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Sample records for aorta abdominal infrarrenal

  1. Tratamento endovascular do aneurisma da aorta abdominal infrarrenal em pacientes com anatomia favorável para o procedimento: experiência inicial em um serviço universitário Endovascular treatment of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm in patients with favorable anatomy for the repair: initial experience in a university hospital

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    José Manoel da Silva Silvestre

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Desde sua introdução, em 1991, o reparo endovascular do aneurisma da aorta abdominal infrarrenal tem se tornado uma alternativa atraente para o tratamento dessa doença. Avaliar nossos resultados iniciais quanto à segurança e eficácia dessa técnica nos levou à realização deste estudo. OBJETIVOS: Analisar a mortalidade perioperatória, a sobrevida tardia, as reoperações, as taxas de perviedade e o comportamento do saco aneurismático em pacientes com anatomia favorável para a realização do procedimento. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo longitudinal, observacional e retrospectivo realizado entre outubro de 2004 e janeiro de 2009 com 41 pacientes que foram submetidos à correção endovascular do aneurisma de aorta abdominal infrarrenal por apresentarem anatomia favorável para o procedimento. Foram analisados os achados dos exames diagnósticos, o tratamento e o seguimento em todos os pacientes. RESULTADOS: Foram implantadas, com sucesso, 31 (75,6% próteses bifurcadas e 10 (24,5% monoilíacas, de 5 diferentes marcas. O diâmetro médio dos aneurismas fusiformes era de 62 mm. A mortalidade perioperatória foi de 4,8% e a sobrevida tardia, 90,2%. Durante o acompanhamento médio de 30 meses, 2 (4,8% pacientes necessitaram de reintervenção, um por migração da endoprótese e outro por vazamento tipo II. Dois (4,8% pacientes apresentaram oclusão de ramo da prótese. Oito (19,5% vazamentos foram diagnosticados e não houve nenhuma rotura dos aneurismas. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar do pequeno número de pacientes, os resultados observados parecem justificar a realização do procedimento endovascular nos pacientes com anatomia favorável.BACKGROUND: Since its introduction in 1991, endovascular repair of infrarenal aortic aneurysms has become an attractive option to treat this disease. The evaluation of our initial results about safety and efficacy of this technique has led us to carry out this study. OBJECTIVES: To analyze

  2. Desarrollo de un modelo predictivo de mortalidad a largo plazo y complicaciones relacionadas con la endoprótesis, en la reparacion endovascular de aneurismas de aorta abdominal infrarrenal

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    Gómez Palonés, Francisco Julián

    2015-01-01

    Desde el inicio de la reparación endovascular de aneurismas de aorta abdominal infra renal, la progresión de dicho tratamiento ha superado en numero al realizado anualmente mediante cirugía abierta convencional, en la mayoría de servicios de Cirugía Vascular. A ello ha contribuido principalmente la menor mortalidad operatoria los 30 días y al atractivo que supone para pacientes un procedimiento menos agresivo y para los profesionales, el ofrecer una alternativa en casos en los que la cirugía...

  3. Sequential PTA of abdominal aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of sequential dilatation of a subtotal stenosis of the abdominal aorta in a young subject is reported. Initial and long-term success of the procedure is recorded using haemodynamic evaluation and intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA) follow-up on an outpatient basis. In addition, the significance of biplane aortography with IV-DSA is illustrated. (orig.)

  4. Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta.

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    Barchiche, R; Bové, T; Demanet, H; Goldstein, J P; Deuvaert, F E

    1999-08-01

    A traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta is a rare entity, occurring as the result of a missed aortic lesion at the time of the initial injury. Therefore, clinical suspicion and careful abdominal exploration at first laparotomy is mandatory to prevent aortic pseudoaneurysm formation and its risk of delayed rupture. We present a case of successful surgical treatment of a suprarenal aortic false aneurysm, presenting 4 weeks after a life-threatening gunshot wound in a 13-year-old child. PMID:10499389

  5. Transluminar catheter angioplasty of abdominal aorta in Takayasu's arteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine patients with Takayasu's arteritis and a long stenotic segment of the abdominal aorta were treated by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Intermittent claudication dissappeared in six of seven cases, the femoral pulse reappeared in all five; ankle/arm indices increased in seven cases; elevated blood pressure normalized in seven of eight cases. Seven patients were followed for 3 to 28 months. They were all free of symptoms from the lower extremities. In three patients with or without renal artery stenosis and with hypertension, the blood pressure decreased after PTA of the abdominal aorta only. PTA may be a valuable treatment in Takayasu's arteritis and stenosis of the abdominal aorta. (orig.)

  6. Infected aneurysm of abdominal aorta: early CT finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infected abdominal aortic aneurysm is an uncommon but life-threatening disease, especially in case of salmonella infection. Early CT findings should be well known in order to allow immediate diagnosis and accurate management. The authors present an early CT finding of a salmonella infected aneurysm of abdominal aorta in an HIV-infected patient. This pattern consists in a slight-enhancing focal densification of peri-aortic soft-tissue, while aorta remains of normal size. Within two weeks, infection progressed to the constitution of an infected aneurysm. This CT finding seems to be initial to previously described signs. (author)

  7. Marfan's syndrome and isolated aneurysm of the abdominal aorta.

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    Van Ooijen, B.

    1988-01-01

    A 43 year old woman presented with an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. Marfan's syndrome was diagnosed as the underlying cause of the aneurysm. An isolated aneurysm as presenting sign of Marfan's syndrome is rare. In a review of published reports about 30 cases were found.

  8. Os ramos colaterais da aorta abdominal em jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis

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    Luane L. Pinheiro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis é uma das espécies de felino silvestre que pouco foi investigada quanto a sua morfologia. Assim, o estudo objetivou detalhar a origem e distribuição dos ramos colaterais da aorta abdominal deste animal. Avaliou-se dois exemplares, sendo um macho e uma fêmea, jovens, provenientes de Paragominas-PA, doados ao Laboratório de Pesquisa Morfológica Animal (LaPMA da Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA. O sistema arterial foi preenchido com látex pigmentado de vermelho e os cadáveres foram preservados com solução de formaldeído tamponado a 10%. A aorta abdominal do L. pardalis teve origem entre T12 e L1, sendo a artéria celíaca o primeiro ramo visceral no sentido crânio-caudal, resultando nas artérias hepática, gástrica esquerda e esplênica. A artéria mesentérica cranial surgiu como segundo ramo da aorta abdominal, originando as artérias jejunais. Na sequência localizamos artéria pancreáticoduodenal caudal, artérias ileais, artérias ileocólicas, artérias renais direita e esquerda, artérias adrenais direita e esquerda e artérias ováricas ou testiculares direita e esquerda. Parietalmente, a aorta abdominal originou em média seis ramos lombares, bem como a artéria frenicoabdominal, as artérias circunflexas ilíacas profundas e artérias ilíacas externa e interna. A aorta abdominal gerou ainda a artéria mesentérica caudal, a qual dividiu-se em artérias cólica esquerda e retal cranial. A artéria cólica esquerda seguiu cranialmente paralela ao cólon descendente irrigando-o, originando em média 18 ramos, e anastomosando-se com a artéria cólica média. A artéria retal cranial seguiu em direção caudal distribuindo oito ramos à porção final do cólon descendente e ao reto, e uniu-se com a artéria retal média. Por fim, a aorta abdominal emitiu como ramo terminal a artéria sacral mediana. A vascularização arterial abdominal desta espécie é bastante semelhante ao

  9. Os ramos colaterais da aorta abdominal em jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Luane L. Pinheiro; Elenara B. Araújo; Ana Rita de Lima; Danielli M. Martins; Raysa Melul; Ana Carla B. Souza; Luiza C. Pereira; Érika Branco

    2014-01-01

    A jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis) é uma das espécies de felino silvestre que pouco foi investigada quanto a sua morfologia. Assim, o estudo objetivou detalhar a origem e distribuição dos ramos colaterais da aorta abdominal deste animal. Avaliou-se dois exemplares, sendo um macho e uma fêmea, jovens, provenientes de Paragominas-PA, doados ao Laboratório de Pesquisa Morfológica Animal (LaPMA) da Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA). O sistema arterial foi preenchido com látex pigmenta...

  10. Gunshot injuries of the abdominal aorta: a continuing challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiannis, E; Levy, R D; Florizoone, M G; Badicel, T V; Badicel, M; Saadia, R

    1997-04-01

    This is a retrospective study of 57 patients with gunshot injuries of the abdominal aorta. The aortic repair was achieved by various means: lateral aortorraphy, patch aortoplasty and graft insertion. There was an 85 per cent mortality rate from bleeding or secondary coagulopathy directly related to the aortic injuries. The need for resuscitative thoracotomy, shock, lack of response to fluid resuscitation and intraperitoneal bleeding were directly related to mortality. We feel that shortening of prehospital transfer time will increase the absolute number of patients surviving this grave injury. PMID:9274736

  11. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the infrarenal abdominal aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) (n=13) of the lower abdominal aorta are reported in 12 patients. The mean patient age was relatively low (46 years). In 7 cases there were isolated aortic obstructions (6 stenoses, 1 occlusion). In the remaining 6 aortic stenoses, there were also major atherosclerotic lesions distally. The mean diameter of the aortic section in which PTA was performed, measured 8.2 mm. The total diameter of the PTA balloon(s) averaged 19.1 mm. The arterial gradient dropped significantly from 41.4 mm Hg (mean) to 2 mm Hg after PTA. The arm-ankle index increases significantly from 0.64 to 0.97. The follow-up included 9 patients; 1 showed restenosis 38 month after PTA. There were no clinically relevant complications. The data published on abdominal PTA in atherosclerotic lesions are summarized. (orig.)

  12. Value of helical computed tomography in diagnosis abdominal aorta aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civilization progress and achievements of medicine makes the human life longer. The exposure on vessel injuring factors such as smoking and improper diet is still growing. For those reasons the number of abdominal aorta aneurysms also increased. Early detection of this pathology, its therapy and follow up considering the most sophisticated diagnostic methods is very important. In years 2000-2002 2989 helical computed tomography (HCT) examinations of the abdomen were performed in Dolnoslaski Osrodek Diagnostyki Obrazowej. In 173 patients (141 M and 32 F) aneurysms of abdominal aorta have been found. From this group 127 (101 M and 26 F) were patients of Surgical Ward of our hospital. 73 (63 M and 10 F) underwent the surgical operation of prosthesis implantation. 13 persons (11M and 2 F) were primarily qualified for endovascular stent-graft implantation, in 7 male this procedure was performed. In 159 patients AAA was primarily diagnosed in ultrasound (USG) examination (100%). In 10 cases additional MR examination was performed. In 13 patients qualified for stent-grafting we also performed DSA. USG examination revealed high sensitivity in establishing aneurysm diameter. HCT is characterized by significantly higher sensitivity and specificity in evaluation of renal and iliac pervasion, in comparison to USG. HCT allows for detection of concomitant pathologies and complications. HCT is necessary before stent-graft implantation and in the follow-up. There is no significant prevalence of MR over HCT. It should be performed in cases with doubtful renal arteries location, or when HCT is contraindicated. (author)

  13. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms Rastreamento de aneurismas da aorta abdominal

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    Telmo Pedro Bonamigo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms may be useful to decrease mortality related to rupture. We conducted a study to assess the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms in southern Brazil and to define risk factors associated with high prevalence of this disorder. The screening was conducted using abdominal ultrasound. Three groups were studied: Group 1 - cardiology clinic patients; Group 2 - individuals with severe ischemic disease and previous coronary surgery, or important lesions on cardiac catheterism; Group 3 - individuals without cardiac disease selected from the general population. All individuals were male and older than 54 years of age. The ultrasonographic diagnosis of aneurysm was based on an anteroposterior abdominal aorta diameter of 3 cm, or on an abdominal aorta diameter 0.5 cm greater than that of the supra-renal aorta. RESULTS: A total of 2.281 people were screened for abdominal aortic aneurysms in all groups: Group 1 - 768 individuals, Group 2 - 501 individuals, and Group 3 - 1012 individuals. The prevalence of aneurysms was 4.3%, 6.8% and 1.7%, respectively. Age and cigarette smoking were significantly associated with increased prevalence of aneurysms, as was the diagnosis of peripheral artery disease. DISCUSSION: We concluded that screening may be an important tool to prevent the mortality associated with abdominal aortic aneurysms surgery. Additionally, the cost of screening can be decreased if only individuals presenting significant risk factors, such as coronary and peripheral artery disease, smokers and relatives of aneurysm patients, are examined.OBJETIVO E MÉTODOS: O rastreamento de aneurisma da aorta abdominal infra-renal é importante pois pode diminuir a mortalidade relacionada à ruptura. Realizamos um estudo para definir a prevalência desses aneurismas em diversos segmentos da população em nossa região do Brasil. O rastreamento foi realizado utilizando-se a ecografia de abdômen. Tr

  14. [Aneurysm of the abdominal aorta and preoperative disseminated intravascular coagulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, V; Bussac, J J; Jullian, H; Juhan-Vague, I; Branchereau, A

    1991-01-01

    A case of abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with preoperative signs of disseminated intravascular coagulation is reported. The 69-year-old female patient presented with spontaneously appearing petechiae and bruising. She had 0.95 g.l-1 fibrinogen, 105 G.l-1 platelets, and 100 micrograms.ml-1 fibrin and fibrinogen degradation products. Investigations revealed an 80 mm diameter aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, extending from the coeliac trunk to the iliac arteries. Heparin 7,000 IU.day-1 resulted in a biological improvement for a week only. At that time, levels of coagulation factors were: 92% factor II, 88% factor V, 100% factors VII and X, 100% antithrombin III. Surgical cure of the aneurysm was nevertheless carried out. Twenty standard units of platelets, 8 g fibrinogen, four units of fresh frozen plasma, five homologous and two autologous red cell units were transfused during the procedure. No coagulation factors were necessary during the postoperative course, which was uneventful. The management of coagulation factor infusions, before or after aortic cross-clamping, is discussed. PMID:2058833

  15. An unusual combination of a tuberculous aneurysm of the thoracic aorta and a degenerative aneurysm of the infrarenal abdominal aorta.

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    Avaro, Jean-Philippe; Amabile, Philippe; Paule, Philippe; Peloni, Jean-Michel; Piquet, Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Tuberculous aneurysms of the aorta are rare and give rise to various issues related to their diagnosis and treatment. In this article, we report on an exceptional case concerning a patient who presented with a false tuberculous aneurysm of the thoracic aorta and a degenerative aneurysm of the infrarenal abdominal aorta concomitantly. A discussion on how we approached the diagnosis and devised a therapeutic strategy that allowed us to treat this dual aortic disease effectively has also been provided. The discussion includes details of the order of treatment and the choice between an endovascular and a surgical approach. PMID:21724110

  16. Abdominal aorta coarctation: The first three case reports in our literature

    OpenAIRE

    Gajin Predrag; Tanasković Slobodan; Nenezić Dragoslav; Ilijevski Nenad; Radak Đorđe

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Congenital coarctation of the thoracic aorta at the ligamentum arteriosum or the aortic arch is well recognized. But a much less common variety (0.5-2.0%) of aortic coarctation is located in the distal thoracic aorta or abdominal aorta or both and is often called 'middle aortic syndrome' or 'midaortic dysplastic syndrome'. This represents serious pathological condition and indicates multidisciplinary therapy approach. Outline of Cases. From 1996 to 2007, at the Vascular Surgery ...

  17. Anatomic radiological study of transverse diameter of abdominal aorta by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transverse diameter of abdominal aorta by computerized tomography is studied. The purpose is establish the frequent standard diameters and then diagnose early pathologies, mainly aneurisms. (M.A.C.)

  18. Evaluation of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta diameters by computerized tomography; Avaliacao dos diametros normais da aorta toracica e abdominal pela tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarelli, Claudio Luiz

    1995-07-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate, through computerized tomography, the diameters of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta, as well as they are connected to gender, age and body surface area; and the ratio between measurements obtained at the ascending and descending limbs of the thoracic aorta, and between the abdominal aortic diameters. For that reason, we measured the widest anteroposterior diameters of the thoracic aortas at the levels of the arch, the root, the pulmonary artery, and the thoracic-abdominal transition, as well as the level of the emergence of the superior mesenteric artery, of the renal hila and just cephalad to the bifurcation of the abdominal aortas of 350 patients without cardiovascular diseases who had undergone computerized tomography of the thorax and/or abdomen for any other reasons. Observation and statistic analyses led us to conclude that: 1) both the thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters are reduced from their proximal to their distal portions; 2) the body surface influences the size of the aorta, although only extreme variations alter the vessel's caliber; 3) vessel diameter was observed to gradually increase with age; 4) men were found to have larger diameters than age matched women; 5) the ratio between the ascending and descending aortic diameters varies according to gender and age; 6) the relations between abdominal aortic diameters measured at the level of renal hila and cephalad to the bifurcation are independent from gender and age. But the relation between those measured at the level of the superior mesenteric artery and cephalad to the bifurcation are linked to gender, but not to age. (author)

  19. TRATAMIENTO PERCUTÁNEO CON PRÓTESIS ENDOVASCULAR DE COARTACIÓN DE AORTA ABDOMINAL EN UN ADULTO / Percutaneous treatment with endovascular prosthesis of abdominal aortic coarctation in an adult

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    Luis Felipe Vega Fleites

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La coartación de la aorta abdominal es una afección vascular no hereditaria poco frecuente, que afecta a hombres y mujeres por igual. Recientemente ha sido nombrada como “Síndrome aórtico medio”, y los hallazgos clínicos son similares a los de la CoAo típica. Para el diagnóstico, se debe recurrir a la resonancia magnética o a la arteriografía, y las opciones terapéuticas incluyen la dilatación percutánea con catéter-globo, el tratamiento quirúrgico y, por último, como opción más novedosa, la implantación de prótesis endovasculares. En este artículo presentamos el caso de una mujer de 45 años de edad, exfumadora, con antecedentes de artritis reumatoidea e hipertensión arterial que presentaba claudicación de miembros inferiores durante la marcha. Existía una disminución bilateral marcada de los pulsos femorales y el Doppler, y mostró un componente amortiguado en ambas arterias femorales y poplíteas. La AngioTAC encontró una estenosis significativa del tercio distal de la aorta abdominal infrarrenal, con hipoplasia marcada de la ilíaca derecha. La aortografía corroboró el diagnóstico (gradiente de 80 mmHg. A través de dos introductores arteriales por las arterias femorales se avanzaron dos catéteres-globo MATCH-35 de 5.0x80 mm que se inflaron simultáneamente y posteriormente, se implantó un stent MEDTRONIC “Bridge Assurant” de 10 x 30 mm en el segmento estenótico, sin complicaciones. El gradiente residual fue de 10 mmHg. La paciente evolucionó favorablemente y fue egresada a las 24 horas del procedimiento. / Abstract: Coarctation of the abdominal aorta is an uncommon, non-inherited vascular condition that affects men and women alike. It has been recently named as "middle aortic syndrome", and the clinical findings are similar to those of typical aortic coarctation. For diagnosis, one must make use of magnetic resonance imaging or arteriography, and therapeutic options include percutaneous

  20. Abdominal aorta coarctation: The first three case reports in our literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajin Predrag

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Congenital coarctation of the thoracic aorta at the ligamentum arteriosum or the aortic arch is well recognized. But a much less common variety (0.5-2.0% of aortic coarctation is located in the distal thoracic aorta or abdominal aorta or both and is often called 'middle aortic syndrome' or 'midaortic dysplastic syndrome'. This represents serious pathological condition and indicates multidisciplinary therapy approach. Outline of Cases. From 1996 to 2007, at the Vascular Surgery Clinic of the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases 'Dedinje', Belgrade, three patients were treated due to abdominal aorta coarctation, two females aged 55 and 50 and a 4-year-old child. The patients were treated surgically (by-pass with a prosthetic graft and patch angioplasty and endovascular-percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA with and without a stent. The follow-up period was 3-70 months. In the 50-year-old patient, angiography showed severe narrowing of the suprarenal segment of the abdominal aorta. Thoraco-abdominal bypass with a 16 mm dacronic tubular graft was performed. In the 4-year-old patient angiography also showed a suprarenal aorta narrowing. In the first act patch angioplasty was performed and after PTA of the visceral arteries was done on several occasions. In the 55-year-old patient, after diagnostic angiography, infrarenal aorta coarctation was registered. PTA was performed with stent placement. All patients were asymptomatic on control check-ups. Conclusion. Abdominal coarctation is a pathological disease which is seldom found in vascular surgery. Angiography is of major importance for setting the diagnosis and for the control of the results of surgical and nonsurgical treatment. The combination of surgical and endovascular treatment in our patients showed very good results in the studied period.

  1. Evaluation of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta diameters by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was undertaken to evaluate, through computerized tomography, the diameters of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta, as well as they are connected to gender, age and body surface area; and the ratio between measurements obtained at the ascending and descending limbs of the thoracic aorta, and between the abdominal aortic diameters. For that reason, we measured the widest anteroposterior diameters of the thoracic aortas at the levels of the arch, the root, the pulmonary artery, and the thoracic-abdominal transition, as well as the level of the emergence of the superior mesenteric artery, of the renal hila and just cephalad to the bifurcation of the abdominal aortas of 350 patients without cardiovascular diseases who had undergone computerized tomography of the thorax and/or abdomen for any other reasons. Observation and statistic analyses led us to conclude that: 1) both the thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters are reduced from their proximal to their distal portions; 2) the body surface influences the size of the aorta, although only extreme variations alter the vessel's caliber; 3) vessel diameter was observed to gradually increase with age; 4) men were found to have larger diameters than age matched women; 5) the ratio between the ascending and descending aortic diameters varies according to gender and age; 6) the relations between abdominal aortic diameters measured at the level of renal hila and cephalad to the bifurcation are independent from gender and age. But the relation between those measured at the level of the superior mesenteric artery and cephalad to the bifurcation are linked to gender, but not to age. (author)

  2. Sequential PTA of abdominal aorta. Haemodynamic evaluation and IV-DSA follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstra, B R; Janevski, B K

    1987-04-01

    A case of sequential dilatation of a subtotal stenosis of the abdominal aorta in a young subject is reported. Initial and long-term success of the procedure is recorded using haemodynamic evaluation and intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA) follow-up on an outpatient basis. In addition, the significance of biplane aortography with IV-DSA is illustrated. PMID:3033770

  3. Sequential PTA of abdominal aorta. Haemodynamic evaluation and IV-DSA follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walstra, B.R.J.; Janevski, B.K.

    1987-04-01

    A case of sequential dilatation of a subtotal stenosis of the abdominal aorta in a young subject is reported. Initial and long-term success of the procedure is recorded using haemodynamic evaluation and intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA) follow-up on an outpatient basis. In addition, the significance of biplane aortography with IV-DSA is illustrated.

  4. A mycotic aneurysm of the abdominal aorta in a child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Suijker (W.); J.H.L.J. Bergmeijer (Jan Hein); J.J. Hamming (J.); J.C. Molenaar

    1991-01-01

    textabstractA 6-year-old boy with a previous history of intracardiac correction of a partial atrioventricular canal defect presented with infective endocarditis. Despite antibiotic therapy and reoperation, he developed a mycotic abdominal aneurysm. In situ aortoiliac reconstruction with a prosthesis

  5. Ultra-sonografia da aorta abdominal e de seus ramos em cães Ultrasonography of abdominal aorta and its branches in dogs

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    Lilian Kamikawa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O ultra-som bidimensional e o ultra-som Doppler foram utilizados para avaliar a biometria e a hemodinâmica da aorta abdominal e artérias ilíacas externas de 131cães clinicamente normais. Os resultados da avaliação biométrica da aorta abdominal indicaram um diâmetro médio de 0,80cm para o seu segmento diafragmático (AOD; 0,74cm para o seu segmento caudal às artérias renais (AOR e 0,69cm para o segmento cranial à sua bifurcação (AOT. A artéria ilíaca externa direita (AIED apresentou o diâmetro médio de 0,42cm e a artéria ilíaca externa esquerda (AIEE o diâmetro médio de 0,39. O estudo hemodinâmico da aorta abdominal apresentou velocidade de pico sistólico médio de 104,00cm/s para AOR; 99,61cm/s para AOT; 85,47cm/s para AIED e 99,51cm/s para AIEE. Verificaram-se correlações de diferentes intensidades entre os diâmetros vasculares em diferentes pontos de tomadas e os fatores biométricos corpóreos (CRL. Correlações baixas foram observadas quando esses diâmetros foram confrontados com a idade.A duplex ultrasound system incorporating a pulsed wave Doppler ultrasound probe with conventional B-mode real-time imaging was used to evaluate the biometric and the hemodynamic of abdominal aorta and external iliac arteries of a hundred and thirty one normal dogs. Results of biometrics of abdominal aorta, presented a mean diameter of 0.80cm in its diaphragmatic segment (AOD; 0.74cm in its segment caudal to the renal arteries (AOR and 0.69cm in the segment cranial to its termination (AOT. The right-external-iliac artery (AIED presented a mean diameter of 0.42cm and the left-external iliac artery (AIEE a mean diameter of 0.39cm. The hemodynamic study of the abdominal aorta presented a medium systolic peak velocity to AOR of 104cm per sec.; to AOT of 99.61cm per sec.; to AIED of 85.47cm per sec. and to AIEE of 99.51cm per sec. Correlations of different intensities between the vascular diameters have been verified between the

  6. MR angiography of the abdominal aorta: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowing blood can be demonstrated as bright signal in MR-imaging resulting in MR-angiography (MRA). This study presents the results of MRA using the 'time of flight'-effect in which projection angiograms along the longitudinal axis were established by a row of 2D-gradient echo (GE) images (FLASH) in breathhold technique. The method was proven in 5 normal volunteers and evaluated against DSA in 21 patients with aortic diseases. The preliminary results demonstrate a satisfactory flow signal in the normally perfused aorta; thus occlusions, stenoses, and aneurysms could be defined clearly. In smaller vessels the signal was still insufficient. Diagnostic problems of vascular overlapping can be solved in most cases by rotating the angiograms, and by additional analysis of individual 2D-GE images. In the present form the quality of MRA is still inferior to that of DSA. (orig.)

  7. Thrombosis of abdominal aorta during cisplatin-based chemotherapy of testicular seminoma - a case report

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    Gehrckens Ralf

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular complications occurring during cisplatin-based chemotherapy of germ cell tumours are inadequately recognized to date. Case Presentation A 49 year old man with advanced seminoma underwent two courses of chemotherapy according to the PEB regimen. Upon restaging, two thrombotic deposits were noted in the descending part of the thoracic aorta and in the infrarenal abdominal aorta, respectively. Although thrombotic plaques caused aortic occlusion of about 30%, no clinical signs of malperfusion of limbs were registered. The patient was placed on anticoagulant therapy. Six months after completion of chemotherapy, thrombotic deposits had completely resolved. In the absence of other predisposing factors, it must be assumed that cisplatin-based chemotherapy represented a strong stimulus for arterial thrombosis in the aorta. Conclusions This is the first case of endo-aortic thrombosis during chemotherapy for testicular germ cell cancer. Providers of chemotherapy must be aware of arterial thrombosis even in young patients with testicular cancer.

  8. An isolated left subclavian artery supplied by a collateral artery from the abdominal aorta

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    Ming, Zhu; Qian, Wang [Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai (China)

    2009-08-15

    An isolated left subclavian artery is a rare anomaly. We report a 9-month-old boy with an isolated left subclavian artery associated with tetralogy of Fallot and the right aortic arch. MRI and angiography show that the blood supply through the left subclavian artery was maintained by a large tortuous collateral artery from the abdominal aorta. This type of collateral artery structure is unique. (orig.)

  9. An isolated left subclavian artery supplied by a collateral artery from the abdominal aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isolated left subclavian artery is a rare anomaly. We report a 9-month-old boy with an isolated left subclavian artery associated with tetralogy of Fallot and the right aortic arch. MRI and angiography show that the blood supply through the left subclavian artery was maintained by a large tortuous collateral artery from the abdominal aorta. This type of collateral artery structure is unique. (orig.)

  10. Clinical analysis of abdominal aorta block in operation of gynecologic tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Yu-lan; TANG Chun-sheng; WEN Ze-qing; YIN Fu-bo; LIU Ming

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the clinical effects of the abdominal aorta block in controlling haemorrhage during operations of the gynecologic tumor. Methods: From July 1965 to January 2005, we collected patients (n= 49) of gynecologic tumor complicated with haemorrhage during operations, who were divided into 3 groups: preventive blocking group (PG, n= 12), treatment blocking group (TG, n= 20) used abdominal aorta block technique with sterilized cotton band and silica gel tube, and control group (CG, n=17) which were used the regular haemostatic methods, such as ligature, suture and ribbon gauze packing.During operations, the vital signs including the amount of bleeding and transfusion were measured. Results: Compared with the CG, the amount of bleeding and transfusion in the PG and TG decreased significantly (P<0.01). After using the technique, 32 cases of haemorrhage were controlled completely. All patients finished operation smoothly in the end and the vital signs were stable. The vision field of operation was clear and the operating time was shortened dramatically (3.0 h vs 5.7 h and 3.8 h vs 5.7 h, P<0.01). No complications caused by the block occurred in the post-operation. Conclusion: Lower abdominal aorta block is safe and effective in controlling haemorrhage during operations of the gynecologic tumor.

  11. Morphological description of collateral branches from the abdominal aorta of lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Costa Macedo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tamandua tetradactyla, Xenarthra, is a native species from South America which, due to the few number of studies on its biology, still has many unknown aspects in its morphology. Taking into account the importance of morphological data for various studies, this paper aimed to elucidate the branching of the abdominal aorta in this species to foster the development of further studies. To do this, 4 specimens were used, 2 male and 2 female, all young, from the Bauxite Mine – Paragominas, Para, Brazil, donated after death due to running over to the Animal Morphology Research Laboratory (LaPMA of Universidade Federal Rural da Amazonia (UFRA. The arterial system was filled with contrasted latex and the animals were fixed in a formaldehyde solution (10%, and then dissected, in order to evidence the abdominal aorta and its collateral branches. The parietal branches consisted of 1 pair of caudal phrenic arteries, 2 pairs of intercostal arteries, and 3 pairs of lumbar arteries. Among the visceral branches, stood out: celiac artery; cranial mesenteric artery; adrenal arteries; renal arteries; caudal mesenteric artery; and external, internal, and median sacral iliac arteries, formed from the final portion of the abdominal aorta. Testicular and ovarian arteries originated from the renal arteries, differing from that described in various species.

  12. Thymoquinone protects end organs from abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salih Aydin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous studies have demonstrated that thymoquinone has protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs like lungs, kidneys and liver in different experimental models. Objective: We aimed to determine whether thymoquinone has favorable effects on lung, renal, heart tissues and oxidative stress in abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham (n=10, control (n=10 and thymoquinone (TQ treatment group (n=10. Control and TQ-treatment groups underwent abdominal aorta ischemia for 45 minutes followed by a 120-min period of reperfusion. In the TQ-treatment group, thymoquinone was given 5 minutes. before reperfusion at a dose of 20 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal route. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidative status (TOS, and oxidative stress index (OSI in blood serum were measured and lung, kidney, and heart tissue histopathology were evaluated with light microscopy. Results: Total oxidative status and oxidative stress index activity in blood samples were statistically higher in the control group compared to the sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for TOS and OSI. Control group injury scores were statistically higher compared to sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for all comparisons. Conclusion: Thymoquinone administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing oxidative stress and histopathologic injury in an acute abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion rat model.

  13. Ultrasonographic assessment of inferior vena cava/abdominal aorta diameter index: a new approach of assessing hypovolemic shock class 1

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin NA; Ahmad, Rashidi; Kareem, Meera Mohaideen; Mohammed, Mohammad Iqhbal

    2016-01-01

    Background We designed this study to expand the usage of ultrasound to detect early occurrence of hypovolemia. We explore the potential use of inferior vena cava (IVC) and abdominal aorta (AA) diameter index (IVC:AA) measured ultrasonographically to detect class 1 hypovolemic shock with blood loss less than 15%.ᅟ Methods The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the diameter of inferior vena cava and abdominal aorta in blood donors by using ultrasound, pre and post blood donation....

  14. Innovations in treating aortic diseases: the abdominal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Balachundar; Singh, Nina; Roscher, Christopher; Augoustides, John G T

    2012-10-01

    Patients with an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) could benefit from earlier diagnosis to improve long-term outcomes. Candidate serum biomarkers for earlier AAA diagnosis include D-dimer, fibrinogen, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, lipoprotein(a), and the proteolytic enzymes known as matrix metalloproteinases. Furthermore, biomarkers such as brain natriuretic peptide significantly stratify perioperative risk in AAA repair. Statins significantly improve outcomes after AAA repair. They may also significantly slow AAA growth to allow pharmacologic arrest of AAA development. Recent trials have focused attention on fluid management for AAA repair. Although restrictive fluid management may significantly improve clinical outcomes, current evidence does not clearly support crystalloid or colloid for AAA repair. There may be an increased risk of renal dysfunction associated with hetastarch therapy. Endovascular repair has revolutionized the clinical management of AAAs. Recent trials have shown its significant outcome advantages. Furthermore, it is also applicable in high-risk operative cohorts and, in the future, may be suited for earlier AAA repair. This technology continues to advance with the development of branched and fenestrated grafts as well as total percutaneous endovascular AAA repair. Regardless of these advances, the clinical management of endoleaks will remain a major clinical focus. Taken together, these advances in the management of AAAs likely will significantly influence future clinical approaches to this challenging patient cohort. PMID:21216624

  15. Calcified aneurysm of the abdominal aorta 12 years after umbilical artery catheterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondiaux, Eleonore; Miquel, Julie [Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); Thomas, Pascale; Watelet, Jacques [Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Department of Vascular Surgery, Rouen (France); Laloum, Denis [Caen University Hospital, Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Department of Neonatal Medicine, Caen (France); Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine et Pharmacie, Laboratoire Quant-If, Rouen Cedex 01 (France)

    2008-02-15

    We report a 12-year-old boy who presented with abdominal pain and who was found to have an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta (AAA). The patient was born from a quadruplet pregnancy induced by in vitro fertilization. Postnatal transient respiratory distress required assisted ventilation that had been monitored by two consecutive umbilical arterial catheters (UAC). AAA is a rare condition in childhood. Infection and/or trauma are known to be the most frequent causes. Most of the reported cases have occurred in children in whom a UAC had been placed during the neonatal period. In this patient the delay between UAC placement and diagnosis was considerable. At the time of this report the patient had remained well during a follow-up of 8 years after treatment. (orig.)

  16. Calcified aneurysm of the abdominal aorta 12 years after umbilical artery catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a 12-year-old boy who presented with abdominal pain and who was found to have an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta (AAA). The patient was born from a quadruplet pregnancy induced by in vitro fertilization. Postnatal transient respiratory distress required assisted ventilation that had been monitored by two consecutive umbilical arterial catheters (UAC). AAA is a rare condition in childhood. Infection and/or trauma are known to be the most frequent causes. Most of the reported cases have occurred in children in whom a UAC had been placed during the neonatal period. In this patient the delay between UAC placement and diagnosis was considerable. At the time of this report the patient had remained well during a follow-up of 8 years after treatment. (orig.)

  17. Preparation of vulnerable plaques in abdominal aorta: an experimental study in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish an animal model of vulnerable plaque in abdominal aorta by pharmacological triggering of atherosclerosis in rabbits. Methods: Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly and equally divided into 3 groups: group A, receiving balloon injury together with high lipid diet;group B, receiving high lipid diet only, and group C, receiving regular diet only. After feeding for 12 weeks, all the rabbits in three groups underwent pharmacological triggering with Chinese Russell's viper venom(CRVV) and histamine to induce the rupture of the plaque and the formation of thrombosis. Results: In 8 survival rabbits of group A, ten lesions with the stenotic degree over 50% were found, which had large lipid core with the thickness of fibrous cap being thinner than 65μm, by which these ten lesions were judged as vulnerable plaques. In 9 rabbits of group B, only 3 vulnerable plaques could be determined,while no single vulnerable plaque could be identified in the rabbits of group C. Conclusion: For establishing an animal model of vulnerable plaque in abdominal aorta in rabbits, balloon injury combined with high lipid diet is a feasible and reliable method. (authors)

  18. A practical MRI technique for detecting Abdominal Aorta Aneurism and Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Aktas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Peripheral Arterial Disease(PAD and abdominal aorta aneurysm(AAA are frequent problems in geriatric population. In DSA, CTA or MRA techniques contrast agents has to be used for diagnosis that can be nephrotoxic for elderly patients. Magnetic resonans imaging (MRI is the most powerful, non-ionising radiological diagnostic tool that has the highest soft tissue contrast resolution. The aim of our study was to investigate the effectivity of MRI by the means of detecting the AAA and PAD in comparison with DSA. Material and Method: After getting ethical commitee approvel and informed consent, we have performed Balanced turbo field echo(B-TFE MRI technique without contrast agent in 1.5 Tesla MRI device before DSA examination. The luminal diameters of renal arteries, infrarenal abdominal aorta, iliac and femoral arteries was measured by using Philips DICOM Viewer R2.2 application. The intraclass corelation coefficient and reliability used to check if the techniques could be used for each other and the t-test was used to measure the differences between them. Results: There has been a high relationship between B-TFE and DSA in detecting the pathologies of larger arteries like aorta. In the case of small arterial pathologies, there is relatively lower relationship between BTFE and DSA. Discussion: For the diagnosis of AAA and PAD, DSA is the gold standart technique but it is invasive and patients have radiation exposure. In the follow up of geriatric patients with larger arterial pathologies B-TFE can be used instead of contrast enhanced MRA and invasive DSA.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Elastography of the in vivo Abdominal Aorta: A Feasibility Study for Comparing Aortic Stiffness between Hypertensives and Normotensives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolipaka, Arunark; Woodrum, David; Araoz, Philip A.; Ehman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to demonstrate feasibility of using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) to identify hypertensive changes in the abdominal aorta when compared to normotensives based on the stiffness measurements. Methods MRE was performed on 8 volunteers (4 normotensives and 4 hypertensives) to measure the effective stiffness of the abdominal aorta. MRE wave images are directionally filtered and phase gradient analysis was performed to determine the stiffness of the aorta. Student’s t-test was performed to determine significant difference in stiffness measurements between normotensives and hypertensives. Results The normotensive group demonstrated an average abdominal aortic stiffness of 3.7 ± 0.8 kPa, while the controlled-hypertensive demonstrated an average abdominal aortic stiffness of 9.3 ± 1.9kPa. MRE effective stiffness of abdominal aorta in hypertensives was significantly greater than that of normotensives with p=0.02. Conclusion Feasibility of in vivo aortic MRE is demonstrated. Hypertensives have significantly higher aortic stiffness assessed through MRE than normotensives. PMID:22045617

  20. Reduced contrast medium in abdominal aorta CTA using a multiphasic injection technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijhof, Wouter H., E-mail: w.h.nijhof@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine P.O. Box 21 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Vos, Charlotte S. van der, E-mail: v.s.vandervos@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine P.O. Box 21 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Anninga, Bauke, E-mail: b.anninga@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine P.O. Box 21 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Stegehuis, Paulien L., E-mail: p.l.stegehuis@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine P.O. Box 21 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Jager, Gerrit J., E-mail: g.jager@JBZ.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Rutten, Matthieu J.C.M., E-mail: m.rutten@JBZ.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if with a multiphasic injection technique the administered amount of contrast medium for abdominal computerized tomographic angiography (CTA) can be decreased, whilst improving CT image quality. Materials and methods: In 30 patients a multiphasic injection method was compared to the standard uniphasic contrast medium injection protocol. Fifteen patients underwent abdominal CTA with a standard uniphasic injection protocol (protocol I) receiving 100 mL of a non-ionic radiopaque contrast agent (Ioversol). The second group of 15 patients underwent CTA with a multiphasic injection protocol (protocol II) receiving a total of 89 mL Ioversol. Vascular contrast enhancement and difference in enhancement uniformity were assessed quantitatively and image quality was assessed by three independent radiologists. Results: Quantitative assessment of the vascular contrast enhancement showed that there was no significant difference in enhancement uniformity for patients between the protocols. The image quality was rated as being good to excellent in 81.8% and 88.0% of the scans, for protocol I and protocol II, respectively. However these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: By using a multiphasic injection technique with CTA of the abdominal aorta a reduction of 11 percent of contrast medium can be realized. Enhancement patterns are quantitatively as well as qualitatively comparable to the standard contrast medium injection protocol.

  1. Patient-Specific Simulation Models of the Abdominal Aorta With and Without Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Marie Sand

    thick-walled cylinder allowing for inspection of the stress distributions inside the wall. The 4FF model characterizes the mechanical behavior. The blood is assumed to be an incompressible Newtonian fluid. The fluid and solid models were implemented in a commercially available finite element software...... computational simulation models incorporating subject-specific geometry of the abdominal aorta (AA) as well as subject-specific blood flow conditions. The geometry was acquired from magnetic resonance imaging, and the blood flow characteristics were acquired from ultrasound. The solid AA wall was modeled as a....... The goal of third study was to evaluate the predictability of the 4FF model. This was achieved by combining subject-specific blood flow and age-matched material parameters of the 4FF model in a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model. The predicted wall dynamics were compared to in vivo wall dynamics...

  2. Analysis of blood flow dynamics in the abdominal aorta based on MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Images of the abdominal aorta including peri-renal artery by PCMRA (phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography) were analyzed to calculate WSS (wall shear stress) and its OSI (oscillatory shear index) in order to visually elucidate the cause of aneurysm formation. PCMRA was conducted for acquisitions of vascular morphology in one cardiac cycle of a healthy male 30s with cardiac gating, and of blood flow rates from 3 directions. Images were median-filtered to reduce noises and regions of interest of rectangular parallelepiped were defined to involve the aorta. WSS, the parameter representing the intensity of friction stress to the vessel wall of blood flow, and OSI, the degree of oscillatory WSS change, were calculated firstly by the reported Snake model for the vessel morphology and then by applying its local information to blood flow rate information from 3 directions. Color-displayed images revealed that both WSS and OS were high at the highest incidental region of aortic aneurysm formation around the peri-renal artery. The finding was in good agreement with the result of computed bio-dynamic simulation that the strong WSS by elevated swirling of blood flow is generated at the region. Thus WSS and OS can be significant factors of aneurismal formation, which should be further confirmed from aspects of increased case number and precision. (T.T.)

  3. Cirurgia da aorta descendente e tóraco-abdominal com técnica de oclusão proximal isolada da aorta ("open distal" Surgical treatment of descending thoracic and thoracoabdominal aorta with the "open distal" technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayard Gontijo Filho

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente relato apresenta a experiência obtida em um período de 4 anos (jan/91 - jan/95 com a técnica "open distal" descrita por Cooley, em 1990³, para tratamento cirúrgico de doenças da aorta torácica descendente e aorta tóraco-abdominal. Nesse período foram realizadas 35 operações (25 para aorta descendente e 10 para aorta tóraco-abdominal. Os aneurismas de origem degenerativa e as dissecções aórticas ocorreram em freqüência semelhante (48,5% e 40%, respectivamente; em 8 pacientes havia rotura da aorta, parcialmente tamponada pelo pulmão (5 casos, órgãos abdominais (2 casos e esófago (1 caso. O acesso cirúrgico foi obtido por toracotomia póstero-lateral esquerda ou tóraco-freno-laparotomia. Heparina foi usada na dose de 1,5 mg/kg e todo sangue do campo cirúrgico foi coletado a um reservatório e reinfundido pela veia femoral. Houve 4 (11.4% óbitos hospitalares e 2 (5,8% pacientes portadores de aneurisma tóraco-abdominal desenvolveram paraplegia. A morbi-mortalidade do grupo foi diretamente relacionada à condição clínica per-operatória e à extensão do segmento aórtico acometido. Na nossa opinião, a técnica "open distal" é um método alternativo simples e eficaz no tratamento cirúrgico das doenças da aorta descendente e tóraco-abdominal. Em casos de ressecções extensas com períodos longos de oclusão aórtica, métodos para proteção medular deverão ser avaliadosSince Jan/91 we have been using the "open distal" technique (ODT described by Cooley, for surgical treatment of diseases of the descending thoracic and thoracoabdominal aorta. From jan/91 to jan/95, the technique was used in 35 instances (25 for descending aorta and 10 for thoracoabdominal aorta. Degenerative aneurysms and aortic dissections had similar incidence in this group (48.5% and 40.0%, respectively. In 8 patients the aorta was ruptured which was partially occluded by the lung (5 cases, abdominal organs (2 cases and esophagus (1

  4. Lipolysis of emulsion models of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins is altered in male patients with abdominal aorta aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Hosni

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of the lipid metabolism may play a role in the genesis of abdominal aorta aneurysm. The present study examined the intravascular catabolism of chylomicrons, the lipoproteins that carry the dietary lipids absorbed by the intestine in the circulation in patients with abdominal aorta aneurysm. Thirteen male patients (72 ± 5 years with abdominal aorta aneurysm with normal plasma lipid profile and 13 healthy male control subjects (73 ± 5 years participated in the study. The method of chylomicron-like emulsions was used to evaluate this metabolism. The emulsion labeled with 14C-cholesteryl oleate and ³H-triolein was injected intravenously in both groups. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals over 60 min to determine the decay curves. The fractional clearance rate (FCR of the radioactive labels was calculated by compartmental analysis. The FCR of the emulsion with ³H-triolein was smaller in the aortic aneurysm patients than in controls (0.025 ± 0.017 vs 0.039 ± 0.019 min-1; P < 0.05, but the FCR of14C-cholesteryl oleate of both groups did not differ. In conclusion, as indicated by the triglyceride FCR, chylomicron lipolysis is diminished in male patients with aortic aneurysm, whereas the remnant removal which is traced by the cholesteryl oleate FCR is not altered. The results suggest that defects in the chylomicron metabolism may represent a risk factor for development of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  5. Anteroposterior diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta is higher in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matteo Ciccone

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Marco Matteo Ciccone1, Stefano Favale1, Anish Bhuva4, Pietro Scicchitano1, Vito Caragnano1, Cristina Lavopa2, Giovanni De Pergola3, Giuseppe Loverro21Department of Cardiology; 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics; 3Section of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Andrology, and Metabolic Diseases, University of Bari, DETO, Italy; 4University College of London, London, UKBackground: Women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS are known to be at higher risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify the artery that first is affected by early pre-atherosclerotic changes in PCOS. Methods: Twenty-nine women with PCOS aged 17 to 27 years and 26 healthy nonhyperandrogenic volunteers with regular menses (control women aged 16 to 28 years were enrolled. All PCOS patients were overweight or obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25. Diagnosis of PCOS was performed in line with the 2003 Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Accordingly, PCOS was defined when at least two of the following three features were present after exclusion of other etiologies: 1 oligomenorrhea and or anovulation; 2 hyperandrogenism and/or hyperandrogenemia; and 3 polycystic ovaries visible at ultrasound. Androgen excess or related disorders were excluded. The intima-media thickness (IMT of common carotid arteries and common femoral arteries and the anteroposterior diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta were measured by ultrasound. Lutenizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, estradiol, total testosterone, androstenedione, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG serum levels were measured between the 3rd and the 6th day of spontaneous or progestin-induced menstrual cycle. Our study was performed in the absence of any medical treatment. Results: Women with PCOS showed a higher LH to FSH ratio (p < 0.01, increased fasting insulin (p < 0.001, total testosterone (p < 0.001, and androstenedione (p < 0.001 levels, and lower

  6. The role of cystatin C in vascular remodeling of balloon-injured abdominal aorta of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang-Jun; Dong, Zhao-Qiang; Lu, Qing-Hua

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the role of cystatin C (CysC) in the vascular remodeling of balloon-injured abdominal aorta of rabbits. Forty-eight New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: the balloon-injured injury group (n = 16), the CysC monoclonal antibody group (n = 16), and the sham-operative group (n = 16). Serum CysC levels were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Changes in adventitial area, adventitial thickness, lumen area (LA), neointimal area (IA), internal elastic lamina area (IELA), external elastic lamina area (EELA), vascular remodeling index (VRI) and residual stenosis (RS) were measured by the Leica image analysis system. Immunohistochemical analysis of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were performed. Serum CysC levels of rabbits in the balloon-injured injury group were significantly higher than those in the CysC monoclonal antibody group and the sham-operative group (both P IA, IELA and EELA in the balloon-injured injury group were also higher than those in the CysC monoclonal antibody and sham-operative groups (all P rabbits. PMID:24981928

  7. Registration of Real-Time 3-D Ultrasound to Tomographic Images of the Abdominal Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekken, Reidar; Iversen, Daniel Høyer; Tangen, Geir Arne; Dahl, Torbjørn

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an image-based method for registration of real-time 3-D ultrasound to computed tomography (CT) of the abdominal aorta, targeting future use in ultrasound-guided endovascular intervention. We proposed a method in which a surface model of the aortic wall was segmented from CT, and the approximate initial location of this model relative to the ultrasound volume was manually indicated. The model was iteratively transformed to automatically optimize correspondence to the ultrasound data. Feasibility was studied using data from a silicon phantom and in vivo data from a volunteer with previously acquired CT. Through visual evaluation, the ultrasound and CT data were seen to correspond well after registration. Both aortic lumen and branching arteries were well aligned. The processing was done offline, and the registration took approximately 0.2 s per ultrasound volume. The results encourage further patient studies to investigate accuracy, robustness and clinical value of the approach. PMID:27156015

  8. Características ultraestruturais do segmento abdominal da aorta de rato albino = Mural features of the abdominal aortic segment of albino rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi investigar as peculiaridades ultraestruturais da parede da aorta de rato. Foram utilizados sete ratos albinos, adultos jovens, dos quais foram coletados fragmentos da aorta abdominal infra-renal. Após a coleta, os segmentosvasculares foram fixados e encaminhados para a rotina de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e varredura. As lamelas elásticas aparecem interpostas às fibras musculares lisas, sendo essa disposição principalmente notada na túnica média da parede vascular. Entre asfibras musculares lisas e as lamelas elásticas, observa-se um inter-relacionamento aparentemente estreito, feito por conexão e ancoramento entre ambos os elementos murais por meio de lamelas de colágeno. A túnica íntima da aorta abdominal do rato mostraalgumas peculiaridades ultraestruturais marcantes, tais como a interrupção, em certos locais da parede, de continuidade da lâmina elástica interna, interrupção acompanhada por poros endoteliais, de certa extensão, suprajacentes à falha na estrutura elástica intimal. Este padrão de constituição mural, com destaque aos ancoramentos elástico-musculares, via o colágeno, parece garantir propriedades fundamentais da parede vascular, concernentes à hemodinâmica, tal como o cisalhamento, normalmente notado entre os estratos superpostosda parede vascular, bem como a contratilidade e a visco-elasticidade da parede arterial.The objective of the present research was to investigate the ultrastructural peculiarities of the aortic wall of the rat. Seven young adult rats were used, from which fragments of theinfrarenal abdominal aorta were collected. After collection, the vascular segments were fixed and sent for analysis by scanning electron microscope. The elastic lamellae appear interposed with smooth muscular fibers; this pattern was verified mainly at the medial layer structure. Among the mural elements a well defined interrelationship was established through

  9. Low-dose Computed Tomography in a Pregnant Woman with a Ruptured Pseudoaneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramac, Jelena Popić; Vidjak, Vinko; Skegro, Dinko; Duić, Zeljko; Blasković, Darko; Erdelez, Lidija; Skopljanac-Macina, Andrija; Suknaić, Slaven; Slavica, Marko; Leder, Nikola Ivan

    2015-09-01

    Imaging the pregnant patient presents a unique challenge to radiologist due to the risk of radiation to the conceptus (embryo/fetus). A rare case of a successfully recognized and treated pseudoaneurysm (PA) of the abdominal aorta is to be presented. The pseudoaneurysm occurred in the third trimester and had a favorable outcome for the mother and the baby. Emergent abdominal ultrasound (US) is the first modality in diagnostic algorithm for the rupture of aortic aneurysm in a pregnant woman. It provides the most rapid diagnostic information, although intestinal gas and abdominal tenderness may limit its accuracy. To confirm the findings, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or CT angiography (CTA) can be used. In our case, the diagnosis was established using a color Doppler ultrasonography of the abdomen and was later confirmed by a low dose CT scan of the abdominal aorta. MRA in such cases have some disadvantages. At many health centers, the monitoring of patients with acute ruptures is more difficult in the MR suite than at the CT scanner. MRA angiographic images are also subject to degradation by multiple artifacts and the visualization of the distal vasculature is suboptimal and inferior to the one done by CTA. Due to fetal movements, a small quantity of fresh blood can be overlooked by MR. MRA is often not available on a 24-hours basis, and the time required for making a diagnosis can preclude the use of MRA in an unstable patient. For this reason, we used a low dose CTA protocol to confirm the diagnosis. Low dose scanning protocols in CT can obtain sufficient diagnostic information while reducing the risk of radiation. A particular focus is put on the outline of new concepts for dose management and optimization. We used new approaches based on tube current modulation. The birth was induced by an urgent Caesarean section followed by a resection of a pseudoaneurysm and a reconstruction of the aorta with an end-to-end vascular prosthesis. PMID:26898082

  10. Quantitative X-ray CT analysis of calcification of the abdominal aorta and its relationship to obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative analysis of abdominal aorta calcification by X-ray CT is useful method for non-invasive diagnosis of atherosclerosis. We recently examined the relationship between the X-ray CT measurement of abdominal aorta calcification and the degree of obesity. For this purpose, the body mass index (BMI) and the subcutaneous fat thickness (determined by X-ray CT at the umbilical level) were analyzed in relation to the abdominal aorta calcification index (ACI) in 845 patients (453 males and 392 females aged 40-79 years). Patients with BMI under 20 were classified as 'lean', those with BMI between 20-26 as 'normal' and those with BMI over 26 as 'obese'. 1. Among males, the ACI was highest in lean individuals and lowest in obese individuals. The difference in ACI between lean and obese males was significant in the middle aged group (40-65 years). Among females, no relationship was observed between the degree of obesity and ACI. 2. Among males, ACI was higher in individuals with low subcutaneous fat thickness and lower in individuals with greater subcutaneous fat thickness. The difference was significant in the middle aged group. Among females, no relationship was observed between the two parameters. 3. When the visceral fat to subcutaneous fat ratio (V/S) in 85 males and females aged 60-69 years was analyzed in relation to ACI, ACI tended to decrease as the V/S increased, in both males and females. 4. Relationships between BMI and subcutaneous fat thickness, between BMI and lipids and between lipids and ACI were also analyzed. (author)

  11. Reduction of contrast medium volume in abdominal aorta CTA: Multiphasic injection technique versus a test bolus volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijhof, Wouter H., E-mail: w.h.nijhof@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Vos, Charlotte S. van der, E-mail: c.s.vandervos@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Anninga, Bauke, E-mail: b.anninga@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Jager, Gerrit J., E-mail: g.jager@JBZ.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Rutten, Matthieu J.C.M., E-mail: mj.rutten@online.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to reduce the administered contrast medium volume in abdominal CTA by using a test bolus injection, with the preservation of adequate quantitative and qualitative vessel enhancement. Study design: For this technical efficacy study 30 patients, who were referred for a CTA examination of the abdominal aorta, were included. Randomly 15 patients were assigned to undergo a multiphasic injection protocol and received 89 mL of contrast medium (Optiray 350) (protocol I). Fifteen patients were assigned to the test bolus injection protocol (protocol II), which implies injection of a 10 mL test bolus of Optiray 350 prior to performing CTA with a 40 mL of contrast medium. Quantitative assessment of vascular enhancement was performed by measuring the amount of Hounsfield Units in the aorta at 30 positions from the celiac trunk to the iliac arteries in both groups. Qualitative assessment was performed by three radiologists who scored the images at a 5-point scale. Results: Quantitative assessment showed that there was no significant difference in vascular enhancement for patients between the two protocols, with mean attenuation values of 280.9 ± 50.84 HU and 258.60 ± 39.28 HU, respectively. The image quality of protocol I was rated 4.31 (range: 3.67/5.00) and of protocol II 4.11 (range: 2.67/5.00). These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study showed that by using a test bolus injection and the administration of 50 mL of contrast medium overall, CTA of the abdominal aorta can reliably be performed, with regard to quantitative and qualitative adequate vessel enhancement.

  12. Orientation, anisotropy, clustering, and volume fraction of smooth muscle cells within the wall of porcine abdominal aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonar Z.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed tissue samples of the normal porcine abdominal aorta using stereological assessment of histological sections through the tunica media layer. The results demonstrated that the local volume fraction of smooth muscle cells within tunica media does not differ among samples taken round the circumference of the artery, and that volume fraction can be assessed in sections stained with green trichrome as well as with immunohistochemistry against actin. The distribution of angles between the long axes of nuclei of the smooth muscle cells and the radial direction was different from normal. The profiles of smooth muscle cells were distributed in an isotropic, but an inhomogeneous manner.

  13. Aneurisma de la aorta abdominal: Tratamiento endovascular con una endoprótesis fenestrada Abdominal aortic aneurysm: Endovascular treatment with fenestrated endoprothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Rostagno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento endovascular de los aneurismas de aorta abdominal es una alternativa a la cirugía abierta para pacientes de alto riesgo. Consiste en la exclusión del saco aneurismático mediante la interposición de una endoprótesis colocada por vía femoral. El tratamiento endovascular no puede ser utilizado en todos los pacientes. Una limitación frecuente la constituye el nacimiento de una arteria visceral desde el saco aneurismático. Para contrarrestar esta limitación recientemente se han desarrollado endoprótesis fenestradas que presentan orificios que se corresponden con el nacimiento de las arterias involucradas en el aneurisma evitando su oclusión, permitiendo de esta manera el tratamiento endovascular. En esta comunicación se presenta un caso de tratamiento endovascular de un aneurisma de aorta abdominal mediante la colocación de una endoprótesis fenestrada en un paciente cuya arteria renal izquierda nacía directamente del saco aneurismático.Endovascular treatment of the abdominal aortic aneurysm is consider an alternative to open surgery for high risk patients. Its goal is to exclude the aneurysm from the circulation by using an endoprothesis introduced from a femoral approach. Patients must be strictly selected to avoid possible complications. The most frequent limitation is related to anatomic contraindications such as visceral arteries involved in the aneurysm. Fenestrated endograft have been recently developed to allow endovascular treatment when anatomic features contraindicate classic endovascular procedures. Fenestrated endograft have holes that match with the origin of the visceral arteries maintaining its potency. In this paper we report the endovascular treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm by using a fenestrated endoprothesis in a patient whose left renal artery is originated from the aneurysm.

  14. Comparison of the effect of alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists on muscle contractility of the rabbit abdominal aorta in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnus, Jan; Rusiecka, Agnieszka; Czerski, Albert; Zawadzki, Wojciech; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Hauzer, Willy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate the effect of selected agonists and antagonists of alpha-adrenergic receptors on muscle contractility of the rabbit abdominal aorta in vitro with particular emphasis on alpha2-adrenergic receptor subtypes. The study was conducted on 30 New Zealand breed rabbits from which specimens of the abdominal aorta were collected. The sections were set up in an automatic water bath in a Krebs-Henseleit buffer at 37 degrees C. The experiments showed that alpha1-adrenergic receptors played the main role in the contractile response ofthe rabbit abdominal aorta. Stimulation of alpha1-adrenergic receptor by administration ofphenylephrine resulted in an increase in smooth muscle tonus ofthe rabbit abdominal aorta by an average of 4.75 mN. The reaction after stimulation of alpha2-adrenergic receptors by similar doses of their agonists was much weaker. Prolonged tissue response time and time needed to reach maximum tonus for alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists were observed. The obtained results confirm the thesis that the alpha1-adrenergic receptor is the most important factor controlling the contractility of the rabbit abdominal aorta, but the alpha2-adrenergic receptor is also involved in maintaining muscle tissue tonus. PMID:23767297

  15. Occlusion of the abdominal aorta by balloon dilation catheter assisting surgical excision of a sacrum chordoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgiray, Erkin; Cağli, Sedat; Zileli, Mehmet; Cinar, Celal; Oran, Ismail

    2009-07-01

    Chordoma is known to be the most common primary tumor of the sacrum. Its surgery is challenging from many aspects. A large amount of bleeding is one of the biggest issues. A 52-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with a huge mass at sacrum. The mass was diagnosed as chordoma after a needle biopsy. Prior to the surgery, a balloon dilation catheter (BDC) was placed in the distal abdominal aorta via the femoral artery. Just after the skin incision, the BDC was inflated with contrast medium and total occlusion of the aorta was achieved. At the end of the operation we observed that total hemorrhage had decreased dramatically. No complications were recorded except hypertension during the occlusion of the aorta which was expected. The patient was discharged after two weeks of hospitalization post-operatively without any neurological deficit. Our report is the second in the neurosurgical literature to our knowledge. Although this result is preliminary and needs to be replicated and expanded upon, our first experience with this method is effective for decreasing the amount of bleeding. We believe that our method prevents hemo-dynamical problems caused by massive bleeding and complications secondary to massive transfusion. PMID:19621292

  16. Anatomical description of arterial branches of thoracic and abdominal aorta in the coati (Nasua nasua (Carnivora, Procyonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Arrais Biihrer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The coati (Nasua nasua is a widely distributed species in South America, also in Brazil. This study aimed to observe and describe the branching morphology of the main arterial branches of thoracic and abdominal aorta in the coati, by comparing the findings with existing literature on the other domestic and wild species. For this study, two adult male specimens were used, collected from highways in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, victims of roadkill. The specimens were fixed in formalin solution and their aortic branches were filled with latex for subsequent dissection and analysis. It was observed that the left subclavian artery is a direct branch of the aortic arch, there is no formation of a bicarotid or celiac-mesenteric trunk, facts similarly described in domestic carnivores. Thus, it was noticed that the arterial branches of aorta in the coati, both in the thoracic and abdominal cavities, show a distribution very similar to that observed in domestic carnivores, something which reflects their evolutionary closeness within the Carnivora order. Thus, this study proves to be relevant by deepening anatomical knowledge on this wild species, enabling that aspects already known in canine veterinary medicine are applied to the coati.

