly far lower). Genetic networks based on relatedness do not correspond to the social networks, and Mantel tests revealed no relationship between kinship and pairwise interaction frequency. Kinship also failed to predict social structure in more fine-grained analyses, including analyses of each sex separately (in the event that sex-biased migration might limit kin selection to one sex), and separate analyses for each social community. The complex winter societies of golden-crowned sparrows appear to be based on cooperative benefits unrelated to kin selection. PMID:26334186

  12. The Social Context of Parenting: Mothers' Inner Resources and Social Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    Parenting occurs within families and communities and is shaped by parents' internal resources and the structures that surround their life. Utilising a large national data-set, "Understanding Society," this study examined the extent to which variation in mothers' personality, cognitive ability and well-being, as well as structural and…

  13. Structural Analysis on Social Network Constructed from Characters in Literature Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyeong-Mi Park

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently we witnessed that the social network analysis focusing on social entities is applied in the social science and web-science, behavioral sciences, as well as in economics, marketing. In this paper we present one method to construct and structure analysis the social network from literary fictions by a simple lexical analysis. And we will show that those literary social graphs, shows the power law distribution of some features, which is the typical characteristics of complex systems. We newly proposed the concept of the kernel of literary social network by which we can classify the abstract level of protagonists appeared in fictions. And we also studied the connectivity of social network based on statement distance distribution of characters. Our study shows that the metric distance among characters written in linear text is very similar to the intrinsic and semantic relationship described by fiction writers, which implies the proposed social network from fictions could be another representation of literary fiction. So we can apply other scientific and quantitative approach by analyzing the concrete social graph model extracted from textual data.

  14. Structural and Functional Characteristics of the Social Networks of People with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt-Goverts, A. E.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Hendriks, A. H. C.

    2013-01-01

    In the research on people with intellectual disabilities and their social networks, the functional characteristics of their networks have been examined less often than the structural characteristics. Research on the structural characteristics of their networks is also usually restricted to the size and composition of the networks, moreover, with…

  15. Classifying social anxiety disorder using multivoxel pattern analyses of brain function and structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frick, A.; Gingnell, M.; Marquand, A.F.; Howner, K.; Fischer, H.; Kristiansson, M.; Williams, S.C.; Fredrikson, M.; Furmark, T.

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging of social anxiety disorder (SAD) support altered neural activation to threat-provoking stimuli focally in the fear network, while structural differences are distributed over the temporal and frontal cortices as well as limbic structures. Previous neuroimaging studies have inv

  16. Supporting the Reuse of Effective CSCL Learning Designs through Social Structure Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvino, Serena; Asensio-Perez, Juan I.; Dimitriadis, Yannis; Hernandez-Leo, Davinia

    2009-01-01

    Distance and blended collaborative learning settings are usually characterized by different "social structures" defined in terms of groups' number, dimension, and composition; these structures are variable and can change within the same activity. This variability poses additional complexity to instructional designers, when they are trying to…

  17. Structural Reproduction of Social Networks in Computer-Mediated Communication Forums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanone, M. A.; Gay, G.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the structure of an existing social network and the structure of an emergent discussion-board network in an undergraduate university class. Thirty-one students were issued with laptop computers that remained in their possession for the duration of the semester. While using these machines, participants'…

  18. Structural drivers and social protection: mechanisms of HIV risk and HIV prevention for South African adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie Dale; Orkin, Frederick Mark; Meinck, Franziska; Boyes, Mark Edward; Sherr, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Social protection is high on the HIV-prevention agenda for youth in sub-Saharan Africa. However, questions remain: How do unconditional cash transfers work? What is the effect of augmenting cash provision with social care? And can “cash plus care” social protection reduce risks for adolescents most vulnerable to infection? This study tackles these questions by first identifying mediated pathways to adolescent HIV risks and then examining potential main and moderating effects of social protection in South Africa. Methods This study was a prospective observational study of 3515 10-to-17-year-olds (56.7% female; 96.8% one-year retention). Within randomly selected census areas in four rural and urban districts in two South African provinces, all homes with a resident adolescent were sampled between 2009/2010 and 2011/2012. Measures included 1) potential structural drivers of HIV infection such as poverty and community violence; 2) HIV risk behaviours; 3) hypothesized psychosocial mediating factors; and 4) types of social protection involving cash and care. Using gender-disaggregated analyses, longitudinal mediation models were tested for potential main and moderating effects of social protection. Results Structural drivers were associated with increased onset of adolescent HIV risk behaviour (p<0.001, B=0.06, SE=0.01), fully mediated by increased psychosocial problems. Both cash and care aspects of social protection were associated with reductions in HIV risk behaviour and psychosocial deprivations. In addition, cash social protection moderated risk pathways: for adolescent girls and boys experiencing more acute structural deprivation, social protection had the greatest associations with HIV risk prevention (e.g. moderation effects for girls: B=−0.08, p<0.002 between structural deprivation and psychosocial problems, and B=−0.07, p<0.001 between psychosocial problems and HIV risk behaviour). Conclusions Adolescents with the greatest structural

  19. Structural drivers and social protection: mechanisms of HIV risk and HIV prevention for South African adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Dale Cluver

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social protection is high on the HIV-prevention agenda for youth in sub-Saharan Africa. However, questions remain: How do unconditional cash transfers work? What is the effect of augmenting cash provision with social care? And can “cash plus care” social protection reduce risks for adolescents most vulnerable to infection? This study tackles these questions by first identifying mediated pathways to adolescent HIV risks and then examining potential main and moderating effects of social protection in South Africa. Methods: This study was a prospective observational study of 3515 10-to-17-year-olds (56.7% female; 96.8% one-year retention. Within randomly selected census areas in four rural and urban districts in two South African provinces, all homes with a resident adolescent were sampled between 2009/2010 and 2011/2012. Measures included 1 potential structural drivers of HIV infection such as poverty and community violence; 2 HIV risk behaviours; 3 hypothesized psychosocial mediating factors; and 4 types of social protection involving cash and care. Using gender-disaggregated analyses, longitudinal mediation models were tested for potential main and moderating effects of social protection. Results: Structural drivers were associated with increased onset of adolescent HIV risk behaviour (p<0.001, B=0.06, SE=0.01, fully mediated by increased psychosocial problems. Both cash and care aspects of social protection were associated with reductions in HIV risk behaviour and psychosocial deprivations. In addition, cash social protection moderated risk pathways: for adolescent girls and boys experiencing more acute structural deprivation, social protection had the greatest associations with HIV risk prevention (e.g. moderation effects for girls: B=−0.08, p<0.002 between structural deprivation and psychosocial problems, and B=−0.07, p<0.001 between psychosocial problems and HIV risk behaviour. Conclusions: Adolescents with the greatest

  20. Social dominance orientation: revisiting the structure and function of a variable predicting social and political attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Arnold K; Sidanius, Jim; Pratto, Felicia; Levin, Shana; Thomsen, Lotte; Kteily, Nour; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer

    2012-05-01

    Social dominance orientation (SDO) is one of the most powerful predictors of intergroup attitudes and behavior. Although SDO works well as a unitary construct, some analyses suggest it might consist of two complementary dimensions--SDO-Dominance (SDO-D), or the preference for some groups to dominate others, and SDO-Egalitarianism (SDO-E), a preference for nonegalitarian intergroup relations. Using seven samples from the United States and Israel, the authors confirm factor-analytic evidence and show predictive validity for both dimensions. In the United States, SDO-D was theorized and found to be more related to old-fashioned racism, zero-sum competition, and aggressive intergroup phenomena than SDO-E; SDO-E better predicted more subtle legitimizing ideologies, conservatism, and opposition to redistributive social policies. In a contentious hierarchical intergroup context (the Israeli-Palestinian context), SDO-D better predicted both conservatism and aggressive intergroup attitudes. Fundamentally, these analyses begin to establish the existence of complementary psychological orientations underlying the preference for group-based dominance and inequality. PMID:22215697

  1. Social environment affects acquisition and color of structural nuptial plumage in a sexually dimorphic tropical passerine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Maia

    Full Text Available Structural colors result from the physical interaction of light with organic materials of differing refractive indexes organized at nanoscale dimensions to produce significant interference effects. Because color properties emerge from these finely organized nanostructures, the production of structural coloration could respond to environmental factors and be developmentally more plastic than expected, functioning as an indicator of individual quality. However, there are many unknown factors concerning the function and mechanisms regulating structural coloration, especially relative to social environment. We hypothesized that social environment, in the form of competitive settings, can influence the developmental pathways involving production of feather structural coloration. We experimentally assessed the impact of social environment upon body condition, molt and spectral properties of two types of structural color that compose the nuptial plumage in blue-black grassquits: black iridescent plumage and white underwing patches. We manipulated male social environment during nine months by keeping individuals in three treatments: (1 pairs; (2 all-male groups; and (3 male-female mixed groups. All morphological characters and spectral plumage measures varied significantly through time, but only acquisition of nuptial plumage coverage and nuptial plumage color were influenced by social environment. Compared with males in the paired treatment, those in treatments with multiple males molted into nuptial plumage faster and earlier, and their plumage was more UV-purple-shifted. Our results provide experimental evidence that social context strongly influences development and expression of structural plumage. These results emphasize the importance of long-term experimental studies to identify the phenotypic consequences of social dynamics relative to ornament expression.

  2. A comparative study on communication structures of Chinese journals in the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Ping; Leydesdorff, Loet

    2010-01-01

    We argue that the communication structures in the Chinese social sciences have not yet been sufficiently reformed. Citation patterns among Chinese domestic journals in three subject areas -- political science and marxism, library and information science, and economics -- are compared with their counterparts internationally. Like their colleagues in the natural and life sciences, Chinese scholars in the social sciences provide fewer references to journal publications than their international counterparts; like their international colleagues, social scientists provide fewer references than natural sciences. The resulting citation networks, therefore, are sparse. Nevertheless, the citation structures clearly suggest that the Chinese social sciences are far less specialized in terms of disciplinary delineations than their international counterparts. Marxism studies are more established than political science in China. In terms of the impact of the Chinese political system on academic fields, disciplines closely r...

  3. Structural link prediction based on ant colony approach in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherkat, Ehsan; Rahgozar, Maseud; Asadpour, Masoud

    2015-02-01

    As the size and number of online social networks are increasing day by day, social network analysis has become a popular issue in many branches of science. The link prediction is one of the key rolling issues in the analysis of social network's evolution. As the size of social networks is increasing, the necessity for scalable link prediction algorithms is being felt more. The aim of this paper is to introduce a new unsupervised structural link prediction algorithm based on the ant colony approach. Recently, ant colony approach has been used for solving some graph problems. Different kinds of networks are used for testing the proposed approach. In some networks, the proposed scalable algorithm has the best result in comparison to other structural unsupervised link prediction algorithms. In order to evaluate the algorithm results, methods like the top- n precision, area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Precision-Recall curves are carried out on real-world networks.

  4. Users structure and behavior on an online social network during a political protest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A. J.; Losada, J. C.; Benito, R. M.

    2012-11-01

    Over the past years, new technologies and specially online social networks have penetrated into the world’s population at an accelerated pace. In this paper we analyze collected data from the web application Twitter, in order to describe the structure and dynamics of the emergent social networks, based on complexity science. We focused on a Venezuelan protest that took place exclusively by Twitter during December, 2010. We found a community structure with highly connected hubs and three different kinds of user behavior that determine the information flow dynamics. We noticed that even though online social networks appear to be a pure social environment, traditional media still holds loads of influence inside the network.

  5. Socially structured human movement shapes dengue transmission despite the diffusive effect of mosquito dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Reiner, Jr.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For sexually and directly transmitted infectious diseases, social connections influence transmission because they determine contact between individuals. For pathogens that are indirectly transmitted by arthropod vectors, the movement of the vectors is thought to diminish the role of social connections. Results from a recent study of mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV, however, indicate that human movement alone can explain significant spatial variation in urban transmission rates. Because movement patterns are structured by social ties, this result suggests that social proximity may be a good predictor of infection risk for DENV and other pathogens transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Here we investigated the effect of socially structured movement on DENV transmission using a spatially explicit, agent-based transmission model. When individual movements overlap to a high degree within social groups we were able to recreate infection patterns similar to those detected in dengue-endemic, northeastern Peru. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that social proximity drives fine-scale heterogeneity in DENV transmission rates, a result that was robust to the influence of mosquito dispersal. This heterogeneity in transmission caused by socially structured movements appeared to be hidden by the diffusive effect of mosquito dispersal in aggregated infection dynamics, which implies this heterogeneity could be present and active in real dengue systems without being easily noticed. Accounting for socially determined, overlapping human movements could substantially improve the efficiency and efficacy of dengue surveillance and disease prevention programs as well as result in more accurate estimates of important epidemiological quantities, such as R0.

  6. Structural and Social Psychological Correlates of Prisonization: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Charles W.; And Others

    This study considers some aspects of "prisonization," or the process by which inmates adapt to confinement. Specifically, it further examines two ideas suggested by earlier studies. One is the belief that the structural characteristics of many prisons promote rather than inhibit assimilation into an inmate normative system that is opposed to the…

  7. A comparative study on communication structures of Chinese journals in the social sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ping; Su, Xinning; Leydesdorff, Loet

    2010-01-01

    We argue that the communication structures in the Chinese social sciences have not yet been sufficiently reformed. Citation patterns among Chinese domestic journals in three subject areas -- political science and marxism, library and information science, and economics -- are compared with their counterparts internationally. Like their colleagues in the natural and life sciences, Chinese scholars in the social sciences provide fewer references to journal publications than their international c...

  8. Human capital, social capital and organizational performance: A structural modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    J. Augusto Felicio; Eduardo Couto; Jorge Caiado

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluates the human capital and social capital of managers and its influence on the performance of small and medium-sized Portuguese companies. We resorted to the structural modeling methodology approach applied to a sample of 192 small and medium companies aged between four and fifteen years from five different activity sectors. It was concluded that human capital affects social capital and the experience and cognitive ability influence personal relations and complicity. The or...

  9. Experiences in old age: a South Indian example of how functional age is socially structured

    OpenAIRE

    Vera-Sanso, Penny

    2006-01-01

    Research on chronologically older people approaches “the old” as a category of people sharing common problems and experiences that are rooted in the functional disparities between old and younger people. These functional disparities are seen as impinging on social and economic positioning, leading to asymmetries in dependence and vulnerability. The argument here is that, rather than simply being an objective functional condition, old age is a deeply contested, socially structured condition pr...

  10. Protección social, acción estatal y estructura de riesgos sociales = Social protection, state action and social risk structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Valle, Alejandro Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo realizar una serie de reflexiones en torno a los sistemas de protección social en América latina. Para ello, parte de una reflexión teórica sobre la acción estatal y defiende la tesis de que las formas de intervención estatal en las relaciones sociales se derivan de la relación sistémica que, dentro del capitalismo existe, entre el estado y la economía. A partir de ello, el artículo plantea la hipótesis de la sobre determinación de las formas de intervención estatal y la necesidad de que la política social sea planteada a partir del análisis sobre el rol del Estado. En la segunda parte, el texto analiza los límites que presenta la política social y plantea el desajuste entre la estructura de riesgos y la arquitectura de los actuales sistemas de protección para ello, se describen las características principales de los sistemas de protección social y los cambios a los que se vieron sometidos durante el procesos de reformas estructurales y ajuste económico. Posteriormente, se analiza la nueva estructura de riesgos a partir de definir al riesgo social y plantear la existencia de un desajuste entre la protección social y la estructura de riesgos emergente. La conclusión a la que se arriba plantea la necesidad de consolidar una nueva estructura de protección social sobre la base de un nuevo modelo fiscal

  11. Andalusian Economic Structure over Social Accounting Matrices from FES analysis perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Jorge Manuel; Cardenete, Manuel Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 60 years, regional economic analysis has been interested in identifying common patterns and regularities of regional economic structure. The identification of such patterns suggests that there predictable relationships between different levels of structural regional development. Since Social Accounting Matrices (SAM) are database containing the total transactions in an economy, it is possible to use them to comparise the economic structure embedded in them. As regional SAM provi...

  12. S3G2: a Scalable Structure-correlated Social Graph Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Minh Duc; Boncz, Peter; Erling, Orri

    2012-01-01

    Benchmarking graph-oriented database workloads and graph-oriented database systems are increasingly becoming relevant in analytical Big Data tasks, such as social network analysis. In graph data, structure is not mainly found inside the nodes, but especially in the way nodes happen to be connected, i.e. structural correlations. Because such structural correlations determine join fan-outs experienced by graph analysis algorithms and graph query executors, they are an essential, yet typically n...

  13. Mesoscopic structure and social aspects of human mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrow, James P; Lin, Yu-Ru

    2012-01-01

    The individual movements of large numbers of people are important in many contexts, from urban planning to disease spreading. Datasets that capture human mobility are now available and many interesting features have been discovered, including the ultra-slow spatial growth of individual mobility. However, the detailed substructures and spatiotemporal flows of mobility--the sets and sequences of visited locations--have not been well studied. We show that individual mobility is dominated by small groups of frequently visited, dynamically close locations, forming primary "habitats" capturing typical daily activity, along with subsidiary habitats representing additional travel. These habitats do not correspond to typical contexts such as home or work. The temporal evolution of mobility within habitats, which constitutes most motion, is universal across habitats and exhibits scaling patterns both distinct from all previous observations and unpredicted by current models. The delay to enter subsidiary habitats is a primary factor in the spatiotemporal growth of human travel. Interestingly, habitats correlate with non-mobility dynamics such as communication activity, implying that habitats may influence processes such as information spreading and revealing new connections between human mobility and social networks. PMID:22701529

  14. HEALTH NETWORKS. STRUCTURE AND MANAGEMENT. IMPLICATIONS FOR SOCIAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Botezat

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article starts from a systematic analysis of specialized literature on the subject of health care services and networks integration, trying to offer relevant explanations to better understand the organization system of services within the network.To begin with, the article brings forward the institutional and spatial dynamics that leads to the network type configurations. Then, there is an analysis of the processes and measures which can serve as planning instruments available to the policies,shaping some principles for the management of networks within the health area.Finally, the article presents some configuration models of the health networks,recorded by the specialized literature and discusses the link between the natural evolution towards these new management organization forms and the new principles of social economy as a systematic evolution of the state`s organization. From the methodology point of view, the article has resulted from searching, selecting,evaluating and summarizing some works focused on the health systems economy and policies within the area of health.

  15. Cognitive and Social Structure of the Elite Collaboration Network of Astrophysics: A Case Study on Shifting Network Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidler, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Scientific collaboration can only be understood along the epistemic and cognitive grounding of scientific disciplines. New scientific discoveries in astrophysics led to a major restructuring of the elite network of astrophysics. To study the interplay of the epistemic grounding and the social network structure of a discipline, a mixed-methods…

  16. Discrete but variable structure of animal societies leads to the false perception of a social continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Dustin R; Botero, Carlos A; Lacey, Eileen A

    2016-05-01

    Animal societies are typically divided into those in which reproduction within a group is monopolized by a single female versus those in which it is shared among multiple females. It remains controversial, however, whether these two forms of social structure represent distinct evolutionary outcomes or endpoints along a continuum of reproductive options. To address this issue and to determine whether vertebrates and insects exhibit the same patterns of variation in social structure, we examined the demographic and reproductive structures of 293 species of wasps, ants, birds and mammals. Using phylogenetically informed comparative analyses, we found strong evidence indicating that not all reproductive arrangements within social groups are viable in nature and that in societies with multiple reproductives, selection favours instead taxon-specific patterns of decrease in the proportion of breeders as a function of group size. These outcomes suggest that the selective routes to sociality differ depending upon whether monopolization of reproduction by one individual is possible and that variation within and among taxonomic groups may lead to the false perception of a continuum of social structures. Thus, the occurrence of very large societies may require either complete reproductive monopolization (monogyny/singular breeding) or the maintenance of a taxon-specific range of values for the proportional decrease in the number of breeders within a group (polygyny/plural breeding), both of which may reduce reproductive conflict among females. PMID:27293796

  17. Fine-scale genetic structure and social organization in female white-tailed deer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comer, Christopher E.; Kilgo, John C.; D' Angelo, Gino J.; Glenn, Travis C.; Miller, Karl V.

    2005-07-01

    Abstract: Social behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have important management implications. The formation of matrilineal social groups among female deer has been documented and management strategies have been proposed based on this well-developed social structure. Using radiocollared (n = 17) and hunter or vehicle-killed (n = 21) does, we examined spatial and genetic structure in white-tailed deer on a 7,000-ha portion of the Savannah River Site in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. We used 14 microsatellite DNA loci to calculate pairwise relatedness among individual deer and to assign doe pairs to putative relationship categories. Linear distance and genetic relatedness were weakly correlated (r = –0.08, P = 0.058). Relationship categories differed in mean spatial distance, but only 60% of first-degree-related doe pairs (full sibling or mother–offspring pairs) and 38% of second-degree-related doe pairs (half sibling, grandmother–granddaughter pairs) were members of the same social group based on spatial association. Heavy hunting pressure in this population has created a young age structure among does, where the average age is <2.5 years, and <4% of does are >4.5 years old. This—combined with potentially elevated dispersal among young does—could limit the formation of persistent, cohesive social groups. Our results question the universal applicability of recently proposed models of spatial and genetic structuring in white-tailed deer, particularly in areas with differing harvest histories.

  18. POVERTY, SOCIAL STRUCTURE, WEALTH DISTRIBUTION AND MARKETS: UNDERSTANDING THE NEXUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanayo Ogujiuba

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Poverty and distributional concerns for developing economies (Sub-Saharan African in particular have since the 2000’s re-emerged centre-stage in national and international development. This discourse is re-emerging after the preoccupation with growth and efficiency in the structural adjustment decades of the 1980’s and 1990’s. There is now a solid consensus that poverty eradication should constitute the number one development priority. However, the formulation of appropriate poverty-oriented macro policy seems hampered by a lack of clear understanding of the fundamental causes of poverty. The conventional approach to poverty analysis informed by neoclassical thinking conceives poverty in positionist terms; thus simply as shortfalls in income or consumption below a pre-determined poverty line. Poor individuals or households thus are conceived as those unable to acquire or earn incomes to purchase a pre-determined basket of basic goods, or can get access to the latter at an inadequate degree. An individual or household is thus classified poor if; the disposable income is less than the poverty line. In this perspective, the analytical approach is, typically microeconomic, focusing on individuals and households and their initial endowments albeit abstracted from their institutional setting. This paper adopts an empirical review approach and departs from this positivist conception of poverty, arguing instead, that the poor are embedded in certain structural and institutional constraints, often inherited and caused by political leaders, such as insufficient access to productive assets, which limit or undermine their effective participation in the more dynamic sectors of domestic and global markets where there is scope for benefiting from the opportunities created by economic development. The paper thus seeks to show that poverty is often the result of a number of interactive and mutually reinforcing structural constraints and restrictions in

  19. Roosting and foraging social structure of the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Silvis

    Full Text Available Social dynamics are an important but poorly understood aspect of bat ecology. Herein we use a combination of graph theoretic and spatial approaches to describe the roost and social network characteristics and foraging associations of an Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis maternity colony in an agricultural landscape in Ohio, USA. We tracked 46 bats to 50 roosts (423 total relocations and collected 2,306 foraging locations for 40 bats during the summers of 2009 and 2010. We found the colony roosting network was highly centralized in both years and that roost and social networks differed significantly from random networks. Roost and social network structure also differed substantially between years. Social network structure appeared to be unrelated to segregation of roosts between age classes. For bats whose individual foraging ranges were calculated, many shared foraging space with at least one other bat. Compared across all possible bat dyads, 47% and 43% of the dyads showed more than expected overlap of foraging areas in 2009 and 2010 respectively. Colony roosting area differed between years, but the roosting area centroid shifted only 332 m. In contrast, whole colony foraging area use was similar between years. Random roost removal simulations suggest that Indiana bat colonies may be robust to loss of a limited number of roosts but may respond differently from year to year. Our study emphasizes the utility of graphic theoretic and spatial approaches for examining the sociality and roosting behavior of bats. Detailed knowledge of the relationships between social and spatial aspects of bat ecology could greatly increase conservation effectiveness by allowing more structured approaches to roost and habitat retention for tree-roosting, socially-aggregating bat species.

  20. The Structure of Social Cognition: In(ter)dependence of Sociocognitive Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Happe, Francesca Gabrielle Elizabeth; Cook, Jennifer; Bird, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Social cognition is a topic of enormous interest and much research, but we are far from having an agreed taxonomy or factor structure of relevant processes. The aim of this paper is to outline briefly what is known about the structure of social cognition, and to suggest how further progress can be made to delineate the in(ter)dependence of core sociocognitive processes. We focus in particular on several processes that have been discussed and tested together in typical and atypical (notably Au...

  1. Influence of Migrant Workers Returning to Hometown on the Changes of Village Social Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Wei; ZHANG Hong

    2012-01-01

    Based on field survey data of Village Z in Henan Province and from the perspective of the end of villages,we studied the influence of migrant workers returning to hometown on the changes of village social structure from village social interaction and village right reconstruction.Survey results show that social interaction centers of migrant workers returning to hometown for starting an undertaking move outside,which has exceeded the range of rural society of acquaintances and promoted the breaking of the traditional social relationship network " Differential Model of Association".In addition,migrant workers returning to hometown actively participate in building village rights and show more passionate political enthusiasm and practice of modern democratic concept.Furthermore,it not only speeds up disintegration of China’s small peasant economy and division of traditional farmers,but also is an important opportunity for realizing farmers’ self-ending and village ending,as well as urban and rural integration.

  2. Emergence of scale-free leadership structure in social recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Tao; Cimini, Giulio; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The study of the organization of social networks is important for understanding of opinion formation, rumor spreading, and the emergence of trends and fashion. This paper reports empirical analysis of networks extracted from four leading sites with social functionality (Delicious, Flickr, Twitter and YouTube) and shows that they all display a scale-free leadership structure. To reproduce this feature, we propose an adaptive network model driven by social recommending. Artificial agent-based simulations of this model highlight a "good get richer" mechanism where users with broad interests and good judgments are likely to become popular leaders for the others. Simulations also indicate that the studied social recommendation mechanism can gradually improve the user experience by adapting to tastes of its users. Finally we outline implications for real online resource-sharing systems.

  3. The impact of structural and functional characteristics of social relations as determinants of functional decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Lund, Rikke; Holstein, Bjørn E;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examines whether aspects of social relations at baseline are related to functional decline at 5-year follow-up among nondisabled old men and women. METHODS: The investigation is based on baseline and follow-up data on 651 nondisabled 75-year-old persons in Jyväskylä (Finland...... decline pattern (n = 565); and third, mortality (n = 651). Social relations were measured at baseline by several items focusing on the structure and function of the social network. RESULTS: In men, no weekly telephone contact was related to functional decline and mortality. Among women, less than weekly...... telephone contact, no membership in a retirement club, and not sewing for others were significantly related to functional decline and mortality. The associations were stronger when the dead were included in the outcome measure. DISCUSSION: The results point to the importance of social relations in the...

  4. Effects of Network Structure, Competition and Memory Time on Social Spreading Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, James P.; O'Sullivan, Kevin P.; Baños, Raquel A.; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-04-01

    Online social media has greatly affected the way in which we communicate with each other. However, little is known about what fundamental mechanisms drive dynamical information flow in online social systems. Here, we introduce a generative model for online sharing behavior that is analytically tractable and that can reproduce several characteristics of empirical micro-blogging data on hashtag usage, such as (time-dependent) heavy-tailed distributions of meme popularity. The presented framework constitutes a null model for social spreading phenomena that, in contrast to purely empirical studies or simulation-based models, clearly distinguishes the roles of two distinct factors affecting meme popularity: the memory time of users and the connectivity structure of the social network.

  5. A model of social network formation under the impact of structural balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Cheng, Jiajun; Chen, Yingwen; Wang, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Social networks have attracted remarkable attention from both academic and industrial societies and it is of great importance to understand the formation of social networks. However, most existing research cannot be applied directly to investigate social networks, where relationships are heterogeneous and structural balance is a common phenomenon. In this paper, we take both positive and negative relationships into consideration and propose a model to characterize the process of social network formation under the impact of structural balance. In this model, a new node first establishes a link with an existing node and then tries to connect to each of the newly connected node’s neighbors. If a new link is established, the type of this link is determined by structural balance. Then we analyze the degree distribution of the generated network theoretically, and estimate the fractions of positive and negative links. All analysis results are verified by simulations. These results are of importance to understand the formation of social networks, and the model can be easily extended to consider more realistic situations.

  6. A function of form: terror management and structuring the social world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Mark J; Johns, Michael; Greenberg, Jeff; Pyszczynski, Tom; Martens, Andy; Goldenberg, Jamie L; Solomon, Sheldon

    2004-08-01

    Drawing on lay epistemology theory, the authors assessed a terror management analysis of the psychological function of structuring social information. Seven studies tested variations of the hypothesis that simple, benign interpretations of social information function, in part, to manage death-related anxiety. In Studies 1-4, mortality salience (MS) exaggerated primacy effects and reliance on representative information, decreased preference for a behaviorally inconsistent target among those high in personal need for structure (PNS), and increased high-PNS participants' preference for interpersonal balance. In Studies 5-7, MS increased high-PNS participants' preference for interpretations that suggest a just world and a benevolent causal order of events in the social world. PMID:15301627

  7. Social and Structural Barriers to Housing Among Street-Involved Youth Who Use Illicit Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Krüsi, Andrea; Fast, Danya; Small, Will; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In Canada, approximately 150,000 youth live on the street. Street-involvement and homelessness have been associated with various health risks, including increased substance use, blood-borne infections, and sexually transmitted diseases. We undertook a qualitative study to better understand the social and structural barriers street-involved youth who use illicit drugs encounter when seeking housing. We conducted 38 semi-structured interviews with street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada from...

  8. The Social Consequences of Postcommunist Structural Change: An Analysis of Suicide Trends in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Yuka

    2013-01-01

    Guided by Durkheim's classic theory of suicide, this article examines suicide trends and determinants in Eastern European countries for the period of 1989-2006, with particular attention given to the association between postcommunist social change and suicide mortality. I find that countries characterized by more drastic structural change…

  9. Communication, Social Structural Change, and Capital Formation in People's Republic of China. Paper No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Godwin C.

    Focusing on economic development in the People's Republic of China beginning at the eve of the communist takeover, this monograph analyzes the ways and patterns in which mass media and interpersonal communication were used to change economically relevant social structures in the interclass confrontation and the part these patterns played in the…

  10. Human Action and Social Structure in the Study of Schools as Organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Lawrence B.

    This paper presents a critique of various theoretical traditions in the study of schooling. Both the predominant liberal tradition of social and educational theory, with its roots firmly in structural functionalism and human capital theory, and the more radical reproduction tradition, which builds largely on Marxian and Weberian analyses of…

  11. The role of social and ecological processes in structuring animal populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farine, D.R.; Firth, J.A.; Aplin, L.M.; Crates, R.A.; Culina, Antica; Garroway, Colin J.; Hinde, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Both social and ecological factors influence population process and structure, with resultant consequences for phenotypic selection on individuals. Understanding the scale and relative contribution of these two factors is thus a central aim in evolutionary ecology. In this study, we develop a fra

  12. Stability and change in structural social relations as predictor of mortality among elderly women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Modvig, J; Due, P;

    2000-01-01

    In a follow-up study of 70-95 years old women and men (n = 911) we studied the association between change and stability in three structural aspects of social relations (contact frequency, contact diversity, cohabitation status) from 1986-1990 and mortality after the next four years in 1994. Women...

  13. Observing Preschoolers' Social-Emotional Behavior: Structure, Foundations, and Prediction of Early School Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Thayer, Sara K.; Mincic, Melissa S.; Sirotkin, Yana S.; Zinsser, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Social-emotional behavior of 352 3- and 4-year-olds attending private childcare and Head Start programs was observed using the Minnesota Preschool Affect Checklist, Revised (MPAC-R). Goals of the investigation included (a) using MPAC-R data to extract a shortened version, MPAC-R/S, comparing structure, internal consistency, test-retest…

  14. Positive Classroom Motivational Environments : Convergence between Mastery Goal Structure and Classroom Social Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Helen; Kaplan, Avi; Ryan, Allison M.

    2011-01-01

    In a series of 4 studies we investigated the relations of mastery goal structure and 4 dimensions of the classroom social climate (teacher academic support, teacher emotional support, classroom mutual respect, task-related interaction). We conducted multidimensional scaling with separate adolescent samples that differed considerably (i.e., by…

  15. Ties with Potential: Social Network Structure and Innovative Climate in Dutch Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Daly, Alan J.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Similar to the United States, government efforts to improve education in the Netherlands are focused on innovation and the development of collaborative structures to support the generation of new knowledge. However, empirical evidence of the relationship between social linkages and innovation in education is scarce. Objective:…

  16. Structured Opportunities: Exploring the Social and Academic Benefits for Peer Mentors in Retention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyama, Judy Marquez; Luca, Sandra Guillen

    2014-01-01

    Informed by the experiences of former peer mentors, this qualitative study examines the structure of opportunity of a university retention program. Extending the concept of social capital, the study investigates the experiences of students who served as peer mentors, and how their involvement in the retention program has influenced their social…

  17. Observed Family Interactions among Subtypes of Eating Disorders Using Structural Analysis of Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Laura Lynn

    1989-01-01

    Compared observations of family interactions among anorexic, bulimic-anorexic, bulimic, and normal families (N=74 families) consisting of father, mother, and teenage daughter. Benjamin's structural analysis of social behavior methodology differentiated clinical from normal families. Found unique patterns among subtypes of eating disorders which…

  18. Beyond Social Constructionism: A Structural Analysis of the Cultural Significance of the Child Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This article challenges the dominance of social constructionist theories of childhood by presenting a structural analysis of the child star as a recurrent, universal feature in the myths and legends of the world. The article argues that by conceptualising our understanding of children and childhood as being due solely to the socio-historical…

  19. Factor Structure of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Heidgerken, Amanda D.; Fisher, Paige H.; Pincus, Donna B.; Liebowitz, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS-CA). The LSAS-CA was administered to 225 children and adolescents as a component of various clinical studies. In addition, other measures of psychopathology and impairment were administered to a subgroup of the…

  20. A critical review of social and structural conditions that influence HIV risk among Mexican deportees

    OpenAIRE

    Pinedo, Miguel; Burgos, José Luis; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2014-01-01

    Mexican migrants who are deported from the US may be at elevated risk for HIV infection. Deportations of Mexican migrants by the US have reached record numbers. We critically reviewed existing literature to assess how social and structural conditions in post-deportation settings can influence Mexican deported migrants' HIV risk. We also identify critical research gaps and make research recommendations.

  1. S3G2: a Scalable Structure-correlated Social Graph Generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, M.D.; Boncz, P.A.; Erling, O.

