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Sample records for ao osso femural

  1. Implantes de hidroxiapatita em falhas ósseas produzidas no fêmur de ratos submetidos ao tabagismo passivo Hydroxyapatite implants in bone defects produced in rat femurs submitted to passive tobacco exposure

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    Thiago Cerizza Pinheiro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Defeitos com perdas de massa óssea são freqüentemente tratados com enxertos ósseos autógenos. Implantes de biomateriais, como hidroxiapatita (HA, também têm sido utilizados com a mesma finalidade, substituindo os enxertos autógenos. Contudo, as condições de saúde do tecido ósseo são fundamentais para que haja a osteointegração do implante. Assim, o consumo excessivo de tabaco, de forma ativa ou passiva, pode prejudicar o processo de neoformação óssea frente ao implante de hidroxiapatita, devido a seus efeitos deletérios sobre o tecido ósseo. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as condições nutricionais dos animais e o processo de neoformação óssea quando grânulos de hidroxiapatita porosa são implantados em falhas ósseas no fêmur de ratos submetidos ao tabagismo passivo. MÉTODOS: Foram implantados grânulos de hidroxiapatita porosa em defeitos ósseos produzidos na epífise distal do fêmur esquerdo de ratos sujeitos ao tabagismo passivo prolongado. Os animais foram acompanhados ao longo do tratamento do tabagismo com duração de seis meses avaliando suas condições físicas. Após oito semanas do implante ósseo do biomaterial, os animais foram sacrificados e as amostras da área do implante submetidas aos métodos histológicos de rotina e mantidas em blocos de parafina para análise histológica, morfométrica, e radiológica. RESULTADOS: Identificou-se que a variação de massa do grupo experimental foi mais intensa quando comparada com a do grupo controle. Quanto aos achados radiológicos, observou-se aparente imagem mais radiolúcida e organizada no grupo controle. Na análise morfológica, houve melhor fechamento do defeito ósseo bem como a osteointegração da hidroxiapatita no grupo controle. Ao comparar o volume de osso formado na área receptora do fêmur, entre o grupo controle e experimental, notou-se que os valores encontrados para os animais submetidos ao tabagismo passivo foram significativamente

  2. Banco de ossos Bone bank

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    Paulo Gilberto Cimbalista de Alencar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bancos de ossos são necessários para prover material biológico para uma série de procedimentos ortopédicos. A crescente necessidade de tecidos musculoesqueléticos para transplante é decorrente do desenvolvimento de novas técnicas cirúrgicas e fez com que diversos serviços se dispusessem a ter sua própria fonte de tecidos para transplante. Para aumentar a segurança dos tecidos transplantados, normas foram impostas pelo governo para o funcionamento dos bancos, o que limitou o número de instituições autorizadas. O bom desempenho de um banco de ossos depende de um rígido controle de todas as etapas, passando pela formação de equipes bem treinadas para captação, pela seleção de doadores, pela realização de diversos exames nos tecidos captados e pelo controle rigoroso das técnicas de processamento utilizadas. A associação desses fatores faz com que a abrangência do uso e do número de pacientes receptores seja ampliada, a contaminação de tecidos seja de incidência estatisticamente desprezível e haja rastreabilidade entre doadores e receptores. Este trabalho descreve as considerações técnicas quanto ao funcionamento de um banco, uso de enxertos e aplicações ortopédicas, bem como aspectos éticos e principais obstáculos enfrentados.Bone banks are necessary to provide biological material for a series of orthopedic procedures. The growing need for musculoskeletal tissues for transplantation is due to the development of new surgical techniques, and has made it so that a variety of services were willing to have their own source of tissue for transplantation. To increase the safety of transplanted tissues, standards for the operation of banks were imposed by the government, which limited the number of authorized institutions. The good performance of a bone bank depends on strict control of all stages, from the formation of well-trained teams for capturing, for donor selection, for conducting various tests on the tissues

  3. The near-UV absorber OSSO and its isomers.

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    Wu, Zhuang; Wan, Huabin; Xu, Jian; Lu, Bo; Lu, Yan; Eckhardt, André K; Schreiner, Peter R; Xie, Changjian; Guo, Hua; Zeng, Xiaoqing

    2018-05-01

    Disulfur dioxide, OSSO, has been proposed as the enigmatic "near-UV absorber" in the yellowish atmosphere of Venus. However, the fundamentally important spectroscopic properties and photochemistry of OSSO are scarcely documented. By either condensing gaseous SO or 266 laser photolysis of an S2O2 complex in Ar or N2 at 15 K, syn-OSSO, anti-OSSO, and cyclic OS([double bond, length as m-dash]O)S were identified by IR and UV/Vis spectroscopy for the first time. The observed absorptions (λmax) for OSSO at 517 and 390 nm coincide with the near-UV absorption (320-400 nm) found in the Venus clouds by photometric measurements with the Pioneer Venus orbiter. Subsequent UV light irradiation (365 nm) depletes syn-OSSO and anti-OSSO and yields a fourth isomer, syn-OSOS, with concomitant dissociation into SO2 and elemental sulfur.

  4. Sistemas osso-implante ex vivo utilizando haste intramedular polimérica para imobilização de fraturas femorais em bovinos jovens Ex vivo bone-implant systems using polymeric intramedullary nails for fixation of femoral fractures in young calves

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    Odael Spadeto Junior

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de novos aparatos usando materiais disponíveis e de baixo custo pode ser uma alternativa viável para o tratamento cirúrgico de fraturas em ossos longos de bovinos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a resistência mecânica de fêmures de bovinos jovens com fratura diafiseal, imobilizados com hastes intramedulares bloqueadas, compostas por diferentes polímeros. Para tanto, testes físicos de compressão e flexão, por meio de uma máquina universal de ensaios foram realizados em quatro grupos distintos de seis fêmures obtidos de bovinos jovens. Em um dos grupos, os ossos foram mantidos íntegros (grupo controle, enquanto que os outros os ossos, foram fraturados e imobilizados com uma haste intramedular bloqueada, composta por polipropileno, poliacetal ou poliamida (uma para cada grupo. Independente do polímero utilizado, nenhuma das hastes estudadas ofereceu aos fêmures fraturados resistência comparável ao osso íntegro, quando consideradas em conjunto as forças de flexão e compressão. A concordância desses achados com resultados in vivo previamente publicados, demonstra que a metodologia utilizada para testes ex vivo pode ser útil na seleção de materiais mais resistentes para confecção de novos modelos.The development of new devices using available and low cost materials may be an useful alternative for the treatment of long bone fractures in large animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical strength of young bovine femur with diaphyseal fracture fixed with different polymeric intramedullary nails. Bending and compression tests using a universal machine were carried out in 4 distinct groups of 6 femurs from young calves. In one of the groups bones were intact while in the other three fractured bones were fixed using an intramedullary nail made of polypropylene, polyacetal or polyamide (one for each group. Considering bending and compression tests together, none of the used polymers offered

  5. Microscopic and radiographic analysis of the effect of particle size of demineralized bovine cancellous bone matrix on the repair of bone defects in femurs of rabbits Análise microscópica e radiográfica do efeito do tamanho das partículas de matriz de osso medular bovino desmineralizado na reparação de defeito ósseo em fêmures de coelhos

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    Everdan Carneiro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The bone tissue has a great regenerative potential, with ability to completely restore its structure and original functions. In some situations, though, bone defects cannot be self-repaired, thus requiring the use of grafts for a correct treatment and good prognosis. This work aimed at microscopically analyzing the effect of the particle size of demineralized bovine cancellous bone matrix in micro and macrogranular forms on the repair of bone defects in femurs of rabbits, with blood clot used as control. At 1, 3 and 6 months after implantation of the materials, the animals were killed and the anatomic specimens were removed. A foreign body-type granulomatous reaction containing macrophages and multinucleated giant cells in contact with the implanted particles was observed. These results suggest a failure in demineralization and/or interruption of the antigenic potential during production of the biomaterial. It is concluded that the size of the particles did not influence the evolution of the repair process of bone defects, acting only as bone-filler substances, and that the material implanted should be improved by quality control during production, since it may represent a good alternative for bone graft.O tecido ósseo possui grande potencial regenerativo com capacidade para restaurar completamente sua estrutura e função originais. Há situações em que os defeitos ósseos não conseguem por si só obter o reparo, casos em que se fazem necessários o uso de enxertos, para um correto tratamento e bom prognóstico. Este experimento teve o propósito de analisar microscopicamente o efeito do tamanho das partículas de matriz de osso medular bovino desmineralizado, nas formas micro e macrogranular, na reparação de defeito ósseo em fêmures de coelhos, tendo como controle o coágulo sanguíneo. Após 1,3 e 6 meses da implantação dos materiais, os animais foram mortos e as peças anatômicas removidas. Uma reação granulomatosa tipo corpo

  6. Morfologia dos ossos do membro torácico do tamanduá-bandeira

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    Imara Guimarães Lima

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n4p141 O tamanduá-bandeira possui uma pelagem cinza acastanhada com tons brancos e negros, seu crânio é alongado, cilíndrico e com ausência de dentes. Sua cauda é longa, com pelos grossos e compridos, assemelhando-se a uma bandeira. Trata-se de uma espécie ameaçada, devido à constante degradação do seu hábitat, além de mortes causadas por queimadas e atropelamentos. Assim, o objetivo deste artigo foi descrever a morfologia dos ossos do membro torácico do Myrmecophaga tridactyla, enfocando seus principais acidentes ósseos. Foram utilizados dois espécimes de tamanduá-bandeira coletados em rodovias no estado de Minas Gerais, mortos após atropelamento. A escápula, o úmero, o rádio, a ulna e os ossos da mão apresentaram características próprias adaptadas ao estilo de vida e aos hábitos da espécie. No geral, a escápula se assemelha à dos seres humanos e o úmero é semelhante ao do tatu, o rádio e a ulna exibem superfícies articulares que possibilitam amplos movimentos de rotação no antebraço, os ossos do carpo também se assemelham em número e forma aos dos seres humanos e os dedos são bem desenvolvidos no tamanduá-bandeira, dotados de garras longas, fortes e cortantes, principalmente a do terceiro dedo. Assim, a descrição anatômica dos ossos do membro torácico do tamanduá-bandeira mostrou-se importante, aprofundando tanto o entendimento dos aspectos funcionais do membro torácico como da anatomia comparada de animais silvestres.

  7. Anatomia do osso temporal de ovelhas sob aspectos didáticos Lambs' temporal bone anatomy under didactic aspects

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    André Gurr

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available É difícil encontrar ossos temporais humanos para o ensino de cirurgia otológica. Ossos temporais de ovelhas podem representar uma possível alternativa. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Os ossos temporais de ovelhas foram dissecados em um programa convencional de dissecação de osso temporal no laboratório. Incluímos mastoidectomia, abordagens endaurais, mas também analisamos a aparência externa, o meato acústico externo e o hipotímpano. Algumas etapas são diferentes das preparações de ossos humanos. Os resultados morfométricos foram comparados à anatomia conhecida de humanos para verificar se o osso temporal de ovelhas seria utilizável para o ensino de cirurgia otológica. RESULTADOS: O osso temporal de ovelhas parece menor do que o humano. Encontramos uma área bolhosa se estendendo ao hipotímpano abaixo do meato acústico externo. A membrana timpânica é muito semelhante à humana. O meato acústico externo é menor e mais curto. A cadeia ossicular exibe analogias para com a humana. DISCUSSÃO: Esse estudo mostra que especificamente o ouvido médio, a membrana timpânica e o conduto auditivo externo são morfologicamente semelhantes às suas contrapartidas encontradas nos ossos temporais humanos. A ovelha parece ser um modelo viável para o ensino da anatomia do ouvido. A menor escala de algumas estruturas, especialmente dos componentes externos do osso temporal representa uma desvantagem. CONCLUSÕES: A ovelha parece representar uma alternativa viável no ensino de cirurgia otológica.Human temporal bones in teaching ear surgery are rare. The lamb's temporal bone might be a possible alternative. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Temporal bones of the lamb were dissected with a typical temporal bone lab drilling program. We included a mastoidectomy, endaural approaches, but also analyzed the outer appearance, the external ear canal and the hypotympanon. Some steps differed from preparation done in humans. The morphometric results were compared to

  8. Trauma dos ossos temporais e suas complicações: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada

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    Ana Maria Doffémond Costa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A maioria das fraturas dos ossos temporais resulta de traumas cranianos bruscos, de alta energia, estando muitas vezes relacionadas a outras fraturas cranianas ou a politraumatismo. As fraturas e os deslocamentos da cadeia ossicular, na orelha média, representam umas das principais complicações das injúrias nos ossos temporais e, por isso, serão abordadas de maneira mais profunda neste artigo. Os outros tipos de injúrias englobam as fraturas labirínticas, fístula dural, paralisia facial e extensão da linha de fratura ao canal carotídeo. A tomografia computadorizada tem papel fundamental na avaliação inicial dos pacientes politraumatizados, pois é capaz de identificar injúrias em importantes estruturas que podem causar graves complicações, como perda auditiva de condução ou neurossensorial, tonturas e disfunções do equilíbrio, fístulas perilinfáticas, paralisia do nervo facial, lesões vasculares, entre outras.

  9. O estatuto político da amizade: A Alma do Osso, de Cao Guimarães

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    Rafael de Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir do conceito de amizade proposto por Giorgio Agamben, este ensaio reflete, em uma interface entre estética e política, acerca das relações de poder presentes em A Alma do Osso (Cao Guimarães, 2004. O maior relevo é dado ao modo que o cineasta partilha, por meio do filme, sua existência com o ermitão Dominguinhos da Pedra, bem como as reverberações que isso garante à forma do documentário.

  10. Análise comparativa da resistência de fêmures de cães após a confecção de janelas ósseas circular e quadrada Comparative analysis of dog femur resistance after receiving circular and square holes

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    Olavo Pires de Camargo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o enfraquecimento causado pela confecção de janela óssea cortical, os autores confeccionaram uma janela circular no osso cortical da diáfise de oito fêmures de carcaças de cães e uma janela quadrada nos oito pares destes fêmures, com diagonal semelhante ao diâmetro da janela circular contralateral. As peças anatômicas foram submetidas a teste de tensão torcional em uma máquina de ensaios mecânicos; obtendo-se o torque máximo e a rigidez à torção. Os resultados mostraram que, para o fêmur com janela circular, o torque máximo médio foi de 13,65 ± 5,12 Nm, e a rigidez média foi de 1,18 ± 0,45 Nm/grau, enquanto que para a janela quadrada o torque máximo médio foi de 13, 39 ± 5,23 Nm, e a rigidez média foi de 1,05 ± 0,41 Nm/grau. A resistência nos ossos com janela circular e quadrada submetidos à tensão torcional foi praticamente igual, fato este corroborado pela análise estatística que não revelou diferença significante (p = 0,05.With the purpose of evaluating the weakness caused by holes in the cortical bone, the authors performed circular holes in the diaphysis cortical bone of eight femurs from dog carcasses, and square holes in the diaphysis cortical bone of the contralateral femurs, the diagonals being similar to the diameters. The specimens were submitted to torsion stress test in a mechanical test machine to determine maximum torque and rigidity to torsion. Maximum mean torque for the femurs with circular holes was 13.65 ± 5.12 Nm and mean rigidity was 1.18 ± 0.45 Nm/degree, while the femurs with square holes showed maximum mean torque of 13.39 ± 5.23 Nm and mean rigidity of 1.05 ± 0.41 Nm/degree. The resistance to torsion stress in femurs with circular or square holes was very similar and the statistical analysis did not show a significant difference (p = 0.05.

  11. Plasma rico em plaquetas associado ou não ao osso esponjoso autógeno no reparo de falhas ósseas experimentais Platelet rich plasma associated or not to autogenous bone graft on the reparation of experimental bone defects in the rabbits cranium

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    Paloma Sayegh Arreguy Silva

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo avaliou a influência do plasma autógeno rico em plaquetas (PRP, associado ou não ao autoenxerto esponjoso (EOE, na reparação de falhas ósseas criadas no crânio de coelhos. A falha I foi preenchida com o PRP; a falha II com 3mg de EOE; a falha III com EOE associado ao PRP e a falha IV não foi preenchida, servindo como controle. Após as cirurgias, os animais foram separados em três grupos e eutanasiados aos 30, 60 e 90 dias. Na avaliação mesoscópica, independentemente do período de observação, o preenchimento ósseo, na falha controle e naquelas tratadas com PRP, iniciou-se a partir das bordas para o centro e do fundo para a superfície das falhas. Já nas falhas tratadas com EOE e com enxerto associado ao PRP, foi notado também crescimento ósseo na porção central das falhas. Na análise radiográfica, foi observada maior radiopacidade no interior das falhas tratadas com EOE e com enxerto associado ao PRP, em todos os tempos. Microscopicamente, aos 30 dias, na falha tratada com EOE associado ao PRP, os fragmentos ósseos do enxerto estavam indistintos do tecido ósseo neoformado, presente em toda a borda do defeito, associado à moderada quantidade de tecido conjuntivo fibroso muito vascularizado e celularizado. Esse tecido apresentou material amorfo, eosinofílico e extracelular, junto a um processo inflamatório, constituído por linfócitos e, em menor número, por macrófagos e células gigantes multinucleadas, que podem ter influenciado negativamente a formação óssea precoce. Aos 60 e 90 dias, apenas focos ocasionais de inflamação linfocitária foram observados. O comportamento dos dois tratamentos, PRP associado ou não ao EOE, em relação a preenchimento ósseo, foi semelhante ao final do período de observação; o enxerto, utilizado de forma isolada, determinou precocidade de reparação óssea e a tromboplastina, utilizada para formação do gel de plaquetas, incitou uma reação semelhante a

  12. Efeito da pinealectomia na remodelação do osso alveolar de ratos submetidos à movimentação ortodôntica

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    Saad, Karime

    2007-01-01

    A melatonina participa de vários processos fisiológicos incluindo indução de sono, atividade gastrointestinal, função dos sistemas imunológico, cardiovascular, renal, reprodutor e sobre a fisiologia óssea. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o envolvimento da melatonina na remodelação do osso alveolar de ratos submetidos a tratamento ortodôntico. Dez ratos wistar machos foram submetidos, sob crioanestesia, à pinealectomia ou cirurgia fictícia aos 5 dias de vida. Aos 120 dias de idade os anima...

  13. Displasia fibrosa do osso temporal: relato de dois casos Fibrous dysplasia of the temporal bone: report of two cases

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    Roberto Claudio B. Oliveira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A displasia fibrosa do osso temporal é uma doença de etiologia ainda controversa, manifestando-se principalmente por estenose progressiva do conduto auditivo externo e pela perda condutiva da audição. Outras manifestações incluem abaulamento na região temporal ou retroauricular, otorréia, otalgia e disacusia sensório-neural. A incidência é maior no sexo masculino e acomete principalmente a raça branca. O exame radiológico característico demonstra um aspecto de "vidro-fosco" homogêneo envolvido por uma concha de tecido cortical denso, embora existam outros padrões radiológicos desta enfermidade. O exame microscópico demonstra um trabeculado ósseo semelhante aos caracteres chineses. Este estudo relata dois casos de displasia fibrosa do osso temporal que se destacam, pois ultrapassaram o osso temporal, acometendo a região zigomática, sendo que no segundo caso houve também comprometimento do osso esfenóide e o pterigóide. Os pacientes foram submetidos à mastoidectomia radical modificada e tiveram boa evolução.Fibrous dysplasia of the temporal bone (FDTB is a disorder which etiology is still controversial. Its main clinical feature is a progressive narrowing of the external auditory canal following by conductive hearing loss. Temporal or retroauricular enlargement, ear discharge, otalgia, and sensorineural hearing loss are additional findings. Women and Caucasians are more affected. The prominent finding is a homogeneous radiodense "grounded glass" like image shell surrounded by dense cortical tissue. However, other radiological patterns of this disease may be displayed. Microscopically, a trabecular of bone in "Chinese letter" configuration is found. The two cases of FDTB herein reported are particularly special for a far beyond temporal commitment reaching the zygomatic area in the first case and sphenoid and pterygoid bones in the second one. This infrequent clinical feature with unusual radiological findings made these

  14. Histology of sheep temporal bone A histologia do osso temporal do ovino

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    Hormy Biavatti Soares

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest that there is an excellent correlation between the morphology and dimensions of ear structures in sheep and human beings. AIM: To analyze and describe the histology of structures inside the temporal bone in sheep. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 307 slides obtained from vertical and horizontal sections of the temporal bone of eight sheep were analyzed. Structures were classified as similar or not similar to human structures, based on cellularity and histological architecture parameters. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental. RESULTS: The study revealed similarities between sheep and humans in terms of type of epithelium, bone component, spaces in the auditory meatus, in addition to a marked histological resemblance of cellularity and that of the structures surrounding the ear. The main differences observed were the presence of an anatomic bulla, the absence of aeration in the mastoid and the inferior opening of the hypotympanum into the bulla in sheep. CONCLUSION: Based on these observations, it is possible to conclude that sheep represent an adequate option for training and research in otologic surgery.Resultados prévios apontam para uma ótima correlação entre a morfologia e as dimensões das estruturas anatômicas de ovelhas e seres humanos. OBJETIVO: Analisar e descrever a histologia das estruturas que compõem o osso temporal do ovino. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Um total de 307 lâminas obtidas a partir de secções verticais e horizontais do osso temporal de oito ovelhas foi analisado. As estruturas foram caracterizadas como semelhantes ou não semelhantes às do ser humano, com base na celularidade e na arquitetura histológica das estruturas. DESENHO CIENTÍFICO: Experimental. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se semelhança quanto ao tipo de epitélio, componente ósseo, espaços da fenda auditiva e arquitetura, além da semelhança, em nível histológico, tanto dos componentes celulares como das estruturas contíguas ao ouvido. As

  15. Caracterização tecnológica de cerâmica branca com adição de ossos bovinos

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    Karoline de Lourdes Monteiro Guimarães

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O descarte de resíduos sólidos é visto como um problema ambiental. À medida em que as cidades crescem e os processos produtivos avançam, é necessário buscar um destino adequado para o descarte ou outras alternativas, como o reaproveitamento em outros processos. É o caso dos ossos bovinos, que apresentam propriedades interessantes, podendo ser reaproveitados e incorporação a outros materiais, como na produção cerâmica. A adição de resíduos à massa cerâmica pode agregar benefícios ambientais, estéticos, econômicos e funcionais. Por isso, neste trabalho foi realizada uma análise das propriedades tecnológicas da cerâmica com adição de ossos bovinos. Os resultados mostram que a composição com 30% de resíduos apresentou os melhores resultados, seguidos das misturas com 35% e 55% de ossos. Conforme características, este material é indicado para uso em objetos planos e em utilitários domésticos, sobretudo quando a cor branca for inerente ao produto.

  16. Estudo da interação polímero/cartilagem/osso utilizando poli (ácido lático-co-ácido glicólico e poli (p-dioxanona em condilo femural de coelhos Study of polymer/cartilage/bone interaction using poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid and poly (p-dioxanona in femoral condyle of rabbits

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    Maisa M. Sakata

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Os dispositivos biorreabsorvíveis são alternativas para fixação interna das fraturas. Durante o tratamento estes dispositivos mantêm a fixação e degradam-se gradualmente não necessitando de uma cirurgia de remoção, reduzindo o custo de tratamento quando comparadas aos dispositivos metálicos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a interação polímero/tecido utilizando pinos de PLGA e PDS após implantes em coelhos Nova Zelândia. Separou-se os animais em 3 grupos os quais foram sacrificados após 3, 6 e 12 semanas de implantação e o material obtido foi submetido à análise histológica. As análises histológicas com implantes de PLGA mostraram após 3 semanas a formação de um tecido com características mesenquimatosas e com 12 semanas a formação de uma estrutura óssea madura. Já nos implantes de PDS de 3 semanas houve uma maior invasão de tecido mesenquimal comparado ao PLGA e após 12 semanas, ocorreu uma degradação avançada, com tecido proliferativo mesenquimal e ósseo. Assim, concluiu-se que ocorreram resultados positivos à resposta tecidual/implante e foi relevante a observação da ausência de células responsáveis pela resposta inflamatória. As análises demonstraram que o copolímero de PLGA apresentou propriedades osteoindutivas mais adequadas que os de PDS, apresentando biocompatibilidade aceitável para aplicação ortopédica.Bioresorbable devices are alternatives for internal fixation. During the treatment, those devices maintain the fixation, degrade gradually and eliminate the need for a remove surgery, decreasing the treatment cost when compared with metallic devices. The aim of this work was to study the interaction polymer/tissue interaction using pins of PLGA and PDS implanted in New Zealand rabbits. The animals were separated in 3 groups which were sacrificed after 3, 6 and 12 weeks after implantation, and the obtained material was submitted to histological analysis. Histological analysis with

  17. Densitometria da vértebra dorsal, osso pleural e osso neural em tartarugas verdes hígidas por tomografia computadorizada quantitativa Densitometry of dorsal vertebrae, pleural bone and neural bone in healthy green sea turtles by quantitative computed tomography

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    Jannine Forattini de Oliveira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A tomografia computadorizada quantitativa (TCQ é uma técnica com alta sensibilidade, aplicabilidade e precisão no diagnóstico de perda de massa óssea, entretanto a falta de valores de normalidade para animais silvestres limita a sua aplicação clínica. O presente estudo objetiva estabelecer valores médios de radiodensidade do osso trabecular das vértebras dorsais, osso pleural e osso neural de tartarugas marinhas juvenis hígidas utilizando a TCQ. Para isso, utilizou-se um grupo experimental de cinco animais que foram submetidos a exames de tomografia computadorizada helicoidal, sendo as mensurações da radiodensidade óssea realizadas ao nível da terceira, quarta e quinta vértebras dorsais. Os valores médios de radiodensidade do osso trabecular das vértebras dorsais, osso pleural e osso neural foram, respectivamente, de 287,4±39,1, 1093,74±100,4 e 1089,6±86,5 unidades Hounsfield (HU. Estudos complementares devem ser realizados em diferentes espécies e faixas etárias de quelônios para favorecer a aplicação clínica desta técnica.Quantitative computed tomography (QCT is a technique with high sensitivity, applicability and accuracy in the diagnosis of bone loss; however the lack of normal values for wild animals limits their clinical application. This study aims to establish medium values radiodensity trabecular bone of the dorsal vertebrae, bone pleural and neural bone in healthy juvenile sea turtles using the QTC. For this we used an experimental group of five animals that underwent helical computed tomography, and measurements of bone radiodensity conducted at the level of the third, fourth and fifth dorsal vertebrae. The medium values of radiodensity trabecular bone of the dorsal vertebrae, pleural bone, and neural bone were respectively 287.4±39.1, 1093.74±100.4, and 1089.6±86.5 Hounsfield units (HU. Further studies should be performed in different species and ages of turtles to encourage the clinical application of

  18. Condroblastoma benigno do osso occipital: Relato do caso Benign chondroblastoma of the occipital bone: case report

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    João Flávio Mattos Araújo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Condroblastoma benigno é tumor ósseo raro, tendo como origem células cartilagíneas. Classicamente este tumor acomete regiões epifisárias de ossos longos, sendo incomum o envolvimento de ossos do crânio, principalmente o osso occipital. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente com 16 anos de idade, com o diagnóstico de condroblastoma benigno do osso occipital e discutimos os principais aspectos deste tumor.Benign chondroblastoma is a rare bone tumor of immature cartilage cell derivation. This lesion classically occur at the ends of long bones in young persons. Chondroblastoma arising from the occipital bone is extremely rare. We report the case of a 16 year old girl with a benign condroblastoma in the occipital bone, and discuss the clinical, radiological and treatment aspects of this tumor.

  19. Filling of extraction sockets with autogenous bone in cats Preenchimento de alvéolos dentais de gatos com osso autógeno

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    Adelina Maria da Silva

    2012-01-01

    observou-se uma área de radiolucência correspondente ao local da alveolectomia e extração dentária. Diminuição da radiolucência foi verificada nas radiografias realizadas seis semanas após a cirurgia. Nos cortes histológicos verificou-se a presença de trabéculas ósseas. A porcentagem de tecido ósseo esponjoso presente nos alvéolos dentais foi quantificada por exames histométricos. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos (Teste de Kruskal-Wallis p > 0.05 (grupo 1: 52,54 ± 15,4; grupo 2: 50,51 ± 5,01; grupo 3: 51,85 ± 9,52. CONCLUSÃO: Os alvéolos dentais de gatos preenchidos com osso esponjoso autógeno ou raspa de osso cortical autógeno apresentaram regeneração óssea similar àquela observada no grupo controle, após um período de observação de seis semanas.