  17. Correção endovascular do aneurisma da aorta abdominal: análise dos resultados de único centro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rafael Novero

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados clínicos imediatos e em médio prazo do tratamento endovascular em pacientes portadores de aneurisma da aorta abdominal em um centro de referência para doenças cardiovasculares. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de uma série de pacientes submetidos a tratamento endovascular de aneurisma da aorta abdominal, no período de janeiro de 2009 a julho de 2010. Foram avaliados as características demográficas, o sucesso técnico, o sucesso terapêutico, a morbimortalidade, as complicações e a taxa de reintervenções perioperatórias imediatos, e após um ano de acompanhamento. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 102 pacientes consecutivos com idade média de 72 ± 9 anos, sendo 79% deles do sexo masculino. Houve sucesso técnico em 97,1% e êxito terapêutico em 81% dos casos. A mortalidade perioperatória foi de 0,9% e a anual, de 7,8%. Foram necessárias reintervenções em 18,8% dos pacientes durante o seguimento. CONCLUSÃO: Em nosso estudo, os resultados obtidos justificam a realização desse procedimento nos pacientes com anatomia adequada.

  18. On the differential diagnosis of the abdominal aorta aneurysm and retroperitoneal paraaortal hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic retroperitoneal paraaortal hematoma appeared to be a rare disease. Paraaortal hematoma should be differentiated from abdomen aorta aneurysm and retroperitoneal tumor, for it requires no surgical intervention. Computerized tomography CT was shown to be the most sensitive method in differential diagnosis. CT with intravenous contrast intensification displayed complete information on aorta size, its aneurysms, extention of the disease, degree of dissemination into adjacent blood vessels and tissues. Retention of contrast media in the vessels occurred with 5 min delay and the blood was shown to free from the contrast substance up to that moment. The phenomenon permitted to distinguish thrombosed aneurysm from paraaortal tumor or hematoma

  19. WR2721 ameliorates the radiation-induced depression in reactivity of rat abdominal aorta to U46619

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies showed that 20 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation results in a decreased response of the abdominal aorta to the stable thromboxane A2 (TXA2) mimic, U46619. The present study evaluated the effect of WR2721 on this radiation-induced decrease in vascular responsiveness. Rats receiving WR2721 (200 mg/kg, i.p.) 20 min before irradiation showed no depression in vascular reactivity to U46619 compared to control. The abolition of the radiation-induced decrease in vascular responsiveness was not caused by a direct vasoconstrictor action of WR2721 or its metabolites. The vascular response of rat abdominal aortic rings to KCl was unchanged after in vivo exposure to ionizing radiation. WR2721 did not alter the vascular response to KCl. These studies confirm that exposure to whole-body ionizing radiation decreased abdominal aortic vascular responsiveness to U46619. This depressed vascular reactivity can be abolished by pretreatment with the radioprotectant, WR2721. These observations may provide a rapid initial screening method for evaluating the in vivo efficacy of radioprotectant drugs

  20. Effects of the pregnant uterus on the abdominal aorta and its branches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pregnant uterus was found to exert pressure upon the lumbar region with a maximum over the midline of the lordosis and diminishing laterally. Those parts of the arterial system formed by the aorta and its dorsal branches and displaceable at autopsy, were accordingly dislodged by the uterus, whereas the fixed parts were compressed. The pressure effects extended cranially during pregnancy. Symptoms of compression can be relieved by avoiding supine and prone positions. (Auth.)

  1. Proposta para padronização do relatório de tomografia computadorizada nos aneurismas da aorta abdominal A proposal for standardizing computed tomography reports on abdominal aortic aneurysms

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiola Goda Torlai; Gustavo S. Portes Meirelles; Fausto Miranda Jr; José Honório A.P. da Fonseca; Sérgio Ajzen; Giuseppe D'Ippolito

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Propor um modelo de padronização de relatório para aneurisma da aorta abdominal na tomografia computadorizada. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas, no período de abril a outubro de 2004, entrevistas com integrantes da Disciplina de Cirurgia Vascular da nossa instituição, para elaboração de um modelo de padronização de relatório de tomografia computadorizada para o estudo do aneurisma da aorta abdominal. A partir deste modelo foi elaborado um questionário, enviado a nove outros cir...

  2. Two anomalous cases of the hepato-mesenteric and the gastro-splenic trunks independently arising from the abdominal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Y; Yamaki, K; Saga, T; Hirata, T; Yoshida, M; Soejima, H; Kanazawa, T; Tanaka, K; Yoshizuka, M

    2000-01-01

    This report describes two arterial anomaly cases in the celiaco-mesenteric region, which were encountered in two Japanese male cadavers in the dissecting room at Kurume University School of Medicine in 1999. In these cases, the usual celiac trunks were not identified, and the hepato-mesenteric and the gastro-splenic trunks were independently arising from the abdominal aorta. Moreover, in the first case, the common hepatic artery passed ventral side of the portal vein and divided into the hepatic proper and the gastroduodenal arteries. This type of arterial anomaly belongs to the Type V of Adachi's classification and the Type IV' of Morita's classification. In the second case, the common hepatic artery passed dorsal side of the portal vein and divided into the hepatic proper and the gastroduodenal arteries. This type of arterial anomaly belongs to the Type VI of Adachi's classification and the Type IV' of Morita's classification. PMID:11059229

  3. Clinical application of preoperative embolization of tumor feeding artery combined with intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in the resection of sacral tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical application of preoperative embolization of tumor feeding artery combined with intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in performing the surgical resection of sacral tumors. Methods: Conventional surgical excision of sacral tumors was employed in 24 patients with sacral tumors (control group), while preoperative embolization of tumor feeding artery combined with intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta was carried out in 32 patients with sacral tumors (study group). The operation time, blood loss during the surgery and the one-year recurrence rate of both groups were documented, and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: Angiography showed that in the study group the sacral tumors were supplied by several vessels, and these feeding arteries were occluded separately. The tumors were successfully removed in all patients with the help of intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta. During the surgery, the surgical area was clearly exposed and the blood loss wa remarkably reduced. After the surgery, no ectopic vascular embolization, renal ischemia, limb ischemia or other complications occurred. Statistically significant difference in the operation time, blood loss during the surgery and the one-year recurrence rate existed between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Preoperative embolization of tumor feeding artery combined with intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta can effectively shorten the operation time, reduce the blood loss during the surgery and provide a clear surgical field, and thus the surgical safety can be significantly ensured. (authors)

  4. Effects and mechanism of different adrenergic receptor antagonists on left ventricular hypertrophy subsequent to coarctation of abdominal aorta in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Qin; LI Long-gui; ZHANG Yun

    2004-01-01

    To study the changes of a collagen-binding protein (Colligin) and myosin heavy chain isoform (α/β-MHC) gene and protein in left ventricular hypertrophy subsequent to coarctation of abdominal aorta in rats and the ef-fects of three kinds of adrenergic receptor blockers: Carvedilol (CAR), Metoprolol (MET) and Terazosin (TER) on these changes, and to elucidate the effects and new mechanism of CAR on left ventricular hypearophy regression. Methods: A model of hypertrophy induced by coarctation of abdominal aorta(CAA) was used in this study. Thirty two male istar rats were divided randomly into four groups 4 weeks after CAA operation: CAA, CAR, MET and TER.emodynamics, ventric-ular remodeling parameters, expressions of Colligin and α/β-MHC mRNA, protein expressions of Collagen Ⅰ /Ⅲ and Colligin were investigated in the four groups and sham operation group. Results: Left ventricle hypertrophy was observed clearly 16 weeks after operation. The ratio of α/β-MHC mRNA decreased, while expressions of Collagen Ⅰ/Ⅲ proteins and Colligin mRNA/protein increased( P < 0.05). CAR could ameliorate left ventricle hypertrophy prior to MET and TER. CAR could also change the expressions of α/β-MHC, Collagen Ⅰ/Ⅲ and Colligin in both gene and protein levels ( P < 0.05), while MET and TER have no effect on them ( P > 0.05). Conclusion: The effects of CAR on extracellular matrix proteins and MHC isoform shift regression of left ventricle may be due to antiproliferative or antioxidative mechanism, which was indepen-dent of beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist.

  5. Resultados da cirurgia do aneurisma da aorta abdominal em pacientes jovens Outcomes after surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms in young patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo P. Bonamigo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A presença de aneurisma da aorta abdominal (AAA é rara em pacientes jovens. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados da cirurgia do AAA em pacientes com idade BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA are rare in young patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate outcomes after AAA repair in patients aged < 50 years. METHODS: Between June 1979 and January 2008, 946 patients underwent elective repair for an infrarenal AAA performed by the first author. Of these, 13 patients (1.4% were < 50 years old at surgery. Demographic characteristics and surgical data were analyzed, as well as early and late outcomes after surgical intervention. RESULTS: Mean age was 46±3.4 years (ranging from 43 to 50 years. Most patients were men (76.9%, hypertensive (76.9% and smokers (61.5%. Perioperative morbidity and mortality rates were low (15.4% and 0%, respectively; one patient had respiratory infection and another patient had unstable angina. Median follow-up was 85.5 months, and two patients died due to ischemic cardiopathy and cerebrovascular accident during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: AAA repair in young patients is a safe procedure, with good long-term results. In our study, there were no perioperative deaths, and a good long-term survival was observed.

  6. Bullet embolization to the external iliac artery after gunshot injury to the abdominal aorta: a case report

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    Jaha Luan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Abdominal vascular trauma is fairly common in modern civilian life and is a highly lethal injury. However, if the projectile is small enough, if its energy is diminished when passing through the tissue and if the arterial system is elastic enough, the entry wound into the artery may close without exsanguination and therefore may not be fatal. A projectile captured may even travel downstream until it is arrested by the smaller distal vasculature. The occurrence of this phenomenon is rare and was first described by Trimble in 1968. Case presentation Here we present a case of a 29-year-old Albanian man who, due to a gunshot injury to the back, suffered fracture of his twelfth thoracic and first lumbar vertebra, injury to the posterior wall of his abdominal aorta and then bullet embolism to his left external iliac artery. It is interesting that the signs of distal ischemia developed several hours after the exploratory surgery, raising the possibility that the bullet migrated in the interim or that there was a failure to recognize it during the exploratory surgery. Conclusion In all cases where there is a gunshot injury to the abdomen or chest without an exit wound and with no projectile in the area, there should be a high index of suspicion for possible bullet embolism, particularly in the presence of the distal ischemia.

  7. Abdominal aorta aneurysm: Case report of high radiation dose during stent-graft implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is a case report regarding a possible problem of high radiation dose during stent-graft implantation. Before deciding on how to treat an aneurysm (stent grafting or traditional surgery), possible complications such as difficult anatomical conditions and diseases of the aorta and iliac arteries should be considered to avoid potentially high doses of radiation. In case of this patient, it was very difficult to introduce a guidewire through the contralateral limb into the body of the graft due to tortuosity and kinking of iliac arteries. Because of the long duration of the procedure (68 min), the patient was exposed to a very high radiation dose (4.37 Gy) and DAP (1760.3 Gy cm2)

  8. Influence of Selective Biochemical and Morphological Agents on Natural History of Aneurysm of Abdominal Aorta Development

    OpenAIRE

    Wołoszko, Tomasz; Skórski, Maciej; Kwasiborski, Przemysław; Kmin, Ewelina; Gałązka, Zbigniew; Pogorzelski, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is probably influenced by many factors. The role of some of these factors, such as intraluminal thrombus (ILT) or cystatin C serum levels, remains controversial. Proving their influence could have therapeutic implications for some patients with AAA. Associations between the rate of increase in diameter of an aneurysm and ILT, as well as other factors, including biochemical factors (C-Reactive Protein – CRP, cystatin C), age, sex, a...

  9. Aneurismas complejos de la aorta abdominal: cirugía abierta frente a exclusión endovascular avanzada. Estudio comparativo.

    OpenAIRE

    Sala Almonacil, Vicente Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Justificación del estudio e hipótesis de trabajo: la enfermedad aneurismática de la aorta se estima que afecta al 2%-7% de los varones mayores de 60 años. Dichas estimaciones, extrapoladas a la población de España, se corresponderían con 140.000-350.000 personas portadoras de una aneurisma de aorta abdominal. En siete de cada cien personas acaece la rotura del aneurisma, siendo actualmente la décima causa de muerte en varones mayores de 55 años. En aquellos pacientes de alto riesgo para la ci...

  10. Giant Aneurysm of Thoracic and Proximal Abdominal Aorta in a Patient with Common Variable Immunodeficiency

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    Sara Kashef

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID is the most common symptomatic primary immunodeficiency disease, predisposing the patients to various tissue involvement and organ damage.Here a 16-year-old boy is presented who was referred to our center with cough, dyspnea,cyanosis, and history of recurrent pneumonia. The diagnosis of CVID was made according to reduction all serum immunoglobulin levels, normal numbers of T, B and NK lymphocyte subpopulations, poor antibodies responses.Considering abnormality in heart examination and chest X-ray, echocardiography and computed tomography angiography were performed which showed large thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm in this patient.Although there are some reports of cardiovascular disease associated with primary antibody deficiencies, this is the first time that such large thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm is reported  in CVID.  This may  be secondary  to recurrent  pulmonary infections  or  an unknown mutation process. Cardiovascular abnormalities are an entity that should be kept in mind in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases.

  11. Dissection of the Abdominal Aorta in Blunt Trauma: Management by Percutaneous Stent Placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We implanted stents in three patients who had traumatic abdominal aortic dissections, complicated by right limb ischemia in one case. The circulating false channel extended to the left iliac artery in one case and to both iliac arteries in the last case. Diagnosis and radiological follow-up included ultrasound, computed tomography, and arteriography. Two patients were treated with Wallstents, one with a Palmaz stent. The occlusion of the false channel was obtained in all patients without any significant residual stenosis. No early or late complication was noted in any of the patients. The longest follow-up was 2 years.We conclude that stent placement is an efficient method for the treatment of noniatrogenic inframesenteric aortic dissections

  12. [Cardiogenic shock due to spontaneous neonatal thrombosis of the abdominal aorta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, J; Venot, P; Colinart-Thomas, M; Morville, P

    2016-09-01

    Neonatal arterial thrombosis is unusual and generally associated with an arterial umbilical catheter. Spontaneous aortic thrombosis is exceptional but its severity is related to high mortality rate and renovascular morbidity. We report here the observation of a 10-day-old term infant showing a large abdominal aortic thrombosis revealed by cardiogenic shock induced by systemic arterial hypertension. The resolution was fast following anticoagulant and antihypertensive therapy. Etiologic investigations showed renal failure and moderate hyperhomocysteinemia controlled by a vitamin supplement. Following this observation, we did a brief review of the neonatal spontaneous arterial thrombosis literature to discuss the neonatal hemostasis specific aspects. Management of infants presenting an arterial thrombosis varies depending on the hospital and there are no guidelines at this time concerning the etiologic investigation and treatment in France or internationally. PMID:27133548

  13. Hybrid treatment of bullet embolism at the abdominal aortic bifurcation, complicated with thoracoabdominal aorta pseudoaneurysm and common iliac artery occlusion: case report

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    Patrick Bastos Metzger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Embolization due to a firearm projectile entering the bloodstream is a rare event that is unlikely to be suspected during initial treatment of trauma patients. We describe and discuss a case of bullet embolism of the abdominal aortic bifurcation, complicated by a pseudoaneurysm of the thoracoabdominal aorta and occlusion of the right common iliac artery, but successfully treated using a combination of endovascular methods and conventional surgery.

  14. Detección de aneurisma de la aorta abdominal en una población derivada para ecocardiografía transtorácica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde S. Berensztein

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó: 1 la factibilidad de realizar una ecografía limitada a la aorta abdominal en pacientes a quienes se indica un ecocardiograma transtorácico, 2 las variables clínicas y ecocardiográficas que se correlacionan con el diámetro de la aorta abdominal, 3 la prevalencia de aneurisma de la aorta abdominal (AAA y 4 los factores de riesgo clínicos para AAA. Se evaluaron prospectivamente 280 pacientes consecutivos (media de edad: 68, rango 18 a 93 años, 118 de sexo masculino [42%]. Se verificó que: 1 el examen ecográfico de la aorta abdominal es factible en la mayoría de los pacientes (95,36% [IC 95% 92,88-97,84%], 2 el diámetro de la aorta abdominal se correlaciona con el sexo masculino, la edad, los antecedentes personales de enfermedad vascular periférica y los antecedentes de familiares de primer grado con AAA; también se correlaciona con el diámetro de la raíz aórtica (RA y con el grosor parietal relativo (GPR, 3 existe una prevalencia alta de AAA en la población estudiada (4,49% [IC 95% 1,99-7,00%], particularmente en los varones = 65 años (12,33% [IC 95% 4,60-20,05%] y 4 el sexo masculino, la hipertensión arterial, la dislipemia, el tabaquismo, la diabetes, los antecedentes personales de cardiopatía isquémica o de vasculopatía periférica y los antecedentes de familiares de primer grado con AAA son factores de riesgo para AAA. En conclusión, estaría justificada la realización de una ecografía abdominal como extensión de la ecocardiografía transtorácica en varones = 65 años, en particular si coexisten otros factores de riesgo para AAA.

  15. Influence of Selective Biochemical and Morphological Agents on Natural History of Aneurysm of Abdominal Aorta Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołoszko, Tomasz; Skórski, Maciej; Kwasiborski, Przemysław; Kmin, Ewelina; Gałązka, Zbigniew; Pogorzelski, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is probably influenced by many factors. The role of some of these factors, such as intraluminal thrombus (ILT) or cystatin C serum levels, remains controversial. Proving their influence could have therapeutic implications for some patients with AAA. Associations between the rate of increase in diameter of an aneurysm and ILT, as well as other factors, including biochemical factors (C-Reactive Protein - CRP, cystatin C), age, sex, and comorbidities, could predict disease progression in individual patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Seventy patients with small AAA were included into the study. The patients were followed using ultrasound and CT imaging. We evaluated aneurysm dimensions and aneurysm wall thickness, as well as ILT and its dimensions, aneurysm wall morphology, CRP, and cystatin C. RESULTS We observed significant growth of AAA and thinning of aneurysmal wall. Aneurysms over 4 cm grew significantly faster in the second year of observation. ILT grew together with AAA size. Age, sex, smoking, dyslipidemias, or controlled arterial hypertension had no influence on aneurysm progression rate. Changes in serum of CRP concentration did not reach statistical significance, but cystatin C levels did. CONCLUSIONS Presence and size of ILT, wall thickness, and cystatin C levels may be considered in prediction of AAA progression. ILT might exert a protective influence on the risk of aneurysm rupture. However, larger aneurysms containing larger thrombi grow faster and their walls undergo more rapid degradation, which in turn increases the risk of rupture. This matter requires further studies. PMID:26859744

  16. Modelo experimental de isquemia: reperfusão intestinal por clampeamento de aorta abdominal em ratos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno da Costa Rocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: desenvolver um modelo experimental de isquemia global normotérmica transitória capaz de demonstrar os tempos de isquemia e reperfusão necessários para desenvolvimento de lesão de isquemia/reperfusão em intestinos delgados de ratos Wistar através clampeamento de aorta abdominal suprarrenal. MÉTODOS: Vinte ratos Wistar adultos machos, pesando entre 250 e 350g, foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em cinco grupos, com quatro ratos cada, e submetidos a tempos crescentes de isquemia (0 - 30 - 45 - 60 - 90 minutos. Dentro de cada grupo, à exceção do grupo controle, dois ratos foram submetidos à 60 minutos de reperfusão e dois à 90 minutos. Após os procedimentos, procedeu-se análise histológica através de medição de áreas de necrose. RESULTADOS: O grau de necrose intestinal variou de 15 a 54% (p=0,0004. Houve tendência de aumento progressivo no grau de lesão relacionado ao aumento no tempo de isquemia, contudo, os maiores graus de lesão foram observados nos menores tempos de reperfusão. A análise do coeficiente de variação de necrose entre os dez grupos de isquemia/reperfusão demonstrou diferença estatisticamente significante em 15 postos, sendo 13 relacionados ao grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo foi capaz de demonstrar os tempos necessários para que ocorra lesão de isquemia/reperfusão intestinal através de clampeamento aórtico e poderá servir como base para facilitar o desenvolvimento de estudos voltados para a compreensão deste tipo de lesão.

  17. Evaluación del riesgo de ruptura de aneurismas de aorta abdominal personalizados mediante factores biomecánicos/Patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysms rupture risk assessment by means of biomechanical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Zúñiga‐Reyes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El Aneurisma de Aorta Abdominal es la dilatación localizada, irreversible y progresiva que experimenta la pared aortica. Esta patología ha sido reconocida como un importante problema de salud, puesto que su ruptura está asociada mayormente a consecuencias fatales. La falta de criterios fiables, respecto a los actualmente utilizados, para la evaluación del riesgo de ruptura, constituye un inconveniente en la gestión clínica de la enfermedad. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar el riesgo de ruptura de Aneurismas de Aorta Abdominal, mediante indicadores numéricos, como es previsto por el enfoque biomecánico. Fueron utilizadas técnicas de modelación por elementos finitos para determinar el comportamiento del flujo sanguíneo y el estado tensional de la pared arterial. Los resultados mostraron que ninguno de los aneurismas analizados presenta riesgo de ruptura elevado y que la evaluación del riesgo de ruptura mediante índices numéricos, es un camino viable para prever la ruptura de un aneurisma específico.Palabras claves: aneurisma de aorta abdominal, factores biomecánicos, interacción fluido-sólido, riesgo de ruptura.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractAbdominal Aortic Aneurysm is a localized, progressive and permanent dilation of the infra-renal aorta.AAA has increasingly been recognized as an important health problem in the last decades. The AAA rupture is mostly associated with fatal consequences. The lack of more reliable criteria for rupture riskassessing, results in a problem in the clinical management of the disease. This paper aims to assess the rupture risk of abdominal aortic aneurysms by means of numerical indexes, as envisaged by the biomechanical approach. Finite Volume Techniques were used to determine the blood flow behavior within aneurysmatic sac and the structural state of the arterial wall. The results showed that none of the assessed aneurysms is at

  18. Percutaneous biopsy for small lymphadenopathy around the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava using the modified coaxial technique under CT guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chi Sung [Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    The author wanted to report the accuracy and safety of performing percutaneous biopsy of a small lymphadenopathy around the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava (IVC) with using the modified coaxial technique (MCT) under CT guidance. Thirty-six cases of CT-guided biopsy using MCT were performed in 35 patients (15 men and 20 women, aged 21-80 years, mean age:56.5 years), who had small lymphadenopathy around the abdominal aorta and IVC. The maximum diameters of the target nodes were 11-20 mm in 21 cases, 21-30 mm in 14 cases and 31-40 mm in 1 case (mean diameter: 19.8 mm). The locations of the target lesions were the left or posterior side of the aorta (n=22), between the aorta and IVC (n=7), and the right or posterior side of the IVC (n=7). Using the modified coaxial technique, a guiding cannula was introduced precisely to the border of the target lesion. Fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed through the cannula and this was followed by multiple core biopsies (6-8 cores) using an automated biopsy gun. The pathologic results and complications were reviewed. The clinical course after biopsy and the histopathologic diagnosis were reviewed by following up the medical records. From examining the 36 biopsies, a definitive pathologic diagnosis was made in 33 cases (92%). The etiologies were as follows; 16 (44%) metastatic tumors, 11 (31%) lymphomas and 6 cases (17%) of tuberculosis with positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB). Two cases were reported as chronic granulomatous inflammation due to suspected tuberculosis, and they were treated with tuberculosis medication. One case was reported as chronic inflammation and so re-biopsy was performed; this resulted in the diagnosis of tuberculosis with positive AFB. Serious complications such as rupture of major vessels or bowel perforation did not occur. It is considered that performing percutaneous biopsy for small lymphadenopathy around the abdominal aorta and IVC with using the modified coaxial technique under CT guidance

  19. An anomalous case of the left gastric artery, the splenic artery and hepato-mesenteric trunk independently arising from the abdominal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saga, Tsuyoshi; Hirao, Takeshi; Kitashima, Sadaharu; Watanabe, Koh-Ichi; Nohno, Mariko; Araki, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Seiji; Yamaki, Koh-Ichi

    2005-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of an arterial anomaly in the celiaco-mesenteric region, encountered in a Japanese female cadaver for dissection at the gross anatomy laboratory of Kurume University School of Medicine in 2003. The usual celiac trunk was not identified, and the left gastric artery, the splenic artery and the hepato-mesenteric trunk independently arose from the abdominal aorta. Moreover, the hepatic artery arising from the hepato-mesenteric trunk ran behind the portal vein. The classification for this type of arterial anomaly is a Type II' of Morita's classification and Type II of Higashi and Hirai's classification, not belong to the Adachi's. PMID:16119612

  20. Prevalência de dilatação da aorta abdominal em coronariopatas idosos Prevalence of abdominal aortic dilatation in patients aged 60 years or older with coronary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Vieira Meirelles

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A realização de programas de triagem para o aneurisma da aorta abdominal de forma indiscriminada auxiliará uma pequena porcentagem de indivíduos, mas ao considerarmos grupos com fatores de risco relacionados à dilatação da aorta, aumentando a probabilidade da doença, este permitirá um direcionamento adequado dos recursos e um benefício maior à população. Programas direcionados pelas sociedades médicas, permitindo um diagnóstico precoce das doenças vasculares e conseqüentemente um melhor preparo do doente, promoveriam melhores taxas de sobrevida com menor morbidade. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência da dilatação da aorta abdominal em uma amostra de pacientes idosos com mais de 60 anos de idade, portadores de coronariopatia aterosclerótica diagnosticada por cineangiocoronariografia. MÉTODOS: Para a seleção dessa amostra, levou-se em consideração o fato de que a avaliação pré-operatória de cirurgia vascular não tenhasido a indicação do cateterismo. Procedeu-se então a avaliação, baseada na anamnese, exame físico e Doppler ultra-som da aorta abdominal. A análise estatística iniciou-se com o teste qui-quadrado, com a posterior análise de regressão logística multivariada e regressão logística univariada, considerando significativo um p BACKGROUND: Indiscriminate screening programs for abdominal aortic aneurysm will help a small percentage of individuals. However, when considering groups with risk factors associated with aortic dilatation, which increases the probability of the disease, such programs will provide an adequate allocation of resources and a greater benefit to the population. Programs guided by medical societies, providing an early diagnosis of vascular diseases and consequently a better preparation of patients, would result in better survival rates with lower morbidity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of abdominal aortic dilatation in patients aged 60 years or older with

  1. The value of true-FISP sequence added to conventional gadolinium-enhanced MRA of abdominal aorta and its major branches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iozzelli, Andrea [University of Milan School of Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: andrea.iozzelli@poste.it; D' Orta, Giovanni [University of Milan School of Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: ammos@tiscali.it; Aliprandi, Alberto [University of Milan School of Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: a.aliprandi@grupposandonato.it; Secchi, Francesco [University of Milan School of Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: francisecchi@virgilio.it; Di Leo, Giovanni [University of Milan School of Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: gianni.dileo77@virgilio.it; Sardanelli, Francesco [University of Milan School of Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: f.sardanelli@grupposandonato.it

    2009-12-15

    To test true-fast imaging with steady-state precession (true-FISP) added to gadolinium-based MR angiography (Gd-MRA) for imaging abdominal aorta and major abdominal vessels, 35 consecutive patients (age 67 {+-} 11 years) with known or suspected abdominal and/or peripheral vascular disease were studied with sagittal and axial 2D true-FISP during free breathing and coronal 3D fast low-angle shot (FLASH) Gd-MRA (breath-holding, 0.2 mmol/kg of Gd-DOTA at 2 ml/s). We evaluated: suprarenal aorta, celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, right renal artery, left renal artery, infrarenal aorta, inferior mesenteric artery, aortic bifurcation/common iliac arteries, lumbar arteries and aortic atheromasia. The possible presence of accessory renal arteries, collateral vasculature and vascular prosthesis/stent was evaluated. A quality four-point score was assigned to each item on both sequences, from 0 (not visible) to 3 (good-to-excellent image quality) and Wilcoxon test was used. Main diagnoses resulted: normal or atheromasic aorta (n = 25); aortic aneurysm (n = 2); patent aorto-iliac surgical prosthesis (n = 2); patent vascular iliac stent (n = 2); aneurysm of iliac artery (n = 1); patent aortic endovascular prosthesis (n = 1); patent aorto-femural bypass (n = 1) and aorto-iliac surgical prosthesis endoleak (n = 1). We also found three patients with accessory renal arteries, two with collateral circulation, and three with surgical aorto-iliac prosthesis. The score of true-FISP (25.9 {+-} 4.1, median 27) was significantly higher (p = 0.003) than that of Gd-MRA (23.9 {+-} 3.6, median 24). True-FISP was superior for visualizing inferior mesenteric artery (score 2.5 {+-} 1.1 vs. 1.0 {+-} 1.4; p < 0.001) and atheromasic plaques (2.5 {+-} 1.1 vs. 1.2 {+-} 1.1; p < 0.001). One collateral vasculature was demonstrated only with Gd-MRA. Summarizing, true-FISP is a power and fast non-breath-hold sequence to be added to Gd-MRA, obtaining an information increase.

  2. Multidetector row CT angiography of the abdominal aorta and lower extremities in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease: diagnostic accuracy and interobserver agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Maurizio E-mail: maurizio.romano@mailcmn.area.na.cnr.it; Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Imbriaco, Massimo; Amato, Bruno; Markabaoui, Karim; Tamburrini, Oscar; Salvatore, Marco

    2004-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of four channel multidetector row CT angiography (MDCTA) of the abdominal aorta and lower extremities arteries compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Materials and methods: In our prospective study 42 patients with peripheral vascular occlusive disease (27 M, 15 F, age range 40-79 years) underwent MDCTA and DSA within 5 days. Images were blindly interpreted by two radiologists. Maximum intensity projections (MIP), multiplanar (MPR) reformations, three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions as well as axial images were available for analysis of MDCTA. DSA were analyzed on hard copies. Results: Overall sensitivity and specificity of MDCTA were 93 and 95%, respectively, with positive and negative predictive values of 90 and 97%. Overall diagnostic accuracy was 94%. Normal arterial segments and 100% occlusions were correctly identified in all cases by MDCTA. Moderately stenotic segments interpretation in the calves appeared to be more controversial, but no statistical difference in accuracy of MDCTA in the infrapopliteal district arteries was noted with respect to accuracy in the more proximal arterial bed. Good to excellent interobserver and intraobserver agreement were observed, with k values greater than 0.80. Conclusions: MDCTA of the abdominal aorta and lower extremities is an accurate imaging modality in clinical practice when compared with DSA.

  3. Fatores de morbimortalidade na cirurgia eletiva do aneurisma da aorta abdominal infra-renal: experiência de 134 casos Morbidity and mortality factors in the elective surgery of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm: a case study with 134 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Aquiles Tadashi Ywata de Carvalho; Vanessa Prado dos Santos; Álvaro Razuk Filho; Walter Karakhaian; Henrique Jorge Guedes Neto; Valter Castelli Jr.; Roberto Augusto Caffaro

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXTO: O tratamento cirúrgico convencional do aneurisma da aorta abdominal (AAA) infra-renal pode resultar em complicações graves. A fim de otimizar os resultados na evolução do tratamento, é importante que sejam identificados os pacientes predispostos a determinadas complicações e instituídas condutas preventivas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a taxa de mortalidade operatória precoce, analisar as complicações pós-operatórias e identificar os fatores de risco relacionados com a morbimortalidade. MÉTO...

  4. Superinfecção e rotura de aneurisma da aorta abdominal por Salmonella dublin: relato de caso Superinfection and rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm after Salmonella dublin septicemia: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Anibal Basile Filho; Albert Jaeger; Antônio Capone Neto; Mário Mantovani

    1988-01-01

    Os autores relatam o caso de paciente de 66 anos, que apresentou superinfecção e rotura de aneurisma da aorta abdominal, após septicemia por Salmonella dublin. As infecções endovasculares associadas à rotura de aneurisma pré-existentes são um rico potencial nos pacientes com mais de 50 anos de idade, que apresentam bacteremia ou septicemia por Salmonella sp. A alta mortalidade da aortite por salmonelose é devida à septicemia grave ou à rotura desses aneurismas. Qualquer tecido orgânico pode s...

  5. Orientation, anisotropy, clustering and volume fraction of smooth muscle cells within the wall of porcine abdominal aorta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tonar, Z.; Kochová, P.; Janáček, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2008), s. 145-156. ISSN 1802-680X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100110502 Grant ostatní: GA MZd(CZ) NR8863 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : aorta * stereology * histology Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  6. Partially thrombosed aneurysm of the abdominal aorta: Unusual cause of chronic inflammation and resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin

    OpenAIRE

    El Amrani, M.; El Kharras, A.; Asserraji, M.

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of chronic inflammatory syndrome is often a challenge. In dialysis patients, this condition leads to resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). We here report a case of a 72-year-old male undergoing chronic hemodialysis and developed rHuEPO resistance without any obvious etiology. Investigations showed a partially thromosed aneurysm of the infrarenal aorta. Antiplatelet therapy was started with a satisfactory outcome.

  7. An anomalous case of the hepato-spleno-mesenteric and the gastro-phrenic trunks independently arising from the abdominal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Y; Yamaki, K; Saga, T; Hirata, T; Yoshida, M; Soejima, H; Kanazawa, T; Araki, Y; Yoshizuka, M

    2000-01-01

    This report describes an arterial anomaly case in the celiaco-mesenteric region, which was encountered in a Japanese male cadaver in the dissecting room at Kurume University School of Medicine in 1999. In this case, the usual celiac trunk was not identified, and the hepato-spleno-mesenteric and the gastro-phrenic trunks were independently arising from the abdominal aorta. In addition, the common hepatic artery divided into the left hepatic, the right hepatic, and the gastroduodenal arteries simultaneously, then, the accessory gastric artery arose from the left hepatic artery. This type of arteral anomaly belongs to the Type III of Adachi's classification and the Type II of Morita's classification. PMID:10948660

  8. A proposal for standardizing computed tomography reports on abdominal aortic aneurysms; Proposta para padronizacao do relatorio de tomografia computadorizada nos aneurismas da aorta abdominal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torlai, Fabiola Goda; Meirelles, Gustavo S. Portes [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil); Miranda Junior, Fausto; Fonseca, Jose Honorio A.P. da [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia; Ajzen, Sergio; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br

    2006-07-15

    Objective: to propose a model to standardize computed tomography reports on abdominal aortic aneurysms. Materials and methods: interviews were carried out with members of the Vascular Surgery Division of our institution, in the period between April and October 2004, aiming at developing a standardized model of computed tomography reports on abdominal aortic aneurysms. Based on this model, a questionnaire was elaborated and sent to other nine surgeons, all of them experienced in the field of abdominal aortic surgery. The questionnaires response rate was 55.5% (5/9). Results: the most frequently mentioned parameters of interest for evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysms were: maximum diameter of proximal aortic neck, proximal aortic neck length to lower renal arteries, shape of proximal aortic neck, maximum diameter of the aneurysm and diameter of the common iliac arteries. These data allowed the development of a proposal for a model to standardize computed tomography reports. Conclusion: a model for standardized tomographic analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysms has met vascular surgeons' needs for following-up patients and planning their treatment. (author)

  9. CECT FEATURES OF RETROPERITONEAL FIBROSIS WITH BILATERAL OBSTRUCTIVE UROPATHY SECONDARY TO ANEURYSM AND DISSECTION OF ABDOMINAL AORTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhang V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Retroperitoneal fibrosis is one of uncommon cause of obstructive uropathy. Aortic dissection without rupture is still uncommon cause of retroperitoneal fibrosis. We present unusual case of aortic aneurysm with dissection without its acute rupture causing retroperitoneal fibrosis with its contrast computed tomography features. We report imaging features of computed tomography of abdominal aortic dissection complicated by retroperitoneal fibrosis with bilateral ureteral obstruction. The patient underwent successful bilateral transurethral ureteral stenting to relieve acute obstruction and started on corticosteroid treatment.

  10. When the diameter of the abdominal aorta should be considered as abnormal? A new ultrasonographic index using the wrist circumference as a body build reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To use US to evaluate the normal values of aortic diameter (AD), stratifying the population by age, gender and body build, as measured using wrist circumference (WC). Materials and methods: Between April 2010 and February 2012, consecutive patients ≥ 30 years of age, without history of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) were prospectively enrolled. They underwent an abdominal ultrasonography for reasons other than aorta evaluation. AD was measured at the infrarenal (AD1), intermediate (AD2), and iliac bifurcation (AD3) levels: a diameter ≥ 3 cm was considered as an aneurysm. The maximal aortic diameter (ADmax) was measured for AAA patients. WC was measured; AD/WC ratio was calculated and presented in percentage: the range of normal values was obtained excluding AAA cases and calculated as mean ± 1.96 × standard deviation. Pearson correlation coefficient was used. Results: We recruited 1200 patients, 15 (1.25%; age range = 64–86 years) had AAA. AD ranges of the other patients were: AD1 = 0.74–1.84 cm, AD2 = 0.78–1.85 cm, and AD3 = 0.68–1.76 cm for females; AD1 = 0.86–2.02 cm, AD2 = 0.91–2.08 cm, and AD3 = 0.84–1.95 cm for males. AD2/WC ratio of non-AAA patients range was 4–15%, with only one outlier at 18%, while ADmax/WC ratio of AAA patients range was 15–35% (p 1, r = 0.318, p 2 and r = 0.280, p 3). Conclusion: The definition of normal AD should consider body build. An AD2/WC ratio of 15% may be regarded as a threshold to differentiate AAA- from non-AAA patients. Patients with AD2/WC values comprised between 12% and 15% may be at risk for AAA

  11. Superinfecção e rotura de aneurisma da aorta abdominal por Salmonella dublin: relato de caso Superinfection and rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm after Salmonella dublin septicemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Basile Filho

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de paciente de 66 anos, que apresentou superinfecção e rotura de aneurisma da aorta abdominal, após septicemia por Salmonella dublin. As infecções endovasculares associadas à rotura de aneurisma pré-existentes são um rico potencial nos pacientes com mais de 50 anos de idade, que apresentam bacteremia ou septicemia por Salmonella sp. A alta mortalidade da aortite por salmonelose é devida à septicemia grave ou à rotura desses aneurismas. Qualquer tecido orgânico pode ser a sede de infecções metastáticas, porém os locais mais susceptíveis são os tecidos necróticos e as lesões crônicas degenerativas. Os autores discutem a importância do diagnóstico precoce para reduzir a mortalidade dessa entidade.The authors present a case of a 66 year-old woman with a dissection and rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm after Salmonella dublin septicemia. Endovascular infection and rupture of atherosclerotic aneurysm is a substantial risk in patients older than 50 years of age who have bacteremia or sepsis due to Salmonella sp. The high mortality is the resultant of Salmonella aortitis due either to septicemia or rupture. Tissue anywhere may be seeded, but damage tissues appear to be particularly susceptible to abscess and chronic destructive lesions. The significance of early diagnosis to decrease the fatal outcome is discussed.

  12. Fatores de morbimortalidade na cirurgia eletiva do aneurisma da aorta abdominal infra-renal: experiência de 134 casos Morbidity and mortality factors in the elective surgery of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm: a case study with 134 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquiles Tadashi Ywata de Carvalho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: O tratamento cirúrgico convencional do aneurisma da aorta abdominal (AAA infra-renal pode resultar em complicações graves. A fim de otimizar os resultados na evolução do tratamento, é importante que sejam identificados os pacientes predispostos a determinadas complicações e instituídas condutas preventivas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a taxa de mortalidade operatória precoce, analisar as complicações pós-operatórias e identificar os fatores de risco relacionados com a morbimortalidade. MÉTODO: Foram analisados 134 pacientes com AAA infra-renal submetidos a correção cirúrgica eletiva no período de fevereiro de 2001 a dezembro de 2005. RESULTADOS: A taxa de mortalidade foi de 5,2%, sendo secundária principalmente a infarto agudo de miocárdio (IAM e isquemia mesentérica. As complicações cardíacas foram as mais freqüentes, seguidas das pulmonares e renais. A presença de diabetes melito (DM, insuficiência cardíaca congestiva (ICC, insuficiência coronariana (ICO e cintilografia miocárdica positiva para isquemia estiveram associadas às complicações cardíacas. A idade avançada, a doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC e a capacidade vital forçada reduzida aumentaram os riscos de atelectasia e pneumonia. História de nefropatia, tempo de pinçamento aórtico prolongado e níveis de uréia elevados aumentaram os riscos de insuficiência respiratória aguda (IRA. A isquemia dos membros inferiores esteve associada ao tabagismo e à idade avançada, e a maior taxa de mortalidade, à presença de coronariopatia, tempos prolongados de pinçamento aórtico e de cirurgia. CONCLUSÃO: A taxa de morbimortalidade esteve compatível com a literatura nacional e internacional, sendo secundária às complicações cardíacas, respiratórias e renais. Os fatores de risco identificados no pré e transoperatório estiveram relacionados com essas complicações.BACKGROUND: Conventional surgical treatment of infrarenal abdominal

  13. Características ultraestruturais do segmento abdominal da aorta de rato albino - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.825 Mural features of the abdominal aortic segment of albino rat - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.825

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Simões

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi investigar as peculiaridades ultraestruturais da parede da aorta de rato. Foram utilizados sete ratos albinos, adultos jovens, dos quais foram coletados fragmentos da aorta abdominal infra-renal. Após a coleta, os segmentos vasculares foram fixados e encaminhados para a rotina de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e varredura. As lamelas elásticas aparecem interpostas às fibras musculares lisas, sendo essa disposição principalmente notada na túnica média da parede vascular. Entre as fibras musculares lisas e as lamelas elásticas, observa-se um inter-relacionamento aparentemente estreito, feito por conexão e ancoramento entre ambos os elementos murais por meio de lamelas de colágeno. A túnica íntima da aorta abdominal do rato mostra algumas peculiaridades ultraestruturais marcantes, tais como a interrupção, em certos locais da parede, de continuidade da lâmina elástica interna, interrupção acompanhada por poros endoteliais, de certa extensão, suprajacentes à falha na estrutura elástica intimal. Este padrão de constituição mural, com destaque aos ancoramentos elástico-musculares, via o colágeno, parece garantir propriedades fundamentais da parede vascular, concernentes à hemodinâmica, tal como o cisalhamento, normalmente notado entre os estratos superpostos da parede vascular, bem como a contratilidade e a visco-elasticidade da parede arterial.The objective of the present research was to investigate the ultrastructural peculiarities of the aortic wall of the rat. Seven young adult rats were used, from which fragments of the infrarenal abdominal aorta were collected. After collection, the vascular segments were fixed and sent for analysis by scanning electron microscope. The elastic lamellae appear interposed with smooth muscular fibers; this pattern was verified mainly at the medial layer structure. Among the mural elements a well defined interrelationship was established through

  14. Prevalencia del aneurisma aórtico abdominal en el área urbana de Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Villegas

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: el aneurisma de la aorta abdominal (AAA constituye una importante causa de muerte en todo el mundo; causa más de 15.000 muertes por año en los Estados Unidos y 6.000 a 10.000 en el Reino Unido. Es la causa del 1,2% de las muertes en mayores de 60 años. La mayoría de ellos cursan asintomáticamente, y es evidente la diferencia en la tasa de mortalidad según que su tratamiento se haga de forma urgente o electiva. Estudios poblacionales a escala mundial utilizando para tamización la ecografía abdominal han demostrado tasas globales de prevalencia de 2-4%. Este método es la forma más económica y efectiva de hacer oportunamente el diagnóstico. En Colombia no existen estudios poblacionales que permitan definir la prevalencia de esta enfermedad y hacer oportunamente su tratamiento con miras a mejorar la probabilidad de supervivencia de estos pacientes. OBJETIVO: determinar la tasa de prevalencia del AAA en personas mayores de 55 años, en el área urbana de Medellín, mediante la evaluación con ecografía abdominal simple, y describir las enfermedades asociadas. MÉTODOS: se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. Se calculó la población mayor de 55 años de la ciudad de Medellín en el año 2002 en 238.231 personas y se calculó una muestra representativa de 650 individuos. Se tuvieron en cuenta el número de barrios de cada comuna y el de personas para evaluar por zona, se aplicará una encuesta y se les hará ecografía abdominal a todos los encuestados determinando los diámetros AP y transversal de la aorta abdominal infrarrenal para detectar los individuos con AAA. RESULTADOS: la muestra total fue de 532 individuos correspondientes al 81,8% de la muestra establecida en la metodología. Por sexo hubo 354 mujeres (66,5% y 178 hombres (33,5%; la edad promedio fue de 66,6 años. Trescientos sesenta y siete individuos (69% presentaban al menos un antecedente patológico: hipertensión arterial en 41

  15. Incidência de isquemia miocárdica no pós-operatório de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia para correção de aneurisma de aorta abdominal: estudo retrospectivo

    OpenAIRE

    Domingos Dias Cicarelli; Cristina Keiko Marumo; Ricardo Gonçalves Esteves

    2001-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Muitos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia para correção de aneurisma de aorta abdominal apresentam doença coronariana, podendo evoluir com complicações cardíacas perioperatórias. A grande dificuldade é avaliar, no pré-operatório, o risco de complicações cardíacas isquêmicas que ocorrem no período pós-operatório de modo confiável. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a incidência de isquemia cardíaca pós-operatória em pacientes submetidos à correção de aneurisma da aor...

  16. [Aging of the aorta: a morphological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentimone, F; Del Corso, L; Meola, M; Giuliano, G; Borelli, A; Riccioni, S

    1994-05-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the aging of aorta with respect to atherosclerotic modifications: abdominal aorta echotomography is the preferred approach for this study. In 354 elderly patients, 65 and over, we have evaluated the diameter and the course of the aorta, the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta and iliac vessels, and the presence of aneurysms. Two kinds of findings could be identified by echotomography: age-related physiologic modifications, represented essentially by an increase of the aortic diameter; pathologic changes, characteristic for atherosclerosis, of which aneurysms are the most dangerous complications. PMID:7924179

  17. Estenose carotídea acima de 70% em pacientes no pré-operatório de cirurgia da aorta abdominal: freqüência e fatores de risco Frequency and risk factors for carotid stenosis above 70% in patients undergoing abdominal aortic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ventura Ferreira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a freqüência e os fatores de risco associados à estenose carotídea acima de 70% em pacientes que serão submetidos a cirurgias de aorta abdominal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram analisados 94 pacientes que realizaram ultra-som Doppler de carótidas no pré-operatório de cirurgias de aorta abdominal entre janeiro de 2000 e janeiro de 2003, pela disciplina de Cirurgia Vascular da Santa Casa de São Paulo. RESULTADOS: Sessenta e sete pacientes (71% eram homens. Dentre os 94 pacientes, 42 (44,6% tinham doença oclusiva aorto-ilíaca, e 52 (53,4%, aneurismas da aorta abdominal (AAA. A análise dos dados mostrou uma prevalência de estenose de carótidas acima de 70% em 8,33% dos pacientes com AAA e em 13,51% dos pacientes com doença oclusiva aorto-ilíaca, diferença esta sem significância estatística (P = 0,5. Nos pacientes que apresentavam antecedente de isquemia cerebral - acidente vascular cerebral (AVC ou ataque isquêmico transitório (AIT -, houve uma prevalência estatisticamente maior de estenose carotídea entre 70 e 99%. Outros fatores de risco para aterosclerose, como sexo masculino, diabetes, hipertensão arterial e tabagismo, não foram preditivos da presença de estenose carotídea acima de 70%. CONCLUSÃO: A freqüência de estenose da carótida acima de 70% em pacientes no pré-operatório de cirurgia de aorta foi de 9,57%, e a presença de antecedente de AVC ou AIT na história foi preditiva de estenose acima de 70% neste grupo de pacientes.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency and risk factors of carotid stenosis above 70% in patients undergoing abdominal aortic reconstruction. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Ninety-four patients who underwent Doppler ultrasound preoperative screening for abdominal aortic surgery between January 2000 and January 2003 were analyzed by the Vascular Surgery Unit of the Santa Casa of São Paulo (Faculty of Medical Sciences. RESULTS: Sixty-seven (71% patients were male. Of the 94 patients, 42

  18. 丹红注射液对大鼠腹主动脉的舒张作用及机制%Vasodilatative effect of Danhong injection on rat abdominal aorta and its mechanism of actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔婷; 智晓文; 苏显明; 崔长琮; 郑巧伟; 封卫毅

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the vasodilatative effect of Danhong injection on rat abdominal aorta, and elucidate its possible mechanism of actions. METHODS The effects of Danhong injection on norepinephrine or potassium chloride treated blood vessels were observed in vivo and in vitro. The effects on the flow rate of arterial perfusion of rat hindlimb and the tensile force of rat aorta ring were measured The mechanism pf actions of Danhong injection in relaxation of rat aorta was explored with potassium channel blockers, caffeine and Ca2+ -free-Krebs solution perfusion. RESULTS The reduction of flow rate caused by norepinephrine was significantly rescued by Danhong injection at a concentration of 0. 3 - 3 mL·L-1. Menwhile, 3 mL·L-1 of Danhong injection also mildly ameliorated the decrease of blood supply induced by 30 mol·L-1 of potassium. 0. 3 - 40 mL·L-1 of Danhong injection significantly decreased the tension of high level norepinephrine or K+ perfusion solution treated rat abdominal aortic rings with or without endotheliura The amplitudes of relaxation in aorta rings with endothelium were more than that in aorta rings without endothelium perfused with 3 - 40 ml·L-1 of Danhong injection. No effects of potassium channel blockers TEA or 4-Ap on aorta ring tensile force were observed. 20 mL+L ' Danhong injection mildly inhibited vascular smooth muscle which was pre-contracted by NE in Ca2+ -free-Krebs solution. But it significantly inhibited vascular smooth muscle pre-contracted by NE in Ca2+ -Krebs solution. No effects of Danhong injective on caffeine preconstricted rat aortic rings were found. CONCLUSION Danhong injection showed a significant vasodilatation effect on vessels contracted by norepinephrine. Danhong injection inhibited norepinephrine-induced arterial contraction by reducing Ca2+ influx through receptor operated calcium channel and voltage-dependent calcium channel on smooth muscle cells in blood vessels. Danhong injection also showed a significant

  19. Preparation of vulnerable plaques in abdominal aorta: an experimental study in rabbits%家兔腹主动脉易损斑块模型制作的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹海利; 于熙滢; 白彬

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立家兔腹主动脉易损斑块模犁.方法 选取30只雄性纯种新西兰大白兔,随机分为3组:球囊损伤+高脂喂养组、高脂喂养组及普通饲料喂养组.饲养12周后分别给予中国斑点蜂蛇毒和组胺药物触发,诱发斑块破裂及血栓形成.结果 内膜损伤+高脂喂养组存活的8只兔中有10处病变狭窄程度超过50%,并且脂质核心较大、纤维帽厚度小于65 μm,判定以上10处病变为易损斑块.高脂喂养组中的9只仅3处可判定为易损斑块;普通饲料喂养组中未见易损斑块.结论 高脂喂养后行腹主动脉球囊拉伤制作兔易损斑块模型是切实可行的方法.%Objective To establish an animal model of vulnerable plaque in abdominal aorta by pharmacological triggering of atherosclerosis in rabbits. Methods Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly and equally divided into 3 groups: group A, receiving balloon injury together with high lipid diet; group B, receiving high lipid diet only, and group C, receiving regular diet only. After feeding for 12 weeks, all the rabbits in three groups underwent pharmacological triggering with Chinese Russell's viper venom (CRVV) and histamine to induce the rupture of the plaque and the formation of thrombosis. Results In 8 survival rabbits of group A, ten lesions with the stenotic degree over 50% were found, which had large lipid core with the thickness of fibrous cap being thinner than 65μm, by which these ten lesions were judged as vulnerable plaques. In 9 rabbits of group B, only 3 vulnerable plaques could be determined, while no single vulnerable plaque could be identified in the rabbits of group C. Conclusion For establishing an animal model of vulnerable plaque in abdominal aorta in rabbits, balloon injury combined with high lipid diet is a feasible and reliable method.

  20. Magnetic Resonance angiography with bolus contrast agent in abdominal aortic aneurysms; Angiografia a Risonanza Magnetica con bolo di mezzo di contrasto nella valutazione degli aneurismi dell'aorta addominale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Cesare, E.; Cerone, G.; Giordano, A.V.; Marsili, L.; Barile, A.; Michelini, O.; Masciocchi, C. [L' Aquila Univ., L' Aquila (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia; Spartera, C. [L' Aquila Univ., L' Aquila (Italy). Div. di Chirurgia Vascolare dell' Universita'

    2000-09-01

    Purpose of this paper is to investigate the potentials of 3D breath-hold contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) in the diagnosis, follow-up and treatment planning of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Twenty-four patients with infra renal aortic aneurysm underwent MRA. It was used a 1.5 T unit (GE Horizon, Echospeed 8.2), a phased array surface coil and 3D Fast SPGR T1-weighted sequences acquired on the coronal plane during patient breath-hold and after contrast agent i.v. administration. A bolus-test was done before angiography to optimize imaging delay time. After 3D MRA a Fast-SPGR T1-weighted sequence was acquired on the axial plane. The 3D MRA source images were processed with the MIP algorithm. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out. Helical CT was performed in 6 cases and DSA in 7 cases. Surgery was the reference standard in 15 patients. MRA depicted aneurysm thrombosis in 22 cases, carrefour involvement in 18 cases and iliac arteries involvement in 3 cases. Accessory renal arteries were shown in 4 cases; iliac artery stenosis was associated in 5 cases. There was agreement between MR and Helical CT and DSA findings: surgery confirmed MRA results in 15/15 cases. 3D contrast-enhanced MRA can be considered the method of choice in the follow-up and treatment planning of abdominal aortic aneurysms, because it provides both angiographic and tomographic images: this allows to obtain more information, noninvasively and without the use of ionizing radiations. [Italian] Scopo di questo lavoro e' valutare le potenzialita' dell'angiografia con Risonanza Magnetica tridimensionale con acquisizione durante singola apnea dopo bolo di mdc nello studio degli aneurismi dell'aorta addominale, anche ai fini della pianificazione terapeutica. Si sono esaminati con RM 24 pazienti con anurisma dell'aorta addominale sottorenale, utilizzando un magnete da 1,5 T( Echospeed 8.2, General Electric Medical System, Signa Horizon) e una

  1. Imaging of gastrointestinal and abdominal tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhoenacker, FM; De Backer, AI; Op de Beeck, B; Maes, M; Van Altena, R; Van Beckevoort, D; Kersemans, P; De Schepper, AM

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the abdomen, including involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, the peritoneum, mesentery, omentum, abdominal lymph nodes, solid abdominal organs, the genital system and the abdominal aorta. Abdominal TB is a diagnostic cha

  2. Experimental study of acute spinal cord injury in rats with lipopolysaccharide infection after abdominal aorta clamping%腹主动脉阻断合并脓毒症大鼠脊髓损伤的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹述洲; 吴安石

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察大鼠腹主动脉阻断术(AAC)后合并脓毒症时脊髓病理改变及肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)-α的表达.方法 Wistar大鼠32只,随机均分为四组:假手术组(A组),AAC组(B组),LPS组(C组),AAC+ LPS组(D组).所有动物均于再灌注后8h处死,处死前进行后肢神经功能评分,取脊髓行HE染色观察脊髓组织病理损害和免疫组化检测脊髓前角TNF-α的表达.结果 HE染色显示A组损伤较轻;B组可见炎性反应明显,较多神经元坏死;C组有炎性表现,较少神经元坏死,较多运动神经元凋亡;D组可见强烈炎性表现,大量神经元坏死.A组TNF-α少量表达,显著低于其它三组(P<0.01).C组TNF-α显著高于其它三组(P<0.01).A、C组后肢神经功能评分显著高于B、D组(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 TNF-α在AAC后脓毒症急性脊髓损伤中发挥了重要作用,介导了运动神经元的坏死或凋亡.AAC后机体可存在免疫紊乱,如此时发生脓毒症,TNF-α表达增加可能不如单纯脓毒症明显.%Objective To study the pathological changes and the expression of TNF-α of rat spinal cord after abdominal aorta clamping ( ACC) with lipopolysaccharide ( LPS) infection. Methods Thirty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (the dead were excluded): Sham(Group A,n=8),AAC (Group B, n=8),LPS (Group C, n=8),and AAC with LPS infection (Group D, n = 8). Eight hours after reperfusion. All the rats were excuted and eviscerate the spinal cord tissues. The pathological changes were observed after HE stain, and the expression of TNF-α were detected by immunohistochemistry methods. Results The pathological changes of 4 group-there was slight pathological change and no significant inflammatory reaction in group A. Group B showed slight inflammatory reaction and a small quantity of dynamoneure necrosis. The group C showed an obvious inflammatory reaction and more dynamoneure necrosis. The group D showed an obvious inflammatory reaction and a

  3. Influencia de la geometría de aneurismas de aorta abdominal en la dinámica del flujo sanguíneo y en su riesgo de ruptura // Influence of abdominal aortic aneurysms geometry in the blood flow dynamics and in its rupture risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vilalta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available La ruptura de aneurisma de aorta abdominal (AAA representa un evento clínico muy importante,con una tasa de mortalidad relativamente elevada. En un esfuerzo por aumentar la comprensiónsobre este complejo fenómeno, en el presente trabajo se estudia la influencia de la geometría delos aneurismas de aorta abdominal en el riesgo de ruptura. Para esto se ha utilizado un modelogeométrico realista, obtenido por la transformación de imágenes 2D de tomografía computarizada(CT, sometido a un flujo pulsátil fisiológicamente realista, con el objetivo de evaluar e identificarlas regiones donde ocurren las principales perturbaciones en los patrones de flujo, cómo éstamodifica los campos de velocidades y de tensiones hemodinámicas en el interior del sacoaneurismático, así como la influencia de los diferentes factores biomécanicos relacionados con lageometría que caracterizan el aneurisma. Se presenta una explicación de las modificaciones de lasestructuras vorticales y de la distribución de tensiones durante el ciclo cardíaco. Igualmente sedetermina un indicador numérico (Parámetro de Severidad que integra los 3 factoresbiomecánicos geométricos y que permite evaluar el riesgo de ruptura del aneurisma para un estadode desarrollo determinado. Los resultados confirman que la asimetría de los aneurismas de aortaabdominal es uno de los principales factores que influyen en su ruptura.Palabras claves: AAA, asimetría, riesgo de ruptura, factores biomecánicos.__________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA represents an important clinical event, with arelatively high mortality rate. In an effort to increase understanding about this complexphenomenon, this paper studies the influence of abdominal aortic aneurysms geometry on the riskof rupture. Patient specific AAA model, created by 2D reconstruction of computed tomographyimage, was used to identify regions of

  4. The normal distribution of thoracoabdominal aorta small branch artery ostia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the normal distribution of aortic branch artery ostia. CT scans of 100 subjects were retrospectively reviewed. The angular distributions of the aorta with respect to the center of the T3 to L4 vertebral bodies, and of branch artery origins with respect to the center of the aorta were measured. At each vertebral body level the distribution of intercostal/lumbar arteries and other branch arteries were calculated. The proximal descending aorta is posteriorly placed becoming a midline structure, at the thoracolumbar junction, and remains anterior to the vertebral bodies within the abdomen. The intercostal and lumbar artery ostia have a distinct distribution. At each vertebral level from T3 caudally, one intercostal artery originates from the posterior wall of the aorta throughout the thoracic aorta, while the other intercostal artery originates from the medial wall of the descending thoracic aorta high in the chest, posteromedially from the mid-thoracic aorta, and from the posterior wall of the aorta low in the chest. Mediastinal branches of the thoracic aorta originate from the medial and anterior wall. Lumbar branches originate only from the posterior wall of the abdominal aorta. Aortic branch artery origins arise with a bimodal distribution and have a characteristic location. Mediastinal branches of the thoracic aorta originate from the medial and anterior wall. Knowing the location of aortic branch artery ostia may help distinguish branch artery pseudoaneurysms from penetrating ulcers.

