WorldWideScience

Sample records for apartheid-like social structure

  1. Is it necessary to assume an apartheid-like social structure in Early Anglo-Saxon England?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, John E

    2008-11-07

    It has recently been argued that there was an apartheid-like social structure operating in Early Anglo-Saxon England. This was proposed in order to explain the relatively high degree of similarity between Germanic-speaking areas of northwest Europe and England. Opinions vary as to whether there was a substantial Germanic invasion or only a relatively small number arrived in Britain during this period. Contrary to the assumption of limited intermarriage made in the apartheid simulation, there is evidence that significant mixing of the British and Germanic peoples occurred, and that the early law codes, such as that of King Ine of Wessex, could have deliberately encouraged such mixing. More importantly, the simulation did not take into account any northwest European immigration that arrived both before and after the Early Anglo-Saxon period. In view of the uncertainty of the places of origin of the various Germanic peoples, and their numbers and dates of arrival, the present study adopts an alternative approach to estimate the percentage of indigenous Britons in the current British population. It was found unnecessary to introduce any special social structure among the diverse Anglo-Saxon people in order to account for the estimates of northwest European intrusion into the British population.

  2. Evidence for an apartheid-like social structure in early Anglo-Saxon England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mark G; Stumpf, Michael P H; Härke, Heinrich

    2006-10-22

    The role of migration in the Anglo-Saxon transition in England remains controversial. Archaeological and historical evidence is inconclusive, but current estimates of the contribution of migrants to the English population range from less than 10000 to as many as 200000. In contrast, recent studies based on Y-chromosome variation posit a considerably higher contribution to the modern English gene pool (50-100%). Historical evidence suggests that following the Anglo-Saxon transition, people of indigenous ethnicity were at an economic and legal disadvantage compared to those having Anglo-Saxon ethnicity. It is likely that such a disadvantage would lead to differential reproductive success. We examine the effect of differential reproductive success, coupled with limited intermarriage between distinct ethnic groups, on the spread of genetic variants. Computer simulations indicate that a social structure limiting intermarriage between indigenous Britons and an initially small Anglo-Saxon immigrant population provide a plausible explanation of the high degree of Continental male-line ancestry in England.

  3. Implications of social structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Josefine Bohr

    Social systems in nature are characterised by heterogeneous social structures. The pattern of social interactions or associations between individuals within populations (i.e. their social network) is typically non-random. Such structuring may have important implications for the expression...... and evolution of behaviour, and for individual fitness. In this thesis I investigated implications of social structure for fitness and behaviour, with focus on three main areas: social structure & fitness, social structure & communication, and social structure & cooperation. These areas were investigated......, we investigate empirically the role of the social environment of individuals for their communication patterns. Our study species is a song bird, the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus). The results suggest that individual communication in this species is influenced by features of the local...

  4. Structure Mapping for Social Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Stella

    2017-07-01

    Analogical reasoning is a foundational tool for human learning, allowing learners to recognize relational structures in new events and domains. Here I sketch some grounds for understanding and applying analogical reasoning in social learning. The social world is fundamentally characterized by relations between people, with common relational structures-such as kinships and social hierarchies-forming social units that dictate social behaviors. Just as young learners use analogical reasoning for learning relational structures in other domains-spatial relations, verbs, relational categories-analogical reasoning ought to be a useful cognitive tool for acquiring social relations and structures. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. The social structure of schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbusch, S M; Glasgow, K L; Lin, I C

    1996-01-01

    The term social structure refers to a relatively enduring pattern of social arrangements or interrelations within a particular society, organization, or group. This chapter reviews how the social structure of the larger society and the organizational structure of schools affect the educational process within American schools. The institutional context of schooling is first discussed. The ideology of mass education, social stratification, status attainment, credentialism, and the emphasis on ability differences are considered. The focus then shifts to the organizational structure of schools, beginning with a discussion of the external social context for school organization. Attention is given to professionalism and bureaucracy, institutional forms of organization, decentralized control, and community influences. Finally, the internal structure of school organization is considered: teachers' working conditions, status differences among students, and curriculum tracking. Throughout, the emphasis is on ways in which social structure influences what is taught in school, how it is taught, and what is learned.

  6. Quantifying social asymmetric structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanas, Antonio; Salafranca, Lluís; Riba, Carles; Sierra, Vicenta; Leiva, David

    2006-08-01

    Many social phenomena involve a set of dyadic relations among agents whose actions may be dependent. Although individualistic approaches have frequently been applied to analyze social processes, these are not generally concerned with dyadic relations, nor do they deal with dependency. This article describes a mathematical procedure for analyzing dyadic interactions in a social system. The proposed method consists mainly of decomposing asymmetric data into their symmetric and skew-symmetric parts. A quantification of skew symmetry for a social system can be obtained by dividing the norm of the skew-symmetric matrix by the norm of the asymmetric matrix. This calculation makes available to researchers a quantity related to the amount of dyadic reciprocity. With regard to agents, the procedure enables researchers to identify those whose behavior is asymmetric with respect to all agents. It is also possible to derive symmetric measurements among agents and to use multivariate statistical techniques.

  7. Social Structures for Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bogenrieder, I.M.; Nooteboom, B.

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis article investigates what learning groups there are in organizations, other than the familiar 'communities of practice'. It first develops an interdisciplinary theoretical framework for identifying, categorizing and understanding learning groups. For this, it employs a constructivist, interactionist theory of knowledge and learning. It employs elements of transaction cost theory and of social theory of trust. Transaction cost economics neglects learning and trust, but element...

  8. Social structure of Facebook networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traud, Amanda L.; Mucha, Peter J.; Porter, Mason A.

    2012-08-01

    We study the social structure of Facebook “friendship” networks at one hundred American colleges and universities at a single point in time, and we examine the roles of user attributes-gender, class year, major, high school, and residence-at these institutions. We investigate the influence of common attributes at the dyad level in terms of assortativity coefficients and regression models. We then examine larger-scale groupings by detecting communities algorithmically and comparing them to network partitions based on user characteristics. We thereby examine the relative importance of different characteristics at different institutions, finding for example that common high school is more important to the social organization of large institutions and that the importance of common major varies significantly between institutions. Our calculations illustrate how microscopic and macroscopic perspectives give complementary insights on the social organization at universities and suggest future studies to investigate such phenomena further.

  9. Finding Community Structures In Social Activity Data

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2015-01-01

    Social activity data sets are increasing in number and volume. Finding community structure in such data is valuable in many applications. For example, understand- ing the community structure of social networks may reduce the spread of epidemics

  10. Social inheritance can explain the structure of animal social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilany, Amiyaal; Akçay, Erol

    2016-01-01

    The social network structure of animal populations has major implications for survival, reproductive success, sexual selection and pathogen transmission of individuals. But as of yet, no general theory of social network structure exists that can explain the diversity of social networks observed in nature, and serve as a null model for detecting species and population-specific factors. Here we propose a simple and generally applicable model of social network structure. We consider the emergence of network structure as a result of social inheritance, in which newborns are likely to bond with maternal contacts, and via forming bonds randomly. We compare model output with data from several species, showing that it can generate networks with properties such as those observed in real social systems. Our model demonstrates that important observed properties of social networks, including heritability of network position or assortative associations, can be understood as consequences of social inheritance. PMID:27352101

  11. Social Work, Structured Fun and the Jokes of Social Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    The topic of social work does not normally inspire laughter. So it is perhaps not surprising that research into the culture of social work rarely pursues its humorous aspect—the role of irony and laughter, for example. But if Michael Mulkay (1988) is right in suggesting that the domain of humor...

  12. The structural dynamics of social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Park, Jun Won

    2017-12-01

    Individual agency accounts of social class persist in society and even in psychological science despite clear evidence for the role of social structures. This article argues that social class is defined by the structural dynamics of society. Specifically, access to powerful networks, groups, and institutions, and inequalities in wealth and other economic resources shape proximal social environments that influence how individuals express their internal states and motivations. An account of social class that highlights the means by which structures shape and are shaped by individuals guides our understanding of how people move up or down in the social class hierarchy, and provides a framework for interpreting neuroscience studies, experimental paradigms, and approaches that attempt to intervene on social class disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mapping the Social Class Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toubøl, Jonas; Grau Larsen, Anton

    2017-01-01

    This article develops a new explorative method for deriving social class categories from patterns of occupational mobility. In line with Max Weber, our research is based on the notion that, if class boundaries do not inhibit social mobility then the class categories are of little value. Thus...

  14. Exploring Social Structures in Extended Team Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Ali Babar, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Extended Team Model (ETM) as a type of offshore outsourcing is increasingly becoming popular mode of Global Software Development (GSD). There is little knowledge about the social structures in ETM and their impact on collaboration. Within a large interdisciplinary project to develop the next...... generation of GSD technologies, we are exploring the role of social structures to support collaboration. This paper reports some details of our research design and initial findings about the mechanisms to support social structures and their impact on collaboration in an ETM....

  15. Family Structure and Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Dawn R.

    Regardless of family form, there is a universal belief that one's family is the most powerful agent of socialization. A sample of 38 junior high school students from single parent and nuclear families completed a questionnaire in order to examine the relative effects of peer influence and family influence in single parent and nuclear families.…

  16. Increasing Productivity through Social Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-15

    Development and Maintenance of Prosocial Behavior, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, 1980. Wolf, S. & Latan6, B. Interactive television and social...p<.01. There were no effects or interactions for trial block, indicating that practice, fatigue or boredom did not affect overall performance or the

  17. Social phobia: further evidence of dimensional structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crome, Erica; Baillie, Andrew; Slade, Tim; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron

    2010-11-01

    Social phobia is a common mental disorder associated with significant impairment. Current research and treatment models of social phobia rely on categorical diagnostic conceptualizations lacking empirical support. This study aims to further research exploring whether social phobia is best conceptualized as a dimension or a discrete categorical disorder. This study used three distinct taxometric techniques (mean above minus below a cut, maximum Eigen value and latent mode) to explore the latent structure of social phobia in two large epidemiological samples, using indicators derived from diagnostic criteria and associated avoidant personality traits. Overall, outcomes from multiple taxometric analyses supported dimensional structure. This is consistent with conceptualizations of social phobia as lying on a continuum with avoidant personality traits. Support for the dimensionality of social phobia has important implications for future research, assessment, treatment, and public policy.

  18. Personality structure and social style in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark James; Majolo, Bonaventura; Ostner, Julia; Schülke, Oliver; De Marco, Arianna; Thierry, Bernard; Engelhardt, Antje; Widdig, Anja; Gerald, Melissa S; Weiss, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Why regularities in personality can be described with particular dimensions is a basic question in differential psychology. Nonhuman primates can also be characterized in terms of personality structure. Comparative approaches can help reveal phylogenetic constraints and social and ecological patterns associated with the presence or absence of specific personality dimensions. We sought to determine how different personality structures are related to interspecific variation in social style. Specifically, we examined this question in 6 different species of macaques, because macaque social style is well characterized and can be categorized on a spectrum of despotic (Grade 1) versus tolerant (Grade 4) social styles. We derived personality structures from adjectival ratings of Japanese (Macaca fuscata; Grade 1), Assamese (M. assamensis; Grade 2), Barbary (M. sylvanus; Grade 3), Tonkean (M. tonkeana; Grade 4), and crested (M. nigra; Grade 4) macaques and compared these species with rhesus macaques (M. mulatta; Grade 1) whose personality was previously characterized. Using a nonparametric method, fuzzy set analysis, to identify commonalities in personality dimensions across species, we found that all but 1 species exhibited consistently defined Friendliness and Openness dimensions, but that similarities in personality dimensions capturing aggression and social competence reflect similarities in social styles. These findings suggest that social and phylogenetic relationships contribute to the origin, maintenance, and diversification of personality. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Competition in a Social Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Longjas, Anthony; Batac, Rene

    Complex adaptive agents develop strategies in the presence of competition. In modern human societies, there is an inherent sense of locality when describing inter-agent dynamics because of its network structure. One then wonders whether the traditional advertising schemes that are globally publicized and target random individuals are as effective in attracting a larger portion of the population as those that take advantage of local neighborhoods, such as "word-of-mouth" marketing schemes. Here, we demonstrate using a differential equation model that schemes targeting local cliques within the network are more successful at gaining a larger share of the population than those that target users randomly at a global scale (e.g., television commercials, print ads, etc.). This suggests that success in the competition is dependent not only on the number of individuals in the population but also on how they are connected in the network. We further show that the model is general in nature by considering examples of competition dynamics, particularly those of business competition and language death.

  20. Brain structure links loneliness to social perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Duchaine, Brad; Janik, Agnieszka; Banissy, Michael J; Rees, Geraint

    2012-10-23

    Loneliness is the distressing feeling associated with the perceived absence of satisfying social relationships. Loneliness is increasingly prevalent in modern societies and has detrimental effects on health and happiness. Although situational threats to social relationships can transiently induce the emotion of loneliness, susceptibility to loneliness is a stable trait that varies across individuals [6-8] and is to some extent heritable. However, little is known about the neural processes associated with loneliness (but see [12-14]). Here, we hypothesized that individual differences in loneliness might be reflected in the structure of the brain regions associated with social processes. To test this hypothesis, we used voxel-based morphometry and showed that lonely individuals have less gray matter in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS)--an area implicated in basic social perception. As this finding predicted, we further confirmed that loneliness was associated with difficulty in processing social cues. Although other sociopsychological factors such as social network size, anxiety, and empathy independently contributed to loneliness, only basic social perception skills mediated the association between the pSTS volume and loneliness. Taken together, our results suggest that basic social perceptual abilities play an important role in shaping an individual's loneliness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimal community structure for social contagions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Li, Lixiang; Stanley, H. Eugene; Braunstein, Lidia A.

    2018-05-01

    Community structure is an important factor in the behavior of real-world networks because it strongly affects the stability and thus the phase transition order of the spreading dynamics. We here propose a reversible social contagion model of community networks that includes the factor of social reinforcement. In our model an individual adopts a social contagion when the number of received units of information exceeds its adoption threshold. We use mean-field approximation to describe our proposed model, and the results agree with numerical simulations. The numerical simulations and theoretical analyses both indicate that there is a first-order phase transition in the spreading dynamics, and that a hysteresis loop emerges in the system when there is a variety of initially adopted seeds. We find an optimal community structure that maximizes spreading dynamics. We also find a rich phase diagram with a triple point that separates the no-diffusion phase from the two diffusion phases.

  2. Social Network Structures among Groundnut Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…

  3. Social structural consequences of population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R E

    1981-01-01

    Estimates from archaeological data of the numbers in the elite classes, nonelite occupational specialists, density of population, city size, and size of political units in the ancient Maya civilization suggest that there was a quantum shift in rate of development in the Early Classic period, associated with intensification of agriculture, and that the social structure approximated to a generalized feudal pattern.

  4. Hidden multidimensional social structure modeling applied to biased social perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletić, Slobodan; Zhao, Yi

    2018-02-01

    Intricacies of the structure of social relations are realized by representing a collection of overlapping opinions as a simplicial complex, thus building latent multidimensional structures, through which agents are, virtually, moving as they exchange opinions. The influence of opinion space structure on the distribution of opinions is demonstrated by modeling consensus phenomena when the opinion exchange between individuals may be affected by the false consensus effect. The results indicate that in the cases with and without bias, the road toward consensus is influenced by the structure of multidimensional space of opinions, and in the biased case, complete consensus is achieved. The applications of proposed modeling framework can easily be generalized, as they transcend opinion formation modeling.

  5. SOCIAL POLICIES AND STRUCTURAL REFORMS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Brunet Cid

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the social and structural policies in contemporary Europe. The presentation is organized in four sections. First, we discuss the emerging Europe, the new unity based on democracy and the market economy, the special European Union formula, and comparisons with America. Second, we analyze the dynamics of the European economy, the convergence process, the gaps between United States in productivity and standard of living, competitiveness issues, and the emergence of a new European economy and new European policy mix.Third, we consider European social conditions, the stationary and aging population, Europe’s low employment rate and permanently high unemployment. European economic growth could draw on two major sources: the labor reserves and reforms in factor, product and service markets. In a monetary union, advanced industrial relations should promote labor mobility and salary flexibility. The social security systems permit the redistribution and cohesion which defines the European model.Fourth, for the new Europe, the structural reform strategy is the way forward for the challenge of European economic policy and social policy: more and better jobs thanks to sustainable growth in a dynamic and competitive knowledge-based economy, favoring greater social cohesion.

  6. Information diffusion in structured online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Zhang, Yini; Qiao, Fengcai; Wang, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, due to the word-of-mouth effect, online social networks have been considered to be efficient approaches to conduct viral marketing, which makes it of great importance to understand the diffusion dynamics in online social networks. However, most research on diffusion dynamics in epidemiology and existing social networks cannot be applied directly to characterize online social networks. In this paper, we propose models to characterize the information diffusion in structured online social networks with push-based forwarding mechanism. We introduce the term user influence to characterize the average number of times that messages are browsed which is incurred by a given type user generating a message, and study the diffusion threshold, above which the user influence of generating a message will approach infinity. We conduct simulations and provide the simulation results, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis results perfectly. These results are of use in understanding the diffusion dynamics in online social networks and also critical for advertisers in viral marketing who want to estimate the user influence before posting an advertisement.

  7. Retail Structured Products for Socially Responsible Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    Institutional investors are the main drivers of demand for socially responsible investment (SRI). Preferences for non- nancial goals such as social and environmental sustainability are also held by small retail agents who, nonetheless, are almost non-existent in the market. This paper studies how...... and when it can be utility enhancing to engage in SRI: It proposes a quantitative method to incorporate responsibility into the investment decision and investigates how structured financial instruments can facilitate access to SRI for small retail agents. The goal is to demonstrate market potential...

  8. Online Social Networks: Essays on Membership, Privacy, and Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, B.

    2017-01-01

    The structure of social networks is crucial for obtaining social support, for meaningful connections to unknown social groups, and to overcome prejudice. Yet, we know little about the structure of social networks beyond those contacts that stand closest to us. This lack of knowledge results from a

  9. Address rituals as heuristics of social structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Kotze

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The address form as linguistic variable has more realisation possibilities than any other, because semantic variation is involved and it reflects all the different interpersonal relations in the societal structure. Factors such as religious status, sex, kinship and age differences play a key role in the choice of the address form. It is hypothesised that the way in which address forms vary in a speech community is a linguistic reflection of the social norms determining the hierarchical structure of the community. Die aanspreekvorm as linguistiese veranderlike het meer verwesenlikingsmoontlikhede as enige ander vorm, want semantiese verskeidenheid is betrokke en dit reflekteer die verskillende interpersoonlike verhoudings in die gemeenskapstruktuur. Faktore soos religieuse status, geslag, verwantskap en ouderdomsverskille speel 'n sleutelrol in die aanspreekvorm. Daar word gehipotetiseer dat die wyse waarop aanspreekvorms in 'n spraakgemeenskap wissel, 'n linguistiese refleksie is van die sosiale norme wat die hierargiese struktuur van die gemeenskap bepaal.

  10. Community Structure in Online Collegiate Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traud, Amanda; Kelsic, Eric; Mucha, Peter; Porter, Mason

    2009-03-01

    Online social networking sites have become increasingly popular with college students. The networks we studied are defined through ``friendships'' indicated by Facebook users from UNC, Oklahoma, Caltech, Georgetown, and Princeton. We apply the tools of network science to study the Facebook networks from these five different universities at a single point in time. We investigate each single-institution network's community structure, which we obtain through partitioning the graph using an eigenvector method. We use both graphical and quantitative tools, including pair-counting methods, which we interpret through statistical analysis and permutation tests to measure the correlations between the network communities and a set of characteristics given by each user (residence, class year, major, and high school). We also analyze the single gender subsets of these networks, and the impact of missing demographical data. Our study allows us to compare the online social networks for the five schools as well as infer differences in offline social interactions. At the schools studied, we were able to define which characteristics of the Facebook users correlate best with friendships.

  11. Finding Community Structures In Social Activity Data

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2015-05-19

    Social activity data sets are increasing in number and volume. Finding community structure in such data is valuable in many applications. For example, understand- ing the community structure of social networks may reduce the spread of epidemics or boost advertising revenue; discovering partitions in tra c networks can help to optimize routing and to reduce congestion; finding a group of users with common interests can allow a system to recommend useful items. Among many aspects, qual- ity of inference and e ciency in finding community structures in such data sets are of paramount concern. In this thesis, we propose several approaches to improve com- munity detection in these aspects. The first approach utilizes the concept of K-cores to reduce the size of the problem. The K-core of a graph is the largest subgraph within which each node has at least K connections. We propose a framework that accelerates community detection. It first applies a traditional algorithm that is relatively slow to the K-core, and then uses a fast heuristic to infer community labels for the remaining nodes. The second approach is to scale the algorithm to multi-processor systems. We de- vise a scalable community detection algorithm for large networks based on stochastic block models. It is an alternating iterative algorithm using a maximum likelihood ap- proach. Compared with traditional inference algorithms for stochastic block models, our algorithm can scale to large networks and run on multi-processor systems. The time complexity is linear in the number of edges of the input network. The third approach is to improve the quality. We propose a framework for non- negative matrix factorization that allows the imposition of linear or approximately linear constraints on each factor. An example of the applications is to find community structures in bipartite networks, which is useful in recommender systems. Our algorithms are compared with the results in recent papers and their quality and e

  12. Language structure is partly determined by social structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Lupyan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Languages differ greatly both in their syntactic and morphological systems and in the social environments in which they exist. We challenge the view that language grammars are unrelated to social environments in which they are learned and used. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a statistical analysis of >2,000 languages using a combination of demographic sources and the World Atlas of Language Structures--a database of structural language properties. We found strong relationships between linguistic factors related to morphological complexity, and demographic/socio-historical factors such as the number of language users, geographic spread, and degree of language contact. The analyses suggest that languages spoken by large groups have simpler inflectional morphology than languages spoken by smaller groups as measured on a variety of factors such as case systems and complexity of conjugations. Additionally, languages spoken by large groups are much more likely to use lexical strategies in place of inflectional morphology to encode evidentiality, negation, aspect, and possession. Our findings indicate that just as biological organisms are shaped by ecological niches, language structures appear to adapt to the environment (niche in which they are being learned and used. As adults learn a language, features that are difficult for them to acquire, are less likely to be passed on to subsequent learners. Languages used for communication in large groups that include adult learners appear to have been subjected to such selection. Conversely, the morphological complexity common to languages used in small groups increases redundancy which may facilitate language learning by infants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We hypothesize that language structures are subjected to different evolutionary pressures in different social environments. Just as biological organisms are shaped by ecological niches, language structures appear to adapt to the

  13. The distortion of social identity structure as a result of social exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Suvorova I.Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the mechanism of human’s interaction with social system through the analysis of its distortion as a result of social exclusion. It was assumed that the impossibility to satisfy basic social needs destroys symbolic links between an individual and a social system. It causes the distortion of the structure of social identity and control over social reality. Third year students of Ecological faculty of People’s Friendship University of Rus- sia participated in the experiment...

  14. Social structure and indirect genetic effects: genetics of social behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jonathan; Atallah, Jade; Levine, Joel D

    2017-05-01

    The social environment modulates gene expression, physiology, behaviour and patterns of inheritance. For more than 50 years, this concept has been investigated using approaches that include partitioning the social component out of behavioural heritability estimates, studying maternal effects on offspring, and analysing dominance hierarchies. Recent advances have formalized this 'social environment effect' by providing a more nuanced approach to the study of social influences on behaviour while recognizing evolutionary implications. Yet, in most of these formulations, the dynamics of social interactions are not accounted for. Also, the reciprocity between individual behaviour and group-level interactions has been largely ignored. Consistent with evolutionary theory, the principles of social interaction are conserved across a broad range of taxa. While noting parallels in diverse organisms, this review uses Drosophila melanogaster as a case study to revisit what is known about social interaction paradigms. We highlight the benefits of integrating the history and pattern of interactions among individuals for dissecting molecular mechanisms that underlie social modulation of behaviour. © 2016 The Authors. Biological Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  15. Analyzing Social Influence through Social Media: A Structured Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, R.; Helms, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of social media enables billions of people to share their content and in doing so they influence others and are being influenced themselves. This virtual environment provides a new perspective for the current social influence theories. In this study, the state-of-the-art literature on

  16. Fundamental structures of dynamic social networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekara, Vedran; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann

    2016-01-01

    Social systems are in a constant state of flux, with dynamics spanning from minute-by-minute changes to patterns present on the timescale of years. Accurate models of social dynamics are important for understanding the spreading of influence or diseases, formation of friendships...... and their interactions in the network of real-world person-to-person proximity measured via Bluetooth, as well as their telecommunication networks, online social media contacts, geolocation, and demographic data. These high-resolution data allow us to observe social groups directly, rendering community detection......, and the productivity of teams. Although there has been much progress on understanding complex networks over the past decade, little is known about the regularities governing the microdynamics of social networks. Here, we explore the dynamic social network of a densely-connected population of ∼1,000 individuals...

  17. The Structure and Validity of the Multidimensional Social Support Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Patrick H.; Richardson, George B.

    2012-01-01

    The factor structure and concurrent validity of the Multidimensional Social Support Questionnaire, a brief measure of perceived social support for use with adolescents, was examined. Findings suggest that four dimensions of perceived social support may yield more information than assessments of the unitary construct of support. (Contains 8 tables…

  18. Structural Peculiarities of Social Mental Abilities of Future Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermentayevaa, Ardakh Rizabekovna; Kenzhebayeva, Kundyz Serikovna; Umirbekova, Akerke Nurlanbekovna; Aubakirova, Zhanat Kanashovna; Iskakova, Akmaral Bakytbekovna

    2016-01-01

    The problem of social intelligence of researchers has attracted attention in recent years. Social intelligence is one of the most important characteristics of teachers. The aim of this research was to study features of structure of social intelligence of future teachers. The respondents in this study were selected 360 students of pedagogical…

  19. CONSUMPTION AS A SOCIAL STATUS SYMBOL IN STRUCTURALISM

    OpenAIRE

    N. D. Naydenov; T. A. Kirosova

    2014-01-01

    The article looks at the basic theoretical concepts of the political economy of the sign (structuralism, postmodernity) and their development in the theory of power based on the work by J. Baudrillard ‘For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign’. The study is focused on consumption as the person’s social status symbol, it compares and contrasts basic concepts of structuralism and neo-liberalism.According to structuralism social structure is reproduced through the reproduction of obje...

  20. The Socially Stable Core in Structured Transferable Utility Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herings, P.J.J.; van der Laan, G.; Talman, A.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    We consider cooperative games with transferable utility (TU-games), in which we allow for a social structure on the set of players, for instance a hierarchical ordering or a dominance relation.The social structure is utilized to refine the core of the game, being the set of payoffs to the players

  1. Entropy model of dissipative structure on corporate social responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuozhi; Jiang, Jie

    2017-06-01

    Enterprise is prompted to fulfill the social responsibility requirement by the internal and external environment. In this complex system, some studies suggest that firms have an orderly or chaotic entropy exchange behavior. Based on the theory of dissipative structure, this paper constructs the entropy index system of corporate social responsibility(CSR) and explores the dissipative structure of CSR through Brusselator model criterion. Picking up listed companies of the equipment manufacturing, the research shows that CSR has positive incentive to negative entropy and promotes the stability of dissipative structure. In short, the dissipative structure of CSR has a positive impact on the interests of stakeholders and corporate social images.

  2. Brain Structure Links Loneliness to Social Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Duchaine, Brad; Janik, Agnieszka; Banissy, Michael J.; Rees, Geraint

    2012-01-01

    Summary Loneliness is the distressing feeling associated with the perceived absence of satisfying social relationships [1]. Loneliness is increasingly prevalent in modern societies [2, 3] and has detrimental effects on health and happiness [4, 5]. Although situational threats to social relationships can transiently induce the emotion of loneliness, susceptibility to loneliness is a stable trait that varies across individuals [6–8] and is to some extent heritable [9–11]. However, little is kno...

  3. Social Capital in Organizations - Beyond Structure and Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrøm, Christian

    2003-01-01

    a consistent, bridging theory. Finally, there is a lack of understanding on how social capital develops over time and the potential benefits of taking a life-cycle view of social capital. In conclusion, the field of social capital in organizations still needs a consistent and coordinated research effort......The importance and usefulness of social capital as a concept in the study of organizations have been established by a large body of research. The aim of this paper is to review the concept of social capital in an organizational context, and it identifies five main issues that need to be addressed...... in future research before social capital can move definitively beyond being merely a metaphor for advantage. First, the unresolved issue of causality is a barrier in the study of social structure and social capital alike, and hampers both measuring scales and implications drawn from empirical research...

  4. Securing Social Media : A Network Structure Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiluka, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Due to its democratized nature, online social media (OSM) attracts millions of users to publish and share their content with friends as well as a wider audience at little cost. Such a vast user base and a wealth of content, however, presents its own challenges. First, the amount of user-generated

  5. Friends and foes : The dynamics of dual social structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sytch, M.; Tatarynowicz, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolutionary dynamics of a dual social structure encompassing collaboration and conflict among corporate actors. We apply and advance structural balance theory to examine the formation of balanced and unbalanced dyadic and triadic structures, and to explore how these

  6. Our Social Roots: How Local Ecology Shapes Our Social Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ruth

    There is overwhelming evidence that wide-ranging aspects of human biology and human behavior can be considered as adaptations to different subsistence systems. Wider environmental and ecological correlates of behavioral and cultural traits are generally best understood as being mediated by differences in subsistence strategies. Modes of subsistence profoundly influence both human biology, as documented in genetic changes, and human social behavior and cultural norms, such as kinship, marriage, descent, wealth inheritance, and political systems. Thus both cultural and biological factors usually need to be considered together in studies of human evolutionary ecology, combined in specifically defined evolutionary models. Models of cultural adaptation to environmental conditions can be subjected to the same or similar tests that behavioral ecologists have used to seek evidence for adaptive behavior in other species. Phylogenetic comparative methods are proving useful, both for studying co-evolutionary hypotheses (cultural and/or gene-culture co-evolution), and for estimating ancestral states of prehistoric societies. This form of formal cross-cultural comparison is helping to put history back into anthropology, and helping us to understand cultural evolutionary processes at a number of levels.

  7. Globalization, financial capitalism, and corporate social responsibility: Structural tensions

    OpenAIRE

    David Barbosa Ramírez; Christian Medina López; Myriam Vargas López

    2014-01-01

    Globalization and financial capitalism keep a synergy in a global context whose problems such as environmental degradation, social inequity, economic crises and corruption are intensified. Corporate Social Responsibility emerges as a mechanism that seeks to mitigate some of these problems, although its effectiveness and impact today are challenged. The system which globalization, financial capitalism and social responsibility are a part of, is currently facing a number of structural tensions ...

  8. Structural orientation and social agency in South Africa: state, race ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-08

    Dec 8, 2010 ... naturalist and racial historicist traditions of social agency when .... the segregationist and the apartheid states is premised on the structural embeddedness ..... the fact that what diversity brings to the epistemic formation is not ...

  9. Offspring social network structure predicts fitness in families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Nick J; Pike, Thomas W; Heeb, Philipp; Richner, Heinz; Kölliker, Mathias

    2012-12-22

    Social structures such as families emerge as outcomes of behavioural interactions among individuals, and can evolve over time if families with particular types of social structures tend to leave more individuals in subsequent generations. The social behaviour of interacting individuals is typically analysed as a series of multiple dyadic (pair-wise) interactions, rather than a network of interactions among multiple individuals. However, in species where parents feed dependant young, interactions within families nearly always involve more than two individuals simultaneously. Such social networks of interactions at least partly reflect conflicts of interest over the provision of costly parental investment. Consequently, variation in family network structure reflects variation in how conflicts of interest are resolved among family members. Despite its importance in understanding the evolution of emergent properties of social organization such as family life and cooperation, nothing is currently known about how selection acts on the structure of social networks. Here, we show that the social network structure of broods of begging nestling great tits Parus major predicts fitness in families. Although selection at the level of the individual favours large nestlings, selection at the level of the kin-group primarily favours families that resolve conflicts most effectively.

  10. The structure of the Social Self-Concept (SSC Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantza Fernández-Zabala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the factorial structure of the newly-created Cuestionario de Autoconcepto Social - AUSO (from here on the Social Self-concept Questionnaire, or AUSO, which consists of two scales measuring social responsibility and social competence. The theoretical proposal which posits that social self-concept is the result of the combination of two basic self-perceptions: competence in social relations and response to the demands of social functioning, is based on a review of human social development theories and previous attempts to measure social self-concept. Participants were 818 students aged between 17 and 52. The results obtained though confirmatory factor analyses support the hypothesis of a structure made up of two correlated factors. In addition to providing a new measurement instrument with appropriate psychometric characteristics and valid criteria that justify its use in both applied practice and research, this study also enhances our understanding of the internal nature of the social domain of self-concept.

  11. Colony social structure in native and invasive populations of the social wasp Vespula pensylvanica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Cause; Cook, Erin D.; Thompson, Ariel R.; Dare, Lyndzey E.; Palaski, Amanda L.; Foote, David; Goodisman, Michael A. D.

    2014-01-01

    Social insects rank among the most invasive of terrestrial species. The success of invasive social insects stems, in part, from the flexibility derived from their social behaviors. We used genetic markers to investigate if the social system of the invasive wasp, Vespula pensylvanica, differed in its introduced and native habitats in order to better understand variation in social phenotype in invasive social species. We found that (1) nestmate workers showed lower levels of relatedness in introduced populations than native populations, (2) introduced colonies contained workers produced by multiple queens whereas native colonies contained workers produced by only a single queen, (3) queen mate number did not differ significantly between introduced and native colonies, and (4) workers from introduced colonies were frequently produced by queens that originated from foreign nests. Thus, overall, native and introduced colonies differed substantially in social phenotype because introduced colonies more frequently contained workers produced by multiple, foreign queens. In addition, the similarity in levels of genetic variation in introduced and native habitats, as well as observed variation in colony social phenotype in native populations, suggest that colony structure in invasive populations may be partially associated with social plasticity. Overall, the differences in social structure observed in invasive V. pensylvanica parallel those in other, distantly related invasive social insects, suggesting that insect societies often develop similar social phenotypes upon introduction into new habitats.

  12. Globalization, financial capitalism, and corporate social responsibility: Structural tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barbosa Ramírez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and financial capitalism keep a synergy in a global context whose problems such as environmental degradation, social inequity, economic crises and corruption are intensified. Corporate Social Responsibility emerges as a mechanism that seeks to mitigate some of these problems, although its effectiveness and impact today are challenged. The system which globalization, financial capitalism and social responsibility are a part of, is currently facing a number of structural tensions that contribute to the analysis, understanding and solving of the mentioned problems. This paper identifies and analyzes four of the aforementioned structural tensions.

  13. Network Ecology and Adolescent Social Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel A; Moody, James; Diehl, David; Smith, Jeffrey A; Thomas, Reuben J

    2014-12-01

    Adolescent societies-whether arising from weak, short-term classroom friendships or from close, long-term friendships-exhibit various levels of network clustering, segregation, and hierarchy. Some are rank-ordered caste systems and others are flat, cliquish worlds. Explaining the source of such structural variation remains a challenge, however, because global network features are generally treated as the agglomeration of micro-level tie-formation mechanisms, namely balance, homophily, and dominance. How do the same micro-mechanisms generate significant variation in global network structures? To answer this question we propose and test a network ecological theory that specifies the ways features of organizational environments moderate the expression of tie-formation processes, thereby generating variability in global network structures across settings. We develop this argument using longitudinal friendship data on schools (Add Health study) and classrooms (Classroom Engagement study), and by extending exponential random graph models to the study of multiple societies over time.

  14. Modern Social Support Structures: Online Social Networks and their Implications for Social Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kala Chakradhar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mapping and assessing social networks and the quality of their social support is a valuable intervention strategy for social workers. These networks have now spread onto the digital realm in the form of Online Social Networks (OSNs. This study investigated the nature of social support provided by such networks to their users in a rural mid-South University (USA and explored parallels with the current understanding of social support in conventional social networks. A web-based survey administered to college students revealed that users of these online networks were predominantly undergraduate first year students, female, single, unemployed and from a variety of academic disciplines. The examination of the components of OSNs appears to mirror those of offline networks. They also seem to complement the effects of each other while contributing to an individual's support system. The paper concludes with critical implications of such online social networking for University students and social workers in practice and education.

  15. The Structuring Principle: Political Socialization and Belief Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searing, Donald D.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Assesses the significance of data on childhood political learning to political theory by testing the structuring principle,'' considered one of the central assumptions of political socialization research. This principle asserts that basic orientations acquired during childhood structure the later learning of specific issue beliefs.'' The…

  16. Between Bandura and Giddens: Structuration Theory in Social Psychological Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Oppong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In any social analysis, one can attribute observed behavioural outcomes to actions and inactions of people (agents or to the presence or absence of certain structures or systems. The dualism of agent and structure is resolved through the concept of duality as proposed by Anthony Giddens in his structuration theory (ST. Though ST has been applied in other disciplines, it is either less known or applied in psychology. This paper sought to examine ST as a framework for understanding the interdependent relationship between structure and agents in the light of offering explanatory framework in social science research or policy formulation. It concluded with an integrated model comprising elements of both Bandura’s social-cognitive theory and Giddens’ ST.

  17. Co-producing social inclusion: the structure/agency conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, A; Repper, J; Banks, D; Remnant, J

    2013-08-01

    There is a raft of policy guidelines indicating that mental health nurses should be increasing the social inclusion of mental health service users. Despite this there is no universally accepted definition of social inclusion and there is a dearth of empirical evidence on the successful outcome of increasing inclusion for mental health service users. Recognizing the lack of clarity surrounding the concept we have a produced a social inclusion framework to assist mental health professionals and service users to co-produce social inclusive outcomes. Although we agree that social inclusion can be a positive aspect of recovery, we question the extent to which mental health nurses and service users in co-production can overcome the social, economic and political structures that have created the social exclusion in the first place. An understanding and appreciation of the structure/agency conundrum is required if mental health nurses are to engage with service users in an attempt to co-produce socially inclusive outcomes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Mass media influence spreading in social networks with community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia, Julián; Mazzitello, Karina I.

    2008-07-01

    We study an extension of Axelrod's model for social influence, in which cultural drift is represented as random perturbations, while mass media are introduced by means of an external field. In this scenario, we investigate how the modular structure of social networks affects the propagation of mass media messages across a society. The community structure of social networks is represented by coupled random networks, in which two random graphs are connected by intercommunity links. Considering inhomogeneous mass media fields, we study the conditions for successful message spreading and find a novel phase diagram in the multidimensional parameter space. These findings show that social modularity effects are of paramount importance for designing successful, cost-effective advertising campaigns.

  19. The social structural foundations of adaptation and transformation in social-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele L. Barnes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networks are frequently cited as vital for facilitating successful adaptation and transformation in linked social-ecological systems to overcome pressing resource management challenges. Yet confusion remains over the precise nature of adaptation vs. transformation and the specific social network structures that facilitate these processes. Here, we adopt a network perspective to theorize a continuum of structural capacities in social-ecological systems that set the stage for effective adaptation and transformation. We begin by drawing on the resilience literature and the multilayered action situation to link processes of change in social-ecological systems to decision making across multiple layers of rules underpinning societal organization. We then present a framework that hypothesizes seven specific social-ecological network configurations that lay the structural foundation necessary for facilitating adaptation and transformation, given the type and magnitude of human action required. A key contribution of the framework is explicit consideration of how social networks relate to ecological structures and the particular environmental problem at hand. Of the seven configurations identified, three are linked to capacities conducive to adaptation and three to transformation, and one is hypothesized to be important for facilitating both processes. We discuss how our theoretical framework can be applied in practice by highlighting existing empirical examples from related environmental governance contexts. Further extension of our hypotheses, particularly as more data become available, can ultimately help guide the design of institutional arrangements to be more effective at dealing with change.

  20. Who Hires Social Workers? Structural and Contextual Determinants of Social Service Staffing in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amy Restorick; Bowblis, John R

    2017-02-01

    Although nurse staffing has been extensively studied within nursing homes (NHs), social services has received less attention. The study describes how social service departments are organized in NHs and examines the structural characteristics of NHs and other macro-focused contextual factors that explain differences in social service staffing patterns using longitudinal national data (Certification and Survey Provider Enhanced Reports, 2009-2012). NHs have three patterns of staffing for social services, using qualified social workers (QSWs); paraprofessional social service staff; and interprofessional teams, consisting of both QSWs and paraprofessionals. Although most NHs employ a QSW (89 percent), nearly half provide social services through interprofessional teams, and 11 percent rely exclusively on paraprofessionals. Along with state and federal regulations that depend on facility size, other contextual and structural factors within NHs also influence staffing. NHs most likely to hire QSWs are large facilities in urban areas within a health care complex, owned by nonprofit organizations, with more payer mixes associated with more profitable reimbursement. QSWs are least likely to be hired in small facilities in rural areas. The influence of policy in supporting the professionalization of social service staff and the need for QSWs with expertise in gerontology, especially in rural NHs, are discussed. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  1. Host species and developmental stage, but not host social structure, affects bacterial community structure in socially polymorphic bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFrederick, Quinn S; Wcislo, William T; Hout, Michael C; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2014-05-01

    Social transmission and host developmental stage are thought to profoundly affect the structure of bacterial communities associated with honey bees and bumble bees, but these ideas have not been explored in other bee species. The halictid bees Megalopta centralis and M. genalis exhibit intrapopulation social polymorphism, which we exploit to test whether bacterial communities differ by host social structure, developmental stage, or host species. We collected social and solitary Megalopta nests and sampled bees and nest contents from all stages of host development. To survey these bacterial communities, we used 16S rRNA gene 454 pyrosequencing. We found no effect of social structure, but found differences by host species and developmental stage. Wolbachia prevalence differed between the two host species. Bacterial communities associated with different developmental stages appeared to be driven by environmentally acquired bacteria. A Lactobacillus kunkeei clade bacterium that is consistently associated with other bee species was dominant in pollen provisions and larval samples, but less abundant in mature larvae and pupae. Foraging adults appeared to often reacquire L. kunkeei clade bacteria, likely while foraging at flowers. Environmental transmission appears to be more important than social transmission for Megalopta bees at the cusp between social and solitary behavior. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Social structure affects mating competition in a damselfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Sebastian; Ness, Miriam Horstad; Östlund-Nilsson, Sara; Amundsen, Trond

    2017-12-01

    The strength of mating competition and sexual selection varies over space and time in many animals. Such variation is typically driven by ecological and demographic factors, including adult sex ratio and consequent availability of mates. The spatial scale at which demographic factors affect mating competition and sexual selection may vary but is not often investigated. Here, we analyse variation in size and sex ratio of social groups, and how group structure affects mating competition, in the site-attached damselfish Chrysiptera cyanea. Site-attached reef fishes are known to show extensive intraspecific variation in social structure. Previous work has focused on species for which the size and dynamics of social groups are constrained by habitat, whereas species with group structure unconstrained by habitat have received little attention. Chrysiptera cyanea is such a species, with individuals occurring in spatial clusters that varied widely in size and sex ratio. Typically, only one male defended a nest in multi-male groups. Nest-holding males were frequently visited by mate-searching females, with more visits in groups with more females, suggesting that courtship and mating mostly occur within groups and that male mating success depends on the number of females in the group. Male-male aggression was frequent in multi-male groups but absent in single-male groups. These findings demonstrate that groups are distinct social units. In consequence, the dynamics of mating and reproduction are mainly a result of group structure, largely unaffected short term by overall population demography which would be important in open social systems. Future studies of the C. cyanea model system should analyse longer-term dynamics, including how groups are formed, how they vary in relation to density and time of season and how social structure affects sexual selection.

  3. Social capital of organizations : from social structure to the management of corporate social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabbay, Shaul M.; Leenders, Roger Th.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Social capital in general and the study of social capital in the context of organizations has gained considerable attention in recent years. Despite the promise in the potency of the concept, its useful application suffers from the plethora of different definitions and approaches—both theoretical

  4. Virality Prediction and Community Structure in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2013-08-01

    How does network structure affect diffusion? Recent studies suggest that the answer depends on the type of contagion. Complex contagions, unlike infectious diseases (simple contagions), are affected by social reinforcement and homophily. Hence, the spread within highly clustered communities is enhanced, while diffusion across communities is hampered. A common hypothesis is that memes and behaviors are complex contagions. We show that, while most memes indeed spread like complex contagions, a few viral memes spread across many communities, like diseases. We demonstrate that the future popularity of a meme can be predicted by quantifying its early spreading pattern in terms of community concentration. The more communities a meme permeates, the more viral it is. We present a practical method to translate data about community structure into predictive knowledge about what information will spread widely. This connection contributes to our understanding in computational social science, social media analytics, and marketing applications.

  5. Time Allocation in Social Networks: Correlation Between Social Structure and Human Communication Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miritello, Giovanna; Lara, Rubén; Moro, Esteban

    Recent research has shown the deep impact of the dynamics of human interactions (or temporal social networks) on the spreading of information, opinion formation, etc. In general, the bursty nature of human interactions lowers the interaction between people to the extent that both the speed and reach of information diffusion are diminished. Using a large database of 20 million users of mobile phone calls we show evidence this effect is not homogeneous in the social network but in fact, there is a large correlation between this effect and the social topological structure around a given individual. In particular, we show that social relations of hubs in a network are relatively weaker from the dynamical point than those that are poorer connected in the information diffusion process. Our results show the importance of the temporal patterns of communication when analyzing and modeling dynamical process on social networks.

  6. Characteristic and analysis of structural elements of corporate social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Bilonog

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article attention is focused on social responsibility of business and on necessity to estimate its condition in Ukraine. Materials regarding elements and the principles of corporate social responsibility are structured. On this basis unification of quantitative elements of business social responsibility is offered according to which it is possible to carry out the analysis of the non­financial reporting. It is proposed to use not only quantitative techniques of data analysis but also refer to the qualitative ones. As a result of this, the analysis of social reports will be more productive and would minimize subjectivity of the researcher or representatives of the company which are responsible for presenting the information to the general public. The basic principles by which the companies can realize the strategy of corporate social responsibility are considered. Due to the empirical analysis of corporate reports expediency to use specified elements is proved. Reports of the companies in producing and non­productive sector are analyzed in more detail; features of displaying information on corporate social responsibility are defined. The attention to need of carrying out monitoring researches in the sphere of the corporate social reporting is updated.

  7. Discussion Tool Effects on Collaborative Learning and Social Network Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsic, Astrid; Suthers, Daniel D.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the social network structure of booking officers at the Honolulu Police Department and how the introduction of an online discussion tool affected knowledge about operation of a booking module. Baseline data provided evidence for collaboration among officers in the same district using e-mail, telephone and face-to-face media…

  8. Social structure predicts genital morphology in African mole-rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne L Seney

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia exhibit a wide range of social structures, from solitary to eusocial. We previously found a lack of sex differences in the external genitalia and morphology of the perineal muscles associated with the phallus in the eusocial naked mole-rat. This was quite surprising, as the external genitalia and perineal muscles are sexually dimorphic in all other mammals examined. We hypothesized that the lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats might be related to their unusual social structure.We compared the genitalia and perineal muscles in three African mole-rat species: the naked mole-rat, the solitary silvery mole-rat, and the Damaraland mole-rat, a species considered to be eusocial, but with less reproductive skew than naked mole-rats. Our findings support a relationship between social structure, mating system, and sexual differentiation. Naked mole-rats lack sex differences in genitalia and perineal morphology, silvery mole-rats exhibit sex differences, and Damaraland mole-rats are intermediate.The lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats is not an attribute of all African mole-rats, but appears to have evolved in relation to their unusual social structure and reproductive biology.

  9. Social structure predicts genital morphology in African mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seney, Marianne L; Kelly, Diane A; Goldman, Bruce D; Sumbera, Radim; Forger, Nancy G

    2009-10-15

    African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia) exhibit a wide range of social structures, from solitary to eusocial. We previously found a lack of sex differences in the external genitalia and morphology of the perineal muscles associated with the phallus in the eusocial naked mole-rat. This was quite surprising, as the external genitalia and perineal muscles are sexually dimorphic in all other mammals examined. We hypothesized that the lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats might be related to their unusual social structure. We compared the genitalia and perineal muscles in three African mole-rat species: the naked mole-rat, the solitary silvery mole-rat, and the Damaraland mole-rat, a species considered to be eusocial, but with less reproductive skew than naked mole-rats. Our findings support a relationship between social structure, mating system, and sexual differentiation. Naked mole-rats lack sex differences in genitalia and perineal morphology, silvery mole-rats exhibit sex differences, and Damaraland mole-rats are intermediate. The lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats is not an attribute of all African mole-rats, but appears to have evolved in relation to their unusual social structure and reproductive biology.

  10. Social Structure and Personality Assortment Among Married Couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René; Aken, Marcel A.G. van; Denissen, Jaap

    2006-01-01

    We study the influence of social structure on assortative mating for personality in a large national sample (n=3616) of married and cohabitating couples in the Netherlands. We find that couples with higher levels of education and from dissimilar religious origins are more similar with regard to

  11. CONSUMPTION AS A SOCIAL STATUS SYMBOL IN STRUCTURALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Naydenov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at the basic theoretical concepts of the political economy of the sign (structuralism, postmodernity and their development in the theory of power based on the work by J. Baudrillard ‘For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign’. The study is focused on consumption as the person’s social status symbol, it compares and contrasts basic concepts of structuralism and neo-liberalism.According to structuralism social structure is reproduced through the reproduction of objects/signs. It is important that not only things or money but mathematical formulas, linguistic constructions and people can act as signs. Structuralism views consumption as a person’s social status symbol. Respectively, exchange is viewed as the exchange of symbols.  The society needs the diversity of signs and manipulating the signs is one of the modern society’s illnesses.Liberalism is a social movement, which confronts the person’s enslavement by communal ties and limitations within the limits of property and in the aspects where the individual is helpless in front of the society. Neoliberalism proclaims the liberal model of an individual, who is primarily concerned with their belonging to their society and the struggle between the signs is significant. Assigning a certain value to the symbol is typical both for structuralism and neo-modernism.The authors find it necessary to raise the symbolic diversity of the Russian society trough increasing the forms of consumption. At the same time we should not forget that the society is based on material production.

  12. Competing Structure, Competing Views: The Role of Formal and Informal Social Structures in Shaping Stakeholder Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Prell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available What is social structure, and how does it influence the views and behaviors of land managers? In this paper, we unpack the term "social structure" in the context of current research on institutions, social networks, and their role(s in resource management. We identify two different kinds of structure, formal and informal, and explore how these link to views of land management and management practice. Formal structures refer to intentionally designed organizations that arise out of larger institutional arrangements; informal ones refer to social networks, based on the communication contacts individuals possess. Our findings show significant correlations between respondents' views regarding land management and their social networks; it is these informal structures that have greater influence on what stakeholders perceive. These findings suggest that stakeholders are less influenced by their particular organizational affiliation or category (e.g., "conservationist" versus "farmer", and more by whom they speak with on a regular basis regarding land management. We conclude with a discussion on the practical implications for resource managers wishing to "design" participatory management, arguing that, if "diversity" is the goal in designing such participatory processes, then diversity needs to translate beyond stakeholder categories to include consideration for the personal, social networks surrounding stakeholders.

  13. Mesoscopic structure conditions the emergence of cooperation on social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Lozano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We study the evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma on two social networks substrates obtained from actual relational data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We find very different cooperation levels on each of them that cannot be easily understood in terms of global statistical properties of both networks. We claim that the result can be understood at the mesoscopic scale, by studying the community structure of the networks. We explain the dependence of the cooperation level on the temptation parameter in terms of the internal structure of the communities and their interconnections. We then test our results on community-structured, specifically designed artificial networks, finding a good agreement with the observations in both real substrates. CONCLUSION: Our results support the conclusion that studies of evolutionary games on model networks and their interpretation in terms of global properties may not be sufficient to study specific, real social systems. Further, the study allows us to define new quantitative parameters that summarize the mesoscopic structure of any network. In addition, the community perspective may be helpful to interpret the origin and behavior of existing networks as well as to design structures that show resilient cooperative behavior.

  14. Mesoscopic structure conditions the emergence of cooperation on social networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, S.; Arenas, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2008-12-01

    We study the evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma on two social networks substrates obtained from actual relational data. We find very different cooperation levels on each of them that cannot be easily understood in terms of global statistical properties of both networks. We claim that the result can be understood at the mesoscopic scale, by studying the community structure of the networks. We explain the dependence of the cooperation level on the temptation parameter in terms of the internal structure of the communities and their interconnections. We then test our results on community-structured, specifically designed artificial networks, finding a good agreement with the observations in both real substrates. Our results support the conclusion that studies of evolutionary games on model networks and their interpretation in terms of global properties may not be sufficient to study specific, real social systems. Further, the study allows us to define new quantitative parameters that summarize the mesoscopic structure of any network. In addition, the community perspective may be helpful to interpret the origin and behavior of existing networks as well as to design structures that show resilient cooperative behavior.

  15. Latent structure of the social anxiety scale and relations between social anxiety and irrational beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovilović Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The research which was realized belongs to one of three research fields within framework of rational-emotional-behavioral therapy (REBT - to the theory of emotional disorders. It was undertaken with the aim to establish presence and nature of relations between social anxiety, treated as dimension and the construct of irrational beliefs from REBT theory. The research was carried out on the sample of 261 students of Novi Sad University, both genders, age 18 to 26. First of all, the latent structure of newly constructed Scale of Social Anxiety (SA of the author Tovilović S. was tested. SA scale was proved to be of satisfying reliability (α =0.92. Principal-component factor analysis was conducted under gathered data. Four factors of social anxiety, which explain 44,09% of total variance of the items of SA scale, were named: social-evaluation anxiety, inhibition in social-uncertain situations, low self-respect and hypersensitivity on rejection. The other test that was used is Scale of General Attitudes and Beliefs of the author Marić Z. Reliability of the sub-scale of irrational beliefs that was got on our sample is α =0.91 yet the subscale of rational beliefs is α =0.70. Canonical correlational analysis was conducted under manifest variables of both scales. Three pairs of statistically significant canonical factors were got, with correlations within the span between Rc=0.78 and Rc=0.64. We discussed nature of correlation between social anxiety and irrational beliefs in the light of REBT model of social phobia, REBT theory of emotional disorder, researches and model of social anxiety in wider, cognitive-behavioral framework.