  20. OSSOS. VI. Striking Biases in the Detection of Large Semimajor Axis Trans-Neptunian Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankman, Cory; Kavelaars, J. J.; Bannister, Michele T.; Gladman, Brett J.; Lawler, Samantha M.; Chen, Ying-Tung; Jakubik, Marian; Kaib, Nathan; Alexandersen, Mike; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Petit, Jean-Marc; Volk, Kathryn

    2017-08-01

    The accumulating but small set of large semimajor axis trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) shows an apparent clustering in the orientations of their orbits. This clustering must either be representative of the intrinsic distribution of these TNOs, or else have arisen as a result of observation biases and/or statistically expected variations for such a small set of detected objects. The clustered TNOs were detected across different and independent surveys, which has led to claims that the detections are therefore free of observational bias. This apparent clustering has led to the so-called “Planet 9” hypothesis that a super-Earth currently resides in the distant solar system and causes this clustering. The Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS) is a large program that ran on the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope from 2013 to 2017, discovering more than 800 new TNOs. One of the primary design goals of OSSOS was the careful determination of observational biases that would manifest within the detected sample. We demonstrate the striking and non-intuitive biases that exist for the detection of TNOs with large semimajor axes. The eight large semimajor axis OSSOS detections are an independent data set, of comparable size to the conglomerate samples used in previous studies. We conclude that the orbital distribution of the OSSOS sample is consistent with being detected from a uniform underlying angular distribution.

  1. Biases in the OSSOS Detection of Large Semimajor Axis Trans-Neptunian Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladman, Brett; Shankman, Cory; OSSOS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The accumulating but small set of large semimajor axis trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) shows an apparent clustering in the orientations of their orbits. This clustering must either be representative of the intrinsic distribution of these TNOs, or else have arisen as a result of observation biases and/or statistically expected variations for such a small set of detected objects. The clustered TNOs were detected across different and independent surveys, which has led to claims that the detections are therefore free of observational bias. This apparent clustering has led to the so-called “Planet 9” hypothesis that a super-Earth currently resides in the distant solar system and causes this clustering. The Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS) is a large program that ran on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope from 2013 to 2017, discovering more than 800 new TNOs. One of the primary design goals of OSSOS was the careful determination of observational biases that would manifest within the detected sample. We demonstrate the striking and non-intuitive biases that exist for the detection of TNOs with large semimajor axes. The eight large semimajor axis OSSOS detections are an independent data set, of comparable size to the conglomerate samples used in previous studies. We conclude that the orbital distribution of the OSSOS sample is consistent with being detected from a uniform underlying angular distribution.

  2. Treatment of Unstable Trochanteric Femur Fractures: Proximal Femur Nail Versus Proximal Femur Locking Compression Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashutosh Kumar; Narsaria, Nidi; G R, Arun; Srivastava, Vivek

    Unstable trochanteric femur fractures are common fractures that are difficult to manage. We conducted a prospective study to compare functional outcomes and complications of 2 different implant designs, proximal femur nail (PFN) and proximal femur locking compression plate (PFLCP), used in internal fixation of unstable trochanteric femur fractures. On hospital admission, 48 patients with unstable trochanteric fractures were randomly assigned (using a sealed envelope method) to treatment with either PFN (24 patients) or PFLCP (24 patients). Perioperative data and complications were recorded. All cases were followed up for 2 years. The groups did not differ significantly (P > .05) in operative time, reduction quality, complications, hospital length of stay, union rate, or time to union. Compared with the PFLCP group, the PFN group had shorter incisions and less blood loss. Regarding functional outcomes, there was no significant difference in mean Harris Hip Score (P = .48) or Palmer and Parker mobility score (P = .58). Both PFN and PFLCP are effective in internal fixation of unstable trochanteric femur fractures.

  3. Crosstalk entre osso e tecido adiposo na doença renal crônica

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    Sandra Mara Silva de Azevedo Marinho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentro do conceito de que os hormônios são regulados por um ciclo de reciprocidade, o fato de osteoblastos e adipócitos serem desenvolvidos a partir de células-tronco mesenquimais e da remodelação óssea ser regulada pela leptina, traz a ideia de possíveis participações do osso no metabolismo energético e vice-versa. Estudos recentes têm demonstrado que a diferenciação e as funções das células ósseas são reguladas pela leptina, que parece desencadear uma resposta bimodal central, via sistema nervoso simpático, e uma local, na qual a leptina agiria sobre o osso. De fato, estudos têm revelado complexa interação entre osso, tecido adiposo e cérebro; no entanto, existem poucos estudos sobre esse crosstalk em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC. Como tais pacientes têm tendência à diminuição da densidade mineral óssea e elevados níveis de leptina, o presente artigo apresentou uma revisão sobre o possível envolvimento entre tecido adiposo e massa óssea, em pacientes com DRC.

  4. Trauma dos ossos temporais e suas complicações: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada Temporal bone trauma and complications: computed tomography findings

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    Ana Maria Doffémond Costa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A maioria das fraturas dos ossos temporais resulta de traumas cranianos bruscos, de alta energia, estando muitas vezes relacionadas a outras fraturas cranianas ou a politraumatismo. As fraturas e os deslocamentos da cadeia ossicular, na orelha média, representam umas das principais complicações das injúrias nos ossos temporais e, por isso, serão abordadas de maneira mais profunda neste artigo. Os outros tipos de injúrias englobam as fraturas labirínticas, fístula dural, paralisia facial e extensão da linha de fratura ao canal carotídeo. A tomografia computadorizada tem papel fundamental na avaliação inicial dos pacientes politraumatizados, pois é capaz de identificar injúrias em importantes estruturas que podem causar graves complicações, como perda auditiva de condução ou neurossensorial, tonturas e disfunções do equilíbrio, fístulas perilinfáticas, paralisia do nervo facial, lesões vasculares, entre outras.Most temporal bone fractures result from high-energy blunt head trauma, and are frequently related to other skull fractures or to polytrauma. Fractures and displacements of ossicular chain in the middle ear represent some of the main complications of temporal bone injury, and hence they will be more deeply approached in the present article. Other types of injuries include labyrinthine fractures, dural fistula, facial nerve paralysis and extension into the carotid canal. Computed tomography plays a fundamental role in the initial evaluation of polytrauma patients, as it can help to identify important structural injuries that may lead to severe complications such as sensorineural hearing loss, conductive hearing loss, dizziness and balance dysfunction, perilymphatic fistulas, facial nerve paralysis, vascular injury and others.

  5. Influence of estrogen deficiency and tibolone therapy on trabecular and cortical bone evaluated by computed radiography system in rats Influência da deficiência estrogênica e do tratamento com tibolona no osso trabecular e cortical avaliada pelo sistema de radiografia computadorizada em ratas

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    Ana Carolina Bergmann de Carvalho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To verify the effects of tibolone administration on trabecular and cortical bone of ovariectomized female rats by computed radiography system (CRS. METHODS: The experiment was performed on two groups of rats previously ovariectomized, one received tibolone (OVX+T while the other did not (OVX, those groups were compared to a control group (C not ovariectomized. Tibolone administration (1mg/day began thirty days after the ovariectomy and the treatment remained for five months. At last, the animals were euthanized and femurs and tibias collected. Computed radiographies of the bones were obtained and the digital images were used to determine the bone optical density and cortical thickness on every group. All results were statistically evaluated with significance set at POBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da administração de tibolona no tecido ósseo cortical e trabecular de ratas castradas através de radiografia computadorizada. MÉTODOS: O experimento foi realizado em dois grupos de ratas previamente ooforectomizadas, onde um grupo recebeu tibolona (OVX+T e o outro não (OVX. Esses grupos foram comparados a um grupo controle (C não ooforectomizado. A administração de tibolona (1mg/dia começou trinta dias após a ooforectomia e o tratamento teve duração de cinco meses. No final, os animais foram mortos e fêmures e tibias coletados. As radiografias computadorizadas dos ossos foram obtidas e as imagens digitais usadas para determinar a densidade óssea e a espessura cortical em todos os grupos. Todos os resultados foram avaliados estatisticamente com significância estabelecida a 5%. RESULTADOS: A administração de tibolona mostrou ser benéfica apenas para análise densitométrica da cabeça do fêmur, apresentando maiores valores de densidade comparada ao grupo OVX. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada para espessura óssea cortical. CONCLUSÃO: A ooforectomia ocasionou perda óssea nas regiões analisadas e a tibolona

  6. OSSOS. VII. 800+ Trans-Neptunian Objects—The Complete Data Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Michele T.; Gladman, Brett J.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Petit, Jean-Marc; Volk, Kathryn; Chen, Ying-Tung; Alexandersen, Mike; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Schwamb, Megan E.; Ashton, Edward; Benecchi, Susan D.; Cabral, Nahuel; Dawson, Rebekah I.; Delsanti, Audrey; Fraser, Wesley C.; Granvik, Mikael; Greenstreet, Sarah; Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurélie; Ip, Wing-Huen; Jakubik, Marian; Jones, R. Lynne; Kaib, Nathan A.; Lacerda, Pedro; Van Laerhoven, Christa; Lawler, Samantha; Lehner, Matthew J.; Lin, Hsing Wen; Lykawka, Patryk Sofia; Marsset, Michaël; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Pike, Rosemary E.; Rousselot, Philippe; Shankman, Cory; Thirouin, Audrey; Vernazza, Pierre; Wang, Shiang-Yu

    2018-05-01

    The Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS), a wide-field imaging program in 2013–2017 with the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope, surveyed 155 deg2 of sky to depths of m r = 24.1–25.2. We present 838 outer solar system discoveries that are entirely free of ephemeris bias. This increases the inventory of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) with accurately known orbits by nearly 50%. Each minor planet has 20–60 Gaia/Pan-STARRS-calibrated astrometric measurements made over 2–5 oppositions, which allows accurate classification of their orbits within the trans-Neptunian dynamical populations. The populations orbiting in mean-motion resonance with Neptune are key to understanding Neptune’s early migration. Our 313 resonant TNOs, including 132 plutinos, triple the available characterized sample and include new occupancy of distant resonances out to semimajor axis a ∼ 130 au. OSSOS doubles the known population of the nonresonant Kuiper Belt, providing 436 TNOs in this region, all with exceptionally high-quality orbits of a uncertainty σ a ≤ 0.1% they show that the belt exists from a ≳ 37 au, with a lower perihelion bound of 35 au. We confirm the presence of a concentrated low-inclination a ≃ 44 au “kernel” population and a dynamically cold population extending beyond the 2:1 resonance. We finely quantify the survey’s observational biases. Our survey simulator provides a straightforward way to impose these biases on models of the trans-Neptunian orbit distributions, allowing statistical comparison to the discoveries. The OSSOS TNOs, unprecedented in their orbital precision for the size of the sample, are ideal for testing concepts of the history of giant planet migration in the solar system.

  7. Alterações radiográficas do aparato podotroclear de equinos da Polícia Militar de Minas Gerais sem sinais clínicos de doença do osso navicular

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    D.S.D. Azevedo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste experimento foram identificar e associar alterações radiográficas do aparato podotoclear de equinos do Regimento de Cavalaria Alferes Tiradentes da Policia Militar do estado de Minas Gerais sem histórico e sinais clínicos de doença do osso navicular. Foi avaliado um total de 33 equinos, de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 10 e 20 anos. Os dígitos torácicos foram radiografados de forma padronizada nas projeções lateromedial (LM, dorsoproximal palmarodistal 65º (DPPD e palmaroproximal palmarodistal (SK. A radiopacidade medular aumentada em projeção SK foi a principal alteração radiográfica detectada. Essa alteração foi associada a maior número de invaginações sinovais, a maior espessura de cortical em relação à medular em exposição SK e a maior relação corticomedular em exposição LM (P<0,05. Esses achados indicam uma predisposição da população equina para desenvolver a síndrome do osso navicular, possivelmente associada ao trauma repetitivo promovido pelo constante trabalho em piso duro.

  8. OSSOS. IV. Discovery of a Dwarf Planet Candidate in the 9:2 Resonance with Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Michele T.; Alexandersen, Mike; Benecchi, Susan; Chen, Ying-Tung; Delsanti, Audrey; Fraser, Wesley C.; Gladman, Brett; Granvik, Mikael; Grundy, Will M.; Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurelie; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery and orbit of a new dwarf planet candidate, 2015 RR245, by the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS). The orbit of 2015 RR245 is eccentric (e 0.586), with a semimajor axis near 82 au, yielding a perihelion distance of 34 au. 2015 RR245 has g - r 0.59 +/- 0.11 and absolute magnitude Hr 3.6 +/- 0.1; for an assumed albedo of pV 12, the object has a diameter of approximately 670 km. Based on astrometric measurements from OSSOS and Pan-STARRS1, we find that 2015 RR245 is securely trapped on ten-megayear timescales in the 9:2 mean-motion resonance with Neptune. It is the first trans-Neptunian object (TNO) identied in this resonance. On hundred-megayear timescales, particles in 2015 RR245-like orbits depart and sometimes return to the resonance, indicating that 2015 RR245 likely forms part of the long-lived metastable population of distant TNOs that drift between resonance sticking and actively scattering via gravitational encounters with Neptune. The discovery of a 9:2 TNO stresses the role of resonances in the long-term evolution of objects in the scattering disk and reinforces the view that distant resonances are heavily populated in the current solar system. This object further motivates detailed modeling of the transient sticking population.

  9. Cell therapy in femur fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Gonzalez, Jorge Arturo; Gamez Perez, Anadely; Rodriguez Orta, Celia

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative medicine has opened another opportunity for effective consolidation and rapid recovery of patients with traumatic injuries. We present a 46 year-old white male patient with a history of traffic accident. A middle third left femur fracture was diagnosed and plain radiographs showed IV grade comminution. He was released after 20 days of hospitalization with persistent pain despite of pain medication every 4-6 hours. Cell therapy was prescribed and it was performed on outpatient basis. After 48 hours the improvement was increased progressively, stability was achieved and pain disappeared in the fracture site, this was a symptom present since the accident. 8 weeks after cell therapy, radiological improvement was observed. In general, his evolution was considered satisfactory for the fast recovery and its incorporation into social life. This is the first patient in Artemisa province who underwent this new type of therapy and as far as we know at the time of this writing, it is also the first reported in the scientific literature in Cuba

  10. Caracterização físico-química do enxerto de osso bovino liofilizado Physicochemical characterization of lyophilized bovine bone grafts

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    Carlos Roberto Galia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as características físico-químicas do enxerto bovino liofilizado manufaturado em escala semi-industrial (OrthoGen, Baumer S/A* de acordo com protocolo previamente desenvolvido pelos autores. MÉTODOS: A caracterização do enxerto de osso bovino liofilizado foi feita por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, difratometria de raios-X, análise por termogravimetria, análise de calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC e espectroscopia por infravermelho Fourier-transform (FT-IR. RESULTADOS: Ca foi o principal componente (60% encontrado nas amostras, seguido por P (28% e O (5%. O tamanho médio (dp dos poros foi 316µm (146,7, variando de 91,2 a 497,8µm, e 333,5µm (304,8, variando de 87,2 a 963,9µm com 50x e 150x magnificação, respectivamente. Picos de hidroxiapatita foram a 26ºC e 32ºC, e perda de massa foi observada entre 250ºC e 640ºC, correspondendo material orgânico e água. Duas transições de temperatura (45,67°C e 91,89°C mostraram desnaturação de colágeno tipo I e desidratação da hidroxiapatita. CONCLUSÃO: A avaliação físico-química do enxerto de osso bovino liofilizado, de acordo com o protocolo desenvolvido em escala semi-industrial, confirma que este produto apresenta excelente biocompatibilidade, com características semelhantes ao osso in natura.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of lyophilized bovine grafts manufactured on a semi-industrial scale (Orthogen; Baumer S/A* in accordance with a protocol previously developed by the authors. METHODS: The lyophilized bovine bone grafts were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, thermogravimetric (TG analysis, differential exploratory scanning calorimetry (DSC and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. RESULTS: Ca was the main component (60% found in the samples, followed by P (28

  11. Digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira de aminoácidos de farinhas de carne e ossos para suínos Apparent and true ileal digestibility of meat and bone meals amino acids for swine

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    Paulo Cesar Pozza

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar a digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira dos aminoácidos de seis diferentes farinhas de carne e ossos. Foram utilizados 12 suínos mestiços, machos castrados, com peso médio inicial de 52,5 ± 5,1 kg. Os animais foram previamente submetidos à cirurgia para implantação de cânula "T" simples no íleo terminal, e, após 20 dias de recuperação, foram distribuídos em um delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos, quatro repetições e um animal por unidade experimental. Ao término das duas primeiras repetições, os tratamentos foram redistribuídos para evitar que o mesmo animal recebesse a mesma dieta em duas repetições consecutivas. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta isenta de proteína à base de açúcar, amido, óleo e casca de arroz, tendo como única fonte protéica as farinhas de carne e ossos. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente da lisina, treonina e metionina, das diferentes farinhas de carne e ossos variaram de 54,87 a 74,80; 62,62 a 81,19 e 72,35 a 85,46%, respectivamente, e a variação entre os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal verdadeira foram de 57,00 a 76,08; 66,26 a 83,07 e 73,76 a 86,39%, respectivamente, para a lisina, treonina e metionina. As farinhas de carne e ossos apresentaram grande variação, em função das diferentes amostras, quanto aos coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparentes e verdadeiros dos aminoácidos.The experiment was carried out to determine the apparent and true ileal digestibility of amino acids from six different meat and bone meals. Twelvecrossbred swines, castrated males, averaging 52.5 ± 5.1 kg initial weight, were used. The animals were previously submitted to the simple T canula surgery implantation at the terminal ileum and, after twenty days of recovery period, they were allotted to a randomized blocks design, with six treatments, four replicates and one animal per

  12. Crescimento de cordeiros abatidos com diferentes pesos: osso, músculo e gordura da carcaça e de seus cortes Growth of lambs slaughtered at different weights: bone, muscle and fat of the carcass and its cuts

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    Lisiane Furtado da Silva

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado no Setor de Ovinocultura do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, objetivando determinar as quantidades de osso, músculo e gordura da carcaça e o crescimento de osso e músculo da carcaça e dos diferentes cortes da mesma. Foram utilizados 22 cordeiros machos inteiros, filhos de carneiros Texel e ovelhas cruza (Texel x Ideal. Desses, quatro/oram abatidos no início do experimento (24 horas após o nascimento, e os restantes, ao desmame (45 dias de idade e aos 28 e 33kg. Os cordeiros foram confinados em baias individuais, com suas respectivas mães, até o desmame (45 dias de idade. A determinação do crescimento dos tecidos da carcaça e de seus cortes (quarto, paleta, costela, espinhaço e pescoço foi realizada através de equações alométricas, utilizando-se o logaritmo do peso de osso ou músculo, em função do logaritmo do peso de corpo vazio (PCV ou peso de carcaça fria (PCF. As quantidades de osso e músculo aumentaram (P0,05 com a elevação do peso de carcaça fria. A proporção de gordura aumentou do nascimento ao desmame (PThis experiment was developed at the Ovine Section of Animal Science Department, at Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil- The purpose of this experiment was to determine the quantity of bone, muscle and fat of the carcass, and the growth ofbone and muscle of the carcass, and of the carcass cuts. Twenty-two intact mate lambs, sired by Texel males, from crossbreed Texel -Ideal dams were used. Four lambs were siaughtered at the beginning of the experiment (24 hours after birth and groups of six lambs were siaughtered at weaning and when reaching 28 and 33kg. The lambs were kept in individual stalls together with their respective mothers until weaning (45 days of age. To study the growth of the carcass tissues and carcass cuts (hindquarter, shoulder, rib, backbone, neck, regression equations of the log of weight of each tissue, as a function of the log of

  13. Pediatric femur fractures, epidemiology and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Lazar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Femur fractures in children most often occur as a consequence of traffic accidents, during play and sport activities, and due to different pathological states. Diagnosis is rather simple and it includes physical and radiographycal examination. Femur fractures treatment in children can be operative and unoperative, depending on several facts: age, localisation and type of fracture, joint injuries of soft tissues, the presence of other injuries (in polytrauma, economical and social aspects, ect. The aim of this study was to present epidemiological characteristics of pediatric femur fractures, that is in the stage of development, including a special analysis of the used treatment techniques, as well as the comparison of the obtained data with those from the literature. Methods. The evaluation included following parameters: age, gender, cause, localisation and type of femur fracture, applied treatment and hospitalisation duration. Results. Among the presented 143 patients with femur fracture, 109 were boys and 34 were girls (3.2 : 1 ratio; p = 0.0001. Average age for both genders was 8.6 years, and no difference between boys and girls were found for the age (p = 0.758. In total, the most common fracture was diaphyseal fracture of femur in 93 (65.03% patients. The second was proximal fracture in 30 (20.98% patients, and the last distal fracture of the femur in 20 (13.99% patients (p = 0.0001. Three main causes of femur fracture can be distinguished: during play and sport activities in 67 (46.8% children, in traffic accidents in 64 (44.8% children, and pathological fractures in 12 (8.4% children. Inoperative treatment was applied in 82 (57.3% patients, and operative one in 61 (42.7% patients. The most common tretament was traction, in 71 (49.6% patients, followed by immobilization by hip spica cast mostly in young children. Intramedullar elastic nailing was applied in 16 (11.2% cases, and intramedullar rigid nailing (Küntscher in 19

  14. A biomechanical comparison of composite femurs and cadaver femurs used in experiments on operated hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Trude; Klaksvik, Jomar; Syversen, Unni; Foss, Olav A

    2014-12-18

    Fourth generation composite femurs (4GCFs, models #3406 and #3403) simulate femurs of males cadaver femurs (HCFs) selected to represent patients with hip fractures. Ten 4GCFs (Sawbones, Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc., Vashon, WA, USA) were compared to 24 HCFs from seven females and five males >60 years. Proximal femur anthropometric measurements were noted. Strain gauge rosettes were attached and femurs were mounted in a hip simulator applying a combined subject-specific axial load and torque. Baseline measurements of resistance to deformation were recorded. Standardized femoral neck fractures were surgically stabilized before the constructs were subjected to 20,000 load-cycles. An optical motion tracking system measured relative movements. Median (95% CI) head fragment migration was 0.8mm (0.4 to 1.1) in the 4GCF group versus 2.2mm (1.5 to 4.6) in the cadaver group (p=0.001). This difference in fracture stability could not be explained by observed differences in femoral anthropometry or potential overloading of 4GCFs. 4GCFs failed with fracture-patterns different from those observed in cadavers. To conclude, standard 4GCFs provide unrealistically stable bone-implant constructs and fail with fractures not observed in cadavers. Until a validated osteopenic or osteoporotic composite femur model is provided, standard 4GCFs should only be used when representing the biomechanical properties of young healthy femurs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparação da resistência à tração da âncora metálica rosqueada inserida no osso cortical e no osso esponjoso Comparison of the tensile strength of threaded metal anchors inserted on cortical and spongy bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Busnardo Ramadan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A rotura do manguito rotador é uma afecção freqüente com repercussão na vida diária do paciente causando incapacidade funcional e dor. Um número considerável de pacientes necessita de reparação tendínea. A tendência atual na cirurgia do ombro é a utilização de técnicas minimamente invasivas com menor morbidade operatória e reabilitação mais precoce. A partir dos anos 90 houve um grande desenvolvimento da artroscopia do ombro e na utilização de âncoras para fixação das suturas tendíneas. Essa evolução técnica tem permitido resultados da cirurgia artroscópica comparáveis aos da cirurgia aberta. Um dos possíveis problemas do uso de âncoras nas cirurgias artroscópicas do ombro é sua soltura da superfície óssea. O presente estudo tem o objetivo de comparar a resistência à tração das âncoras metálicas rosqueadas inseridas no osso cortical e no osso esponjoso.Rotator cuff rupture is a common affection causing an impact on the daily lives of patients, resulting in functional disability and pain. A reasonable number of patients need tendinous repair. Current trends on shoulder surgery are the use of minimally invasive techniques with lower per-operative morbidity and earlier rehabilitation. From the 1990's on, shoulder arthroscopy was largely developed, as well as the use of anchors for tendinous sutures fixation. This technical evolution has allowed for arthroscopic surgery outcomes comparable to those in open surgeries. One of the potential problems for the use of anchors in shoulder arthroscopic surgeries is related to its loosening from bone surface. The present study has as an objective to compare the tensile strength of threaded metal anchors inserted on cortical and spongy bones.

  16. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) KidsHealth / For Parents / X- ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  17. Alterações histológicas em enxerto de osso homógeno preparado e armazenado com duas técnicas diferentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte da Silva Alfredo Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa analisa as alterações histológicas de enxerto ósseo homógeno preparado de diferentes modos. Em um grupo, ossos metatársicos-l de ratos foram armazenados a -70° Celsius e em outro grupo, os ossos foram descalcificados e estocados em temperatura ambiente após terem sido liofilizados. Esses ossos foram enxertados nas regiões inguinais de ratos e retirados para estudo histológico no trigésimo dia de pós-operatório. Macroscopicamente os ossos não descalcificados e armazenados a -70°C estavam envoltos por uma cápsula delgada, facilmente desprendida e apresentavam consistência de osso cortical. Microscopicamente observou-se absorção da superfície endostal com diminuição da camada cortical e aumento da cavidade medular. A cortical estava sofrendo processo de reabsorção e a superfície óssea externa possuía uma cápsula fibrosa delgada e células inflamatórias. Os ossos descalcificados e liofilizados, na macroscopia, apresentavam-se de consistência amolecida e estavam envoltos por uma cápsula espessa e firmemente aderida. Microscopicamente, a maior parte da arquitetura óssea estava preenchida por material acelular e avascular, muito semelhante à cartilagem e envolvendo o tecido, uma cápsula fibrosa espessa com células inflamatórias. Portanto, existiam diferenças histológicas dos enxertos ósseos homógenos, dependendo do preparo e do armazenamento do osso.

  18. Failure analysis of stainless steel femur fixation plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, P B; Mohammad, M

    2004-05-01

    Failure analysis was performed to investigate the failure of the femur fixation plate which was previously fixed on the femur of a girl. Radiography, metallography, fractography and mechanical testing were conducted in this study. The results show that the failure was due to the formation of notches on the femur plate. These notches act as stress raisers from where the cracks start to propagate. Finally fracture occurred on the femur plate and subsequently, the plate failed.

  19. Efeito da Adição do Antioxidante BHT e do Armazenamento Sobre a Qualidade da Farinha de Carne e Ossos Para Frangos de Corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racanicci AMC

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido com a finalidade monitorar a qualidade da farinha de carne e ossos (FCO, durante o armazenamento prolongado (10 semanas, e avaliar os efeitos da adição do BHT (500mg/kg a esta farinha. Um lote fresco de FCO (41,12% PB e 9,14% EE foi dividido em seis partes iguais, sendo uma não tratada (CONTROLE e as demais tratadas com BHT em diferentes tempos de armazenamento (nos dias 0, 7, 14, 21 e 28: BHT/0, BHT/7, BHT/14, BHT/21 e BHT/28, respectivamente. As FCO foram armazenadas em ambiente diariamente monitorado e sua qualidade foi avaliada por amostragens semanais, com determinação do índice de peróxidos, cujo nível máximo obtido foi de aproximadamente 80meq/kg (CONTROLE. A partir da 4ª semana de armazenamento, foi conduzido um experimento com frangos de corte alimentados por 42 dias com rações à base de milho e farelo de soja, contendo cerca de 4% das FCO armazenadas. Foram utilizados 1.440 pintos de um dia, machos, distribuídos num delineamento em blocos casualizados, com 6 tratamentos e 6 repetições. Os resultados médios obtidos para peso vivo, ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar, mortalidade e refugagem e fator de produção foram submetidos à análise da variância e as médias dos tratamentos foram comparadas ao CONTROLE através do teste de Dunnett. As variáveis estudadas, em geral, não foram afetadas pelos tratamentos (p>0,05, indicando que, neste estudo, o uso da FCO oxidada ou das FCO protegidas pelo BHT, não influenciaram o desempenho das aves.