  5. Estudo comparativo entre tratamento endovascular e cirurgia convencional na correção eletiva de aneurisma de aorta abdominal: revisão bibliográfica Endovascular elective treatment of the abdominal aortic aneurysm versus conventional open repair: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina P. Simão

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento eletivo do aneurisma de aorta abdominal é recomendado pela alta morbiletalidade decorrente da eventual ruptura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o reparo endovascular eletivo com a cirurgia aberta e avaliar as mortalidades hospitalar e perioperatória, em 1 ano, por todas as causas e relacionadas ao aneurisma, a permanência hospitalar, as complicações, as taxas de sobrevida, conversão e reintervenção, a durabilidade do enxerto, o custo-benefício e a relação desses dados com o treinamento da equipe médica responsável pelo tratamento. Realizou-se uma revisão da literatura sobre reparo endovascular versus cirurgia convencional. Foram observados vantagem na sobrevivência perioperatória e menor estresse pós-cirúrgico; no entanto, os benefícios iniciais são perdidos por complicações e reintervenções tardias. Trabalhos baseados nas primeiras gerações de endopróteses superestimam as taxas de mortalidade em curto prazo, complicações e reintervenções. A durabilidade do enxerto, a real vantagem na sobrevida e o custo-benefício são incertos, e outros estudos são necessários para o seguimento em longo prazo.The elective treatment of the abdominal aortic aneurysm is recommended due to the high morbidity and mortality of a possible rupture. The objective of this study was to compare the elective endovascular aneurysm repair with open repair and to analyze the in-hospital and perioperative mortality rate during 1 year related to all causes and to the aneurysm, as well as the postoperative length of hospital stay, complications, survival rates, conversion and reintervention, graft durability, cost-benefit ratio, and relation with the medical team’s experience. A review of the scientific literature about endovascular versus open repair was carried out. We found a higher rate of perioperative survival and less postoperative stress; nevertheless, the initial benefits were lost due to late complications and

  6. The intestinal tract as the major source of interleukin 6 production during abdominal aortic clamping and hind limb ischaemia-reperfusion injury O trato intestinal como a principal fonte na producao de interleucina 6 durante clampeamento da aorta abdominal e lesão de isquemia/rererfusão de membros inferiores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Benedito Palma Pimenta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the hind limbs or intestinal tract is the most important initiator of the inflammatory response secondary aortic clamping and hind limb ischemia/reperfusion injury. METHODS: Blood samples of Wistar rats obtained from posterior cava vein, portal vein, and heart cavity during either laparotomy (control group, n=8 or laparotomy + 2 h of aortic clamping and bilateral hind limb ischemia (ischemia group, n=8, or 2 h after ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion (ischemia-reperfusion group, n=8 were assayed for interleukin 6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP. RESULTS: Serum IL-6 at the heart (223.6±197.9 [10-832] pg/mL was higher (pOBJETIVO: Investigar qual o principal mediador da resposta inflamatória na lesao de isquemia/reperfusão após clampeamento da aorta abdominal e isquemia dos membros inferiores: o intestine ou as extremidades inferiores. MÉTODOS: amostra de sangue de ratos Wistar coletados da cava posterior, porta e cavidade cardíaca during tanto laparotomia (grupo controle n=8 ou laparotomia + 2 horas de clampeamento aórtico e isquemia bilateral de membros posteriores (grupo isquemia n=8, ou 2 h de isquemia seguido por 2 horas de reperfusão (grupo isquemia/reperfusão n=8, onde foram dosados interleucina 6 e proteína C-reativa. RESULTADOS: Il-6 no coração (223.6±197.9 [10-832] pg/mL foi maior (p<0.001 tanto na veia porta (133.08±108.52 [4-372] pg/mL quanto na veia cava posterior (127.58±109.15 [8-388] pg/mL. PCR não foi significativamente diferente entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: o trato intestinal foi responsável pela resposta inflamatória secundária a lesão de isquemia/reperfusão.

  7. Abdominal aorta calcification score can be used to estimate the calcification degree of coronary artery in hemodialysis patients%腹主动脉钙化评分可预估血液透析患者的冠状动脉钙化程度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡宏; 严玉澄; 陆任华; 张敏芳; 颜佳毅; 庞慧华; 朱铭力; 张伟明; 倪兆慧

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察维持性血液透析患者腹主动脉钙化与冠状动脉钙化之间的关系,探讨应用腹主动脉钙化评分预估冠状动脉钙化情况的可能性. 方法 选择维持性血液透析患者,腹部侧位平片检测腹主动脉钙化情况,应用Kauppila半定量积分法计算腹主动脉钙化(AAC)积分.应用多层螺旋CT(MSCT)评估冠状动脉钙化情况,运用Agaston评分进行量化,Pearson相关性分析腹主动脉钙化和冠状动脉钙化之间的相关性,运用受试者工作特征曲线(ROC)评价腹主动脉钙化评分预估冠状动脉钙化的准确性. 结果 共入选66例患者,平均年龄57.65±13.10岁,透析龄95.50(28.00~143.00)月,30.3%的患者合并糖尿病,透析的Kt/V 1.61(1.41~1.88).72.7%的患者存在腹主动脉钙化,中位AAC为8.5(0,15.00); 78.3%的患者存在冠状动脉钙化,中位冠状动脉钙化积分(CACs)为400.8(4.2,1476.23).相关性分析显示CACs与AAC呈显著正相关(r=0.664,P<0.001).AAC积分诊断各种程度冠状动脉钙化的曲线下面积在0.852~0.902.当AAC≥8时,其诊断冠状动脉重度钙化(CACs>400)的敏感性和特异性分别为84.4%和81.2%.Logistic回归分析显示随着腹主动脉钙化程度的升高,患者发生重度冠状动脉钙化的风险也显著升高.传统心血管危险因素和CKD相关危险因素联合AAC积分具有更强的预测维持性血液透析患者冠状动脉重度钙化的能力. 结论 维持性血液透析患者腹主动脉钙化和冠状动脉钙化之间存在显著相关性,应用腹部侧位平片对腹主动脉钙化情况进行评分可以较好地预估患者冠状动脉的钙化程度.%Objective To determine the relationship between abdominal aorta calcification and coronary artery calcification in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients, and to explore the possibility of diagnosing coronary artery calcification (C AC) by using abdominal aorta calcification (AAC) score. Methods MHD patients were

  8. Safety and effectiveness of high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation for liver tumor adjacent to rabbit abdominal aorta%高强度聚焦超声消融兔腹主动脉旁肝肿瘤的安全性和有效性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    税莲; 何敏; 刘映江; 龚春梅; 张炼

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察高强度聚焦超声消融兔腹主动脉旁肝肿瘤后肝肿瘤剂量学、磁共振图像、病理学及生存期影响,评价HIFU消融兔腹主动脉旁肝肿瘤安全性和有效性。方法:分别于HIFU组(32只)和对照组(20只)实验兔建立腹主动脉旁的VX2肝肿瘤模型,HIFU组瘤兔于MR引导的高强度聚焦超声消融肿瘤,分析腹主动脉旁肿瘤消融剂量学,MR观察消融前后肿瘤影像学变化,病理学观察肿瘤消融后坏死情况,对比观察HIFU组与对照组瘤兔生存期。结果:MRI和病理学均表明MR引导下HIFU能完全消融兔腹主动脉旁VX2肝肿瘤,EEF为25.72±11.40 J/mm3 HIFU组的生存期明显高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:HIFU能安全有效消融兔腹主动脉旁VX2肝肿瘤并且能明显提高存活期。%Objective:To evaluate the safety and efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation for the VX2 liver tumor near the hepatic main blood vessels of rabbits by using dosimetry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and by analyzing path-ological changes and survival. Methods:Rabbits with VX2 liver tumor adjacent to the abdominal aorta were divided into the HIFU (n=32) and control groups (n=20). MRI-guided HIFU was employed for the ablation of the liver tumor in the HIFU group. The ablation vol-ume and the energy efficiency factor (EEF) of the 32 ablated rabbits were further analyzed. MRI and pathology were used to compare the changes in the tumor before and after HIFU. The survival of the animals in the HIFU and control groups was also determined. Re-sults: Both pathology and imaging showed that the rabbit liver VX2 tumor adjacent to the abdominal aorta was completely ablated, with an EEF of (25.72±11.40) J/mm3. The survival rate was significantly higher in the HIFU group than in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: HIFU ablation is safe and effective in rabbit VX2 liver tumor near the abdominal

  9. Coarctation of the aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Coarctation of the aorta is a congenital malformation representing a zone of strong narrowing of the aortic lumen, leading to impaired blood flow. In 90% of cases it affects isthmus vessel - the part between the separation of the left Ater subclavian and ductus arteriosus and it is often combined with other congenital heart defects and occurs more frequently in males. A case of juvenile isthmus type coarctation of the aorta at a young woman suffering from long hard to control hypertension, with intermittent discomfort in precordium and heart murmur is presented. Upon receipt of the patient a conventional radiography of organs in the chest front projection, which establishes a typical disease finding is carried out. After that a noninvasive computer-tomography angiography of the thoracic aorta, with CT Siemens Definition AS with a slice thickness 5 mm, subsequent reconstruction of 0,75 mm and postreconstruction were conducted. CT angiography study demonstrates the pathological constriction, the state of the aorta before and after constriction as well as the rich collateral vasculature of the intercostal and internal thoracic arteries. The available 3D reconstructions and postprocessing have been supported the establishment of optimal preoperative plan. The patient was subjected to surgery with vessel recovery and at the moment the patient is with excellent postoperative results

  10. Skeleton Graph Matching vs. Maximum Weight Cliques aorta registration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowska, Joanna; Feinen, C; Grzegorzek, M; Raspe, M; Wickenhöfer, R

    2015-12-01

    Vascular diseases are one of the most challenging health problems in developed countries. Past as well as ongoing research activities often focus on efficient, robust and fast aorta segmentation, and registration techniques. According to this needs our study targets an abdominal aorta registration method. The investigated algorithms make it possible to efficiently segment and register abdominal aorta in pre- and post-operative Computed Tomography (CT) data. In more detail, a registration technique using the Path Similarity Skeleton Graph Matching (PSSGM), as well as Maximum Weight Cliques (MWCs) are employed to realise the matching based on Computed Tomography data. The presented approaches make it possible to match characteristic voxels belonging to the aorta from different Computed Tomography (CT) series. It is particularly useful in the assessment of the abdominal aortic aneurysm treatment by visualising the correspondence between the pre- and post-operative CT data. The registration results have been tested on the database of 18 contrast-enhanced CT series, where the cross-registration analysis has been performed producing 153 matching examples. All the registration results achieved with our system have been verified by an expert. The carried out analysis has highlighted the advantage of the MWCs technique over the PSSGM method. The verification phase proves the efficiency of the MWCs approach and encourages to further develop this methods. PMID:26099640

  11. Nursing assistance during endovascular reconstruction using balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta for patients with severe pelvic trauma and vascular injury%严重骨盆外伤合并血管损伤应用腹主动脉球囊阻断技术的护理配合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱维明; 杜丽丽; 项海燕

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the experience of nursing assistance during endovascular reconstruction using balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta for patients with severe pelvic trauma and vascular injury in traffic accidents. Measures of nursing assistance included preoperative preparation,maintaining vascular access,monitoring urine volume,bilateral dorsalis pedis arterial pulses and the change of blood pressure during the operation. Postoperative nursing focused on effective compression on femoral artery after withdrawal of catheter,observation of urine volume,and local hematoma and skin temperature of lower extremities. The four patients got through the perioperative period safely and were discharged with recovery.%总结了4例因车祸致严重骨盆外伤合并血管损伤的急诊患者应用腹主动脉球囊阻断技术的护理配合经验.护理配合重点包括:完善术前准备,术中确保动静脉通路畅通,准确观察尿量,密切观察双侧足背动脉的搏动,监测血压的变化,穿刺侧肢体拔管后予有效压迫,观察尿量、局部血肿及肢体皮温.4例患者均安全度过围手术期,痊愈出院.

  12. Coarctation of the aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2015:chap 62. Read More Abdominal aortic aneurysm Aortic dissection Endocarditis Heart failure - overview High blood pressure Magnetic resonance angiography Pediatric heart surgery Stable angina Stroke Turner syndrome Patient ...

  13. CT diagnosis of abdominal ectopic pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the value of CT in diagnosis of abdominal ectopic pheochromocytoma. Methods: CT findings of 5 cases surgically and pathologically proved with ectopic pheochromocytoma were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Soft tissue mass with light asymmetry enhancement was found between the abdominal aorta and the inferior vena ca-va in one case. 1 case was completely cystic with light enhancement of the cystwall located in front of the left side of the abdominal aorta. 1 case of large solid mass occurred between the renal hilum and the tail of pancreas, with irregular shape, unclear boundary, central necrosis, calcification and obviously enhancement at the solid part. 2 cases showed as oval soft lump with even density, moderate strengthening located before the abdominal aorta. Paroxysmal hypertension occurred in 3 cases and didn't in 2 cases. Hypertension happened in 1 case during the operation because of stimulation. Blood pressure appeared in 1 case during and after operation. Blood and urinary catecholamine increased significantly in 4 cases. Conclusion: Ectopic pheochromocytoma mainly located surround the abdominal aorta with diverse CT performance. It is helpful for diagnosing when finding a lesion locates at the specified sites combined with typical clinical presentation. CT can not only depict small tumor, but also can show the relationship with surrounding structure, and it provides important information for the operation and prognosis. (authors)

  14. Evaluation of atherosclerotic change of the aorta by enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intimal atherosclerotic changes of the aorta were quantified by enhanced computed tomography (enhanced CT) and were examined in terms of their relation to other atherosclerotic characteristics, including calcification and aortic pulse wave velocity, diameter of the aorta, and arteriosclerotic risk factors. A total of 413 subjects were studied, consisting of normal volunteers and patients with cardiovascular diseases. Enhanced CT revealed the atheromatous intima as a projecting and thickened wall. Thus, the ratio of the intimal atherosclerotic change to the whole round was determined in various aortic sites. The diameter of the aorta decreased in accordance with the location from the ascending aorta to aortic ending. The diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta was 1.5 times larger than that of the ascending aorta, irrespective of age. The diameter of each region of the aorta increased with advancing age; in the age group of 70 years or older, it was 1.5 times larger that that in the age group of 40 years or younger. The intimal change was noted in the middle descending thoracic aorta and infrarenal abdominal aorta. It was proportional to an increase in the aortic pulse wave velocity, the diameter of the aorta, and the intimal calcification. Intimal changes of the aorta were increased in cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, arteriosclerosis obliterans, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. In particular, hypertension accompanied by diabetes mellitus or high cholesterolemia tended to accelerate the intimal change. In conclusion, aortic intimal changes, as detected on enhanced CT, is useful for the noninvasive diagnosis of arteriosclerosis. (N.K.)

  15. Evaluation of atherosclerotic change of the aorta by enhanced computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasu, Junichiro (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-10-01

    Intimal atherosclerotic changes of the aorta were quantified by enhanced computed tomography (enhanced CT) and were examined in terms of their relation to other atherosclerotic characteristics, including calcification and aortic pulse wave velocity, diameter of the aorta, and arteriosclerotic risk factors. A total of 413 subjects were studied, consisting of normal volunteers and patients with cardiovascular diseases. Enhanced CT revealed the atheromatous intima as a projecting and thickened wall. Thus, the ratio of the intimal atherosclerotic change to the whole round was determined in various aortic sites. The diameter of the aorta decreased in accordance with the location from the ascending aorta to aortic ending. The diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta was 1.5 times larger than that of the ascending aorta, irrespective of age. The diameter of each region of the aorta increased with advancing age; in the age group of 70 years or older, it was 1.5 times larger that that in the age group of 40 years or younger. The intimal change was noted in the middle descending thoracic aorta and infrarenal abdominal aorta. It was proportional to an increase in the aortic pulse wave velocity, the diameter of the aorta, and the intimal calcification. Intimal changes of the aorta were increased in cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, arteriosclerosis obliterans, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. In particular, hypertension accompanied by diabetes mellitus or high cholesterolemia tended to accelerate the intimal change. In conclusion, aortic intimal changes, as detected on enhanced CT, is useful for the noninvasive diagnosis of arteriosclerosis. (N.K.).

  16. Abdominal Adhesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adhesions? Abdominal adhesions can cause intestinal obstruction and female infertility—the inability to become pregnant after a year of trying. Abdominal adhesions can lead to female infertility by preventing fertilized eggs from reaching the uterus, ...

  17. Abdominal Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is used to help diagnose pain or distention and evaluate the kidneys, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen ... variety of conditions, such as: abdominal pain or distention. abnormal liver function. enlarged abdominal organ. stones in ...

  18. Intraluminal Ascending Aorta Fibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Mozaffari

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary cardiac tumors are quite rare, especially in the pediatric age group, and their atypical presentations often prevent a timely diagnosis. Most primary cardiac tumors in the pediatric age group are benign. Fibromas are generally reported as the second most common primary cardiac tumors in the pediatric age group. These neoplasms are often intramural and involve the left ventricular free wall or the interventricular septum. Although benign, fibromas may become life-threatening by causing arrhythmias or obstruction to the blood flow. A case of supravalvular intraluminal ascending aorta fibroma in a 23-month-old girl, presenting with syncope, is described here; the location is rare and the presentation atypical for this type of tumor. Transesophageal echocardiography helped us to evaluate the anatomic details of the tumor and plan surgery.

  19. Coarctation of the aorta and renal artery stenosis in tuberous sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among neurocutaneous disorders, coarctation of the abdominal aorta and renal artery stenosis have traditionally been associated with neurofibromatosis. We report a 5-year-old girl who was discovered to have bilateral renal artery stenosis, coarctation of the abdominal aorta, renal cysts and typical skin lesions of tuberous clerosis during the evaluation of asymptomatic hypertension. Renal vascular hypertension has not been reported previously in tuberous sclerosis. We conclude that the tuberous sclerosis complex should be expanded to include vascular malformations and the hypertension should not be assumed to be secondary to renal hamartomata or cysts in patients with tuberous sclerosis. (orig.)

  20. Acute abdominal aortic thrombosis caused by paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccioni, G; Bucciarelli, V; Bisceglia, N; Totaro, G; Scotti, L; Aceto, A; Martini, F; Gallina, S; Bucciarelli, T; Macarini, L

    2013-01-01

    Acute abdominal aortic thrombosis is a rare and potential fatal event, which occurs in adult subjects. We present the case of a 72-year-old-man, who referred to the emergency Department of our hospital because of persistent severe abdominal and perineal pain. Doppler ultrasounds and computerized tomography angiography revealed the acute thrombosis of the abdominal aorta. Immediate revascularization through aortic thrombo-endoarterectomy resolved the disease. PMID:23830410

  1. Chylous Ascites after Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, Shinichi; Kurumisawa, Soki; Misawa, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was transferred for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm. He had no history of abdominal surgeries. Grafting between the infra-renal abdominal aorta and the bilateral common iliac arteries was performed. Proximal and distal cross clamps were applied for grafting. He developed chylous ascites on the 5th post-operative day, 2 days after initiation of oral intake. Fortunately, he responded to treatment with total parenteral hyper-alimentation for 10 days, followed by a low-fat diet. There was no recurrence of ascites. PMID:27087873

  2. Correção endovascular de aneurisma de aorta abdominal e artéria ilíaca comum esquerda em paciente com hemofilia C grave Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and left common iliac artery in a patient with severe hemophilia C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Quilici Belczak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A deficiência do fator XI, também conhecida como hemofilia C, é uma doença hematológica hereditária rara, que se manifesta clinicamente com hemorragia persistente após cirurgias, traumas, menorragias e extrações dentárias. Neste artigo, relatou-se a correção endovascular de um paciente com aneurisma de aorta e de artéria ilíaca comum esquerda em um paciente portador de deficiência major do fator XI (atividade do fator XI inferior a 20%. O procedimento foi realizado com sucesso, com o manuseio do distúrbio da coagulação por meio da infusão de plasma fresco no pré-operatório imediato e no pós-operatório, e controle laboratorial da coagulação do paciente.Factor XI deficiency, also known as hemophilia C, is a rare hereditary blood disease that manifests with persistent bleeding after surgery, trauma, menorrhagia, and dental extractions. This article reports an endovascular repair of a patient diagnosed with an aortic and left common iliac aneurysm, with severe factor XI deficiency (factor XI activity below 20%. The procedure was successfully performed with management of the coagulation disorder by preoperative and postoperative infusion of plasma and laboratory control of the coagulation.

  3. Abdominal Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Deborah; Weilitz, Pamela Becker

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints by patients, and assessment of abdominal pain and associated symptoms can be challenging for home healthcare providers. Reasons for abdominal pain are related to inflammation, organ distention, and ischemia. The history and physical examination are important to narrow the source of acute or chronic problems, identify immediate interventions, and when necessary, facilitate emergency department care. PMID:26925941

  4. Variations in atherosclerosis and remodeling patterns in aorta and carotids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuster Valentin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease that causes vascular remodeling that can be positive or negative. The evolution of arterial wall thickening and changes in lumen size under current "standard of care" in different arterial beds is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine arterial remodeling and progression/regression of atherosclerosis in aorta and carotid arteries of individuals at risk for atherosclerosis normalized over a 1-year period. Methods In this study, 28 patients underwent at least 2 black-blood in vivo cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR scans of aorta and carotids over a one-year period (Mean 17.8 ± 7.5 months. Clinical risk profiles for atherosclerosis and medications were documented and patients were followed by their referring physicians under current "standard of care" guidelines. Carotid and aortic wall lumen areas were matched across the time-points from cross-sectional images. Results The wall area increased by 8.67%, 10.64%, and 13.24% per year (carotid artery, thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta respectively, p Conclusions Results of this study of multiple vascular beds indicated that different vascular locations exhibited varying progression of atherosclerosis and remodeling as monitored by CMR.

  5. Lipid synthesis in the aorta of chick and other species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative rate of fatty acid biosynthesis from labelled acetate in the adipose tissue of chicken is much lower than that in the rat (O'Hea and Leveille, 1968). To determine similar species differences in lipid synthesis in the aortas of cock, rat, rabbit and monkey, thoracic and abdominal segments of fresh aortas were incubated in vitro with (1-14C)-acetate for 3 h. Total lipids and their fractions (free and total cholesterol, free fatty acids, triglycerides and phospholipids) were counted for radioactivity. Incorporation of radioactivity into total as well as all classes of lipids was several times greater in chicken than in other species. Significant and consistent incorporation into cholesterol occurred only in chicks. Synthesis into total lipids and triglycerides was greater in the thoracic segment of chicks. These findings (Rao and Rao, 1968) are consistent with the ready susceptibility of chicken to atherosclerosis. (author)

  6. Abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for multiple intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal organ injuries often makes accurate clinical evaluation of abdominal trauma patients difficult. Additionally, patients may be unresponsive, have unreliable abdominal physical examinations, or have concurrent serious head and cervical spine injuries which delay diagnosis of and attention to abdominal problems. In these situations radiologic abdominal imaging is often requested. To expedite patient evaluation, close cooperation between the emergency physician and the radiologist is essential. It is the clinical stability of the traumatized patient that dictates the extent of radiologic imaging. Life-threatening hypotension, positive peritoneal signs, or clear evidence of penetrating abdominal injury are indications for immediate surgery. Stable patients with signs suggesting intra-abdominal injury will benefit by further radiologic evaluation with appropriate imaging modalities. The selection of an appropriate modality in any one clinical situation depends upon many criteria including accessibility to diagnostic equipment, the sensitivity and specificity of each technique, and the expertise and preference of the attending radiologist. A suggested scheme for evaluating abdominal trauma patients is presented. Most aspects of this evaluation scheme will be discussed in depth

  7. Abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdominal injury is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. Ten percent of trauma-related deaths are due to abdominal injury. Thousands of children are involved in auto accidents annually; many suffer severe internal injury. Child abuse is a second less frequent but equally serious cause of internal abdominal injury. The descriptions of McCort and Eisenstein and their associates in the 1960s first brought to attention the frequency and severity of visceral injury as important manifestations of the child abuse syndrome. Blunt abdominal trauma often causes multiple injuries; in the past, many children have been subjected to exploratory surgery to evaluate the extent of possible hidden injury. Since the advent of noninvasive radiologic imaging techniques including radionuclide scans and ultrasound and, especially, computed tomography (CT), the radiologist has been better able to assess (accurately) the extent of abdominal injury and thus allow conservative therapy in many cases. Penetrating abdominal trauma occurs following gunshot wounds, stabbing, and other similar injury. This is fortunately, a relatively uncommon occurrence in most pediatric centers and will not be discussed specifically here, although many principles of blunt trauma diagnosis are valid for evaluation of penetrating abdominal trauma. If there is any question that a wound has extended intraperitonelly, a sinogram with water-soluble contrast material allows quick, accurate diagnosis. The presence of large amounts of free intraperitoneal gas suggests penetrating injury to the colon or other gas-containing viscus and is generally considered an indication for surgery

  8. Abdominal sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during sleep. They also occur normally for a short time after the use of certain medicines and after abdominal surgery. Decreased or absent bowel sounds often indicate constipation. Increased ( hyperactive ) bowel sounds ...

  9. Medical image of the week: atherosclerotic aneurysm of aortic arch and decsecnding thoracic aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parasram M

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 94-year-old Spanish-speaking woman presented to the hospital with intermittent episodes of dyspnea and abdominal pain for one week. Her past medical history was notable for 30 pack-year smoking history and hypertension, which was reportedly controlled with medical therapy. Physical exam showed trace peripheral edema bilaterally, intact peripheral pulses, and a mild abdominal bruit. Work up at the emergency department revealed a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction with troponin T of 0.34 ng/mL but no ST-wave abnormality on electrocardiography. Chest x-ray displayed an incidental thoracic aneurysm (Figure 1. Chest computed tomography with contrast demonstrated a continuous aneurysm of the aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta with diameters measuring 6.8 cm and 6 cm, respectively (Figure 2A and 2B. Eccentric thrombi are noted in the aortic arch and the descending aorta. Interestingly, the distal descending thoracic aorta curves as it transitions to the abdominal aorta, which is evidence of a tortuous descending ...

  10. Abdominal Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy. PMID:27363829

  11. Abdominal Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... relaxation. Guided imagery for abdominal pain About self-hypnosis and kids See YourChild : Pain and Your Child or Teen for more detail ... how to help your baby cope with the pain of medical procedures, circumcision, and teething. ... Helping Kids YourChild : A Look at Biofeedback YourChild : ...

  12. Dissection of the aorta in Turner's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Price, W H; Wilson, J.

    1983-01-01

    Three deaths from dissection of the aorta in a series of 157 adult women with Turner's syndrome are reported. These are greatly in excess of the numbers expected. None of the three patients had a coarctation of the aorta. One had aortic regurgitation but there was no reason to believe that the aorta in the other two patients had been subjected to unusual haemodynamic stresses. Cystic medial necrosis of the aorta was described in two patients on whom necropsies were carried out. It is conclude...

  13. RIGHT SUPERIOR POLAR ARTERY ARISING FROM AORTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekanth

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The renal vasculature was always a subject of varia tions both in the number and pattern of portal of entry into kidney and Perihilar placement of the artery, vein and pelvis. Good anatomical insight is an essential prerequisite besides the surgical expertise. The cadaveric dissection at Shadan Institute of Medical Sciences, Teaching Hospital and Research Centre, revealed superior / upper polar artery arising from the lateral aspect of the aorta just proximal to the origin of Main Renal Artery (MRA. T he main renal artery and the accessory renal artery had almost a common point of origin. Th e peri-hilar segmentation of the main renal artery was a fork like pattern. One of the segmental arteries was long and had its portal of entry into the kidney by perforating the capsule of the ant erior substance of the kidney. The remaining segmental branches had their portal of ent ry through the hilum. The lower two segmental branches were placed anterior to the main renal vein causing altered hilar anatomy. A thorough knowledge of the frequently to the rarel y occurring wide range of variations of renal vasculature has significance in exploration and trea tment of renal trauma, renal transplantation, renal artery embolization, surgery for abdominal ao rtic aneurysm and conservative or radical renal surgery. Such a rare variation including the combination of extra renal peri-hilar segmentation of MRA with superior polar artery is wor thy of concern to the urologists harvesting kidneys from the live donors for performi ng transplantation procedures, partial nephrectomies for the hilar tumors and for Radiologi sts during interpretation of the angiograms

  14. Abdominal manifestations of autoimmune disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Immunoglobulin G4-related disease was recognized as a systemic disease since various extrapancreatic lesions were observed in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). The real etiology and pathogenesis of IgG4-RD is still not clearly understood. Moreover the exact role of IgG4 or IgG4-positive plasma cells in this disease has not yet been elucidated. only some inconsistent biological features such as hypergammaglobulinemia or hypocomplementemia support the autoimmune nature of the disease process. various names have been ascribed to this clinicopathological entity including IgG4-related sclerosing disease, IgG4-related systemic sclerosing disease, IgG4-related disease, IgG4-related autoimmune disease, hyper-IgG4 disease and IgG4-related systemic disease. The extrapancreatic lesions of IgG4-RD also exhibit the same characteristic histologic features including dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, massive storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis as seen in IgG4-related pancreatitis. Abdominal manifestations include the following organs/systems: Bile ducts: Sclerosing cholangitis; Gallbladder and liver: Acalculous sclerosis cholecytitis with diffuse wall thickening; hepatic inflammatory pseudotumorts; Kidneys: round or wedge-shaped renal cortical nodules, peripheral cortical; lesions, mass like lesions or renal pelvic involvement; Prostate, urethra, seminal vesicle, vas deferens, uterine cervix; Autoimmune prostatitis; Retroperitoneum: Retroperitoneal fibrosis. thin or mildly thick homogeneous soft tissue lesion surrounding the abdominal aorta and its branches but also bulky masses causing hydronephroureterosis; Mesentery: Sclerosing mesenteritis usually involving the root of the mesentery; Bowel: Inflammatory bowel diseases mimicking Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. various types of sclerosing nodular lesions of the bowel wall; Stomach: Gastritis, gastric ulcers and focal masses mimicking submucosal tumor; omentum: Infiltration mimicking

  15. Simulation of Aorta Artery Aneurysms Using Active Electronic Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Hassani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The fusiform and saccular aneurysms in different aorta artery sections were studied using an electronic circuit of cardiovascular system. The geometrical model of each artery section including thoracic and abdominal were generated in accordance with original anatomical data. By increasing the rate of aneurysm in each studied section, the pressure drop were calculated using CFD method, furthermore the compliance variations due to aneurysms were determined by mathematical method. The equivalent electronic circuit was then used to study the effects of the pressure drops and compliance variations on whole cardiovascular system. The results of the simulation exhibited the features of the pathology, including hypertension, the increase of the pulse pressure with the rate of aneurysm and the large magnitude of back flow during systole. Finally, the obtained results were compared with relevant clinical data .We have concluded from the study that aorta aneurysms in both fusiform and saccular, especially at highest diameters, may be the most important determinant of the artery rapture and heart failure.

  16. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... access catheters Vertebroplasty Women and vascular disease Women's health Social Media Facebook Twitter ... Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists are vascular ...

  17. Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction and increased cardiovascular risk in later life have been shown to be associated with an increased intima-media thickness (aIMT) of the abdominal aorta in the fetus. In order to assess and manage atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk in adults and children, in recent years the measurement of abdominal and carotid artery thickness has gained a growing appeal. Nevertheless, no computer aided method has been proposed for the analysis of prenatal vessels from ultrasound data, yet. To date, these measurements are being performed manually on ultrasound fetal images by skilled practitioners. The aim of the presented study is to introduce an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal data. The algorithm locates the aorta, then segments it and, by modeling the arterial wall longitudinal sections by means of a gaussian mixture, derives a set of measures of the aorta diameter (aDiam) and of the intima-media thickness (aIMT). After estimating the cardiac cycle, the mean diameter and the aIMT at the end-diastole phase are computed. Considering the aIMT value for each subject, the correlation between automatic and manual end-diastolic aIMT measurements is 0.91 in a range of values 0.44-1.10 mm, corresponding to both normal and pathological conditions. The automatic system yields a mean relative error of 19%, that is similar to the intra-observer variability (14%) and much lower that the inter-observer variability (42%). The correlation between manual and automatic measurements and the small error confirm the ability of the proposed system to reliably estimate aIMT values in prenatal ultrasound sequences, reducing measurement variability and suggesting that it can be used for an automatic assessment of aIMT. (paper)

  18. Abdominal aortic injury in a child: intravenous digital subtraction angiogram (IVDSA) for the diagnosis of pediatric vascular trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdominal aortic injury due to trauma is a rare entity, especially in the pediatric population. We report a 6-year-old girl with partial transection of the abdominal aorta as a result of a motor vehicle accident. The diagnosis was made with IVDSA. The patient survived the injury. We discuss the imaging findings, mechanisms, and associated injuries of abdominal aortic trauma in children. (orig.)

  19. Abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiologic evaluation of abdominal trauma must provide a quick and accurate assessment of the lesions in order to improve the management of the patient. The technique used varies depending on the mechanism of the trauma (blunt trauma or stab wounds) and the hemodynamic status. Radiologic evaluation is usually performed in blunt trauma whereas stab wound trauma is usually explored surgically. The various techniques available are standard radiographs, ultrasonography, computed tomography and arteriography. The role of magnetic resonance imaging in the immediate evaluation is still not well defined. It appears to be useful method in the delayed evaluation of diaphragmatic trauma. Computed tomography is the method most commonly performed in trauma patients. This technique is accurate and allows correct assessment of the lesions. The disadvantages are the radiation induced and the need for a hemo-dynamically stable patient. The aim of the radiologic evaluation is to provide the clinicians with an accurate description of the lesions. It can help in the management of the patient usually in association with clinical and laboratory data. It can also guide interventional procedures (drainage, embolization...). Finally, it allows radiographic follow-up when conservative treatment is performed. (authors). 26 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  20. Human Aorta Is a Passive Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2012-11-01

    Impedance pump is a simple valveless pumping mechanism that operates based on the principles of wave propagation and reflection. It has been shown in a zebrafish that a similar mechanism is responsible for the pumping action in the embryonic heart during early stages before valve formation. Recent studies suggest that the cardiovascular system is designed to take advantage of wave propagation and reflection phenomena in the arterial network. Our aim in this study was to examine if the human aorta is a passive pump working like an impedance pump. A hydraulic model with different compliant models of artificial aorta was used for series of in-vitro experiments. The hydraulic model includes a piston pump that generates the waves. Our result indicates that wave propagation and reflection can create pumping mechanism in a compliant aorta. Similar to an impedance pump, the net flow and the flow direction depends on the frequency of the waves, compliance of the aorta, and the piston stroke.

  1. Facts about Coarctation of the Aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other tests to measure the function of the heart may be used including chest x-ray, electrocardiogram (EKG) , magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) , and cardiac catheterization . Coarctation of the aorta ...

  2. Coarctation of the Aorta (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Heart and Circulatory System ECG (Electrocardiogram) Congenital Heart Defects The Heart Your Heart & Circulatory System Heart Murmurs Arrhythmias Coarctation of the Aorta Atrial ...

  3. RARE CASE OF LARGE ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURISM WITH A BIG THROMBUS

    OpenAIRE

    Asna; Shakeel; Nalini

    2014-01-01

    The most common location of abdominal aortic aneurysms is the infrarenal portion of the aorta including its bifurcation and extending to the iliac arteries. 1 To avoid rupture, which has nearly 90% mortality, early diagnosis and surgery are essential. Acute aortic occlusion, which commonly is secondary to saddle embolus or atherosclerotic thrombosis, has tremendous morbidity and mortality. Angiographic evaluation is very essential for patients with asymptomatic abdominal ...

  4. PET/CT Interpretation: Abdominal Anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detail knowledge of abdominal anatomy is essential for accurate interpretation of oncologic PET/CT. The objective of this lecture is to provide the core knowledge and guidance about, peritoneal cavity, vessels, nodal, internal organ, especially liver segmental anatomy, and retroperitoneal spaces to nuclear medicine physicians in their interpretation of oncologic PET/CT. Peritoneal Cavity: The peritoneal spaces are easiest to recognize when there is ascites. The right subphrenic space communicates with anterior and posterior subhepatic (Morrison's) space. The left subphrenic space freely communicate with the left subhepatic space. The right and left subphrenic spaces are separated by falciform ligament and do not communicate directly. The lesser sac is the isolated peritoneal compartment between the stomach and pancreas. It communicates with the rest of the peritoneal cavity (greater sac) through the Foramen of Winslow. The right subphrenic and subhepatic spaces communicate freely with the pelvic peritoneal cavity thru the right paracolic gutter. The phrenicocolic ligament prevents free communication between the left subphrenic / subhepatic space and left paracolic gutter. Free fluid and peritoneal metastases commonly settles in pelvis as the most dependent portion of the peritoneal cavity. The small mesentery suspends the jejunum and ileum and extends obliquely from the left upper quadrant to right lower quadrant. Disease originating above the ligament is directed towards the right lower quadrant and below the ligament can spread to pelvis. The greater omentum hangs from the greater curvature of the stomach and descends in front of the abdominal viscera and serves as a fertile ground for peritoneal metastases. Vessels: The abdominal aorta descends anterior to the left side of the spine to its bifurcation at the level of the iliac crest. The normal aorta does not exceed 3 cm diameter and tapers progressively as it descends distally. The common iliac arteries

  5. Tissue Responses to Stent Grafts with Endo-Exo-Skeleton for Saccular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in a Canine Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Il; Choi, Young Ho; Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; So, Young Ho; Kim, Hyun Beom; Min, Seung-Kee; Park, Jae Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the effect of close contact between the stent and the graft on the induction of endothelial covering on the stent graft placed over an aneurysm. Materials and Methods Saccular abdominal aortic aneurysms were made with Dacron patch in eight dogs. The stent graft consisted of an inner stent, a expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft, and an outer stent. After sacrificing the animals, the aortas with an embedded stent graft were excised. The aortas were inspected grossly an...

  6. Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, E.; Tarroni, G.; Visentin, S.; Cosmi, E.; Linguraru, M. G.; Grisan, E.

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction and increased cardiovascular risk in later life have been shown to be associated with an increased intima-media thickness (aIMT) of the abdominal aorta in the fetus. In order to assess and manage atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk in adults and children, in recent years the measurement of abdominal and carotid artery thickness has gained a growing appeal. Nevertheless, no computer aided method has been proposed for the analysis of prenatal vessels from ultrasound data, yet. To date, these measurements are being performed manually on ultrasound fetal images by skilled practitioners. The aim of the presented study is to introduce an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal data. The algorithm locates the aorta, then segments it and, by modeling the arterial wall longitudinal sections by means of a gaussian mixture, derives a set of measures of the aorta diameter (aDiam) and of the intima-media thickness (aIMT). After estimating the cardiac cycle, the mean diameter and the aIMT at the end-diastole phase are computed. Considering the aIMT value for each subject, the correlation between automatic and manual end-diastolic aIMT measurements is 0.91 in a range of values 0.44-1.10 mm, corresponding to both normal and pathological conditions. The automatic system yields a mean relative error of 19%, that is similar to the intra-observer variability (14%) and much lower that the inter-observer variability (42%). The correlation between manual and automatic measurements and the small error confirm the ability of the proposed system to reliably estimate aIMT values in prenatal ultrasound sequences, reducing measurement variability and suggesting that it can be used for an automatic assessment of aIMT. Preliminary results have been presented in E Veronese, E Cosmi, S Visentin, E Grisan: 'Semiautomatic estimation

  7. Abdominal Pain or Cramping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body & lifestyle changes > Abdominal pain or cramping Abdominal pain or cramping E-mail to a friend Please ... signs of severe pain. What causes mild belly pain in pregnancy? There are different causes for mild ...

  8. Aorta Atherosclerosis Lesion Analysis in Hyperlipidemic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Sarajo; Yin, Changjun; Weber, Christian; Hu, Desheng; Habenicht, Andreas JR

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of large and medium-sized arteries. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice are used as experimental models to study human atherosclerosis. ApoE-/- mice are constitutively hyperlipidemic and develop intima plaques that resemble human plaques. Various issues including experimental design for lesion analysis, dietary conditions, isolation of the aorta, staining methods, morphometry, group size, age, the location within the arterial tree, and statistical analyses are important parameters that need to be addressed to obtain robust data. Here, we provide detailed methods to quantify aorta atherosclerosis. PMID:27366759

  9. Digital subtraction angiography of the thoracic aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, L.B.; Buonocore, E.; Modic, M.T.; Meaney, T.F.

    1984-02-01

    Forty-three patients with acquired and congenital abnormalities of the thoracic aorta were studied using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) after an intravenous bolus injection of 40 ml of contrast material. Abnormalities studied included coarctation, pseudocoarctation, Marfan syndrome, cervical aorta, double aortic arch, aneurysm, dissection, and tumor. Twenty-four patients also had conventional angiography. DSA was accurate in 95% of cases; in the other 5%, involving patients with acute type I dissection, the coronary arteries could not be seen. The authors concluded that in 92% of their patients, DSA could have replaced the standard aortogram.

  10. Digital subtraction angiography of the thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-three patients with acquired and congenital abnormalities of the thoracic aorta were studied using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) after an intravenous bolus injection of 40 ml of contrast material. Abnormalities studied included coarctation, pseudocoarctation, Marfan syndrome, cervical aorta, double aortic arch, aneurysm, dissection, and tumor. Twenty-four patients also had conventional angiography. DSA was accurate in 95% of cases; in the other 5%, involving patients with acute type I dissection, the coronary arteries could not be seen. The authors concluded that in 92% of their patients, DSA could have replaced the standard aortogram

  11. Risk factors of atheromatous aorta in cardiovascular surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando A. Atik; Silva, Isaac Azevedo; da Cunha, Claudio Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence and profile of ascending aorta or aortic arch atheromatous disease in cardiovascular surgery patients, its risk factors and its prognostic implication early after surgery. Methods Between January 2007 and June 2011, 2042 consecutive adult patients were analyzed, with no exclusion criteria. Atheromatous aorta diagnosis was determined intraoperatively by surgeon palpation of the aorta. Determinants of atheromatous aorta, as well as its prognostic implicatio...

  12. Retrograde replacement of the thoracic aorta.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooley, D A

    1995-01-01

    A technique is described for replacement of the entire thoracic aorta. In this "pull-through" technique, which utilizes hypothermic circulatory arrest, the graft is implanted in a retrograde fashion, thus providing protection for the spinal cord and brain and avoiding injury to the vagus and phrenic nerves.

  13. The preventive effect of fish oil on abdominal aortic aneurysm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugo, Hirona; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Mouri, Youhei; Tanaka, Hiroki; Yanagimoto, Kenichi; Urano, Tetsumei; Unno, Naoki; Moriyama, Tatsuya

    2016-06-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disease involving gradual dilation of the abdominal aorta and high rupture-related mortality rates. AAA is histologically characterized by oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and extracellular matrix degradation in the vascular wall. We previously demonstrated that aortic hypoperfusion could cause the vascular inflammation and AAA formation. However, the preventive method for hypoperfusion-induced AAA remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effect of fish oil on AAA development using a hypoperfusion-induced AAA animal model. Dilation of the abdominal aorta in the fish oil administration group was smaller than in the control group. Collagen destruction and oxidative stress were suppressed in the fish oil administration group than in the control group. These results suggested that fish oil could prevent the development of AAA induced by hypoperfusion. PMID:27022887

  14. Detection of abdominal lymph node metastases from esophageal and cardia cancer by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, S.; Sugiura, Y.; Yonekawa, H.; Ogata, T. (National Defence Medical Coll., Tokorosawa, Saitama (Japan))

    1982-03-01

    In order to evaluate the sensitivity of computed tomography (CT) scan in detecting the abdominal lymph node metastases, preoperative CT scan was performed in 16 patients with carcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia. Ten patients (62.5%) had pathological evidence of lymph node metastases in the abdominal cavity and 4 of them were identified to involve the para-aortic nodes. CT scan correctly demonstrated the lymph node metastases in the para-aortic and celiac axisis areas, but failed to detect other abdominal lymph node involvements, which were small enough to be excised by operation. The para-aortic nodes on the CT scan showed the following two features; one was nodular mass in shape, which did not obscure the aorta or inferior vena cava, and the other was conglomerated mass, which was difficult to be distinguished from the aorta. The former was resectable and the latter was not.

  15. Aorta Structural Alterations in Term Neonates: The Role of Birth and Maternal Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matteo Ciccone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the influence of selected maternal and neonatal characteristics on aorta walls in term, appropriately grown-for-gestational age newborns. Methods. Age, parity, previous abortions, weight, height, body mass index before and after delivery, smoking, and history of hypertension, of diabetes, of cardiovascular diseases, and of dyslipidemia were all assessed in seventy mothers. They delivered 34 males and 36 females healthy term newborns who underwent ultrasound evaluation of the anteroposterior infrarenal abdominal aorta diameter (APAO, biochemical profile (glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, and D-dimers homeostasis model assessment [HOMAIR]index, and biometric parameters. Results. APAO was related to newborn length (r=+0.36; P=0.001, head circumference (r=+0.37; P=0.001, gestational age (r=+0.40, P=0.0005, HOMA index (r=+0.24; P=0.04, and D-dimers (r=+0.33, P=0.004. Smoke influenced APAO values (odds ratio: 1.80; confidence interval 95%: 1.05–3.30, as well as diabetes during pregnancy (r=+0.42, P=0.0002. Maternal height influenced neonatal APAO (r=+0.47, P=0.00003. Multiple regression analysis outlined neonatal D-dimers as still significantly related to neonatal APAO values. Conclusions. Many maternal and neonatal characteristics could influence aorta structures. Neonatal D-dimers are independently related to APAO.

  16. Abdominal MRI in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI provides diagnostic information in multiple abdominal diseases in childhood. Additional information to sonographic findings can be achieved in the diagnosis of abdominal malformation as well as in several inflammatory processes. In childhood cancer imaging MRI is essential at the beginning as well as during therapy to assess response to therapy. Because of radiation protection MRI has to replace CT in abdominal imaging in children. Some technical details have to be considered when children are examined. (orig.)

  17. [Abdominal ischemia and lesions of the pancreas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshanych, T V; Moskal', O M; Arkhiĭ, E Ĭ; Sozoniuk, O V

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of the results of 50 patients with diseases of coronary heart disease (25 pers.) And chronic pancreatitis (25 people) are submitted. Along with the standard test from these patients underwent Doppler-ultrasonography of abdominal aorta and its visceral branches. Conclusions: A characteristic feature of Doppler indices in AIC is to reduce Vps and Ved, and PI BbA, increase Vps, Ved, IR and PI after exercise in chBA, chC and BbA. At patients with CP with IHD feature is the increase in Ved and IR in the chC, and Ved and PI in BbA under act of loading Bleed a feature at CP with IHD must be taken into account for optimization of treatment of IHD at CP. PMID:25796868

  18. Reconstrução da aorta com conduto de pericárdio bovino corrugado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Salles

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available No período de outubro de 1989 a maio de 1997, 40 pacientes portadores de dissecção aórtica, aneurisma da aorta, coarctação da aorta ou doença oclusiva aorto-ilíaca foram submetidos a reconstrução da aorta utilizando-se conduto de pericárdio bovino corrugado processado em glutaraldeído. A reconstrução total da aorta ascendente com substituição da valva aórtica e reimplante das artérias coronárias foi realizada em 9 pacientes, a simples substituição da aorta ascendente em 6, aorta torácica descendente em 2, arco aórtico em 1, aorta toracoabdominal em 1 e a aorta abdominal foi reconstruída em 21, incluindo pacientes submetidos a reconstrução aorto-ilíaca ou aorto-femoral. A mortalidade hospitalar foi de 8 (20% pacientes e as causas de óbito foram baixo débito cardíaco, recidiva da dissecção aórtica, falência de múltiplos órgãos e sangramento. O seguimento total foi de 128,4 pacientes-anos, com um seguimento médio de 4 anos por paciente. Complicações tardias relacionadas ao conduto vascular foram observadas em 4 pacientes, incluindo obstrução de um dos ramos do tubo bifurcado utilizado para reconstrução aorto-femoral e infecção em 3, resultando em degeneração secundária do conduto e formação de pseudo-aneurisma. Os 4 pacientes foram submetidos a reoperações, correspondendo a uma incidência de 3,1% ± 1,6% por paciente/ano. Ocorreram 5 óbitos tardios e as causas foram morte súbita, doença coronariana, pneumonia, septicemia e complicações metabólicas resultantes de diabetes e insuficiência renal crônica, correspondendo a uma incidência de 3,9% ± 1,7% por paciente/ano. A sobrevida atuarial em 9 anos foi 61,5% ± 9,2%, incluindo a mortalidade cirúrgica e a sobrevida atuarial livre de degeneração tissular estrutural primária do conduto biológico foi de 100%. O corrugamento do pericárdio, resultante da incorporação do princípio crimping utilizado nas próteses vasculares sint

  19. Diagnosis of supravalvar stenosis of aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors analyzed the potentialities of combined radiodiagnosis of supravalvar stenosis (SS) and concomitant diseases of the heart and major vessels (Williams-Beuren syndrome) in 7 patients aged 7 mos. to 24 yrs. Polypositional chest and heart X-ray procedure, catheterization of the cardiac cavities, pulmonary artery and aorta, left ventriculography (6), right ventriculography (4) and angiopulmonography were used. The diagnostic potentialities of each method were defined

  20. Hybrid Treatment of Acute Abdominal Aortic Thrombosis Presenting with Paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarone, Matteo; De Troia, Alessandro; Iazzolino, Luigi; Nabulsi, Bilal; Tecchio, Tiziano

    2016-05-01

    Acute thrombotic or embolic occlusion of the abdominal aorta is a rare vascular emergency associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Classically, the clinical presentation is a severe peripheral ischemia with bilateral leg pain as the predominant feature. Aortic occlusion presenting as an isolated acute onset of paraplegia due to spinal cord ischemia is very rare and requires improved awareness to prevent adverse outcomes associated with delayed diagnosis. We report the case of a 54-year-old man who presented with sudden paraplegia due to the thrombotic occlusion of the infrarenal aorta involving the first segment of the common iliac arteries on both sides; emergent transperitoneal aorto iliac thrombectomy combined with the endovascular iliac kissing-stent technique were performed achieving perioperative complete regression of the symptoms. PMID:26968371

  1. Collateral abdominal circulation in patient with Leriche's syndrome diagnosed with 64-row multislice computed tomography (MSCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leriche's syndrome results from slowly developing occlusion of the abdominal aorta. It affects mainly middle-aged males. The blood flow distal to the occlusion site is secured by collateral circulation. Signs of Leriche's syndrome include claudication, gluteal pain and impotence. The paper presents a patient with Leriche's syndrome, in whom a detailed visualization of collateral circulation was obtained with multislice computed tomography angiography. Patient underwent surgical recanalization of the aorta with an excellent result. To our knowledge, the presented case is the first description of collateral circulation in Leriche's syndrome obtained with 64-row computed tomography. (author)

  2. Dynamic biaxial tissue properties of the human cadaver aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Chirag S; Hardy, Warren N; Mason, Matthew J; Yang, King H; Van Ee, Chris A; Morgan, Richard; Digges, Kennerly

    2006-11-01

    This study focuses on the biaxial mechanical properties of planar aorta tissue at strain rates likely to be experienced during automotive crashes. It also examines the structural response of the whole aorta to longitudinal tension. Twenty-six tissue-level tests were conducted using twelve thoracic aortas harvested from human cadavers. Cruciate samples were excised from the ascending, peri-isthmic, and descending regions. The samples were subjected to equibiaxial stretch at two nominal speed levels using a new biaxial tissue-testing device. Inertia-compensated loads were measured to facilitate calculation of true stress. High-speed videography and regional correlation analysis were used to track ink dots marked on the center of each sample to obtain strain. In a series of component-level tests, the response of the intact thoracic aorta to longitudinal stretch was obtained using seven aorta specimens. The aorta fails within the peri-isthmic region. The aorta fails in the transverse direction, and the intima fails before the media or adventitia. The aorta tissue exhibits nonlinear behavior. The aorta as complete structure can transect completely from 92 N axial load and 0.221 axial strain. Complete transection can be accompanied by intimal tears. These results have application to finite element modeling and the better understanding of traumatic rupture of the aorta. PMID:17311166

  3. Optimization of individualized abdominal scan protocol with 64-slice CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore an individualized abdominal scan protocol with a 64-slice CT scanner. Methods: From Sep. 2010 to Nov. 2010, one hundred consecutive patients, who underwent twice non-contrast-enhanced abdominal CT scans within 3 months, were enrolled in this study. For each patient, the tube current of 274 eff. mAs and 207 eff. mAs were applied respectively in the first and second abdominal scan. The imaging qualities of the two scans were evaluated retrospectively by 3 reviewers. All the individual variants,including height, weight, body mass index (BMI), the maximum transverse diameter, the anteroposterior diameter and the average maximum diameter of abdomen were recorded. A five-point scale was used for grading the image noise of eight organs, including abdominal aorta, portal vein, liver, spleen, gallbladder, pancreas, renal cortex and renal medulla. Diagnostic acceptability of CT images at three anatomic levels,including porta hepatis, pancreas and the upper pole of renal, was also evaluated by using a five-point scale. The noise value of abdominal aorta was defined as the standard deviation (SD) of CT values of aorta at the level of porta hepatis. Scatter diagram and Pearson correlation analysis were used for evaluating the linear relationship between the individual variants and the noise value of abdominal aorta, and multivariate linear regression analysis was used for evaluating the relevance between the individual variants and the noise value of aorta. Results: In this patients group, the average height was (164.6 ± 7.5) cm,the average weight was (64.3 ± 11.0) kg, the BMI was (23.7 ±3.3) kg/m2, the maximum transverse diameter of abdomen was (29.8 ± 2.3) cm, the anteroposterior diameter of abdomen was (23.1 ± 2.9) cm, and the average maximum diameter of abdomen was (26.5 ± 2.5) cm. Pearson correlation analysis showed significant positive linear correlation between the noise value of abdominal aorta (1 1.7 ± 3.0) and patients' weight (r=0

  4. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:9737070

  5. Imaging in abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging in abdominal trauma with special regard to the value of abdominal X-ray, ultrasound and computed tomography is described. The introduction to each organ focusses on the clinical situation, special mechanism of trauma, symptoms and the pathological staging of trauma. (orig.)

  6. The clinical application of multi-slice spiral CT angiography in abdominal aortic disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application of multi-slice spiral CT angiography(MSCTA) in the assessment of abdominal aortic disease. Methods: Fifty-four patients underwent multi-slice spiral CT angiography of abdomen. Contrast agent (Omnipaque 300 I g/L) 1.5 ml/kg was injected and the injection rate was 3 ml/s. The delay time was determined by bolus tracking technique,Tll level abdominal aorta was set as the target vessel and the threshold was 180-200 Hu, slice width was 3 mm and with a pitch of 4-6.Original data were transferred to working-station to perform functional reconstruction. Results: Ten cases were normal, twenty-eight cases were abdominal aortic aneurysms, five abdominal aortic dissecting aneurysms (Debakay type Ⅲ ) and eleven aortic sclerosis. SSD showed the body of aneurysm and the relationship between aneurysm and adjacent blood vessel, MIP better displayed calcification of blood vessel wall and condition of the stent, MPR demonstrated true and false lumen, rupture site of abdominal aorta intima and mural thrombus. Conclusion: MSCTA axial and reconstruction image can show the extent of abdominal aortic disease and the relationship with adjacent blood vessels. It is a safe, simple and non-invasive examination method.

  7. Tratamento de aneurismas da parte torácica da aorta pela introdução de "stents" sob visão endoscópica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Honório PALMA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Tratamento de paciente com dois aneurismas saculares da aorta descendente, utilizando dois "stents" distintos, manufaturados sob medida tanto em comprimento quanto em diâmetro. Inseridos sob visão endoscópica com aparelho da marca "Olimpus" esterilizado com óxido de etileno, através de abertura na croça da aorta. O procedimento foi realizado por esternotomia mediana, com circulação extracorpórea, em hipotermia profunda e parada circulatória total. A manipulação endoscópica da aorta descendente, sem sangue, permitiu a identificação dos dois aneurismas, assim como a visão dos ramos principais da aorta e a inserção com expansão , na posição exata, dos dois "stents". A evolução pós- operatória foi satisfatória, sendo que este procedimento, inédito, abre uma nova perspectiva no tratamento dos aneurismas torácicos, toracoabdominais e abdominais.This is a case report of a patient with two saccular aneurysms in the thoracic descending aorta. Treatment consisted of the positioning, through an opening in the aortic arch under deep hipothermia and total circulatory arrest, of two auto expandable stents, guided an Olympus endoscope. The bloodless field made possible the identification of the main thoracic and abdominal aortic branches facilitating the positioning and expansion of both stents. Immediate postoperative recovery was excellent. This is a previously unreported way of placing stents and could open a new perspective in the treatment of thoraco, abdominal and thoracic abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  8. Combined procedure of heart transplantation and ascending aorta replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, João Gonçalves; Estefanía, Rafael Hernández; Delgado, Cristian; Del Barrio, Loreto García; Rábago, Gregorio

    2016-06-01

    Concomitant heart transplantation and ascending aorta replacement is infrequent. In the few cases where this simultaneous procedure was performed, most patients were diagnosed with Marfan syndrome. We report the combined procedure of heart transplantation and ascending aorta replacement using the donor's ascending aorta, in a 70-year-old man who was not diagnosed with Marfan syndrome. This combined procedure can be performed successfully, providing a potentially life-saving heart transplant for patients with aortic disease of different etiologies. PMID:25737588

  9. Comparison of arterial stiffness and microcirculatory changes following abdominal aortic aneurysm grafting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moloney, M A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGOUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery provides a unique opportunity to study the impact of arterial stiffness on central haemodynamics, reflected in augmentation index (AI). The aneurysmal aorta is significantly stiffer than undilated age-matched aorta. AIM: We investigated whether replacement of an aneurysmal aorta with a compliant graft would result in a decrease in AI, which would thus decrease myocardial workload parameters. METHODS: Patients undergoing elective open or endovascular AAA repair were assessed with applanation tonometry and laser fluximetry pre-operatively, immediately and long-term post-operatively. RESULTS: Replacement of a small segment of abnormal conduit vessel resulted in improvements in AI, demonstrating that arterial stiffness can be surgically manipulated. CONCLUSIONS: These results reflect a decreased myocardial workload post-aortic grafting. This decrease in AI is important from a risk factor management perspective, and arterial stiffness should become a further recognised and screened for risk factor in patients with known aneurysmal disease.

  10. Comparison of arterial stiffness and microcirculatory changes following abdominal aortic aneurysm grafting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moloney, M A

    2010-11-11

    BACKGOUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery provides a unique opportunity to study the impact of arterial stiffness on central haemodynamics, reflected in augmentation index (AI). The aneurysmal aorta is significantly stiffer than undilated age-matched aorta. AIM: We investigated whether replacement of an aneurysmal aorta with a compliant graft would result in a decrease in AI, which would thus decrease myocardial workload parameters. METHODS: Patients undergoing elective open or endovascular AAA repair were assessed with applanation tonometry and laser fluximetry pre-operatively, immediately and long-term post-operatively. RESULTS: Replacement of a small segment of abnormal conduit vessel resulted in improvements in AI, demonstrating that arterial stiffness can be surgically manipulated. CONCLUSIONS: These results reflect a decreased myocardial workload post-aortic grafting. This decrease in AI is important from a risk factor management perspective, and arterial stiffness should become a further recognised and screened for risk factor in patients with known aneurysmal disease.

  11. Aneurisma adquirido de aorta ascendente em criança Acquired neurysm of the ascending aorta in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danton R. da Rocha Loures

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available O aneurisma adquirido da aorta ascendente é uma rara condição na faixa pediátrica. Os autores apresentam 2 casos de crianças de 6 e 12 anos de idade com aneurisma sacular da aorta ascendente e estenose aórtica, os quais foram submetidos a correção cirúrgica, com sucesso.Acquired aneurysm of the ascending aorta is a rare condition in the pediatric age group. The authors present two cases of 6 and 12 year old boys with saccular aneurysm of the ascending aorta and aortic stenosis, which underwent successful surgical correction.

  12. Aneurisma adquirido de aorta ascendente em criança Acquired neurysm of the ascending aorta in children

    OpenAIRE

    Danton R. da Rocha Loures; Maria João Amorim Ferreira; Rui Sequeira de Almeida; Ronaldo Loures Bueno; Antoninho Krichenko; Paulo R. Brofman; Edison José Ribeiro; Lauro Linhares; Mário Lobato da Costa; Edimara Seegmuller

    1989-01-01

    O aneurisma adquirido da aorta ascendente é uma rara condição na faixa pediátrica. Os autores apresentam 2 casos de crianças de 6 e 12 anos de idade com aneurisma sacular da aorta ascendente e estenose aórtica, os quais foram submetidos a correção cirúrgica, com sucesso.Acquired aneurysm of the ascending aorta is a rare condition in the pediatric age group. The authors present two cases of 6 and 12 year old boys with saccular aneurysm of the ascending aorta and aortic stenosis, which underwen...

  13. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X- ... use high frequency sound waves to produce an image and do not expose the individual to radiation. ...

  14. Abdominal CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CAT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... An abdominal CT scan makes detailed pictures of the structures inside your belly (abdomen) very quickly. This test may be used to ...

  15. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inspection of a drop of urine), and urine culture for bacterial infection. Stools can be analyzed for ... Hepatitis C Inflammatory Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome Obesity Digestive Health Topics Abdominal Pain Syndrome Belching, Bloating, ...