  16. The factor structure of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Thomas; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Schramm, Elisabeth; Hofmann, Stefan G; Stangier, Ulrich

    2011-05-01

    The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) are two compendium measures that have become some of the most popular self-report scales of social anxiety. Despite their popularity, it remains unclear whether it is necessary to maintain two separate scales of social anxiety. The primary objective of the present study was to examine the factor analytic structure of both measures to determine the factorial validity of each scale. For this purpose, we administered both scales to 577 patients at the beginning of outpatient treatment. Analyzing both scales simultaneously, a CFA with two correlated factors showed a better fit to the data than a single factor model. An additional EFA with an oblique rotation on all 40 items using the WLSMV estimator further supported the two factor solution. These results suggest that the SIAS and SPS measure similar, but not identical facets of social anxiety. Thus, our findings provide support to retain the SIAS and SPS as two separate scales. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Murder by structure: dominance relations and the social structure of gang homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristos, Andrew V

    2009-07-01

    Most sociological theories consider murder an outcome of the differential distribution of individual, neighborhood, or social characteristics. And while such studies explain variation in aggregate homicide rates, they do not explain the social order of murder, that is, who kills whom, when, where, and for what reason. This article argues that gang murder is best understood not by searching for its individual determinants but by examining the social networks of action and reaction that create it. In short, the social structure of gang murder is defined by the manner in which social networks are constructed and by people's placement in them. The author uses a network approach and incident-level homicide records to recreate and analyze the structure of gang murders in Chicago. Findings demonstrate that individual murders between gangs create an institutionalized network of group conflict, net of any individual's participation or motive. Within this network, murders spread through an epidemic-like process of social contagion as gangs evaluate the highly visible actions of others in their local networks and negotiate dominance considerations that arise during violent incidents.

  18. Data and methods comparing social structure and vegetation structure of urban neighborhoods in Baltimore, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Morgan Grove; Mary L. Cadenasso; William R., Jr. Burch; Steward T. Pickett; Kirsten Schwarz; Jarlath O' Neil-Dunne; Matthew Wilson; Austin Troy; Christopher Boone

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing and the adoption of geographic information systems (GIS) have greatly increased the availibility of high-resolution spatial and attribute data for examing the relationship between social and vegetation structure in urban areas. There are several motivations for understanding this relationship. First, the United States has experienced a...

  19. The Effect of Cognitive and Relational Social Capital on Structural Social Capital and Micro-Enterprise Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajennd A/L Muniady

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Social capital and its dimensions are highly interrelated, and the outcome of social capital provides entrepreneurs with resources and knowledge that are not available in the first place. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of relational and cognitive social capital on structural social capital and the effect of structural social capital on the performance of micro-enterprises owned and managed by women in Peninsular Malaysia. This study uses a cross-sectional approach, and quantitative data are collected through structured interviews. It was found that cognitive social capital has a significant positive effect on structural social capital, and structural social capital has a significant positive effect on micro-enterprise performance. It was found that relational social capital has a positive but insignificant effect on structural social capital. Therefore, women entrepreneurs should emphasize on making the communication process easier and on ensuring that their business values, norms, interpretation, and meaning are shared and communicated to relevant parties to improve network ties and to build a dense network, which is essential in providing access to resources and knowledge. This, in return, is expected to improve the micro-enterprise performance in Malaysia.

  20. Social dilemma structures hidden behind traffic flow with lane changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Kukida, Shinji; Hagishima, Aya

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to merge traffic flow analysis with evolutionary game theory, we investigated the question of whether such structures can be formed from frequent lane changes in usual traffic flow without any explicit bottlenecks. In our model system, two classes of driver-agents coexist: C-agents (cooperative strategy) always remain in the lane they are initially assigned, whereas D-agents (defective strategy) try to change lanes to move ahead. In relatively high-density flows, such as the metastable and high-density phases, we found structures that correspond to either n-person prisoner dilemma (n-PD) games or quasi-PD games. In these situations, lane changes by D-agents create heavy traffic jams that reduce social efficiency. (paper)

  1. Dynamical Structure of a Traditional Amazonian Social Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L. Hooper

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reciprocity is a vital feature of social networks, but relatively little is known about its temporal structure or the mechanisms underlying its persistence in real world behavior. In pursuit of these two questions, we study the stationary and dynamical signals of reciprocity in a network of manioc beer (Spanish: chicha; Tsimane’: shocdye’ drinking events in a Tsimane’ village in lowland Bolivia. At the stationary level, our analysis reveals that social exchange within the community is heterogeneously patterned according to kinship and spatial proximity. A positive relationship between the frequencies at which two families host each other, controlling for kinship and proximity, provides evidence for stationary reciprocity. Our analysis of the dynamical structure of this network presents a novel method for the study of conditional, or non-stationary, reciprocity effects. We find evidence that short-timescale reciprocity (within three days is present among non- and distant-kin pairs; conversely, we find that levels of cooperation among close kin can be accounted for on the stationary hypothesis alone.

  2. Social learning of vocal structure in a nonhuman primate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemasson Alban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-human primate communication is thought to be fundamentally different from human speech, mainly due to vast differences in vocal control. The lack of these abilities in non-human primates is especially striking if compared to some marine mammals and bird species, which has generated somewhat of an evolutionary conundrum. What are the biological roots and underlying evolutionary pressures of the human ability to voluntarily control sound production and learn the vocal utterances of others? One hypothesis is that this capacity has evolved gradually in humans from an ancestral stage that resembled the vocal behavior of modern primates. Support for this has come from studies that have documented limited vocal flexibility and convergence in different primate species, typically in calls used during social interactions. The mechanisms underlying these patterns, however, are currently unknown. Specifically, it has been difficult to rule out explanations based on genetic relatedness, suggesting that such vocal flexibility may not be the result of social learning. Results To address this point, we compared the degree of acoustic similarity of contact calls in free-ranging Campbell's monkeys as a function of their social bonds and genetic relatedness. We calculated three different indices to compare the similarities between the calls' frequency contours, the duration of grooming interactions and the microsatellite-based genetic relatedness between partners. We found a significantly positive relation between bond strength and acoustic similarity that was independent of genetic relatedness. Conclusion Genetic factors determine the general species-specific call repertoire of a primate species, while social factors can influence the fine structure of some the call types. The finding is in line with the more general hypothesis that human speech has evolved gradually from earlier primate-like vocal communication.

  3. Factor Structure of Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: Is Empathy Preserved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Corbera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Social cognitive impairments are core features of schizophrenia and are closely associated with poor functional outcome. This study sought to identify specific aspects of social cognition and their relationships to measures of social function, quality of life, and neurocognition. Principal component analysis was performed using social cognitive measures in patients with schizophrenia and healthy matched controls and revealed three factors: Interpersonal Discomfort, Basic Social Cognition, and Empathy. Patients had higher scores on Interpersonal Discomfort and lower scores on Basic Social Cognition than controls, but the two groups were the same on Empathy. Lower social performance was significantly correlated with poor Basic Social Cognition in patients and with high Interpersonal Discomfort in controls. While neurocognition was significantly associated with Basic Social Cognition in both groups, it was not associated with Empathy. Social cognitive interventions should emphasize improving basic social cognitive processing deficits, managing Interpersonal Discomfort, and utilizing preserved capacity for empathy as a potential strength in social interactions.

  4. Beyond traditional advertisements: leveraging Facebook's social structures for research recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Rupa S; Guterbock, Thomas M; Thompson, Morgan J; Reilly, Jeremiah D; Menefee, Hannah K; Bennici, Maria S; Williams, Ishan C; Rexrode, Deborah L

    2014-10-27

    Obtaining access to a demographically and geographically diverse sample for health-related research can be costly and time consuming. Previous studies have reported mixed results regarding the potential of using social media-based advertisements to overcome these challenges. Our aim was to develop and assess the feasibility, benefits, and challenges of recruiting for research studies related to consumer health information technology (IT) by leveraging the social structures embedded in the social networking platform, Facebook. Two recruitment strategies that involved direct communication with existing Facebook groups and pages were developed and implemented in two distinct populations. The first recruitment strategy involved posting a survey link directly to consenting groups and pages and was used to recruit Filipino-Americans to a study assessing the perceptions, use of, and preferences for consumer health IT. This study took place between August and December 2013. The second recruitment strategy targeted individuals with type 2 diabetes and involved creating a study-related Facebook group and asking administrators of other groups and pages to publicize our group to their members. Group members were then directly invited to participate in an online pre-study survey. This portion of a larger study to understand existing health management practices as a foundation for consumer health IT design took place between May and June 2014. In executing both recruitment strategies, efforts were made to establish trust and transparency. Recruitment rate, cost, content of interaction, and characteristics of the sample obtained were used to assess the recruitment methods. The two recruitment methods yielded 87 and 79 complete responses, respectively. The first recruitment method yielded a rate of study completion proportionate to that of the rate of posts made, whereas recruitment successes of the second recruitment method seemed to follow directly from the actions of a subset

  5. Social vaccines to resist and change unhealthy social and economic structures: a useful metaphor for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Fran; Narayan, Ravi; Sanders, David; Patel, Vikram; Quizhpe, Arturo

    2009-12-01

    The term 'social vaccine' is designed to encourage the biomedically orientated health sector to recognize the legitimacy of action on the distal social and economic determinants of health. It is proposed as a term to assist the health promotion movement in arguing for a social view of health which is so often counter to medical and popular conceptions of health. The idea of a social vaccine builds on a long tradition in social medicine as well as on a biomedical tradition of preventing illness through vaccines that protect against disease. Social vaccines would be promoted as a means to encourage popular mobilization and advocacy to change the social and economic structural conditions that render people and communities vulnerable to disease. They would facilitate social and political processes that develop popular and political will to protect and promote health through action (especially governments prepared to intervene and regulate to protect community health) on the social and economic determinants. Examples provided for the effects of social vaccines are: restoring land ownership to Indigenous peoples, regulating the advertising of harmful products and progressive taxation for universal social protection. Social vaccines require more research to improve understanding of social and political processes that are likely to improve health equity worldwide. The vaccine metaphor should be helpful in arguing for increased action on the social determinants of health.

  6. Controlling nosocomial infection based on structure of hospital social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Taro; Masuda, Naoki

    2008-10-07

    Nosocomial infection (i.e. infection in healthcare facilities) raises a serious public health problem, as implied by the existence of pathogens characteristic to healthcare facilities such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and hospital-mediated outbreaks of influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome. For general communities, epidemic modeling based on social networks is being recognized as a useful tool. However, disease propagation may occur in a healthcare facility in a manner different from that in a urban community setting due to different network architecture. We simulate stochastic susceptible-infected-recovered dynamics on social networks, which are based on observations in a hospital in Tokyo, to explore effective containment strategies against nosocomial infection. The observed social networks in the hospital have hierarchical and modular structure in which dense substructure such as departments, wards, and rooms, are globally but only loosely connected, and do not reveal extremely right-skewed distributions of the number of contacts per individual. We show that healthcare workers, particularly medical doctors, are main vectors (i.e. transmitters) of diseases on these networks. Intervention methods that restrict interaction between medical doctors and their visits to different wards shrink the final epidemic size more than intervention methods that directly protect patients, such as isolating patients in single rooms. By the same token, vaccinating doctors with priority rather than patients or nurses is more effective. Finally, vaccinating individuals with large betweenness centrality (frequency of mediating connection between pairs of individuals along the shortest paths) is superior to vaccinating ones with large connectedness to others or randomly chosen individuals, which was suggested by previous model studies.

  7. The social structure of heat consumption in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Rhiger

    2016-01-01

    The role of households in relation to heat and energy consumption has been well-described in both quantitative and qualitative studies. However, where practice theory has developed as the main theoretical framework within qualitative studies on energy consumption, the more recent quantitative...... of the qualitative studies, emphasising how energy consumption is a result of energy-consuming practices. Focusing on heat consumption used for space heating and heating of water in single-family detached houses in Denmark, it is found that sociocultural differences between households such as income, education......, occupation, and immigration status influence the amount of heat consumed by a household; directly as an indicator of household practices and indirectly through type of building and household characteristics. New interpretations based on theories of practice show that factors such as the social structure...

  8. Minority group status and healthful aging: social structure still matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Jacqueline L; Angel, Ronald J

    2006-07-01

    During the last 4 decades, a rapid increase has occurred in the number of survey-based and epidemiological studies of the health profiles of adults in general and of the causes of disparities between majority and minority Americans in particular. According to these studies, healthful aging consists of the absence of disease, or at least of the most serious preventable diseases and their consequences, and findings consistently reveal serious African American and Hispanic disadvantages in terms of healthful aging. We (1) briefly review conceptual and operational definitions of race and Hispanic ethnicity, (2) summarize how ethnicity-based differentials in health are related to social structures, and (3) emphasize the importance of attention to the economic, political, and institutional factors that perpetuate poverty and undermine healthful aging among certain groups.

  9. Stability and Change in Social Goals as Related to Goal Structures and Engagement in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjar, Nir

    2017-01-01

    The current studies explored (a) the extended external validity of social-goal-orientation framework; (b) the mediating role of social goals between classroom goal structures and students' engagement; and (c) whether changes in social goals can be explained by classroom goal structures and engagement. Study 1 was cross-sectional (N = 317), and…

  10. Factor Structure of Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: Is Empathy Preserved?

    OpenAIRE

    Corbera, Silvia; Wexler, Bruce E.; Ikezawa, Satoru; Bell, Morris D.

    2013-01-01

    Social cognitive impairments are core features of schizophrenia and are closely associated with poor functional outcome. This study sought to identify specific aspects of social cognition and their relationships to measures of social function, quality of life, and neurocognition. Principal component analysis was performed using social cognitive measures in patients with schizophrenia and healthy matched controls and revealed three factors: Interpersonal Discomfort, Basic Social Cognition, and...

  11. Human infants' learning of social structures: the case of dominance hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Olivier; Csibra, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    We tested 15-month-olds' capacity to represent social-dominance hierarchies with more than two agents. Our results showed that infants found it harder to memorize dominance relations that were presented in an order that hindered the incremental formation of a single structure (Study 1). These results suggest that infants attempt to build structures incrementally, relation by relation, thereby simplifying the complex problem of recognizing a social structure. Infants also found circular dominance structures harder to process than linear dominance structures (Study 2). These expectations about the shape of structures may facilitate learning. Our results suggest that infants attempt to represent social structures composed of social relations. They indicate that human infants go beyond learning about individual social partners and their respective relations and form hypotheses about how social groups are organized.

  12. Perceived rationality, morality, and power of social choice as a function of interdependence structure and social value orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joireman, J.A.; Kuhlman, D.M.; van Lange, P.A.M.; Doi, T.; Shelley, G.P.

    2003-01-01

    The present study examines how individuals with different social value orientations (i.e. prosocial, individualistic, and competitive) construe the rationality, morality, and power of choices in four distinct interdependence structures which systematically differ in the motives that could underlie

  13. Support Structures in Social Entrepreneurship Ecosystems: Comparing the Swedish and the French Environments.

    OpenAIRE

    Bouges, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    This thesis compares the Swedish and the French social entrepreneurship ecosystems. After an examination of the definitions and current legal frameworks around social enterprises in each country, their levels of social entrepreneurship activity are compared. The existing support structures providing non-financial help to social entrepreneurs (i.e. incubators, accelerators, co-working spaces and networks) are identified in Paris and in Stockholm, while perceptions from social entrepreneurs ben...

  14. Social Structure Simulation and Inference Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsvetovat, Maksim

    2005-01-01

    .... As available computing power grew, social network-based models have become not only an analysis tool, but also a methodology for building new theories of social behaviour and organizational evolution...

  15. Social dilemmas in an online social network: The structure and evolution of cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Feng; Chen Xiaojie; Liu Lianghuan; Wang Long

    2007-01-01

    We investigate two paradigms for studying the evolution of cooperation-Prisoner's Dilemma and Snowdrift game in an online friendship network, obtained from a social networking site. By structural analysis, it is revealed that the empirical social network has small-world and scale-free properties. Besides, it exhibits assortative mixing pattern. Then, we study the evolutionary version of the two types of games on it. It is found that cooperation is substantially promoted with small values of game matrix parameters in both games. Whereas the competent cooperators induced by the underlying network of contacts will be dramatically inhibited with increasing values of the game parameters. Further, we explore the role of assortativity in evolution of cooperation by random edge rewiring. We find that increasing amount of assortativity will to a certain extent diminish the cooperation level. We also show that connected large hubs are capable of maintaining cooperation. The evolution of cooperation on empirical networks is influenced by various network effects in a combined manner, compared with that on model networks. Our results can help understand the cooperative behaviors in human groups and society

  16. Social dilemmas in an online social network: The structure and evolution of cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Feng [Center for Systems and Control, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: fufeng@pku.edu.cn; Chen Xiaojie; Liu Lianghuan [Center for Systems and Control, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang Long [Center for Systems and Control, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: longwang@pku.edu.cn

    2007-11-05

    We investigate two paradigms for studying the evolution of cooperation-Prisoner's Dilemma and Snowdrift game in an online friendship network, obtained from a social networking site. By structural analysis, it is revealed that the empirical social network has small-world and scale-free properties. Besides, it exhibits assortative mixing pattern. Then, we study the evolutionary version of the two types of games on it. It is found that cooperation is substantially promoted with small values of game matrix parameters in both games. Whereas the competent cooperators induced by the underlying network of contacts will be dramatically inhibited with increasing values of the game parameters. Further, we explore the role of assortativity in evolution of cooperation by random edge rewiring. We find that increasing amount of assortativity will to a certain extent diminish the cooperation level. We also show that connected large hubs are capable of maintaining cooperation. The evolution of cooperation on empirical networks is influenced by various network effects in a combined manner, compared with that on model networks. Our results can help understand the cooperative behaviors in human groups and society.

  17. The Space for Social Media in Structured Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Gilly; Ross, Bella; Pechenkina, Ekaterina; Chase, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the benefits of using social media in an online educational setting, with a particular focus on the use of Facebook and Twitter by participants in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) developed to enable educators to learn about the Carpe Diem learning design process. We define social media as digital social tools and…

  18. Recent development of Slovene towns - social structure and transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Rebernik

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In Slovene towns and urban areas several processes of social transformation and change have been present in the last decade. As a consequence of political and economic transition increased social differentiation resulted in increased social segregation in urban areas. Some areas such as high-rise housing estates and part of older inner city areas were affected by social degradation and concentration of low-income population and ethnical minorities. In some parts of inner cities processes of reurbanisation and gentrification are taking place. However, the degree of social segragation is lower than in the cities of most transitional countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

  19. Fine-scale genetic structure and social organization in female white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher E. Comer; John C. Kilgo; Gino J. D' Angelo; Travis C. Glenn; Karl V. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Social behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have important management implications. The formation of matrilineal social groups among female deer has been documented and management strategies have been proposed based on this well-developed social structure. Using radiocollared (n = 17) and hunter or vehicle-killed (n = 21) does, we examined spatial...

  20. Study on Construction of Forestry Socialized Service Systems Based on Barnard's Organizational Structure Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Can-fu; CHENG Xiao-qiu

    2011-01-01

    Construction of forestry socialized service systems is the important content for reform of collective forestry tenure systems.Based on the necessity, possibility and problem of construction of forestry socialized service system, according to Barnard's Organizational Structure theory, the path and countermeasure of forestry socialized service system in China are discussed.

  1. The social structure of family and farm forestry in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Schelhas; Robert Zabawa

    2009-01-01

    Social research on, and programs for, forest landowners in the United States has tended to view them as individuals, and to be oriented toward transferring new knowledge, technical assistance, fi nancial assistance, and even cultural content to autonomous forest landowners. However, social scientists have long recognized that a great...

  2. The space for social media in structured online learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly Salmon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the benefits of using social media in an online educational setting, with a particular focus on the use of Facebook and Twitter by participants in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC developed to enable educators to learn about the Carpe Diem learning design process. We define social media as digital social tools and environments located outside of the provision of a formal university-provided Learning Management System. We use data collected via interviews and surveys with the MOOC participants as well as social media postings made by the participants throughout the MOOC to offer insights into how participants’ usage and perception of social media in their online learning experiences differed and why. We identified that, although some participants benefitted from social media by crediting it, for example, with networking and knowledge-sharing opportunities, others objected or refused to engage with social media, perceiving it as a waste of their time. We make recommendations for the usage of social media for educational purposes within MOOCs and formal digital learning environments.

  3. How social structure changes in Chinese global cities: Synthesizing globalization, migration and institutional factors in Beijing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Q.; Liu, T.; Musterd, S.; Cao, G.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies on the social structural change in global cities have recognized globalization, migration, and institutional factors as three main forces underlying this process. However, effects of these factors have rarely been synthetically examined and the social structure of emerging Chinese

  4. The influence of repressive legislation on the structure of a social media network

    OpenAIRE

    Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David

    2013-01-01

    Social media have been widely used to organize citizen movements. In 2012, 75% university and college students in Quebec, Canada, participated in mass protests against an increase in tuition fees, mainly organized using social media. To reduce public disruption, the government introduced special legislation designed to impede protest organization. Here, we show that the legislation changed the behaviour of social media users but not the overall structure of their social network on Twitter. Th...

  5. A Capability Approach to Understanding Sport for Social Inclusion: Agency, Structure and Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Naofumi Suzuki

    2017-01-01

    Despite the global diffusion of the term social inclusion, as well as the use of sport to promote it, questions have been raised regarding the extent to which sport is able to contribute to transforming the exclusive nature of the social structure. The lack of analytical clarity of the concept has not helped to address these questions. This article proposes a conceptual framework based on Amartya Sen's capability approach, considering social exclusion as the denial of social relations that le...

  6. A multilevel cross-lagged structural equation analysis for reciprocal relationship between social capital and health

    OpenAIRE

    Sessions, John; Yu, Ge; Fu, Yu; Wall, Matin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the reciprocal relationship between individual social capital and perceived mental and physical health in the UK. Using data from the British Household Panel Survey from 1991 to 2008, we fitted cross-lagged structural equation models that include three indicators of social capital vis. social participation, social network, and loneliness. Given that multiple measurement points (level 1) are nested within individuals (level 2), we also applied a multilevel model to allow for re...

  7. The social dilemma structure of climate change mitigation: individual responses and effects on action

    OpenAIRE

    Bӧgelein, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Climate change mitigation constitutes a social dilemma, a conflict between personal and collective outcomes. Behaviours that result in personal benefits (e.g. travelling quickly, conveniently and cheaply by plane) also result in a collective cost in the form of climate change. Behavioural theories and evidence suggest this social dilemma structure significantly influences behaviour. This thesis aims to understand how the social dilemma structure of climate change mitigation affect...

  8. Structural and functional effects of social isolation on the hippocampus of rats with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaie, Babak; Lotfinia, Ahmad Ali; Ahmadi, Milad; Lotfinia, Mahmoud; Jafarian, Maryam; Karimzadeh, Fariba; Coulon, Philippe; Gorji, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Social isolation has significant long-term psychological and physiological consequences. Both social isolation and traumatic brain injury (TBI) alter normal brain function and structure. However, the influence of social isolation on recovery from TBI is unclear. This study aims to evaluate if social isolation exacerbates the anatomical and functional deficits after TBI in young rats. Juvenile male rats were divided into four groups; sham operated control with social contacts, sham control with social isolation, TBI with social contacts, and TBI with social isolation. During four weeks after brain injury in juvenile rats, we evaluated the animal behaviors by T-maze and open-field tests, recorded brain activity with electrocorticograms and assessed structural changes by histological procedures in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, CA1, and CA3 areas. Our findings revealed significant memory impairments and hyperactivity conditions in rats with TBI and social isolation compared to the other groups. Histological assessments showed an increase of the mean number of dark neurons, apoptotic cells, and caspase-3 positive cells in all tested areas of the hippocampus in TBI rats with and without social isolation compared to sham rats. Furthermore, social isolation significantly increased the number of dark cells, apoptotic neurons, and caspase-3 positive cells in the hippocampal CA3 region in rats with TBI. This study indicates the harmful effect of social isolation on anatomical and functional deficits induced by TBI in juvenile rats. Prevention of social isolation may improve the outcome of TBI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. "The Social Destination": How Social Media Influences the Organisational Structure and Leadership of DMOs

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Jucan; Cornel Jucan; Ilie Rotariu

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the most important changes that have occurred in business because of social media and its impact on organisations and leadership in recent years. It seeks to synthesize existing research, theories and concepts, in order to understand "social destinations", and to provide a bridge from past research to future success. Becoming a "social destination" is a strategic and tactical leadership and management issue and the paper will present the importance of destination leadersh...

  10. Family policies in the context of low fertility and social structure

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Fent; Belinda Aparicio Diaz; Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effectiveness of family policies in the context of the structure of a society. We use an agent-based model to analyse the impact of policies on individual fertility decisions and on fertility at the aggregate level. The crucial features of our model are the interactions between family policies and social structure, the agents´ heterogeneity and the structure and influence of the social network. This modelling framework allows us to disentangle the direct effec...

  11. Categorizing Others and the Self: How Social Memory Structures Guide Social Perception and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Kimberly A.; Rosenthal, Harriet E. S.

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the special issue theme of "Remembering the Future," this article provides a selective review of research on how memory for social information (i.e., social category representation) influences future processing and behavior. Specifically, the authors focus on how categorization and stereotyping affect how we perceive others and…

  12. Seeking and Sharing Knowledge Using Social Media in an Organization: The Impact of Social Influence, Organization Structure and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    The prolific use of social media tools such as blogs and wikis is leading several organizations to adopt these tools. However, success of social media depends on its use by employees to share and seek knowledge. Based on a unique data set obtained from a large multi-national corporation, I examined three different aspects of knowledge seeking and…

  13. Social Structure and Depression in TrevorSpace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Christopher M; Lu, Naiji; Tu, Xin; Lytle, Megan C; Silenzio, Vincent M B

    2014-02-01

    We discover patterns related to depression in the social graph of an online community of approximately 20,000 lesbian, gay, and bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth. With survey data on fewer than two hundred community members and the network graph of the entire community (which is completely anonymous except for the survey responses), we detected statistically significant correlations between a number of graph properties and those TrevorSpace users showing a higher likelihood of depression, according to the Patient Healthcare Questionnaire-9, a standard instrument for estimating depression. Our results suggest that those who are less depressed are more deeply integrated into the social fabric of TrevorSpace than those who are more depressed. Our techniques may apply to other hard-to-reach online communities, like gay men on Facebook, where obtaining detailed information about individuals is difficult or expensive, but obtaining the social graph is not.

  14. Age structure of the population in Belgium and social security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooghe, G

    1991-01-01

    The effects of demographic aging and of various socioeconomic factors on the social security system in Belgium are explored. "Special attention is given to the impact of the ageing of the population on the pension problem. Based on a simple formula a series of percentages of taxation have been calculated as a function of shifts in the proportion of retired vs. active population and in the proportion of the average income vs. the average amount of pension. One of the conclusions is that the progressive ageing of the population will become the most significant factor in the growth of social expenditures." excerpt

  15. Similarity between community structures of different online social networks and its impact on underlying community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, W.; Yeung, K. H.

    2015-03-01

    As social networking services are popular, many people may register in more than one online social network. In this paper we study a set of users who have accounts of three online social networks: namely Foursquare, Facebook and Twitter. Community structure of this set of users may be reflected in these three online social networks. Therefore, high correlation between these reflections and the underlying community structure may be observed. In this work, community structures are detected in all three online social networks. Also, we investigate the similarity level of community structures across different networks. It is found that they show strong correlation with each other. The similarity between different networks may be helpful to find a community structure close to the underlying one. To verify this, we propose a method to increase the weights of some connections in networks. With this method, new networks are generated to assist community detection. By doing this, value of modularity can be improved and the new community structure match network's natural structure better. In this paper we also show that the detected community structures of online social networks are correlated with users' locations which are identified on Foursquare. This information may also be useful for underlying community detection.

  16. Kinship Structures and Social Justice in Sub-Saharan Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A major obstacle to the development of sustainable democratic systems of government in contemporary sub-Saharan African states is the difficulty in articulating an adequate conception of social justice to serve as a guiding principle in these polities. This difficulty is a consequence of the ethnically heterogeneous character ...

  17. Predicting Hierarchical Structure in Small World Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2009-01-01

    Typisk analytisk foranstaltninger i grafteori gerne grad centralitet, betweenness og nærhed centralities er meget almindelige og har lang tradition for deres vellykkede brug. Men modellering af skjult, terrorister eller kriminelle netværk gennem sociale grafer ikke rigtig give den hierarkiske str...

  18. Indigenous social and economic structure in precolonial Idanreland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-colonial Idanre was built on household farming, and reciprocal economic system among family members, age group and joint communal mode of production. Economic system in precolonial Idanre was therefore, conducted with an eye on widening social af nity, inclusive development and tightening cultural bond ...

  19. Observations on sexual dimorphism and social structure in the lizard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angolosaurus skoogi is a large, herbivorous lizard of the northern Namib dune sea. Adults are sexually dimorphic in body size and colouration and these differences may be related to social organization. Whether the observed dimorphism is a result of the mating system, as is the case with several other herbivorous lizards, ...

  20. The impact of the structural adjustment | Rono | Journal of Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, the SAPs in Kenya have been linked to the increasing deviant and crime rates, ethnic hatred and discrimination and welfare problems, especially in the areas of education and health. African Journal of Social Work Vol.17(1) 2002: 81-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jsda.v17i1.23847 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. Mapping the social class structure: From occupational mobility to social class categories using network analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toubøl, Jonas; Larsen, Anton Grau

    2017-01-01

    This article develops a new explorative method for deriving social class categories from patterns of occupational mobility. In line with Max Weber, our research is based on the notion that, if class boundaries do not inhibit social mobility then the class categories are of little value. Thus......, unlike dominant, theoretically defined class schemes, this article derives social class categories from observed patterns in a mobility network covering intra-generational mobility. The network is based on a mobility table of 109 occupational categories tied together by 1,590,834 job shifts on the Danish...... labour market 2001–2007. The number of categories are reduced from 109 to 34 by applying a new clustering algorithm specifically designed for the study of mobility tables (MONECA). These intra-generational social class categories are related to the central discussions of gender, income, education...

  2. Transactions Between Child Social Wariness and Observed Structured Parenting: Evidence From a Prospective Adoption Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Ganiban, Jody; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the mutual influences between structured parenting and child social wariness during toddlerhood using a longitudinal adoption design. The sample consisted of 361 adoption-linked families, each including an adopted child, adoptive parents, and a birth mother. Heightened social wariness in children at age 18 months predicted reduced levels of observed structured parenting (i.e., less directive parenting with fewer commands and requests) in adoptive mothers at age 27 months. Adoptive fathers’ lower structured parenting at age 18 months predicted subsequent elevation in child social wariness. Birth mothers’ history of fear-related anxiety disorders was not associated with child social wariness. Findings highlight the role of dynamic family transactions in the development of social wariness during toddlerhood. PMID:23448430

  3. Cognitive indicators of social anxiety in youth: a structural equation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Brittany M; Davis, Thompson E; Matthews, Russell A

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated significant relationships among various cognitive variables such as negative cognition, self-efficacy, and social anxiety. Unfortunately, few studies focus on the role of cognition among youth, and researchers often fail to use domain-specific measures when examining cognitive variables. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine domain-specific cognitive variables (i.e., socially oriented negative self-referent cognition and social self-efficacy) and their relationships to social anxiety in children and adolescents using structural equation modeling techniques. A community sample of children and adolescents (n=245; 55.9% female; 83.3% Caucasian, 9.4% African American, 2% Asian, 2% Hispanic, 2% "other," and 1.2% not reported) completed questionnaires assessing social cognition and social anxiety symptomology. Three latent variables were created to examine the constructs of socially oriented negative self-referent cognition (as measured by the SONAS scale), social self-efficacy (as measured by the SEQSS-C), and social anxiety (as measured by the SPAI-C and the Brief SA). The resulting measurement model of latent variables fit the data well. Additionally, consistent with the study hypothesis, results indicated that social self-efficacy likely mediates the relationship between socially oriented negative self-referent cognition and social anxiety, and socially oriented negative self-referent cognition yields significant direct and indirect effects on social anxiety. These findings indicate that socially oriented negative cognitions are associated with youth's beliefs about social abilities and the experience of social anxiety. Future directions for research and study limitations, including use of cross-sectional data, are discussed. © 2013.

  4. Study on role structure in social planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimata, Noboru

    1984-01-01

    New proposals are attended with a new set of role-expectation. If we lack attention to this aspect of any proposal, we face a serious difficulty in its implementation stage. The system called as Public Hearring shows us this fact. In this paper, introducing ABC model of communication by Westley and Maclean, we try to describe a set of role-expectation for particitants in social planning systems. And also introducing analytical concepts of role enactment process, we reveal two important problems for any proposal as a subsystem of social planning systems: (i) importance of role negotiation process for role-consensus, and (ii) necessity of supporting systems for role-adaptation. Especially for role-adaptation to Channel-Roles, we indicate the potential of VISMS as its supporting system. (author)

  5. Applying Structural Systems Thinking to Frame Perspectives on Social Work Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Erin J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Innovation will be key to the success of the Grand Challenges Initiative in social work. A structural systems framework based in system dynamics could be useful for considering how to advance innovation. Method: Diagrams using system dynamics conventions were developed to link common themes across concept papers written by social work…

  6. Entrepreneur online social networks: structure, diversity and impact on start-up survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Y.; Vinig, T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the results of a pilot study in which we use a novel approach to collect entrepreneur online social network data from LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter. We studied the size and structure of entrepreneur social networks by analysing the online network industry and location

  7. Influence of Learning Styles on Social Structures in Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela, Karina; Sicilia, Miguel-Ángel; Sánchez-Alonso, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    In e-learning settings, the interactions of students with one another, with the course content and with the instructors generate a considerable amount of information that may be useful for understanding how people learn online. The objective of the present research was to use social network analysis to explore the social structure of an e-learning…

  8. Adapting Objective Structured Clinical Examinations to Assess Social Work Students' Performance and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogo, Marion; Regehr, Cheryl; Logie, Carmen; Katz, Ellen; Mylopoulos, Maria; Regehr, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    The development of standardized, valid, and reliable methods for assessment of students' practice competence continues to be a challenge for social work educators. In this study, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), originally used in medicine to assess performance through simulated interviews, was adapted for social work to…

  9. The Factor Structure and Screening Utility of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Woods, Carol M.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Schneier, Franklin R.

    2006-01-01

    The widely used Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS; R. P. Mattick & J. C. Clarke, 1998) possesses favorable psychometric properties, but questions remain concerning its factor structure and item properties. Analyses included 445 people with social anxiety disorder and 1,689 undergraduates. Simple unifactorial models fit poorly, and models that…

  10. Cohorts, "Siblings," and Mentors: Organizational Structures and the Creation of Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Amanda Barrett

    2017-01-01

    How can an organization help participants increase their social capital? Using data from an ethnographic study of Launch, an organization that prepares low-income students of color to attend elite boarding schools, I analyze how the organization's structures not only generate social ties among students but also stratify those ties horizontally and…

  11. Transactions between Child Social Wariness and Observed Structured Parenting: Evidence from a Prospective Adoption Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Ganiban, Jody; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the mutual influences between structured parenting and child social wariness during toddlerhood using a longitudinal adoption design. The sample consisted of 361 adoption-linked families, each including an adopted child, adoptive parents, and a birth mother. Heightened social wariness in children at age 18 months…

  12. The influence of social structure on social isolation in amphetamine-treated Java monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobbout, D.A.; Ellenbroek, B.A.; Cools, A.R.

    1996-10-01

    Amphetamine-induced social isolation in monkeys has often been considered a valid animal model for certain negative symptoms of schizophrenia. However, there appear to be many ambiguities in relation to the exact nature of the isolation. Therefore, the effect of orally administered amphetamine (AMP) on the occurrence of social isolation in Java monkeys was studied. In part I the rank dependency of the effects of AMP (0.5mg/kg) was investigated in four alpha-males and three beta-males. AMP increased 'proximity' and 'passive groom', and decreased 'active allogroom' in alpha-males. In contrast, AMP decreased all three behavioural elements to a certain extent in beta-males. It is concluded that AMP induces social isolation in beta-males, but not in alpha-males. In part II of this study the AMP-induced behaviour of the treated monkey and the simultaneously occurring changes in the non-treated monkeys were investigated in a detailed study of a single social group. AMP significantly reduced the frequency of 'exploration', 'locomotion', 'self-groom', 'swing', 'active groom', 'inspect', 'approach' and originally-present stereotypies. Thus AMP apparently reduces the ability to initiate behaviour which is characteristic for the adult animal. AMP did not affect the frequency of 'present' and 'play' and enhanced that of 'aggression' and 'fear' in the beta-male; it also elicited various juvenile-like behaviours in both alpha- and beta-males, suggesting that AMP induces a behavioural regression. Furthermore, the behaviour of the non-treated monkeys of the group was decisive for the occurrence of social isolation of the treated monkey. Thus, the effects of AMP on the social behaviour of Java monkeys depend on the individual sensitivity, the social position which the subject occupies in its group, and the behaviour of the partners of the treated subject.

  13. Science & education: Genetic analysis of winter social structure and social traits in a migratory sparrow & teaching argumentation in STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnberg, Nina N.

    Stable social organization in a wide variety of organisms has been linked to kinship, which can minimize conflict due to the indirect fitness benefits from cooperating with relatives. In birds, kin selection has been mostly studied in the context of reproduction or in species that are social year round. Many birds however are migratory and the role of kinship in the winter societies of these species is virtually unexplored. A previous study detected striking social complexity and stability in wintering populations of migratory golden-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia atricapilla)---individuals repeatedly form close associations with the same social partners, including across multiple winters. In chapter one I test the possibility that kinship might be involved in these close and stable social affiliations. I examine the relationship between kinship and social structure for two of the consecutive wintering seasons from the previous study. I found no evidence that social structure was influenced by kinship---relatedness between most pairs of individuals was at most that of first cousins (and mostly far lower) and Mantel tests revealed no relationship between kinship and pairwise interaction frequency. Kinship also failed to predict social structure in more fine-grained analyses, including analyses of each sex separately (in the event that sex-biased migration might limit kin selection to one sex) and separate analyses for each social community. The complex winter societies of golden-crowned sparrows appear to be based on cooperative benefits unrelated to kin selection. Although the complex social structure detected in wintering golden-crowned sparrows is not predicted by kinship, genetic variation may play a role in variation of winter social traits. In chapter two, I investigate the genetic causes of variation in fitness-related traits in a winter population of golden-crowned sparrows. Individuals show great variation in morphological and behavioral traits that may play

  14. Structural and Functional Connectivity Changes in the Brain Associated with Shyness but Not with Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qizhu; Chen, Taolin; Lama, Sunima; Cheng, Bochao; Li, Shiguang; Huang, Xiaoqi; Gong, Qiyong

    2013-01-01

    Shyness and social anxiety are correlated to some extent and both are associated with hyper-responsivity to social stimuli in the frontal cortex and limbic system. However to date no studies have investigated whether common structural and functional connectivity differences in the brain may contribute to these traits. We addressed this issue in a cohort of 61 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were first assessed for their levels of shyness (Cheek and Buss Shyness scale) and social anxiety (Liebowitz Social Anxiety scale) and trait anxiety. They were then given MRI scans and voxel-based morphometry and seed-based, resting-state functional connectivity analysis investigated correlations with shyness and anxiety scores. Shyness scores were positively correlated with gray matter density in the cerebellum, bilateral superior temporal gyri and parahippocampal gyri and right insula. Functional connectivity correlations with shyness were found between the superior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and the frontal gyri, between the insula and precentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, and between the cerebellum and precuneus. Additional correlations were found for amygdala connectivity with the medial frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, despite the absence of any structural correlation. By contrast no structural or functional connectivity measures correlated with social or trait anxiety. Our findings show that shyness is specifically associated with structural and functional connectivity changes in cortical and limbic regions involved with processing social stimuli. These associations are not found with social or trait anxiety in healthy subjects despite some behavioral correlations with shyness. PMID:23675458

  15. The Structure of Social Cognition: In(ter)dependence of Sociocognitive Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happé, Francesca; Cook, Jennifer L; Bird, Geoffrey

    2017-01-03

    Social cognition is a topic of enormous interest and much research, but we are far from having an agreed taxonomy or factor structure of relevant processes. The aim of this review is to outline briefly what is known about the structure of social cognition and to suggest how further progress can be made to delineate the in(ter)dependence of core sociocognitive processes. We focus in particular on several processes that have been discussed and tested together in typical and atypical (notably autism spectrum disorder) groups: imitation, biological motion, empathy, and theory of mind. We consider the domain specificity/generality of core processes in social learning, reward, and attention, and we highlight the potential relevance of dual-process theories that distinguish systems for fast/automatic and slow/effortful processing. We conclude with methodological and conceptual suggestions for future progress in uncovering the structure of social cognition.

  16. "Structured Discovery": A Modified Inquiry Approach to Teaching Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordon, John

    1981-01-01

    Describes structured discovery approach to inquiry teaching which encourages the teacher to select instructional objectives, content, and questions to be answered. The focus is on individual and group activities. A brief outline using this approach to analyze Adolf Hitler is presented. (KC)

  17. Social networking site (SNS) use by adolescent mothers: Can social support and social capital be enhanced by online social networks? - A structured review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Samantha; Hendricks, Joyce; Ferguson, Sally; Towell, Amanda

    2017-05-01

    to critically appraise the available literature and summarise the evidence relating to adolescent mothers' use of social networking sites in terms of any social support and social capital they may provide and to identify areas for future exploration. social networking sites have been demonstrated to provide social support to marginalised individuals and provide psycho-social benefits to members of such groups. Adolescent mothers are at risk of; social marginalisation; anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms; and poorer health and educational outcomes for their children. Social support has been shown to benefit adolescent mothers thus online mechanisms require consideration. a review of original research articles METHOD: key terms and Boolean operators identified research reports across a 20-year timeframe pertaining to the area of enquiry in: CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline, Scopus, ERIC, ProQuest, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Health Collection (Informit) and Google Scholar databases. Eight original research articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. studies demonstrate that adolescent mothers actively search for health information using the Internet and social networking sites, and that social support and social capital can be attributed to their use of specifically created online groups from within targeted health interventions. Use of a message board forum for pregnant and parenting adolescents also demonstrates elements of social support. There are no studies to date pertaining to adolescent mothers' use of globally accessible social networking sites in terms of social support provision and related outcomes. further investigation is warranted to explore the potential benefits of adolescent mothers' use of globally accessible social networking sites in terms of any social support provision and social capital they may provide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Function and structure in social brain regions can link oxytocin-receptor genes with autistic social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasue, Hidenori

    2013-02-01

    Difficulties in appropriate social and communicative behaviors are the most prevalent and core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Although recent intensive research has focused on the neurobiological background of these difficulties, many aspects of them were not yet elucidated. Recent studies have employed multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices as intermediate phenotypes of this behavioral phenotype to link candidate genes with the autistic social difficulty. As MRI indices, functional MRI (fMRI), structural MRI, and MR-spectroscopy have been examined in subjects with autism spectrum disorders. As candidate genes, this mini-review has much interest in oxytocin-receptor genes (OXTR), since recent studies have repeatedly reported their associations with normal variations in social cognition and behavior as well as with their extremes, autistic social dysfunction. Through previous increasing studies, medial prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus and amygdala have repeatedly been revealed as neural correlates of autistic social behavior by MRI multimodalities and their relationship to OXTR. For further development of this research area, this mini-review integrates recent accumulating evidence about human behavioral and neural correlates of OXTR. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Does landscape connectivity shape local and global social network structure in white-tailed deer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L Koen

    Full Text Available Intraspecific social behavior can be influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. While much research has focused on how characteristics of individuals influence their roles in social networks, we were interested in the role that landscape structure plays in animal sociality at both individual (local and population (global levels. We used female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus in Illinois, USA, to investigate the potential effect of landscape on social network structure by weighting the edges of seasonal social networks with association rate (based on proximity inferred from GPS collar data. At the local level, we found that sociality among female deer in neighboring social groups (n = 36 was mainly explained by their home range overlap, with two exceptions: 1 during fawning in an area of mixed forest and grassland, deer whose home ranges had low forest connectivity were more social than expected; and 2 during the rut in an area of intensive agriculture, deer inhabiting home ranges with high amount and connectedness of agriculture were more social than expected. At the global scale, we found that deer populations (n = 7 in areas with highly connected forest-agriculture edge, a high proportion of agriculture, and a low proportion of forest tended to have higher weighted network closeness, although low sample size precluded statistical significance. This result implies that infectious disease could spread faster in deer populations inhabiting such landscapes. Our work advances the general understanding of animal social networks, demonstrating how landscape features can underlie differences in social behavior both within and among wildlife social networks.

  20. Science Student Role: Evidence of Social Structural Norms Specific to School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Marie-Claire; Nieswandt, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Sociocultural studies of science education have consistently recognized the dialectic nature of students' agency to create and author positions for themselves and the structural constraints that may influence them. This mixed-methods study explores one particular aspect of these potential constraints: the possibility of a social structure specific…

  1. Exploring the role of cognitive and structural forms of social capital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article presents a synthesis of data from three village case studies focusing on how structural and cognitive social capital may have influenced the progression of the HIV epidemic in the Kagera region of Tanzania. Grounded theory was used to develop a theoretical model describing the possible links between structural ...

  2. Paradoxes of Social Networking in a Structured Web 2.0 Language Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, Mathieu; Zourou, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This paper critically inquires into social networking as a set of mechanisms and associated practices developed in a structured Web 2.0 language learning community. This type of community can be roughly described as learning spaces featuring (more or less) structured language learning resources displaying at least some notions of language learning…

  3. Integrative and distributive negotiation in small groups : Effects of task structure, decision rule, and social motive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, Bianca; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of task structure, decision rule, and social motive on small-group negotiation processes and outcomes. Three-person groups negotiated either within an asymmetrical task structure (in which a majority of group members have compatible interests) or within a

  4. Unraveling the disease consequences and mechanisms of modular structure in animal social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Pratha; Leu, Stephan T.; Cross, Paul C.; Hudson, Peter J.; Bansal, Shweta

    2017-01-01

    Disease risk is a potential cost of group living. Although modular organization is thought to reduce this cost in animal societies, empirical evidence toward this hypothesis has been conflicting. We analyzed empirical social networks from 43 animal species to motivate our study of the epidemiological consequences of modular structure in animal societies. From these empirical studies, we identified the features of interaction patterns associated with network modularity and developed a theoretical network model to investigate when and how subdivisions in social networks influence disease dynamics. Contrary to prior work, we found that disease risk is largely unaffected by modular structure, although social networks beyond a modular threshold experience smaller disease burden and longer disease duration. Our results illustrate that the lowering of disease burden in highly modular social networks is driven by two mechanisms of modular organization: network fragmentation and subgroup cohesion. Highly fragmented social networks with cohesive subgroups are able to structurally trap infections within a few subgroups and also cause a structural delay to the spread of disease outbreaks. Finally, we show that network models incorporating modular structure are necessary only when prior knowledge suggests that interactions within the population are highly subdivided. Otherwise, null networks based on basic knowledge about group size and local contact heterogeneity may be sufficient when data-limited estimates of epidemic consequences are necessary. Overall, our work does not support the hypothesis that modular structure universally mitigates the disease impact of group living.

  5. Cognitive and Social Structure of the Elite Collaboration Network of Astrophysics: A Case Study on Shifting Network Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidler, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Scientific collaboration can only be understood along the epistemic and cognitive grounding of scientific disciplines. New scientific discoveries in astrophysics led to a major restructuring of the elite network of astrophysics. To study the interplay of the epistemic grounding and the social network structure of a discipline, a mixed-methods…

  6. The Effects of MNC Parent Effort and Social Structure on Subsidiary Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleimer, Stephanie Christine; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    of their subsidiaries. Using a teacher–student lens, this study examines the combined impact of specific structural mechanisms and motivational processes by MNC parents on the ability of 216 subsidiaries to absorb parent-initiated marketing strategies. The findings reveal that MNC parents can indeed cultivate...... subsidiaries’ ability to appropriate marketing knowledge through a combination of adopting specific social structures and investing in particular efforts. However, the effect of social structure on subsidiary absorptive capacity is indirect, and accounted for by the parents’ intensity of effort....

  7. The Effects of Structured Physical Activity Program on Social Interaction and Communication for Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengxian; Chen, Shihui

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of structured physical activity program on social interaction and communication of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Fifty children with ASD from a special school were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. 25 children with ASD were placed in the experimental group, and the other 25 children as the control group participated in regular physical activity. A total of forty-one participants completed the study. A 12-week structured physical activity program was implemented with a total of 24 exercise sessions targeting social interaction and communication of children with ASD, and a quasi-experimental design was used for this study. Data were collected using quantitative and qualitative instruments. SSIS and ABLLS-R results showed that an overall improvement in social skills and social interaction for the experimental group across interim and posttests, F = 8.425, p = 0.001 ( p social interaction, and self-control subdomains ( p 0.005). The study concluded that the special structured physical activity program positively influenced social interaction and communication skills of children with ASD, especially in social skills, communication, prompt response, and frequency of expression.

  8. Uncovering the influence of social skills and psychosociological factors on pain sensitivity using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoichi; Nishi, Yuki; Nishi, Yuki; Osumi, Michihiro; Morioka, Shu

    2017-01-01

    Pain is a subjective emotional experience that is influenced by psychosociological factors such as social skills, which are defined as problem-solving abilities in social interactions. This study aimed to reveal the relationships among pain, social skills, and other psychosociological factors by using structural equation modeling. A total of 101 healthy volunteers (41 men and 60 women; mean age: 36.6±12.7 years) participated in this study. To evoke participants' sense of inner pain, we showed them images of painful scenes on a PC screen and asked them to evaluate the pain intensity by using the visual analog scale (VAS). We examined the correlation between social skills and VAS, constructed a hypothetical model based on results from previous studies and the current correlational analysis results, and verified the model's fit using structural equation modeling. We found significant positive correlations between VAS and total social skills values, as well as between VAS and the "start of relationships" subscales. Structural equation modeling revealed that the values for "start of relationships" had a direct effect on VAS values (path coefficient =0.32, p social support. The results indicated that extroverted people are more sensitive to inner pain and tend to get more social support and maintain a better psychological condition.

  9. The Effects of Structured Physical Activity Program on Social Interaction and Communication for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengxian

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of structured physical activity program on social interaction and communication of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Fifty children with ASD from a special school were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. 25 children with ASD were placed in the experimental group, and the other 25 children as the control group participated in regular physical activity. A total of forty-one participants completed the study. A 12-week structured physical activity program was implemented with a total of 24 exercise sessions targeting social interaction and communication of children with ASD, and a quasi-experimental design was used for this study. Data were collected using quantitative and qualitative instruments. SSIS and ABLLS-R results showed that an overall improvement in social skills and social interaction for the experimental group across interim and posttests, F = 8.425, p = 0.001 (p social interaction, and self-control subdomains (p 0.005). The study concluded that the special structured physical activity program positively influenced social interaction and communication skills of children with ASD, especially in social skills, communication, prompt response, and frequency of expression. PMID:29568743

  10. Structural drivers and social protection: mechanisms of HIV risk and HIV prevention for South African adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie Dale; Orkin, Frederick Mark; Meinck, Franziska; Boyes, Mark Edward; Sherr, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Social protection is high on the HIV-prevention agenda for youth in sub-Saharan Africa. However, questions remain: How do unconditional cash transfers work? What is the effect of augmenting cash provision with social care? And can "cash plus care" social protection reduce risks for adolescents most vulnerable to infection? This study tackles these questions by first identifying mediated pathways to adolescent HIV risks and then examining potential main and moderating effects of social protection in South Africa. This study was a prospective observational study of 3515 10-to-17-year-olds (56.7% female; 96.8% one-year retention). Within randomly selected census areas in four rural and urban districts in two South African provinces, all homes with a resident adolescent were sampled between 2009/2010 and 2011/2012. Measures included 1) potential structural drivers of HIV infection such as poverty and community violence; 2) HIV risk behaviours; 3) hypothesized psychosocial mediating factors; and 4) types of social protection involving cash and care. Using gender-disaggregated analyses, longitudinal mediation models were tested for potential main and moderating effects of social protection. Structural drivers were associated with increased onset of adolescent HIV risk behaviour (psocial protection were associated with reductions in HIV risk behaviour and psychosocial deprivations. In addition, cash social protection moderated risk pathways: for adolescent girls and boys experiencing more acute structural deprivation, social protection had the greatest associations with HIV risk prevention (e.g. moderation effects for girls: B=-0.08, psocial protection has the greatest prevention effects for the most vulnerable. Social protection comprising unconditional cash plus care was associated with reduced risk pathways through moderation and main effects, respectively. Our findings suggest the importance of social protection within a combination package of HIV

  11. A Capability Approach to Understanding Sport for Social Inclusion: Agency, Structure and Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naofumi Suzuki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the global diffusion of the term social inclusion, as well as the use of sport to promote it, questions have been raised regarding the extent to which sport is able to contribute to transforming the exclusive nature of the social structure. The lack of analytical clarity of the concept has not helped to address these questions. This article proposes a conceptual framework based on Amartya Sen’s capability approach, considering social exclusion as the denial of social relations that leads to serious deprivation of important capabilities. A person’s capabilities could potentially be improved through micro-, meso-, and macro-level social processes. At the micro level, sport-based social inclusion programmes could offer such social relations to varying degrees, though sport’s values are only relative to other leisure activities. The scale of impact depends primarily on the meso-level processes, in which the size and quality of each programme can be improved through organisational learning, and secondarily on the macro-level processes whereby the organisational population is institutionalised. It is argued that more research needs to be done on the meso and macro levels, as they are concerned with the ultimate potential of sport to facilitate structural transformation towards more socially inclusive society.

  12. The Sociological Study of the Effect of Family Structure on Social Health of Males

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    Naima Mohammadi

    Full Text Available Social health depends on different social and cultural factors. One of the most important suppliers of individual’s health is family structures and relations. In recent years due to functional changes in polygamous structure, there are threats against social health of men in Sarbaz city. In this research, to compare the rate of social health of men in polygamous and monogamous families in Sarbaz city we use a standard questionnaire of Shapiro & Keyes (2007. The population of this study consisted of 300 males who are residents of this city. They selected by using cluster sampling method. Gathered data were analyzed using SPSS software version 22. Findings from independent T-Test revealed that the average of social Coherence, Integration, Contribution and Actualization between men in polygamous families were significantly lower than monogamous. Based on these findings, we can conclude however a lot of traditional social customs were useful, functional and compatible and provide social acceptance, but today have become dysfunctional and threated social health of family members and community system face with crisis.

  13. Users structure and behavior on an online social network during a political protest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A. J.; Losada, J. C.; Benito, R. M.

    2012-11-01

    Over the past years, new technologies and specially online social networks have penetrated into the world’s population at an accelerated pace. In this paper we analyze collected data from the web application Twitter, in order to describe the structure and dynamics of the emergent social networks, based on complexity science. We focused on a Venezuelan protest that took place exclusively by Twitter during December, 2010. We found a community structure with highly connected hubs and three different kinds of user behavior that determine the information flow dynamics. We noticed that even though online social networks appear to be a pure social environment, traditional media still holds loads of influence inside the network.