    2012-01-01

    Benchmarking graph-oriented database workloads and graph-oriented database systems are increasingly becoming relevant in analytical Big Data tasks, such as social network analysis. In graph data, structure is not mainly found inside the nodes, but especially in the way nodes happen to be connected,

  2. Interactional and Structural Characteristics of Communication and Social Interactions during Computer-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, William J.; Bernas, Roman S.

    2008-01-01

    This study used precepts of social network theory to examine the interactional and structural characteristics of communication in peer-mentoring conferences. Twelve discussion conferences were set up to support students during a teaching practicum experience. The conferences were governed by students with minimal instructor involvement. It was…

  3. Home activities of Mexican American children: structuring early socialization and cognitive engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Margaret; Cohen, Shana R; Scott, Lyn; Fuller, Bruce; Anguiano, Rebecca; Figueroa, Ariana Mangual; Livas-Dlott, Alejandra

    2015-04-01

    The question of how home activities advance the early social and cognitive development of Latino children receives growing attention from psychologists and social scientists. Some scholars and practitioners, focused on promoting "school readiness," frame the problem as weak parenting, signaled by insufficient rich language or academic skills. Other theorists, rooted in ecocultural theory, argue that early socialization and cognitive engagement are culturally situated within routine home activities. These activity structures vary and change over time as families acculturate, adapting to local social ecologies. Little is known empirically about the activity structures within Latino homes, including how young children participate. We detail the social architecture and cognitive engagement pertaining to 6 prevalent home activities in which 24 Mexican American 4-year-olds were engaged over 14 months. We then report how children participate in these 6 activities, and their potential relevance to the cognitive skills gap seen at school entry. We found that children's activities reproduced heritage language, symbols, and knowledge less often than suggested in prior literature; children's typical level of cognitive engagement varied greatly among tasks; and the distribution of time spent in activities is associated with the mother's school attainment and home language. PMID:25364833

  4. Structure and evolution of online social relationships: Heterogeneity in unrestricted discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, K-I; Eom, Y-H; Jeong, H; Kahng, B; Kim, D

    2006-06-01

    With the advancement in the information age, people are using electronic media more frequently for communications, and social relationships are also increasingly resorting to online channels. While extensive studies on traditional social networks have been carried out, little has been done on online social networks. Here we analyze the structure and evolution of online social relationships by examining the temporal records of a bulletin board system (BBS) in a university. The BBS dataset comprises of 1908 boards, in which a total of 7446 students participate. An edge is assigned to each dialogue between two students, and it is defined as the appearance of the name of a student in the from- and to-field in each message. This yields a weighted network between the communicating students with an unambiguous group association of individuals. In contrast to a typical community network, where intracommunities (intercommunities) are strongly (weakly) tied, the BBS network contains hub members who participate in many boards simultaneously but are strongly tied, that is, they have a large degree and betweenness centrality and provide communication channels between communities. On the other hand, intracommunities are rather homogeneously and weakly connected. Such a structure, which has never been empirically characterized in the past, might provide a new perspective on the social opinion formation in this digital era. PMID:16906930

  5. The structure of social exchange in self-help support groups: development of a measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Louis D; Tang, Xiaohui; Hollman, Ruth L

    2014-03-01

    Self-help support groups are indigenous community resources designed to help people manage a variety of personal challenges, from alcohol abuse to xeroderma pigmentosum. The social exchanges that occur during group meetings are central to understanding how people benefit from participation. This paper examines the different types of social exchange behaviors that occur during meetings, using two studies to develop empirically distinct scales that reliably measure theoretically important types of exchange. Resource theory informed the initial measurement development efforts. Exploratory factor analyses from the first study led to revisions in the factor structure of the social exchange scales. The revised measure captured the exchange of emotional support, experiential information, humor, unwanted behaviors, and exchanges outside meetings. Confirmatory factor analyses from a follow-up study with a different sample of self-help support groups provided good model fit, suggesting the revised structure accurately represented the data. Further, the scales demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity with related constructs. Future research can use the scales to identify aspects of social exchange that are most important in improving health outcomes among self-help support group participants. Groups can use the scales in practice to celebrate strengths and address weaknesses in their social exchange dynamics. PMID:24398622

  6. Structural and Psycho-Social Limits to Climate Change Adaptation in the Great Barrier Reef Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Louisa S.; Hicks, Christina C.; Adger, W. Neil; Barnett, Jon; Perry, Allison L.; Fidelman, Pedro; Tobin, Renae

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation, as a strategy to respond to climate change, has limits: there are conditions under which adaptation strategies fail to alleviate impacts from climate change. Research has primarily focused on identifying absolute bio-physical limits. This paper contributes empirical insight to an emerging literature on the social limits to adaptation. Such limits arise from the ways in which societies perceive, experience and respond to climate change. Using qualitative data from multi-stakeholder workshops and key-informant interviews with representatives of the fisheries and tourism sectors of the Great Barrier Reef region, we identify psycho-social and structural limits associated with key adaptation strategies, and examine how these are perceived as more or less absolute across levels of organisation. We find that actors experience social limits to adaptation when: i) the effort of pursuing a strategy exceeds the benefits of desired adaptation outcomes; ii) the particular strategy does not address the actual source of vulnerability, and; iii) the benefits derived from adaptation are undermined by external factors. We also find that social limits are not necessarily more absolute at higher levels of organisation: respondents perceived considerable opportunities to address some psycho-social limits at the national-international interface, while they considered some social limits at the local and regional levels to be effectively absolute. PMID:26960200

  7. Structural and Psycho-Social Limits to Climate Change Adaptation in the Great Barrier Reef Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa S Evans

    Full Text Available Adaptation, as a strategy to respond to climate change, has limits: there are conditions under which adaptation strategies fail to alleviate impacts from climate change. Research has primarily focused on identifying absolute bio-physical limits. This paper contributes empirical insight to an emerging literature on the social limits to adaptation. Such limits arise from the ways in which societies perceive, experience and respond to climate change. Using qualitative data from multi-stakeholder workshops and key-informant interviews with representatives of the fisheries and tourism sectors of the Great Barrier Reef region, we identify psycho-social and structural limits associated with key adaptation strategies, and examine how these are perceived as more or less absolute across levels of organisation. We find that actors experience social limits to adaptation when: i the effort of pursuing a strategy exceeds the benefits of desired adaptation outcomes; ii the particular strategy does not address the actual source of vulnerability, and; iii the benefits derived from adaptation are undermined by external factors. We also find that social limits are not necessarily more absolute at higher levels of organisation: respondents perceived considerable opportunities to address some psycho-social limits at the national-international interface, while they considered some social limits at the local and regional levels to be effectively absolute.

  8. The influence of social structure on brood survival and development in a socially polymorphic ant: insights from a cross-fostering experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Chapuisat, M

    2012-11-01

    Animal societies vary in the number of breeders per group, which affects many socially and ecologically relevant traits. In several social insect species, including our study species Formica selysi, the presence of either one or multiple reproducing females per colony is generally associated with differences in a suite of traits such as the body size of individuals. However, the proximate mechanisms and ontogenetic processes generating such differences between social structures are poorly known. Here, we cross-fostered eggs originating from single-queen (= monogynous) or multiple-queen (= polygynous) colonies into experimental groups of workers from each social structure to investigate whether differences in offspring survival, development time and body size are shaped by the genotype and/or prefoster maternal effects present in the eggs, or by the social origin of the rearing workers. Eggs produced by polygynous queens were more likely to survive to adulthood than eggs from monogynous queens, regardless of the social origin of the rearing workers. However, brood from monogynous queens grew faster than brood from polygynous queens. The social origin of the rearing workers influenced the probability of brood survival, with workers from monogynous colonies rearing more brood to adulthood than workers from polygynous colonies. The social origin of eggs or rearing workers had no significant effect on the head size of the resulting workers in our standardized laboratory conditions. Overall, the social backgrounds of the parents and of the rearing workers appear to shape distinct survival and developmental traits of ant brood. PMID:22998635

  9. The Effects of MNC Parent Effort and Social Structure on Subsidiary Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleimer, Stephanie Christine; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Although the literature provides ample evidence that the global transfer and local implementation of knowledge represents a key advantage for multinational corporations (MNCs), we lack comparable understanding as to whether knowledge-creating MNC parents can actively expand the absorptive capacity...... of their subsidiaries. Using a teacher–student lens, this study examines the combined impact of specific structural mechanisms and motivational processes by MNC parents on the ability of 216 subsidiaries to absorb parent-initiated marketing strategies. The findings reveal that MNC parents can indeed...... cultivate subsidiaries’ ability to appropriate marketing knowledge through a combination of adopting specific social structures and investing in particular efforts. However, the effect of social structure on subsidiary absorptive capacity is indirect, and accounted for by the parents’ intensity of effort....

  10. A scanning method for detecting clustering pattern of both attribute and structure in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tai-Chi; Phoa, Frederick Kin Hing

    2016-03-01

    Community/cluster is one of the most important features in social networks. Many cluster detection methods were proposed to identify such an important pattern, but few were able to identify the statistical significance of the clusters by considering the likelihood of network structure and its attributes. Based on the definition of clustering, we propose a scanning method, originated from analyzing spatial data, for identifying clusters in social networks. Since the properties of network data are more complicated than those of spatial data, we verify our method's feasibility via simulation studies. The results show that the detection powers are affected by cluster sizes and connection probabilities. According to our simulation results, the detection accuracy of structure clusters and both structure and attribute clusters detected by our proposed method is better than that of other methods in most of our simulation cases. In addition, we apply our proposed method to some empirical data to identify statistically significant clusters.

  11. Experiences of Social and Structural Forms of Stigma Among Chinese Immigrant Consumers with Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhen Hadassah; Tu, Ming-Che; Li, Vanessa A; Chang, Rachel W; Yang, Lawrence Hsin

    2015-12-01

    Chinese immigrants tend to rely on family and close community for support given their vulnerable societal position. Yet stigma, especially from structural and familial sources, may have a particularly harmful impact upon Chinese immigrants with psychosis. Using a descriptive analysis based upon grounded theory, we examined stigma experiences of 50 Chinese immigrant consumers with psychosis, paying particular attention to frequency, sources, and themes of social and structural stigma. Although past research indicates that family is a recipient of stigma, we found instead that family members were common perpetuators of social forms of stigma. We also found that perceptions of work deficit underlie many forms of stigma, suggesting this is "what matters most" in this community. Lack of financial resources and language barriers comprised most frequent forms of structural stigma. Anti-stigma efforts should aim to improve consumer's actual and perceived employability to target what is most meaningful in Chinese immigrant communities. PMID:25672991

  12. Analysis of opinion spreading in signed social networks under the impact of structural balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Zhang, Yini; He, Su; Wang, Hui

    2015-03-01

    Social networks have attracted remarkable attention and it is of great importance to understand the process of opinion spreading in popular social networks. However, most research on diffusion cannot be applied directly to investigate social networks, where relationships are heterogeneous and structural balance is a common phenomenon. In this paper, we propose models to characterize the process of opinion spreading in signed social networks under the impact of structural balance. We classify users into different types according to the numbers of their positive links, and define the term user influence to represent the average number of times that users are influenced, which is incurred by a user spreading an opinion. We then propose an approach to analyze the user influence theoretically and the analysis accuracy is verified by simulations. We observe that the user influence increases with user type and also increases with the fraction of negative links in the network if this fraction value exceeds some point. That's to say, negative relationships may enhance opinion spreading if we consider the impact of structural balance, which is an interesting result.

  13. Influence of Social Network Websites over Women Consumers from Islamic Religion: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakkthivel AM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to design and test the influence of pertinent variables i.e. internal (marketing mix information variables, and external information variables obtained through social network websites over women consumers buying behaviour from Islamic religion in Middle Eastern countries. The constructs focus on testing the impact on the aforesaid aspects. The paper uses structural equation modelling to find the influence and the results revealed that (i external information variables found to have more influence than that of internal information variables (ii It is found society, brand reputation and reference groups exert more influence over women consumer buying behaviour through social media websites.

  14. Analyzing social network structures in the iterated prisoner's dilemma with choice and refusal

    CERN Document Server

    Smucker, M D; Ashlock, D; Smucker, Mark D; Stanley, E Ann; Ashlock, Dan

    1995-01-01

    The Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma with Choice and Refusal (IPD/CR) is an extension of the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma with evolution that allows players to choose and to refuse their game partners. From individual behaviors, behavioral population structures emerge. In this report, we examine one particular IPD/CR environment and document the social network methods used to identify population behaviors found within this complex adaptive system. In contrast to the standard homogeneous population of nice cooperators, we have also found metastable populations of mixed strategies within this environment. In particular, the social networks of interesting populations and their evolution are examined.

  15. Structure of Life’s Plans of Socially Maladjusted Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Szulc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The plans creating is a sign of human activity on the conscious level. Plans prove the creativity of the man. Plans permit to see the man as the active author. Life plans are modified by life experiences. The aim of research was to illustrate a structure of life plans of socially maladjusted young people. The study used B.R Little’s Personal Project Analyses (PPA. The studies show that socially maladjusted adolescents differ in the assessment of plans and evaluation of youth in the control group.

  16. Social, structural and behavioral drivers of concurrent partnerships among African American men in Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Amy; Dickman, Samuel; Cornwall, Alexandra; Rosengard, Cynthia; Kwakwa, Helena; Kim, Daniel; James, George; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2011-11-01

    African Americans face disproportionately higher risks of HIV infection. Concurrent sexual relationships, or sexual partnerships that overlap in time, are more common among African Americans than individuals of other races and may contribute to racial disparities in HIV infection. However, little is known about attitudes, norms and practices among individuals engaged in concurrent partnerships. Little is also known about the processes through which structural, behavioral, and social factors influence concurrent sexual relationships. We recruited 24 heterosexual African American men involved in concurrent sexual relationships from a public health clinic in Philadelphia. We conducted in-depth interviews exploring these men's sexual practices; social norms and individual attitudes about concurrency; perceived sexual health risks with main and non-main partners; and the social, structural, and behavioral factors contributing to concurrent sexual relationships. Twenty-two men reported having one main and one or more non-main partners; two reported having no main partners. Respondents generally perceived sexual relationships with non-main partners as riskier than relationships with main partners and used condoms far less frequently with main than non-main partners. Most participants commented that it is acceptable and often expected for men and women to engage in concurrent sexual relationships. Social factors influencing participants' concurrent partnerships included being unmarried and trusting neither main nor non-main partners. Structural factors influencing concurrent partnerships included economic dependence on one or more women, incarceration, unstable housing, and unemployment. Several men commented that individual behavioral factors such as alcohol and cocaine use contributed to their concurrent sexual partnerships. Future research and interventions related to sexual concurrency should address social and structural factors in addition to conventional HIV risk

  17. Composition and structure of a large online social network in The Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rense Corten

    Full Text Available Limitations in data collection have long been an obstacle in research on friendship networks. Most earlier studies use either a sample of ego-networks, or complete network data on a relatively small group (e.g., a single organization. The rise of online social networking services such as Friendster and Facebook, however, provides researchers with opportunities to study friendship networks on a much larger scale. This study uses complete network data from Hyves, a popular online social networking service in The Netherlands, comprising over eight million members and over 400 million online friendship relations. In the first study of its kind for The Netherlands, I examine the structure of this network in terms of the degree distribution, characteristic path length, clustering, and degree assortativity. Results indicate that this network shares features of other large complex networks, but also deviates in other respects. In addition, a comparison with other online social networks shows that these networks show remarkable similarities.

  18. Respondent-driven sampling bias induced by clustering and community structure in social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, Luis Enrique Correa; Lambiotte, Renaud; Liljeros, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Sampling hidden populations is particularly challenging using standard sampling methods mainly because of the lack of a sampling frame. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is an alternative methodology that exploits the social contacts between peers to reach and weight individuals in these hard-to-reach populations. It is a snowball sampling procedure where the weight of the respondents is adjusted for the likelihood of being sampled due to differences in the number of contacts. In RDS, the structure of the social contacts thus defines the sampling process and affects its coverage, for instance by constraining the sampling within a sub-region of the network. In this paper we study the bias induced by network structures such as social triangles, community structure, and heterogeneities in the number of contacts, in the recruitment trees and in the RDS estimator. We simulate different scenarios of network structures and response-rates to study the potential biases one may expect in real settings. We find that the ...

  19. Impact of heterogeneous activity and community structure on the evolutionary success of cooperators in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Xi; Rong, Zhihai; Yang, Han-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Recent empirical studies suggest that heavy-tailed distributions of human activities are universal in real social dynamics [L. Muchnik, S. Pei, L. C. Parra, S. D. S. Reis, J. S. Andrade Jr., S. Havlin, and H. A. Makse, Sci. Rep. 3, 1783 (2013), 10.1038/srep01783]. On the other hand, community structure is ubiquitous in biological and social networks [M. E. J. Newman, Nat. Phys. 8, 25 (2012), 10.1038/nphys2162]. Motivated by these facts, we here consider the evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game taking place on top of a real social network to investigate how the community structure and the heterogeneity in activity of individuals affect the evolution of cooperation. In particular, we account for a variation of the birth-death process (which can also be regarded as a proportional imitation rule from a social point of view) for the strategy updating under both weak and strong selection (meaning the payoffs harvested from games contribute either slightly or heavily to the individuals' performance). By implementing comparative studies, where the players are selected either randomly or in terms of their actual activities to play games with their immediate neighbors, we figure out that heterogeneous activity benefits the emergence of collective cooperation in a harsh environment (the action for cooperation is costly) under strong selection, whereas it impairs the formation of altruism under weak selection. Moreover, we find that the abundance of communities in the social network can evidently foster the formation of cooperation under strong selection, in contrast to the games evolving on randomized counterparts. Our results are therefore helpful for us to better understand the evolution of cooperation in real social systems.

  20. social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Weremchuk Ida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the concept of eating disorders, this paper aims on the investigation of our relation with body, discussing the normative practices that constitute our ways of life. From an aesthetic standard that relates body to beauty and success, we intend to put in question the social context where eating disorders have been produced. To achieve this objective, we base our study on anorexia and bulimia analysis. The symptoms of these psychopathologies have difficult treatment and reflect an excessive worry about weight, corporal image and fattening up. Our interest is to contribute to this discussion, avoiding an individualized perspective, focused on anorexic and/or bulimic young boy or girl and on the dysfunctional interactions of his/her familiar system, but shifting the focus on eating disorders as devices that denunciate the extremism of the way of thinking, feeling and experiencing body in our society. Therefore, our objective is to present some subsidies that allow us to dislocate this matter from the exclusive scope of individual experience to an analysis of the social practices of our relation with body that reside contemporary experience, considering eating disorders in the present time as the exacerbation of a social symptom.

  1. Designing, implementing and monitoring social impact mitigation strategies: Lessons from Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Social impact mitigation strategies are implemented by the proponents of policies and projects with the intent of reducing the negative, and increasing the positive social impacts of their activities, and facilitating the achievement of policy/project goals. Evaluation of mitigation strategies is critical to improving their future success and cost-effectiveness. This paper evaluates two Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages (FISAP) implemented in Australia in the 1990s to 2000s as part of broader policy changes that reduced access to timber from publicly owned native forests. It assesses the effectiveness of the structure, design, implementation and monitoring of the FISAPs, and highlights the interactions between these four elements and their influence on social impacts. The two FISAPs were found to be effective in terms of reducing negative impacts, encouraging positive impacts and contributing towards policy goals, although they did not mitigate negative impacts in all cases, and sometimes interacted with external factors and additional policy changes to contribute to significant short and long term negative impacts. -- Highlights: ► Mitigation strategies aim to reduce negative and enhance positive social impacts ► Mitigation strategy design, implementation, and monitoring are critical to success ► Effective mitigation enhanced the capacity of recipients to respond to change ► Mitigation strategies influenced multiple interacting positive and negative impacts ► Success required good communication, transparency, support, resources and timing

  2. Developing Measures of Pathways that May Link Macro Social/Structural Changes with HIV Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouget, Enrique R; Sandoval, Milagros; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Rossi, Diana; Smyrnov, Pavlo; Jones, Yolanda; Friedman, Samuel R

    2016-08-01

    Macro-social/structural events ("big events") such as wars, disasters, and large-scale changes in policies can affect HIV transmission by making risk behaviors more or less likely or by changing risk contexts. The purpose of this study was to develop new measures to investigate hypothesized pathways between macro-social changes and HIV transmission. We developed novel scales and indexes focused on topics including norms about sex and drug injecting under different conditions, involvement with social groups, helping others, and experiencing denial of dignity. We collected data from 300 people who inject drugs in New York City during 2012-2013. Most investigational measures showed evidence of validity (Pearson correlations with criterion variables range = 0.12-0.71) and reliability (Cronbach's alpha range = 0.62-0.91). Research is needed in different contexts to evaluate whether these measures can be used to better understand HIV outbreaks and help improve social/structural HIV prevention intervention programs. PMID:26796384

  3. Condom social marketing, Pentecostalism, and structural adjustment in Mozambique: a clash of AIDS prevention messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, James

    2004-03-01

    Despite significant debate about the efficacy, ideology, and ethics of the method, condom social marketing (CSM) has become the dominant approach to AIDS education in many sub-Saharan African countries. However, critics have charged that social marketing (SM) distracts from the structural determinants of health-related behavior and excludes genuine community participation. This article argues that the diffusion of SM techniques in Africa is not driven by demonstrated efficacy but is attributable to the promotion of privatization and free markets in the structural adjustment era across the region. The CSM experience in a central Mozambican community reveals the dangers of using the method at the expense of community dialogue and participation to confront the AIDS epidemic. The advertising campaign developed to sell condoms has clashed with Pentecostal and Independent Churches, now a majority of the population, that have expanded rapidly across the region spreading a contrasting message about sexuality and risky behavior. PMID:15098428

  4. Social Movement Structures in Relation to Goals and Forms of Action: An Exploratory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgen Willems

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a theoretical taxonomy of the structural features of social movements. We begin by using two classification criteria to analyze the types of relations that characterize the structure of social movements. From there, we look at how differences in structure relate to different goals and forms of action. We then derive a four-fold classification system based on formalization and hierarchy of relationships. For each classification we provide case descriptions of social movements (or parts thereof using literature on how different movement structures support different types of goals and forms of action. Furthermore, we discuss the dynamics of social movements (or parts thereof and how their classification may evolve. By doing so, we illustrate how changes in structure, goals, and forms of action mutually influence each other.RÉSUMÉCet article dresse une taxonomie théorique des caractéristiques structurelles des mouvements sociaux. Nous utilisons d’abord deux critères de classification pour analyser les types de relation propres à la structure des mouvements sociaux. Par la suite, nous observons comment des différences de structure coïncident avec des buts et des formes d’action différents. Nous développons ensuite un système de classification quadruple fondé sur la formalisation et l’hiérarchisation des relations. Pour chacune des classifications, nous fournissons des descriptions de cas de mouvements sociaux (ou de parties de ceux-ci en recourant à des écrits sur la manière dont des structures de mouvement différentes entraînent des buts et des formes d’action différents. En outre, nous discutons des dynamiques des mouvements sociaux (ou de parties de ceux-ci et comment leur classification pourrait évoluer. Par ce moyen, nous illustrons comment des changements de structure, de but et de forme d’action s’influencent réciproquement.

  5. Organizational form, local market structure and corporate social performance in retail

    OpenAIRE

    Utgård, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    I study how organizational form and local market structure influence retail firms' corporate social performance (CSP). The theoretical model is based on agency theory, which in its origin focuses on the dyad between the principal and the agent. I extend this perspective and examine how characteristics of the environment outside the dyad influence the outcomes. Retail stores vary in their organizational form and thereby in their incentives to maximize profits. I hypothesize that the different ...

  6. Text and Structural Data Mining of Influenza Mentions in Web and Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Karan P.; Mikler, Armin R.; Diane J. Cook; Corley, Courtney D.

    2010-01-01

    Text and structural data mining of web and social media (WSM) provides a novel disease surveillance resource and can identify online communities for targeted public health communications (PHC) to assure wide dissemination of pertinent information. WSM that mention influenza are harvested over a 24-week period, 5 October 2008 to 21 March 2009. Link analysis reveals communities for targeted PHC. Text mining is shown to identify trends in flu posts that correlate to real-world influenza-like ill...

  7. Influence of Social Network Websites over Women Consumers from Islamic Religion: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sakkthivel AM; B. Sriram

    2015-01-01

    The paper intends to design and test the influence of pertinent variables i.e. internal (marketing mix) information variables, and external information variables obtained through social network websites over women consumers buying behaviour from Islamic religion in Middle Eastern countries. The constructs focus on testing the impact on the aforesaid aspects. The paper uses structural equation modelling to find the influence and the results revealed that (i) external information variables foun...

  8. The Concentration of Unemployment Families and Social Networks : A Question of Attitudes or Structural Factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Nordenmark, Mikael

    1999-01-01

    This article studies the concentration of unemployment within families and social networks in Sweden. The study, which is based on two random samples, one consisting of some 47,000 young people and their parents and one consisting of 3,500 unemployed people, raises the question of whether unemployment concentration is mainly caused by negative values towards employment or by structural factors. The results show that it is common for people who are unemployed and have experienced longer period...

  9. The structure of social and political relations in a south Indian little kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Dirks, Nicholas B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper represents a preliminary formulation of an analysis of the development of political structures of authority and kingship in the little kingdom of Pudukkottai as well as a partial presentation of ethnographic material concerning the royal subcaste of Pudukkottai. The basic argument is that kinship, or social organization, cannot be seen apart from a political context which must be understood in terms of particular historical dynamics. This argument is exemplified b...

  10. Impact of male infanticide on the social structure of mountain gorillas

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew M Robbins; Maryke Gray; Augustin Basabose; Prosper Uwingeli; Innocent Mburanumwe; Edwin Kagoda; Robbins, Martha M

    2013-01-01

    Infanticide can be a major influence upon the social structure of species in which females maintain long-term associations with males. Previous studies have suggested that female mountain gorillas benefit from residing in multimale groups because infanticide occurs when one-male groups disintegrate after the dominant male dies. Here we measure the impact of infanticide on the reproductive success of female mountain gorillas, and we examine whether their dispersal patterns reflect a strategy t...

  11. A model of task demands, social structure, and Leader-Member Exchange and their relationship to job satisfaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Schyns, B.; Croon, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we examine task demands, leader-member exchange, and social structure in their relationship to job satisfaction. Based on the reflections of Seers and Graen in their dual attachment model, in the present study we combined task demands, leader-member exchange, and social structure in a model of antecedents of job satisfaction. The resulting model was tested using structural equation modelling. While task demands and leader-member exchange are related to their respective e...

  12. Structural Analysis of Viral Spreading Processes in Social and Communication Networks Using Egonets

    CERN Document Server

    Preciado, Victor M; Jadbabaie, Ali

    2012-01-01

    We study how the behavior of viral spreading processes is influenced by local structural properties of the network over which they propagate. For a wide variety of spreading processes, the largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix of the network plays a key role on their global dynamical behavior. For many real-world large-scale networks, it is unfeasible to exactly retrieve the complete network structure to compute its largest eigenvalue. Instead, one usually have access to myopic, egocentric views of the network structure, also called egonets. In this paper, we propose a mathematical framework, based on algebraic graph theory and convex optimization, to study how local structural properties of the network constrain the interval of possible values in which the largest eigenvalue must lie. Based on this framework, we present a computationally efficient approach to find this interval from a collection of egonets. Our numerical simulations show that, for several social and communication networks, local structu...

  13. Estimating the extent and structure of trade in horticultural orchids via social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsley, Amy; Lee, Tamsin E; Harrison, Joseph R; Roberts, David L

    2016-10-01

    The wildlife trade is a lucrative industry involving thousands of animal and plant species. The increasing use of the internet for both legal and illegal wildlife trade is well documented, but there is evidence that trade may be emerging on new online technologies such as social media. Using the orchid trade as a case study, we conducted the first systematic survey of wildlife trade on an international social-media website. We focused on themed forums (groups), where people with similar interests can interact by uploading images or text (posts) that are visible to other group members. We used social-network analysis to examine the ties between 150 of these orchid-themed groups to determine the structure of the network. We found 4 communities of closely linked groups based around shared language. Most trade occurred in a community that consisted of English-speaking and Southeast Asian groups. In addition to the network analysis, we randomly sampled 30 groups from the whole network to assess the prevalence of trade in cultivated and wild plants. Of 55,805 posts recorded over 12 weeks, 8.9% contained plants for sale, and 22-46% of these posts pertained to wild-collected orchids. Although total numbers of posts about trade were relatively small, the large proportion of posts advertising wild orchids for sale supports calls for better monitoring of social media for trade in wild-collected plants. PMID:26991837

  14. IS SOCIAL RESILIENCE AN ECONOMIC STRUCTURE ISSUE OR JUST THE ABILITY OF COMMUNITIES TO COPE WITH EXTERNAL STRESS ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Răzvan ȘERBAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes social resilience at county level in Romania, in the context of the recent global financial and economic crisis. Generally, social resilience is seen as the ability of communities to cope with external stress such as changes in the economic environment. This study emphasizes the vulnerabilities of economies where communities live in, namely the particularities of economic environment where human communities evolve and co-evolve by resilience emergence. Thus, the link between the social and the economic component requires a special attention, initially external shock being experienced by the economic structure, which, to respond to sudden changes, dissipates shock to the other components of the social-economic system, namely the social component. The close relationship between the economic and the social components causes economies deepening into crisis by triggering a circular causality process. The population’s decision to change residence interrupts this process, leading to social resilience.

  15. Environmental, psychological, and social influences on physical activity among Japanese adults: structural equation modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Kaori

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the contributing factors to be considered when examining how individuals engage in physical activity is important for promoting population-based physical activity. The environment influences long-term effects on population-based health behaviors. Personal variables, such as self-efficacy and social support, can act as mediators of the predictive relationship between the environment and physical activity. The present study examines the direct and indirect effects of environmental, psychological, and social factors on walking, moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and vigorous-intensity activity among Japanese adults. Methods The participants included 1,928 Japanese adults aged 20-79 years. Seven sociodemographic attributes (e.g., gender, age, education level, employment status, psychological variables (self-efficacy, pros, and cons, social variables (social support, environmental variables (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, aesthetic sensibilities, and frequency of observing others exercising, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were assessed via an Internet-based survey. Structural equation modeling was conducted to determine associations between environmental, psychological, and social factors with physical activity. Results Environmental factors could be seen to have indirect effects on physical activity through their influence on psychological and social variables such as self-efficacy, pros and cons, and social support. The strongest indirect effects could be observed by examining the consequences of environmental factors on physical activity through cons to self-efficacy. The total effects of environmental factors on physical activity were 0.02 on walking, 0.02 on moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and 0.05 on vigorous-intensity activity. Conclusions The present study indicates that environmental factors had indirect effects on

  16. Science & Education: Genetic Analysis Of Winter Social Structure And Social Traits In A Migratory Sparrow & Teaching Argumentation In Stem Education

    OpenAIRE

    Arnberg, Nina Nowshiravani

    2014-01-01

    Stable social organization in a wide variety of organisms has been linked to kinship, which can minimize conflict due to the indirect fitness benefits from cooperating with relatives. In birds, kin selection has been mostly studied in the context of reproduction or in species that are social year round. Many birds however are migratory and the role of kinship in the winter societies of these species is virtually unexplored. A previous study detected striking social complexity and stability in...

  17. Social Structure and Personality during the Transformation of Urban China: A Comparison to Transitional Poland and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Melvin L.; Wang, Weidong; Yue, Yin

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the relationships of social structure and personality of urban China during "privatization" to those of urban Poland and Ukraine during their transitions from socialism to nascent capitalism. These relationships are similar in pattern and nearly as strong in magnitude for China as for Poland, and stronger than for Ukraine.…

  18. Difficulties in Defining Social-Emotional Intelligence, Competences and Skills - a Theoretical Analysis and Structural Suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moana Monnier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Demands related to the frequency of and time required for interactional tasks in everyday occupational routines are continuously growing. When it comes to qualifying a person’s ability to interact with others, two prototypical concepts are often used: social competences and emotional intelligence. In connection to discussions about curriculum standards in Germany, these are viewed as important attributes that should be taught, supported and if possible assessed in educational pathways toward an occupation (KMK, 2007. However, in looking for a generally approved and widely used definition, many problems arise on the inter-conceptual and intra-conceptual level, triggering implementation difficulties in educational curricula. This article highlights these difficulties by selecting five well-established key theories and comparing their communalities and differences. Analyzing definitions of intelligence, competences and skills, taking an action regulation perspective and highlighting the interdependence of social and emotional aspects, a structural system to facilitate the transfer into the educational context is proposed.

  19. Department-level change: Using social network analysis to map the hidden structure of academic departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Charles; Quardokus, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to improve teaching in higher education have often focused on individual faculty. However, there is a growing consensus that the academic department is a more productive focus of change initiatives. Yet, academic departments are not all the same. Understanding the structure of relationships within a department is important for identifying who should be involved in the change effort and in what roles. It is also likely that a successful change effort will modify the structure of relationships within a department. This paper presents the preliminary results from a study of two academic departments at a research university. A social network for each department was constructed based on a web survey that asked faculty to identify colleagues with whom they had teaching-related conversations. We identify characteristics of the individuals and departments and describe how learning about this hidden structure can be beneficial to change agents.

  20. Social Movements and Ecosystem Services—the Role of Social Network Structure in Protecting and Managing Urban Green Areas in Stockholm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Elmqvist

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation and degradation of urban green areas reduce their capacity to sustain ecosystem services. In protecting and managing these areas, research has increasingly focused on actors in civil society. Here, we analyzed an urban movement of 62 civil-society organizations—from user groups, such as boating clubs and allotment gardens, to culture and nature conservation groups—that have protected the Stockholm National Urban Park. We particularly focused on the social network structure of the movement, i.e., the patterns of interaction between movement organizations. The results reveal a core-periphery structure where core and semi-core organizations have deliberately built political connections to authorities, whereas the periphery gathers all user groups involved in day-to-day activities in the park. We show how the core-periphery structure has facilitated collective action to protect the park, but we also suggest that the same social network structure might simultaneously have constrained collaborative ecosystem management. In particular, user groups with valuable local ecological knowledge have not been included in collaborative arenas. Our case points out the inherent double-nature of all social networks as they facilitate some collective actions, yet constrain others. The paper argues for incorporating social network structure in theories and applications of adaptive governance and co-management.

  1. Panel session: Part 1, In flux -- Science Policy and the social structure of Big Laboratories, 1964--1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, C. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)]|[CEBAF, Newport News, VA (United States)]|[Fermilab History Collaboration, Batavia, IL (United States)

    1993-09-01

    This report discusses the in flux of science policy and the social structure of big laboratories during the period of 1964 to 1979 and some sociological consequences of high energy physicists` development of the standard model during the same period.