  16. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis

  17. MR imaging of the toracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various pathological conditions of the thoracic aorta were studied by MR Imaging in 31 patients: 23 were aneurysms (branching and non-branching), 2 artero-venous fistulae, 2 aortic prostheses, 2 Marfan's syndromes, 1 coronary sinus aneurysm, and 1 isthmic stenosis. MRI studies were always performed on patients who had been examined by other imaging procedures. A comparative study was carried out on the results of MRI, angiography, computerized tomography, and ultrasounds. The possibility of propedeutic protocol was explored. Our experience, in accordance with the literature on the subject, indicates MRI as the procedure of choice in the study of aneurysms of the toracic aorta. The advantages offered by MRI-the high natural contrast between circulating blood and the supporting structures, the possibility of obtaining multiplanar images as well as data on intraluminal, parietal, and extraparietal conditions-make it a highly competitive procedure if compared to either CT or angiography. While awaiting further evidence, the use of a propedeutic protocol in non-aneurysmatic diseases is still not advisable, due to insufficient patient population, and to the lack of a consistent literature on the subject

  18. Imaging in Tuberculosis abdominal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we illustrate and discuss imaging features resulting from Tuberculosis abdominal affectation. We present patients evaluated with several imaging modalities who had abdominal symptoms and findings suggestive of granulomatous disease. Diagnosis was confirm including hystopatology and clinical outgoing. Cases involved presented many affected organs such as lymphatic system, peritoneum, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, ureters, adrenal glands and pelvic organs Tuberculosis, Tuberculosis renal, Tuberculosis hepatic, Tuberculosis splenic Tomography, x-ray, computed

  19. Inhibition of PKC-dependent extracellular Ca2+ entry contributes to the depression of contractile activity in long-term pressure-overloaded endothelium-denuded rat aortas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the contractile responsiveness of rat thoracic aortas under pressure overload after long-term suprarenal abdominal aortic coarctation (lt-Srac). Endothelium-dependent angiotensin II (ANG II) type 2 receptor (AT2R)-mediated depression of contractions to ANG II has been reported in short-term (1 week) pressure-overloaded rat aortas. Contractility was evaluated in the aortic rings of rats subjected to lt-Srac or sham surgery (Sham) for 8 weeks. ANG I and II levels and AT2R protein expression in the aortas of lt-Srac and Sham rats were also evaluated. lt-Srac attenuated the contractions of ANG II and phenylephrine in the aortas in an endothelium-independent manner. However, lt-Srac did not influence the transient contractions induced in endothelium-denuded aortic rings by ANG II, phenylephrine, or caffeine in Ca2+-free medium or the subsequent tonic constrictions induced by the addition of Ca2+ in the absence of agonists. Thus, the contractions induced by Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and Ca2+ influx through stored-operated channels were not inhibited in the aortas of lt-Srac rats. Potassium-elicited contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats remained unaltered compared with control tissues. Consequently, the contractile depression observed in aortic tissues of lt-Srac rats cannot be explained by direct inhibition of voltage-operated Ca2+ channels. Interestingly, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats were depressed in the presence but not in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Neither levels of angiotensins nor of AT2R were modified in the aortas after lt-Srac. The results suggest that, in rat thoracic aortas, lt-Srac selectively inhibited protein kinase C-mediated activation of contraction that is dependent on extracellular Ca2+ entry

  20. Primary stenting in the treatment of focal atherosclerotic abdominal aortic stenoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poncyljusz, W.; Falkowski, A.; Garncarek, J.; Karasek, M.; England, S.; Zawierucha, D

    2006-08-15

    Aim: To evaluate the results of primary stent placement in focal atherosclerotic aortic stenoses using balloon expandable stents. Materials and methods: Twenty-six primary balloon expandable stent placements in the abdominal aorta were performed and reviewed. All the aortic stenoses were atherosclerotic. Patients were followed up by ankle/brachial pressure indices (ABPI) and Doppler ultrasound (US) at 24 h after procedure and at 12 and 24 months. Follow-up angiograms were performed at 12 months. Results: Twenty-six stents in 26 patients were placed in the infrarenal aorta. All procedures were technically successful and immediate clinical success was obtained. The mean ABPI significantly improved from 0.52 {+-} 0.10 to 0.94 {+-} 0.09 within 24 h after procedure, and remained at 0.90 {+-} 0.12 between 12 and 24 months follow-up (mean 18 months). There was full haemodynamic success at hospital discharge and at 12 and 24 months after the procedure. Clinical success at 12 and 24 months (mean 18 months) was defined as an improvement in the Fontaine classification by at least one class compared with the pre-procedure class and was shown to be 100%. Conclusion: In summary, we report that primary stenting is a safe and effective alternative to surgery in cases of symptomatic stenosis of the infrarenal abdominal aorta. The excellent intermediate term results suggested that we would recommend primary stenting as the treatment of choice for focal atherosclerotic stenoses of the infrarenal aorta in selected patients.

  1. The effect of adrenergic β2 receptor agonist on paraplegia following clamping of abdominal aorta

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bok Y.; Al-Waili, Noori; Butler, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Surgical repair of an aortic aneurysm might be complicated by spinal cord injury and paraplegia. Since β-adrenoreceptor agonists showed neuroprotective effects, the study was designed to investigate the effect of clenbuterol on post-aortic clamping paraplegia and to identify if there is hyperemia associated with paraplegia. Material and methods Material and methods: Thirty rabbits were divided into two groups: 15 control and 15 experimental (given clenbuterol 9 mg in drinking wat...

  2. Endovascular treatment of aortic pathologies - State of the art. Part 1 - Aneurysms of abdominal aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endovascular treatment of aortic pathologies is actually an alternative to open surgery. It has proven to be safe, showing similar or better results to those achieved by surgery. In this article, treatment of aortic pathologies by means of endoprosthesis is presented, as well as its indications, contraindications and future treatment with this kind of devices

  3. Novel aspects of the pathogenesis of aneurysms of the abdominal aorta in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Martin-Ventura, José-Luis; Egido, Jesus;

    2011-01-01

    . These events occur mainly at the intraluminal thrombus-circulating blood interface, and pathological mediators are conveyed outwards, where they promote matrix degradation of the arterial wall. In response, neo-angiogenesis, phagocytosis by mononuclear cells, and a shift from innate to adaptive immunity...

  4. Diagnosis of abdominal aortic hypoplasia by state-of-the-art MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdominal aortic hypoplasia is a rare vascular variant with possible major clinical sequelae when the renal arteries are also involved. The condition is thought to result from embryonic overfusion of the two dorsal aortas. The diagnosis may be considered in patients presenting with hypertension in the neonatal period and severely reduced or absent arterial pulses in the groin. We present contrast-enhanced state-of-the-art magnetic resonance angiography imaging findings in an 8-year-old boy with abdominal aortic hypoplasia. (orig.)

  5. Quantitative expression and localization of cysteine and aspartic proteases in human abdominal aortic aneurysms

    OpenAIRE

    Lohoefer, Fabian; Reeps, Christian; Lipp, Christina; Rudelius, Martina; Haertl, Felix; Matevossian, Edouard; Zernecke, Alma; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Pelisek, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine and aspartic proteases possess high elastolytic activity and might contribute to the degradation of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) wall. The aim of this study was to analyze, in detail, the proteases (cathepsins B, D, K, L and S, and inhibitor cystatin C) found in human AAA and healthy aortic tissue samples. The vessel walls from AAA patients (n=36) and nonaneurysmal aortae (n=10) were retrieved using conventional surgical repair and autopsy methods. Serum samples from the same ...

  6. Growth patterns of abdominal atherosclerotic calcified deposits from lumbar lateral X-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lene Lillemark; Ganz, Melanie; Barascuk, Natasha;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate new methods for describing the progression of atherosclerosis based on novel information of the growth patterns of individual abdominal aortic calcifications (AACs) over time. Lateral X-ray images were used due to their low cost, fast examination time, and...... in the aorta, on average. The growth patterns of AACs may give new insights into the progression of atherosclerosis. The downstream asymmetry in the growth patterns indicates variability in microscopic environments around the AACs....

  7. Tissue Responses to Endovascular Stent Grafts for Saccular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in a Canine Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun Beom; Choi, Young Ho; So, Young Ho; Min, Seung-Kee; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Kim, Young Il; Park, Jae Hyung; Chung, Jin Wook

    2012-01-01

    We investigated tissue responses to endoskeleton stent grafts for saccular abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in canines. Saccular AAAs were made with Dacron patch in 8 dogs, and were excluded by endoskeleton stent grafts composed of nitinol stent and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft. Animals were sacrificed at 2 months (Group 1; n = 3) or 6 months (Group 2; n = 5) after the placement, respectively. The aortas embedding stent grafts were excised en bloc for gross inspection and sliced at...

  8. Abdominal aortic occlusion and vascular compromise secondary to acute gastric dilatation in a patient with bulimia

    OpenAIRE

    Elsharif, M; Doulias, T; Aljundi, W; Balchandra, S

    2014-01-01

    Acute gastric dilation is a rare but recognised complication in patients with bulimia and anorexia following binge episodes owing to decreased bowel motility. We present a rare case of acute gastric dilation secondary to bulimia in an otherwise healthy 18-year-old female patient that resulted in compression and complete occlusion of the abdominal aorta, leading to acute mesenteric and bilateral lower limb ischaemia. This resolved immediately following a laparotomy and gastric decompression.

  9. Vasa vasorum in the tunica media and tunica adventitia of the porcine aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonar, Zbyněk; Tomášek, Petr; Loskot, Petr; Janáček, Jiří; Králíčková, Milena; Witter, Kirsti

    2016-05-01

    Vasa vasorum supply both the tunica adventitia and the tunica media of major arteries with nutrients and oxygen. We estimated the density of von Willebrand factor-positive profiles of vasa vasorum visible in transversal histological sections of 123 tissue samples collected from five anatomical positions in the porcine aortae of growing pigs (n=25). The animals ranged in age from 0 to 230 days. The tunica media of the thoracic aorta had a greater vasa vasorum density, with microvessels penetrating deeper towards the lumen than in the abdominal aorta. The density of vasa vasorum gradually decreased with age in both the media and the adventitia. The relative depth into which the vasa vasorum penetrated and where they branched remained constant during the ageing and growth of the media. The ratio of the tunica media and tunica adventitia thicknesses did not change in the single aortic segments during ageing. The media of older animals received fewer but equally distributed vasa vasorum. A greater density of vasa vasorum in the media was correlated with greater media thickness and a greater elastin fraction (data on elastin taken from another study on the same samples). Immunohistochemical quantification revealed deeper penetration of vasa vasorum towards the adluminal layers of the tunica media that were hitherto reported to be avascular. The complete primary morphometric data, in the form of continuous variables, have been made available as a supplement. Mapping of the vasa vasorum profile density and position has promising illustrative potential for studies on atherosclerotic and inflammatory neovascularization, aortic aneurysms, and drug distribution from arterial stents in experimental porcine models. PMID:26844625

  10. [Comparative transcriptome analysis of human aorta atherosclerotic lesions and peripheral blood leukocytes from essential hypertension patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, A V; Goriunova, L E; Khaspekov, G L; Il'inskaia, O P; Sirotkin, V N; Andreeva, E R; Tararak, E M; Bulkina, O S; Buza, V V; Britareva, V V; Karpov, Iu A; Bibilashvili, R Sh

    2009-01-01

    One of the major cardiovascular risk factor which predisposes to and accelerates atherosclerosis is arterial hypertension (AH). To determine the molecular basis of the crosslink between AH and atherosclerosis for the development of new treatment strategies large-scale transcriptome analysis of the cells implicated in atherogenesis is needed. We used cDNA microarray technique for simultaneous analysis of gene expression in human abdominal aorta normal sites and atherosclerotic lesions of different histological types, as well as in peripheral blood leukocytes from patients with essential hypertension (EH) and donors. The microarray data were verified by quantitative RT-PCR (reverse transcription coupled with polymerase chain reaction) and immunohistochemical analysis. Differential expression of 40 genes has been found, among which twenty two genes demonstrated up-regulation and 18 genes demonstrated down-regulation in atherosclerotic aorta compared with normal vessel. New gene-candidates, implicated in atherogenesis, have been identified - FPRL2, CD37, CD53, RGS1, LCP1, SPI1, CTSA, EPAS1, FHL1, GEM, RHOB, SPARCL1, ITGA8, PLN, and COL14A1. These genes participate in cell migration and adhesion, phenotypic changes of smooth muscle cells, immune and inflammatory reactions, oxidative processes and extracellular matrix remodeling. We have found increased expression levels of CD53, SPI1, FPRL2, SPP1, CTSD, ACP5, LCP1, CTSA and LIPA genes in peripheral blood leukocytes from EH patients and in atherosclerotic lesions of human aorta. The majority of these genes significantly (p0.5) correlated with AH stage as well as with histological grading of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:19772500

  11. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of the abdominal vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contrast enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) provides high resolution angiograms within 20-40 sec. The technique is based on the acquisition of heavily T1-weighted threedimensional (3D) gradient-echo data sets (FISP) with ultrashort echo-(<2 ms) and repetition times (<5 ms) during the arterial phase of an intravenously injected bolus of a T1-shortening agent such as Gd-DTPA. For MR-angiography of abdominal vessels CE-MRA is better suited than 'time-of-flight' (TOF) and phase-contrast (PC) MRA because motional artifacts can be obviated with breath-held acquisitions. We have optimised the technique and evaluated its potential for angiography of the abdominal aorta and its branches as well as the portal vein and its tributaries. Whilst CE-MRA provides reliable diagnostic accuracy in the aorta and the proximal sections of its branches, small peripheral arteries cannot be assessed accurately. The portal vein and its tributaries can often be depicted better with CE-MRA than with conventional angiography but, like conventional angiography, CE-MRA is hampered by slow and reversed flow, conditions under which TOF or 'true FISP' MRA may perform bst. We have also investigated FLASH-echo-planar imaging (EPI) hybrid techniques, a further technical development which due to shorter acquisition times of 12-15 sec. allows semi-dynamic imaging of the arterial and venous phase and provide better vessel contrast due to the use of fat-suppression. (orig.)

  12. AORTA: Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Open systems are characterized by a diversity of heterogeneous and autonomous agents that act according to private goals, and with a behavior that is hard to predict. They can be regulated through organizations similar to human organizations, which regulate the agents’ behavior space and describe...... the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. This extended abstract introduces AORTA, a component that can be integrated into agents’ reasoning...... mechanism, allowing them to reason about (and act upon) regulations specified by an organizational model using simple reasoning rules. The added value is that the organizational model is independent of that of the agents, and that the approach is not tied to a specific organizational model....

  13. Estrutura, ultraestrutura e morfometria da aorta de paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766 criada em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Garcia Filho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Descreveram-se a morfologia, morfometria e ultraestrutura de segmentos das porções torácica e abdominal da aorta de quatro pacas (Cuniculus paca adultas. Os segmentos aórticos foram analisados à microscopia de luz e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Mensuraram-se as espessuras do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média, além da túnica adventícia. Os valores referentes à espessura do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média da aorta torácica cranial foram significativamente maiores (média: 702,19µm que os valores de outros segmentos aórticos analisados (médias: 354,18µm; 243,55µm. As camadas das paredes do vaso apresentaram variações entre si quanto à estrutura e espessura, supostamente em razão de adaptação à exigência funcional.

  14. Abdominal Dual Energy Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, F. Graham; Brody, William R.; Cassel, Douglas M.; Macovski, Albert

    1981-11-01

    Dual energy scanned projection radiography of the abdomen has been performed using an experimental line-scanned radiographic system. Digital images simultaneously obtained at 85 and 135 kVp are combined, using photoelectric/Compton decomposition algorithms to create images from which selected materials are cancelled. Soft tissue cancellation images have proved most useful in various abdominal imaging applications, largely due to the elimination of obscuring high-contrast bowel gas shadows. These techniques have been successfully applied to intravenous pyelography, oral cholecystography, intravenous abdominal arteriog-raphy and the imaging of renal calculi.

  15. Childhood abdominal cystic lymphangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konen, Osnat; Rathaus, Valeria; Shapiro, Myra [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Meir General Hospital, Sapir Medical Centre, Kfar Saba (Israel); Dlugy, Elena [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Schneider Medical Centre, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University (Israel); Freud, Enrique [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Sapir Medical Centre, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University (Israel); Kessler, Ada [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sourasky Medical Centre, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Horev, Gadi [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Schneider Medical Centre, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2002-02-01

    Background: Abdominal lymphangioma is a rare benign congenital malformation of the mesenteric and/or retroperitoneal lymphatics. Clinical presentation is variable and may be misleading; therefore, complex imaging studies are necessary in the evaluation of this condition. US and CT have a major role in the correct preoperative diagnosis and provide important information regarding location, size, adjacent organ involvement, and expected complications. Objective: To evaluate the clinical and imaging findings of seven children with proven abdominal cystic lymphangioma. Materials and methods: Clinical and imaging files of seven children with pathologically proven abdominal lymphangioma, from three university hospitals, were retrospectively evaluated. Patient's ages ranged from 1 day to 6 years (mean, 2.2 years). Symptoms and signs included evidence of inflammation, abnormal prenatal US findings, chronic abdominal pain, haemorrhage following trauma, clinical signs of intestinal obstruction, and abdominal distension with lower extremities lymphoedema. Plain films of five patients, US of six patients and CT of five patients were reviewed. Sequential imaging examinations were available in two cases. Results: Abdominal plain films showed displacement of bowel loops by a soft tissue mass in five of six patients, two of them with dilatation of small bowel loops. US revealed an abdominal multiloculated septated cystic mass in five of six cases and a single pelvic cyst in one which changed in appearance over 2 months. Ascites was present in three cases. CT demonstrated a septated cystic mass of variable sizes in all available five cases. Sequential US and CT examinations in two patients showed progressive enlargement of the masses, increase of fluid echogenicity, and thickening of walls or septa in both cases, with multiplication of septa in one case. At surgery, mesenteric lymphangioma was found in five patients and retroperitoneal lymphangioma in the other two

  16. Childhood abdominal cystic lymphangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Abdominal lymphangioma is a rare benign congenital malformation of the mesenteric and/or retroperitoneal lymphatics. Clinical presentation is variable and may be misleading; therefore, complex imaging studies are necessary in the evaluation of this condition. US and CT have a major role in the correct preoperative diagnosis and provide important information regarding location, size, adjacent organ involvement, and expected complications. Objective: To evaluate the clinical and imaging findings of seven children with proven abdominal cystic lymphangioma. Materials and methods: Clinical and imaging files of seven children with pathologically proven abdominal lymphangioma, from three university hospitals, were retrospectively evaluated. Patient's ages ranged from 1 day to 6 years (mean, 2.2 years). Symptoms and signs included evidence of inflammation, abnormal prenatal US findings, chronic abdominal pain, haemorrhage following trauma, clinical signs of intestinal obstruction, and abdominal distension with lower extremities lymphoedema. Plain films of five patients, US of six patients and CT of five patients were reviewed. Sequential imaging examinations were available in two cases. Results: Abdominal plain films showed displacement of bowel loops by a soft tissue mass in five of six patients, two of them with dilatation of small bowel loops. US revealed an abdominal multiloculated septated cystic mass in five of six cases and a single pelvic cyst in one which changed in appearance over 2 months. Ascites was present in three cases. CT demonstrated a septated cystic mass of variable sizes in all available five cases. Sequential US and CT examinations in two patients showed progressive enlargement of the masses, increase of fluid echogenicity, and thickening of walls or septa in both cases, with multiplication of septa in one case. At surgery, mesenteric lymphangioma was found in five patients and retroperitoneal lymphangioma in the other two. Conclusions: US

  17. Abdominal Vascular Catastrophes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpreet; Koyfman, Alex; Martinez, Joseph P

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal vascular catastrophes are among the most challenging and time sensitive for emergency practitioners to recognize. Mesenteric ischemia remains a highly lethal entity for which the history and physical examination can be misleading. Laboratory tests are often unhelpful, and appropriate imaging must be quickly obtained. A multidisciplinary approach is required to have a positive impact on mortality rates. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm likewise may present in a cryptic fashion. A specific type of ruptured aneurysm, the aortoenteric fistula, often masquerades as the more common routine gastrointestinal bleed. The astute clinician recognizes that this is a more lethal variant of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. PMID:27133247

  18. Biaxial tensile tests of the porcine ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deplano, Valérie; Boufi, Mourad; Boiron, Olivier; Guivier-Curien, Carine; Alimi, Yves; Bertrand, Eric

    2016-07-01

    One of the aims of this work is to develop an original custom built biaxial set-up to assess mechanical behavior of soft tissues. Stretch controlled biaxial tensile tests are performed and stereoscopic digital image correlation (SDIC) is implemented to measure the 3D components of the generated displacements. Using this experimental device, the main goal is to investigate the mechanical behavior of porcine ascending aorta in the more general context of human ascending aorta pathologies. The results highlight that (i) SDIC arrangement allows accurate assessment of displacements and so stress strain curves, (ii) porcine ascending aorta has a nearly linear and anisotropic mechanical behavior until 30% of strain, (iii) porcine ascending aorta is stiffer in the circumferential direction than in the longitudinal one, (iv) the material coefficient representing the interaction between the two loading directions is thickness dependent, (v) taking into account the variability of the samples the stress values are independent of the stretch rate in the range of values from 10(-3) to 10(-1)s(-1) and finally, (vi) unlike other segments of the aorta, 4-month-old pigs ascending aorta is definitely not a relevant model to investigate the mechanical behavior of the human ascending aorta. PMID:27211783

  19. Study Design of PROCEDURE Study. A Randomized Comparison of the Dose-Dependent Effects of Pitavastatin in Patients with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Massive Aortic Atheroma: Prevention of Cholesterol Embolization during Endovascular and Open Aneurysm Repair with Pitavastatin (PROCEDURE) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshina, Katsuyuki; Nemoto, Masaru; Hashimoto, Takuya; Miura, Sumio; Urabe, Go; Nakazawa, Tatsu; Hosaka, Akihiro; Kato, Masaaki; Ohkubo, Nobukazu; Miyairi, Takeshi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Miyata, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    Outcomes of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair have improved in the 2 decades since the emergence of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). However, EVAR is considered a contraindication for shaggy aorta because of the high risk of shower embolization. Recently, statins have been implicated in preventing embolization in patients with shaggy aorta via its pleiotropic effects, including atheroma reduction and coronary artery stabilization. We selected pitavastatin, a statin with potent effect...

  20. Evaluation of diseases of the aorta with ultrafast CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrafast CT offers several advantages over standard CT for imaging of various congenital and acquired diseases of the aorta. Scan acquisition rates of 50 msec permit evaluation of the entire aorta following a single peripheral intravenous injection of iodinated contrast medium. Pathologic aortic flow patterns may also be defined using an ECG triggered ''flow'' mode, adding another dimension to CT evaluation of the aorta. The papers shows examples of a variety of aortic diseases, including coarctation, Marfan syndrome, atherosclerotic aneurysm, dissection, and postoperative abnormalities. The advantages of the modality are stressed

  1. Endometriosis Abdominal wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endometriosis of abdominal wall is a rare entity wi ch frequently appears after gynecological surgery. Case history includes three cases of parietal endometriosis wi ch were treated in Maciel Hospital of Montevideo. The report refers to etiological diagnostic aspects and highlights the importance of total resection in order to achieve definitive healing

  2. Adult abdominal hernias.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Kevin P

    2014-06-01

    Educational Objectives and Key Points. 1. Given that abdominal hernias are a frequent imaging finding, radiologists not only are required to interpret the appearances of abdominal hernias but also should be comfortable with identifying associated complications and postrepair findings. 2. CT is the imaging modality of choice for the assessment of a known adult abdominal hernia in both elective and acute circumstances because of rapid acquisition, capability of multiplanar reconstruction, good spatial resolution, and anatomic depiction with excellent sensitivity for most complications. 3. Ultrasound is useful for adult groin assessment and is the imaging modality of choice for pediatric abdominal wall hernia assessment, whereas MRI is beneficial when there is reasonable concern that a patient\\'s symptoms could be attributable to a hernia or a musculoskeletal source. 4. Fluoroscopic herniography is a sensitive radiologic investigation for patients with groin pain in whom a hernia is suspected but in whom a hernia cannot be identified at physical examination. 5. The diagnosis of an internal hernia not only is a challenging clinical diagnosis but also can be difficult to diagnose with imaging: Closed-loop small-bowel obstruction and abnormally located bowel loops relative to normally located small bowel or colon should prompt assessment for an internal hernia.

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of the abdomen ... limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? What is Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  4. Atherosclerosis in coronary artery and aorta in a semi-urban population by applying modified American Heart Association classification of atherosclerosis: An autopsy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thej, Mothakapalli Jagadish; Kalyani, Raju; Kiran, Jayaramaiah

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) following atherosclerosis is a giant killer and the incidence of atherosclerosis in coronary arteries is rapidly increasing among Indians. The study was formulated to assess the histomorphological atherosclerotic changes in aorta and coronary arteries at autopsy by applying the modified American Heart Association classification of atherosclerosis based on morphological descriptions to find out the age and sex related prevalence of atherosclerosis in the semi-urban population of Kolar, a district in Southern India. Materials and Methods: Autopsy was conducted on 113 cases whose age ranged from 8-85 years. Autopsy was conducted by the conventional technique; heart and the aorta were removed and fixed in 10% formalin. The heart was dissected along the direction of flow of blood and aorta along the posterior surface. Microscopic assessment of the three main coronary arteries and aorta was done using the modified American Heart Association classification of atherosclerosis. Proportions were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The number of males was 78 (69%) and number of females was 35 (31%). Mean age was 37.11 ± 15.69 years. Increased incidence of intermediate lesions was noted in young individuals (15-34 yrs). Atherosclerotic lesions were more in left anterior descending artery compared to other coronary arteries and in abdominal aorta compared to thoracic and ascending aorta. Vulnerable plaques were more in right coronary artery. Conclusion: With cardiovascular disease attaining pandemic proportions, the study of subclinical atherosclerosis is the need of the hour to estimate the disease burden in the asymptomatic population. The increased amount of atherosclerosis (advanced and intermediate lesions) found in the young population in this study gives an indication that anti-atherogenic preventive measures need to be implemented in young individuals, so as to prevent coronary artery disease from causing premature death

  5. Serelaxin (recombinant human relaxin-2) prevents high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction by ameliorating prostacyclin production in the mouse aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hooi Hooi; Leo, Chen Huei; Parry, Laura J

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction is a critical initiating factor in the development of cardiovascular complications. Treatment with relaxin improves tumour necrosis factor α-induced endothelial dysfunction by enhancing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and restoring superoxide dismutase 1 protein in rat aortic rings ex vivo. It is, therefore, possible that relaxin treatment could alleviate endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that serelaxin (recombinant human relaxin-2) prevents high glucose-induced vascular dysfunction in the mouse aorta. Abdominal aortae were isolated from C57BL/6 male mice and incubated in M199 media for 3days with either normal glucose (5.5mM) or high glucose (30mM), and co-incubated with placebo (20mM sodium acetate) or 10nM serelaxin at 37°C in 5% CO2. Vascular function was analysed using wire-myography. High glucose significantly reduced the sensitivity to the endothelium-dependent agonist, acetylcholine (ACh) (pEC50; normal glucose=7.66±0.10 vs high glucose=7.29±0.10, n=11-12, Paortae, but had no effect in serelaxin treated aortae. This suggests that high glucose incubation alters the superoxide and COX-sensitive pathway, which was normalized by co-incubation with serelaxin. Neither high glucose incubation nor serelaxin treatment had an effect on cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (Ptgs1, Ptgs2), prostacyclin synthase (PTGIS) and receptor (Ptgir) as well as thromboxane A2 receptor (Tbxa2r) mRNA expression. Importantly, production of prostacyclin was significantly (Paortae, which was prevented by serelaxin treatment. Our data show that serelaxin treatment for 3 days restores high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction by ameliorating vasodilator prostacyclin production and possibly through the reduction of superoxide in the mouse aorta. PMID:26993102

  6. Effect of endothelium on glycosaminoglycan accumulation in injured rabbit aorta.

    OpenAIRE

    Wight, T N; Curwen, K. D.; Litrenta, M. M.; Alonso, D. R.; Minick, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that reendothelialized regions of injured rabbit aortas are more susceptible to diet-induced atherosclerosis than persistently deendothelialized regions or uninjured aortas. However, the mechanism responsible for this selective lipid deposition is not understood. One possibility is that these regions differ with respect to the quantity and type of glycosaminoglycan-containing proteoglycans which are known to interact with lipoproteins. To determine whether thes...

  7. Dynamic morphology of the Aorta, pre- and postoperative imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Prehn, J

    2009-01-01

    With endovascular treatment of the aorta a folded covered stentgraft is introduced in the aorta via the femoral arteries. Adequate pre-operative planning is necessary to allow for proper stentgraft sizing. Stentgrafts should be adequately oversized to ensure good apposition to the aortic wall and provide sufficient fixation. An adequate proximal seal and fixation prevents complications such as endoleakage and stentgraft migration. Stentgrafts are most commonly sized on static computed tomogra...

  8. Palpation Simulator of Beating Aorta for Cardiovascular Surgery Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Nakao, Megumi; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Oyama, Hiroshi; Komori, Masaru; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Sakaguchi, Genichi; Komeda, Masashi; Takahashi, Takashi

    In field of cardiovascular surgeries, palpation of aorta plays important roles in decision of surgical site.This paper develops palpation simulator of aorta based on a finite element based physical model.The proposed model calculates soft tissue deformation according to the affection of inner pressure and the operation of a surgeon.The proposed method is implemented on a prototype with dual PHANToM device.Experimental results confirmed our model achieves real time simulation of the surgical palpation.

  9. Abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    2010-01-01

    surgery of symptomfree AAA. In order to fulfil all WHO, European, and Danish criteria for screening, a randomised hospitalbased screening trial of 12,639 65-73 year old men in Viborg County (Denmark) was initiated in 1994. It seemed that US screening is a valid, suitable and acceptable method of screening....... The acceptance rate was 77%, and 95% accept control scans. Furthermore, persons at the highest risk of having an AAA attend screening more frequently. We found that 97% of the interval cases developed from aortas that initially measured 2.5-2.9 cm - i.e. approx. only 5% attenders need re-screening at......, which could inhibit further AAA progression. All 4 existing RCTs point in the same direction, viz. in favour of screening of men aged 65 and above. We found that screening significantly reduced AAA-related mortality by 67% within the first five years (NNT = 352). Restriction of screening to men with...

  10. Component separation in abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawstorne, Edward; Smart, Christopher J; Fallis, Simon A; Suggett, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Component separation is established for complex hernia repairs. This case presents early component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath to facilitate closure of the abdominal wall following emergency laparotomy, reinforcing the repair with a biological mesh. On Day 11 following an emergency laparotomy for penetrating trauma, this patient underwent component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath. An intra-abdominal biological mesh was secured, and the fascia and skin closed successfully. Primary abdominal closure can be achieved in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma with the use of component separation and insertion of intra-abdominal biological mesh, where standard closure is not possible. PMID:24876334

  11. CT of abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon after it became available for clinical use, cranial CT became the method of choice for evaluating head trauma. Only relatively recently have newer generation full-body scanners been installed at major trauma centers, but experience is rapidly being gained in the utilization of CT for abdominal trauma. CT has proved highly accurate in diagnosing a wide variety of injuries to both intra- and retroperitoneal organs in pediatric and adult patient populations. The impact has been evident not only in decreasing utilization of other diagnostic tests, such as angiography, but also in practical management decisions, such as whether to perform exploratory laparotomy. This chapter details the authors' approach to evaluation of abdominal trauma by CT

  12. The blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to 1970 the number of patients suffering from blunt abdominal trauma showed a substantial increase. In more than 50% of all cases there are additional injuries. The most important factor influencing the prognosis of these patients is the early and correct indication for operation and the avoidance of unnecessary laparotomies. As a primary aim in diagnosis one should consider the recognition of an intraperitoneal bleeding without risk for the patient. Peritoneal lavage as an invasive method with low complication rates has proved good. First reports also show good results using the sonography of the abdomen. The recognition of the injured organ allows a carefully directed operation. Concerning the prognosis it is of minor importance. The diagnosis in patients with blunt abdominal trauma at the university clinic of Freiburg consists of: sonography, followed in positive cases by laparotomy or angiography and laparotomy. In cases with questionable results a lavage is done. (orig.)

  13. Abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gefke, K; Schroeder, T V; Thisted, B; Olsen, P S; Perko, M J; Agerskov, Kim; Røder, O; Lorentzen, Jørgen Ewald

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify patients who need longer care in the ICU (more than 48 hours) following abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery and to evaluate the influence of perioperative complications on short- and long-term survival and quality of life. AAA surgery was performed in 55......, 78% stated that their quality of life had improved or was unchanged after surgery and had resumed working. These data justify a therapeutically aggressive approach, including ICU therapy following AAA surgery, despite failure of one or more organ systems.......The goal of this study was to identify patients who need longer care in the ICU (more than 48 hours) following abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery and to evaluate the influence of perioperative complications on short- and long-term survival and quality of life. AAA surgery was performed in 553...

  14. The abdominal circulatory pump.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Aliverti

    Full Text Available Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume shifted between trunk and extremities (Vbs is the difference between changes in trunk and body volume. This is so because both trunk and body volume change identically with breathing and gas expansion or compression. During tidal breathing Vbs was 50-75 ml with an ejection fraction of 4-6% and an output of 750-1500 ml/min. Step increases in abdominal pressure resulted in rapid emptying presumably from the liver with a time constant of 0.61+/-0.1SE sec. followed by slower flow from non-hepatic viscera. The filling time constant was 0.57+/-0.09SE sec. Splanchnic emptying shifted up to 650 ml blood. With emptying, the increased hepatic vein flow increases the blood pressure at its entry into the inferior vena cava (IVC and abolishes the pressure gradient producing flow between the femoral vein and the IVC inducing blood pooling in the legs. The findings are important for exercise because the larger the Vbs the greater the perfusion of locomotor muscles. During asystolic cardiac arrest we calculate that appropriate timing of abdominal compression could produce an output of 6 L/min. so that the abdominal circulatory pump might act as an auxiliary heart.

  15. The Abdominal Circulatory Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Aliverti; Dario Bovio; Irene Fullin; Dellacà, Raffaele L.; Antonella Lo Mauro; Antonio Pedotti; Macklem, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume shifted between trunk and extremities (Vbs) is the difference between changes in trunk ...

  16. Onze anos de experiência com emprego do anel intraluminal para tratamento das doenças da aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERNARDES Rodrigo de Castro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento cirúrgico das doenças da aorta é geralmente acompanhado de altas taxas de morbimortalidade. O paciente que tem média de idade avançada geralmente é apresentado ao cirurgião em estado grave, com má condição nutricional, muitas vezes com alterações em vários órgãos e sistemas causados pela própria doença aguda. A correção convencional exige técnicas coadjuvantes complexas e agressivas como a circulação extracorpórea prolongada, hipotermia profunda, parada circulatória total além de prolongados tempos de pinçamento de aorta. Na tentativa de reduzir a agressão cirúrgica no paciente já intensamente debilitado pela própria doença, desenvolvemos, em 1988, um anel intraluminal (1, 2 que tem medidas projetadas e experimentadas para facilitar a sua manipulação e anastomose, proporcionando uma diminuição acentuada no tempo de operação, tempo de CEC, tempo de pinçamento de aorta, excluindo muitas vezes a circulação extracorpórea e a hipotermia, obtendo uma anastomose fácil, rápida, segura e hemostática. Entre março de 1988 e janeiro de 1999, 432 pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico de dissecções ou aneurismas da aorta em nosso Serviço. Em 328 pacientes empregamos o anel intraluminal como técnica de anastomose. Usamos 489 anéis. Cento e vinte e cinco pacientes eram portadores de dissecção aguda de aorta do tipo A, 29 eram portadores de dissecção aguda de aorta do tipo B, 81 de aneurisma de aorta ascendente, 8 de aneurisma de arco aórtico, 28 pacientes eram portadores de aneurisma de aorta torácica descendente, 17 eram portadores de aneurisma toracoabdominal e 40 pacientes de aneurisma de aorta abdominal infra-renal. A mortalidade global foi de 13,41%. O seguimento ambulatorial destes pacientes variou de 11 anos a 25 dias. A curva actuarial de sobrevivência em 11 anos mostra 67,3%. Em nenhum caso observamos as complicações descritas na literatura, como embolia, formação de

  17. Obesity-Associated Abdominal Elephantiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Kohli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal elephantiasis is a rare entity. Abdominal elephantiasis is an uncommon, but deformative and progressive cutaneous disease caused by chronic lymphedema and recurrent streptococcal or Staphylococcus infections of the abdominal wall. We present 3 cases of patients with morbid obesity who presented to our hospital with abdominal wall swelling, thickening, erythema, and pain. The abdominal wall and legs were edematous, with cobblestone-like, thickened, hyperpigmented, and fissured plaques on the abdomen. Two patients had localised areas of skin erythema, tenderness, and increased warmth. There was purulent drainage from the abdominal wall in one patient. They were managed with antibiotics with some initial improvement. Meticulous skin care and local keratolytic treatment for the lesions were initiated with limited success due to their late presentation. All three patients refused surgical therapy. Conclusion. Early diagnosis is important for the treatment of abdominal elephantiasis and prevention of complications.

  18. Abdominal aspergillosis: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Suk Keu, E-mail: pagoda20@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye Jin, E-mail: kimhyejin@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Ho, E-mail: jhbyun@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ah Young, E-mail: aykim@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moon-Gyu, E-mail: mglee@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hyun Kwon, E-mail: hkha@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Objective: In order to retrospectively evaluate the CT findings of abdominal aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Materials and methods: CT scans were reviewed with regard to the sites, number, morphologic appearance, attenuation, and the contrast enhancement patterns of the lesions in six patients (5 women, 1 man; mean age, 43.4 years; range, 23-59 years) with pathologically proved abdominal aspergillosis by two gastrointestinal radiologists in consensus. Medical records were also reviewed to determine each patient's clinical status and outcome. Results: All patients were immunocompromised state: 4 patients received immunosuppressive therapy for solid organ transplantation and 2 patients received chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Aspergillosis involved blood vessels (n = 3), liver (n = 2), spleen (n = 2), gastrointestinal tract (n = 2), native kidney (n = 1), transplanted kidney (n = 1), peritoneum (n = 1), and retroperitoneum (n = 1). CT demonstrated solid organ or bowel infarction or perforation secondary to vascular thrombosis or pseudoaneurysm, multiple low-attenuating lesions of solid organs presenting as abscesses, concentric bowel wall thickening mimicking typhlitis, or diffuse or nodular infiltration of the peritoneum and retroperitoneum. Conclusion: Familiarity with findings commonly presenting as angioinvasive features or abscesses on CT, may facilitate the diagnosis of rare and fatal abdominal aspergillosis.

  19. Abdominal aspergillosis: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: In order to retrospectively evaluate the CT findings of abdominal aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Materials and methods: CT scans were reviewed with regard to the sites, number, morphologic appearance, attenuation, and the contrast enhancement patterns of the lesions in six patients (5 women, 1 man; mean age, 43.4 years; range, 23-59 years) with pathologically proved abdominal aspergillosis by two gastrointestinal radiologists in consensus. Medical records were also reviewed to determine each patient's clinical status and outcome. Results: All patients were immunocompromised state: 4 patients received immunosuppressive therapy for solid organ transplantation and 2 patients received chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Aspergillosis involved blood vessels (n = 3), liver (n = 2), spleen (n = 2), gastrointestinal tract (n = 2), native kidney (n = 1), transplanted kidney (n = 1), peritoneum (n = 1), and retroperitoneum (n = 1). CT demonstrated solid organ or bowel infarction or perforation secondary to vascular thrombosis or pseudoaneurysm, multiple low-attenuating lesions of solid organs presenting as abscesses, concentric bowel wall thickening mimicking typhlitis, or diffuse or nodular infiltration of the peritoneum and retroperitoneum. Conclusion: Familiarity with findings commonly presenting as angioinvasive features or abscesses on CT, may facilitate the diagnosis of rare and fatal abdominal aspergillosis.

  20. Morphological Evidence of Telocytes in Mice Aorta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Qi Zhang; Shan-Shan Lu; Ting Xu; Yan-Ling Feng; Hua Li; Jun-Bo Ge

    2015-01-01

    Background:Telocytes (TCs) are a novel type of interstitial cells,which have been recently described in a large variety of cavitary and noncavitary organs.TCs have small cell bodies,and remarkably thin,long,and moniliform prolongations called telopodes (Tps).Until now,TCs have been found in various loose connective tissues surrounding the arterioles,venules,and capillaries,but as a histological cellular component,whether TCs exist in large arteries remains unexplored.Methods:TCs were identified by transmission electron microscope in the aortic arch of male C57BL/6 mice.Results:TCs in aortic arch had small cell bodies (length:6.06-13.02 μm; width:1.05-4.25 μm) with characteristics of specific long (7.74-39.05 μm),thin,and moniliform Tps; TCs distributed in the whole connective tissue layer of tunica adventitia:TCs in the innermost layer of tunica adventitia,located at the juncture between media and adventitia,with their long axes oriented parallel to the outer elastic membrane; and TCs in outer layers oftunica adventitia,were embedded among transverse and longitudinal oriented collagen fibers,forming a highly complex three-dimensional meshwork.Moreover,desmosomes were observed,serving as pathways connecting neighboring Tps.In addition,vesicles shed from the surface of TCs into the extracellular matrix,participating in some biological processes.Conclusions:TCs in aorta arch are a newly recognized complement distinct from other interstitial cells in large arteries,such as fibroblasts.And further biologically functional correlations need to be elucidated.

  1. Investigation of pulsatile flowfield in healthy thoracic aorta models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chih-Yung; Yang, An-Shik; Tseng, Li-Yu; Chai, Jyh-Wen

    2010-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Complex hemodynamics plays a critical role in the development of aortic dissection and atherosclerosis, as well as many other diseases. Since fundamental fluid mechanics are important for the understanding of the blood flow in the cardiovascular circulatory system of the human body aspects, a joint experimental and numerical study was conducted in this study to determine the distributions of wall shear stress and pressure and oscillatory WSS index, and to examine their correlation with the aortic disorders, especially dissection. Experimentally, the Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PC-MRI) method was used to acquire the true geometry of a normal human thoracic aorta, which was readily converted into a transparent thoracic aorta model by the rapid prototyping (RP) technique. The thoracic aorta model was then used in the in vitro experiments and computations. Simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code ACE+((R)) to determine flow characteristics of the three-dimensional, pulsatile, incompressible, and Newtonian fluid in the thoracic aorta model. The unsteady boundary conditions at the inlet and the outlet of the aortic flow were specified from the measured flowrate and pressure results during in vitro experiments. For the code validation, the predicted axial velocity reasonably agrees with the PC-MRI experimental data in the oblique sagittal plane of the thoracic aorta model. The thorough analyses of the thoracic aorta flow, WSSs, WSS index (OSI), and wall pressures are presented. The predicted locations of the maxima of WSS and the wall pressure can be then correlated with that of the thoracic aorta dissection, and thereby may lead to a useful biological significance. The numerical results also suggest that the effects of low WSS and high OSI tend to cause wall thickening occurred along the inferior wall of the aortic arch and the

  2. Quality of abdominal computed tomography angiography: hand versus mechanical intravenous contrast administration in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdominal CT angiography has been increasingly used for evaluation of various conditions related to abdominal vasculature in the pediatric population. However, no direct comparison has evaluated the quality of abdominal CT angiography in children using hand versus mechanical administration of intravenous (IV) contrast agent. To compare hand versus mechanical administration of IV contrast agent in the quality of abdominal CT angiography in the pediatric population. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical record to identify pediatric patients (≤18 years) who had abdominal CT angiography between August 2012 and August 2013. The information obtained includes: (1) type of administration of IV contrast agent (hand [group 1] versus mechanical [group 2]), (2) size (gauge) of IV catheter, (3) amount of contrast agent administered and (4) rate of contrast agent administration (ml/s). Two reviewers independently performed qualitative and quantitative evaluation of abdominal CT angiography image quality. Qualitative evaluation of abdominal CT angiography image quality was performed by visual assessment of the degree of contrast enhancement in the region of interest (ROI) based on a 4-point scale. Quantitative evaluation of each CT angiography examination was performed by measuring the Hounsfield unit (HU) using an ROI within the abdominal aorta at two levels (celiac axis and the inferior mesenteric artery) for each child. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the F-test was applied to compare contrast enhancement within the abdominal aorta at two levels (celiac axis and inferior mesenteric artery) between hand administration and mechanical administration of IV contrast methods with adjustment for age. We identified 46 pediatric patients (24 male, 22 female; mean age 7.3 ± 5.5 years; range 5 weeks to 18 years) with abdominal CT angiography performed during the study period. Of these patients, 16 (35%; 1.7 ± 2.2 years; range 5 weeks to 5 years) had hand

  3. Quality of abdominal computed tomography angiography: hand versus mechanical intravenous contrast administration in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyala, Rama S.; Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Zurakowski, David [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Departments of Anesthesiology and Surgery, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Abdominal CT angiography has been increasingly used for evaluation of various conditions related to abdominal vasculature in the pediatric population. However, no direct comparison has evaluated the quality of abdominal CT angiography in children using hand versus mechanical administration of intravenous (IV) contrast agent. To compare hand versus mechanical administration of IV contrast agent in the quality of abdominal CT angiography in the pediatric population. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical record to identify pediatric patients (≤18 years) who had abdominal CT angiography between August 2012 and August 2013. The information obtained includes: (1) type of administration of IV contrast agent (hand [group 1] versus mechanical [group 2]), (2) size (gauge) of IV catheter, (3) amount of contrast agent administered and (4) rate of contrast agent administration (ml/s). Two reviewers independently performed qualitative and quantitative evaluation of abdominal CT angiography image quality. Qualitative evaluation of abdominal CT angiography image quality was performed by visual assessment of the degree of contrast enhancement in the region of interest (ROI) based on a 4-point scale. Quantitative evaluation of each CT angiography examination was performed by measuring the Hounsfield unit (HU) using an ROI within the abdominal aorta at two levels (celiac axis and the inferior mesenteric artery) for each child. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the F-test was applied to compare contrast enhancement within the abdominal aorta at two levels (celiac axis and inferior mesenteric artery) between hand administration and mechanical administration of IV contrast methods with adjustment for age. We identified 46 pediatric patients (24 male, 22 female; mean age 7.3 ± 5.5 years; range 5 weeks to 18 years) with abdominal CT angiography performed during the study period. Of these patients, 16 (35%; 1.7 ± 2.2 years; range 5 weeks to 5 years) had hand

  4. Typology of abdominal arteries, with special reference to inferior phrenic arteries and their esophageal branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, D X; Ohtsuka, A; Murakami, T

    1998-08-01

    Origins and distribution of the human inferior phrenic arteries were studied by dissecting 68 Japanese adult cadavers. The inferior phrenic arteries were usually observed as paired (left and right) vessels. Their origins were summarized as follows: a) the aorta itself (85/138 cases, 61.6%), b) the ventro-visceral arteries (celiaco-mesenteric system of the aorta) including the celiac trunk (39/138 cases, 28.2%) and the left gastric artery (4/138 cases, 2.9%), and c) the latero-visceral arteries (adreno-renal system of the aorta) including the middle adrenal artery (4/138 cases, 2.9%) and the renal artery (6/138 cases, 4.3%). The left and right arteries occasionally originated in common trunk from the aorta, celiaco-mesenteric system or adreno-renal system (22/138 cases, 15.9%). A typological diagram explaining these variations is given. The inferior phrenic arteries, especially the left ones, sometimes issued visceral or esophageal branches. This fact indicates that the inferior phrenic arteries are homologous with the celiac trunk and mesenteric arteries. It is further discussed that the celiac trunk and mesenteric arteries are originally paired vessels, through introduction of our previous typological diagram of the abdominal arteries. PMID:9781269

  5. Radiotherapy-induced aortic valve disease associated with porcelain aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediastinal irradiation has been reported to induce cardiac disease such as pericarditis, valvular dysfunction, conduction abnormalities, accelerated arteriosclerosis of the coronary arteries, and also calcifications of the ascending aorta. We herein describe a case of radiotherapy-induced porcelain aorta and aortic valve disease and their surgical treatment. The patient was diagnosed with myasthenia gravis (MG) in 1965 (Osserman's type II), and mediastinal irradiation was performed in 1970 for treatment of thymic tumor associated with MG. Thirty years after radiation therapy, complete atrioventricular block and aortic valve disease with severe calcification of the ascending aorta and aortic arch (porcelain aorta) were detected on echo cardiogram and cardiac catheterization. A permanent pacemaker was implanted via the left subclavian vein and aortic valve replacement was performed under extracorporeal circulation established by selective cerebral perfusion and balloon occlusion instead of aortic cross-clamping. As no risk factors of arteriosclerosis such as hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension were apparent, we concluded that the aortic valve disease and porcelain aorta were primarily induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  6. Spiral blood flow in aorta-renal bifurcation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadzadegan, Ashkan; Simmons, Anne; Barber, Tracie

    2016-07-01

    The presence of a spiral arterial blood flow pattern in humans has been widely accepted. It is believed that this spiral component of the blood flow alters arterial haemodynamics in both positive and negative ways. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of spiral flow on haemodynamic changes in aorta-renal bifurcations. In this regard, a computational fluid dynamics analysis of pulsatile blood flow was performed in two idealised models of aorta-renal bifurcations with and without flow diverter. The results show that the spirality effect causes a substantial variation in blood velocity distribution, while causing only slight changes in fluid shear stress patterns. The dominant observed effect of spiral flow is on turbulent kinetic energy and flow recirculation zones. As spiral flow intensity increases, the rate of turbulent kinetic energy production decreases, reducing the region of potential damage to red blood cells and endothelial cells. Furthermore, the recirculation zones which form on the cranial sides of the aorta and renal artery shrink in size in the presence of spirality effect; this may lower the rate of atherosclerosis development and progression in the aorta-renal bifurcation. These results indicate that the spiral nature of blood flow has atheroprotective effects in renal arteries and should be taken into consideration in analyses of the aorta and renal arteries. PMID:26414530

  7. Increased RhoA translocation in aorta of diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiping TANG; Ikuyo KUSAKA; Amber R MASSEY; Shadon ROLLINS; John H ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To analyze RhoA expression and activation in the aorta of diabetic rats. Methods: Male SD rats (n=70) were divided into 2 groups: the diabetic group and the control group. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The Rats were studied 3 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Western blotting was used to measure the expression and activation of Rho. Results: Heart rate was measured 24 h/d; it decreased by 58±13 beats/min in the diabetic rats. Isometric tension showed that the contraction of diabetic aorta was significantly reduced compared with that of control aorta when stimulated by KCl and serotonin. The relaxation of the diabetic aorta was reduced when stimulated by acetylcholine. An enhanced RhoA translocation in the aortic tissues of diabetic rats was determined by a 90% increase in membrane-bound RhoA, indicating that the activation of RhoA is markedly increased in the diabetic aorta. Conclusion: Our data suggest that upregulated RhoA could be involved in the vascular dysfunction of diabetic rats.

  8. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    Despite the frequency of functional abdominal pain, potentially dangerous causes of abdominal pain need to be excluded. Medical history and clinical examination must focus on red flags and signs for imflammatory or malignant diseases. See the patient twice in the case of severe and acute abdominal pain if lab parameters or radiological examinations are normal. Avoid repeated and useless X-ray exposure whenever possible. In the case of subacute or chronic abdominal pain, lab tests such as fecal calprotectin, helicobacter stool antigen and serological tests for celiac disease are very useful. Elderly patients may show atypical or missing clinical signs. Take care of red herrings and be skeptical whether your initial diagnosis is really correct. Abdominal pain can frequently be an abdominal wall pain. PMID:26331201

  9. Dolor abdominal recurrente .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo De Vivero

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El dolor abdominal recurrente (DAR es un problema frecuente en la consulta médica y en la subespecialidad médica y quirúrgica. El DAR es frecuentemente funcional, es decir, sin una causa orgánica aparente. El diagnóstico diferencial debe incluir pérdida de peso, sangrado gastrointestinal, fiebre persistente, diarrea crónica y vómito importante. En este artículo se revisa el diagnóstico y tratamiento, pruebas diagnósticas y manejo farmacológico y ambiental.

  10. Modification of an endovascular stent graft for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloye, Olajompo Busola

    Endovascular surgery is currently used to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). A stent graft is deployed to exclude blood flow from the aneurysm sac. It is an effective procedure used in preventing aneurysm rupture, with reduced patient morbidity and mortality compared to open surgical repair. Migration and leakage around the device ("endoleak") due to poor sealing of the stent graft to the aorta have raised concerns about the long-term durability of endovascular repair. A preliminary study of cell migration and proliferation is presented as a prelude to a more extensive in vivo testing. A method to enhance the biological seal between the stent graft and the aorta is proposed to eliminate this problem. This can be achieved by impregnating the stent graft with 50/50 poly (DL-lactide co glycolic acid) (PLGA) and growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), at the proximal and distal ends. It is hypothesized that as PLGA degrades it will release the growth factors that will promote proliferation and migration of aortic smooth muscle cells to the coated site, leading to a natural seal between the aorta and the stent graft. In addition, growth factor release should promote smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction that will help keep the stent graft in place at the proximal and distal ends. It is shown that a statistically significant effect of increased cell proliferation and migration is observed for CTGF release. Less of an effect is noted for bFGF or just the PLGA. The effect is estimated to be large enough to be clinically significant in a future animal study. The long term goal of this study is to reduce migration encounter after graft deployment and to reduce secondary interventions of EVAR especially for older patients who are unfit for open surgical treatment.

  11. Novel Methodology for Characterizing Regional Variations in the Material Properties of Murine Aortas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersi, Matthew R; Bellini, Chiara; Di Achille, Paolo; Humphrey, Jay D; Genovese, Katia; Avril, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    Many vascular disorders, including aortic aneurysms and dissections, are characterized by localized changes in wall composition and structure. Notwithstanding the importance of histopathologic changes that occur at the microstructural level, macroscopic manifestations ultimately dictate the mechanical functionality and structural integrity of the aortic wall. Understanding structure-function relationships locally is thus critical for gaining increased insight into conditions that render a vessel susceptible to disease or failure. Given the scarcity of human data, mouse models are increasingly useful in this regard. In this paper, we present a novel inverse characterization of regional, nonlinear, anisotropic properties of the murine aorta. Full-field biaxial data are collected using a panoramic-digital image correlation (p-DIC) system. An inverse method, based on the principle of virtual power (PVP), is used to estimate values of material parameters regionally for a microstructurally motivated constitutive relation. We validate our experimental-computational approach by comparing results to those from standard biaxial testing. The results for the nondiseased suprarenal abdominal aorta from apolipoprotein-E null mice reveal material heterogeneities, with significant differences between dorsal and ventral as well as between proximal and distal locations, which may arise in part due to differential perivascular support and localized branches. Overall results were validated for both a membrane and a thick-wall model that delineated medial and adventitial properties. Whereas full-field characterization can be useful in the study of normal arteries, we submit that it will be particularly useful for studying complex lesions such as aneurysms, which can now be pursued with confidence given the present validation. PMID:27210500

  12. ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM (AAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh G

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available AAA is defined as a distension of the infrarenal aorta by more than 50% (or 1.5 times compared with a corresponding healthy, aged and gender matched population. AAA afflicts 1 to 6 % of the general population aged more than 60 years and the incidence rises by approximately 0.15% annually. When the definition of a maximum external diameter ≥3 cm is used, the prevalence of AAA is upto 6 times greater in men than in women. AAAs are much more common than thoracic aortic aneurysms. Most common cause of AAA is atherosclerosis (95%. Less common causes include infectious or inflammatory origin or those associated with connective tissue disorders. Process of AAA formation is multifactorial. Other than the general risk factors for atherosclerosis, genetic predispo s iti on, aut o immunity and hemodynamic factors all play roles in its formation. AAA is 1.5 times more frequent in hypert ensive patients. Smokers have 8 times risk for developing AAA. The existence of familial aggre gation of AAA implicates genetic factors in the etiology of AAA. Women with AAA are more likely to have a positive family history of this disorder. Those with a family history of AAA have an increased risk of 30%, and their aneurysms tend to occur at a younger age and carry a greater risk of rupture than do sporadic aneurysms.

  13. Hypnosis for functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottsegen, David

    2011-07-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common pediatric condition affecting 20% of the pediatric population worldwide. Most children with this disorder are found to have no specific organic etiology and are given the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain. Well-designed clinical trials have found hypnotherapy and guided imagery to be the most efficacious treatments for this condition. Hypnotic techniques used for other somatic symptoms are easily adaptable for use with functional abdominal pain. The author discusses 2 contrasting hypnotic approaches to functional abdominal pain and provides implications for further research. These approaches may provide new insights into this common and complex disorder. PMID:21922712

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Children's (pediatric) abdominal ultrasound imaging produces pictures ...

  15. MicroRNA expression signature in human abdominal aortic aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pahl Matthew C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is a dilatation of the aorta affecting most frequently elderly men. Histologically AAAs are characterized by inflammation, vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, and extracellular matrix degradation. The mechanisms of AAA formation, progression, and rupture are currently poorly understood. A previous mRNA expression study revealed a large number of differentially expressed genes between AAA and non-aneurysmal control aortas. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, could provide a mechanism for the differential expression of genes in AAA. Methods To determine differences in miRNA levels between AAA (n = 5 and control (n = 5 infrarenal aortic tissues, a microarray study was carried out. Results were adjusted using Benjamini-Hochberg correction (adjusted p  Results A microarray study identified eight miRNAs with significantly different expression levels between AAA and controls (adjusted p  Conclusions Our genome-wide approach revealed several differentially expressed miRNAs in human AAA tissue suggesting that miRNAs play a role in AAA pathogenesis.

  16. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and histological, clinical, radiological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio; Rezzani, Rita; Bonomini, Francesca; Peroni, Michele; Cocchi, Marco Angelo; Hirtler, Lena; Bonardelli, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    To date, the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurism (AAA) still remains unclear. As such, the aim of this study was to evaluate changes of the aortic structure during AAA. We analysed the microscopic frame of vessels sections, starting from the primum movens leading to abnormal dilatation. AAA samples were collected and processed through various staining methods (Verhoeff-Van Gieson, Masson Goldner, Sirius Red). Subsequently, the vessel morphology and collagenic web of the tunica media and adventitia were determined and the amount of type I and type III collagen was measured. We also applied immune-histochemistry markers for CD34 and PGP 9.5 in order to identify vascular and nerve structures in the aorta. Immune-positivity quantification was used to calculate the percentage of the stained area. We found increasing deposition of type I collagen and reduced type III collagen in both tunica media and adventitia of AAA. The total amount of vasa vasorum, marked with CD34, and nerva vasorum, marked with PGP 9.5, was also higher in AAA samples. Cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, dyslipidemia, cigarette smoking) and radiological data (maximum aneurism diameter, intra-luminal thrombus, aortic wall calcification) increased these changes. These results suggest that the tunica adventitia may have a central role in the pathogenesis of AAA as clearly there are major changes characterized by rooted inflammatory infiltration. The presence of immune components could explain these modifications within the framework of the aorta. PMID:26858185

  17. [Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glock, Y; Roux, D; Soula, P; Cerene, A; Fournial, G

    1996-01-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of 50 postraumatic aortic rupture (1968-1996, 39 males, mean age: 34.5). Group A is composed of 35 patients with an acute aortic rupture and a prompt diagnosis. Group B includes 13 patients with a chronic rupture. All patients from group A had a severe politraumatism with abdominal, cranial, extremities or hip fractures. Mediastinal thickening with or without hemothorax indicated an angiography or a transesophageal echocardiography lately. In group A, 36 patients have been operated on urgently (12-24 hours); cardiopulmonary bypass was performed on 20 patients; an aorto-aortical bypass was done in 27 cases and a direct suture in the remaining 9. In group B, cardiopulmonary bypass was performed on 9 patients; a aorto-aortical bypass was done in 11 cases and a direct suture in 2. Overall hospital mortality was 16%; 19% in group A and 7.6% in group B. Ischemic paraplejia appeared in 5 patients (10%), all from group A. No false aneurysm developed after 4.5 years of follow-up (3-135 months) in the 38 survivors. The usefulness of transesophageal echocardiography, the importance of medular protection and the utility of several interventionist radiologic techniques are discussed. PMID:9053930

  18. Practical pediatric abdominal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This course is designed to help the radiologist in a hospital setting successfully approach abdominal CT in the infant and child. Emphasis is placed on techniques necessary for a high-quality examination of the upper abdomen, as applied to common pediatric problems such as trauma, tumor, and infection. Material is presented on technical considerations, including patient sedation, preparation, and potential pitfalls and helpful hints for imaging. An emphasis is placed on dynamic scanning with table incrementation. The section on trauma focuses on an approach to imaging the abdomen in the injured child, typical injuries, patterns of injury in the upper abdomen, and why CT is the best imaging modality for blunt upper abdominal trauma. The discussion of tumor imaging reviews the appearance of typical childhood neoplasia including Wilms tumor, neuroblastoma, non-Hodgkin and Burkitt lymphoma, and disseminated solid tumors such as rhabdomyosarcoma. The authors emphasize what to look for and where, both on initial and on later (for recurrences) examinations. The discussion of infection addresses detection of abscesses and occult infections in children, as well as imaging of abscesses prior to intervention

  19. Nontraumatic abdominal emergencies: acute abdominal pain: diagnostic strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marincek, B. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Common causes of acute abdominal pain include appendicitis, cholecystitis, bowel obstruction, urinary colic, perforated peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, diverticulitis, and nonspecific, nonsurgical abdominal pain. The topographic classification of acute abdominal pain (pain in one of the four abdominal quadrants, diffuse abdominal pain, flank or epigastric pain) facilitates the choice of the imaging technique. The initial radiological evaluation often consists of plain abdominal radiography, despite significant diagnostic limitations. The traditional indications for plain films - bowel obstruction, pneumoperitoneum, and the search of ureteral calculi - are questioned by helical computed tomography (CT). Although ultrasonography (US) is in many centers the modality of choice for imaging the gallbladder and the pelvis in children and women of reproductive age, CT is considered to be one of the most valued tools for triaging patients with acute abdominal pain. CT is particularly beneficial in patients with marked obesity, unclear US findings, bowel obstruction, and multiple lesions. The introduction of multidetector row CT (MDCT) has further enhanced the utility of CT in imaging patients with acute abdominal pain. (orig.)

  20. Pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta after aortic valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Valdés Dupeyrón

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Postsurgical pseudoaneurysms of the ascending aorta are a rare and serious complication of cardiovascular surgery that requires a surgical solution of urgency due to its high complexity. A case of a 40 year old female, white skin color, that due to severe aortic regurgitation underwent surgical treatment for aortic valve replacement. During the immediate postoperative period began with a fever, he made a meticulous study that included contrast computed tomography, through which diagnosed the presence of a pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta, was taken to the operating room, they found two sacks pseudoaneurismatics at the site where the suture was carried out previous.

  1. Cardiovascular syphilis complicated by Lower thoracic and upper abdominal aneurysm – A rare case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, K.; Shankar, S. Vijay; Venkatesan, S.; Kalaivani, S.