  14. Social media use profile, social skills, and nurse-patient interaction among Registered Nurses in tertiary hospitals: A structural equation model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Micah Celine O; Maniego, John Christian M; Manila, Hariette Lou Marie D; Mapanoo, Ram Cedrick C; Maquiran, Kerwin Miguel A; Macindo, John Rey B; Tejero, Lourdes Marie S; Torres, Gian Carlo S

    2018-04-01

    Social media has become increasingly important over the past decades and has been integrated in various environments, including the healthcare setting. Yet, the influence of social media use on the social skills and nurse-patient interaction of nurses is an area in nursing that requires further studies. This study determined the interrelationships among social media use profile, social skills, and nurse-patient interaction of Registered Nurses in tertiary hospitals. Employing structural equation modeling, a descriptive-correlational study was conducted among 212 consecutively-selected nurses from two tertiary hospitals. Consenting respondents completed a two-part survey composed of the respondent profile sheet and the Social Skills Inventory. The respondent profile sheet assessed demographic profile and social media use profile in terms of the mode, frequency, and duration of utilization. Three trained team members observed each nurse-patient dyad and completed the Nurse-Patient Bonding Instrument. A good fit model illustrated the negative effects of frequent social media use to patient openness (β = -0.18, p social media on a daily basis, however, positively affected both dimensions of social skills. Accessing social media platforms using non-handheld devices showed the most influential positive effects to social skills and nurse-patient interaction. Additionally, although verbal social skills positively affected most dimensions of nurse-patient interaction, non-verbal social skills negatively influenced patient engagement (β = -0.19, p = 0.019) and nurse openness (β = -0.38, p ≤ 0.05). The structural model illustrates the effects of using social media on the social skills and nurse-patient interaction of nurses and emphasizes the need for implementing institutional policies on the judicious use and application of social media in the workplace. Further, social skills development programs geared toward having a balanced social skill must

  15. The Effects of Structured Physical Activity Program on Social Interaction and Communication for Children with Autism

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    Mengxian Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of structured physical activity program on social interaction and communication of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Fifty children with ASD from a special school were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. 25 children with ASD were placed in the experimental group, and the other 25 children as the control group participated in regular physical activity. A total of forty-one participants completed the study. A 12-week structured physical activity program was implemented with a total of 24 exercise sessions targeting social interaction and communication of children with ASD, and a quasi-experimental design was used for this study. Data were collected using quantitative and qualitative instruments. SSIS and ABLLS-R results showed that an overall improvement in social skills and social interaction for the experimental group across interim and posttests, F=8.425, p=0.001 (p0.005. The study concluded that the special structured physical activity program positively influenced social interaction and communication skills of children with ASD, especially in social skills, communication, prompt response, and frequency of expression.

  16. Observing preschoolers' social-emotional behavior: structure, foundations, and prediction of early school success.

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    Denham, Susanne A; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Thayer, Sara K; Mincic, Melissa S; Sirotkin, Yana S; Zinsser, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Social-emotional behavior of 352 3- and 4-year-olds attending private child-care and Head Start programs was observed using the Minnesota Preschool Affect Checklist, Revised (MPAC-R). Goals of the investigation included (a) using MPAC-R data to extract a shortened version, MPAC-R/S, comparing structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and stability of both versions; and, using the shortened measure, to examine (b) age, gender, and risk status differences in social-emotional behaviors; (c) contributions of emotion knowledge and executive function to social-emotional behaviors; and (d) contributions of social-emotional behaviors to early school adjustment and kindergarten academic success. Results show that reliability of MPAC-R/S was as good, or better, than the MPAC-R. MPAC-R/S structure, at both times of observation, included emotionally negative/aggressive, emotionally regulated/prosocial, and emotionally positive/productive behaviors; MPAC-R structure was similar but less replicable over time. Age, gender, and risk differences were found. Children's emotion knowledge contributed to later emotionally regulated/prosocial behavior. Finally, preschool emotionally negative/aggressive behaviors were associated with concurrent and kindergarten school success, and there was evidence of social-emotional behavior mediating relations between emotion knowledge or executive function, and school outcomes. The importance of portable, empirically supported observation measures of social-emotional behaviors is discussed along with possible applications, teacher utilization, and implementation barriers.

  17. The structural and functional brain networks that support human social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, M P; Mars, R B; Sallet, J; Dunbar, R I M; Fellows, L K

    2018-02-20

    Social skills rely on a specific set of cognitive processes, raising the possibility that individual differences in social networks are related to differences in specific brain structural and functional networks. Here, we tested this hypothesis with multimodality neuroimaging. With diffusion MRI (DMRI), we showed that differences in structural integrity of particular white matter (WM) tracts, including cingulum bundle, extreme capsule and arcuate fasciculus were associated with an individual's social network size (SNS). A voxel-based morphology analysis demonstrated correlations between gray matter (GM) volume and SNS in limbic and temporal lobe regions. These structural changes co-occured with functional network differences. As a function of SNS, dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed altered resting-state functional connectivity with the default mode network (DMN). Finally, we integrated these three complementary methods, interrogating the relationship between social GM clusters and specific WM and resting-state networks (RSNs). Probabilistic tractography seeded in these GM nodes utilized the SNS-related WM pathways. Further, the spatial and functional overlap between the social GM clusters and the DMN was significantly closer than other control RSNs. These integrative analyses provide convergent evidence of the role of specific circuits in SNS, likely supporting the adaptive behavior necessary for success in extensive social environments. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Monogamy, strongly bonded groups, and the evolution of human social structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapais, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Human social evolution has most often been treated in a piecemeal fashion, with studies focusing on the evolution of specific components of human society such as pair-bonding, cooperative hunting, male provisioning, grandmothering, cooperative breeding, food sharing, male competition, male violence, sexual coercion, territoriality, and between-group conflicts. Evolutionary models about any one of those components are usually concerned with two categories of questions, one relating to the origins of the component and the other to its impact on the evolution of human cognition and social life. Remarkably few studies have been concerned with the evolution of the entity that integrates all components, the human social system itself. That social system has as its core feature human social structure, which I define here as the common denominator of all human societies in terms of group composition, mating system, residence patterns, and kinship structures. The paucity of information on the evolution of human social structure poses substantial problems because that information is useful, if not essential, to assess both the origins and impact of any particular aspect of human society. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Whether Social Schema Violations Help or Hurt Creativity Depends on Need for Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocłowska, Małgorzata A; Baas, Matthijs; Crisp, Richard J; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2014-08-01

    Although people and events that disconfirm observers' expectancies can increase their creativity, sometimes such social schema violations increase observers' rigidity of thought and undermine creative cognition. Here we examined whether individual differences in the extent to which people prefer structure and predictability determine whether social schema violations facilitate or hamper creativity. Participants in Study 1 formed impressions of a schema-inconsistent female mechanic (vs. a schema-consistent male mechanic). Following schema-inconsistent rather than -consistent information, participants low (high) in need for structure showed better (impeded) creative performance. Participants in Study 2 memorized a series of images in which individuals were placed on a schema-inconsistent (vs. consistent) background (e.g., an Eskimo on the desert vs. on a snowy landscape). Following schema-inconsistent imagery, participants low (high) in need for structure increased (decreased) divergent thinking. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  20. Factor structure of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Heidgerken, Amanda D; Fisher, Paige H; Pincus, Donna B; Liebowitz, Michael R

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS-CA). The LSAS-CA was administered to 225 children and adolescents as a component of various clinical studies. In addition, other measures of psychopathology and impairment were administered to a subgroup of the sample. Confirmatory factor analyses of the social interaction and performance subscales for the anxiety and avoidance ratings yielded poor fit indices. Exploratory factor analysis supported a two-factor solution with a higher order factor for the LSAS-CA anxiety and avoidance ratings. Based on item content, factors were named Social and School Performance. The internal consistency of the factors was high and the convergent and divergent validity was supported vis-à-vis correlations with measures of depression and social anxiety, and clinician ratings of impairment and functioning. Findings suggest that the anxiety and avoidance ratings are best explained by a two-factor solution that measures social anxiety and avoidance in social and school performance interactions. This factor structure appears to be a reliable and valid framework for assessing childhood social phobia.

  1. Problematic Alcohol Use and Problem Gambling: Associations to Structural and Functional aspects of Social Ties in a Finnish Population Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordmyr Johanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – This study aims to explore associations between structural and functional aspects of social networks and relationships (here labelled social ties among individuals exhibiting problematic alcohol use and problem gambling, respectively.

  2. Structural and cognitive social capital and depression among older adults in two Nordic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, A K; Nyqvist, F; Schierenbeck, I; Gustafson, Y; Wahlbeck, K

    2012-01-01

    To study the association between structural and cognitive aspects of social capital and depression among older adults in two Nordic regions. Data were retrieved from a postal survey targeting older adults aged 65, 70, 75 and 80 years (N=6 838, response rate=64%) residing in the Västerbotten region (Sweden), and the Österbotten region (Finland) in 2010. The associations between structural (measured by frequency of social contact with friends and neighbours) and cognitive (measured by experienced trust in friends and neighbours) aspects of social capital and depression (measured by Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS-4) were tested by logistic regression analyses. Both low structural and cognitive social capital as defined in the study showed statistically significant associations with depression in older adults. Only experienced trust in neighbours failed to show significant association with depression. In addition, being single and being 80 years of age indicated a higher risk of depression as defined by GDS-4. The findings underline the connection between adequate levels of both structural and cognitive individual social capital and mental health in later life. They also suggest that the connection differs depending on various network types; the cognitive aspect of relationships between friends was connected to depression, while the connection was not found for neighbours. Further, the oldest age group in the sample (80 years of age) is pointed out as a population especially vulnerable for depression that should not be overlooked in mental health promotion and depression prevention.

  3. Fine-scale genetic structure and social organization in female white-tailed deer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comer, Christopher E.; Kilgo, John C.; D' Angelo, Gino J.; Glenn, Travis C.; Miller, Karl V.

    2005-07-01

    Abstract: Social behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have important management implications. The formation of matrilineal social groups among female deer has been documented and management strategies have been proposed based on this well-developed social structure. Using radiocollared (n = 17) and hunter or vehicle-killed (n = 21) does, we examined spatial and genetic structure in white-tailed deer on a 7,000-ha portion of the Savannah River Site in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. We used 14 microsatellite DNA loci to calculate pairwise relatedness among individual deer and to assign doe pairs to putative relationship categories. Linear distance and genetic relatedness were weakly correlated (r = –0.08, P = 0.058). Relationship categories differed in mean spatial distance, but only 60% of first-degree-related doe pairs (full sibling or mother–offspring pairs) and 38% of second-degree-related doe pairs (half sibling, grandmother–granddaughter pairs) were members of the same social group based on spatial association. Heavy hunting pressure in this population has created a young age structure among does, where the average age is <2.5 years, and <4% of does are >4.5 years old. This—combined with potentially elevated dispersal among young does—could limit the formation of persistent, cohesive social groups. Our results question the universal applicability of recently proposed models of spatial and genetic structuring in white-tailed deer, particularly in areas with differing harvest histories.

  4. Stability and change in structural social relations as predictor of mortality among elderly women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Modvig, J; Due, P

    2000-01-01

    In a follow-up study of 70-95 years old women and men (n = 911) we studied the association between change and stability in three structural aspects of social relations (contact frequency, contact diversity, cohabitation status) from 1986-1990 and mortality after the next four years in 1994. Women.......02-14.94) and ORdiv: 6.04 (1.30-28.03). In summary, we found rather larger age differences in the strength of the association between change in structural social relations and mortality. Furthermore, the associations seemed stronger among women than men, which may however mainly be explained by the small number...

  5. A multilevel cross-lagged structural equation analysis for reciprocal relationship between social capital and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ge; Sessions, John G; Fu, Yu; Wall, Martin

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the reciprocal relationship between individual social capital and perceived mental and physical health in the UK. Using data from the British Household Panel Survey from 1991 to 2008, we fitted cross-lagged structural equation models that include three indicators of social capital vis. social participation, social network, and loneliness. Given that multiple measurement points (level 1) are nested within individuals (level 2), we also applied a multilevel model to allow for residual variation in the outcomes at the occasion and individual levels. Controlling for gender, age, employment status, educational attainment, marital status, household wealth, and region, our analyses suggest that social participation predicts subsequent change in perceived mental health, and vice versa. However, whilst loneliness is found to be significantly related to perceived mental and physical health, reciprocal causality is not found for perceived mental health. Furthermore, we find evidence for reverse effects with both perceived mental and physical health appearing to be the dominant causal factor with respect to the prospective level of social network. Our findings thus shed further light on the importance of social participation and social inclusion in health promotion and aid the development of more effective public health policies in the UK. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Social Capital and Well-Being: Structural Analyses of Latina Mothers by Nativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Mary L; Cuellar, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Objective This study examined the direct and mediating effects of maternal social capital on health and well-being for native- and foreign-born Latina mothers and their children. Methods Data were drawn from the baseline and nine-year follow up waves of the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study. The study included a sample of 874 Latina mothers. Mplus7 was used to perform structural equation modeling to determine whether exogenous indicators (age, education, and economic well-being) predicted social capital, whether social capital predicted mother and child well-being, and whether mediating effects helped explain each relationship. Results For native-born Latinas (n = 540), social capital did not predict maternal or child well-being. However, social capital significantly mediated the effects of age, education, and economic well-being on maternal well-being. For foreign-born Latinas (n = 334), social capital was a significant predictor of maternal well-being. Social capital also mediated the effects of age, education, and economic well-being on maternal, but not child well-being. Younger and foreign-born Latinas who report higher educational attainment and economic well-being have greater social capital, and thus better self-reported health. Conclusion Findings suggest that social capital is particularly relevant to the health of foreign-born Latinas. For all Latina mothers, social capital may serve as a protective mitigating factor to better health. Health service providers should evaluate the potential to integrate programs that promote social capital accumulation for Latinas. Further research should examine factors to improve the health of Latinas' children.

  7. Community structure analysis of rejection sensitive personality profiles: A common neural response to social evaluative threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortink, Elise D; Weeda, Wouter D; Crowley, Michael J; Gunther Moor, Bregtje; van der Molen, Melle J W

    2018-06-01

    Monitoring social threat is essential for maintaining healthy social relationships, and recent studies suggest a neural alarm system that governs our response to social rejection. Frontal-midline theta (4-8 Hz) oscillatory power might act as a neural correlate of this system by being sensitive to unexpected social rejection. Here, we examined whether frontal-midline theta is modulated by individual differences in personality constructs sensitive to social disconnection. In addition, we examined the sensitivity of feedback-related brain potentials (i.e., the feedback-related negativity and P3) to social feedback. Sixty-five undergraduate female participants (mean age = 19.69 years) participated in the Social Judgment Paradigm, a fictitious peer-evaluation task in which participants provided expectancies about being liked/disliked by peer strangers. Thereafter, they received feedback signaling social acceptance/rejection. A community structure analysis was employed to delineate personality profiles in our data. Results provided evidence of two subgroups: one group scored high on attachment-related anxiety and fear of negative evaluation, whereas the other group scored high on attachment-related avoidance and low on fear of negative evaluation. In both groups, unexpected rejection feedback yielded a significant increase in theta power. The feedback-related negativity was sensitive to unexpected feedback, regardless of valence, and was largest for unexpected rejection feedback. The feedback-related P3 was significantly enhanced in response to expected social acceptance feedback. Together, these findings confirm the sensitivity of frontal midline theta oscillations to the processing of social threat, and suggest that this alleged neural alarm system behaves similarly in individuals that differ in personality constructs relevant to social evaluation.

  8. Emergence of scale-free close-knit friendship structure in online social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Xiang Cui

    Full Text Available Although the structural properties of online social networks have attracted much attention, the properties of the close-knit friendship structures remain an important question. Here, we mainly focus on how these mesoscale structures are affected by the local and global structural properties. Analyzing the data of four large-scale online social networks reveals several common structural properties. It is found that not only the local structures given by the indegree, outdegree, and reciprocal degree distributions follow a similar scaling behavior, the mesoscale structures represented by the distributions of close-knit friendship structures also exhibit a similar scaling law. The degree correlation is very weak over a wide range of the degrees. We propose a simple directed network model that captures the observed properties. The model incorporates two mechanisms: reciprocation and preferential attachment. Through rate equation analysis of our model, the local-scale and mesoscale structural properties are derived. In the local-scale, the same scaling behavior of indegree and outdegree distributions stems from indegree and outdegree of nodes both growing as the same function of the introduction time, and the reciprocal degree distribution also shows the same power-law due to the linear relationship between the reciprocal degree and in/outdegree of nodes. In the mesoscale, the distributions of four closed triples representing close-knit friendship structures are found to exhibit identical power-laws, a behavior attributed to the negligible degree correlations. Intriguingly, all the power-law exponents of the distributions in the local-scale and mesoscale depend only on one global parameter, the mean in/outdegree, while both the mean in/outdegree and the reciprocity together determine the ratio of the reciprocal degree of a node to its in/outdegree. Structural properties of numerical simulated networks are analyzed and compared with each of the four

  9. Emergence of scale-free close-knit friendship structure in online social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ai-Xiang; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Tang, Ming; Hui, Pak Ming; Fu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Although the structural properties of online social networks have attracted much attention, the properties of the close-knit friendship structures remain an important question. Here, we mainly focus on how these mesoscale structures are affected by the local and global structural properties. Analyzing the data of four large-scale online social networks reveals several common structural properties. It is found that not only the local structures given by the indegree, outdegree, and reciprocal degree distributions follow a similar scaling behavior, the mesoscale structures represented by the distributions of close-knit friendship structures also exhibit a similar scaling law. The degree correlation is very weak over a wide range of the degrees. We propose a simple directed network model that captures the observed properties. The model incorporates two mechanisms: reciprocation and preferential attachment. Through rate equation analysis of our model, the local-scale and mesoscale structural properties are derived. In the local-scale, the same scaling behavior of indegree and outdegree distributions stems from indegree and outdegree of nodes both growing as the same function of the introduction time, and the reciprocal degree distribution also shows the same power-law due to the linear relationship between the reciprocal degree and in/outdegree of nodes. In the mesoscale, the distributions of four closed triples representing close-knit friendship structures are found to exhibit identical power-laws, a behavior attributed to the negligible degree correlations. Intriguingly, all the power-law exponents of the distributions in the local-scale and mesoscale depend only on one global parameter, the mean in/outdegree, while both the mean in/outdegree and the reciprocity together determine the ratio of the reciprocal degree of a node to its in/outdegree. Structural properties of numerical simulated networks are analyzed and compared with each of the four real networks. This

  10. Roosting and foraging social structure of the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Silvis

    Full Text Available Social dynamics are an important but poorly understood aspect of bat ecology. Herein we use a combination of graph theoretic and spatial approaches to describe the roost and social network characteristics and foraging associations of an Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis maternity colony in an agricultural landscape in Ohio, USA. We tracked 46 bats to 50 roosts (423 total relocations and collected 2,306 foraging locations for 40 bats during the summers of 2009 and 2010. We found the colony roosting network was highly centralized in both years and that roost and social networks differed significantly from random networks. Roost and social network structure also differed substantially between years. Social network structure appeared to be unrelated to segregation of roosts between age classes. For bats whose individual foraging ranges were calculated, many shared foraging space with at least one other bat. Compared across all possible bat dyads, 47% and 43% of the dyads showed more than expected overlap of foraging areas in 2009 and 2010 respectively. Colony roosting area differed between years, but the roosting area centroid shifted only 332 m. In contrast, whole colony foraging area use was similar between years. Random roost removal simulations suggest that Indiana bat colonies may be robust to loss of a limited number of roosts but may respond differently from year to year. Our study emphasizes the utility of graphic theoretic and spatial approaches for examining the sociality and roosting behavior of bats. Detailed knowledge of the relationships between social and spatial aspects of bat ecology could greatly increase conservation effectiveness by allowing more structured approaches to roost and habitat retention for tree-roosting, socially-aggregating bat species.

  11. Interactions between social structure, demography, and transmission determine disease persistence in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sadie J; Jones, James H; Dobson, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Catastrophic declines in African great ape populations due to disease outbreaks have been reported in recent years, yet we rarely hear of similar disease impacts for the more solitary Asian great apes, or for smaller primates. We used an age-structured model of different primate social systems to illustrate that interactions between social structure and demography create 'dynamic constraints' on the pathogens that can establish and persist in primate host species with different social systems. We showed that this varies by disease transmission mode. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) require high rates of transmissibility to persist within a primate population. In particular, for a unimale social system, STIs require extremely high rates of transmissibility for persistence, and remain at extremely low prevalence in small primates, but this is less constrained in longer-lived, larger-bodied primates. In contrast, aerosol transmitted infections (ATIs) spread and persist at high prevalence in medium and large primates with moderate transmissibility;, establishment and persistence in small-bodied primates require higher relative rates of transmissibility. Intragroup contact structure - the social network - creates different constraints for different transmission modes, and our model underscores the importance of intragroup contacts on infection prior to intergroup movement in a structured population. When alpha males dominate sexual encounters, the resulting disease transmission dynamics differ from when social interactions are dominated by mother-infant grooming events, for example. This has important repercussions for pathogen spread across populations. Our framework reveals essential social and demographic characteristics of primates that predispose them to different disease risks that will be important for disease management and conservation planning for protected primate populations.

  12. Identifying the Social Structure and the Inequality in Monetary Income of Russian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Bobkov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at identifying the social structure and the inequality in monetary income of the population in Russia. identification of the social groups with different levels of material well-being in a society with a high inequality in the distribution of living standard is a relevant topic. The integration of normative and statistical methods allows to consider the limitations of the existing model of the distribution of cash income and adjust the boundaries of social groups with different levels of material well-being. At the same time, we stay within the criteria for the social standards of the differentiation of living standards. The authors have corrected the specific weight of the Russian social groups with different levels of material well-being. To define these social groups, we have applied the system of normative consumer budgets for different level of material well-being. This paper discovers the intervals for the levels of income and consumption, which are not in contradiction with the normative approach and existing conditions of the Russian economic development. These intervals are advisable for the identification of the social groups with different levels of life. The proposed tools allow to integrate the measurements into the international system and define the place of Russia in terms of economic inequalities among other countries. The authors have assessed the weights of the different social groups, their share in the total volume of monetary income and their polarization in terms of living standards. The main conclusions of the article can be used as a theoretical, methodological and practical basis for identifying social structures in terms of living standards, determining their numbers and economic inequality. The research results can be introduced into the statistical monitoring of the living standards of the population.

  13. Impact of functional and structural social relationships on two year depression outcomes: A multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Sandra K; Dowrick, Christopher F; Gunn, Jane M

    2016-03-15

    High rates of persistent depression highlight the need to identify the risk factors associated with poor depression outcomes and to provide targeted interventions to people at high risk. Although social relationships have been implicated in depression course, interventions targeting social relationships have been disappointing. Possibly, interventions have targeted the wrong elements of relationships. Alternatively, the statistical association between relationships and depression course is not causal, but due to shared variance with other factors. We investigated whether elements of social relationships predict major depressive episode (MDE) when multiple relevant variables are considered. Data is from a longitudinal study of primary care patients with depressive symptoms. 494 participants completed questionnaires at baseline and a depression measure (PHQ-9) two years later. Baseline measures included functional (i.e. quality) and structural (i.e. quantity) social relationships, depression, neuroticism, chronic illness, alcohol abuse, childhood abuse, partner violence and sociodemographic characteristics. Logistic regression with generalised estimating equations was used to estimate the association between social relationships and MDE. Both functional and structural social relationships predicted MDE in univariate analysis. Only functional social relationships remained significant in multivariate analysis (OR: 0.87; 95%CI: 0.79-0.97; p=0.01). Other unique predictors of MDE were baseline depression severity, neuroticism, childhood sexual abuse and intimate partner violence. We did not assess how a person's position in their depression trajectory influenced the association between social relationships and depression. Interventions targeting relationship quality may be part of a personalised treatment plan for people at high risk due of persistent depression due to poor social relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. From childhood adversity to problem behaviors: Role of psychological and structural social integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Lo-Hsin; Tsai, Meng-Che; Liang, Ya-Lun; Strong, Carol; Lin, Chung-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Childhood adversity (CA) is associated with problem behaviors in adolescence, but the mediators, that is, those factors that help build resilience and prevent some children who experience CA from engaging in problem behaviors, await more exploration, including social integration. The aim of this study was to identify the association between CA and adolescent problem behaviors, and to further examine the mediating role of social integration distinctly as psychological and structural integration. Data used were from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey, a core panel of 4,261 students (age 13) surveyed in 2001 and followed for three more waves until age 18. For psychological integration, an average score was calculated to represent adolescents' feelings about their school. Structural integration was constructed using several items about adolescents' school and extracurricular activities. We used structural equation modeling with the diagonally weighted least squares method to examine the effect of CA on the primary outcome: adolescent problem behaviors via social integration. The hypothesized structural equation model specifying the path from CA to adolescent problem behavior had good fit. Respondents with one CA were indirectly linked to problem behaviors via psychological but not structural integration (e.g. the level of participation in school and non-school activities). On mediation analysis, psychological integration significantly mediated the paths from one CA to all six problem behaviors (all P integration; two or more CA were not associated with significant paths to problem behaviors. The contribution of social integration is crucial to an adolescent's development from CA to problem behaviors. To form supportive social relationships to achieve better health, we suggest that those adolescents who have been exposed to CA should be helped to join more teams and take part in more activities, thereby increasing their opportunities for social interaction, and improving

  15. Structural-functional and parametric analysis of the social function of pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Tkachenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacy has always had a special (social value and was sensitive to the new social changes in the society and the state. These changes allow better understand the issues associated with increasing the efficiency of pharmaceutical care to the population. The aim of the work: identify, justify and to summarize the main elements of the social function of pharmacy, as a component of health care system, to further evaluate the properties of the pharmaceutical industry as a system. Materials and methods. To achieve this goal the principle of a systematic approach and the complex of research methods such as structural, functional and parametric analysis, logical knowledge and comparison, ad also generalization have been used. As materials of research, we used the results of fundamental and applied research of national and foreign experts on the issue. Results and discussion. The basic principles of the welfare state and pharmacy as socially oriented sectors of the economy have been determined. We have found that the pharmaceutical industry is an agent, which implements a number of elements of the social function, such as pharmaceutical assistance to the population, the production of social goods (drugs, medical products, medical cosmetics, etc., creating and providing of working places, paying taxes (replenishment of the state budget, the formation and development of human capital, research and innovation activities, charity and sponsorship, environmental protection. Ukraine formally acceded to United Nations document, «Agenda for the XXI Century». This agreement commits our government to implement development and implementation of sustainable development strategies. Its main components are the social responsibility, social integration, an efficient worker and effective owner. Social responsibility acts as a reverse reaction on realization of social policy through the main sectors of the economy. Conclusions. We have summarized the information and

  16. Factor structure of essential social skills to be salespersons in retail market: implications for psychiatric rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Leo C C; Tsang, Hector W H

    2005-12-01

    This study continued the effort to apply social skills training to increase vocational outcomes of people with severe mental illness. We planned to identify factor structure of essential social skills necessary for mental health consumers who have a vocational preference to work as salesperson in retail market. Exploratory factor analysis of the results of a 26-item questionnaire survey suggested a five-factor solution: social skills when interacting with customers, problem-solving skills, knowledge and attitudes, flexibility, and skills for conflict prevention, which accounted for 65.1% of the total variance. With the factor solution, we developed a job-specific social skills training program (JSST) to help consumers who want to be salespersons. The structure and session design followed the basic format of a typical social skills training program. The way this JSST is to be used with the work-related social skills training model previously developed by the corresponding author to produce better vocational outcomes of consumers is suggested.

  17. Emergence of scale-free leadership structure in social recommender systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Medo, Matúš; Cimini, Giulio; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The study of the organization of social networks is important for the understanding of opinion formation, rumor spreading, and the emergence of trends and fashion. This paper reports empirical analysis of networks extracted from four leading sites with social functionality (Delicious, Flickr, Twitter and YouTube) and shows that they all display a scale-free leadership structure. To reproduce this feature, we propose an adaptive network model driven by social recommending. Artificial agent-based simulations of this model highlight a "good get richer" mechanism where users with broad interests and good judgments are likely to become popular leaders for the others. Simulations also indicate that the studied social recommendation mechanism can gradually improve the user experience by adapting to tastes of its users. Finally we outline implications for real online resource-sharing systems.

  18. Applying Structural Systems Thinking to Frame Perspectives on Social Work Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Erin J

    2017-03-01

    Innovation will be key to the success of the Grand Challenges Initiative in social work. A structural systems framework based in system dynamics could be useful for considering how to advance innovation. Diagrams using system dynamics conventions were developed to link common themes across concept papers written by social work faculty members and graduate students ( N = 19). Transdisciplinary teams and ethical partnerships with communities and practitioners will be needed to responsibly develop high-quality innovative solutions. A useful next step would be to clarify to what extent factors that could "make or break" these partnerships arise from within versus outside of the field of social work and how this has changed over time. Advancing innovation in social work will mean making decisions in a complex, ever-changing system. Principles and tools from methods that account for complexity, such as system dynamics, can help improve this decision-making process.

  19. Effects of Network Structure, Competition and Memory Time on Social Spreading Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, James P.; O'Sullivan, Kevin P.; Baños, Raquel A.; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-04-01

    Online social media has greatly affected the way in which we communicate with each other. However, little is known about what fundamental mechanisms drive dynamical information flow in online social systems. Here, we introduce a generative model for online sharing behavior that is analytically tractable and that can reproduce several characteristics of empirical micro-blogging data on hashtag usage, such as (time-dependent) heavy-tailed distributions of meme popularity. The presented framework constitutes a null model for social spreading phenomena that, in contrast to purely empirical studies or simulation-based models, clearly distinguishes the roles of two distinct factors affecting meme popularity: the memory time of users and the connectivity structure of the social network.

  20. Between individual agency and structure in HIV prevention: understanding the middle ground of social practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippax, Susan; Stephenson, Niamh; Parker, Richard G; Aggleton, Peter

    2013-08-01

    When HIV prevention targets risk and vulnerability, it focuses on individual agency and social structures, ignoring the centrality of community in effective HIV prevention. The neoliberal concept of risk assumes individuals are rational agents who act on information provided to them regarding HIV transmission. This individualistic framework does not recognize the communities in which people act and connect. The concept of vulnerability on the other hand acknowledges the social world, but mainly as social barriers that make it difficult for individuals to act. Neither approach to HIV prevention offers understanding of community practices or collective agency, both central to success in HIV prevention to date. Drawing on examples of the social transformation achieved by community action in Australia and Brazil, this article focuses on this middle ground and its role in effective HIV prevention.

  1. Influence of Migrant Workers Returning to Hometown on the Changes of Village Social Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Wei; ZHANG Hong

    2012-01-01

    Based on field survey data of Village Z in Henan Province and from the perspective of the end of villages,we studied the influence of migrant workers returning to hometown on the changes of village social structure from village social interaction and village right reconstruction.Survey results show that social interaction centers of migrant workers returning to hometown for starting an undertaking move outside,which has exceeded the range of rural society of acquaintances and promoted the breaking of the traditional social relationship network " Differential Model of Association".In addition,migrant workers returning to hometown actively participate in building village rights and show more passionate political enthusiasm and practice of modern democratic concept.Furthermore,it not only speeds up disintegration of China’s small peasant economy and division of traditional farmers,but also is an important opportunity for realizing farmers’ self-ending and village ending,as well as urban and rural integration.

  2. Effects of Network Structure, Competition and Memory Time on Social Spreading Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Gleeson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Online social media has greatly affected the way in which we communicate with each other. However, little is known about what fundamental mechanisms drive dynamical information flow in online social systems. Here, we introduce a generative model for online sharing behavior that is analytically tractable and that can reproduce several characteristics of empirical micro-blogging data on hashtag usage, such as (time-dependent heavy-tailed distributions of meme popularity. The presented framework constitutes a null model for social spreading phenomena that, in contrast to purely empirical studies or simulation-based models, clearly distinguishes the roles of two distinct factors affecting meme popularity: the memory time of users and the connectivity structure of the social network.

  3. Evaluating Restorative Justice Circles of Support and Accountability: Can Social Support Overcome Structural Barriers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmert, Miriam Northcutt; Duwe, Grant; Hipple, Natalie Kroovand

    2018-02-01

    In a climate in which stigmatic shaming is increasing for sex offenders as they leave prison, restorative justice practices have emerged as a promising approach to sex offender reentry success and have been shown to reduce recidivism. Criminologists and restorative justice advocates believe that providing ex-offenders with social support that they may not otherwise have is crucial to reducing recidivism. This case study describes the expressive and instrumental social support required and received, and its relationship to key outcomes, by sex offenders who participated in Circles of Support and Accountability (COSAs), a restorative justice, reentry program in Minnesota. In-depth interviews with re-entering sex offenders and program volunteers revealed that 75% of offenders reported weak to moderate levels of social support leaving prison, 70% reported receiving instrumental support in COSAs, and 100% reported receiving expressive support. Findings inform work on social support, structural barriers, and restorative justice programming during sex offender reentry.

  4. The eukaryotic genome is structurally and functionally more like a social insect colony than a book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guo-Hua; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Xintian; Huang, Cuiqin

    2017-11-01

    Traditionally, the genome has been described as the 'book of life'. However, the metaphor of a book may not reflect the dynamic nature of the structure and function of the genome. In the eukaryotic genome, the number of centrally located protein-coding sequences is relatively constant across species, but the amount of noncoding DNA increases considerably with the increase of organismal evolutional complexity. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that the abundant peripheral noncoding DNA protects the genome and the central protein-coding sequences in the eukaryotic genome. Upon comparison with the habitation, sociality and defense mechanisms of a social insect colony, it is found that the genome is similar to a social insect colony in various aspects. A social insect colony may thus be a better metaphor than a book to describe the spatial organization and physical functions of the genome. The potential implications of the metaphor are also discussed.

  5. Social Learning Theory, Gender, and Intimate Partner Violent Victimization: A Structural Equations Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Ráchael A; Cochran, John K; Maskaly, Jon; Sellers, Christine S

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the applicability of Akers's Social Learning Theory (SLT) to explain intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. In doing so, we draw on the Intergenerational Transmission of Violence Theory (IGT) to extend the scope of SLT to the explanation of victimization and for a consideration of uniquely gendered pathways in its causal structure. Using a structural equation modeling approach with self-report data from a sample of college students, the present study tests the extent to which SLT can effectively explain and predict IPV victimization and the degree, if any, to which the social learning model is gender invariant. Although our findings are largely supportive of SLT and, thus, affirm its extension to victimization as well as perpetration, the findings are also somewhat mixed. More significantly, in line with IGT literature, we find that the social learning process is not gender invariant. The implications of the latter are discussed.

  6. Structured Play Therapy Groups for Preschoolers: facilitating the emergence of social competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susan; Stark, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, we have developed a working model of Structured Play Therapy Groups for Preschoolers, an innovative treatment approach designed to address the needs of young children ages 3 to 5 struggling to adjust to the social demands of their preschool classrooms. These short-term therapy groups facilitate development of the young child's social competence and capacity to participate effectively in a classroom environment. Although the literature on therapy groups for children suggests that preschoolers are not yet evolved enough developmentally to engage actively in a group process, our experience indicates otherwise. The model of treatment presented here will therefore challenge that contention with the claim that not only can preschoolers participate in a structured therapy group of peers but they can, by virtue of that very participation, benefit in ways that will prepare them (as they transition from preschool to kindergarten) for the ever-increasing demands of their ever-expanding social milieus.

  7. Co-residence patterns in hunter-gatherer societies show unique human social structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kim R; Walker, Robert S; Bozicević, Miran; Eder, James; Headland, Thomas; Hewlett, Barry; Hurtado, A Magdalena; Marlowe, Frank; Wiessner, Polly; Wood, Brian

    2011-03-11

    Contemporary humans exhibit spectacular biological success derived from cumulative culture and cooperation. The origins of these traits may be related to our ancestral group structure. Because humans lived as foragers for 95% of our species' history, we analyzed co-residence patterns among 32 present-day foraging societies (total n = 5067 individuals, mean experienced band size = 28.2 adults). We found that hunter-gatherers display a unique social structure where (i) either sex may disperse or remain in their natal group, (ii) adult brothers and sisters often co-reside, and (iii) most individuals in residential groups are genetically unrelated. These patterns produce large interaction networks of unrelated adults and suggest that inclusive fitness cannot explain extensive cooperation in hunter-gatherer bands. However, large social networks may help to explain why humans evolved capacities for social learning that resulted in cumulative culture.

  8. Valued social roles and measuring mental health recovery: examining the structure of the tapestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Marcia G; Stein, Catherine H

    2012-12-01

    The complexity of the concept of mental health recovery often makes it difficult to systematically examine recovery processes and outcomes. The concept of social role is inherent within many acknowledged dimensions of recovery such as community integration, family relationships, and peer support and can deepen our understanding of these dimensions when social roles are operationalized in ways that directly relate to recovery research and practice. This paper reviews seminal social role theories and operationalizes aspects of social roles: role investment, role perception, role loss, and role gain. The paper provides a critical analysis of the ability of social role concepts to inform mental health recovery research and practice. PubMed and PsychInfo databases were used for the literature review. A more thorough examination of social role aspects allows for a richer picture of recovery domains that are structured by the concept social roles. Increasing understanding of consumers' investment and changes in particular roles, perceptions of consumers' role performance relative to peers, and consumers' hopes for the future with regards to the different roles that they occupy could generate tangible, pragmatic approaches in addressing complex recovery domains. This deeper understanding allows a more nuanced approach to recovery-related movements in mental health system transformation.

  9. Ties with Potential: Social Network Structure and Innovative Climate in Dutch Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Daly, Alan J.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Similar to the United States, government efforts to improve education in the Netherlands are focused on innovation and the development of collaborative structures to support the generation of new knowledge. However, empirical evidence of the relationship between social linkages and innovation in education is scarce. Objective:…

  10. Connecting the Dots: Social Network Structure, Conflict, and Group Cognitive Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curseu, Petru L.; Janssen, Steffie E. A.; Raab, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    The current paper combines arguments from the social capital and group cognition literature to explain two different processes through which communication network structures and intra group conflict influence groups' cognitive complexity (GCC). We test in a sample of 44 groups the mediating role of intra group conflict in the relationship between…

  11. The Performance Implications of Fit among Environment, Strategy, Structure, Control System and Social Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Fauzi

    2009-12-01

    domain will be contingent upon strategic behaviors, which are behaviors of members in an organization. The paper integrates the contextual variables including business environment, strategy, organization structure, and control system with corporate performance by using corporate social performance as moderating variable by means of a recent literatures study from strategic management and accounting field.

  12. On the Nature of GSE Organizational Social Structures: an Empirical Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamburri, D.A.; van Vliet, H.; Lago, P.; Di Nitto, E.

    2012-01-01

    In Global Software Engineering (GSE), people are organized in teams, distanced in space, time and cul- ture. Organizational research calls this interplay of people an Organizational Social Structure (OSS). Previous literature in GSE shows that its OSS is highly dynamic and unpre- dictable. This

  13. Extreme genetic structure in a social bird species despite high dispersal capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinha, Francisco; Dávila, José A; Bastos, Estela; Cabral, João A; Frías, Óscar; González, José L; Travassos, Paulo; Carvalho, Diogo; Milá, Borja; Blanco, Guillermo

    2017-05-01

    Social barriers have been shown to reduce gene flow and contribute to genetic structure among populations in species with high cognitive capacity and complex societies, such as cetaceans, apes and humans. In birds, high dispersal capacity is thought to prevent population divergence unless major geographical or habitat barriers induce isolation patterns by dispersal, colonization or adaptation limitation. We report that Iberian populations of the red-billed chough, a social, gregarious corvid with high dispersal capacity, show a striking degree of genetic structure composed of at least 15 distinct genetic units. Monitoring of marked individuals over 30 years revealed that long-distance movements over hundreds of kilometres are common, yet recruitment into breeding populations is infrequent and highly philopatric. Genetic differentiation is weakly related to geographical distance, and habitat types used are overall qualitatively similar among regions and regularly shared by individuals of different populations, so that genetic structure is unlikely to be due solely to isolation by distance or isolation by adaptation. Moreover, most population nuclei showed relatively high levels of genetic diversity, suggesting a limited role for genetic drift in significantly differentiating populations. We propose that social mechanisms may underlie this unprecedented level of genetic structure in birds through a pattern of isolation by social barriers not yet described, which may have driven this remarkable population divergence in the absence of geographical and environmental barriers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Ties with potential: Social network structure and innovative climate in Dutch schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, N.M.; Daly, A.J.; Sleegers, P.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Similar to the United States, government efforts to improve education in the Netherlands are focused on innovation and the development of collaborative structures to support the generation of new knowledge. However, empirical evidence of the relationship between social linkages

  15. Observed Family Interactions among Subtypes of Eating Disorders Using Structural Analysis of Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Laura Lynn

    1989-01-01

    Compared observations of family interactions among anorexic, bulimic-anorexic, bulimic, and normal families (N=74 families) consisting of father, mother, and teenage daughter. Benjamin's structural analysis of social behavior methodology differentiated clinical from normal families. Found unique patterns among subtypes of eating disorders which…

  16. Social Structure and Individual Agency in Second Language Learning: Evidence from Three Life Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowerdew, John; Miller, Lindsay

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the issue of social structure and individual agency in language learning through the life histories of three young engineering graduates in Hong Kong. English is identified as an important form of cultural capital, which to a considerable extent determines the development of the three individuals, each of whom comes from a…

  17. Beyond Social Constructionism: A Structural Analysis of the Cultural Significance of the Child Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This article challenges the dominance of social constructionist theories of childhood by presenting a structural analysis of the child star as a recurrent, universal feature in the myths and legends of the world. The article argues that by conceptualising our understanding of children and childhood as being due solely to the socio-historical…

  18. Observing Preschoolers' Social-Emotional Behavior: Structure, Foundations, and Prediction of Early School Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Thayer, Sara K.; Mincic, Melissa S.; Sirotkin, Yana S.; Zinsser, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Social-emotional behavior of 352 3- and 4-year-olds attending private childcare and Head Start programs was observed using the Minnesota Preschool Affect Checklist, Revised (MPAC-R). Goals of the investigation included (a) using MPAC-R data to extract a shortened version, MPAC-R/S, comparing structure, internal consistency, test-retest…

  19. Factor Structure of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Turkish Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    Although the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) is most often validated with the use of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on undergraduate students, exploratory factor analysis and multiple factor retention decision criteria necessitate the analysis of underlying factor structure to prevent over and under factoring as well as to reveal…

  20. Students' Demand for Smartphones: Structural Relationships of Product Features, Brand Name, Product Price and Social Infuence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suki, Norazah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to examine structural relationships of product features, brand name, product price and social influence with demand for Smartphones among Malaysian students'. Design/methodology/approach: Data collected from 320 valid pre-screened university students studying at the pubic higher learning institution in Federal Territory of…

  1. Cultural, Social, and Economic Capital Constructs in International Assessments: An Evaluation Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Daniel H.; Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The article employs exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to evaluate constructs of economic, cultural, and social capital in international large-scale assessment (LSA) data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009. ESEM integrates the…

  2. Structural but not functional neuroplasticity one year after effective cognitive behaviour therapy for social anxiety disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Kristoffer N T; Salami, Alireza; Carlbring, Per

    2017-01-01

    , and studies of treatment-induced long-term neuroplasticity are rare. Functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (using 3T MRI) was performed in 13 subjects with social anxiety disorder on 3 occasions over 1year. All subjects underwent 9 weeks of Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy...

  3. Agent-Based Modeling of China's Rural-Urban Migration and Social Network Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhaohao; Hao, Lingxin

    2018-01-15

    We analyze China's rural-urban migration and endogenous social network structures using agent-based modeling. The agents from census micro data are located in their rural origin with an empirical-estimated prior propensity to move. The population-scale social network is a hybrid one, combining observed family ties and locations of the origin with a parameter space calibrated from census, survey and aggregate data and sampled using a stepwise Latin Hypercube Sampling method. At monthly intervals, some agents migrate and these migratory acts change the social network by turning within-nonmigrant connections to between-migrant-nonmigrant connections, turning local connections to nonlocal connections, and adding among-migrant connections. In turn, the changing social network structure updates migratory propensities of those well-connected nonmigrants who become more likely to move. These two processes iterate over time. Using a core-periphery method developed from the k -core decomposition method, we identify and quantify the network structural changes and map these changes with the migration acceleration patterns. We conclude that network structural changes are essential for explaining migration acceleration observed in China during the 1995-2000 period.

  4. The Social Consequences of Postcommunist Structural Change: An Analysis of Suicide Trends in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Yuka

    2013-01-01

    Guided by Durkheim's classic theory of suicide, this article examines suicide trends and determinants in Eastern European countries for the period of 1989-2006, with particular attention given to the association between postcommunist social change and suicide mortality. I find that countries characterized by more drastic structural change…

  5. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Five-Factor Structure of Social Goals: A Filipino Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; Watkins, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the cross-cultural validity of the five-factor structure of social goals that Dowson and McInerney proposed. Using both between-network and within-network approaches to construct validation, 1,147 Filipino high school students participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the…

  6. Agent-based modeling of China's rural-urban migration and social network structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhaohao; Hao, Lingxin

    2018-01-01

    We analyze China's rural-urban migration and endogenous social network structures using agent-based modeling. The agents from census micro data are located in their rural origin with an empirical-estimated prior propensity to move. The population-scale social network is a hybrid one, combining observed family ties and locations of the origin with a parameter space calibrated from census, survey and aggregate data and sampled using a stepwise Latin Hypercube Sampling method. At monthly intervals, some agents migrate and these migratory acts change the social network by turning within-nonmigrant connections to between-migrant-nonmigrant connections, turning local connections to nonlocal connections, and adding among-migrant connections. In turn, the changing social network structure updates migratory propensities of those well-connected nonmigrants who become more likely to move. These two processes iterate over time. Using a core-periphery method developed from the k-core decomposition method, we identify and quantify the network structural changes and map these changes with the migration acceleration patterns. We conclude that network structural changes are essential for explaining migration acceleration observed in China during the 1995-2000 period.

  7. A comparative study on communication structures of Chinese journals in the social sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, P.; Su, X.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2010-01-01

    We argue that the communication structures in the Chinese social sciences have not yet been sufficiently reformed. Citation patterns among Chinese domestic journals in three subject areas—political science and Marxism, library and information science, and economics—are compared with their

  8. Repeated social stress leads to contrasting patterns of structural plasticity in the amygdala and hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, D; Anilkumar, S; Chattarji, S; Buwalda, B

    2018-03-23

    Previous studies have demonstrated that repeated immobilization and restraint stress cause contrasting patterns of dendritic reorganization as well as alterations in spine density in amygdalar and hippocampal neurons. Whether social and ethologically relevant stressors can induce similar patterns of morphological plasticity remains largely unexplored. Hence, we assessed the effects of repeated social defeat stress on neuronal morphology in basolateral amygdala (BLA), hippocampal CA1 and infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Male Wistar rats experienced social defeat stress on 5 consecutive days during confrontation in the resident-intruder paradigm with larger and aggressive Wild-type Groningen rats. This resulted in clear social avoidance behavior one day after the last confrontation. To assess the morphological consequences of repeated social defeat, 2 weeks after the last defeat, animals were sacrificed and brains were stained using a Golgi-Cox procedure. Morphometric analyses revealed that, compared to controls, defeated Wistar rats showed apical dendritic decrease in spine density on CA1 but not BLA. Sholl analysis demonstrated a significant dendritic atrophy of CA1 basal dendrites in defeated animals. In contrast, basal dendrites of BLA pyramidal neurons exhibited enhanced dendritic arborization in defeated animals. Social stress failed to induce lasting structural changes in mPFC neurons. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that social defeat stress elicits divergent patterns of structural plasticity in the hippocampus versus amygdala, similar to what has previously been reported with repeated physical stressors. Therefore, brain region specific variations may be a universal feature of stress-induced plasticity that is shared by both physical and social stressors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Social structure of a semi-free ranging group of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx: a social network analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Bret

    Full Text Available The difficulty involved in following mandrills in the wild means that very little is known about social structure in this species. Most studies initially considered mandrill groups to be an aggregation of one-male/multifemale units, with males occupying central positions in a structure similar to those observed in the majority of baboon species. However, a recent study hypothesized that mandrills form stable groups with only two or three permanent males, and that females occupy more central positions than males within these groups. We used social network analysis methods to examine how a semi-free ranging group of 19 mandrills is structured. We recorded all dyads of individuals that were in contact as a measure of association. The betweenness and the eigenvector centrality for each individual were calculated and correlated to kinship, age and dominance. Finally, we performed a resilience analysis by simulating the removal of individuals displaying the highest betweenness and eigenvector centrality values. We found that related dyads were more frequently associated than unrelated dyads. Moreover, our results showed that the cumulative distribution of individual betweenness and eigenvector centrality followed a power function, which is characteristic of scale-free networks. This property showed that some group members, mostly females, occupied a highly central position. Finally, the resilience analysis showed that the removal of the two most central females split the network into small subgroups and increased the network diameter. Critically, this study confirms that females appear to occupy more central positions than males in mandrill groups. Consequently, these females appear to be crucial for group cohesion and probably play a pivotal role in this species.

  10. Social structure of a semi-free ranging group of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx): a social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret, Céline; Sueur, Cédric; Ngoubangoye, Barthélémy; Verrier, Delphine; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Petit, Odile

    2013-01-01

    The difficulty involved in following mandrills in the wild means that very little is known about social structure in this species. Most studies initially considered mandrill groups to be an aggregation of one-male/multifemale units, with males occupying central positions in a structure similar to those observed in the majority of baboon species. However, a recent study hypothesized that mandrills form stable groups with only two or three permanent males, and that females occupy more central positions than males within these groups. We used social network analysis methods to examine how a semi-free ranging group of 19 mandrills is structured. We recorded all dyads of individuals that were in contact as a measure of association. The betweenness and the eigenvector centrality for each individual were calculated and correlated to kinship, age and dominance. Finally, we performed a resilience analysis by simulating the removal of individuals displaying the highest betweenness and eigenvector centrality values. We found that related dyads were more frequently associated than unrelated dyads. Moreover, our results showed that the cumulative distribution of individual betweenness and eigenvector centrality followed a power function, which is characteristic of scale-free networks. This property showed that some group members, mostly females, occupied a highly central position. Finally, the resilience analysis showed that the removal of the two most central females split the network into small subgroups and increased the network diameter. Critically, this study confirms that females appear to occupy more central positions than males in mandrill groups. Consequently, these females appear to be crucial for group cohesion and probably play a pivotal role in this species.

  11. Experiences of Social and Structural Forms of Stigma Among Chinese Immigrant Consumers with Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhen Hadassah; Tu, Ming-Che; Li, Vanessa A; Chang, Rachel W; Yang, Lawrence Hsin

    2015-12-01

    Chinese immigrants tend to rely on family and close community for support given their vulnerable societal position. Yet stigma, especially from structural and familial sources, may have a particularly harmful impact upon Chinese immigrants with psychosis. Using a descriptive analysis based upon grounded theory, we examined stigma experiences of 50 Chinese immigrant consumers with psychosis, paying particular attention to frequency, sources, and themes of social and structural stigma. Although past research indicates that family is a recipient of stigma, we found instead that family members were common perpetuators of social forms of stigma. We also found that perceptions of work deficit underlie many forms of stigma, suggesting this is "what matters most" in this community. Lack of financial resources and language barriers comprised most frequent forms of structural stigma. Anti-stigma efforts should aim to improve consumer's actual and perceived employability to target what is most meaningful in Chinese immigrant communities.

  12. The structure of social exchange in self-help support groups: development of a measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Louis D; Tang, Xiaohui; Hollman, Ruth L

    2014-03-01

    Self-help support groups are indigenous community resources designed to help people manage a variety of personal challenges, from alcohol abuse to xeroderma pigmentosum. The social exchanges that occur during group meetings are central to understanding how people benefit from participation. This paper examines the different types of social exchange behaviors that occur during meetings, using two studies to develop empirically distinct scales that reliably measure theoretically important types of exchange. Resource theory informed the initial measurement development efforts. Exploratory factor analyses from the first study led to revisions in the factor structure of the social exchange scales. The revised measure captured the exchange of emotional support, experiential information, humor, unwanted behaviors, and exchanges outside meetings. Confirmatory factor analyses from a follow-up study with a different sample of self-help support groups provided good model fit, suggesting the revised structure accurately represented the data. Further, the scales demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity with related constructs. Future research can use the scales to identify aspects of social exchange that are most important in improving health outcomes among self-help support group participants. Groups can use the scales in practice to celebrate strengths and address weaknesses in their social exchange dynamics.

  13. Nursing work stress: the impacts of social network structure and organizational citizenship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Seng-Su; Chen, Tzu-Yin; Wang, Shih-Fong; Tai, Hsin-Ling

    2012-03-01

    The nursing workplace imposes significantly more stress on its employees than other workplace settings. Organizational resources, both physical and psychological, have been recognized in prior studies as important alleviators of nursing workplace stress. Whereas physical resources are less difficult to manipulate because of their tangibility, psychological resources, particularly psychological support from colleagues, are typically not deployed to greatest effect. This article investigated the alleviation of nursing work stress using resources already extant in coworker social networks. Researchers conducted a survey in a dialysis department at a medical center located in Taipei City, Taiwan. This survey measured nurse work stress, satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and social network structures. Researchers employed UCINET to analyze the network structure data, which were in dyadic matrix format to estimate nurse network centralities and used partial least squares analysis to estimate research construct path coefficients and test extrapolated hypotheses. The level of OCB induced by nurse social ties was satisfactory and did not only directly increased work satisfaction but also alleviated work stress, which indirectly boosted work satisfaction. Findings suggest that managers may be able to use social network analysis to identify persons appropriate to conduct the distribution of organizational resources. Choosing those with multiple social connections can help distribute resources effectively and induce higher OCB levels within the organization. In addition, staff with strong friendship network connections may provide appropriate psychological resources (support) to coworkers. If those with high friendship network centrality receive proper counseling training, they should be in a good position to provide assistance when needed.

  14. Relationships between structural social capital, knowledge identification capability and external knowledge acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Ortiz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze the mediating effect of the identification of valuable external knowledge on the relationship between the development of inter-organizational ties (structural social capital and the acquisition of external knowledge. Design/methodology/approach - Using a sample of 87 firms from Spanish biotechnology and pharmaceutics industries, the authors have tested the proposed mediation hypothesis by applying the partial least squares technique to a structural equations model. Findings - The study results show that those firms with stronger, more frequent and closer inter-relationships are able to increase the amount of intentionally acquired knowledge, partly due to the greater level of development of their knowledge identification capability. Thus, firms with a higher capability to recognize the value of the knowledge embedded in their inter-organizational networks will be more likely to design better strategies to acquire and integrate such knowledge into their current knowledge bases for either present or future use. Originality/value - This research contributes to knowledge management and social capital literature by means of the study of two key determinants of knowledge acquisition – structural social capital and knowledge identification capability – and the explanation of their relationships of mutual influence. The paper thus tries to fill this literature gap and connects the relational perspective of social capital with the knowledge-based view from a strategic point of view.