  20. Retalho ósseo pré-fabricado com osso homógeno: estudo da maturação óssea em um modelo experimental Prefabricated homogenous bone flap: bone maturation study as an experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Benjamim Duarte da Silva

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available As opções convencionais de tratamento de perdas ósseas, como enxertos e retalhos não são satisfatórias. Com isso uma nova categoria de retalhos, o retalho pré-fabricado (RPF, passou a ser estudada. Foram retirados 42 ossos metatársicos-I das patas traseiras de 21 ratos Wistar. O grupo I (n=21 foi descalcificado e liofilizado e o grupo II (n=21 foi não descalcificado e congelado a -70°C. Após 3 semanas os ossos foram enxertados em 21 animais sobre os vasos epigástricos inferiores nas regiões inguinal direita e esquerda, individualizados por uma lâmina de silicone. Os grupos I e II foram divididos em três subgrupos cada, de acordo com o tempo de permanência (1, 2 e 4 semanas após a pré-fabricação do retalho. No estudo histológico macroscópico os grupos apresentaram diferenças em morfologia e consistência: o grupo I mostrou perda da arquitetura óssea e da rigidez e grupo II mantiveram sua forma, rigidez e consistência. Na análise qualitativa alterações foram observadas nos fragmentos do grupo desmineralizado e liofilizado, especialmente no subgrupo de 2 semanas. O grupo II não apresentou alteração no aspecto do tecido ósseo mineralizado entre os diversos subgrupos. É nítida a diferença histológica entre os RPF com osso descalcificado e liofilizado quando comparado ao não descalcificado e congelado. A reabsorção óssea gradual sugere que a rotação do retalho deve ocorrer precocemente. Este estudo demonstra a aplicabilidade do osso homógeno para pré-fabricação de retalhos.As conventional options for bone repair are not satisfactory, a new flap category was developed, the prefabricated flap (RPF. 42 metatarsic-I bone were obtained from 21 Wistar rats, and divided in two groups: group I (n=21 the bones were freeze- dryed and decalcified and group II (n=21 was frozen to - 70º C. After 3 weeks the bones were grafted in 21 rats, onto the left na right inferior epigastric vessels wrapped in silicon sheet

  1. In vitro solubility of meat and bone meal protein with different pepsin concentrations Solubilidade in vitro da proteína de farinhas de carne e ossos com diferentes concentraçoes de pepsina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Bellaver

    2000-06-01

    resíduo não filtrado. Foi conduzida uma análise de variância e o modelo não linear assintótico foi ajustado aos dados. A variável CSCPPEPH em diferentes concentrações de pepsina, para as duas farinhas de carne e ossos, mostrou maior discriminação da solubilidade com baixa concentração de pepsina. O nível de 0,0002% de pepsina é melhor preditor da PB solúvel nas farinhas de carne e ossos. Os resultados obtidos permitem assumir que a concentração de 0,2%, definida pelo AOAC, não é correta para o propósito de determinar o intervalo de solubilidade em farinhas de carne e ossos de alta e baixa PB.

  2. Test Bench Development for Femur Stability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel SANCHEZ-CABALLERO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the design and development of a test bench for humanfemurs. The main uses of this test bench will run from artificial femurs comparisonwith real femurs, to join stability assessment after bone a fracture repair. Amongthis uses is specially designed for condylar fractures testing. The test bench isdeveloped from a self-made existing tensile/compression testing machine. Thedesign procedure is supported by a literature review about the bone mechanicalbehavior and composition generally and the knee joint performance and repairparticularly. On the basis of this review, the machine was designed to simulate theadduction and abduction movements of the joint. The magnitudes to be measuredare: the compression force, the bone displacement (vertical and the knee jointrotation

  3. Is Total Femur Replacement a Reliable Treatment Option for Patients With Metastatic Carcinoma of the Femur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevelda, Florian; Waldstein, Wenzel; Panotopoulos, Joannis; Kaider, Alexandra; Funovics, Philipp Theodor; Windhager, Reinhard

    2018-05-01

    The majority of metastatic bone lesions to the femoral bone can be treated without surgery or with minimally invasive intramedullary nailing. In rare patients with extensive metastatic disease to the femur, total femur replacement may be the only surgical alternative to amputation; however, little is known about this approach. In a highly selected small group of patients with metastatic carcinoma of the femur, we asked: (1) What was the patient survivorship after this treatment? (2) What was the implant survivorship free from all-cause revision and amputation, and what complications were associated with this treatment? (3) What functional outcomes were achieved by patients after total femur replacement for this indication? Eleven patients (three men, eight women) with a mean age of 64 years (range, 41-78 years) received total femur replacements between 1986 and 2016; none were lost to followup. The most common primary disease was breast cancer. In general, during this period, our indications for this procedure were extensive metastatic disease precluding internal fixation or isolated proximal or distal femur replacement, and an anticipated lifespan exceeding 6 months. Our contraindication for this procedure during this time was expected lifespan less than 6 months. Patient survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis; implant survival free from revision surgery and amputation were assessed by competing risk analysis. Function was determined preoperatively and 6 to 12 weeks postoperatively with the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score normalized to a 100-point scale, with higher scores representing better function from a longitudinally maintained institutional database. Eleven patients died at a median of 5 months (range, 1-31 months) after surgery. One-year revision-free and limb survival were 82% (95% CI, 51%-98%) and 91% (95% CI, 61%-99%), respectively. Reasons for reoperation were hip dislocation, infection and local recurrence in one patient each. The

  4. Ao leitor sem medo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eisenberg

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O texto resenha Ao leitor sem medo, de Renato Janine Ribeiro (Belo Horizonte, UFMG, 1999.This text is a review of Ao leitor sem medo by Renato Janine Ribeiro (Belo Horizonte, UFMG, 1999

  5. Periosteal osteoblastoma of the distal femur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatani, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Tetsuji; Akisue, Toshihiro; Marui, Takashi; Hitora, Toshiaki; Kawamoto, Teruya; Nagira, Keiko; Yoshiya, Shinichi; Kurosaka, Masahiro [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe (Japan); Fujita, Ikuo; Matsumoto, Keiji [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Medical Center for Adults, Akashi, Hyogo (Japan)

    2004-02-01

    Osteoblastomas located on the surface of the cortical bone, so-called periosteal osteoblastomas, are extremely rare. We report on a case of periosteal osteoblastoma arising from the posterior surface of the right distal femur in a 17-year-old man. Roentgenographic, computed tomographic, magnetic resonance imaging, and histologic features of the case are presented. Periosteal osteoblastoma should be radiologically and histologically differentiated from myositis ossificans, avulsive cortical irregularity syndrome, osteoid osteoma, parosteal osteosarcoma, periosteal osteosarcoma, and high-grade surface osteosarcoma. Although periosteal osteoblastoma is rare, this tumor should be included in the differential diagnosis of surface-type bone tumors. (orig.)

  6. Osteosynthesis of a periprosthetic fracture of the proximal femur with the distal femur LISS system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnowski, Jan Robert; Holck, Kim

    2008-01-01

    In this case report, we show how it is possible to perform osteosynthesis using minimal invasive techniques instead of conventional methods. In this instance the osteosynthesis was performed on a patient in poor general condition who had presented a periprosthetic fracture of the proximal femur. ...

  7. Histological and radiological changes in cranial bone in the presence of bone wax Alterações histológicas e radiológicas no osso craniano na presença de cera de osso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To quantify the amount of bone formation in the calvarial region of Wistar rats after craniotomy using bone wax as a haemostatic agent. METHODS: Surgery to produce bilateral, symmetric, full-thickness cranial defects (area: 18 mm² was performed in eight animals. The right side of the cranium remained open and the edges of the left side osseous defect was covered with bone wax. Calvaria were imaged immediately after surgery and 12 weeks postoperatively by computerized tomography. The areas of the bone defects were measured in three-dimensional images using Magics 13.0 (Materialise-Belgic, software CAD. RESULTS: The average amount of bone formation on the left and right side respectively was 4.85 mm² and 8.16 mm². Statistically significant differences between the amount of bone formation on the left and right sides were seen. CONCLUSIONS: Bone wax significantly diminishes the rate of bone formation in calvarial defects in a rat model.OBJETIVO: Quantificar a formação óssea da região da calvaria de ratos Wistar submetidos à craniotomia com a utilização de cera de osso como agente hemostático. MÉTODOS: Cirurgia para realizar um defeito ósseo craniano bilateral, simétrico (área: 18 mm² e com espessura total foi realizado em oito animais. O lado direito do crânio permaneceu aberto e as extremidades do defeito ósseo do lado esquerdo foram recobertas com cera de osso. O crânio foi submetido à avaliação radiológica imediatamente após a cirurgia e 12 semanas após a cirurgia com a utilização de tomografia computadorizada. As áreas dos defeitos ósseos foram medidas através de imagens tridimensionais e utilizando o programa de computador Magics 13.0 (Materialise-Belgic, software CAD. RESULTADOS: A quantidade média de formação óssea no lado esquerdo e direito foi respectivamente de 4.85 mm² e 8.16 mm². Diferença estatisticamente significante foi observada entre o lado direito e esquerdo. CONCLUSÕES: A cera de osso

  8. Entre Aldeia Kaingang ou Parque Natural: o processo de configuração de um conflito socioambiental na disputa pelo Morro do Osso, Porto Alegre, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Fuhr

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the socio-environmental conflicts around the logics of occupation at Morro do Osso (Bone’s Hill in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Disputes involving different types of appropriation, use and significance of this area have been motivating actions of quite heterogeneous institutions and social organizations. Since the late 70’s, environmentalists who were concerned about the growing urbanization mobilized to ensure the hill’s preservation, a process that culminated on the creation of Morro do Osso Natural Park. Ten years later, in 2004, Kaingang indigenous people began to claim the demarcation of an indigenous land at Morro do Osso on an area that overlaps the Park. Thus, two territorialities emerged and began to polarize the conflict: on the one hand, those who favor maintaining the Morro do Osso Natural Park institutionalization; on the other hand, efforts for the Topë pën Kaingang’s land recognition and demarcation. Therefore, precisely the resulting tensions and implications of this polarization will be discussed here in order to bring out part of the discursive arena and the consequences of this territorial dispute, that, to date, has been demonstrating nothing dialogical and no prospect of consensus agreement between the parties involved, following a logic of “winners and losers” to the outcome of the dispute.

  9. Comminuted distal femur closed fractures: a new application of the Ilizarov concept of compression-distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawy, Ahmad; Atef, Ashraf

    2015-04-01

    The treatment of intra-articular distal femur fractures with severe metaphyseal comminution is challenging. It is important to choose a technique that provides secure fixation, minimum tissue handling, and early ambulation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the outcomes of application of Ilizarov concept as an early definitive treatment of comminuted distal femur closed fractures. A total of 17 male patients (mean age 28.53±6.33 years) presented with comminuted distal femur fractures (with 10 type C2 and 7 type C3-2 fractures according to AO/ASIF system) were included in this prospective study. Initial fixation of the articular fragments was done by inter-fragmentary screws, percutaneously through a limited open approach, and stabilization was completed by Ilizarov fixator. The procedure included acute shortening, through the comminution, followed by gradual re-distraction to compensate the created shortening. Radiological and functional results were assessed according to ASAMI evaluation system. The mean amount of intra-operative shortening was 3.68±0.53 cm. The mean external fixation index was 37.24±2.53 days/cm. The mean follow-up period was 18.18±1.91 months. All fractures united primarily in an average 137.65±4.12 days, with no evident angular deformity or limb-length discrepancy. None of the cases required a second major procedure or bone graft. The functional results were excellent in three cases, good in 12, and fair in two patients. The Ilizarov concept of acute compression-distraction is a valuable alternative for the treatment of distal femur fractures with severe metaphyseal comminution.

  10. Herniation pits of the femur neck: incidence and radiologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jae Hyun; Suh, Jin Suk; Lee, Hye Yeon

    1994-01-01

    In order to assess the incidence and radiologic findings of herniation pit of the femur neck in Korean. In 152 macerated femurs of 88 cadavers, and randomly selected 115 hips of 70 patients, the presence of herniation pit was determined by using fluoroscopy and radiography. It was then examined by CT for inspection of overlying surface and its opening was confirmed by inserting thin steal wire under the fluoroscopic guidance. Seventeen herniation pits in 15 macerated femurs of 13 cadavers were noted. (14.8%, 13/88). Two of 13 individuals showed bilaterality. All lesions were found only in males. Six herniation pit in 6 femurs of 6 patients (8.6%, 6/70) were also noted. All lesions were on anterosuperior aspect of femur neck. Plain radiographs of macerated femurs revealed well marginated and thin sclerosis in 15 lesions. Of all 23 lesions, CT showed cortical breakdown in 3, and overlying cortical thickening in 8. In 15 macerated femurs, roughed area of cortex was found in anterosuperior aspect of femur in all cases, and tiny openings(diameter less than 1 mm) related to cystic lesions were confirmed in 9 lesions. The incidence of herniation pits was 14.8% in 88 cadaver, and 8.6% in 70 patients. All were males

  11. Nontraumatic femur fracture in an oligomenorrheic athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugowson, C E; Drinkwater, B L; Clark, J M

    1991-12-01

    Exercise-associated amenorrhea is the cessation of menses in a woman following onset of training or an increase in training intensity. Its physiologic basis is characterized by consistently low levels of gonadotropin and ovarian hormones, but the underlying cause of this phenomenon is unknown. Although osteopenia has been described in amenorrheic women athletes, it has been primarily a laboratory diagnosis. Several recent studies have described a significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine of amenorrheic athletes. Marcus et al. also reported an increased number of metatarsal and tibial stress fractures in a group of amenorrheic women. We report here the first case of a nontraumatic femur fracture in an amenorrheic athlete. A 32-yr-old white female, with four prior fibular stress fractures, suffered a left femoral shaft fracture during the 13th mile of a half-marathon. The fracture was successfully internally fixed. Biochemical studies showed no metabolic abnormality. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, tibia, and fibula were below the mean for both eumenorrheic and amenorrheic female athletes. Exercise-associated amenorrhea is a medical problem that may have serious implications for both competitive and high-intensity recreational female athletes.

  12. Intact and Implanted Femur Behavior During Walking and Jogging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Papathanasopoulou, V

    2001-01-01

    ... not only at a single moment in time, but during the complete range of motion. In this study, a three-dimensional dynamic finite element model of the human femur during the gait cycle is developed...

  13. Subtrochanteric and Distal Femur Fractures in a Patient with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports the surgical management for this rare case and the treatment ... car accident and presented closed femoral shaft fracture associated with a ... to fix the distal femur fracture, enhancing the construction stability [Figures 4 and 5].

  14. Heterogeneous modelling and finite element analysis of the femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Binkai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the largest and longest bone in the human body, the femur has important research value and application prospects. This paper introduces a fast reconstruction method with Mimics and ANSYS software to realize the heterogeneous modelling of the femur according to Hu distribution of the CT series, and simulates it in various situations by finite element analysis to study the mechanical characteristics of the femur. The femoral heterogeneous model shows the distribution of bone mineral density and material properties, which can be used to assess the diagnosis and treatment of bone diseases. The stress concentration position of the femur under different conditions can be calculated by the simulation, which can provide reference for the design and material selection of prosthesis.

  15. Procedimentos de um banco de ossos e a aplicabilidade dos enxertos por ele proporcionados Procedures of a bank of bones and aplicability of the grafts offered by such

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton V. Roos

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores demonstram neste estudo a viabilidade e funcionabilidade de um Banco de Ossos e a experiência da utilização durante os dezessete anos de sua criação. O objetivo deste estudo é demonstrar a importância da manutenção de um serviço de Banco de Osso, bem como mostrar suas utilidades nos diversos tipos de intervenções ortopédicas. Ficando demonstrado, o protocolo para obtenção de possíveis doadores, métodos para retirada e armazenagem desses ossos, e a sua utilização em diversos procedimentos ortopédicos.The authors demonstrate in this study the viability and functionality of a Bank of Bones and the experience of the use during the seventeen years of your creation. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the importance of the maintenance of a service of Bank of Bone, as well as to show your usefulness in the several types of orthopedical interventions. Being demonstrated, the protocol for the possible donors' obtaining, methods for retreat and storage of those bones, and your use in several orthopedical procedures.

  16. [Antero-medial incision of knee joint for the treatment of intercondylar fracture of femur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zi-Fei; Sun, Bin-Feng; Yang, Xiao-Hai; Wang, Qing; Qian, Ping-Kang; Wu, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Feng

    2017-12-25

    To explore the clinical effect of antero-medial incision of knee joint in treating intercondylar fracture of femur. From September 2012 to March 2015, 24 patients with intercondylar fracture of femur were selected, including 17 males and 7 females, aged from 20 to 65 years old with an average of(38.3±9.5) years old. Among them, 12 cases were caused by traffic accident, 8 cases were caused by falling injury and 4 cases were caused by falling down. All patients were closed fractures. The time from injury to hospital was from 30 min to 8 h with an average of(2.2±0.3) h. According to AO classification, 4 cases were type B1, 3 type B2, 2 type B3, 5 type C1, 6 type C2 and 4 type C3. All patients were treated with antero-medial incision of knee joint. Operative time, blood loss and postoperative complications were observed and recovery of keen function was evaluated by Kolmert scoring. All patients were followed-up from 6 to 12 months with average of (9.0±1.7) months. Operative time ranged from 50 to 90 min with an average of (70.0±8.2) min; blood loss ranged from 90 to 400 ml with an average of (180±36) ml; negative pressure flow was from 30 to 90 ml, with an average of (50.0±7.1) ml. All fracture were healed at stage I without loosening of internal fixator, fracture nonunion, and deep vein thrombosis. According to Kolmert scoring, 16 patients got excellent result, 5 patients good and 3 fair. Antero-medial incision of knee joint in treating intercondylar fracture of femur, which has advantages of good fracture reduction, less injury of soft tissue and simple operation, could obtain good clinical results.

  17. [Treatment of pediatric distal femur fractures by external fixator combined with limited internal fixation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Sheng-wang; Shi, Zhan-ying; Hu, Ju-zheng; Wu, Hao

    2016-03-01

    To discuss the clinical effects of external fixator combined with limited internal fixation in the treatment of pediatric distal femur fractures. From January 2008 to June 2014, 17 children of distal femur fractures were treated by external fixator combined with limited internal fixation. There were 12 males and 5 females, aged from 6 to 13 years old with an average of 10.2 years, ranged in the course of disease from 1 h to 2 d. Preoperative diagnoses were confirmed by X-ray films in all children. There were 11 patients with supracondylar fracture , and 6 patients with intercondylar comminuted fracture. According to AO/ASIF classification, 9 fractures were type A1, 5 cases were type A2,and 3 cases were type C1. The intraoperative and postoperative complications, postoperative radiological examination, lower limbs length and motion of knee joints were observed. Knee joint function was assessed by KSS score. All the patients were followed up from 6 to 38 months with an average of 24.4 months. No nerve or blood vessel injury was found. One case complicated with the external fixation loosening, 2 cases with the infection of pin hole and 3 cases with the leg length discrepancy. Knee joint mobility and length measurement (compared with the contralateral), the average limited inflexion was 10 degrees (0 degrees to 20 degrees), the average limited straight was 4 degrees (0 degrees to 10), the average varus or valgus angle was 3 degrees (0 degrees to 5 degrees). KSS of the injured side was (96.4 +/- 5.0) points at final follow-up, 16 cases got excellent results and 1 good. All fractures obtained healing and no epiphyseal closed early was found. External fixator combined with limited internal fixation has advantages of simple operation, reliable fixation, early functional exercise in treating pediatric distal femurs fractures.

  18. Locked plating of distal femur fractures leads to inconsistent and asymmetric callus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Trevor J; Henderson, Chris E; Madey, Steven M; Fitzpatrick, Dan C; Marsh, J Lawrence; Bottlang, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Locked plating constructs may be too stiff to reliably promote secondary bone healing. This study used a novel imaging technique to quantify periosteal callus formation of distal femur fractures stabilized with locking plates. It investigated the effects of cortex-to-plate distance, bridging span, and implant material on periosteal callus formation. Retrospective cohort study. One Level I and one Level II trauma center. Sixty-four consecutive patients with distal femur fractures (AO types 32A, 33A-C) stabilized with periarticular locking plates. Osteosynthesis using indirect reduction and bridge plating with periarticular locking plates. Periosteal callus size on lateral and anteroposterior radiographs. Callus size varied from 0 to 650 mm2. Deficient callus (20 mm2 or less) formed in 52%, 47%, and 37% of fractures at 6, 12, and 24 weeks postsurgery, respectively. Callus formation was asymmetric, whereby the medial cortex had on average 64% more callus (P=0.001) than the anterior or posterior cortices. A longer bridge span correlated minimally with an increased callus size at Week 6 (P=0.02), but no correlation was found at Weeks 12 and 24 postsurgery. Compared with stainless steel plates, titanium plates had 76%, 71%, and 56% more callus at Week 6 (P=0.04), Week 12 (P=0.03), and Week 24 (P=0.09), respectively. Stabilization of distal femur fractures with periarticular locking plates can cause inconsistent and asymmetric formation of periosteal callus. A larger bridge span only minimally improves callus formation. The more flexible titanium plates enhanced callus formation compared with stainless steel plates.

  19. Composição química, digestibilidade e predição dos valores energéticos da farinha de carne e ossos para suínos = Chemical composition, digestibility and prediction of the energy values of meat and bone meal for swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Pozza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a composição química e energética de seis diferentes farinhas de carne e ossos, bem como desenvolver equações de predição da energia digestível e metabolizável, com base na composição química dos alimentos. Foramutilizados 28 suínos, mestiços, machos castrados, com peso médio inicial de 25,90 ± 1,95 kg, distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos, quatro repetições e um animal por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram deuma ração-referência e seis diferentes farinhas de carne e ossos, que substituíram em 20% a ração-referência. Os valores de energia digestível e metabolizável variaram de 1.717 a 2.908 kcal kg-1 e de 1.519 a 2.608 kcal kg-1, respectivamente. As equações de predição da energia digestível e metabolizável que apresentaram maiores R2 para a farinha de carne e ossos foram: ED = 1.196,11 + 44,18 PB – 121,55 P e EM = 2.103,35 + 22,56 PB – 164,02 P.The objective of this study was to determine the chemical and energetic composition of six different meat and bone meals, and todevelop prediction equations of digestible and metabolizable energy based on the chemical composition of the feeds. In order to determine the digestible and metabolizable energy values, 28 crossbreed swine were used – castrated males, averaging 25.90 ± 1.95 kg initialweight, allotted in a randomized block design with seven treatments, four replicates and one animal per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a basal diet and six meat and bone meals, which replaced by 20% the basal diet. The digestible and metabolizable energyvalues varied from 1717 to 2908 kcal kg-1 and from 1519 to 2608 kcal kg-1, respectively. The prediction equation of digestible and metabolizable energy that presented the highest R2 for meat and bone meal were: DE = 1196.11 + 44.18 CP – 121.55 P and ME = 2103.35 +22.56 CP – 164.02 P.

  20. Comparative study of bridge plate associated to the intramedullary pin and the dynamic compression plate on the experimental osteotomy fixation of femoral in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Clinical, radiographic, histological and scintigraphy analyses; Estudo comparativo da placa em ponte associada ao pino intramedular e da placa de compressao dinamica na fixacao de osteotomia experimental em femur de coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Analises clinica, radiografica, histologica e cintilografica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Natalie Ferreira

    2011-07-01

    The objectives were to benchmark and monitor the fracture healing of femoral osteotomy in rabbits after fixation with dynamic compression plate and bridge plate associated with intramedullary pin. Were used 14 New Zealand rabbits, four months old with mean weight of 3.5 pounds, from the Experimental Farm Professor Helio Barbosa of the Veterinary School of Minas Gerais Federal Univ. (UFMG). The animals were randomly divided into two groups (I and II). All rabbits underwent osteotomy across the middle third of right femur. In the group I was made to fix the osteotomy with the bridge plate (BP) associated with intramedullary pin, introduced the technique of minimal invasion. In group II, we used dynamic compression plate (DCP) via the conventional approach. Both groups were evaluated clinical, radiographic, histologic and scintigraphic findings. Clinical assessments were performed weekly until the 12{sup th} postoperative week and radiographic examinations were performed before, immediately after, at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days. The bone scintigraphy were performed before and at 20, 50 and 90 days after surgery to monitor the bone metabolism qualitatively and quantitatively. Observed perfusion and bone healing process. After 90 days of study, there was histopathologic evaluation of the osteotomized area and the insertion of screws. In the region of the osteotomy was observed predominance of trabecular bone in group I and group II, the predominance of bone osteons, compatible with the original bone. On insertion of the screws did not differ between groups and there was cortical discontinuity, little necrosis and local hemorrhage. The two types of fixation have led to consolidation within the scheduled period, maturing in early fixation with DCP fixation compared with BP. Scintigraphy demonstrated by the indices of activity and image characteristics, the process of bone healing was significantly greater in animals undergoing early fixation with DCP. (author)

  1. Curvature reduces bending strains in the quokka femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle McCabe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how curvature in the quokka femur may help to reduce bending strain during locomotion. The quokka is a small wallaby, but the curvature of the femur and the muscles active during stance phase are similar to most quadrupedal mammals. Our hypothesis is that the action of hip extensor and ankle plantarflexor muscles during stance phase place cranial bending strains that act to reduce the caudal curvature of the femur. Knee extensors and biarticular muscles that span the femur longitudinally create caudal bending strains in the caudally curved (concave caudal side bone. These opposing strains can balance each other and result in less strain on the bone. We test this idea by comparing the performance of a normally curved finite element model of the quokka femur to a digitally straightened version of the same bone. The normally curved model is indeed less strained than the straightened version. To further examine the relationship between curvature and the strains in the femoral models, we also tested an extra-curved and a reverse-curved version with the same loads. There appears to be a linear relationship between the curvature and the strains experienced by the models. These results demonstrate that longitudinal curvature in bones may be a manipulable mechanism whereby bone can induce a strain gradient to oppose strains induced by habitual loading.

  2. A comparison of more and less aggressive bone debridement protocols for the treatment of open supracondylar femur fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, William M; Collinge, Cory; Streubel, Philipp N; McAndrew, Christopher M; Gardner, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    This study compared results of aggressive and nonaggressive debridement protocols for the treatment of high-energy, open supracondylar femur fractures after the primary procedure, with respect to the requirement for secondary bone grafting procedures, and deep infection. Retrospective review. Level I and level II trauma centers. Twenty-nine consecutive patients with high-grade, open (Gustilo types II and III) supracondylar femur fractures (OTA/AO 33A and C) treated with debridement and locked plating. Surgeons at 2 different level I trauma centers had different debridement protocols for open supracondylar femur fractures. One center used a more aggressive (MA) protocol in their patients (n = 17) that included removal of all devitalized bone and placement of antibiotic cement spacers to fill large segmental defects. The other center used a less aggressive (LA) protocol in their patients (n = 12) that included debridement of grossly contaminated bone with retention of other bone fragments and no use of antibiotic cement spacers. All other aspects of the treatment protocol at the 2 centers were similar: definitive fixation with locked plates in all cases, IV antibiotics were used until definitive wound closure, and weight bearing was advanced upon clinical and radiographic evidence of fracture healing. Healing after the primary procedure, requirement for secondary bone grafting procedures, and the presence of deep infection. Demographics were similar between included patients at each center with regard to age, gender, rate of open fractures, open fracture classification, mechanism, and smoking (P > 0.05). Patients at the MA center were more often diabetic (P debridement (35% vs. 0%, P debridement (71% vs. 8%, P debridement (92% vs. 35%, P debrided after a high-energy, high-grade, open supracondylar femur fracture is a matter of surgeon judgment and falls along a continuous spectrum. Based on the results of the current study, the theoretic trade-off between infection

  3. Antibiotic impregnated total femur spacers: a technical tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D. Canham, MD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous prosthetic joint infection of ipsilateral hip and knee arthroplasties is often accompanied by significant bone loss and presents a challenging reconstructive problem. Two-stage reconstruction is favored and requires the placement of a total femur spacer, which is not a commercially available device. We describe a surgical technique, reporting on 2 cases in which a customized total femur antibiotic impregnated spacer was created by combining an articulating knee spacer and an articulating hip spacer with a reinforced cement dowel construct connecting the 2 spacers. Custom total femoral spacers are useful in the management of infected femoral megaprostheses and cases with ipsilateral injected hip and knee arthroplasties and severe femoral bone loss. Keywords: total femur spacer, revision arthroplasty, total hip arthroplasty, total knee arthroplasty, prosthetic joint infection

  4. Mobilização do osso pisiforme no tratamento da neuropraxia do nervo ulnar no canal de Guyon: relato de caso Pisiform bone mobilization for treating ulnar nerve neuropraxia at Guyon's canal: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Guilherme Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As neuropraxias do nervo ulnar são lesões bastante freqüentes que provocam efeitos deletérios, como diminuição de força muscular e parestesias; geralmente ocorrem no nível do epicôndilo medial e do túnel ulnar (canal de Guyon. São escassos os relatos referentes a técnicas de terapia manual para compressões do nervo ulnar no canal de Guyon. Este trabalho relata o uso da técnica de mobilização do pisiforme na compressão do nervo ulnar no canal de Guyon de um homem que sofreu luxação do punho direito aos 8 anos e, aos 25, queixava-se de um deficit para adução do dedo mínimo, que atrapalhava a realização de algumas atividades de vida diária. O paciente foi submetido a uma única sessão de mobilização articular do pisiforme. Após a aplicação da técnica, o sinal positivo do teste foi eliminado, restabelecendo-se a função de adução do 5o dedo. Embora carecendo de maior fundamentação teórica, pode-se afirmar que a técnica usada, de mobilização articular do osso pisiforme, é eficaz para melhora do quadro de paresia por neuropraxia do nervo ulnar no canal de Guyon.A common ulnar nerve neuropraxia is lesion that may result in muscle strength decrease and/or paresthesia; it usually takes place at medial epicondyle level and the ulnar tunnel (Guyon's canal. Studies on manual therapy techniques for ulnar nerve compression in Guyon's canal are scarce. This paper reports the use of a technique of pisiform bone mobilization for relieving ulnar nerve compression in Guyon's canal, in a man who had suffered a luxation of the right wrist at the age of 8 and, at 25, complained of adduction deficit of the fifth finger that interfered in his daily life activities. He was submitted to one session of pisiform mobilization; after the session, the positive test sign was eliminated, thus restoring the fifth finger function. Though lacking further grounding, it may be said that the technique used, of mobilizing the pisiform bone

  5. Pre-hospital Management of the Fractured Femur Using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two aspects of the early management of the fractured femur are discussed: firstly the immediate treatment in the pre-hospital phase and secondly the transportation of this injury case over a long distance where necessary. In both instances there is considerable room for improvement, and this is discussed, particularly with ...