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old male presented with left lower abdominal pain, visible pulsation below xiphoid process, and tenderness in the left iliac fossa for the past 10 days. Chest X-ray revealed blunting of left cardiophrenic angle. Echocardiogram revealed descending thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the chest and abdomen revealed dissecting aneurysm of lower thoracic and upper abdominal aorta. Thoracoabdominal aortogram revealed erosion of D12 vertebra and infected aneurysm of adjacent thoracoabdominal aorta. Serum venereal disease research laboratory assay was positive in 1:4 dilution Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay was positive. The patient was treated with Injection procaine penicillin for 20 days undercover of steroids. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was normal. Aortic aneurysm repair with reconstruction was done. Histopathology was in favor of syphilitic etiology. This case is being presented as descending thoracic and upper abdominal aortic aneurysm due to syphilis complicated by dissection and erosion of vertebral body is rare and has not been reported nowadays to the best of our knowledge.

  2. Cardiovascular syphilis complicated by Lower thoracic and upper abdominal aneurysm - A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, K; Shankar, S Vijay; Venkatesan, S; Kalaivani, S

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old male presented with left lower abdominal pain, visible pulsation below xiphoid process, and tenderness in the left iliac fossa for the past 10 days. Chest X-ray revealed blunting of left cardiophrenic angle. Echocardiogram revealed descending thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the chest and abdomen revealed dissecting aneurysm of lower thoracic and upper abdominal aorta. Thoracoabdominal aortogram revealed erosion of D12 vertebra and infected aneurysm of adjacent thoracoabdominal aorta. Serum venereal disease research laboratory assay was positive in 1:4 dilution Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay was positive. The patient was treated with Injection procaine penicillin for 20 days undercover of steroids. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was normal. Aortic aneurysm repair with reconstruction was done. Histopathology was in favor of syphilitic etiology. This case is being presented as descending thoracic and upper abdominal aortic aneurysm due to syphilis complicated by dissection and erosion of vertebral body is rare and has not been reported nowadays to the best of our knowledge. PMID:27190418

  3. Cardiovascular syphilis complicated by Lower thoracic and upper abdominal aneurysm – A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gayathri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old male presented with left lower abdominal pain, visible pulsation below xiphoid process, and tenderness in the left iliac fossa for the past 10 days. Chest X-ray revealed blunting of left cardiophrenic angle. Echocardiogram revealed descending thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the chest and abdomen revealed dissecting aneurysm of lower thoracic and upper abdominal aorta. Thoracoabdominal aortogram revealed erosion of D12 vertebra and infected aneurysm of adjacent thoracoabdominal aorta. Serum venereal disease research laboratory assay was positive in 1:4 dilution Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay was positive. The patient was treated with Injection procaine penicillin for 20 days undercover of steroids. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was normal. Aortic aneurysm repair with reconstruction was done. Histopathology was in favor of syphilitic etiology. This case is being presented as descending thoracic and upper abdominal aortic aneurysm due to syphilis complicated by dissection and erosion of vertebral body is rare and has not been reported nowadays to the best of our knowledge.

  4. Correção cirúrgica dos aneurismas da aorta: novo dispositivo que transforma qualquer tipo de prótese em prótese intraluminal Surgical correction of aortic aneurysms: a new device for conversion of any graft of intraluminal one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Castro Bernardes

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores propõem o tratamento dos aneurismas da aorta com prótese intraluminal. É usado um novo dispositivo que transforma prótese de tipo, tamanho e diâmetro diferentes em prótese intraluminal, excluindo qualquer tipo de sutura para a fixação, e usando apenas uma ligadura circunferencial extravascular. Entre maio de 1989 e janeiro de 1993, 22 pacientes foram submetidos a aneurismectomia da aorta usando esta técnica: 12 pacientes com dissecção aguda da aorta tipo I e II de DeBAKEY, 1 paciente com dissecção aguda da aorta tipo III de DeBAKEY, 2 pacientes com aneurisma da aorta descendente, 2 pacientes com aneurisma da aorta toracoabdominal e 5 pacientes com aneurisma da aorta abdominal. Três pacientes evoluíram para o óbito no pós-operatório por acidente vascular cerebral, trombose mesentérica e infecção pulmonar, respectivamente. Os pacientes sobreviventes estão sendo seguidos trimestralmente em ambulatório e encontram-se assintomáticos. O uso do anel rígido sulcado de Delrin (R simplifica a técnica cirúrgica, reduzindo o tempo de circulação extracorpórea e de parada cardíaca, dispensando o uso de hipotermia profunda e reduzindo o sangramento. Permite ainda o seu uso em qualquer local da aorta de maneira rápida, fácil e a baixo custo.The authors propose the treatment of aortic aneurysms by using an intraluminal graft. A new device which transforms any kind of graft of different sizes and diameters into an intraluminal one is described. This new device just needs an extra-vascular circunferential ligature and does not require any fixation suture. The use of the rigid, sulcated DELRIN (R ring simplifies the technique shortening the duration of the surgery, reducing surgical bleeding and dispensing the use of profound hypothermia and platelet transfusion. Between May 1989 and January 1993, 22 patients were submited to aneurysmectomy of the aorta using this technique. Twelve patients exhibited acute aortic

  5. Abdominal Burkitt lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: As scarce information is available, in this research we have tried to describe the imaging findings of the Burkitt's lymphoma. Retrospective analysis of the clinical and imaging presentation of a 4 years old boy, is given. Biopsy confirmed the BL. Different imaging techniques were combined. The X-rays were negative. The US revealed a moderate hepatomegaly with multiple hypoechoic nodules and free fluid in the abdominal cavity. The CT showed the hepatomegaly as well as solid nodules in great number and different sizes(due to the densitometric behaviour and to post contrast enhancement), a scarce amount of ascites and a density increase of the mesentery fat. The MRI characterized and revealed in detail the US and the CT findings. The Burkitt's lymphoma is a rare entity; several methods are needed to approach the diagnosis. It represents a great clinical and imaging challenge. (author)

  6. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Level Contributes to Structural Integrity and Component Production of Elastic Fibers in the Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Haw-Chih; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Chen, Ju-Yi; Lai, Chao-Han; Wang, Kuan-Chieh; Teng, Shih-Hua; Lin, Shih-Chieh; Chang, Alice Y W; Jiang, Meei-Jyh; Li, Yi-Heng; Wu, Hua-Lin; Maeda, Nobuyo; Tsai, Yau-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Loss of integrity and massive disruption of elastic fibers are key features of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) has been shown to attenuate AAA through inhibition of inflammation and proteolytic degradation. However, its involvement in elastogenesis during AAA remains unclear. PPARγ was highly expressed in human AAA within all vascular cells, including inflammatory cells and fibroblasts. In the aortas of transgenic mice expressing PPARγ at 25% normal levels (Pparg(C) (/-) mice), we observed the fragmentation of elastic fibers and reduced expression of vital elastic fiber components of elastin and fibulin-5. These were not observed in mice with 50% normal PPARγ expression (Pparg(+/-) mice). Infusion of a moderate dose of angiotensin II (500 ng/kg per minute) did not induce AAA but Pparg(+/-) aorta developed flattened elastic lamellae, whereas Pparg(C/-) aorta showed severe destruction of elastic fibers. After infusion of angiotensin II at 1000 ng/kg per minute, 73% of Pparg(C/-) mice developed atypical suprarenal aortic aneurysms: superior mesenteric arteries were dilated with extensive collagen deposition in adventitia and infiltrations of inflammatory cells. Although matrix metalloproteinase inhibition by doxycycline somewhat attenuated the dilation of aneurysm, it did not reduce the incidence nor elastic lamella deterioration in angiotensin II-infused Pparg(C/-) mice. Furthermore, PPARγ antagonism downregulated elastin and fibulin-5 in fibroblasts, but not in vascular smooth muscle cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated PPARγ binding in the genomic sequence of fibulin-5 in fibroblasts. Our results underscore the importance of PPARγ in AAA development though orchestrating proper elastogenesis and preserving elastic fiber integrity. PMID:27045031

  7. Xanthorrhizol induces endothelium-independent relaxation of rat thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, M G; Oropeza, M V; Villanueva, T; Aguilar, M I; Delgado, G; Ponce, H A

    2000-06-01

    Xanthorrhizol, a bisabolene isolated from the medicinal plant Iostephane heterophylla, was assayed on rat thoracic aorta rings to elucidate its effect and likely mechanism of action, by measuring changes of isometric tension. Xanthorrhizol (1, 3, 10, 30 and 100 microg/mL) significantly inhibited precontractions induced by KCI-; (60mM), noradrenaline (10(-6) M) or CaCl2 (1.0 mM). Increasing concentrations of external calcium antagonized the inhibitory effect on KCl-induced contractions. The vasorelaxing effect of xanthorrhizol was not affected by indomethacin (10 microM) or L-NAME (100 microM) in intact rat thoracic aorta rings precontracted by noradrenaline, which suggested that the effect was not mediated through either endothelium-derived prostacyclin (PGI2) or nitric oxide release from endothelial cells. Endothelium removal did not affect the relaxation induced by xanthorrhizol on rat thoracic aorta rings, discarding the participation of any substance released by the endothelium. Xanthorrhizol inhibitory effect was greater on KCI- and CaCl2-induced contractions than on those induced by noradrenaline. Xanthorrhizol inhibitory effect in rat thoracic aorta is likely explained for interference with calcium availability by inhibiting calcium influx through both voltage- and receptor-operated channels. PMID:10983876

  8. Aneurysm of the Ascending Aorta after Cardiac Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Vahdat, Olivier; LAVIGNE, Jean-Paul; Demoulin, Jean-Claude; Limet, Raymond

    1992-01-01

    We report the case of a 57-year-old female cardiac transplant patient in whom an aneurysm of the recipient side of the ascending aorta developed 1 year after transplantation. Although a mycotic origin was the likely cause, histologic examination diagnosed an atherosclerotic aneurysm. Peer reviewed

  9. Expiration induced femoral flow in neonatal coarctation of aorta.

    OpenAIRE

    McNicholl, B.; Kennedy, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    In a 3 day old infant with coarctation of the aorta a loud Doppler signal synchronous with expiration was present for some hours in the femoral vessels, with only barely audible signals synchronous with cardiac systole. It is suggested that in the presence of severe aortic constriction and temporary ductal closure, blood was pumped through the infradiaphragmatic arteries by increased intrathoracic expiratory pressure.

  10. Surgical exclusion of postsurgical pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pseudoaneurysm of ascending aorta after cardiac surgery is rare in children. We report a case of successful surgical exclusion of ascending aortic pseudoaneurysm in a 15-year-old boy. The neck of the aneurysm was in close proximity to the right coronary artery (RCA)

  11. Abdominal aortic surgery and renal anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Nikola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Kidney anomalies present a challenge even for the most experienced vascular surgeon in the reconstruction of the aortoilliac segment. The most significant anomalies described in the surgery of the aortoilliac segment are a horse-shoe and ectopic kidney. Objective. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze experience on 40 patients with renal anomalies, who underwent surgery of the aortoilliac segment and to determine attitudes on conventional surgical treatment. Methods. In the period from 1992 to 2009, at the Clinic for Vascular Surgery of the Clinical Centre of Belgrade we operated on 40 patients with renal anomalies and aortic disease (aneurysmatic and obstructive. The retrospective analysis involved standard epidemiological data of each patient (gender, age, risk factors for atherosclerosis, type of anomaly, type of aortic disease, presurgical parameter values of renal function, type of surgical approach (laparatomy or retroperitoneal approach, classification of the renal isthmus, reimplantation of renal arteries and perioperative morbidity and mortality. Results. Twenty patients were males In 30 (70% patients we diagnosed a horse-shoe kidney and in 10 (30% ectopic kidney. In the cases of ruptured aneurysm of the abdominal aorta the diagnosis was made by ultrasound findings. Pre-surgically, renal anomalies were confirmed in all patients, except in those with a ruptured aneurysm who underwent urgent surgery. In all patients we applied medial laparatomy, except in those with a thoracoabdominal aneurysm type IV, when the retroperitonal approach was necessary. On average the patients were under follow-up for 6.2 years (from 6 months to 17 years. Conclusion. Under our conditions, the so-called double clamp technique with the preservation of the kidney gave best results in the patients with renal anomalies and aortic disease.

  12. Pulse wave imaging in normal, hypertensive and aneurysmal human aortas in vivo: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ronny X.; Luo, Jianwen; Balaram, Sandhya K.; Chaudhry, Farooq A.; Shahmirzadi, Danial; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2013-07-01

    Arterial stiffness is a well-established biomarker for cardiovascular risk, especially in the case of hypertension. The progressive stages of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) have also been associated with varying arterial stiffness. Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is a noninvasive, ultrasound imaging-based technique that uses the pulse wave-induced arterial wall motion to map the propagation of the pulse wave and measure the regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) as an index of arterial stiffness. In this study, the clinical feasibility of PWI was evaluated in normal, hypertensive, and aneurysmal human aortas. Radiofrequency-based speckle tracking was used to estimate the pulse wave-induced displacements in the abdominal aortic walls of normal (N = 15, mean age 32.5 ± 10.2 years), hypertensive (N = 13, mean age 60.8 ± 15.8 years), and aneurysmal (N = 5, mean age 71.6 ± 11.8 years) human subjects. Linear regression of the spatio-temporal variation of the displacement waveform in the anterior aortic wall over a single cardiac cycle yielded the slope as the PWV and the coefficient of determination r2 as an approximate measure of the pulse wave propagation uniformity. The aortic PWV measurements in all normal, hypertensive, and AAA subjects were 6.03 ± 1.68, 6.69 ± 2.80, and 10.54 ± 6.52 m s-1, respectively. There was no significant difference (p = 0.15) between the PWVs of the normal and hypertensive subjects while the PWVs of the AAA subjects were significantly higher (p pathologies that regionally alter the arterial wall mechanics.

  13. Abdominal aortic aneurysm demonstrated on renal scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phisitkul, Sorot; Brian, Susan; Rakvit, Ariwan; Jenkins, Leigh A; Bohannon, W Todd; Harris, Jennifer; Tsikouris, James; Silva, Michael B; Meyerrose, Gary E

    2003-08-01

    A 74-year-old hypertensive woman presented with abdominal discomfort and a pulsatile abdominal mass. Anterior abdominal angiography during cardiac blood pool, and renal scintigraphic imaging demonstrated a large abdominal aortic aneurysm. 1, 2 Before endovascular repair with an aortoiliac endograft, the abdominal aneurysm measured 7.5 x 7.0 cm on abdominal computed tomography. This study demonstrates that a suspected abdominal aortic aneurysm can be confirmed using the addition of anterior abdominal imaging with normal posterior imaging at the time of renal scintigraphy. PMID:12897671

  14. Methodologic aspects of acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K; Nedergaard, O A

    1999-08-01

    The acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit isolated thoracic aorta precontracted by phenylephrine was studied. Phenylephrine caused a steady contraction that was maintained for 6 h. In the presence of calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and ascorbic acid the contraction decreased with time. N(G)-Nitro-L-arginine abolished the inhibitory effect of EDTA and ascorbic acid. Acetylcholine evoked a rapid concentration-dependent relaxation that recovered spontaneously and slowly, but fully, with time. Relaxation evoked by equieffective concentrations of carbachol and acetylcholine had the same time course. Cumulative addition of acetylcholine (10(-7)-3 x 10(-5) M) caused a marked relaxation that was reverted slightly at high concentrations. The relaxation was the same with rings derived from the upper, middle, and lower part of the thoracic aorta. Two consecutive concentration-response curves for acetylcholine obtained at a 2-h interval demonstrated a slight development of tachyphylaxis. The relaxation was inversely related to precontractile tension evoked by phenylephrine when expressed as a percentage, but independent when expressed as g tension. Storage of aorta in cold salt solution for 24 h did not alter the relaxation. EDTA and ascorbic acid did not alter the relaxation. It is concluded that (1) EDTA and ascorbic acid can not be used with impunity to stabilize catecholamines used as preconstriction agents; (2) the reversal of the acetylcholine-evoked relaxation is not due to hydrolysis of acetylcholine; (3) the relaxation is uniform in all segments of thoracic aorta; (4) cold storage of aorta does not alter the relaxation; and (5) acetylcholine releases the same amount of relaxing factor, irrespective of the precontractile tension. PMID:10691020

  15. [Evaluation of the blood coagulation system after surgeries on abdominal aortic aneurysms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikul'nikov, P I; Liksunov, O V; Ratushniuk, A V; Lugovs'koĭ, E V; Kolesnikova, I M; Lytvynova, L M; Kostiuchenko, O P; Chernyshenko, T M; Hornyts'ka, O V; Platonova, T M

    2012-09-01

    Basing on data of analysis of the hemostasis system state in the patients, suffering abdominal aorta aneurysm, a tendency for raising of postoperative soluble fibrin and D-dimer content in the blood plasm and reduction of these indices on the third day was noted. The abovementioned markers content depends on the aneurysm size, the fibrin deposits presence, the terms from clinical signs beginning to the certain therapy administration and anticoagulants application. Information about correlation between content of D-dimer and soluble fibrin in the treatment dynamics is important for determination of activation degree in the patients blood coagulation system and the thrombotic complications prognosis. PMID:23285650

  16. Ultrasound Evaluation of an Abdominal Aortic Fluid-Structure Interaction Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traberg, Marie Sand; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    Ultrasound measurements are used for evaluating biomechanics of the abdominal aorta (AA) predicted by a fluid- structure interaction (FSI) simulation model. FSI simulation models describe the complete arterial physiology by quantify- ing the mechanical response in the vessel wall caused by the...... agreement except for 1 volunteer (Male, 23 yrs.). The magnitude of the displacement in simulation, u fsi , and in vivo , u iv , is within the same order of magnitude for the young ( u iv = 1 : 48 mm, u fsi = 1 : 12 mm) and middle-aged volunteer ( u iv = 0 : 783 mm, u fsi = 1 : 31 mm). For the elderly...

  17. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  18. Efficacy of 'fine' focal spot imaging in CT abdominal angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the efficacy of fine focal spot imaging in calcification beam-hardening artefact reduction and vessel clarity on CT abdominal angiography (CTAA). Adult patients of any age and gender who presented for CTAA were included. Thirty-nine patients were examined with a standard focal spot size (SFSS) of 1 x 1 mm in the first 3 months while 31 consecutive patients were examined with a fine focal spot size (FFSS) of 1 x 0.5 mm in the following 3 months. Vessel clarity and calcification beam-hardening artefacts of the abdominal aorta, celiac axis, superior mesenteric artery, inferior mesenteric artery, renal arteries, and iliac arteries were assessed using a 5-point grading scale by two blinded radiologists randomly. Cohen's Kappa test indicated that on average, there was substantial agreement among reviewers for vessel wall clarity and calcification artefact grading. Mann-Whitney test showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups, with FFSS performing significantly better for vessel clarity (U, 6481.50; p < 0.001; r, 0.73) and calcification artefact reduction (U, 1916; p < 0.001; r, 0.77). Fine focus CT angiography produces images with better vessel wall clarity and less vessel calcification beam-hardening artefact. (orig.)

  19. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias. PMID:24035086

  20. Congenital abnormalities of the aorta in children and adolescents; Angeborene Fehlbildungen der Aorta im Kindes- und Jugendalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhorn, J.G. [Universitaetskinderklinik Heidelberg, Abt. Paediatrische Kardiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Ley, S. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Abt. Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Abt. Paediatrische Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Aortic abnormalities are common cardiovascular malformations accounting for 15-20% of all congenital heart disease. Ultrafast CT and MR imaging are noninvasive, accurate and robust techniques that can be used in the diagnosis of aortic malformations. While their sensitivity in detecting vascular abnormalities seems to be as good as that of conventional catheter angiocardiography, at over 90%, they are superior in the diagnosis of potentially life-threatening complications, such as tracheal, bronchial, or esophageal compression. It has been shown that more than 80% of small children with aortic abnormalities benefit directly from the use of noninvasive imaging: either cardiac catheterization is no longer necessary or radiation doses and periods of general anesthesia for interventional catheterization procedures can be much reduced. The most important congenital abnormalities of the aorta in children and adolescents are presented with reference to examples, and the value of CT and MR angiography is documented. (orig.) [German] Fehlbildungen der Aorta gehoeren zu den haeufigen kongenitalen kardiovaskulaeren Malformationen (15-20% aller angeborenen Herzfehler). Die raeumlich und zeitlich hochaufloesenden Methoden der Computer- (CT-) und Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) sind nichtinvasive, hochwertige und aussagekraeftige Methoden zur Diagnostik angeborener Fehlbildungen der Aorta. Sie zeigen sich in der Diagnostik der Gefaessanomalien gleichwertig zur konventionellen Angiographie mit Sensitivitaeten von mehr als 90%. In der Diagnostik assoziierter Komplikationen, wie trachealen, bronchialen oder oesophagialen Kompressionen, sind sie ueberlegen. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass 80% der Kleinkinder mit Fehlbildungen der Aorta einen direkten Vorteil von der nichtinvasiven Bildgebung hatten: Entweder war eine Herzkatheterung fuer die Therapieplanung nicht mehr erforderlich oder die Durchleuchtungs- und Narkosezeiten bei der Katheterintervention konnten deutlich verkuerzt

  1. Preparation of Single Cell Suspensions from Mouse Aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Desheng; Yin, Changjun; Mohanta, Sarajo K.; Weber, Christian; Habenicht, Andreas J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall characterized by lipid deposition, plaque formation, and immune cell infiltration. Innate and adaptive immune cells infiltrate the artery during development of the disease. Moreover, advanced disease leads to formation of artery tertiary lymphoid organs in the adventitia (Grabner et al., 2009; Hu et al., 2015). Various and diverse types of immune cells have been identified in the aorta adventitia vs atherosclerotic plaques (Elewa et al., 2016; Galkina et al., 2006; Lotzer et al., 2010; Mohanta et al., 2016; Mohanta et al., 2014; Moos et al., 2005; Srikakulapu et al., 2016; Zhao et al., 2004). There are conflicting reports on the number and subtypes of immune cells in the aorta depending on the age of the animals, the protocol that is used to obtain single cell suspensions, and the dietary conditions of the mice (Campbell et al., 2012; Clement et al., 2015; Galkina et al., 2006; Kyaw et al., 2012). The number of immune cells in the aorta differs as much as tenfold using different protocols (Butcher et al., 2012; Galkina et al., 2006; Gjurich et al., 2015; Grabner et al., 2009; Hu et al., 2015). These discrepant results call for a protocol that robustly documents bona fide aorta cells rather than those in the surrounding tissues or blood. Critical methodological hurdles include the removal of adjacent adipose tissue and small paraaortic lymph nodes lining the entire aortic tree that are not visible by the naked eye. A dissection microscope is therefore recommended. Moreover protocols of aorta preparations should ascertain that lymphocyte aggregates referred to as fat associated lymphoid clusters (FALCs) (Benezech et al., 2015; Elewa et al., 2015) that are often present at the border between the adipose tissue and the adventitia are removed before enzyme digestion. We propose - besides other approaches (Hu et al., 2015; Mohanta et al., 2014) - a combination of immunohistochemical staining and

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... located within a child's abdomen. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of a child's abdominal ultrasound ... pain from the procedure. If a Doppler ultrasound study is performed, your child may actually hear pulse- ...

  3. JAMA Patient Page: Abdominal Hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an operation. Umbilical hernia Abdominal wall Intestinal loop Peritoneum Skin Peritoneum Umbilical annulus SYMPTOMS The first symptom of a ... vomiting, or constipation. Inguinal hernia Indirect inguinal hernia Peritoneum Deep inguinal ring Inguinal canal Superficial inguinal ring ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... technique that allows the physician to see and evaluate blood flow through arteries and veins in the ... the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed to evaluate the: appendix stomach/ pylorus liver gallbladder spleen pancreas ...

  5. Sexual dimorphism of abdominal aortic aneurysms: a striking example of "male disadvantage" in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Lisa D S; Bown, Matthew J; Tomaszewski, Maciej

    2012-11-01

    The abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent, localised, dilation of the abdominal aorta that causes death in 80% of patients if left untreated. An apparent male predominance in AAA has been observed in most studies, with a male: female gender ratio of ∼6:1 between the ages 60 years-64 years. The majority of risk factors for AAA exhibit sexual dimorphism but no single risk factor shows a higher magnitude of "male disadvantage" than AAA itself. This in turn suggests that the additive effects of risk factors may better explain the higher prevalence of AAA in men than women compared to each individual factor. Amongst others, sex steroids and sex chromosomes have been hypothesised to act as the drivers of this sexual dimorphism. Future research should focus on the major biological differences between the sexes identifying why men are at more risk of AAA than women. PMID:22840688

  6. Component separation in abdominal trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Rawstorne, Edward; Smart, Christopher J.; Fallis, Simon A.; Suggett, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Component separation is established for complex hernia repairs. This case presents early component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath to facilitate closure of the abdominal wall following emergency laparotomy, reinforcing the repair with a biological mesh. On Day 11 following an emergency laparotomy for penetrating trauma, this patient underwent component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath. An intra-abdominal biological mesh was secured, and t...

  7. Updates on abdominal desmoid tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Desmoid tumor is a monoclonal, fibroblastic proliferation arising in musculoaponeurotic structures. This connective tissue hyperplasia infiltrates locally, recurs frequentiy after resection but does not metastasize. Abdominal desmoid occurs sporadically, in association with some familial syndromes and often represents a clinical dilemma for surgeons. The enigmatic biology and anatomical location of abdominal desmoids make treatment recommendations difficult. This distinct pathological entity is reviewed with a specific focus on aetiology and management.

  8. Abdominal muscle training in sport.

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, C M

    1993-01-01

    This paper evaluates several abdominal exercises, and highlights factors which are important for their safe prescription and effective use. The function of the abdominal muscles and hip flexors is considered, and the importance of the infra-umbilical portion of the rectus abdominis is emphasized. The effects of flexion on the lumbar spine are outlined. The trunk curl, sit-up, and straight leg raise are analysed, together with modifications of these exercises. The effect of foot fixation and h...

  9. Computer tomography following blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer tomographic appearances of lesions of parenchymatous organs following blunt abdominal trauma are described in 13 patients (five liver, four renal, two splenic and two pancreatic injuries). The value of abdominal computer tomography is discussed in relation to the interval between injury and time of abdominal examination and compared with the diagnostic value of abdominal angiography. (orig.)

  10. Mycotic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta presenting as pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengozzi, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Maggiore Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Sartoni Galloni, S. [Dept. of Radiology, San Salvatore Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Giovannini, G. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Maggiore Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Bronzetti, G. [Dept. of Paediatric Cardiology, Sant' Orsola-Malpighi University Medical Centre, Bologna (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Mycotic aneurysms of the thoracic aorta rarely occur in children. We report an unusual case of a mycotic aneurysm of the descending aorta in a 4-year-old boy presenting with respiratory tract infection, which was rapidly complicated by atelectasis of the left lung. The patient's mycotic aortic aneurysm was diagnosed by contrast-enhanced spiral CT, whereas conventional chest radiographs did not detect its presence. An unsuspected mild aortic coarctation was also diagnosed at the time of admission. This case demonstrates that an aortic aneurysm may clinically and radiologically manifest itself with respiratory tract infection and atelectasis and that contrast-enhanced spiral CT is a fast and powerful tool for establishing the diagnosis. (orig.)

  11. MagnetoHemoDynamics in the aorta and electrocardiograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Vincent; Drochon, Agnès; Fokapu, Odette; Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    This paper addresses a complex multi-physical phenomenon involving cardiac electrophysiology and hemodynamics. The purpose is to model and simulate a phenomenon that has been observed in magnetic resonance imaging machines: in the presence of a strong magnetic field, the T-wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG) gets bigger, which may perturb ECG-gated imaging. This is due to a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect occurring in the aorta. We reproduce this experimental observation through computer simulations on a realistic anatomy, and with a three-compartment model: inductionless MHD equations in the aorta, bi-domain equations in the heart and electrical diffusion in the rest of the body. These compartments are strongly coupled and solved using finite elements. Several benchmark tests are proposed to assess the numerical solutions and the validity of some modeling assumptions. Then, ECGs are simulated for a wide range of magnetic field intensities (from 0 to 20 T).

  12. Contractile reaction of isolated frog aorta after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The action of X-rays (50 kV, filtered by 0.3 mm Al) on helical strip of frog aorta (rana esculenta) has been investigated. The isolated preparations have a stable basal tone and are radio-sensitive to X-rays which induce reversible, dose-dependent, contractile responses. After repeated irradiational tachyphylaxis appears. The threshold doses are about 250 R at 3 to 6 kR/min, antiadrenergic (phentolamine, propranolol), anticholinergic (atropin), antihistaminic (Neo-Bridal) and serotoninergic (Deseril) drugs have no visible influence on the X-ray induced reaction, i.e. these action mechanisms of the irradiation-induced contraction do not seem probable. Theophylline and cAMP inhibit the X-ray contraction probably non-specifically. Indometacin also inhibits the X-ray contraction: this suggests participation of prostaglandin-mechanism on the contraction of frog aorta after irradiation. (orig.)

  13. Mycotic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta presenting as pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mycotic aneurysms of the thoracic aorta rarely occur in children. We report an unusual case of a mycotic aneurysm of the descending aorta in a 4-year-old boy presenting with respiratory tract infection, which was rapidly complicated by atelectasis of the left lung. The patient's mycotic aortic aneurysm was diagnosed by contrast-enhanced spiral CT, whereas conventional chest radiographs did not detect its presence. An unsuspected mild aortic coarctation was also diagnosed at the time of admission. This case demonstrates that an aortic aneurysm may clinically and radiologically manifest itself with respiratory tract infection and atelectasis and that contrast-enhanced spiral CT is a fast and powerful tool for establishing the diagnosis. (orig.)

  14. Ascending Aorta Elastography After Kawasaki Disease Compared to Systemic Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandlall, Ian; Maurice, Roch L; Fournier, Anne; Merouani, Aïcha; Dahdah, Nagib

    2015-10-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis, classically affecting large- and medium-size arteries. The coronary arteries draw most of the clinical attention, whereas few studies have taken interest in the ascending aorta. Using a proprietary imaging-based mechanical biomarker (ImBioMark), we sought to determine aortic stiffness in KD compared to systemic hypertension (HTN) and healthy children. We evaluated parasternal long-axis views focused on the ascending aorta in 20 controls, 12 KD, and 8 HTN as a comparative clinical model of vascular stiffness. We calculated systolic and diastolic aortic wall strain with ImBioMark. Strain was tested for normality against height, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure in normal subjects. Strain from KD and HTN was normalized (Z score) accordingly. Z score comparisons were performed using nonparametric statistics. Age was similar between KD and HTN (9.1 ± 5.3 and 9.9 ± 5.3 years old; p = NS). Systolic and diastolic strain values were normally distributed against height, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure in healthy subjects. HTN subjects had abnormal systolic and diastolic strain values (p < 0.0001). Whereas KD subjects had normal diastolic strain, systolic strain was significantly lower (p < 0.001), and systolic strain was intermediate between controls and HTN. There were no significant differences in aortic strain among KD, however, according to the presence of coronary artery aneurysms. Despite normal blood pressure, the ascending aorta in KD exhibits reduced strain during systole. This may reflect in situ rigidity of the aorta. The normal diastolic strain in KD may, in contrast, reflect normal peripheral vascular resistance. PMID:25921428

  15. Relaxant effects of selected sildenafil analogues in the rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojzych, Mariusz; Kubacka, Monika; Mogilski, Szczepan; Filipek, Barbara; Fornal, Emilia

    2016-06-01

    A new series of sulfonamide derivatives of pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazine with chiral amino group has been synthesized and characterized. The compounds were tested for their relaxant effects in the rat aorta. Evaluation of prepared derivatives demonstrated that compound (8a) is probably a non-selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, as it induced aortic relaxation through endothelium-independent mechanism. PMID:25798686

  16. Comparative hemodynamics in an aorta with bicuspid and trileaflet valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanov, Anvar; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2016-04-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a congenital heart defect that has been associated with serious aortopathies, such as aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, infective endocarditis, aortic dissection, calcific aortic valve and dilatation of ascending aorta. There are two main hypotheses to explain the increase prevalence of aortopathies in patients with BAV: the genetic and the hemodynamic. In this study, we seek to investigate the possible role of hemodynamic factors as causes of BAV-associated aortopathy. We employ the curvilinear immersed boundary method coupled with an efficient thin-shell finite-element formulation for tissues to carry out fluid-structure interaction simulations of a healthy trileaflet aortic valve (TAV) and a BAV placed in the same anatomic aorta. The computed results reveal major differences between the TAV and BAV flow patterns. These include: the dynamics of the aortic valve vortex ring formation and break up; the large-scale flow patterns in the ascending aorta; the shear stress magnitude, directions, and dynamics on the heart valve surfaces. The computed results are in qualitative agreement with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging data and suggest that the linkages between BAV aortopathy and hemodynamics deserve further investigation.

  17. Hemodynamics in an Aorta with Bicuspid and Trileaflet Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanov, Anvar; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2015-11-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a congenital heart defect that has been associated with serious aortopathies, such as ascending aortic aneurysm, aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, infective endocarditis, aortic dissection, calcific aortic valve and dilatation of ascending aorta. Two main hypotheses - the genetic and the hemodynamic are discussed in literature to explain the development and progression of aortopathies in patients with BAV. In this study we seek to investigate the possible role of hemodynamic factors as causes of BAV-associated aortopathy. We employ the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary (CURVIB) method coupled with an efficient thin-shell finite element (TS-FE) formulation for tissues to carry out fluid-structure interaction simulations of a healthy tri-leaflet aortic valve (TAV) and a BAV placed in the same anatomic aorta. The computed results reveal major differences between the TAV and BAV flow patterns. These include: the dynamics of the aortic valve vortex ring formation and break up; the large scale flow patterns in the ascending aorta; and the shear stress magnitude on the aortic wall. The computed results are in qualitative agreement with in vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data and suggest that the linkages between BAV aortopathy and hemodynamics deserve further investigation. This work is supported by the Lillehei Heart Institute at the University of Minnesota and the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  18. Analysis of human aorta using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Damiani, Gislaine; Adur, J.; Ferro, D. P.; Adam, R. L.; Pelegati, V.; Thomáz, A.; Cesar, C. L.; Metze, K.

    2012-03-01

    The use of photonics has improved our understanding of biologic phenomena. For the study of the normal and pathologic architecture of the aorta the use of Two-Photon Excited Fluorescence (TPEF) and Second Harmonic Generation showed interesting details of morphologic changes of the elastin-collagen architecture during aging or development of hypertension in previous studies. In this investigation we tried to apply fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) for the morphologic analysis of human aortas. The aim of our study was to use FLIM in non-stained formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples of the aorta ascendants in hypertensive and normotensive patients of various ages, examining two different topographical regions. The FLIM-spectra of collagen and elastic fibers were clearly distinguishable, thus permitting an exact analysis of unstained material on the microscopic level. Moreover the FLIM spectrum of elastic fibers revealed variations between individual cases, which indicate modifications on a molecular level and might be related to FLIM age or diseases states and reflect modifications on a molecular level.

  19. Hybrid-repair of thoraco-abdominal or juxtarenal aortic aneurysm: what the radiologist should know

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Tobias; Pfammatter, Thomas; Hechelhammer, Lukas; Marincek, Borut; Frauenfelder, Thomas [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Medical Radiology, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Mayer, Dieter; Lachat, Mario [University Hospital Zurich, Clinic for Cardiovascular Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-04-15

    Endovascular aneurysm repair of the infrarenal or thoracic aorta has been shown to be a less invasive alternative to open surgery. A combined aneurysm of the thoracic and abdominal aorta is complex and challenging; the involvement of renal and/or visceral branches requires new treatment methods. A hybrid approach is currently an accepted alternative to conventional surgery. Renal and/or visceral revascularisation enables subsequent stent-graft placement into the visceral portion of the aorta. Knowledge of the surgical procedure and a precise assessment of the vascular morphology are crucial for pre-procedural planning and for detection of post-procedural complications. Multi-detector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) combined with two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) rendering is useful for pre-interventional planning and for the detection of post-procedural complications. Three-dimensional rendering allows proper anatomical analyses, influencing interventional strategies and resulting in a better outcome. With the knowledge of procedure-specific MDCTA findings in various vascular conditions, the radiologist and surgeon are able to perform an efficient pre-interventional planning and follow-up examination. Based on our experience with this novel technique of combined open and endovascular aortic aneurysm treatment, this pictorial review illustrates procedure-specific imaging findings, including common and rare complications, with respect to 2D and 3D post-processing techniques. (orig.)

  20. An extensive DeBakey type IIIb aortic dissection with massive right pleural effusion presenting as abdominal pain and acute anemia: particular case report

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hui-Chun; Wang, Zhen-Qing; Hao, Yuan-Yuan; An, Feng-Ping; Hu, Yu-Chuan; Deng, Rui-Bing; Yu, Peng; Cui, Guang-Bin; Li, He

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 79-year-old male presented with sudden onset of abdominal pain and mild breathlessness, and complicated acute progressive anemia with haemoglobin which declined from 120 g/L to 70 g/L within five days. An urgent computed tomography angiography showed acute thoracic aortic dissection, DeBakey type IIIb, a dissecting aneurysm in the proximal descending thoracic aorta starting immediately after the origin of the left subclavian artery and extending distally below the re...

  1. Both pelvic radiography and lateral abdominal radiography correlate well with coronary artery calcification measured by computed tomography in hemodialysis patients: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Daqing; Ruan, Yizhe; Pu, Lei; Zhong, Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Yue; Deng, Fei; Yang, Hongling; Li, Guisen; Wang, Li

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Lateral abdominal radiograph is suggested as an alternative to coronary artery computed tomography (CT) in evaluating vascular calcification. Simple scoring systems including pelvic radiograph scoring and abdominal scoring system were utilized to study their correlation with coronary artery calcification. Methods In 106 MHD patients, coronary artery CT, lateral abdominal, and pelvic radiograph were taken. The Agatston scoring system was applied to evaluate the degree of coronary artery calcification which was categorized according to Agatston coronary artery calcification score (CACS) ≥ 30, ≥100, ≥400, and ≥1000. Abdominal aortic calcification was scored by 4-scored and 24-scored systems. Pelvic artery calcification was scored by a 4-scored system. Sensitivities and specificities of abdominal aortic calcification scores and pelvic artery calcification scores to predict different categories of coronary artery calcification were analyzed. We studied the diagnostic capability of abdominal aorta calcification and pelvic artery calcification to predict different CACS categories by calculating likelihood ratios. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine the area under the curve for each of these testing procedures. Findings The prevalence was 48(45.3%), 15 (14.2%), 11 (10.4%), 11 (10.4%), and 11 (10.4%) for CACs > 0, ≥30, ≥100, ≥400, and ≥1000, respectively. The degree of CACs was positively correlated with patient age, prevalence of diabetes, abdominal aorta scores, and pelvic calcification scores. The areas under the curves for different CACS by all X-ray scoring systems were above 0.70 except pelvic 4-scored system for diagnosing CACS ≥30, without significant difference (P > 0.05). Discussion Both lateral abdominal and pelvic plain radiographs were demonstrated as acceptable alternatives to CT in evaluating vascular calcification. PMID:26932162

  2. Detection of abdominal bleeding in blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arterial hemorrhage is the most serious immediate complication of blunt abdominal trauma. This paper discusses the detection and localization of active hemorrhage in nonpenetrating injury, as a modification of the technique using technetium-99m sulfur colloid to localize the site of active bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract. Any imaging protocol for suspected hepatosplenic injury can be easily modified to search for active intra-abdominal hemorrhage. The timely detection of unsuspected bleeding improves patient management by allowing the surgeon to reorder his or her treatment priorities. The early detection of clinically unsuspected intra-abdominal, retroperitoneal, or pelvic hemorrhage will identify those patients who may need more definitive diagnostic procedures, interventional angiography for control of bleeding, or surgical intervention. The 500,000-count view of the abdomen and pelvis can be easily incorporated into any existing trauma protocol using technetium-99m sulfur colloid, is of proven value, and adds little additional time to the study

  3. Videolaparoscopia no trauma abdominal Videolaparoscopy in the abdominal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Átila Varela Velho

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A videolaparoscopia (VL vem contribuindo de forma crescente, para diagnóstico e terapêutica de várias afecções cirúrgicas abdominais, introduzindo profundas mudanças na cirurgia contemporânea. Esse avanço incorporou-se também às urgências traumáticas, fazendo parte da avaliação diagnóstica e, às vezes, da terapêutica do trauma abdominal. Os autores apresentam uma revisão concisa da literatura sobre a VL no trauma, atualizando o tema e discutindo os aspectos mais relevantes das indicações, limitações e complicações do método.Videolaparoscopy has been contributing for the diagnostic and therapeutic approach in the abdominal surgical diseases in the last years. Representing real modification in the conventional elective and traumatic abdominal surgery. Its has been recognized as a safe procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of abdominal trauma. Diagnostic predictive values, sensibility and specificity are greater than when obtained by the other diagnostic methods such as peritoneal lavage, ultrasonography and computed tomography. Despite their limitations, when indicated for selected patients seems to reduce non terapeutic laparotomies, postoperative morbidity, hospital stay and costs. The authors present a review of the literature regarding videolaparoscopy in the abdominal trauma, its limitations and complications. Based an a complex protocol for the indications of videolaparoscopy for abdominal trauma, the authors sugested their exclusive use by level trauma centers.

  4. A clinical dilemma: abdominal tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oya Uygur-Bayramicli; G(u)l Dabak; Resat Dabak

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical, radiological and microbiological properties of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) and to discuss methods needed to get the diagnosis.METHODS: Thirty-one patients diagnosed as abdominal TB between March 1998 and December 2001 at the Gastroenterology Department of Kartal State Hospital,Istanbul, Turkey were evaluated prospectively. Complete physical examination, medical and family history, blood count erythrocyte sedimentation rate, routine biochemical tests,Mantoux skin test, chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasonography (USG) were performed in all cases, whereas microbiological examination of ascites, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy or barium enema, abdominal tomography, mediastinoscopy, laparoscopy or laparotomy were done when needed.RESULTS: The median age of patients (14 females, 17males) was 34.2 years (range 15-65 years). The most frequent symptoms were abdominal pain and weight loss.Eleven patients had active pulmonary TB. The most common abdominal USG findings were ascites and hepatomegaly. Ascitic fluid analysis performed in 13 patients was found to be exudative and acid resistant bacilli were present in smear and cultured only in one patient with BacTec (3.2 %). Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy yielded nonspecific findings in 16 patients. Colonoscopy performed in 20 patients showed ulcers in 9 (45 %), nodules in 2 (10 %)and, stricture, polypoid lesions, granulomatous findings in terminal ileum and rectal fistula each in one patient (5 %).Laparoscopy on 4 patients showed dilated bowel loops,thickening in the mesentery, multiple ulcers and tubercles on the peritoneum. Patients with abdominal TB were divided into three groups according to the type of involvement.Fifteen patients (48 %) had intestinal TB, L1 patients (35.2 %) had tuberculous peritonitis and 5 (16.8 %)tuberculous lymphadenitis. The diagnosis of abdominal TB was confirmed microbiologically in 5 (16 %) and histopathologically in 19 patients (60.8 %). The

  5. Abdominal tuberculosis and amoebic abscess. Abdominal tuberkulose og amoebeabscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myklebust, G.; Bardstad, J.; Brabrand, K. (Aust-Agder Central Hospital, Arendal (Norway))

    1993-03-01

    A 26-years-old Indian male was admitted to hospital with loss of weight and vague abdominal pain of several weeks duration. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed several expansive lesions near the pancreatic head, probably representing enlarged lymph nodes. A few milliliters of yellowish pus were aspirated by ultrasound guided aspiration. Microscopic examination of the pus showed trophozoits, and mycobacterium tuberculosis subsequently grew from the pus culture. Abdominal tuberculosis is a rare condition, particularly in the pancreas and the peripancreatic region. The report stresses the importance of considering the possible coexistance of more than one infectious disease in patients from endemic areas. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Uso da peritoneostomia na sepse abdominal Laparostomy in abdominal sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Juvenal da Rocha Torres Neto; Adonai Pinheiro Barreto; Ana Carolina Lisboa Prudente; Allisson Mário dos Santos; Rodrigo Rocha Santiago

    2007-01-01

    Dentre as modalidades terapêuticas da sepse abdominal, a peritoneostomia tem papel decisivo permitindo explorações e lavagens da cavidade de forma facilitada. Observamos pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de sepse abdominal internados no Serviço de Coloproctologia do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Sergipe, e que foram submetidos a peritoneostomia de janeiro de 2004 a janeiro de 2006. Foram avaliados quanto ao diagnóstico primário e secundário, tipo de peritonite secundária, ...

  7. New abdominal CT angiography protocol on a 16 detector-row CT scanner - first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. Purpose of this study was the implementation of a new abdominal CT angiography protocol on a 16 detector-row CT scanner and the comparison to selective catheter angiography.Methods. 76 patients with various vascular disorders underwent abdominal CT angiography on a recently developed 16 detector-row CT scanner using submillimeter slice collimation (16 x 0.75 mm). Results were compared with mesenteric and/or hepatic angiography in 17 patients performed during tumor embolization. Opacification was provided using individually tailored contrast application with a test bolus setting. To evaluate the contrast injection protocol density measurements within the vessel lumen were performed.Results. Diagnostic image quality was achieved in all patients with angiographic comparison (n = 17). Within the hepatic and mesenteric vasculature up to 4th generation vessels could be identified. Compared to selctive angiography CT angiography provided equivalent morphologic information up to the detectable vessel generation. With the applied contrast application regimen there were no significant differences in vessel enhancement along the abdominal aorta and iliac arteries.Conclusion. 16 detector-row CT enables whole abdominal angiographic studies with submillimeter resolution in a single breath-hold. The improved spatial resolution enables for high quality 3D visualization. Compared to invasive angiography, 16 detector-row CT reveals equivalent morphologic information. (orig.)

  8. Non-contrast-enhanced renal and abdominal MR angiography using velocity-selective inversion preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Taehoon; Worters, Pauline W; Hu, Bob S; Nishimura, Dwight G

    2013-05-01

    Non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography is a promising alternative to the established contrast-enhanced approach as it reduces patient discomfort and examination costs and avoids the risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Inflow-sensitive slab-selective inversion recovery imaging has been used with great promise, particularly for abdominal applications, but has limited craniocaudal coverage due to inflow time constraints. In this work, a new non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography method using velocity-selective inversion preparation is developed and applied to renal and abdominal angiography. Based on the excitation k-space formalism and Shinnar-Le-Roux transform, a velocity-selective excitation pulse is designed that inverts stationary tissues and venous blood while preserving inferiorly flowing arterial blood. As the magnetization of the arterial blood in the abdominal aorta and iliac arteries is well preserved during the magnetization preparation, artery visualization over a large abdominal field of view is achievable with an inversion delay time that is chosen for optimal background suppression. Healthy volunteer tests demonstrate that the proposed method significantly increases the extent of visible arteries compared with the slab-selective approach, covering renal arteries through iliac arteries over a craniocaudal field of view of 340 mm. PMID:22711643

  9. Contemporary imaging in abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging is often a fundamental part in the evaluation of an injured or ill child. A variety of imaging modalities (radiography, angiography/fluoroscopy, sonography, CT, magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy) are among the options. CT is worth focused attention because of its usefulness in a variety of emergency department settings, its increasing use, and its potential radiation risks. CT plays an important role in the evaluation of traumatic and nontraumatic abdominal emergencies in children. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to review current imaging approaches and controversies in the evaluation of common acute abdominal emergencies. Through discussion of various modalities, especially CT in evaluation of abdominal pain and trauma, the relative advantages and disadvantages including radiation risk will be reviewed. (orig.)

  10. CT evaluation of abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: An evaluation of CT diagnosis of abdominal trauma. Methods: CT appearance of abdominal trauma was analyzed retrospectively in 95 cases. thirty-three patients were cured by operation, and the other 59 patients received conservative treatment. Fifty-one patients out of 59 were seen healed or improved by a follow up CT scan after the conservative treatment. Results: The study included: 31 cases of splenic contusion, accompanying with hemoperitoneum in 25 cases; 3 cases of hepatic laceration; 33 cases of liver and spleen compound trauma accompanying with hemoperitoneum; 18 cases of renal contusion, with subcapsular hemorrhage in 12 cases; 4 cases of midriff colic; 3 cases of mesentery breach; 3 cases of digestive tract perforation. Conclusion: CT is sensitive and precise in evaluating abdominal trauma, providing important information for treatment. (author)

  11. Contemporary imaging in abdominal emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivit, Carlos J. [Rainbow Babies and Children' s Hospital, Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Imaging is often a fundamental part in the evaluation of an injured or ill child. A variety of imaging modalities (radiography, angiography/fluoroscopy, sonography, CT, magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy) are among the options. CT is worth focused attention because of its usefulness in a variety of emergency department settings, its increasing use, and its potential radiation risks. CT plays an important role in the evaluation of traumatic and nontraumatic abdominal emergencies in children. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to review current imaging approaches and controversies in the evaluation of common acute abdominal emergencies. Through discussion of various modalities, especially CT in evaluation of abdominal pain and trauma, the relative advantages and disadvantages including radiation risk will be reviewed. (orig.)

  12. Abdominal wall hernia and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K K; Henriksen, N A; Jorgensen, L N

    2015-01-01

    Med and Embase in combination with a cross-reference search of eligible papers. RESULTS: We included 31 papers of which 23 were case reports. In fertile women undergoing sutured or mesh repair, pain was described in a few patients during the last trimester of a subsequent pregnancy. Emergency surgery of......PURPOSE: There is no consensus as to the treatment strategy for abdominal wall hernias in fertile women. This study was undertaken to review the current literature on treatment of abdominal wall hernias in fertile women before or during pregnancy. METHODS: A literature search was undertaken in Pub...... incarcerated hernias in pregnant women, as well as combined hernia repair and cesarean section appears as safe procedures. No major complications were reported following hernia repair before or during pregnancy. The combined procedure of elective cesarean section and abdominal wall hernia repair was reported...

  13. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa

  14. Calcium scoring in unenhanced and enhanced CT data of the aorta-iliacal arteries: impact of image acquisition, reconstruction, and analysis parameter settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komen, N. (Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Medical Center Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital Antwerp, Edegem (Belgium)), email: nielskomen@hotmail.com; Klitsie, P.; Jeekel, J.; Lange, J.F. (Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Medical Center Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands)); Hermans, J.J.; Niessen, W.J. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Medical Center Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands)); Kleinrensink, G.J. (Dept. of Neurosciences and Anatomy, Univ. Medical Center Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands))

    2011-11-15

    Background. Several studies have been published on the matter of abdominal aortic and iliac calcifications and the association to clinical entities such as diabetes mellitus and renal failure. However, comparing of these studies is questionable since quantification methods for atherosclerosis differ. Purpose. To evaluate the effect of image acquisition settings, reconstruction parameters, and analysis methods on calcium quantification in the abdominal aorta. Material and Methods. Calcium scores were retrospectively determined on standardized abdominal CT scans of 15 patients. Two researchers obtained calcium scores with 10 different lower thresholds (LT) (130, 145, 160, 175, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 1000) in CT scans with and without contrast enhancement, with slice thicknesses (ST) varying between 2.0-5.0 mm for the non-contrast-enhanced series and between 1.0-5.0 mm for the contrast-enhanced series. In addition calcium scores obtained with two convolution kernels (B10f, B20f) were compared. Inter-observer variability was calculated. Results. Calcium scoring at higher STs is overestimated compared to smaller STs and this effect was more pronounced with increasing calcium loads. Concerning the convolution kernel, scores obtained with kernel B10f were overestimated compared to kernel B20f. Increase of LT resulted in a decrease of the calcium score and scoring in contrast-enhanced series resulted in higher scores compared to non-contrast-enhanced series. These effects are more apparent in patients with higher calcium loads. Calcium scoring reproducibility with the reference standard is limited for the aorta-iliac trajectory, whereas scoring with the remaining settings is reproducible. Conclusion. Scores obtained with different settings cannot be compared. The inter-observer reproducibility was limited using the reference standard and practical difficulties were substantial. Scoring with higher LT, ST, and contrast enhancement is faster and has less practical

  15. Systemic vascular inflammation in abdominal aortic aneurysm patients: a contrast-enhanced PET/CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the presence of systemic vascular inflammation and its relationship with risk factors and biomarkers of systemic inflammation related to atherosclerosis in asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients. Thirty AAA patients and 30 age-matched controls underwent contrast-enhanced 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) PET/CT. C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cell count and differential, serum fibrinogen, D-dimer and full lipid panel were also evaluated. Region of interest analyses were performed to obtain target-to-background (TBR) metabolism of aorta, subclavian, carotid, iliac arteries and AAA. CT-based arterial calcium load (CL) was evaluated. Arterial Metabolism and CL intergroup differences were tested (unpaired t-test). Linear regression analysis was performed only between blood biomarkers on one side and both TBR and ACL of the arterial districts that resulted significantly different between patients and controls on the other. In all the analyses P values <0.05 were considered significant. FDG-uptake was higher with respect to controls in aorta, carotid and iliac arteries (P<0.01, P<0.007, P<0.04 respectively). AAA and aorta metabolism showed an inverse correlation with HDL-chol (P<0.02 and P<0.01, respectively) while only aorta showed a direct correlation with lymphocytes’ count (P<0.02). Carotid metabolism was directly correlated with monocytes’ count and C-reactive protein concentration (P<0.02 and P<0.004, respectively). The present findings support the relevance of systemic vascular inflammation in all phases of atherosclerosis-related disorders. Moreover they confirm the concept that acute ischemic syndromes might represent the local result of a systemic inflammation rather than the focal involvement of a single arterial lesion.

  16. Radiological evaluation of abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simple abdomen film has played an important role in decision of emergency operations in patients with the abdominal trauma. Nowadays, it still acts as a primary and inevitable processes in emergency condition. At the Department of Radiology, Hanil Hospital, 70 patients, who were laparotomied due to penetrating or nonpernetraing abdominal trauma, were observed and analyzed with simple abdomen film after comparison with the operative findings. The results are as follows: 1. Most frequent age distribution was 10 to 39 years and marked 70%. Male was in 90% incidence. 2. Penetrating injury largely involved the small bowel and abdominal wall. Non-penetrating injury usually involved the spleen, small bowel, liver, kidney, pancreas, duodenum. 3. Single organ injury occurred in higher incidence at the small bowel and abdominal wall. Multiple organ injury occurred in higher incidence at the spleen, liver, kidney and pancreas. 4. Organ distribution was 26% in spleen, 22% in small bowel, 14% in liver, 11% in abdominal wall. 7% in pancreas, 7% in kidney. 5% in duodenum, 4% in GB and CBD, 2% in diaphragm, 2% in colon, and 1% in stomach. 5. The specific roentgen findings and their frequency which useful in differential diagnosis at abdominal trauma, were as follows: a) flank fluid; Detectable possibility was 71% in liver laceration, 69% in spleen laceration and 57% in pancreas laceration. b) ipsilateral psoas shadow obliteration; Detectable possibility was 57% in liver laceration, 57% in kidney laceration and 46% in spleen laceration. c) free air; Detactable possibility was 60% in duodenal perforation, and 36% in peroration of upper part of small bowel. d) Reflex ileus; Detectable possibility was 64% in small bowel, 50% in liver laceration and 35% in spleen laceration. e) rib fracture; Detactable possibility was 36% in liver laceration and 23% in spleen laceration. f) pleural effusion; Detectable possibility was 29% in liver laceration and 27% in spleen laceration

  17. Secondary abdominal appendicular ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nama, Vivek; Gyampoh, Bright; Karoshi, Mahantesh; McRae, Reynold; Opemuyi, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    Although the case fatality rate for ectopic pregnancies has decreased to 0.08% in industrialized countries, it still represents 3.8% of maternal mortality in the United States alone. In developing countries, the case fatality rate varies from 3% to 27%. Laparoscopic management of tubal pregnancies is now the standard form of treatment where this technology is available. Abdominal pregnancies are rare, and secondary implantation of tubal ectopic pregnancies is the most common cause of abdominal gestations. We present an interesting case of secondary implantation of a tubal ectopic pregnancy to highlight the appendix as a possible secondary implantation site after a tubal ectopic pregnancy. PMID:17630175

  18. CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.-K., E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Van Tonder, F.; Tartaglia, C.J.; Dagia, C. [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Cazzato, R.L. [Department of Radiology, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome (Italy); Duddalwar, V.A. [Department of Radiology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Chang, S.D. [Department of Medical Imaging, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, British Columbia (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

  19. CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

  20. Recurrent abdominal pain in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Niyaz A; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq; Ahmed, S Zubair; Ali, Syed Wazid; Charoo, B A; Hassan, Masood Ul

    2002-09-01

    Eighty five children with recurrent abdominal pain(RAP) were studied. Organic cause was noticed in 70 cases and non-organic in 15 cases. Giardiasis was the commonest organic cause in 57 (67.0 percent), either alone or with other parasitic infestations. Other organic causes include gallstones (4.7 percent), urinary infections (4.7 percent), esophagitis/gastritis (3.5 percent) and abdominal tuberculosis (2.3 percent). Single parent, school phobia, sibling rivalry, RAP in other family members and nocturnal enuresis are significant factors associated with nonorganic causes PMID:12368527

  1. [Antiatherogenic characteristics of korvitin: effect on proteasome activity of the aorta, heart, and blood cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashevin, D O; Dosenko, B Ie; Byts', Iu V; Moĭbenko, O O

    2009-01-01

    We studied the changes in proteasomal proteolisis during modelling of rabbit cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis. It was determined that in aorta the TL activity of proteasome increased 2.4-fold (P quercetine) followed by considerable decrease of proteasomal activity both in tissues (aorta and heart) and leucocytes. The intensity ofatherosclerotic changes in aorta was significantly smaller. Obtained data suggest that "Korvitin" reveales angioprotective properties mediated by it effect on proteasomal proteolisis. PMID:19827630

  2. Plain abdominal film and abdominal ultrasound in intestine occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plain film of the abdomen is widely used in the diagnostic evaluation of intestinal occlusion. Even though this technique can yield a panoramic and high-resolution view of gas-filled intestinal loops, several factors, such as type and duration of occlusion, neurovascular status of the intestine and general patient condition, may reduce the diagnostic specificy of the plain film relative to the organic or functional nature of the occlusion. From 1987 to 1989, fifty-four patients with intestinal occlusion were studied combining plain abdominal film with abdominal ultrasound (US). This was done in order to evaluate whether the additional information obtained from US could be of value in better determining the nature of the ileus. US evaluation was guided by the information already obtained from plain film which better demonstrates gas-filled loops. The results show that in all 27 cases of dynamic ileus (intestinal ischemia, acute appendicitis, acute cholecistis, acute pancreatitis or blunt abdominal trauma) US demonstrates: intestinal loops slightly increased in caliber, with liquid content, or loops containing rare hyperechoic particles, intestinal wall thickening and no peristalsis. In 27 cases of acute, chronic or complicated mechanical ileus (adhesions, internal hernia, intestinal neoplasm, peritoneal seedings) US shows: 1) in acute occlusion: hyperperistaltic intestinal loops containing inhomogeneous liquid; 2) in chronic occlusion: liquid content with a solid echigenic component; 3) in complicated occlusion: liquid stasis, frequent increase in wall thickness, moderate peritoneal effusion and inefficient peristalsis. In conclusion, based on the obtained data, the authors feel that the combination of plain abdominal film and abdominal US can be useful in the work-up of patient with intestinal occlusion. The information provided by US allows a better definition of the nature of the ileus

  3. Improvement of parenchymal and vascular enhancement using saline flush and power injection for multiple-detector-row abdominal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine if a saline solution flush following low dose contrast material bolus improves parenchymal and vascular enhancement during abdominal multiple detector-row computed tomography (MDCT). Forty-one patients (24 men and 17 women; mean age 49 years, age range 27-86 years) underwent abdominal MDCT (collimation 4 x 5 mm, 15-mm table increment, reconstruction interval 5 mm, gantry rotation period 0.8 s) with a single- as well as with a double syringe power injector. Indication for examination were benign and malignant tumors and inflammatory diseases. Patients received 100 ml nonionic contrast material (300 mgI/ml) alone or pushed with 20 ml saline solution. Mean enhancement values for both protocols were measured in the liver, the spleen, the pancreas, the renal cortex, the portal vein, the inferior vena cava and the abdominal aorta. Double syringe power-injector protocol led to significantly higher parenchymal and vascular enhancement than single syringe power-injector protocol (p<0.05). The improvement in mean enhancement of the liver was 9±9 HU, of the spleen 8±10 HU, of the pancreas 7±9 HU, and of the renal cortex 8±20 HU. The improvement in mean enhancement of the portal vein was 10±17 HU of the inferior vena cava 8±13 HU and of the abdominal aorta 10±17 HU. The use of a double syringe power injector with saline flush following contrast material bolus significantly improves parenchymal and vascular enhancement during contrast-enhanced abdominal MDCT with low iodine doses. (orig.)

  4. Pseudo-dissection of ascending aorta in inferior myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grahame K. Goode

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute aortic dissection is a cardiac emergency which can present as inferior myocardial infarction. It has high morbidity and mortality requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. Rapid advances in noninvasive imaging modalities have facilitated the early diagnosis of this condition and in ruling out this potentially catastrophic illness. We report an interesting case of a 57 year- old -man who presented with inferior myocardial infarction requiring thrombolysis and temporary pacing wire for complete heart block. An echocardiogram was highly suspicious of aortic dissection. CT scan confirmed that the malposition of the temporary pacing wire through the aorta mimicked aortic dissection.

  5. Pharmacological characterization of the sulphonylurea receptor in rat isolated aorta

    OpenAIRE

    Löffler, Cornelia; Quast, Ulrich

    1997-01-01

    The binding of the sulphonylurea [3H]-glibenclamide, a blocker of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K+ channels (KATP channels), was studied in endothelium-denuded rings from rat aorta.[3H]-glibenclamide labelled two classes of binding sites with KD values of 20±5 nM and 32±1 μM. The high affinity component, which comprised 17% of total binding at 1 nM [3H]-glibenclamide, had an estimated binding capacity of 150 fmol mg−1 wet weight.Other sulphonylureas such as glipizide and glibornur...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gallbladder spleen pancreas intestines kidneys bladder testicles ovaries uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can be used to help ... that is being examined to the transducer (the device used to examine the patient), as well ... is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical ...