  15. Structural and social constraints influencing HIV/AIDS teaching in Malawi primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grames Ghirwa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Education in Malawi introduced a Life Skills Education programwith the intention to empower children with appropriate information and skills to deal with social and health problems affecting the nation including the fight against HIV infections. This study investigated factors affecting the teaching of the Life skills education in four primary schools in the Zomba District, Malawi. Cornbleth’s (1990 notions of the structural and social contexts and Whitaker’s (1993 identification of key role players in curriculum implementation framed the study. Findings suggest that the teaching of Life skills is constrained by a variety of social and structural contextual factors such as the poor conditions under which teachers are working; greater attention given to subjects such as Maths and Languages; the cascade model of training teachers and the short duration of training; the language in teachers guides were not accesibile to teachers; hunger and poverty of learners; lack of community support for sexual education; both teachers and learners being infected or affected by the AIDS/HIV pandemic; teachers felt it is inappropriate to teach sexual education to 9 and 10 year old learners.  These findings indicate structural and social barriers to effective life skills education within the current framework.

  16. Structural and Psycho-Social Limits to Climate Change Adaptation in the Great Barrier Reef Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Louisa S; Hicks, Christina C; Adger, W Neil; Barnett, Jon; Perry, Allison L; Fidelman, Pedro; Tobin, Renae

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation, as a strategy to respond to climate change, has limits: there are conditions under which adaptation strategies fail to alleviate impacts from climate change. Research has primarily focused on identifying absolute bio-physical limits. This paper contributes empirical insight to an emerging literature on the social limits to adaptation. Such limits arise from the ways in which societies perceive, experience and respond to climate change. Using qualitative data from multi-stakeholder workshops and key-informant interviews with representatives of the fisheries and tourism sectors of the Great Barrier Reef region, we identify psycho-social and structural limits associated with key adaptation strategies, and examine how these are perceived as more or less absolute across levels of organisation. We find that actors experience social limits to adaptation when: i) the effort of pursuing a strategy exceeds the benefits of desired adaptation outcomes; ii) the particular strategy does not address the actual source of vulnerability, and; iii) the benefits derived from adaptation are undermined by external factors. We also find that social limits are not necessarily more absolute at higher levels of organisation: respondents perceived considerable opportunities to address some psycho-social limits at the national-international interface, while they considered some social limits at the local and regional levels to be effectively absolute.

  17. Structural and Psycho-Social Limits to Climate Change Adaptation in the Great Barrier Reef Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa S Evans

    Full Text Available Adaptation, as a strategy to respond to climate change, has limits: there are conditions under which adaptation strategies fail to alleviate impacts from climate change. Research has primarily focused on identifying absolute bio-physical limits. This paper contributes empirical insight to an emerging literature on the social limits to adaptation. Such limits arise from the ways in which societies perceive, experience and respond to climate change. Using qualitative data from multi-stakeholder workshops and key-informant interviews with representatives of the fisheries and tourism sectors of the Great Barrier Reef region, we identify psycho-social and structural limits associated with key adaptation strategies, and examine how these are perceived as more or less absolute across levels of organisation. We find that actors experience social limits to adaptation when: i the effort of pursuing a strategy exceeds the benefits of desired adaptation outcomes; ii the particular strategy does not address the actual source of vulnerability, and; iii the benefits derived from adaptation are undermined by external factors. We also find that social limits are not necessarily more absolute at higher levels of organisation: respondents perceived considerable opportunities to address some psycho-social limits at the national-international interface, while they considered some social limits at the local and regional levels to be effectively absolute.

  18. Functional and Structural Correlates of Social Influence in the Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel; Bach, Dominik; Kanai, Ryota

    2012-01-01

    brain GM) in the volumetric based morphology (VBM) contrast of GM in OFC. OFCGM found to correlate (FWE corrected, P >.05) with Binf, was used as a regressor in the group fMRI contrasts of (a) and (b) to investigate the relationship between structure and activity during conformity.......; b) functional responses reflecting social influence on object value; and c) grey matter volume (GM) the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) – an area not available to functional analysis in our study but clearly involved in social conduct and value learning. Methods: Prior to testing, 28 healthy subjects...

  19. Structure of Life’s Plans of Socially Maladjusted Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Szulc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The plans creating is a sign of human activity on the conscious level. Plans prove the creativity of the man. Plans permit to see the man as the active author. Life plans are modified by life experiences. The aim of research was to illustrate a structure of life plans of socially maladjusted young people. The study used B.R Little’s Personal Project Analyses (PPA. The studies show that socially maladjusted adolescents differ in the assessment of plans and evaluation of youth in the control group.

  20. Youth's social network structures and peer influences: study protocol MyMovez project - Phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Smit, Crystal R; van Woudenberg, Thabo J; Buijs, Laura; Burk, William J; Buijzen, Moniek

    2018-04-16

    Youth are an important target group for social network interventions, because they are particularly susceptible to the adaptation of healthy and unhealthy habits and behaviors of others. They are surrounded by 'social influence agents' (i.e., role models such as family, friends and peers) that co-determine their dietary intake and physical activity. However, there is a lack of systematic and comprehensive research on the implementation of a social network approach in health campaigns. The MyMovez research project aims to fill this gap by developing a method for effective social network campaign implementation. This protocol paper describes the design and methods of Phase I of the MyMovez project, aiming to unravel youth's social network structures in combination with individual, psychosocial, and environmental factors related to energy intake and expenditure. In addition, the Wearable Lab is developed to enable an attractive and state-of-the-art way of collecting data and online campaign implementation via social networks. Phase I of the MyMovez project consists of a large-scale cross-sequential cohort study (N = 953; 8-12 and 12-15 y/o). In five waves during a 3-year period (2016-2018), data are collected about youth's social network exposure, media consumption, socialization experiences, psychological determinants of behavior, physical environment, dietary intake (snacking and drinking behavior) and physical activity using the Wearable Lab. The Wearable Lab exists of a smartphone-based research application (app) connected to an activity tracking bracelet, that is developed throughout the duration of the project. It generates peer- and self-reported (e.g., sociometric data and surveys) and experience sampling data, social network beacon data, real-time physical activity data (i.e., steps and cycling), location information, photos and chat conversation data from the app's social media platform Social Buzz. The MyMovez project - Phase I is an innovative cross

  1. Thailand - Social and Structural Review : Beyond the Crisis - Structural Reform for Stable Growth

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    Following the East Asian financial crisis, the Bank's involvement in Thailand intensified, enabling a multifaceted stabilization, and structural reform dialogue, which deepened the economic, financial, and sector knowledge of the country. The study benefits from this analytical work, and provides an overview on the ongoing policy dialogue, regarding short- and medium-term reform, through a...

  2. When high pressure, system constraints, and a social justice mission collide: A socio-structural analysis of emergency department social work services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Megan; Cristofalo, Margaret; Dotolo, Danae; Torres, Nicole; Lahdya, Alexandra; Ho, Leyna; Vogel, Mia; Forrester, Mollie; Conley, Bonnie; Fouts, Susan

    2017-04-01

    The emergency department (ED) can be a critical intervention point for many patients with multifaceted needs. Social workers have long been part of interdisciplinary ED teams. This study aimed to contribute to the limited understanding of social worker-patient interactions and factors influencing social work services in this setting. This paper reports a qualitative content analysis of social work medical record notes (N = 1509) of services provided to trauma patients in an urban, public, level 1 trauma center and an in-depth analysis of semi-structured interviews with ED social workers (N = 10). Eight major social work roles were identified: investigator, gatekeeper, resource broker, care coordinator, problem solver, crisis manager, advocate, discharge planner. Analyses revealed a complex interplay between ED social work services and multi-layered contexts. Using a social-ecological framework, we identified the interactions between micro or individual level factors, mezzo or local system level factors and macro environmental and systemic factors that play a role in ED interactions and patient services. Macro-level contextual influences were socio-structural forces including socioeconomic barriers to health, social hierarchies that reflected power differentials between providers and patients, and distrust or bias. Mezzo-level forces were limited resources, lack of healthcare system coordination, a challenging hierarchy within the medical model and the pressure to discharge patients quickly. Micro-level factors included characteristics of patients and social workers, complexity of patient stressors, empathic strain, lack of closure and compassion. All of these forces were at play in patient-social worker interactions and impacted service provision. Social workers were at times able to successfully navigate these forces, yet at other times these challenges were insurmountable. A conceptual model of ED social work and the influences on the patient-social worker

  3. Seeking structure in social organization: compensatory control and the psychological advantages of hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Justin P; Kay, Aaron C; Eibach, Richard P; Galinsky, Adam D

    2014-04-01

    Hierarchies are a ubiquitous form of human social organization. We hypothesized that 1 reason for the prevalence of hierarchies is that they offer structure and therefore satisfy the core motivational needs for order and control relative to less structured forms of social organization. This hypothesis is rooted in compensatory control theory, which posits that (a) individuals have a basic need to perceive the world as orderly and structured, and (b) personal and external sources of control are capable of satisfying this need because both serve the comforting belief that the world operates in an orderly fashion. Our first 2 studies confirmed that hierarchies were perceived as more structured and orderly relative to egalitarian arrangements (Study 1) and that working in a hierarchical workplace promotes a feeling of self-efficacy (Study 2). We threatened participants' sense of personal control and measured perceptions of and preferences for hierarchy in 5 subsequent experiments. Participants who lacked control perceived more hierarchy occurring in ambiguous social situations (Study 3) and preferred hierarchy more strongly in workplace contexts (Studies 4-5). We also provide evidence that hierarchies are indeed appealing because of their structure: Preference for hierarchy was higher among individuals high in Personal Need for Structure and a control threat increased preference for hierarchy even among participants low in Personal Need for Structure (Study 5). Framing a hierarchy as unstructured reversed the effect of control threat on hierarchy (Study 6). Finally, hierarchy-enhancing jobs were more appealing after control threat, even when they were low in power and status (Study 7). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Sustainable Corporate Social Media Marketing Based on Message Structural Features: Firm Size Plays a Significant Role as a Moderator

    OpenAIRE

    Moon Young Kang; Byungho Park

    2018-01-01

    Social media has been receiving attention as a cost-effective tool to build corporate brand image and to enrich customer relationships. This phenomenon calls for more attention to developing a model that measures the impact of structural features, used in corporate social media messages. Based on communication science, this study proposes a model to measure the impact of three essential message structural features (interactivity, formality, and immediacy) in corporate social media on customer...

  5. Composition and structure of a large online social network in The Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rense Corten

    Full Text Available Limitations in data collection have long been an obstacle in research on friendship networks. Most earlier studies use either a sample of ego-networks, or complete network data on a relatively small group (e.g., a single organization. The rise of online social networking services such as Friendster and Facebook, however, provides researchers with opportunities to study friendship networks on a much larger scale. This study uses complete network data from Hyves, a popular online social networking service in The Netherlands, comprising over eight million members and over 400 million online friendship relations. In the first study of its kind for The Netherlands, I examine the structure of this network in terms of the degree distribution, characteristic path length, clustering, and degree assortativity. Results indicate that this network shares features of other large complex networks, but also deviates in other respects. In addition, a comparison with other online social networks shows that these networks show remarkable similarities.

  6. Composition and structure of a large online social network in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corten, Rense

    2012-01-01

    Limitations in data collection have long been an obstacle in research on friendship networks. Most earlier studies use either a sample of ego-networks, or complete network data on a relatively small group (e.g., a single organization). The rise of online social networking services such as Friendster and Facebook, however, provides researchers with opportunities to study friendship networks on a much larger scale. This study uses complete network data from Hyves, a popular online social networking service in The Netherlands, comprising over eight million members and over 400 million online friendship relations. In the first study of its kind for The Netherlands, I examine the structure of this network in terms of the degree distribution, characteristic path length, clustering, and degree assortativity. Results indicate that this network shares features of other large complex networks, but also deviates in other respects. In addition, a comparison with other online social networks shows that these networks show remarkable similarities.

  7. Structured social relationships: a review of volunteer home visiting programs for parents of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Fiona; Grace, Rebekah; Tredoux, Jaimie; Kemp, Lynn

    2016-06-01

    Objective The aims of the present paper were to: (1) review the research literature that contributes to an understanding of the role of volunteer home visiting programs in supporting the health and well being of families with young children; and (2) propose a conceptual model outlining service pathways for families in need of additional support. Methods An integrative literature review method was used, with a mix of electronic and manual search methods for the period January 1980-January 2014. Forty-five studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria for review and were coded according to themes developed a priori. Results There is little formal research that has examined the effectiveness of volunteer home visiting programs for supporting family health and well being. The available research suggests that volunteer home visiting programs provide socioemotional support through structured social relationships; however, there is limited empirical evidence to explicate the factors that contribute to these outcomes. Conclusion In recognition of the importance of peer support for new parents, the not-for-profit sector has been involved in providing volunteer home visiting services to families for decades. However, the body of research to support this work is characterised by methodological limitations, and rigorous evidence is limited. What is clear anecdotally and qualitatively from the existing research is that parents who are in need of additional support value engagement with a community volunteer. These structured social relationships appear to fulfil a service need within the community, helping build bridges to support social networks, and thus complementing professional services and relationships. Overall, structured social relationships in the form of volunteer home visiting programs appear to provide an important pathway to support family health and well being. Findings from the existing research are mixed and often characterised by methodological

  8. Designing, implementing and monitoring social impact mitigation strategies: Lessons from Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loxton, Edwina A.; Schirmer, Jacki; Kanowski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Social impact mitigation strategies are implemented by the proponents of policies and projects with the intent of reducing the negative, and increasing the positive social impacts of their activities, and facilitating the achievement of policy/project goals. Evaluation of mitigation strategies is critical to improving their future success and cost-effectiveness. This paper evaluates two Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages (FISAP) implemented in Australia in the 1990s to 2000s as part of broader policy changes that reduced access to timber from publicly owned native forests. It assesses the effectiveness of the structure, design, implementation and monitoring of the FISAPs, and highlights the interactions between these four elements and their influence on social impacts. The two FISAPs were found to be effective in terms of reducing negative impacts, encouraging positive impacts and contributing towards policy goals, although they did not mitigate negative impacts in all cases, and sometimes interacted with external factors and additional policy changes to contribute to significant short and long term negative impacts. -- Highlights: ► Mitigation strategies aim to reduce negative and enhance positive social impacts ► Mitigation strategy design, implementation, and monitoring are critical to success ► Effective mitigation enhanced the capacity of recipients to respond to change ► Mitigation strategies influenced multiple interacting positive and negative impacts ► Success required good communication, transparency, support, resources and timing

  9. The Impact of Communication Technologies on Social Structure--Take the Example of Smart City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nie Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Human society has entered the era of digit and internet, and the communication technology is one of the important factors which result in changes of social structure. Smart City is an active attempt to future urban development, to use the communication technology as an constitutive element of smart city from the economic base to the superstructure, production relation to exchange relation. Digitization and networking are committed to reflect the state of human's comprehensive development, which is an important stage of emancipation of humanity itself. Communication technology can bring people's initiative into full play and learning in development and establish the harmonious relationships during the interaction. This article is based on the example of smart city, which analyzed the impact of communication technologies on social structure from different aspects.

  10. The Influence of Social Structure on Cancer Pain and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Ok-Kyung; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether social structure is associated with cancer pain and quality of life using the Social Structure and Personality Research Framework. This study was a secondary analysis of data from 480 cancer patients. The measurements included socioeconomic variables, self-reported cancer pain using the McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form (MPQ-SF), and quality of life measured using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Scale (FACT-G). The data were analyzed using moderated multiple regression. Cancer pain and quality of life differed significantly with income. The associations between income and pain and quality of life were significant only for the high education group (≥ partial college), and these associations were greater for Caucasians than for their counterparts ( p life while considering possible moderating factors such as education.

  11. A Mechanistic Model of Human Recall of Social Network Structure and Relationship Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omodei, Elisa; Brashears, Matthew E; Arenas, Alex

    2017-12-07

    The social brain hypothesis argues that the need to deal with social challenges was key to our evolution of high intelligence. Research with non-human primates as well as experimental and fMRI studies in humans produce results consistent with this claim, leading to an estimate that human primary groups should consist of roughly 150 individuals. Gaps between this prediction and empirical observations can be partially accounted for using "compression heuristics", or schemata that simplify the encoding and recall of social information. However, little is known about the specific algorithmic processes used by humans to store and recall social information. We describe a mechanistic model of human network recall and demonstrate its sufficiency for capturing human recall behavior observed in experimental contexts. We find that human recall is predicated on accurate recall of a small number of high degree network nodes and the application of heuristics for both structural and affective information. This provides new insight into human memory, social network evolution, and demonstrates a novel approach to uncovering human cognitive operations.

  12. The Social and Consumer Standards and Guarantees in Ukraine: the Current Structural and Dynamic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesov Oleksandr S.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to generalize the theoretical approaches to the social guarantees and standards as economic categories. The classification of social guarantees is provided. The dynamic parameters for development of the social and consumer standards adopted in Ukraine were considered. An evaluation of the real poverty level under the system of criteria was carried out. The inconsistency of methods for the poverty evaluation adopted by the Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine and contradiction of its individual indicators has been indicated. The structural characteristics of the population’s income have been determined. The relevance of the existing social guarantees to their real value in today’s economic conditions have been analyzed. Tendencies of falling of the welfare level of population, resulting in a decline in the consumer demand and a narrowing of the domestic market for goods and services, have been identified. The need to take measures to stimulate small businesses, to overcome corruption, and to deregulate the economy has been indicated.

  13. Specificity of cognitive structure in depression and social phobia: a comparison of interpersonal and achievement content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozois, David J A; Frewen, Paul A

    2006-02-01

    The comorbidity between the mood and anxiety is extensive and it is probable that individuals with these disorders share a number of cognitive characteristics. However, comorbidity rates with depression are not uniform among the various anxiety disorders. This study examined the common and distinguishing features of self-schematic structure in major depressive disorder and social anxiety compared to other anxiety disorders in general and to no psychiatric disturbance. Participants completed the Psychological Distance Scaling Task, which provided an index of the cognitive organization of positively and negatively valenced interpersonal and achievement self-referent content. The depression and social phobia groups were statistically equivalent on all indices of cognitive organization, and showed greater interconnectedness among interpersonal negative content than both control groups, and less interconnectedness among both positive interpersonal and achievement content than did nonpsychiatric controls. Psychiatric groups were equivalent on negative achievement content but showed greater interconnectedness than controls. This study had a modest sample size and the findings are constrained to females. Negative interpersonal content is more densely interconnected in individuals with social phobia and depression compared with both other anxiety disorder and nonpsychiatric controls. In addition, both social phobia and depression were associated with less interconnected positive content. These findings are indicative of similarities in the way self-schematic content may be organized in individuals with depression and social phobia. Theoretical explanations of these results and future research directions are discussed.

  14. Conservation success as a function of good alignment of social and ecological structures and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Orjan; Crona, Beatrice; Thyresson, Matilda; Golz, Anna-Lea; Tengö, Maria

    2014-10-01

    How to create and adjust governing institutions so that they align (fit) with complex ecosystem processes and structures across scales is an issue of increasing concern in conservation. It is argued that lack of such social-ecological fit makes governance and conservation difficult, yet progress in explicitly defining and rigorously testing what constitutes a good fit has been limited. We used a novel modeling approach and data from case studies of fishery and forest conservation to empirically test presumed relationships between conservation outcomes and certain patterns of alignment of social-ecological interdependences. Our approach made it possible to analyze conservation outcome on a systems level while also providing information on how individual actors are positioned in the complex web of social-ecological interdependencies. We found that when actors who shared resources were also socially linked, conservation at the level of the whole social-ecological system was positively affected. When the scales at which individual actors used resources and the scale at which ecological resources were interconnected to other ecological resources were aligned through tightened feedback loops, conservation outcome was better than when they were not aligned. The analysis of individual actors' positions in the web of social-ecological interdependencies was helpful in understanding why a system has a certain level of social-ecological fit. Results of analysis of positions showed that different actors contributed in very different ways to achieve a certain fit and revealed some underlying difference between the actors, for example in terms of actors' varying rights to access and use different ecological resources. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Organizational form, local market structure and corporate social performance in retail

    OpenAIRE

    Utgård, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    I study how organizational form and local market structure influence retail firms' corporate social performance (CSP). The theoretical model is based on agency theory, which in its origin focuses on the dyad between the principal and the agent. I extend this perspective and examine how characteristics of the environment outside the dyad influence the outcomes. Retail stores vary in their organizational form and thereby in their incentives to maximize profits. I hypothesize that the different ...

  16. [Dependency structure of the elderly: an examination of women's social position in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu Y-h

    1996-04-01

    "The purpose of the paper is to examine the nature and the structure of elderly women's dependency [in Taiwan] and the underlying socio-cultural-political forces. From the social constructive perspective, we focused on three constructive forces--the Chinese patriarchal/patrilocal family system, the gender role, and the state policy on elderly welfare. Three types of dependency--economic dependency, dependency for personal and health care, and living arrangement--were examined." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  17. Social Network Structures of Breast Cancer Patients and the Contributing Role of Patient Navigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Christine M; Parker, Victoria A; Bak, Sharon M; Ko, Naomi; Nelson, Kerrie P; Battaglia, Tracy A

    2017-08-01

    Minority women in the U.S. continue to experience inferior breast cancer outcomes compared with white women, in part due to delays in care delivery. Emerging cancer care delivery models like patient navigation focus on social barriers, but evidence demonstrating how these models increase social capital is lacking. This pilot study describes the social networks of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients and explores the contributing role of patient navigators. Twenty-five women completed a one hour interview about their social networks related to cancer care support. Network metrics identified important structural attributes and influential individuals. Bivariate associations between network metrics, type of network, and whether the network included a navigator were measured. Secondary analyses explored associations between network structures and clinical outcomes. We identified three types of networks: kin-based, role and/or affect-based, or heterogeneous. Network metrics did not vary significantly by network type. There was a low prevalence of navigators included in the support networks (25%). Network density scores were significantly higher in those networks without a navigator. Network metrics were not predictive of clinical outcomes in multivariate models. Patient navigators were not frequently included in support networks, but provided distinctive types of support. If navigators can identify patients with poorly integrated (less dense) social networks, or who have unmet tangible support needs, the intensity of navigation services could be tailored. Services and systems that address gaps and variations in patient social networks should be explored for their potential to reduce cancer health disparities. This study used a new method to identify the breadth and strength of social support following a diagnosis of breast cancer, especially examining the role of patient navigators in providing support. While navigators were only included in one quarter of patient

  18. Surviving in two worlds: social and structural violence of Thai female injecting drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritavorn, Niphattra

    2014-01-01

    Thai females injecting drugs are ensnared in a web of problems arising from forms of prejudice that magnify their vulnerability. They are vulnerable, at risk, and exposed to a high degree of social suffering. This paper aims to elucidate how social production and structural violence combine to shape the lives of these women. Using a qualitative methodology, two focus groups with 5 key informants and in-depth interviews involving a total of 35 women injecting drugs were conducted in Bangkok. The findings reveal that the structural environment that directly impacts upon these women's lives becomes the reason for their suffering. The structural environment puts these women at risk of violence in numerous social settings in which these women engage as well as generating tension at a subjective level (i.e. the habitus) of these women. Thai female injecting drug users are trapped in a difficult tension between the demands for being Thai women seeking to exist in the masculine world of drug use but at the same time meeting Thai society's expectations of womanhood. Unequal gender relations are manifest in the everyday violence that women face in the drug community, culminating in the essential nature of women being questioned, undermined and threatened. Living in the drug community, women are subjected to violence and harassment, and gendered brutality by intimate partners. In conclusion, the social suffering that Thai female injecting drug users find themselves confronting is confined to dilemmas cause by tensions between drug use and the overriding gender habitus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Social structures in the operating theatre: how contradicting rationalities and trust affect work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydenfält, Christofer; Johansson, Gerd; Larsson, Per Anders; Akerman, Kristina; Odenrick, Per

    2012-04-01

    This article is a report of a study of how healthcare professionals involved in surgery orientate themselves to their common task, and how this orientation can be affected by the social and organizational context. Previous research indicates that surgical teams are not as cohesive as could be expected and that communication failures frequently occur. However, little is known about how these problems are related to their social, cultural and organizational context. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 healthcare professionals, representing all personnel categories of the surgical team. During the interview, a virtual model, visualizing a real operating theatre, was used to facilitate reflection. The interviews were conducted in 2009. Themes were created from the interviews, with a focus on similarities and differences. An activity analysis was conducted based on the themes. Poor team functionality and communication failures in the operating theatre can to some degree be explained by differences in activity orientation between professions and by insufficient support from social and organizational structures. Differences in activity orientation resulted in different views between professional groups in their perceptions of work activities, resulting in tension. Insufficient support resulted in communication thresholds that inhibited the sharing of information. Organizing work to promote cross-professional interaction can help the creation of social relations and norms, providing support for a common view. It can also help to decrease communication thresholds and establish stronger relations of trust. How this organization structure should be developed needs to be further investigated. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Search and rescue in collapsed structures: engineering and social science aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tawil, Sherif; Aguirre, Benigno

    2010-10-01

    This paper discusses the social science and engineering dimensions of search and rescue (SAR) in collapsed buildings. First, existing information is presented on factors that influence the behaviour of trapped victims, particularly human, physical, socioeconomic and circumstantial factors. Trapped victims are most often discussed in the context of structural collapse and injuries sustained. Most studies in this area focus on earthquakes as the type of disaster that produces the most extensive structural damage. Second, information is set out on the engineering aspects of urban search and rescue (USAR) in the United States, including the role of structural engineers in USAR operations, training and certification of structural specialists, and safety and general procedures. The use of computational simulation to link the engineering and social science aspects of USAR is discussed. This could supplement training of local SAR groups and USAR teams, allowing them to understand better the collapse process and how voids form in a rubble pile. A preliminary simulation tool developed for this purpose is described. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  1. Information content and acoustic structure of male African elephant social rumbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeger, Angela S; Baotic, Anton

    2016-06-08

    Until recently, the prevailing theory about male African elephants (Loxodonta africana) was that, once adult and sexually mature, males are solitary and targeted only at finding estrous females. While this is true during the state of 'musth' (a condition characterized by aggressive behavior and elevated androgen levels), 'non-musth' males exhibit a social system seemingly based on companionship, dominance and established hierarchies. Research on elephant vocal communication has so far focused on females, and very little is known about the acoustic structure and the information content of male vocalizations. Using the source and filter theory approach, we analyzed social rumbles of 10 male African elephants. Our results reveal that male rumbles encode information about individuality and maturity (age and size), with formant frequencies and absolute fundamental frequency values having the most informative power. This first comprehensive study on male elephant vocalizations gives important indications on their potential functional relevance for male-male and male-female communication. Our results suggest that, similar to the highly social females, future research on male elephant vocal behavior will reveal a complex communication system in which social knowledge, companionship, hierarchy, reproductive competition and the need to communicate over long distances play key roles.

  2. The Tutanic disaster: the social and class structure and the chances of survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Rakhmanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author undertakes the first in the Russian and, maybe, world scientific literature sociological research into the disaster of the Titanic. It is researched the social and class structure of the community of passengers of the Titanic on the ground of statistical data on prices of tickets and on occupations of passengers. This data discovers that passengers of the Titanic belonged to different social classes. The author researched the connection between social and class structure and chances of survival. The destiny of passengers and the crew were determined by regulated and unregulated chances of survival. The regulated chances of survival were connected with the politics of the command of the Titanic, that was foremost pointed to, firstly, the rescue of passengers (but not the crew, secondly, passengers of 1st and 2nd classes (but not passengers of 3rd class and thirdly, women and children (but not men. The unregulated chances of survival were connected with ethnic, linguistic and age-related characteristics of passengers. The author considers the disaster of the Titanic within the framework of globalization.

  3. Environmental, psychological, and social influences on physical activity among Japanese adults: structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Oka, Koichiro

    2010-08-05

    An understanding of the contributing factors to be considered when examining how individuals engage in physical activity is important for promoting population-based physical activity. The environment influences long-term effects on population-based health behaviors. Personal variables, such as self-efficacy and social support, can act as mediators of the predictive relationship between the environment and physical activity. The present study examines the direct and indirect effects of environmental, psychological, and social factors on walking, moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and vigorous-intensity activity among Japanese adults. The participants included 1,928 Japanese adults aged 20-79 years. Seven sociodemographic attributes (e.g., gender, age, education level, employment status), psychological variables (self-efficacy, pros, and cons), social variables (social support), environmental variables (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, aesthetic sensibilities, and frequency of observing others exercising), and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were assessed via an Internet-based survey. Structural equation modeling was conducted to determine associations between environmental, psychological, and social factors with physical activity. Environmental factors could be seen to have indirect effects on physical activity through their influence on psychological and social variables such as self-efficacy, pros and cons, and social support. The strongest indirect effects could be observed by examining the consequences of environmental factors on physical activity through cons to self-efficacy. The total effects of environmental factors on physical activity were 0.02 on walking, 0.02 on moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and 0.05 on vigorous-intensity activity. The present study indicates that environmental factors had indirect effects on walking, moderate-intensity activity excluding walking and

  4. Environmental, psychological, and social influences on physical activity among Japanese adults: structural equation modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Kaori

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the contributing factors to be considered when examining how individuals engage in physical activity is important for promoting population-based physical activity. The environment influences long-term effects on population-based health behaviors. Personal variables, such as self-efficacy and social support, can act as mediators of the predictive relationship between the environment and physical activity. The present study examines the direct and indirect effects of environmental, psychological, and social factors on walking, moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and vigorous-intensity activity among Japanese adults. Methods The participants included 1,928 Japanese adults aged 20-79 years. Seven sociodemographic attributes (e.g., gender, age, education level, employment status, psychological variables (self-efficacy, pros, and cons, social variables (social support, environmental variables (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, aesthetic sensibilities, and frequency of observing others exercising, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were assessed via an Internet-based survey. Structural equation modeling was conducted to determine associations between environmental, psychological, and social factors with physical activity. Results Environmental factors could be seen to have indirect effects on physical activity through their influence on psychological and social variables such as self-efficacy, pros and cons, and social support. The strongest indirect effects could be observed by examining the consequences of environmental factors on physical activity through cons to self-efficacy. The total effects of environmental factors on physical activity were 0.02 on walking, 0.02 on moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and 0.05 on vigorous-intensity activity. Conclusions The present study indicates that environmental factors had indirect effects on

  5. Reading the problem family: post-structuralism and the analysis of social problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reekie, G

    1994-01-01

    Post-structuralist theory questions the rational pursuit of an underlying 'truth' that often characterizes social scientific inquiry, proposing instead the simultaneous existence of multiple and often contradictory truths. The problem family can, from this perspective, only be known through the different discourses that produce it. This paper suggests some of the political advantages of developing methods of reading 'problems' related to drugs and alcohol. Without this critical attention to language, we risk perpetuating the ways in which problems are talked about and thought about. Drawing on examples from debates surrounding teenage pregnancy and youth drinking, the paper argues that post-structuralism allows us to analyse the specific ways in which professional discourses write social problems, and hence to own them and to re-write them.

  6. Difficulties in Defining Social-Emotional Intelligence, Competences and Skills - a Theoretical Analysis and Structural Suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moana Monnier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Demands related to the frequency of and time required for interactional tasks in everyday occupational routines are continuously growing. When it comes to qualifying a person’s ability to interact with others, two prototypical concepts are often used: social competences and emotional intelligence. In connection to discussions about curriculum standards in Germany, these are viewed as important attributes that should be taught, supported and if possible assessed in educational pathways toward an occupation (KMK, 2007. However, in looking for a generally approved and widely used definition, many problems arise on the inter-conceptual and intra-conceptual level, triggering implementation difficulties in educational curricula. This article highlights these difficulties by selecting five well-established key theories and comparing their communalities and differences. Analyzing definitions of intelligence, competences and skills, taking an action regulation perspective and highlighting the interdependence of social and emotional aspects, a structural system to facilitate the transfer into the educational context is proposed.

  7. [The work of the intensive care nurse: a study on the social representations structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Iranete Almeida Sousa; da Cruz, Enêde Andrade

    2008-09-01

    This study aims at characterizing the social representations of the nurse in the intensive care unit (ICU) by identifying the central core and the peripheral system. It was carried out in five ICUs from both public and philanthropic teaching, research and assistance hospitals in Salvador (Bahia, Brazil). Data were gathered from ninety nurses by means of free evocation from the phrase: nurse's work in an ICU and then processed with the EVOC software. Analysis was performed by building a four-digit chart based on the structural approach to the theory of social representations. Results point out stress, responsibility, integral care and gratification as the core elements. The peripheral system comprised personal and professional attitudes deemed necessary to perform the work. Therefore, it could be concluded that stress and responsible work are relieved by the gratifying feeling of providing integral care, which demands a range of personal and professional attitudes.

  8. The Impact of Social Structures on Deviant Behaviors: The Study of 402 High Risk Street Drug Users in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mehrabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a sociological analysis of the three dimensions of social structure including institutional, relational, and embodied structures that have an impact on the individuals’ deviant behaviors in the society. The authors used a mix method to analyze the qualitative and quantitative data of 402 high risk abandoned substance users in 2008 in Tehran, capital city of Iran. The leading reasons of substance use were categorized into four fundamental themes as follows: stress, deviant social networks, and low social capital and weak social support sources. In addition, the epidemiology model of regression analysis provides a brief explanation to assess the association between the demographical and etiological variables, and the drug users’ deviant behaviors. In sum, substance use is discussed as a deviant behavior pattern which stems from a comorbidity of weak social structures.

  9. Structure Matters: The Role of Clique Hierarchy in the Relationship Between Adolescent Social Status and Aggression and Prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattiselanno, Kim; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Steglich, Christian; Vollebergh, Wilma; Veenstra, René

    2015-12-01

    Peer cliques form an important context for the social development of adolescents. Although clique members are often similar in social status, also within cliques, status differences exist. How differences in social status between clique members are related to behaviors of its individual members is rather unknown. This study examined to what extent the relationship of individual social status (i.e., perceived popularity) with aggression and prosocial behavior depends on the level of internal clique hierarchy. The sample consists of 2674 adolescents (49.8% boys), with a mean age of 14.02. We focused specifically on physical and relational aggression, and practical and emotional support, because these behaviors have shown to be of great importance for social relationships and social standing among adolescents. The internal status hierarchy of cliques was based on the variation in individual social status between clique members (i.e., clique hierarchization) and the structure of status scores within a clique (pyramid shape, inverted pyramid, or equal distribution of social status scores) (i.e., clique status structure). The results showed that differences in aggressive and prosocial behaviors were particularly moderated by clique status structure: aggression was stronger related to individual social status in (girls') cliques where the clique status structure reflected an inverted pyramid with relatively more high status adolescents within the clique than low status peers, and prosocial behavior showed a significant relationship with individual social status, again predominantly in inverted pyramid structured (boys' and girls') cliques. Furthermore, these effects differed by types of gender cliques: the associations were found in same gender but not mixed-gender cliques. The findings stress the importance of taking into account internal clique characteristics when studying adolescent social status in relationship to aggression and prosociality.

  10. Active influence in dynamical models of structural balance in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Tyler H.; Shames, Iman

    2013-07-01

    We consider a nonlinear dynamical system on a signed graph, which can be interpreted as a mathematical model of social networks in which the links can have both positive and negative connotations. In accordance with a concept from social psychology called structural balance, the negative links play a key role in both the structure and dynamics of the network. Recent research has shown that in a nonlinear dynamical system modeling the time evolution of “friendliness levels” in the network, two opposing factions emerge from almost any initial condition. Here we study active external influence in this dynamical model and show that any agent in the network can achieve any desired structurally balanced state from any initial condition by perturbing its own local friendliness levels. Based on this result, we also introduce a new network centrality measure for signed networks. The results are illustrated in an international-relations network using United Nations voting record data from 1946 to 2008 to estimate friendliness levels amongst various countries.

  11. The social structure of ''experimental'' strings at Fermilab; a physics and detector driven model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1990-01-01

    Physicists in HEP have been forced to organize large scientific projects without a well defined organizational or sociological model to guide them. In the absence of such models, what structures do experimentalists use to develop social structures in HEP? In this paper, I claim that physicists organize around what they know best, the physics problems they study and the detectors and devices they study them with. After describing the advent of ''management'' in HEP, I use a case study of 4 Fermilab experiments as the base upon which to propose a physics and detector driven model of social structure for experiments. In addition, I show how this model can be extended to describe ''strings'' of experiments, where continuities of physics interests, spectrometer design, and a core group of physicists become a definable sociological unit that can exist for over 15 years. A dominate theme that emerges from my analysis is the conscious attempt on the part of experimenters to remove the uncertainties that are part of the practice of HEP

  12. Social Structure and Personality during the Transformation of Urban China: A Comparison to Transitional Poland and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Melvin L.; Wang, Weidong; Yue, Yin

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the relationships of social structure and personality of urban China during "privatization" to those of urban Poland and Ukraine during their transitions from socialism to nascent capitalism. These relationships are similar in pattern and nearly as strong in magnitude for China as for Poland, and stronger than for…

  13. Perceived Social Relationships and Science Learning Outcomes for Taiwanese Eighth Graders: Structural Equation Modeling with a Complex Sampling Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Tsung-Hau; Lee, Che-Di; Chien, Chin-Lung; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Chen, Kuan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2007 study and a follow-up national survey, data for 3,901 Taiwanese grade 8 students were analyzed using structural equation modeling to confirm a social-relation-based affection-driven model (SRAM). SRAM hypothesized relationships among students' perceived social relationships in…

  14. Social relationship difficulties in autism and reactive attachment disorder: Improving diagnostic validity through structured assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Claire; O'Hare, Anne; Mactaggart, Fiona; Green, Jonathan; Young, David; Gillberg, Christopher; Minnis, Helen

    2015-05-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) versus Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) is a common diagnostic challenge for clinicians due to overlapping difficulties with social relationships. RAD is associated with neglect or maltreatment whereas ASD is not: accurate differential diagnosis is therefore critical. Very little research has investigated the relationship between the two, and it is unknown if standardised measures are able to discriminate between ASD and RAD. The current study aimed to address these issues. Fifty eight children with ASD, and no history of maltreatment, were group matched on age with 67 children with RAD. Group profiles on multi-informant measures of RAD were investigated and group differences explored. Discriminant function analysis determined assessment features that best discriminated between the two groups. Although, according to parent report, children with ASD presented with significantly fewer indiscriminate friendliness behaviours compared to the RAD group (p<0.001), 36 children with ASD appeared to meet core RAD criteria. However, structured observation clearly demonstrated that features were indicative of ASD and not RAD for all but 1 of these 36 children. Children with RAD and children with ASD may demonstrate similar social relationship difficulties but there appears to be a difference in the social quality of the interactions between the groups. In most cases it was possible to differentiate between children with ASD and children with RAD via structured observation. Nevertheless, for a small proportion of children with ASD, particularly those whose difficulties may be more subtle, our current standardised measures, including structured observation, may not be effective in differentiating RAD from ASD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Panel session: Part 1, In flux -- Science Policy and the social structure of Big Laboratories, 1964--1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, C. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)]|[CEBAF, Newport News, VA (United States)]|[Fermilab History Collaboration, Batavia, IL (United States)

    1993-09-01

    This report discusses the in flux of science policy and the social structure of big laboratories during the period of 1964 to 1979 and some sociological consequences of high energy physicists` development of the standard model during the same period.

  16. From Social Exclusion to Supported Inclusion: Adults with Intellectual Disability Discuss Their Lived Experiences of a Structured Social Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J; Jaques, Hayden; Johnson, Amanda; Brotherton, Michelle L

    2017-09-01

    People with intellectual disability often have few friends and experience social exclusion. Recognising this gap, supported social groups with the aim of inclusion and interdependence were created by a supported employment provider. Interviews were undertaken with 10 adults with intellectual disability exploring their lived experiences of a supported social group. Data were analysed using descriptive phenomenology. Two themes emerged (i) supported engagement fosters wellbeing, and (ii) developing social belonging and connectedness. Participants not only acknowledged the support that they needed to participate, but also that the social group had changed their lives in many ways. Adults with intellectual disability want to socialise, have friends and be part of their community. For this to be achieved, they recognise the need to seek some form of support. With appropriate and targeted support, adults with intellectual disability can move from social exclusion towards supported inclusion and experience richer lives. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. International Expansion and Transition to the Network Structure of the Multinational Companies and Their Social Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ettaleb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is associated with growing interconnectedness, interdependence and the integration of businesses into a single economic system, improving the competitiveness of businesses, and places new demands and requirements on firms. Companies that wanted to survive in a new, dynamic and competitive environment had to apply new development strategies, whose main motto was to reduce costs and to create greater flexibility on the global market. Many large companies managed huge cost reductions in the globalized economy through international expansion to the industrial periphery and semi-periphery countries (developing countries and Central and Eastern Europe and through the transition from a pyramidal organizational structure to a network structure. The control centre of companies in a network organization deprives hierarchical and pyramidal corporate structures, rather temporarily joins a network of small suppliers, subcontractors and service providers. In the business environment networks are more flexible and adaptable than firms with a hierarchical structure. They are highly effective because they allow significant reductions in the operating costs of the company. On the other hand, the network structure of relations has a number of social consequences, such as the reduction in the number of employees, the rise in non-standard employment contracts and the abolition of responsibility.

  18. Grave pit modifications and wooden structures in the Great Moravian graves and their information potential for cognition of the social structure of the Great Moravian society

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mazuch, Marian; Hladík, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2013), s. 45-55 ISSN 1211-7250 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-20936P Keywords : Early Middle Ages * Great Moravia * Mikulčice * burial sites * graves * grave pits * burial pits * wooden structures * funeral rite * social structure * GIS * statistics Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  19. The influence of social structure on brood survival and development in a socially polymorphic ant: insights from a cross-fostering experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Chapuisat, M

    2012-11-01

    Animal societies vary in the number of breeders per group, which affects many socially and ecologically relevant traits. In several social insect species, including our study species Formica selysi, the presence of either one or multiple reproducing females per colony is generally associated with differences in a suite of traits such as the body size of individuals. However, the proximate mechanisms and ontogenetic processes generating such differences between social structures are poorly known. Here, we cross-fostered eggs originating from single-queen (= monogynous) or multiple-queen (= polygynous) colonies into experimental groups of workers from each social structure to investigate whether differences in offspring survival, development time and body size are shaped by the genotype and/or prefoster maternal effects present in the eggs, or by the social origin of the rearing workers. Eggs produced by polygynous queens were more likely to survive to adulthood than eggs from monogynous queens, regardless of the social origin of the rearing workers. However, brood from monogynous queens grew faster than brood from polygynous queens. The social origin of the rearing workers influenced the probability of brood survival, with workers from monogynous colonies rearing more brood to adulthood than workers from polygynous colonies. The social origin of eggs or rearing workers had no significant effect on the head size of the resulting workers in our standardized laboratory conditions. Overall, the social backgrounds of the parents and of the rearing workers appear to shape distinct survival and developmental traits of ant brood. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. The impact structure of social capital on corporate performance: Empirical evidence from listed companies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Junwei; FU Haiyan; HU Lijun

    2007-01-01

    Vertical relationships with the government, particular relational capital and organizational social network capital, constitute corporate social capital (CSC). Using the empirical data of 97 listed companies in China, this paper examines the impact of CSC on corporate performance, finds that CSC has a positive impact on sales revenue but an insignificant impact on the improvement of ROA. More specifically, when a firm enlarges its sales revenue, the function of organizational network capital is stronger than that of a particular relational capital and that of governmental connections. The paper also finds that state-owned enterprises (SOEs) have more advantages in using governmental connections, therefore leading to better social status than non-SOEs do, who have fewer advantages in using any particular relational capital. The article suggests that managers should appraise carefully the effectiveness of CSC, and combine it with other resources; firms should distinguish the structure of the impact of CSC on performance improvement in a dynamic way. With respect to the implication of this paper, it could help in analyzing firm behaviors in the transitional China.

  1. Structuring Knowledge of Subcultural Folk Devils through News Coverage: Social Cognition, Semiotics, and Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Patrick Williams

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The folk devil concept has been well used in subcultural studies, yet its importance might be better served by distinguishing among multiple conceptual frames through which it is articulated. In this article, I clarify how folk devils are made possible through the interaction of three concepts used by sociologists to study everyday life. The first is the process of social cognition, where producers and consumers of news construct and propagate a shared definition of who subcultural youths are and why they should be the object of fear. The second are the semiotic structures of genre and narrative, which narrow the interpretive process of producers and receivers alike and sustain discourses that limit how subcultural youths can be understood in the news. The third has to do with political economy, where the ideological features of mass mediated news-making keep the news industry in relative control of meaning making. Social cognition, semiotics, and the political economy dialectically produce the phenomenon of the subcultural folk devil and support its objective effects. I review several studies of market and state-controlled media societies and note that, in both types, the objective effects on youths are similar and significant. In studying how subcultural youths are framed in the media output of transitional states and societies, the conceptual value of social cognition, semiotics, and political economy should be recognised.

  2. The specifics of the aplication of social and structural approach to electoral processes analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V F Kovrov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of a number of problems of the investigation of the electoral process viewed as a social phenomenon contributes to the overcoming of a number of theoretical and methodological obstacles in the process of its sociological cognition. The complexity and delicacy of the electoral process entails the application of a set of distinct approaches, research and description techniques. The article provides the rationale for the most complete insight into the social component of the electoral process via social and structural approach application. The given approach enables one to give concrete expression to the subject matter of electoral sociology at strategic, operational and tactical levels, define the elements of the electoral process, the outcome of the electoral practice, to reveal the invariability of the electoral conscience, psychological attitudes and values of different groups of voters as well as to analyze the evolution of the objective-transforming practice, the electoral activity of the population and to provide the extensive analysis of the results of the material and cultural assimilation of the electoral practice.

  3. From Social Exclusion to Supported Inclusion: Adults with Intellectual Disability Discuss Their Lived Experiences of a Structured Social Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J.; Jaques, Hayden; Johnson, Amanda; Brotherton, Michelle L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability often have few friends and experience social exclusion. Recognising this gap, supported social groups with the aim of inclusion and interdependence were created by a supported employment provider. Methods: Interviews were undertaken with 10 adults with intellectual disability exploring their lived…

  4. The Social Structure of Oikonyms. The Territorial and Administrative Reorganisation of the Romanian state by Decree no. 799/1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OVIDIU-CONSTANTIN CRAIU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a comparative approach, from a psycho-social perspective,of the change of locality names. Two long periods were analysed: the Communistdictatorship period and the period following the 1989 events. By using the case studyand social document review methods, we proved that oikonyms have a polymorphicsocial structure. In the last part of the article, we showed the current social trends withrespect to the renaming of human settlements. From a theoretical point of view, thestudy is founded on the social memory theories.

  5. Structural and intermediary determinants of social inequalities in the mental well-being of European workers: a relational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moortel, Deborah; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Muntaner, Carles; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2014-09-09

    unequal social relations generated by structural positions in the labour process.

  6. Exploring the Interconnected Trauma of Personal, Social, and Structural Stressors: Making "Sense" of Senseless Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Zena, Mona M

    2017-01-02

    Although violence is a timeless characteristic of human behavior and history, its prevalence and many forms are proliferated repeatedly through the media. In particular, "senseless" violence against both random and targeted victims puzzles and petrifies onlookers and survivors. Integrating developmental psychology with critical theory, this manuscript begins with a conceptual definition of senseless violence that is coupled with a mapping of the personal, social, and structural etiologies of such violence. This inquiry explores the origins, contexts, and varied manifestations of violence, helps redirect sense-making around such violence, and informs how to cope with and possibly reduce or mitigate it. Utilizing a person-centered perspective from multiple points of view, the analysis focuses primarily on the everyday or chronic experiences of stressors and their relation to internalized and externalized types of violence (i.e., mass shootings, interpersonal violence, self-injury). The manuscript concludes with ways to reduce violence and promote justice on personal, social, and structural levels.

  7. Social representations of adolescents on quality of life: structurally-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Missias Moreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to conduct a comparatively analysis and describe the contents of the structure of the social representations of adolescents on quality of life. It involves descriptive, quantitative research, with the benchmark of a structural approach to social representations. The informants included 316 adolescents from three public schools in Jequié in the State of Bahia. The Spontaneous Word-Choice Eliciting Technique using the key expression "Quality of Life" was used for data collection. The responses were processed using Evoc 2003 software, which generated the Four-House Chart. The results reveal the core nucleus of the terms: healthy eating; physical activity; money; and sex. In the 1st outer circle, the words absence of disease, condoms, liberty, marijuana, housing, work and living well are featured. In the 2nd outer circle, there appeared the words difficulty, family, peace and power, and the contrasting elements of well-being and soccer. The overall consensus is that adolescents associate quality of life with sports and other healthy behavior activities, and are influenced by the desires and curiosities of adolescence.

  8. Review of Structural Social Determinants of Health in Early Childhood Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Sajedi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Development is a dynamic and continuous phenomenon  that is under the influence of various factors forming a complicated multidimensional system together. Any impairment in these factors can lead to impaired development in children, which is one of the most common problems in children. Therefore, this study provides a brief overview of these factors and the way they affect early childhood development. A brief review was performed in databases including Google scholar, PUBMED, Proquest, SID, Magiran, Iranmedex, Irandoc with following keywords: child  development, income, occupation, education, employment, boy, girl,  gender, sex, social class, Race and Ethnicity. All of article was reviewed then categorized based on WHO model. Among the papers reviewed, most of the studies were about employment, education, and income and most of them investigated these risk factors in terms of socioeconomic status. Structural factors of social determinants of health had a close relationship with each other, and they  had affected development through each other. Given that, only few studies on structural factors, except for socioeconomic factors, have been conducted and little attention has been paid to the way these factors affect child development, further studies in this area are required to propose a model in order to better understand the interaction between these factors.

  9. Estimating the extent and structure of trade in horticultural orchids via social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsley, Amy; Lee, Tamsin E; Harrison, Joseph R; Roberts, David L

    2016-10-01

    The wildlife trade is a lucrative industry involving thousands of animal and plant species. The increasing use of the internet for both legal and illegal wildlife trade is well documented, but there is evidence that trade may be emerging on new online technologies such as social media. Using the orchid trade as a case study, we conducted the first systematic survey of wildlife trade on an international social-media website. We focused on themed forums (groups), where people with similar interests can interact by uploading images or text (posts) that are visible to other group members. We used social-network analysis to examine the ties between 150 of these orchid-themed groups to determine the structure of the network. We found 4 communities of closely linked groups based around shared language. Most trade occurred in a community that consisted of English-speaking and Southeast Asian groups. In addition to the network analysis, we randomly sampled 30 groups from the whole network to assess the prevalence of trade in cultivated and wild plants. Of 55,805 posts recorded over 12 weeks, 8.9% contained plants for sale, and 22-46% of these posts pertained to wild-collected orchids. Although total numbers of posts about trade were relatively small, the large proportion of posts advertising wild orchids for sale supports calls for better monitoring of social media for trade in wild-collected plants. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Working With Refugees in the U.S.: Trauma-Informed and Structurally Competent Social Work Approaches

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    Jason Ostrander

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Social workers, government, and non-governmental organizations in the United States have been inadequately prepared to address the impact of trauma faced by refugees fleeing persecution. Compounding their initial trauma experiences, refugees often undergo further traumatic migration experiences and challenges after resettlement that can have long-lasting effects on their health and mental health. Micro and macro social work practitioners must understand the impact of these experiences in order to promote policies, social work training, and clinical practice that further the health and well-being of refugees and society. Social workers are in a unique position to provide multi-dimensional, structurally competent care and advocacy for diverse refugee populations. The experiences of Cambodian refugees will be used to examine these issues. We will explore the benefits of an ecological perspective in guiding interventions that support refugees, and will apply the framework of structural competence to highlight multidimensional implications for social work with refugee populations.