  2. Taking sociality seriously: the structure of multi-dimensional social networks as a source of information for individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Louise; Henzi, S Peter; Lusseau, David

    2012-08-01

    Understanding human cognitive evolution, and that of the other primates, means taking sociality very seriously. For humans, this requires the recognition of the sociocultural and historical means by which human minds and selves are constructed, and how this gives rise to the reflexivity and ability to respond to novelty that characterize our species. For other, non-linguistic, primates we can answer some interesting questions by viewing social life as a feedback process, drawing on cybernetics and systems approaches and using social network neo-theory to test these ideas. Specifically, we show how social networks can be formalized as multi-dimensional objects, and use entropy measures to assess how networks respond to perturbation. We use simulations and natural 'knock-outs' in a free-ranging baboon troop to demonstrate that changes in interactions after social perturbations lead to a more certain social network, in which the outcomes of interactions are easier for members to predict. This new formalization of social networks provides a framework within which to predict network dynamics and evolution, helps us highlight how human and non-human social networks differ and has implications for theories of cognitive evolution. PMID:22734054

  3. The role of social and ecological processes in structuring animal populations: a case study from automated tracking of wild birds

    OpenAIRE

    Farine, Damien R.; Firth, Josh A.; Aplin, Lucy M.; Crates, Ross A.; Culina, Antica; Garroway, Colin J.; Hinde, Camilla A; Kidd, Lindall R.; Milligan, Nicole D.; Psorakis, Ioannis; Radersma, Reinder; Verhelst, Brecht; Voelkl, Bernhard; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2015-01-01

    Both social and ecological factors influence population process and structure, with resultant consequences for phenotypic selection on individuals. Understanding the scale and relative contribution of these two factors is thus a central aim in evolutionary ecology. In this study, we develop a framework using null models to identify the social and spatial patterns that contribute to phenotypic structure in a wild population of songbirds. We used automated technologies to track 1053 individuals...

  4. The social structure of ''experimental'' strings at Fermilab; a physics and detector driven model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physicists in HEP have been forced to organize large scientific projects without a well defined organizational or sociological model to guide them. In the absence of such models, what structures do experimentalists use to develop social structures in HEP? In this paper, I claim that physicists organize around what they know best, the physics problems they study and the detectors and devices they study them with. After describing the advent of ''management'' in HEP, I use a case study of 4 Fermilab experiments as the base upon which to propose a physics and detector driven model of social structure for experiments. In addition, I show how this model can be extended to describe ''strings'' of experiments, where continuities of physics interests, spectrometer design, and a core group of physicists become a definable sociological unit that can exist for over 15 years. A dominate theme that emerges from my analysis is the conscious attempt on the part of experimenters to remove the uncertainties that are part of the practice of HEP

  5. The structure of stereotyped calls reflects kinship and social affiliation in resident killer whales ( Orcinus orca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deecke, Volker B.; Barrett-Lennard, Lance G.; Spong, Paul; Ford, John K. B.

    2010-05-01

    A few species of mammals produce group-specific vocalisations that are passed on by learning, but the function of learned vocal variation remains poorly understood. Resident killer whales live in stable matrilineal groups with repertoires of seven to 17 stereotyped call types. Some types are shared among matrilines, but their structure typically shows matriline-specific differences. Our objective was to analyse calls of nine killer whale matrilines in British Columbia to test whether call similarity primarily reflects social or genetic relationships. Recordings were made in 1985-1995 in the presence of focal matrilines that were either alone or with groups with non-overlapping repertoires. We used neural network discrimination performance to measure the similarity of call types produced by different matrilines and determined matriline association rates from 757 encounters with one or more focal matrilines. Relatedness was measured by comparing variation at 11 microsatellite loci for the oldest female in each group. Call similarity was positively correlated with association rates for two of the three call types analysed. Similarity of the N4 call type was also correlated with matriarch relatedness. No relationship between relatedness and association frequency was detected. These results show that call structure reflects relatedness and social affiliation, but not because related groups spend more time together. Instead, call structure appears to play a role in kin recognition and shapes the association behaviour of killer whale groups. Our results therefore support the hypothesis that increasing social complexity plays a role in the evolution of learned vocalisations in some mammalian species.

  6. Text and Structural Data Mining of Influenza Mentions in Web and Social Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corley, Courtney D.; Cook, Diane; Mikler, Armin R.; Singh, Karan P.

    2010-02-22

    Text and structural data mining of Web and social media (WSM) provides a novel disease surveillance resource and can identify online communities for targeted public health communications (PHC) to assure wide dissemination of pertinent information. WSM that mention influenza are harvested over a 24-week period, 5-October-2008 to 21-March-2009. Link analysis reveals communities for targeted PHC. Text mining is shown to identify trends in flu posts that correlate to real-world influenza-like-illness patient report data. We also bring to bear a graph-based data mining technique to detect anomalies among flu blogs connected by publisher type, links, and user-tags.

  7. Structuration or Individualization: Changes in the Social Stratificationin in Urban China From 1988 to 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Fengming

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the urban household survey data for 1988-2009 in the city of S to make primary research whether the person’s objective class position affects consumption patterns in the process of social inequality of urban. The results show that the urban class structuration is a substantially inverted U curve, not a linear process. In 1988-1993 during the early period of the marketization, the “destratification” and “popular” characteristics had been mainly presented and there was no signif...

  8. Using Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) Measures of Self- and Social Perception to Give Interpersonal Meaning to Symptoms: Anxiety as an Exemplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Thane M.; Pincus, Aaron L.

    2005-01-01

    Current symptom-based diagnosis, although important, lacks theoretical underpinning that might give meaning to psychiatric symptoms. The structural analysis of social behavior (SASB) fills this void, operationalizing interpersonal theory for investigation of relational aspects of psychopathology. To provide an example of how SASB may be utilized…

  9. Cortical Structure Alterations and Social Behavior Impairment in p50-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Sara Anna; Mastinu, Andrea; Maccarinelli, Giuseppina; Mitola, Stefania; Premoli, Marika; La Rosa, Luca Rosario; Ferrari-Toninelli, Giulia; Grilli, Mariagrazia; Memo, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    Alterations in genes that regulate neurodevelopment can lead to cortical malformations, resulting in malfunction during postnatal life. The NF-κB pathway has a key role during neurodevelopment by regulating the maintenance of the neural progenitor cell pool and inhibiting neuronal differentiation. In this study, we evaluated whether mice lacking the NF-κB p50 subunit (KO) present alterations in cortical structure and associated behavioral impairment. We found that, compared with wild type (WT), KO mice at postnatal day 2 present an increase in radial glial cells, an increase in Reelin protein expression levels, in addition to an increase of specific layer thickness. Moreover, adult KO mice display abnormal columnar organization in the somatosensory cortex, a specific decrease in somatostatin- and parvalbumin-expressing interneurons, altered neurite orientation, and a decrease in Synapsin I protein levels. Concerning behavior, KO mice, in addition to an increase in locomotor and exploratory activity, display impairment in social behaviors, with a reduction in social interaction. Finally, we found that risperidone treatment decreased hyperactivity of KO mice, but had no effect on defective social interaction. Altogether, these data add complexity to a growing body of data, suggesting a link between dysregulation of the NF-κB pathway and neurodevelopmental disorders pathogenesis. PMID:26946128

  10. The impact structure of social capital on corporate performance: Empirical evidence from listed companies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Junwei; FU Haiyan; HU Lijun

    2007-01-01

    Vertical relationships with the government, particular relational capital and organizational social network capital, constitute corporate social capital (CSC). Using the empirical data of 97 listed companies in China, this paper examines the impact of CSC on corporate performance, finds that CSC has a positive impact on sales revenue but an insignificant impact on the improvement of ROA. More specifically, when a firm enlarges its sales revenue, the function of organizational network capital is stronger than that of a particular relational capital and that of governmental connections. The paper also finds that state-owned enterprises (SOEs) have more advantages in using governmental connections, therefore leading to better social status than non-SOEs do, who have fewer advantages in using any particular relational capital. The article suggests that managers should appraise carefully the effectiveness of CSC, and combine it with other resources; firms should distinguish the structure of the impact of CSC on performance improvement in a dynamic way. With respect to the implication of this paper, it could help in analyzing firm behaviors in the transitional China.

  11. How the online social networks are used: dialogues-based structure of MySpace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvakov, Milovan; Mitrovic, Marija; Gligorijevic, Vladimir; Tadic, Bosiljka

    2013-02-01

    Quantitative study of collective dynamics in online social networks is a new challenge based on the abundance of empirical data. Conclusions, however, may depend on factors such as user's psychology profiles and their reasons to use the online contacts. In this study, we have compiled and analysed two datasets from MySpace. The data contain networked dialogues occurring within a specified time depth, high temporal resolution and texts of messages, in which the emotion valence is assessed by using the SentiStrength classifier. Performing a comprehensive analysis, we obtain three groups of results: dynamic topology of the dialogues-based networks have a characteristic structure with Zipf's distribution of communities, low link reciprocity and disassortative correlations. Overlaps supporting 'weak-ties' hypothesis are found to follow the laws recently conjectured for online games. Long-range temporal correlations and persistent fluctuations occur in the time series of messages carrying positive (negative) emotion; patterns of user communications have dominant positive emotion (attractiveness) and strong impact of circadian cycles and interactivity times longer than 1 day. Taken together, these results give a new insight into the functioning of online social networks and unveil the importance of the amount of information and emotion that is communicated along the social links. All data used in this study are fully anonymized. PMID:23193108

  12. Structuring Knowledge of Subcultural Folk Devils through News Coverage: Social Cognition, Semiotics, and Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Patrick Williams

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The folk devil concept has been well used in subcultural studies, yet its importance might be better served by distinguishing among multiple conceptual frames through which it is articulated. In this article, I clarify how folk devils are made possible through the interaction of three concepts used by sociologists to study everyday life. The first is the process of social cognition, where producers and consumers of news construct and propagate a shared definition of who subcultural youths are and why they should be the object of fear. The second are the semiotic structures of genre and narrative, which narrow the interpretive process of producers and receivers alike and sustain discourses that limit how subcultural youths can be understood in the news. The third has to do with political economy, where the ideological features of mass mediated news-making keep the news industry in relative control of meaning making. Social cognition, semiotics, and the political economy dialectically produce the phenomenon of the subcultural folk devil and support its objective effects. I review several studies of market and state-controlled media societies and note that, in both types, the objective effects on youths are similar and significant. In studying how subcultural youths are framed in the media output of transitional states and societies, the conceptual value of social cognition, semiotics, and political economy should be recognised.

  13. Taking sociality seriously: the structure of multi-dimensional social networks as a source of information for individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Louise; Henzi, S. Peter; Lusseau, David

    2012-01-01

    Understanding human cognitive evolution, and that of the other primates, means taking sociality very seriously. For humans, this requires the recognition of the sociocultural and historical means by which human minds and selves are constructed, and how this gives rise to the reflexivity and ability to respond to novelty that characterize our species. For other, non-linguistic, primates we can answer some interesting questions by viewing social life as a feedback process, drawing on cybernetic...

  14. A structural analysis of a regional economy using Social Accounting Matrices:1990-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carmen Lima

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Social accounting matrices (SAMare an instrument that enlarges the information provided by the input-output analysis.These matrices study the intersectoral relationships of an economy,the behaviour of the consumers,the public sector or the foreign sector,as long as they complete the income flow of rent.In this work, we use the SAM for Andalusia (region southern Spain1990,1995 and 1999,to conduct a structural analysis of the Andalusian economy by means of the «path analysis » methodology and a multiplier decomposition.With these techniques,we obtain the changes in productive structure and we quantify the influence of sectoral shocks on this regional economy.Finally,we also identify which sectors have most strongly contributed to the regional economic activity in the last decade.

  15. On methods of access to the structure of social representations: the example of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Philippe; Morlot, Rachel; Lacassagne, Marie-Françoise

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the logic behind a range of statistical methods used to reveal the structure of social representations. Subjects (N = 317) were asked to answer the following question: "For each category of European person, please indicate which other European he would most like to have contact with". The results of the similarity analysis lead us to the conclusion that there is an ethnocentric bias, and reveal the central factor of the representation. The representation obtained by factorial correspondence analysis seems closer to current reality and enables us to understand the divisions that have structured Europe and remained embedded in the subjects. Thus, the choice of analytical method is not merely anecdotal, given that representations obtained from the same data can vary immensely. PMID:23156927

  16. An empirical assessment of social structural and cultural change in clinical directorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2006-12-01

    The results of two observational studies of clinical directorates (CDs) are presented. The paper exposes fresh perspectives about the management of hospitals and CDs, and suggests that the most important axis on which hospital decision-making rests continues to be profession rather than the CD, even though CDs are designed at least in part to mitigate professional tribalism and bridge professional divides. In empiricising social structural and cultural theories it seems clear that changes to the prescribed organisational framework, which CDs represent, have had negligible effects on behaviour. This being the case, the paper questions the benefits alleged to have accrued from establishing CDs and calls for more effective, micro-behavioural change strategies than merely altering the structure. PMID:17214253

  17. Simulation of the population dynamics and social structure of the Virunga mountain gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Martha M; Robbins, Andrew M

    2004-08-01

    An agent-based model was developed to simulate the growth rate, age structure, and social system of the endangered mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Virunga Volcanoes region. The model was used to compare two types of data: 1) estimates of the overall population size, age structure, and social structure, as measured by six censuses of the entire region that were conducted in 1971-2000; and 2) information about birth rates, mortality rates, dispersal patterns, and other life history events, as measured from three to five habituated research groups since 1967. On the basis of the research-group data, the "base simulation" predicted a higher growth rate than that observed from the census data (3% vs. 1%). This was as expected, because the research groups have indeed grown faster than the overall population. Additional simulations suggested that the research groups primarily have a lower mortality rate, rather than higher birth rates, compared to the overall population. Predictions from the base simulation generally fell within the range of census values for the average group size, the percentage of multimale groups, and the distribution of females among groups. However, other discrepancies predicted from the research-group data were a higher percentage of adult males than observed, an overestimation of the number of multimale groups with more than two silverbacks, and an overestimated number of groups with only two or three members. Possible causes for such discrepancies include inaccuracies in the census techniques used, and/or limitations with the long-term demographic data set obtained from only a few research groups of a long-lived species. In particular, estimates of mortality and male dispersal obtained from the research groups may not be representative of the entire population. Our final simulation addressed these discrepancies, and provided a better basis for further studies on the complex relationships among individual life history events

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF THE INTEGRATED MODEL OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION STRUCTURE ON THE PUBLIC PARTICIPATING NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tien Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main body of social stratification structure in Taiwan is transformed with social mobility. By transforming the social stratification structure, the function of non-profit organizations is operating steadily. How does people’s awareness of social strata directly or indirectly influence the operation of non-profit organizations? How do non-profit organizations and governments respond to the transformation of social stratum compositions? And how promotion and policy marketing could guide the general public to be attentive and participate in the operations of non-profit organizations? These questions require in-depth investigation. This study bases on the experiments and concepts of fairness measurement in information integration theory to comprehend the integrated model of social stratification in the public. By means of analyzing the awareness and orientation of the public to the constitution of social stratification which lead the public to identify themselves with the visions of non-profit organizations and the motion of participating non-profit matters to provide the interrelated recommendations of proceeding non-profit matters to non-profit organizations and the government. Comparing the cognitive algebraic functions of input information and outcome information of various groups in the social strata, the only difference is that if the input information is education background and the outcome information profession prestige. Empirically, non-profit organizations promoting and encouraging people to engage in occupational aid related activities could find different methods available.

  19. Grave pit modifications and wooden structures in the Great Moravian graves and their information potential for cognition of the social structure of the Great Moravian society

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mazuch, Marian; Hladík, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2013), s. 45-55. ISSN 1211-7250 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-20936P Keywords : Early Middle Ages * Great Moravia * Mikulčice * burial sites * graves * grave pits * burial pits * wooden structures * funeral rite * social structure * GIS * statistics Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  20. The Influence of Ethnic Diversity on Social Network Structure in a Common-Pool Resource System: Implications for Collaborative Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Barnes-Mauthe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Social networks have recently been identified as key features in facilitating or constraining collaborative arrangements that can enhance resource governance and adaptability in complex social-ecological systems. Nonetheless, the effect of ethnicity on social network structure in an ethnically diverse common-pool resource system is virtually unknown. We characterize the entire social network of Hawaii’s longline fishery, an ethnically diverse competitive pelagic fishery, and investigate network homophily, network structure, and cross-scale linkages. Results show that ethnicity significantly influences social network structure and is responsible for a homophily effect, which can create challenges for stakeholder collaboration across groups. Our analysis also suggests that ethnicity influences the formation of diverse network structures, and can affect the level of linkages to outside industry leaders, government or management officials, and members of the scientific community. This study provides the first empirical examination of the impact of ethnic diversity on resource user's social networks in the common-pool resource literature, having important implications for collaborative resource management.

  1. The management of a sexually charged clinical problem: social structural and psychoanalytic functionalist approaches in a therapeutic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, O W

    1986-03-01

    An event in a therapeutic community is examined from the perspectives of the structuralism of Durkheim and the functionalism of psychoanalysis. Although these two approaches might appear theoretically contradictory, analysis of the evidence shows them to be clinically complementary. The role of social structure in therapeutic communities requires deliberate conceptualization if such communities are to be demonstrably therapeutic. PMID:3964583

  2. Race/Ethnicity and Social Capital among Middle- and Upper-Middle-Class Elementary School Families: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Stephen J.; Cornigans, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This study used structural equation modeling to conduct a first and second order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of a scale developed by McDonald and Moberg (2002) to measure three dimensions of social capital among a diverse group of middle- and upper-middle-class elementary school parents in suburban New York. A structural path model was…

  3. Combined assessment of the environmental, economic and social impacts of structural solutions for residential construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraile-García, E.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development in construction is based on three fundamental pillars: economic, environmental and social. This type of approach aims to identify the best possible solutions for sustainably developing structures by conducting a joint evaluation of the impact on those three pillars. The proposed methodology incorporates metadata on the Spanish construction sector. First, a discrete database is generated with 360 alternatives covering a range of common solutions in residential building. A Pareto algorithm is utilized to select the optimal choices and the wide range of solutions is reduced to the 5 % of the initial group. The project manager is therefore provided with an objective assessment of suitable structural alternatives including the overall joint economic, social, and environmental impact. The results obtained demonstrate the importance and utility of the proposed methodology for sustainable construction.El desarrollo sostenible aplicado a la construcción se basa en tres pilares fundamentales: económico, medioambiental y social. El objetivo principal es identificar las mejores soluciones en términos de desarrollo sostenible de alternativas estructurales a partir de la evaluación conjunta de los impactos en dichos pilares. La metodología propuesta incorpora metadatos con información del sector de la construcción en España. Primero se genera una base de datos discreta de 360 alternativas estructurales que cubren el rango de soluciones habituales en edificación residencial. La selección de alternativas óptimas se realiza mediante el algoritmo de Pareto. El abanico de soluciones se reduce al 5 % de las iniciales. Se aporta una valoración objetiva que orienta al proyectista en la selección de alternativas estructurales idóneas, visualizando de forma conjunta el impacto económico, social y ambiental. Los resultados obtenidos muestran la importancia y utilidad de la metodología propuesta en el campo de la construcci

  4. Social and structural barriers to housing among street-involved youth who use illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüsi, Andrea; Fast, Danya; Small, Will; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    In Canada, approximately 150,000 youth live on the street. Street-involvement and homelessness have been associated with various health risks, including increased substance use, blood-borne infections and sexually transmitted diseases. We undertook a qualitative study to better understand the social and structural barriers street-involved youth who use illicit drugs encounter when seeking housing. We conducted 38 semi-structured interviews with street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada from May to October 2008. Interviewees were recruited from the At-risk Youth Study (ARYS) cohort, which follows youth aged 14 to 26 who have experience with illicit drug use. All interviews were thematically analyzed, with particular emphasis on participants' perspectives regarding their housing situation and their experiences seeking housing. Many street-involved youth reported feeling unsupported in their efforts to find housing. For the majority of youth, existing abstinence-focused shelters did not constitute a viable option and, as a result, many felt excluded from these facilities. Many youth identified inflexible shelter rules and a lack of privacy as outweighing the benefits of sleeping indoors. Single-room occupancy hotels (SROs) were reported to be the only affordable housing options, as many landlords would not rent to youth on welfare. Many youth reported resisting moving to SROs as they viewed them as unsafe and as giving up hope for a return to mainstream society. The findings of the present study shed light on the social and structural barriers street-involved youth face in attaining housing and challenge the popular view of youth homelessness constituting a lifestyle choice. Our findings point to the need for housing strategies that include safe, low threshold, harm reduction focused housing options for youth who engage in illicit substance use. PMID:20102394

  5. Social representations: affective impregnation and structural approach / Abordagem estrutural e componente afetivo das representações sociais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Humberto Faria Campos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Structural Approach" of social representations defines a social representation as an organization which comprises different dimensions and not as a group of purely cognitive events and processes. In the present state of theory, we propose the principle that the affective dimension maintains a random relationship with the Central Core. Two previous studies are briefly described as well as the results concerning three representations ("street children", "higher education" and "family" in order to present a perspective that seems to indicate that the relationships between "semantic" and "affectively charged" elements are random. The data seem to confirm the principle that the Central Core of social representations equally organizes the distribution of the affective charges on the social representation as a whole. The studies presented here correspond to a first exploratory approach of the relationships between the structure of a representation and the affective impregnation of representation elements.

  6. Present Russia in a sociological mirror (about Zinaida Golenkov's studies related to social structure of contemporary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidojević Zoran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In many aspects, sociological thought in present Russia is a mirror of the condition and key social processes occurring in that large country. They are basically the same as the processes which have already been under way in the majority of other societies in the region of former real-socialism. Therefore the results acquired by the sociological thought in Russia specially those from empirical researches, are significant for the scientific and broader social public in other countries, too. In that sense, the findings obtained by Zinaida Golenkova in the research about the changes of the social structure in present Russia are representative and very indicative. Her researches concentrate on the social stratification. She concludes that the government, income and ownership are the main factors in social stratification, thus revealing the main factors in the creation and reproduction of social inequalities - which are very deep in present Russia - then the basis of the formation of a new social structure in that country and the division into losers and winners in the ownership-structural changes. The key relation is the relation between these changes and "deetatization". The middle class in Russia is underdeveloped, more than a half of the specialists with the high and secondary education is poor. In spite of the widespread poverty, there are no larger social protests, disturbances and strikes in Russia. This could be explained by the tradition of forbearance political aparthy, struggle for survival, as well as by the additional income of one part of the unemployed population. Material-status inequalities and life perspectives intersect with ethnic inequalities and with the destiny of numerous migrants of Russian and non-Russian origin.

  7. Social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Holstein, B; Lund, R;

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a conceptual framework with social relations as the main concept and the structure and the function of social relations as subconcepts. The structure of social relations covers aspects of formal relations and social network. The function of social relations covers social support......,011. The postal questionnaires were answered by a random sample in each of the age groups. The results show marked age and gender differences in both the structure and the function of social relations. The social network, measured as weekly contacts, weakens with age and so does instrumental support. Emotional...... support is unrelated to this decline in contact frequency and appears to be at the same level for younger and older individuals. Relational strain, measured as conflicts, declines with age for all kinds of social relations. The weakening of the social network with age does not seem to affect the level...

  8. An Abstract Model Showing That the Spatial Structure of Social Networks Affects the Outcomes of Cultural Transmission Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew White

    2013-01-01

    Space plays an important role in the transfer of information in most societies that archaeologists study. Social networks that mediate learning and the transmission of cultural information are situated in spatial environments. This paper uses an abstract agent-based model to represent the transmission of the value of a single "stylistic" variable among groups linked together within a social network, the spatial structure of which is varied using a few simple parameters. The properties of the ...

  9. The structure of JIBS's social network and the relevance of intra-country variation: A typology for future research

    OpenAIRE

    Brian R Chabowski; G Tomas M Hult; Tunga Kiyak; Jeannette A Mena

    2010-01-01

    We examine articles published in the Journal of International Business Studies (JIBS) and introduce a typology to support the relevance of intra-country variation in international business (IB). Based on social network theory, our analysis uses multidimensional scaling to study 53,203 citations from 1158 qualifying JIBS articles to determine the journal's social structure. The results indicate that three current research clusters (multinational enterprise knowledge development, foreign entry ...

  10. The Role of Social Relations in the Prosperity of Clusters: The impact of the content, the structure and external factors

    OpenAIRE

    Wanderås, Kristina Hoff; Saunes, Elin Kathrine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how the formation of social relations affects the success of clusters. Thus, our main research question is: “What role do social relations play in the prosperity in clusters”. To answer our research question we conducted an exploratory case study with research subjects from two structured clusters. These are part of the Norwegian Centers of Expertise (NCE) program; one is located in Trondheim, the other in Horten. The studies were conduct...

  11. A Comparative Study of the Deep Structure of Culture Reflected in English and Chinese Social Proverbs

    OpenAIRE

    Wen Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Social proverbs contain life philosophies and experience as well as moral standards; aspects of social life are reflected in the mirror of social proverbs. Social proverbs are of both language and culture. Because of their abundant cultural information, social proverbs have been studied from the point of culture in many researches. Although many researches have been done to reveal the cultural similarities and differences between English and Chinese proverbs, they hardly focus on the deep str...

  12. Construction Costs Assessment of Structural Systems for Low-Rise and Social Welfare Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo Julián

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the costs related to the construction of low-rise, low-cost and social welfare housing was carried out. The study included three of the most commonly used structural systems for low-rise housing in Latin America, such as the traditional system of confined masonry walls, concrete walls conventionally reinforced with welded-wire meshes and concrete walls reinforced with steel fiber. The cost comparison was carried out by budgets analysis, which were performed based on construction quantities, unit prices and particular items for each structural system. It was found in the study that, from an economic point of view, the systems of concrete walls reinforced with welded-wire meshes or steel fibers are more advantageous than confined masonry systems. In addition, the integral comparison of the three structural systems demonstrates that the industrialized system of steel fiber reinforced concrete walls allows obtaining greater advantages of cleaning and sustainability, faster construction, lower cost and a more attractive scenario for builders investing in such projects.

  13. Psychosemantic System of Social Psychological Goal-Directedness in Families: A Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozikova N.V.,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to carry out a structural analysis of the psychosemantic system of goal-directedness in families. The hypothesis suggests that family semantic criterion makes it possible to differentiate the structure/level organization of meaning elements and their associative connections and to reveal the content of the object. The research involved 135 young women and 134 young men (aged 15—18; 150 women (aged 21—64 and 38 men (aged 20—55, married, with children. A modified version of I.L. Solomin’s technique of semantic differential was used. A comparative analysis of structural and hierarchical levels of psychosemantics of social psychological goal-directedness of families was carried out basing on the family semantic criterion. The general system level consists of structures representing two generations of a fam¬ily – parents and modern generation. The structure of the subsystem level is common for all groups of respondents and consists of five sublevels with different functional tasks: “My parental family”, “My father”, “My future family”/ “My family”, “My husband”/ “My wife”, and “Birth of a child”. Concepts that define members of the family and family groups, ideal representations of them, events and types of activity related to family life, constitute the component level. The concept of divorce due to its semantics does not belong to the family psychosemantic system. The component content of the subsystem level differs according to age, sex and marital status, which highlights the necessity of further functional research and complex analysis of the psychosemantic system relevant for practical family psychology.

  14. Withholding inputs in team contexts: member composition, interaction processes, evaluation structure, and social loafing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kenneth H; Harrison, David A; Gavin, Joanne H

    2006-11-01

    Social loafing was observed as a naturally occurring process in project teams of students working together for 3-4 months. The authors assessed the contributions that member composition (i.e., relational dissimilarity and knowledge, skills, and abilities; KSAs), perceptions of the team's interaction processes (i.e., dispensability and the fairness of the decision-making procedures), and the team's evaluation structure (i.e., identifiability) make toward understanding loafing behavior. Identifiability moderated the impact of dispensability on loafing but not the impact of fairness on loafing. Perceptions of fairness were negatively related to the extent that participants loafed within their team. Specific aspects of relational dissimilarity were positively associated with perceptions of dispensability and negatively associated with perceptions of fairness, whereas KSAs were negatively associated with perceptions of dispensability. PMID:17100491

  15. How the online social networks are used: Dialogs-based structure of MySpace

    CERN Document Server

    Suvakov, Milovan; Gligorijevic, Vladimir; Tadic, Bosiljka

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative study of collective dynamics in online social networks is a new challenge based on the abundance of empirical data. Conclusions, however, may depend on factors as user's psychology profiles and their reasons to use the online contacts. In this paper we have compiled and analyzed two datasets from \\texttt{MySpace}. The data contain networked dialogs occurring within a specified time depth, high temporal resolution, and texts of messages, in which the emotion valence is assessed by using SentiStrength classifier. Performing a comprehensive analysis we obtain three groups of results: Dynamic topology of the dialogs-based networks have characteristic structure with Zipf's distribution of communities, low link reciprocity, and disassortative correlations. Overlaps supporting "weak-ties" hypothesis are found to follow the laws recently conjectured for online games. Long-range temporal correlations and persistent fluctuations occur in the time series of messages carrying positive (negative) emotion. Pat...

  16. Investigating factor structure of an instrument to measure social work students' preparedness for managed care environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael N; Houston-Vega, Mary Kay; Tan, Philip P; Hawkins, Wesley E

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the factor structure of an instrument to measure social work students' perceptions of preparedness to enter managed care environments. Exploratory statistical procedures to reduce data through principle component analysis identified nine factors with eigenvalues greater than 1.0. These factors include: perceived understanding of agency financial agendas, managing personal risk and liability, perceived understanding of agency documentation requirements, awareness of ethical and value conflicts in documentation, classroom preparation for documentation, understanding the fit between client advocacy and managed care agendas, worrying about law suits in employment settings, perceived understanding of managed care gatekeeping and service authorization, and perceptions of field preparation for documentation. Recommendations are made for utilizing this brief self-report instrument in training students for managed care settings. PMID:12425449

  17. Social Networks Analysis in Discovering the Narrative Structure of Literary Fiction

    CERN Document Server

    Jarynowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    In our paper we would like to make a cross-disciplinary leap and use the tools of network theory to understand and explore narrative structure in literary fiction, an approach that is still underestimated. However, the systems in fiction are sensitive to readers subjectivity and attention must to be paid to different methods of extracting networks. The project aims at investigating into different ways social interactions are read in texts by comparing networks produced by automated algorithms-natural language processing with those created by surveying more subjective human responses. Conversation networks from fiction have been already extracted by scientists, but the more general framework surrounding these interactions was missing. We propose several NLP methods for detecting interactions and test them against a range of human perceptions. In doing so, we have pointed to some limitations of using network analysis to test literary theory, e.g. interaction, which corresponds to the plot, does not form climax.

  18. Social sciences, scientific research, higher education and social developments - An Albanian inside of dialectics and structured scientific research, in social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Kallçiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The social sciences have inherited a not so clear relationship with the social politics throughout the history. At the first moment the concept of social sciences came into use in the 19th century the first organizations that were promoting them were not located in the universities. They were located in the Public Sector. They brought into the scenery not only professional of the area, but also politicians, clerics and businessmen. The main objective was the promoting of the reforms that consider the social politics able to improve the so defined social problems. These associations thought that by collecting different kind of data regarding these problems they would reach a clear insight on the directions the state should follow in the framework of different politics and reforms. As a result, the national research capacity is of the highest importance to the ability of a state to invent and implement successfully its politics based on evidences that concern and come as a reaction to the concerns and issues of the social problems as a whole. In this article I will be presenting first of all an overview of the scientific research in Albania in the area of the social sciences by pointing out the main areas that deserve to be the prior ones in the contest of developing activities that aim the implementation of the research in Social Sciences. Also, a great number of Institutions has been contacted with the aim of receiving official information and data on the functioning and on the potential problems that can be faced during the research processes. These institutions have been selected based on their involvement at the area of the scientific research of the social sciences. At first this will involve the policy makers at the central level, like the Ministry of Education and Sciences and the main research actors in the public and in the private sector. The criteria of the geographical and the subjects coverage has been also used in order to be able

  19. The role of social and ecological processes in structuring animal populations: a case study from automated tracking of wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farine, Damien R; Firth, Josh A; Aplin, Lucy M; Crates, Ross A; Culina, Antica; Garroway, Colin J; Hinde, Camilla A; Kidd, Lindall R; Milligan, Nicole D; Psorakis, Ioannis; Radersma, Reinder; Verhelst, Brecht; Voelkl, Bernhard; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-04-01

    Both social and ecological factors influence population process and structure, with resultant consequences for phenotypic selection on individuals. Understanding the scale and relative contribution of these two factors is thus a central aim in evolutionary ecology. In this study, we develop a framework using null models to identify the social and spatial patterns that contribute to phenotypic structure in a wild population of songbirds. We used automated technologies to track 1053 individuals that formed 73 737 groups from which we inferred a social network. Our framework identified that both social and spatial drivers contributed to assortment in the network. In particular, groups had a more even sex ratio than expected and exhibited a consistent age structure that suggested local association preferences, such as preferential attachment or avoidance. By contrast, recent immigrants were spatially partitioned from locally born individuals, suggesting differential dispersal strategies by phenotype. Our results highlight how different scales of social decision-making, ranging from post-natal dispersal settlement to fission-fusion dynamics, can interact to drive phenotypic structure in animal populations. PMID:26064644

  20. Measuring social desirability across language and sex: A comparison of Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale factor structures in English and Mandarin Chinese in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, A Solomon; Drescher, Christopher F; Chin, Eu Gene; Johnson, Laura R

    2016-06-01

    Malaysia is a Southeast Asian country in which multiple languages are prominently spoken, including English and Mandarin Chinese. As psychological science continues to develop within Malaysia, there is a need for psychometrically sound instruments that measure psychological phenomena in multiple languages. For example, assessment tools for measuring social desirability could be a useful addition in psychological assessments and research studies in a Malaysian context. This study examined the psychometric performance of the English and Mandarin Chinese versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale when used in Malaysia. Two hundred and eighty-three students (64% female; 83% Chinese, 9% Indian) from two college campuses completed the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale in their language of choice (i.e., English or Mandarin Chinese). Proposed factor structures were compared with confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple indicators-multiple causes models were used to examine measurement invariance across language and sex. Factor analyses supported a two-factor structure (i.e., Attribution and Denial) for the measure. Invariance tests revealed the scale was invariant by sex, indicating that social desirability can be interpreted similarly across sex. The scale was partially invariant by language version, with some non-invariance observed within the Denial factor. Non-invariance may be related to differences in the English and Mandarin Chinese languages, as well as cultural differences. Directions for further research include examining the measurement of social desirability in other contexts where both English and Mandarin Chinese are spoken (i.e., China) and further examining the causes of non-invariance on specific items. PMID:27168227

  1. The Antsy Social Network: Determinants of Nest Structure and Arrangement in Asian Weaver Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Kadambari

    2016-01-01

    Asian weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina) are arboreal ants that are known to form mutualistic complexes with their host trees. They are eusocial ants that build elaborate nests in the canopy in tropical areas. A colony comprises of multiple nests, usually on multiple trees, and the boundaries of the colony may be difficult to identify. However, they provide the ideal model for studying group living in invertebrates since there are a definite number of nests for a given substrate, the tree. Here, we briefly examine the structure of the nests and the processes involved in the construction and maintenance of these nests. We have described the spatial arrangement of weaver ant nests on trees in two distinct tropical clusters, a few hundred kilometres apart in India. Measurements were made for 13 trees with a total of 71 nests in the two field sites. We have considered a host of biotic and abiotic factors that may be crucial in determining the location of the nesting site by Asian weaver ants. Our results indicate that tree characteristics and architecture followed by leaf features help determine nest location in Asian weaver ants. While environmental factors may not be as influential to nest arrangement, they seem to be important determinants of nest structure. The parameters that may be considered in establishing the nests could be crucial in picking the evolutionary drivers for colonial living in social organisms. PMID:27271037

  2. About Some Social and Structural Outcomes of Institutional Changes in Ukrainian Society

    OpenAIRE

    Kutsenko, Olha

    2003-01-01

    This article is devoted to consideration of the forth-social effects, which resulted the market institutionalization in post-Soviet Ukrainian society. The main effects are the change of the forms of social alienation and the formation of a socioeconomic thresh old of exploitation, as against the organizational-bureaucratic exploitation inherent in the Soviet society, the displayed social cleavage on a line of the social alienation and the socioeconomic exploitation, the active symbolical stru...