  7. Dehydration related abdominal pain (drap)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the frequency of dehydration as a medical cause of acute abdomen. Subjects and Methods: All the patients reporting with abdominal pain to the surgical outpatient department or the emergency department were reviewed in the study. The clinical findings in all these cases were studied along with the mode of their management and outcome. Results: Of all the patients presenting with abdominal pain, 3.3% (n=68) were suffering from dehydration related abdominal pain. They were predominantly males in a ratio of 8.7: 1, mostly in the 2nd and 3rd decades of their lives. All these cases were suffering from acute or chronic dehydration were provisionally diagnosed by general practitioners as 'acute abdomen' and referred for surgical consultation. Associated symptoms included vomiting in 42.6%, backache in 91.2%, headache in 95.6%, and pain in lower limbs in 97.1 % of the cases. 83.8% required indoor management with intravenous fluids. All the patients became asymptomatic with rehydration therapy. Conclusion: Dehydration is a possible cause of severe abdominal pain. There is a need to educate the general public about the benefits of adequate fluid intake. (author)

  8. Computed tomography of abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdominal lesions following an accident or surgical interventions are becoming more frequently indications for investigations by computed tomography. Changes of spleen, liver, kidneys, pancreas, and of the retroperitoneal space are discussed. Advantages of computed tomography compared to other investigative methods are shown. (orig.)

  9. CT diagnosis of abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) findings from 95 patients with blunt abdominal trauma were evaluated. Among them, there was no false negative case. It can thus be said that if CT is negative the patient can be treated conservatively. The efficacy of CT in diagnosing injuries of various organs was also evaluated. (author)

  10. Endovascular Repair of Traumatic Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta: Single-Center Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta secondary to blunt chest trauma is a life-threatening emergency and a common cause of death, usually following violent collisions. The objective of this retrospective report was to evaluate the efficacy of endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic disruptions with a single commercially available stent-graft. Methods. Nine men (mean age 29.5 years) were admitted to our institution between January 2003 and January 2006 due to blunt aortic trauma following violent motor vehicle collisions. Plain chest radiography, spiral computed tomography, aortography, and transesophageal echocardiography were used for diagnostic purposes in all cases. All patients were diagnosed with contained extramural thoracic aortic hematomas, secondary to aortic disruption. One patient was also diagnosed with a traumatic thoracic aortic dissection, secondary to blunt trauma. All subjects were poor surgical candidates, due to major injuries such as multiple bone fractures, abdominal hematomas, and pulmonary contusions. All repairs were performed using the EndoFit (LeMaitre Vascular) stent-graft. Results. Complete exclusion of the traumatic aortic disruption and pseudoaneurysm was achieved and verified at intraoperative arteriography and on CT scans, within 10 days of the repair in all patients. In 1 case the deployment of a second cuff was necessary due to a secondary endoleak. In 2 cases the left subclavian artery was occluded to achieve adequate graft fixation. No procedure-related deaths have occurred and no cardiac or peripheral vascular complications were observed within the 12 months (range 8-16 months) follow-up. Conclusions. This is the first time the EndoFit graft has been utilized in the treatment of thoracic aortic disruptions secondary to chest trauma. The repair of such pathologies is technically feasible and early follow-up results are promising

  11. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...

  12. Preoperative steroid in abdominal wall reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim; Brøndum, Tina Lee; Belhage, Bo;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Preoperative administration of high-dose glucocorticoid leads to improved recovery and decreased length of stay after abdominal surgery. Even so, studies on administration of glucocorticoids for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) for giant ventral hernia repair ...

  13. EFFICACY OF THE ENDOVASCULAR TREATMENT OF THE THORACIC AND ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSMS IN CARTAGENA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzola-Peña Katy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aortic aneurysms (AA are a segmentary and permanent dilatation of the aorta that could end in a catastrophic outcome named acute aortic syndrome (AAS, which could curse with rupture and in most cases in death. The treatment of the AA pretends to prevent its rupture by means of resection and replacement of the aorta by a graft. In the last years, an endovascular management with protesis was done, excluding the circulation aneurysm. Objective: To describe the efficacy, in terms of survival and consequences prevention, of the treatment with stents in thoracic and abdominal AA in older than 50 years. Methods: An observational descriptive study was carried out, of a case series with diagnosis of AA who received endovascular treatment since January, 2012 to June, 2014 in the Clínica Madre Bernarda and Clínica San Juan de Dios in Cartagena, Colombia. Data was collected in a database with Excel™ and were analyzed with the statistical program EPIDAT 3.1. Results: In the period of study 26 patients were identified with diagnosis of thoracic and/or abdominal AA. 76.9% were men. The average age was 71 years with interquartile range between 55-77 years. The age group with highest frequency was 70-79 years with 11 cases (42.3%. The mortality associated to systemic complications after the intervention was 11%. The need of surgical reintervention to endoleak was 13.3% and sequels of paraplegia secondary to the intervention was not described. Conclusions: The endovascular treatment of thoracic and abdominal AA is an important therapeutic alternative. The results observed of the endovascular management of AA were similar to the published ones, as for complications and mortality. Rev.cienc. biomed. 2015;6(1:60-67 KEYWORDS Aortic aneurysm; Endovascular Procedures; Vascular Diseases; Vascular surgical procedures.

  14. Automatic segmentation and co-registration of gated CT angiography datasets: measuring abdominal aortic pulsatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Robert; Manduca, Armando; Fletcher, J. G.; Siddiki, Hassan; Shields, Raymond C.; Vrtiska, Terri; Spencer, Garrett; Primak, Andrew N.; Zhang, Jie; Nielson, Theresa; McCollough, Cynthia; Yu, Lifeng

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To develop robust, novel segmentation and co-registration software to analyze temporally overlapping CT angiography datasets, with an aim to permit automated measurement of regional aortic pulsatility in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Methods: We perform retrospective gated CT angiography in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Multiple, temporally overlapping, time-resolved CT angiography datasets are reconstructed over the cardiac cycle, with aortic segmentation performed using a priori anatomic assumptions for the aorta and heart. Visual quality assessment is performed following automatic segmentation with manual editing. Following subsequent centerline generation, centerlines are cross-registered across phases, with internal validation of co-registration performed by examining registration at the regions of greatest diameter change (i.e. when the second derivative is maximal). Results: We have performed gated CT angiography in 60 patients. Automatic seed placement is successful in 79% of datasets, requiring either no editing (70%) or minimal editing (less than 1 minute; 12%). Causes of error include segmentation into adjacent, high-attenuating, nonvascular tissues; small segmentation errors associated with calcified plaque; and segmentation of non-renal, small paralumbar arteries. Internal validation of cross-registration demonstrates appropriate registration in our patient population. In general, we observed that aortic pulsatility can vary along the course of the abdominal aorta. Pulsation can also vary within an aneurysm as well as between aneurysms, but the clinical significance of these findings remain unknown. Conclusions: Visualization of large vessel pulsatility is possible using ECG-gated CT angiography, partial scan reconstruction, automatic segmentation, centerline generation, and coregistration of temporally resolved datasets.

  15. ADULT ABDOMINAL WALL HERNIA IN IBADAN

    OpenAIRE

    Ayandipo, O.O; Afuwape, O.O.; Irabor, D. O.; Abdurrazzaaq, A.I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abdominal wall hernias are very common diseases encountered in surgical practice. Groin hernia is the commonest type of abdominal wall hernias. There are several methods of hernia repair but tension-free repair (usually with mesh) offers the least recurrent rate. Aim: To describe the clinical profile of anterior abdominal wall hernias and our experience in the surgical management of identified hernias Method: The project was a retrospective study of all patients with abdominal wal...

  16. Abdominal shotgun trauma: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Toutouzas, Konstantinos G; Larentzakis, Andreas; Drimousis, Panagiotis; Riga, Maria; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Katsaragakis, Stylianos

    2008-01-01

    Introduction One of the most lethal mechanisms of injury is shotgun wound and particularly the abdominal one. Case presentation We report a case of a 45 years old male suffering abdominal shotgun trauma, who survived his injuries. Conclusion The management of the abdominal shotgun wounds is mainly dependent on clinical examination and clinical judgment, while requires advanced surgical skills.

  17. Randomized clinical trial of mast cell inhibition in patients with a medium-sized abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Eldrup, N; Hultgren, R;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is thought to develop as a result of inflammatory processes in the aortic wall. In particular, mast cells are believed to play a central role. The AORTA trial was undertaken to investigate whether the mast cell inhibitor, pemirolast, could retard the...... surgery, diabetes mellitus, and severe concomitant disease with a life expectancy of less than 2 years. Included patients were treated with 10, 25 or 40 mg pemirolast, or matching placebo for 52 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in aortic diameter as measured from leading edge adventitia at the...

  18. Vasorelaxation Effect of Estrone Derivate EA204 in Rabbit Aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen and its derivatives exert vascular protective effects, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be studied fully. Objective. To investigate the vasorelaxation effect and related mechanisms of an estrone derivate EA204[3-(2-piperidin-1-yl)-ethoxy-estra-1, 3, 5 (10)-trien-17-one] on isolated arterial preparation from rabbit thoracic aorta. Methods. Aortic rings from rabbit thoracic aorta were prepared and held in small organ bath filled with Krebs solution; tension change was recorded by a multichannel physiological signal collection and handling system. Results. EA204 (10−5 to 10−3 M) induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings with endothelium and without endothelium. In denuded arterial preparations, EA204 had a potent relaxing effect on isolated arterial preparations contracted with phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and high-K+ solution or BaCl2. Mechanism study indicates that EA204 relaxes aortic rings by inhibiting Ca2+ channels (both receptor-operating Ca2+ channels and the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels were involved) to decrease extracellular Ca2+ influx and intracellular Ca2+ release. EA204 is different from verapamil, which is a noncompetitive inhibitor of Ca2+ channels. In addition, K+ channels opening may contribute to this vasorelaxation effect. Conclusion. EA204 had a potent endothelium-independent relaxing effect on isolated arterial preparation by inhibiting Ca2+ channels and opening K+ channels. The results suggest that EA204 is a potential compound for treatment of cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. PMID:27190689

  19. Coarctation of the aorta:Management from infancy to adulthood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rachel; D; Torok; Michael; J; Campbell; Gregory; A; Fleming; Kevin; D; Hill

    2015-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta is a relatively common form of congenital heart disease, with an estimated incidence of approximately 3 cases per 10000 births. Coarctation is a heterogeneous lesion which may present across all age ranges, with varying clinical symptoms, in isolation, or in association with other cardiac defects. The first surgical repair of aortic coarctation was described in 1944, and since that time, several other surgical techniques have been developed and modified. Additionally, transcatheter balloon angioplasty and endovascular stent placement offer less invasive approaches for the treatment of coarctation of the aorta for some patients. While overall morbidity and mortality rates are low for patients undergoing intervention for coarctation, both surgical and transcatheter interventions are not free from adverse outcomes. Therefore, patients must be followed closely over their lifetime for complications such as recoarctation, aortic aneurysm, persistent hypertension, and changes in any associated cardiac defects. Considerable effort has been expended investigating the utility and outcomes of various treatment approaches for aortic coarctation, which are heavily influenced by a patient’s anatomy, size, age, and clinical course. Here we review indications for intervention, describe and compare surgical and transcatheter techniques for management of coarctation, and explore the associated outcomes in both children and adults.

  20. Aortography delays surgery of CT proven acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta; Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A.; Moreno, R.; Martin, V.; Iniguez, A.; Alvarez, J. (Hospital Universitario de San Carlos, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Radiodiagnostico, Servicio de Cirurgia Vascular, Servicio de Exploracion Cardiopulmonar, and Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos)

    1991-09-01

    A case of acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta was diagnosed by dynamic CT. Angiographic confirmation was required, delaying surgical repair and contribution to the fatal outcome. If reliable findings of acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta are shown by CT, we question the usefulness of angiographic confirmation in such cases. (orig.).

  1. Possible dual role of decorin in abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshiro Ueda

    Full Text Available Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is characterized by chronic inflammation, which leads to pathological remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Decorin, a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan, has been suggested to regulate inflammation and stabilize the extracellular matrix. Therefore, the present study investigated the role of decorin in the pathogenesis of AAA. Decorin was localized in the aortic adventitia under normal conditions in both mice and humans. AAA was induced in mice using CaCl2 treatment. Initially, decorin protein levels decreased, but as AAA progressed decorin levels increased in all layers. Local administration of exogenous decorin prevented the development of CaCl2-induced AAA. However, decorin was highly expressed in the degenerative lesions of human AAA walls, and this expression positively correlated with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 expression. In cell culture experiments, the addition of decorin inhibited secretion of MMP-9 in vascular smooth muscle cells, but had the opposite effect in macrophages. The results suggest that decorin plays a dual role in AAA. Adventitial decorin in normal aorta may protect against the development of AAA, but macrophages expressing decorin in AAA walls may facilitate the progression of AAA by up-regulating MMP-9 secretion.

  2. Intestinal contrasting in abdominal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 56 patients undergoing abdominal CT the gastro-intestinal tract was defined by negative contrast instead of the conventional positive contrast from an iodine containing contrast medium. The contrast material was a 2 1/2% mannitol solution and was used for filling the rectum. Filling of the gastro-intestinal tract was of similar quality to that obtained with positve contrast media. The number of artifacts due to high contrast boundaries was slightly greater with the negative contrast than if would have been with positive contrast. Differentiation of the gastro-intestinal tract from other abdominal organs was equally good for both methods. The negative contrast method was poor in diagnosing cystic tumours but proved much better than positive contrast for evaluating the wall of the gastro-intestinal tract. (orig.)

  3. Sonography of blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonographic examination of the abdomen after blunt abdominal trauma represents a rapid and effective diagnostic method without bothering the patient. It has proved its value not only in the confirmation or exclusion of free fluid in the abdomen caused by liver of spleen rupture, but also in such cases actually it replaces peritoneal lavage or exploratory laparotomy. It is also qualified for diagnosis of intraparenchymal or subcapsular hemorrhages, intraperitoneal as well as retroperitoneal and for follow up. In particualr delayed bleedings including the risk of a retarded organ rupture can be detected early. A failure rate of 1.4% in 282 sonographically examined cases of blunt abdominal trauma further confirms the reliability of this method. (orig.)

  4. Acupuncture Treatment of Abdominal Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金生

    2002-01-01

    @@ Case History Mr. Li, a university student aged 23 years, paid his first visit on July 16, 2001, with the chief complaint of abdominal pain for one day. The patient stated that one day before when it happened to be the weekend, he got abdominal pain after supper, which went worse gradually and caused him to roll all over in bed. The pain was slightly alleviated half an hour later after he had taken some pain killers. Upon inquiry, the patient said that because of their newly graduation from the university, he and his classmates were so excited that they went to have a sumptuous lunch with alcoholic drinks. And in the evening he ate again a delicious supper cooked for him by his mother, after which he continued to have some fruit and dessert.

  5. Functional Abdominal Bloating with Distention

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Stephen Norman

    2012-01-01

    Ten to 25% of healthy persons experience bloating. It is particularly common in persons with the irritable bowel syndrome and constipation. While the cause of bloating remains unknown old explanations such as a excessive intestinal gas, exaggerated lumbar lordosis and psychiatric problems have been disproved. New suggestions include recent weight gain, weak or inappropriately relaxed abdominal muscles, an inappropriately contracted diaphragm and retained fluid in loops of distal small bowel. ...

  6. CT of abdominal blunt trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied CT findings and interventional radiology including therapeutic procedures in 43 cases with abdominal blunt trauma, retrospectively. All of parenchymal organ's injuries, and injuries of duodenum and retroperitoneum were correctly diagnosed by CT. In 14 cases with only hemoperitoneum or no positive findings on CT, 4 cases were jejunal perforations, and remaining 10 cases were conservatively treated and relieved. We have to take care that the similar CT findings include the opposite results to need surgery and not. (author)

  7. [A case of abdominal wall actinomycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Jin Soo; Cho, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Seung Bong; Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Il; Lee, In Kyu

    2015-04-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous infectious disease caused by actinomyces species that is characterized by formation of characteristic clumps called as sulfur granules. Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare disease and is often difficult to diagnose before operation. Abdominal actinomycosis infiltrating into the abdominal wall and adhering to the colon is even rarer. Most abdominal actinomycosis develops after operation, trauma or inflammatory bowel disease, and is also considered as an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patient with underlying malignancy, diabetes mellitus, human immunodeficiency virus infection, etc. Actinomycosis is diagnosed based on histologic demonstration of sulfur granules in surgically resected specimen or pus, and treatment consists of long-term penicillin based antibiotics therapy with or without surgical resection. Herein, we report an unusual case of abdominal wall actinomycosis which developed in a patient after acupuncture and presented as abdominal wall mass that was first mistaken for abdominal wall invasion of diverticulum perforation. PMID:25896158

  8. MR imaging of the thoracic aorta in patients with Marfan syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gated MR imaging was used to evaluate the thoracic aorta in 11 with Marfan syndrome, eight patients with aneurysm of the ascending aorta, and 20 healthy subjects. The aortic diameter was measured on transverse and sagittal images at the levels of the sinuses of Valsalva, the caudal portion of the ascending aorta, the prearch region, the middle arch, and the descending aorta. The sinus of Valsalva-prearch region aortic diameter ratio in patients with Marfan syndrome was significantly greater than in the two other groups, indicating the characteristic shape of the Maranoid aorta. MR imaging allows definitive measurements' of aortic dimensions and is a valuable noninvasive method for monitoring the course of aortic enlargement

  9. Protective effect of zingerone on increased vascular contractility in diabetic rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareib, Salah A; El-Bassossy, Hany M; Elberry, Ahmed A; Azhar, Ahmad; Watson, Malcolm L; Banjar, Zainy M; Alahdal, Abdulrahman M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and possible mechanism of action of zingerone, the main constituent of ginger, on vascular reactivity in isolated aorta from diabetic rats. The results show that incubation of aortae with zingerone alleviates the exaggerated vasoconstriction of diabetic aortae to phenylephrine, as well as the impaired relaxatory response to acetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, Zingerone directly relax phenylephrine-precontracted aortae. The vasorelaxatory response is significantly attenuated by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride and the guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue but no effect of either the potassium channels blocker tetraethylammonium chloride, or the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin was observed. Zingerone had no effect on advanced glycation end product formation as well. In conclusion, zingerone ameliorates enhanced vascular contraction in diabetic aortae which may be mediated by its vasodilator effect through NO- and guanylate cyclase stimulation. PMID:27020549

  10. [A case report of emergency surgical repair of traumatic transection of thoracic descending aorta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, K; Sudo, K; Kodama, J; Unno, T; Hayashi, N; Tadokoro, M; Kokubo, J; Ikeda, K; Mizuno, A; Tanaka, H

    1991-10-01

    The injury to the thoracic aorta caused by blunt chest trauma is often fatal. This case is 22-year-old male suffering from transection of the thoracic descending aorta caused by traffic accident. He was transported to our emergency room by an ambulance 15 minutes after the accident. Hundred fifty minutes after arrival to the hospital, we were rush to bring him to the operation theater suspecting serious injury of the thoracic organs in association with left hemothorax. The left standard thoracotomy disclosed the injury of the thoracic descending aorta. Simple cross clamp was applied to the thoracic descending aorta distal to the left subclavian artery for 20 minutes. Completely transected aorta was reapproximated using monofilament 3-0 polypropylene sutures with running manner. He tolerated the procedure well without any complication. His postoperative course was uneventful. He was followed up at the orthopedic department for associated hip fracture thereafter. PMID:1942696

  11. Abdominal wound closure: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams ZF

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zachary F Williams, William W Hope Department of Surgery, South East Area Health Education Center, New Hanover Regional Medical Center, Wilmington, NC, USA Abstract: This review examines both early and late wound complications following laparotomy closure, with particular emphasis on technical aspects that reduce hernia formation. Abdominal fascial closure is an area of considerable variation within the field of general surgery. The formation of hernias following abdominal wall incisions continues to be a challenging problem. Ventral hernia repairs are among the most common surgeries performed by general surgeons, and despite many technical advances in the field, incisional hernia rates remain high. Much attention and research has been directed to the surgical management of hernias. Less focus has been placed on prevention of hernia formation despite its obvious importance. This review examines the effects of factors such as the type of incision, suture type and size, closure method, patient risk factors, and the use of prophylactic mesh. Keywords: incisional, abdominal, hernia, prevention, wound closure techniques 

  12. Acute Abdominal Pain in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reust, Carin E; Williams, Amy

    2016-05-15

    Acute abdominal pain accounts for approximately 9% of childhood primary care office visits. Symptoms and signs that increase the likelihood of a surgical cause for pain include fever, bilious vomiting, bloody diarrhea, absent bowel sounds, voluntary guarding, rigidity, and rebound tenderness. The age of the child can help focus the differential diagnosis. In infants and toddlers, clinicians should consider congenital anomalies and other causes, including malrotation, hernias, Meckel diverticulum, or intussusception. In school-aged children, constipation and infectious causes of pain, such as gastroenteritis, colitis, respiratory infections, and urinary tract infections, are more common. In female adolescents, clinicians should consider pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy, ruptured ovarian cysts, or ovarian torsion. Initial laboratory tests include complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein, urinalysis, and a pregnancy test. Abdominal radiography can be used to diagnose constipation or obstruction. Ultrasonography is the initial choice in children for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, pancreatitis, ovarian cyst, ovarian or testicular torsion, pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy-related pathology, and appendicitis. Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain requiring surgery, with a peak incidence during adolescence. When the appendix is not clearly visible on ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:27175718

  13. Endovascular treatment of thoracic aorta aneurysm and dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim is to give up to date information about modern endovascular treatment of aortic pathology Dissection and aneurysms of the aorta are life threatening condition requiring in most of the cases prompt surgical or endovascular treatment because of the poor natural evolution. Purpose: to assess the immediate and 1-year outcome of endovascular treatment in broad spectrum of acute and subacute aortic syndrome during the last 3 years (November 2012 - August 2015) in City Clinic (Sofia, Bulgaria). We performed endovascular treatment of 47 patients (43 men, 4 women) at average age 54 y. with dissection (24) and aneurysms (23) of the aortic arch and thoracic aorta (in 5 emergent treatment was performed for aortic rupture). All patients were treated with minimal surgical femoral approach. In 4 (9%) of them initial carotid to carotid bypass was performed in order to provide a sufficient landing zone for the endograft implantation.the last 9 patients (19%) were treated without general anesthesia with either deep sedation or epidural anesthesia. Results: In all patients successful endograft implantation was achieved. Additional stent-graft or open cell stent was implanted in 4 cases in order to centralize the flow in the compressed true lumen. In 5 cases additional vascular plug or large coil was delivered in the left subclavian arteryostium in order to interrupt retrograde aneurysm or false lumen filling. Complications: 30 days mortality-2.2%, neurologic disorders (4.4%). one year survival- 45 (90.5%). 3 and 6 mo control CT scan showed no migration of the graft in 100%, full false lumen isolation in 19 out of 24 dissections (80%) and aneurysm free of expansion in 20 out of 23 (86%), patent carotid bay-pass graft in 4 of 4 (100%). This one center study showed excellent immediate and 1 year clinical and device results from endovascular repair of potentially fatal disease. Endovascular treatment is a method of choice for broad spectrum of aortic pathology

  14. Inhibition of PKC-dependent extracellular Ca{sup 2+} entry contributes to the depression of contractile activity in long-term pressure-overloaded endothelium-denuded rat aortas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, J.; López, R.M.; López, P.; Castillo, M.C.; Querejeta, E.; Ruiz, A.; Castillo, E.F. [Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-08-01

    We examined the contractile responsiveness of rat thoracic aortas under pressure overload after long-term suprarenal abdominal aortic coarctation (lt-Srac). Endothelium-dependent angiotensin II (ANG II) type 2 receptor (AT{sub 2}R)-mediated depression of contractions to ANG II has been reported in short-term (1 week) pressure-overloaded rat aortas. Contractility was evaluated in the aortic rings of rats subjected to lt-Srac or sham surgery (Sham) for 8 weeks. ANG I and II levels and AT{sub 2}R protein expression in the aortas of lt-Srac and Sham rats were also evaluated. lt-Srac attenuated the contractions of ANG II and phenylephrine in the aortas in an endothelium-independent manner. However, lt-Srac did not influence the transient contractions induced in endothelium-denuded aortic rings by ANG II, phenylephrine, or caffeine in Ca{sup 2+}-free medium or the subsequent tonic constrictions induced by the addition of Ca{sup 2+} in the absence of agonists. Thus, the contractions induced by Ca{sup 2+} release from intracellular stores and Ca{sup 2+} influx through stored-operated channels were not inhibited in the aortas of lt-Srac rats. Potassium-elicited contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats remained unaltered compared with control tissues. Consequently, the contractile depression observed in aortic tissues of lt-Srac rats cannot be explained by direct inhibition of voltage-operated Ca{sup 2+} channels. Interestingly, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats were depressed in the presence but not in the absence of extracellular Ca{sup 2+}. Neither levels of angiotensins nor of AT{sub 2}R were modified in the aortas after lt-Srac. The results suggest that, in rat thoracic aortas, lt-Srac selectively inhibited protein kinase C-mediated activation of contraction that is dependent on extracellular Ca{sup 2+} entry.

  15. Diagnosis of hepatic steatosis by contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: to evaluate the diagnostic capacity of abdominal computed tomography in the assessment of hepatic steatosis using the portal phase with a simplified calculation method as compared with the non-contrast-enhanced phase. Materials and methods: in the present study, 150 patients were retrospectively evaluated by means of non-contrast-enhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography. One hundred patients had hepatic steatosis and 50 were control subjects. For the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in the portal phase, the authors considered a result of < 104 HU calculated by the formula [L - 0.3 × (0.75 × P + 0.25 × A)] / 0.7, where L, P and A represent the attenuation of the liver, of the main portal vein and abdominal aorta, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated, using non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography as the reference standard. Results: the simplified calculation method with portal phase for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis showed 100% sensitivity, 36% specificity, negative predictive value of 100% and positive predictive value of 75.8%. The rate of false positive results was 64%. False negative results were not observed. Conclusion: The portal phase presents an excellent sensitivity in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis, as compared with the non-contrast-enhanced phase of abdominal computed tomography. However, the method has low specificity. (author)

  16. Diagnosis of hepatic steatosis by contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo da Fonseca Monjardim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the diagnostic capacity of abdominal computed tomography in the assessment of hepatic steatosis using the portal phase with a simplified calculation method as compared with the non-contrast-enhanced phase. Materials and Methods In the present study, 150 patients were retrospectively evaluated by means of non-contrast-enhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography. One hundred patients had hepatic steatosis and 50 were control subjects. For the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in the portal phase, the authors considered a result of < 104 HU calculated by the formula [L - 0.3 × (0.75 × P + 0.25 × A] / 0.7, where L, P and A represent the attenuation of the liver, of the main portal vein and abdominal aorta, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated, using non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography as the reference standard. Results The simplified calculation method with portal phase for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis showed 100% sensitivity, 36% specificity, negative predictive value of 100% and positive predictive value of 75.8%. The rate of false positive results was 64%. False negative results were not observed. Conclusion The portal phase presents an excellent sensitivity in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis, as compared with the non-contrast-enhanced phase of abdominal computed tomography. However, the method has low specificity.

  17. Effect of telmisartan on the expression of adiponectin receptors and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase in the heart and aorta in type 2 diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zhixin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic cardiovascular disease is associated with decreased adiponectin and increased oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of telmisartan on the expression of adiponectin receptor 2 (adipoR2 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase subunits in the heart and the expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1 in aorta in type 2 diabetic rats. Methods Type 2 diabetes was induced by high-fat and high-sugar diet and intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ. Heart function, adipoR2, p22phox, NOX4, glucose transporter 4(GLUT4, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGFin the heart, and adipoR1, MCP-1 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB in aorta were analyzed in controls and diabetic rats treated with or without telmisartan (5mg/kg/d by gavage for 12 weeks. Results Heart function, plasma and myocardial adiponectin levels, the expression of myocardial adipoR2 and GLUT4 were significantly decreased in diabetic rats (P Conclusions Our results suggest that telmisartan upregulates the expression of myocardial adiponectin, its receptor 2 and GLUT4. Simultaneously, it downregulates the expression of myocardial p22phox, NOX4, MCP-1, and CTGF, contributing so to the improvement of heart function in diabetic rats. Telmisartan also induces a protective role on the vascular system by upregulating the expression of adipoR1 and downregulating the expression of MCP-1 and NF-κB in the abdominal aorta in diabetic rats.

  18. Urgent Abdominal Re-Explorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peskersoy Mustafa

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of a number of complications that occur after abdominal surgeries may require that Urgent Abdominal Re-explorations (UARs, the life-saving and obligatory operations, are performed. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reasons for performing UARs, outcomes of relaparotomies (RLs and factors that affect mortality. Methods Demographic characteristics; initial diagnoses; information from and complications of the first surgery received; durations and outcomes of UAR(s performed in patients who received early RLs because of complicated abdominal surgeries in our clinic between 01.01.2000 and 31.12.2004 were investigated retrospectively. Statistical analyses were done using the chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results Early UAR was performed in 81 out of 4410 cases (1.8%. Average patient age was 50.46 (13–81 years with a male-to-female ratio of 60/21. Fifty one (62.96% patients had infection, 41 (50.61% of them had an accompanying serious disease, 24 (29.62% of them had various tumors and 57 (70.37% patients were operated under emergency conditions during first operation. Causes of urgent abdominal re-explorations were as follows: leakage from intestinal repair site or from anostomosis (n:34; 41.97%; hemorrhage (n:15; 18.51%; intestinal perforation (n:8; 9.87%; intraabdominal infection or abscess (n:8; 9.87%; progressive intestinal necrosis (n:7; 8.64%; stomal complications (n:5; 6.17%; and postoperative ileus (n:4; 4.93%. Two or more UARs were performed in 18 (22.22% cases, and overall mortality was 34.97% (n:30. Interval between the first laparotomy and UAR averaged as 6.95 (1–20 days, and average hospitalization period was 27.1 (3–78 days. Mortality rate was found to be higher among the patients who received multiple UARs. The most common (55.5% cause of mortality was sepsis/multiple organ failure (MOF. The rates for common mortality and sepsis/MOF-dependent mortality that occured following UAR were

  19. Effect of contrast material pushed with saline solution using dual injection on enhancement of aorta, portal vein, and liver parenchyma in multislice CT of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the effect of the enhancement value of the abdominal aorta, portal vein, and liver parenchyma by the saline flush technique. One hundred eight patients who underwent multislice CT of the liver were randomly divided into four groups: 100 ml of contrast material (Iomeprol 300 mgI/ml or 350 mgI/ml) only and 100 ml of contrast material (300 mgI/ml or 350 mgI/ml) flushed with 50 ml of saline solution at a rate of 5 ml/sec. The saline flush technique demonstrated statistically significantly greater portal enhancement. Therefore, we consider that this technique contributes to the visualization of three-dimensional CT portography. (author)

  20. The AORTA Reasoning Framework - Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    Intelligent agents are entities defined by, among other things, autonomy. In systems of many agents, the agents’ individual autonomy can lead to uncertainty since their behavior cannot always be predicted. Usually, this kind of uncertainty is accommodated by imposing an organization upon the system......; an organization that defines expected behavior of the agents and attempts to restrict the agents’ behavior to let it match the expectations. Restrictions can lead to a decrease in autonomy, contradicting one of the pillars of intelligent agents. This thesis presents the AORTA reasoning framework......, which is a practical component (founded in logic) that enriches intelligent agents with organizational reasoning capabilities. We take the agent’s perspective by devising a component that integrates with the agent’s usual reasoning capabilities in a non-intrusive way. This results in agents that are...

  1. Ayahuasca Alters Structural Parameters of the Rat Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitol, Dimitrius L; Siéssere, Selma; Dos Santos, Rafael G; Rosa, Maria L N M; Hallak, Jaime E C; Scalize, Priscilla H; Pereira, Bruno F; Iyomasa, Melina M; Semprini, Marisa; Riba, Jordi; Regalo, Simone C H

    2015-07-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic brew traditionally used by Northwestern Amazonian indigenous groups for therapeutic purposes. It is prepared by the decoction of Banisteriopsis caapi with the leaves of Psychotria viridis. Banisteriopsis caapi contains β-carbolines that are inhibitors of monoamine oxidase and P. viris is rich in dimethyltryptamine, a 5-HT(1A/2A/2C) agonist. Acute ayahuasca administration produces moderate cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers, but information regarding long-term use is lacking. This study investigated the effects of ayahuasca (2-4 mL/kg) in the rat aorta after acute and chronic (14 days) administration. Ayahuasca caused flattening and stretching of vascular smooth muscle cells and changes in the arrangement and distribution of collagen and elastic fibers. Chronic treatment with the higher dose significantly increased media thickness and the ratio of media thickness to lumen diameter. More research is needed on the cardiovascular function of long-term ayahuasca consumers. PMID:25714595

  2. MR imaging of the aorta following coarctation repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrocardiographically gated, spin-echo MR imaging was performed in 13 children, aged 1 year to 19 years (mean, 8.7 years), who had previous coarctation repair from 4 months to 15 years (mean, 3 years) prior to imaging. Nine had end-to-end anastomotic repairs, two had subclavian flaps, and two had Dacron patch aortoplasties. Initial axial localizing scans (echo time, 20 msec) followed by direct sagittal scanning were used to obtain images through the repair site. Comparison was made between cross-sectional dimensions at, and just distal to, the site of anastomosis. There was good correlation between clinical findings, catheterization data, and MR imaging. MR imaging offers a useful technique to evaluate the aorta following coarctation repair

  3. Effects of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction on radiation dose reduction and diagnostic accuracy of pediatric abdominal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since children are more radio-sensitive than adults, there is a need to minimize radiation exposure during CT exams. To evaluate the effects of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) on radiation dose reduction, image quality and diagnostic accuracy in pediatric abdominal CT. We retrospectively reviewed the abdominal CT examinations of 41 children (24 boys and 17 girls; mean age: 10 years) with a low-dose radiation protocol and reconstructed with ASIR (the ASIR group). We also reviewed routine-dose abdominal CT examinations of 41 age- and sex-matched controls reconstructed with filtered-back projection (control group). Image quality was assessed objectively as noise measured in the liver, spleen and aorta, as well as subjectively by three pediatric radiologists for diagnostic acceptability using a four-point scale. Radiation dose and objective image qualities of each group were compared with the paired t-test. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by reviewing follow-up imaging studies and medical records in 2012 and 2013. There was 46.3% dose reduction of size-specific dose estimates in ASIR group (from 13.4 to 7.2 mGy) compared with the control group. Objective noise was higher in the liver, spleen and aorta of the ASIR group (P < 0.001). However, the subjective image quality was average or superior in 84-100% of studies. Only one image was subjectively rated as unacceptable by one reviewer. There was only one case with interpretational error in the control group and none in the ASIR group. Use of the ASIR technique resulted in greater than a 45% reduction in radiation dose without impairing subjective image quality or diagnostic accuracy in pediatric abdominal CT, despite increased objective image noise. (orig.)

  4. Effects of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction on radiation dose reduction and diagnostic accuracy of pediatric abdominal CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sohi; Kim, Myung-Joon; Lee, Mi-Jung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Choon-Sik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Wook; Hong, Jung Hwa [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Since children are more radio-sensitive than adults, there is a need to minimize radiation exposure during CT exams. To evaluate the effects of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) on radiation dose reduction, image quality and diagnostic accuracy in pediatric abdominal CT. We retrospectively reviewed the abdominal CT examinations of 41 children (24 boys and 17 girls; mean age: 10 years) with a low-dose radiation protocol and reconstructed with ASIR (the ASIR group). We also reviewed routine-dose abdominal CT examinations of 41 age- and sex-matched controls reconstructed with filtered-back projection (control group). Image quality was assessed objectively as noise measured in the liver, spleen and aorta, as well as subjectively by three pediatric radiologists for diagnostic acceptability using a four-point scale. Radiation dose and objective image qualities of each group were compared with the paired t-test. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by reviewing follow-up imaging studies and medical records in 2012 and 2013. There was 46.3% dose reduction of size-specific dose estimates in ASIR group (from 13.4 to 7.2 mGy) compared with the control group. Objective noise was higher in the liver, spleen and aorta of the ASIR group (P < 0.001). However, the subjective image quality was average or superior in 84-100% of studies. Only one image was subjectively rated as unacceptable by one reviewer. There was only one case with interpretational error in the control group and none in the ASIR group. Use of the ASIR technique resulted in greater than a 45% reduction in radiation dose without impairing subjective image quality or diagnostic accuracy in pediatric abdominal CT, despite increased objective image noise. (orig.)

  5. Quantification of aortic distensibility in abdominal aortic aneurysm using ECG-gated multi-detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To detect distensibility changes that might be an indicator for an increased risk of rupture, cross-sectional area changes of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) have been determined using ECG-gated CT. Distensibility measurements of the aorta were performed in 67 patients with AAA. Time-resolved images were acquired with a four detector-row CT system using a modified CT-angiography protocol. Pulsatility-related cross-sectional area changes were calculated above and at AAA level by semiautomatic segmentation; distensibility values were obtained using additional systemic blood pressure measurements. Values were compared for small Oe 5 cm (n = 23) aneurysms. The aorta could be segmented successfully in all patients. Upstream AAA distensibility D was significantly higher than at AAA level for both groups: means above AAA (at AAA) Dabove = (1.3 ±0.8) .10 -5 Pa -1 (DAAA (0.6 ±0.5) .10 -5 Pa -1) t-test pD<0.0001. Differences of the distensibility between smaller and larger aneurysms were not found to be significant. Distensibility can be measured non-invasively with ECG-gated CT. The reduction of distensibility within aneurysms compared to normal proximal aorta is subtle; the lack of difference between both small and large aneurysms suggests that this reduction occurs early in the aneurysm's development. Hence, reduced distensibility might be a predictive parameter in patients with high risk of aortic disease. (orig.)

  6. FULL TERM EXTRAUTERINE ABDOMINAL PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extrauterine abdominal pregnancy is extremely rare and is frequently missed during antenatal care, despite the routine use of obstetrics ultrasound. A 23 year old primigravida at 39 weeks of gestation was admitted to the department on December 2 , 2012, in routine hour with transverse lie with oligohydramnios. On examination her vitals and laboratory investigation were within normal limits . One of the ultrasonographic scanning done by radiologist at 35 wk. 3 days gestation demonstrated a single live intrauterine fetus of CGA 33 wk. 1 day with transverse lie , fundal gr II placenta and AFI - 10 cm. Ultrasonography done at the department on the day of admission demonstrated single live intrauterine fetus with transverse lie and AFI - 3.8 cm and EFW 2.4 Kg and placenta was right anterior.. She was planned for elective caesarean section on account of transverse lie and oligohydramnios at term. At laparotomy the following findings were made: Secondary abdominal pregnancy arising from right tubal ectopic rupture and making pseudogesta tional sac with meconium stained liquor. Omentum , right tube and ovary were adhered to sac. The uterus and left tube and ovary were healthy and normal . Other abdominal organs were normal. A 1.5 Kg live male baby with good Apgar score and incompletely formed mandible extracted from pseudo gestational sac. There was significant bleeding from pseudogestational sac and patient went in shock during intraoperative period. One unit whole blood transfused during intraoperative period. Placenta was adherent to the pseudogestational sac so Psudogestational sac was removed with placenta in situ and right sided salpingo - o ophrectomy was also done due to their adherence. Hemostasis was secured. The patient and baby progressed well and were discharged on the seventh postoperative day

  7. Radiography of the abdominal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiography is a very important part of the diagnostic procedure in many small animal diseases. Technically perfect X-rays are essential for the exact diagnosis. The general appearance of the abdominal cavity should be evaluated at first, e.g. the overall contrast and the definition of the visualized organs. Then particular attention should be paid, if there is any peritoneal effusion or free air in the peritoneal cavity. Subsequently each radiographically visible organ has to be evaluated for its position, size, shape and radiographic density

  8. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Linné, Anneli

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is a common disease with a prevalence of 1.5-2.0% in 65-year old men in Sweden. The risk of having AAA is increased with smoking, high age, family history of AAA and cardiovascular disease. Women have a lower prevalence (0.5%) and develop AAA later in life. An AAA seldom gives any symptom prior to rupture. Untreated rupture is associated with 100% mortality, while surgically treated rupture is associated with 25-70% mortality. Prophylactic sur...

  9. Perioperative management of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To summarize the clinical experience of perioperative management in performing endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). Methods: EVAR was performed in 22 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Before treatment the functions of main organs were evaluated and certain measures were adopted in order to protect them. Useful parameters, including the length, diameter, angle and configuration of the proximal and distal aneurysmal neck, the relationship of the aneurysm to aortic branches, the distance from the lowest renal artery to the bifurcation of abdominal aorta, and the quality of access vessels (such as diameter, tortuosity and calcification degree) were determined and assessed with CTA. According to the parameters thus obtained, the suitable stent-graft with ideal diameter and length was selected, and the optimal surgery pattern was employed. Local anesthesia was employed in 20 patients, among them the local anesthesia had to be changed to general anesthesia in one. Epidural anesthesia was carried out in one patient through the surgically-reconstructed iliac artery access,and general anesthesia was employed in one patient who had Stanford type A aortic dissection. The lowest renal artery must be accurately localized before deployment of stent-graft was started. At least one patent internal iliac artery should be reserved when bilateral internal iliac arteries needed to be covered, to be covered by stages or to be reconstructed. After stent-graft placement, angiography must be performed to find out if there was any endoleak and, if any, to determine the type of endoleak and to deal with it properly. Two cases had proximal type I endoleak, so balloon dilation was employed in one and cuff implantation in another one. Distal type I endoleak occurred in one case, but, unfortunately, the iliac artery ruptured when balloon dilation was employed, therefore the patient had to receive vascular repair

  10. On the abdominal pressure volume relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Mulier, Jan Paul; Dillemans, Bruno; Crombach, Mark; Missant, Carlo; Sels, Annabel

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: During insufflation of the abdomen to create a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopy, both intra abdominal pressure and insufflated volume can be measured and are used to calculate the abdominal pressure-volume relationship. First, an accurate, linear relationship was identified using a mathematical model with an elastance, E, or its reciprocal the compliance C and with a pressure at zero volume, PV0. This function was stable and could be used to describe the abdominal characteristics of...

  11. TODDLER WITH RECURRENT ABDOMINAL PAIN: MIGRAINE?

    OpenAIRE

    Amit; Vaishali

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal migraine is a migraine variant, causing chronic idiopathic recurrent abdominal pain in 4-15% of children. It is usually seen between the ages of seven to twelve years and is more common in girls, with peak prevalence at the age of ten years. We report a 3 year old girl suffering from recurrent abdominal pain since 1½ years of age, who underwent extensive investigations as well as diagnostic laparotomy with appendectomy, and was ultimately diagnosed to have abdomi...

  12. A large un-ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm causing pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Jahangir; Ahmed, Abubakr; Coveney, Andrew; Fulton, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    A 79 years old woman presented in a peripheral hospital with dyspnea, right-sided pleuritic chest pain and cough for 3 days. On examination, she was tachycardiac and tachypneic. She had reduced air entry bilaterally on auscultation. Computed tomography-pulmonary angiogram, performed in peripheral Hospital, confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, and she was commenced on warfarin. Ultrasonography showed no evidence of deep venous thrombosis in legs; however, ultrasound of the abdomen revealed an aortic aneurysm. She was hemodynamically stable on transfer to vascular surgery department, and her complete clinical examination revealed a pulsatile mass in the central abdomen. Computed tomography angiogram of aorta showed 8.7-cm abdominal aortic aneurysm. Venogram performed during inferior vena cava (IVC) filter insertion showed that IVC was displaced and compressed due to this large aortic aneurysm, causing thromboembolism. An open repair of the aneurysm was performed with uneventful recovery. PMID:26205717

  13. A primary aorto-duodenal fistula associated with an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm: a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honjo,Osami

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Primary aorto-enteric fistula (PAEFis a serious complication of abdominal aortic aneurysm(AAA. We report a patient with PAEF associated with inflammatory AAA who underwent emergent surgery. A 52-year-old male presented with recurrent hematemesis. A computer tomography scan showed a sealed rupture of the AAA adjacent to the duodenum. At surgery, a coin-sized PAEF was noted. The aorta was replaced with a Dacron graft in situ . Histological examination revealed the characteristics of an inflammatory AAA. The postoperative course was uneventful, and there has been no evidence of infection during a follow-up period of 3 years. We discuss the etiologic and surgical considerations regarding this unusual entity.

  14. Abdominal pain and hematuria: duodenal perforation from ingested foreign body causing ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Nina; Sisson, Kathleen; Albaran, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a relatively common reason for visits to the emergency room. If the FB is symptomatic or damaging to the patient, either endoscopic or surgical intervention should ensue. We present a case of abdominal pain and hematuria beginning ∼24 h after an incidental FB ingestion. Initial CT imaging defined a linear opacity perforating through the posterior duodenal wall abutting the ureter causing inflammation and hydronephrosis. After two unsuccessful endoscopic attempts at retrieval, we were able to identify the object with the aid of intraoperative fluoroscopy and surgically remove the FB. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged home. Posterior duodenal perforation by an FB may not manifest with obvious localized or systemic symptoms unless the perforation involves surrounding structures such as the aorta, vena cava or ureter. In such cases, surgical intervention is required for FB removal. PMID:26903557

  15. Abdominal migraine in childhood: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scicchitano B

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beatrice Scicchitano,1 Gareth Humphreys,1 Sally G Mitton,2 Thiagarajan Jaiganesh1 1Children's Emergency Department, 2Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, St Georges Hospital, St Georges Healthcare NHS Trust, Tooting, London, United Kingdom Abstract: The childhood condition of abdominal migraine has been described under many different synonyms, including "abdominal epilepsy", "recurrent abdominal pain", "cyclical vomiting syndrome", and "functional gastrointestinal disorder". In the early literature, abdominal migraine is included in the "childhood periodic syndrome", first described by Wyllie and Schlesinger in 1933. Abdominal migraine has emerged over the last century as a diagnostic entity in its own right thanks to the development of well defined diagnostic criteria and its recent inclusion in the International Headache Society's Classification of Headache disorders. Despite this progress, little is known about the pathophysiology of the condition, and the treatment options are poorly defined. Here we summarize the recent literature, with particular focus on establishing the diagnosis of abdominal migraine and its pathophysiology, and suggest an approach to management. Keywords: abdominal migraine, recurrent abdominal pain, abdominal epilepsy, cyclical vomiting

  16. TODDLER WITH RECURRENT ABDOMINAL PAIN: MIGRAINE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal migraine is a migraine variant, causing chronic idiopathic recurrent abdominal pain in 4-15% of children. It is usually seen between the ages of seven to twelve years and is more common in girls, with peak prevalence at the age of ten years. We report a 3 year old girl suffering from recurrent abdominal pain since 1½ years of age, who underwent extensive investigations as well as diagnostic laparotomy with appendectomy, and was ultimately diagnosed to have abdominal migraine. She responded well to the prophylactic drug Flunarizine.

  17. Near-infrared spectroscopy assessed cerebral oxygenation during open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Nielsen, H B; Secher, N H

    2016-01-01

    not prevent an increase in ScO2 by 2 % (-1 to 4; P < 0.001) as EtCO2 increased 0.5 kPa (0.1-1.0; P < 0.001) despite an increase in ventilation by 1.8 l min(-1) (0.9-2.7; P < 0.001). Changes in ScO2 related to those in EtCO2 (r = 0.41; P = 0.0001) and cerebral deoxygenation (-15 %) was noted in three......During open abdominal aortic aneurism (AAA) repair cerebral blood flow is challenged. Clamping of the aorta may lead to unintended hyperventilation as metabolism is reduced by perfusion of a smaller part of the body and reperfusion of the aorta releases vasodilatory substances including CO2. We...... intend to adjust ventilation according end-tidal CO2 tension (EtCO2) and here evaluated to what extent that strategy maintains frontal lobe oxygenation (ScO2) as determined by near infrared spectroscopy. For 44 patients [5 women, aged 70 (48-83) years] ScO2, mean arterial pressure (MAP), EtCO2, and...

  18. Abdominal ultrasound in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the ultrasonography findings in abdomen in the AIDS patients in our hospital, as well as the indications for this exploration, assessing the role of abdominal ultrasound (AU). The ultrasonographic and clinical findings in 527 patients who underwent a total of 715 explorations between 1992 and 1996 were studied. Hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly, usually homogeneous, were observed in nearly half of the studies (45%); one third of the patients with marked splenomegaly presented visceral leishmaniasis. Focal lesions in liver and/or spleen, corresponding to angiomas, abscesses, lymphomatous lesions and metastasis, were detected in 5.7% of the explorations. Thirty-five percent of the AU revealed the presence of lymphadenopathy; nodes measuring over 2.5 cm were usually related to potential treatable infection or neoplasm. Thickening of the gallbladder wall did not usually indicate the presence of acute cholecystitis unless Murphy''s sign was also detected. Bile duct dilation and wall thickening was related to opportunistic cholangitis, and the increase in the echogenicity of the renal parenchyma was linked to AIDS-related nephropathy. Despite the fact that many of findings with AU are nonspecific, we consider that this approach should be the principal diagnostic technique in AIDS patients with suspected abdominal pathology or fever of unknown origin. (Author) 43 refs,

  19. The Neonate with Abdominal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bajoghli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal abdominal masses have broad spectrum of pathology, ranging from small lesions found incidentally to large masses occupying the entire of peritoneal cavity. These tumors are benign to malignant, and from unilocular cysts to complex solid lesions. Many of these lesions identified and will treat before delivery. Others are discovered during routine examination. These lesions may be life threatening, or cause persistent morbidity. Some of these have no sequel."nDiagnosis began with history. Characteristic of the mass which must be note include location, size, shape, texture, mobility and tenderness. Other findings should be in mind to find out nature of mass, for example hypoplasia of chest wall with oligohydramnios due to GU tract obstruction (potter sequwnce, a bulging hymen due to hydrometrocolpus, skin metastasis due to neuroblastoma. Radiography is the next step that shows organomegaly and calcification. Next step is US which is an excellent screening tool. CT and MRI are occasionally indicated."nThe purpose of this presentation is to review the diagnosis of abdominal masses in neonates.

  20. Percutaneous drainage of abdominal abcess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Sueleyman E-mail: suleyman.men@deu.edu.tr; Akhan, Okan; Koeroglu, Mert

    2002-09-01

    The mortality in undrained abdominal abscesses is high with a mortality rate ranging between 45 and 100%. The outcome in abdominal abscesses, however, has improved due to advances in image guided percutaneous interventional techniques. The main indications for the catheter drainage include treatment or palliation of sepsis associated with an infected fluid collection, and alleviation of the symptoms that may be caused by fluid collections by virtue of their size, like pancreatic pseudocele or lymphocele. The single liver abscesses may be drained with ultrasound guidance only, whereas the multiple abscesses usually require computed tomography (CT) guidance and placement of multiple catheters. The pancreatic abscesses are generally drained routinely and urgently. Non-infected pancreatic pseudocysts may be simply observed unless they are symptomatic or cause problems such as pain or obstruction of the biliary or the gastrointestinal tract. Percutaneous routes that have been described to drain pelvic abscesses include transrectal or transvaginal approach with sonographic guidance, a transgluteal, paracoccygeal-infragluteal, or perineal approach through the greater sciatic foramen with CT guidance. Both the renal and the perirenal abscesses are amenable to percutaneous drainage. Percutaneous drainage provides an effective and safe alternative to more invasive surgical drainage in most patients with psoas abscesses as well.

  1. Uncluttered single-image visualization of the abdominal aortic vessel tree: Method and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The authors develop a method to visualize the abdominal aorta and its branches, obtained by CT or MR angiography, in a single 2D stylistic image without overlap among branches. Methods: The abdominal aortic vasculature is modeled as an articulated object whose underlying topology is a rooted tree. The inputs to the algorithm are the 3D centerlines of the abdominal aorta, its branches, and their associated diameter information. The visualization problem is formulated as an optimization problem that finds a spatial configuration of the bounding boxes of the centerlines most similar to the projection of the input into a given viewing direction (e.g., anteroposterior), while not introducing intersections among the boxes. The optimization algorithm minimizes a score function regarding the overlap of the bounding boxes and the deviation from the input. The output of the algorithm is used to produce a stylistic visualization, made of the 2D centerlines modulated by the associated diameter information, on a plane. The authors performed a preliminary evaluation by asking three radiologists to label 366 arterial branches from the 30 visualizations of five cases produced by the method. Each of the five patients was presented in six different variant images, selected from ten variants with the three lowest and three highest scores. For each label, they assigned confidence and distortion ratings (low/medium/high). They studied the association between the quantitative metrics measured from the visualization and the subjective ratings by the radiologists. Results: All resulting visualizations were free from branch overlaps. Labeling accuracies of the three readers were 93.4%, 94.5%, and 95.4%, respectively. For the total of 1098 samples, the distortion ratings were low: 77.39%, medium: 10.48%, and high: 12.12%. The confidence ratings were low: 5.56%, medium: 16.50%, and high: 77.94%. The association study shows that the proposed quantitative metrics can predict a reader

  2. CT characteristic findings of pancreatic rupture caused by closed abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study CT characteristic findings of pancreatic rupture caused by closed abdominal trauma. Methods: The clinical and CT data of 6 patients with pancreatic rupture caused by closed abdominal trauma were analyzed retrospectively. CT plain scan and the tripple-phased enhancement scan were performed, multi-planar reformation (MPR) and maximum intensity projection (MIP)were used after CT scanning. Thin slice of CT scan and post-processing technique of imaging were used furthermore. Results: The rupture of pancreatic neck and tail were shown in 2 cases, the rupture of pancreatic head and body in 1 case. Main CT findings were such as following: (1) Hematomas in pancreas or in pancreatic surrounding tissues were shown in 6 cases, they were hyperintensity or slight hyperintensity in plain scan and were not enhanced in three-phase dynamic scan of pancreas. (2) Pancreatic splits, which were relative hypointensity after administration of CT contrast agent in the pancreatic phase, were found in 6 cases, they were like slit-shaped or wedge-shaped or pancreas separated completely in situs. In the pancreatic phase, pancreas parenchyma enhanced obviously but hematoma in the splits did not enhanced, and this drew the outline of pancreatic splits clearly. (3)Contrast agent in the pancreatic hematomas, which leaked from vessels of pancreas, were shown in two patients, like dot or nodule or' pond, were highly intensity in artery phase, and there were more leaking of contrast agent in the pancreatic phase, whose intensity was same as abdominal aorta in the same slice image. In the delayed phase, the volume of leaking contrast agent enlarged and they had higher intensity while intensity of abdominal aorta in same slice image decreased obviously. (4) Dilation of the Wirsung duct, which was like curved-tube, was shown in one patient. (5) Meanwhile the contusion of liver, kidney or spleen with pancreatic rupture were found in 4 patients. Conclusion: The pancreatic rupture has

  3. Uso da peritoneostomia na sepse abdominal Laparostomy in abdominal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenal da Rocha Torres Neto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as modalidades terapêuticas da sepse abdominal, a peritoneostomia tem papel decisivo permitindo explorações e lavagens da cavidade de forma facilitada. Observamos pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de sepse abdominal internados no Serviço de Coloproctologia do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Sergipe, e que foram submetidos a peritoneostomia de janeiro de 2004 a janeiro de 2006. Foram avaliados quanto ao diagnóstico primário e secundário, tipo de peritonite secundária, antibioticoterapia, esquema de lavagens, tempo de peritoneostomia, complicações e desfecho. Estudamos 12 pacientes, com idade de 15 a 57, média de 39,3 anos. Diagnóstico primário: abdome agudo inflamatório em 6(50%, abdome agudo obstrutivo em 2(16,7%, abdome agudo perfurativo em 2(16,7%, fístula enterocutânea em 1(8,3% e abscesso intra-cavitário em 1(8,3%. Diagnóstico secundário: perfuração de cólon em 4(33,3%, abscessos intra-cavitários em 3(25%, deiscências de anastomoses em 3(25%, 1(8,3% com tumor perfurado de sigmóide e 1(8,3% com necrose de cólon abaixado. Peritonite fecal em 10(83,3% e purulenta em 2(16,7%. A antibioticoterapia teve duração média de 19 dias. Lavagens de demanda em 6(50%, programadas em 4(33,3% e regime misto em 2(16,7%. O tempo médio de peritoneostomia foi de 10,9 dias (1-36. Como complicações: evisceração em 2(16,7% e fistulização em 1(8,3%. Quatro pacientes evoluíram com óbito.Among the therapeutics approach form of abdominal sepsis, the laparostomy has a decisive role allowing cavity explorations and lavages in an easier way. We study patients with abdominal sepsis diagnoses admitted to our surgical service of Coloproctology form Sergipe´s Federal University Hospital who underwent a Bogotá Bag laparostomy associated or not with polypropylene mesh from January 2004 to January 2006. These patients were assessed as: first and second diagnosis; secondary peritonitis type; antibiotic

  4. Epiaortic fat pad area: A novel index for the dimensions of the ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toufan, Mehrnoush; Pourafkari, Leili; Boudagh, Shabnam; Nader, Nader D

    2016-06-01

    We sought to investigate the possible association between the area of the epiaortic fat pad (EAFP) and dimensions of the ascending aorta. A total of 193 individuals underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) prospectively. The area of the EAFP was traced anterior to the aortic root and correlated with the diameter of the aorta. The mean area of the EAFP was 5.16 ± 2.28 cm(2) Absolute and indexed dimensions of the ascending aorta had a significant correlation with the area of the EAFP (p 65 (p 30 kg/m(2) (p = 0.02) and a history of hyperlipidemia (p = 0.003) were identified as independent predictors of the area for EAFP. In conclusion, both the absolute and indexed diameters of the ascending aorta at the different segments that directly come into contact with the EAFP linearly correlate with the area of the EAFP measured by TTE. PMID:27013643

  5. Pharmacology of Endothelium-Dependent and Independent Relaxation of Rabbit Aorta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kirsten Vendelbo

    2001-01-01

    adrenergic drugs was studied with regard to the possible dependence on endothelium and possible release of nitric oxide (NO). Isolated rabbit thoracis aorta was used for isometric tension measurements; measurements of NO metabolites (Griess Reaction); and eNOS activity measurements (L-citrulline assay). The...... acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit thoracic aorta was: independent of EDTA and ascorbic acid; the same whether the physiological salt solution (PSS) was oxygenated with 95% or 21 % O2; independent of the phenylephrine-evoked precontractile tension; and did not differ in unstored or cold strored aorta. It...... concluded that phenylephrine-evoked precontraction of rabbit aorta causes a basal release of NO. The amount of basally released NO is the same independent of gender and it is inactivated by oxygen radicals and divalent metal ions. The acetylcholine-evoked relaxation was uniform along the length of rabbit...

  6. A pathophysiologic enigma. Association of severe central cyanosis and dilatation of the ascending aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is about two cases of severe central cyanosis with ascending dilated aorta presence. It highlights the role of echocardiography in the trans thoracic and trans esophageal modes as methods of definitive diagnosis

  7. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of quinticuspid aortic valve with aortic regurgitation and dilated ascending aorta

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Zhaoqi; Zhang Lijun; Meng Yanfeng; Wang Yongmei; Yang Xiaoming

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We report a rare case of a quinticuspid aortic valve associated with regurgitation and dilation of the ascending aorta, which was diagnosed and post-surgically followed up by cardiovascular magnetic resonance and dual source computed tomography.

  8. Vector flow imaging of the ascending aorta. Are systolic backflow and atherosclerosis related?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Lund, Jens Teglgaard; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2015-01-01

    the ascending aorta in long axis view. The presence of systolic backflow, visualized with TO, was correlated to aortic atherosclerosis, to systolic velocities obtained with transesophageal echocardiography and cardiac output obtained with pulmonary artery catheter thermodilution, to gender, age...

  9. Left Anterolateral Thoracotomy for Simultaneous Correction of Ventricular Septal Defect and Coarctation of the Aorta

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Shu-Hsun; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Chou, Tsai-Fwu; Wang, Shoei-Shen

    1994-01-01

    Three patients with ventricular septal defect and coarctation of the aorta were treated successfully by simultaneous correction of both anomalies through a single incision via a left transsternal anterolateral thoracotomy. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1994; 21:158-60)

  10. Calcified congenital aneurysm of the left sinus of Valsalva associated with coarctation of the aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of calcified unruptured congenital aneurysm of the left sinus of Valsalva associated with coarctation of the aorta is presented. Routine chest radiographs demonstrated unusual curvilinear calcifications at the cardiac base which were subsequently demonstrated within the aneurysm. (orig.)