  11. Structural plasticity of the social brain: Differential change after socio-affective and cognitive mental training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valk, Sofie L; Bernhardt, Boris C; Trautwein, Fynn-Mathis; Böckler, Anne; Kanske, Philipp; Guizard, Nicolas; Collins, D Louis; Singer, Tania

    2017-10-01

    Although neuroscientific research has revealed experience-dependent brain changes across the life span in sensory, motor, and cognitive domains, plasticity relating to social capacities remains largely unknown. To investigate whether the targeted mental training of different cognitive and social skills can induce specific changes in brain morphology, we collected longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data throughout a 9-month mental training intervention from a large sample of adults between 20 and 55 years of age. By means of various daily mental exercises and weekly instructed group sessions, training protocols specifically addressed three functional domains: (i) mindfulness-based attention and interoception, (ii) socio-affective skills (compassion, dealing with difficult emotions, and prosocial motivation), and (iii) socio-cognitive skills (cognitive perspective-taking on self and others and metacognition). MRI-based cortical thickness analyses, contrasting the different training modules against each other, indicated spatially diverging changes in cortical morphology. Training of present-moment focused attention mostly led to increases in cortical thickness in prefrontal regions, socio-affective training induced plasticity in frontoinsular regions, and socio-cognitive training included change in inferior frontal and lateral temporal cortices. Module-specific structural brain changes correlated with training-induced behavioral improvements in the same individuals in domain-specific measures of attention, compassion, and cognitive perspective-taking, respectively, and overlapped with task-relevant functional networks. Our longitudinal findings indicate structural plasticity in well-known socio-affective and socio-cognitive brain networks in healthy adults based on targeted short daily mental practices. These findings could promote the development of evidence-based mental training interventions in clinical, educational, and corporate settings aimed at

  12. "I Feel Trapped": The Tension Between Personal and Structural Factors of Social Isolation and the Desire for Social Integration Among Older Residents of a High-Crime Neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portacolone, Elena; Perissinotto, Carla; Yeh, Jarmin Christine; Greysen, S Ryan

    2018-01-18

    The aim of this study was to examine the factors contributing to the social isolation of older residents of a high-crime neighborhood through the in-depth examination of their lived experiences. A deeper understanding of factors contributing to social isolation can allow policymakers and health care providers to create policies and programs to alleviate the social isolation of these vulnerable and understudied individuals. Participants were recruited through the support of the Housing Authority and Police and Fire Departments of Richmond, California, a town with a high-crime rate. Fifty-nine ethnographic interviews were conducted with 20 individuals of 58-95 years of age. Transcripts and fieldnotes were analyzed with a focus on the specific factors contributing the social isolation of participants. An overarching theme of tension between personal and structural factors of social isolation and desire for social integration emerged from qualitative content analysis. A tension emerged between a longing to participate in society and the immersion in a reality so dense with obstacles that made participation in society difficult to attain. Four specific themes also emerged. Three themes demonstrated underlying factors of social isolation stemming from the personal sphere and the physical and social environment. The fourth theme illustrated participants' desire for social integration. Findings demonstrate the salience of interventions and programs to make neighborhoods safe and accessible to older residents. Findings also suggest a need to reframe the conceptual framework for social isolation to better measure and alleviate this public health problem. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Social Structure Study of Association The Flying Fish Fishermen in Takalar Regency (Case Study in Bontomarannu Village, South Galesong District

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    Muhammad Dalvi Mustafa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determined (1 the form of social structure that occur in groups of flying fish fishermen and (2 the rights and duties between the punggawa and sawi inside the social structure in flying fish fisher groups at Bontomarannu Village of South Galesong District, Takalar. The basic method of this research was descriptive method with qualitative approach, while the strategy was a case study. The research was conducted in the Bontomarannu Villages District of South Galesong as one of the flying fish fisher group who still use the traditional way. Determination of informants conducted snowball sampling where there were 35 informants were used in this study. The results showed that the shape of the social structure of the punggawa sawi in a group of flying fish fisher form of domination and legitimacy of the role played by the punggawa being the highest position in the social relations. The strength of the social structure between the punggawa and sawi belong to the powerful force that created rights and duties of each role and status they have in the flying fish fisher groups. Rights and duties were not only applicable in the employment relationship alone, but more deeply into the journey of life both within the coastal communities in the Bontomarannu Village. Keywords : punggawa, sawi, social structure, Takalar

  14. Social and structural barriers to housing among street-involved youth who use illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüsi, Andrea; Fast, Danya; Small, Will; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    In Canada, approximately 150,000 youth live on the street. Street-involvement and homelessness have been associated with various health risks, including increased substance use, blood-borne infections and sexually transmitted diseases. We undertook a qualitative study to better understand the social and structural barriers street-involved youth who use illicit drugs encounter when seeking housing. We conducted 38 semi-structured interviews with street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada from May to October 2008. Interviewees were recruited from the At-risk Youth Study (ARYS) cohort, which follows youth aged 14 to 26 who have experience with illicit drug use. All interviews were thematically analyzed, with particular emphasis on participants' perspectives regarding their housing situation and their experiences seeking housing. Many street-involved youth reported feeling unsupported in their efforts to find housing. For the majority of youth, existing abstinence-focused shelters did not constitute a viable option and, as a result, many felt excluded from these facilities. Many youth identified inflexible shelter rules and a lack of privacy as outweighing the benefits of sleeping indoors. Single-room occupancy hotels (SROs) were reported to be the only affordable housing options, as many landlords would not rent to youth on welfare. Many youth reported resisting moving to SROs as they viewed them as unsafe and as giving up hope for a return to mainstream society. The findings of the present study shed light on the social and structural barriers street-involved youth face in attaining housing and challenge the popular view of youth homelessness constituting a lifestyle choice. Our findings point to the need for housing strategies that include safe, low threshold, harm reduction focused housing options for youth who engage in illicit substance use.

  15. Complex Social Structure of an Endangered Population of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in the Aeolian Archipelago (Italy.

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    Monica F Blasi

    Full Text Available We investigated social structure and association patterns for a small population of Mediterranean bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, inhabiting the Aeolian Archipelago (southern Italy. Specifically we evaluate the role of sex and age composition, residency patterns and interaction with trammel nets on this social organization. Association data for 23 regularly sighted individuals were obtained from summer photoidentification surveys collected from 2005-2012. Using a combined cluster and social network analysis approach, we found associations between dolphins were hierarchically structured, where two mixed-sex social units were subdivided into smaller temporarily dynamic groups. We found non-random and long-term preferred associations in the population; however, the degree of social cohesion, residence pattern and interaction with trammel nets differed considerably between the two social units. Six of eight females occurred in the more resident social unit-1; in addition, social unit-1 individuals had significantly stronger associations, higher preferred associates, lived in larger groups and occurred less frequently with trammel nets. Nine of eleven males were clustered in social unit-2 and five of these males, interacting with trammel nets, formed small groups and preferred associations. We propose that female and male groups associate in the study area during the breeding season and that some males choose to interact with reproductive females forming a distinct but interrelated social unit. Other males may be associating in a larger fission-fusion network, which consists of dolphins that appear to temporarily join the network from the coastal population. We cannot exclude that some males specialized in trammel net foraging, suggesting that this foraging technique may favor a solitary lifestyle. Large group sizes and high degree of social cohesion for females could be an indication of greater protection and more efficiency in detecting

  16. Agency and the reproduction of social structures: On the example of the rotation system of work in Bashkortostan

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    M S Turakayev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the way of life, lifestyle and positions in the labor market of shift workers from rural areas of the Republic Bashkortostan. This social group is rather large and specific to the Volga Federal District of Russia. Its distinctive features are mobile employment and regular pendulum migration. The key aim of the study was to analyze the agency and the reproduction of social structures in the sphere of the long-distance rotation system, the position and roles of shift workers in the social life of the Russian region. The community of shift workers is considered as a social space of positions (external social structures in the sphere of employment, and as a social space of their way of life and individual characteristics (lifestyle, cultural capital and habitus. The interaction within the social space of the long-distance shift positions, mode of life and lifestyle of shift workers is based on the principle of the structure “duality” that opposes and contradicts the principle of structural “dualism”. The paper reveals differences between two principles in the context of structuration theory, constructivist structuralism and critical realism. The methodology of the analysis of shift workers’ labor participation and everyday activities is based on the idea of the duality of structure. The labor career and rural mode of life of shift workers are determined by structural and institutional conditions that limit their behavior in the reproduction of social structures. The lifestyle of shift workers is determined by a relatively free choice of leisure activities during their stay at home in rural areas and characterizes their agency. The selectivity of their leisure practices is reflected in the well-established lifestyle, which depends on the limitations in the social sphere of rural life and their mode of life at work («vakhta». The reproduction of shift workers labor positions hierarchy in the social space is provided

  17. Race/Ethnicity and Social Capital among Middle- and Upper-Middle-Class Elementary School Families: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Stephen J.; Cornigans, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This study used structural equation modeling to conduct a first and second order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of a scale developed by McDonald and Moberg (2002) to measure three dimensions of social capital among a diverse group of middle- and upper-middle-class elementary school parents in suburban New York. A structural path model was…

  18. An Analysis of Density and Degree-Centrality According to the Social Networking Structure Formed in an Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, Esin; Usluel, Yasemin Koçak

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the communication structure in an educational online learning environment using social network analysis (SNA). The communication structure was examined with respect to time, and instructor's participation. The course was implemented using ELGG, a network learning environment, blended with face-to-face sessions over a…

  19. Assessing diabetes support in adolescents: factor structure of the Modified Diabetes Social Support Questionnaire (M-DSSQ-Family)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malik, J.A.; Koot, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the underlying factor structure of diabetes specific support using a modified diabetes family social support questionnaire, the M-DSSQ-Family, in one half of a sample of adolescents with type 1 diabetes, confirm it in the second half, test invariance in factor structure

  20. Social structure of the harem-forming promiscuous fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx, is the harem truly important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Kritika M; Chattopadhyay, Balaji; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2018-02-01

    Bats are social animals and display a diverse variety of mating and social systems, with most species exhibiting some form of polygyny. Their social organization is fluid and individuals frequently switch partners and roosting sites. While harem-like social organization is observed in multiple tropical species, its importance is contested in many of them. In this study, we investigated the role of harems in the social organization of the old world fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx . Based on regular behavioural observations over a period of 20 months and genetic data from microsatellite markers, we observed that the social organization is flexible, individuals regularly shift between roosts and the social organization resembles a fission-fusion society. Behavioural and genetic analyses suggest that the harems are not strict units of social structure, and the colony does not show signatures of subdivision with harems as behavioural units. We also observed that there was no correlation between individuals with high association index and pairwise relatedness. Our findings indicate that similar to the mating system, the social organization of C. sphinx can also be categorized as a fission-fusion society, and hence the term 'harem' is a misnomer. We conclude that the social system of C. sphinx is flexible, with multi-male multi-female organization, and individuals tend to be loyal to a given area rather than a roost.

  1. Combined assessment of the environmental, economic and social impacts of structural solutions for residential construction

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    Fraile-García, E.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development in construction is based on three fundamental pillars: economic, environmental and social. This type of approach aims to identify the best possible solutions for sustainably developing structures by conducting a joint evaluation of the impact on those three pillars. The proposed methodology incorporates metadata on the Spanish construction sector. First, a discrete database is generated with 360 alternatives covering a range of common solutions in residential building. A Pareto algorithm is utilized to select the optimal choices and the wide range of solutions is reduced to the 5 % of the initial group. The project manager is therefore provided with an objective assessment of suitable structural alternatives including the overall joint economic, social, and environmental impact. The results obtained demonstrate the importance and utility of the proposed methodology for sustainable construction.El desarrollo sostenible aplicado a la construcción se basa en tres pilares fundamentales: económico, medioambiental y social. El objetivo principal es identificar las mejores soluciones en términos de desarrollo sostenible de alternativas estructurales a partir de la evaluación conjunta de los impactos en dichos pilares. La metodología propuesta incorpora metadatos con información del sector de la construcción en España. Primero se genera una base de datos discreta de 360 alternativas estructurales que cubren el rango de soluciones habituales en edificación residencial. La selección de alternativas óptimas se realiza mediante el algoritmo de Pareto. El abanico de soluciones se reduce al 5 % de las iniciales. Se aporta una valoración objetiva que orienta al proyectista en la selección de alternativas estructurales idóneas, visualizando de forma conjunta el impacto económico, social y ambiental. Los resultados obtenidos muestran la importancia y utilidad de la metodología propuesta en el campo de la construcci

  2. The Influence of Ethnic Diversity on Social Network Structure in a Common-Pool Resource System: Implications for Collaborative Management

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    Michele Barnes-Mauthe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Social networks have recently been identified as key features in facilitating or constraining collaborative arrangements that can enhance resource governance and adaptability in complex social-ecological systems. Nonetheless, the effect of ethnicity on social network structure in an ethnically diverse common-pool resource system is virtually unknown. We characterize the entire social network of Hawaii's longline fishery, an ethnically diverse competitive pelagic fishery, and investigate network homophily, network structure, and cross-scale linkages. Results show that ethnicity significantly influences social network structure and is responsible for a homophily effect, which can create challenges for stakeholder collaboration across groups. Our analysis also suggests that ethnicity influences the formation of diverse network structures, and can affect the level of linkages to outside industry leaders, government or management officials, and members of the scientific community. This study provides the first empirical examination of the impact of ethnic diversity on resource user's social networks in the common-pool resource literature, having important implications for collaborative resource management.

  3. Construction Costs Assessment of Structural Systems for Low-Rise and Social Welfare Housing

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    Carrillo Julián

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the costs related to the construction of low-rise, low-cost and social welfare housing was carried out. The study included three of the most commonly used structural systems for low-rise housing in Latin America, such as the traditional system of confined masonry walls, concrete walls conventionally reinforced with welded-wire meshes and concrete walls reinforced with steel fiber. The cost comparison was carried out by budgets analysis, which were performed based on construction quantities, unit prices and particular items for each structural system. It was found in the study that, from an economic point of view, the systems of concrete walls reinforced with welded-wire meshes or steel fibers are more advantageous than confined masonry systems. In addition, the integral comparison of the three structural systems demonstrates that the industrialized system of steel fiber reinforced concrete walls allows obtaining greater advantages of cleaning and sustainability, faster construction, lower cost and a more attractive scenario for builders investing in such projects.

  4. Discrete particle swarm optimization for identifying community structures in signed social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qing; Gong, Maoguo; Shen, Bo; Ma, Lijia; Jiao, Licheng

    2014-10-01

    Modern science of networks has facilitated us with enormous convenience to the understanding of complex systems. Community structure is believed to be one of the notable features of complex networks representing real complicated systems. Very often, uncovering community structures in networks can be regarded as an optimization problem, thus, many evolutionary algorithms based approaches have been put forward. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is an artificial intelligent algorithm originated from social behavior such as birds flocking and fish schooling. PSO has been proved to be an effective optimization technique. However, PSO was originally designed for continuous optimization which confounds its applications to discrete contexts. In this paper, a novel discrete PSO algorithm is suggested for identifying community structures in signed networks. In the suggested method, particles' status has been redesigned in discrete form so as to make PSO proper for discrete scenarios, and particles' updating rules have been reformulated by making use of the topology of the signed network. Extensive experiments compared with three state-of-the-art approaches on both synthetic and real-world signed networks demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and promising. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Beyond Traditional Advertisements: Leveraging Facebook’s Social Structures for Research Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterbock, Thomas M; Thompson, Morgan J; Reilly, Jeremiah D; Menefee, Hannah K; Bennici, Maria S; Williams, Ishan C; Rexrode, Deborah L

    2014-01-01

    Background Obtaining access to a demographically and geographically diverse sample for health-related research can be costly and time consuming. Previous studies have reported mixed results regarding the potential of using social media-based advertisements to overcome these challenges. Objective Our aim was to develop and assess the feasibility, benefits, and challenges of recruiting for research studies related to consumer health information technology (IT) by leveraging the social structures embedded in the social networking platform, Facebook. Methods Two recruitment strategies that involved direct communication with existing Facebook groups and pages were developed and implemented in two distinct populations. The first recruitment strategy involved posting a survey link directly to consenting groups and pages and was used to recruit Filipino-Americans to a study assessing the perceptions, use of, and preferences for consumer health IT. This study took place between August and December 2013. The second recruitment strategy targeted individuals with type 2 diabetes and involved creating a study-related Facebook group and asking administrators of other groups and pages to publicize our group to their members. Group members were then directly invited to participate in an online pre-study survey. This portion of a larger study to understand existing health management practices as a foundation for consumer health IT design took place between May and June 2014. In executing both recruitment strategies, efforts were made to establish trust and transparency. Recruitment rate, cost, content of interaction, and characteristics of the sample obtained were used to assess the recruitment methods. Results The two recruitment methods yielded 87 and 79 complete responses, respectively. The first recruitment method yielded a rate of study completion proportionate to that of the rate of posts made, whereas recruitment successes of the second recruitment method seemed to follow

  6. Social system theory as a 'knitting' of structural functionalism: A contribution to the new parsons interpretation

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    Brdar Milan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Topic of the article is problem how to understand Parsons’ theory of the social system properly as a product of structural functionalism. In other words question amounts to the method of theory building and thus on the role of main Parsons pattern variables elaborated in the works of Carnegy Project: The Social System (1951, Values, Motives and Structure of Action (1951, and Working Papers in the Theory of Action (1953. Author is about to maintain that crucial conceptual clusters as a basis of Parsons theory building are: under the rubric of theory of action: four pattern variables - universalism-particularism, affectivity-neutrality, performance- quality, specificity-diffuseness; under the rubric of system theory: AGIL scheme - namely adaptation, goal-attainment, integration, and latency or pattern maintenance. Conceptual row needed for synthesis of both is provided with: value-rolenorm- collectivity, along the three general problem of any system: structure and inner dynamic, change and hierarchy and control. Its synthesis is demonstrated on the all three levels of personality system, social system and system of culture. Thus is shortly demonstrated how is possible, on strikingly systematic way to build whole conceptual scheme or Parsons’ system theory. Within this demonstration special attention has been paid to the methodological sense of four pattern variables. Originality of the given interpretation of Parsons is demonstrated: 1 by showing of the methodological role of pattern variables in the theory building; 2 by showing the connection between these variables and four ideal types of action in Max Weber. Thus follows that four variables are very core of Parsons theory of action, and this is demonstrated by the elaborated parallelism between Weber’s and Parsons’ concepts. This insight affords the argument that Parsons theory of action is profoundly Weberian, based on highly original reinterpretation of concepts of action and unique

  7. The Social Structure of Participants of the Battle of Blore Heath (September 23, 1459

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    Andrey G. Prazdnikov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The battle of Blore Heath which took place on September 23, 1459, marked the new stage of the Wars of Roses, which led to the change of dynasties at the English throne in less than two years. As it was not the clash of the main forces of House of Lancaster and House of York, the sources contain poor information about the battle’s participants. However, the analysis different sources let identify the names of 22 participants. Prosopographic study of this group contributes to the study of social behavior models, the degree of influence of the Wars of Roses on English society, the activity of representatives of different social strata. The social structure of the group, most of which are the representatives of the English gentry, is the object of the article. There is information in the sources about the origin of the knights. The House of York under the command of Earl of Salisbury were mostly from Northern and North-Western counties (Yorkshire, Westmorland, whereas House of Lancaster formed their troops in Cheshire, Staffordshire and Lancashire. As a rule, officers in the army of the Earl of Salisbury, were in close personal or family ties with him. The study of further lives of the participants of the battle and biographies of their children showed that the adherence of the chosen dynasty was preserved by generations and change of the parties was rather a deviation from the norm. English nobility of the second half of the 15th century had a high opinion of the value of loyalty and honor.

  8. Using intersectionality responsibly: Toward critical epistemology, structural analysis, and social justice activism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; Grzanka, Patrick R

    2017-10-01

    The increasing popularity of the concept of intersectionality in the social sciences, including in psychology, represents an opportunity to reflect on the state of stewardship of this concept, its roots, and its promise. In this context, the authors aim to promote responsible stewardship of intersectionality and to tip the momentum of intersectionality's flourishing toward fuller use and engagement of its roots and promise for understanding and challenging dynamics of power, privilege, and oppression. To this end, this article provides a set of guidelines for reflection and action. The authors organize these guidelines along 3 major formulations of intersectionality: intersectionality as a field of study, as analytic strategy or disposition, and as critical praxis for social justice. Ultimately, the authors call for expanding the use of intersectionality toward fuller engagement with its roots in Black feminist thought, its current interdisciplinary richness and potential, and its central aims to challenge and transform structures and systems of power, privilege, and oppression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. History and structure of the constitution of cooperative enterprise. Political changes of a social relationship

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    Devi Sacchetto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In its long development the Italian cooperative movement went through slow and steady transformations, that have generally sheltered it from radical discontinuities. The different trends and political traditions that have become intertwined with the history of the cooperative movement highlight the flexibility of the cooperative principles which have been adapted on the basis of different situations, without being modified in their abstract outlines. In this paper we argue that the Italian cooperative movement on the one hand seems to have absorbed the principles of market economy through the adoption of organization of productions and functional structures similar to those of many capitalist companies. On the other hand Italian cooperative movement have developed a peculiar form of social action based on the institutionalization of postulates such as the mutual aid and solidarity.In short the cooperative form has historically constituted and continues to be shaped as a peculiar pattern in which undercapitalization requires a wider-ranging fluidity of the working relationships. These have been raised to the ranks of moral values in social action.

  10. Social and Structural Patterns of Drought-Related Water Conservation and Rebound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Patricia; Ajami, Newsha

    2017-12-01

    Water use practices and conservation are the result of complex sociotechnical interactions of political, economic, hydroclimatic, and social factors. While the drivers of water demand have been extensively studied, they have traditionally been applied to models that assume stationary relationships between these various factors, and usually do not account for potential societal changes in response to increased scarcity awareness. For example, following a period of sustained low demand such as during a drought, communities often increase water use during a hydrologically wet period, a phenomenon known as "rebounding" water use. Previous experiences show the extent of this rebound is not a straightforward function of policy and efficiency improvements, but may also reflect short-term or long-lasting change in community behavior, which are not easily captured by models that assume stationarity. In this work, we develop a system dynamics model to represent water demand as a function of both structural and social factors. We apply this model to the analysis of three diverse water utilities in the San Francisco Bay Area between 1980 and 2017, identifying drought response trends and drivers over time. Our model is consistent with empirical patterns and historical context of water use in California, and provides important insights on the rebound phenomenon that can be extended to other locations. This comparative assessment indicates that policies, public outreach, and better data availability have played a key role in raising public awareness of water scarcity, especially with the raise of the internet era in recent years.

  11. The Effect of Ownership Structure, Profitability, Leverage, and Firm Size on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR

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    Fifi Swandari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR, indicator used was the index of CSR disclosure with 64 companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange period of 2012 as the samples. This research used multiple regression analysis. The results show that institutional ownership, managerial and foreign has no effect on CSR. This indicates that the ownership structure could not improve CSR in the company. On the contrary, profitability has an influence on CSR. It indicates that companies with high profits have the fund flexibility to implement CSR programs that have been set. Moreover, corporate debt levels also affect the CSR with the negative direction. This means that companies with high debt levels will usually focus more on managing faced business risks rather than on CSR program. Last, company size has no effect on the company CSR.

  12. The Third Age and the Baby Boomers: Two Approaches to the Social Structuring of Later Life

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    Chris Gilleard

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines two contrasting positions in interpreting contemporary change in later life. These are summarily represented by a cohort approach that focuses upon the baby boomers and a generational approach that focuses upon the third age. We argue that understanding the role of the sixties’ cultural revolution for the emergence of the third age offers a broader conceptual understanding of the transformation of later life than that provided by the more restrictive and restricting framework of a baby boom cohort. That many people, particularly in the USA, self identify with the term ‘baby boomer’ reflects not so much the power of cohorts as structuring influences on the ‘conscience collective’ as the role of the market and the media in shaping their social identities.

  13. Close encounters of the conceptual kind: Disambiguating social structure from text

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    Timothy Hannigan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite its empirical prominence, there is very little extant organizational research on Big Data. However, there is reason to believe this is changing as organizational theory scholars are beginning to embrace new methods and data sources. In this essay, I present a view that suggests there are several latent opportunities, many of which have been simmering unattended for some time. This research approach is not without its challenges, as the ontological terrain of Big Data is untested and potentially disruptive. However, we are observing a renewal of approaches to text and content analysis. By opening up the toolkit of computational linguistics methods for text analysis, Big Data may bring about fresh synthesis and reshape classic debates around social structure.

  14. Mnemonic transmission, social contagion, and emergence of collective memory: Influence of emotional valence, group structure, and information distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hae-Yoon; Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Rajaram, Suparna

    2017-09-01

    Social transmission of memory and its consequence on collective memory have generated enduring interdisciplinary interest because of their widespread significance in interpersonal, sociocultural, and political arenas. We tested the influence of 3 key factors-emotional salience of information, group structure, and information distribution-on mnemonic transmission, social contagion, and collective memory. Participants individually studied emotionally salient (negative or positive) and nonemotional (neutral) picture-word pairs that were completely shared, partially shared, or unshared within participant triads, and then completed 3 consecutive recalls in 1 of 3 conditions: individual-individual-individual (control), collaborative-collaborative (identical group; insular structure)-individual, and collaborative-collaborative (reconfigured group; diverse structure)-individual. Collaboration enhanced negative memories especially in insular group structure and especially for shared information, and promoted collective forgetting of positive memories. Diverse group structure reduced this negativity effect. Unequally distributed information led to social contagion that creates false memories; diverse structure propagated a greater variety of false memories whereas insular structure promoted confidence in false recognition and false collective memory. A simultaneous assessment of network structure, information distribution, and emotional valence breaks new ground to specify how network structure shapes the spread of negative memories and false memories, and the emergence of collective memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Role of theory of mind and executive function in explaining social intelligence: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Zai-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Social intelligence is the ability to understand others and the social context effectively and thus to interact with people successfully. Research has suggested that the theory of mind (ToM) and executive function may play important roles in explaining social intelligence. The specific aim of the present study was to test with structural equation modeling (SEM) the hypothesis that performance on ToM tasks is more associated with social intelligence in the elderly than is performance on executive functions. One hundred and seventy-seven participants (age 56-96) completed ToM, executive function, and other basic cognition tasks, and were rated with social intelligence scales. The SEM results showed that ToM and executive function were strongly correlated (0.54); however, only the path coefficient from ToM to social intelligence, and not from executive function, was significant (0.37). ToM performance, but not executive function, was strongly correlated with social intelligence among elderly individuals. ToM and executive function might play different roles in social behavior during normal aging; however, based on the present results, it is possible that ToM might play an important role in social intelligence.

  16. The mutual extraction industry: drug use and the normative structure of social capital in the Russian far north.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Hilary; Sharifullina, El'vira

    2009-05-01

    The article contributes to the literature on the role of social networks and social capital in young people's drug use. It considers the structural and cultural dimensions of the 'risk environment' of post-Soviet Russia, the micro risk-environment of a de-industrializing city in the far north of the country and the kind of social capital that circulates in young people's social networks there. Its focus is thus on social capital at the micro-level, the 'bridging' networks of peer friendship groups and the norms that govern them. The research is based on a small ethnographic study of the friendship groups and social networks of young people in the city of Vorkuta in 2006-2007. It draws on data from 32 respondents aged 17-27 in the form of 17 semi-structured audio and video interviews and field diaries. Respondents were selected from friendship groups in which drug use was a regular and symbolically significant practice. The risk environment of the Russian far north is characterised by major de-industrialization, poor health indicators, low life expectancy and limited educational and employment opportunities. It is also marked by a 'work hard, play hard' cultural ethos inherited from the Soviet period when risk-laden manual labour was well-rewarded materially and symbolically. However, young people today often rely on informal economic practices to generate the resource needed to fulfil their expectations. This is evident from the social networks among respondents which were found to be focused around a daily routine of generating and spending income, central to which is the purchase, sale and use of drugs. These practices are governed by norms that often invert those normally ascribed to social networks: reciprocity is replaced by mutual exploitation and trust by cheating. Social networks are central to young people's management of the risk environment associated with post-Soviet economic transformation. However, such networks are culturally as well as structurally

  17. Social structure in a family group of Guanaco (Lama guanicoe, Ungulate): is female hierarchy based on 'prior attributes' or 'social dynamics'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Loreto A; Zapata, Beatriz; Samaniego, Horacio; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio

    2013-09-01

    Social life involves costs and benefits mostly associated with how individuals interact with each other. The formation of hierarchies inside social groups has evolved as a common strategy to avoid high costs stemming from social interactions. Hierarchical relationships seem to be associated with different features such as body size, body condition and/or age, which determine dominance ability ('prior attributes' hypothesis). In contrast, the 'social dynamic' hypothesis suggests that an initial social context is a determinant in the formation of the hierarchy, more so than specific individual attributes. Hierarchical rank places individuals in higher positions, which presumably increases resource accessibility to their benefit, including opportunities for reproduction. We evaluate the maintenance of hierarchy in a family group of guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and evaluate the possible mechanisms involved in the stability of these interactions and their consequences. We estimate the linearity of social hierarchy and their dynamics. We find evidence of the formation of a highly linear hierarchy among females with males positioned at the bottom of the hierarchy. This hierarchy is not affected by physical characteristics or age, suggesting that it is established only through intra-group interactions. Rank is not related with calves' weight gain either; however, subordinated females, with lower rank, exhibit higher rates of allosuckling. We found no evidence of hierarchical structure in calves suggesting that hierarchical relationship in guanacos could be established during the formation of the family group. Hence, our results suggest that hierarchical dynamics could be related more to social dynamics than to prior attributes. We finally discuss the importance of hierarchies established by dominance and their role in minimizing social costs of interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dimensional structure of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale according to the analysis of data obtained with a German version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidecker, Judith; Glöckner-Rist, Angelika; Gerlach, Alexander L

    2010-08-01

    The Social Interaction and Anxiety Scale (SIAS) is widely used to assess social interaction anxiety. Yet its dimensional structure is still not well-defined. Especially, the conceptual pertinence of three negatively keyed items has been challenged. In this study, dimensionality of the answers of a student sample to a German SIAS version was first analyzed exploratorily. Subsequently, we tested confirmatorily several measurement models specifying different SIAS dimensions, and investigated how these relate to extraversion. The most reasonable model was cross-validated relying on data from healthy controls and social phobia sufferers. All analyses involved methods suited for an adequate handling of ordinal data. The findings confirm that three negatively keyed items are dubious indicators of social interaction anxiety. Thus, only the remaining 17 items should be used for this purpose in future studies. Analyses of their psychometric properties show, in addition, that they apparently tap three different facets of social interaction anxiety. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The social and professional structure of international justice: from scholarly insiders to the pull of multinational corporate law firms

    OpenAIRE

    Dezalay, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Where does international justice draw its authority in an international scene largely driven by self-regulated professional markets for the settlement of transnational disputes? To revisit this classical debate, this article connects the professional and social structure of dispute settlement mechanisms to their social credibility among users of international justice. Drawing on extensive biographical databases, it suggests that the growth of investor-state disputes is favoring a shift from a...

  20. Mario, Luigi and Dave: the effect of language on the social structure of a bilingual online mobile game

    OpenAIRE

    Kirman, Ben; Lawson, Shaun; Linehan, Conor

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the structure of a social community built in an online game that was released in two languages, specifically examining the behaviours of players involved in inter-lingual interaction. This asynchronous social game was released simultaneously in Italian and English. The player base was seeded with English and Italian players but allowed to grow organically without restriction. Despite the built-in segregation by language, we found that the entire player-base formed in...

  1. The structuration of issue-based fields: social accountability, social movements and the Equator Principles issue-based field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Sullivan, N.; O'Dwyer, B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a longitudinal case study examining why and how commercial banks sought to integrate sustainability issues into their project finance operations between 2003 and 2008. We study the evolution of a set of influential environmental and social risk management guidelines for project

  2. Contact structure, mobility, environmental impact and behaviour: the importance of social forces to infectious disease dynamics and disease ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Ronan F; Gurley, Emily S; Salje, Henrik; Bloomfield, Laura S P; Jones, James H

    2017-05-05

    Human factors, including contact structure, movement, impact on the environment and patterns of behaviour, can have significant influence on the emergence of novel infectious diseases and the transmission and amplification of established ones. As anthropogenic climate change alters natural systems and global economic forces drive land-use and land-cover change, it becomes increasingly important to understand both the ecological and social factors that impact infectious disease outcomes for human populations. While the field of disease ecology explicitly studies the ecological aspects of infectious disease transmission, the effects of the social context on zoonotic pathogen spillover and subsequent human-to-human transmission are comparatively neglected in the literature. The social sciences encompass a variety of disciplines and frameworks for understanding infectious diseases; however, here we focus on four primary areas of social systems that quantitatively and qualitatively contribute to infectious diseases as social-ecological systems. These areas are social mixing and structure, space and mobility, geography and environmental impact, and behaviour and behaviour change. Incorporation of these social factors requires empirical studies for parametrization, phenomena characterization and integrated theoretical modelling of social-ecological interactions. The social-ecological system that dictates infectious disease dynamics is a complex system rich in interacting variables with dynamically significant heterogeneous properties. Future discussions about infectious disease spillover and transmission in human populations need to address the social context that affects particular disease systems by identifying and measuring qualitatively important drivers.This article is part of the themed issue 'Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Habitat structure influences parent-offspring association in a social lizard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Botterill-James

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parental care emerges as a result of an increase in the extent of interaction between parents and their offspring. These interactions can provide the foundation for the evolution of a range of complex parental behaviors. Therefore, fundamental to understanding the evolution of parental care is an understanding of the factors that promote this initial increase in parent-offspring association. Here, we used large outdoor enclosures to test how the spatial structure of high-quality habitat affects the occurrence of parent-offspring associations in a social lizard (Liopholis whitii. We found that the extent of parent-offspring association was higher when high-quality habitat was aggregated relative to when it was dispersed. This may be the result of greater competitive exclusion of adults and offspring from high quality crevices sites in the aggregated treatment compared to the dispersed treatment. Associating with parents had significant benefits for offspring growth and body condition but there were no concomitant effects on offspring survival. We did not find costs of parent-offspring association for parents in terms of increased harassment and loss of body condition. We discuss a number of potential mechanisms underlying these results. Regardless of mechanisms, our results suggest that habitat structure may shape the extent of parent-offspring association in L. whitti, and that highly aggregated habitats may set the stage for the diversification of more complex forms of care observed across closely related species.

  4. Review: Christian von Scheve (2009. Emotionen und soziale Strukturen – Die affektiven Grundlagen sozialer Ordnung [Emotions and Social Structure – The Affective Foundation of the Social System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Montanari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work—his PhD thesis—Christian VON SCHEVE examines the connections between emotions and social structures. From a sociological viewpoint and taking into account findings from the neurosciences and cognitive psychology, he seeks to answer the question of how, on the one hand, are emotions susceptible to influences from the social environment, and on the other, do they generate social structure themselves. By presenting many empirical findings, the author succeeds in exemplifying relevant mechanisms. Although one cannot expect to find definitive answers to these questions, VON SCHEVE'S work offers a rich contribution to discussions on the micro-macro link, as well as questions of human agency. At present, research on emotions by social scientists is an emerging field, which this review seeks to illustrate. Another aim of this review is to show which discussions can be enriched by debating the elements of this work. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1101287

  5. The intersection of class origin and immigration background in structuring social capital: the role of transnational ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Anton; Edling, Christofer; Rydgren, Jens

    2018-03-01

    The study investigates inequalities in access to social capital based on social class origin and immigration background and examines the role of transnational ties in explaining these differences. Social capital is measured with a position generator methodology that separates between national and transnational contacts in a sample of young adults in Sweden with three parental backgrounds: at least one parent born in Iran or Yugoslavia, or two Sweden-born parents. The results show that having socioeconomically advantaged parents is associated with higher levels of social capital. Children of immigrants are found to have a greater access to social capital compared to individuals with native background, and the study shows that this is related to transnational contacts, parents' education and social class in their country of origin. Children of immigrants tend to have more contacts abroad, while there is little difference in the amount of contacts living in Sweden across the three groups. It is concluded that knowledge about immigration group resources help us predict its member's social capital, but that the analysis also needs to consider how social class trajectories and migration jointly structure national and transnational contacts. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  6. The role of social support on emotion dysregulation and Internet addiction among Chinese adolescents: A structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Phoenix K H; Chan, Virginia W Y; Chan, Samuel W; Lau, Joseph T F

    2018-07-01

    Internet addiction is prevalent among adolescents and is associated with various negative outcomes. Relatively few studies examined the role of emotion dysregulation and social support on Internet addiction in this population. The present examined the association between emotion dysregulation, social support, and Internet addiction among junior secondary school students in Hong Kong. The mediating role of emotion dysregulation and Internet use on the relationship between social support and Internet addiction and the gender difference in such association were also tested. A total of 862 junior secondary school students (grade 7 to 8) from 4 schools completed a cross-sectional survey. 10.9% scored above the cut-off for Internet addiction based on the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Results from structural equation modeling revealed that social support was negatively related to emotion dysregulation and Internet usage, which in turn, were positively related to Internet addiction. Results from multi-group analysis by gender showed that the relationship between social support and emotion dysregulation, Internet usage, and Internet addiction, and those between emotion dysregulation and Internet addiction and between Internet usage and Internet addiction were stronger among female participants. Emotion dysregulation is a potential risk factor while social support is a potential protective factor for Internet addiction. The role of social support on emotion dysregulation and Internet addiction were stronger among female students. Gender-sensitive interventions on Internet Addiction for adolescents are warranted, such interventions should increase social support and improve emotion regulation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Demographic histories, isolation and social factors as determinants of the genetic structure of Alpine linguistic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, Valentina; Capocasa, Marco; Anagnostou, Paolo; Pascali, Vincenzo; Scarnicci, Francesca; Boschi, Ilaria; Battaggia, Cinzia; Crivellaro, Federica; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B J; Capelli, Cristian; Maixner, Frank; Cipollini, Giovanna; Viazzo, Pier Paolo; Zink, Albert; Destro Bisol, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of "local ethnicity" on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet to be understood

  8. Demographic histories, isolation and social factors as determinants of the genetic structure of Alpine linguistic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Coia

    Full Text Available Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of "local ethnicity" on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet

  9. Effect of direct reciprocity and network structure on continuing prosperity of social networking services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Kengo; Toriumi, Fujio; Sugawara, Toshihauru

    2017-01-01

    Social networking services (SNSs) are widely used as communicative tools for a variety of purposes. SNSs rely on the users' individual activities associated with some cost and effort, and thus it is not known why users voluntarily continue to participate in SNSs. Because the structures of SNSs are similar to that of the public goods (PG) game, some studies have focused on why voluntary activities emerge as an optimal strategy by modifying the PG game. However, their models do not include direct reciprocity between users, even though reciprocity is a key mechanism that evolves and sustains cooperation in human society. We developed an abstract SNS model called the reciprocity rewards and meta-rewards games that include direct reciprocity by extending the existing models. Then, we investigated how direct reciprocity in an SNS facilitates cooperation that corresponds to participation in SNS by posting articles and comments and how the structure of the networks of users exerts an influence on the strategies of users using the reciprocity rewards game. We run reciprocity rewards games on various complex networks and an instance network of Facebook and found that two types of stable cooperation emerged. First, reciprocity slightly improves the rate of cooperation in complete graphs but the improvement is insignificant because of the instability of cooperation. However, this instability can be avoided by making two assumptions: high degree of fun, i.e. articles are read with high probability, and different attitudes to reciprocal and non-reciprocal agents. We then propose the concept of half free riders to explain what strategy sustains cooperation-dominant situations. Second, we indicate that a certain WS network structure affects users' optimal strategy and facilitates stable cooperation without any extra assumptions. We give a detailed analysis of the different characteristics of the two types of cooperation-dominant situations and the effect of the memory of

  10. Structural Equation Model for Evaluating Factors Affecting Quality of Social Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Hussain

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the constructed social infrastructure project has been considered a necessary measure for the sustainability of projects. Studies on factors affecting project quality have used various techniques and methods to explain the relationships between particular variables. Unexpectedly, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM has acquired very little concern in factors affecting project quality studies. To address this limitation in the body of knowledge, the objective of this study was to apply the SEM approach and build a model that explained and identified the critical factors affecting quality in social infrastructure projects. The authors developed a quantitative approach using smart-PLS version 3.2.7. This study shed light on the views of different experts based on their experience in public construction projects in Pakistan. Particularly, the authors aimed to find out the relationships between construction, stakeholders, materials, design, and external factors, and how these relate to project quality. The findings of this study revealed that the R2 value of the model was scored at 0.749, which meant that the five exogenous latent constructs collectively explained 74.9% of the variance in project quality. The Goodness-of-Fit of the model was 0.458. The construction related factor was the most important out of the five constructs. This study determined that better planning and monitoring and evaluation should be developed to better address and control the quality defects by decision-makers, project managers as well as contractors. These findings might support practitioners and decision makers to focus on quality related problems that might occur in their current or future projects.

  11. A method of identifying social structures in siting regions for deep geological repositories in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brander, Simone

    2010-09-01

    Acceptance is a key element in the site selection process for deep geological repositories for high-level and low and intermediate-level radioactive waste in Switzerland. Participation requirements such as comprehensive negotiation issues and adequate resources have thus been defined by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). In 2008, on the basis of technical criteria Nagra (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste) proposed several potential areas for deep geological repositories. The number of potential areas will be narrowed down within the next few years. All municipalities within the planning perimeter (the area in which surface facilities can be realised) are affected and form the siting region. In order to ensure that the local population have their say in the forthcoming discussions, regional participation bodies including all municipalities within a siting region are being set up by the SFOE. Regional participation ensures that local interests, needs and values are taken into account in the site selection process. Assembling the regional participation bodies is therefore of great importance. Before such bodies can be formed, however, the various interests, needs and values have to be identified, and special attention has to be paid to long-term interests of future generations, as well as to non-organised and under-represented interests. According to the concept of proportional representation, the interests, needs and values that are identified and weighted by the local population are to be represented in the regional participation procedure. The aim of this study is to share a method of mapping existing social structures in a defined geographical area. This involves a combination of an analysis of socio-economic statistical data and qualitative and quantitative social research methods

  12. Social Support and Well-Being among Lesbian and Heterosexual Women: A Structural Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayment, Heidi A.; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    1995-01-01

    Examines the types of social support that lesbian and heterosexual women receive from their social networks and the link between support and psychological well-being. Results indicate that both groups reported receiving equivalent overall amounts of support from their social networks, and that coupled women reported greater well-being than single…

  13. Reliability and Structure of the TALIS Social Desirability Scale: An Assessment Based on Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapuza, A. V.; Tyumeneva, Yu. A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the ways of controlling for the influence of social expectations on the answers given by survey respondents is to use a social desirability scale together with the main questions. The social desirability scale, which was included in the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) international comparative study for this purpose, was…

  14. Using Social Media Applications for Educational Outcomes in College Teaching: A Structural Equation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yingxia; Ajjan, Haya; Hong, Paul

    2013-01-01

    As more and more faculty members jump on the wagon of social media, an increasing number of publications began to investigate the adoption of social media applications and its motivators in and out of the classrooms. However, little research has paid close attention to the educational outcomes of social media utilization in college teaching. Thus,…

  15. Strength beyond structure : social and historical trajectories of agency in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de M.E.; Dijk, van R.A.; Gewald, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    This book explores the notion of agency in a range of empirical situations in Africa. It emphasizes the possibilities individuals and social groups perceive when faced with the constraints that tend to mark African social life. Contributions: Social and historical trajectories of agency in Africa:

  16. Factor structure and item level psychometrics of the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised: Short Form in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chih-Ying; Waid-Ebbs, Julia; Velozo, Craig A; Heaton, Shelley C

    2016-01-01

    Social problem-solving deficits characterise individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and poor social problem solving interferes with daily functioning and productive lifestyles. Therefore, it is of vital importance to use the appropriate instrument to identify deficits in social problem solving for individuals with TBI. This study investigates factor structure and item-level psychometrics of the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised: Short Form (SPSI-R:S), for adults with moderate and severe TBI. Secondary analysis of 90 adults with moderate and severe TBI who completed the SPSI-R:S was performed. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA), principal components analysis (PCA) and Rasch analysis examined the factor structure and item-level psychometrics of the SPSI-R:S. The EFA showed three dominant factors, with positively worded items represented as the most definite factor. The other two factors are negative problem-solving orientation and skills; and negative problem-solving emotion. Rasch analyses confirmed the three factors are each unidimensional constructs. It was concluded that the total score interpretability of the SPSI-R:S may be challenging due to the multidimensional structure of the total measure. Instead, we propose using three separate SPSI-R:S subscores to measure social problem solving for the TBI population.

  17. Factor Structure and Item Level Psychometrics of the Social Problem Solving Inventory Revised-Short Form in Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chih-Ying; Waid-Ebbs, Julia; Velozo, Craig A.; Heaton, Shelley C.

    2016-01-01

    Primary Objective Social problem solving deficits characterize individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Poor social problem solving interferes with daily functioning and productive lifestyles. Therefore, it is of vital importance to use the appropriate instrument to identify deficits in social problem solving for individuals with TBI. This study investigates factor structure and item-level psychometrics of the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised Short Form (SPSI-R:S), for adults with moderate and severe TBI. Research Design Secondary analysis of 90 adults with moderate and severe TBI who completed the SPSI-R:S. Methods and Procedures An exploratory factor analysis (EFA), principal components analysis (PCA) and Rasch analysis examined the factor structure and item-level psychometrics of the SPSI-R:S. Main Outcomes and Results The EFA showed three dominant factors, with positively worded items represented as the most definite factor. The other two factors are negative problem solving orientation and skills; and negative problem solving emotion. Rasch analyses confirmed the three factors are each unidimensional constructs. Conclusions The total score interpretability of the SPSI-R:S may be challenging due to the multidimensional structure of the total measure. Instead, we propose using three separate SPSI-R:S subscores to measure social problem solving for the TBI population. PMID:26052731

  18. Measuring social desirability across language and sex: A comparison of Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale factor structures in English and Mandarin Chinese in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, A Solomon; Drescher, Christopher F; Chin, Eu Gene; Johnson, Laura R

    2016-06-01

    Malaysia is a Southeast Asian country in which multiple languages are prominently spoken, including English and Mandarin Chinese. As psychological science continues to develop within Malaysia, there is a need for psychometrically sound instruments that measure psychological phenomena in multiple languages. For example, assessment tools for measuring social desirability could be a useful addition in psychological assessments and research studies in a Malaysian context. This study examined the psychometric performance of the English and Mandarin Chinese versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale when used in Malaysia. Two hundred and eighty-three students (64% female; 83% Chinese, 9% Indian) from two college campuses completed the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale in their language of choice (i.e., English or Mandarin Chinese). Proposed factor structures were compared with confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple indicators-multiple causes models were used to examine measurement invariance across language and sex. Factor analyses supported a two-factor structure (i.e., Attribution and Denial) for the measure. Invariance tests revealed the scale was invariant by sex, indicating that social desirability can be interpreted similarly across sex. The scale was partially invariant by language version, with some non-invariance observed within the Denial factor. Non-invariance may be related to differences in the English and Mandarin Chinese languages, as well as cultural differences. Directions for further research include examining the measurement of social desirability in other contexts where both English and Mandarin Chinese are spoken (i.e., China) and further examining the causes of non-invariance on specific items. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Social influence and adolescent health-related physical activity in structured and unstructured settings: role of channel and type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, Kevin S; Wilson, Kathleen S; Ulvick, Jocelyn

    2012-08-01

    Social influence channels (e.g., parents) and types (e.g., compliance) have each been related to physical activity independently, but little is known about how these two categories of influence may operate in combination. This study examined the relationships between various combinations of social influence and physical activity among youth across structured and unstructured settings. Adolescents (N=304), classified as high or low active, reported the social influence combinations they received for being active. Participants identified three channels and three types of influence associated with being active. For structured activity, compliance with peers and significant others predicted membership in the high active group (values of psocial influence, when examining health-related physical activity.

  20. Individual, social environmental, and physical environmental influences on physical activity among black and white adults: a structural equation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Lorna Haughton; Wyrwich, Kathleen W; Brownson, Ross C; Clark, Eddie M; Kreuter, Matthew W

    2006-02-01

    Social ecological models suggest that conditions in the social and physical environment, in addition to individual factors, play important roles in health behavior change. Using structural equation modeling, this study tested a theoretically and empirically based explanatory model of physical activity to examine theorized direct and indirect effects of individual (e.g., motivation and self-efficacy), social environmental (e.g., social support), and physical environmental factors (e.g., neighborhood quality and availability of facilities). A community-based sample of adults (N = 910) was recruited from 2 public health centers (67% female, 43% African American, 43% motivation for physical activity, perceived social support, self-efficacy, and perceptions of the physical environment. Results indicated that (a) perceptions of the physical environment had direct effects on physical activity, (b) both the social and physical environments had indirect effects on physical activity through motivation and self-efficacy, and (c) social support influenced physical activity indirectly through intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. For all forms of activity, self-efficacy was the strongest direct correlate of physical activity, and evidence of a positive dose-response relation emerged between self-efficacy and intensity of physical activity. Findings from this research highlight the interactive role of individual and environmental influences on physical activity.

  1. Understanding social reproduction: The recursive nature of structure and agency within a science class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Gale A.

    Schools and science classrooms within schools continue to contribute to social reproduction and to the disenfranchisement of inner city African American students though attempts have been made to remedy the situation through standards, high-stakes testing, and compensatory programs. Such reforms ignore the sociocultural, political, and economic contexts of the individual students in the schools they are impacting. They do not take into account the uniqueness and diversity of the learners in these settings and have not included the voices of the students. Another possibility was studied here; that of starting with the cultural capital of the learner rather than with external standards. In a non-required science course at a local high school two coteachers endeavored to enact a student-emergent curriculum as a way to foster student agency and to counteract the reproductive nature of schools. The class was examined as a field within multiple other fields. The dialectical relationship between structure and agency in the class was used to frame the analysis and the tension between them was examined at several levels through video and audio analysis. Structural and rational choice views of action were abandoned in favor of an understanding hinged upon strategies of action that actors construct from cultural toolkits in and through practice. In this setting the students and teachers co-constructed a class that can be described and characterized in certain ways yet contained many counter-examples and alternative characterizations. A continuum of successes and failures, agency and subjectivity can be found in the trends and counter-trends in the course. The contradictions were examined to portray the complexity of the interactions and the possibilities for agency within them.

  2. Inferring social structure and its drivers from refuge use in the desert tortoise, a relatively solitary species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Pratha; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Esque, Todd C.; Aiello, Christina M.; Hudson, Peter J.; Bansal, Shweta

    2016-01-01

    For several species, refuges (such as burrows, dens, roosts, nests) are an essential resource for protection from predators and extreme environmental conditions. Refuges also serve as focal sites for social interactions, including mating, courtship, and aggression. Knowledge of refuge use patterns can therefore provide information about social structure, mating, and foraging success, as well as the robustness and health of wildlife populations, especially for species considered to be relatively solitary. In this study, we construct networks of burrow use to infer social associations in a threatened wildlife species typically considered solitary—the desert tortoise. We show that tortoise social networks are significantly different than null networks of random associations, and have moderate spatial constraints. We next use statistical models to identify major mechanisms behind individual-level variation in tortoise burrow use, popularity of burrows in desert tortoise habitat, and test for stressor-driven changes in refuge use patterns. We show that seasonal variation has a strong impact on tortoise burrow switching behavior. On the other hand, burrow age and topographical condition influence the number of tortoises visiting a burrow in desert tortoise habitat. Of three major population stressors affecting this species (translocation, drought, disease), translocation alters tortoise burrow switching behavior, with translocated animals visiting fewer unique burrows than residents. In a species that is not social, our study highlights the importance of leveraging refuge use behavior to study the presence of and mechanisms behind non-random social structure and individual-level variation. Our analysis of the impact of stressors on refuge-based social structure further emphasizes the potential of this method to detect environmental or anthropogenic disturbances.

  3. The Structural Relationships of Social Support, Mother's Psychological Status, and Maternal Sensitivity to Attachment Security in Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Byeong Seok

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how social support, mother's psychological status, and maternal sensitivity affected attachment security in children with disabilities by using the structural equation model (SEM). Subjects were 141 pairs of children with disabilities and theirs mothers. Empirical data was obtained through a series of…

  4. Exploring the Structure of Library and Information Science Web Space Based on Multivariate Analysis of Social Tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Soohyung; Kipp, Margaret E. I.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines the structure of Web space in the field of library and information science using multivariate analysis of social tags from the Website, Delicious.com. A few studies have examined mathematical modelling of tags, mainly examining tagging in terms of tripartite graphs, pattern tracing and descriptive statistics. This…

  5. Edge Effects on Community and Social Structure of Northern Temperate Deciduous Forest Ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie S. Banschbach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining how ant communities are impacted by challenges from habitat fragmentation, such as edge effects, will help us understand how ants may be used as a bioindicator taxon. To assess the impacts of edge effects upon the ant community in a northern temperate deciduous forest, we studied edge and interior sites in Jericho, VT, USA. The edges we focused upon were created by recreational trails. We censused the ants at these sites for two consecutive growing seasons using pitfall traps and litter plot excavations. We also collected nests of the most common ant species at our study sites, Aphaenogaster rudis, for study of colony demography. Significantly greater total numbers of ants and ant nests were found in the edge sites compared to the interior sites but rarefaction analysis showed no significant difference in species richness. Aphaenogaster rudis was the numerically dominant ant in the habitats sampled but had a greater relative abundance in the interior sites than in the edge sites both in pitfall and litter plot data. Queen number of A. rudis significantly differed between the nests collected in the edge versus the interior sites. Habitat-dependent changes in social structure of ants represent another possible indicator of ecosystem health.

  6. Region-Urbanicity Differences in Locus of Control: Social Disadvantage, Structure, or Cultural Exceptionalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrer, Dara; Sutton, April

    2014-11-01

    People with internal rather than external locus of control experience better outcomes in multiple domains. Previous studies on spatial differences in control within America only focused on the South, relied on aggregate level data or historical evidence, or did not account for other confounding regional distinctions (such as variation in urbanicity). Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, we find differences in adolescents' loci of control depending on their region and urbanicity are largely attributable to differences in their social background, and only minimally to structural differences (i.e., differences in the qualities of adolescents' schools). Differences that persist net of differences across adolescents and their schools suggest the less internal control of rural Southern adolescents, and the more internal control of rural and urban Northeastern adolescents, may be due to cultural distinctions in those areas. Results indicate region is more closely associated than urbanicity with differences in locus of control, with Western and Northeastern cultures seemingly fostering more internal control than Midwestern and Southern cultures. These findings contribute to research on spatial variation in a variety of psychological traits.

  7. The Relasionship among Quality and Structure of Social Capital and Organizational Entrepreneurship: a Case Study at Mazinoor Lighting Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan DARVISH

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Newday's in addition to different human, financial and economical capital, there is another capital called" Social capital" which is used .this concept points to the connections and relationships between the members of a network as a valuable capital which aims at a achieving the members purpose through the creation of norms and mutual reliance social, is viewed as a suitable context for reaching success and profiting from human and physical capital. Managers and those who contestability social investment in organizations, are able to set appropriate condition for succeeding in their profession and organization otherwise (without social capital other resource will lose their effects and there will be problems and difficulties in the direction of cultural and economical development and evolution. In considering the direction of cultural and economical development and evolutions.in considering the relationships between social capital and organizing recreation , it can be said that social capital facilitates risk-taking and recreation behavior ,which is an essential element of recreation and directly enters the people's practical operation and really capital totally enhances their general activity as in group recreations.In the proposal, the researcher examinical the relationship between social capital and entrepreneurship in lighting industry In mazinoor co. in Mazandaran province and to do this, pearson correlation , two –sentence test and freedman test have been used. Finally the results indicated that a positive an meaningful relationship exists between social capital and it's dimension and entrepreneurship in organization also the correlation crefficient of the structuring dimension of social resource has a mire importance in mazinoor co. The recreation index of the product is a top priority in relation to in entrepreneurship.