  3. Using Social Media Applications for Educational Outcomes in College Teaching: A Structural Equation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yingxia; Ajjan, Haya; Hong, Paul

    2013-01-01

    As more and more faculty members jump on the wagon of social media, an increasing number of publications began to investigate the adoption of social media applications and its motivators in and out of the classrooms. However, little research has paid close attention to the educational outcomes of social media utilization in college teaching. Thus,…

  4. Psychometric Characteristics of the Social Justice Scale's Turkish Form and a Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirik, Ilker

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: In order to provide equal educational opportunities for students, teachers should encourage their students to have an effective voice concerning social justice. Studies reveal that teachers face trouble when transferring from the concept of social justice as theory to social justice as practice. A scale which will be developed…

  5. Factor structure and item level psychometrics of the Social Problem Solving Inventory - Revised: Short Form in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chih-Ying; Waid-Ebbs, Julia; Velozo, Craig A; Heaton, Shelley C

    2016-06-01

    Social problem-solving deficits characterise individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and poor social problem solving interferes with daily functioning and productive lifestyles. Therefore, it is of vital importance to use the appropriate instrument to identify deficits in social problem solving for individuals with TBI. This study investigates factor structure and item-level psychometrics of the Social Problem Solving Inventory - Revised: Short Form (SPSI-R:S), for adults with moderate and severe TBI. Secondary analysis of 90 adults with moderate and severe TBI who completed the SPSI-R:S was performed. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA), principal components analysis (PCA) and Rasch analysis examined the factor structure and item-level psychometrics of the SPSI-R:S. The EFA showed three dominant factors, with positively worded items represented as the most definite factor. The other two factors are negative problem-solving orientation and skills; and negative problem-solving emotion. Rasch analyses confirmed the three factors are each unidimensional constructs. It was concluded that the total score interpretability of the SPSI-R:S may be challenging due to the multidimensional structure of the total measure. Instead, we propose using three separate SPSI-R:S subscores to measure social problem solving for the TBI population. PMID:26052731

  6. A method of identifying social structures in siting regions for deep geological repositories in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acceptance is a key element in the site selection process for deep geological repositories for high-level and low and intermediate-level radioactive waste in Switzerland. Participation requirements such as comprehensive negotiation issues and adequate resources have thus been defined by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). In 2008, on the basis of technical criteria Nagra (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste) proposed several potential areas for deep geological repositories. The number of potential areas will be narrowed down within the next few years. All municipalities within the planning perimeter (the area in which surface facilities can be realised) are affected and form the siting region. In order to ensure that the local population have their say in the forthcoming discussions, regional participation bodies including all municipalities within a siting region are being set up by the SFOE. Regional participation ensures that local interests, needs and values are taken into account in the site selection process. Assembling the regional participation bodies is therefore of great importance. Before such bodies can be formed, however, the various interests, needs and values have to be identified, and special attention has to be paid to long-term interests of future generations, as well as to non-organised and under-represented interests. According to the concept of proportional representation, the interests, needs and values that are identified and weighted by the local population are to be represented in the regional participation procedure. The aim of this study is to share a method of mapping existing social structures in a defined geographical area. This involves a combination of an analysis of socio-economic statistical data and qualitative and quantitative social research methods

  7. Demographic histories, isolation and social factors as determinants of the genetic structure of Alpine linguistic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Coia

    Full Text Available Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of "local ethnicity" on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet

  8. The role of cultural and structural factors in the explanation of marginal social position in the USA: Scopes and dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a historical account of the genesis of marginal social position explanations in the USA, with special emphasis on the characteristics, related to the generating of cultural factors in explanation. In this light, the two fundamental and interrelated concepts are being indentified - the culture of poverty and the underclass, whose conceptual genesis, in a causal manner, varies between structural and cultural grounding. Due the translation of perceived minority behavioural patterns into the dimensions used for defining the marginal social position, conceptual validity of the underclass has been heavily disputed. At the same time, dilemmas created by the implementation of cultural factors constructed in that way open up broader issues of the relationship between culture and structure, lines of determination and the possibility of a consistent explanation of marginal social position.

  9. The Relasionship among Quality and Structure of Social Capital and Organizational Entrepreneurship: a Case Study at Mazinoor Lighting Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan DARVISH

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Newday's in addition to different human, financial and economical capital, there is another capital called" Social capital" which is used .this concept points to the connections and relationships between the members of a network as a valuable capital which aims at a achieving the members purpose through the creation of norms and mutual reliance social, is viewed as a suitable context for reaching success and profiting from human and physical capital. Managers and those who contestability social investment in organizations, are able to set appropriate condition for succeeding in their profession and organization otherwise (without social capital other resource will lose their effects and there will be problems and difficulties in the direction of cultural and economical development and evolution. In considering the direction of cultural and economical development and evolutions.in considering the relationships between social capital and organizing recreation , it can be said that social capital facilitates risk-taking and recreation behavior ,which is an essential element of recreation and directly enters the people's practical operation and really capital totally enhances their general activity as in group recreations.In the proposal, the researcher examinical the relationship between social capital and entrepreneurship in lighting industry In mazinoor co. in Mazandaran province and to do this, pearson correlation , two –sentence test and freedman test have been used. Finally the results indicated that a positive an meaningful relationship exists between social capital and it's dimension and entrepreneurship in organization also the correlation crefficient of the structuring dimension of social resource has a mire importance in mazinoor co. The recreation index of the product is a top priority in relation to in entrepreneurship.

  10. Social entrepreneurship and social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dufays, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation, we argue that the sociology of social networks may provide interesting insights with regard to the emergence of social entrepreneurship both at micro and macro levels. There have already been several calls for research on social networks in the context of social entrepreneurship (Certo & Miller 2008; Gedajlovic, et al. 2013; Haugh 2007; Mair & Marti 2006; Short, et al. 2009). These calls often address the differences in structure and effects of social networks in a socia...

  11. Experiences and Perspectives of Diverse Adolescent Youth Who Are Gifted: Navigating the Social and Organizational Structures of Public Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jamie S.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative case study explores the experiences and perspectives of seven diverse adolescent youth who are gifted as they navigate the social and organizational structures of public schooling as participants in gifted programming. Recent trends in education and the historical exploitations of giftedness that service the few, rather than the…

  12. Connecting Performance to Social Structure and Pedagogy as a Pathway to Scaling Learning Analytics in MOOCs: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggins, S. P.; Galyen, K. D.; Petakovic, E.; Laffey, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study focuses on the design and evaluation of teaching analytics that relate social learning structure with performance measures in a massive open online course (MOOC) prototype environment. Using reflexive analysis of online learning trace data and qualitative performance measures we present an exploratory empirical study that:…

  13. Exploring the Structure of Library and Information Science Web Space Based on Multivariate Analysis of Social Tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Soohyung; Kipp, Margaret E. I.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines the structure of Web space in the field of library and information science using multivariate analysis of social tags from the Website, Delicious.com. A few studies have examined mathematical modelling of tags, mainly examining tagging in terms of tripartite graphs, pattern tracing and descriptive statistics. This…

  14. Mouse Social Network Dynamics and Community Structure are Associated with Plasticity-Related Brain Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Cait M; Franks, Becca; Curley, James P

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory studies of social behavior have typically focused on dyadic interactions occurring within a limited spatiotemporal context. However, this strategy prevents analyses of the dynamics of group social behavior and constrains identification of the biological pathways mediating individual differences in behavior. In the current study, we aimed to identify the spatiotemporal dynamics and hierarchical organization of a large social network of male mice. We also sought to determine if standard assays of social and exploratory behavior are predictive of social behavior in this social network and whether individual network position was associated with the mRNA expression of two plasticity-related genes, DNA methyltransferase 1 and 3a. Mice were observed to form a hierarchically organized social network and self-organized into two separate social network communities. Members of both communities exhibited distinct patterns of socio-spatial organization within the vivaria that was not limited to only agonistic interactions. We further established that exploratory and social behaviors in standard behavioral assays conducted prior to placing the mice into the large group was predictive of initial network position and behavior but were not associated with final social network position. Finally, we determined that social network position is associated with variation in mRNA levels of two neural plasticity genes, DNMT1 and DNMT3a, in the hippocampus but not the mPOA. This work demonstrates the importance of understanding the role of social context and complex social dynamics in determining the relationship between individual differences in social behavior and brain gene expression. PMID:27540359

  15. The making of winners (and losers): how early dominance interactions determine adult social structure in a clonal fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Kate L; Wolf, Max; Bierbach, David

    2016-05-11

    Across a wide range of animal taxa, winners of previous fights are more likely to keep winning future contests, just as losers are more likely to keep losing. At present, such winner and loser effects are considered to be fairly transient. However, repeated experiences with winning and/or losing might increase the persistence of these effects, generating long-lasting consequences for social structure. To test this, we exposed genetically identical individuals of a clonal fish, the Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa), to repeated winning and/or losing dominance interactions during the first two months of their life. We subsequently investigated whether these experiences affected the fish's ability to achieve dominance in a hierarchy five months later after sexual maturity, a major life-history transition. Individuals that had only winning interactions early in life consistently ranked at the top of the hierarchy. Interestingly, individuals with only losing experience tended to achieve the middle dominance rank, whereas individuals with both winning and losing experiences generally ended up at the bottom of the hierarchy. In addition to demonstrating that early social interactions can have dramatic and long-lasting consequences for adult social behaviour and social structure, our work also shows that higher cumulative winning experience early in life can counterintuitively give rise to lower social rank later in life. PMID:27170711

  16. Cadet Education in the Imperial Russia: Genesis, Dialectics and the Role in Social Structure of the Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P. Abramov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article, using historic and sociological material, presents genesis, dialectics and the role of cadet education of the imperial Russia in the social structure of the society, its weak and strong aspects, determines major stratified features of its graduates. The author notes that the realization of the practice of professional socialization in cadet corps in certain historical period is determined by the social conditions and the factors of the development of the society, its structure and environment, reproducing the modal personality of the future officer. The professional environment of the cadet education in the imperial Russia is defined as closed, line, self-organizing system. Such environment provided the graduates with high social status and prestige in different fields, defined by generic characteristics (affiliation to nobility. Along with high educational and cultural level, modal personality of the graduate is characterized by aloofness from the juniors and subordinates, individualism and careerism, certain closedness towards one’s nation and other social groups.

  17. Summary of presentation for research on social structure, agreement, and conflict in groups in extreme and isolated environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Despite a vast amount of research, little is known concerning the effect of group structure, and individuals' understanding of that structure, on conflict in Antarctic groups. The overall objective of the research discussed is to determine the interrelationships of group structure, social cognition, and group function and conflict in isolated and extreme environments. In the two decades following WWII, a large body of research focused on the physiological, psychological, and social psychological factors affecting the functioning of individuals and groups in a variety of extreme and isolated environments in both the Arctic and Antarctic. There are two primary reasons for further research of this type. First, Antarctic polar stations are considered to be natural laboratories for the social and behavioral sciences and provide an opportunity to address certain theoretical and empirical questions concerned with agreement and conflict in social groups in general and group behavior in extreme, isolated environments in particular. Recent advances in the analysis of social networks and intracultural variation have improved the methods and have shifted the theoretical questions. The research is motivated by three classes of questions: (1) What are the characteristics of the social relations among individuals working and living together in extreme and isolated environments?; (2) What do individuals understand about their group, how does that understanding develop, and how is it socially distributed?; and (3) What is the relationship between that understanding and the functioning of the social group? Answers to these questions are important if we are to advance our knowledge of how individuals and groups adapt to extreme environments. Second, although Antarctic winter-over candidates may be evaluated as qualified on the basis of individual characteristics, they may fail to adapt because of certain characteristics of the social group. Consequently, the ability of winter

  18. Understanding social reproduction: The recursive nature of structure and agency within a science class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Gale A.

    Schools and science classrooms within schools continue to contribute to social reproduction and to the disenfranchisement of inner city African American students though attempts have been made to remedy the situation through standards, high-stakes testing, and compensatory programs. Such reforms ignore the sociocultural, political, and economic contexts of the individual students in the schools they are impacting. They do not take into account the uniqueness and diversity of the learners in these settings and have not included the voices of the students. Another possibility was studied here; that of starting with the cultural capital of the learner rather than with external standards. In a non-required science course at a local high school two coteachers endeavored to enact a student-emergent curriculum as a way to foster student agency and to counteract the reproductive nature of schools. The class was examined as a field within multiple other fields. The dialectical relationship between structure and agency in the class was used to frame the analysis and the tension between them was examined at several levels through video and audio analysis. Structural and rational choice views of action were abandoned in favor of an understanding hinged upon strategies of action that actors construct from cultural toolkits in and through practice. In this setting the students and teachers co-constructed a class that can be described and characterized in certain ways yet contained many counter-examples and alternative characterizations. A continuum of successes and failures, agency and subjectivity can be found in the trends and counter-trends in the course. The contradictions were examined to portray the complexity of the interactions and the possibilities for agency within them.

  19. Evaluating public health responses to reintroduced smallpox via dynamic, socially structured, and spatially distributed metapopulation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, John W; Foster, Stanley O; Millar, J Donald; Lane, J Michael

    2008-03-15

    The risk of smallpox reintroduction has motivated preparations in potential target countries. After reproducing the spatiotemporal pattern after the 1972 importation into Yugoslavia via coupled, biologically realistic systems of ordinary differential equations, we developed dynamic population models with current US age distributions and typical spatially distributed social structures. Surveillance and containment (S&C) coupled with vaccination of 95% of hospital-based health care workers (HCWs) within 2 days after the first diagnosis (estimated to be 18 days after aerosol release) were modeled after simulated exposure of 10, 50, or 10,000 people in various settings. If 90% of patients were isolated within days after symptom onset and 75% of contacts were vaccinated and monitored, S&C would reduce cases by 82%-99%. Preemptive immunization of HCWs, closing of schools, and even vaccination of as many as 80% within 1 week would have small marginal benefits. Preparations should emphasize stockpiling vaccine, training HCWs, improving laboratory capacity, and fostering an understanding of S&C. PMID:18284358

  20. The weak core and the structure of elites in social multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat

    2014-01-01

    Recent approaches on elite identification highlighted the important role of {\\em intermediaries}, by means of a new definition of the core of a multiplex network, the {\\em generalised} $K$-core. This newly introduced core subgraph crucially incorporates those individuals who, in spite of not being very connected, maintain the cohesiveness and plasticity of the core. Interestingly, it has been shown that the performance on elite identification of the generalised $K$-core is sensibly better that the standard $K$-core. Here we go further: Over a multiplex social system, we isolate the community structure of the generalised $K$-core and we identify the weakly connected regions acting as bridges between core communities, ensuring the cohesiveness and connectivity of the core region. This gluing region is the {\\em Weak core} of the multiplex system. We test the suitability of our method on data from the society of 420.000 players of the Massive Multiplayer Online Game {\\em Pardus}. Results show that the generalised...

  1. Edge Effects on Community and Social Structure of Northern Temperate Deciduous Forest Ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie S. Banschbach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining how ant communities are impacted by challenges from habitat fragmentation, such as edge effects, will help us understand how ants may be used as a bioindicator taxon. To assess the impacts of edge effects upon the ant community in a northern temperate deciduous forest, we studied edge and interior sites in Jericho, VT, USA. The edges we focused upon were created by recreational trails. We censused the ants at these sites for two consecutive growing seasons using pitfall traps and litter plot excavations. We also collected nests of the most common ant species at our study sites, Aphaenogaster rudis, for study of colony demography. Significantly greater total numbers of ants and ant nests were found in the edge sites compared to the interior sites but rarefaction analysis showed no significant difference in species richness. Aphaenogaster rudis was the numerically dominant ant in the habitats sampled but had a greater relative abundance in the interior sites than in the edge sites both in pitfall and litter plot data. Queen number of A. rudis significantly differed between the nests collected in the edge versus the interior sites. Habitat-dependent changes in social structure of ants represent another possible indicator of ecosystem health.

  2. Hitchhiker’s guide to genetic diversity in socially structured populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. PREMO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available When selection increases the frequency of a beneficial gene substitution it can also increase the frequencies of linked neutral alleles through a process called genetic hitchhiking. A model built to investigate reduced genetic diversity in Pleistocene hominins shows that genetic hitchhiking can have a strong effect on neutral diversity in the presence of culturally mediated migration. Under conditions in which genetic and cultural variants are transmitted symmetrically, neutral genes may also hitchhike to higher frequencies on the coattails of adaptive cultural traits through a process called cultural hitchhiking. Cultural hitchhiking has been proposed to explain why some species of matrilineal whales display relatively low levels of mitochondrial DNA diversity, and it may be applicable to humans as well. This paper provides a critical review of recent models of both types of hitch­­hi­king in socially structured populations. The models’ assumptions and predictions are compared and discussed in the hope that studies of reduced genetic diversity in humans might improve our understanding of reduced genetic diversity in other species, and vice versa [Current Zoology 58 (1: 287-297, 2012].

  3. Dimensions of health and social structure in the early intermediate period cemetery at Villa El Salvador, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechenkina, Ekaterina A; Delgado, Mercedes

    2006-10-01

    This paper examines relationships between the social structure of a community and the health of its members, based on analysis of human skeletal remains (N = 64) from Villa El Salvador XII (100 BC-AD 100), a prehistoric cemetery located in the lower Lurín Valley, Peru. The ambiguity of social status as conventionally inferred from archaeological context is among the principal complicating factors in such an inquiry. We use multidimensional scaling of skeletal markers to identify the presence of patterned health-based heterogeneity in our sample, without making a priori assumptions about underlying social structure at Villa El Salvador. This procedure situates every skeleton relative to all others in the sample on the basis of multiple health markers, eliciting health groups. Once recognized, the relevance of those groups to social structure can be evaluated by comparison with a broad range of presumptive archaeological status indicators. We test the hypothesis that the distribution of stress indicators in human skeletons covaries with archaeological indicators of social differentiation. Based on multivariate analysis of skeletal indicators, we conclude that the cemetery at Villa El Salvador was utilized by two social groups with different geographic affinities: one of local coastal origin, and the other probably from the upper Lurín Valley or adjacent higher altitudes. These groups differ in skeletal characteristics related to childhood health, probably reflecting systematic contrasts in the growth environments of the studied individuals. This same division is independently supported by the distribution of cranial deformation, a possible marker of ethnicity. We also document some inequality in the distribution of labor among male individuals, as reflected by the relative advancement of degenerative joint disease, and congruent with differences in the number and quality of associated funerary offerings. PMID:16596594

  4. Structural drivers and social protection: mechanisms of HIV risk and HIV prevention for South African adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lucie Dale Cluver; Frederick Mark Orkin; Franziska Meinck; Mark Edward Boyes; Lorraine Sherr

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Social protection is high on the HIV-prevention agenda for youth in sub-Saharan Africa. However, questions remain: How do unconditional cash transfers work? What is the effect of augmenting cash provision with social care? And can “cash plus care” social protection reduce risks for adolescents most vulnerable to infection? This study tackles these questions by first identifying mediated pathways to adolescent HIV risks and then examining potential main and moderating effects of ...

  5. Structural drivers and social protection: mechanisms of HIV risk and HIV prevention for South African adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lucie Dale Cluver; Frederick Mark Orkin; Franziska Meinck; Mark Edward Boyes; Lorraine Sherr

    2016-01-01

    Background Social protection is high on the HIV-prevention agenda for youth in sub-Saharan Africa. But questions remain: How do unconditional cash transfers work? What is the effect of augmenting cash provision with social care? And can ‘cash plus care’ social protection reduce risks for adolescents most vulnerable to infection? This study tackles these questions by first identifying mediated pathways to adolescent HIV-risks, and then examining potential main and moderating effects of soci...

  6. Social Structures in the Regular Combat Arms Units of the British Army: A Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kirke, C. M. S. G.

    2006-01-01

    An original model is presented for describing, analysing, and predicting soldiers’ behaviour in current regular combat arms units in the British Army. It was derived, using social anthropological techniques, during participant observation by a serving British Army officer, and provides more coherent insights than other models of unit life. Its central principle, created for this study, is a plurality of >social structures’. These >social structures’ are separate bodies of ideas...

  7. Security Visualization Analytics Model in Online Social Networks Using Data Mining and Graph-based Structure Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajit Limsaiprom

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The rise of the Internet accelerates the creation of various large-scale online social networks, which can be described the relationships and activities between human beings. The online social networks relationships in real world are too big to present with useful information to identify the criminal or cyber-attacks. This research proposed new information security analytic model for online social networks, which called Security Visualization Analytics (SVA Model. SVA Model used the set of algorithms (1 Graph-based Structure algorithm to analyze the key factors of influencing nodes about density, centrality and the cohesive subgroup to identify the influencing nodes of anomaly and attack patterns (2 Supervised Learning with oneR classification algorithm was used to predict new links from such influencing nodes in online social networks on discovering surprising links in the existing ones of influencing nodes, which nodes in online social networks will be linked next from the attacked influencing nodes to monitor the risk. The results showed 42 influencing nodes of anomaly and attack patterns and can be predict 31 new links from such nodes were achieved by SVA Model with the accuracy of confidence level 95.0%. The new proposed model and results illustrated SVA Model was significance analysis. Such understanding can lead to efficient implementation of tools to links prediction in online social networks. They could be applied as a guide to further investigate of social networks behavior to improve the security model and notify the risk, computer viruses or cyber-attacks for online social networks in advance.

  8. Diversity and community structure of social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in three ecosystems in Itaparica island, Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Gilberto M de M; Bichara Filho, Carlos C; Resende, Janete J; da Cruz, Jucelho D; Marques, Oton M

    2007-01-01

    We studied the structure and composition of communities of social wasps associated with the three insular ecosystems: mangrove swamp, the Atlantic Rain Forest and the 'restinga'- lowland sandy ecosystems located between the mountain range and the sea. Three hundred and ninety-one nests of 21 social wasp species were collected. The diversity of wasps found in each ecosystem was significantly correlated to the diversity of vegetation in each of the three physiognomies, (r(2) = 0.85; F(1.16) = 93.85; P physiognomy had higher species richness (18 species), followed by the restinga (16 species) and the mangrove (8 species) ecosystems. PMID:17607449

  9. Social and Structural Factors Shaping High Rates of Incarceration among Sex Workers in a Canadian Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socías, M E; Deering, K; Horton, M; Nguyen, P; Montaner, J S; Shannon, K

    2015-10-01

    In light of the emphasis on enforcement-based approaches towards sex work, and the well-known negative impacts of these approaches on women's health, safety and well-being, we conducted a study to investigate the prevalence and correlates of recent incarceration among a cohort of women sex workers in Vancouver, Canada. Data were obtained from an open prospective community cohort of female and transgender women sex workers, known as An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access (AESHA). Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses, using generalized estimating equations (GEE), were used to model the effect of social and structural factors on the likelihood of incarceration over the 44-month follow-up period (January 2010-August 2013). Among 720 sex workers, 62.5 % (n = 450) reported being incarcerated in their lifetime and 23.9 % (n = 172) being incarcerated at least once during the study period. Of the 172 participants, about one third (36.6 %) reported multiple episodes of incarceration. In multivariable GEE analyses, younger age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.04 per year younger, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.06), being of a sexual/gender minority (AOR = 1.62, 95 % CI 1.13-2.34), heavy drinking (AOR = 1.99, 95 % CI 1.20-3.29), being born in Canada (AOR = 3.28, 95 % CI 1.26-8.53), living in unstable housing conditions (AOR = 4.32, 95 % CI 2.17-8.62), servicing clients in public spaces (versus formal sex work establishments) (AOR = 2.33, 95 % CI 1.05-5.17) and experiencing police harassment without arrest (AOR = 1.82, 95 % CI 1.35-2.45) remain independently correlated with incarceration. This prospective study found a very high prevalence and frequency of incarceration among women sex workers in Vancouver, Canada, with the most vulnerable and marginalized women at increased risk of incarceration. Given the well-known social and health harms associated with incarceration, and associations between police harassment

  10. The agrarian social structure of Pehuajoïs party (2010 La estructura social agraria en el partido de Pehuajó (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Moreno

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a product of the ongoing transformations in the Agricultural sector in Argentina, recent debates in the social sciences have compared the new characteristics of development with older forms. Inside this field of debates, the question of the agrarian actors at present has been particularly relevant. Though their exists a great quantity of works that approach the problems of the actors, few analyses make reference to their productive roles. The present article presents a case study of Pehuajó's party. It provides a description of the social agrarian structure, focusing on the forms in which production develops as a result of the links between different actors, and establishing "rupture" points that caracterize the older forms of development.Producto de las transformaciones recientes en el sector agropecuario argentino, en las ciencias sociales se han ampliado los debates en torno a las nuevas características que asume en comparación con las formas de desarrollo del pasado. Dentro de este campo de debates, la cuestión de los sujetos agrarios en la actualidad ha cobrado una especial relevancia. Si bien existen una gran cantidad de trabajos que abordan la problemática de los sujetos, pocos análisis refieren a las vinculaciones que entre estos se establecen para llevar a cabo la producción. En el presente artículo, a partir de un estudio de caso en el partido de Pehuajó, se describirá la estructura social agraria focalizando en las formas en que se desarrolla la producción a partir de la combinación de vínculos entre distintos sujetos y estableciendo los puntos de "ruptura" con respecto a las formas de desenvolvimiento del pasado.

  11. Social Representations: A Review of Theory and Research from the Structural Approach [Representaciones sociales: una revisión de la teoría y las investigaciones desde el enfoque estructural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Wachelke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a review of the theoretical advances and empirical findings related to social representations according to the structural ap- proach, a research stream that aims at studying the influence of social fac- tors in thinking processes through the identification and characterization of relationship structures. The presentation of the approach begins with the baseline definitions of social representations according to a structural approach, moving on to an overview on the nature of representation ele- ments, the relationships between representations and practices, cognitive scheme dimensions, central core theory, representation transformations and interaction context effects. In addition to positioning ourselves concerning polemic topics during the review, in the final section we evaluate briefly the current state and future perspectives of structural research on social representations, mostly addressing the problem of defining consensus, the difficulty of characterizing a collective construct from individual data, and the secondary importance of content in structural laws.

  12. Leveraging Collection Structure in Information Retrieval with Applications to Search in Conversational Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsas, Jonathan L.

    2011-01-01

    Social media collections are becoming increasingly important in the everyday life of Internet users. Recent statistics show that sites hosting social media and community-generated content account for five of the top ten most visited websites in the United States [4] are visited regularly by a broad cross-section of Internet users [61, 67, 115] and…

  13. Engagement in Structured Social Space: An Investigation of Teachers' Online Peer-to-Peer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, James

    2016-01-01

    With a growing number of teachers engaging online with their peers, online social spaces are increasingly highlighted as playing a key role in teachers' professional learning and development. However, while academic and professional discourses tend to focus on the benefits and weaknesses of teachers' engagement in online social spaces, little…

  14. The impact of structural and functional characteristics of social relations as determinants of functional decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille;

    2004-01-01

    This study examines whether aspects of social relations at baseline are related to functional decline at 5-year follow-up among nondisabled old men and women.......This study examines whether aspects of social relations at baseline are related to functional decline at 5-year follow-up among nondisabled old men and women....

  15. Egg hormones in a highly fecund vertebrate : do they influence offspring social structure in competitive conditions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burton, Tim; Hoogenboom, M. O.; Armstrong, J. D.; Groothuis, T. G. G.; Metcalfe, N. B.; Williams, Tony

    2011-01-01

    1. Social status can vary considerably among individuals and has significant implications for performance. In addition to a genetic component, social status may be influenced by environmental factors including maternal effects such as prenatal hormone exposure. Maternal effects on traits determining

  16. The Self-Esteem, Perceived Social Support and Hopelessness in Adolescents: The Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi Cakar, Firdevs; Karatas, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a developed model to explain a causal relationship between adolescent's self-esteem, perceived social support and hopelessness is tested. The purpose of the study is to explore the relationship between self-esteem, perceived social support and hopelessness in adolescents. A total of 257 adolescents, including 143 female and 114…

  17. Social Functioning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Millová, Katarína

    London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, s. 60-80. ISBN 978-1-137-43995-6 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : social dimension of successful development * structure of social functioning * resources of social functioning Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  18. Bechstein's bats maintain individual social links despite a complete reorganisation of their colony structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baigger, A.; Perony, N.; Reuter, M.; Leinert, V.; Melber, M.; Grünberger, S.; Fleischmann, D.; Kerth, G.

    2013-09-01

    Several social mammals, including elephants and some primates, whales and bats, live in multilevel societies that form temporary subgroups. Despite these fission-fusion dynamics, group members often maintain long-term bonds. However, it is unclear whether such individual links and the resulting stable social subunits continue to exist after a complete reorganisation of a society, e.g. following a population crash. Here, we employed a weighted network analysis on 7,109 individual roosting records collected over 4 years in a wild Bechstein's bat colony. We show that, in response to a strong population decline, the colony's two stable social subunits fused into a non-modular social network. Nevertheless, in the first year after the crash, long-term bonds were still detectable, suggesting that the bats remembered previous individual relationships. Our findings are important for understanding the flexibility of animal societies in the face of dramatic changes and for the conservation of social mammals with declining populations.

  19. Social support for physical activity-role of Facebook with and without structured intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, David N; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; DeVellis, Robert F; Thayer, Linden M; Ammerman, Alice S

    2014-12-01

    Despite their widespread use and extensive technical features, little is known about how to use online social networking sites to increase physical activity. This study aims to examine Facebook engagement among participants in the online social networking arm of a randomized controlled physical activity promotion trial (n = 67). Facebook communications were double coded and analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Regression procedures were used to determine predictors of Facebook use and associations between types of use and changes in perceived social support and physical activity. Changes in perceived social support and physical activity were more strongly associated with participants' individual Facebook use than use of the Facebook intervention group. The way social media sites are used in intervention design could have an impact on their effects. Including existing friends in interventions and using applications that incorporate intervention activities into a more naturalistic use of Facebook may improve the efficacy of future interventions. PMID:25584083

  20. GAIA - a generalizable, extensible structure for integrating games, models and social networking to support decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, L. J.; Schaefer, R. K.; Nix, M.; Fountain, G. H.; Weiss, M.; Swartz, W. H.; Parker, C. L.; MacDonald, L.; Ihde, A. G.; Simpkins, S.; GAIA Team

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we describe the application of a proven methodology for modeling the complex social and economic interactions embodied in real-world decision making to water scarcity and water resources. We have developed a generalizable, extensible facility we call "GAIA" - Global Assimilation of Information for Action - and applied it to different problem sets. We describe the use of the "Green Country Model" and other gaming/simulation tools to address the impacts of climate and climate disruption issues at the intersection of science, economics, policy, and society. There is a long history in the Defense community of using what are known as strategic simulations or "wargames" to model the complex interactions between the environment, people, resources, infrastructure and the economy in a competitive environment. We describe in this paper, work that we have done on understanding how this heritage can be repurposed to help us explore how the complex interplay between climate disruption and our socio/political and economic structures will affect our future. Our focus here is on a fundamental and growing issue - water and water availability. We consider water and the role of "virtual water" in the system. Various "actors" are included in the simulations. While these simulations cannot definitively predict what will happen, they do illuminate non-linear feedbacks between, for example, treaty agreement, the environment, the economy, and the government. These simulations can be focused on the global, regional, or local environment. We note that these simulations are not "zero sum" games - there need not be a winner and a loser. They are, however, competitive influence games: they represent the tools that a nation, state, faction or group has at its disposal to influence policy (diplomacy), finances, industry (economy), infrastructure, information, etc to achieve their particular goals. As in the real world the problem is competitive - not everyone shares the same

  1. Impact of male infanticide on the social structure of mountain gorillas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Robbins

    Full Text Available Infanticide can be a major influence upon the social structure of species in which females maintain long-term associations with males. Previous studies have suggested that female mountain gorillas benefit from residing in multimale groups because infanticide occurs when one-male groups disintegrate after the dominant male dies. Here we measure the impact of infanticide on the reproductive success of female mountain gorillas, and we examine whether their dispersal patterns reflect a strategy to avoid infanticide. Using more than 40 years of data from up to 70% of the entire population, we found that only 1.7% of the infants that were born in the study had died from infanticide during group disintegrations. The rarity of such infanticide mainly reflects a low mortality rate of dominant males in one-male groups, and it does not dispel previous observations that infanticide occurs during group disintegrations. After including infanticide from causes other than group disintegrations, infanticide victims represented up to 5.5% of the offspring born during the study, and they accounted for up to 21% of infant mortality. The overall rates of infanticide were 2-3 times higher in one-male groups than multimale groups, but those differences were not statistically significant. Infant mortality, the length of interbirth intervals, and the age of first reproduction were not significantly different between one-male versus multimale groups, so we found no significant fitness benefits for females to prefer multimale groups. In addition, we found limited evidence that female dispersal patterns reflect a preference for multimale groups. If the strength of selection is modest for females to avoid group disintegrations, than any preference for multimale groups may be slow to evolve. Alternatively, variability in male strength might give some one-male groups a lower infanticide risk than some multimale groups, which could explain why both types of groups remain

  2. Structural and dynamical patterns on online social networks: the Spanish May 15th movement as a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Borge-Holthoefer

    Full Text Available The number of people using online social networks in their everyday life is continuously growing at a pace never saw before. This new kind of communication has an enormous impact on opinions, cultural trends, information spreading and even in the commercial success of new products. More importantly, social online networks have revealed as a fundamental organizing mechanism in recent country-wide social movements. In this paper, we provide a quantitative analysis of the structural and dynamical patterns emerging from the activity of an online social network around the ongoing May 15th (15M movement in Spain. Our network is made up by users that exchanged tweets in a time period of one month, which includes the birth and stabilization of the 15M movement. We characterize in depth the growth of such dynamical network and find that it is scale-free with communities at the mesoscale. We also find that its dynamics exhibits typical features of critical systems such as robustness and power-law distributions for several quantities. Remarkably, we report that the patterns characterizing the spreading dynamics are asymmetric, giving rise to a clear distinction between information sources and sinks. Our study represents a first step towards the use of data from online social media to comprehend modern societal dynamics.