  11. Tratamento do aneurisma da aorta toracoabdominal com endoprótese ramificada para as artérias viscerais Branched endovascular stent graft for thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Simi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de aneurisma da aorta toracoabdominal (AATA tratado, exclusivamente, pela técnica endovascular, utilizando uma endoprótese ramificada e customizada. Paciente do sexo feminino, 68 anos de idade, tabagista, hipertensa, portadora de extenso AATA e múltiplas comorbidades que restringiam a indicação de cirurgia convencional. O aneurisma iniciava-se na aorta torácica descendente, estendendo-se até a aorta abdominal infra-renal, envolvendo as emergências das artérias viscerais, tronco celíaco, artérias mesentérica superior e renais. O AATA foi tratado pela técnica endovascular com implante de uma endoprótese ramificada. Essa endoprótese ramificada foi customizada com base nas características anatômicas da aorta e no posicionamento dos ramos viscerais, obtidos em angiotomografia, objetivando excluir o aneurisma, mantendo a perfusão das artérias viscerais. O procedimento foi realizado em centro cirúrgico, sob anestesia combinada, regional e geral, antecedido de drenagem liquórica e sob orientação fluoroscópica. O acesso para o implante do corpo principal da endoprótese ramificada e o controle radiológico foram realizados através das artérias femorais, previamente dissecadas. Através das ramificações da endoprótese, foram implantadas extensões secundárias, com stents revestidos, para as respectivas artérias viscerais, cujo acesso foi realizado via artéria axilar esquerda. O tempo total do procedimento foi de 14 horas, com 4 horas e 30 minutos de fluoroscopia, e foram utilizados 120 mL de contraste iodado. No pós-operatório, a paciente apresentou instabilidade hemodinâmica. Ecocardiograma transesofágico mostrou dissecção retrógrada da aorta torácica, tipo A, seguida de trombose espontânea da falsa luz. A tomografia de controle mostrou exclusão do AATA e perviedade das pontes para os ramos viscerais, sem vazamentos. A alta ocorreu no 13º dia de pós-operatório. O tratamento endovascular do

  12. Ruptured Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm and Coarctation of Aorta in a Woman at Early Postpartum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Sener

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coarctation of aorta and sinus of Valsalva aneurysm are frequently missed congenital cardiac defects that their diagnosis might be delayed. To our knowledge, coincidence of these cardiac defects is unusual and has not been reported in the literature before. Here, we present a patient with coarctation of aorta and ruptured noncoronary sinus of Valsalva aneurysm leading to aorto-right atrial fistula in the early postpartum period and our management of this unusual case.

  13. Excitatory effect of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin on the rat isolated aorta.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Y.; Nomura, S; Oshita, Y.; Sakurai, J

    1986-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin caused contraction of the isolated aorta of the rat in a dose-dependent manner. The contractile action caused by the toxin was inhibited or abolished by calcium antagonists such as nifedipine, verapamil and cinnarizine, or a Ca-free medium, but was not affected by phentolamine, chlorpheniramine, atropine, tetrodotoxin or a low Na medium. The toxin stimulated Ca uptake into the aorta in a dose-dependent manner. 8-N,N'-diethylaminooctyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoa...

  14. Aorta-to-right atrium fistula, an unusual complication of endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Miao-yan; Zhong, Dan-dan; Ying, Zhi-qiang

    2009-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) remains a serious disease. Aorta-to-right atrium fistula is a rare but very serious complication of IE and predicts a higher mortality. This report describes a 50-year-old man with endocarditis, vegetation, perforation of noncoronary sinus, and formation of two aorta-to-right atrium fistulas with native valves detected by transthoracic echocardiography. This disease is lethal despite developments in cardiac imaging and antibacterial therapy. Early diagnosis, aggres...

  15. Synovial sarcoma of the abdominal wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case report of synovial sarcoma arising in the abdominal wall is presented. A brief review of the clinical and radiological features of synovial sarcoma is made. Pre-operative diagnosis of an abdominal wall synovial sarcoma is virtually impossible, but should be considered when a soft tissue swelling is found to show amorphous stippled calcification X-ray. (author)

  16. Abdominal Wall Modification for the Difficult Ostomy

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, David E.

    2008-01-01

    A select group of patients with major stomal problems may benefit from operative modification of the abdominal wall. Options may include a modified abdominoplasty (abdominal wall contouring), localized flaps, or liposuction. Although frequently successful, these techniques have the potential for significant morbidity.

  17. Hypoxia inhibits abdominal expiratory nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregosi, R F; Knuth, S L; Ward, D K; Bartlett, D

    1987-07-01

    Our purpose was to examine the influence of steady-state changes in chemical stimuli, as well as discrete peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation, on abdominal expiratory motor activity. In decerebrate, paralyzed, vagotomized, and ventilated cats that had bilateral pneumothoraces, we recorded efferent activity from a phrenic nerve and from an abdominal nerve (cranial iliohypogastric nerve, L1). All cats showed phasic expiratory abdominal nerve discharge at normocapnia [end-tidal PCO2 38 +/- 2 Torr], but small doses (2-6 mg/kg) of pentobarbital sodium markedly depressed this activity. Hyperoxic hypercapnia consistently enhanced abdominal expiratory activity and shortened the burst duration. Isocapnic hypoxia caused inhibition of abdominal nerve discharge in 11 of 13 cats. Carotid sinus nerve denervation (3 cats) exacerbated the hypoxic depression of abdominal nerve activity and depressed phrenic motor output. Stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors with NaCN increased abdominal nerve discharge in 7 of 10 cats, although 2 cats exhibited marked inhibition. Four cats with intact neuraxis, but anesthetized with ketamine, yielded qualitatively similar results. We conclude that when cats are subjected to steady-state chemical stimuli in isolation (no interference from proprioceptive inputs), hypercapnia potentiates, but hypoxia attenuates, abdominal expiratory nerve activity. Mechanisms to explain the selective inhibition of expiratory motor activity by hypoxia are proposed, and physiological implications are discussed. PMID:3624126

  18. Component Separation for Complex Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available COMPONENT SEPARATION FOR COMPLEX ABDOMINAL WALL RECONSTRUCTION ALBANY MEDICAL CENTER ALBANY, NY April 30, 2008 00:00:07 ANNOUNCER: This event is being ... the premiere webcast of a component separation for complex abdominal-wall reconstruction, performed by Dr. Jerome D. ...

  19. Actinomycosis mimicking abdominal neoplasm. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaddegaard, P; Dziegiel, M

    1988-01-01

    In a patient with a 6-month history of nonspecific abdominal complaints, preoperative examination indicated malignant disease involving the right ovary, rectum and sigmoid, but laparotomy revealed abdominal actinomycosis. Removal of the ovary and low anterior colonic resection followed by penicil...

  20. Live secondary abdominal pregnancy- by chance!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Sood

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal pregnancy though rare but is a life threatening situation, if not recognized and managed properly. We are hereby presenting a rare successful outcome in a case of ruptured live Secondary Abdominal pregnancy with placental implants over intestines. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 251-253

  1. Analysis of the association between periportal low attenuation, as seen on CT, after blunt abdominal trauma, and elevated central venous pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the causes of periportal low attenuation, as seen on CT, in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. From among 812 patients who underwent abdominal CT after blunt abdominal trauma, we retrospectively analysed the findings in 124 with evidence of periportal low attenuation. Among these, hepatic injury was noted in only 87. The presence or absence, and extent of hepatic injury, and of periportal low attenuation, as seen on CT, were carefully evaluated. In each case, the ratio of the transverse diameter of the inferior vena cava(IVC) to the aorta at the level of the right adrenal gland provided an indirect measurement of central venous pressure ; for control purposes, the ratio was also obtained in 21 non-traumatic patients with no abnormal abdominal CT findings. Of the 87 patients with hepatic injury, 46 showed no periportal low attenuation, and average value of the ratio between the IVC and aorta was 1.16±0.12, while the remaining 41 patients showed periportal low attenuation with a ratio of 1.51±0.21(p<0.05). In the 37 patients with periportal low attenuation but no evidence of concomitant hepatic injury, the average ratio was 1.52±0.25, while in 21 non-traumatic patients it was 1.15±0.16. For resuscitation, all patients had received 0.5-5.0 litre of IV fluid therapy before CT, and at the time of CT, were normotensive. Rapidly elevated central venous pressure following massive IV infusion therapy in patients with blunt abdominal trauma can be one of the causes of periportal low attenuation, as seen on CT

  2. Fetal abdominal magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review deals with the in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the human fetal abdomen. Imaging findings are correlated with current knowledge of human fetal anatomy and physiology, which are crucial to understand and interpret fetal abdominal MRI scans. As fetal MRI covers a period of more than 20 weeks, which is characterized not only by organ growth, but also by changes and maturation of organ function, a different MR appearance of the fetal abdomen results. This not only applies to the fetal intestines, but also to the fetal liver, spleen, and adrenal glands. Choosing the appropriate sequences, various aspects of age-related and organ-specific function can be visualized with fetal MRI, as these are mirrored by changes in signal intensities. Knowledge of normal development is essential to delineate normal from pathological findings in the respective developmental stages

  3. Fetal abdominal magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: peter.brugger@meduniwien.ac.at; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    This review deals with the in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the human fetal abdomen. Imaging findings are correlated with current knowledge of human fetal anatomy and physiology, which are crucial to understand and interpret fetal abdominal MRI scans. As fetal MRI covers a period of more than 20 weeks, which is characterized not only by organ growth, but also by changes and maturation of organ function, a different MR appearance of the fetal abdomen results. This not only applies to the fetal intestines, but also to the fetal liver, spleen, and adrenal glands. Choosing the appropriate sequences, various aspects of age-related and organ-specific function can be visualized with fetal MRI, as these are mirrored by changes in signal intensities. Knowledge of normal development is essential to delineate normal from pathological findings in the respective developmental stages.

  4. Selective inhibition of NADPH oxidase reverses the over contraction of diabetic rat aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif ur Rehman

    2014-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with 65 mg/kg STZ and development of diabetes was confirmed by testing blood glucose levels. Rats were killed by CO2 asphyxiation, and the thoracic aorta removed and mounted in an organ bath under a tension of 1 g. Diabetic rat aortas exhibit a greatly increased response to phenylephrine, which was reduced to a level consistent with control rat aorta by 10−5 M VAS2870 and 150 U/ml SOD. Incubation with VAS2870 led to an increase in normal rat aorta contraction, but led to a significant reduction in phenylephrine and U46619 induced tone in diabetic rat aorta, which indicates that ROS in diabetic rats directly contributes to these contractile responses. Apocynin and allopurinol had no effect on contraction in diabetic or normal rat aorta. This data is the first to show that selective inhibition of NOX reduces diabetic arterial contraction in direct comparison with inhibition of other known contributors of ROS.

  5. Prospective ECG-gated 320-row CT angiography of the whole aorta and coronary arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yu.; Fan, Zhanming; Xu, Lei; Yang, Lin; Xin, Haiyan; Zhang, Nan [Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing An Zhen Hospital, Beijing (China); Capital Medical University, Ministry of Education, The Key Laboratory of Remodeling-Related Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing An Zhen Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhang, Zhaoqi [Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing An Zhen Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2012-11-15

    To investigate the feasibility of using a prospective ECG-gated wide-volume protocol in CT angiography (CTA) of the whole aorta and coronary arteries (CA). A total of 61 consecutive patients with suspected acute aortic diseases underwent CTA of the whole aorta using a prospective ECG-gated wide-volume CT protocol without heart rate (HR) control. The exposure window was set at 40-50 % of R-R interval (HR {>=}70 bpm) or 70-80 % of R-R interval (HR <70 bpm) in a single heartbeat. The image quality of the ascending aorta, aortic valve and CA was evaluated for motion artefacts. The mean attenuation was measured at different levels of the aorta. The radiation dose and contrast medium volume were recorded. All of the examinations were performed successfully. The image quality was acceptable in the ascending aorta, aortic valve (100 %) and CA (94.4 %). The mean radiation dose was 18.42 {+-} 5.02 mSv. Of 61 patients, 14 were diagnosed with aortic aneurysm and 35 were diagnosed with aortic dissection or intramural haematoma. Coronary artery stenosis was detected in 12 patients. For patients with aortic diseases, CTA of the whole aorta using a prospective ECG-gated wide-volume protocol has the potential to provide additional information about the CA and aortic valve with lower radiation exposure. (orig.)

  6. Effect of coarctation of the aorta and bicuspid aortic valve on flow dynamics and turbulence in the aorta using particle image velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Garcia, Julio; Gaillard, Emmanuel; Maftoon, Nima; Di Labbio, Giuseppe; Cloutier, Guy; Kadem, Lyes

    2014-03-01

    Blood flow in the aorta has been of particular interest from both fluid dynamics and physiology perspectives. Coarctation of the aorta (COA) is a congenital heart disease corresponding to a severe narrowing in the aortic arch. Up to 85 % of patients with COA have a pathological aortic valve, leading to a narrowing at the valve level. The aim of the present work was to advance the state of understanding of flow through a COA to investigate how narrowing in the aorta (COA) affects the characteristics of the velocity field and, in particular, turbulence development. For this purpose, particle image velocimetry measurements were conducted at physiological flow and pressure conditions, with three different aorta configurations: (1) normal case: normal aorta + normal aortic valve; (2) isolated COA: COA (with 75 % reduction in aortic cross-sectional area) + normal aortic valve and (3) complex COA: COA (with 75 % reduction in aortic cross-sectional area) + pathological aortic valve. Viscous shear stress (VSS), representing the physical shear stress, Reynolds shear stress (RSS), representing the turbulent shear stress, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), representing the intensity of fluctuations in the fluid flow environment, were calculated for all cases. Results show that, compared with a healthy aorta, the instantaneous velocity streamlines and vortices were deeply changed in the presence of the COA. The normal aorta did not display any regions of elevated VSS, RSS and TKE at any moment of the cardiac cycle. The magnitudes of these parameters were elevated for both isolated COA and complex COA, with their maximum values mainly being located inside the eccentric jet downstream of the COA. However, the presence of a pathologic aortic valve, in complex COA, amplifies VSS (e.g., average absolute peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 36 N/m2; isolated COA = 19 N/m2), RSS (e.g., average peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5

  7. Current Evidence and Insights about Genetics in Thoracic Aorta Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Bisleri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic aortic aneurysms have been historically considered to be caused by etiologic factors similar to those implied in abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, during the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that almost 20% of thoracic aortic aneurysms may be associated with a genetic disease, often within a syndromic or familial disorder. Moreover, the presence of congenital anomalies, such as bicuspid aortic valve, may have a unique common genetic underlying cause. Finally, also sporadic forms have been found to be potentially associated with genetic disorders, as highlighted by the analysis of rare variants and expression of specific microRNAs. We therefore sought to perform a comprehensive review of the role of genetic causes in the development of thoracic aortic aneurysms, by analyzing in detail the current evidence of genetic alterations in syndromes such as Marfan, Loeys-Dietz, and Ehler-Danlos, familial or sporadic forms, or forms associated with bicuspid aortic valve.

  8. Abdominal Burkitt lymphoma in children : CT finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the CT findings of Burkitt's lymphoma involving the abdomen in children We retrospectively analyzed the abdominal CT of ten children who presented with abdominal symptom. They were confirmed by operation in two cases and by fine needle aspiration biopsy in eight to be suffering from Burkitt's lymphoma. We also abdominal ultrasonography(USG)(n=10) and carried out small bowel follow-through examination(SBS)(n=5). Analyses focused on features of the abdominal mass : bowel wall thickening, ascites, lymphadenopathy, and the involvement of intra-abdominal solid organ. Abdominal CT at the time of presentation showed a huge conglomerated mass encasing segments of small bowel and also peripherally displacing bowel loops(n=9), bowel wall thickening(n=10), and ascites(n=10). In three of these cases, we were able to see tumor necrosis and cavity formation. Extensive infiltration into mesenteric fat and obliteration of tissue plane made it impossible to identify on CT the margin of the tumor and the presence of mesenteric lymphadenopathy. In four patients, sonography showed enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes(15-20mm), and in three, retroperitoneal lymph nodes(5mm, 10mm, 12mm in long dimension) were detected on CT and USG. Abdominal CT can reveal the characteristic imaging features of Burkitt's lymphoma in children. These are a huge conglomerate mass with or without cavity formation, that encases the small bowel and infiltrates the mesentery, ascites, and the relatively spared retroperitoneal lymph nodes

  9. Abdominal Burkitt lymphoma in children : CT finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jae Uoo; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In One; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Ahn, Hyo Seop; Shin, Hee Young [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chi Sung [Seoul City Boramae Hospital Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    To evaluate the CT findings of Burkitt's lymphoma involving the abdomen in children We retrospectively analyzed the abdominal CT of ten children who presented with abdominal symptom. They were confirmed by operation in two cases and by fine needle aspiration biopsy in eight to be suffering from Burkitt's lymphoma. We also abdominal ultrasonography(USG)(n=10) and carried out small bowel follow-through examination(SBS)(n=5). Analyses focused on features of the abdominal mass : bowel wall thickening, ascites, lymphadenopathy, and the involvement of intra-abdominal solid organ. Abdominal CT at the time of presentation showed a huge conglomerated mass encasing segments of small bowel and also peripherally displacing bowel loops(n=9), bowel wall thickening(n=10), and ascites(n=10). In three of these cases, we were able to see tumor necrosis and cavity formation. Extensive infiltration into mesenteric fat and obliteration of tissue plane made it impossible to identify on CT the margin of the tumor and the presence of mesenteric lymphadenopathy. In four patients, sonography showed enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes(15-20mm), and in three, retroperitoneal lymph nodes(5mm, 10mm, 12mm in long dimension) were detected on CT and USG. Abdominal CT can reveal the characteristic imaging features of Burkitt's lymphoma in children. These are a huge conglomerate mass with or without cavity formation, that encases the small bowel and infiltrates the mesentery, ascites, and the relatively spared retroperitoneal lymph nodes.

  10. Abdominal ultrasonographic findings of Yersiniosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To review abdominal ultrasonography in Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis(YP) infection. From June 1993 through June 1994, abdominal ultrasonograms were reviewed in 36 patients with YP infection. The age of patients was from 4 to 14 years. A diagnosis of YP infection was made on the basis of isolation of YP from stool (n=15/36, 41.7%) and by documenting at least a minimum agglutination antibody titer of 1;160 or greater (n=34/36, 94.4%). Abdominal US findings were identified in 33/36 (91.7%) of patients with YP infection. US abnormalities included right lower quadrant abdominal lymphadenopathy in 28/36 (77.8%) of cases: increased bilateral renal cortical echogenecity with renal enlargement, 11/36 (30.6%) of cases:hepatosplenomegaly, 6/36 (16.7%) of cases: bowel wall thickening in termnal ileum and cecum, 4/36 (11.1%) of cases:and ascites, 2/36 (5.5%) of cases. Three patients revealed no abdominal sonographic finding. We conclude that abdominal US can help in the diagnosis of YP infection when US demonstrates multiple right lower quadrant abdominal lymphadenopathy, increased renal cortical echogenecity with renal enlargement, hepatosplenomegaly, intestinal wall thickening or ascites

  11. Radiologic findings of abdominal wall endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the imaging findings of abdominal wall endometriosis. In seven of 17 patients with surgically proven endometriosis of the abdominal wall, we retrospectively reviewed the findings of radiologic studies such as abdominal US (n=3), CT (n=4), and MRI (n=1). One patient under went more than one type of imaging, apparently. The surgical history of the seven, and their symptoms and preoperative diagnosis were reviewed, and the size, location, margin and nature of the mass, and the contrast enhancement patterns observed at radiologic studies, were assessed. The chief symptoms were palpable abdominal wall mass (n=5) and lower abdominal pain (n=2) around a surgical scar. Previous surgery included cesarean section (n=5), cesarean section with oophorectomy (n=1) and appendectomy (n=1). Masses were located in the subcutaneous fat layer (n=5) or rectus abdominis muscle (n=2), and their maximum diameter was 2.6 cm. Imaging findings, which correlated closely with the pathologic findings, included a well (n=5) or poorly marginated (n=2) solid mass, with a focal cystic area apparent in two cases. Although imaging findings of abdominal wall endometriosis may not be specific for diagnosis, the presence of a solid abdominal mass in female patients of reproductive age with a history of surgery is a diagnostic pointer

  12. Radiologic findings of abdominal wall endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jung Wook [Inje Univ. Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-01

    To evaluate the imaging findings of abdominal wall endometriosis. In seven of 17 patients with surgically proven endometriosis of the abdominal wall, we retrospectively reviewed the findings of radiologic studies such as abdominal US (n=3), CT (n=4), and MRI (n=1). One patient under went more than one type of imaging, apparently. The surgical history of the seven, and their symptoms and preoperative diagnosis were reviewed, and the size, location, margin and nature of the mass, and the contrast enhancement patterns observed at radiologic studies, were assessed. The chief symptoms were palpable abdominal wall mass (n=5) and lower abdominal pain (n=2) around a surgical scar. Previous surgery included cesarean section (n=5), cesarean section with oophorectomy (n=1) and appendectomy (n=1). Masses were located in the subcutaneous fat layer (n=5) or rectus abdominis muscle (n=2), and their maximum diameter was 2.6 cm. Imaging findings, which correlated closely with the pathologic findings, included a well (n=5) or poorly marginated (n=2) solid mass, with a focal cystic area apparent in two cases. Although imaging findings of abdominal wall endometriosis may not be specific for diagnosis, the presence of a solid abdominal mass in female patients of reproductive age with a history of surgery is a diagnostic pointer.

  13. Adipocyte in vascular wall can induce the rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugo, Hirona; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Mouri, Youhei; Yanagimoto, Kenichi; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Hashimoto, Keisuke; Sasaki, Takeshi; Sano, Masaki; Yata, Tatsuro; Urano, Tetsumei; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Unno, Naoki; Moriyama, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disease involving the gradual dilation of the abdominal aorta. It has been reported that development of AAA is associated with inflammation of the vascular wall; however, the mechanism of AAA rupture is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying AAA rupture using a hypoperfusion-induced animal model. We found that the administration of triolein increased the AAA rupture rate in the animal model and that the number of adipocytes was increased in ruptured vascular walls compared to non-ruptured walls. In the ruptured group, macrophage infiltration and the protein levels of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 were increased in the areas around adipocytes, while collagen-positive areas were decreased in the areas with adipocytes compared to those without adipocytes. The administration of fish oil, which suppresses adipocyte hypertrophy, decreased the number and size of adipocytes, as well as decreased the risk of AAA rupture ratio by 0.23 compared to the triolein administered group. In human AAA samples, the amount of triglyceride in the adventitia was correlated with the diameter of the AAA. These results suggest that AAA rupture is related to the abnormal appearance of adipocytes in the vascular wall. PMID:27499372

  14. Efficacy of 'fine' focal spot imaging in CT abdominal angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Lawrence Chia Wei; Devapalasundaram, Ashwini; Ardley, Nicholas [Monash Health, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Lau, Kenneth K. [Monash Health, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Monash University, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing, and Health Sciences, Victoria (Australia); Buchan, Kevin [Phillips Healthcare, Clinical Science, PO Box 312, Mont Albert, Victoria (Australia); Huynh, Minh [RMIT University, School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences, Victoria (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    To assess the efficacy of fine focal spot imaging in calcification beam-hardening artefact reduction and vessel clarity on CT abdominal angiography (CTAA). Adult patients of any age and gender who presented for CTAA were included. Thirty-nine patients were examined with a standard focal spot size (SFSS) of 1 x 1 mm in the first 3 months while 31 consecutive patients were examined with a fine focal spot size (FFSS) of 1 x 0.5 mm in the following 3 months. Vessel clarity and calcification beam-hardening artefacts of the abdominal aorta, celiac axis, superior mesenteric artery, inferior mesenteric artery, renal arteries, and iliac arteries were assessed using a 5-point grading scale by two blinded radiologists randomly. Cohen's Kappa test indicated that on average, there was substantial agreement among reviewers for vessel wall clarity and calcification artefact grading. Mann-Whitney test showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups, with FFSS performing significantly better for vessel clarity (U, 6481.50; p < 0.001; r, 0.73) and calcification artefact reduction (U, 1916; p < 0.001; r, 0.77). Fine focus CT angiography produces images with better vessel wall clarity and less vessel calcification beam-hardening artefact. (orig.)

  15. Update on Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Research: From Clinical to Genetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Kuivaniemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is a dilatation of the abdominal aorta with a diameter of at least 3.0 cm. AAAs are often asymptomatic and are discovered as incidental findings in imaging studies or when the AAA ruptures leading to a medical emergency. AAAs are more common in males than females, in individuals of European ancestry, and in those over 65 years of age. Smoking is the most important environmental risk factor. In addition, a positive family history of AAA increases the person’s risk for AAA. Interestingly, diabetes has been shown to be a protective factor for AAA in many large studies. Hallmarks of AAA pathogenesis include inflammation, vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, extracellular matrix degradation, and oxidative stress. Autoimmunity may also play a role in AAA development and progression. In this Outlook paper, we summarize our recent studies on AAA including clinical studies related to surgical repair of AAA and genetic risk factor and large-scale gene expression studies. We conclude with a discussion on our research projects using large data sets available through electronic medical records and biobanks.

  16. Flow dynamics in anatomical models of abdominal aortic aneurysms: computational analysis of pulsatile flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finol, Ender A; Amon, Cristina H

    2003-01-01

    Blood flow in human arteries is dominated by time-dependent transport phenomena. In particular, in the abdominal segment of the aorta under a patient's average resting conditions, blood exhibits laminar flow patterns that are influenced by secondary flows induced by adjacent branches and in irregular vessel geometries. The flow dynamics becomes more complex when there is a pathological condition that causes changes in the normal structural composition of the vessel wall, for example, in the presence of an aneurysm. An aneurysm is an irreversible dilation of a blood vessel accompanied by weakening of the vessel wall. This work examines the importance of hemodynamics in the characterization of pulsatile blood flow patterns in individual Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) models. These patient-specific computational models have been developed for the numerical simulation of the momentum transport equations utilizing the Finite Element Method (FEM) for the spatial and temporal discretization. We characterize pulsatile flow dynamics in AAAs for average resting conditions by means of identifying regions of disturbed flow and quantifying the disturbance by evaluating wall pressure and wall shear stresses at the aneurysm wall. PMID:14515766

  17. Combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic and abdominal splenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadrashid, Reza; Paak, Neda; Salehi, Ahad

    2010-09-01

    We report a case of combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic, and abdominal splenosis who presented with attacks of flushing, tachycardia and vague abdominal pain. The patient's past medical history included a splenectomy due to abdominal trauma and years later, a lung lobectomy due to recurrent pneumonia. An enhancing solid mass adjacent to the upper pole of the left kidney and nodular pleural based lesions in the left hemi-thorax along with nodular lesions in subcutaneous tissue of the left chest wall suggested possible adrenal malignancy with multiple metastases. Histopathologic examination demonstrated benign lesions of ectopic splenic tissue. PMID:20804314

  18. Roentgenologic evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study comprises 25 cases of blunt abdominal trauma proved by surgery. It is concluded that visceral damage by blunt abdominal trauma may be suspected, but can not be satisfactorily diagnosed upon a single plane abdominal roentgenologic examination with clinical support. Contrary to some reports in the literature, rupture of the hallow, viscus is more susceptible than solid organ and ileum is more than jejunum. It is a useful roentgenologic sign denoting distension and small cresent air shadow in the duodenal sweep of the damaged pancreas

  19. Staging of pediatric abdominal malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of this review is the role of CT in the staging of childhood solid abdominal malignancies. Owing to the limitations of space, only the commonest lesions will be discussed in detail: Wilms' tumor, neuroblastoma, and liver tumors. The TNM staging system has been utilized throughout this monograph. It will not be used in this chapter, however, since in this country different staging systems individualized to each pediatric tumor have been developed. These staging systems take into account the different biology of each tumor and have clear correlations with prognosis and therapeutic programs. The discussion centers almost exclusively on the role of CT in the staging and management of neoplastic processes in children. The information required for staging can sometimes be obtained by other imaging modalities (i.e., ultrasound, excretory urography, etc.) The choice of modality will be strongly influenced by techniques and expertise available as well as by the bias of the institution. An additional factor to be taken into consideration will be the economic factor. Prospective reimbursement will strongly encourage the use of tests that are cost-effective and clinically efficacious

  20. Mode B ultrasonography and abdominal Doppler in crab-eating-foxes ( Cerdocyon thous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanna S.L. Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Annually hundreds of crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous are referred to rehabilitation centers and zoos in Brazil. The ultrasonographic study of wildlife species is an important tool for a non-invasive and accurate anatomical description and provides important information for wildlife veterinary care. The aim of the present study was to determine the characteristics of the main abdominal organs as well as the vascular indexes of the abdominal aorta and renal arteries of crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous using mode B ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasonography, respectively. Ultrasonographic features of the main abdominal organs were described and slight differences were noticed between ultrasound imaging of abdominal organs of crab-eating foxes and other species. The bladder presented wall thickness of 12±0.01mm, with three defined layers. Both, the right and left kidneys presented corticomedullary ratio of 1:1 and similarly to the adrenals and the liver, they were homogeneous and hypoechoic compared to the spleen. The spleen was homogeneous and hyperechoic compared to the kidneys. The stomach presented 3 to 5 peristaltic movements per minute, wall thickness of 39±0.05mm and lumen and mucosa with hyperechoic and hypoechoic features, respectively. Small and large intestines presented 2 to 3 peristaltic movements per minute, wall thickness of 34±0.03mm and three defined layers with hyperechogenic (submucosa and serosa and hypoechogenic (muscular features. Ovaries of the female crab-eating fox were hypoechoic compared to the spleen and with heterogeneous parenchyma due to the presence of 2x2mm ovarian follicles. Prostates of the six males were regular and with a well defined boundary, with a homogeneous and hyperechoic parenchyma compared to the spleen. Vascular indexes of the abdominal aorta (PSV: 25.60±0.32cm/s; EDV: 6.96±1.68cm/s; PI: 1.15±0.07 e RI: 0.73±0.07 and right (PSV: 23.08±3.34cm/s; EDV: 9.33±2.36cm/s; PI: 1.01±0

  1. Component Separation for Complex Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... was yes, it did -- right here -- it did cause seromas as well. Another thing was that the ... is two things: one is it's going to cause more adherence of the Veritas to the abdominal ...

  2. An Unusual Case of Abdominal Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby Desai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal calyceal rupture is a usual etiology of abdominal pain in the emergency department. We present a case of unexpected renal calyx rupture in a patient with symptomatology of renal colic. A discussion and review are provided.

  3. Asthma May Raise Risk for Abdominal Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157202.html Asthma May Raise Risk for Abdominal Aneurysm Airway disease ... People 50 and older who have had recent asthma activity appear to be at an increased risk ...

  4. Adhesive intestinal obstruction following blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in diagnosis and management of multiple trauma patients have lead to adopting a conservative approach for most patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Intestinal obstruction is a rare complication for this approach. Herein, we report a 37-year-old male, who did not have an abdominal operation, and who developed adhesive intestinal obstruction 7 weeks following blunt abdominal trauma. We detected no signs of peritonitis or intra-abdominal bleeding clinically or radiologically on admission. We initially treated the intestinal obstruction conservatively, but the obstruction did not resolve. Finally, we performed laparotomy, which showed that the small bowel was matted together by thick fibrous layers of adhesions. We performed adhesiolysis, and the patient was discharged home 3 weeks later. Histopathological findings of the fibrous layer were consistent with repair due to previous trauma and hemorrhage. We review the literature of this rare condition. (author)

  5. Rotura e Hematoma do Recto Abdominal

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, D.; Lindo, T

    2013-01-01

    A miologia ântero-lateral do abdómen é constituída por dois músculos longos, o recto abdominal e o piramidal e três músculos largos, o oblíquo externo, oblíquo interno e transverso abdominal. A bainha do recto abdominal é formada pelas aponevroses de inserção anteriores dos músculos largos do abdómen em volta do recto abdominal, tendo camada anterior e camada posterior. Estes músculos abdominais são responsáveis por flexão e rotação do tronco, compressão e suporte/estabilidade de vísceras abd...

  6. Component Separation for Complex Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available COMPONENT SEPARATION FOR COMPLEX ABDOMINAL WALL RECONSTRUCTION ALBANY MEDICAL CENTER ALBANY, NY April 30, 2008 00:00: ... Koumanis. The surgery comes to you from Albany Medical Center in Albany, New York. In just moments, ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: abdominal wall defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... size and can usually be diagnosed early in fetal development, typically between the tenth and fourteenth weeks of ... organs at the abdominal wall opening late in fetal development may also contribute to organ injury. Intestinal damage ...

  8. Surveillance intervals for small abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bown, Matthew J; Sweeting, Michael J; Brown, Louise C;

    2013-01-01

    Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture....

  9. Audit of abdominal pain in general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, M.W.; Forman, W.M.; Walton, J.

    1985-01-01

    An audit of 150 consecutive cases of abdominal pain presenting to an urban teaching practice between October 1983 and May 1984 was performed. The median duration of pain prior to presentation was two days. Females predominated in all age groups.

  10. Composition of proteoglycans in the aortas of copper-deficient rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnamurthy, B.; Ruiz, H.; Dalferes, E.R. Jr.; Klevay, L.M. (Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans (USA)); Berenson, G. (Department of Agriculture, Grand Forks, ND (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Copper deficiency adversely affects the extracellular matrix of the arterial wall, leading to cardiovascular lesions. To study the lesions resulting from copper deficiency, the composition of proteoglycans from aortas of copper-deficient rats was compared with proteoglycans of aortas from copper-supplemented rats. Copper deficiency in rats was verified by copper levels in adrenal glands (mean {plus minus} SE, 0.37 {plus minus} 0.07 vs 1.03 {plus minus} 0.17 {mu}g/g wet wt in supplemented rats). Total uronate in the aortas from copper-deficient rats was 25% greater than in aortas from copper-supplemented rats, and the proteoglycans from copper-deficient rat aortas were of greater molecular size. Among the glycosaminoglycans the concentration ({mu}g/mg tissue) of isomeric chondroitin sulfates, particularly dermatan sulfate, was greater in copper-deficient animals than in copper-supplemented animals. These observations are similar to earlier findings in experimental atherosclerosis and to a response of cardiovascular connective tissue to injury.

  11. Shape of the dilated aorta in children with bicuspid aortic valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dilated aorta in adults with bicuspid aortic valve has been shown to have different shapes, but it is not known if this occurs in children. This observational study was performed to determine if there are different shapes of the dilated aorta in children with bicuspid aortic valve and their association with age, gender, hemodynamic alterations, and degree of aortic enlargement. One hundred and eighty-seven echocardiograms done on pediatric patients (0 – 18 years) for bicuspid aortic valve, during 2008, were reviewed. Aortic valve morphology, shape/size of the aorta, and pertinent hemodynamic alterations were documented. Aortic dilation was felt to be present when at least one aortic segment had a z-score > 2.0; global aortic enlargement was determined by summing the aortic segment z-scores. The aortic shape was assessed by age, gender, valve morphology, and hemodynamic alterations. Aortic dilation was present in 104/187 patients. The aorta had six different shapes designated from S1 through S6. There was no association between the aortic shape and gender, aortic valve morphology, or hemodynamic abnormalities. S3 was the most common after the age of six years and was associated with the most significant degree of global aortic enlargement. The shape of the dilated aorta in children with bicuspid aortic valve does not occur in a uniform manner and multiple shapes are seen. S2 and S3 are most commonly seen. As aortic dilation becomes more significant, a single shape (S3) becomes the dominant pattern

  12. Polydimethylsiloxane embedded mouse aorta ex vivo perfusion model: proof-of-concept study focusing on atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueya; Wolf, Marc P.; Keel, Rahel Bänziger; Lehner, Roman; Hunziker, Patrick R.

    2012-07-01

    Existing mouse artery ex vivo perfusion models have utilized arteries such as carotid, uterine, and mesenteric arteries, but not the aorta. However, the aorta is the principal vessel analyzed for atherosclerosis studies in vivo. We have devised a mouse aorta ex vivo perfusion model that can bridge this gap. Aortas from apoE(-/-) mice are embedded in a transparent, gas-permeable, and elastic polymer matrix [polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)] and artificially perfused with cell culture medium under cell culture conditions. After 24 h of artificial ex vivo perfusion, no evidence of cellular apoptosis is detected. Utilizing a standard confocal microscope, it is possible to image specific receptor targeting of cells in atherosclerotic plaques during 24 h. Imaging motion artifacts are minimal due to the polymer matrix embedding. Re-embedding of the aorta enables tissue sectioning and immuno-histochemical analysis. The ex vivo data are validated by comparison with in vivo experiments. This model can save animal lives via production of multiple endpoints in a single experiment, is easy to apply, and enables straightforward comparability with pre-existing atherosclerosis in vivo data. It is suited to investigate atherosclerotic disease in particular and vascular biology in general.

  13. Aortic dissection with the entrance tear in transverse aorta: analysis of 12 autopsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C S; Roberts, W C

    1990-11-01

    Clinical and autopsy findings are described in 12 patients who had fatal aortic dissection with the entrance tear in the transverse aorta. The 12 patients represent 7% of 182 autopsies of spontaneous aortic dissection studied by us. The ages of the 12 patients at death ranged from 37 to 87 years (mean, 67 years). Eight were men; 8 had a history of systemic hypertension, and 10 had hearts of increased weight. Diagnosis of aortic dissection was made during life in only 4 of the 12 patients. All 12 patients died of rupture of the false channel within 2 weeks of onset of signs or symptoms compatible with dissection. The direction of aortic dissection from the entrance tear was entirely retrograde in 4 patients, entirely anterograde in 4 patients, and in both directions in 4 patients. Hemopericardium occurred in the first group, left hemothorax in the second group, and either in the last group. Of the 8 patients in whom the ascending aorta was involved, the retrograde dissection in each extended to the aortic root, 6 had pulmonary adventitial hemorrhage, and 4 had involvement of the arch arteries by dissection. In the 4 patients with strictly anterograde dissection, none had dissection in the arch arteries. Thus, tear in the transverse aorta causes a dissection that is usually fata, that often dissects retrogradely, and that may mimic dissection from a tear in ascending aorta. Aortic dissection from a tear in transverse aorta requires early operative intervention. PMID:2241339

  14. [Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnitti, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal occlusion is defined as an independent predictive factor of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which represents an independent predictor of mortality. Baggot in 1951 classified patients operated with intestinal occlusion as being at risk for IAH ("abdominal blow-out"), recommending them for open abdomen surgery proposed by Ogilvie. Abdominal surgery provokes IAH in 44.7% of cases with mortality which, in emergency, triples with respect to elective surgery (21.9% vs 6.8%). In particular, IAH is present in 61.2% of ileus and bowel distension and is responsible for 52% of mortality (54.8% in cases with intra-abdominal infection). These patients present with an increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which, over 20-25 mmHg, triggers an Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) with altered functions in some organs arriving at Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). The intestine normally covers 58% of abdominal volume but when there is ileus distension, intestinal pneumatosis develops (third space) which can occupy up to 90% of the entire cavity. At this moment, Gastro Intestinal Failure (GIF) can appear, which is a specific independent risk factor of mortality, motor of "Organ Failure". The pathophysiological evolution has many factors in 45% of cases: intestinal pneumatosis is associated with mucosal and serous edema, capillary leakage with an increase in extra-cellular volume and peritoneal fluid collections (fourth space). The successive loss of the mucous barrier permits a bacterial translocation which includes bacteria, toxins, pro-inflammatory factors and oxygen free radicals facilitating the passage from an intra-abdominal to inter-systemic vicious cyrcle. IAH provokes the raising of the diaphragm, and vascular and visceral compressions which induce hypertension in the various spaces with compartmental characteristics. These trigger hypertension in the renal, hepatic, pelvic, thoracic, cardiac, intracranial, orbital and lower extremity areas, giving

  15. Using abdominal massage in bowel management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Michelle; Hunt, Catherine; Lindley, Alison; Adams, John

    2014-07-15

    This article describes the introduction of abdominal massage techniques by a community team as part of a total bowel management programme for people with learning disabilities. A trust-wide audit of prescribed laxative use by this client group raised concerns, and led to a more systematic approach to managing constipation in people with learning disabilities. An education programme for carers proved to be successful. Some reported that adopting abdominal massage provided further opportunity to develop the therapeutic relationship. PMID:25005415

  16. Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children

    OpenAIRE

    Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes Melzer; Isabella Mastrangi Magrini; Semíramis Martins Álvares Domene; Paula Andrea Martins

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's wa...

  17. A rare nonincisional lateral abdominal wall hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dong-Ju; Park, Jin-Woo

    2015-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman presented a rare lateral abdominal wall hernia. Three month before admission to Chungbuk National University Hospital, she found a large protruding mass measuring 8 cm in diameter in the midaxillary line just below the costal margin upon heavy coughing. She had no history of abdominal trauma, infection, or operation previously. The mass was easily reduced manually or by position change to left lateral decubitus. CT scan showed a defect of the right transversus abdominis mu...

  18. Abdominal integument atrophy after operative procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Lubiński, Jan; Bojko, Stefania; Gałdyńska, Maria; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze clinical material concerning postoperative atrophy of abdominal integument. Material and methods The evaluated group consisted of 29 patients with sonographically revealed atrophy of the abdominal wall. Those changes were observed after various surgical procedures: mainly after long, anterolateral laparotomies or several classical operations. Ultrasound examinations up to the year 2000 were performed with analog apparatus, in the latter years only with digi...

  19. Anesthetic Considerations for Abdominal Wall Reconstructive Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Slabach, Rachel; Suyderhoud, Johan P.

    2012-01-01

    Anesthesia considerations for abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) are numerous and depend upon the medical status of the patient and the projected procedure. Obesity, sleep apnea, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease are not uncommon in patients with abdominal wall defects; pulmonary functions and cardiac output can be affected by the surgical procedure. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are also at a higher risk of coughing during the postoperative awakening process, wh...

  20. Asymptomatic torsion of intra-abdominal testis

    OpenAIRE

    M. Amin El-Gohary

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of intra-abdominal testicular torsion, of eight years old boy who presented with asymptomatic left impalpable testis. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed a twisted small intra-abdominal testis in which the spermatic cord twisted 3 times over a band attached to the internal ring. The cord was long enough to bring the small testis into the scrotal sac. This case highlights the pole of laparoscopy in the management of impalpable testes.

  1. Endovascular therapy for abdominal aortic aneurysm and iliac artery aneurysm using SEAL aortic stent-graft: A single center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of SEAL aortic stent-graft for abdominal aortoiliac aneurysms. Between October 2007 and January 2014, 33 patients with abdominal aortoiliac aneurysms were treated with SEAL aortic stent-graft. We evaluated the technical success rate, clinical and CT follow-up periods, major complications, need for additional interventional treatment, aneurysm-related mortality and clinical success rate. SEAL bifurcated aortic stent-graft was successfully placed in 32 patients (97%). Clinical and CT follow-up periods were 24 and 14 months, respectively. Endoleak developed in 13 patients (41%): spontaneous regression or decrease in 6, need for additional treatment in 4 and follow-up loss in 3. Significant stenosis of stent-graft occurred in 4 patients (12%) and was treated with stenting in 3. Migration of stent-graft was noted in 3 patients (9%) and treated with additional stent-grafting. Aneurysm-related mortality was 9% (3 of 33). The placement of SEAL stent-graft was effective in 26 patients (79%). The placement of SEAL aortic stent-graft was safe and effective in patients with aneurysms of abdominal aorta and iliac arteries. However, complicating endoleaks, stenosis and migration of the stent-graft developed during the follow-up. Therefore, regular CT follow-up seems to be mandatory.

  2. Endovascular therapy for abdominal aortic aneurysm and iliac artery aneurysm using SEAL aortic stent-graft: A single center experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Su Young; Kim, Jeong Ho; Byun, Sung Su; Kang, Jin Mo; Choi, Sang Tae; Park, Jae Hyung [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of SEAL aortic stent-graft for abdominal aortoiliac aneurysms. Between October 2007 and January 2014, 33 patients with abdominal aortoiliac aneurysms were treated with SEAL aortic stent-graft. We evaluated the technical success rate, clinical and CT follow-up periods, major complications, need for additional interventional treatment, aneurysm-related mortality and clinical success rate. SEAL bifurcated aortic stent-graft was successfully placed in 32 patients (97%). Clinical and CT follow-up periods were 24 and 14 months, respectively. Endoleak developed in 13 patients (41%): spontaneous regression or decrease in 6, need for additional treatment in 4 and follow-up loss in 3. Significant stenosis of stent-graft occurred in 4 patients (12%) and was treated with stenting in 3. Migration of stent-graft was noted in 3 patients (9%) and treated with additional stent-grafting. Aneurysm-related mortality was 9% (3 of 33). The placement of SEAL stent-graft was effective in 26 patients (79%). The placement of SEAL aortic stent-graft was safe and effective in patients with aneurysms of abdominal aorta and iliac arteries. However, complicating endoleaks, stenosis and migration of the stent-graft developed during the follow-up. Therefore, regular CT follow-up seems to be mandatory.

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of expanding haematoma of the lateral abdominal wall after blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a rare case of an expanding post-traumatic lateral abdominal wall haematoma. A superselective arteriogram of the deep circumflex iliac artery showed extravasation from the ascending branch, urging emergency therapy. Microcoil and Gelfoam embolisation was successfully performed. Haematomas of the abdominal wall can be divided in the common rectus sheath haematomas and the rare haematomas of the lateral abdominal wall. Differentiating both entities is essential, since there is a strong difference in their vascular supply. The typical vascular supply of the lateral abdominal wall is discussed, with emphasis on the ascending branch of the deep circumflex iliac artery. (orig.)

  4. Abdominal aortic aneurysm: Treatment options, image visualizations and follow-up procedures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Hua Sun

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a common vascular disease that affects elderly population.Open surgical repair is regarded as the gold standard technique for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm,however,endovaseular aneurysm repair has rapidly expanded since its first introduction in 1990s.As a less invasive technique,endovascular aneurysm repair has been confirmed to be an effective alternative to open surgical repair,especially in patients with co-morbid conditions.Computed tomography (CT) angiography is currently the preferred imaging modality for both preoperative planning and post-operative follow-up.2D CT images are complemented by a number of 3D reconstructions which enhance the diagnostic applications of CT angiography in both planning and follow-up of endovascular repair.CT has the disadvantage of high cummulative radiation dose,of particular concern in younger patients,since patients require regular imaging follow-ups after endovascular repair,thus,exposing patients to repeated radiation exposure for life.There is a trend to change from CT to ultrasound surveillance of endovascular aneurysm repair.Medical image visualizations demonstrate excellent morphological assessment of aneurysm and stent-grafts,but fail to provide hemodynamic changes caused by the complex stent-graft device that is implanted into the aorta.This article reviews the treatment options of abdominal aortic aneurysm,various image visualization tools,and follow-up procedures with use of different modalities including both imaging and computational fluid dynamics methods.Future directions to improve treatment outcomes in the follow-up of endovascular aneurysm repair are outlined.

  5. Abdominal vascular and visceral parenchymal contrast enhancement in MDCT: Effects of injection duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuge, Yusuke, E-mail: tsugeu@cup.ocn.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Kizawa Memorial Hospital, 590 Kobityo Shimokobi, Minokamo City, Gifu 505-8503 (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, Gifu (Japan); Department of Radiology Services, Gifu University Hospital, Gifu (Japan); Goshima, Satoshi; Kondo, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, Gifu (Japan); Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Miyoshi, Toshiharu [Department of Radiology Services, Gifu University Hospital, Gifu (Japan); Onozuka, Minoru [Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Kanagawa Dental College, Yokosuka (Japan); Moriyama, Noriyuki [Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tsukiji (Japan); Bae, Kyongtae T. [Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare the effect of short and long injection durations on aortic, pancreatic and hepatic enhancement in abdominal MDCT. Methods and materials: Triphasic contrast-enhanced CT images (16-MDCT, 1.25-mm collimation, 5-mm thickness, 6.1-s acquisition time for each phase) were obtained with 2 mL/kg injection of 300 mgI/mL iodine contrast material in 116 patients. Patients were prospectively randomized into two groups: one receiving contrast medium for 25-s injection duration and the other for 35-s injection duration. In both groups, triphasic scans were initiated 5, 15, and 40 s after the completion of contrast injection for the first, second and third phases, respectively. CT values (HU) in the abdominal aorta, liver, spleen, pancreas, splenic and superior mesenteric arteries, and veins (splenic, superior mesenteric, portal, and hepatic) were measured. Quantitative and qualitative analysis for the degree of contrast enhancement between the two groups in various organs was compared at each scan phase. Results: The aortic and arterial enhancements in the first-phase scan were higher for the 25-s group than those of the 35-s group (P < .001). Hepatic enhancement was higher for the 35-s group in the first (P < .001) and second (P < .01) phases, but no difference in the third-phase. No difference was found between the groups for the pancreatic enhancement at any phases. Qualitative results were in good agreement with quantitative results. Conclusion: Contrast administration with shorter injection duration increased peak aortic and arterial enhancement and contributed to improvement in the quality of CT angiograms, but for the solid abdominal organs 35-s protocol is recommended.

  6. Abdominal tuberculosis: clinical presentation and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the clinical presentation and outcome of cases of Abdominal Tuberculosis. Fifty four patients of Abdominal Tuberculosis were seen during the study period. Four patients were lost to follow-up, which were excluded. Detailed information of all the patients including age, sex, symptoms, signs, investigations and management was recorded, analyzed and compared with local and international data. Out of the 50 patients with Abdominal Tuberculosis, 31 were females and 19 males. Their ages ranged from 17 to 63 years, with a mean age of 25.1 years. Thirty five cases were admitted through Emergency and 15 through Outpatients departments. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom found in 44 (88%) patients followed by vomiting in 33 (66%). Abdominal tenderness was seen in 22 (44%) patients, while 16 (32%) patients had rigidity and other features of peritonitis. Surgery was performed in all these patients, limited right hemicolectomy in 17 (34%), segmental resection and anastomosis in 12 (24%), ileostomy and strictureplasty in six (12%) each, repair of perforation in five (10%) and adhesiolysis in four (8%) patients. Overall mortality was 8% due to septicaemia and multiorgan failure. Abdominal Tuberculosis is a significant clinical entity with lethal complications in neglected cases. It affects a younger age group and is more common in females. Clinical features are rather non-specific but vague ill health, low grade fever, weight loss and anorexia may help to diagnose the case. (author)

  7. Effect of rectal distension on abdominal girth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, B; Ogliari, C; Basilisco, G

    2004-08-01

    It has been postulated that a viscerosomatic reflex activated by gut distension and inhibiting abdominal wall muscle tone may be one of the mechanisms underlying functional abdominal distension. Any demonstration of such a reflex has to take into account the fact that gut distension may increase abdominal girth as a result of volume displacement. As biomechanical and sensory rectal responses vary at different rates of rectal distension, we hypothesized that different rates of rectal distension might reveal different changes in abdominal girth. Abdominal girth was continuously recorded in 14 healthy subjects using a previously validated extensometer. The rectal distensions were made in a randomized order at rates of 100 mL min(-1) or 10 mL min(-1) up to 150 mL, and sham distensions were used as controls. An increase in abdominal girth was observed at the end of both distensions (P

  8. Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes Melzer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998 and Taylor et al. (2000 were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3, female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3 and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0 were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children.

  9. Long-term results after repair of ruptured and non-ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović Ilija B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Abdominal aortic aneurysm can be repaired by elective procedure while asymptomatic, or immediately when it is complicated - mostly due to rupture. Treating abdominal aneurysm electively, before it becomes urgent, has medical and economical reason. Today, the first month mortality after elective operations of the abdominal aorta aneurysm is less than 3%; on the other hand, significant mortality (25%-70% has been recorded in patients operated immediately because of rupture of the abdominal aneurysm. In addition, the costs of elective surgical treatment are significantly lower. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to compare long-term survival of patients that underwent elective or immediate repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (due to rupture, and to find out the factors influencing the long-term survival of these patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Through retrospective review of prospectively collected data of the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases of Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, 56 patients that had elective surgery and 35 patients that underwent urgent operation due to rupture of abdominal aneurysm were followed up. Only the patients that survived 30 postoperative days were included in this review, and were followed up (ranging from 2 to 126 months. Electively operated patients were followed during 58.82 months on the average (range 7 to 122, and urgently operated were followed over 52.26 months (range 2 to 126. There was no significant difference of the length of postoperative follow-up between these two groups. RESULTS During this period, out of electively operated and immediately operated patients, 27 and 22 cases died, respectively. There was no significant difference (p>0,05a of long-term survival between these two groups. Obesity and early postoperative complications significantly decreased long-term survival of both electively and immediately operated patients. Graft infection, ventral hernia, aneurysm of

  10. 128-slice CT angiography of the aorta without ECG-gating: efficacy of faster gantry rotation time and iterative reconstruction in terms of image quality and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Vincenzo; Garattoni, Monica; Buia, Francesco; Attina, Domenico; Lovato, Luigi; Zompatori, Maurizio [University Hospital ' ' S.Orsola' ' , Cardio-Thoracic-Vascular Department, Cardio-Thoracic Radiology Unit, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    To evaluate image quality and radiation dose of non ECG-gated 128-slice CT angiography of the aorta (CTAA) with fast gantry rotation time and iterative reconstruction. Four hundred and eighty patients underwent non ECG-gated CTAA. Qualitative and quantitative image quality assessments were performed. Radiation dose was assessed and compared with the dose of patients who underwent ECG-gated CTAA (n = 126) and the dose of previous CTAA performed with another CT (n = 339). Image quality (aortic root-ascending portion) was average-to-excellent in more than 94 % of cases, without any non-diagnostic scan. For proximal coronaries, image quality was average-to-excellent in more than 50 %, with only 21.5 % of non-diagnostic cases. Quantitative analysis results were also good. Mean radiation dose for thoracic CTAA was 5.6 mSv versus 20.6 mSv of ECG-gated protocol and 20.6 mSv of 16-slice CTAA scans, with an average dose reduction of 72.8 % (p < 0.001). Mean radiation dose for thoracic-abdominal CTAA was 9.7 mSv, versus 20.9 mSv of 16-slice CTAA scans, with an average dose reduction of 53.6 % (p < 0.001). Non ECG-gated 128-slice CTAA is feasible and able to provide high quality visualization of the entire aorta without significant motion artefacts, together with a considerable dose and contrast media volume reduction. (orig.)

  11. 128-slice CT angiography of the aorta without ECG-gating: efficacy of faster gantry rotation time and iterative reconstruction in terms of image quality and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate image quality and radiation dose of non ECG-gated 128-slice CT angiography of the aorta (CTAA) with fast gantry rotation time and iterative reconstruction. Four hundred and eighty patients underwent non ECG-gated CTAA. Qualitative and quantitative image quality assessments were performed. Radiation dose was assessed and compared with the dose of patients who underwent ECG-gated CTAA (n = 126) and the dose of previous CTAA performed with another CT (n = 339). Image quality (aortic root-ascending portion) was average-to-excellent in more than 94 % of cases, without any non-diagnostic scan. For proximal coronaries, image quality was average-to-excellent in more than 50 %, with only 21.5 % of non-diagnostic cases. Quantitative analysis results were also good. Mean radiation dose for thoracic CTAA was 5.6 mSv versus 20.6 mSv of ECG-gated protocol and 20.6 mSv of 16-slice CTAA scans, with an average dose reduction of 72.8 % (p < 0.001). Mean radiation dose for thoracic-abdominal CTAA was 9.7 mSv, versus 20.9 mSv of 16-slice CTAA scans, with an average dose reduction of 53.6 % (p < 0.001). Non ECG-gated 128-slice CTAA is feasible and able to provide high quality visualization of the entire aorta without significant motion artefacts, together with a considerable dose and contrast media volume reduction. (orig.)

  12. The Effect of EDTA and Garlic Extract Combination on Plasma Lipids, Lipoporteins, and Fatty Streaks in Cholesterol Fed Male Rabbit Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Sharifi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Garlic extract is used in treatment of hypercholesterolemia, although its efficacy isn’t exactly clear. There is a little information about mechanism of garlic effect on plasma lipids. By intervention of garlic in atherogenesis process it has been shown that it has a protective effect against cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, it has been shown that EDTA (Ethylene Diamin Tetra Acetic Acid improves blood flow and decreases the vascular atherosclerotic symptoms. Methods: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of EDTA and garlic extract with together on plasma concentration of cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL, and HDL, and formation of fatty streaks through the phenomena called “chelation therapy” in male Rabbit aorta. 32 male Rabbits were used and divided to 4 groups as group 1: cholesterol – rich diet (CRD + EDTA + Garlic Extract (GE, group 2: CRD + EDTA, Group 3: CRD + GE, Group 4: CRD (control group. The animals were under food and drug diet for 5 weeks. Blood samples of Rabbits were taken before and after the test and then plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL were measured. Finally, abdominal aorta was studied and pathologically evaluated. Results: The experiments showed the significant decrease of mean cholesterol in case groups and mean triglyceride in the groups which have received EDTA + GE and EDTA. Our results showed that mean LDL and LDL/HDL Ratio in case groups have been decreased in comparison to control group. In addition, there was a significant increase in mean HDL in the group which has received EDTA + GE. Conclusion: In this study it was shown that the using of fresh garlic and EDTA with together has a reductive effect on cholesterol, Triglyceride, and LDL concentration and also has an increasing effect on HDL concentration. But it seems that concomitant using of these tow substances with together strengthen the effect of each one, and it produces a great reduction of the blood

  13. Beat Pressure and Comparing it with Ascending Aorta Pressure in Normal and Abnormal Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Ghasemalizadeh, Omid; Firoozabadi, Bahar; Sajadi, Behrang; Zolfonoon, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Lumped method (Electrical analogy) is a quick and easy way to model human cardiovascular system. In this paper Lumped method is used for simulating a complete model. It describes a 36-vessel model and cardiac system of human body with details that could show hydrodynamic parameters of cardiovascular system. Also this paper includes modeling of pulmonary, atrium, left and right ventricles with their equivalent circuits. Exact modeling of right and left ventricles pressure with division of ascending aorta into 27 segments increases the accuracy of our simulation. In this paper we show that a calculated pressure for aorta from our complex circuit is near to measured pressure by using advanced medical instruments. Also it is shown that pressure graph from brachial is so near to aortic pressure because of this its pressure signal is usable instead of aortic pressure. Furthermore, obstruction in ascending aorta, brachial and its effects has been showed in different figures.

  14. Huge Dissected Ascending Aorta Associated with Pseudo Aneurysm and Aortic Coarctation Feridoun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feridoun Sabzi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a unique case of chronic dissection of the ascending aorta complicated with huge and thrombotic pseudoaneurysm in a patient with coarctation of descending aorta. Preoperative investigations such as transesophageal echocardiography (TEE confirmed the diagnosis of dissection. Intraoperative findings included a12 cm eccentric bulge of the right lateral side of dilated the ascending aorta filled with the clot and a circular shaped intimal tear communicating with an extended hematoma and dissection of the media layer. The rarity of the report is an association of the chronic dissection with huge pseudoaneurysm and coarctation. The patient underwent staged repair of an aneurysm and coarctation and had an uneventful postoperative recovery period.

  15. Rotura traumática da aorta torácica: tratamento cirúrgico

    OpenAIRE

    SAMPAIO Dielson Teixeira; SANTOS João Marcos de Vasconcellos; LOBO Jr Nílcio Cunha; João Virgílio Uchoa FIGUERÓ; LOPES Caetano S; NOVAES Fernando R; PAULA FILHO Maurício Cleber de; Giovani Cardoso VERSIANI; FIGUEROA Carlos Camilo Smith

    1997-01-01

    No período de julho de 1986 a dezembro de 1995, foram operados 12 pacientes com rotura traumática da aorta torácica. Nove pacientes apresentavam rotura aguda da aorta e 3 rotura crônica. Em todos os pacientes a lesão localizava-se logo abaixo da emergência da artéria subclávia esquerda (istmo). Onze pacientes foram operados sob pinçamento aortico simples e em apenas 1 associamos shunt não heparinizado entre a artéria subclávia esquerda e a aorta descendente. O tempo médio de pinçamento aórtic...

  16. [Surgical Repair of Coarctation of the Aorta in an Adult;Report of a Case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Masanori; Kawasaki, Muneyasu; Tokuhiro, Keiichi; Niitsu, Katsushi; Katayanagi, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Yoshinori

    2015-06-01

    We present a case of 30-year-old man with successful bypass grafting for coarctation of the aorta. Hypertension was identified during a health examination. Blood pressure difference between the upper and lower limbs was about 60 mmHg. Computed tomography( CT) revealed stenosis of the distal aortic arch and development of collateral arteries. The pressure gradient across the coarctation by catheterization was 56 mmHg. After left thoracotomy through the 4th intercostal space, a bypass graft using a 14-mm woven Dacron graft was placed between the left subclavian artery and descending aorta without the use of extracorporeal circulation. Postoperative course was satisfactory, with minimal pressure difference between the upper and lower extremities. The patient was discharged 16 days postoperatively. As of 7 years later, he remains asymptomatic, and CT has revealed no marked changes of the aorta or bypass graft. PMID:26066879

  17. Ovariectomy increases the participation of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the relaxation of rat aorta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sagredo

    Full Text Available This study examines the downstream NO release pathway and the contribution of different vasodilator mediators in the acetylcholine-induced response in rat aorta 5-months after the loss of ovarian function. Aortic segments from ovariectomized and control female Sprague-Dawley rats were used to measure: the levels of superoxide anion, the superoxide dismutases (SODs activity, the cGMP formation, the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG activity and the involvement of NO, cGMP, hydrogen peroxide and hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the ACh-induced relaxation. The results showed that ovariectomy did not alter ACh-induced relaxation; incubation with L-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor, decreased the ACh-induced response to a lesser extent in aorta from ovariectomized than from control rats, while ODQ, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, decreased that response to a similar extent; the blockade of hyperpolarizing mechanisms, by precontracting arteries with KCl, decreased the ACh-induced response to a greater extent in aortas from ovariectomized than those from control rats; catalase, that decomposes hydrogen peroxide, decreased the ACh-induced response only in aorta from ovariectomized rats. In addition, ovariectomy increased superoxide anion levels and SODs activity, decreased cGMP formation and increased PKG activity. Despite the increased superoxide anion and decreased cGMP in aorta from ovariectomized rats, ACh-induced relaxation is maintained by the existence of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in which hydrogen peroxide participates. The greater contribution of hydrogen peroxide in ACh-induced relaxation is due to increased SOD activity, in an attempt to compensate for increased superoxide anion formation. Increased PKG activity could represent a redundant mechanism to ensure vasodilator function in the aorta of ovariectomized rats.