  8. Summary of presentation for research on social structure, agreement, and conflict in groups in extreme and isolated environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Despite a vast amount of research, little is known concerning the effect of group structure, and individuals' understanding of that structure, on conflict in Antarctic groups. The overall objective of the research discussed is to determine the interrelationships of group structure, social cognition, and group function and conflict in isolated and extreme environments. In the two decades following WWII, a large body of research focused on the physiological, psychological, and social psychological factors affecting the functioning of individuals and groups in a variety of extreme and isolated environments in both the Arctic and Antarctic. There are two primary reasons for further research of this type. First, Antarctic polar stations are considered to be natural laboratories for the social and behavioral sciences and provide an opportunity to address certain theoretical and empirical questions concerned with agreement and conflict in social groups in general and group behavior in extreme, isolated environments in particular. Recent advances in the analysis of social networks and intracultural variation have improved the methods and have shifted the theoretical questions. The research is motivated by three classes of questions: (1) What are the characteristics of the social relations among individuals working and living together in extreme and isolated environments?; (2) What do individuals understand about their group, how does that understanding develop, and how is it socially distributed?; and (3) What is the relationship between that understanding and the functioning of the social group? Answers to these questions are important if we are to advance our knowledge of how individuals and groups adapt to extreme environments. Second, although Antarctic winter-over candidates may be evaluated as qualified on the basis of individual characteristics, they may fail to adapt because of certain characteristics of the social group. Consequently, the ability of winter

  9. Complex traffic flow that allows as well as hampers lane-changing intrinsically contains social-dilemma structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Yoshiro; Tanimoto, Jun

    2018-02-01

    To investigate an interesting question as to whether or not social dilemma structures can be found in a realistic traffic flow reproduced by a model, we built a new microscopic model in which an intentional driver may try lane-changing to go in front of other vehicles and may hamper others’ lane-changes. Our model consists of twofold parts; cellular automaton emulating a real traffic flow and evolutionary game theory to implement a driver’s decision making-process. Numerical results reveal that a social dilemma like the multi-player chicken game or prisoner’s dilemma game emerges depending on the traffic phase. This finding implies that a social dilemma, which has been investigated by applied mathematics so far, hides behind a traffic flow, which has been explored by fluid dynamics. Highlight - Complex system of traffic flow with consideration of driver’s decision making process is concerned. - A new model dovetailing cellular automaton with game theory is established. - Statistical result from numerical simulations reveals a social dilemma structure underlying traffic flow. - The social dilemma is triggered by a driver’s egocentric actions of lane-changing and hampering other’s lane-change.

  10. Cadet Education in the Imperial Russia: Genesis, Dialectics and the Role in Social Structure of the Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P. Abramov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article, using historic and sociological material, presents genesis, dialectics and the role of cadet education of the imperial Russia in the social structure of the society, its weak and strong aspects, determines major stratified features of its graduates. The author notes that the realization of the practice of professional socialization in cadet corps in certain historical period is determined by the social conditions and the factors of the development of the society, its structure and environment, reproducing the modal personality of the future officer. The professional environment of the cadet education in the imperial Russia is defined as closed, line, self-organizing system. Such environment provided the graduates with high social status and prestige in different fields, defined by generic characteristics (affiliation to nobility. Along with high educational and cultural level, modal personality of the graduate is characterized by aloofness from the juniors and subordinates, individualism and careerism, certain closedness towards one’s nation and other social groups.

  11. Africanizing the social determinants of health: embedded structural inequalities and current health outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Hyacinth Eme; Mooney, Gavin; Ataguba, John Ele-Ojo

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in health policy in the social determinants of health. This has increased the demand for a paradigm shift within the discipline of health economics from health care economics to health economics. While the former involves what is essentially a medical model that emphasizes the maximization of individual health outcomes and considers the social organization of the health system as merely instrumental, the latter emphasizes that health and its distribution result from political, social, economic, and cultural structures. The discipline of health economics needs to refocus its energy on the social determinants of health but, in doing so, must dig deeper into the reasons for structurally embedded inequalities that give rise to inequalities in health outcomes. Especially is this the case in Africa and other low- and middle-income regions. This article seeks to provide empirical evidence from sub-Saharan Africa, including Ghana and Nigeria, on why such inequalities exist, arguing that these are in large part a product of hangovers from historically entrenched institutions. It argues that there is a need for research in health economics to embrace the social determinants of health, especially inequality, and to move away from its current mono-cultural focus.

  12. Social sciences, scientific research, higher education and social developments - An Albanian inside of dialectics and structured scientific research, in social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Kallçiu

    2013-01-01

    At first this will involve the policy makers at the central level, like the Ministry of Education and Sciences and the main research actors in the public and in the private sector. The criteria of the geographical and the subjects coverage has been also used in order to be able to present a public institutions of the higher education and research but even the enterprises that act in the research area are mainly focusing to the integration of these two systems which have been working separately for a long period of time and that must become efficient in order to adapt to the conditions of a country that has limited financial resources. This article is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific research in Albania, focusing in defining the priority areas for the research in social sciences. The information about the higher education and the potential problems that it faces, is based on a big number of research institutions, selected based on their involvement in scientific research in social sciences. This article brings into evidence the fact that in order to establish a stable and effective infrastructure in scientific research in Albania, is important to work in different directions. A successful way to increase the efficasity through the elements of the “innovative system” is by working with organizations that work in specific sectors of the economy, aiming for a possible cooperation in scientific search, for an important social contribution.

  13. Youth's social network structures and peer influences: study protocol MyMovez project – Phase I

    OpenAIRE

    Bevelander, Kirsten E.; Smit, Crystal R.; van Woudenberg, Thabo J.; Buijs, Laura; Burk, William J.; Buijzen, Moniek

    2018-01-01

    Background: Youth are an important target group for social network interventions, because they are particularly susceptible to the adaptation of healthy and unhealthy habits and behaviors of others. They are surrounded by 'social influence agents' (i.e., role models such as family, friends and peers) that co-determine their dietary intake and physical activity. However, there is a lack of systematic and comprehensive research on the implementation of a social network approach in health campai...

  14. Youth's social network structures and peer influences: Study protocol MyMovez project - Phase I

    OpenAIRE

    Bevelander, K.E.; Smit, C.R.; Woudenberg, T.J. van; Buijs, L.B.; Burk, W.J.; Buijzen, M.A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Youth are an important target group for social network interventions, because they are particularly susceptible to the adaptation of healthy and unhealthy habits and behaviors of others. They are surrounded by 'social influence agents' (i.e., role models such as family, friends and peers) that co-determine their dietary intake and physical activity. However, there is a lack of systematic and comprehensive research on the implementation of a social network approach in health campai...

  15. Entrepreneurship and socially-embedded structures. (Finalist for The Best Paper Award)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    2002-01-01

    activities are results of social interactions and mechanisms. In consequence, entrepreneurship cannot merely be understood in terms of "personality characteristics" or in sterile economic terms. In closing, the paper addresses implications for practitioners and for research.......This paper proposes an integrative framework to conceptualize important social dimensions of entrepreneurship. The paper reviews and evaluates the current status of research dealing with entrepreneurship, social capital and trust. The proposed framework rests on the recognition that entrepreneurial...

  16. The factor structure of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents: development of a brief version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachar, Iris; Aderka, Idan M; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2014-06-01

    The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS-CA-SR) is a validated instrument for the assessment of social anxiety in youth. The three main objectives of the present study were to (a) examine the factor structure of the LSAS-CA-SR; (b) to validate the factors against relevant personality measures, and (c) to create a brief and reliable version of the questionnaire. A total of 1,362 adolescents completed self-report measures of social anxiety, temperament, character and personality traits. The factor structure was examined using a combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis. The analysis was conducted on both the anxiety and avoidance sub-scales, and identical items for both sub-scales were maintained. Two factors emerged: social interaction and school performance. These factors demonstrated high internal consistency and a significant correlation with relevant self-report measures. A brief version comprised of 14 items was highly correlated (0.96) with the full version. The new factor structure represents advancement over the previous efforts, and holds promise for efficient utilization of the LSAS-CA.

  17. Sustainable Corporate Social Media Marketing Based on Message Structural Features: Firm Size Plays a Significant Role as a Moderator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Young Kang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Social media has been receiving attention as a cost-effective tool to build corporate brand image and to enrich customer relationships. This phenomenon calls for more attention to developing a model that measures the impact of structural features, used in corporate social media messages. Based on communication science, this study proposes a model to measure the impact of three essential message structural features (interactivity, formality, and immediacy in corporate social media on customers’ purchase intentions, mediated by brand attitude and corporate trust. Especially, social media platforms are believed to provide a good marketing platform for small and medium enterprises (SMEs by providing access to huge audiences at a very low cost. The findings from this study based on a structural equation model suggest that brand attitude and corporate trust have larger impacts on purchase intention for SMEs than large firms. This implies that SMEs with little to no presence in the market should pay more attention to building corporate trust and brand attitude for their sustainable growth.

  18. An integrated health and social care organisation in Sweden: creation and structure of a unique local public health and social care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øvretveit, John; Hansson, Johan; Brommels, Mats

    2010-10-01

    Research and citizens have noted failures in coordinating health and social services and professionals, and the need to address this issue to realize benefits from increasing specialisation. Different methods have been proposed and one has been structural integration of separate services within one organisation. This paper reports an empirical longitudinal study of the development of an integrated health and social care organisation in Sweden combining service provision, purchasing and political governance for a defined population. The study found a combination of influences contributed to the development of this new organisation. The initial structural macro-integration facilitated, but did not of itself result in better clinical care coordination. Other actions were needed to modify the specialised systems and cultures which the organisation inherited. The study design was not able to establish with any degree of certainty whether better patient and cost outcomes resulted, but it did find structural and process changes which make improved outcomes likely. The study concludes that coordinated actions at different levels and of different types were needed to achieve care coordination for patients and that a phased approach was necessary where management capacity and outside expertise are limited. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Social and structural barriers for adherence to methadone maintenance treatment among Vietnamese opioid dependence patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Tran, Tung Thanh; Latkin, Carl A

    2018-01-01

    Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) services may reduce the risk of HIV transmission if patients completely adhere to the treatment. Identifying adherence patterns and potential related factors is vital for the sustainability of MMT program in Vietnam. This study examined social and structural factors associated with adherence to MMT among patients in different service delivery models. A total of 510 patients at three MMT clinics in Hanoi were interviewed. Measures of self-reported adherence included the number of missed doses in the past 7 days and the level of adherence in the past 30 days using a visual analog scale (VAS) scoring from 0 (non-adherence) to 100 (perfect adherence). Multivariate regressions were employed to identify factors associated with non-adherence to MMT. A total of 17.7% of participants reported incomplete MMT adherence in the last 30 days and 8.3% reported missing a dose in the last seven days, respectively. Living with HIV/AIDS, poor self-care and usual activities, and disclosure of health issues to spouses or intimate partners were associated with non-adherence. Those patients with pain or depression were more likely to report better adherence. Disclosing health status to spouse/partner increased the risk of incomplete adherence, while disclosing to friends reduced the number of missed dose in the last seven days. Patients attending clinics with comprehensive services had a lower VAS score of adherence compared to those enrolling in clinics with only MMT and general health care. Sustaining the compliance of patients to MMT is principal in the rapid expansion of this service in Vietnam. It is necessary to address the complexity of health care demands of drug users, their difficulties to be rehabilitated into workforce and society, and the stigmatization to maximize the outcomes of MMT program.

  20. The effects of social structure and social capital on changes in smoking status from 8th to 9th grade: results of the Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-term Evolution (CABLE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yuan; Wu, Chi-Chen; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Yen, Lee-Lan

    2014-05-01

    Social structure and social capital are important variables for public health strategies seeking to prevent smoking among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between social structure, social capital and changes in smoking status from the 8th to 9th grade in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-term Evolution (CABLE) project. The study analyzed a final sample of 1937 students (50.7% female). Each layer of social structure was associated with a particular form of social capital. Students whose parents were married and living together had higher family social capital. After controlling for background variables, the social structure variable of friends who smoke was significantly associated with changes in smoking status. Students reporting more school attachment were less likely to start smoking. Students with higher parental supervision was associated with less chance of being a consistent smoker, whereas participation of social organization outside of school was associated with continued smoking. Attending school club was associated with higher probability of smoking cessation. Smoking prevention and intervention strategies aimed at junior high school students should be tailored to the particular form of social capital important for each type of smoking status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Changing of the social structure and lifelong education –\tFrom the industrial society to the knowledge society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Krajnc

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Social structures are changing. The industrial society is a hierarchical pyramid with separate social classes and the law of limited social mobility. The social status tended to be stable and was transmitted from parents to children. The information society, the knowledge society, the society in change and the risk society, is a turmoil of centripetal and centrifugal social forces. The social status of each individual, ranging from the highest ­ with their place in the very heart of the society­ to the lowest, is temporary. The main production resource in the accelerated economy of the information society is knowledge. Renewing competences is essential in order to preserve one’s social status in the social spiral; lagging behind in knowledge and in personal growth , on the other hand, shoves one off to the margins of society. The way back up to a more prestigious position can be achieved through education. Education systems differ from state to state. Some are losing their legitimacy since they fail to train young people for new methods of work and survival; they are an obstacle to the development of the most immanent properties in the new society, as e.g., innovativeness, independence, decision­making ability, creativity. If young people drop out from school too early, before they complete a four­year secondary school, they are surrendered to the street and crime. Manual workers are being discarded on a large scale to find themselves on the margins of society, among the "service proletariat" depending on the handouts of the welfare state. Whereas the GNP is increasing, the wealth redistribution stick to the old formulas and are widening the gap between the poor and the rich. The information society is opening up countless new opportunities, but it is also bringing new responsibilities. Work is becoming more humane, with the "brain" winning over "brawn".

  2. The divided communities of shared concerns: mapping the intellectual structure of e-Health research in social science journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L Crystal; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Peng, Tai-Quan; Zhu, Jonathan J H

    2015-01-01

    Social scientific approach has become an important approach in e-Health studies over the past decade. However, there has been little systematical examination of what aspects of e-Health social scientists have studied and how relevant and informative knowledge has been produced and diffused by this line of inquiry. This study performed a systematic review of the body of e-Health literature in mainstream social science journals over the past decade by testing the applicability of a 5A categorization (i.e., access, availability, appropriateness, acceptability, and applicability), proposed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, as a framework for understanding social scientific research in e-Health. This study used a quantitative, bottom-up approach to review the e-Health literature in social sciences published from 2000 to 2009. A total of 3005 e-Health studies identified from two social sciences databases (i.e., Social Sciences Citation Index and Arts & Humanities Citation Index) were analyzed with text topic modeling and structural analysis of co-word network, co-citation network, and scientific food web. There have been dramatic increases in the scale of e-Health studies in social sciences over the past decade in terms of the numbers of publications, journal outlets and participating disciplines. The results empirically confirm the presence of the 5A clusters in e-Health research, with the cluster of applicability as the dominant research area and the cluster of availability as the major knowledge producer for other clusters. The network analysis also reveals that the five distinctive clusters share much more in common in research concerns than what e-Health scholars appear to recognize. It is time to explicate and, more importantly, tap into the shared concerns cutting across the seemingly divided scholarly communities. In particular, more synergy exercises are needed to promote adherence of the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  3. Youth's social network structures and peer influences: Study protocol MyMovez project - Phase I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Smit, C.R.; Woudenberg, T.J. van; Buijs, L.B.; Burk, W.J.; Buijzen, M.A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Youth are an important target group for social network interventions, because they are particularly susceptible to the adaptation of healthy and unhealthy habits and behaviors of others. They are surrounded by 'social influence agents' (i.e., role models such as family, friends and

  4. Why Do You Adopt Social Networking Sites? Investigating the Driving Factors through Structural Equation Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Muhammad Tahir

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate those factors that are associated with the adoption of social networking sites from the perspective of Muslim users residing in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: A complete self-administered questionnaire was collected from 223 Muslim users of social networking sites in Malaysia. Both…

  5. Beyond Mentoring: Social Support Structures for Young Australian Carpentry Apprentices. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, John; Raffaele, Catherine; Glozier, Nick; Kanagaratnam, Aran

    2016-01-01

    This research focused on how apprenticeships, at their best, provide extensive social support for young people. It draws on, and contributes to, debates about workforce (and especially vocational) development in contemporary Australia. It also contributes to the growing literature on social support and health, especially the role that work could…

  6. Leveraging Collection Structure in Information Retrieval with Applications to Search in Conversational Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsas, Jonathan L.

    2011-01-01

    Social media collections are becoming increasingly important in the everyday life of Internet users. Recent statistics show that sites hosting social media and community-generated content account for five of the top ten most visited websites in the United States [4] are visited regularly by a broad cross-section of Internet users [61, 67, 115] and…

  7. The Self-Esteem, Perceived Social Support and Hopelessness in Adolescents: The Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi Cakar, Firdevs; Karatas, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a developed model to explain a causal relationship between adolescent's self-esteem, perceived social support and hopelessness is tested. The purpose of the study is to explore the relationship between self-esteem, perceived social support and hopelessness in adolescents. A total of 257 adolescents, including 143 female and 114…

  8. Exploring How Institutional Structures and Practices Influence English Learners' Opportunity to Learn Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heafner, Tina L.; Plaisance, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Current research addresses the marginalization of social studies and trends in teaching English learners (ELs) in monolingual schools; however, few studies have examined the way in which support services provided to ELs impact their exposure to social studies instruction. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study:…

  9. Egg hormones in a highly fecund vertebrate : do they influence offspring social structure in competitive conditions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burton, Tim; Hoogenboom, M. O.; Armstrong, J. D.; Groothuis, T. G. G.; Metcalfe, N. B.; Williams, Tony

    2011-01-01

    1. Social status can vary considerably among individuals and has significant implications for performance. In addition to a genetic component, social status may be influenced by environmental factors including maternal effects such as prenatal hormone exposure. Maternal effects on traits determining

  10. Social support for physical activity-role of Facebook with and without structured intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, David N; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; DeVellis, Robert F; Thayer, Linden M; Ammerman, Alice S

    2014-12-01

    Despite their widespread use and extensive technical features, little is known about how to use online social networking sites to increase physical activity. This study aims to examine Facebook engagement among participants in the online social networking arm of a randomized controlled physical activity promotion trial (n = 67). Facebook communications were double coded and analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Regression procedures were used to determine predictors of Facebook use and associations between types of use and changes in perceived social support and physical activity. Changes in perceived social support and physical activity were more strongly associated with participants' individual Facebook use than use of the Facebook intervention group. The way social media sites are used in intervention design could have an impact on their effects. Including existing friends in interventions and using applications that incorporate intervention activities into a more naturalistic use of Facebook may improve the efficacy of future interventions.

  11. Tertiary Students ’ Entrepreneurship Learning Socialization : Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun- Mei Chou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines 728 tertiary students’ entrepreneurship learning socialization and its influencing factors to serve as a school reference for the development of internship and entrepreneurship education. The results show that students’ internship experience has a significant direct effect on entrepreneurship learning socialization, and entrepreneurship intention has a significant effect on entrepreneurship learning socialization through internship experience. The influence pattern and empirical data of entrepreneurship intention and internship experience on entrepreneurship learning socialization has a good fit. This paper gives an insight from Taiwan tertiary institutions about entrepreneurial learning socialization of students and contributions to them. We describe the development of the influencing factors, discuss its implications for entrepreneurship and internship education, and finally offer suggestions for further entrepreneurship education development.

  12. Understanding Social Media Network Structure AS A Strategic Way Of Advertising In Digital Economy Era (Memahami Struktur Jaringan Media Sosial sebagai Cara Strategis Periklanan di Era Ekonomi Digital)

    OpenAIRE

    Juditha, Christiany

    2017-01-01

    Advertising in online media is now a modern business phenomenon, along with the growing e-commerce in the era of digital economy. The penetration of social media is so high provides an opportunity for manufacturers to promote products/services through social media. Still not directly drive the purchase intentions of social media users themselves to a product due to some problems that arise, among others, issues of privacy and trus and incomprehension manufacturer of the structure of social me...

  13. Social network community structure and the contact-mediated sharing of commensal E. coli among captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Krishna; Beisner, Brianne; Guan, Jiahui; Vandeleest, Jessica; Fushing, Hsieh; Atwill, Edward; McCowan, Brenda

    2018-01-01

    depend on both individuals' direct connections and on secondary network pathways that define community structure. They lend support to the hypothesis that social network communities may act as bottlenecks to contain the spread of infectious agents, thereby encouraging disease control strategies to focus on multiple organizational scales. Future directions includeincreasing microbial sampling effort per individual to better-detect dyadic transmission events, and assessments of the co-evolutionary links between sociality, infectious agent risk, and host immune function.

  14. Authoritative knowledge and single women's unintentional pregnancies, abortions, adoption, and single motherhood: social stigma and structural violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Marcia A

    2003-09-01

    This article explores the sources of authoritative knowledge that shaped single, white, middle-class women's unintentional pregnancies and child-bearing decisions throughout five reproductive eras. Women who terminated a pregnancy were most influenced by their own personal needs and circumstances. birth mothers' decisions were based on external sources of knowledge, such as their mothers, social workers, and social pressures. In contrast, single mothers based their decision on instincts and their religious or moral beliefs. Reproductive policies further constrained and significantly shaped women's experiences. The social stigma associated with these forms of stratified maternity suggests that categorizing pregnant women by their marital status, or births as out-of-wedlock, reproduces the structural violence implicit to normative models of female sexuality and maternity. This mixed-method study included focus groups to determine the kinds of knowledge women considered authoritative, a mailed survey to quantify these identified sources, and one-on-one interviews to explore outcomes in depth.

  15. TRENDS IN STRUCTURING POWER AND ITS ROLE IN SOCIAL SELF-REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona O. NICOLESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is trying to prove how social normality should start from a prescriptive, judicial reflection of democratic rationality in social-economic relations instead of starting from the generalization of exceptions under the form of normativity.From the point of view of realistic systemic knowledge, “real levels” and “necessary levels”, as well as the rational interaction between them can be determined sufficiently accurate for all social sub-systems, based on present knowledge. The necessary and sufficient condition is that self-regulatory decisions are independent of the speculative groups of the society (i.e. of politics and oligopolies. There are numberless approaches for separating governance from politics but the social power which supports these approaches is still incomparably smaller than the power of those who do not want social normality. Therefore, the study of economy (different economic methods proposed by economists is relevant for understanding social self-regulation and the role of “social power” in this self-regulation.

  16. Structural and functional measures of social relationships and quality of life among older adults: does chronic disease status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jing; Brunner, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the relative importance of structural and functional social relationships for quality of life (QoL) and the extent to which diagnosed chronic disease modifies these associations. Multivariate linear regression was used to investigate time-lagged associations between structural and functional measures of social relationships and QoL assessed 5 years apart by CASP-19, in 5925 Whitehall II participants (mean age 61, SD 6.0). Chronic disease was clinically verified coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes or cancer. Social relationships-QoL associations were consistent across disease status (P-values for interaction: 0.15-0.99). Larger friend network (β = 1.9, 95% CI 1.5-2.3), having a partner (β = 1.2, 95% CI 0.5-1.7), higher confiding support (β = 2.2, 95% CI 1.8-2.7) and lower negative aspects of close relationships (β = 3.3, 95% CI 2.8-3.8) were independently related to improved QoL in old age. The estimated difference in QoL due to social relationships was equivalent to up to 0.5 SD of the CASP-19 score and was stronger than the effect of chronic disease (coronary heart disease β = 2.0, 95% CI 1.4-2.6). We found that beneficial aspects of social relationships in relation to QoL were, in order of importance: avoiding negative aspects of close relationships, having confiding support, having a wide network of friends and having a partner. These associations were not modified by chronic disease. Thus, despite inevitable physical deterioration, we may be able to enhance a satisfying late life by optimizing our social relationships.

  17. Structural social capital and local-level forest governance: Do they inter-relate? A mushroom permit case in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorriz-Mifsud, Elena; Secco, Laura; Da Re, Riccardo; Pisani, Elena; Bonet, José Antonio

    2017-03-01

    In diffuse forest uses, like non-timber forest products' harvesting, the behavioural alignment of pickers is crucial for avoiding a "tragedy of the commons". Moreover, the introduction of policy tools such as a harvest permit system may help in keeping the activity under control. Besides the official enforcement, pickers' engagement may also derive from the perceived legitimate decision of forest managers and the community pressure to behave according to the shared values. Framed within the social capital theory, this paper examines three types of relations of rural communities in a protected area in Catalonia (Spain) where a system of mushroom picking permits was recently introduced. Through social network analysis, we explore structural changes in relations within the policy network across the policy conception, design and implementation phases. We then test whether social links of the pickers' community relate to influential members of the policy network. Lastly, we assess whether pickers' bonding and bridging structures affect the rate of permit uptake. Our results show that the high degree of acceptance could be explained by an adequate consideration of pickers' preferences within the decision-making group: local pickers show proximity to members of the policy network with medium-high influence during the three policy phases. The policy network also evolves, with some members emerging as key actors during certain phases. Significant differences are found in pickers' relations among and across the involved municipalities following an urban-rural gradient. A preliminary relation is found between social structures and differential pickers' engagement. These results illustrate a case of positive social capital backing policy design and, probably, also implementation. This calls for a meticulous design of forest policy networks with respect to communities of affected forest users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors associated with low neighborhood cohesion among women living with HIV impacted by social-structural inequities in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Kalysha; Palmer, Alexis K; Collins, Alexandra B; Salters, Kate; Zhang, Wendy; Montaner, Julio S G; Hogg, Robert S; Parashar, Surita

    2018-03-01

    Built and social environments, including one's perception of their environment, are important determinants of health. The intersection of gender and HIV status may complicate the role of neighborhood cohesion in safety, personal well-being, and health outcomes for populations impacted by social and structural inequities. Among women in particular, social cohesion within the neighborhood they reside in may have a greater influence on health outcomes compared to their male counterparts. We sought to examine perception of neighborhood cohesion (validated scale with a range 0-100, with higher scores indicating higher perceived neighborhood cohesion) among women living with HIV, impacted by social-structural inequities, receiving combination antiretroviral therapy, and enrolled in the Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive Ancillary health services (LISA) study in British Columbia, Canada. Cross-sectional data on neighborhood cohesion and socio-demographic data were collected in an interviewer-administered survey. Of the 1,000 LISA participants interviewed, 908 (including 249 women and 659 men) had complete data for the variables of interest. At the bivariate level, women had worse perceived neighborhood cohesion scores compared to men (median: 56 [95% CI: 44-66] vs. 60 [95% CI: 47-71]). Multivariable model results indicated that for women living with HIV in our sample, greater neighborhood cohesion scores were positively associated with stable housing (β coefficient = 7.85; 95% CI: 3.61, 12.10, p perceptions of neighborhood cohesion.

  19. Survey of social health insurance structure in selected countries; providing framework for basic health insurance in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Effat; Raissi, Ahmad Reza; Barooni, Mohsen; Ferdoosi, Massoud; Nuhi, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Health system reforms are the most strategic issue that has been seriously considered in healthcare systems in order to reduce costs and increase efficiency and effectiveness. The costs of health system finance in our country, lack of universal coverage in health insurance, and related issues necessitate reforms in our health system financing. The aim of this research was to prepare a structure of framework for social health insurance in Iran and conducting a comparative study in selected countries with social health insurance. This comparative descriptive study was conducted in three phases. The first phase of the study examined the structure of health social insurance in four countries - Germany, South Korea, Egypt, and Australia. The second phase was to develop an initial model, which was designed to determine the shared and distinguishing points of the investigated structures, for health insurance in Iran. The third phase was to validate the final research model. The developed model by the Delphi method was given to 20 professionals in financing of the health system, health economics and management of healthcare services. Their comments were collected in two stages and its validity was confirmed. The study of the structure of health insurance in the selected countries shows that health social insurance in different countries have different structures. Based on the findings of the present study, the current situation of the health system, and the conducted surveys, the following framework is suitable for the health social insurance system in Iran. The Health Social Insurance Organization has a unique service by having five funds of governmental employees, companies and NGOs, self-insured, villagers, and others, which serves as a nongovernmental organization under the supervision of public law and by decision- and policy-making of the Health Insurance Supreme Council. Membership in this organization is based on the nationality or residence, which the insured by

  20. The agrarian social structure of Pehuajoïs party (2010 La estructura social agraria en el partido de Pehuajó (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Moreno

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a product of the ongoing transformations in the Agricultural sector in Argentina, recent debates in the social sciences have compared the new characteristics of development with older forms. Inside this field of debates, the question of the agrarian actors at present has been particularly relevant. Though their exists a great quantity of works that approach the problems of the actors, few analyses make reference to their productive roles. The present article presents a case study of Pehuajó's party. It provides a description of the social agrarian structure, focusing on the forms in which production develops as a result of the links between different actors, and establishing "rupture" points that caracterize the older forms of development.Producto de las transformaciones recientes en el sector agropecuario argentino, en las ciencias sociales se han ampliado los debates en torno a las nuevas características que asume en comparación con las formas de desarrollo del pasado. Dentro de este campo de debates, la cuestión de los sujetos agrarios en la actualidad ha cobrado una especial relevancia. Si bien existen una gran cantidad de trabajos que abordan la problemática de los sujetos, pocos análisis refieren a las vinculaciones que entre estos se establecen para llevar a cabo la producción. En el presente artículo, a partir de un estudio de caso en el partido de Pehuajó, se describirá la estructura social agraria focalizando en las formas en que se desarrolla la producción a partir de la combinación de vínculos entre distintos sujetos y estableciendo los puntos de "ruptura" con respecto a las formas de desenvolvimiento del pasado.

  1. Structural and dynamical patterns on online social networks: the Spanish May 15th movement as a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Borge-Holthoefer

    Full Text Available The number of people using online social networks in their everyday life is continuously growing at a pace never saw before. This new kind of communication has an enormous impact on opinions, cultural trends, information spreading and even in the commercial success of new products. More importantly, social online networks have revealed as a fundamental organizing mechanism in recent country-wide social movements. In this paper, we provide a quantitative analysis of the structural and dynamical patterns emerging from the activity of an online social network around the ongoing May 15th (15M movement in Spain. Our network is made up by users that exchanged tweets in a time period of one month, which includes the birth and stabilization of the 15M movement. We characterize in depth the growth of such dynamical network and find that it is scale-free with communities at the mesoscale. We also find that its dynamics exhibits typical features of critical systems such as robustness and power-law distributions for several quantities. Remarkably, we report that the patterns characterizing the spreading dynamics are asymmetric, giving rise to a clear distinction between information sources and sinks. Our study represents a first step towards the use of data from online social media to comprehend modern societal dynamics.

  2. Structural and dynamical patterns on online social networks: the Spanish May 15th movement as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge-Holthoefer, Javier; Rivero, Alejandro; García, Iñigo; Cauhé, Elisa; Ferrer, Alfredo; Ferrer, Darío; Francos, David; Iñiguez, David; Pérez, María Pilar; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Sanz, Francisco; Serrano, Fermín; Viñas, Cristina; Tarancón, Alfonso; Moreno, Yamir

    2011-01-01

    The number of people using online social networks in their everyday life is continuously growing at a pace never saw before. This new kind of communication has an enormous impact on opinions, cultural trends, information spreading and even in the commercial success of new products. More importantly, social online networks have revealed as a fundamental organizing mechanism in recent country-wide social movements. In this paper, we provide a quantitative analysis of the structural and dynamical patterns emerging from the activity of an online social network around the ongoing May 15th (15M) movement in Spain. Our network is made up by users that exchanged tweets in a time period of one month, which includes the birth and stabilization of the 15M movement. We characterize in depth the growth of such dynamical network and find that it is scale-free with communities at the mesoscale. We also find that its dynamics exhibits typical features of critical systems such as robustness and power-law distributions for several quantities. Remarkably, we report that the patterns characterizing the spreading dynamics are asymmetric, giving rise to a clear distinction between information sources and sinks. Our study represents a first step towards the use of data from online social media to comprehend modern societal dynamics.

  3. The Health Status of the Early Medieval Population of Greater Moravia in Relation to Social and Economic Structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velemínský, P.; Dobisíková, M.; Stránská, Petra; Trefný, P.; Likovský, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 6 (2009), s. 91-101 ISSN 0567-8250 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0699 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Early Medieval period * Great Moravian population * social -economic structure * demography * Enamel Hypoplasy * Cribra orbitalia * Harris lines * Dental health state * Degenerative changes joints Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  4. Survival under uncertainty an introduction to probability models of social structure and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Volchenkov, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces and studies a number of stochastic models of subsistence, communication, social evolution and political transition that will allow the reader to grasp the role of uncertainty as a fundamental property of our irreversible world. At the same time, it aims to bring about a more interdisciplinary and quantitative approach across very diverse fields of research in the humanities and social sciences. Through the examples treated in this work – including anthropology, demography, migration, geopolitics, management, and bioecology, among other things – evidence is gathered to show that volatile environments may change the rules of the evolutionary selection and dynamics of any social system, creating a situation of adaptive uncertainty, in particular, whenever the rate of change of the environment exceeds the rate of adaptation. Last but not least, it is hoped that this book will contribute to the understanding that inherent randomness can also be a great opportunity – for social systems an...

  5. Group formation in a public good experiment: on the dynamics of social ties structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, J.H.; van Dijk, F.; van Winden, F.A.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Economic behavior often takes place in groups of small numbers of peopleinteracting with each other (like work teams, neighborhoods, socialnetworks, etc.). Characteristic of such interaction is the development of(affective) interpersonal relationships, or social ties. According tosociologists, the

  6. Social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Holstein, B; Lund, R

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a conceptual framework with social relations as the main concept and the structure and the function of social relations as subconcepts. The structure of social relations covers aspects of formal relations and social network. The function of social relations covers social support......, social anchorage and relational strain. We use this conceptual framework to describe social relations in the Danish population, with questionnaire data from the Danish Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study including a random sample of each of the age groups 25-, 50-, 60-and 70-year olds, N = 2......,011. The postal questionnaires were answered by a random sample in each of the age groups. The results show marked age and gender differences in both the structure and the function of social relations. The social network, measured as weekly contacts, weakens with age and so does instrumental support. Emotional...

  7. Structural social relations and cognitive ageing trajectories: evidence from the Whitehall II cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Sommerlad, Andrew; Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2017-11-07

    Social relations are important for health, particularly at older ages. We examined the salience of frequency of social contacts and marital status for cognitive ageing trajectories over 21 years, from midlife to early old age. Data are from the Whitehall II cohort study, including 4290 men and 1776 women aged 35-55 years at baseline (1985-88). Frequency of social contacts and marital status were measured in 1985-88 and 1989-90. Assessment of cognitive function on five occasions (1991-94, 1997-99, 2003-04, 2007-09 and 2012-13) included the following tests: short-term memory, inductive reasoning, verbal fluency (phonemic and semantic) and a combined global score. Cognitive trajectories over the study period were analysed using longitudinal latent growth class analyses, and the associations of these latent classes (trajectory memberships) with social relations were analysed using multinominal logistic regression. More frequent social contacts [relative risk (RRR) 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94 - 0.98] and being married (RRR 0.70, 95% CI 0.58 - 0.84) were associated with lower probability of being on a low rather than high cognitive performance trajectory over the subsequent 21 years. These associations persisted after adjustment for covariates. Of the sub-tests, social relations variables had the strongest association with phonemic fluency (RRR 0.95, 95% CI 0.94 - 0.97 for frequent contact; RRR 0.59, 95% CI 0.48 - 0.71 for being married). More frequent social contacts and having a spouse were associated with more favourable cognitive ageing trajectories. Further studies are needed to examine whether interventions designed to improve social connections affect cognitive ageing. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  8. Content and context in conversations : the role of social and situational signals in conversation structure

    OpenAIRE

    Bonin, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The increasing growth of multimodal material creates, nowadays, a renewed interest in innovative approaches to information extraction from meetings and multiparty conversations; those approaches make use of various multimodal sources such as video, audio and resulting transcripts from which information can be derived to produce a richer semantic analysis of the social interaction. Social interactions are co-constructed by a combination of contextual and linguistic aspects. However, while the ...

  9. Imperfect Annuity Markets, Unintended Bequests, and the Optimal Age Structure of Social Security Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Feldstein

    1989-01-01

    The social security program now provides a constant real benefit throughout each retirees lifetime. This paper examines whether total welfare would rise if benefits were lower in early retirement years (when most individuals have some saving with which to finance consumption) and higher in later years (when the uncertainty of survival and the absence of actuarially fair private annuities makes the availability of social security benefits more important.) The analysis shows that there is a pot...

  10. The specifics of the aplication of social and structural approach to electoral processes analysis

    OpenAIRE

    V F Kovrov

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of a number of problems of the investigation of the electoral process viewed as a social phenomenon contributes to the overcoming of a number of theoretical and methodological obstacles in the process of its sociological cognition. The complexity and delicacy of the electoral process entails the application of a set of distinct approaches, research and description techniques. The article provides the rationale for the most complete insight into the social component of the elector...

  11. Social and genetic structure of paper wasp cofoundress associations: tests of reproductive skew models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J; Solís, C R; Queller, D C; Strassmann, J E

    1998-06-01

    Recent models postulate that the members of a social group assess their ecological and social environments and agree a "social contract" of reproductive partitioning (skew). We tested social contracts theory by using DNA microsatellites to measure skew in 24 cofoundress associations of paper wasps, Polistes bellicosus. In contrast to theoretical predictions, there was little variation in cofoundress relatedness, and relatedness either did not predict skew or was negatively correlated with it; the dominant/subordinate size ratio, assumed to reflect relative fighting ability, did not predict skew; and high skew was associated with decreased aggression by the rank 2 subordinate toward the dominant. High skew was associated with increased group size. A difficulty with measuring skew in real systems is the frequent changes in group composition that commonly occur in social animals. In P. bellicosus, 61% of egg layers and an unknown number of non-egg layers were absent by the time nests were collected. The social contracts models provide an attractive general framework linking genetics, ecology, and behavior, but there have been few direct tests of their predictions. We question assumptions underlying the models and suggest directions for future research.

  12. The social and community opportunities profile social inclusion measure: Structural equivalence and differential item functioning in community mental health residents in Hong Kong and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Peter John; Chan, Kara; Chiu, Marcus; Ma, Yanni; Gaze, Sarah; Evans, Sherrill

    2016-03-01

    China's future major health problem will be the management of chronic diseases - of which mental health is a major one. An instrument is needed to measure mental health inclusion outcomes for mental health services in Hong Kong and mainland China as they strive to promote a more inclusive society for their citizens and particular disadvantaged groups. To report on the analysis of structural equivalence and item differentiation in two mentally unhealthy and one healthy sample in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong. The mental health sample in Hong Kong was made up of non-governmental organisation (NGO) referrals meeting the selection/exclusion criteria (being well enough to be interviewed, having a formal psychiatric diagnosis and living in the community). A similar sample in the United Kingdom meeting the same selection criteria was obtained from a community mental health organisation, equivalent to the NGOs in Hong Kong. Exploratory factor analysis and logistic regression were conducted. The single-variable, self-rated 'overall social inclusion' differs significantly between all of the samples, in the way we would expect from previous research, with the healthy population feeling more included than the serious mental illness (SMI) groups. In the exploratory factor analysis, the first two factors explain between a third and half of the variance, and the single variable which enters into all the analyses in the first factor is having friends to visit the home. All the regression models were significant; however, in Hong Kong sample, only one-fifth of the total variance is explained. The structural findings imply that the social and community opportunities profile-Chinese version (SCOPE-C) gives similar results when applied to another culture. As only one-fifth of the variance of 'overall inclusion' was explained in the Hong Kong sample, it may be that the instrument needs to be refined using different or additional items within the structural domains of inclusion.

  13. Effects of Socioeconomic Status and Social Support on Violence against Pregnant Women: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto E; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marco Antônio

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have used structural equation modeling to analyze the effects of variables on violence against women. The present study analyzed the effects of socioeconomic status and social support on violence against pregnant women who used prenatal services. This was a cross-sectional study based on data from the Brazilian Ribeirão Preto and São Luís birth cohort studies (BRISA). The sample of the municipality of São Luís (Maranhão/Brazil) consisted of 1,446 pregnant women interviewed in 2010 and 2011. In the proposed model, socioeconomic status was the most distal predictor, followed by social support that determined general violence, psychological violence or physical/sexual violence, which were analyzed as latent variables. Violence was measured by the World Health Organization Violence against Women (WHO VAW) instrument. The São Luis model was estimated using structural equation modeling and validated with 1,378 pregnant women from Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo/Brazil). The proposed model showed good fit for general, psychological and physical/sexual violence for the São Luís sample. Socioeconomic status had no effect on general or psychological violence (p>0.05), but pregnant women with lower socioeconomic status reported more episodes of physical/sexual violence (standardized coefficient, SC = -0.136; p = 0.021). This effect of socioeconomic status was indirect and mediated by low social support (SC = -0.075; psocioeconomic status. Physical/sexual violence was more common for pregnant women with lower socioeconomic status and lower social support. Better social support contributed to reduction of all types of violence. Results were nearly the same for the validation sample of Ribeirão Preto except that SES was not associated with physical/sexual violence.

  14. Micro-level social and structural factors act synergistically to increase HIV risk among Nepalese female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuba, Keshab; Anderson, Sarah; Ekström, Anna Mia; Pandey, Satish Raj; Shrestha, Rachana; Karki, Deepak Kumar; Marrone, Gaetano

    2016-08-01

    Sex workers face stigma, discrimination, and violence across the globe and are almost 14 times more likely to be HIV-infected than other women in low- and middle-income countries. In Asia, condom campaigns at brothels have been effective in some settings, but for preventive interventions to be sustainable, it is important to understand micro-level social and structural factors that influence sexual behaviours of sex workers. This study assessed the syndemic effects of micro-level social and structural factors of unprotected sex and the prevalence of HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nepal. This quantitative study included 610 FSWs who were recruited using two-stage cluster sampling from September to November 2012 in 22 Terai Highway districts of Nepal. Rapid HIV tests and face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect biological and behavioural information. A count of physical (sexual violence and other undesirable events), social (poor social support and condom negotiation skills), and economic (unprotected sex to make more money) factors that operate at the micro-level was calculated to test the additive relationship to unprotected sex. The HIV prevalence was 1%; this is presumably representative, with a large sample of FSWs in Nepal. The prevalence of unprotected sex with clients was high (24%). For each additional adverse physical, social, and economic condition, the probability of non-use of condoms with clients increased substantially: one problem = 12% (psocial, and economic environments increased the risk of unprotected sex among Nepalese FSWs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Memory effects induce structure in social networks with activity-driven agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medus, A D; Dorso, C O

    2014-01-01

    Activity-driven modelling has recently been proposed as an alternative growth mechanism for time varying networks,displaying power-law degree distribution in time-aggregated representation. This approach assumes memoryless agents developing random connections with total disregard of their previous contacts. Thus, such an assumption leads to time-aggregated random networks that do not reproduce the positive degree-degree correlation and high clustering coefficient widely observed in real social networks. In this paper, we aim to study the incidence of the agents' long-term memory on the emergence of new social ties. To this end, we propose a dynamical network model assuming heterogeneous activity for agents, together with a triadic-closure step as main connectivity mechanism. We show that this simple mechanism provides some of the fundamental topological features expected for real social networks in their time-aggregated picture. We derive analytical results and perform extensive numerical simulations in regimes with and without population growth. Finally, we present an illustrative comparison with two case studies, one comprising face-to-face encounters in a closed gathering, while the other one corresponding to social friendship ties from an online social network. (paper)

  16. Structural neuroimaging of social cognition in PNFA and bvFTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blas eCouto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition impairments are pervasive in the frontotemporal dementias. Nevertheless, these deficits would be triggered by (a more basic deficits in emotion and face recognition as well as by (b higher level theory of mind processes (ToM. Both emotional processing and social cognition impairments have been previously reported in the behavioral variant of FTD (bvFTD and also in progressive non-fluent aphasia aphasia (PNFA. However, no neuroanatomic comparison between these FTD variants has been performed. We report selective behavioral impairments of face recognition, emotion recognition and ToM in patients with bvFTD and PNFA when compared to controls. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM shows a classical impairment of mainly orbitofrontal (OFC anterior cingulate (ACC insula and lateral temporal cortices. Comparative analysis of regional gray matter related to social cognition deficits (VBM reveals a differential pattern of fronto-insulo-temporal atrophy in bvFTD and an insulo-temporal involvement in PPA group. Results suggest that in spite of similar social cognition impairments reported in bvFTD and PNFA, the former presents an inherent ToM affectation whereas in the PNFA the ToM deficit could be related to other more basic processes of face and emotion recognition. These results are interpreted in the frame of the fronto-insulo-temporal social context network model (SCNM.

  17. Human behavior. Sex equality can explain the unique social structure of hunter-gatherer bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyble, M; Salali, G D; Chaudhary, N; Page, A; Smith, D; Thompson, J; Vinicius, L; Mace, R; Migliano, A B

    2015-05-15

    The social organization of mobile hunter-gatherers has several derived features, including low within-camp relatedness and fluid meta-groups. Although these features have been proposed to have provided the selective context for the evolution of human hypercooperation and cumulative culture, how such a distinctive social system may have emerged remains unclear. We present an agent-based model suggesting that, even if all individuals in a community seek to live with as many kin as possible, within-camp relatedness is reduced if men and women have equal influence in selecting camp members. Our model closely approximates observed patterns of co-residence among Agta and Mbendjele BaYaka hunter-gatherers. Our results suggest that pair-bonding and increased sex egalitarianism in human evolutionary history may have had a transformative effect on human social organization. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Factor structure of overall autobiographical memory usage: the directive, self and social functions revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Anne S; Habermas, Tilmann

    2011-08-01

    According to theory, autobiographical memory serves three broad functions of overall usage: directive, self, and social. However, there is evidence to suggest that the tripartite model may be better conceptualised in terms of a four-factor model with two social functions. In the present study we examined the two models in Danish and German samples, using the Thinking About Life Experiences Questionnaire (TALE; Bluck, Alea, Habermas, & Rubin, 2005), which measures the overall usage of the three functions generalised across concrete memories. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor model and rejected the theoretical three-factor model in both samples. The results are discussed in relation to cultural differences in overall autobiographical memory usage as well as sharing versus non-sharing aspects of social remembering.

  19. Socioeconomic Status, Structural and Functional Measures of Social Support, and Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhini, Silvia; Berkman, Lisa; Dugravot, Aline; Ferrie, Jane E.; Marmot, Michael; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the associations of social support with socioeconomic status (SES) and with mortality, as well as how SES differences in social support might account for SES differences in mortality. Analyses were based on 9,333 participants from the British Whitehall II Study cohort, a longitudinal cohort established in 1985 among London-based civil servants who were 35–55 years of age at baseline. SES was assessed using participant's employment grades at baseline. Social support was assessed 3 times in the 24.4-year period during which participants were monitored for death. In men, marital status, and to a lesser extent network score (but not low perceived support or high negative aspects of close relationships), predicted both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Measures of social support were not associated with cancer mortality. Men in the lowest SES category had an increased risk of death compared with those in the highest category (for all-cause mortality, hazard ratio = 1.59, 95% confidence interval: 1.21, 2.08; for cardiovascular mortality, hazard ratio = 2.48, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 3.92). Network score and marital status combined explained 27% (95% confidence interval: 14, 43) and 29% (95% confidence interval: 17, 52) of the associations between SES and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively. In women, there was no consistent association between social support indicators and mortality. The present study suggests that in men, social isolation is not only an important risk factor for mortality but is also likely to contribute to differences in mortality by SES. PMID:22534202

  20. A structural analysis of a regional economy using social accounting matrices 1990-1999

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, M. Carmen; Cardenete Flores, Manuel Alejandro; Hewings, Geoffrey J.D.; Vallés Ferrer, José

    2004-01-01

    Las matrices de contabilidad social (MCS) son un instrumento que permite ampliar la información proporcionada por el análisis imput-output al recoger además de las relaciones intersectoriales de una economía, el comportamiento de los consumidores, el sector público o el sector exterior, logrando así completar el flujo circular de la renta. En este trabajo utilizamos las matrices de contabilidad social para Andalucía correspondientes a los años 1990, 1995 y 1999 elaboradas en trabajos previos....

  1. THE EFFECT OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE MECHANISM, OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE, AND EXTERNAL AUDITOR TOWARD CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY DISCLOSURE WITH EARNING MANAGEMENT AS MODERATING VARIABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwana M.A.J.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating effect of earning management on corporate governance mechanism, ownership structure, and external auditor toward corporate social responsibility disclosure. This study finds that the increase of ownership structure (foreign ownership and institutional ownership will increase corporate social responsibility disclosure. However corporate governance mechanism and external auditor is not affecting corporate social responsibility disclosure. Furthermore, this study provides additional empirical evidence for agency theory especially agency cost, that corporate governance mechanism, ownership structure, and Big Four audit firm do not have an effective role as agency cost to prevent or decrease earning management practice.

  2. The Impacts of Social Responsibility and Ownership Structure on Sustainable Financial Development of China’s Energy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Feng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the analysis, we integrated stakeholder and agency theories to explore the connection between corporate social responsibility (CSR and sustainable financial development by considering the moderating effect of ownership structure. After empirical analysis, we found the following conclusions. First, the short-term and long-term economic performance is positively affected by CSR, which leads to sustainable financial development. Second, ownership circulation has a positive relationship with economic performance in the short run, which short-term profit increases as ownership circulation strengthens. Third, the effect of CSR on short-term economic performance is moderated by ownership structure. Excessive concentrated ownership may lead to decisions that do not satisfy all key stakeholders and may reduce the positive effect of CSR on economic performance. Finally, we suggest that Chinese energy companies should pay more attention to improving corporate social responsibility to maintain good economic performance and develop sustainable competitive advantage. Meanwhile, companies should optimize ownership concentration to avoid weakening the positive effects of social responsibility on short-term economic performance.

  3. Fine-scale genetic structure and cryptic associations reveal evidence of kin-based sociality in the African forest elephant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie G Schuttler

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of relatedness within animal populations are important in the evolution of mating and social systems, and have the potential to reveal information on species that are difficult to observe in the wild. This study examines the fine-scale genetic structure and connectivity of groups within African forest elephants, Loxodonta cyclotis, which are often difficult to observe due to forest habitat. We tested the hypothesis that genetic similarity will decline with increasing geographic distance, as we expect kin to be in closer proximity, using spatial autocorrelation analyses and Tau K(r tests. Associations between individuals were investigated through a non-invasive genetic capture-recapture approach using network models, and were predicted to be more extensive than the small groups found in observational studies, similar to fission-fusion sociality found in African savanna (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus species. Dung samples were collected in Lopé National Park, Gabon in 2008 and 2010 and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci, genetically sexed, and sequenced at the mitochondrial DNA control region. We conducted analyses on samples collected at three different temporal scales: a day, within six-day sampling sessions, and within each year. Spatial autocorrelation and Tau K(r tests revealed genetic structure, but results were weak and inconsistent between sampling sessions. Positive spatial autocorrelation was found in distance classes of 0-5 km, and was strongest for the single day session. Despite weak genetic structure, individuals within groups were significantly more related to each other than to individuals between groups. Social networks revealed some components to have large, extensive groups of up to 22 individuals, and most groups were composed of individuals of the same matriline. Although fine-scale population genetic structure was weak, forest elephants are typically found in groups consisting of kin and

  4. Fine-scale genetic structure and cryptic associations reveal evidence of kin-based sociality in the African forest elephant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuttler, Stephanie G; Philbrick, Jessica A; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Eggert, Lori S

    2014-01-01

    Spatial patterns of relatedness within animal populations are important in the evolution of mating and social systems, and have the potential to reveal information on species that are difficult to observe in the wild. This study examines the fine-scale genetic structure and connectivity of groups within African forest elephants, Loxodonta cyclotis, which are often difficult to observe due to forest habitat. We tested the hypothesis that genetic similarity will decline with increasing geographic distance, as we expect kin to be in closer proximity, using spatial autocorrelation analyses and Tau K(r) tests. Associations between individuals were investigated through a non-invasive genetic capture-recapture approach using network models, and were predicted to be more extensive than the small groups found in observational studies, similar to fission-fusion sociality found in African savanna (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) species. Dung samples were collected in Lopé National Park, Gabon in 2008 and 2010 and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci, genetically sexed, and sequenced at the mitochondrial DNA control region. We conducted analyses on samples collected at three different temporal scales: a day, within six-day sampling sessions, and within each year. Spatial autocorrelation and Tau K(r) tests revealed genetic structure, but results were weak and inconsistent between sampling sessions. Positive spatial autocorrelation was found in distance classes of 0-5 km, and was strongest for the single day session. Despite weak genetic structure, individuals within groups were significantly more related to each other than to individuals between groups. Social networks revealed some components to have large, extensive groups of up to 22 individuals, and most groups were composed of individuals of the same matriline. Although fine-scale population genetic structure was weak, forest elephants are typically found in groups consisting of kin and based on matrilines

  5. Beyond the Schoolyard: The Contributions of Parenting Logics, Financial Resources, and Social Institutions to the Social Class Gap in Structured Activity Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Pamela R.; Lutz, Amy; Jayaram, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    We investigate cultural and structural sources of class differences in youth activity participation with interview, survey, and archival data. We find working- and middle-class parents overlap in parenting logics about participation, though differ in one respect: middle-class parents are concerned with customizing children’s involvement in activities, while working-class parents are concerned with achieving safety and social mobility for children through participation. Second, because of financial constraints, working-class families rely on social institutions for participation opportunities, but few are available. Schools act as an equalizing institution by offering low-cost activities, allowing working-class children to resemble middle-class youth in school activities, but they remain disadvantaged in out-of-school activities. School influences are complex, however, as they also contribute to class differences by offering different activities to working- and middle-class youth. Findings raise questions about the extent to which differences in participation reflect class culture rather than the objective realities parents face. PMID:25328250

  6. Beyond the Schoolyard: The Contributions of Parenting Logics, Financial Resources, and Social Institutions to the Social Class Gap in Structured Activity Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Pamela R; Lutz, Amy; Jayaram, Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    We investigate cultural and structural sources of class differences in youth activity participation with interview, survey, and archival data. We find working- and middle-class parents overlap in parenting logics about participation, though differ in one respect: middle-class parents are concerned with customizing children's involvement in activities, while working-class parents are concerned with achieving safety and social mobility for children through participation. Second, because of financial constraints, working-class families rely on social institutions for participation opportunities, but few are available. Schools act as an equalizing institution by offering low-cost activities, allowing working-class children to resemble middle-class youth in school activities, but they remain disadvantaged in out-of-school activities. School influences are complex, however, as they also contribute to class differences by offering different activities to working- and middle-class youth. Findings raise questions about the extent to which differences in participation reflect class culture rather than the objective realities parents face.

  7. The specification of weight structures in network autocorrelation models of social influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, Roger Th.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Many physical and social phenomena are embedded within networks of interdependencies, the so-called 'context' of these phenomena. In network analysis, this type of process is typically modeled as a network autocorrelation model. Parameter estimates and inferences based on autocorrelation models,

  8. Social Structures in the Economics of International Education: Perspectives from Vietnamese International Tertiary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Lien

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the findings from in-depth interviews with Vietnamese international students studying at Australian universities, this article presents insights into the sociological influences that stem from international students' social networks, at home and abroad, and how they impact on students' aspirations and engagement in international…

  9. Social Loafing on Group Projects: Structural Antecedents and Effect on Student Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Praveen; O'Brien, Connie L.