  6. Modular endoprosthetic replacement for metastatic tumours of the proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Simon R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Endoprosthetic replacements of the proximal femur are commonly required to treat destructive metastases with either impending or actual pathological fractures at this site. Modular prostheses provide an off the shelf availability and can be adapted to most reconstructive situations for proximal femoral replacements. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and functional outcomes following modular tumour prosthesis reconstruction of the proximal femur in 100 consecutive patients with metastatic tumours and to compare them with the published results of patients with modular and custom made endoprosthetic replacements. Methods 100 consecutive patients who underwent modular tumour prosthetic reconstruction of the proximal femur for metastases using the METS system from 2001 to 2007 were studied. The patient, tumour and treatment factors in relation to overall survival, local control, implant survival and complications were analysed. Functional scores were obtained from surviving patients. Results and conclusion There were 45 male and 55 female patients. The mean age was 60.2 years. The indications were metastases. Seventy five patients presented with pathological fracture or with failed fixation and 25 patients were at a high risk of developing a fracture. The mean follow up was 15.9 months [range 0–77]. Three patients died within 2 weeks following surgery. 69 patients have died and 31 are alive. Of the 69 patients who were dead 68 did not need revision surgery indicating that the implant provided single definitive treatment which outlived the patient. There were three dislocations (2/5 with THR and 1/95 with unipolar femoral heads. 6 patients had deep infections. The estimated five year implant survival (Kaplan-Meier analysis was 83.1% with revision as end point. The mean TESS score was 64% (54%–82%. We conclude that METS modular tumour prosthesis for proximal femur provides versatility; low implant related

  7. Crescimento alométrico de osso, músculo e gordura em cortes da carcaça de cordeiros Texel segundo os métodos de alimentação e peso de abate Muscle, fat and bone allometric growth in Texel lambs carcasses cuts in relation to the feeding methods and slaughter weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Teixeira da Rosa

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento teve como objetivo estudar o crescimento alométrico dos diferentes tecidos do pescoço, costela, paleta e perna em relação ao peso do corte de cordeiros e cordeiras. Foram utilizados 22 machos inteiros e 23 fêmeas da raça Texel. Desses, sete foram abatidos no início do experimento e os demais, aos pesos de 25 ou 33kg. As ovelhas mais cordeiros foram distribuídos em três métodos de alimentação: M1 -Silagem de milho e concentrado, apenas aos cordeiros até o desmame, aos 60 dias; M2 - Silagem de milho e concentrado, apenas aos cordeiros até o desmame, aos 45 dias e M3 - Silagem de milho e concentrado para ovelha mais cordeiro até o desmame com 60 dias. Após o desmame, os cordeiros receberam silagem mais concentrado. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial 3 x 2 x 2 (3 métodos, 2 sexos e 2 pesos de abate. A determinação do crescimento foi obtida através da equação log y = log.a + b log.x, utilizando-se o logaritmo do peso de osso, músculo e gordura em função do logaritmo do peso do corte. Observou-se que o osso do pescoço e da costela foram precoce (b1 independente de sexo e método de alimentação com coeficientes de alometria variando de 1,78 a 2,15 (pescoço e 1,51 a 1,65 (costela. Na paleta, o osso foi precoce em ambos os sexos, com coeficientes de alometria variando de 0,76 a 0,79 e 0,54 a 0,58 respectivamente para machos e fêmeas. O músculo apresentou crescimento isométrico (b=1, independente de sexo e peso de abate. A gordura foi tardia (b>1 independente de peso de abate e sexo, com coeficientes de alometria variando de 1,80 a 2,12. Na perna o osso apresentou crescimento precoce nas fêmeas e isométricas nos machos, com coeficientes de alometria variando de 0,57 a 0,63 e 0,78 a 0,80 respectivamente para ambos os sexos O músculo apresentou crescimento isométrico (b=1, independente de sexo e peso de abate. A gordura foi tardia (b>1 independente de peso de abate e

  8. Composição química, digestibilidade e predição dos valores energéticos da farinha de carne e ossos para suínos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i1.3597 Chemical Composition, Digestibility and Prediction of the Energy Values of Meat and Bone Meal for Swine - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i1.3597

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horácio Santiago Rostagno

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a composição química e energética de seis diferentes farinhas de carne e ossos, bem como desenvolver equações de predição da energia digestível e metabolizável, com base na composição química dos alimentos. Foram utilizados 28 suínos, mestiços, machos castrados, com peso médio inicial de 25,90 ± 1,95 kg, distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos, quatro repetições e um animal por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma ração-referência e seis diferentes farinhas de carne e ossos, que substituíram em 20% a ração-referência. Os valores de energia digestível e metabolizável variaram de 1.717 a 2.908 kcal kg-1 e de 1.519 a 2.608 kcal kg-1, respectivamente. As equações de predição da energia digestível e metabolizável que apresentaram maiores R2 para a farinha de carne e ossos foram: ED = 1.196,11 + 44,18 PB – 121,55 P e EM = 2.103,35 + 22,56 PB – 164,02 P.The objective of this study was to determine the chemical and energetic composition of six different meat and bone meals, and to develop prediction equations of digestible and metabolizable energy based on the chemical composition of the feeds. In order to determine the digestible and metabolizable energy values, 28 crossbreed swine were used – castrated males, averaging 25.90 ± 1.95 kg initial weight, allotted in a randomized block design with seven treatments, four replicates and one animal per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a basal diet and six meat and bone meals, which replaced by 20% the basal diet. The digestible and metabolizable energy values varied from 1717 to 2908 kcal kg-1 and from 1519 to 2608 kcal kg-1, respectively. The prediction equation of digestible and metabolizable energy that presented the highest R2 for meat and bone meal were: DE = 1196.11 + 44.18 CP – 121.55 P and ME = 2103.35 + 22.56 CP – 164.02 P.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL APPROVAL OF COMBINED FIXATION FOR FEMUR LENGTHENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Stepanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Elimination of congenital shortening of lower limb still remains a complex and unsolved orthopaedic task which requires an improved fixation technique as well as adjusted tactics of treatment and rehabilitation procedures.Purpose of the study — experimental approval of femur lengthening technique by external fixation with Ilizarov apparatus and internal fixation by plate.Materials and methods. Femur lengthening was performed in 6 mongrel dogs. Average animal age was 1,5±0,3 years, average weight — 20±5 kg, femur length — 22±2 sm. External apparatus with two supports and a titanium plate of an original design were applied under general anesthesia on the right femur of animals. Lengthening was performed manually at a rate of1 mm per day in 4 stages at a distance of 10% from initial segment length. External apparatus was removed on the last day of distraction after locking the plate. X-ray examination was done on the day of surgery, in 7, 14 and 25 days from the onset of distraction as well as in 14, 30, 60 and 90 days after completion of distraction and removal of external apparatus. Three animals were taken out of experiment in 30 days of fixation, remaining three animals — in 90 days. After euthanasia the authors performed autopsy of the organic femur complex and tissues contacting the plate.Results. The use of operated limb was not restricted during the whole distraction period. The authors observed first roentgenological signs of distraction osteogenesis on 7th day of lengthening. By the end of distraction period, at 25th day, shadows of regenerates demonstrated longitudinal striated structures in all cases. Median lucency area of 1–5 mm was located diagonally and across the regenerate or was intermittent. In 60 days of fixation X-rays demonstrated homogeneous regenerate. External fixation index was 13,9±1,5 days/sm (p≤0,05. The authors observed no cases of implants fracture or deformity during the experiment

  10. Effect of nonphytate phosphorus and phytase levels on broiler femur.

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    Luana Martins Schaly

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of nonphytate phosphorus (NPP and phytase levels on the weight, morphometry and weight/length index (WLI of broiler femurs at 21 and 42 days of age. One thousand, two hundred chicks were allocated in a completely randomized design and 4 x 3 factorial arrangement (NPP x phytase levels, with four replicates. The NPP levels, at each phase were of 0.45, 0.37, 0.29 and 0.21% in the initial phase, 0.41, 0.33, 0.25 and 0.17% in the growth phase, and of 0.37, 0.29, 0.21 and 0.13% in the final phase. The phytase levels used were 0, 500 and 1000U/kg of diet. At 21 and 42 days of age, 48 birds were sacrificed for femur collection. At 21 days, there was no effect (P > 0.05 of NPP x phytase interaction on bone parameters, but the NPP reduction decreased (P < 0.05 the weight, length and WLI of the femurs, and the inclusion of 500U/kg of phytase improved (P < 0.05 the weight and WLI of the bones. At 42 days of age, NPP x phytase interaction was significant (P < 0.05 for the weight and length, and birds fed diets with no phytase had femurs that were lighter and shorter when the lowest NPP levels were evaluated. However, the inclusion of 500 or 1000U/kg of phytase produced weights and lengths similar to those produced by treatment with recommended NPP levels, and the lower NPP levels evaluated caused a reduction (P < 0.05 in the diameter and WLI of femurs. It was concluded that diets with 0.29, 0.25 or 0.21% of NPP, with 500 U/kg of phytase, could be used with no negative effect on the femur quality in broilers from one to 42 days of age.

  11. Body mass index as a prognostic factor for fracturing of the proximal extremity of the femur: a case-control study,

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    Renato Cavanus Pagani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:To compare the body mass index (BMI of patients with fractures in the proximal extremity of the femur with the BMI of patients without any previous history of fractures.Methods:We investigated patients of both sexes, aged 65 years or over, who were admitted to Hospital Independência, Hospital Beneficência Portuguesa or ULBRA University Hospital, between December 2007 and December 2010, with histories of low-energy trauma such as falling from a standingposition. These individuals were compared with patients of the same age but without any history of fracturing of the proximal extremity of the femur (n = 89, who were attended at the geriatrics outpatient clinic of the Sociedade Porto-Alegrense de Auxílio aos Necessitados (SPAAN.Results:The age group of the patients with fractures in the proximal extremity of the femur ranged from 65 to 96 years (mean: 77.58. The main type of fracture was trochanteric (47; 62.2%, followed by femoral neck fractures (27; 36%. Among the patients who presented on fracturing the proximal extremity of the femur, 12% had low weight, 62.7% normal weight, 24% overweight, and 1.3% obesity. Among the patients without any history of fractures, 5.6% presented low weight, 43.8% normal weight, 33.7% overweight, and 9.8% obesity. It was observed that the patients with fractures in the proximal extremity of the femur (n = 75 presented a mean BMI of 22.6, while the patients without fractures presented a mean BMI of 25.5.Conclusion:The patients in the group with fractures were significantly taller than those in the group without fractures and presented significantly lower BMI than those in the group without fractures.

  12. Accuracy of dual photon absorptiometry in excised femurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erman, J.; Ott, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the accuracy of assessment of bone mineral content (BMC) by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA). Measurements were compared between BMC and ashed weight using two related scanners. The BMC in different locations of the femur was determined. Twelve cadaver femurs were cleaned of all soft tissue, divided into four parts (head, neck, trochanteric region, and shaft), and measured for BMC in an ethanol/water solution. The bones were then ashed and weighed. Volumetric density was also determined. The correlation coefficient between ash weight and BMC was 0.99 with an s.e.e. of 0.51 g and relative error of 4.8%. Similar correlations were seen within each region. The correlation between the machines was 0.99. Differences in volumetric density were found, with the density of the shaft greater than other regions, and the neck greater than the head or trochanteric regions

  13. Femur Neck Fracture in a Young Marfan Syndrome Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Uk; Kong, Gyu-Min; Park, Jun-Ho

    2016-12-01

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant and could decrease bone mineral density. So patients with Marfan syndrome could vulnerable to trauma in old ages. We present the first report, to the best of our knowledge, of a rare fracture of the femoral neck with a minor traumatic history in a juvenile Marfan syndrome patient whose physis is still open. Although the patient is young, her bone mineral density was low and the geometry of femur is changed like old ages. The femur neck fracture in children is very rare and only caused by high energy trauma, we concluded that the Marfan syndrome makes the bone weaker in young age and preventative medications to avoid fractures in younger Marfan syndrome patients are necessary in early ages.

  14. Rare Event; Not Undergoing Surgical Treatment of Proximal Femur Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Balik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In concordance with the increase in elderly population, incidence of proximal femur fracture (PFF increases. In elderly people, decreased physical activity and bone density, and visual impairments increase the likelihood of falls and fracture of the long bones. Fractures in this population are most commonly due to low-energy traumas. These elderly patient commonly present with co-morbidities. Therefore the treatment of the fracture poses additional risks. Seventy-eight-years old male presents with inability to walk and pain on the right groin following a fall at home. Right intertrochanteric femur fracture was diagnosed. His medical history consisted of ischemic heart disease, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. The patient was offered hospitalization for surgery, however the patient and his family declined the surgery.

  15. Bone mineral density of lumbar spine and femur in acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebsch, P.; Kotzmann, H.; Svoboda, T.; Kainberger, F.M.; Bankier, A.; Seidl, G.

    1993-01-01

    Acromegaly is regarded as a cause for secondary osteoporosis, whereas recent papers suggest that growth hormone increases bone mineral density (BMD). In 16 patients with active acromegaly we found an increased BMD compared to normal controls in the lumbar spine and the proximal femur by means of dual energy X-ray absoptiometry. This increase in BMD was statistically significant in the femoral neck and in Ward's triangle (P=0.05). Moreover, no signs of osteoporosis were found radiologically. (orig.) [de

  16. Rehabilitation after proximal femur surgery in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Holečková, Kristýna

    2017-01-01

    of thesis This thesis deals with physiotherapy after proximal femur surgery in elderly people. The aim of the thesis is to show the particularities of physiotherapy for elderly people and to determine the influence of nutritional status on the progress and outcome of physiotherapy. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part is focused on old age period, and changes associated with aging, geriatric physiotherapy and its components, namely classical physioth...

  17. Robust femur condyle disambiguation on biplanar X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrurier, Antoine; Quijano, Sergio; Nizard, Remy; Skalli, Wafa

    2012-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the skeleton from biplanar X-rays relies on scarce information digitalised by an operator on both frontal and lateral radiographs. In clinical routine, difficulties occur for non-skilled operators to discriminate the medial from the lateral femur condyle on the lateral view. Our study proposes an algorithm able to detect automatically a possible inversion of the two condyles by the operator at an early stage of the reconstruction process. It relies on the computation of two 3D femur surfaces, one directly from the operator digitalisation and the other from the same digitalisation with medial and lateral condyles automatically swapped. Pairs of virtual biplanar X-rays are computed for both reconstructions and the closest pair to the original X-rays is selected on the basis of similarity measures, pointing the correct 3D surface. The algorithm shows a success rate higher than 85% for both asymptomatic and pathological femurs whatever the initial condyle digitalisation of the operator, bringing automatically non-skilled operators acting in clinical routine to the level of skilled operators. This study validates moreover the proof-of-concept of automatic shape adjustments of a 3D surface on the basis of similarity measures in the process of 3D reconstruction from biplanar X-rays. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [MRI characteristic of proximal femur bone marrow edema syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xi-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    To study the MRI features of proximal femur bone marrow edema syndrome for further improve the understanding of the disease. MRI imaging of 10 patients with proximal femur bone marrow edema syndrome was retrospectively reviewed,including 6 males and 4 females with an average age of 41.5 years old ranging from 36 to 57. The courses of diseases ranged from 1 week to 3 months. Among them, 9 cases had clinical manifestations of sudden hip pain, 7 cases had limited ability of walking and hip movement;all patients had no obvious injury history, non of the female patients was pregnant. All patients were followed up from 3 to 12 months, the following-up were topped after MRI when the symptoms disappeared for 3 months. The MRI demonstrated diffuse bone marrow edema involving the femoral head, neck and the inter-trochanteric region, 13 hips of 10 patients with bone marrow edema included 6 cases in grade 1, 5 cases in grade 2,2 cases in grade 3; 9 hips with hip hydrarthrosis included 6 hips in grade I ,1 hip in grade II, 2 hips in grade III. After treatment for 3 to 12 months the hip symptoms of the patients disappeared and MRI images were normal. MRI is useful in defining the location and extent of proximal femur bone marrow edema syndrome.

  19. MR imaging of proximal femur: age-related changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju Heon; Jeon, Woo Jin; Sohn, Cheol Ho; Park, Mi Ok; Lee, Seong Mun; Joo, Yang Gu; Suh, Soo Jhi; Pyun, Young Sik

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate MR patterns of signal intensity of proximal femur in normal subjects according to the age distribution. T1-weighted MR images of the proximal femur in 125 subjects, aged 13 days to 25 years, were retrospectively analyzed. Age distribution was classified to 4 groups; below 4 months, 5 months to 4 years, 5 years to 14 years, and 15 years to 25 years. By the age of 4 months, the non-ossified femoral epiphysis was seen as intermediate-signal-intensity cartilage. At 5 months-4 years, the ossified femoral capital epiphysis was seen within intermediate-signal-intensity cartilage and appeared as decreased or increased signal-intensity red or yellow marrow surrounded by a rim of low-signal-intensity cortical bone. At 5-14 years, the ossified femoral capital and greater trochanteric epiphysis were seen within the intermediate-signal-intensity cartilage and appeared as decreased or increased signal-intensity red or yellow marrow. At 15-25 years, the proximal metaphyseal marrow showed increased signal intensity. Four patterns of the metaphyseal marrow were recognized by Ricci et al. The frequency of pattern 1 a progressively decreased with age. Pattern 2 and 3 were visible in the 15-25 years age group. An understanding of the spectrum of normal age-related change of the proximal femoral cartilage and marrow patterns serves as the foundation for interpretation of proximal femur pathologies

  20. Avaliação da Farinha de Carne e Ossos na Alimentação de Frangos de Corte Evaluation of Meat and Bone Meal in Broiler Chickens Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE Faria Filho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Um mil quatrocentos e quarenta pintos de um dia, machos, foram utilizados com o objetivo de avaliar a utilização da farinha de carne e ossos (FCO sobre o desempenho e rendimento de carcaça de frangos de corte. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 x 2, com os fatores: níveis de inclusão da FCO (3 e 6%, tipos de FCO (37,51 e 41,58% de proteína bruta, valores de energia metabolizável da FCO conforme equações de predição sugerida pelo NRC (1994 ou tabela de Rostagno et al. (1994, mais um tratamento controle sem a inclusão de FCO, com quatro repetições de 40 aves cada. O consumo de ração e ganho de peso (GP foram influenciados pela inclusão de FCO, sendo verificado maior GP quando a FCO não foi utilizada. As demais características de desempenho não foram afetadas pelos fatores estudados. A gordura abdominal foi reduzida quando a FCO não foi utilizada. Concluiu-se que dietas de frangos de corte contendo até 6% de FCO proporcionam pior desempenho quando comparadas com aquelas a base de milho e farelo de soja.Fourteen hundred and forty day-old male chicks were used to evaluate the use of meat and bone meal (MBM on performance and carcass yield of broilers. The experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial random arrangement: inclusion levels of MBM (3 and 6%, types of MBM (37.51 and 41.58% of crude protein, metabolizable energy values for MBM according to prediction equations (NRC, 1994 or by Rostagno et al.(1994, plus a control diet without MBM, with four replicates of forty chickens each. Feed intake and body weight gain (WG were influenced by inclusion levels of MBM, with higher WG when MBM was not used. The remaining performance characteristics were not altered by the factors studied. There was reduction in abdominal fat when MBM was not used. It was concluded that the performance was impaired due to the use of diets containing up to 6% of MBM when compared to corn-soybean meal diets.

  1. Níveis de isoleucina e valina digestíveis em dietas contendo farinha de carne e ossos para poedeiras comerciais

    OpenAIRE

    Gravena, Rodrigo Antonio [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    Avaliou-se o desempenho, a qualidade de ovos, o metabolismo de nitrogênio e os níveis de aminoácidos plasmáticos de poedeiras comerciais alimentadas com rações formuladas à base de milho e farelo de soja com a inclusão de farinha de carne e ossos e diferentes relações de isoleucina:lisina e valina:lisina digestíveis. Foram utilizadas 640 poedeiras da linhagem Isa Brown com 40 semanas de idade distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3x3+1, sendo 0,55; 0,62 e 0...

  2. Highly Active and Isospecific Styrene Polymerization Catalyzed by Zirconium Complexes Bearing Aryl-substituted [OSSO]-Type Bis(phenolate Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Nakata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available [OSSO]-type dibenzyl zirconium(IV complexes 9 and 10 possessing aryl substituents ortho to the phenoxide moieties (ortho substituents, phenyl and 2,6-dimethylphenyl (Dmp were synthesized and characterized. Upon activation with dMAO (dried methylaluminoxane, complex 9 was found to promote highly isospecific styrene polymerizations ([mm] = 97.5%–99% with high molecular weights Mw up to 181,000 g·mmol−1. When the Dmp-substituted pre-catalyst 10/dMAO system was used, the highest activity, over 7700 g·mmol(10−1·h−1, was recorded involving the formation of precisely isospecific polystyrenes of [mm] more than 99%.

  3. Carta ao Leitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Editorial

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available ApresentaçãoO Centro de Educação a Distância – CEAD/Unimontes foi inaugurado em 2011 em histórico de ricas experiências vivenciadas pela Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros – Unimontes ao longo de 15 anos.Uma jornada de esforços conjuntos e uma estima apaixonada pela educação e pelo conheci-mento científico carecia, em seu núcleo, de uma plataforma que reunisse todas as perspectivas constitutivas de sua história e finalidade. Um anseio crescente da instituição que se desdobra e desdobrará em produtos e iniciativas de fomento em pesquisa. Em 2012, como fruto gerado di-retamente do âmago dessas necessidades unidas ao cenário nacional de valorização crescente da pesquisa científica, surge a Revista Multitexto.A Revista Multitexto nasce como um periódico em movimento. São contribuições de aborda-gens múltiplas num ensejo genuíno e único de progressão científica em pesquisa. Um marco para os estudos na área de ensino a distância numa oferta interdisciplinar. Unidade na diversidade: a grande proposta da revista. Espaço aberto para pesquisadores e entusiastas. Multipliquem-se os multitextos em contribuições múltiplas.Sobre a Revista MultitextoPublicação semestral do Centro de Educação a Distância da Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros – CEAD/Unimontes, que contribui na área de conhecimento produzida pelas fenomenologias e áreas correlatas em Educação a Distância, com foco interdisciplinar. Aberta em 2012, a Revista Multitexto recebe colaborações de pesquisadores em ensino a dis-tância e demais áreas. É meta referencial da revista abordar questões conceituais e metodológicas, bem como, os desenvolvimentos da pesquisa, aplicada ou teórica, na área de educação à distância (EAD; difundir a produção científica de pesquisadores da área de educação à distância (EAD, inseridos em Institutos de pesquisa e de educação superior no Brasil; propiciar um espaço para o

  4. agradecimento aos consultores ad hoc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REA Editor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Agradecemos aos professores Nildo Viana (UFG e Flavio Sofiati (UFG, organizadores do DOSSIÊ JUVENTUDE & SOCIEDADE, e aos Consultores Ad hoc pela leitura e apreciação crítica dos artigos submetidos e publicados nesta edição.

  5. Mechanical torque measurement in the proximal femur correlates to failure load and bone mineral density ex vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Grote

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of local bone quality is essential for surgeons to determine operation techniques. A device for intraoperative measurement of local bone quality has been developed by the AO-Research Foundation (DensiProbe®. We used this device to experimentally measure peak breakaway torque of trabecular bone in the proximal femur and correlated this with local bone mineral density (BMD and failure load. Bone mineral density of 160 cadaver femurs was measured by ex situ dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The failure load of all femurs was analyzed by side-impact analysis. Femur fractures were fixed and mechanical peak torque was measured with the DensiProbe® device. Correlation was calculated whereas correlation coefficient and significance was calculated by Fisher’s Z-transformation. Moreover, linear regression analysis was carried out. The unpaired Student’s t-test was used to assess the significance of differences. The Ward triangle region had the lowest BMD with 0.511 g/cm2 (±0.17 g/cm2, followed by the upper neck region with 0.546 g/cm2 (±0.16 g/cm2, trochanteric region with 0.685 g/cm2 (±0.19 g/cm2 and the femoral neck with 0.813 g/cm2 (±0.2 g/cm2. Peak torque of DensiProbe® in the femoral head was 3.48 Nm (±2.34 Nm. Load to failure was 4050.2 N (±1586.7 N. The highest correlation of peak torque measured by Densi Probe® and load to failure was found in the femoral neck (r=0.64, P<0.001. The overall correlation of mechanical peak torque with T-score was r=0.60 (P<0.001. A correlation was found between mechanical peak torque, load to failure of bone and BMD in vitro. Trabecular strength of bone and bone mineral density are different aspects of bone strength, but a correlation was found between them. Mechanical peak torque as measured may contribute additional information about bone strength, especially in the perioperative testing.

  6. Percutaneous Stabilization of Impending Pathological Fracture of the Proximal Femur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschamps, Frederic, E-mail: frederic.deschamps@igr.fr; Farouil, Geoffroy, E-mail: g.farouil@gmail.com; Hakime, Antoine, E-mail: thakime@yahoo.com; Teriitehau, Christophe, E-mail: cteriitehau@me.com; Barah, Ali, E-mail: ali.barah@gmail.com; Baere, Thierry de, E-mail: debaere@igr.fr [Institut Gustave Roussy, Interventional Radiology Department (France)

    2012-12-15

    Objective: Percutaneous osteosynthesis plus cementoplasty (POPC) is a minimally invasive technique that has never been reported before and that we have prospectively evaluated for patients with impending pathological fracture of the proximal femur. Methods: We performed POPC in 12 patients (3 males, 9 females) with metastasis of the proximal femur with a high risk of fracture (Mirels' score {>=}8) between February 2010 and July 2011. Patients were not candidates for standard surgical stabilization. We analyzed the feasibility, duration, and complication of the procedure, the risk of fracture, the decrease in pain (Visual Analog Scale, VAS), and length of stay in hospital. Data were prospectively collected in all patients. Results: The mean Mirels' score was 9.8 {+-} 1.2 (range, 8-11). The technical success was 100%. POPC was performed under general anesthesia (n = 6) or conscious sedation (n = 6). The mean duration was 110 {+-} 43 (range, 60-180) minutes. All patients stood up and walked the second day after the procedure. The average length of stay in the hospital was 4 {+-} 1.6 (range, 2-7) days. We experienced two hematomas in two patients and no thromboembolic complication. For symptomatic patients (n = 8), VAS decreased from 6.5/10 (range, 2-9) before treatment to 1/10 (range, 0-3) 1 month after. No fracture occurred after a median follow-up of 145 (range, 12-608) days. Conclusions: POPC for impending pathological fracture of the proximal femur seems to be a promising alternative for cancer patients who are not candidates for surgical stabilization. Further studies are required to confirm this preliminary experience.

  7. Percutaneous Stabilization of Impending Pathological Fracture of the Proximal Femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, Frederic; Farouil, Geoffroy; Hakime, Antoine; Teriitehau, Christophe; Barah, Ali; Baere, Thierry de

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Percutaneous osteosynthesis plus cementoplasty (POPC) is a minimally invasive technique that has never been reported before and that we have prospectively evaluated for patients with impending pathological fracture of the proximal femur. Methods: We performed POPC in 12 patients (3 males, 9 females) with metastasis of the proximal femur with a high risk of fracture (Mirels’ score ≥8) between February 2010 and July 2011. Patients were not candidates for standard surgical stabilization. We analyzed the feasibility, duration, and complication of the procedure, the risk of fracture, the decrease in pain (Visual Analog Scale, VAS), and length of stay in hospital. Data were prospectively collected in all patients. Results: The mean Mirels’ score was 9.8 ± 1.2 (range, 8–11). The technical success was 100%. POPC was performed under general anesthesia (n = 6) or conscious sedation (n = 6). The mean duration was 110 ± 43 (range, 60–180) minutes. All patients stood up and walked the second day after the procedure. The average length of stay in the hospital was 4 ± 1.6 (range, 2–7) days. We experienced two hematomas in two patients and no thromboembolic complication. For symptomatic patients (n = 8), VAS decreased from 6.5/10 (range, 2–9) before treatment to 1/10 (range, 0–3) 1 month after. No fracture occurred after a median follow-up of 145 (range, 12–608) days. Conclusions: POPC for impending pathological fracture of the proximal femur seems to be a promising alternative for cancer patients who are not candidates for surgical stabilization. Further studies are required to confirm this preliminary experience.