  3. Identifying Structures in Social Conversations in NSCLC Patients through the Semi-Automatic extraction of Topical Taxonomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Crocetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of social conversations for addressing patient’s needs is an important analytical task in which many scholarly publications are contributing to fill the knowledge gap in this area. The main difficulty remains the inability to turn such contributions into pragmatic processes the pharmaceutical industry can leverage in order to generate insight from social media data, which can be considered as one of the most challenging source of information available today due to its sheer volume and noise. This study is based on the work by Scott Spangler and Jeffrey Kreulen and applies it to identify structure in social media through the extraction of a topical taxonomy able to capture the latent knowledge in social conversations in health-related sites. The mechanism for automatically identifying and generating a taxonomy from social conversations is developed and pressured tested using public data from media sites focused on the needs of cancer patients and their families. Moreover, a novel method for generating the category’s label and the determination of an optimal number of categories is presented which extends Scott and Jeffrey’s research in a meaningful way. We assume the reader is familiar with taxonomies, what they are and how they are used.

  4. Evolutionary perspectives on collective decision making: Studying the implications of diversity and social network structure with agent-based simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Sayama, Hiroki; Yammarino, Francis J

    2013-01-01

    Collective, especially group-based, managerial decision making is crucial in organizations. Using an evolutionary theory approach to collective decision making, agent-based simulations were conducted to investigate how collective decision making would be affected by the agents' diversity in problem understanding and/or behavior in discussion, as well as by their social network structure. Simulation results indicated that groups with consistent problem understanding tended to produce higher utility values of ideas and displayed better decision convergence, but only if there was no group-level bias in collective problem understanding. Simulation results also indicated the importance of balance between selection-oriented (i.e., exploitative) and variation-oriented (i.e., explorative) behaviors in discussion to achieve quality final decisions. Expanding the group size and introducing non-trivial social network structure generally improved the quality of ideas at the cost of decision convergence. Simulations with ...

  5. Social Structures and Income Distribution in Colonial sub-Saharan Africa. The Case of Bechuanaland Protectorate 1936-1964

    OpenAIRE

    Bolt, Jutta; Hillbom, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the level and inequality of income for Bechuanaland Protectorate by constructing four social tables between 1936 to 1964 using colonial archives and anthropological records. We present a working hypothesis that there is need to further analyze Botswana’s colonial era if we are to understand several aspects of contemporary economic structures. Our focus is on identifying the roots of post-independence high levels of inequality. We find that first of all that migrant l...

  6. Survey of social health insurance structure in selected countries; providing framework for basic health insurance in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Effat; Raissi, Ahmad Reza; Barooni, Mohsen; Ferdoosi, Massoud; Nuhi, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: Health system reforms are the most strategic issue that has been seriously considered in healthcare systems in order to reduce costs and increase efficiency and effectiveness. The costs of health system finance in our country, lack of universal coverage in health insurance, and related issues necessitate reforms in our health system financing. The aim of this research was to prepare a structure of framework for social health insurance in Iran and conducting a comp...

  7. The Health Status of the Early Medieval Population of Greater Moravia in Relation to Social and Economic Structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velemínský, P.; Dobisíková, M.; Stránská, Petra; Trefný, P.; Likovský, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 6 (2009), s. 91-101. ISSN 0567-8250 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0699 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Early Medieval period * Great Moravian population * social-economic structure * demography * Enamel Hypoplasy * Cribra orbitalia * Harris lines * Dental health state * Degenerative changes joints Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  8. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) Analysis of the Influence of Religious Films on Pro-social Behaviour of Audience

    OpenAIRE

    Rosmawati Mohamad Rasit

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses the effect of religious films as a factor that influences the form of pro-social behaviour. Ayoung audience comprised of 1028 respondents were selected from a public institution of higher learning inMalaysia by stratified random sampling. This study uses a cross sectional survey through the distribution of questionnaires as instruments. Data collected were analysed based on the hypothesis model developed and tested by structural equation model (SEM) using AMOS 21.0. The f...

  9. The role of cultural and structural factors in the explanation of marginal social position in the USA: Scopes and dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Janković Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The paper gives a historical account of the genesis of marginal social position explanations in the USA, with special emphasis on the characteristics, related to the generating of cultural factors in explanation. In this light, the two fundamental and interrelated concepts are being indentified - the culture of poverty and the underclass, whose conceptual genesis, in a causal manner, varies between structural and cultural grounding. Due the translation of perceived minority behavioural ...

  10. Survival under uncertainty an introduction to probability models of social structure and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Volchenkov, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces and studies a number of stochastic models of subsistence, communication, social evolution and political transition that will allow the reader to grasp the role of uncertainty as a fundamental property of our irreversible world. At the same time, it aims to bring about a more interdisciplinary and quantitative approach across very diverse fields of research in the humanities and social sciences. Through the examples treated in this work – including anthropology, demography, migration, geopolitics, management, and bioecology, among other things – evidence is gathered to show that volatile environments may change the rules of the evolutionary selection and dynamics of any social system, creating a situation of adaptive uncertainty, in particular, whenever the rate of change of the environment exceeds the rate of adaptation. Last but not least, it is hoped that this book will contribute to the understanding that inherent randomness can also be a great opportunity – for social systems an...

  11. Behavioral Properties of Correlated Equilibrium; Social Group Structures with Conformity and Stereotyping

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Cartwright; Myrna Wooders

    2008-01-01

    We explore the potential for correlated equilibrium to capture conformity to norms and the coordination of behavior within social groups. Given a partition of players into social groups we propose properties that one may expect of a correlated equilibrium: within-group anonymity, group independence, predictable group behavior and stereotyped beliefs. We then demonstrate that (a) a correlated equilibrium satisfying these properties exists in games with many players (b) a player who stereotypes...

  12. The Structure of Social Exchange in Self-Help Support Groups: Development of a Measure

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Louis D.; Tang, Xiaohui; Hollman, Ruth L.

    2014-01-01

    Self-help support groups are indigenous community resources designed to help people manage a variety of personal challenges, from alcohol abuse to xeroderma pigmentosum. The social exchanges that occur during group meetings are central to understanding how people benefit from participation. This paper examines the different types of social exchange behaviors that occur during meetings, using two studies to develop empirically distinct scales that reliably measure theoretically important types...

  13. Anticipation of monetary and social reward differently activates mesolimbic brain structures in men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Spreckelmeyer, Katja N.; Krach, Sören; Kohls, Gregor; Rademacher, Lena; Irmak, Arda; Konrad, Kerstin; Kircher, Tilo; Gründer, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Motivation for goal-directed behaviour largely depends on the expected value of the anticipated reward. The aim of the present study was to examine how different levels of reward value are coded in the brain for two common forms of human reward: money and social approval. To account for gender differences 16 male and 16 female participants performed an incentive delay task expecting to win either money or positive social feedback. fMRI recording during the anticipation phase revealed proporti...

  14. Practice, Communication and Space: A reflection on the materiality of social structures

    OpenAIRE

    Netto, Vinicius

    2007-01-01

    The general issue of relations between sociality and spatiality, until recently profoundly ignored outside spatial studies, has become a focus of great theoretical attention in a number of disciplines – what has been called, remarkably, the “spatial turn” in social and cultural theory. The thesis wishes to address a central problem in that debate: the connection of practice and space. It does so emphasising a dimension that has not been previously explored to a significant degree:...

  15. Social support for physical activity—role of Facebook with and without structured intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallo, David N.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; DeVellis, Robert F.; Thayer, Linden M.; Ammerman, Alice S

    2014-01-01

    Despite their widespread use and extensive technical features, little is known about how to use online social networking sites to increase physical activity. This study aims to examine Facebook engagement among participants in the online social networking arm of a randomized controlled physical activity promotion trial (n = 67). Facebook communications were double coded and analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Regression procedures were used to determine predictors of Facebook use and associations betwee...

  16. Models and Anti-Models: The Structure of Payoff-Dependent Social Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Efferson; Rafael Lalive; Peter J. Richerson,; Richard McElreath; Mark Lubell

    2006-01-01

    We conducted an experiment to describe how social learners use information about the relation between payoffs and behavior. Players chose between two technologies repeatedly. Payoffs were random, but one technology was better because its expected payoff was higher. Players were divided into two groups: 1) individual learners who knew their realized payoffs after each choice and 2) social learners, who had no private feedback about their own payoffs, but in each period could choose to learn wh...

  17. Multi-Scale Compositionality: Identifying the Compositional Structures of Social Dynamics Using Deep Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Huan-Kai Peng; Radu Marculescu

    2015-01-01

    Objective Social media exhibit rich yet distinct temporal dynamics which cover a wide range of different scales. In order to study this complex dynamics, two fundamental questions revolve around (1) the signatures of social dynamics at different time scales, and (2) the way in which these signatures interact and form higher-level meanings. Method In this paper, we propose the Recursive Convolutional Bayesian Model (RCBM) to address both of these fundamental questions. The key idea behind our ...

  18. Structural Analysis of Relationship of Internet Addiction with Depression, Social Adjustment and Self-Esteem

    OpenAIRE

    S. Ghanbari; Amani, A.; M. Namdari Pezhman; F. Bidi; H. Kareshki

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Internet has become more widespread, removed borders, and provided the people all over the world with great opportunities. Notwithstanding this, the consequences especially in social and cultural context must not be neglected. One of the harmful aspects of internet is internet addiction disorder. The present study aimed to survey and analyzes internet addiction relationship with depression, social adjustment, and self esteem.Materials & Methods: Our research method i...

  19. Structural and functional correlates of a quantitative autistic trait measured using the social responsive scale in neurotypical male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Pei-Chi; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Lan, Chen-Chia; Liu, Chia-Chien; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue

    2016-05-01

    Behaviors associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been suggested to be considered as quantitative traits. This study investigated the structural and functional correlates of autistic traits measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in neurotypical adolescents. Twenty-six neurotypical male adolescents (12-18 years old) were recruited for this study and underwent structural and resting functional magnetic resonance image scanning, and intelligence quotient and SRS evaluations. We used the automated surface-based method (FreeSurfer) to measure cortical thickness and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analysis to derive the FC map of the dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC). Brain-wise regression analyses of cortical thickness and FC maps on SRS scores were performed using a general linear model. The results indicated that higher autistic trait ratings of total SRS scores were associated with a thinner cortex in the left insula, right insula, and right superior temporal gyrus. Furthermore, we observed that only higher scores of social awareness were correlated with increased FC between the dACC and right superior temporal gyrus and decreased FC between the dACC and right putamen and thalamus. These results indicated that a quantitative trait in social cognition is associated with structural and connectivity variations linked to ASD patients. Autism Res 2016, 9: 570-578. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26284955

  20. Social Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Buhl, Mie

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we show how use of technology affects aesthetics to become increasingly social. The article looks at semi-organized structures that allow people to negotiate visual practices in their everyday lives. These structures emerge resulting in social aesthetics, i.e., aesthetics that is...

  1. The Social Structuration of Six Major Social Media Platforms in the United Kingdom: Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Instagram, Google+ and Pinterest

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, G; Lutz, C.

    2016-01-01

    Sociological studies on the Internet have often examined digital inequalities. These studies show how Internet access, skills, uses and outcomes vary between different population segments. However, we know more about social inequalities in general Internet use than in social media use. Especially, we lack differentiated statistical evidence of the social profiles of distinct social media platforms. To address this issue, we use a...

  2. Structural neuroimaging of social cognition in PNFA and bvFTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blas eCouto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition impairments are pervasive in the frontotemporal dementias. Nevertheless, these deficits would be triggered by (a more basic deficits in emotion and face recognition as well as by (b higher level theory of mind processes (ToM. Both emotional processing and social cognition impairments have been previously reported in the behavioral variant of FTD (bvFTD and also in progressive non-fluent aphasia aphasia (PNFA. However, no neuroanatomic comparison between these FTD variants has been performed. We report selective behavioral impairments of face recognition, emotion recognition and ToM in patients with bvFTD and PNFA when compared to controls. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM shows a classical impairment of mainly orbitofrontal (OFC anterior cingulate (ACC insula and lateral temporal cortices. Comparative analysis of regional gray matter related to social cognition deficits (VBM reveals a differential pattern of fronto-insulo-temporal atrophy in bvFTD and an insulo-temporal involvement in PPA group. Results suggest that in spite of similar social cognition impairments reported in bvFTD and PNFA, the former presents an inherent ToM affectation whereas in the PNFA the ToM deficit could be related to other more basic processes of face and emotion recognition. These results are interpreted in the frame of the fronto-insulo-temporal social context network model (SCNM.

  3. The social status of the male Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) influences testis structure and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, Frank; Kurth, Thomas; Meissner, Stefan; Standke, Andrea; Hoppe, Markus; Zieschang, Freia; Reitmayer, Christine; Göbel, Andy; Kretzschmar, Georg; Gutzeit, Herwig O

    2012-01-01

    Dominant and territorial behaviour are known social phenomena in cichlids and social stress influences reproduction and growth. The gonadotropic hormones trigger spermatogenesis and subordinate males have typically lower levels of gonadotropins than dominant males. In this study, we compared testis morphology and gene expression of dominant and subordinate Nile tilapia males (d- and s-males) in socially stable communities. The d-males had the highest gonadosomatic index but they were not the largest animals in the majority of studied cases. Long-term d-males showed large groups of Leydig cells and hyperplasia of the tunica albuginea due to numerous cytochrome-P450-11β-hydroxylase (Cyp11b) expressing myoid cells. Increased Cyp11b expression in d-males was reflected by elevated 11-ketotestosterone plasma values. However, immunofluorescence microscopy and expression analysis of selected genes revealed that most s-males conserved their capability for spermatogenesis and are, therefore, ready for reproduction when the social environment changes. Moreover, in s-males gene expression analysis by quantitative RT-PCR showed increased transcript levels for germ line-specific genes (vasa, sox2 and dmc1) and Sertoli-specific genes (amh, amhrII and dmrt1) whereas gene expression of key factors for steroid production (sf1 and cyp11b) were reduced. The Nile tilapia is a promising model to study social cues and gonadotropic signals on testis development in vertebrates. PMID:22031714

  4. Memory effects induce structure in social networks with activity-driven agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity-driven modelling has recently been proposed as an alternative growth mechanism for time varying networks,displaying power-law degree distribution in time-aggregated representation. This approach assumes memoryless agents developing random connections with total disregard of their previous contacts. Thus, such an assumption leads to time-aggregated random networks that do not reproduce the positive degree-degree correlation and high clustering coefficient widely observed in real social networks. In this paper, we aim to study the incidence of the agents' long-term memory on the emergence of new social ties. To this end, we propose a dynamical network model assuming heterogeneous activity for agents, together with a triadic-closure step as main connectivity mechanism. We show that this simple mechanism provides some of the fundamental topological features expected for real social networks in their time-aggregated picture. We derive analytical results and perform extensive numerical simulations in regimes with and without population growth. Finally, we present an illustrative comparison with two case studies, one comprising face-to-face encounters in a closed gathering, while the other one corresponding to social friendship ties from an online social network. (paper)

  5. Structural and Dynamical Patterns on Online Social Networks: the Spanish May 15th Movement as a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Borge-Holthoefer, Javier; García, Iñigo; Cauhé, Elisa; Ferrer, Alfredo; Ferrer, Darío; Francos, David; Iñiguez, David; Pérez, María Pilar; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Sanz, Francisco; Serrano, Fermín; Viñas, Cristina; Tarancón, Alfonso; Moreno, Yamir

    2011-01-01

    The number of people using online social networks in their everyday life is continuously growing at a pace never saw before. This new kind of communication has an enormous impact on opinions, cultural trends, information spreading and even in the commercial success of new products. More importantly, social online networks have revealed as a fundamental organizing mechanism in recent country-wide social movements. In this paper, we provide a quantitative analysis of the structural and dynamical patterns emerging from the activity of an online social network around the ongoing May 15th (15M) movement in Spain. Our network is made up by users that exchanged tweets in a time period of one month, which includes the birth and stabilization of the 15M movement. We characterize in depth the growth of such dynamical network and find that it is scale-free with communities at the mesoscale. We also find that its dynamics exhibits typical features of critical systems such as robustness and power-law distributions for sev...

  6. Prenatal exposure to moderate levels of ethanol alters social behavior in adult rats: Relationship to structural plasticity and immediate early gene expression in frontal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Derek A Hamilton; Akers, Katherine G.; Rice, James P.; Johnson, Travis E.; Candelaria-Cook, Felicha T.; Maes, Levi I.; Rosenberg, Martina; Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Savage, Daniel D.

    2009-01-01

    The goals of the present study were to characterize the effects of prenatal exposure to moderate levels of ethanol on adult social behavior, and to evaluate fetal-ethanol-related effects on dendritic morphology, structural plasticity and activity-related immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the agranular insular (AID) and prelimbic (Cg3) regions of frontal cortex. Baseline fetal-ethanol-related alterations in social behavior were limited to reductions in social investigation in males. Rep...

  7. Human behavior. Sex equality can explain the unique social structure of hunter-gatherer bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyble, M; Salali, G D; Chaudhary, N; Page, A; Smith, D; Thompson, J; Vinicius, L; Mace, R; Migliano, A B

    2015-05-15

    The social organization of mobile hunter-gatherers has several derived features, including low within-camp relatedness and fluid meta-groups. Although these features have been proposed to have provided the selective context for the evolution of human hypercooperation and cumulative culture, how such a distinctive social system may have emerged remains unclear. We present an agent-based model suggesting that, even if all individuals in a community seek to live with as many kin as possible, within-camp relatedness is reduced if men and women have equal influence in selecting camp members. Our model closely approximates observed patterns of co-residence among Agta and Mbendjele BaYaka hunter-gatherers. Our results suggest that pair-bonding and increased sex egalitarianism in human evolutionary history may have had a transformative effect on human social organization. PMID:25977551

  8. Factor structure of overall autobiographical memory usage: the directive, self and social functions revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Anne S; Habermas, Tilmann

    2011-08-01

    According to theory, autobiographical memory serves three broad functions of overall usage: directive, self, and social. However, there is evidence to suggest that the tripartite model may be better conceptualised in terms of a four-factor model with two social functions. In the present study we examined the two models in Danish and German samples, using the Thinking About Life Experiences Questionnaire (TALE; Bluck, Alea, Habermas, & Rubin, 2005), which measures the overall usage of the three functions generalised across concrete memories. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor model and rejected the theoretical three-factor model in both samples. The results are discussed in relation to cultural differences in overall autobiographical memory usage as well as sharing versus non-sharing aspects of social remembering. PMID:21919587

  9. Essays on Social Groups: Inequality, Influence and the Structure of Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Cuhadaroglu, Tugce

    2013-01-01

    Uno de los principales problemas en economía siempre ha sido entender y formalizar la relación dinámica entre lo individual y lo social. Esta tesis incluye dos perspectivas complementarias para explorar esta importante cuestión. En el primer enfoque, que se refiere al primer capítulo, se investiga la forma de evaluar el grado en que las diferencias en las características individuales dan lugar a diferencias en los resultados sociales, por así decirlo, perseguimos lo 'individual' en lo `so...

  10. Toward a dynamic perspective of the relation between entrepreneurial actions and social structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke; Lauring, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    independent variable behind entrepreneurship activity. Elaborating on anthropological theories, this paper presents a coherent theoretical framework for entrepreneurship research embracing the social dimensions as well as individual factors involved in the phenomenon of entrepreneurship. We argue that central...... aspects of entrepreneurship are to be found by connecting the social and subjective levels of analysis as part of the same dialectic process. This is based on the observation that networks of actors and resources do not exist in themselves. They are maintained or transformed through the concrete actions...

  11. Detection of the elite structure in a virtual multiplex social system by means of a generalized $K$-core

    CERN Document Server

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Thurner, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Elites are subgroups of individuals within a society that have the ability and means to influence, lead, govern, and shape societies. Members of elites are often well connected individuals, which enables them to impose their influence to many and to quickly gather, process, and spread information. Here we argue that elites are not only composed of highly connected individuals, but also of intermediaries connecting hubs to form a cohesive and structured elite-subgroup at the core of a social network. For this purpose we present a generalization of the $K$-core algorithm that allows to identify a social core that is composed of well-connected hubs together with their `connectors'. We show the validity of the idea in the framework of a virtual society comprised of 420.000 people engaged in a massive multiplayer online game, on which we have complete information of various social networks. Exploiting this multiplex structure, we find that the hubs of the generalized $K$-core identify those individuals that are hi...

  12. A National Content Analysis of PhD Program Objectives, Structures, and Curricula: Do Programs Address the Full Range of Social Work's Needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drisko, James; Hunnicutt, Christie; Berenson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The Group for the Advancement of Doctoral Education (GADE) promotes excellence in PhD education in Social Work. GADE's 2013 Quality Guidelines for PhD Programs heavily emphasize preparation for research. Little is known, however, about the details of the contemporary social work PhD program structure and curriculum. Several prior surveys have…

  13. Prediction of social structure and genetic relatedness in colonies of the facultative polygynous stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyze Pinheiro dos Reis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bee colonies typically consist of one single-mated mother queen and her worker offspring. The stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera: Apidae shows facultative polygyny, which makes this species particularly suitable for testing theoretical expectations concerning social behavior. In this study, we investigated the social structure and genetic relatedness among workers from eight natural and six manipulated colonies of M. bicolor over a period of one year. The populations of M. bicolor contained monogynous and polygynous colonies. The estimated genetic relatedness among workers from monogynous and polygynous colonies was 0.75 ± 0.12 and 0.53 ± 0.16 (mean ± SEM, respectively. Although the parental genotypes had significant effects on genetic relatedness in monogynous and polygynous colonies, polygyny markedly decreased the relatedness among nestmate workers. Our findings also demonstrate that polygyny in M. bicolor may arise from the adoption of related or unrelated queens.

  14. Solving the collective-risk social dilemma with risky assets in well-mixed and structured populations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaojie; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Perc, Matjaz

    2014-01-01

    In the collective-risk social dilemma, players lose their personal endowments if contributions to the common pool are too small. This fact alone, however, does not always deter selfish individuals from defecting. The temptations to free-ride on the prosocial efforts of others are strong because we are hardwired to maximize our own fitness regardless of the consequences this might have for the public good. Here we show that the addition of risky assets to the personal endowments, both of which are lost if the collective target is not reached, can contribute to solving the collective-risk social dilemma. In infinite well-mixed populations risky assets introduce new stable and unstable mixed steady states, whereby the stable mixed steady state converges to full cooperation as either the risk of collective failure or the amount of risky assets increases. Similarly, in finite well-mixed populations the introduction of risky assets enforces configurations where cooperative behavior thrives. In structured population...

  15. Considering Structural, Individual and Social Network Explanations for Ecologically Sustainable Agriculture: An Example Drawn from Washington State Wheat Growers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leland Glenna

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available As acceptance of the concept of agricultural sustainability has grown, it has become increasingly recognized that notions of sustainability and how to promote it will necessarily vary depending on the commodity in question. It thus becomes important to investigate how movements towards sustainability are emerging for different commodities. The objective of our paper is to present the results of an analysis of Washington wheat producers that investigates the degree to which interest in sustainability exists amongst those farmers and whether structural factors and farmer personal characteristics are more or less significant than social network factors in explaining farmers’ views of possible sustainable methods. Our findings indicate that a measure indicating use of local social networks to gain information is associated with a higher degree of interest in new production methods aimed at improving agricultural sustainability.

  16. Social Loafing on Group Projects: Structural Antecedents and Effect on Student Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Praveen; O'Brien, Connie L.

    2008-01-01

    To respond to the expectations of the industry and business school accreditation bodies, marketing faculty have been making extensive use of group projects in their curricula. A common problem with the use of student groups, however, is that of social loafing. In this study, we identify some easy-to-implement project set-up factors and examine…

  17. Organizational Effectiveness in Higher Education: Faculty Informal Structure as Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions encounter complex external environments, requiring increasing responsiveness and innovation. Research on social capital has demonstrated that highly connected employee relational networks are more creative, effective, and exhibit higher member satisfaction. The present study examines one college to demonstrate how…

  18. Job Satisfaction among Newsworkers: The Influence of Professionalism, Perceptions of Organizational Structure, and Social Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, George

    1995-01-01

    Explores attitudes among Canadian news workers, finding that more professionalism, a less formal and smaller organization, media sector, and several social attributes lead to more job satisfaction. Shows that newspaper workers were most satisfied due to a combination of intrinsic factors, such as autonomy, authority, and control of work; and…

  19. Social Networks and Structural Holes: Parent-School Relationships as Loosely Coupled Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanat, Carolyn Louise; Zieglowsky, Laura Thudium

    2010-01-01

    This article describes parent groups as social networks that are loosely coupled to schools. The study investigated parent groups that work together to support schools by networking, responding to change, seeking input on policy decisions, and communicating with school leaders. Parents from one elementary school who participated in two focus group…

  20. A Social Ecology of Hyperactive Boys: Medication Effects in Structured Classroom Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Carol K.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Among the findings were that hyperactive Ss on placebo showed lower rates of task attention and higher rates of gross motor movement, regular and negative verbalization, noise making, physical contact, social initiation, and other responses than did normal Ss and hyperactive Ss on Ritalin. (Author/DLS)

  1. Genetic analysis of the population structure of socially organized oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) using microsatellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Treuren, R.; Bijlsma, R.; Tinbergen, J.M.; Heg, D.; van de Zande, L.

    1999-01-01

    On the island of Schiermonnikoog (The Netherlands), the breeding population of oystercatchers can be divided into two groups: ‘residents’ and ‘leapfrogs’, based on their distinct social characteristics and limited probabilities of status change between breeding seasons. In order to investigate wheth

  2. Social Structures in the Economics of International Education: Perspectives from Vietnamese International Tertiary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Lien

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the findings from in-depth interviews with Vietnamese international students studying at Australian universities, this article presents insights into the sociological influences that stem from international students' social networks, at home and abroad, and how they impact on students' aspirations and engagement in international…

  3. Social Support in the Structure of Personality Resources in Individuals with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Leontiev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the issues of social support of individuals with disabilities and describes its role in the development and maintenance of subjective well-being of persons in situations of disability. A special external resource for overcoming unfavorable developmental conditions, social support is interlocked in a continuous relationship with psychological resources of personality. One of its distinctive features is that it implies the subject's activity aimed at overcoming difficult life situation on his/her own. When the person's bodily resources are insufficient (as it happens in situations of physical disabilities, the role of macro- and microsocial resources in supporting his/her well-being naturally increases. However, when both social and bodily resources are scarce, it is the individual's personality that stands in the gap. The research described in the paper explored the relationship between microsocial resources (support of family and friends, satisfaction with this support and psychological resources of resistance and self-regulation of personality. The sample consisted of 210 subjects (48 students with disabilities, 162 healthy subjects. The outcomes revealed certain differences between the subsamples with low and high rates of social support which suggest that the subjects' perceptions and evaluations of the support contribute to their psychological resources of coping and self-regulation, activating and/or reinforcing the existing potential of their personalities.

  4. Detection of the elite structure in a virtual multiplex social system by means of a generalised K-core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Fuchs, Benedikt; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Elites are subgroups of individuals within a society that have the ability and means to influence, lead, govern, and shape societies. Members of elites are often well connected individuals, which enables them to impose their influence to many and to quickly gather, process, and spread information. Here we argue that elites are not only composed of highly connected individuals, but also of intermediaries connecting hubs to form a cohesive and structured elite-subgroup at the core of a social network. For this purpose we present a generalization of the K-core algorithm that allows to identify a social core that is composed of well-connected hubs together with their 'connectors'. We show the validity of the idea in the framework of a virtual world defined by a massive multiplayer online game, on which we have complete information of various social networks. Exploiting this multiplex structure, we find that the hubs of the generalised K-core identify those individuals that are high social performers in terms of a series of indicators that are available in the game. In addition, using a combined strategy which involves the generalised Kcore and the recently introduced M-core, the elites of the different 'nations' present in the game are perfectly identified as modules of the generalised K-core. Interesting sudden shifts in the composition of the elite cores are observed at deep levels. We show that elite detection with the traditional K-core is not possible in a reliable way. The proposed method might be useful in a series of more general applications, such as community detection. PMID:25541957

  5. Abordagem estrutural e componente afetivo das representações sociais Social representations: affective impregnation and structural approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Humberto Faria Campos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A "Abordagem Estrutural" das representações sociais define uma representação social como uma organização, que é atravessada por diferentes dimensões e não como um conjunto de eventos e processos puramente cognitivos. No estado atual da teoria, propomos o princípio que a dimensão afetiva observa uma relação "não-aleatória" com o núcleo central. Dois estudos anteriores são brevemente descritos, assim como os resultados acerca de três representações, ("menino de rua", "estudos superiores"e "família", com o intuito de apresentar uma perspectiva de estudo que parece indicar que as relações entre elementos "semânticos" e "afetivamente carregados" não são aleatórias. Os dados corroboram a tese de que o Núcleo Central das representações organiza igualmente a distribuição das cargas afetivas no conjunto da representação social. As pesquisas, aqui apresentadas, correspondem a uma primeira aproximação exploratória das relações existentes entre a estrutura e a impregnação afetiva dos elementos de uma representação.The "Structural Approach" of social representations defines a social representation as an organization which comprises different dimensions and not as a group of purely cognitive events and processes. In the present state of theory, we propose the principle that the affective dimension maintains a random relationship with the Central Core. Two previous studies are briefly described as well as the results concerning three representations ("street children", "higher education" and "family" in order to present a perspective that seems to indicate that the relationships between "semantic" and "affectively charged" elements are random. The data seem to confirm the principle that the Central Core of social representations equally organizes the distribution of the affective charges on the social representation as a whole. The studies presented here correspond to a first exploratory approach of the relationships

  6. Social Structures and the Occupational Composition of Skilled Worker Immigrants to Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dryburgh, Heather

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThe individual decision to immigrate is made in the context of larger socialstructures that influence the composition of the economic immigrant populationover time. Over the last 20 years, economic immigrants to Canada have facedchanging selection policies, cycles of economic recession and growth, increaseddemand for information technology skills, women's increased labour forceparticipation and an aging labour force. Using data from Statistics Canada'sLongitudinal Immigration Database (IMDB, this paper examines the flow ofeconomic immigrants to Canada by their occupational composition from 1980 to2000. Relative to Canadians, when all immigrants from this period are groupedtogether, their economic integration is slow and does not reach parity withCanadians before 16 years. Among skilled worker immigrants, whereas theearlier cohorts did well but did not improve much over time, later cohorts startedoff in a relatively worse position, but early indications show a fairly steep slopeto better relative average earnings. These differences support the need toexamine immigrant integration by both the class of immigrant and the context atthe time of immigration.FrenchLa décision d’immigrer est une décision personnelle prise dans le plus largecontexte des structures sociales qui, à leur tour, exercent une influence sur lacomposition de la population immigrante selon les époques. Pendant les vingtannées dernières, les immigrants économiques au Canada ont dû faire face à deschangements de polices de sélection, à des cycles de récession et de croissanceéconomique, à une demande accrue des techniques d’informatiques, à laparticipation accrue des femmes dans la population active et à une populationactive plus âgée. En s’appuyant sur les données de la Banque de donnéeslongitudinales sur les immigrants (BDIM, cet article examine le fluxd’immigrants économiques au Canada entre 1980 et 2000, selon la compositionde leurs m

  7. The Social Structuration of Six Major Social Media Platforms in the United Kingdom: Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Instagram, Google+ and Pinterest

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Grant; Lutz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Sociological studies on the Internet have often examined digital inequalities. These studies show how Internet access, skills, uses and outcomes vary between different population segments. However, we know more about social inequalities in general Internet use than in social media use. Especially, we lack differentiated statistical evidence of the social profiles of distinct social media platforms. To address this issue, we use a large survey data set in the United Kingdom and investigate the...

  8. A Random Matrix Approach to Differential Privacy and Structure Preserved Social Network Graph Publishing

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Faraz; Liu, Alex X

    2013-01-01

    Online social networks are being increasingly used for analyzing various societal phenomena such as epidemiology, information dissemination, marketing and sentiment flow. Popular analysis techniques such as clustering and influential node analysis, require the computation of eigenvectors of the real graph's adjacency matrix. Recent de-anonymization attacks on Netflix and AOL datasets show that an open access to such graphs pose privacy threats. Among the various privacy preserving models, Differential privacy provides the strongest privacy guarantees. In this paper we propose a privacy preserving mechanism for publishing social network graph data, which satisfies differential privacy guarantees by utilizing a combination of theory of random matrix and that of differential privacy. The key idea is to project each row of an adjacency matrix to a low dimensional space using the random projection approach and then perturb the projected matrix with random noise. We show that as compared to existing approaches for ...

  9. Social structure of the mara (Dolichotis patagonum) as a determinant of gastro-intestinal parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteous, I S; Pankhurst, S J

    1998-03-01

    A one-year study of gastro-intestinal parasitism in a free-ranging population of maras at Whipsnade Wild Animal Park, UK, revealed a strong relationship between membership of social units and both intensity and prevalence of infection. The mara, a hystricomorph rodent from southern Argentina, has a social organization including both monogamy and communal denning of the young, an apparently unique combination among mammals. From October 1992 to September 1993, strongyloid parasite loads were estimated from faecal egg counts. A minimum adequate model was fitted to the data using the Genstat statistical package. This showed that family membership had a highly significant effect on the intensity of egg shedding in faeces, and a significant effect on the prevalence of infection. After controlling for both extrinsic environmental and intrinsic demographic factors, homogeneity of infection was greater within than between families and adult pairs. PMID:9550220

  10. Functional and Structural Correlates of Social Influence in the Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel; Bach, Dominik; Kanai, Ryota;

    2012-01-01

    conflict; b) functional responses reflecting social influence on object value; and c) grey matter volume (GM) the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) – an area not available to functional analysis in our study but clearly involved in social conduct and value learning. Methods: Prior to testing, 28 healthy subjects...... provided names of twenty pieces of music that they would like to own, but did not own yet. On test day, subjects rated each submitted song for desirability, from 1 (low) to 10 (high). Next, subjects were told that two music 'reviewers', of whom subjects had read descriptions and rated as capable of...... choosing enjoyable music, had listened to each song. Subjects performed the task in Figure 1 in the scanner. During a trial, subjects indicated their preference, given a choice of a song they had submitted and an alternative song they had never heard. Subjects were then told which song reviewers preferred...