  18. Intraindividual assessment of the thoracic aorta using contrast and non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik von; Gruenberg, K.M.; Giesel, F.L. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg (Germany). Radiologie; Ley-Zaporozhan, J.; Ley, S. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Henninger, V.; Kauczor, H.U. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg (Germany). Radiologie; Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Boeckler, D. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Vaskulaere und Endovaskulaere Chirurgie; Krummenauer, F. [Dresden Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Orthopaedie, Funktionsbereich Rehabilitations- und Sportmedizin

    2009-03-15

    To avoid intravenous contrast media application, new MRA sequences using inherent blood contrast are available. The clinical use of these non-contrast-enhanced MRA (non-CE-MRA) sequences is still limited for the aorta. Thus, the goal was to compare a standard CE-MRA with a non-CE-MRA for the thoracic aorta. Ethics committee approval and informed consent were obtained. CE-MRA and non-CE-MRA (1.5T) were performed in the same 50 healthy volunteers (mean age: 48). CE-MRA: GRE-Turbo-Flash-3D (1.2 x 1.2 x 1.6 mm{sup 3}), 0.15 mmol Gd/kg, TA 22 {+-} 2sec. Non-CE-MRA: Respiratory-and cardiac-gated, T 2-prepared 3D-trueFISP (1.2 x 1.2 x 1.3 mm{sup 3}), TA 14 {+-} 5 min. Assessment included (3 readers, consensus): image quality (sharpness of vessel wall, signal homogeneity, artifacts) at the ascending aorta, arch, descending aorta and supra-aortic vessels. The image quality in the ascending aorta was rated 'excellent' in 78 %, 'moderate' in 22 %, 'poor' in 0 % for non-CE-MRA versus 22 %, 50 %, and 28 % for CE-MRA (Cohen's kappa = 29 %, McNemar p < 0.001). In a comparison of non-CE-MRA versus CE-MRA, the aortic arch and descending aorta showed no significant difference (kappa = 58 %/p = 0.250 and kappa = 100 %/p = 1.000, respectively). Supra-aortic vessels were rated 'excellent' 45 %/49 %, 'moderate' 30 %/49 % and 'poor' 13 %/2 %, 12 % of supra-aortic vessels were visualized < 1 cm at non-CE-MRA. (orig.)

  19. Intraindividual assessment of the thoracic aorta using contrast and non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To avoid intravenous contrast media application, new MRA sequences using inherent blood contrast are available. The clinical use of these non-contrast-enhanced MRA (non-CE-MRA) sequences is still limited for the aorta. Thus, the goal was to compare a standard CE-MRA with a non-CE-MRA for the thoracic aorta. Ethics committee approval and informed consent were obtained. CE-MRA and non-CE-MRA (1.5T) were performed in the same 50 healthy volunteers (mean age: 48). CE-MRA: GRE-Turbo-Flash-3D (1.2 x 1.2 x 1.6 mm3), 0.15 mmol Gd/kg, TA 22 ± 2sec. Non-CE-MRA: Respiratory-and cardiac-gated, T 2-prepared 3D-trueFISP (1.2 x 1.2 x 1.3 mm3), TA 14 ± 5 min. Assessment included (3 readers, consensus): image quality (sharpness of vessel wall, signal homogeneity, artifacts) at the ascending aorta, arch, descending aorta and supra-aortic vessels. The image quality in the ascending aorta was rated 'excellent' in 78 %, 'moderate' in 22 %, 'poor' in 0 % for non-CE-MRA versus 22 %, 50 %, and 28 % for CE-MRA (Cohen's kappa = 29 %, McNemar p < 0.001). In a comparison of non-CE-MRA versus CE-MRA, the aortic arch and descending aorta showed no significant difference (kappa = 58 %/p = 0.250 and kappa = 100 %/p 1.000, respectively). Supra-aortic vessels were rated 'excellent' 45 %/49 %, 'moderate' 30 %/49 % and 'poor' 13 %/2 %, 12 % of supra-aortic vessels were visualized < 1 cm at non-CE-MRA. (orig.)

  20. Morphological analysis of the hagfish heart. I. The ventricle, the arterial connection and the ventral aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icardo, José M; Colvee, Elvira; Schorno, Sarah; Lauriano, Eugenia R; Fudge, Douglas S; Glover, Chris N; Zaccone, Giacomo

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the heart in three species of hagfish: Myxine glutinosa, Eptatretus stoutii, and Eptatretus cirrhatus and report about the morphology of the ventricle, the arterial connection and the ventral aorta. On the whole, the hagfish heart lacks outflow tract components, the ventricle and atrium adopt a dorso-caudal rather than a ventro-dorsal relationship, and the sinus venosus opens into the left side of the atrium. This may indicate a "defective" cardiac looping during embryogenesis. The ventral aorta is elongated in M. glutinosa and E. stoutii but sac-like in E. cirrhatus. The ventricles are entirely trabeculated. The myocytes show a low myofibrillar content and junctional complexes formed by fascia adherens and desmosomes. Gap junctions could not be demonstrated. Myocardial cells in M. glutinosa contain numerous lipid droplets. These droplets are less numerous in E. stoutii and practically absent in E. cirrhatus, suggesting different metabolic requirements. Other cell types present in the ventricle are chromaffin cells and granular leukocytes that contain rod-shaped granules. The ventricle-aorta connection is guarded by a bicuspid valve with left and right, pocket-like leaflets. The leaflets extend from the cranial end of the ventricle into the aorta but the junction is asymmetrical. This junction contains a ganglion-like structure in E. cirrhatus. The ventral aorta shows endothelial, media, and adventitial layers. The media contains smooth muscle cells surrounded by dense bands formed by tightly-packed extracellular filaments. In addition, a short number of elastic fibers are observed in M. glutinosa and E. stoutii. Cellular and extracellular elements are more loosely organized in the aorta of E. cirrhatus. The collagenous adventitia contains ganglion-like cells in the three species. In the absence of nerves, chromaffin and ganglion-like cells may control the activity of the myocardium and that of the aortic smooth muscle cells, respectively. PMID

  1. DIEP breast reconstruction following multiple abdominal liposuction procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Farid, Mohammed; Nicholson, Simon; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Akali, Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Previous abdominal wall surgery is viewed as a contraindication to abdominal free tissue transfer. We present two patients who underwent multiple abdominal liposuction procedures, followed by successful free deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. We review the literature pertaining to reliability of abdominal free flaps in those with previous abdominal surgery. Methods: Review of case notes and radiological investigations of two patients, and a PubMed search using the ter...

  2. Repair of ascending aorta pseudoaneurysm without circulatory arrest in redo patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auriemma Stefano

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta is an unusual and potentially fatal complication after aortic surgical operations. TEE and CT scan are the investigations of choice. Surgical treatment is mandatory. We describe the successful management of a pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta, with aorto-sternal-cutaneous fistula requiring right axillary and femoral artery cannulation with Remote Access Perfusion® aortic cannula (Estech®, California, USA. Behaving like this we avoid hypotermic circulatory arrest, provide safe reentry and prevent an impending rupture.

  3. Aorta-to-right atrium fistula, an unusual complication of endocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao-yan CHEN; Dan-dan ZHONG; Zhi-qiang YING

    2009-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) remains a serious disease. Aorta-to-right atrium fistula is a rare but very serious compli-cation of IE and predicts a higher mortality. This report describes a 50-year-old man with endocarditis, vegetation, perforation of noncoronary sinus, and formation of two aorta-to-right atrium fistulas with native valves detected by transthoracic echocardi-ography. This disease is lethal despite developments in cardiac imaging and antibacterial therapy. Early diagnosis, aggressive antibacterial therapy, and surgical treatment may improve the prognosis.

  4. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome and Intra-abdominal Ischemia in Patients with Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.; Buddingh, K. T.; Bosma, B; Nieuwenhuijs, V B; Hofker, H.S.; Zijlstra, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Severe acute pancreatitis may be complicated by intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), and intestinal ischemia. The aim of this retrospective study is to describe the incidence, treatment, and outcome of patients with severe acute pancreatitis and ACS

  5. The therapeutic impact of abdominal ultrasound in patients with acute abdominal symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: The technical performance of abdominal ultrasound in the investigation of acute abdominal pain has been thoroughly investigated but its therapeutic effects are less well understood. We aimed to determine the therapeutic effect of abdominal ultrasound in the investigation of acute abdominal pain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A pre- and post-intervention observational study design was used to determine the diagnostic and therapeutic effects of abdominal ultrasound for acute abdominal pain. Referring clinicians completed a pre-ultrasound questionnaire that detailed their leading diagnosis, confidence in this and intended management in 100 consecutive adult patients. Following ultrasound a second questionnaire was completed. This again detailed the leading diagnosis, confidence in this and their intended management. Clinicians quantified the management contribution of ultrasound both for the individual case in question and in their clinical experience generally. RESULTS: The leading diagnosis was either confirmed or rejected in 72 patients and a new diagnosis provided where no prior differential diagnosis existed in 10. Diagnostic confidence increased significantly following ultrasound (mean score 6·5 pre-ultrasound vs 7·6 post-ultrasound, P < 0·001). Intended management changed following ultrasound in 22 patients; 15 intended laparotomies were halted and a further seven patients underwent surgery where this was not originally intended. Ultrasound was rated either 'very' or 'moderately' helpful in 87% of patients, with 99% of clinicians finding it either 'very' or 'moderately' helpful generally. CONCLUSION: Abdominal ultrasound has considerable diagnostic and therapeutic effect in the setting of acute abdominal pain. Dhillon, S. et al. (2002)

  6. Prenatal diagnosis of a fetal abdominal eventration: a rare congenital abdominal wall defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Philippe; Martin, Alain; Bawab, Fariz; Fellmann, Florence; Aubert, Didier; Maillet, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of abdominal eventration associated with cystic fibrosis, diagnosed by mid-trimester ultrasonography. The defect concerned the abdominal muscles and their aponevrotic sheath, but respected the skin. There was no associated malformation. The outcome was favorable after surgery, and the infant is well at the age of 6 months. PMID:18046068

  7. Metabolism of arachidonic acid in 1 yr old New Zealand white (NZW) and watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit aortas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to characterize the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) in normal and atherosclerotic aortas. Segments of aortas were obtained from 1 yr old NZW rabbits, and WHHL rabbits, a genetic model of athero-sclerosis resembling familial hypercholesterolemia. Aortas were incubated at 370C for 15 min with 14C-AA (5 x 10-5M) during stimulation by A23187. The media was extracted using octadecylsilica columns and resolved into metabolites by reverse-phase HPLC. Prostaglandins (PGs) were identified by comigration of 14C-metabolites with standards. The monoxygenated metabolites of AA (HETEs) were resolved by normal-phase HPLC, and their structures confirmed by GC-MS. In extracts from NZW and WHHL aortas, approximately 14% and 6% of the total radioactivity was converted to PGs and HETEs, respectively. The major PG produced by NZW and WHHL aortas was 6-keto PGF/sub 1α/ with lesser amounts of PGE2. Similarly, NZW and WHHL aortas produced primarily 12- and 15-HETE with lesser amounts of 11-, 9-, 8-, and 5-HETE. There were no qualitative differences between NZW and WHHL aortas in PG and HETE production. Therefore, despite extensive atherosclerosis in aortas of WHHL rabbits, the vessels maintain the ability to synthesize PGs and HETEs

  8. Thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters in a general population: MRI-based reference values and association with age and cardiovascular risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensel, Birger; Hesselbarth, Lydia; Wenzel, Michael; Kuehn, Jens-Peter; Hegenscheid, Katrin [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); Doerr, Marcus [University Medicine Greifswald, Department of Internal Medicine, Greifswald (Germany); DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); Voelzke, Henry [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute for Community Medicine, Greifswald (Germany); DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); Lieb, Wolfgang [Christian Albrechts University, Institute of Epidemiology, Kiel (Germany); Lorbeer, Roberto [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    To generate reference values for thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and analyse their association with cardiovascular risk factors in the general population. Data from participants (n = 1759) of the Study of Health in Pomerania were used for analysis in this study. MRI measurement of thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters was performed. Parameters for calculation of reference values according to age and sex analysis were provided. Multivariable linear regression models were used for determination of aortic diameter-related risk factors, including smoking, blood pressure (BP), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). For the ascending aorta (β = -0.049, p < 0.001), the aortic arch (β = -0.061, p < 0.001) and the subphrenic aorta (β = -0.018, p = 0.004), the body surface area (BSA)-adjusted diameters were lower in men. Multivariable-adjusted models revealed significant increases in BSA-adjusted diameters with age for all six aortic segments (p < 0.001). Consistent results for all segments were observed for the positive associations of diastolic BP (β = 0.001; 0.004) and HDL (β = 0.035; 0.087) with BSA-adjusted aortic diameters and for an inverse association of systolic BP (β = -0.001). Some BSA-adjusted median aortic diameters are smaller in men than in women. All diameters increase with age, diastolic blood pressure and HDL-C and decrease as systolic BP increases. (orig.)

  9. Thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters in a general population: MRI-based reference values and association with age and cardiovascular risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To generate reference values for thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and analyse their association with cardiovascular risk factors in the general population. Data from participants (n = 1759) of the Study of Health in Pomerania were used for analysis in this study. MRI measurement of thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters was performed. Parameters for calculation of reference values according to age and sex analysis were provided. Multivariable linear regression models were used for determination of aortic diameter-related risk factors, including smoking, blood pressure (BP), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). For the ascending aorta (β = -0.049, p < 0.001), the aortic arch (β = -0.061, p < 0.001) and the subphrenic aorta (β = -0.018, p = 0.004), the body surface area (BSA)-adjusted diameters were lower in men. Multivariable-adjusted models revealed significant increases in BSA-adjusted diameters with age for all six aortic segments (p < 0.001). Consistent results for all segments were observed for the positive associations of diastolic BP (β = 0.001; 0.004) and HDL (β = 0.035; 0.087) with BSA-adjusted aortic diameters and for an inverse association of systolic BP (β = -0.001). Some BSA-adjusted median aortic diameters are smaller in men than in women. All diameters increase with age, diastolic blood pressure and HDL-C and decrease as systolic BP increases. (orig.)

  10. Comparison of clinical curative effect between open surgery and endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Si-wen; LIN Ying; YAO Chen; LIN Pei-liang; WANG Shen-ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare clinical curative effects of open surgery (OS) or endovascular repair (EVAR) for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in China.Data sources We performed a comprehensive search of both English and Chinese literatures involving case studies on retrograde OS or EVAR of AAA in China from January 1976 to December 2010.Study selection According to the inclusion criteria,76 articles were finally analyzed to compare patient characteristics,clinical success,complications,and prognosis.Results We analyzed a total of 2862 patients with 1757 undergoing OS (OS group) and 1105 undergoing EVAR (EVAR group).There was no significant difference in the success rate of the procedures.Operative time,length of ICU stay,fasting time,duration of total postoperative stay,blood loss,and blood transfusion requirements during the procedure were significantly lower in the EVAR group.A 30-day follow up revealed more cardiac,renal,pulmonary,and visceral complications in the OS group (P<0.01).Low-limb ischemia,however,was more common in the EVAR group (P<0.05).The 30-day mortality rate,including aorta-related and non-aorta related mortality,was significantly lower in the EVAR group (P<0.01).In the follow-up period,there were more patients with occlusions of artificial vessel and late endoleak in the EVAR group (P<0.01).The overall late mortality rate was higher in the OS group (P <0.01),especially non-aorta-related late mortality and mortality during the fourth to the sixth year (P<0.01).Conclusions EVAR was safer and less invasive for AAA patients.Patients suffered fewer complications and recovered sooner.However,complications such as artificial vessel occlusion,low-limb ischemia,and endoleak were common in EVAR.Clinicians should carry out further research to solve these complications and improve the efficacy of EVAR.

  11. Abdominal tuberculosis, clinical-radiological revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively evaluated the clinical charts and diagnostic images of hospitalised patients with histological or bacteriologic demonstration of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) including those with probable abdominal TB, who had pulmonary TB and radiologic findings highly suggestive of abdominal TB with favourable response to treatment. Cases with genitourinary TB were excluded. We found 24 patients with an average age of 25 yrs. In some cases this entity was not suspected on the imaging studies, and diagnosis was made on surgery. The most frequent symptoms were: abdominal pain, diarrhoea, fever, vomiting, weight loss and abdominal mass. Active pulmonary TB was demonstrated on 8 cases (33%) Peritoneal presentation was the most frequent (54%) with septated or simple ascites, cystic ascites or pseudocysts within bowel loops. Mesenteric involvement (21 %) showed adenopathy or masses identified with CT. Intestinal forms (17%) showed pseudo-polyps on terminal ileum and ulcers on ileum, cecum and colon. We found one case with diffuse ulcerative involvement of the colon. Two cases showed hepatic involvement, one with an abscess and a tuberculosis Cole cystitis, with pyloric syndrome due to fibrosis

  12. Paediatric emergencies: non-traumatic abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presentation with acute abdominal pain or abdominal symptopathology is a very common cause of presentation of children to hospital. The causes are dependent in part on the age of the child, in part on the presence of previous surgery, and can be divided into those that relate to congenital abnormalities at whatever age they present, acquired disease and infection. Children, particularly young children are often poor historians, and therefore the clinical examination and the laboratory investigations are important in helping to come to a diagnosis. Primary imaging of abdominal emergencies in childhood is a radiograph of the abdomen, followed by ultrasound. Further imaging depends on the results of these studies. An ordered review of the abdomen radiograph is important if the salient features on X-ray are not to be missed. Practitioners should be competent with abdominal ultrasound in children and know where to seek the causes of disease, as these are different from those that are obtained in many instances in adults. Familiarity with the likely causes is important. The three commonest causes of acute abdominal pain in childhood are, in young infants, intussusception, appendicitis and mesenteric adenitis. In older children, inflammatory bowel disease and ovarian pathology are also included. This article details the approach to imaging and the salient features of some of the conditions. (orig.)

  13. Prevalencia del aneurisma aórtico abdominal en el área urbana de Medellín, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    María Isabel Villegas; Jairo Patiño; Fernando Mejía; Ignacio Tobón; José Andrés Uribe; René Fernando Timarán R.; Carlos Diaz; William Ramírez Herrán; William Calle Cayón; Giovanni García Martínez; Ada María Villalba; Lina María Vélez.; Cristina Ángel

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: el aneurisma de la aorta abdominal (AAA) constituye una importante causa de muerte en todo el mundo; causa más de 15.000 muertes por año en los Estados Unidos y 6.000 a 10.000 en el Reino Unido. Es la causa del 1,2% de las muertes en mayores de 60 años. La mayoría de ellos cursan asintomáticamente, y es evidente la diferencia en la tasa de mortalidad según que su tratamiento se haga de forma urgente o electiva. Estudios poblacionales a escala mundial utilizando para tamización l...

  14. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Association with Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in the Endovascular Era: Vigilance Remains Critical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Bozeman

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we describe published experience with IAH and ACS complicating abdominal vascular catastrophes, experience with ACS complicating endovascular repair of rAAAs, and techniques for management of the abdominal wound. Vigilance and appropriate management of IAH and ACS remains critically important in decreasing morbidity and optimizing survival following catastrophic intra-abdominal vascular events.

  15. Bupivacaine-induced Vasodilation Is Mediated by Decreased Calcium Sensitization in Isolated Endothelium-denuded Rat Aortas Precontracted with Phenylephrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Seong Ho; Bae, Sung Il; Kwon, Seong Chun; Park, Jung Chul; Kim, Woo Chan; Park, Kyeong Eon; Shin, Il Woo; Lee, Heon Keun; Chung, Young Kyun; Choi, Mun Jeoung

    2014-01-01

    Background A toxic dose of bupivacaine produces vasodilation in isolated aortas. The goal of this in vitro study was to investigate the cellular mechanism associated with bupivacaine-induced vasodilation in isolated endotheliumdenuded rat aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. Methods Isolated endothelium-denuded rat aortas were suspended for isometric tension recordings. The effects of nifedipine, verapamil, iberiotoxin, 4-aminopyridine, barium chloride, and glibenclamide on bupivacaine concentration-response curves were assessed in endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. The effect of phenylephrine and KCl used for precontraction on bupivacaine-induced concentration-response curves was assessed. The effects of verapamil on phenylephrine concentration-response curves were assessed. The effects of bupivacaine on the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and tension in aortas precontracted with phenylephrine were measured simultaneously with the acetoxymethyl ester of a fura-2-loaded aortic strip. Results Pretreatment with potassium channel inhibitors had no effect on bupivacaine-induced relaxation in the endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted with phenylephrine, whereas verapamil or nifedipine attenuated bupivacaine-induced relaxation. The magnitude of the bupivacaine-induced relaxation was enhanced in the 100 mM KCl-induced precontracted aortas compared with the phenylephrine-induced precontracted aortas. Verapamil attenuated the phenylephrine-induced contraction. The magnitude of the bupivacaine-induced relaxation was higher than that of the bupivacaine-induced [Ca2+]i decrease in the aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that toxic-dose bupivacaine-induced vasodilation appears to be mediated by decreased calcium sensitization in endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. In addition, potassium channel inhibitors had no effect on bupivacaine-induced relaxation

  16. Protective effect of soybeans as protein source in the diet against cadmium-aorta redox and morphological alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the effects of cadmium exposition on thoracic aorta redox status and morphology, and the putative protective effect of soybeans in the diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups: 3 fed with a diet containing casein and 3 containing soybeans, as protein source. Within each protein group, one was given tap water (control) and the other two tap water containing 15 and 100 ppm of Cd2+, respectively, for two months. In rats fed with casein diet, 15 ppm of Cd induced an increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and of the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, which were even higher with 100 ppm of Cd2+, in aorta. Also, 100 ppm Cd2+ exposure increased superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity; CAT, GPX, SOD, Nrf2 and metallothioneine II mRNA expressions and CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein levels, compared with control. Aorta endothelial and cytoplasmic alterations were observed. However, with the soybeans diet, 15 and 100 ppm of Cd2+ did not modify TBARS levels; CAT, GPX and Nrf2 mRNA expressions; CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein; and the aorta morphology, compared with control. The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes and protects against morphological alterations induced, in a dose-dependent way, by Cd in aorta. - Highlights: • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd2+ in drinking water induces oxidative stress in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd2+ increases Nrf2, MT II and NOX2 expressions in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd2+ induces morphological changes in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes induced by Cd in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates morphological alterations induced by Cd in rat aorta

  17. Protective effect of soybeans as protein source in the diet against cadmium-aorta redox and morphological alteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Díaz, Matías F.F.; Acosta, Mariano; Mohamed, Fabián H.; Ferramola, Mariana L.; Oliveros, Liliana B.; Gimenez, María S., E-mail: marisofigime44@gmail.com

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effects of cadmium exposition on thoracic aorta redox status and morphology, and the putative protective effect of soybeans in the diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups: 3 fed with a diet containing casein and 3 containing soybeans, as protein source. Within each protein group, one was given tap water (control) and the other two tap water containing 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, respectively, for two months. In rats fed with casein diet, 15 ppm of Cd induced an increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and of the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, which were even higher with 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, in aorta. Also, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} exposure increased superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity; CAT, GPX, SOD, Nrf2 and metallothioneine II mRNA expressions and CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein levels, compared with control. Aorta endothelial and cytoplasmic alterations were observed. However, with the soybeans diet, 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+} did not modify TBARS levels; CAT, GPX and Nrf2 mRNA expressions; CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein; and the aorta morphology, compared with control. The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes and protects against morphological alterations induced, in a dose-dependent way, by Cd in aorta. - Highlights: • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} in drinking water induces oxidative stress in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} increases Nrf2, MT II and NOX2 expressions in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} induces morphological changes in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes induced by Cd in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates morphological alterations induced by Cd in rat aorta.

  18. Thoracic and abdominal blastomycosis in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toribio, R E; Kohn, C W; Lawrence, A E; Hardy, J; Hutt, J A

    1999-05-01

    A 5-year-old Quarter Horse mare was examined because of lethargy, fever, and weight loss of 1 month's duration. Thoracic auscultation revealed decreased lung sounds cranioventrally. Thoracic ultrasonography revealed bilateral anechoic areas with hyperechoic strands, consistent with pleural effusion and fibrin tags. A large amount of free fluid was evident during abdominal ultrasonography. Abnormalities included anemia, hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, hyperfibrinogenemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Thoracic radiography revealed alveolar infiltrates in the cranial and caudoventral lung fields. A cavitary mass, consistent with an abscess, could be seen caudodorsal to the crura of the diaphragm. Ultrasonographic evaluation of this area revealed a hypoechoic mass with septations. Bilateral thoracocentesis was performed. Bacterial culture of the pleural fluid did not yield growth, but Blastomyces dermatitidis was isolated from pleural fluid, abdominal fluid, and an aspirate of the abscess. The mare was euthanatized, and a diagnosis of thoracic and abdominal blastomycosis was confirmed at necropsy. PMID:10319179

  19. [Pediatric Abdominal Pain – Harmless or Harmful?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlano, Raoul Ivano

    2016-04-27

    Abdominal pain is a very common pediatric complaint. In the majority of cases there is no life-threatening pathology behind this symptom, but a functional disease. However, all-day activities of children and adolescents are often limited, frequent absences from school, and general physician/ pediatrician office visits with often unnecessary diagnostic and therapies are registered. Once an organic etiology of the abdominal pain is excluded by a thoroughly medical history taking and physical examination, the first steps for a successful alleviation of the pain is the reassurance of the patients and their family that there is no life-threatening pathology. There is evidence that cognitive-behavioral therapy may be useful in improving pain and disability outcome in the short term. There is no evidence for pharmacological, dietetic, or complementary intervention in the treatment of chronic functional abdominal pain. PMID:27120211

  20. Effect of calmodulin antagonists on contraction and45Ca movements in rat aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wermelskirchen, D.; Koch, P.; Wilhelm, D.; Nebel, U.; Leidig, A.; Wilffert, B.; Peters, Thies

    1989-01-01

    To study the selectivity of calmodulin antagonists it was assumed that they should inhibit noradrenaline (NA)- and K+-induced contractions similarly without an accompanying inhibition of45Ca uptake. Therefore, in isolated rat aorta the effects of W-7, calmidazolium and trifluoperazine on contraction

  1. Feasibility of low contrast media volume in CT angiography of the aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Seehofnerová

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: A straightforward low volume CM protocol proved to be technically feasible and led to CTA examinations reaching diagnostic image quality of the aorta at 100 kV. Based on these findings, the use of a relatively small CM bolus can be incorporated into routine clinical imaging.

  2. Barium responsiveness of the rat aorta and femoral artery during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, J L

    1982-01-11

    The barium responses of isolated aortic strips and femoral arteries from non-pregnant and pregnant rats were investigated. Barium caused concentration-related increases in tension of vessels from both pregnant and non-pregnant rats. The concentration-response curves of femoral arteries from non-pregnant and 3 week pregnant rats were not different; however contractility and slopes of concentration-response lines for thoracic aortas from 1, 2 and 3 week pregnant rats were significantly less than those of aortas from non-pregnant rats. In addition, barium caused rhythmic contractions to develop in both femoral arteries and aortas of 3 week pregnant rats more frequently than vessels from non-pregnant rats. Rhythmic contractions did not develop in aortas from 3 week pregnant rats in calcium-free Krebs. Since the effects of barium on the electrical and mechanical activity of various muscles have been postulated to be similar to and/or dependent on calcium, these results may indicate that changes in calcium sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle occur during pregnancy. Such changes may contribute to the blood flow redistribution and other cardiovascular adaptations of pregnancy. PMID:7054642

  3. Stress Alone or associated with Ethanol Induces Prostanoid Release in Rat Aorta via α2-Adrenoceptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress and ethanol are both, independently, important cardiovascular risk factors. To evaluate the cardiovascular risk of ethanol consumption and stress exposure, isolated and in association, in male adult rats. Rats were separated into 4 groups: Control, ethanol (20% in drinking water for 6 weeks), stress (immobilization 1h day/5 days a week for 6 weeks) and stress/ethanol. Concentration-responses curves to noradrenaline - in the absence and presence of yohimbine, L-NAME or indomethacin - or to phenylephrine were determined in thoracic aortas with and without endothelium. EC50 and maximum response (n=8-12) were compared using two-way ANOVA/Bonferroni method. Either stress or stress in association with ethanol consumption increased the noradrenaline maximum responses in intact aortas. This hyper-reactivity was eliminated by endothelium removal or by the presence of either indomethacin or yohimbine, but was not altered by the presence of L-NAME. Meanwhile, ethanol consumption did not alter the reactivity to noradrenaline. The phenylephrine responses in aortas both with and without endothelium also remained unaffected regardless of protocol. Chronic stress increased rat aortic responses to noradrenaline. This effect is dependent upon the vascular endothelium and involves the release of vasoconstrictor prostanoids via stimulation of endothelial alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Moreover, chronic ethanol consumption appeared to neither influence noradrenaline responses in rat thoracic aorta, nor did it modify the increase of such responses observed as a consequence of stress exposure

  4. Age-related increase in prostacyclin production in the rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panganamala, R V; Hanumaiah, B; Merola, A J

    1981-02-01

    Normal Sprague-Dawley rats convert a substantial percentage of exogenous arachidonic acid to prostacyclin. This conversion can be quantitated by an aqueous sampling technique utilizing thin layer chromatography and liquid scintillation counting. There is a clear age-related increase in this conversion that can be demonstrated in aortas from rats of 3 weeks to 20 weeks of age. PMID:7017783

  5. CT angiography for the pre- and postoperative evaluation of the thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT angiography is the imaging modality of choice for the pre- and postsurgical evaluation of patients with pathologies of the thoracic aorta. The purpose of this review is to familiarize the reader with the technical principle, recent technical developments and requirements for specific examination protocols and image interpretation, and to highlight common pathologies and findings. (orig.)

  6. Diagnosis of the posttraumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta in plain film and angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the diagnosis of acute and chronic posttraumatic false aneurysms of the thoracic aorta the importance of imaging methods can't be overemphasized, especially, since clinical signs often are of no help. The findings in plain films and angiography in 17 patients with posttraumatic aortic rupture are described and discussed. The importance of angiography is stressed. (orig.)

  7. Factors influencing the mechanical behaviour of healthy human descending thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent times, significant effort has been made to understand the mechanical behaviour of the arterial wall and how it is affected by the different vascular pathologies. However, to be able to interpret the results correctly, it is essential that the influence of other factors, such as aging or anisotropy, be understood. Knowledge of mechanical behaviour of the aorta has been customarily constrained by lack of data on fresh aortic tissue, especially from healthy young individuals. In addition, information regarding the point of rupture is also very limited. In this study, the mechanical behaviour of the descending thoracic aorta of 28 organ donors with no apparent disease, whose ages vary from 17 to 60 years, is evaluated. Tensile tests up to rupture are carried out to evaluate the influence of age and wall anisotropy. Results reveal that the tensile strength and stretch at failure of healthy descending aortas show a significant reduction with age, falling abruptly beyond the age of 30. This fact places age as a key factor when mechanical properties of descending aorta are considered

  8. Mycotic aneurysm of the aorta as an unusual complication of coronary angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, H.; van Geel, P. P.; de Boer, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Mycotic aneurysm of the aorta is a rare diagnosis with high mortality. Report: Percutaneous coronary intervention was complicated by bacteraemia with Staphylococcus aureus and a mycotic aortic aneurysm, an unusual complication of coronary angiography. Combining CT and PET scan showed a

  9. TAVR Through Heavily Calcified Aorta Following Atheroma Retrieval With the "Elevator" Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senguttuvan, N Boopathy; Ellozy, Sharif; Tejani, Furqan; Kovacic, Jason; Kini, Annapoorna S; Sharma, Samin K; Dangas, George D

    2015-10-01

    An 86-year-old Caucasian female with severe symptomatic, inoperable aortic stenosis was accepted for high-risk transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) approach due to severe calcification of the aorta. During initial passage of a 22 Fr sheath, there was dislodgment with proximal migration of a circumferential tunnel of calcium from the infrarenal aorta. A novel "elevator" technique was used to secure and retrieve the dislodged aorta en bloc back to its original infrarenal aortic position and allow in situ fixation with stenting. A new TAVR system was then successfully placed through the stent and a 23 mm Edwards Sapien valve (Edwards Lifesciences) was implanted as planned. In case of calcification protruding into the lumen of the aorta and limiting the passage of the large valve delivery system sheath, the obstruction can be managed by stenting the calcification against the luminal wall under fluoroscopic and intravascular-ultrasound guidance, allowing successful passage of the valve delivery system. The elevator technique allows axial transportation of any calcified vascular fragments, should they become dislodged. PMID:26429853

  10. Atherosclerosis of the descending aorta predicts cardiovascular events: a transesophageal echocardiography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havasi Kálmán

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Previous studies have shown that atherosclerosis of the descending aorta detected by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE is a good marker of coexisting coronary artery disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether the presence of atherosclerosis on the descending aorta during TEE has any prognostic impact in predicting cardiovascular events. Material and Methods The study group consisted of 238 consecutive in-hospital patients referred for TEE testing (135 males, 103 females, mean age 58 +/- 11 years with a follow up of 24 months. The atherosclerotic lesions of the descending aorta were scored from 0 (no atherosclerosis to 3 (plaque >5 mm and/or "complex" plaque with ulcerated or mobile parts. Results Atherosclerosis was observed in 102 patients, (grade 3 in 16, and grade 2 in 86 patients whereas 136 patients only had an intimal thickening or normal intimal surface. There were 57 cardiovascular events in the follow-up period. The number of events was higher in the 102 patients with (n = 34 than in the 136 patients without atherosclerosis (n = 23, p =2 (HR 2.4, CI 1.0–5.5 predicted hard cardiovascular events. Conclusion Atherosclerosis of the descending aorta observed during transesophageal echocardiography is a useful predictor of cardiovascular events.

  11. Evaluation of the atherosclerotic change in the ascending aorta using helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical usefulness of helical computed tomography (CT) for the evaluation of atherosclerotic changes in the ascending aorta. Eighteen subjects are examined. Contrast-enhanced helical CT was performed before and after the operation of the coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Forty six histological samples of the ascending aorta were obtained from the sites where the saphenous grafts were anastomosed and classified microscopically into 3 histological grade; grade 1: mainly intimal fibrosis (n=38), grade 2: mainly atheroma (n=6) and grade 3: mainly calcification (n=2). In comparison with CT images, all the portions of the aortic walls with grade 2 and 3 showed low density areas, while any of those with grade 1 did not reveal the low density areas along the inner margin of the aortic wall. However, the walls with grade 2 and those with grade 3 were not able to be differentiated on CT images. Three dimensional reconstructed images clearly demonstrated the spatial distribution of atheromatous changes and calcification in the ascending aorta. In conclusion, helical CT is clinically useful for the evaluation of the atherosclerotic changes in the ascending aorta. (author)

  12. Changes in finger-aorta pressure transfer function during and after exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Stok; B.E. Westerhof; J.M. Karemaker

    2006-01-01

    Changes in finger-aorta pressure transfer function during and after exercise. J Appl Physiol 101: 1207-1214, 2006. First published June 1, 2006; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00876.2005.-Noninvasive finger blood pressure has become a surrogate for central blood pressure under widely varying circumstances

  13. Relationship between aneurism of ascending part of aorta and syndrome of connective tissue dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osovska N.Yu.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies the main reasons for the development of an aneurysm of the ascending aorta and predictors of its complications in patients of all ages. To determine the cause and age-associated risk factors for aneurysms there were examined 154 patients with the presence of the expansion of the root and / or ascending aorta of more than 40 mm, according to echocardiographic examination. Patients were divided into 4 categories by age: 18-29 years, 30-44 years 45-59 years 60-74 years. Instrumental methods of examination: echocardiography, ECG, ECG monitoring and blood pressure, heart rate variability, ultrasound of internal organs were used. Syndrome of connective tissue dysplasia was established according to the criteria of the working group of the British Society of Rheumatology. Joint hypermobility syndrome was determined according to the Brayton criteria. Statistical processing was carried out by methods of variation statistic program StatSoft "Statistica" v.10.0. It was established that in young and middle aged patients the cause of aneurysm of ascending aorta more often is connective tissue dysplasia syndrome. In older patients the main cause of aneurysm of ascending aorta is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and decreased contractile function of the heart.

  14. Stress Alone or associated with Ethanol Induces Prostanoid Release in Rat Aorta via α2-Adrenoceptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Rafaela de Fátima Ferreira [Departamento de Farmacologia - Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP - São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório de Farmacologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Marília - FAMEMA, SP (Brazil); Taipeiro, Elane de Fátima [Laboratório de Farmacologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Marília - FAMEMA, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa [Departamento de Análise Clínica - Toxicológica e Ciência de Alimentos - Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas - USP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chies, Agnaldo Bruno [Departamento de Farmacologia - Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP - São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório de Farmacologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Marília - FAMEMA, SP (Brazil); Cordellini, Sandra, E-mail: cordelli@ibb.unesp.br [Departamento de Farmacologia - Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP - São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Stress and ethanol are both, independently, important cardiovascular risk factors. To evaluate the cardiovascular risk of ethanol consumption and stress exposure, isolated and in association, in male adult rats. Rats were separated into 4 groups: Control, ethanol (20% in drinking water for 6 weeks), stress (immobilization 1h day/5 days a week for 6 weeks) and stress/ethanol. Concentration-responses curves to noradrenaline - in the absence and presence of yohimbine, L-NAME or indomethacin - or to phenylephrine were determined in thoracic aortas with and without endothelium. EC50 and maximum response (n=8-12) were compared using two-way ANOVA/Bonferroni method. Either stress or stress in association with ethanol consumption increased the noradrenaline maximum responses in intact aortas. This hyper-reactivity was eliminated by endothelium removal or by the presence of either indomethacin or yohimbine, but was not altered by the presence of L-NAME. Meanwhile, ethanol consumption did not alter the reactivity to noradrenaline. The phenylephrine responses in aortas both with and without endothelium also remained unaffected regardless of protocol. Chronic stress increased rat aortic responses to noradrenaline. This effect is dependent upon the vascular endothelium and involves the release of vasoconstrictor prostanoids via stimulation of endothelial alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Moreover, chronic ethanol consumption appeared to neither influence noradrenaline responses in rat thoracic aorta, nor did it modify the increase of such responses observed as a consequence of stress exposure.

  15. Ascending aorta false aneurysm as a late complication of aortic valve surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilbija Ilija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. False aneurysms of the ascending aorta represent a rare but potentially fatal complication of cardiac surgical procedures. Predisposing factors are aortic dissection, infection, connective tissue disorders, chronic hypertension, aortic calcifications and aortotomy dehiscence. At the beginning they are usually asymptomatic, but later various symptoms arise as a consequence of vital structures compression. Potential risk of rupture rises with time and pseudoaneurysm enlargement. From surgical point of view treatment of such cases represents a unique challenge because of the great danger of inadvertent opening of the aneurysm during resternotomy. Case Outline. A 58-year-old female patient underwent aortic valve replacement due to severe aortic stenosis in 2004. Operation and postoperative recovery were uneventful. Three years later she started complaining about chest pain. On chest X-ray there was upper mediastinal widening. CT scan showed a pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta located in front of the right atrium and right ventricle, which was subsequently verified by angiography. During redo operation the pseudoaneurysm was successfully resected and aorta closed with separate ethybond sutures with pledgets. Conclusion. Postoperative pseudoaneurysms of the ascending aorta mostly arise from the suture lines. The most useful diagnostic procedures are contrast CT scan, echocardiography, angiography and MRI. Surgical intervention is absolutely indicated. The institution of cardiopulmonary bypass by alternative ways before chest opening is strongly recommended.

  16. Efeitos a curto prazo de "stents" não recobertos e recobertos com politetrafluoroetileno em aorta de suínos: um modelo experimental Short-term effects of polytetrafluoroethylene covered and uncovered metallic "stents" in pig aorta: an experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Grüdtner

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever um estudo experimental avaliando através da morfometria digital o espessamento intimal na parede arterial após o implante de "stents" metálicos auto-expansíveis recobertos ou não com politetrafluoroetileno (PTFE na aorta de suínos. MÉTODOS: Em três grupos de suínos jovens uma bainha introdutora de 12 F foi inserida na aorta abdominal distal. Os animais do grupo I (n=5 foram considerados controle. Os animais do grupo II (n=10 receberam o implante de um stent metálico auto-expansível não recoberto. No grupo III (n=10 um stent auto-expansível recoberto com PTFE foi inserido. Após quatro semanas os animais foram sacrificados e os espécimes arteriais foram retirados, sendo o espessamento intimal quantificado pela análise morfométrica. RESULTADOS: Na comparação entre os grupos I, II e III quanto às áreas da íntima, média e índice intimal, não foi observada variação estatisticamente significativa. Diferenças foram observadas entre os grupos em relação às áreas luminais proximais (p=0,0036 e distais (p=0,044. Através dos testes de comparação múltipla para Kruskal-Wallis foi identificada uma diferença entre os grupos I e II. Entretanto, quando essas variáveis foram controladas pelo fator peso (relação área luminal/peso, a diferença não foi mais observada. CONCLUSÕES: Nesse estudo a curto prazo, o revestimento de PTFE não esteve associado a adicional espessamento intimal além daquele promovido pelo dispositivo metálico em artérias de grande calibre e condições de alto fluxo.PURPOSE: To report an experimental study evaluating, through digital morphometry, the intimal thickening of the arterial wall after the implant of auto-expandable stainless steel stents covered or not with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE in the pig aorta. METHODS: In three groups of pigs a 12 F sheath was inserted in distal abdominal aorta. Group I animals (n=5 served as control. Group II animals (n=10 received an auto

  17. Indium 111 leucocyte scintigraphy in abdominal sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the clinical utility of indium 111 autologous leucocyte scintigraphy retrospectively in 45 patients presenting with suspected intra-abdominal sepsis. The sensitivity was 95% (21/22) and the specificity was 91% (21/23). Some 34 of the studies (17 positive and 17 negative) were considered helpful in furthering patient management (76%) and 8, unhelpful (18%). In 3, the study results were misleading and led to inappropriate treatment. Indium 111 scintigraphy, whether positive or negative, provides information in patients with suspected intra-abdominal sepsis upon which therapeutic decisions can be based. (orig.)

  18. Aggressive malignant abdominal mesothelioma: Clinical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 32-year-old Filipino female, working as an x-ray technician, presented to the Emergency Room (ER) with acute abdominal pain for one day. The pain was mainly on the left side and left hypochondrium. She had recurring abdominal pain before but not significant to worry her. She also complained of abdominal distension, which she noticed one week ago. Abdominal examination revealed fullness in the left hypochondrium with marked tenderness but negative rebound. Abdominal ultrasound (US) showed a huge mass mainly in the left hypochondrium. The origin of the mass cannot be identified by US. A computerized tomography scan showed a mass in the left side of the abdomen crossing the midline with a necrotic centre. The hospital course of the patient runs smoothly, and she was discharged after 7-days and referred to an Oncology Center. Abdominal mesothelioma is a neoplasm arising from the mesothelial surface lining the abdominal cavity. It is less frequent than that of the pleura. It is a rapidly growing and fatal malignancy with a median survival of less than 1-year. The relation between pleural malignant mesothelioma and asbestos is well recognized since it was described in 19602 but implication of asbestos exposure in the etiology of the peritoneal type is less obvious. This patient history is giving no obvious exposure to asbestos but as she is working in the Radiology Department as an x-ray technician she is well exposed to x-ray, but the effect of radioactivity on induction of mesothelioma is still disputed.4 There are several reports linking malignant mesothelioma to radioactivity due to radiation therapy.The fibrous mesothelioma (sarcomatous), as in this case, which is difficult to diagnose microscopically, looks like a fibroma, unless helped by tissue culture. The treatment options of malignant mesothelioma include surgery, intraperitoneal chemotherapy and whole abdominal radiation or multimodality therapy, which were suggested that might prolong the survival in

  19. Intra-abdominal manifestations of Recklinghausen's Neurofibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF-1), also known as von Recklinghausendisease, is a common autosomal dominant condition with an approximateincidence of one per 300 births. NF1 involves multiple systems of the body.Abdominal involvement occurs in the form of neurofibroma and tumor growth inthe liver, mesentery, retroperitoneum, gastric and bowel. Gastrointestinalneoplasms have a reported occurrence of 2-25%. Two cases are reported hereinas well as a review of the literature of the intra-abdominal manifestationsof NF1, including a discussion on the radiological appearance and diagnosis.The article provides an insight into the intriguing variety of clinicalproblems that such patients may present. (author)

  20. Giant cystic abdominal masses in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.; Thomas, Kristen B.; Harned, Roger K.; Wu, Sarah R.; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Strain, John D. [University of California, Davis Health Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Davis Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2005-12-01

    In this pictorial essay the common and uncommon causes of large cystic and cyst-like abdominal masses in children are reviewed. We discuss and illustrate the following: mesenchymal hamartoma, choledochal cyst, hydrops of the gallbladder, congenital splenic cyst, pancreatic pseudocyst, pancreatic cystadenoma, hydronephrosis, multicystic dysplastic kidney, multilocular cystic nephroma, adrenal hemorrhage, mesenteric and omental cysts, gastrointestinal duplication cyst, meconium pseudocyst, ovarian cysts and cystic neoplasms, hematocolpos, urachal cysts, appendiceal abscess, abdominal and sacrococcygeal teratoma, and CSF pseudocyst. We also describe imaging features and clues to the diagnosis. (orig.)

  1. Upper abdominal trauma in children: imaging evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred consecutive children with serious blunt upper-abdominal injury were evaluated prospectively to assess the accuracy and usefulness of emergency computed tomography (CT) compared with liver-spleen scintigraphy and sonography. Ninety-five hemodynamically stable patients were imaged. The results of this 20-month study indicated that CT has fewer false negatives and false positives than scintigraphy or sonography, that CT is useful in abdominal trauma, and that CT provides the most information of any single diagnostic imaging test commonly available

  2. Systemic lupus erythematosus : abdominal radiologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Cheon; Cho, On Koo; Lee, Yong Joo; Bae, Jae Ik; Kim, Yong Soo; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Ko, Byung Hee [Hanyang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE) is a systemic disease of unknown etiology. Its main pathology is vasculitis and serositis, due to deposition of the immune complex or antibodies. Most findings are nonspecific ; abdominal manifestations include enteritis, hepatomegaly, pancreatic enlargement, serositis, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, nephritis, interstitial cystitis, and thrombophlebitis. We described radiologic findings of various organ involvement of SLE; digestive system, serosa, reticuloendothelial system, urinary system, and venous system. Diagnosis of SLE was done according to the criteria of American Rheumatism Association. Understanding of the variable imaging findings in SLE may be helpful for the early detection of abdominal involvement and complications.

  3. Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Preschool Children.

    OpenAIRE

    * Ritu Gupta, **Ravinder K. Gupta

    2004-01-01

    One hundred fifty preschool children with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) were studied. Organiccause was observed in 135 (90%) and non-organic in 15 (10%). Giardiasis was the commonestorganic cause in 81 (60%) either alone or with other parasites followed by ascariasis 27 (20%) alone.Other cause of organic pain were urinary tract infection (UTI) 9 (6.7%), abdominal tuberculosis 9(6.7%), eosophagitis/gastritis 4 (2.9%) and gall stones 2 (1.4%). School phobia, sibling rivalry,unpleasant relation...

  4. Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Preschool Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Gupta, Ravinder K Gupta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred fifty preschool children with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP were studied. Organiccause was observed in 135 (90% and non-organic in 15 (10%. Giardiasis was the commonestorganic cause in 81 (60% either alone or with other parasites followed by ascariasis 27 (20% alone.Other cause of organic pain were urinary tract infection (UTI 9 (6.7%, abdominal tuberculosis 9(6.7%, eosophagitis/gastritis 4 (2.9% and gall stones 2 (1.4%. School phobia, sibling rivalry,unpleasant relations among parents and nocturnal enuresis were significant factors associated withnon-organic causes.

  5. An unusual cause of abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terneu, S; Verhelst, D; Thys, F; Ketelslegers, E; Hantson, P; Wittebole, X

    2003-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Room because of abdominal pain associated with hematuria and red blood blending to stool. On admission, the physical examination revealed abdominal tenderness and diffuse cutaneous hematoma. The laboratory findings showed abnormal clotting tests with high International Normalised Ratio (INR) and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. Hemoperitoneum and ureteral hematoma were noted on the abdomen computed tomography. The patient confessed she had ingested difenacoum for several weeks. All the symptoms resolved with fresh frozen plasma perfusion and vitamin K. PMID:14635532

  6. Endovascular Repair of Localized Pathological Lesions of the Descending Thoracic Aorta: Midterm Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The endoluminal stent-graft represents an attractive and a less invasive technique for treatment of various diseases of the descending thoracic aorta. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Talent endovascular stent-graft for the treatment of various localized diseases of the descending thoracic aorta. Over a 3-year period, Talent thoracic endografts were placed in 40 patients with a high surgical risk, presenting a localized lesion of the descending thoracic aorta: degenerative aneurysm (n = 13), acute traumatic rupture (n = 11), acute Stanford type B aortic dissection (n = 6), false aneurysm (n = 7), and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (n = 3). Fifteen patients (37.5%) were treated as emergencies. The feasibility of endovascular treatment and sizing of the aorta and stent-grafts were determined preoperatively by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and intraoperative angiography. Immediate and mid-term technical and clinical success was assessed by clinical and MRA follow-up. Endovascular treatment was completed successfully in all 40 patients, with no conversion to open repair or intraoperative mortality. The mean operative time was 37.5 ± 7 min. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 10% (n = 4), all in emergency cases, for causes not related to the endograft. The primary technical success was 92.5%. The mean follow-up period was 15 ± 5 months. The survival rate was 95% (n = 35). Diminution of the aneurismal size was observed in 47.5% (n = 19). We conclude that endovascular treatment of the various localized diseases of the descending thoracic aorta is a promising, feasible, alternative technique to open surgery in well-selected patients

  7. MRI and ultrasonography of atherosclerosis of the thoracic aorta and carotid arteries in elderly hypercholesterolemic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 53 elderly participants aged more than 60 the thoracic aorta and bilateral carotid arteries were observed with noninvasive techniques, MRI and ultrasonography, in order to elucidate the relationship between hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in the elderly. Hypercholesterolemic subjects were classified as group H (serum total cholesterol (TC)>220 mg/dl), group H-I (220 mg/dl< TC<250 mg/dl) and group H-II (TC≥250 mg/dl). Atherosclerotic changes of the thoracic aorta were observed in 46% of group H, 27% of group H-I, 60% of group H-II and 37% of normolipidemic subjects (group NL). Carotid atherosclerotic changes were observed in 19% of group H, 9% of group H-I, 27% of group H-II and 18% of group NL. In group H-I, the percentages of atherosclerotic changes in both thoracic aorta and carotid arteries were lower than those in group NL. However, atherosclerotic changes of thoracic aorta and carotid arteries were detected in 43% and 29% of the subjects showing higher apo B/Apo A1 ratio than 1.0 among group H-I+NL (TC<250 mg/dl). These changes occurred in 32% and 13% of the subjects showing lower apo B/Apo A1 ratio than 1.0 among the same groups. Namely, atherosclerotic changes of the thoracic aorta and carotid arteries were observed more frequently in the subjects showing a higher apo B/Apo A1 ratio than 1.0 even if their serum cholesterol values were not higher than 250 mg/dl. We should use not only the serum cholesterol value but also the apo B/Apo A1 ratio as an indicator to evaluate the roles of lipids in the development of atherosclerosis. (author)

  8. The role of extracellular and intracellular proteolytic systems in aneurysms of the ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Isabella; Schack, Stephanie; Richter, Manfred; Stock, Ulrich A; Ahmad, Ali El-Sayed; Moritz, Anton; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres

    2016-05-01

    Aneurysms of the ascending aorta are an outstanding challenge to clinicians as they may persist asymptomatic until they present with dissection or rupture. Intensive research is performed to reveal the molecular mechanisms causing aneurysm formation. Calpains are ubiquitous non-lysosomal cysteine proteases which are classically activated by calcium signaling. The two major forms of the calpain-family are calpain-I and calpain-II. Calpastatin specifically inhibits the proteolytic activity of calpain-I and -II. Recently it has been demonstrated in aneurysm tissues from ascending aortas obtained from Marfan syndrome patients that calpain-II expression is increased and calpastatin expression is decreased. Thus, we were interested in the probable role of calpains in aneurysms of ascending aorta in non-Marfan patients. Therefore, ascending aortic samples of dilated and non-dilated aortas were analyzed according to their calpain-I, -II and calpastatin content as well as the expression levels of MMPs and elastin as well as the infiltration of inflammatory cells. We have found significant differences in calpain-I and calpastatin protein expression and serum levels in patients with aneurysm of the ascending aorta. Furthermore, MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression levels correlate with calpain-I protein levels. Due to our findings we conclude that calpain-1 seems to be related to fibrotic alteration in aortic aneurysm tissue in our experimental group. The change in calpain-1 modulates the structure of aortic tissue causing alteration in elastin structure, thus enabling macrophage infiltration and elevation of MMP levels. Circulating levels of calpain-1 may be used as a prognostic marker in the future if further correlation analyses are done. PMID:26582478

  9. CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monill, J.; Pernas, J.; Montserrat, E.; Perez, C.; Clavero, J.; Martinez-Noguera, A.; Guerrero, R.; Torrubia, S. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms. We reviewed CT imaging findings in 11 patients (seven men, four women; mean age 62 years) with plasma cell neoplasms and abdominal involvement. Helical CT of the entire abdomen and pelvis was performed following intravenous administration of contrast material. Images were analyzed in consensus by two radiologists. Diagnoses were made from biopsy, surgery and/or clinical follow-up findings. Multiple myeloma was found in seven patients and extramedullary plasmacytoma in four patients. All patients with multiple myeloma had multifocal disease with involvement of perirenal space (4/7), retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes (3/7), peritoneum (3/7), liver (2/7), subcutaneous tissues (2/7) and kidney (1/7). In three of the four patients with extramedullary plasmacytoma, a single site was involved, namely stomach, vagina and retroperitoneum. In the fourth patient, a double site of abdominal involvement was observed with rectal and jejunal masses. Plasma cell neoplasm should be considered in the differential diagnosis of single or multiple enhancing masses in the abdomen or pelvis. Abdominal plasma cell neoplasms were most frequently seen as well-defined enhancing masses (10/11). (orig.)

  10. Case series of abdominal sacral colpopexy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Dhama

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Abdominal sacral colpopexy with polypropylene mesh is a safe, effective treatment in patients having post hysterectomy vaginal vault proplase. When done by experienced gynecologist, major post-operative complications seem to be very few in patients having normal BMI and no major systemic illnesses. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1992-1995

  11. Abdominal cavity exploration with kinetic scintimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine procedures are being utilized in an increasing variety and number of intra-abdominal clinical problems. These non-invasive intra-abdominal exploratory scintimaging procedures are often dynamic or kinetic in nature, i.e. revealing primarily functional information even to the point of employing adjunctive drugs and multiple simultaneous radiotracers. The advent of correlative non-invasive diagnostic imaging modalities has thus far largely complemented abdominal nuclear medicine procedures. The luminal gastro-intestinal tract has yielded to investigation with radiotracers with procedures now widely employed to study gastric function, gastro-oesophagal reflux and intestinal bleeding. The role of hepatic and splenic reticuloendethelial compartment imaging has been strengthened by increased dependability, and remains as the first line screening test for a variety of suspected intrahepatic lesions, especially neoplasia. The recent introduction of improved hepatobiliary radiotracers, mostly iminodiacetic acid derivatives, has considerably expanded the scope of diagnostic investigations of the liver, especially in problems of jaundice and acute cholecystitis. Pancreatic imaging continues to be a disappointment and at best is only adjunctive to correlative imaging procedures. Some hope may be seen in the recent reports of successful pancreatic imaging with positron emission tomography utilizing labelled amino-acid derivatives. Diffuse abdominal processes, especially abcesses and suspected infection, have been efficaciously approached with 67Ga citrate and also, more recently, 111-In-labelled leucocytes. Many of these advances and applications have also been readily applicable to pediatric problems. (author)

  12. Intra-abdominal tumors in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to observe the histopathological pattern of intra-abdominal tumors in children less than 16 years. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Department of Histopathology, Children's Hospital and the Institute of Child Health and King Edward Medical College, Lahore, over a period of 5 years, from January 1997 to December 2002. Subjects and Methods: The histopathological and demographic data of 264 intra-abdominal tumors of both the sexes under 16 years of age was collected and analyzed to determine the various morphological types of intra- abdominal tumors in relation to age and sex. Results: Neuroblastoma was the most common tumor constituting 29.6% of all cases, followed by Wilms' tumor (25.1%). Others were non-Hodgkins Iymphomas (15.5%), germ cell tumors and hepatoblastoma (9%) each, rhabdomyosarcoma (4.4%), hepatocellular carcinoma (1.4%) and miscellaneous (6%). Majority of the patients (77.2%) were under 5 years of age. The male to female ratio was 1.1 :0.9. Conclusion: Intra-abdominal tumors are more common in males. Most of the tumors were noted in children less than 5 years of age. (author)

  13. [Catheter jejunostomy in elective abdominal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodoky, A; Heberer, M; Iwatschenko, P; Harder, F

    1985-10-01

    Needle catheter jejunostomy is used to a varying extent today. Therefore, the need for nutritional support was evaluated following elective abdominal surgery and compared to experiences with postoperative enteral feeding. Oesophagectomy, total gastrectomy and the Whipple procedure were identified as good indications for catheter jejunostomy, whereas with other types of operation an individual decision is required. PMID:3935397

  14. CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to describe the CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms. We reviewed CT imaging findings in 11 patients (seven men, four women; mean age 62 years) with plasma cell neoplasms and abdominal involvement. Helical CT of the entire abdomen and pelvis was performed following intravenous administration of contrast material. Images were analyzed in consensus by two radiologists. Diagnoses were made from biopsy, surgery and/or clinical follow-up findings. Multiple myeloma was found in seven patients and extramedullary plasmacytoma in four patients. All patients with multiple myeloma had multifocal disease with involvement of perirenal space (4/7), retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes (3/7), peritoneum (3/7), liver (2/7), subcutaneous tissues (2/7) and kidney (1/7). In three of the four patients with extramedullary plasmacytoma, a single site was involved, namely stomach, vagina and retroperitoneum. In the fourth patient, a double site of abdominal involvement was observed with rectal and jejunal masses. Plasma cell neoplasm should be considered in the differential diagnosis of single or multiple enhancing masses in the abdomen or pelvis. Abdominal plasma cell neoplasms were most frequently seen as well-defined enhancing masses (10/11). (orig.)

  15. Connective tissue alteration in abdominal wall hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, N A; Yadete, D H; Sørensen, Lars Tue; Ågren, Sven Per Magnus; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2011-01-01

    The aetiology and pathogenesis of abdominal wall hernia formation is complex. Optimal treatment of hernias depends on a full understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in their formation. The aim of this study was to review the literature on specific collagen alterations in abdom...

  16. Natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko, M J; Schroeder, T V; Olsen, P S;

    1993-01-01

    During a 10-year period in which 735 patients presented with abdominal aortic aneurysms to our clinic, 63 were not offered operative treatment. The primary reason for choosing conservative treatment was concomitant diseases that increased the risk of operation. After 2 years of followup, half of ...

  17. Pulmonary complications of upper abdominal surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodhar S

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary complications encountered in 67 patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery in our unit in one year period are analysed. Pulmonary function tests and their post-operative reduction, as also the risk factors are discussed. Pathophysiology responsible for pulmonary complications is outlined.

  18. Abdominal CT in acute arterial pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abdominal arterial pathology as studied by CT imagings is reviewed. The illustrated morphology of aortic aneurysms complications (arterial embolism, dissection and arteriosclerotic ulcer ) are studied. The signs that lead to diagnosis are assessed and the major points on which to base a correct radiological study are reviewed

  19. Clinical profile of abdominal tuberculosis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A retrospective study was conducted in children, suffering from abdominal TB, attending Pediatric TB clinic from 2007 to 2009. Materials And Methods: Age-wise distribution and type of abdominal TB were analyzed with clinical features. Results : Out of 285 children with TB, 32 (11.2% had abdominal tuberculosis. Male: Female ratio was 2.1:1. 7 (21.9% children were 10 years of age. The most common clinical features were fever in 24 (75%, pain in abdomen in 17 (53.1%, loss of weight in 15 (46.9%, raised ESR in 14 (43.8%, and loss of appetite in 13 (40.6% children. TB contact was present in 10 (31.2%, and 7 (21.9% children had tuberculosis in the past. 28 (87.5% children had received BCG vaccine, and 17 (53.1% had a positive Mantoux test. Extra-abdominal tuberculosis was found in 17 patients (53.1%. Duration of fever was more in children less than 5 years of age (127 ± 66 days than that in children between 5 -10 years (37 ± 30 days and in > 10 years of age (73 ± 66 days, which is statistically significant (P = 0.0228. Lymph node TB (17 patients, 53.1% was found to be the commonest, followed by intestinal (10 patients, 31.2% and peritoneal TB (4 patients, 12.5%. 18 (56.2% of the total patients had recovered, 7 (21.9% of all patients failed first line therapy and had to be started on second line drugs, of which 4 (12.5% were proven to have drug-resistant TB. Conclusion : Abdominal TB is seen in 11.2% of children affected with TB, of which over 53% will have extra-abdominal manifestations. Common clinical and laboratory features include fever, pain in abdomen, loss of weight, loss of appetite, and raised ESR. The duration of fever is more in children of younger age group. Lymph node TB is the most common type of abdominal TB. Drug-resistant TB is seen in at least 12.5% of the patients.

  20. Splenic trauma during abdominal wall liposuction: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Harnett, Paul; Koak, Yashwant; Baker, Daryl

    2008-01-01

    A 35-year-old woman collapsed 18 hours after undergoing abdominal wall liposuction. Abdominal CT scan revealed a punctured spleen. She underwent an emergency splenectomy and made an uneventful recovery.