  8. Case report 387: Gaucher disease affecting the skeleton (left femur)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabas, J.H.; Daffner, R.H.; Hartsock, R.J.; Blakley, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    A case is described of a non-Jewish (Italian) 49-year-old man who presented to the hospital with pain in the left hip. Radionuclide studies showed decreased tracer activity with 99m Tc MDP over a lytic area in the subtrochanteric region of the left femur. Increased activity, however, was present in the right temporal bone, low anterior rib cage and right tenth posterior rib. The presence of subendosteal sclerosis with some cortical thickening adjacent to the femoral lesion, suggested the possibility of malignant neoplasm, (e.g. chondrosarcoma). Biopsy of the bone marrow showed the presence of Gaucher disease. (orig./SHA)

  9. Case report 387: Gaucher disease affecting the skeleton (left femur)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabas, J.H.; Daffner, R.H.; Hartsock, R.J.; Blakley, J.B.

    1986-08-01

    A case is described of a non-Jewish (Italian) 49-year-old man who presented to the hospital with pain in the left hip. Radionuclide studies showed decreased tracer activity with /sup 99m/Tc MDP over a lytic area in the subtrochanteric region of the left femur. Increased activity, however, was present in the right temporal bone, low anterior rib cage and right tenth posterior rib. The presence of subendosteal sclerosis with some cortical thickening adjacent to the femoral lesion, suggested the possibility of malignant neoplasm, (e.g. chondrosarcoma). Biopsy of the bone marrow showed the presence of Gaucher disease. (orig./SHA).

  10. Three-Dimensional Bone Adaptation of the Proximal Femur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Mette

    1998-01-01

    The bone remodeling of a three-dimensional model of the proximal femur is considered. The bone adaptation is numerically described as an evolution in time formulated such that the structural change goes in an optimal direction within each time step for the optimal boundary conditions. In the bone...... remodeling scheme is included the memory of past loadings to account for the delay in the bone response to the load changes. In order to get a realistic bone adaptation process, the bone structure at the onset of the remodeling needs to be realistic too. A start design is obtained by structural optimization...

  11. Decreased 133Xe clearance in the proximal femur in acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitola, J.; Marek, J.; Jahoda, I.; Vilimovska, D.

    1986-01-01

    Using the 133 Xe tissue clearance method, the blood flow in the greater trochanter of the femur was studied in 30 patients with acromegaly. Both the washout rate constant (k 2 ) and blood flow (P 2 ) values are significantly decreased in acromegaly (p < 0.01). There is a significant negative correlation (r = -0.42, p < 0.05) between the flow values and mean daily concentrations of growth hormone in serum of acromegalic patients. The observation is presented as a preliminary evidence of a possible influence of growth hormone on the blood flow in bone. (author)

  12. Indomethacin induced avascular necrosis of head of femur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathapkumar, K; Smith, I; Attara, G

    2000-01-01

    Chemically induced avascular necrosis of bone is a well documented entity. Indomethacin is one of the causes of this condition but is often difficult to recognise. Review of the literature shows that only one case of indomethacin induced avascular necrosis has been reported in the English language between 1966 and the present.
The case of a young healthy man, who developed avascular necrosis of head of femur after prolonged administration of indomethacin, is reported here.


Keywords: indomethacin; avascular necrosis PMID:10964124

  13. Bone mineral density of lumbar spine and proximal femur in healthy males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akin, S.; Isikli, S.; Korkusuz, F.; Ungan, M.; Senkoylu, A.

    2004-01-01

    Relationship between BMD and age at lumbar spine and proximal femur in Turkish males was investigated. Two hundred ninety healthy males (aged 20-59 years) were investigated. BMD of the lumbar spine had its peak at ages 30-39, however, the peak for the proximal femur was between the ages of 20 and 29. There was a significant decrease in BMD at proximal femur after these peak values with increasing age. There was a significant correlation between age and the proximal femoral BMD in males and age has a strong predictive power on proximal femur BMD score. (author)

  14. Unstable intertrochanteric femur fractures in geriatric patients treated with the DLT trochanteric nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Aytun; Durak, Aslihan; Atici, Teoman

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate clinical-functional and radiological results of geriatric patients with unstable intertrochanteric femur fracture treated with intramedullary nail. Thirty-two patients treated with intramedullary nail (DLT trochanteric nail) due to unstable intertrochanteric femur fractures were reviewed retrospectively. Fractures 31-A2 and 31-A3 (AO classification) were evaluated. Operation time, blood loss, and blood transfusion requirements, hospitalization period, time to fracture union were evaluated and perioperative and postoperative complications were recorded. According to the modified Baumgaertner criteria fracture reduction was analyzed radiologically, and nail tip-apex distance was measured. Femoral neck-shaft angle was also evaluated. Harris Hip Score for clinical evaluation and Kyo criteria for walking capacity were used. The mean age was 72 years (65-81), mean follow up time was 18.3 months (12-26). Nineteen patients had type 31-A2 and 13 had type 31-A3 fractures. Mean operation time was 36.3min (25-45), blood loss 185.9ml (100-250). Blood transfusion was required in 7 patients. The average hospitalization duration was 6 days (4-14) while the time to surgery from admission was 2.9 days (2-6). Radiologically, in 21 of the cases fracture reduction was well (65.6%), acceptable in 9 (28.1%), and poor in 2 (6.3%). In early postoperative period, the mean collo-diaphyseal angle was 129.1° (120-140°), mean tip-apex distance was 15.5mm (10-27). The mean Harris Hip Score was 63.4 (38-90). Two patients (6.3%) had excellent, 21 patients (65.6%) had good, 7 patients (21.8%) had moderate, and 2 patients (6.3%) had poor results. Walking capacity in the last follow-up in 20 of the cases (62.5%) was pre-fracture level. While complications were observed in seventeen patients (53.1%) (5 superficial wound infections, 5 fractures of the greater trochanter, 3 cases of secondary varus angulation and 4 cases of heterotopic ossification) none of them required additional surgery

  15. Bone mineral density of lumbar spine and femur in acromegaly. Knochendichte an Lendenwirbelsaeule und Femur bei Akromegalie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebsch, P. (Ludwig-Boltzmann-Institut fuer Radiologisch-Physikalische Tumordiagnostik, Vienna (Austria)); Kotzmann, H. (Universitaetsklinik fuer Innere Medizin 3, Vienna (Austria)); Svoboda, T. (Universitaetsklinik fuer Innere Medizin 3, Vienna (Austria)); Kainberger, F.M. (Ludwig-Boltzmann-Institut fuer Radiologisch-Physikalische Tumordiagnostik, Vienna (Austria)); Bankier, A. (Ludwig-Boltzmann-Institut fuer Radiologisch-Physikalische Tumordiagnostik, Vienna (Austria)); Seidl, G. (Ludwig-Boltzmann-Institut fuer Radiologisch-Physikalische Tumordiagnostik, Vienna (Austria))

    1993-08-01

    Acromegaly is regarded as a cause for secondary osteoporosis, whereas recent papers suggest that growth hormone increases bone mineral density (BMD). In 16 patients with active acromegaly we found an increased BMD compared to normal controls in the lumbar spine and the proximal femur by means of dual energy X-ray absoptiometry. This increase in BMD was statistically significant in the femoral neck and in Ward's triangle (P=0.05). Moreover, no signs of osteoporosis were found radiologically. (orig.)

  16. Combined spinal epidural anesthesia in achondroplastic dwarf for femur surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochana Girish Bakhshi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Achondroplasia is the commonest form of short-limbed dwarfism and occurs in 1:26,000- 40,000 live births. This is an autosomal dominant disorder with abnormal endochondral ossification whereas periosteal and intramembranous ossification are normal. The basic abnormality is a disturbance of cartilage formation mainly at the epiphyseal growth plates and at the base of the skull. The anesthetic management of achondroplastic dwarfs is a challenge to the anesthesiologist. Both regional as well as general anesthesia have their individual risks and consequences. We report a case of an achondroplastic dwarf in whom combined spinal epidural anesthesia was used for fixation of a fractured femur. The patient had undergone previous femur surgery under general anesthesia since he had been informed that spinal anesthesia could be very problematic. There was no technical difficulty encountered during the procedure and an adequate level was achieved with low-dose local anesthetics without any problem. Postoperative pain relief was offered for three consecutive postoperative days using epidural tramadol. We discuss the anesthetic issues and highlight the role of combined spinal epidural anesthesia with low-dose local anesthetics in this patient. This approach also helped in early ambulation and postoperative pain relief.

  17. Concept and development of an orthotropic FE model of the proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Dieter Christian; Pandorf, Thomas; Portheine, Frank; Radermacher, Klaus; Schiffers, Norbert; Prescher, Andreas; Weichert, Dieter; Niethard, Fritz Uwe

    2003-02-01

    In contrast to many isotropic finite-element (FE) models of the femur in literature, it was the object of our study to develop an orthotropic FE "model femur" to realistically simulate three-dimensional bone remodelling. The three-dimensional geometry of the proximal femur was reconstructed by CT scans of a pair of cadaveric femurs at equal distances of 2mm. These three-dimensional CT models were implemented into an FE simulation tool. Well-known "density-determined" bony material properties (Young's modulus; Poisson's ratio; ultimate strength in pressure, tension and torsion; shear modulus) were assigned to each FE of the same "CT-density-characterized" volumetric group. In order to fix the principal directions of stiffness in FE areas with the same "density characterization", the cadaveric femurs were cut in 2mm slices in frontal (left femur) and sagittal plane (right femur). Each femoral slice was scanned into a computer-based image processing system. On these images, the principal directions of stiffness of cancellous and cortical bone were determined manually using the orientation of the trabecular structures and the Haversian system. Finally, these geometric data were matched with the "CT-density characterized" three-dimensional femur model. In addition, the time and density-dependent adaptive behaviour of bone remodelling was taken into account by implementation of Carter's criterion. In the constructed "model femur", each FE is characterized by the principal directions of the stiffness and the "CT-density-determined" material properties of cortical and cancellous bone. Thus, on the basis of anatomic data a three-dimensional FE simulation reference model of the proximal femur was realized considering orthotropic conditions of bone behaviour. With the orthotropic "model femur", the fundamental basis has been formed to realize realistic simulations of the dynamical processes of bone remodelling under different loading conditions or operative procedures

  18. Subtrochanteric Femur Fractures in an Irish Trauma Centre over 9 years: How the Impact of Hospital Coding on Diagnosis of Subtrochanteric Femur Fractures Leads to Inaccurate Occurrence Rates

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coveney, EI

    2018-06-01

    Our aim was to assess the occurrence rates of subtrochanteric femur fractures in an orthopaedic tertiary referral centre and to assess the correlation of patient’s actual diagnosis with national hospital inpatient enquiry data.

  19. Osteoma osteoide no osso ilíaco: relato de dois casos Osteoid osteoma in the iliac bone: report on two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmano de Araújo Loures

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O osteoma osteoide é um tumor benigno do osso que se apresenta geralmente com dor noturna em adultos jovens, aliviada por repouso e salicilatos. Pode acometer qualquer osso, mas sua ocorrência no ilíaco é infrequente. Os autores descrevem dois casos de osteoma osteoide intramedular, localizado junto à articulação sacroilíaca, com sintomas que simulavam dor ciática e cujo diagnóstico se deu de forma tardia, apesar de o exame radiológico inicial mostrar lesão esclerótica em ambos os casos. O diagnóstico foi ratificado por tomografia computadorizada e o tratamento proposto foi a ressecção em bloco da lesão, com excisão do nidus. O diagnóstico definitivo foi confirmado pelo exame histopatológico. No seguimento de longo prazo, ambos estão assintomáticos e observou-se completa remodelação óssea no sítio cirúrgico. Os autores enfatizam as características típicas do tumor, a localização não usual, o diagnóstico diferencial e o tratamento.Osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor that generally presents with nighttime pain among young adults and is relieved by rest and salicylates. It can affect any bone, but occurrences in the iliac are unusual. The authors describe two cases of intramedullary osteoid osteoma next to the sacroiliac joint, with symptoms that simulated sciatic pain. The cases were diagnosed late, although the initial radiographs showed sclerotic lesions in both cases. The diagnosis was confirmed by means of CT scan and the nidus was excised surgically through en bloc resection. The definitive diagnosis was given by means of histopathological examination. Over long-term follow-up, both cases remained asymptomatic and complete bone remodeling at the surgical site was observed. The authors highlight the typical characteristics of the tumor, the unusual location, the differential diagnosis and the treatment.

  20. Anthropometry of the distal femur in a Kenyan population and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: No local study has been done to determine the anthropometric features of the distal femur, compared it with other studied populations and some of the total knee replacement implants available. Objective: To determine the Medio-Lateral (ML) width of the condyles of the femur, the anteroposterior (AP) diameter ...

  1. Burkitt`s lymphoma involving the femur in a 12 year old girl a rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Diagnosis of Burkitt`s lymphoma with multicentre involvement of the left femur and abdominal visceral was reached.However it was not established whether femur was the primary or secondarily involved. This patient was started on Chemotherapy and she recovered well. Burkitt`s Lymphoma of a long bone are very rare ...

  2. Primary desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the femur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Akihiko; Garcia, Joaquin [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Edgar, Mark A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Meyers, Paul A. [Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pediatrics, New York, NY (United States); Morris, Carol D. [Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery, Orthopaedic Service, New York, NY (United States); Panicek, David M. [Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare malignant neoplasm typically involving the abdominal cavity of a young male. Extra-abdominal occurrence of this tumor is very rare. We report a 10-year-old girl with primary DSRCT arising within the left femur. The patient presented with knee pain, and radiological findings were strongly suggestive of osteogenic sarcoma. In addition to the typical microscopic appearance and immunophenotype, RT-PCR demonstrated the chimeric transcript of EWS-WT1, which is diagnostic of DSRCT. Pulmonary metastases were present at initial staging studies, but no abdominal or pelvic lesion was present. Despite chemotherapy and complete tumor excision, the patient developed progressive lung and bone metastases and died 3 years after initial presentation. This is the second reported case of primary DSRCT of bone with genetic confirmation. (orig.)

  3. Primary desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Akihiko; Garcia, Joaquin; Edgar, Mark A.; Meyers, Paul A.; Morris, Carol D.; Panicek, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare malignant neoplasm typically involving the abdominal cavity of a young male. Extra-abdominal occurrence of this tumor is very rare. We report a 10-year-old girl with primary DSRCT arising within the left femur. The patient presented with knee pain, and radiological findings were strongly suggestive of osteogenic sarcoma. In addition to the typical microscopic appearance and immunophenotype, RT-PCR demonstrated the chimeric transcript of EWS-WT1, which is diagnostic of DSRCT. Pulmonary metastases were present at initial staging studies, but no abdominal or pelvic lesion was present. Despite chemotherapy and complete tumor excision, the patient developed progressive lung and bone metastases and died 3 years after initial presentation. This is the second reported case of primary DSRCT of bone with genetic confirmation. (orig.)

  4. Atypical femur fractures associated with bisphosphonates: from prodrome to resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Sastre-Jala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Atypical fractures related to the prolonged use of bisphosphonates are caused by low energy mechanisms and are characterized by oblique and transverse lines and frequent bilateralism. We present a clinical case of a patient who we believe illustrates, both in clinical and radiological aspects, the new definition of atypical femur fracture related to treatment using bisphosphonates treated conservatively and successfully with discharge and teriparatide 20 mcg/80 mcl s.c./24h. The appearance of painful symptoms in the upper thigh, especially if bilateral, in patients treated with bisphosphonates for long periods of time, makes it necessary to dismiss bone lesions that might otherwise suggest atypical fracture. In those cases where the fracture is incomplete, restoring bone metabolism through the administration of teriparatide 20 mcg/80 mcl s.c./24h could prevent displaced fractures.

  5. Retrograde nailing for distal femur fractures in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giddie Jasdeep

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We report the results of treating a series of 56 fractures in 54 elderly patients with a distal femur fracture with a retrograde femoral nail. Methods: Fifty-four of the nails were inserted percutaneously with a closed reduction. After surgery all patients were allowed to weight bear as tolerated. Four fractures were supported in a temporary external splint. Results: The mean age of patients was 80.6 years (range 51–103 years, 52/54 (96% were females. There were no cases of nail related complications and no re-operations were required. One patient was lost to follow up. The 30-day mortality was 5/54 (9.3% and the one year mortality was 17/54 (31.5%. Conclusions: Distal femoral nail fixation provides a good method of fixation allowing immediate mobilisation for this group of patients.

  6. Osteoporosis or Low Bone Mass at the Femur Neck or Lumbar Spine in Older Adults: United States, 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Osteoporosis or Low Bone Mass at the Femur Neck or Lumbar Spine in Older Adults: United States, ... on bone mineral density at either the femur neck or lumbar spine? Nine percent of persons aged ...

  7. Epigenetic regulation during fetal femur development: DNA methylation matters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C de Andrés

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications are heritable changes in gene expression without changes in DNA sequence. DNA methylation has been implicated in the control of several cellular processes including differentiation, gene regulation, development, genomic imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation. Methylated cytosine residues at CpG dinucleotides are commonly associated with gene repression; conversely, strategic loss of methylation during development could lead to activation of lineage-specific genes. Evidence is emerging that bone development and growth are programmed; although, interestingly, bone is constantly remodelled throughout life. Using human embryonic stem cells, human fetal bone cells (HFBCs, adult chondrocytes and STRO-1(+ marrow stromal cells from human bone marrow, we have examined a spectrum of developmental stages of femur development and the role of DNA methylation therein. Using pyrosequencing methodology we analysed the status of methylation of genes implicated in bone biology; furthermore, we correlated these methylation levels with gene expression levels using qRT-PCR and protein distribution during fetal development evaluated using immunohistochemistry. We found that during fetal femur development DNA methylation inversely correlates with expression of genes including iNOS (NOS2 and COL9A1, but not catabolic genes including MMP13 and IL1B. Furthermore, significant demethylation was evident in the osteocalcin promoter between the fetal and adult developmental stages. Increased TET1 expression and decreased expression of DNA (cytosine-5--methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1 in adult chondrocytes compared to HFBCs could contribute to the loss of methylation observed during fetal development. HFBC multipotency confirms these cells to be an ideal developmental system for investigation of DNA methylation regulation. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the role of epigenetic regulation, specifically DNA methylation, in bone development

  8. Outcomes of Distal Femur Fracture Treated with Dynamic Condylar Screw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razaq, M. N. U.; Muhammad, T.; Ahmed, A.; Adeel, M.; Ahmad, S.; Ahmad, S.; Sultan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Implants for open reduction and internal fixation of distal femoral fracture includes angle blade plate, rush nails, enders nail and interlocking nails. But all these devices are technically demanding and less effective in providing inter-fragmentary compression in osteoporotic bones. These problems can be solved with dynamic condylar screw (DCS).The objective of the study was to determine the frequency of different outcomes of distal femoral fracture treated with dynamic condylar screw Methods: This case series study was carried out in the Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad from 1st October 2014 to August 2015, after approval of the ethical committee of the institution. Data of all patients with distal femoral fractures aged 20-70 years, recruited through emergency, OPD or consultant clinic collected on a proforma. Standard treatment of trauma was given to the patients. Detailed history was taken including the past medical and surgical history. Detailed examination including air-way, breathing and circulation, general physical examination and abdomino-pelvic examination was done in each patient. Investigations including urinalysis, haemoglobin percent, full blood count, X-ray (both AP and lateral view) of the involved femur (including hip and knee) was done. Results: Mean age of the patients was 43.18±14.647 ranging from 20 to 70 years. Mean duration of hospital stay in days was 2.21±1.111 ranging from 1 to 6 days. Patients follow-up assessment after 4 months of surgery for union of femoral fracture treated with dynamic condylar screw was found in 96 (94.1 percent), wound infection was found in 7 (6.9 percent), knee stiffness was found in 21 (20.6 percent) and limb shortening was found in 7 (6.9 percent). Conclusion: Dynamic condylar screw is an easy, scientifically less difficult and satisfying method of treatment for fractures of femur. (author)

  9. Dutch population specific sex estimation formulae using the proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, K L; Janssen, M C L; Stull, K E; van Rijn, R R; Oostra, R J; de Boer, H H; van der Merwe, A E

    2018-05-01

    Sex estimation techniques are frequently applied in forensic anthropological analyses of unidentified human skeletal remains. While morphological sex estimation methods are able to endure population differences, the classification accuracy of metric sex estimation methods are population-specific. No metric sex estimation method currently exists for the Dutch population. The purpose of this study is to create Dutch population specific sex estimation formulae by means of osteometric analyses of the proximal femur. Since the Netherlands lacks a representative contemporary skeletal reference population, 2D plane reconstructions, derived from clinical computed tomography (CT) data, were used as an alternative source for a representative reference sample. The first part of this study assesses the intra- and inter-observer error, or reliability, of twelve measurements of the proximal femur. The technical error of measurement (TEM) and relative TEM (%TEM) were calculated using 26 dry adult femora. In addition, the agreement, or accuracy, between the dry bone and CT-based measurements was determined by percent agreement. Only reliable and accurate measurements were retained for the logistic regression sex estimation formulae; a training set (n=86) was used to create the models while an independent testing set (n=28) was used to validate the models. Due to high levels of multicollinearity, only single variable models were created. Cross-validated classification accuracies ranged from 86% to 92%. The high cross-validated classification accuracies indicate that the developed formulae can contribute to the biological profile and specifically in sex estimation of unidentified human skeletal remains in the Netherlands. Furthermore, the results indicate that clinical CT data can be a valuable alternative source of data when representative skeletal collections are unavailable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Histomorphometry and cortical robusticity of the adult human femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszkiewicz, Justyna Jolanta; Mahoney, Patrick

    2018-01-13

    Recent quantitative analyses of human bone microanatomy, as well as theoretical models that propose bone microstructure and gross anatomical associations, have started to reveal insights into biological links that may facilitate remodeling processes. However, relationships between bone size and the underlying cortical bone histology remain largely unexplored. The goal of this study is to determine the extent to which static indicators of bone remodeling and vascularity, measured using histomorphometric techniques, relate to femoral midshaft cortical width and robusticity. Using previously published and new quantitative data from 450 adult human male (n = 233) and female (n = 217) femora, we determine if these aspects of femoral size relate to bone microanatomy. Scaling relationships are explored and interpreted within the context of tissue form and function. Analyses revealed that the area and diameter of Haversian canals and secondary osteons, and densities of secondary osteons and osteocyte lacunae from the sub-periosteal region of the posterior midshaft femur cortex were significantly, but not consistently, associated with femoral size. Cortical width and bone robusticity were correlated with osteocyte lacunae density and scaled with positive allometry. Diameter and area of osteons and Haversian canals decreased as the width of cortex and bone robusticity increased, revealing a negative allometric relationship. These results indicate that microscopic products of cortical bone remodeling and vascularity are linked to femur size. Allometric relationships between more robust human femora with thicker cortical bone and histological products of bone remodeling correspond with principles of bone functional adaptation. Future studies may benefit from exploring scaling relationships between bone histomorphometric data and measurements of bone macrostructure.

  11. Implant Material, Type of Fixation at the Shaft, and Position of Plate Modify Biomechanics of Distal Femur Plate Osteosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandemir, Utku; Augat, Peter; Konowalczyk, Stefanie; Wipf, Felix; von Oldenburg, Geert; Schmidt, Ulf

    2017-08-01

    To investigate whether (1) the type of fixation at the shaft (hybrid vs. locking), (2) the position of the plate (offset vs. contact) and (3) the implant material has a significant effect on (a) construct stiffness and (b) fatigue life in a distal femur extraarticular comminuted fracture model using the same design of distal femur periarticular locking plate. An extraarticular severely comminuted distal femoral fracture pattern (OTA/AO 33-A3) was simulated using artificial bone substitutes. Ten-hole distal lateral femur locking plates were used for fixation per the recommended surgical technique. At the distal metaphyseal fragment, all possible locking screws were placed. For the proximal diaphyseal fragment, different types of screws were used to create 4 different fixation constructs: (1) stainless steel hybrid (SSH), (2) stainless steel locked (SSL), (3) titanium locked (TiL), and (4) stainless steel locked with 5-mm offset at the diaphysis (SSLO). Six specimens of each construct configuration were tested. First, each specimen was nondestructively loaded axially to determine the stiffness. Then, each specimen was cyclically loaded with increasing load levels until failure. Construct Stiffness: The fixation construct with a stainless steel plate and hybrid fixation (SSH) had the highest stiffness followed by the construct with a stainless steel plate and locking screws (SSL) and were not statistically different from each other. Offset placement (SSLO) and using a titanium implant (TiL) significantly reduced construct stiffness. Fatigue Failure: The stainless steel with hybrid fixation group (SSH) withstood the most number of cycles to failure and higher loads, followed by the stainless steel plate and locking screw group (SSL), stainless steel plate with locking screws and offset group (SSLO), and the titanium plate and locking screws group (TiL) consecutively. Offset placement (SSLO) as well as using a titanium implant (TiL) reduced cycles to failure. Using the

  12. Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Curvature of the Femoral Canal in 426 Chinese Femurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Yun Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The human femur has long been considered to have an anatomical anterior curvature in the sagittal plane. We established a new method to evaluate the femoral curvature in three-dimensional (3D space and reveal its influencing factors in Chinese population. Methods. 3D models of 426 femurs and the medullary canal were constructed using Mimics software. We standardized the positions of all femurs using 3ds Max software. After measuring the anatomical parameters, including the radius of femoral curvature (RFC and banking angle, of the femurs using the established femur-specific coordinate system, we analyzed and determined the relationships between the anatomical parameters of the femur and the general characteristics of the population. Results. Pearson’s correlation analyses showed that there were positive correlations between the RFC and height (r=0.339, p<0.001 and the femoral length and RFC (r=0.369, p<0.001 and a negative correlation between the femoral length and banking angle (r=-0.223, p<0.001. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that the most relevant factors for the RFC and banking angle were the femoral length and gender, respectively. Conclusions. This study concluded that the banking angle of the femur was significantly larger in female than in male.

  13. Bone mineral content in the senescent rat femur: an assessment using single photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiebzak, G.M.; Smith, R.; Howe, J.C.; Sacktor, B.

    1988-01-01

    The single photon absorptiometry technique was evaluated for measuring bone mineral content (BMC) of the excised femurs of the rat, and the system was used to examine the changes in cortical and trabecular bone from young adult (6 mo), mature adult (12 mo), and senescent (24 mo) male and female animals. BMC of the femur midshaft, representing cortical bone, apparently increased progressively with advancing age. The width of the femur at the scan site also increased with age. Normalizing the midshaft BMC by width partially compensated for the age-associated increase. However, when bone mineral values were normalized by the cortical area at the scan site, to take into account the geometric differences in the femurs of different aged animals, maximum bone densities were found in the mature adult and these values decreased slightly in the femurs from senescent rats. In contrast, the BMC of the femur distal metaphysis, representing trabecular bone, decreased markedly in the aged rat. The loss of trabecular bone was also evident from morphological examination of the distal metaphysis. These findings indicated that bone mineral loss with age was site specific in the rat femur. These studies provided additional evidence that the rat might serve as a useful animal model for specific experiments related to the pathogenesis of age-associated osteopenia

  14. Endoscopic Surgery for Symptomatic Unicameral Bone Cyst of the Proximal Femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Wataru; Takao, Masato; Yasui, Youichi; Miki, Shinya; Matsushita, Takashi

    2013-11-01

    Recently, surgical treatment of a symptomatic unicameral cyst of the proximal femur has been achieved with less invasive procedures than traditional open curettage with an autologous bone graft. In this article we introduce endoscopic surgery for a symptomatic unicameral cyst of the proximal femur. The presented technique, which includes minimally invasive endoscopic curettage of the cyst and injection of a bone substitute, not only minimizes muscle damage around the femur but also enables sufficient curettage of the fibrous membrane in the cyst wall and the bony septum through direct detailed visualization by an endoscope. Furthermore, sufficient initial strength after curettage can be obtained by injecting calcium phosphate cement as a bone substitute.

  15. Compartment syndrome of the thigh complicating surgical treatment of ipsilateral femur and ankle fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M. R.; Garfin, S. R.; Hargens, A. R.

    1987-01-01

    A 26-year-old man presented with ipsilateral femur and ankle fractures. The patient was treated with interlocking nail of his femur fracture, followed by open reduction and internal fixation of his ankle fracture under tourniquet control. Postoperatively, the patient developed compartment syndrome of his thigh with elevated pressures, requiring decompressive fasciotomies. This case illustrates the possible complication of treating a femur fracture with intramedullary nailing and then immediately applying a tourniquet to treat an ipsilateral extremity fracture. Because of the complication with this patient, we feel the procedure should be staged, or a tourniquet should be avoided if possible.