    2008-01-01

    To respond to the expectations of the industry and business school accreditation bodies, marketing faculty have been making extensive use of group projects in their curricula. A common problem with the use of student groups, however, is that of social loafing. In this study, we identify some easy-to-implement project set-up factors and examine…

  10. The Social and the Psychological: Structure and Context in Intellectual Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaltis, Charis; Duveen, Gerard; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the distinct meanings of "internalization" and "interiorization" as ways of rendering intelligible the social constitution of the psychological in a line of research that started with Piaget and extended into a post-Piagetian reformulation of intelligence in successive generations of studies of the relations between social…

  11. Work Engagement Accumulation of Task, Social, Personal Resources: A Three-Wave Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Matthias; Hornung, Severin; Parker, Sharon K.; Petru, Raluca; Glaser, Jurgen; Angerer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on Conservation of Resources Theory and previous research on work engagement, the present study investigates gain spirals between employees' engagement and their task, social, and personal resources. It focuses on the key resources of job control, positive work relationships, and active coping behavior. In a three-wave design, work…

  12. Race, Family Structure, and Delinquency: A Test of Differential Association and Social Control Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsueda, Ross L.; Heimer, Karen

    1987-01-01

    Broken homes have a larger impact on delinquency among Blacks than non-Blacks. In both populations, the effects of broken homes and attachment to parents and peers are mediated by the learning of definitions of delinquency, a finding that supports differential association over social control theory. (Author/BJV)

  13. The Validity, Reliability and Factorial Structure of the Turkish Version of the Tromso Social Intelligence Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Tayfun; Cetin, Bayram

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Tromso Social Intelligence Scale (TSIS) developed by Silvera, Martinussen, and Dahl (2001). 719 students from Sakarya University participated in the study. Construct validity and criterion related validity and reliability were assessed.…

  14. A Social Structure Model for Evaluating the Effect of Response Measures on the Spread of Smallpox

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kress, Moshe

    2004-01-01

    ... such as schools and offices, on the other hand. In this paper, we develop a dynamic two-level social interaction model where individuals move back and forth between home and daily meeting sites, possibly passing through a general meeting site...

  15. Social Support in the Structure of Personality Resources in Individuals with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Leontiev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the issues of social support of individuals with disabilities and describes its role in the development and maintenance of subjective well-being of persons in situations of disability. A special external resource for overcoming unfavorable developmental conditions, social support is interlocked in a continuous relationship with psychological resources of personality. One of its distinctive features is that it implies the subject's activity aimed at overcoming difficult life situation on his/her own. When the person's bodily resources are insufficient (as it happens in situations of physical disabilities, the role of macro- and microsocial resources in supporting his/her well-being naturally increases. However, when both social and bodily resources are scarce, it is the individual's personality that stands in the gap. The research described in the paper explored the relationship between microsocial resources (support of family and friends, satisfaction with this support and psychological resources of resistance and self-regulation of personality. The sample consisted of 210 subjects (48 students with disabilities, 162 healthy subjects. The outcomes revealed certain differences between the subsamples with low and high rates of social support which suggest that the subjects' perceptions and evaluations of the support contribute to their psychological resources of coping and self-regulation, activating and/or reinforcing the existing potential of their personalities.

  16. What's in a Research Project: Some Thoughts on the Intersection of History, Social Structure, and Biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkewitz, Thomas S.

    1988-01-01

    This article focuses on the social formation of research by considering autobiography, biography, and institutions. The discussion covers the relation of U.S. corporate liberalism, Protestant theology, and Jewish identity, and the role of the university in the administration of the state. (TE)

  17. The "sociotype" construct: Gauging the structure and dynamics of human sociality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro C Marijuán

    Full Text Available Exploring the pertinence of a "sociotype" construct, established along the conceptual chain genotype-phenotype-sociotype, is the essential purpose of the present paper. Further, by following the sociotype's conceptual guidelines, a new psychometric indicator has been developed in order to gauge the level of social interaction around each individual-the sociotype questionnaire (SOCQ. A first version of this questionnaire has been elaborated by gathering data about the different classes of social bonds (family, friends, acquaintances, and work/study colleagues in general population and about the dynamic update of these bonds via face-to-face conversation and other modes of interaction. A specific fieldwork was undertaken, involving 1,075 participants, all of them Spanish adults (with diverse social and regional backgrounds. The data obtained were analyzed by means of the correlational method with an analytical cross-sectional design: the number of factors and the consistency and reliability of the resulting scales were evaluated and correlated. The new sociotype indicator resulting from that fieldwork, in spite of its limitations, seems to be valid and reliable, as well as closely associated with widely used metrics of loneliness and psychological distress. It is interesting that the construct noticeably varies throughout the life course and circumstances of individuals, based on their gender and age, and adjusting to the different situations of social networking. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, which has tried to reach both a theoretical and an operational formulation of the sociotype construct, by establishing an ad hoc psychometric questionnaire. We think that the information provided by this operational definition opens a new direction of work that could be useful to guide the development and evaluation of programs aimed at improving and strengthening social networking in people at risk, especially for the elderly.

  18. Associations between the structural and functional aspects of social relations and poor mental health: a cross-sectional register study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Røntved Hansen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social relations influence mental health through different pathways. To capture the complexity of social relations, it is beneficial to consider both the structural (e.g., reachability of social network and social integration and functional (e.g., instrumental and emotional support aspects of the concept. Both aspects are rarely investigated simultaneously. This study aimed to examine the association between the structural and functional aspects of social relations and poor mental health. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional register study. We used data on mental health and social relations from 15,839 individuals aged 16–92 years with a mean age of 49.0 years (SD 17.9 who responded to The North Denmark Region Health Survey 2013 among residents in Northern Jutland, Denmark. The 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey measured mental health; a cut-off point of 44.5 was used to dichotomize participants into poor and good mental health. The categorization of social relations was inspired by Berkman et al.’s conceptual model of social relations and health. The analyses were performed with survey logistic regression. Results We found that 21.6% (n = 3422 of participants reported poor mental health, and 59% (n = 2020 of these were women. Being in contact with family and friends less than once a month statistically significantly increased the risk for poor mental health (Family OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.51–2.10 and Friends OR = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.30–3.06. The individuals who were not in contact with their network as often as they liked had a significantly higher risk for poor mental health (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 2.20–2.62. Lack of instrumental support was associated with a higher risk for poor mental health (OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 2.26–3.48. We found an interaction between age and emotional support; the youngest population had the highest risk for poor mental health when they did not have access to

  19. Associations between the structural and functional aspects of social relations and poor mental health: a cross-sectional register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lise Røntved; Pedersen, Stinna Bibi; Overgaard, Charlotte; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Ullits, Line Rosenkilde

    2017-11-03

    Social relations influence mental health through different pathways. To capture the complexity of social relations, it is beneficial to consider both the structural (e.g., reachability of social network and social integration) and functional (e.g., instrumental and emotional support) aspects of the concept. Both aspects are rarely investigated simultaneously. This study aimed to examine the association between the structural and functional aspects of social relations and poor mental health. The study was designed as a cross-sectional register study. We used data on mental health and social relations from 15,839 individuals aged 16-92 years with a mean age of 49.0 years (SD 17.9) who responded to The North Denmark Region Health Survey 2013 among residents in Northern Jutland, Denmark. The 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey measured mental health; a cut-off point of 44.5 was used to dichotomize participants into poor and good mental health. The categorization of social relations was inspired by Berkman et al.'s conceptual model of social relations and health. The analyses were performed with survey logistic regression. We found that 21.6% (n = 3422) of participants reported poor mental health, and 59% (n = 2020) of these were women. Being in contact with family and friends less than once a month statistically significantly increased the risk for poor mental health (Family OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.51-2.10 and Friends OR = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.30-3.06). The individuals who were not in contact with their network as often as they liked had a significantly higher risk for poor mental health (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 2.20-2.62). Lack of instrumental support was associated with a higher risk for poor mental health (OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 2.26-3.48). We found an interaction between age and emotional support; the youngest population had the highest risk for poor mental health when they did not have access to emotional support (Young OR = 5.26, 95% CI = 3

  20. Prediction of social structure and genetic relatedness in colonies of the facultative polygynous stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Evelyze Pinheiro; de Oliveira Campos, Lucio Antonio; Tavares, Mara Garcia

    2011-04-01

    Stingless bee colonies typically consist of one single-mated mother queen and her worker offspring. The stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera: Apidae) shows facultative polygyny, which makes this species particularly suitable for testing theoretical expectations concerning social behavior. In this study, we investigated the social structure and genetic relatedness among workers from eight natural and six manipulated colonies of M. bicolor over a period of one year. The populations of M. bicolor contained monogynous and polygynous colonies. The estimated genetic relatedness among workers from monogynous and polygynous colonies was 0.75 ± 0.12 and 0.53 ± 0.16 (mean ± SEM), respectively. Although the parental genotypes had significant effects on genetic relatedness in monogynous and polygynous colonies, polygyny markedly decreased the relatedness among nestmate workers. Our findings also demonstrate that polygyny in M. bicolor may arise from the adoption of related or unrelated queens.

  1. Prediction of social structure and genetic relatedness in colonies of the facultative polygynous stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyze Pinheiro dos Reis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bee colonies typically consist of one single-mated mother queen and her worker offspring. The stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera: Apidae shows facultative polygyny, which makes this species particularly suitable for testing theoretical expectations concerning social behavior. In this study, we investigated the social structure and genetic relatedness among workers from eight natural and six manipulated colonies of M. bicolor over a period of one year. The populations of M. bicolor contained monogynous and polygynous colonies. The estimated genetic relatedness among workers from monogynous and polygynous colonies was 0.75 ± 0.12 and 0.53 ± 0.16 (mean ± SEM, respectively. Although the parental genotypes had significant effects on genetic relatedness in monogynous and polygynous colonies, polygyny markedly decreased the relatedness among nestmate workers. Our findings also demonstrate that polygyny in M. bicolor may arise from the adoption of related or unrelated queens.

  2. Stigma, Social Structure, and the Biomedical Framework: Exploring the Stigma Experiences of Inpatient Service Users in Two Belgian Psychiatric Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sercu, Charlotte; Bracke, Piet

    2017-07-01

    The study discusses the stigma experiences of service users in mental health care, within the debate on the role of the biomedical framework for mental health care and power relations in society. Interview data of inpatient users ( n = 42) and care providers ( n = 43) from two Belgian psychiatric hospitals were analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach: Findings offer insight into how stigma experiences are affected by social structure. Stigma seemed to be related to the relation between care providers and service users their social position. The concept "mental health literacy" is used to frame this finding. In paying attention to the specific cultural and normative context, which influences the relationship between mental health literacy and stigma, it is further possible to cast some light on the meaning of the biomedical model for the construction and maintenance of power relations in mental health care and broader society.

  3. Oxytocin receptor polymorphism and childhood social experiences shape adult personality, brain structure and neural correlates of mentalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Hassloff, H; Straube, B; Jansen, A; Nuscheler, B; Wemken, G; Witt, S H; Rietschel, M; Kircher, T

    2016-07-01

    The oxytocin system is involved in human social behavior and social cognition such as attachment, emotion recognition and mentalizing (i.e. the ability to represent mental states of oneself and others). It is shaped by social experiences in early life, especially by parent-infant interactions. The single nucleotid polymorphism rs53576 in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene has been linked to social behavioral phenotypes. In 195 adult healthy subjects we investigated the interaction of OXTR rs53576 and childhood attachment security (CAS) on the personality traits "adult attachment style" and "alexithymia" (i.e. emotional self-awareness), on brain structure (voxel-based morphometry) and neural activation (fMRI) during an interactive mentalizing paradigm (prisoner's dilemma game; subgroup: n=163). We found that in GG-homozygotes, but not in A-allele carriers, insecure childhood attachment is - in adulthood - associated with a) higher attachment-related anxiety and alexithymia, b) higher brain gray matter volume of left amygdala and lower volumes in right superior parietal lobule (SPL), left temporal pole (TP), and bilateral frontal regions, and c) higher mentalizing-related neural activity in bilateral TP and precunei, and right middle and superior frontal gyri. Interaction effects of genotype and CAS on brain volume and/or function were associated with individual differences in alexithymia and attachment-related anxiety. Interactive effects were in part sexually dimorphic. The interaction of OXTR genotype and CAS modulates adult personality as well as brain structure and function of areas implicated in salience processing and mentalizing. Rs53576 GG-homozygotes are partially more susceptible to childhood attachment experiences than A-allele carriers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural balance and opinion separation in trust–mistrust social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, Weiguo; Cao, Ming; Johansson, Karl Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Structural balance theory has been developed in sociology and psychology to explain how interacting agents, e.g., countries, political parties, opinionated individuals, with mixed trust and mistrust relationships evolve into polarized camps. Recent results have shown that structural balance is

  5. Toward a Two-Dimensional Model of Social Cognition in Clinical Neuropsychology: A Systematic Review of Factor Structure Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchepare, Aurore; Prouteau, Antoinette

    2018-04-01

    Social cognition has received growing interest in many conditions in recent years. However, this construct still suffers from a considerable lack of consensus, especially regarding the dimensions to be studied and the resulting methodology of clinical assessment. Our review aims to clarify the distinctiveness of the dimensions of social cognition. Based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statements, a systematic review was conducted to explore the factor structure of social cognition in the adult general and clinical populations. The initial search provided 441 articles published between January 1982 and March 2017. Eleven studies were included, all conducted in psychiatric populations and/or healthy participants. Most studies were in favor of a two-factor solution. Four studies drew a distinction between low-level (e.g., facial emotion/prosody recognition) and high-level (e.g., theory of mind) information processing. Four others reported a distinction between affective (e.g., facial emotion/prosody recognition) and cognitive (e.g., false beliefs) information processing. Interestingly, attributional style was frequently reported as an additional separate factor of social cognition. Results of factor analyses add further support for the relevance of models differentiating level of information processing (low- vs. high-level) from nature of processed information (affective vs. cognitive). These results add to a significant body of empirical evidence from developmental, clinical research and neuroimaging studies. We argue the relevance of integrating low- versus high-level processing with affective and cognitive processing in a two-dimensional model of social cognition that would be useful for future research and clinical practice. (JINS, 2018, 24, 391-404).

  6. Gender imbalance in infant mortality: a cross-national study of social structure and female infanticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Kana; Crenshaw, Edward M

    2006-01-01

    Sex differentials in infant mortality vary widely across nations. Because newborn girls are biologically advantaged in surviving to their first birthday, sex differentials in infant mortality typically arise from genetic factors that result in higher male infant mortality rates. Nonetheless, there are cases where mortality differentials arise from social or behavioral factors reflecting deliberate discrimination by adults in favor of boys over girls, resulting in atypical male to female infant mortality ratios. This cross-national study of 93 developed and developing countries uses such macro-social theories as modernization theory, gender perspectives, human ecology, and sociobiology/evolutionary psychology to predict gender differentials in infant mortality. We find strong evidence for modernization theory, human ecology, and the evolutionary psychology of group process, but mixed evidence for gender perspectives.

  7. Toward a dynamic perspective of the relation between entrepreneurial actions and social structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke; Lauring, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    a conceptually integrated view of the entrepreneurial process. This view embraces different research methods; quantitative as well as qualitative. However, it is our argument that indebt investigations producing thick descriptions can provide valuable new knowledge to the field. How the resources and information......Much entrepreneurship research is informed by two central lines of thought. One focuses on the role of formal and informal social networks for mobilising resources and obtaining information about new markets etc. The other departs from assumptions about individual personality traits...... as the independent variable behind entrepreneurship activity. Elaborating on anthropological theories, this paper presents a coherent theoretical framework for entrepreneurship research embracing the social dimensions as well as individual factors involved in the phenomenon of entrepreneurship. We argue that central...

  8. Research problems and trends of the pharmaceutical market Sudan as social oriented structure of the country

    OpenAIRE

    Олена Миколаївна Євтушенко; Осама Абузаїд Мохамед Нур Ахмед

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The research object was the definition of problems and tendencies of pharmaceutical market development of Sudan as the country which in recent years tries to pull through the consequence of political and economic crisis and to build the socially oriented model of the state.Methods: In the researches it has been used the marketing and economic analysis methods as well as the historical, logical, comparative and graphic methods.Results: The authors represented the marketing analysis result...

  9. Pattern of structural brain changes in social anxiety disorder after cognitive behavioral group therapy: a longitudinal multimodal MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, V R; Brühl, A B; Weidt, S; Delsignore, A; Rufer, M; Jäncke, L; Herwig, U; Hänggi, J

    2017-08-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by fears of social and performance situations. Cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) has in general positive effects on symptoms, distress and avoidance in SAD. Prior studies found increased cortical volumes and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in SAD compared with healthy controls (HCs). Thirty-three participants diagnosed with SAD attended in a 10-week CBGT and were scanned before and after therapy. We applied three neuroimaging methods-surface-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging and network-based statistics-each with specific longitudinal processing protocols, to investigate CBGT-induced structural brain alterations of the gray and white matter (WM). Surface-based morphometry revealed a significant cortical volume reduction (pre- to post-treatment) in the left inferior parietal cortex, as well as a positive partial correlation between treatment success (indexed by reductions in Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale) and reductions in cortical volume in bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Diffusion tensor imaging analysis revealed a significant increase in FA in bilateral uncinate fasciculus and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Network-based statistics revealed a significant increase of structural connectivity in a frontolimbic network. No partial correlations with treatment success have been found in WM analyses. For, we believe, the first time, we present a distinctive pattern of longitudinal structural brain changes after CBGT measured with three established magnetic resonance imaging analyzing techniques. Our findings are in line with previous cross-sectional, unimodal SAD studies and extent them by highlighting anatomical brain alterations that point toward the level of HCs in parallel with a reduction in SAD symptomatology.

  10. Social entrepreneurship and social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dufays, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation, we argue that the sociology of social networks may provide interesting insights with regard to the emergence of social entrepreneurship both at micro and macro levels. There have already been several calls for research on social networks in the context of social entrepreneurship (Certo & Miller 2008; Gedajlovic, et al. 2013; Haugh 2007; Mair & Marti 2006; Short, et al. 2009). These calls often address the differences in structure and effects of social networks in a socia...

  11. Structural Analysis of Relationship of Internet Addiction with Depression, Social Adjustment and Self-Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghanbari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Internet has become more widespread, removed borders, and provided the people all over the world with great opportunities. Notwithstanding this, the consequences especially in social and cultural context must not be neglected. One of the harmful aspects of internet is internet addiction disorder. The present study aimed to survey and analyzes internet addiction relationship with depression, social adjustment, and self esteem.Materials & Methods: Our research method is descriptive-correlational. By random sampling and offline method, we have selected a sample consisting of 120 persons from Dubai coffee net users with different native languages, 74males and 46 females, aged at least 18 years old and proficient in the English language. Research tools were young internet addiction test (IAT with reliability α=0.88, Beck depression inventory with reliability α=0.84, Sinha social adjustment with reliability α=0.92 and Eysenck self esteem inventory with reliability α= 0.87. The data was analyzed with path analysis method.Results: The results from analysis showed that the data has goodness of fit with the presented model (χ2=3.17; df=3; P=0.36; GFI= 0.99; AGFI= 0.96; CFI= 1.00; NFI= 0.97; RMSEA=0.02. Scales means in internet addiction was 47.69±17.75; depression 21.29 ± 11.12; social adjustment 19.75±7.91 and self esteem was 15.16±4.16. Path coefficient showed that depression (β= 0.57; t=7.61, social adjustment (β= -0.55; t=13.1 and self esteem (β= -0.32; t=14.8 have significantly predicted internet addiction Conclusion: Internet is an important means in the today’s world, but we have to be fully aware of its dangers .In order to avoid the risks of internet use, vast national and international culture-building activities should be done. The results of our research proved the above-mentioned hypothesis.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(3:41-48

  12. Analysis of social relations among organizational units derived from process models and redesign of organization structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, I.; Song, M.S.; Kim, K.M.; Lee, Y-H.

    2007-01-01

    Despite surging interests in analyzing business processes, there are few scientific approaches to analysis and redesign of organizational structures which can greatly affect the performance of business processes. This paper presents a method for deriving and analyzing organizational relations from

  13. Social constructivist interpretation of «agency-structure» dilemma in the science of international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Senyuk

    2017-07-01

    The scientific novelty of the article has been pointed out by accents, which allow making a comprehensive analysis and describing an alternative approach to the study of structural and subjective levels of the international system.

  14. Changing Social Structure in Europe calls for Tailor-made, Barrier-free Living and new Interior Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brausch Carsten

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Europe is experiencing a demographic change, resulting in a change in social structure. People are living longer and birth rates are declining. This changing structure in Europe poses special challenges for housing designers and builders. A new approach in the design of real estate must be created and implemented that caters for the future needs of the occupants of the living space in all phases and allows residents to remain self-sufficient in their "home" for as long as possible. In the earliest stages of design, the typical requirements for each phase of life of future, potential residents must already be considered. This is especially true for people with special protection needs, such as those with visual or hearing impairments.

  15. Factor structure of the pictorial scale of perceived competence and social acceptance with two pre-elementary samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzicopoulos, Panayota; French, Brian F; Maller, Susan J

    2004-01-01

    Competing models of the factorial structure of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance (PSPCSA) were tested for fit using multisample confirmatory factor analysis. The best fitting model was tested for invariance (a) across samples of middle-class (n = 251) and economically disadvantaged (Head Start, n = 117) kindergarten children (whose ages ranged from 67 to 86 months), and (b) over time (at the end of preschool and kindergarten) for the Head Start sample. For kindergarten children, regardless of socioeconomic status, the factor structure of the PSPCSA was consistent with the 2-factor model of Competence and Acceptance. This model also fit reasonably well for Head Start children at the end of their preschool year. However, in addition to providing broad support for the dimensionality of the measure, our findings highlight important concerns about the PSPCSA. Copyright 2004 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. Exercising alcohol patients don't lack motivation but struggle with structures, emotions and social context - a qualitative dropout study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Sengül; Muller, Ashley Elizabeth; Roessler, Kirsten K

    2017-03-23

    Exercise is an important component of a healthy lifestyle, the development of which is a relapse prevention strategy for those with alcohol use disorder. However, it is a challenge to create exercise interventions with a persistent behavioural change. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate perceived barriers to participation in an exercise intervention among alcohol use disorder patients, who dropped out of the intervention program. Furthermore, this study aims to propose possibilities for a better practice of future intervention studies based on the participants' experiences and suggestions. Qualitative interviews with 17 patients who dropped out from an exercise intervention in an outpatient treatment centre about their experiences and reasons for dropping out. Social cognitive theory informed the development of the interview guides and systematic text condensation was used for analysis. Analysis revealed three central themes: 1) Structural barriers described as the type of exercise and the timing of the intervention, 2) Social barriers described as need for accountability and unsupportive relations, and 3) Emotional barriers described as fear, guilt and shame, and negative affect of the intervention on long term. Future exercise interventions should include socio-psychological support during the first weeks, begin shortly after treatment initiation instead of concurrently, and focus on garnering social support for participants in both the intervention context and among their existing network in order to best reduce barriers to participation. This study was retrospectively registered at Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN74889852 on 11 July 2013.

  17. Relationships among mental health status, social context, and demographic characteristics in Taiwanese aboriginal adolescents: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Hsu, Chia-Chuang; Liu, Shu-Chun; Huang, Chi-Fen; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2006-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the relationships among mental health status, demographic characteristics, and social contexts, including family conflict and support, connectedness to school, and affiliation with peers who exhibit delinquent behavior and who use substances, among Taiwanese aboriginal adolescents. A total of 251 aboriginal junior high school students in an isolated mountainous area of southern Taiwan were recruited, and the relationships among mental health status, demographic characteristics, and social contexts among them were examined using a structural equation model (SEM). The SEM revealed that family conflict and support had direct influences on mental health status and connectedness to school. Family conflict had a direct relationship with affiliation with peers who use substances, and family conflict and support were both indirectly linked with affiliation with peers who exhibit delinquent behavior and who used substances; these were mediated by a poor mental health status. Female and older age were directly linked with a poor mental health status and were indirectly linked with a greater number of peers who exhibit delinquent behavior and who use substances via the poor mental health status. Disruptive parenting was directly linked with affiliation with peers who use substances. The authors suggest that those who devise strategies to improve aboriginal adolescents' mental health and discourage substance use should take these relationships among mental health, demographic characteristics, and social contexts into account.

  18. Structural Model of Drug Use among Students: The Role of Spirituality, Social Modeling and Attitude to Drugs

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    samira yavari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to explore the structural relationship between religious activity, religious struggle, attitude to drugs, social modeling, spiritual well-being, and cigarette and tobacco smoking among students. Method: For this purpose, 504 male and female students from Kharazmi University, Agricultural Paradise, and Azad University of Karaj were selected by cluster sampling and they were asked to complete spiritual well-being scale, religious activity scale, religious struggle scale, social modeling scale, negative beliefs about drugs, and the tobacco section of the high-risk behavior questionnaire. Results: The results showed that the effect of religious activity on cigarette and tobacco smoking was mediated by negative beliefs about drugs, social modeling, spiritual well-being, and incentives for drug use. Similarly, the effect of religious struggle on cigarette and tobacco smoking was mediated by spiritual well-being. Conclusion: It seems that religion prevents people joining the unhealthy peer groups by the establishment of moral discipline, internal and external rules, and healthy coping styles therefore, people get less attracted to cigarette and tobacco smoking. Accordingly, these factors should be paid more attention in prevention programs for drug use, particularly cigarette and tobacco that are considered as the gateway to other drugs.

  19. Mobility impairment, social engagement, and life satisfaction among the older population in China: a structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linna; Loo, Becky P Y

    2017-05-01

    Revealing the relationship between mobility impairment and life satisfaction can help to propose effective interventions to secure mobility and life satisfaction. However, the relationship remains unclear and lacks quantitative evidence in China. This study therefore assesses the association of mobility impairment, social engagement, and life satisfaction among the older population in China. Based on the sample of China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey database in 2013, a structural equation modeling is established. The sample size is 4245 with 55.9% with mobility impairment. The model shows that the length of suffering from disability is significantly related to mobility impairment (β = 0.058, p life satisfaction (β = -0.311, p life satisfaction (β = 0.211, p life satisfaction partly because they usually participate less in social activities. Different strategies are suggested to be adopted to improve the life satisfaction of the older population from the aspects of promoting mobility and social engagement, including improving the design of transport facilitates, providing assistive facilities for the seniors with severe mobility impairment, promoting the accessibility of community leisure and healthcare services, and constructing more community senior activity centers.

  20. Quantitative historical analysis uncovers a single dimension of complexity that structures global variation in human social organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchin, Peter; Currie, Thomas E.; Whitehouse, Harvey; François, Pieter; Feeney, Kevin; Mullins, Daniel; Hoyer, Daniel; Collins, Christina; Grohmann, Stephanie; Mendel-Gleason, Gavin; Turner, Edward; Dupeyron, Agathe; Cioni, Enrico; Reddish, Jenny; Levine, Jill; Jordan, Greine; Brandl, Eva; Williams, Alice; Cesaretti, Rudolf; Krueger, Marta; Ceccarelli, Alessandro; Figliulo-Rosswurm, Joe; Tuan, Po-Ju; Peregrine, Peter; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Preiser-Kapeller, Johannes; Kradin, Nikolay; Korotayev, Andrey; Palmisano, Alessio; Baker, David; Bidmead, Julye; Bol, Peter; Christian, David; Cook, Connie; Covey, Alan; Feinman, Gary; Júlíusson, Árni Daníel; Kristinsson, Axel; Miksic, John; Mostern, Ruth; Petrie, Cameron; Rudiak-Gould, Peter; ter Haar, Barend; Wallace, Vesna; Mair, Victor; Xie, Liye; Baines, John; Bridges, Elizabeth; Manning, Joseph; Lockhart, Bruce; Bogaard, Amy; Spencer, Charles

    2018-01-01

    Do human societies from around the world exhibit similarities in the way that they are structured, and show commonalities in the ways that they have evolved? These are long-standing questions that have proven difficult to answer. To test between competing hypotheses, we constructed a massive repository of historical and archaeological information known as “Seshat: Global History Databank.” We systematically coded data on 414 societies from 30 regions around the world spanning the last 10,000 years. We were able to capture information on 51 variables reflecting nine characteristics of human societies, such as social scale, economy, features of governance, and information systems. Our analyses revealed that these different characteristics show strong relationships with each other and that a single principal component captures around three-quarters of the observed variation. Furthermore, we found that different characteristics of social complexity are highly predictable across different world regions. These results suggest that key aspects of social organization are functionally related and do indeed coevolve in predictable ways. Our findings highlight the power of the sciences and humanities working together to rigorously test hypotheses about general rules that may have shaped human history. PMID:29269395

  1. Testing the social cognitive career theory in Thai nurses' interest to become nurse educators: A structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thungjaroenkul, Petsunee; G Cummings, Greta; Tate, Kaitlyn

    2016-09-01

    A shortage of nurse educators generates a systemic problem in nursing education. A model to develop interventions directed at enhancing graduate nursing student interest in assuming a future faculty role is needed. This study used a social cognitive career theory perspective to examine the effects of past performance in teaching and supervision, social influence, observing others teaching, perceived task demands for nurse educators, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations on Thai graduate nursing students' (n=236) interest to become a nurse educator. Results of structural equation modeling analyses revealed that social influence and past performance in teaching and supervision had significant effects on interest to become a nurse educator when mediated by self-efficacy and outcome expectations. Observing others teaching and perceived task demands for nurse educators did not significantly predict interest in faculty roles. These findings provide new knowledge about factors and their influence on the development of interest to assume faculty roles. Implications for nursing education include the design of feasible graduate curricula that enhance students' abilities in faculty role and increases valuation of teaching careers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL STRUCTURE AND SOCIAL SIGNIFICANCE OF A SAMPLE OF HAMMĀMS IN MEDITERRANEAN CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roula Aboukhater

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The hammām is a public building which is traditionally closely linked to socio cultural norms of the society that is supposed to serve. This paper seeks to answer questions about the logic by which such buildings respond to those complex socio cultural relations and the potentials offered by their spatial structures. The hypothesis in analyzing the internal layout is based on the ability of forms to adapt to socio cultural norms of certain societies and that they could be shaped to respond to social needs and to produce appropriate behavior. This study is based on the analysis of the morphological characteristics of the internal layouts of several hammāms, the socio-historical information, the direct observation of the spaces and face to face interviews with staff especially those working in hammām Ammuna in Damascus. The main objective is to explore the following questions: 1 How are hammāms “designed” to fulfi ll users’ social needs and their well-being in the internal spaces? 2 How architectural settings in the internal spaces of the hammām are “coded” or “structured” to produce appropriate social practice or behavior? This paper demonstrates that hammāms are the witnesses of a genius locus of adaptation of a building to sociocultural norms.

  3. A multi-level analysis of the impact of neighborhood structural and social factors on adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Abigail A; Wright, Emily M; Pinchevsky, Gillian M

    2015-08-01

    This paper examined the effects of neighborhood structural (i.e., economic disadvantage, immigrant concentration, residential stability) and social (e.g., collective efficacy, social network interactions, intolerance of drug use, legal cynicism) factors on the likelihood of any adolescent tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Analyses drew upon information from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Data were obtained from a survey of adult residents of 79 Chicago neighborhoods, two waves of interviews with 1657 to 1664 care-givers and youth aged 8 to 16 years, and information from the 1990 U.S. Census Bureau. Hierarchical Bernoulli regression models estimated the impact of neighborhood factors on substance use controlling for individual-level demographic characteristics and psycho-social risk factors. Few neighborhood factors had statistically significant direct effects on adolescent tobacco, alcohol or marijuana use, although youth living in neighborhoods with greater levels of immigrant concentration were less likely to report any drinking. Additional theorizing and more empirical research are needed to better understand the ways in which contextual influences affect adolescent substance use and delinquency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analyzing User Activities, Demographics, Social Network Structure and User-Generated Content on Instagram

    OpenAIRE

    Manikonda, Lydia; Hu, Yuheng; Kambhampati, Subbarao

    2014-01-01

    Instagram is a relatively new form of communication where users can instantly share their current status by taking pictures and tweaking them using filters. It has seen a rapid growth in the number of users as well as uploads since it was launched in October 2010. Inspite of the fact that it is the most popular photo sharing application, it has attracted relatively less attention from the web and social media research community. In this paper, we present a large-scale quantitative analysis on...

  5. Breaking barriers: addressing structural obstacles to social service provision for Asian survivors of domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mihan

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have attributed the disproportionately high rate of domestic violence in Asian communities to Asian patriarchal "cultural norms" and the psychological and behavioral traits that these norms produce in individuals. This article seeks to expand the scope of domestic violence analysis beyond these individual and cultural frameworks, arguing that Asian domestic violence is also a product of larger scale, social systems of inequality. By examining the funding criteria of the Family Violence Prevention Services Administration (FVPSA) and the Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY) standard used by Robin Hood, my research shows how state and private organizations systematically devalue and underfund minority-targeted programs.

  6. Using Social Network Analysis to Examine the Effect of Care Management Structure on Chronic Disease Management Communication Within Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtrop, Jodi Summers; Ruland, Sandra; Diaz, Stephanie; Morrato, Elaine H; Jones, Eric

    2018-05-01

    Care management and care managers are becoming increasingly prevalent in primary care medical practice as a means of improving population health and reducing unnecessary care. Care managers are often involved in chronic disease management and associated transitional care. In this study, we examined the communication regarding chronic disease care within 24 primary care practices in Michigan and Colorado. We sought to answer the following questions: Do care managers play a key role in chronic disease management in the practice? Does the prominence of the care manager's connectivity within the practice's communication network vary by the type of care management structure implemented? Individual written surveys were given to all practice members in the participating practices. Survey questions assessed demographics as well as practice culture, quality improvement, care management activities, and communication regarding chronic disease care. Using social network analysis and other statistical methods, we analyzed the communication dynamics related to chronic disease care for each practice. The structure of chronic disease communication varies greatly from practice to practice. Care managers who were embedded in the practice or co-located were more likely to be in the core of the communication network than were off-site care managers. These care managers also had higher in-degree centrality, indicating that they acted as a hub for communication with team members in many other roles. Social network analysis provided a useful means of examining chronic disease communication in practice, and highlighted the central role of care managers in this communication when their role structure supported such communication. Structuring care managers as embedded team members within the practice has important implications for their role in chronic disease communication within primary care.

  7. Midwives' perceptions of organisational structures and processes influencing their ability to provide caseload care to socially disadvantaged and vulnerable women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Jane; Fenwick, Jennifer; Gamble, Jenny; Brittain, Hazel; Creedy, Debra K

    2014-10-01

    This study examined midwives' perceptions of organisational structures and processes of care when working in a caseload model (Midwifery Group Practice MGP) for socially disadvantaged and vulnerable childbearing women. This study used Donabedian's theoretical framework for evaluating the quality of health care provision. Of the 17 eligible midwives, 15 participated in focus group discussions and two others provided written comments. Thematic analysis was guided by three headings; clinical outcomes, processes of care and organisational structure. Midwives believed they provided an excellent service to socially disadvantaged and vulnerable childbearing women. Midwives gained satisfaction from working in partnership with women, working across their full scope of practice, and making a difference to the women. However the midwives perceived the MGP was situated within an organisation that was hostile to the caseload model of care. Midwives felt frustrated and distressed by a lack of organisational support for the model and a culture of blame dominated by medicine. A lack of material resources and no identified office space created feelings akin to 'homelessness'. Together these challenges threatened the cohesiveness of the MGP and undermined midwives' ability to advocate for women and keep birth normal. If access to caseload midwifery care for women with diverse backgrounds and circumstances is to be enhanced, then mechanisms need to be implemented to ensure organisational structures and processes are developed to sustain midwives in the provision of 'best practice' maternity care. Women accessing midwifery caseload care have excellent maternal and newborn outcomes. However there remains limited understanding of the impact of organisational structures and processes of care on clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. When gender matters: new insights into the relationships between social systems and the genetic structure of human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destro Bisol, Giovanni; Capocasa, Marco; Anagnostou, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    Due to its important effects on the ecological dynamics and the genetic structure of species, biologists have long been interested in gender-biased dispersal, a condition where one gender is more prone to move from the natal site. More recently, this topic has attracted a great attention from human evolutionary geneticists. Considering the close relations between residential rules and social structure, gender-biased dispersal is, in fact, regarded as an important case study concerning the effects of socio-cultural factors on human genetic variation. It all started with the seminal paper by Mark Seielstad, Erich Minch and Luigi Luca Cavalli Sforza from Stanford University (Seielstad et al. 1998). They observed a larger differentiation for Y-chromosome than mitochondrial DNA between extant human populations, purportedly a consequence of the prevalence of long-term patrilocality in human societies. Subsequent studies, however, have highlighted the need to consider geographically close and culturally homogeneous groups, disentangle signals due to different peopling events and obtain unbiased estimates of genetic diversity. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, not only do Marks et al. (2012) adopt an experimental design which addresses these concerns, but they also take a further and important step forward by integrating the genetic analysis of two distant populations, the Basotho and Spanish, with data regarding migration rates and matrimonial distances. Using both empirical evidence and simulations, the authors show that female-biased migration due to patrilocality might shape the genetic structure of human populations only at short ranges and under substantial differences in migration rates between genders. Providing a quantitative framework for future studies of the effects of residential rules on the human genome, this study paves the way for further developments in the field. On a wider perspective, Marks et al.'s work demonstrates the power of approaches which

  9. Effect of social games on class social structure in the third triad of primary school with adapted programme for children with special needs

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinberger, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Building adequate social relationships and learning about them is very important in our society. Nowadays social games are often used in schools, especially to enhance good behaviour and improve relationships between students. By learning social skills in school we can improve the quality of life for our students during schooling as they will feel accepted in their class and as a result feel better about themselves. In addition, social games give them knowledge that they can use in adulthood ...

  10. Generalized social anxiety disorder and avoidant personality disorder: structural analysis and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Jonathan D; Strunk, Daniel R; Ledley, Deborah Roth; Davidson, Jonathan R T; Foa, Edna B

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable controversy about whether generalized social phobia (GSP) and avoidant personality disorder (APD) are redundant diagnostic categories. In light of the ongoing controversy, more data are needed to help determine whether GSP and APD are independent constructs. Data were obtained from 335 people seeking treatment for GSP at a two site clinical trial. Indicators of GSP and APD were obtained along with assessments of demographic factors, level of functioning, and indicators of related psychopathology. Confirmatory factor analyses of indicators of GSP and APD suggested a somewhat better fit for a two-factor solution. Comparisons of GSP patients with and without APD suggested that in addition to having more severe social phobia symptoms, patients with APD were more depressed on a self-report measure and had more functional impairment, thereby suggesting potential utility of the diagnostic category of APD. Furthermore, the presence of APD predicted treatment response, in that patients with APD had more change early in treatment than those without APD. APD and GSP remain highly related constructs, and different aspects of these data support and dispute the utility of the diagnosis of APD in GSP. Possible new directions in conceptualizing APD are discussed. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Habitats, population densities, and social structure of capybaras (Hydrochaeris Hydrochaeris, Rodentia in the Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber J.R. Alho

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 The Pantanal is the central portion of a sunken flat plain bordering the upper Paraguay river, with an area of 140,000 km². Seasonal floods begin in January and end in April. From May to October the land dries out and campos (grassland formations and scattered pools appear. (2 Typical capybara habitat in the Pantanal is composed of three components: the water, a patch of forest, and a grass field for foraging. Highest densities of capybaras (14 individuals/km² were found during the rainy season when the available space for capybaras was reduced due to the flooding. Areas without ponds or creeks presented low densities (from 0.38 to 0.84 capybaras/km². Group sizes ranged from 2 to 49 individuals (x = 9.48. (3 Reproduction occurred year-round and young of different ages were seen throughout the year. However, the principal recruitment of young to the population was observed in July-August. While the females took turns in caring for young of different ages, probably the offspring of mothers who are sisters in the same social groups, the males competed intensively with each other for access to breeding females. The male's reproductive success appears to be limited to the number of breeding females that males have access to in the social group.

  12. Selected Functions of Narrative Structures in the Process of Social and Cultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Alberski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The art of narrative stems from the art of rhetoric and modes of persuasion and in this meaning is understood not just as a form of entertainment but also as a tool of communication. Any narrative communicates and conveys a message. Narrative is an important aspect of culture and as a ubiquitous component of human communication is conveyed by different works of art (literature, music, painting, sculpture, and illustrates events, emotions, phenomena and occurrences. Narrative as a form of communication involves its participants, a teller and a receiver of the message. The relation and the distance between the participants of the narrative communication process may have a different configuration and presents different effect of closeness and distance in narrative. In this meaning narrative is not just the art of telling stories, but it serves various functions, it communicates information, expresses emotions and personal events, transmits morals and cultural knowledge, provides entertainment and also helps in many ways to depict thoughts and feelings, along with disclosing the beauty of language. Narrative knowledge and narrative perception of social and cultural processes, is one of the most natural ways for a human being to acquire and organize their knowledge about the world. The ability to create narratives leads to a better understanding of the surrounding reality, and significantly influences the interpretation of social and cultural relationships.

  13. Nest structure and notes on the social behavior of Augochlora amphitrite (Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Halictidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Dalmazzo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The nesting biology of Augochlora (Augochlora amphitrite (Schrottky in a natural reserve in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, is described. The species nests in decaying wood. Two types of nest architecture were found, which differed according to the substrate where they were built, either soft or hard wood. Nests in soft wood had the cells grouped in clusters surrounded by a cavity, and the clusters were supported by a varying number of pillars. Nests constructed in decomposing portions of cracks in otherwise hard wood had the cells constructed against the walls, without any pillars or surrounding cavity. Cells of both types of nests were oriented in all directions, without any detectable pattern. Measurements and characteristics of the nests are tabulated and compared to those known for other species of Augochlora s. str. Behavioral observations of active nests are indicative of a social division of tasks in A. amphitrite. Such observations include nests with several females, some of which were never observed outside the nests, females with different degrees of wear and of ovary development, and at least one female that actively collected pollen which had much worn mandibles and wings, and undeveloped ovaries, all characteristics of the worker caste in social halictids.

  14. Social structure and consanguinity in a French mountain Population (1550-1849).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabino-Massa, Emma; Prost, Michel; Boëtsch, Gilles

    2005-04-01

    Sociocultural factors play a crucial role in the variation of consanguinity in a population. The choice of specific matrimonial strategies can favor the closure or opening of the group to the outside, whereas differential fertility affects the gene flow from one generation to another. In the present study we analyzed the role of socioprofessional groups in the maintenance of endogamy and consanguinity in a French Alpine valley: Vallouise in the Briançon area. In mountain environments, where the reproductive space is limited and quickly saturated, the autochthonous families adopt diversified matrimonial strategies. These marriage practices tend to prevent fragmentation of agricultural property. We analyzed the matrimonial behavior in the two main social groups of this population (décideurs and farmers) from 1550 to 1849. To better understand the behavior of the two social groups, we considered the two components of consanguinity, close and distant. Our study showed that the two groups had similar behavior regarding consanguinity. The way to prevent fragmentation of the patrimony was to choose a consanguineous spouse. This type of strategy inevitably leads to a high percentage of endogamy, which in this region of the Alps exceeded 90% through many centuries.

  15. Economic growth and marine biodiversity: influence of human social structure on decline of marine trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Rebecca; York, Richard

    2008-04-01

    We assessed the effects of economic growth, urbanization, and human population size on marine biodiversity. We used the mean trophic level (MTL) of marine catch as an indicator of marine biodiversity and conducted cross-national time-series analyses (1960-2003) of 102 nations to investigate human social influences on fish catch and trends in MTL. We constructed path models to examine direct and indirect effects relating to marine catch and MTL. Nations' MTLs declined with increased economic growth, increased urbanization, and increased population size, in part because of associated increased catch. These findings contradict the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, which claims that economic modernization will reduce human impact on the environment. To make informed decisions on issues of marine resource management, policy makers, nonprofit entities, and professional societies must recognize the need to include social analyses in overall conservation-research strategies. The challenge is to utilize the socioeconomic and ecological research in the service of a comprehensive marine-conservation movement.

  16. Comparison of Liveable City of Three Cities in Indonesia through Index of Happiness Data from Social Media and Urban Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawir; Dewancker, B. J.; Koerniawan, M. D.

    2018-05-01

    Social media has contributed to providing information from the users. Users can expressing and sharing their thoughts and opinions on all kinds of topics and events freely. Twitter offers organizations fast and effective way to monitor the users’ feelings towards their mood in the cities. In twitter there are the big information data that be able to download freely, this study collected data from twitter and make the classification based on users’ tweets to categorize the index of happiness of the city. The urban structure data are collected from the urban guideline development from each city. The index of happiness becomes the prosperity level paradigm of a city, it becomes a tool to assess and compare how the city is liveable. This study will analyse from the users’ tweets on a regular basis in three cities of Indonesia, to the parameters of happiness that will be compared with the urban structure development. Based on data of the index of happiness from social media can offer better information for city planners and developers that can be used to improve planning and quality of life in the city and future of urban development.

  17. Relationship of Non-Structural Forms of Social Interaction with Problems of Social and Psychological Adaptation of Students Prone to Chemical Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilemkhanova, Elvira N.

    2016-01-01

    The changes in contemporary social and cultural environment determine the necessity to increase the efficiency of adaptive mechanisms, especially for those categories of people who are subject to social risks. One of those categories is students prone to chemical addictions. To study the relationship of forms of social interaction with problems of…

  18. Neighbourhood social and built environment factors and falls in community-dwelling canadian older adults: A validation study and exploration of structural confounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Vafaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Older persons are vulnerable to the ill effects of their social and built environment due to age-related limitations in mobility and bio-psychological vulnerability. Falls are common in older adults and result from complex interactions between individual, social, and contextual determinants. We addressed two methodological issues of neighbourhood-health and social epidemiological studies in this analysis: (1 validity of measures of neighbourhood contexts, and (2 structural confounding resulting from social sorting mechanisms. Baseline data from International Mobility in Aging Study were used. Samples included community-dwelling Canadians older than 65 living in Kingston (Ontario and St-Hyacinthe (Quebec. We performed factor analysis and ecometric analysis to assess the validity of measures of neighbourhood social capital, socioeconomic status, and the built environment and stratified tabular analyses to explore structural confounding. The scales all demonstrated good psychometric and ecometric properties. There was an evidence of the existence of structural confounding in this sample of Canadian older adults as some combinations of strata for the three neighbourhood measures had no population. This limits causal inference in studying relationships between neighbourhood factors and falls and should be taken into account in aetiological aging research. Keywords: Ecometric analysis, Falls, Social and built environment, Neighbourhoods, Older adults, Social Capital, Structural confounding, Validity

  19. Power structure among the actors of financial support to the poor to access health services: Social network analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadi, Manal; Gorji, Hasan Abolghasem; Kangarani, Hannaneh Mohammadi; Ashtarian, Kioomars

    2017-12-01

    The extent of universal health coverage in terms of financial protection is worrisome in Iran. There are challenges in health policies to guarantee financial accessibility to health services, especially for poor people. Various institutions offer support to ensure that the poor have financial access to health services. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship network among the institutions active in this field. This study is a policy document analysis. It evaluates the country's legal documents in the field of financial support to the poor for healthcare after the Islamic Revolution in Iran. The researchers looked for the documents on the related websites and referred to the related organizations. The social network analysis approach was chosen for the analysis of the documents. Block-modelling and multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) was used to determine the network structures. The UCINET software was employed to analyse the data. Most the main actors of this network are chosen from the government budget. There is no legal communication and cooperation among some of the actors because of their improper position in the network. Seven blocks have been clustered by CONCOR in terms of the actor's degree of similarity. The social distance among the actors of the seven blocks is very short. Power distribution in the field of financial support to the poor has a fragmented structure; however, it is mainly run by a dominant block consisting of The Supreme Council of Welfare and Social Security, Health Insurance Organization, and the Ministry of Health and Medical Education. The financial support for the poor network involves multiple actors. This variety has created a series of confusions in terms of the type, level, and scope of responsibilities among the actors. The weak presence legislative and regulatory institutions and also non-governmental institutions are the main weak points of this network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Panarchy: discontinuities reval similarities in the dynamic system structure of ecological and social systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debates on the organization, structure and dynamics of ecosystems across scales of space and time have waxed and waned in the literature for a century. From successional theory to ecosystem theories of resilience and robustness, from hierarchy to ascendency to panarchy theory, e...

  1. On the deep structure of social affect: Attitudes, emotions, sentiments, and the case of "contempt".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Matthew M; Fessler, Daniel M T

    2017-01-01

    Contempt is typically studied as a uniquely human moral emotion. However, this approach has yielded inconclusive results. We argue this is because the folk affect concept "contempt" has been inaccurately mapped onto basic affect systems. "Contempt" has features that are inconsistent with a basic emotion, especially its protracted duration and frequently cold phenomenology. Yet other features are inconsistent with a basic attitude. Nonetheless, the features of "contempt" functionally cohere. To account for this, we revive and reconfigure the sentiment construct using the notion of evolved functional specialization. We develop the Attitude-Scenario-Emotion (ASE) model of sentiments, in which enduring attitudes represent others' social-relational value and moderate discrete emotions across scenarios. Sentiments are functional networks of attitudes and emotions. Distinct sentiments, including love, respect, like, hate, and fear, track distinct relational affordances, and each is emotionally pluripotent, thereby serving both bookkeeping and commitment functions within relationships. The sentiment contempt is an absence of respect; from cues to others' low efficacy, it represents them as worthless and small, muting compassion, guilt, and shame and potentiating anger, disgust, and mirth. This sentiment is ancient yet implicated in the ratcheting evolution of human ultrasocialty. The manifolds of the contempt network, differentially engaged across individuals and populations, explain the features of "contempt," its translatability, and its variable experience as "hot" or "cold," occurrent or enduring, and anger-like or disgust-like. This rapprochement between psychological anthropology and evolutionary psychology contributes both methodological and empirical insights, with broad implications for understanding the functional and cultural organization of social affect.

  2. Network structure underlying resolution of conflicting non-verbal and verbal social information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Yahata, Noriaki; Kawakubo, Yuki; Inoue, Hideyuki; Takano, Yosuke; Iwashiro, Norichika; Natsubori, Tatsunobu; Takao, Hidemasa; Sasaki, Hiroki; Gonoi, Wataru; Murakami, Mizuho; Katsura, Masaki; Kunimatsu, Akira; Abe, Osamu; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2014-06-01

    Social judgments often require resolution of incongruity in communication contents. Although previous studies revealed that such conflict resolution recruits brain regions including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG), functional relationships and networks among these regions remain unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the functional dissociation and networks by measuring human brain activity during resolving incongruity between verbal and non-verbal emotional contents. First, we found that the conflict resolutions biased by the non-verbal contents activated the posterior dorsal mPFC (post-dmPFC), bilateral anterior insula (AI) and right dorsal pIFG, whereas the resolutions biased by the verbal contents activated the bilateral ventral pIFG. In contrast, the anterior dmPFC (ant-dmPFC), bilateral superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus were commonly involved in both of the resolutions. Second, we found that the post-dmPFC and right ventral pIFG were hub regions in networks underlying the non-verbal- and verbal-content-biased resolutions, respectively. Finally, we revealed that these resolution-type-specific networks were bridged by the ant-dmPFC, which was recruited for the conflict resolutions earlier than the two hub regions. These findings suggest that, in social conflict resolutions, the ant-dmPFC selectively recruits one of the resolution-type-specific networks through its interaction with resolution-type-specific hub regions. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A model for a drug distribution system in remote Australia as a social determinant of health using event structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovers, John P; Mages, Michelle D

    2017-09-25

    The social determinants of health include the health systems under which people live and utilize health services. One social determinant, for which pharmacists are responsible, is designing drug distribution systems that ensure patients have safe and convenient access to medications. This is critical for settings with poor access to health care. Rural and remote Australia is one example of a setting where the pharmacy profession, schools of pharmacy, and regulatory agencies require pharmacists to assure medication access. Studies of drug distribution systems in such settings are uncommon. This study describes a model for a drug distribution system in an Aboriginal Health Service in remote Australia. The results may be useful for policy setting, pharmacy system design, health professions education, benchmarking, or quality assurance efforts for health system managers in similarly remote locations. The results also suggest that pharmacists can promote access to medications as a social determinant of health. The primary objective of this study was to propose a model for a drug procurement, storage, and distribution system in a remote region of Australia. The secondary objective was to learn the opinions and experiences of healthcare workers under the model. Qualitative research methods were used. Semi-structured interviews were performed with a convenience sample of 11 individuals employed by an Aboriginal health service. Transcripts were analyzed using Event Structure Analysis (ESA) to develop the model. Transcripts were also analyzed to determine the opinions and experiences of health care workers. The model was comprised of 24 unique steps with seven distinct components: choosing a supplier; creating a list of preferred medications; budgeting and ordering; supply and shipping; receipt and storage in the clinic; prescribing process; dispensing and patient counseling. Interviewees described opportunities for quality improvement in choosing suppliers, legal issues and

  4. IMPACT OF SOCIAL NETWORK STRUCTURE ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Lira Meirelles; Thais Cereda Ravasi; Fabio Teixeira Arten; João Paulo Lara Siqueira

    2013-01-01

    This research sought to understand the relationship between the position of the central actor and the performance of a network, checking the influence of the central actor's performance over other actors. Among the specific objectives, we sought to describe the transactional content, the nature of the connections and the structural characteristics of the network. Data were collected through a questionnaire and analyzed with the help of software UCINET 6.0 and Excel. The results suggest tha...

  5. Productive Systems and the Structuring Role of Economic and Social Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Wilkinson

    2002-01-01

    The institutions of productive systems are structured by mutual interests and relative power. Securing mutually beneficial cooperation in production requires resolving distributional differences. These objectives are secured in liberal economic theory by the working of markets which mediate the power of individuals and reward individual success. The centrality of individuals and hierarchies in market theory contrasts with developments in labour management theory which identifies group activit...

  6. Social structure, infectious diseases, disasters, secularism, and cultural change in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Igor; Varnum, Michael E W

    2015-03-01

    Why do cultures change? The present work examined cultural change in eight cultural-level markers, or correlates, of individualism in the United States, all of which increased over the course of the 20th century: frequency of individualist themes in books, preference for uniqueness in baby naming, frequency of single-child relative to multichild families, frequency of single-generation relative to multigeneration households, percentage of adults and percentage of older adults living alone, small family size, and divorce rates (relative to marriage rates). We tested five key hypotheses regarding cultural change in individualism-collectivism. As predicted by previous theories, changes in socioeconomic structure, pathogen prevalence, and secularism accompanied changes in individualism averaged across all measures. The relationship with changes in individualism was less robust for urbanization. Contrary to previous theories, changes in individualism were positively (as opposed to negatively) related to the frequency of disasters. Time-lagged analyses suggested that only socioeconomic structure had a robust effect on individualism; changes in socioeconomic structure preceded changes in individualism. Implications for anthropology, psychology, and sociology are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Structural and functional social network attributes moderate the association of self-rated health with mental health in midlife and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Tim D; Rioseco, Pilar; Fiori, Katherine L; Curtis, Rachel G; Booth, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Social relationships are multifaceted, and different social network components can operate via different processes to influence well-being. This study examined associations of social network structure and relationship quality (positive and negative social exchanges) with mental health in midlife and older adults. The focus was on both direct associations of network structure and relationship quality with mental health, and whether these social network attributes moderated the association of self-rated health (SRH) with mental health. Analyses were based on survey data provided by 2001 (Mean age = 65, SD = 8.07) midlife and older adults. We used Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to classify participants into network types based on network structure (partner status, network size, contact frequency, and activity engagement), and used continuous measures of positive and negative social exchanges to operationalize relationship quality. Regression analysis was used to test moderation. LCA revealed network types generally consistent with those reported in previous studies. Participants in more diverse networks reported better mental health than those categorized into a restricted network type after adjustment for age, sex, education, and employment status. Analysis of moderation indicated that those with poorer SRH were less likely to report poorer mental health if they were classified into more diverse networks. A similar moderation effect was also evident for positive exchanges. The findings suggest that both quantity and quality of social relationships can play a role in buffering against the negative implications of physical health decline for mental health.