  11. Stories and metaphors in the cognitive structure of the social exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Arrubla Sánchez, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to identify the types of exclusion in the cognitive referents that are represented through language in social relations and their concordance with the semantics of violence and the management of irrational emotions. Methodology: qualitative - deductive study with a documentary method and recording of speech acts to identify the semantic and lexical categories articulated to the main axis: exclusion, discrimination and other forms of verbal violence.Results: the existence of selecti...

  12. Cognitive Structure, Managers’ Shared Social Understanding: From Psychological and Sociological Concepts to Managerial Strategic Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Alfirević, Nikša; Pavičić, Jurica; Gnjidić, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the cognitions of industry participants are explored, by analyzing the shared social understanding of the industry (‘mental models’, ‘industry recipes’) as a factor limiting the pursuit of innovative strategies. It is hypothesized that the managers’ interpretation of Porter’s fi ve industry forces, within a given industry, represent the ‘cognitive’ proxy for performance, since shared cognitions represent the (self) imposed performance limitations. The empirical research has ...

  13. The analysis of criminal and terrorist organisations as social network structures: a quasi-experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Mainas, Efstathios

    2012-01-01

    The need to tackle organised crime and terrorism threats indicates, among other things, the importance of analysing efficiently and effectively the patterns of criminal ties. Social network analysis (SNA) offers conceptual frameworks, techniques and software tools to measure and visualise empirical networks of any kind. The aim of this study was to test, examine and consider the usefulness of SNA as a principal approach for the analysis and investigation of criminal and terrorist organisation...

  14. Difficulties in Defining Social-Emotional Intelligence, Competences and Skills - a Theoretical Analysis and Structural Suggestion

    OpenAIRE

    Moana Monnier

    2015-01-01

    Demands related to the frequency of and time required for interactional tasks in everyday occupational routines are continuously growing. When it comes to qualifying a person’s ability to interact with others, two prototypical concepts are often used: social competences and emotional intelligence. In connection to discussions about curriculum standards in Germany, these are viewed as important attributes that should be taught, supported and if possible assessed in educational pathways toward ...

  15. Structural and psycho-social limits to climate change adaptation in the great barrier reef region

    OpenAIRE

    Louisa S. Evans; Hicks, Christina C.; W Neil Adger; Jon Barnett; Allison L Perry; Pedro Fidelman; Renae Tobin

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation, as a strategy to respond to climate change, has limits: there are conditions under which adaptation strategies fail to alleviate impacts from climate change. Research has primarily focused on identifying absolute bio-physical limits. This paper contributes empirical insight to an emerging literature on the social limits to adaptation. Such limits arise from the ways in which societies perceive, experience and respond to climate change. Using qualitative data from multi-stakeholder...

  16. Social structure and underwater behavior of harbor seals in southern Monterey Bay, California

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, Teri Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    To understand harbor seal social and mating strategies, I examined site fidelity, seasonal abundance and distribution, herd integrity, and underwater behavior of individual harbor seals in southern Monterey Bay. Individual harbor seals (n = 444) were identified by natural markings and represented greater than 80% of an estimated 520 seals within this community. Year to year fidelity of individual harbor seals to southern Monterey Bay coastline was 84% (n = 388), and long-term association...

  17. Coevolution of cooperation, response to adverse social ties and network structure

    OpenAIRE

    Sven Van Segbroeck; Francisco C Santos; Jorge M. Pacheco; Tom Lenaerts

    2010-01-01

    Human social networks reshape continuously, as individuals forge new contacts while abandoning existing ones. Simultaneously, individuals adapt their behavior, leading to an intricate interplay been network evolution and behavior evolution. Here, we review a framework, called Active Linking, which allows an analytical treatment of such a co-evolutionary dynamics. Using this framework we showed that an increase in the number of ways of responding to adverse interactions leads an overall increa...

  18. Correlation and Interaction Visualization of Altmetric Indicators Extracted From Scholarly Social Network Activities: Dimensions and Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chun Li; Xu, Yue Quan; Wu, Hui; Chen, Si Si; Guo, Ji Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Citation counts for peer-reviewed articles and the impact factor of journals have long been indicators of article importance or quality. In the Web 2.0 era, growing numbers of scholars are using scholarly social network tools to communicate scientific ideas with colleagues, thereby making traditional indicators less sufficient, immediate, and comprehensive. In these new situations, the altmetric indicators offer alternative measures that reflect the multidimensional nature of schol...

  19. The effect of religious, cultural and social identity on population genetic structure among Muslims in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, R

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of historical demography and contemporary social stratification can be valuable in understanding disease patterns, including genetic disorders, especially in communities that have a high prevalence of endogamous and/or consanguineous marriages. This paper provides a background to the religious, historical and socio-cultural factors that have helped define the bounds of endogamy for Muslims in undivided India and more specifically since the creation of Pakistan. The preference for endogamous marriage is based on the clan-oriented nature of the society, which values and actively seeks similarities in social group identity based on several factors, including religious, sectarian, ethnic, and tribal/clan affiliation. Religious affiliation is itself multi-layered and includes religious considerations other than being Muslim, such as sectarian identity (e.g. Shia or Sunni, etc.) and religious orientation within the sect (Isnashari, Ismaili, Ahmedi, etc.). Both ethnic affiliation (e.g. Sindhi, Baloch, Punjabi, etc.) and membership of specific biraderis or zat/quoms are additional integral components of social identity. Within the bounds of endogamy defined by the above parameters, close consanguineous unions are preferential due to a congruence of key features of group- and individual-level background factors. PMID:16096210

  20. Structural Analysis of Relationship of Internet Addiction with Depression, Social Adjustment and Self-Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghanbari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Internet has become more widespread, removed borders, and provided the people all over the world with great opportunities. Notwithstanding this, the consequences especially in social and cultural context must not be neglected. One of the harmful aspects of internet is internet addiction disorder. The present study aimed to survey and analyzes internet addiction relationship with depression, social adjustment, and self esteem.Materials & Methods: Our research method is descriptive-correlational. By random sampling and offline method, we have selected a sample consisting of 120 persons from Dubai coffee net users with different native languages, 74males and 46 females, aged at least 18 years old and proficient in the English language. Research tools were young internet addiction test (IAT with reliability α=0.88, Beck depression inventory with reliability α=0.84, Sinha social adjustment with reliability α=0.92 and Eysenck self esteem inventory with reliability α= 0.87. The data was analyzed with path analysis method.Results: The results from analysis showed that the data has goodness of fit with the presented model (χ2=3.17; df=3; P=0.36; GFI= 0.99; AGFI= 0.96; CFI= 1.00; NFI= 0.97; RMSEA=0.02. Scales means in internet addiction was 47.69±17.75; depression 21.29 ± 11.12; social adjustment 19.75±7.91 and self esteem was 15.16±4.16. Path coefficient showed that depression (β= 0.57; t=7.61, social adjustment (β= -0.55; t=13.1 and self esteem (β= -0.32; t=14.8 have significantly predicted internet addiction Conclusion: Internet is an important means in the today’s world, but we have to be fully aware of its dangers .In order to avoid the risks of internet use, vast national and international culture-building activities should be done. The results of our research proved the above-mentioned hypothesis.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(3:41-48

  1. Structural Model of Drug Use among Students: The Role of Spirituality, Social Modeling and Attitude to Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    samira yavari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to explore the structural relationship between religious activity, religious struggle, attitude to drugs, social modeling, spiritual well-being, and cigarette and tobacco smoking among students. Method: For this purpose, 504 male and female students from Kharazmi University, Agricultural Paradise, and Azad University of Karaj were selected by cluster sampling and they were asked to complete spiritual well-being scale, religious activity scale, religious struggle scale, social modeling scale, negative beliefs about drugs, and the tobacco section of the high-risk behavior questionnaire. Results: The results showed that the effect of religious activity on cigarette and tobacco smoking was mediated by negative beliefs about drugs, social modeling, spiritual well-being, and incentives for drug use. Similarly, the effect of religious struggle on cigarette and tobacco smoking was mediated by spiritual well-being. Conclusion: It seems that religion prevents people joining the unhealthy peer groups by the establishment of moral discipline, internal and external rules, and healthy coping styles therefore, people get less attracted to cigarette and tobacco smoking. Accordingly, these factors should be paid more attention in prevention programs for drug use, particularly cigarette and tobacco that are considered as the gateway to other drugs.

  2. Relationship between hierarchic - spatial differentiation of social structure and population size of municipalities in turkey: Evidence from the election case of local administration in 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Çiftçi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Turkey, whose population is young and dynamic, is a country where social change has a high acceleration. This circumstance has led to a spatial heterogeneity of social structure in the scale of campuses. Almost all the municipalities differ significantly from each other. In results of statistical applications, it was possible to conclude that there is a relationship between spatial differentiation of social structure indicators (PDI, PIDI and population sizes in municipalities. This relationship also supports that there was a differentiation of graded spatial social structure among municipalities in the Turkey of 2004. It is possible to make contact with this to the spatial differentiation that moves in parallel with population size and is in transition degree from a community to a society.

  3. The structure of feared social situations among individuals with a lifetime diagnosis of social anxiety disorder in two independent nationally representative mental health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brian J; Clara, Ian P; Sareen, Jitender; Stein, Murray B

    2008-04-01

    The present study employed both exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic approaches with nationally representative samples of individuals with a lifetime diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (n=1123; n=3091, respectively) using split-halves of the National Comorbidity Replication Survey (n=9282) and cross-validated with the Canadian Community Health Survey on Mental Health and Wellbeing (n=36,984). Strong support was found for a three-factor solution. This model was obtained from exploratory factor analysis and was further evaluated using two confirmatory factor analytic investigations in the two national samples. The three social situational domains reflected (1) Social Interaction Fears, (2) Observation Fears, and (3) Public Speaking Fears. Individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (i.e., those who endorsed 7 or more of 13 feared social situations assessed in the survey) were significantly more likely to report Social Interaction Fears and Observation Fears compared to individuals with non-generalized social anxiety disorder (i.e., those who endorsed only 6 or fewer of 13 feared social situations). Individuals with generalized social anxiety were particularly characterized by combinations of Public Speaking Fears plus Social Interaction Fears and Observation Fears. The clinical and classification implications of our study for DSM-V are discussed. PMID:18313030

  4. Analyzing User Activities, Demographics, Social Network Structure and User-Generated Content on Instagram

    OpenAIRE

    Manikonda, Lydia; Hu, Yuheng; Kambhampati, Subbarao

    2014-01-01

    Instagram is a relatively new form of communication where users can instantly share their current status by taking pictures and tweaking them using filters. It has seen a rapid growth in the number of users as well as uploads since it was launched in October 2010. Inspite of the fact that it is the most popular photo sharing application, it has attracted relatively less attention from the web and social media research community. In this paper, we present a large-scale quantitative analysis on...

  5. The effects of habitat fragmentation on the social kin structure and mating system of the agile antechinus, Antechinus agilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, S C; Ward, S J; Lindenmayer, D B; Finlayson, G R; Lawson, S J; Taylor, A C

    2005-05-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the major contributors to the loss of biodiversity worldwide. However, relatively little is known about its more immediate impacts on within-patch population processes such as social structure and mating systems, whose alteration may play an important role in extinction risk. We investigated the impacts of habitat fragmentation due to the establishment of an exotic softwood plantation on the social kin structure and breeding system of the Australian marsupial carnivore, Antechinus agilis. Restricted dispersal by males in fragmented habitat resulted in elevated relatedness among potential mates in populations in fragments, potentially increasing the risk of inbreeding. Antechinus agilis nests communally in tree hollows; these nests are important points for social contact between males and females in the mating season. In response to elevated relatedness among potential mates in fragmented habitat, A. agilis significantly avoided sharing nests with opposite-sex relatives in large fragment sites (but not in small ones, possibly due to limited nest locations and small population sizes). Because opposite-sex individuals shared nests randomly with respect to relatedness in unfragmented habitat, we interpreted the phenomenon in fragmented habitat as a precursor to inbreeding avoidance via mate choice. Despite evidence that female A. agilis at high inbreeding risk selected relatively unrelated mates, there was no overall increased avoidance of related mates by females in fragmented habitats compared to unfragmented habitats. Simulations indicated that only dispersal, and not nonrandom mating, contributed to inbreeding avoidance in either habitat context. However, habitat fragmentation did influence the mating system in that the degree of multiple paternity was reduced due to the reduction in population sizes and population connectivity. This, in turn, reduced the number of males available to females in the breeding season. This suggests that

  6. Social structure and consanguinity in a French mountain Population (1550-1849).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabino-Massa, Emma; Prost, Michel; Boëtsch, Gilles

    2005-04-01

    Sociocultural factors play a crucial role in the variation of consanguinity in a population. The choice of specific matrimonial strategies can favor the closure or opening of the group to the outside, whereas differential fertility affects the gene flow from one generation to another. In the present study we analyzed the role of socioprofessional groups in the maintenance of endogamy and consanguinity in a French Alpine valley: Vallouise in the Briançon area. In mountain environments, where the reproductive space is limited and quickly saturated, the autochthonous families adopt diversified matrimonial strategies. These marriage practices tend to prevent fragmentation of agricultural property. We analyzed the matrimonial behavior in the two main social groups of this population (décideurs and farmers) from 1550 to 1849. To better understand the behavior of the two social groups, we considered the two components of consanguinity, close and distant. Our study showed that the two groups had similar behavior regarding consanguinity. The way to prevent fragmentation of the patrimony was to choose a consanguineous spouse. This type of strategy inevitably leads to a high percentage of endogamy, which in this region of the Alps exceeded 90% through many centuries. PMID:16201137

  7. Habitats, population densities, and social structure of capybaras (Hydrochaeris Hydrochaeris, Rodentia in the Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber J.R. Alho

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 The Pantanal is the central portion of a sunken flat plain bordering the upper Paraguay river, with an area of 140,000 km². Seasonal floods begin in January and end in April. From May to October the land dries out and campos (grassland formations and scattered pools appear. (2 Typical capybara habitat in the Pantanal is composed of three components: the water, a patch of forest, and a grass field for foraging. Highest densities of capybaras (14 individuals/km² were found during the rainy season when the available space for capybaras was reduced due to the flooding. Areas without ponds or creeks presented low densities (from 0.38 to 0.84 capybaras/km². Group sizes ranged from 2 to 49 individuals (x = 9.48. (3 Reproduction occurred year-round and young of different ages were seen throughout the year. However, the principal recruitment of young to the population was observed in July-August. While the females took turns in caring for young of different ages, probably the offspring of mothers who are sisters in the same social groups, the males competed intensively with each other for access to breeding females. The male's reproductive success appears to be limited to the number of breeding females that males have access to in the social group.

  8. Nest structure and notes on the social behavior of Augochlora amphitrite (Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Halictidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Dalmazzo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The nesting biology of Augochlora (Augochlora amphitrite (Schrottky in a natural reserve in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, is described. The species nests in decaying wood. Two types of nest architecture were found, which differed according to the substrate where they were built, either soft or hard wood. Nests in soft wood had the cells grouped in clusters surrounded by a cavity, and the clusters were supported by a varying number of pillars. Nests constructed in decomposing portions of cracks in otherwise hard wood had the cells constructed against the walls, without any pillars or surrounding cavity. Cells of both types of nests were oriented in all directions, without any detectable pattern. Measurements and characteristics of the nests are tabulated and compared to those known for other species of Augochlora s. str. Behavioral observations of active nests are indicative of a social division of tasks in A. amphitrite. Such observations include nests with several females, some of which were never observed outside the nests, females with different degrees of wear and of ovary development, and at least one female that actively collected pollen which had much worn mandibles and wings, and undeveloped ovaries, all characteristics of the worker caste in social halictids.

  9. Neural structures of jealousy: Infant’s experience of social exclusion with caregivers and peers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marková, Gabriela; Stieben, J.; Legerstee, M.

    Malden : Wiley-Blackwell, 2010 - (Hart, S.; Legerstee, M.), s. 83-100 ISBN 978-1-4051-8579-0 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : jealousy * peers * neural structures Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  10. Social Network Influences on Adolescent Substance Use: Disentangling Structural Equivalence from Cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    FUJIMOTO, KAYO; Valente, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates two contagion mechanisms of peer influence based on direct communication (cohesion) versus comparison through peers who occupy similar network positions (structural equivalence) in the context of adolescents' drinking alcohol and smoking. To date, the two contagion mechanisms have been considered observationally inseparable, but this study attempts to disentangle structural equivalence from cohesion as a contagion mechanism by examining the extent to which the transmis...

  11. A State-Level Analysis of Social and Structural Factors and HIV Outcomes Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Andrew D; Valdiserri, Ronald O

    2015-12-01

    We apply a social determinants of health model to examine the association of select social and structural influences on AIDS diagnosis rates among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the U.S. states. Secondary data for key social and structural variables were acquired and analyzed. Standard descriptive and inferential statistics were used to examine bivariate and multivariate associations of selected social and structural variables with estimated rate of Stage 3 HIV infection (AIDS) per 100,000 MSM in 2010. We found that living in states with a higher demographic density of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons is independently associated with lower AIDS diagnosis rates among MSM. In addition, we found that greater income inequality and higher syphilis rates among men were associated with greater AIDS diagnosis rates among MSM, which may be attributable to state policy environments that underinvest in social goods that benefit population health, and to the fact that ulcerative sexually-transmitted infections increase biological risk of HIV transmission and acquisition. To end the epidemic in the U.S., it will be critical to identify and address state-level social and structural factors that may be associated with adverse HIV outcomes for MSM. PMID:26595263

  12. Gap between technically accurate information and socially appropriate information for structural health monitoring system installed into tall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Akira

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the structural health monitoring system for tall buildings is now widely recognized by at least structural engineers and managers at large real estate companies to ensure the structural safety immediately after a large earthquake and appeal the quantitative safety of buildings to potential tenants. Some leading real estate companies decided to install the system into all tall buildings. Considering this tendency, a pilot project for the west area of Shinjuku Station supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency was started by the author team to explore a possibility of using the system to provide safe spaces for commuters and residents. The system was installed into six tall buildings. From our experience, it turned out that viewing only from technological aspects was not sufficient for the system to be accepted and to be really useful. Safe spaces require not only the structural safety but also the soundness of key functions of the building. We need help from social scientists, medical doctors, city planners etc. to further improve the integrity of the system.

  13. Structural Competency in the U.S. Healthcare Crisis: Putting Social and Policy Interventions Into Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, H; Metzl, J

    2016-06-01

    This symposium of the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry illustrates structural competency: how clinical practitioners can intervene on social and institutional determinants of health. It will require training clinicians to see and act on structural barriers to health, to adapt imaginative structural approaches from fields outside of medicine, and to collaborate with disciplines and institutions outside of medicine. Case studies of effective work on all of these levels are presented in this volume. The contributors exemplify structural competency from many angles, from the implications of epigenetics for environmental intervention in personalized medicine to the ways clinicians can act on fundamental causes of disease, address abuses of power in clinical training, racially desegregate cities to reduce health disparities, address the systemic causes of torture by police, and implement harm-reduction programs for addiction in the face of punitive drug laws. Together, these contributors demonstrate the unique roles that clinicians can play in breaking systemic barriers to health and the benefit to the U.S. healthcare system of adopting innovations from outside of the United States and outside of clinical medicine. PMID:27178191

  14. A Study of the Relationship between Type of Organizational Structure of University and Departmental Social Capital with Students\\\\\\' Academic Satisfaction at Shiraz University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    jafar torkzadeh

    2014-04-01

    Finally we can say that, although in this study it was concluded that organizational structure varieties and social capital alone have significant predictive power for students’ academic satisfaction, reduction of the predictive power of organizational structure types and social capital coincide with one another, which is an evidence of the obvious impact of the organizational structure quality, especially the enabling organizational structure, on the nature and quality of departments’ social capital and vice versa. Hence, with regard to the serious responsibility of universities and university departments for achieving educational and research goals, it is worthwhile that managers and educational practitioners change the conditions and atmosphere of the university in such a way that it could be as a ground to promote students’ academic satisfaction.

  15. 基于结构的社会网络分析%Social Network Analysis Based on Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦炳琳; 李澍淞; 张世永

    2012-01-01

    The development of Internet and the popularity of social sites provide the large-scale experimental platform for researching the statistical properties and structure evolution of social networks. This paper mainly uses DBLP and Facebook datasets and built the social networks. We classify these networks by using role-to-role connectivity profiles and found that they belong to stringy-periphery class. We confirm that they have these properties, such as free-scale distri-bution, densification law and shrinking diameter. We discover there is a small core with high con-nectivity in social networks, and observed that many middle-scale communities are composed of stars. We research the evolution of community structure based on event framework and revealed that the community merge depends largely on the clustering coefficient of the graph composed of nodes which are directly connected between communities and the community split is related to its clustering coefficient.%互联网的发展和社交网站的流行为研究社会网络提供了大规模的实验平台.主要使用DBLP和Facebook数据集构建网络,采取角色连接轮廓方法从结构上进行划分,发现它们属于外围串类型;验证了社会网络的一些统计性质,比如无标度分布、稠化定律和直径缩减等;发现社会网络中存在紧密连接且直径较小的核心结构,规模中等的社区主要呈现星型结构;基于事件框架研究了社会网络中社区结构的进化,发现社区间的融合很大程度上取决于社区间直接连接的节点所构成网络的聚类系数,而社区的分裂则与该社区的聚类系数相关.

  16. The social structure of heat consumption in Denmark: New interpretations from quantitative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Rhiger

    The role of households in relation to heat and energy consumption has been well-described in both quantitative and qualitative studies. However, where practice theory has developed as the main theoretical framework within qualitative studies on energy consumption, the more recent quantitative...... studies do not interpret the results within a sociological theoretical context. Consequently, the two approaches are not contributing their respective insights on how to understand energy consumption. In this paper, the methodology of the quantitative studies is combined with the theoretical perspectives......, education, occupation, and immigration status influence the amount of heat consumed by a household; directly as an indicator of household practices and indirectly through type of building and household characteristics. New interpretations based on theories of practice show that factors such as the social...

  17. Social Structure and Genetic Distance Mediate Nestmate Recognition and Aggressiveness in the Facultative Polygynous Ant Pheidole pallidula

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laet, Sophie; Lenoir, Alain; Passera, Luc; Aron, Serge

    2016-01-01

    In social insects, the evolutionary stability of cooperation depends on the privileged relationships between individuals of the social group, which is facilitated by the recognition of relatives. Nestmate recognition is based on genetically determined cues and/or environmentally derived chemical components present on the cuticle of individuals. Here, we studied nestmate recognition in the ant Pheidole pallidula, a species where both single-queen (monogyne) and multiple-queen (polygyne) colonies co-occur in the same population. We combined geographical, genetic and chemical analyses to disentangle the factors influencing the level of intraspecific aggressiveness. We show that encounters between workers from neighbouring colonies (i.e., nests less than 5 m away) are on average less aggressive than those between workers from more distant colonies. Aggressive behaviour is associated with the level of genetic difference: workers from monogyne colonies are more aggressive than workers from polygyne colonies, and the intensity of aggressiveness is positively associated with the genetic distance between colonies. Since the genetic distance is correlated with the spatial distance between pairs of colonies, the lower level of aggression toward neighbours may result from their higher relatedness. In contrast, the analysis of overall cuticular hydrocarbon profiles shows that aggressive behaviour is associated neither with the chemical diversity of colonies, nor with the chemical distances between them. When considering methyl-branched alkanes only, however, chemical distances differed between monogyne and polygyne colonies and were significantly associated with aggressiveness. Altogether, these results show that the social structure of colonies and the genetic distances between colonies are two major factors influencing the intensity of agonistic behaviours in the ant P. pallidula. PMID:27243627

  18. Trends in changes of national economic structures, influence of European social models, and policy options

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Semerák, Vilém

    Praha : Karolinum, 2010 - (Mejstřík, M.; Yang, Y.), s. 229-279 ISBN 978-80-246-1774-9 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : Central and Eastern European countries * national economic structures * economic policies Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  19. "We give back". A structuration perspective on the contribution of Corporate Social Responsibility to positive peace: the case of Belize Natural Energy Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Lupini, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This thesis examines the potential contribution of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) to the achievement of a positive peace in societies where violence has penetrated the social structure. The objective of the research is to explore how CSR can be designed to enable companies embracing a peace-oriented approach in conducting their businesses. CSR, in fact, is a well-established business practice, which is evolving along with the growing public demand for ethical, sustainable and respon...

  20. Mental symptoms and comorbid behaviours among Inuit in Greenland: the role of household crowding and household social structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Bjerregaard, Peter

    3108 Inuit aged 18 years and older are from the Inuit Health in Transition Survey. Dependent variables considered were: feelings of depression and of anxiety; binge drinking; harmful drinking; and use of marijuana. Household crowding was measured by the number of people in the house, and the social...... higher risk of reporting feeling anxious (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.00-1.09) or depressed (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.02-1.09), but with lower risks of heavy drinking (OR: 0.89; 95%CI: 0.82-0.98), use of marijuana (OR: 0.85; 95%CI: 0.77-0.94), and marginally (p<0.10) with harmful drinking (OR: 0.92; 95%CI: 0.......84-1.01). These associations were explained when considering the social structure of the household. Compared to households with children, the risk of feeling depressed was less likely among people living in ‘adult-only’ households (OR: 0.81; 95%CI: 0.66-0.97). The risk of binge drinking (OR: 1.99; 95%CI: 1...

  1. Social representations on aging: Structural differences concerning age group and cultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Wachelke

    2010-01-01

    y la activación de esquemas cognitivos básicos relacionados con las representaciones sociales sobre el envejecimiento, se llevaron a cabo dos encuestas científicas controladas para evaluar las funciones del grupo de edad y del contexto cultural y para diferenciar las estructuras de representación. También se tuvo en cuenta el género. En el estudio 1 la muestra fué de 80 participantes italianos equilibrada por sexo y grupo etáreo. El estudio 2 tuvo un diseño similar, comparando los resultados de la muestra de jóvenes italianos con un grupo de 40 jóvenes brasileños. Los instrumentos fueron cuestionarios con tareas de esquemas cognitivos básicos estándar y cuestionarios de centralidad. El análisis log-lineal y pruebas de chi cuadrado de una via fueron empleados para el análisis de datos. Los resultados indicaron que tanto en términos del estatus estructural como de la activación de esquemas, el grupo de edad y la variable contexto cultural están asociados a las diferencias en las representaciones, mientras que el papel del género se limita a modulaciones periféricas. El estudio establece las bases para futuras investigaciones básicas y aplicadas, proporcionando una caracterización estructural de base.

  2. Inferring the structure of social contacts from demographic data in the analysis of infectious diseases spread.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fumanelli

    Full Text Available Social contact patterns among individuals encode the transmission route of infectious diseases and are a key ingredient in the realistic characterization and modeling of epidemics. Unfortunately, the gathering of high quality experimental data on contact patterns in human populations is a very difficult task even at the coarse level of mixing patterns among age groups. Here we propose an alternative route to the estimation of mixing patterns that relies on the construction of virtual populations parametrized with highly detailed census and demographic data. We present the modeling of the population of 26 European countries and the generation of the corresponding synthetic contact matrices among the population age groups. The method is validated by a detailed comparison with the matrices obtained in six European countries by the most extensive survey study on mixing patterns. The methodology presented here allows a large scale comparison of mixing patterns in Europe, highlighting general common features as well as country-specific differences. We find clear relations between epidemiologically relevant quantities (reproduction number and attack rate and socio-demographic characteristics of the populations, such as the average age of the population and the duration of primary school cycle. This study provides a numerical approach for the generation of human mixing patterns that can be used to improve the accuracy of mathematical models in the absence of specific experimental data.

  3. Migration, social structure and old-age support networks: a comparison of three Indonesian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Philip

    2006-01-01

    Contemporary trends in population ageing and urbanisation in the developing world imply that the extensive out-migration of young people from rural areas coincides with, and is likely to exacerbate, a rise in the older share of the rural population. This paper examines the impact of migration on vulnerability at older ages by drawing on the results of anthropological and demographic field studies in three Indonesian communities. The methodology for identifying vulnerable older people has a progressively sharper focus, beginning first with important differences between the communities, then examining variations by socio-economic strata, and finally the variability of older people's family networks. Comparative analysis indicates considerable heterogeneity in past and present migration patterns, both within and between villages. The migrants' contributions are a normal and important component of older people's support, often in combination with those of local family members. Higher status families are commonly able to reinforce their position by making better use of migration opportunities than the less advantaged. Although family networks in the poorer strata may effect some redistribution of the children's incomes, their social networks are smaller and insufficient to overcome their marked disadvantages. Vulnerability thus arises where several factors, including migration histories, result in unusually small networks, and when the migrations are within rural areas. PMID:23750063

  4. IMPACT OF SOCIAL NETWORK STRUCTURE ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Lira Meirelles; Thais Cereda Ravasi; Fabio Teixeira Arten; João Paulo Lara de Siqueira

    2013-01-01

    This research sought to understand the relationship between the position of the central actor and the performance of a network, checking the influence of the central actor's performance over other actors. Among the specific objectives, we sought to describe the transactional content, the nature of the connections and the structural characteristics of the network. Data were collected through a questionnaire and analyzed with the help of software UCINET 6.0 and Excel. The results suggest tha...

  5. Kin structure, ecology and the evolution of social organization in shrimp: a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, J. Emmett; Macdonald, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    Eusocial societies present a Darwinian paradox, yet they have evolved independently in insects, mole-rats and symbiotic shrimp. Historically, eusociality has been thought to arise as a response to ecological challenges, mediated by kin selection, but the role of kin selection has recently been questioned. Here we use phylogenetically independent contrasts to test the association of eusociality with ecological performance and genetic structure (via life history) among 20 species of sponge-dwel...

  6. [The Family System Test: a 3-dimensional method for analyzing social relation structures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, T M; Funk, U; Schneider, M

    1989-01-01

    The Family System Test (FAST) is a clinically-derived figure placement technique designed for a three-dimensional representation of cohesion and power in the family. The FAST measures individual and group perceptions in typical, ideal and conflict situations. The flexibility of family structures is assessed by comparing representations of these situations. Scoring procedures as well as validity and reliability of the FAST are described. The relevance of the FAST is discussed from a systemic, developmental and clinical perspective. PMID:2740283

  7. Disease-emergence dynamics and control in a socially-structured wildlife species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Kim M.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

    2016-01-01

    Once a pathogen is introduced in a population, key factors governing rate of spread include contact structure, supply of susceptible individuals and pathogen life-history. We examined the interplay of these factors on emergence dynamics and efficacy of disease prevention and response. We contrasted transmission dynamics of livestock viruses with different life-histories in hypothetical populations of feral swine with different contact structures (homogenous, metapopulation, spatial and network). Persistence probability was near 0 for the FMDV-like case under a wide range of parameter values and contact structures, while persistence was probable for the CSFV-like case. There were no sets of conditions where the FMDV-like pathogen persisted in every stochastic simulation. Even when population growth rates were up to 300% annually, the FMDV-like pathogen persisted in FMDV-like pathogen was always FMDV-like pathogen in feral swine was unwarranted while response to the CSFV-like pathogen was generally effective. When pre-emergence culling of feral swine caused population declines, it was effective at decreasing outbreak size of both diseases by ≥80%. PMID:27114031

  8. Disease-emergence dynamics and control in a socially-structured wildlife species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Kim M; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2016-01-01

    Once a pathogen is introduced in a population, key factors governing rate of spread include contact structure, supply of susceptible individuals and pathogen life-history. We examined the interplay of these factors on emergence dynamics and efficacy of disease prevention and response. We contrasted transmission dynamics of livestock viruses with different life-histories in hypothetical populations of feral swine with different contact structures (homogenous, metapopulation, spatial and network). Persistence probability was near 0 for the FMDV-like case under a wide range of parameter values and contact structures, while persistence was probable for the CSFV-like case. There were no sets of conditions where the FMDV-like pathogen persisted in every stochastic simulation. Even when population growth rates were up to 300% annually, the FMDV-like pathogen persisted in FMDV-like pathogen was always FMDV-like pathogen in feral swine was unwarranted while response to the CSFV-like pathogen was generally effective. When pre-emergence culling of feral swine caused population declines, it was effective at decreasing outbreak size of both diseases by ≥80%. PMID:27114031

  9. The Social Stratification of Social Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Pintelon; Bea Cantillon; Karel Van den Bosch; Whelan, Christopher T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates how social class shapes the occurrence of social risks, defined as socio-economic circumstances associated with significant losses of income. The motivation for this exploration derives from the ‘individualisation thesis’, which calls into question the structuring impact of social class. At the same time, social policy discourse has, under the mantra of ‘social investment’, undergone significant change, with greater emphasis being placed on individual responsibility. H...

  10. Social learning and sociality

    OpenAIRE

    Reader, S.M.; Lefebvre, L.

    2001-01-01

    Sociality may not be a defining feature of social learning. Complex social systems have been predicted to favour the evolution of social learning, but the evidence for this relationship is weak. In birds, only one study supports the hypothesis that social learning is an adaptive specialisation to social living. In nonhuman primates, social group size and social learning frequency are not correlated. Though cetaceans may prove an exception, they provide a useful group with which to test these ...

  11. A novel mammalian social structure in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.): complex male alliances in an open social network

    OpenAIRE

    Randić, Srđan; Richard C Connor; Sherwin, William B; Krützen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial mammals with differentiated social relationships live in ‘semi-closed groups’ that occasionally accept new members emigrating from other groups. Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in Shark Bay, Western Australia, exhibit a fission–fusion grouping pattern with strongly differentiated relationships, including nested male alliances. Previous studies failed to detect a group membership ‘boundary’, suggesting that the dolphins live in an open social network. However, two alternative hy...

  12. NEW INTERACTION PARADIGM OF ECOLOGICAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC STRUCTURES OF HUMAN ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Yevgenyevna Buletova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Realities of the XXI century demand searching and grounding measures on changing economic, political, and the main thing, ideological institutions that determine trends of evolution and managing vital human activity at national and over-national levels. Using synergetic approach, the authors made an attempt to synthesize conclusions and main theses of neo-institutionalism theory, onto-psychology, as well as results of biological evolution for determining the way to overcome global ecological crisis at nano-level and to form a model of the mankind’s optimal evolution on the base of principle “priorities through parities”, using DNAsymbol as a code of survival, through co-evolution of economy and ecology. The main problem, existing even in economically developed countries, is the realization of the fact that the paradigm of the stationary economy is the only condition for the mankind’s survival. To solve this problem serious transformation of ideological institutions is necessary, at the expense of comprehensive and based on onto-psychological methods program of ecological literacy, that should harmonically blend with the presented by the authors triads of state strategic management and achieving the goal of development. It is the transformation of the national matrix, content and direction of which are set in order to ensure a balance of interests of all participants in ecological and economic development, will lay the necessary rules, both formal and informal, in the style of human behavior, social groups, the national economy. Realization of the program ecological literacy within the national policy on ecological development of the regions is one of the most important conditions for a natural, not imposed from the outside, prepare to use the paradigm of a sustainable economy as the basis of economic, political and ideological institutions of modern society, which is primarily the formation of a new paradigm of human device — devices

  13. Social Balance Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hokky Situngkir; Deni Khanafiah

    2004-01-01

    We construct a model based on social balance theory proposed by Fritz Heider to analyze the interpersonal network among social agents. The model of social balance theory provides us an interesting tool to see how a social group evolves to the possible balance state. We introduce the balance index that can be used to measure social balance in macro structure level (global balance index) or in micro structure (local balance index) to see how the local balance index influences the global balance...