  16. The shifting trajectory of growth in femur length during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnerem, Ashild; Johnsen, Synnøve L; Nguyen, Tuan V; Kiserud, Torvid; Seeman, Ego

    2010-05-01

    Bone size is a determinant of bone strength and tracks in its percentile of origin during childhood and adolescence. We hypothesized that the ranking of an individual's femur length (FL) is established in early gestation and tracks thereafter. Fetal FL was measured serially using 2D ultrasound in 625 Norwegian fetuses. Tracking was assessed using Pearson correlation, a generalized estimating equation model, and by calculating the proportion of fetuses whose FL remained within the same quartile. Baseline FL Z-score (weeks 10 to 19) and later measurements correlated, but more weakly as gestation advanced: r = 0.59 (weeks 20 to 26); r = 0.45 (weeks 27 to 33); and r = 0.32 (weeks 34 to 39) (p baseline FL Z-score, placental weight (150 g), maternal height (5 cm), and weight (10 kg), was associated with a 0.25, 0.15, 0.10, and 0.05 SD higher FL Z-score at the end of gestation, respectively (p ranging from <0.001 to 0.02). Tracking within the same percentile throughout the whole of gestation, as suggest by growth charts, is uncommon. Deviation from tracking is more common and is the result of changes in growth velocity within and between fetuses and is partly influenced by maternal, fetal, and placental factors. (c) 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  17. Elementos tóxicos presentes em fosfatos, calcário e farinha de ossos Toxic Elements in phosphates, limestone and bone meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter de Brito

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se identificar elementos tóxicos presentes nos seguintes produtos intensivamente utilizados na agropecuária brasileira: fosfato bicálcico, fosfato supertriplo, fosfato supersimples, fosfato monoamônico, fosfosulfato de amônio, polifosfato de cálcio e amônio, sal mineral bovino artesanal, farinha de ossos e calcário. Para a detecção dos elementos tóxicos utilizou-se as técnicas de difratometria de raios-x, absorção atômica de forno de grafite, colorimetria, gravimetria e ativação neutrônica. Foram detectados diversos elementos tóxicos, assim classificados conforme a agência norte americana de registro de substâncias tóxicas e doença relacionadas - ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry como alumínio, arsênio, bário, cério, césio, cobalto, flúor, estrôncio, tório, urânio, vanádio e zinco . Também foram observadas elevadas concentrações de silício na forma de quartzo na farinha de ossos e no sal mineral bovino. O fosfato bicálcico é o produto que apresenta a menor presença de elementos tóxicos. Summary: This study aimed to identify toxic elements present in products largely used in Brazilian agriculture and livestock: dicalcium phosphate, super-triple phosphate, super-simple phosphate, monoammonium phosphate, sulphur amonium phoshphate, ammoniated calcium polyphosphate, a farm-made bovine mineral supplement, a bone meal and a limestone. Many techniques were employed in such analyses: X-ray diffractometry, atomic absorption, colorimetric and gravimetric techniques and instrumental neutron activation. It was detected many elements classified as hazard and toxic elements by the (United States ASTDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry such as Al, As, Ba, Ce, Cs, Co, F, Sr, Th, U, V e Zn. It has also noted a high presence of Si as quartz in the bone meal and in the bovine mineral supplement. Bicalcic phosphate presents the smallest presence of hazardous elements. Palavras

  18. Procedimentos em exumações para investigação de vínculo genético em ossos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melki João Arnaldo Damião

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar problemas técnicos nas exumações para pesquisa de DNA em ossos e propor soluções por meio de protocolo. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo e qualitativo das exumações, procedendo cada etapa da perícia conforme proposto na literatura médico-legal. Foram realizadas dez exumações no período de 1995 a 1998, para coleta de restos humanos e extração do DNA, sendo sete de interesse civil e três, criminal. As dificuldades técnicas surgidas na execução desses procedimentos foram resolvidas a partir de alternativas estabelecidas. RESULTADOS: A escassez de informações úteis para a identificação do indivíduo, baseada em seus restos mortais, foi observada em todos os casos. As características morfológicas individuais contribuíram para a identificação em 50% dos casos. O auxílio dos familiares foi importante na revelação dessas características. Em três casos, foi indicado apenas o sexo e, em um, a idade. A falta de infra-estrutura dos cemitérios e de segurança policial dificultou o trabalho pericial. CONCLUSÕES: Para garantir a fidelidade do exame molecular do DNA é necessário identificar de quem são os restos mortais a serem exumados. Para a eficiência da perícia, é fundamental o uso de um protocolo que inclua, entre outras questões, as relativas a identificação, infra-estrutura e segurança pessoal dos peritos no local do exame.

  19. operative treatment of primary bone tumours of the femur and the tibia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    can cause infection, pseudoarthrosis and pathological fracture. Objective: The purpose of ... after several re-surgeries. Key words: Bone tumour, Femur, Tibia, Resection, Allograft .... stress, the length of the graft, the realization of an arthrodesis ...

  20. Biomechanical Evaluations of Hip Fracture Using Finite Element Model that Models Individual Differences of Femur

    OpenAIRE

    田中, 英一; TANAKA, Eiichi; 山本, 創太; YAMAMOTO, Sota; 坂本, 誠二; SAKAMOTO, Seiji; 中西, 孝文; NAKANISHI, Takafumi; 原田, 敦; HARADA, Atsushi; 水野, 雅士; MIZUNO, Masashi

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with an individual finite element modeling system for femur and biomechanical evaluations of the influences of loading conditions, bone shape and bone density on risks of hip fracture. Firstly, a method to construct an individual finite element model by morphological parameters that represent femoral shapes was developed. Using the models with different shapes constructed by this method, the effects of fall direction, posture of upper body, femur shape and bone density...

  1. AoS28D, a proline-Xaa carboxypeptidase secreted by Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamin, Karine; Eugster, Philippe J; Jousson, Olivier; Waridel, Patrice; Grouzmann, Eric; Monod, Michel

    2017-05-01

    Prolyl peptidases of the MEROPS S28 family are of particular interest because they are key enzymes in the digestion of proline-rich peptides. A BLAST analysis of the Aspergillus oryzae genome revealed sequences coding for four proteases of the S28 family. Three of these proteases, AoS28A, AoS28B, and AoS28C, were previously characterized as acidic prolyl endopeptidases. The fourth protease, AoS28D, showed high sequence divergence with other S28 proteases and belongs to a phylogenetically distinct cluster together with orthologous proteases from other Aspergillus species. The objective of the present paper was to characterize AoS28D protease in terms of substrate specificity and activity. AoS28D produced by gene overexpression in A. oryzae and in Pichia pastoris was a 70-kDa glycoprotein with a 10-kDa sugar moiety. In contrast with other S28 proteases, AoS28D did not hydrolyze internal Pro-Xaa bonds of several tested peptides. Similarly, to human lysosomal Pro-Xaa carboxypeptidase, AoS28D demonstrated selectivity for cleaving C-terminal Pro-Xaa bonds which are resistant to carboxypeptidases of the S10 family concomitantly secreted by A. oryzae. Therefore, AoS28D could act in synergy with these enzymes during sequential degradation of a peptide from its C-terminus.

  2. Prevalência de agenesia do osso sesamóide da articulação metacarpofalangeana, em brasileiros adultos Agenesis prevalence of the adductor sesamoid of the thumb in Brazilians adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rodrigues de Almeida-Pedrin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: diante da importância do sesamóide no emprego de métodos simplificados para a determinação da maturidade esquelética, julgamos necessário um estudo, em brasileiros adultos, para verificar a porcentagem de presença ou ausência deste ossículo. METODOLOGIA: a amostra constitui-se de 500 indivíduos brasileiros, com idade média de 22,5 (18-33 anos, de ambos os gêneros. A presença ou ausência do osso sesamóide foi verificada mediante a interpretação de radiografias periapicais, tomadas da articulação metacarpofalangena dos dois polegares de cada indivíduo da pesquisa. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: os resultados demonstraram que o osso sesamóide da articulação metacarpofalangeana esteve presente em todos os indivíduos (100% da amostra, concluindo, desta forma, que não houve agenesia deste osso nesta população avaliada.AIM: the purpose of this study was to verify the percentage of agenesis of sesamoid bone in a Brazilian adult population. METHODS: the sample consisted of 329 females and 171 males, with mean age of 22.5 (range from 18 to 33 years. The presence or agenesis of sesamoid bone was evaluated through periapical radiographs taken from the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb (left and right of each subject. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results evidenced that the sesamoid bone was present in 100% of the sample, showing that was not found agenesis in these population.

  3. The Effect of Weight-Bearing Exercise on the Strength of Femur Bone in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH Sharifi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Fractures due to osteoporosis after menopause in women is widespread. Osteoporosis may occur in case of inadequate lack of physical activity .The aim of this study was to determine the effect of running training on femur bone strength in ovariectomized rats. Materials & Methods Forty matured Sprague Dawley rats were chosen for this study. A group of 10 were killed randomly to measure their initial femur strength. The remaining rats had ovarian surgery. After three months, in order to reach menopause period, they were randomly divided into 3 groups, including pre test, running training and control groups. The running training program was carried out for one hour a day, five days a week, for eight weeks. Femur bone strength was measured by HOUNSFIELD system. Data was analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance and dependent T- tests by the SPSS software. Results: Results of this study showed that ovariectomy leads to significant decrease of femur bone strength. On the other hand the eight weeks running training lead to significant increase of femur bone strength. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that life style is important factors in preventing of osteoporosis and running training program had an inhibitory or reversal effect on decrease of menopause-induced femur bone strength.

  4. Long-term radiographic follow-up of bisphosphonate-associated atypical femur fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favinger, Jennifer L. [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, 1959 N.E. Pacific Street, Box 357115, Seattle, WA (United States); Hippe, Daniel [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Ha, Alice S. [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, 4245 Roosevelt Way NE, Box 354755, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-05-15

    To evaluate the appearance of bisphosphonate-related femur insufficiency fractures on long-term follow-up radiographic studies and to describe the rate of fracture line obscuration and cortical beak healing over time. In this retrospective study, bisphosphonate-related femur fracture radiographs were reviewed by two radiologists for the presence of a fracture line, callus, and the characteristic cortical beak. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to analyze the time to first indication of healing. Femurs were also subdivided into those who underwent early versus late surgical fixation and those who underwent early versus late discontinuation of bisphosphonate. Clinical data including pain level and medication history were collected. Forty-seven femurs with a bisphosphonate-related femur fracture were identified in 28 women. Eighty-five percent took a bisphosphonate for greater than 5 years and 59 % for greater than 10 years. The median time to beak healing was 265 weeks and the median time to fracture line healing was 56 weeks in the 31 femurs with a baseline fracture. No statistically significant difference was identified between surgical fixation and conservative management. Bisphosphonate-related fractures demonstrate notably prolonged healing time on long-term follow-up. (orig.)

  5. Combate ao niilismo e ao totalitarismo em Camus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Ricardo Germano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma leitura da peça Calígula, elaborada entre 1941 e 1943, procurar-se-á contribuir na restituição das preocupações éticas, políticas e filosóficas em cena no teatro de Albert Camus, analisando o sentido de sua expressão teatral no contexto de dois combates,ao niilismo filosófico e ao totalitarismo político de seu tempo. Observaremos em Calígula um importante registro do amadurecimento das leituras de duas heranças filosóficas relevantes na formação intelectual de Camus, Nietzsche e Heráclito, à luz da experiência do totalitarismo, observando e ressaltando com isso a amplitude de seu intertexto filosófico e a importância do aporte ético e político de Camus como pensador multifacetado, engajado nos enfrentamentos históricos e solicitações críticas de seu tempo.

  6. Um processo criativo em dança contemporânea: a simbiose pedra/osso na conexão entre os princípios da Eutonia e os fatores do movimento

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Erika Karnauchovas [UNESP

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo desta pesquisa é fundamentar como os Princípios da Eutonia e os Fatores do Movimento de Laban se conectam em um processo criativo da dança contemporânea, não visando a conclusão de uma obra artística, mas proporcionando uma reflexão a respeito do processo criativo e da articulação de duas teorias. A pesquisadora/dançarina investiga os Princípios da Eutonia (pele- tato consciente, espaço interno e volume corporal, ossos - transporte, contato consciente e movimento eutônico) e os Fat...

  7. Uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite reconstruction of the proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Min

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allograft-prosthetic composite can be divided into three groups names cemented, uncemented, and partially cemented. Previous studies have mainly reported outcomes in cemented and partially cemented allograft-prosthetic composites, but have rarely focused on the uncemented allograft-prosthetic composites. The objectives of our study were to describe a surgical technique for using proximal femoral uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite and to present the radiographic and clinical results. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients who underwent uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite reconstruction of the proximal femur after bone tumor resection were retrospectively evaluated at an average followup of 24.0 months. Clinical records and radiographs were evaluated. Results: In our series, union occurred in all the patients (100%; range 5-9 months. Until the most recent followup, there were no cases with infection, nonunion of the greater trochanter, junctional bone resorption, dislocation, allergic reaction, wear of acetabulum socket, recurrence, and metastasis. But there were three periprosthetic fractures which were fixed using cerclage wire during surgery. Five cases had bone resorption in and around the greater trochanter. The average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS score and Harris hip score (HHS were 26.2 points (range 24-29 points and 80.6 points (range 66.2-92.7 points, respectively. Conclusions: These results showed that uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite could promote bone union through compression at the host-allograft junction and is a good choice for proximal femoral resection. Although this technology has its own merits, long term outcomes are yet not validated.

  8. Use of anti-depressants and the risk of fracture of the hip or femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brand, M W M; Pouwels, S; Samson, M M; van Staa, T P; Thio, B; Cooper, C; Leufkens, H G M; Egberts, A C G; Verhaar, H J J; de Vries, F

    2009-10-01

    Anti-depressants are used largely, but have serious side effects. We show that both selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs) increase the risk of hip/femur fracture and that this risk is time related and depends on the degree of serotonin transporter inhibition. This should be considered when prescribing anti-depressants to patients. Anti-depressants are known to have serious side effects. We examined the association between the use of anti-depressants and the risk of hip/femur fractures with a special focus on the relation with the degree of 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter (5-HTT) inhibition and the duration of use. A case-control study was conducted within the Dutch PHARMO-RLS database. Cases (n = 6,763) were adult patients with a first hip/femur fracture during the study period. For each case, four controls (n = 26341) were matched by age, gender and geographic region. The risk of hip/femur fracture increased with current use of SSRIs (adjusted odds ratio (OR(adj)) 2.35 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.94-2.84]) and TCAs (ORadj 1.76 [95% CI 1.45-2.15]). The risk of hip/femur fracture declined rapidly after discontinuation of use. The risk of hip/femur fracture increased as the degree of 5-HTT inhibition of all anti-depressants increased from OR(adj) 1.64 [95% CI 1.14-2.35] for drugs with low 5-HTT inhibition to OR(adj) 2.31 [95% CI 1.94-2.76] for those with high 5-HTT inhibiting properties. Current use of both SSRIs and TCAs increase hip/femur fracture risk. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanistic pathways and the relation with the underlying pathophysiology. Until then, the elevated fracture risk should be considered when prescribing anti-depressants.

  9. Como responder ao momento presente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Molder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-784X.2013v13n19p13 Foi com esta pergunta — já um efeito de um primeiro encontro entre Irene Pimentel e eu própria — que decidimos desafiar colegas, estudantes e funci­onários da nossa Faculdade, FCSH (Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Huma­nas, de outras Faculdades da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, de outras Uni­versidades e todos os interessados em con­siderar e discutir em comum aquilo que se passava em Portugal e que no anúncio da Jornada de 6 de De­zembro de 2012 se descrevia como um “processo de desmantela­mento social, económico e cultural sem precedentes — pese embora tantas compara­ções, baseadas na premissa da ‘eterna repetição’ — e cujas consequências não param de exceder as previsões dos responsáveis por esse desmantelamento”. Acedendo com todo o empenho e gratidão ao convite que me foi dirigido por Humberto Brito para fazer uma resenha da Jornada a publicar no primeiro número de Forma de Vida (saúdo a revista e o título, decidi-me, no entanto, a pôr de lado a resenha, que sob a forma de “Editorial” será em breve publi­cada no blogue Responder ao Momento Presente, entre­tanto criado, conjuntamente com os textos escritos pelos nossos convidados, com as parti­cipações de pessoas que corresponderam ao nosso apelo e ainda com contri­bui­ções que se alargaram para lá da Jornada; a que se juntará uma gravação em video, também disponível no Youtube.   Texto publicado originalmente em Forma de Vida, Lisboa, n.1, fev. 2013. Agrade­cemos à autora por permitir a republicação neste número do Boletim. [N.E.

  10. Treatment outcomes of intertrochanteric femur fractures treated with DLT™ nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Arıcan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Intramedullary nails frequently use in proximal femur fractures. In this study, 49 patients with intertrochanteric fractures were evaluated clinical and radiological results treated with dyna locking trochanteric (DLT™ nail retrospectively. Methods: Twenty-two (44.9% patients were male and 27 (55.1% patients were female. Mean age was 74.29±1.98 (28-99 years and Followed up for a mean of 14.35±3.43 (9-24 months. Thirty-seven (75.6% of the fractures resulted from simple falls while 6 (12.2% caused from traffic accidents and 6 (12.2% fall down from height. There were 24 (49.0% left and 25 (51.0% right lower extremities fractured. According to Orthopaedic Trauma Association classification system; 21 (42.9%, 21 (42.9% and 7 (14.2% fractures were classified as 31A1, 31A2, and 31A3 respectively. One (2.0% patient had claviculae fracture, 3 (6.1% patients had radius distal fracture and 1 (2.0% patient had total knee arthroplasty. After surgery, X-ray was used for radiological results and functional outcomes were evaluated according to the Harris hip scoring system. Results: The average waiting time for the surgery was 2.02±0.18 (1-7 days and hospitalization time was 6.23±0.29 (4-15 days. Mean fracture healing time was 11.74±1.82 (8-15 weeks. Three patients had screw cut-out in the follow-up time and performed hemiarthroplasty. The average Harris hip score was 88.02±1.21 (42-97 points and included 29 (59.2% excellent cases, 17 (34.7% good and 3 (6.1% poor. Conclusion: DLT ™ nail is a safe and successful method because of low complication rates, and capability of detection.

  11. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  12. Lateral gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap transposition to the midlateral femur: extending the arc of rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rishi Raj; Broder, Kevin; Kulidjian, Anna; Bodor, Richard

    2014-05-01

    We report the successful use of an extended lateral gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap for coverage of the midlateral femur using successive delayed elevations. A 62-year-old man underwent wide resection of a liposarcoma of the right anterior thigh with free flap reconstruction and subsequent radiation therapy 10 years before. Four years later, the patient fractured his irradiated femur and was treated with a retrograde intramedullary nail, which subsequently became infected, causing osteomyelitis of the distal femur, septic arthritis of the knee joint, and nonunion of his pathologic fracture. Although advised by numerous surgeons to undergo above-knee amputation, we offered our motivated patient a multidisciplinary approach to clear his infection and pathology; implanted new orthopedic hardware; performed delayed flap reconstruction; and rehabilitated him back to painless, unassisted ambulation. The extended lateral gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap used provided perfused soft tissues and durable coverage for the patient's exposed orthopedic hardware of the midlateral femur, 14 cm above the joint line of the knee. By using this flap to cover a femur defect well above published heights, our patient avoided amputation after years of worsening incapacitation.

  13. Effects of intravenously injected lanthanum chloride on the femur of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Makoto; Daimon, Tateo

    2010-01-01

    Lanthanum (La) is widely used in industry and medicine. Because of lanthanum's physicochemical resemblance to calcium, the possible effects of it on bone have to be considered. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of La on bone toxicity. Rats were intravenously administrated with lanthanum chloride at 5 mg La/kg per week for five weeks. Histomorphometric analysis of femurs were performed using micro-CT scan. Compared with normal controls, the total bone area of the femur did not show any change in La-administrated rats, whereas the trabecular area slightly decreased. The trabecular bone mineral density in the experimented rats was higher than that in the normal controls, although the mineral density of the cortical bone and cancerou one was unchanged after the administration of La. La did not alter mechanical barometers of the femur such as mean cross-sectional moment of inertia, minimum cross-sectional moment of inertia and polar moment of inertia. Additionally, light microscopic analysis of the femurs revealed that histological features of osteoid, calcification front and bone matrix were normal after the administration of La. La was detected in the macrophages in the bone marrow, but not in the bone matrix by histological stain for La and X-ray fluorescence microanalysis. Thus, these micro-CT imaging and microscopy of the femurs did not reveal toxic changes due to La. (author)

  14. The shape of the hominoid proximal femur: a geometric morphometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Elizabeth H

    2007-01-01

    As part of the hip joint, the proximal femur is an integral locomotor component. Although a link between locomotion and the morphology of some aspects of the proximal femur has been identified, inclusive shapes of this element have not been compared among behaviourally heterogeneous hominoids. Previous analyses have partitioned complex proximal femoral morphology into discrete features (e.g. head, neck, greater trochanter) to facilitate conventional linear measurements. In this study, three-dimensional geometric morphometrics are used to examine the shape of the proximal femur in hominoids to determine whether femoral shape co-varies with locomotor category. Fourteen landmarks are recorded on adult femora of Homo, Pan, Gorilla, Pongo and Hylobates. Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) is used to adjust for position, orientation and scale among landmark configurations. Principal components analysis is used to collapse and compare variation in residuals from GPA, and thin-plate spline analysis is used to visualize shape change among taxa. The results indicate that knucklewalking African apes are similar to one another in femoral shape, whereas the more suspensory Asian apes diverge from the African ape pattern. The shape of the human and orangutan proximal femur converge, a result that is best explained in terms of the distinct requirements for locomotion in each group. These findings suggest that the shape of the proximal femur is brought about primarily by locomotor behaviour. PMID:17310545

  15. Comparative morphometric analysis of the proximal femur of African hominids and felids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gallagher

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Size and shape of the mammalian proximal femur and taxon-specific distinctions in the relative proportions of the proximal articulation, the femoral neck and the proximal femoral diaphysis, are critical determinants in its adaptation to differential biomechanical stresses and observed locomotor habitus in different taxa. The morphometrics of the proximal femur are considered equally critical in the assessment of locomotor habitus of extinct fossil mammals, particularly extinct Miocene anthropoids and Plio-Pleistocene hominins. Analyses of size and shape of k=10 dimensions of the proximal femur were undertaken for a large sample series of two extant mammal families the Felidae and Hominidae using conventional multivariate statistical procedures, commonly used size-correction methods, and post-hoc tests of significance. While significant differences in form do exist, there are equally striking convergences in the functional morphology of extant hominid and felid taxa. Multivariate and bivariate allometric analyses confirm that the proximal femur of these two mammalian families share a common underlying structure manifest in a shared first common principal component. Nevertheless, while considerable convergences in general form of the proximal femur of African hominids and large-bodied felids are apparent, there exist equally discreet distinctions which are consistent with the differential structural demands imposed by their distinct locomotor and behavioural habitus.

  16. Efeitos do Ácido L-Glutâmico e da Vitamina D3 na Composição Química de Fêmures e Tibiotarsos de Pintos de Corte Effects of L-Glutamic Acid and Vitamin D3 on Chemical Composition of Tibiotarsus and Femur of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Alvares da Silva

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de níveis (5, 10 e 15% de ácido L-Glutâmico (L-Glu e níveis (0, 5.000, 10.000 e 15.000 UI de vitamina D3/kg de vitamina D3 (VD na composição química de ossos de pintos de corte, machos, Hubbard, criados em baterias aquecidas, recebendo dieta básica purificada. O experimento foi realizado utilizando-se esquema fatorial, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado 3 x 4, com quatro repetições de sete aves cada. A maior porcentagem de cinza óssea do fêmur (40,6% foi obtida com 15% de L-Glu e 8.503 UI de VD e a do tibiotarso (40,73%, com 15% de L-Glu e 15.000 UI de VD. Não houve efeito de tratamento para as concentrações de cálcio (37,01% e fósforo (20,55% nas cinzas do tibiotarso. A relação Ca:P no tibiotarso foi constante e igual a 1,80. No fêmur, a melhor relação Ca:P (1,95 foi obtida com 5% de L-Glu e 15.000 UI de VD. No fêmur, houve decréscimo nos níveis de magnésio com a suplementação de L-Glu e de vitamina D3. No tibiotarso, a maior concentração de magnésio (1,2% foi obtida com 5% de L-Glu e 5.000 UI de VD. Embora algumas diferenças tenham sido observadas na composição mineral dos ossos, os conteúdos se encontravam numa faixa fisiológica normal e não foram relacionados com a incidência de problemas de pernas.The experiment aimed to study the effects of three levels (5; 10; and 15% of L-Glutamic Acid (L-Glu and four levels of vitamin D3 (VD on the chemical composition of bones of broiler chicks, Hubbard. The purified diets used contained all essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals at adequate levels and were supplemented with of L-Glu and with 0, 5,000, 10,000 and 15,000 IU of vitamin D3. The experimental design was a factorial 3 x 4 with four replicates with seven chicks each. The highest content of femur ash (40.6% and tibiotarsus ash (40.73% was obtained with, respectively, 15% of L-Glu and 8,503 IU of VD and 15% of L-Glu and 15,000 IU

  17. Transplantation of human neonatal foreskin stromal cells in ex vivo organotypic cultures of embryonic chick femurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, Abdullah; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    NSSCs in ex vivo organotypic cultures of embryonic chick femurs. Isolated embryonic chick femurs (E10 and E11) were cultured for 10 days together with micro-mass cell pellets of hNSSCs, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) or a combination of the two cell types. Changes in femurs gross morphology......We have previously reported that human neonatal foreskin stromal cells (hNSSCs) promote angiogenesis in vitro and in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay in vivo. To examine the in vivo relevance of this observation, we examined in the present study the differentiation potential of h......NSSC + HUVEC cultures. Our data suggest that organotypic cultures can be employed to test the differentiation potential of stem cells and demonstrate the importance of stem cell interaction with 3D-intact tissue microenvironment for their differentiation....

  18. Longitudinal shapes of the tibia and femur are unrelated and variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Stephen M; Kuznik, Kyle; Hull, Maury L; Siston, Robert A

    2010-04-01

    In general practice, short films of the knee are used to assess component position and define the entry point for intramedullary femoral alignment in TKAs; however, whether it is justified to use the short film commonly used in research settings and everyday practice as a substitute for the whole leg view is controversial and needs clarification. In 138 long leg CT scanograms we measured the angle formed by the anatomic axis of the proximal fourth of the tibia and the mechanical axis of the tibia, the angle formed by the anatomic axis of the distal fourth of the femur and the mechanical axis of the femur, the "bow" of the tibia (as reflected by the offset of the anatomic axis from the center of the talus), and the "bow" of the femur (as reflected by the offset of the anatomic axis from the center of the femoral head). Because the angle formed by these axes and the bow of the tibia and femur have wide variability in females and males, a short film of the knee should not be used in place of the whole leg view when accurate assessment of component position and limb alignment is essential. A previous study of normal limbs found that only 2% of subjects have a neutral hip-knee-ankle axis, which can be explained by the wide variability of the bow in the tibia and femur and the lack of correlation between the bow of the tibia and femur in a given limb as shown in the current study.

  19. Morphometrical and Topographical Anatomy of Position of Nutrient Foramen on Fully Ossified Left Femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Hossain Parash

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The femur is the typical long bone of lower limb which extends from the pelvis to the knee. It forms the skeleton of the thigh, bears body weight, supports movement of legs; provide attachment to muscles, form blood cells and acts as a store house for calcium and phosphate. The nutrient foramina are cavities that conduct the nutrient arteries and the peripheral nerves. The majority blood supply for femur originates from the nutrient arteries, mainly during the growing period and during the early phase of ossification. In bone grafts the nutrient blood supply is crucial and it should be preserved in order to promote the fracture healing.Objective: The anatomy of nutrient foramen of femur is very essential for orthopedic & vascular surgeons as well as to radiologists for planning of treatment.Materials and method: This cross sectional study was carried out in the department of Anatomy, Sir Salimullah Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2011 to June 2012. The study comprised 199 fully ossified left sided dry femur of both sex (n=89 male, n=110 female. Sampling technique was purposive. Morphometric and topographic study was carried out on all samples by direct physical and photographic methods.Results: The most common position of nutrient foramen on the shaft of femur was found on the middle 1/5th in both male and female femur (50.78% in male and 56.86% in female respectively.Conclusion: The anatomical knowledge about this study might be useful in certain surgical procedures as well as micro vascular bone transfer to preserve the circulation.

  20. Improving consent in patients undergoing surgery for fractured neck of femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruchandran, Gajendiran; McKean, Andrew R; Rudran, Branavan; Imam, Mohamed A; Yeong, Keefai; Hassan, Abdel

    2018-05-02

    Background Neck of femur fractures and their subsequent operative fixation are associated with high rates of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Consenting in this setting is suboptimal with the Montgomery court ruling changing the perspective of consent. This quality improvement project assessed the adequacy of consenting against British Orthopaedic Association-endorsed guidance and implemented a series of changes to improve the documentation of risks associated with surgery for fractured neck of femur. Methods Seventy consecutive patients who underwent any operative fixation of a neck of femur fracture were included over a 6-month period at a single centre. Patients unable to consent or without electronic notes were excluded. Consent forms were analysed and the documented potential risks or complications associated with surgery were compared to British Orthopaedic Association-endorsed guidance. A series of changes (using the plan, do study, act (PDSA) approach) was implemented to improve the adequacy of consent. Results Documentation of four out of 12 potential risks or complications was recorded in <50% of cases for patients with intracapsular fractures (n=35), and documentation of seven out of 12 potential risks or complications was recorded in <50% of cases for patients with extracapsular fractures (n=35). Re-audit following raising awareness and attaching consent guidance showed 100% documentation of potential risks or complications in patients with intracapsular and extracapsular fractures (n=70). A neck of femur fracture-specific consent form has been implemented which will hopefully lead to sustained improvement. Conclusions Consenting patients with fractured neck of femur for surgery in the authors' unit was suboptimal when compared to British Orthopaedic Association-endorsed consent guidance. This project has shown that ensuring such guidance is readily available has improved the adequacy of consent. The authors hope that introduction of a neck of

  1. A case of monostotic fibrous dysplasia of proximal femur managed with curettage and cortical bone grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A D Sud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case report of a young military personnel with monostotic fibrous dysplasia of proximal femur with painful, dysplasticlesion of the femoral neck and fatigue fracture who underwent cortical bone grafting using autogenous fibular strut graft and iliac crest bone graft. The fibular cortical grafts was used to bridge the lesion in the femoral neck and were securely anchored to the normal bone of the lateral femoral cortex and a head of the femur. No supplemental internal fixation was required.