  8. Structural characteristics of the online social networks of maltreated youth and offline sexual risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Valente, Thomas W

    2018-02-07

    Maltreated youth are at risk for exposure to online sexual content and high-risk sexual behavior, yet characteristics of their online social networks have not been examined as a potential source of vulnerability. The aims of the current study were: 1) to test indicators of size (number of friends) and fragmentation (number of connections between friends) of maltreated young adults' online networks as predictors of intentional and unintentional exposure to sexual content and offline high-risk sexual behavior and 2) to test maltreatment as a moderator of these associations. Participants were selected from a longitudinal study on the effects of child maltreatment (n = 152; Mean age 21.84 years). Data downloaded from Facebook were used to calculate network variables of size (number of friends), density (connections between friends), average degree (average number of connections for each friend), and percent isolates (those not connected to others in the network). Self-reports of intentional and unintentional exposure to online sexual content and offline high-risk sexual behavior were the outcome variables. Multiple-group path modeling showed that only for the maltreated group having a higher percent of isolates in the network predicted intentional exposure to online sexual content and offline high-risk sexual behavior. An implication of this finding is that the composition of the Facebook network may be used as a risk indicator for individuals with child-welfare documented maltreatment experiences. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Deciphering the social structure of Marbled Murrelets from behavioral observations at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speckman, Suzann G.; Piatt, John F.; Springer, Alan M.

    2003-01-01

    We surveyed Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) daily from small boats in Auke Bay and Fritz Cove, Alaska, from May through August 1992 and 1993. Differences in numbers of juveniles and in the timing of their presence in the study area between the two years indicated that breeding phenology was late and productivity was low in 1992 compared to 1993. This difference was consistent with variability in the physical environment. Of 99 fish identified in the bills of fish-holding adult murrelets, 81 (82%) were Pacific Sand Lance (Ammodytes hexapterus). Counts of fish-holding adult murrelets were significantly higher in the evening than at any other time of day. Time of day had no significant effects on counts of fledglings, indicating that juveniles were moving into and out of the study area during the day. Murrelets were predominantly found in groups of two or more, even during incubation, suggesting that murrelets incur an appreciable benefit, such as increased foraging efficiency, from foraging in groups. For both summers, there was no correlation between counts of murrelets on the water and numbers of murrelet detections in the adjacent forest. We suggest that many behavior patterns of the Marbled Murrelet (displaying, choosing of mates, and pair-bonding, finding of nest sites and successful foraging of juveniles) may be socially facilitated.

  10. Colony social organization and population genetic structure of an introduced population of formosan subterranean termite from New Orleans, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseneder, Claudia; Messenger, Matthew T; Su, Nan-Yao; Grace, J Kenneth; Vargo, Edward L

    2005-10-01

    The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, is an invasive species in many parts of the world, including the U.S. mainland. The reasons for its invasive success may have to do with the flexible social and spatial organization of colonies. We investigated the population and breeding structure of 14 C. formosanus colonies in Louis Armstrong Park, New Orleans, LA. This population has been the focus of extensive study for many years, providing the opportunity to relate aspects of colony breeding structure to previous findings on colony characteristics such as body weight and number of workers, wood consumption, and intercolony aggression. Eight colonies were headed by a single pair of outbred reproductives (simple families), whereas six colonies were headed by low numbers of multiple kings and/or queens that were likely the neotenic descendants of the original colony (extended families). Within the foraging area of one large extended family colony, we found genetic differentiation among different collection sites, suggesting the presence of separate reproductive centers. No significant difference between simple family colonies and extended family colonies was found in worker body weight, soldier body weight, foraging area, population size, or wood consumption. However, level of inbreeding within colonies was negatively correlated with worker body weight and positively correlated with wood consumption. Also, genetic distance between colonies was positively correlated with aggression levels, suggesting a genetic basis to nestmate discrimination cues in this termite population. No obvious trait associated with colony reproductive structure was found that could account for the invasion success of this species.

  11. IMPACT OF SOCIAL NETWORK STRUCTURE ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Lira Meirelles

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research sought to understand the relationship between the position of the central actor and the performance of a network, checking the influence of the central actor's performance over other actors. Among the specific objectives, we sought to describe the transactional content, the nature of the connections and the structural characteristics of the network. Data were collected through a questionnaire and analyzed with the help of software UCINET 6.0 and Excel. The results suggest that the performance of the actors with the highest levels of centrality is related to the performance of the actors of the 1st step of sub-networks of these central actors.

  12. Factor structure of the Essen Climate Evaluation Schema measure of social climate in a UK medium-security setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, Sophia A; Freestone, Mark; Duller, Rachel; Bouman, Marisa; Taylor, Celia

    2014-04-01

    Social climate has an influence on a number of treatment-related factors, including service users' behaviour, staff morale and treatment outcomes. Reliable assessment of social climate is, therefore, beneficial within forensic mental health settings. The Essen Climate Evaluation Schema (EssenCES) has been validated in forensic mental health services in the UK and Germany. Preliminary normative data have been produced for UK high-security national health services and German medium-security and high-security services. We aim to validate the use of the EssenCES scale (English version) and provide preliminary normative data in UK medium-security hospital settings. The EssenCES scale was completed in a medium-security mental health service as part of a service-wide audit. A total of 89 patients and 112 staff completed the EssenCES. The three-factor structure of the EssenCES and its internal construct validity were maintained within the sample. Scores from this medium-security hospital sample were significantly higher than those from earlier high-security hospital data, with three exceptions--'patient cohesion' according to the patients and 'therapeutic hold' according to staff and patients. Our data support the use of the EssenCES scale as a valid measure for assessing social climate within medium-security hospital settings. Significant differences between the means of high-security and medium-security service samples imply that degree of security is a relevant factor affecting the ward climate and that in monitoring quality of secure services, it is likely to be important to apply different scores to reflect standards. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The "local economy" effect of social transfers : an empirical assessment of the impactof th Bolsa Familia program on local productive structure and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Rougier, E.; Combarnous, F.; Fauré, Yves-André

    2018-01-01

    Social transfers impact local economic growth through local demand multiplier and local productive structures. Using original data on productive structures, growth determinants and Bolsa Familia conditional transfers (BFP) for the 184 municipalities of the Brazilian state of Ceará during 2003–10, we show that the positive impact of the transfers on local growth is in fact conditional on the direction of local economic structure transformation. Indeed, transfers did spur light manufactur...

  14. Measures of relative fitness of social behaviors in finite structured population models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnita, Corina E; Taylor, Peter D

    2014-10-01

    How should we measure the relative selective advantage of different behavioral strategies? The various approaches to this question have fallen into one of the following categories: the fixation probability of a mutant allele in a wild type population, some measures of gene frequency and gene frequency change, and a formulation of the inclusive fitness effect. Countless theoretical studies have examined the relationship between these approaches, and it has generally been thought that, under standard simplifying assumptions, they yield equivalent results. Most of this theoretical work, however, has assumed homogeneity of the population interaction structure--that is, that all individuals are equivalent. We explore the question of selective advantage in a general (heterogeneous) population and show that, although appropriate measures of fixation probability and gene frequency change are equivalent, they are not, in general, equivalent to the inclusive fitness effect. The latter does not reflect effects of selection acting via mutation, which can arise on heterogeneous structures, even for low mutation. Our theoretical framework provides a transparent analysis of the different biological factors at work in the comparison of these fitness measures and suggests that their theoretical and empirical use needs to be revised and carefully grounded in a more general theory.

  15. Structural Equation Modeling to Assess Discrimination, Stress, Social Support, and Depression among the Elderly Women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hung Sa; Kim, Chunmi

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the relationship and conceptual model of discrimination, stress, support, and depression among the elderly in South Korea. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving 207 community-dwelling elders. Data were collected through questionnaires from May 5 to May 31, 2014 in community senior centers, and analyzed using descriptive statistics, t test, analysis of variance, Scheffé test, and structural equation modeling. There were significant effects of discrimination on stress, support on stress and stress on depression. Moreover, there were two significant indirect effects observed between discrimination and depression, and between support and depression. For each indirect effect, the mediating factor was stress. Additionally, there was no direct effect between discrimination and depression or support. This study found that social support and discrimination had indirect effects on depression through stress. More specifically, decreased stress led to a reduction of depression. Therefore, social support based on a thorough understanding of stress is very important for caring elderly who are depressive. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Creating Structured Opportunities for Social Engagement to Promote Well-Being and Reduce Burnout in Medical Students and Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegelstein, Roy C

    2017-12-26

    Increasing attention is being paid to medical student and resident well-being, as well as to enhancing resilience and avoiding burnout in medical trainees. Medical schools and residency programs are implementing wellness initiatives that often include meditation and other mindfulness activities, self-reflection, journaling, and lectures or workshops on resilience tools such as metacognition and cognitive restructuring. These interventions have in common the creation of opportunities for trainees to become more aware of their experiences, to better recognize stressors, and to regulate their thoughts and feelings so that stressors are less likely to have harmful effects. They often enable trainees to temporarily distance themselves mentally and emotionally from a stressful environment. In this Invited Commentary, the author suggests that medical school leaders and residency program directors should also create structured opportunities for trainees to establish meaningful connections with each other in order to provide greater social support and thereby reduce the harmful effects of stress. Social connection and engagement, as well as group identification, have potential to promote well-being and reduce burnout during training.

  17. Mental symptoms and comorbid behaviours among Inuit in Greenland: the role of household crowding and household social structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Bjerregaard, Peter

    on 3108 Inuit aged 18 years and older are from the Inuit Health in Transition Survey. Dependent variables considered were: feelings of depression and of anxiety; binge drinking; harmful drinking; and use of marijuana. Household crowding was measured by the number of people in the house, and the social...... with higher risk of reporting feeling anxious (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.00-1.09) or depressed (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.02-1.09), but with lower risks of heavy drinking (OR: 0.89; 95%CI: 0.82-0.98), use of marijuana (OR: 0.85; 95%CI: 0.77-0.94), and marginally (p... marijuana (OR: 1.34; 95%CI: 0.98-1.81), but not of harmful drinking, were significantly higher in households composed only of adults. Although similar patterns of associations are observed, household crowding and the social structure of the household appear to influence women’s mental symptoms and comorbid...

  18. Empirical models of structure of personal qualities of heads: affective type of social action by M. Weber (results of applied researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Oseev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to methodological foundations of research of leader’s personal qualities. In difference from the previous work, which was devoted to a research of personal qualities of heads, including civil officers, at works of Plato, Aristotle and M. Weber, where were shown empirical models of structure of personal qualities of heads: instrumental-rational and value-rational social actions. This publication presents the empirical models of structure of personal qualities of heads of affective type of M. Weber’s social action. Thanks to it, M. Weber’s concept about social action receives one more approach to verification in practice. The following directions of social researches are allocated. The first direction. When in structure of personal qualities the emotional component is a dominant (“emotional unbalance”, in comparison with intellectual, moral, strong-willed and other personal qualities (diplomacy, social experience, and so forth. Those people, whose indicators of emotional unbalance are in extreme, in maximum borders - carry to psychopaths and they are an object of clinical psychology and medicine. The second direction. When in structure of personal qualities emotional unbalance competes on equal terms (equally has bright difference, a deviation from average values to intellectual, moral and strong-willed qualities. The third direction. When in structure of personal qualities intellectual, moral and strong-willed and others personal qualities dominate over affective lines.

  19. Can the type of organisational structure affect individual well-being in health and social welfare occupations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, A M; Omarini, G; Ragazzoni, P

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the perceived stress and individual resources of people involved in health and social welfare occupations, and evaluate whether belonging to different organisational structures leads to different reactions. To this end, we used the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and the Team Climate Inventory. The sample consisted of 327 subjects (67% females) with a mean age of 35.9 +/- 8.8 years; most had a middle or high school diploma (63%), and they had been employed in the same place for about four years (47.5 +/- 7.3 months): 103 worked for health and social welfare cooperatives, and 224 for a local health authority. The results showed average burnout values and coping strategies prevalently aimed at directly solving the stressing situation in both working contexts. In comparison with the variables expressing the perceived organisational climate, sociodemographic characteristics did not seem to have a determining influence on the perception of individual stress. Comparison of the subjects employed in the two settings showed that organisational vision and a sense of belonging significantly determined subjective well-being, with the healthcare workers showed greater individual ill-being and a worse vision (i.e. an unclear perception of hospital choices and objectives). Our findings confirm that subjective well-being in high-touch occupations may be determined by the organisational culture: a mutual aid culture such as that of a cooperative has a protective effect despite the fact that the employment situation of the workers is more precarious and flexible than that of workers employed in highly structured environments such as that of a hospital.

  20. Changes in mating system and social structure of the ant Petalomyrmex phylax are associated with range expansion in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalecky, Ambroise; Debout, Gabriel; Estoup, Arnaud; McKey, Doyle B; Kjellberg, Finn

    2007-03-01

    Past climate shifts have led to major oscillations in species distributions. Hence historical contingencies and selective processes occurring during such phases may be determinants for understanding the forces that have shaped extant phenotypes. In the plant-ant Petalomyrmex phylax (Formicinae), we observed spatial variation in number of queens in mature colonies, from several queens (high polygyny) in the median part of its distribution to a moderate number of queens (weak polygyny) or even only a single queen (monogyny) in the southwesternmost populations. This variation did not correlate with indicators of variation in current nest site availability and colony turnover, the supposedly determinant selective forces acting on gyny in ants. We show here that the variation in social structure correlates with a historical process corresponding to a progressive colonization of coastal southern Cameroon by the ant. Using microsatellite markers, we observed a clear pattern of isolation by distance except for the southernmost populations. Measures of genetic variability that do not take into account allele size were at equilibrium in all except the southernmost populations, suggesting recent foundation of the latter. Measures of genetic diversity taking into account allele size showed a clinal north-south decrease in variance of allele size. We propose that southern populations have yet to regain allele size variance after bottlenecks associated with the foundation of new populations, and that this variance is regained over time. Hence variation in social structure mirrors an old but still active southward colonization process or metapopulation dynamics, possibly in association with an expansion of the rain forest habitat during the late Holocene. A low number of queens in ant colonies is typically associated with strong dispersal capacity. We therefore suggest that the initial founders of new populations belong to the monogynous to weakly polygynous phenotype, and that

  1. Gene-Culture Coevolution in a Social Cetacean: Integrating Acoustic and Genetic Data to Understand Population Structure in the Short-Finned Pilot Whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cise, Amy

    The evolutionary ecology of a species is driven by a combination of random events, ecological and environmental mechanisms, and social behavior. Gene-culture coevolutionary theory attempts to understand the evolutionary trajectory of a species by examining the interactions between these potential drivers. Further, our choice of data type will affect the patterns we observe, therefore by integrating several types of data we achieve a holistic understanding of the various aspects of evolutionary ecology within a species. In order to understand population structure in short-finned pilot whales, I use a combination of genetic and acoustic data to examine structure on evolutionary (genetic) and cultural (acoustic) timescales. I first examine structure among geographic populations in the Pacific Ocean. Using genetic sequences from the mitochondrial control region, I show that two genetically and morphologically distinct types of short-finned pilot whale, described off the coast of Japan, have non-overlapping distributions throughout their range in the Pacific Ocean. Analysis of the acoustic features of their social calls indicates that they are acoustically differentiated, possibly due to limited communication between the two types. This evidence supports the hypothesis that the two types may be separate species or subspecies. Next, I examine structure among island communities and social groups within the Hawaiian Island population of short-finned pilot whales. Using a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, I showed that the hierarchical social structure in Hawaiian pilot whales is driven by genetic relatedness; individuals remain in groups with their immediate family members, and preferentially associate with relatives. Similarly, social structure affects genetic differentiation, likely by restricting access to mates. Acoustic differentiation among social groups indicates that social structure may also restrict the flow of cultural information, such as vocal

  2. Social structure of lions (Panthera leo) is affected by management in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogbohossou, Etotépé A; Bauer, Hans; Loveridge, Andrew; Funston, Paul J; De Snoo, Geert R; Sinsin, Brice; De Iongh, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    Lion populations have undergone a severe decline in West Africa. As baseline for conservation management, we assessed the group structure of lions in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. This reserve, composed of one National Park and two Hunting Zones, is part of the WAP transboundary complex of protected areas. Overall mean group size was 2.6±1.7 individuals (n = 296), it was significantly higher in the National Park (2.7±1.7, n = 168) than in the Hunting Zones (2.2±1.5, n = 128). Overall adult sex ratio was even, but significantly biased towards females (0.67) in the National Park and towards males (1.67) in the Hunting Zones. Our results suggest that the Pendjari lion population is affected by perturbations, such as trophy hunting.

  3. Social structure of lions (Panthera leo is affected by management in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etotépé A Sogbohossou

    Full Text Available Lion populations have undergone a severe decline in West Africa. As baseline for conservation management, we assessed the group structure of lions in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. This reserve, composed of one National Park and two Hunting Zones, is part of the WAP transboundary complex of protected areas. Overall mean group size was 2.6±1.7 individuals (n = 296, it was significantly higher in the National Park (2.7±1.7, n = 168 than in the Hunting Zones (2.2±1.5, n = 128. Overall adult sex ratio was even, but significantly biased towards females (0.67 in the National Park and towards males (1.67 in the Hunting Zones. Our results suggest that the Pendjari lion population is affected by perturbations, such as trophy hunting.

  4. Structural similarities between the tradition of moral philosophy and Durkheim’s social theory

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    Ana Marta González

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The first sociological theories are indebted to Enlightenment philosophy of history, which first appeared to provide a framework of meaning for moral action once moral theory had renounced the metaphysical commitments of early modern moral philosophy. While defending the autonomy of sociology from philosophy, Durkheim prescribed a specific task for sociological thought, namely: develop a moral science which, by keeping together the two features with which moral facts appear before conscience —solidarity and coercion— could account for the moral sense of the division of labour, a phenomenon previously considered almost a natural process. The purpose of this article is to show how Durkheim’s approach makes room for us to establish a structural similarity between sociological analysis and the perspective of mutual obligations characteristic of the moral philosophical tradition.

  5. Female song rate and structure predict reproductive success in a socially monogamous bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Heather Brunton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is commonly regarded as a male trait that has evolved through sexual selection. However, recent research has prompted a re-evaluation of this view by demonstrating that female song is an ancestral and phylogenetically widespread trait. Species with female song provide opportunities to study selective pressures and mechanisms specific to females within the wider context of social competition. We investigated the relationship between reproductive success and female song performance in the New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura, a passerine resident year round in New Zealand temperate forests. We monitored breeding behavior and song over three years on Tiritiri Matangi Island. Female bellbirds contributed significantly more towards parental care than males (solely incubating young and provisioning chicks at more than twice the rate of males. Female song rate in the vicinity of the nest was higher than that of males during incubation and chick-rearing stages but similar during early-nesting and post-breeding stages. Using GLMs, we found that female song rates during both incubation and chick-rearing stages strongly predicted the number of fledged chicks. However, male song rate and male and female chick provisioning rates had no effect on fledging success. Two measures of female song complexity (number of syllable types and the number of transitions between different syllable types were also good predictors of breeding success (GLM on PC scores. In contrast, song duration, the total number of syllables, and the number of ‘stutter’ syllables per song were not correlated with fledging success. It is unclear why male song rate was not associated with reproductive success and we speculate that extra-pair paternity might play a role. While we have previously demonstrated that female bellbird song is important in intrasexual interactions, we clearly demonstrate here that female song predicts reproductive success. These results, with others

  6. Korean immigrants don't buy health insurance: The influences of culture on self-employed Korean immigrants focusing on structure and functions of social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyunsung; Jeong, Chung Hyeon

    2017-10-01

    Culture has been pinpointed as a culprit of disparities in health insurance coverage between Korean immigrants and other ethnic groups. This study explored specific mechanisms by which culture influences a decision to buy health insurance among self-employed Korean immigrants living in ethnic enclaves by focusing on the structure and functions of social networks. Between March and June 2015, we recruited 24 Korean immigrant adults (aged 18 or older) who identified as self-employed and being uninsured for substantial periods before 2014 in Southern California. Interviews were conducted in Korean, and Korean transcripts were translated into English by two bilingual interpreters. Using constant comparative analysis, we explored why participants didn't purchase health insurance after migrating to the United States and how their social networks influenced their decisions whether to purchase health insurance. Results indicate Korean immigrants sought health information from dense and homogeneous social networks whose members are mostly Korean immigrants embedded in similar social contexts. Social learning was frequently observed when people sought health care while uninsured. However, respondents often noted social ties do not provide helpful information about benefits, costs, and ways to use health insurance. "Koreans don't buy health insurance" was a dominant social norm reported by most respondents. Findings indicate that social learning and normative influence occur inside social networks and these mechanisms seemingly prevent purchasing of health insurance. In addition to the individual mandate in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, more targeted approaches that consider the structure and functions of social networks could improve the public health of Korean immigrants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Social problem solving among depressed adolescents is enhanced by structured psychotherapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura J.; Marshal, Michael P.; Burton, Chad M.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kolko, David; Duffy, Jamira N.; Brent, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Changes in adolescent interpersonal behavior before and after an acute course of psychotherapy were investigated as outcomes and mediators of remission status in a previously described treatment study of depressed adolescents. Maternal depressive symptoms were examined as moderators of the association between psychotherapy condition and changes in adolescents’ interpersonal behavior. Method Adolescents (n = 63, mean age = 15.6 years, 77.8% female, 84.1% Caucasian) engaged in videotaped interactions with their mothers before randomization to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), systemic behavior family therapy (SBFT), or nondirective supportive therapy (NST), and after 12–16 weeks of treatment. Adolescent involvement, problem solving and dyadic conflict were examined. Results Improvements in adolescent problem solving were significantly associated with CBT and SBFT. Maternal depressive symptoms moderated the effect of CBT, but not SBFT, on adolescents’ problem solving; adolescents experienced increases in problem solving only when their mothers had low or moderate levels of depressive symptoms. Improvements in adolescents’ problem solving were associated with higher rates of remission across treatment conditions, but there were no significant indirect effects of SBFT on remission status through problem solving. Exploratory analyses revealed a significant indirect effect of CBT on remission status through changes in adolescent problem solving, but only when maternal depressive symptoms at study entry were low. Conclusions Findings provide preliminary support for problem solving as an active treatment component of structured psychotherapies for depressed adolescents and suggest one Pathway by which maternal depression may disrupt treatment efficacy for depressed adolescents treated with CBT. PMID:24491077

  8. Social Structures and the Occupational Composition of Skilled Worker Immigrants to Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Dryburgh

    2005-12-01

    structures that influence the composition of the economic immigrant population over time. Over the last 20 years, economic immigrants to Canada have faced changing selection policies, cycles of economic recession and growth, increased demand for information technology skills, women’s increased labour force participation and an aging labour force. Using data from Statistics Canada’s Longitudinal Immigration Database (IMDB, this paper examines the flow of economic immigrants to Canada by their occupational composition from 1980 to 2000. Relative to Canadians, when all immigrants from this period are grouped together, their economic integration is slow and does not reach parity with Canadians before 16 years. Among skilled worker immigrants, whereas the earlier cohorts did well but did not improve much over time, later cohorts started off in a relatively worse position, but early indications show a fairly steep slope to better relative average earnings. These differences support the need to examine immigrant integration by both the class of immigrant and the context at the time of immigration.

  9. Study of Social, Cultural, Economic, Well-Being, and Urban Structure Needs of Tehran Seniors Association Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Shariat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This article aims to identifying social, cultural, economic, wellbeing, and urban structure needs of Tehran Seniors Association members and recognizing their current conditions in 8 areas with respect to WHO project on an age-friendly city indexes. Methods & Materials: Four hundred members of Tehran Seniors Association who lived in Tehran were selected by random sampling method (276 women and 124 men with the mean age of 63 years to participate in this descriptive-inferential study. Data were collected using a questionnaire, including inferential and descriptive parts. The descriptive part was divided into demographic characteristics with 12 questions and elders’ needs in 8 areas or 75 indexes. Scoring was conducted based on a 1 to 5 scale. Data analysis was performed using SPSS. Results: In the area of open spaces and buildings, the highest score belonged to “cleanness of public areas” and the lowest score to “providing special services in stores and banks” (mean scores of 2.50 and 1.65, respectively. Regarding transportation area, the highest score went to “appropriate installment of traffic signs at cross-roads” and the lowest score to “seniors specific transportation” (mean scores of 3.03 and 1.58, respectively. Concerning housing, “suitability of interior design” got the highest score and “affordable and adequate housing” got the lowest one (mean scores of 1.93 and 1.51, respectively. Regarding social participation, “allowance of proper time to seniors special occasions” and “aiding elders at risk of social isolation” (mean scores of 2.88 and 2.07, resectively got the maximum and minimum scores. Considering respect and socialization, “positive attitude toward elders in mass media” and “looking for elders’ advices on how to serve them better in commercial centers” (mean scores of 2.84 and1.74, respectively gained the highest and lowest scores, respectively. Concerning

  10. Overcoming dualisms: socio-productive trayectories in the analysis of horticultural social structure's transformations in La Plata Superando dualismos: trayectorias socio-productivas en el abordaje de las transformaciones en la estructura social hortícola platense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Waisman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents the main guidelines of the theorical and methodological strategy used in the underway investigation about horticultural social structure's transformations in La Plata's city in the last 20 years. This approach tries to overcome the dualism action-structure and individual-society, thinking them as being complementary aspects in the analysis of social reality. The contributions and limitations of two paradigms which are pronounced as antagonistic in explaining social behavior and the theories seeking to reconcile both approachs are analized. The trajectory concept is proposed as mediating concept used to bring together the historical process, the structural constrictions and the human agency. Linked to the teorical approach a qualitative metodological strategy was implemented based on semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Finally, this article argues that the major transformations that took place during the '90s in the social space investigated , affected the social status of horticultural producer.En el presente artículo se presentan los principales lineamientos de la estrategia teórico-metodológica que se está implementando en la investigación en curso, en la que se busca dar cuenta de las transformaciones en la estructura social hortícola platense, acaecida en los últimos 20 años. Este enfoque busca superar los dualismos acción y estructura e individuo y sociedad, pensándolos como aspectos complementarios en el abordaje de la realidad social. En este sentido, se revisan los aportes y limitaciones de dos paradigmas que se pronuncian como antagónicos en la explicación de la conducta social, como así también los aportes teóricos que buscan reconciliar ambas posturas. Se propone el concepto de trayectorias como concepto mediador, que permite reunir en el análisis tanto la historicidad de los procesos sociales, las constricciones estructurales y la agencia de las sujetos. A su vez

  11. Examining clinicians’ experiences providing sexual health services for LGBTQ youth: considering social and structural determinants of health in clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, R. E.; Shoveller, J. A.; Carson, A. M.; Contreras-Whitney, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Although barriers related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) youth’s experiences accessing sexual health services have been examined in detail, research into the experiences and perceptions of clinicians providing these services has been conspicuously absent. The aim of this article is to explore the perceptions and experiences of clinicians providing sexual health services for LGBTQ youth. Drawing on in-depth, semi-structured interviews, this study examines 24 clinicians’ experiences providing sexual health services to LGBTQ youth in five communities in British Columbia, Canada. Our findings reveal how many clinicians provide services to LGBTQ youth with a lack of cultural competency—either implicitly (e.g. by describing heteronormative practices) or explicitly (e.g. by expressing frustration that they had not been sufficiently provided with appropriate training related to LGBTQ youth sexual health). Institutional norms and values were identified as the dominant barriers in the effective provision of LGBTQ-tailored services. Many clinicians find themselves unprepared to provide culturally competent sexual health services that have both the capacity to address individual-level issues (e.g. promoting condom use) while considering (and adapting services to) the broader socio-cultural and structural conditions that can render LGBTQ youth socially vulnerable. PMID:24412811

  12. Multicultural counseling self-efficacy scale-racial diversity form: factor structure and test of a social cognitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Hung-Bin; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Lent, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to gather evidence on the factor structure and concurrent criterion validity of the multicultural counseling self-efficacy scale-racial diversity form (MCSE-RD; Sheu & Lent, 2007). The MCSE-RD was designed to assess therapists' perceived capabilities in performing culturally relevant in-session behaviors in cross-racial counseling. Participants were 209 students in counseling-related graduate programs in the USA. Confirmatory factor analyses identified a bifactor structure in which responses to MCSE-RD items could be explained by one generic and three multicultural-specific counseling self-efficacy factors. Support was also found for a social cognitive model in which self-efficacy and interests in multicultural counseling mediated the effects of prior cross-racial client contacts and perceptions of multicultural training environments on intent to perform multicultural counseling in the future. Additionally, outcome expectations were predictive of multicultural counseling interests and choice goals. Implications for multicultural training and directions for future research are highlighted.

  13. Corporate Social Responsibility and Organizational Structure in Companies Participating in the Gaúcho Program of Quality and Productivity (PGQP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Hennig Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the complexities of today's globalized world, CSR appears as an emerging and dynamic subject that enjoys increasing attention in the organizational context as it becomes a must for companies that want to stay competitive in the market. Faced with this context, the central objective of this study is to examine the ways in which companies bring corporate social responsibility into their organizational structures. As for the methodological procedures, this study appears as quantitative, descriptive and as a survey. The data collection instrument used was a questionnaire adapted from Aldama; Love; Trostianki (2009 in a sample of 15 companies which have won the RS Quality Award in the years 2011-2013 in the categories Diamond, Silver and Gold. As a result it was found that companies adopt different ways of incorporating CSR function into the organizational structure, much of which is still in the design phase, since the activities and responsibilities in this sector are not discharged within a specific division, but rather linked to other sectors, such as quality management, which has boosted the adoption of CSR by companies.

  14. Extensive geographical and social structure in the paternal lineages of Saudi Arabia revealed by analysis of 27 Y-STRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khubrani, Yahya M; Wetton, Jon H; Jobling, Mark A

    2018-03-01

    Saudi Arabia's indigenous population is organized into patrilineal descent groups, but to date, little has been done to characterize its population structure, in particular with respect to the male-specific region of the Y chromosome. We have used the 27-STR Yfiler ® Plus kit to generate haplotypes in 597 unrelated Saudi males, classified into five geographical regions (North, South, Central, East and West). Overall, Yfiler ® Plus provides a good discrimination capacity of 95.3%, but this is greatly reduced (74.7%) when considering the reduced Yfiler ® set of 17 Y-STRs, justifying the use of the expanded set of markers in this population. Comparison of the five geographical divisions reveals striking differences, with low diversity and similar haplotype spectra in the Central and Northern regions, and high diversity and similar haplotype spectra in the East and West. These patterns likely reflect the geographical isolation of the desert heartland of the peninsula, and the proximity to the sea of the Eastern and Western areas, and consequent historical immigration. We predicted haplogroups from Y-STR haplotypes, testing the performance of prediction by using a large independent set of Saudi Arabian Y-STR + Y-SNP data. Prediction indicated predominance (71%) of haplogroup J1, which was significantly more common in Central, Northern and Southern groups than in East and West, and formed a star-like expansion cluster in a median-joining network with an estimated age of ∼2800 years. Most of our 597 participants were sampled within Saudi Arabia itself, but ∼16% were sampled in the UK. Despite matching these two groups by home sub-region, we observed significant differences in haplotype and predicted haplogroup constitutions overall, and for most sub-regions individually. This suggests social structure influencing the probability of leaving Saudi Arabia, correlated with different Y-chromosome compositions. The UK-recruited sample is an inappropriate proxy for

  15. Social structure is where the hearth is: a "woman's place" in Beti society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseman, M

    1988-01-01

    the matrimonial ties to the mother's husband's group or (in the absence of bridewealth) to her father's group. Alignment is founded on ritual food distribution and operates through co-affinal links between women. On the level of lineage organization a woman's place is determined by a succession of mother-in-law/daughter-in-law ties. The woman's place in Beti society is thus defined by both the static domestic structure and by the dynamic supra-domestic lineage syste.

  16. Social influence and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ross A

    2010-10-01

    To review a selection of research published in the last 12 months on the role of social influence in the obesity epidemic. Recent papers add evidence to previous work linking social network structures and obesity. Social norms, both eating norms and body image norms, are identified as one major source of social influence through networks. Social capital and social stress are additional types of social influence. There is increasing evidence that social influence and social network structures are significant factors in obesity. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms of action and dynamics of social influence, and its link with other factors involved in the obesity epidemic, is an important goal for further research.

  17. Exploring the role of cognitive and structural forms of social capital in HIV/AIDS trends in the Kagera region of Tanzania - a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumence, Gasto; Eriksson, Malin; Nystrom, Lennarth; Killewo, Japhet; Emmelin, Maria

    2011-04-01

    The article presents a synthesis of data from three village case studies focusing on how structural and cognitive social capital may have influenced the progression of the HIV epidemic in the Kagera region of Tanzania. Grounded theory was used to develop a theoretical model describing the possible links between structural and cognitive social capital and the impact on sexual health behaviours. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were carried out to represent the range of experiences of existing social capital. Both structural and cognitive social capital were active avenues for community members to come together, empower each other, and develop norms, values, trust and reciprocal relations. This empowerment created an enabling environment in which members could adopt protective behaviours against HIV infection. On the one hand, we observed that involvement in formal and informal organisations resulted in a reduction of numbers of sexual partners, led people to demand abstinence from sexual relations until marriage, caused fewer opportunities for casual sex, and gave individuals the agency to demand the use of condoms. On the other hand, strict membership rules and regulations excluded some members, particularly excessive alcohol drinkers and debtors, from becoming members of the social groups, which increased their vulnerability in terms of exposure to HIV. Social gatherings (especially those organised during the night) were also found to increase youths' risk of HIV infection through instances of unsafe sex. We conclude that even though social capital may at times have negative effects on individuals' HIV-prevention efforts, this study provides initial evidence that social capital is largely protective through empowering vulnerable groups such as women and the poor to protect against HIV infection and by promoting protective sexual behaviours.

  18. Strengthening the enabling environment for women and girls: what is the evidence in social and structural approaches in the HIV response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, Karen; Gay, Jill; Croce-Galis, Melanie; Peltz, Amelia

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in expanding public health approaches that address social and structural drivers that affect the environment in which behaviour occurs. Half of those living with HIV infection are women. The sociocultural and political environment in which women live can enable or inhibit their ability to protect themselves from acquiring HIV. This paper examines the evidence related to six key social and structural drivers of HIV for women: transforming gender norms; addressing violence against women; transforming legal norms to empower women; promoting women's employment, income and livelihood opportunities; advancing education for girls and reducing stigma and discrimination. The paper reviews the evidence for successful and promising social and structural interventions related to each driver. This analysis contains peer-reviewed published research and study reports with clear and transparent data on the effectiveness of interventions. Structural interventions to address these key social and structural drivers have led to increasing HIV-protective behaviours, creating more gender-equitable relationships and decreasing violence, improving services for women, increasing widows' ability to cope with HIV and reducing behaviour that increases HIV risk, particularly among young people.

  19. Lives and Political Field. An Analysis of the Power Structure of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Reinhardt

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses methods and results of an explorative study of two generations of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD: the two generations comprise, on the one hand, older and younger members of the postwar generation who witnessed the Second World War as young soldiers or as children, and on the other hand, the generation that was born in the 1950s and has mainly been responsible for shaping policy for some years. The aim of my dissertation was to analyze the ability of the social democratic leadership to represent the full range of party members and (base voters by comparing two generations, using a sample of political leaders and the habitus/field-analysis inspired by Pierre BOURDIEU. The basis of the analysis were partly biographical, partly theme-focused interviews, as well as a range of sources and already published literature regarding the biographies of these political leaders. The following article is based on my dissertation and is focused on a description of selected theoretical implications, on the description of the essential criteria for selecting the sample and on some of the methods used. These are an analysis of the life, life and field effects, the factions and the development of types of political leaders. I will present some results to exemplify the methods used. They show that the ability of the SPD to represent the full range of party members and (base voters and the power structure of the SPD have changed, thus threatening the party’s status as a "Volkspartei." URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1102197

  20. Solving the collective-risk social dilemma with risky assets in well-mixed and structured populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yanling; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-11-01

    In the collective-risk social dilemma, players lose their personal endowments if contributions to the common pool are too small. This fact alone, however, does not always deter selfish individuals from defecting. The temptations to free ride on the prosocial efforts of others are strong because we are hardwired to maximize our own fitness regardless of the consequences which might have for the public good. Here we show that the addition of risky assets to the personal endowments, both of which are lost if the collective target is not reached, can contribute to solving the collective-risk social dilemma. In infinite well-mixed populations, risky assets introduce new stable and unstable mixed steady states, whereby the stable mixed steady state converges to full cooperation as either the risk of collective failure or the amount of risky assets increases. Similarly, in finite well-mixed populations, the introduction of risky assets enforces configurations where cooperative behavior thrives. In structured populations cooperation is promoted as well, but the distribution of assets among the groups is crucial. Surprisingly, we find that the completely rational allocation of assets only to the most successful groups is not optimal, and this regardless of whether the risk of collective failure is high or low. Instead, in low-risk situations bounded rational allocation of assets works best, while in high-risk situations the simplest uniform distribution of assets among all the groups is optimal. These results indicate that prosocial behavior depends sensitively on the potential losses individuals are likely to endure if they fail to cooperate.

  1. Poor structural social support is associated with an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus: findings from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altevers, J; Lukaschek, K; Baumert, J; Kruse, J; Meisinger, C; Emeny, R T; Ladwig, K H

    2016-01-01

    Several psychosocial factors have been shown to increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study investigated the association between structural social support and incidence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in men and women. Data were derived from three population-based MONICA/KORA surveys conducted in 1984-1995 in the Augsburg region (southern Germany) and followed up by 2009. The study population comprised 8952 participants (4669 men/4283 women) aged 30-74 years without diabetes at baseline. Structural social support was assessed using the Social Network Index. Sex-specific hazard ratios were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. Within follow-up, 904 incident Type 2 diabetes mellitus cases (558 men, 346 women) were observed. Crude incidence rates for Type 2 diabetes mellitus per 10 000 person-years were substantially higher in poor compared with good structural social support (men: 94 vs. 69, women: 58 vs. 43). After adjustment for age, survey, parental history of diabetes, smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, BMI, education, sleep complaints and depressed mood, risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus for participants with poor compared with good structural social support was 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11-1.55] in men and 1.10 (95% CI = 0.88-1.37) in women. Stratified analyses revealed a hazard ratio of 1.50 (95% CI = 1.23-1.83) in men with a low level of education and 0.87 (95% CI = 0.62-1.22) in men with a high level of education (P for interaction: 0.0082). Poor structural social support is associated with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in men. This association is independent of risk factors at baseline and is particularly pronounced in men with a low level of education. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  2. Social Entrepreneurship and Social Entreprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migrant women stepping into ethnic catering; homeless men employed to take care of bees producing honey for sale; young people on the edge getting microcredit funding to start social businesses; or former criminals joining forces to create social and economic structures for an honest lifestyle....... These initiatives capture the transformative power of social enterprise and might indicate how social enterprises have the potential to make a difference for people and societies. The Nordic countries represent an interesting case. Social enterprises and co-operatives played a significant part in paving the way...

  3. Structure Matters : The Role of Clique Hierarchy in the Relationship Between Adolescent Social Status and Aggression and Prosociality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pattiselanno, Kim; Dijkstra, Jan; Steglich, Christian; Vollebergh, Wilma; Veenstra, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Peer cliques form an important context for the social development of adolescents. Although clique members are often similar in social status, also within cliques, status differences exist. How differences in social status between clique members are related to behaviors of its individual members is

  4. Promoting Social Inclusion: A Structured Intervention for Enhancing Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachou, Anastasia; Stavroussi, Panayiota

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in providing students with disabilities, who are at risk of social isolation, with opportunities to develop social competence and self-determination. Specifically, the provision of opportunities for teaching these students to promote social problem-solving skills is potentially useful for facilitating their…

  5. LA VIDA DESPUÉS DE LA MUERTE: CRISIS DE REPRODUCCIÓN Y ESTRUCTURA SOCIAL DE UN GRUPO EVANGÉLICO / Life after death: crisis of reproduction and social structure of an evangelical group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Espinosa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo intenta comprender el sentido de los conflictos y cambios que derivaron de la muerte de dos líderes de un grupo evangélico conocido como Hermanos Libres en Santiago del Estero (Argentina. Sostendré que los conflictos y reformas que se desarrollaron expresan los componentes y el dinamismo de la estructura social cuando se juega drásticamente la reproducción del grupo. Las disputas familiares, las iglesias como unidades sociales significativas, los diferentes modos de construir liderazgos y las diferencias generacionales tensan y conjugan la estructura de relaciones en que se desenvuelve la vida del grupo. Delimitar esas formas estructurales permitirá conocer dinámicas procesuales de una situación de crisis y ponderar en rigor qué cambia y qué permanece cuando en el campo de estudios de la religión contemporáneo se habla de radicales transformaciones epocales.  Abstract  This article attempts to make sense of the stresses and directions of changes that occurred after the death of two leaders of an evangelical group. It argues that the conflicts and reforms derived from that conjuncture, in which the reproduction of the group was destabilized, reveal the components and dynamics of the social structure. Family disputes, the churches as significant social units, the different ways to build leadership and generational differences tighten and combine the structure of relationships unfolded by the Free Brethren. A goal of this article is to delineate the structural forms revealed in the procedural dynamics of a reproduction crisis. In the present field of studies of contemporary religion a common attitude of knowledge is to see radical transformation everywhere. Counterbalancing this tendency, my empirical work seek to comprehend what changes and what remains, or the limits unto which a religious or social group can move from traditional culture and social cores.

  6. The importance of psychological and social factors in influencing the uptake and maintenance of physical activity after stroke: a structured review of the empirical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jacqui; Oliver, Tracey; Kroll, Thilo; Macgillivray, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Background. People with stroke are not maintaining adequate engagement in physical activity (PA) for health and functional benefit. This paper sought to describe any psychological and social factors that may influence physical activity engagement after stroke. Methods. A structured literature review of studies indexed in MEDLINE, CinAHL, P&BSC, and PsycINFO using search terms relevant to stroke, physical disabilities, and PA. Publications reporting empirical findings (quantitative or qualitative) regarding psychological and/or social factors were included. Results. Twenty studies from 19 publications (9 surveys, 1 RCT, and 10 qualitative studies) were included. Seventeen studies reported findings pertinent to psychological factors and fourteen findings pertinent to social factors. Conclusion. Self-efficacy, physical activity beliefs, and social support appear particularly relevant to physical activity behaviour after stroke and should be included in theoretically based physical interventions. The Transtheoretical Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour are candidate behavioural models that may support intervention development.

  7. Structured Task versus Free Play: The Influence of Social Context on Parenting Quality, Toddlers' Engagement with Parents and Play Behaviors, and Parent-Toddler Language Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Bingham, Gary; Lewsader, Joellen; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Elicker, James

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little empirical research examines relations among the quality of both mothers' and fathers' social emotional and linguistic support of toddlers across multiple parent-child interaction contexts. Objective: The current study investigated the influence of parent gender (mother vs. father) and activity setting (structured task vs. free…

  8. A quantitative and qualitative review of the effects of testosterone on the function and structure of the human social-emotional brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heany, Sarah J; van Honk, Jack|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/188602801; Stein, Dan J; Brooks, Samantha J

    Social and affective research in humans is increasingly using functional and structural neuroimaging techniques to aid the understanding of how hormones, such as testosterone, modulate a wide range of psychological processes. We conducted a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging

  9. Using a Social Science--Fictional Play to Teach about Global Capitalism and Macro-Structural Systems in Introduction to Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelak, Cynthia Fabrizio; Duncan, Stacey

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the use of a social science-fictional play to teach macro-structural concepts related to global capitalism and surplus labor in a small and large Introduction to Sociology course. Relying on a cross-disciplinary and critical pedagogical approach that combines theory and practice to empower students to develop a critical…

  10. Organizational Learning from Cross-Cultural Experiences: An Ethnomethodological Case Study Examining the Relative Importance of Social Structure and Cultural Values during Dynamic Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldecker, Gary T.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored how social structure and cultural values dynamically interact in collective learning between two religious organizations cooperating in a joint project. It further explored the enablers of and impediments to collective learning in this context. The study employed the theoretical framework provided by the Organizational Learning…

  11. Predicting Stress Related to Basic Needs and Safety in Darfur Refugee Camps: A Structural and Social Ecological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Annan, Jeannie

    2010-03-01

    The research on the determinants of mental health among refugees has been largely limited to traumatic events, but recent work has indicated that the daily hassles of living in refugee camps also play a large role. Using hierarchical linear modelling to account for refugees nested within camp blocks, this exploratory study attempted to model stress surrounding safety and acquiring basic needs and functional impairment among refugees from Darfur living in Chad, using individual-level demographics (e.g., gender, age, presence of a debilitating injury), structural factors (e.g., distance from block to distribution centre), and social ecological variables (e.g., percentage of single women within a block). We found that stress concerning safety concerns, daily hassles, and functional impairment were associated with several individual-level demographic factors (e.g., gender), but also with interactions between block-level and individual-level factors as well (e.g., injury and distance to distribution centre). Findings are discussed in terms of monitoring and evaluation of refugee services.

  12. Sustaining the Higher Education Hub Model: The Challenge of Adequate Academic and Social Support Structures for International Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Richards

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Education Hub (EH concept has perhaps become the single most important focus of higher education policy in most Asian countries. A particular Asian Education Hub model (e.g. Cheng, 2010 is now globally influential with its emphasis on how governments can harness direct as well as indirect economic benefits of a higher education system. Such a model aims to prepare students for employment in an emerging global economy and also to attract fee-paying international students in terms of education as not just a public good but a key and increasingly important area of national investment and economic development. In a related paper which focused on a comparison between distinct Malaysian and Singaporean versions of Asian EH l models developed over the last two decades (Richards, 2011c, we investigated the dangers as well as opportunities at stake. In this paper, we investigate the linked idea that sufficient academic and social support structures for supporting international as well as local students provide the crucial key to the factors of sustainability needed to support the various versions of the general strategy of Higher Education internationalisation.

  13. Voxel-based morphometry multi-center mega-analysis of brain structure in social anxiety disorder

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    Janna Marie Bas-Hoogendam

    2017-01-01

    An international multi-center mega-analysis on the largest database of SAD structural T1-weighted 3T MRI scans to date was performed to compare GM volume of SAD-patients (n = 174 and healthy control (HC-participants (n = 213 using voxel-based morphometry. A hypothesis-driven region of interest (ROI approach was used, focusing on the basal ganglia, the amygdala-hippocampal complex, the prefrontal cortex, and the parietal cortex. SAD-patients had larger GM volume in the dorsal striatum when compared to HC-participants. This increase correlated positively with the severity of self-reported social anxiety symptoms. No SAD-related differences in GM volume were present in the other ROIs. Thereby, the results of this mega-analysis suggest a role for the dorsal striatum in SAD, but previously reported SAD-related changes in GM in the amygdala, hippocampus, precuneus, prefrontal cortex and parietal regions were not replicated. Our findings emphasize the importance of large sample imaging studies and the need for meta-analyses like those performed by the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA Consortium.

  14. Social Structures for Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Bogenrieder (Irma); B. Nooteboom (Bart)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis article investigates what learning groups there are in organizations, other than the familiar 'communities of practice'. It first develops an interdisciplinary theoretical framework for identifying, categorizing and understanding learning groups. For this, it employs a

  15. Individual differences in the resistance to social change and acceptance of inequality predict system legitimacy differently depending on the social structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, M.J.; Reyna, Christine

    2017-01-01

    We propose that individual differences in the resistance to social change and the acceptance of inequality can have divergent effects on legitimacy depending on the context. This possibility was tested in a sample of 27 European countries (N = 144 367) and across four experiments (total N = 475).

  16. Can Burt's Theory of Structural Holes be Applied to Study Social Support Among Mid-Age Female Sex Workers? A Multi-Site Egocentric Network Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie

    2017-12-01

    The epidemic of HIV/AIDS continues to spread among older adults and mid-age female sex workers (FSWs) over 35 years old. We used egocentric network data collected from three study sites in China to examine the applicability of Burt's Theory of Social Holes to study social support among mid-age FSWs. Using respondent-driven sampling, 1245 eligible mid-age FSWs were interviewed. Network structural holes were measured by network constraint and effective size. Three types of social networks were identified: family networks, workplace networks, and non-FSW networks. A larger effective size was significantly associated with a higher level of social support [regression coefficient (β) 5.43-10.59] across the three study samples. In contrast, a greater constraint was significantly associated with a lower level of social support (β -9.33 to -66.76). This study documents the applicability of the Theory of Structural Holes in studying network support among marginalized populations, such as FSWs.

  17. Explaining the role of personal, social and physical environment factors on employed women's physical activity: a structural equation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtari Aghdam, Fatemeh; Baghiani Moghaddam, Mohammad Hossein; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Dabagh Nikookheslat, Saed; Noorizadeh, Roghaieh

    2013-05-13

    PA is a multi-factorial behavior that is affected by interpersonal, intra personal, environmental and social factors. In this study we applied explanatory model to determine the total, indirect and direct impact of physical environment, personal factors and social support on PA among employed women. This study was a correlational cross-sectional study which was conducted to model total, indirect and direct impact of environmental, psychological and social factors on PA. A total of 200 women were chosen from Tabriz University by using convenience sampling method. Data about demographic characteristics, psychological variables, social and physical environment were gathered by using self-reported questionnaire and also the PA was measured by using the International PA Questionnaire and pedometer. personal factors, physical and social environment, showed direct effects on PA. Social factors could be seen to have indirect effects on PA through their influence on personal factors such as pros, cons and self-efficacy; also physical environment had indirect effects on PA through social environment. The total effects of physical and social environment on PA type were respectively 0.17, 0.16 on walking, 0.05, 0.07 on moderate activity and 0.15, 0.18 on vigorous activity. Findings from this study indicated that social factors had indirect effects on walking, moderate and vigorous activity, especially through the effects on these factors of self-efficacy, physical environment, pros and cons, and the interactive role of individual, environmental and social impacts on PA. The current study identifies that psychological, physical and social factors could be shown to have direct and indirect influences on all forms of activity. The barriers of PA were the most predictor of this behavior, and based on results, it can be concluded that decreasing the barriers along with improving social and physical environment can lead to increasing PA and health promotion.

  18. A Structural Equation Modeling of the Relationships between Depression, Drug Abuse and Social Support with Suicidal Ideation among Soldiers in Iran in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratabadi, Mehdi; Halvaiepour, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Military service is a crucial period in the lives of young people and during this period soldier facing with multiple psychosocial problems. The present study aimed to explore structural analysis of the relationships between depression, drug abuse, social support and the risk of suicidal ideation among Military Medical University soldiers in Iran. In the present correlational research, a sample of 176 soldiers, from three units, was selected using randomly stratified sampling. Data were collected through the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS) and the Possibility of Drug Abuse Scale (LDAS). Structural equation modeling was used to test the fit of the model, identify direct and indirect effects of the psychosocial correlates. Data were analyzed using the SPSS and AMOS software (Verson22). out of the whole subjects, 28.4% had suicidal ideation and 65.3% had degrees of depression (mild to severe). A significant reverse relationship was observed between social support and suicidal ideation (pdrug abuse and suicidal ideation. The final structural model indicated that 74% of the variance in suicidal ideation was explained by the three examined variables of depression, social support and drug abuse. The overall results showed that the risk of suicidal ideation, depression and drug abuse are relatively significant in Military Medical University soldiers requiring taking serious actions by the authorities and other relevant organizations in order to improve the psychosocial health status of these soldiers.

  19. The impact of early life family structure on adult social attachment, alloparental behavior, and the neuropeptide systems regulating affiliative behaviors in the monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd H Ahern

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Early social attachments lie at the heart of emotional and social development in many mammals, including humans. In nature, monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster experience considerable natural variation in early social attachment opportunities due to differences in family structure (e.g., single-mothers, solitary breeding pairs, and communal groups. We exploited some of this natural variation in family structure to examine the influence of early social environment on the development of adult social behavior. First, we characterized the parental care received by pups reared biparentally (BP or by a single-mother (SM in the laboratory. Second, we examined whether BP- and SM-reared offspring differed in adult nurturing, bonding, and emotional behaviors. Finally, we investigated the effects of rearing condition on neuropeptide systems that regulate adult social behavior (oxytocin, vasopressin, and corticotropin-releasing factor [CRF]. Observations revealed that SM-reared pups were exposed more frequently (P<0.01, licked and groomed less (P<0.01, and matured more slowly (P<0.01 than BP-reared pups. In adulthood, there were striking socio-behavioral differences: SM-reared females showed low spontaneous, pup-directed alloparental behavior (P<0.01 and both males and females from the SM-reared condition showed delayed partner preference formation. While rearing did not impact neuropeptide receptor densities in the ventral forebrain as we predicted, SM-reared animals, particularly females, had increased OT content (P<0.01 and greater dorsal raphe CRF2 densities (P<0.05 and both measures correlated with licking and grooming experienced during the first 10 days of life. These results suggest that naturalistic variation in social rearing conditions can introduce diversity into adult nurturing and attachment behaviors.

  20. Individual Differences in the Resistance to Social Change and Acceptance of Inequality Predict System Legitimacy Differently Depending on the Social Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We propose that individual differences in the resistance to social change and the acceptance of inequality can have divergent effects on legitimacy depending on the context. This possibility was tested in a sample of 27 European countries (N = 144 367) and across four experiments (total N = 475). Individual differences in the resistance to social change were related to higher levels of perceived legitimacy no matter the level of inequality of the society. Conversely, individual differences in the acceptance of inequality were related to higher levels of perceived legitimacy in unequal societies, but either a relationship near zero or the opposite relationship was found in more equal societies. These studies highlight the importance of distinguishing between individual differences that make up political ideology, especially when making predictions in diverse settings. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Personality published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Association of Personality Psychology PMID:28706346