  14. Test of an hypothesized structural model of the relationships between cognitive style and social anxiety: a 12-month prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díez, Zahira; Calvete, Esther; Riskind, John H; Orue, Izaskun

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether social looming cognitive style accounts for the predictive association between early maladaptive schema domains and social anxiety. We predicted that early maladaptive schema domains would predict the increase of social anxiety over time and that social looming would act as a mediator between schema domains and social anxiety. A three-wave longitudinal design was used. The participants (N=471, 56.95% women) were Spanish adolescents and young adults aged between 16 and 25 years old (Mage=17.81, SD age=3.19). The results showed that three schema domains (impaired autonomy and performance, impaired limits, and other-directedness) predicted the increase in social anxiety and that LCS for social threat acted as a mediator between other-directedness and social anxiety at T3. These results are important to improve the knowledge of the cognitive mechanisms that are involved in the occurrence and development of social anxiety. PMID:25602785

  15. Understanding social media logic

    OpenAIRE

    José van Dijck; Thomas Poell

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mech­anics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media lo...

  16. Panarchy: Discontinuities Reveal Similarities in the Dynamic System Structure of Ecological and Social Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R. Allen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review the empirical evidence of discontinuous distributions in complex systems within the context of panarchy theory and discuss the significance of discontinuities for understanding emergent properties such as resilience. Over specific spatial-temporal scale ranges, complex systems can configure in a variety of regimes, each defined by a characteristic set of self-organized structures and processes. A system may remain within a regime or dramatically shift to another regime. Understanding the drivers of regime shifts has provided critical insight into system structure and resilience. Although analyses of regime shifts have tended to focus on the system level, new evidence suggests that the same system behaviors operate within scales. In essence, complex systems exhibit multiple dynamic regimes nested within the larger system, each of which operates at a particular scale. Discrete size classes observed in variables in complex systems are evidence of these multiple regimes within complex systems, and the discontinuities between size classes indicate changes in scale.

  17. LA VIDA DESPUÉS DE LA MUERTE: CRISIS DE REPRODUCCIÓN Y ESTRUCTURA SOCIAL DE UN GRUPO EVANGÉLICO / Life after death: crisis of reproduction and social structure of an evangelical group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Espinosa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo intenta comprender el sentido de los conflictos y cambios que derivaron de la muerte de dos líderes de un grupo evangélico conocido como Hermanos Libres en Santiago del Estero (Argentina. Sostendré que los conflictos y reformas que se desarrollaron expresan los componentes y el dinamismo de la estructura social cuando se juega drásticamente la reproducción del grupo. Las disputas familiares, las iglesias como unidades sociales significativas, los diferentes modos de construir liderazgos y las diferencias generacionales tensan y conjugan la estructura de relaciones en que se desenvuelve la vida del grupo. Delimitar esas formas estructurales permitirá conocer dinámicas procesuales de una situación de crisis y ponderar en rigor qué cambia y qué permanece cuando en el campo de estudios de la religión contemporáneo se habla de radicales transformaciones epocales.  Abstract  This article attempts to make sense of the stresses and directions of changes that occurred after the death of two leaders of an evangelical group. It argues that the conflicts and reforms derived from that conjuncture, in which the reproduction of the group was destabilized, reveal the components and dynamics of the social structure. Family disputes, the churches as significant social units, the different ways to build leadership and generational differences tighten and combine the structure of relationships unfolded by the Free Brethren. A goal of this article is to delineate the structural forms revealed in the procedural dynamics of a reproduction crisis. In the present field of studies of contemporary religion a common attitude of knowledge is to see radical transformation everywhere. Counterbalancing this tendency, my empirical work seek to comprehend what changes and what remains, or the limits unto which a religious or social group can move from traditional culture and social cores.

  18. Female song rate and structure predict reproductive success in a socially monogamous bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Heather Brunton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is commonly regarded as a male trait that has evolved through sexual selection. However, recent research has prompted a re-evaluation of this view by demonstrating that female song is an ancestral and phylogenetically widespread trait. Species with female song provide opportunities to study selective pressures and mechanisms specific to females within the wider context of social competition. We investigated the relationship between reproductive success and female song performance in the New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura, a passerine resident year round in New Zealand temperate forests. We monitored breeding behavior and song over three years on Tiritiri Matangi Island. Female bellbirds contributed significantly more towards parental care than males (solely incubating young and provisioning chicks at more than twice the rate of males. Female song rate in the vicinity of the nest was higher than that of males during incubation and chick-rearing stages but similar during early-nesting and post-breeding stages. Using GLMs, we found that female song rates during both incubation and chick-rearing stages strongly predicted the number of fledged chicks. However, male song rate and male and female chick provisioning rates had no effect on fledging success. Two measures of female song complexity (number of syllable types and the number of transitions between different syllable types were also good predictors of breeding success (GLM on PC scores. In contrast, song duration, the total number of syllables, and the number of ‘stutter’ syllables per song were not correlated with fledging success. It is unclear why male song rate was not associated with reproductive success and we speculate that extra-pair paternity might play a role. While we have previously demonstrated that female bellbird song is important in intrasexual interactions, we clearly demonstrate here that female song predicts reproductive success. These results, with others

  19. [Senior migrants in Bremen: demographic structure, social condition and health status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Z; Tempel, G

    2005-12-01

    In the coming years, the number of migrants of 60 and older will rise considerably in Germany. There are indications that their health problems are more severe than those of the native population, and that much can be done to supplement health care offers for them. The authors suggest to put this statement on a more objective basis and bridge the gaps of empirical research, focussing both on health relevant aspects of the general situation of senior migrants (differences in the cultural background, migration biography, accommodation, integration/segregation etc.) and on the health status itself. At the same time preconditions and possibilities of an intercultural opening of care structures and culture-sensitive nursing should be utilised and further developed. PMID:16379044

  20. Social Structure of Lions (Panthera leo) Is Affected by Management in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogbohossou, Etotépé A.; Bauer, Hans; Loveridge, Andrew; Funston, Paul J.; De Snoo, Geert R.; Sinsin, Brice; De Iongh, Hans H.

    2014-01-01

    Lion populations have undergone a severe decline in West Africa. As baseline for conservation management, we assessed the group structure of lions in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. This reserve, composed of one National Park and two Hunting Zones, is part of the WAP transboundary complex of protected areas. Overall mean group size was 2.6±1.7 individuals (n = 296), it was significantly higher in the National Park (2.7±1.7, n = 168) than in the Hunting Zones (2.2±1.5, n = 128). Overall adult sex ratio was even, but significantly biased towards females (0.67) in the National Park and towards males (1.67) in the Hunting Zones. Our results suggest that the Pendjari lion population is affected by perturbations, such as trophy hunting. PMID:24416263

  1. Social structure of lions (Panthera leo is affected by management in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etotépé A Sogbohossou

    Full Text Available Lion populations have undergone a severe decline in West Africa. As baseline for conservation management, we assessed the group structure of lions in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. This reserve, composed of one National Park and two Hunting Zones, is part of the WAP transboundary complex of protected areas. Overall mean group size was 2.6±1.7 individuals (n = 296, it was significantly higher in the National Park (2.7±1.7, n = 168 than in the Hunting Zones (2.2±1.5, n = 128. Overall adult sex ratio was even, but significantly biased towards females (0.67 in the National Park and towards males (1.67 in the Hunting Zones. Our results suggest that the Pendjari lion population is affected by perturbations, such as trophy hunting.

  2. Strengthening the enabling environment for women and girls: what is the evidence in social and structural approaches in the HIV response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hardee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in expanding public health approaches that address social and structural drivers that affect the environment in which behaviour occurs. Half of those living with HIV infection are women. The sociocultural and political environment in which women live can enable or inhibit their ability to protect themselves from acquiring HIV. This paper examines the evidence related to six key social and structural drivers of HIV for women: transforming gender norms; addressing violence against women; transforming legal norms to empower women; promoting women's employment, income and livelihood opportunities; advancing education for girls and reducing stigma and discrimination. The paper reviews the evidence for successful and promising social and structural interventions related to each driver. This analysis contains peer-reviewed published research and study reports with clear and transparent data on the effectiveness of interventions. Structural interventions to address these key social and structural drivers have led to increasing HIV-protective behaviours, creating more gender-equitable relationships and decreasing violence, improving services for women, increasing widows’ ability to cope with HIV and reducing behaviour that increases HIV risk, particularly among young people.

  3. Sluggish cognitive tempo in psychiatrically hospitalized children: factor structure and relations to internalizing symptoms, social problems, and observed behavioral dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Fite, Paula J; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani

    2014-01-01

    As research examining sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) advances, it is important to examine the structure and validity of SCT in a variety of samples, including samples of children who are clinically-distressed but not referred specifically for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study used a large sample of psychiatrically hospitalized children (N = 680; 73 % male; 66 % African American) between the ages of 6 and 12 to examine the latent structure of SCT, ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), depression, and anxiety using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results of the CFA analyses demonstrated that SCT is distinct from these other dimensions of child psychopathology, including ADHD inattention, depression, and anxiety. Regression analyses indicated that SCT symptoms were positively associated with depression and, to a lesser degree, anxiety. SCT symptoms were also positively associated with children's general social problems, whereas SCT symptoms were negatively associated with an observational measure of behavioral dysregulation (i.e., frequency of time-outs received as a part of a manualized behavior modification program). These associations were significant above and beyond relevant child demographic variables (i.e., age, sex, race), children's other mental health symptoms (i.e., ADHD, ODD, depression, anxiety symptoms), and, for all relations except child anxiety, parents' own anxiety and depression symptoms. PMID:23359144

  4. Multicultural counseling self-efficacy scale-racial diversity form: factor structure and test of a social cognitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Hung-Bin; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Lent, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to gather evidence on the factor structure and concurrent criterion validity of the multicultural counseling self-efficacy scale-racial diversity form (MCSE-RD; Sheu & Lent, 2007). The MCSE-RD was designed to assess therapists' perceived capabilities in performing culturally relevant in-session behaviors in cross-racial counseling. Participants were 209 students in counseling-related graduate programs in the USA. Confirmatory factor analyses identified a bifactor structure in which responses to MCSE-RD items could be explained by one generic and three multicultural-specific counseling self-efficacy factors. Support was also found for a social cognitive model in which self-efficacy and interests in multicultural counseling mediated the effects of prior cross-racial client contacts and perceptions of multicultural training environments on intent to perform multicultural counseling in the future. Additionally, outcome expectations were predictive of multicultural counseling interests and choice goals. Implications for multicultural training and directions for future research are highlighted. PMID:22574664

  5. Employing social accounting matrix multipliers to profile the bioeconomy in the EU member states: is there a structural pattern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Philippidis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of 'bioeconomy' is gathering momentum in European Union (EU policy circles as a sustainable model of growth to reconcile continued wealth generation and employment with bio-based sustainable resource usage. Unfortunately, in the literature an economy-wide quantitative assessment covering the full diversity of this sector is lacking due to relatively poor data availability for disaggregated bio-based activities. This research represents a first step by employing social accounting matrices (SAMs for each EU27 member encompassing a highly disaggregated treatment of traditional 'bio-based' agricultural and food activities, as well as additional identifiable bioeconomic activities from the national accounts data. Employing backward-linkage (BL, forward-linkage (FL and employment multipliers, the aim is to profile and assess comparative structural patterns both across bioeconomic sectors and EU Member States. The results indicate six clusters of EU member countries with homogeneous bioeconomy structures. Within cluster statistical tests reveal a high tendency toward 'backward orientation' or demand driven wealth generation, whilst inter-cluster statistical comparisons by bio-based sector show only a moderate degree of heterogeneous BL wealth generation and, with the exception of only two sectors, a uniformly homogeneous degree of FL wealth generation. With the exception of forestry, fishing and wood activities, bio-based employment generation prospects are below non bioeconomy activities. Finally, milk and dairy are established as 'key sectors'.

  6. The role of goal structures and peer climate in trajectories of social achievement goals during high school

    OpenAIRE

    Makara Fuller, Kara A.; Madjar, Nir

    2015-01-01

    Students’ social goals—reasons for engaging in interpersonal relationships with peers—are consequential for students’ interactions with their peers at school and for their well-being. Despite the salience of peer relationships during adolescence, research on social goals is generally lacking compared with academic goals, and it is unknown how these social goals develop over time, especially among high school students. The aim of the study was to assess trajectories of students’ social goals a...

  7. Structure Matters: The Role of Clique Hierarchy in the Relationship Between Adolescent Social Status and Aggression and Prosociality

    OpenAIRE

    Pattiselanno, Kim; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Steglich, Christian; Vollebergh, Wilma; Veenstra, René

    2015-01-01

    Peer cliques form an important context for the social development of adolescents. Although clique members are often similar in social status, also within cliques, status differences exist. How differences in social status between clique members are related to behaviors of its individual members is rather unknown. This study examined to what extent the relationship of individual social status (i.e., perceived popularity) with aggression and prosocial behavior depends on the level of internal c...

  8. Structure Matters : The Role of Clique Hierarchy in the Relationship Between Adolescent Social Status and Aggression and Prosociality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pattiselanno, Kim; Dijkstra, Jan; Steglich, Christian; Vollebergh, Wilma; Veenstra, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Peer cliques form an important context for the social development of adolescents. Although clique members are often similar in social status, also within cliques, status differences exist. How differences in social status between clique members are related to behaviors of its individual members is r

  9. Social structure, life stress and depressive symptoms in a high school-aged population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, S; Aseltine, R H; Colton, M E

    1992-06-01

    Data from a randomly selected sample of 1,208 high school-aged adolescents were used to examine the means through which life stress is associated with depressive symptoms. Analyses focus on family structure, socioeconomic status, and gender as background risks which directly and indirectly influence symptoms, as well as vulnerability contexts that shape differential responsiveness to stressful experiences. Findings indicate (1) significant gender differences in aspects of stress exposure and in additive models of stress effects, but stresses and supports do not explain the significant gender difference in depressive symptoms; (2) girls in low education backgrounds have the highest levels of depressive symptoms; (3) there are no gender differences in vulnerability to stress; (4) children in single-parent families have higher symptom levels, effects explained by economic conditions and stress exposure--they are no more vulnerable than others to the depressing effects of these stresses; and (5) both boys and girls in low SES backgrounds are more vulnerable to a wide range of stresses and support deficits. PMID:1619266

  10. Social Structure Changes in Networking Era%网络化时代的社会结构变迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少杰

    2012-01-01

    As the networking of social life has been causing a wide-ranging and deep-going transformation. The fast spread of absence communication, the promotions of meditated experience, as well as the enhanced power of social identity are the most significant transition of the society among the effects of networking. Communication is the open up form of the society; experience is the open up process of the society; power is the discipline of the society. When absent communication, a form that exceeds space limitation becomes the most popular and of the largest range of influence level communication approach, meditated experience becomes the leading experience that could form lateral connection while guiding present experience, the identity rights of numerous social members have changed the power structure of the society, the structure will experience more profound changes because of the change of these basic factors, and therefore human society will perform a brand new social formation, From the recent important social event around the nation and also the world, there is no doubt that networking has been boosting the profound social changes. However, as for the profoundness and complexity of the networking of social life, there are still various opinions about the theories formed from different point of views among academia. Thus discriminating the theoretical controversies should be a significant task of clearly understanding the profound changes of internet society.%社会生活网络化,已经引起了广泛而深刻的社会变迁。网民队伍快速扩大,网络交往活动日益活跃,以及近些年发生的一系列重大网络事件,都说明了缺场交往已经迅速扩展,传递经验的地位大幅提升,社会认同的力量得到了明确彰显。这些是网络化引起的最明显的社会变迁。交往是社会的展开形式,经验是社会的展开过程,权力是社会的支配力量,而当超越空间限制的缺场交往成为沟

  11. The stork, the plow, rural social structure and tropical deforestation in poor countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, M T

    1996-01-01

    This study is an exploration of the relationships between income, demographic pressure, technological change in agriculture, and the structure of political economies in light of cross-country differences in deforestation. The study focuses on small farmers and shifting cultivation. The analysis is based on a model developed by Larson (1994) that accounts for rural poverty, rootlessness, and distribution of landholdings. Regression equations model the average annual rate of deforestation, the relative area under forests, and a recursive model that includes both the deforestation rate and the forested area. Deforestation was reasonably well explained by a dummy variable for Asia, a rank order variable of the amount of forested area in 1980, the gross domestic product per capita in 1990, the average annual population growth rate during 1981-90, and the percentage increase in value added to agriculture during 1981-90 in 1990 dollars. Findings indicate that a 10% increase in the population growth rate increased the rate of deforestation by 10.6%. A 10% increase in income per capita increased deforestation by 49.5%. The influence of income on deforestation followed Kuznet's U-shaped curve. The turning point for reduced deforestation was income of $3500 per capita. Only Central and South America are near this income level. An increase in 1 agricultural worker per household increased deforestation by 50%. A 10% increase in smallholders' share of agricultural land reduced deforestation by 3.4%. Countries with high rural rootlessness had 23.6% less relative area under forests, suggesting that rural rootlessness rather than poverty per se leads to deforestation. The recursive model shows that demographic pressures led to deforestation and were mediated by technological change. Political economy theories of deforestation received strong empirical support. PMID:12292273

  12. Social cohesion among kin, gene flow without dispersal and the evolution of population genetic structure in the killer whale (Orcinus orca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilot, M; Dahlheim, M E; Hoelzel, A R

    2010-01-01

    In social species, breeding system and gregarious behavior are key factors influencing the evolution of large-scale population genetic structure. The killer whale is a highly social apex predator showing genetic differentiation in sympatry between populations of foraging specialists (ecotypes), and low levels of genetic diversity overall. Our comparative assessments of kinship, parentage and dispersal reveal high levels of kinship within local populations and ongoing male-mediated gene flow among them, including among ecotypes that are maximally divergent within the mtDNA phylogeny. Dispersal from natal populations was rare, implying that gene flow occurs without dispersal, as a result of reproduction during temporary interactions. Discordance between nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies was consistent with earlier studies suggesting a stochastic basis for the magnitude of mtDNA differentiation between matrilines. Taken together our results show how the killer whale breeding system, coupled with social, dispersal and foraging behaviour, contributes to the evolution of population genetic structure. PMID:19912451

  13. Prenatal exposure to moderate levels of ethanol alters social behavior in adult rats: Relationship to structural plasticity and immediate early gene expression in frontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Derek A.; Akers, Katherine G.; Rice, James P.; Johnson, Travis E.; Candelaria-Cook, Felicha T.; Maes, Levi I.; Rosenberg, Martina; Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Savage, Daniel D.

    2009-01-01

    The goals of the present study were to characterize the effects of prenatal exposure to moderate levels of ethanol on adult social behavior, and to evaluate fetal-ethanol-related effects on dendritic morphology, structural plasticity and activity-related immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the agranular insular (AID) and prelimbic (Cg3) regions of frontal cortex. Baseline fetal-ethanol-related alterations in social behavior were limited to reductions in social investigation in males. Repeated experience with novel cage-mates resulted in comparable increases in wrestling and social investigation among saccharin- and ethanol-exposed females, whereas social behavioral effects among males were more evident in ethanol-exposed animals. Male ethanol-exposed rats also displayed profound increases in wrestling when social interaction was motivated by 24 hours of isolation. Baseline decreases in dendritic length and spine density in AID were observed in ethanol-exposed rats that were always housed with the same cage-mate. Modest experience-related decreases in dendritic length and spine density in AID were observed in saccharin-exposed rats housed with various cage-mates. In contrast, fetal-ethanol-exposed rats displayed experience-related increases in dendritic length in AID, and no experience-related changes in spine density. The only effect observed in Cg3 was a baseline increase in basilar dendritic length among male ethanol-exposed rats. Robust increases in activity-related IEG expression in AID (c-fos and Arc) and Cg3 (c-fos) were observed following social interaction in saccharin-exposed rats, however, activity-related increases in IEG expression were not observed in fetal-ethanol-exposed rats in either region. The results indicate that deficits in social behavior are among the long-lasting behavioral consequences of moderate ethanol exposure during brain development, and implicate AID, and to a lesser degree Cg3, in fetal-ethanol-related social behavior

  14. Social-structural contexts of needle and syringe sharing behaviours of HIV-positive injecting drug users in Manipur, India: a mixed methods investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Shunmugam Murali; Newman Peter A; Chakrapani Venkatesan; Dubrow Robert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Few investigations have assessed risk behaviours and social-structural contexts of risk among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Northeast India, where injecting drug use is the major route of HIV transmission. Investigations of risk environments are needed to inform development of effective risk reduction interventions. Methods This mixed methods study of HIV-positive IDUs in Manipur included a structured survey (n = 75), two focus groups (n = 17), seven in-depth interviews, ...

  15. A novel mammalian social structure in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.): complex male alliances in an open social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randić, Srđan; Connor, Richard C; Sherwin, William B; Krützen, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Terrestrial mammals with differentiated social relationships live in 'semi-closed groups' that occasionally accept new members emigrating from other groups. Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in Shark Bay, Western Australia, exhibit a fission-fusion grouping pattern with strongly differentiated relationships, including nested male alliances. Previous studies failed to detect a group membership 'boundary', suggesting that the dolphins live in an open social network. However, two alternative hypotheses have not been excluded. The community defence model posits that the dolphins live in a large semi-closed 'chimpanzee-like' community defended by males and predicts that a dominant alliance(s) will range over the entire community range. The mating season defence model predicts that alliances will defend mating-season territories or sets of females. Here, both models are tested and rejected: no alliances ranged over the entire community range and alliances showed extensive overlap in mating season ranges and consorted females. The Shark Bay dolphins, therefore, present a combination of traits that is unique among mammals: complex male alliances in an open social network. The open social network of dolphins is linked to their relatively low costs of locomotion. This reveals a surprising and previously unrecognized convergence between adaptations reducing travel costs and complex intergroup-alliance relationships in dolphins, elephants and humans. PMID:22456886

  16. The impact of early life family structure on adult social attachment, alloparental behavior, and the neuropeptide systems regulating affiliative behaviors in the monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd H Ahern

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Early social attachments lie at the heart of emotional and social development in many mammals, including humans. In nature, monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster experience considerable natural variation in early social attachment opportunities due to differences in family structure (e.g., single-mothers, solitary breeding pairs, and communal groups. We exploited some of this natural variation in family structure to examine the influence of early social environment on the development of adult social behavior. First, we characterized the parental care received by pups reared biparentally (BP or by a single-mother (SM in the laboratory. Second, we examined whether BP- and SM-reared offspring differed in adult nurturing, bonding, and emotional behaviors. Finally, we investigated the effects of rearing condition on neuropeptide systems that regulate adult social behavior (oxytocin, vasopressin, and corticotropin-releasing factor [CRF]. Observations revealed that SM-reared pups were exposed more frequently (P<0.01, licked and groomed less (P<0.01, and matured more slowly (P<0.01 than BP-reared pups. In adulthood, there were striking socio-behavioral differences: SM-reared females showed low spontaneous, pup-directed alloparental behavior (P<0.01 and both males and females from the SM-reared condition showed delayed partner preference formation. While rearing did not impact neuropeptide receptor densities in the ventral forebrain as we predicted, SM-reared animals, particularly females, had increased OT content (P<0.01 and greater dorsal raphe CRF2 densities (P<0.05 and both measures correlated with licking and grooming experienced during the first 10 days of life. These results suggest that naturalistic variation in social rearing conditions can introduce diversity into adult nurturing and attachment behaviors.

  17. Social Movements and Ecosystem Services—the Role of Social Network Structure in Protecting and Managing Urban Green Areas in Stockholm

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Elmqvist; Sverker Sörlin; Henrik Ernstson

    2008-01-01

    Exploitation and degradation of urban green areas reduce their capacity to sustain ecosystem services. In protecting and managing these areas, research has increasingly focused on actors in civil society. Here, we analyzed an urban movement of 62 civil-society organizations—from user groups, such as boating clubs and allotment gardens, to culture and nature conservation groups—that have protected the Stockholm National Urban Park. We particularly focused on the social network stru...

  18. Building genetic networks using relatedness information: a novel approach for the estimation of dispersal and characterization of group structure in social animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Lee Ann; Browning, Lucy E; Holleley, Clare E; Savage, James L; Russell, Andrew F; Griffith, Simon C

    2012-04-01

    Natal dispersal is an important life history trait driving variation in individual fitness, and therefore, a proper understanding of the factors underlying dispersal behaviour is critical to many fields including population dynamics, behavioural ecology and conservation biology. However, individual dispersal patterns remain difficult to quantify despite many years of research using direct and indirect methods. Here, we quantify dispersal in a single intensively studied population of the cooperatively breeding chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps) using genetic networks created from the combination of pairwise relatedness data and social networking methods and compare this to dispersal estimates from re-sighting data. This novel approach not only identifies movements between social groups within our study sites but also provides an estimation of immigration rates of individuals originating outside the study site. Both genetic and re-sighting data indicated that dispersal was strongly female biased, but the magnitude of dispersal estimates was much greater using genetic data. This suggests that many previous studies relying on mark-recapture data may have significantly underestimated dispersal. An analysis of spatial genetic structure within the sampled population also supports the idea that females are more dispersive, with females having no structure beyond the bounds of their own social group, while male genetic structure expands for 750 m from their social group. Although the genetic network approach we have used is an excellent tool for visualizing the social and genetic microstructure of social animals and identifying dispersers, our results also indicate the importance of applying them in parallel with behavioural and life history data. PMID:22335253

  19. Visualization of Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, E.M.; Kotterink, B.; Jager, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Current visualizations of social networks are mostly some form of node-link diagram. Depending on the type of social network, this can be some treevisualization with a strict hierarchical structure or a more generic network visualization.

  20. Social differences in injury risk in childhood and youth : Exploring the roles of structural and triggering factors

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Karin

    2003-01-01

    Injuries are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among children and adolescents. Injury risks are not randomly distributed across social groups. The primary aim of this thesis is to increase knowledge about the determinants of the social distribution of injuries among children and adolescents. Family-related social characteristics and peer victimisation in the school environment are studied separately and in combination. The first three studies, based on Swedish nati...

  1. Acoustic behaviour, ecology and social structure of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus, Montagu 1821) in the North Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Englund, Anneli

    2014-01-01

    Communication is important for social and other behavioural interactions in most marine mammal species. The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus, Montagu, 1821) is a highly social species that use whistles as communication calls to express identity and to initiate and maintain contact between socially interactive individuals. In this thesis, the degree of variability in whistle behaviour and whistle characteristics was examined between different habitats on a range of spatial scales. The wh...

  2. The Social Adaptability Problems of Rural Youth Entrepreneurship in Hometowns in Dual Social Structure%二元社会结构下农村青年回乡创业社会适应性问题初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波

    2013-01-01

    In the current dual social structure, rural youth entrepreneurial in hometowns faces four aspects of social adaptability problems which are conflict of values, employment concept conflict, management lacking, and the education and learning fault. This situation is largely attributable to the current dual social policy, as well as social factors, family factors and the lack of youth themselves in knowledge structure, ideas and economic base. To enhance the adaptability of rural youth entrepreneurial in hometowns, the need to reform unconscionable policies and systems, to solve the corresponding social issues and family barriers, and to strengthen youth education and improve the quality of sustainable development.%在当前的二元社会结构下,农村青年回乡创业面临着价值观念冲突、就业理念矛盾、管理方式欠缺、教育学习断层等四个方面的适应性问题。造成这种状况的原因,主要是现行的二元社会政策,以及社会因素、家庭因素和青年自身在知识结构、观念、经济基础等方面的欠缺。要提升农村青年回乡创业的适应性,需要改革修订显失公平的政策制度,针对性地解决相应的社会问题和家庭障碍,并对青年加强教育,提高可持续发展素质。

  3. Professional values of social work: social and cultural aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Васильченко, О. А.

    2015-01-01

    The structural features of professional values of social work are analysed from the standpoint of social and cultural approach. The results of a sociological study of structure of the Ukrainian society values and perceptions of professional social work values, which allowed to determine the ideal value-image of a social worker, are introduced.Special role of a social worker is that they do not only solve specific social problems of their clients, but also help people develop new moral values ...

  4. Change: Social, Cultural and Educational.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Philip

    1981-01-01

    The development of a paradigm expressing social dissatisfaction was founded in the social movements of the late 1960s. Its result was to displace the individualistic, meritorious view of education with a structural one aimed at eliminating social inequality. (JN)

  5. Visualization of Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ing-Xiang; Yang, Cheng-Zen

    With the ubiquitous characteristic of the Internet, today many online social environments are provided to connect people. Various social relationships are thus created, connected, and migrated from our real lives to the Internet environment from different social groups. Many social communities and relationships are also quickly constructed and connected via instant personal messengers, blogs, Twitter, Facebook, and a great variety of online social services. Since social network visualizations can structure the complex relationships between different groups of individuals or organizations, they are helpful to analyze the social activities and relationships of actors, particularly over a large number of nodes. Therefore, many studies and visualization tools have been investigated to present social networks with graph representations. In this chapter, we will first review the background of social network analysis and visualization methods, and then introduce various novel visualization applications for social networks. Finally, the challenges and the future development of visualizing online social networks are discussed.

  6. Social Function and Communication in Optimal Outcome Children and Adolescents with an Autism History on Structured Test Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orinstein, Alyssa J.; Suh, Joyce; Porter, Kaitlyn; De Yoe, Kaitlin A.; Tyson, Katherine E.; Troyb, Eva; Barton, Marianne L.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Stevens, Michael C.; Fein, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Youth who lose their ASD diagnosis may have subtle social and communication difficulties. We examined social and communication functioning in 44 high-functioning autism (HFA), 34 optimal outcome (OO) and 34 typically developing (TD) youth. Results indicated that OO participants had no autism communication symptoms, no pragmatic language deficits,…

  7. The Role of Goal Structures and Peer Climate in Trajectories of Social Achievement Goals during High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makara, Kara A.; Madjar, Nir

    2015-01-01

    Students' social goals--reasons for engaging in interpersonal relationships with peers-are consequential for students' interactions with their peers at school and for their well-being. Despite the salience of peer relationships during adolescence, research on social goals is generally lacking compared with academic goals, and it is unknown how…

  8. Social conflict in construction-related inter-organizational collectives : a comparative analysis and structural equation model

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Allan

    2005-01-01

    Irrespective of the groundswell of interest in construction industry conflict during the last two decades, there has been comparatively little research conducted that attempts to investigate the association between social conflict and ineffective construction industry inter-organizational relationships. This is despite the growing recognition that conditions conducive to effective social relationships between interdependent organizations contribute towards improved industrial productivity. Th...

  9. Comparing the Quality of Third, Fourth, and Fifth Graders' Social Interactions and Cognitive Strategy Use during Structured Online Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiro, Julie; Sekeres, Diane Carver; Castek, Jill; Guzniczak, Lizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the social and cognitive interaction patterns of third, fourth, and fifth graders as they collaboratively read on the Internet and responded to an inquiry prompt. Data analysis revealed patterns of cognitive strategy use that intersected with social forms and functions of dialogue. Dyads that exhibited higher levels of…

  10. Social Support Networks of African-American Children Attending Head Start: A Longitudinal Investigation of Structural and Supportive Network Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Boston, Ada L.; Kazura, Kerry L.; O'Neal, Colleen

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the stability and coherence of African-American children's social support networks. Participants included a total of 106 3- to 4-year-old children attending Head Start centers located in the southeast. Children completed a social network interview in two consecutive years at the Head Start centers. These interviews tapped…

  11. Structural and Functional Aspects of Social Support for Mothers of Children with and without Cognitive Delays in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Youn; Glidden, Laraine M.; Shin, Jin Y.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study reports development of a social support scale appropriate to the Vietnamese culture and the impact of social support on mothers of children with cognitive delays by using the developing scale. Method: Interview surveys were conducted with 225 mothers of children with and without cognitive delays in Vietnam. The structural…

  12. Disentangling the directions of associations between structural social capital and mental health: Longitudinal analyses of gender, civic engagement and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstedt, Evelina; Almquist, Ylva B; Eriksson, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2016-08-01

    The present paper analysed the directions of associations between individual-level structural social capital, in the form of civic engagement, and depressive symptoms across time from age 16-42 years in Swedish men and women. More specifically, we asked whether civic engagement was related to changes in depressive symptoms, if it was the other way around, or whether the association was bi-directional. This longitudinal study used data from a 26-year prospective cohort material of 1001 individuals in Northern Sweden (482 women and 519 men). Civic engagement was measured by a single-item question reflecting the level of engagement in clubs/organisations. Depressive symptoms were assessed by a composite index. Directions of associations were analysed by means of gender-separate cross-lagged structural equation models. Models were adjusted for parental social class, parental unemployment, parental health, and family type at baseline (age 16). Levels of both civic engagement and depressive symptoms were relatively stable across time. The model with the best fit to data showed that, in men, youth civic engagement was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in adulthood, thus supporting the hypothesis that involvement in social networks promotes health, most likely through provision of social and psychological support, perceived influence, and sense of belonging. Accordingly, interventions to promote civic engagement in young men could be a way to prevent poor mental health for men later on in life. No cross-lagged effects were found among women. We discuss this gender difference in terms of gendered experiences of civic engagement which in turn generate different meanings and consequences for men and women, such as civic engagement not being as positive for women's mental health as for that of men. We conclude that theories on structural social capital and interventions to facilitate civic engagement for health promoting purposes need to acknowledge gendered life

  13. Habitat use, social structure and basic ethological aspects of a band of coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus, 1766 (Carnivora: Procyonidae in Atlantic Forest area, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah de Barros

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Coatis (Nasua nasua are terrestrials, despite their extreme ease of climbing trees, and have a complex social structure, where the males are solitary outside the reproductive season and the females live in groups with their pups and juveniles for most of the year. This study aimed to describe the use of habitat and social structure of a coati group in the Cantareira State Park, a fragment of the Atlantic Forest located in the metropolitan area of São Paulo. The behavior of these animals was observed in the fragment twice per week. The results showed that it was similar to that described in the literature, with a preference for the ground habitat rather than trees, the fact that the males are solitary (except at the time of reproduction, and the gregarious habit of females and their pups and juveniles.

  14. Testing the application of social accounting matrix-based structural path analysis to urban agriculture in the Eastern Cape, South Africa / Harrison Kasumba

    OpenAIRE

    Kasumba, Harrison

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted in order to test the application of the social accounting matrix-based structural path analysis to urban agriculture at the local level. This was part of an attempt to advance an alternative methodology that could guarantee higher levels of precision and reliability in the measurement and analysis of the role of urban agriculture. A quantitative field survey research design characterised by stratified random sampling of respondents and consultation of se...