  2. Case report 473: Tuberculosis of the distal metaphysis of the femur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelwahab, I.F.; Gould, E.; Present, D.A.; Klein, M.J.; Nelson, J.

    1988-04-01

    In summary, a case of tuberculous osteomyelitis of the femur in a 16-month-old male child has been presented. The parents illegally immigrated to the United States from Central America before the birth of their child. Both parents had active pulmonary tuberculosis and the child presented with calcified granulomas in his lungs in addition to the lesion in the femur. This presentation is uncommon among the white population in the United States and Europe and is usually limited to non-white immigrants. (orig./SHA).

  3. Case report 473: Tuberculosis of the distal metaphysis of the femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelwahab, I.F.; Gould, E.; Present, D.A.; Klein, M.J.; Nelson, J.

    1988-01-01

    In summary, a case of tuberculous osteomyelitis of the femur in a 16-month-old male child has been presented. The parents illegally immigrated to the United States from Central America before the birth of their child. Both parents had active pulmonary tuberculosis and the child presented with calcified granulomas in his lungs in addition to the lesion in the femur. This presentation is uncommon among the white population in the United States and Europe and is usually limited to non-white immigrants. (orig./SHA)

  4. ASYMMETRICAL BILATERAL HIP DISLOCATION WITH SEGMENTAL FRACTURE FEMUR: AN UNUSUAL CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral traumatic hip dislocation is rarely seen. A unique case is presented, consisting of asymmetric bilateral hip dislocation with associated segmental fracture femur, resulting from fall from bus. This case represents an unusual, severe combination of injuries resulting from the fall from bus under influence of alcohol. Traumatic hip dislocation represents a true orthopaedic emergency . Given the severity of associated complications, every effort should be made to ensure pr ompt diagnosis and immediate therapy. We report our experience in the management of this complex injury pattern and review the pertinent literature on this subject. Keywords: Bilateral hip dislocation , Asymmetric hip dislocation , Segmental femur fracture , Closed reduction , Fall from bus .

  5. Vertebral metastasis of femur primary osteosarcoma: a case report and literature review; Metastase vertebral de osteossarcoma primario de femur: relato de caso e revisao da literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cioni, Claudia Helena [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Radiologia Pediatrica; Francisco, Marina Celli; Lederman, Henrique Manoel [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: nana_celli@hotmail.com; Francisco, Fabiano Celli [Hospital de Caridade Sao Braz, Porto Uniao, SC (Brazil); Oliveira, Andrea Alencar de [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Oncologia Pediatrica; Neves, Felipe Trentin [Hospital Ipiranga, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Cirurgia Geral

    2006-10-15

    We present a case of a 21-year-old patient, bearer of femur primary osteosarcoma, who began with pain in the thoracic column. The metastasis of primary osteosarcoma has greater incidence on lungs, rarely affecting vertebras. We reviewed the literature about this disease and emphasized the image's characteristics on the several methods used (traditional radiographic exams, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance) and the main differential diagnostics. (author)

  6. SRAO: the first southern robotic AO system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Nicholas M.; Ziegler, Carl; Tokovinin, Andrei

    2016-08-01

    We present plans for SRAO, the first Southern Robotic AO system. SRAO will use AO-assisted speckle imaging and Robo-AO-heritage high efficiency observing to confirm and characterize thousands of planet candidates produced by major new transit surveys like TESS, and is the first AO system to be capable of building a comprehensive several-thousand-target multiplicity survey at sub-AU scales across the main sequence. We will also describe results from Robo-AO, the first robotic LGS-AO system. Robo-AO has observed tens of thousands of Northern targets, often using a similar speckle or Lucky-Imaging assisted mode. SRAO will be a moderate-order natural-guide-star adaptive optics system which uses an innovative photoncounting wavefront sensor and EMCCD speckle-imaging camera to guide on faint stars with the 4.1m SOAR telescope. The system will produce diffraction-limited imaging in the NIR on targets as faint as mν = 16. In AO-assisted speckle imaging mode the system will attain the 30-mas visible diffraction limit on targets at least as faint as mν = 17. The system will be the first Southern hemisphere robotic adaptive optics system, with overheads an order of magnitude smaller than comparable systems. Using Robo-AO's proven robotic AO software, SRAO will be capable of observing overheads on sub-minute scales, allowing the observation of at least 200 targets per night. SRAO will attain three times the angular resolution of the Palomar Robo-AO system in the visible.

  7. Femur ultrasound (FemUS)-first clinical results on hip fracture discrimination and estimation of femoral BMD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkmann, R; Dencks, S; Laugier, P

    2010-01-01

    has been introduced yet. We developed a QUS scanner for measurements at the femur (Femur Ultrasound Scanner, FemUS) and tested its in vivo performance. METHODS: Using the FemUS device, we obtained femoral QUS and DXA on 32 women with recent hip fractures and 30 controls. Fracture discrimination......A quantitative ultrasound (QUS) device for measurements at the proximal femur was developed and tested in vivo (Femur Ultrasound Scanner, FemUS). Hip fracture discrimination was as good as for DXA, and a high correlation with hip BMD was achieved. Our results show promise for enhanced QUS...... and the correlation with femur bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed. RESULTS: Hip fracture discrimination using the FemUS device was at least as good as with hip DXA and calcaneal QUS. Significant correlations with total hip bone mineral density were found with a correlation coefficient R (2) up to 0...

  8. The best location for proximal locking screw for femur interlocking nailing: A biomechanical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet A Karaarslan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: According to our findings, there is twice as much difference in locking screw bending resistance between these two application levels. To avoid proximal locking screw deformation, locking screws should be placed in the level of the lesser trochanter in nailing of 1/3 middle and distal femur fractures.

  9. Late radiation damage to the rat femur and the NSD formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, M.A.; Hietanen, T.

    1984-01-01

    The extraction of 86 Rb chloride, the red blood cell volume and the mineral content in the rat femur have been studied 7 months after local X-irradiation. Doses were given as 3, 6 and 9 fractions over three weeks. The total doses used were based on NSD value of 1450 and 1900 on the basis of the results from our previous single dose irradiation studies. The reduction in the extraction of 86 Rb chloride was statistically significant for all fractionation schemes and at both NSD levels. In the whole femur, with bone marrow, the extraction was reduced by 33% to 46%. In the hard bone the reduction was less only 18% to 38%. There was no significant difference between the fractionation schemes used at each NSD level. The red blood cell volume was significantly reduced in the whole femur, with bone marrow, with no difference between the fractionation schemes. However, there was no change in the hard bone. The dry bone weight was reduced by 3 to 6% with no significant difference between the different fractionation schemes. The dose levels predicted by the NSD formula produced approximately the same damage to the rat femur 7 months after the irradiation when the dry weight and the extraction of 86 Rb chloride were used as end points for the evaluation of the severity of late radiation damage. (orig.) [de

  10. Paediatric diaphyseal femur fracture treated with intramedullary titanium elastic nail system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrawan Kumar Thapa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available noBackground & Objectives: Over the few years there has been a marked increase in the use of intramedullary fixation in the management of fracture of shaft of femur in children. The goals should be to stabilize the fracture, to control length and alignment, to promote bone healing and to minimize the morbidity and complications for the child. In this prospective study we intend to evaluate the functional and radiological outcome of diaphyseal fracture of shaft of femur treated with elastic intramedullary nail.Materials & Methods: All 56 patients with diaphyseal fracture shaft of femur were treated with titanium elastic nail and followed for period of 32 weeks.Results: The In this study, outcome was assessed by using Flynn’s criteria of titanium flexible nail outcome score and we found excellent result in 49 cases, satisfactory in six cases and poor in one case. We faced one major complication in form of implant failure and six minor complications inform of superficial wound infection.Conclusion: Elastic intramedullary nail used in treatment of diaphyseal fracture shaft of femur yield excellent functional and radiological outcome. It is easy and simple procedure has low rate of complication. It is physeal-protective, cost effective, does not involve heavy instrumentation and can be performed in small set up. It has minimal risk of infection and no risk of injury to the neurovascular structure.JCMS Nepal. 2015; 11(2:20-22

  11. Bone Morphology in 46 BXD Recombinant Inbred Strains and Femur-Tibia Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueying Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the bone properties of BXD recombinant inbred (RI mice by analyzing femur and tibia and compared their phenotypes of different compartments. 46 BXD RI mouse strains were analyzed including progenitor C57BL/6J (n=16 and DBA/2J (n=15 and two first filial generations (D2B6F1 and B6D2F1. Strain differences were observed in bone quality and structural properties (P<0.05 in each bone profile (whole bone, cortical bone, or trabecular bone. It is well known that skeletal phenotypes are largely affected by genetic determinants and genders, such as bone mineral density (BMD. While genetics and gender appear expectedly as the major determinants of bone mass and structure, significant correlations were also observed between femur and tibia. More importantly, positive and negative femur-tibia associations indicated that genetic makeup had an influence on skeletal integrity. We conclude that (a femur-tibia association in bone morphological properties significantly varies from strain to strain, which may be caused by genetic differences among strains, and (b strainwise variations were seen in bone mass, bone morphology, and bone microarchitecture along with bone structural property.

  12. Successful reconstruction for complex malunions and nonunions of the tibia and femur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijze, Geert A.; Richardson, Shawn; Jupiter, Jesse B.

    2011-01-01

    Information regarding the long-term outcomes of the treatment of lower-extremity fracture malunion and nonunion is lacking. Twenty-nine secondarily referred patients with complex malunion or nonunion of the tibia or femur, treated by a single surgeon, were followed for a median of twenty years

  13. Implant failure caused by non-union of bisphosphonate-associated subtrochanteric femur fracture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Barry James

    2014-04-03

    Bisphosphonate use has been identified as a contributory factor in atypical subtrochanteric fracture of the femur. These fractures are commonly treated with an intramedullary device. We present a case of implant failure of an intrameduallary device caused by non-union of an atypical subtrochanteric fracture.

  14. Comparison of two interpolation methods for empirical mode decomposition based evaluation of radiographic femur bone images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udhayakumar, Ganesan; Sujatha, Chinnaswamy Manoharan; Ramakrishnan, Swaminathan

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of bone strength in radiographic images is an important component of estimation of bone quality in diseases such as osteoporosis. Conventional radiographic femur bone images are used to analyze its architecture using bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition method. Surface interpolation of local maxima and minima points of an image is a crucial part of bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition method and the choice of appropriate interpolation depends on specific structure of the problem. In this work, two interpolation methods of bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition are analyzed to characterize the trabecular femur bone architecture of radiographic images. The trabecular bone regions of normal and osteoporotic femur bone images (N = 40) recorded under standard condition are used for this study. The compressive and tensile strength regions of the images are delineated using pre-processing procedures. The delineated images are decomposed into their corresponding intrinsic mode functions using interpolation methods such as Radial basis function multiquadratic and hierarchical b-spline techniques. Results show that bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition analyses using both interpolations are able to represent architectural variations of femur bone radiographic images. As the strength of the bone depends on architectural variation in addition to bone mass, this study seems to be clinically useful.

  15. Are Albumin levels a good predictor of mortality in elderly patients with neck of femur fractures?

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, S.J.; Leeder, D.J.; Stephenson, John; Sidhom, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background\\ud Neck of femur (NOF) fractures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in elderly people with multiple co-morbidities; making management of this patient subgroup challenging. Predictors of an increase in morbidity and mortality would therefore provide a useful framework for the assessment and management of this demographic. Within the current literature, hypoalbuminaemia (

  16. Study of Ender’s Nailing in Shaft Femur Fractures of Older Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladani HG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fractures in shaft femur in children are relatively common. Various methods of treating these fractures starting from non operative to methods like closed intramedullary nailing are at our disposal. Traditionally non operative methods are acceptable and find wide acceptance even today in very young children. However in older children certain problems are encountered like failure to control angulation and shortening, prolonged immobilization which causes very much discomfort & the overgrowth phenomenon. In view of above difficulties, closed intramedullary nailing was attempted in older children and adolescents. I have tried to study 23 cases of shaft femur fractures in older children treated by Ender’s nails. Methodology: 22 pts., out of which one having bilateral # shaft femur (total 23 #s with age ranging from 7 to 16 yrs. were studied. 3 pts. having polio limbs studied separately. Fracture was in upper third shaft femur in 5 pts., middle third in 13 pts., lower third in 3pts. & involving more than one region in 2 pts. Fracture was transverse in 6 pts., spiral in 3 pts., oblique in 12 pts.& comminuted in 2 pts.. Results: Average union time was 10 weeks except in polio pts. where it was delayed. No nonunion, no infection. Excellent hip & knee movements in almost all pts. Out of 20 pts. ( except polio pts. limb length was equal in 17 pts., one pt. was having 1 cm. lengthening & 2 pts. were having shortening ( 1cm. & 2 cm.. Conclusion: Results of this study strongly favor the use of Ender’s nailing in shaft femur fractures in older children. Second surgery of implant removal is mandatory. Closed reduction can usually be achieved if surgery is performed earlier.

  17. Treatment for Trochanteric Fracture of the Femur with Short Femoral Nail: A Comparison between the Asian Intramedullary Hip Screw (IMHS) and the Conventional IMHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaji, Hidemi; Uematsu, Takuya; Oba, Ryosuke; Satake, Yoshihiko; Hoshikawa, Naoya; Takai, Shinro

    2016-01-01

    We usually use short femoral nails for the treatment of trochanteric fracture of the femur. In this retrospective study, we investigated and compared the clinical results of the conventional intramedullary hip screw (IMHS) and the Asian IMHS, which is a redesigned version of the former. The subjects were 42 patients; 21 treated with the Asian IMHS and 21 were treated with the conventional IMHS. From the clinical records, we retrospectively investigated the patients' age, sex, in-hospital waiting period for operation, operating time, intraoperative blood loss, walking ability before fracture and at discharge, and complication pertaining to the operation. The 21 patients (4 men and 17 women) receiving the Asian IMHS and the 21 patients (5 men and 16 women) receiving the conventional IMHS did not differ significantly in mean age, sex ratio, preoperative waiting period, mean postoperative hospital stay, mean operation time, or mean intraoperative blood loss. Among patients receiving the Asian IMHS, the complications of intraoperative fractures of the femur developed in 3 patients and breakage of the implant occurred in 1 patient. No complications occurred in patients receiving the conventional IMHS. Compared with the conventional IMHS, the Asian IMHS is smaller, has increased variations in the shaft/neck angle of the lag screw, and has a titanium-alloy construction, allowing magnetic resonance imaging. The intraoperative fracture may have occurred because of the configuration of the distal interlocking screw in the Asian IMHS. Breakage of the implant likely occurred because the nail was too small in diameter, and too short in length for the unstable AO 31-A3 fracture. If careful attention is paid to the configuration of its distal interlocking screw intraoperatively and a nail of appropriate size is selected, the Asian IMHS is better suited than the conventional IMHS for treating Japanese patients, who generally have a small physique, because of its many variations in

  18. A CLINICAL STUDY OF PROXIMAL FEMUR LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE (LCP - PF IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COMMUNITED INTERTROCHANTERIC AND SUBTROCHANTERIC FRACTURES OF THE FEMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Babu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fractures of proximal femur and hip are relatively common injuries in elderly individuals . The incidence of peritrochanteric and intertrochanteric fracture is also increasing among young population, who sustain high energy trauma Rigid Internal fixation and early mobilization has been the standard method of treatment. A combination of orthopaedic surgery and early postoperative physiotherapy and ambulation is the best approach. The overall goal in the treatment of hip fractures is to return the patient to pre - morbid level of function. AIMS & OBJECTIVE : To analyse the anatomical and f unctional outcome of the treatment with LCP - Proximal femur. METHODOLOGY : The present study consists of 12 adult patients of peritrochanteric factures of femur satisfying the inclusion criteria , treated with Proximal Femoral Locking Compression Plate at S. V. R. R . Govt . General Hospital, Tirupati during the period of nov 2013 to Oct 2015. INCLUSION CRITERIA : Age >18years , comminuted trochanteric and sub trochanteric fractures , Signed written informed consent . EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Inter trochanteric fractures involving piriformis fossa , Compound fractures . Pathological fractures . Any displacement of a femoral neck fracture . A ssociated malignancy. RESULTS : Average age incidence in the present study was 62.7 years. , Predominantly males (75% were affected. , Most cases occurred after a fall 10 (50% cases which was statistically significant , Right side involvement was more common. , Average post - operative stay was 13.5 days. , Out of the 12 cases, evaluated using Salvati - Wilson scoring : 3 cases (25% had good, 8 cases (66.67% fair, 1 case (8.33% had poor score , Average weight bearing time was14.5 weeks , Average union rate was 19.45 weeks.

  19. Customer satisfaction and response to AOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Passenger surveys were conducted in each of three successive springs in order to track passenger perception of changes in service quality during AOS implementation. In general, no improvement in passenger perceptions was observed relative to a high b...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A CNC MICRO-LATHE FOR BONE MICROIMPLANTS DESARROLLO DE UN MICROTORNO CNC PARA MICROIMPLANTES DE HUESO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE UM MICROTORNO CNC PARA MICROIMPLANTES DE OSSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Rangel

    2011-06-01

    maquinado con una ampliación de hasta 30X. Se produjo micromecanizado adoptando control NC y fue posible caracterizar muestras microtorneadas de hueso cortical.Este artigo avalia o desenvolvimento de um conceito de microtorno CNC, seguindo a linha de pesquisa no desenvolvimento de protótipos de máquinas-ferramentas por parte do LATEMM. Estudou-se um centro de microusinagem desenvolvido em 2004-2005 na Universidad de los Andes e com base nos resultados obtidos propôs-se um novo protótipo. A motivação por trás do desenho e a construção desta micromáquina-ferramenta era atingir maior precisão na usinagem em comparação com o torneado convencional produzido em máquinas-ferramentas de tamanho macro. Conseguiu-se uma máquina que atingiu uma velocidade de rotação de até 300000 rpm no fuso, a ferramenta de corte se move em dois eixos através de motores de passo ligados a sistemas de redução sem-fim/coroa com o que se consegue uma resolução de 1µm, ademais se programou interpolação baseada em integração DDA. A máquina foi montada baixo um estereoscópio para visualizar as operações de usinagem com uma ampliação de até 30X. Produziu-se microusinagem adotando controle NC e foi possível caraterizar mostras microtorneadas de osso cortical.

  1. Proximal and distal alignment of normal canine femurs: A morphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Mehmet Erkut; Sevil-Kilimci, Figen; Dilek, Ömer Gürkan; Onar, Vedat

    2018-05-01

    Many researchers are interested in femoral conformation because most orthopaedic problems of the long bones occur in the femur and its joints. The neck-shaft (NSA) and the anteversion (AVA) angles are good predictors for understanding the orientation of the proximal end of the femur. The varus (aLDFA) and procurvatum (CDFA) angles have also been used to understand the orientation of the distal end of the femur. The purposes of this study were to investigate the relationship between the proximal and distal angles of the femur and to compare the distal femoral angles in male and female dogs in order to investigate the sexual dimorphism. The measurements of normal CDFAs, which have not been previously reported, may also provide a database of canine distal femoral morphology. A total of 75 cleaned healthy femora from different breeds or mixed breed of dogs were used. The three-dimensional images were reconstructed from computed tomographic images. The AVA, NSA, aLDFA and CDFA were measured on the 3D images. The correlation coefficients were calculated among the measured angles. The distal femoral angles were also compared between male and female femora. The 95% confidence intervals of the AVA and the NSA were calculated to be 24.22°-29.50° and 144.97°-147.50°, respectively. The 95% confidence intervals of the aLDFA and the CDFA for all studied dogs were 92.62°-94.08° and 89.09°-91.94°, respectively. The NSA showed no correlation with either the aLDFA or CDFA. There was a weak inverse correlation between the AVA and CDFA and a weak positive correlation between the AVA and aLDFA. The differences in the aLDFA and CDFA measurements between male and female dog were not significant. In conclusion, femoral version, regardless of the plane, might have little influence on distal femoral morphology in normal dogs. Besides this, there is no evidence of a sexual dimorphism in the varus and procurvatum angles of the dog distal femur. The data from this study may be used in

  2. [Finite element analysis of lumbar pelvic and proximal femur model with simulate lumbar rotatory manipulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hua; Xiong, Chang-Yuan; Han, Guo-Wu

    2012-07-01

    To study the changes of displacement and stress in the model of lumbar pelvic and proximal femur during lumbar rotatory manipulation. The date of lumbar pelvic and proximal femur CT scan by Mimics 10.01 software was established a lumbar pelvic and proximal femur geometric model, then the model was modified with Geomagic 9, at last the modified model was imported into hypermesh 10 and meshed with tetrahedron, at the same time,add disc and ligaments. According to the principle of lumbar rotatory manipulation,the lumbar rotatory manipulation were decomposed. The mechanical parameters assigned into the three-dimensional finite element model. The changes of displacement and stress in the model of lunbar pelvic and proximal femur under the four conditions were calculated with Abaqus model of Hypermesh 10. 1) Under the same condition,the displacement order of lumbar was L1>L2>L3>L5 L5, anterior column > middle column > posterior column. 2) Under the different conditions, the displacement order of lumbar,case 3>case 1>case 4>case 2. 3) Under the same conditions, the displacement order of lumbar inter-vertebral disc from L1,2 to L5S1 was L1,2>L2,3>L3,4>L4,5>L5S1, as for the same inter-vertebral disc, the order was: second quadrant>third quadrant>first quadrant>fourth quadrant. 4) Under the different conditions,the displacement order of the inter-vertebral disc was L1,2>L2,3>L3,4>L4,5>L5S1, but to same inter-vertebral disc: case 3>case 4>case 1 >case 2. 5) There were apparent displacement and stress concentration in pelvis and hip during the manipulation. 1) The principles of lumbar rotation manipulation closely related to the relative displacement caused by rotation of various parts of lumbar pelvic and proximal femur model; 2) During the process of lumbar rotatory manipulation, the angle of lateral bending and flexion can not be randomly increased; 3) During the process of lumbar rotatory manipulation, all the conditions of lumbar pelvic and proximal femur must be

  3. Ipsilateral Fracture Shaft Femur with Neglected Dislocation of Prosthesis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantu Jain

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neglected hip dislocation is rare in today’s world and after prosthesis replacement even rarer finding. However such patients may not report to surgeons until they develop secondary complications. Management of such patient’s is a challenge to the treating surgeon and need to be tailored suiting to patient’s demands, expectations and constraints of financial resources. We did not find a similar case in the electronic and print media and therefore report this case which was innovatively managed. Case Report: A 60 year farmer presented with fracture shaft femur and ipsilateral dislocation prosthesis of right hip. He had a hemiarthroplasty done for fracture neck of femur in the past but used to walk with a lurch since he started to ambulate after discharge. However he was satisfied despite “some problems” which had caused shortening of his limb. The patient was informed of the various treatment options and their possible complications. He expressed his inability to afford a Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA at any stage and consented for other options discussed with him. The patient was positioned supine and adductor tenotomy done. Next he was positioned laterally and the fracture was fixed with heavy duty broad dynamic compression plate and screws. The wound was temporarily closed. Now through the previous scar via posterior approach the hip was exposed. The prosthesis was found to be firmly fixed to the proximal femur. The acetabulum was cleared with fibrous tissue. All attempts the prosthesis to relocate the prosthesis failed after several attempts and it was best decided to leave alone. Post operatively period was uneventful. At follow up he refused for any further manoeuvre in future inform of heavy traction and attempts to reduce the same. At one year when he was walking unaided and his X-rays showed that fracture had well united his SF-36 score was PCS – 49.6 and MCS – 51.9. Conclusion: Ipsilateral shaft femur fracture

  4. Functional and oncologic outcomes after excision of the total femur in primary bone tumors: Results with a low cost total femur prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Puri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The extent of tumor may necessitate resection of the complete femur rarely to achieve adequate oncologic clearance in bone sarcomas. We present our experience with reconstruction in such cases using an indigenously manufactured, low-cost, total femoral prosthesis (TFP. We assessed the complications of the procedure, the oncologic and functional outcomes, and implant survival. Materials and Methods: Eight patients (four males and four females with a mean age of 32 years, operated between December 2003 and June 2009, had a TFP implanted. The diagnosis included osteogenic sarcoma (5, Ewing′s sarcoma (1, and chondrosarcoma (2. Mean followup was 33 months (9-72 months for all and 40 months (24-72 months in survivors. They were evaluated by Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score, implant survival as well as patient survival. Results: There was one local recurrence and five of seven patients are currently alive at the time of last followup. The Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score for patients ranged from 21 to 25 with a mean of 24 (80%. The implant survival was 88% at 5 years with only one TFP needing removal because of infection. Conclusions: A TFP in appropriately indicated patients with malignant bone tumors is oncologically safe. A locally manufactured, cost-effective implant provided consistent and predictable results after excision of the total femur with good functional outcomes.

  5. Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the right femur and subsequent metastasis to the left femur: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing-Yu; Yu, Dan; Wu, Yao-Hui

    2018-04-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the bone is rare and typically causes an extensive bone lesion. The present study describes a case of diffuse large B-cell primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the bone, which occurred in the right femur, and was initially treated with surgery and chemotherapy. Following a 7-year period of complete remission, a new, similar lesion was identified in the left femur. With both lesions, there was no accompanying destruction of any other bones or organ involvement. Metastasis of PLB to the contralateral side is extremely rare and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this particular presentation in China or worldwide. We hypothesized that the present situation arose due to mechanisms involving the tumor microenvironment, circulating tumor cells, lymphocyte homing and self-seeding. The present report describes the case in detail, and discusses the possible underlying mechanisms and their potential contribution to the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, as well as the prevention of metastasis and recurrence, which may be of considerable clinical significance.

  6. Metallographic examination of a failed Jewett nail-plate from a human femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.J.; Zirkel, L.G. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A type 316L wrought stainless steel Jewett nail-plate is one of several implant designs for bridging fractures in the proximal end of the femur. A soldier received a high velocity projectile in the trochanteric region of the femur. He was treated for a subtrochanteric fracture and greater trochanteric bone loss. After 9 months, hip varus angulation was progressively increasing. A Jewett nail-plate was inserted after valgus osteotomy and bone grafting of the unhealed fracture. The nail-plate fractured three weeks after surgery. Optical and scanning electron microscopy related the origin of failure to an impactor failure and subsequent microscopic scoring of the nail-plate during insertion into the abnormally hard femoral head. Photomicrographs showing the implant failure and evidences of corrosion after the short time in the body are presented. 12 figs

  7. Three-dimensional microarchitecture of the proximal femur in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, B. L.; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    2015-01-01

    microstructure has an important impact on bone quality. Recently, the quantification of bone architecture based on micro-CT has been widely used in the research of various bone diseases. OBJECTIVE: To observe the osteoarthritis- and rheumatoid arthritis-related changes in the properties of the proximal femur...... based on micro-CT, thus to compare the bone microstructure in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis patients. METHODS: Femoral heads were collected from primary osteoarthritis (n=10) and rheumatoid arthritis (n=7) patients undergoing total hip replacement. A 10-mm segment of the femoral neck was cut...... from each individual femur, perpendicular to the main trabecular direction on X-ray films. The specimens were analyzed by using micro-CT system. After scanning, the data were transferred to three-dimensional images, and then detailed structural parameters of the cortical bone, cancellous bone...