  15. A social approach of the individual decision making process by the search for a dominance structure: risk management by a business process manager

    OpenAIRE

    Uguen, Gurvan; Coppin, Gilles; LASSUDRIE, Claire; Lenca, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    International audience We focus on the way a business process manager treats the risks affecting a supervised business process. A descriptive model of the individual decision making process is proposed. This model mainly results from the integration, in the model of decision making by the search for a dominance structure, of the social aspect of the business process manager activity. In order to do this, we adopt a constructive and constructivist approach concerning the definition by the b...

  16. An analysis of structural relationship among achievement motive on social participation, purpose in life, and role expectations among community dwelling elderly attending day services

    OpenAIRE

    Sano, Nobuyuki; Kyougoku, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Background. Achievement motive is defined as the intention to achieve one’s goals. Achievement motive is assumed to promote clients to choices and actions toward their valuable goal, so it is an important consideration in rehabilitation. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the structural relationship among achievement motive on purpose in life, social participation, and role expectation of community-dwelling elderly people. Methods. Participants were community-dwelling elderl...

  17. Integrating Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) into Corporate Governance Structure: The Effect of Board Diversity and Roles-A Case Study of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Naif Z Alshareef; Kamaljeet Sandhu

    2015-01-01

    Research Purpose: the purpose of this paper is to determine the board diversity characteristics that affects on board roles in order to improve the integration of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) into Corporate Governance (CG) structure. This objective has been achieved by reviewing (CG) and (CSR) literature, and surveying various deliberations on offer at the first; second, by examining how the board diversity characteristics effect on their roles towards the adoption of CSR within case...

  18. Science as social construction: an inter-epistemological dialogue between two internet scientists on the inter-epistemological structure of internet science, part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Dini, Paolo; Sartori, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This paper is structured as an informal dialogue between two members of the EINS (www.internet-science.eu) Network of Excellence: a sociologist (Laura Sartori) and an engineer (Paolo Dini). The deck is stacked since the engineer also taught physics for a number of years, has been studying social and economic theory for the past 10 years, and is also currently active in mathematical and theoretical computer science research. The purpose of the paper is to provide an overvi...

  19. The Relationship between Social Work Education in Universities and Social Work Undergraduates' Career Choice——An Structural Social Work Perspective%高校社工教育与社工毕业生职业问题分析——基于结构社会工作的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金超然

    2015-01-01

    近年来,随着社会工作专业的发展,学习社会工作专业的学生越来越多. 但近年来出现了一个特殊的现象,一方面是社会工作专业的毕业生找不到工作,另一方面是社会工作机构很难找到合适的社工. 这其中的原因不能简单用社工待遇低来解释. 对此,基于结构社会工作的视角,运用质性研究的方法,选取北京市社工专业发展较好的学校为例,从学校培养目标、培养方案、学生对社工的理解几个维度探求社工本科毕业生的职业选择原因. 研究发现,社会对于社会工作者的能力需求、高校培养和学生主观建构之间的差别,是社工毕业生就业难的重要原因.%With the development of social work, an increasing number of students have chosen to major in social work. However, in recent years, there is a strange phenomenon:on the one hand, many social work majors cannot find a job after graduation; while on the other hand, social work agencies cannot find suitable social workers. Unsatisfying income and benefits of social workers is not the simple reason to account for this phenomenon. Based on structural social work theory, this article adopts a qualitative method to study social work departments with sound development in some universities in Beijing, trying to examine the reasons for social work undergraduates'career choices from the aspects of educational goals, educational plan and students'understanding of social work. The result shows that the gap between the social needs for social worker's abilities, university education and students' subjective construction is one important reason leading to the difficulties of social work graduates'employment.

  20. Race, Social Context, and Consumption: How Race Structures the Consumption Preferences and Practices of Middle and Working-Class Blacks

    OpenAIRE

    Pittman, Cassi

    2012-01-01

    The contemporary experience of race in America demands that blacks become astute observers of their surroundings, required to read subtle social, interactional and environmental cues to determine how to appropriately engage others in order to gain respect and social acceptance. Consumption objects, whether physical or material goods or services and experiences, are symbolic tools that blacks mobilize in order to define and assert themselves wherever they may be. Market research reveals that d...

  1. Air pollution and social cost: a first estimate of potential savings from the urban application of nano-structured materials

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Cariola; Alessandro Manello

    2013-01-01

    Because nowadays more than 200 kind of diseases are to some extent connected to atmospheric pollution, with a very significant impact on the social cost of a community, it can be important to study the effect that plans for using technologies able to treat urban areas atmosphere as a whole (in particular public areas), may have on reducing social and economic costs. The relationship between the increment of air pollutant concentration and morbidity/mortality due to natural, heart, encephalova...

  2. Reduction of Social Inequality in High School:Exploring structures in the learning environment that contribute to learning opportunities for all students

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Ulla Højmark

    2014-01-01

    This article explores structures in the learning environment at the classroom level that can contribute to reduction of social inequality in education. It draws on qualitative observation studies of Latino’s in high schools in New York City, USA, by a Danish researcher. The purpose of this article is to explore ‘good examples’ from an outsider’s perspective and there by create an empirical and theoretical focus on how school characteristics and structures cross boarders are connected to the r...

  3. Beyond the Schoolyard: The Role of Parenting Logics, Financial Resources, and Social Institutions in the Social Class Gap in Structured Activity Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Pamela R.; Lutz, Amy C.; Jayaram, Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    We investigate class differences in youth activity participation with interview, survey, and archival data from a diverse sample of parents (n = 51) in two schools. Findings point toward structural rather than cultural explanations. Working- and middle-class parents overlap in parenting logics about participation, though differ in one respect:…

  4. A Research of the New Employees' Organizational Socialization Content Structure%新员工组织社会化内容结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎丹

    2013-01-01

      为研究新员工组织社会化的内容结构维度,基于组织社会化理论及因子分析方法,通过访谈、预测试等方法编制并修订了新员工组织社会化量表,采用该量表对156名员工进行正式调查。对调查数据采用 SPSS和 EQS 进行探索性因素分析和验证性因素分析,获得了新员工组织社会化内容结构维度。结果表明,新员工组织社会化内容结构由4个维度构成,即:组织文化、角色澄清、人际关系和组织政治。%In order to study the content of the new employees' organization socialization structure dimensions, based on the theory of organizational socialization and the factor analysis method,through the methods such as interviews and pre-test ,compiling and revising the new employee organization socialization scale.Using the scale to survey 156 employees and analyze the investigation data by SPSS and EQS exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis.Drawing that the new employees' organizational socialization content structure dimensions.The result shows that the new employees' organizational socialization content dimensions includes four dimensions,that is organizational culture、role clarification、interpersonal relationships and organizational politics.

  5. Social big data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Social Media. Big Data and Social Data. Hypotheses in the Era of Big Data. Social Big Data Applications. Basic Concepts in Data Mining. Association Rule Mining. Clustering. Classification. Prediction. Web Structure Mining. Web Content Mining. Web Access Log Mining, Information Extraction and Deep Web Mining. Media Mining. Scalability and Outlier Detection.

  6. Education and Social Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    The working paper is an attempt to structure the issue of education and social innovation and indicate topics that can be investigated further. Three aspects are outlined, the contribution of social innovation in educational provision, the educative dimension of social innovation and the issue of...

  7. The phenomena of social reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kumelj

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Social reality originates from social interaction in a social group. It is consolidated with social consensus. It is transcendent and relatively stable. Social reality is maintained in relatively isolated, balanced social environment. Majority of members in a social group spontaneously reacts to deviations. These are characteristics which many authors contribute to social reality. If social reality is to be understood as a collection of social-psychological phenomena, of which the important factor is structuring of environment, then these phenomena have to have similar characteristics as social reality itself. In this article various definitions of selected phenomena are presented, such as social norms, group values, stereotypes, prejudice, social representations, etc. The article contends that despite of lack of clear definitions, we can find views that connect the aforementioned characteristics to social-psychological phenomena.

  8. Predicting Clinical Syndrome in Students with Emotional Breakdown Experience based on Personality Structures: the Moderating Role of Perceived Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Fahimi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study investigated the role of personality constructs in predicting the clinical syndrome of students with emotional breakdown and moderating role of perceived social support in this relationship. Methods: Using purposive sampling and based on questionnaires of the love trauma, Beck depression and GHQ in students with emotional breakdown experience, 65 students with and 65 students without the clinical syndrome were selected from Payam Noor University of Tabriz, Tabriz University, and Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, and completed HEXACO questionnaire and multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS. Data analysis was done using SPSS16 and LISREL 8.54 by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and path analysis. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference between two groups in personality characteristics and social support (P<0.05, and social support had a moderating role in developing clinical syndrome after emotional breakdown. Conclusion: Personality characteristics and social support affect everyone's romantic relationships and would predict how to deal with the challenges in these relationships. After an emotional breakdown, if families are able to bring children out of this crisis with their direct and indirect support, this will lead to passing the trauma naturally and will prevent the continuation of the clinical syndrome.

  9. Social network data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2011-01-01

    Social network analysis applications have experienced tremendous advances within the last few years due in part to increasing trends towards users interacting with each other on the internet. Social networks are organized as graphs, and the data on social networks takes on the form of massive streams, which are mined for a variety of purposes. Social Network Data Analytics covers an important niche in the social network analytics field. This edited volume, contributed by prominent researchers in this field, presents a wide selection of topics on social network data mining such as Structural Pr

  10. Quality of life, social functioning, family structure, and treatment history associated with crack cocaine use in youth from the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana C.M. Narvaez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To assess the relationship between crack cocaine use and dimensions of quality of life and social functioning in young adults.Methods:This was a cross-sectional, population-based study involving 1,560 participants in Pelotas, Brazil. Crack cocaine use and abuse were investigated using the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST inventory. Outcomes of interest were quality of life, religiosity, and social functioning in terms of education, occupational status, family structure, and medical treatment history.Results:Lifetime crack cocaine use was associated with poor quality of life, worse functioning, impaired academic performance, and lower religious involvement. A greater maternal presence and higher paternal absence were more also more pronounced in crack cocaine users, who were also more likely to seek psychological and psychiatric treatment than the general population.Conclusion:Quality of life was severely impacted by crack cocaine use, especially in terms of general and physical health. Social functioning also differed between the general population and crack users, who had lower educational attainment and religious involvement. Maternal presence, paternal absence, and mental health-seeking behaviors were also more frequent among crack cocaine users, although these individuals reported lower rates of treatment satisfaction. Crack cocaine users also had significant social impairment, so that interventions involving family management and a greater focus on general health, quality of life, and functioning may make crucial contributions to the recovery of this group.

  11. Identification of social interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Blume, Lawrence E.; William A Brock; Durlauf, Steven N.; Ioannides, Yannis M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: While interest in social determinants of individual behavior has led to a rich theoretical literature and many efforts to measure these influences, a mature "social econometrics" has yet to emerge. This chapter provides a critical overviewof the identification of social interactions. We consider linear and discrete choice models as well as social networks structures. We also consider experimental and quasi-experimental methods. In addition to describing the state of the identificati...

  12. SOCIAL EVOLUTION IN ISLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Muhammad Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Sociology is a systematic study of human relations at social Level. It is a vast concept used to determine the relation of human beings at individual and community level. It includes social interaction accommodation and progress at reasonable levels. Sociologists examine the ways in which social structures and institutions such as class, family, community, power and social problems influence society are dealt with. The evolutionary trend at every step of life helps to accept all changes neces...

  13. Social Entrepreneurship and Social Entreprises: Nordic Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the way for the Nordic solicaristic welfare state. As the welfare state grew, civil society organizations and co-operatives lost ground, to a certain extent. But in recent decades, the welfare state has been restructured and simultaneous the concepts social entrepreneurship and social enterprises have...... gained attention. The Nordic context, with extensive public welfare structures and a high degree of citizens’ participation in public affairs, might affect the emergence of social entrepreneurship and social enterprises. In this book we demonstrate how the leading narratives and discourses that has......Migrant women stepping into ethnic catering; homeless men employed to take care of bees producing honey for sale; young people on the edge getting microcredit funding to start social businesses; or former criminals joining forces to create social and economic structures for an honest lifestyle...

  14. Responding to group-based discrimination : The impact of social structure on willingness to engage in mentoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hersby, Mette D.; Jetten, Jolanda; Ryan, Michelle K.; Schmitt, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    In two studies we examined women's willingness to engage in mentoring as a function of the perceived pervasiveness of gender discrimination and the appraised legitimacy of discrimination. In line with predictions, and confirming predictions from social identity theory, we found that perceiving discr

  15. What Does It Take for Social Work to Evolve to Science Status? Discussing Definition, Structure, and Contextual Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G.

    2014-01-01

    The emerging discourse on science in social work (SW) has generated much-needed analysis of the profession's status as a scientific enterprise. Brekke raised critical issues that must be addressed for SW to become a science. This response examines the contextual factors that led to the call for SW science. It also relies on a comparative…

  16. Structural Analysis the Poems of Khaghani and Masih Approach to Efficacy of Social Situations on Music of Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. N. Shah Husseini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural environment, social and physiological factors have impacts on rhyme, identical rhyme and rhythm. The influences of these factors on music of poetry of Khaghani and Masih have been analyzed. First, the rhythm of poems which were selected from two different periods is extracted and classified according to the point of view of scientists of metrics and rhyme. Based on the opinion of sociologist literature rhyme and meter of the poems analyzed. The result shows that more than fifty percent of Khaghani’s poems with the shirt rhyme and more than sixty percent of Masih’s poems with the moderate rhythms hefty have composed, which shows the impact of social factors on rhythms of poems. The effect of social factors on music of poetry is more than physiological effects. This study by research of Masih’s poems in two different social spaces was found that usage of long and short rhythms fifty twelve percent increased by changing the environment.

  17. Difficulties in Defining Social-Emotional Intelligence, Competences and Skills--A Theoretical Analysis and Structural Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moana, Monnier

    2015-01-01

    Demands related to the frequency of and time required for interactional tasks in everyday occupational routines are continuously growing. When it comes to qualifying a person's ability to interact with others, two prototypical concepts are often used: social competences and emotional intelligence. In connection to discussions about curriculum…

  18. Distributed Problem-Based Learning in Social Economy: A Study of the Use of a Structured Method for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorck, Ulric

    Students' use of distributed Problem-Based Learning (dPBL) in university courses in social economy was studied. A sociocultural framework was used to analyze the actions of students focusing on their mastery of dPBL. The main data material consisted of messages written in an asynchronous conferencing system by 50 Swedish college students in 2…

  19. Access to Social Capital II - The Quality of Measures of Range and Openness/ Structural Holes of Informal and Formal network

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Häuberer, Julia

    Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2011, s. 203-221 ISBN 978-3-531-17626-0 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2D06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Bridging Social Capital measures * reliability * validity Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  20. Results and Lessons Learned from a Coupled Social and Physical Hydrology Model: Testing Alternative Water Management Policies and Institutional Structures Using Agent-Based Modeling and Regional Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J.; Lammers, R. B.; Prousevitch, A.; Ozik, J.; Altaweel, M.; Collier, N. T.; Kliskey, A. D.; Alessa, L.

    2015-12-01

    Water Management in the U.S. Southwest is under increasing scrutiny as many areas endure persistent drought. The impact of these prolonged dry conditions is a product of regional climate and hydrological conditions, but also of a highly engineered water management infrastructure and a complex web of social arrangements whereby water is allocated, shared, exchanged, used, re-used, and finally consumed. We coupled an agent-based model with a regional hydrological model to understand the dynamics in one richly studied and highly populous area: southern Arizona, U.S.A., including metropolitan Phoenix and Tucson. There, multiple management entities representing an array of municipalities and other water providers and customers, including private companies and Native American tribes are enmeshed in a complex legal and economic context in which water is bought, leased, banked, and exchanged in a variety of ways and on multiple temporal and physical scales. A recurrent question in the literature of adaptive management is the impact of management structure on overall system performance. To explore this, we constructed an agent-based model to capture this social complexity, and coupled this with a physical hydrological model that we used to drive the system under a variety of water stress scenarios and to assess the regional impact of the social system's performance. We report the outcomes of ensembles of runs in which varieties of alternative policy constraints and management strategies are considered. We hope to contribute to policy discussions in this area and connected and legislatively similar areas (such as California) as current conditions change and existing legal and policy structures are revised. Additionally, we comment on the challenges of integrating models that ostensibly are in different domains (physical and social) but that independently represent a system in which physical processes and human actions are closely intertwined and difficult to disentangle.

  1. Social class and the STEM career pipeline an ethnographic investigation of opportunity structures in a high-poverty versus affluent high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikischer, Andrea B.

    This research investigates science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) high school opportunity structures, including student experiences with math and science course sequences and progress, college guidance and counseling, and STEM extracurricular activities (Weis and Eisenhart, 2009), specifically related to STEM fields and career and college choice, for top-performing math and science students. Differences in these structures and processes as they play out in two representative high schools that vary by social class and racial/ethnic makeup are examined. This comparative ethnography includes 36 school and classroom observations, 56 semi-structured individual interviews, and a review of relevant documents, all gathered during the focal students' junior year of high school. Three data chapters are presented, discussing three distinct, yet interconnected themes. In the first, I examine the ways in which chronic attendance problems and classroom distractions negatively impact math and science instruction time and lead to an instruction (time) deficit. In the second, I compare the math and science course and extra-curricular offerings at each school, and discuss the significant differences between sites regarding available STEM exposure and experience, also known as "STEM educational dose" (Wai, et al., 2010). In the third, I investigate available guidance counseling services and STEM and college-linking at each site. Perceived failures in the counseling services available are discussed. This dissertation is grounded in the literature on differences in academic achievement based on school setting, the nature/distribution of knowledge based on social class, and STEM opportunity structures. The concepts of "social capital" and "STEM capital" are engaged throughout. Ultimately, I argue through this dissertation that segregation by race, and most importantly social class, both between and within districts, damages the STEM pipeline for high-performing math and

  2. Iran : l’État islamique entre structures monopolistiques et modèle de l’État social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Kian-Thiébaut

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans l’Iran post-révolutionnaire, la segmentation de la société s’est amplifiée, l’économie est demeurée rentière et l’État, privatisé, sert avant tout les intérêts des structures monopolistiques, formées à la suite de la création des fondations révolutionnaires, de l’étatisation de l’économie et de sa réorientation vers le secteur de distribution. Le poids de ces fondations, dirigées par les conservateurs, qui jouissent d’un statut autonome et contrôlent une partie importante du PIB s’étend aussi à la sphère politique. D’où l’échec des tentatives d’une réforme structurelle profonde, en dépit de l’évolution de l’économie stato-centrée des dix premières années, établie sous l’impulsion des acteurs sociaux et économiques radicaux, vers une économie de marché. Face à la crise économique et au chômage massif, le gouvernement, soucieux de la fragilisation de la cohésion sociale, se rapproche du modèle de l’État social en optant pour une politique sociale dont les dépenses sont financées par les revenus pétroliers et non par la taxation et la solidarité. Ce qui risque d’entraver l’autonomisation de la population assistée et d’amoindrir l’influence qu’elle peut exercer sur l’État.Confrontée au verrouillage du système politique et animée par une volonté de participation sociale visant à introduire un changement par le bas, la société civile émergente, en particulier les classes moyennes, s’engage davantage dans l’activité sociale à travers des réseaux traditionnels et modernes d’entraide. Cette participation sociale est susceptible d’assurer, à terme, les conditions de développement des sphères de l’autonomie sociale.

  3. Social opdrift - social arv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Morten; Gabrielsen, G.; Nørrung, Per

    "Social opdrift - social arv" stiller på flere måder spørgsmål ved begrebet social arv. Bogen konkluderer blandt andet, at langt de fleste børn, der opvokser i en socialt belastet familie, bliver velfungerende voksne. Professionelle, der møder socialt belastede familier, har derfor et stort ansvar....... Naturligvis skal der tages hånd om udsatte børn, men det kræver samtidig stor opmærksomhed at sørge for, at fokuseringen på den sociale arv ikke tager overhånd, så det bliver en selvopfyldende profeti."Social opdrift - social" arv viser, hvordan forskningsresultater er blevet fremlagt på en måde, som har...... medvirket til at skabe en skæv opfattelse af, at forældrenes problemer er hovedårsag til børns sociale problemer. I selvstændige analyser vises, hvordan data, der normalt bruges som "bevis" for den sociale arvs betydning, tydeligt illustrerer, at det er en undtagelse, at børn får sociale problemer af samme...

  4. Charter and Party Boat Operators in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico: A Social Structure Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Duane A.; Ditton, Robert B.; Holland, Stephen M.

    1993-01-01

    To better address the charter and party boat fishery needs in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, fishery managers must understand the linkages between the industry and other groups and organizations that affect its success. Gulf state charter and party boat operators were interviewed to ascertain the extent of their social network linkages, membership in community organizations, business community relationships, and linkages to information sources. Approximately one-third to one-half of the charter and...

  5. The use of natural markings to study the demography and social structure in common minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris)

    OpenAIRE

    Bertulli, Chiara Giulia

    2015-01-01

    The demography and social structure were investigated in a whale (common minke whale; Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and a dolphin species (white-beaked dolphin; Lagenorhynchus albirostris) that are both abundant yet poorly understood within Icelandic coastal waters. Analysis were conducted from 12 years (2002–2014) of photo-identification data collected from onboard whale-watching boats in Faxaflói and Skjálfandi with some additional images obtained from colleagues working in Breiðafjörður. Str...

  6. Social Set Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatrapu, Ravi; Hussain, Abid; Buus Lassen, Niels;

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the basic premise of Social Network Analysis (SNA) -- namely that social reality is constituted by dyadic relations and that social interactions are determined by structural properties of networks-- is neither necessary nor sufficient, for Big Social Data analytics...... of Facebook or Twitter data. However, there exist no other holistic computational social science approach beyond the relational sociology and graph theory of SNA. To address this limitation, this paper presents an alternative holistic approach to Big Social Data analytics called Social Set Analysis (SSA......). Based on the sociology of associations and the mathematics of classical, fuzzy and rough set theories, this paper proposes a research program. The function of which is to design, develop and evaluate social set analytics in terms of fundamentally novel formal models, predictive methods and visual...

  7. Nuclear fuel cycle bringing about opportunity for industrial structure conversion; On social environment survey regarding location of nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Taiki (Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-01

    Three facilities of nuclear fuel cycle, that is, uranium enrichment, fuel reprocessing and low level radioactive waste storage and burying, are being constructed by electric power industry in Rokkasho Village, Kamikita County, Aomori Prefecture. These are the large scale project of the total investment of 1.2 trillion yen. It is expected that the promotion of this project exerts not a little effect to the social economy of the surrounding districts. Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, carried out the social environment survey on the location of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. In this report, the outline of the economical pervasive effect due to the construction and operation of the three facilities in the report of this survey is described. The method of survey and the organization, the outline of three nuclear fuel cycle facilities, the economical pervasive effect, the effect to the local social structure, and the direction of arranging occupation, residence and leisure accompanying the location of three nuclear fuel cycle facilities are reported. (K.I.).

  8. Technology as an Occasion for Structuring: Evidence from Observations of CT Scanners and the Social Order of Radiology Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Stephen R.

    1986-01-01

    New technologies such as the CT scanner are challenging traditional role relations among radiology workers and may be altering the organizational and occupational structure of radiological work. This paper expands recent sociological thought by showing how identical CT scanners occasion similar structuring processes and created divergent forms of…

  9. Bears are simply voles writ large: social structure determines the mechanisms of intrinsic population regulation in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Morten; Ims, Rolf A; Støen, Ole Gunnar; Swenson, Jon E; Andreassen, Harry P

    2014-05-01

    The literature reveals opposing views regarding the importance of intrinsic population regulation in mammals. Different models have been proposed; adding importance to contrasting life histories, body sizes and social interactions. Here we evaluate current theory based on results from two Scandinavian projects studying two ecologically different mammal species with contrasting body sizes and life history traits: the root vole Microtus oeconomus and the brown bear Ursus arctos. We emphasize four inter-linked behavioral aspects-territoriality, dispersal, social inhibition of breeding, and infanticide-that together form a density-dependent syndrome with potentially regulatory effects on population growth. We show that the two species are similar in all four behaviors and thus the overall regulatory syndrome. Females form matrilineal assemblages, female natal dispersal is negatively density dependent and breeding is suppressed in philopatric young females. In both species, male turnover due to extrinsic mortality agents cause infanticide with negative effects on population growth. The sex-biased and density-dependent dispersal patterns promote the formation of matrilineal clusters which, in turn, leads to reproductive suppression with potentially regulatory effects. Hence, we show that intrinsic population regulation interacting with extrinsic mortality agents may occur irrespective of taxon, life history and body size. Our review stresses the significance of a mechanistic approach to understanding population ecology. We also show that experimental model populations are useful to elucidate natural populations of other species with similar social systems. In particular, such experiments should be combined with methodical innovations that may unravel the effects of cryptic intrinsic mechanisms such as infanticide. PMID:24481982

  10. Growth and equity effects of changing demographic structures in the Netherlands: simulations within a social accounting matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S I; Tuyl, J M

    1991-01-01

    "This paper deals with the economic consequences of a changing demography in an industrialized country, namely the Netherlands. The analytical framework chosen is that of general equilibrium as statistically given by the social accounting matrix (SAM) in which we introduce households by size for the present economic demographic situation (1981) and for a future simulated situation (2010) featuring in particular a relative increase in one-person households (individualization). The income (output) multipliers of both SAMs show a positive growth bias towards three and more person households and towards mining, public utilities, trade and banking." PMID:12284397

  11. Changes in access to structural social capital and its influence on self-rated health over time for middle-aged men and women: a longitudinal study from northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Malin; Ng, Nawi

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, most studies on social capital and health have been cross-sectional making it difficult to draw causal conclusions. This longitudinal study used data from 33,621 individuals (15,822 men and 17,799 women) from the Västerbotten Intervention Program, to analyse how changes in access to individual social capital influence self-rated health (SRH) over time. Two forms of structural social capital, i.e. informal socializing and social participation, were measured. Age, sex, education, marital status, smoking, snuff, physical activity, alcohol consumption, high blood pressure, and body mass index were analysed as potential confounders. The association between changes in access to structural social capital and SRH in the follow-up was adjusted for SRH at baseline, as well as for changes in the socio-demographic and health-risk variables over time. The results support that changes in access to structural social capital over time impact on SRH. Remaining with no/low level of informal socializing over time increased the odds ratio for poor SRH for both men and women (OR of 1.45; 95%CI = 1.22-1.73 among men and OR of 1.56; 95%CI = 1.33-1.84 among women). Remaining with no/low levels of social participation was also detrimental to SRH in men and women (OR 1.14; 95%CI = 1.03-1.26 among men and OR 1.18; 95%CI = 1.08-1.29 among women). A decrease in informal socializing over time was associated with poor SRH for women and men (OR of 1.35; 95%CI = 1.16-1.58 among men and OR of 1.57; 95%CI = 1.36-1.82 among women). A loss of social participation had a negative effect on SRH among men and women (OR of 1.16; 95%CI = 1.03-1.30 among men and OR of 1.15; 95%CI = 1.04-1.27 among women). Gaining access to social participation was harmful for SRH for women (OR 1.17; 95%CI = 1.05-1.31). Structural social capital has complex and gendered effects on SRH and interventions aiming to use social capital for health promotion purposes require an awareness of its gendered nature. PMID

  12. Estructura social y composición temporal en una colonia de Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae Social structure and temporal composition in a colony of Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ortega

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Poco se conoce acerca de la estructura social de los molósidos en el Neotrópico. En este estudio se observó durante 4 periodos (2006/2007 la distribución espacial y la variación temporal de una colonia de Nyctinomops laticaudatus en el Palacio del Gobernador de la zona arqueológica de Uxmal en Yucatán. Se observaron 66 cavidades ocupadas por grupos mixtos de estos animales. Los grupos mixtos se conservaron todo el año, pero los individuos cambiaron de sitio de percha y de asociación de un grupo a otro. Esta estructura sugiere una organización promiscua. Durante los 2 años de observación sólo se identificaron adultos dentro de las cavidades, mientras que los juveniles y recién nacidos perchaban fuera de éstas. Los periodos de descanso fueron los más comunes en la colonia, pero también se observaron cópulas y visitas de individuos en los sitios de percha. Estos grupos de N. laticaudatus se caracterizan por un bajo grado de cohesividad entre sus diferentes miembros.Little is known about the social structure of the molossid bats in the Neotropics. During 4 observational periods (2006/2007, we studied the spatial distribution and temporal variation of a colony of Nyctinomops laticaudatus inside the Governor's Palace at the Archeological Zone of Uxmal, Yucatán, Mexico. We surveyed 66 roosting cavities consisting of mixed groups of males and females. This particular association (mixed groups occurred throughout the study, but bats shifted group membership by moving continuously from one group to another. Because of this pattern, we were unable to describe a unique social structure and we proposed a promiscuous system for the species. During the 2 year study, we identified only adult bats inside cavities, while newborns were observed roosting outside cavities in adjacent walls. Resting was the most common activity inside cavities, but visits and copulations were also recorded. In groups of Nyctinomops laticaudatus both sexes are

  13. Dynamics and Structure of Dispute in Open Group of Facebook Social Networking Service in Terms of Teenagers’ Homosexual Relations Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Kharitonov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the results of discussions in the group of Facebook social networking service, dealing with the problem of teenagers’ homosexual relations education. The goal of the research is to study the dynamics of the dispute in Facebook social networking service on the example of the closed group “Teenagers’ Sexual Orientation”. As a whole, 72 people participated in the discussion, involving both representatives, sharing the views of the LGBT community, concerning homosexual relations and teenagers’ heterosexual parents. As a result of the dispute, conducted within Facebook website 230 comments were left. Resulting from the content analysis of the message texts, the estimation of a number of parameters was made. The estimation showed that the parties of the virtual discussion are in deficit of decisions in terms of virtual disputes conduct. The declared wish to argue out doesn’t lead to the real activity, relevant to evidence-based disputes. Thus, we can consider that the participants of the virtual discussion are in deficit of the decisions in terms of virtual disputes conduct.

  14. A social net? Internet and social media use during unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Feuls, Miriam; Fieseler, Christian; Suphan, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Many people who are unemployed tend to experience forms of psychological and social losses, including a weakened time structure, diminished social contacts, an absence of collective purpose, falling status, and inactivity. This article focuses on the experience of diminished social contacts and addresses whether social media help the unemployed maintain their relationships. Based on qualitative interviews with unemployed individuals, the article identifies various types of social supp...

  15. Assessment of Social Interaction Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Kaidanovich-Beilin, Oksana; Lipina, Tatiana; Vukobradovic, Igor; Roder, John; Woodgett, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Social interactions are a fundamental and adaptive component of the biology of numerous species. Social recognition is critical for the structure and stability of the networks and relationships that define societies. For animals, such as mice, recognition of conspecifics may be important for maintaining social hierarchy and for mate choice 1. A variety of neuropsychiatric disorders are characterized by disruptions in social behavior and social recognition, including depression, autism spectru...

  16. The Social Consequences of Housing

    OpenAIRE

    Edward L. Glaeser; Bruce Sacerdote

    2000-01-01

    The Social capital literature documents a connection between social connection and economic outcomes of interest ranging from government quality to economic growth. Popular authors suggest that housing and architecture are important determinants of social connection. This paper examines the connection between housing structure and social connection. We find that residents of large apartment buildings are more likely to be socially connected with their neighbors, perhaps because the distance b...

  17. Social, psychological, and environmental-structural factors determine consistent condom use among rural-to-urban migrant female sex workers in Shanghai China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xiuxia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine potential social, psychological, and environmental-structural factors that may result in motivating female sex workers (FSWs, who are rural-to-urban migrants, and their paying partners in Shanghai, China to promote consistent condom use (CCU. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of Shanghai, including three suburbs and two downtown locales. We adopted a cluster randomized sampling method to obtain 20 geographic sites, which consisted of 1 or more communities/villages proximal to a location where FSWs were accessible. Five hundred four FSWs from 132 Xitou Fang (shampoo wash rooms, massage parlors, and hair salons who explicitly provided sexual services were enrolled in the study. Each participant completed a questionnaire survey and interview aimed to collect information on the perceptions and behaviors of individuals associated with a risk for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(HIV/AIDS,self-efficacy at negotiating safe sex,and the physical, social, and policy environment of the establishments where they worked. Results The percentage of FSWs who reported consistent condom use with their paying partners was 63.3%. Controlling for socio-demographic characteristics in multivariate analyses, environmental-structural support (OR, 3.96; CI, 2.52–6.22 for condom use was the most significant positive predictor of CCU among FSWs and their regular paying partners. A high perception of susceptibility and risk of HIV/AIDS (OR, 1.96; CI, 1.25–3.01, a high perception of benefits on condom use to protect themselves (OR, 2.06; CI, 1.32–3.22, and high safe sex self-efficacy (OR, 2.52; CI, 1.64–3.85 also play important roles on CCU based on multivariate analyses. Conclusions Environmental-structural factor support for condom use, in addition to social, psychological, and individual cognitive factors are significant predictors of CCU among FSWs, which should be

  18. Social networks and fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bernardi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fields of demography, sociology, and socio-psychology have been increasingly drawing on social network theories, which posit that individual fertility decision-making depends in part on the fertility behavior of other members of the population, and on the structure of the interactions between individuals. After reviewing this literature, we highlight the benefits of taking a social network perspective on fertility and family research. Objective: We review the literature that addresses the extent to which social mechanisms, such as social learning, social pressure, social contagion, and social support, influence childbearing decisions. Methods: We review the most recent contributions of the social networks approach for the explanation of fertility dynamics in contemporary post-industrial societies. Conclusions: We find that all of the social mechanisms reviewed influence the beliefs and norms individuals hold regarding childbearing, their perceptions of having children, and the context of opportunities and constraints in which childbearing choices are made. The actual impact of these mechanisms on fertility tempo and quantum strongly depends on the structure of social interaction.

  19. The Social Networks of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björk, Jennie; Bergenholtz, Carsten; Magnusson, Mats;

    It is a well-known fact in the innovation management literature that social network structures both constrain and facilitate ideation activities within firm boundaries. Still, recent research shows how the impact of social network structures varies across different contexts, depending e......) the characteristics of individuals involved in the given ideation process and 3) the social network activities of these individuals. The dependent variables are based on the idea level. Our research objective is two-fold: We explore how different kinds of social networks develop around varying idea categories...... and explain how particular social network structures facilitate some ideas to fare more successfully than others....

  20. Confirmatory Factor Analytic Structure and Measurement Invariance of Quantitative Autistic Traits Measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Ratliff, Kristin R.; Gruber, Chris; Zhang, Yi; Law, Paul A.; Constantino, John N.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factor structure of autistic symptomatology is critical to the discovery and interpretation of causal mechanisms in autism spectrum disorder. We applied confirmatory factor analysis and assessment of measurement invariance to a large ("N" = 9635) accumulated collection of reports on quantitative autistic traits using…