  8. Anthropometric Measurements of the Human Distal Femur: A Study of the Adult Malay Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Fitdriyah; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz; Sa'at, Azlin; Aziz, Azian Abd.; Hossain, Md. Golam; Kamarul, T.; Syahrom, Ardiyansyah

    2013-01-01

    The distal femurs of 100 subjects (50 men, 50 women) from the Malay population aged between 19 and 38 years were scanned to measure the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) width. The mean AP values were 64.02 ± 3.38 mm and 57.33 ± 3.26 mm for men and women, respectively, and the mean ML values were 74.91 ± 3.52 mm and 64.53 ± 3.07 mm. We compared our data to that published previously for the Chinese and Indian populations. It was found that the Malay population had smaller distal femur than that of the Chinese but was larger than that of the Indian population (P population, the variations in different Asian ethnicities may need to be considered when designing the appropriate knee implant. PMID:24294597

  9. A comparative approach to computer aided design model of a dog femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turamanlar, O; Verim, O; Karabulut, A

    2016-01-01

    Computer assisted technologies offer new opportunities in medical imaging and rapid prototyping in biomechanical engineering. Three dimensional (3D) modelling of soft tissues and bones are becoming more important. The accuracy of the analysis in modelling processes depends on the outline of the tissues derived from medical images. The aim of this study is the evaluation of the accuracy of 3D models of a dog femur derived from computed tomography data by using point cloud method and boundary line method on several modelling software. Solidworks, Rapidform and 3DSMax software were used to create 3D models and outcomes were evaluated statistically. The most accurate 3D prototype of the dog femur was created with stereolithography method using rapid prototype device. Furthermore, the linearity of the volumes of models was investigated between software and the constructed models. The difference between the software and real models manifests the sensitivity of the software and the devices used in this manner.

  10. A STUDY OF CLINICAL AND SURGICAL OUTCOME OF FRACTURE NECK OF FEMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish G. Cherian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Fracture neck of femur has high incidence of complications even with treatment, hence it is also termed as unsolved fracture. Factors making treatment difficult are the blood supply to head, which gets cut off and difficulty in achieving reduction. Impacted fractures can be treated conservatively. If the fracture is undisplaced, a conservative approach may be done or multiple cancellous screws can be used. If the patient’s age is less than 60 years, a closed reduction under C-arm control can be tried. If the reduction is possible, then multiple screw fixations can be done. If reduction is not achieved, then open screw reduction and screw fixation can be done. If the patient is above 60 years of age, then it is preferable to excise the head off and replace it with prosthesis. If the hip is normal, then hemiarthroplasty with a unipolar or bipolar prosthesis can be done. If the hip has pre-existing arthritis, then total hip replacement surgery is advisable. A sincere effort has been put to understand the clinical and surgical outcome of fracture neck of femur in elderly. This paper is intended to help the practicing orthopaedicians to understand the various treatment modalities which is commonly used in practice and also the complications which are associated with the pathology. METHODS  The study was done in the Department of Orthopaedics, Travancore Medical College at Kollam.  The study was done from August 2014 to June 2016.  Eighty cases who attended in the Department of Orthopaedics were taken for the study.  Detailed History and Clinical Examination was conducted. INCLUSION CRITERIA  Both traumatic and pathological fractures were taken up for the study.  Individuals who were aged more than 55 years were taken up for the study. EXCLUSION CRITERIA  Aged less than 55 years were not considered.  All the statistical analysis was done using the latest SPSS software 2015 (California. RESULT Fracture neck of femur

  11. Incidence rates and trends of hip/femur fractures in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Requena, G; Abbing-Karahagopian, V; Huerta, C

    2014-01-01

    Hip fractures represent a major public health challenge worldwide. Multinational studies using a common methodology are scarce. We aimed to estimate the incidence rates (IRs) and trends of hip/femur fractures over the period 2003-2009 in five European countries. The study was performed using seven......, P European countries. With the exception of Denmark, no decreasing trend was observed over the study period....

  12. Brown tumors of the femur and pelvis secondary to a parathyroid carcinoma: Report of one case

    OpenAIRE

    Radulescu, Dan; Chis, Bogdan; Donca, Valer; Münteanu, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    Brown tumors result from excess osteoclast activity and consist of collections of osteoclasts intermixed with fibrous tissue and poorly mineralized woven bone. They are secondary to hyperparathyroidism (HPT). Their incidence is higher in primary than in secondary hyperparathyroidism. We report a 69 years-old male, admitted in a state of confusion, lethargy and bedridden, with a pathological fracture of the femur caused by a brown tumor. The laboratory examination revealed a hypercalcemia (8.8...

  13. "Effect of Hydroxyapatite to Load Failure Value in Rat with Diaphyseal Femur Fracture"

    OpenAIRE

    Rinartha, Adi Surya; Rahyussalim, Rahyussalim

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Calcium hydroxyapatite are non organic compound of the bone formed the fracture healing. In fracture healing, the parts of the compounds make up unordinary scaffold and producing an incredible amount of me- senchymal stem cell under bearing of the scaffold. This study is aimed to determine the effect of hydroxyapatite administration to load failure value in mice with diaphyseal femur fracture. Materials and methods. Research was done using Sprague Dawley rat undergone ...

  14. Pilot study on proximal femur strains during locomotion and fall-down scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klodowski, Adam, E-mail: adam.klodowski@lut.fi; Valkeapaeae, Antti, E-mail: antti.valkeapaa@lut.fi; Mikkola, Aki, E-mail: aki.mikkola@lut.fi [Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland)

    2012-09-15

    The most common and severe type of fracture among the elderly is known as a proximal femur fracture. Aging-related bone loss is one of the major contributing factors to increased likelihood of bone fracture. Specific exercises can be used to strain bones and increase bone strength to counter the effects of bone loss. The flexible multibody simulation approach can be used as a non-invasive method for estimating bone strains caused by physical activity. This method was recently used to analyze the strain of locomotion in regard to human femur and tibia leg bones. The current study focuses on strain analysis of the femoral neck. The research test person was a clinically healthy 65-year old Caucasian male. The computed tomography was used to build a geometrically accurate finite element model of the femur with inhomogeneous material properties derived from the voxel data. The anthropometric data was used to model the musculoskeletal system of the test person. The multibody skeletal model was utilized to estimate loading on the femoral neck during walking, which represents a routine daily activity. The flexible multibody simulation results were compared to strains that occurred during a simulated fall onto the greater trochanter of the femur. The fall simulation was made entirely using finite element software. Results from the finite element analysis were compared with the previous study showing that the test person does not belong to the high-risk hip fracture group. Finally, the estimated strains gathered from the walking simulation were compared to the strain values from the simulated fall-down scenario.

  15. Associated ilium and femur from Koobi Fora, Kenya, and postcranial diversity in early Homo

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, C.V.; Feibel, C.S.; Hammond, A.S.; Leakey, L.N.; Moffett, E.A.; Plavcan, J.M.; Skinner, Matthew M.; Spoor, F.; Leakey, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    During the evolution of hominins, it is generally accepted that there was a shift in postcranial morphology between Australopithecus and the genus Homo. Given the scarcity of associated remains of early Homo, however, relatively little is known about early Homo postcranial morphology. There are hints of postcranial diversity among species, but our knowledge of the nature and extent of potential differences is limited. Here we present a new associated partial ilium and femur from Koobi Fora, K...

  16. Metachronous bilateral subtrochanteric fracture of femur in an osteopetrotic bone: A case report with technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Jain, Vijay Kumar; Lal, Hitesh; Arya, Rajinder Kumar; Sinha, Skand

    2012-12-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited skeletal disorder characterized by increased density. The increased fragility of such dense bone results in a greater incidence of fractures, especially around hip and proximal femur. The surgical treatment of such fractures is difficult due to hard but brittle structure of bone. Herein we report a case of bilateral subtrochanteric fracture in an osteopetrotic patient. It was fixed using a dynamic hip screw with plate.

  17. Systematic review of spica casting for the treatment of paediatric diaphyseal femur fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisherman, R T; Hoellwarth, J S; Mendelson, S A

    2018-04-01

    Paediatric femur fractures are commonly encountered and often successfully managed with spica casting. Despite spica casting's long history there is little formal guidance for optimal outcomes and no consolidation of existing literature. The purpose of this study is to review the available literature regarding the use of spica casting for the management of paediatric diaphyseal femur fractures. The PubMed database was queried for all research articles including the phrase "spica". A total of 788 abstracts were reviewed for relevance to the current study. Data was extracted from all available research studies which specified tolerance for fracture angulation or shortening in the cast. Additionally, all articles describing alternative materials, methods for spica application, and complications of spica casting were reviewed. In all, 106 articles were found relevant to the management of diaphyseal femur fractures in the paediatric population. The aggregated, accepted fracture shortening decreased from 16 mm to 18 mm before age ten years to 12 mm to 14 mm after puberty. Aggregated, accepted angulation decreased from 14° to 16° varus/valgus and 18° to 22° pro/recurvatum before age two years, to 6° to 8° and 10° to 12° by puberty, respectively. The overall reported complication rate was 19.6%, with the most common complication being skin compromise in 8.2% of patients, followed by unacceptable angulation at the fracture site in 4.2% of patients and excessive limb shortening in 1.9% of patients. This article reviews the available spica casting literature and compiles the available data. Spica casting offers a safe, effective means for definitive management of paediatric diaphyseal femur fractures. Future research identifying the rate and pattern of remodelling as it relates to angulation and shortening at various patient ages, particularly beyond the aforementioned norms, would be valuable to identify true biological tolerances versus accepted expert opinion

  18. Use of anti-depressants and the risk of fracture of the hip or femur

    OpenAIRE

    van den Brand, M. W. M.; Samson, M. M.; Pouwels, S.; van Staa, T. P.; Thio, B.; Cooper, C.; Leufkens, H. G. M.; Egberts, A. C. G.; Verhaar, H. J. J.; de Vries, F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Anti-depressants are used largely, but have serious side effects. We show that both selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs) increase the risk of hip/femur fracture and that this risk is time related and depends on the degree of serotonin transporter inhibition. This should be considered when prescribing anti-depressants to patients. Introduction Anti-depressants are known to have serious side effects. We examined the association between t...

  19. Damage characterization on human femur bone by means of ultrasonics and acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strantza, M; Boulpaep, F; Van Hemelrijck, D; Aggelis, D G; Polyzos, D; Louis, O

    2015-01-01

    Human bone tissue is characterized as a material with high brittleness. Due to this nature, visible signs of cracking are not easy to be detected before final failure. The main objective of this work is to investigate if the acoustic emission (AE) technique can offer valuable insight to the fracture process of human femur specimens as in other engineering materials characterization. This study describes the AE activity during fracture of whole femur bones under flexural load. Before fracture, broadband AE sensors were used in order to measure parameters like wave velocity dispersion and attenuation. Waveform parameters like the duration, rise time and average frequency, were also examined relatively to the propagation distance as a preparation for the AE monitoring during fracture. After the ultrasonic study, the samples were partly cast in concrete and fixed as cantilevers. A point load was applied on the femur head, which due to the test geometry resulted in a combination of two different patterns of fracture, bending and torsion. Two AE broadband sensors were placed in different points of the sample, one near the fixing end and the other near the femur head. Preliminary analysis shows that parameters like the number of acquired AE signals and their amplitude are well correlated with the load history. Furthermore, the parameters of rise time and frequency can differentiate the two fracture patterns. Additionally, AE allows the detection of the load at the onset of fracture from the micro-cracking events that occur at the early loading stages, allowing monitoring of the whole fracture process. Parameters that have been used extensively for monitoring and characterization of fracture modes of engineering materials seem to poses characterization power in the case of bone tissue monitoring as well. (paper)

  20. Case report 373: Diametaphyseal chrondroblastoma of the upper portion of the left femur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotelo-Avila, C.; Sundaram, M.; Graviss, E.R.; Kyriakos, M.; Tayob, A.A.

    1986-06-01

    In summary, a case has been presented of a chondroblastoma of the diametaphysis of the upper end of the left femur in an 11-year-old girl. Despite its atypical location, the tumor proved to be a characteristic chondroblastoma on microscopic examination. The literature was reviewed comprehensively and it was noted that 12 examples of chondroblastoma arising outside an epiphysis (or apophysis) were noted. (orig./SHA).

  1. "Push back" technique: A simple method to remove broken drill bit from the proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Devendra K; Sharma, Siddhartha

    2015-11-18

    Broken drill bits can be difficult to remove from the proximal femur and may necessitate additional surgical exploration or special instrumentation. We present a simple technique to remove a broken drill bit that does not require any special instrumentation and can be accomplished through the existing incision. This technique is useful for those cases where the length of the broken drill bit is greater than the diameter of the bone.

  2. Vertebral metastasis of femur primary osteosarcoma: a case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cioni, Claudia Helena; Oliveira, Andrea Alencar de; Neves, Felipe Trentin

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of a 21-year-old patient, bearer of femur primary osteosarcoma, who began with pain in the thoracic column. The metastasis of primary osteosarcoma has greater incidence on lungs, rarely affecting vertebras. We reviewed the literature about this disease and emphasized the image's characteristics on the several methods used (traditional radiographic exams, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance) and the main differential diagnostics. (author)

  3. Mathematical modeling of deformation of reinforced femur during prolonged static loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir P. Radchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A two-layer mathematical model of a human femur neck reinforced implants of different design for modeling stress-strain state which occurs during a surgical procedure to prevent femur neck fractures by the forced introduction of metallic implants is proposed. Engineered implant designs are provided. Methods and software for geometric modeling of femur embedded with the implants are developed. New boundary value problems to evaluate kinetics in creep conditions of the stress-strain state of reinforced and non-reinforced femoral neck during prolonged static loads corresponding to human foot traffic are formulated. Effective elastic properties of cortical and cancellous bone, power and kinematic boundary value problems. A phenomenological creep model for compact bone tissue is constructed. The technique of identifying the parameters is developed. A check of its adequacy to experimental data is carried out. Based on the finite element method the numerical method for solving the provided boundary value problems at macro level of continuum mechanics is developed. A lot of variative calculations allowed developing recommendations for the rational positioning of the implant in order to minimize stress concentrations. The performed analysis showed that there is a significant relaxation of stresses in the most loaded areas due to creep. Relaxation is more intense in reinforced femoral neck than in the unreinforced. Thus the tension in the most loaded femoral neck area due to creep is reduced by 49 % with respect to the intensity of the initial time of loading for femur which is reinforced by the spoke-spoke-type implant when loading duration is 1 year under natural loads corresponding to human foot traffic. It was found that the time component (long-term fixed load does not impair the positive effect of reducing the stress concentration due to a femoral neck reinforcement which is a positive fact from the medical practice point of view.

  4. Gender differences of the morphology of the distal femur and proximal tibia in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hong-Chul; Bae, Ji-Hoon; Yoon, Ji-Yeol; Kim, Seung-Ju; Kim, Jae-Gyoon; Lee, Jae-Moon

    2013-01-01

    We conducted this study to determine whether the sizes of distal femurs and proximal tibiae in Korean men and women are different, and to assess suitability of the sizes of prostheses currently used in Korea. We performed morphological analysis of proximal tibia and distal femur on 115 patients (56 male, 59 female) using MRI to investigate a gender difference. Tibial mediolateral dimension (tMAP), tibial medial anteroposterior dimension (tMAP), tibial lateral anteroposterior dimension (tLAP) femoral mediolateral dimension (fML), femoral medial anteroposterior dimension (fMAP), and femoral lateral anteroposterior dimension (fLAP) were measured. The ratio of tMAP and tLAP to tML (plateau aspect ratio, tAP/tML×100%), and that of fMAP and fLAP to fML (condylar aspect ratio, fAP/fML×100%) were calculated. The measurements were compared with the similar dimensions of four total knee implants currently used. The tML and tAP lengths showed a significant gender difference (PtMAP/tML) revealed a significant difference between male (0.74±0.05) and female (0.68±0.04, P<0.05). For morphotype of distal femur, males were found to have significantly large values (P<0.05) in the parameters, except for fLAP. With regards to the ratio of the ML width to the AP length, the women showed a narrower ML width than the men. Both genders were distributed within the range of the dimensions of the prostheses currently used prostheses. Korean population revealed that women have smaller dimensions than male counterparts. In both genders, a relatively small size of prostheses matches distal femur and proximal tibia better among the implants currently used in Korea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex determination in femurs of modern Egyptians: A comparative study between metric measurements and SRY gene detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman F. Gaballah

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The SRY gene detection method for sex determination is quick and simple, requiring only one PCR reaction. It corroborates the results obtained from anatomical measurements and further confirms the sex of the femur bone in question.

  6. Unusual proximal femur fracture in children treated with PHILOS plate and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractures of the hip are uncommon in children with incidence is less than 1% in all paediatrics fracture. It requires careful attention because of the incidence of complications is high. There is no consensus over ideal treatment of each group, but there are different options for each group has been described in literature, we report a case of unusual proximal femur fracture in ten-year-old girl which is not described in literature in best of our knowledge. A 10 years old girl was brought to us with pain in right hip joint and inability to bear weight on right lower limb after road traffic accident (child was hit by a car while walking on the road. Evaluated and found to have fracture of proximal femur. fracture was fixed with long PHILOS plate, which united in eight weeks duration, implant was removed at 10 month. At present after 14 months, she is able to perform her routine activities comfortably. and her Harris hip score is 95. We propose to add this type of fracture as 5th type of Delbet's classification as the fracture pattern in my patient was not fitting in any group of Delbet's classification and it belongs to proximal femur group and anatomically this fracture pattern was next to type IV fracture. Uncommon fracture of hip in children can be expected, this type of fracture can be added as 5th type in Delbet's classification. Long term outcome and ideal treatment yet to be described.

  7. Morphometric Evaluation of Korean Femurs by Geometric Computation: Comparisons of the Sex and the Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Jung Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We measured 28 parameters of 202 femurs from Koreans by an automated geometric computation program using 3D models generated from computed tomography images. The measurement parameters were selected with reference to physical and forensic anthropology studies as well as orthopedic implant design studies. All measurements were calculated using 3D reconstructions on a computer using scientific computation language. We also analyzed sex and population differences by comparison with data from previous studies. Most parameters were larger in males than in females. The height, head diameter, head center offset, and chord length of the diaphysis, most parameters in the distal femur, and the isthmic width of the medullary canal were smaller in Koreans than in other populations. However, the neck-shaft angle, subtense, and width of the intercondylar notch in the distal femur were larger than those in other populations. The results of this study will be useful as a reference for physical and forensic anthropology as well as the design of medical devices suitable for Koreans.

  8. Prediction on fracture risk of femur with Osteogenesis Imperfecta using finite element models: Preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanna, S. B. C.; Basaruddin, K. S.; Mat Som, M. H.; Mohamad Hashim, M. S.; Daud, R.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Sulaiman, A. R.

    2017-10-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disease which affecting the bone geometry. In a severe case, this disease can cause death to patients. The main issue of this disease is the prediction on bone fracture by the orthopaedic surgeons. The resistance of the bone to withstand the force before the bones fracture often become the main concern. Therefore, the objective of the present preliminary study was to investigate the fracture risk associated with OI bone, particularly in femur, when subjected to the self-weight. Finite element (FEA) was employed to reconstruct the OI bone model and analyse the mechanical stress response of femur before it fractures. Ten deformed models with different severity of OI bones were developed and the force that represents patient self-weight was applied to the reconstructed models in static analysis. Stress and fracture risk were observed and analysed throughout the simulation. None of the deformed model were observed experienced fracture. The fracture risk increased with increased severity of the deformed bone. The results showed that all deformed femur models were able to bear the force without experienced fracture when subjected to only the self-weight.

  9. Anthropometric Measurements of the Human Distal Femur: A Study of the Adult Malay Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitdriyah Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The distal femurs of 100 subjects (50 men, 50 women from the Malay population aged between 19 and 38 years were scanned to measure the anterior-posterior (AP and medial-lateral (ML width. The mean AP values were 64.02 ± 3.38 mm and 57.33 ± 3.26 mm for men and women, respectively, and the mean ML values were 74.91 ± 3.52 mm and 64.53 ± 3.07 mm. We compared our data to that published previously for the Chinese and Indian populations. It was found that the Malay population had smaller distal femur than that of the Chinese but was larger than that of the Indian population (P < 0.05. In conclusion, although it is well established that Asians have a smaller distal femur size than that of the Western population, the variations in different Asian ethnicities may need to be considered when designing the appropriate knee implant.

  10. Anthropometric measurements of the human distal femur: a study of the adult Malay population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Fitdriyah; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz; Sa'at, Azlin; Aziz, Azian Abd; Hossain, Golam; Kamarul, T; Syahrom, Ardiyansyah

    2013-01-01

    The distal femurs of 100 subjects (50 men, 50 women) from the Malay population aged between 19 and 38 years were scanned to measure the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) width. The mean AP values were 64.02 ± 3.38 mm and 57.33 ± 3.26 mm for men and women, respectively, and the mean ML values were 74.91 ± 3.52 mm and 64.53 ± 3.07 mm. We compared our data to that published previously for the Chinese and Indian populations. It was found that the Malay population had smaller distal femur than that of the Chinese but was larger than that of the Indian population (P < 0.05). In conclusion, although it is well established that Asians have a smaller distal femur size than that of the Western population, the variations in different Asian ethnicities may need to be considered when designing the appropriate knee implant.

  11. Comparative element analysis on femur of antler hemo-treated ovariectomized wistar rats by SRXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jianhong; Fei Yurong; Wang Ruilin; Cao Yi; Huang Yuying; He Wei

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between bone element contents and bone m/neral density (BMD), left femur of sham-operated rats (SHAM, n=5), ovariectomized rats (OVX, n=5) and antler hemo-treated ovariectomized rats (OVX + antler hemo, n=5) were analyzed by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) microprobe. The results showed that there were very good positive correlations among contents of Ca, P, Zn and Sr. In comparison to the SHAM group, decreased relative intensities of Ca, P, Zn and Sr (especially Ca and P, p<0.05) were observed in femur of the OVX group, which showed significant decrease (p<0.05) of the BMD. The results indicate that loss of Ca and P in bone will cause osteoporosis. On the other hand, increased relative intensities of Ca, P and Zn in femur, and the BMD (p<0.05), of the anlter hemo-treated OVX group were found, in comparison to the OVX group. This suggests that anlter hemo may help cure osteoporosis through maintaining bone contents of Zn, Ca and P, and increasing the BMD. (authors)

  12. Rastreabilidade da farinha de carne e ossos bovinos em ovos de poedeiras alimentadas com ingredientes alternativos Traceability of bovine meat and bone meal in eggs from laying hens fed with alternative ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Célia Denadai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar traços de farinha de carne e ossos bovinos, em ovos de poedeiras alimentadas com dietas comerciais com inclusão de ingredientes vegetais alternativos e leveduras. A detecção foi feita pela técnica dos isótopos estáveis do carbono e do nitrogênio. Foram utilizadas 384 poedeiras, distribuídas aleatoriamente em oito tratamentos. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta-controle - à base de milho e farelo de soja - e sete dietas com inclusão de farinha de carne e ossos bovinos, acrescidas ou não de outros ingredientes (farelo de trigo, quirera de arroz, farelo de algodão, glúten de milho, levedura de cana e levedura de cerveja. No 35º dia, foram tomados aleatoriamente 24 ovos por tratamento: 12 para análise de ovo e 12 para análise de gema e albúmen, em separado. Após análise isotópica de carbono e nitrogênio, os resultados foram submetidos à análise multivariada de variância. As médias dos pares isotópicos dos ovos, gema e albúmen, em todos os tratamentos, diferiram daquelas do tratamento-controle. A técnica dos isótopos estáveis permite detectar, nos ovos, gema e albúmen, a farinha de carne e ossos bovinos utilizada na dieta de poedeiras, mesmo com a inclusão de outros ingredientes vegetais e leveduras.The objective of this work was to detect traces of the bovine meat and bones meal in eggs of laying hens fed on commercial diets including alternative plant ingredients and yeast. The bovine meal detection was performed through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope technique. Three hundred eighty-four laying hens were randomly distributed in eight treatments. Treatments consisted of one control diet - a corn-and-soybean based meal - and seven diets with bovine meat and bone meal, including or not other ingredients (wheat bran, rice, cottonseed meal, corn gluten meal, sugarcane yeast and brewer yeast. At the 35th day, 24 eggs per treatment were randomly collected, 12 for egg analyses

  13. Osteoporotic fractures of proximal femur: clinical and epidemiological features in a population of the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Ramalho

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: It is believed that about 25% of menopausal women in the USA will exhibit some kind of fracture as a consequence of osteoporosis. Fractures of the proximal femur are associated with a greater number of deaths and disabilities and higher medical expenses than all the other osteoporotic fractures together. OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical and epidemiological features of patients with proximal femur fracture in hospitals in São Paulo. DESIGN: Transversal and retrospective study. LOCAL: Hospital São Paulo and Hospital Servidor Público Estadual "Francisco Morato Oliveira". PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged sixty-five years or more hospitalized because of proximal femur fracture, from March to November 1996 (N = 73. This group was compared to patients of the same age without fracture of the proximal femur. INTERVENTION: Evaluation of weight, height, body mass index; lifestyle habits (physical activity at home, ingestion of dairy calcium, drinking of coffee, smoking habit, gynecological history (ages at menarche and menopause, number of pregnancies and lactations, previous morbidity, use of medications, history of previous fractures, family history of osteoporosis. MEASUREMENT: The comparison of the different data regarding lifestyle habits between the two groups was made using the chi-squared test. Other data were analyzed using the Mann -- Whitney test. P £ 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: We noted a predominance of proximal femur fracture among females in relation to males (a female/male ratio of 3.3:1 with a progressive increase in the frequency of proximal femur fracture with age in both sexes. The group with proximal femur fracture, in comparison with the control group, showed a lower body mass index, less physical activity, and a greater number of pregnancies and lactations. Other data were not different. CONCLUSION: In accordance with the literature, we found a predomination of proximal femur fracture in women in relation to men

  14. African Journals Online: Curaçao

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  15. Nemerteans from Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corrêa, Diva Diniz

    1963-01-01

    All species treated in this paper were collected by me between January and June 1962, during my stay at the “Caraïbisch Marien-Biologisch Instituut” (Caribbean Marine Biological Institute), Curaçao. I am deeply indebted to the Government of the Netherlands, which awarded me a grant enabling me to

  16. SIG aplicado ao Ensino de Geografia

    OpenAIRE

    Dornelles, Liane Maria Azevedo; Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro - UERJ

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho descreve as atividades desenvolvidas junto à disciplina eletiva SIG aplicado ao ensino de Geografia. Foram elaboradas aplicações ambientais para os Ensinos Fundamental e Médio, com auxílio dos programas VistaSAGA/UFRJ, SISPLAMTE 5as com GIS, SPRING/INPE e MapServer.

  17. Turbellaria from Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcus, Ernst

    1960-01-01

    A study of the several fresh and brackish-water springs on Curaçao, carried out by Dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK, revealed (a) the common occurrence on that island of Dugesia festai (Borelli 1898), a species which until then had only been known from the South American mainland (nearest find: Ecuador!),

  18. Estados Unidos: do Iraque ao Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio Caixeta Arraes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo busca analisar os recentes temas recorrentes na política externa norte-americana, caracterizada pela “guerra contra o terror”, e seus impactos para a agenda a ser discutida na vindoura visita do presidente dos Estados Unidos, Geoge W. Bush, ao Brasil.

  19. Estudo da influência do diâmetro do orifício piloto na resistência ao arrancamento do parafuso pedicular The influence of pilot hole diameter on screw oullout resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Benites Vendrame

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A influência do diâmetro do orifício piloto em relação ao diâmetro interno do parafuso na resistência ao arrancamento do parafuso pedicular foi o objetivo do estudo. Foram utilizados parafusos de 5, 6 e 7 mm do sistema USS de fixação vertebral, os quais foram inseridos nos corpos de prova de madeira, poliuretana e osso. O orifício piloto para a inserção do parafuso foi realizado com brocas de diâmetro inferior, igual e superior ao diâmetro interno do parafuso. Ensaios mecânicos de arrancamento foram realizados em máquina universal de teste. Nos corpos de prova de madeira, poliuretana e osso a realização do orifício piloto com brocas de diâmetro maior que o diâmetro interno do parafuso produziu diminuição da força máxima de arrancamento dos implantes nos ensaios de arrancamento, tendo sido observada diferença estatística. O diâmetro da perfuração do orifício piloto em relação ao diâmetro interno do parafuso exerce influência na resistência ao arrancamento do implante, tendo sido observado aumento da resistência ao arrancamento com a utilização de brocas de diâmetro menor que o diâmetro interno e redução da resistência ao arrancamento com a utilização de brocas com diâmetro maior que o diâmetro interno do parafuso.The influence of the diameter of the pilot hole compared to the inner diameter of the screw on the pull-out resistance of a pedicular screw was studied. 5-, 6-, and 7-mm USS system screws for vertebral fixation were inserted into wood, polyurethane and bone test bodies. The pilot hole for screw insertion was drilled with burrs of smaller, equal or wider diameter than the inner diameter of the screw. Mechanical pull-out assays were performed using a universal testing machine. In the wood, polyurethane and bone test bodies, a pilot hole drilled with burrs of a wider diameter than the inner diameter of the screw produced reduced maximum pull-out strength on the implants, with statistical

  20. Ontogeny of the female femur: geometric morphometric analysis applied on current living individuals of a Spanish population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Aniol; Rissech, Carme; Ventura, Jacint; Badosa, Joaquim; Turbón, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In this study we describe the development of the female femur based on the analysis of high-resolution radiographic images by means of geometric morphometrics, while assessing the usefulness of this method in these kinds of studies. The material analysed consisted of digital images in DICOM format (telemetries), corresponding to 184 left femora in anterior view, obtained from the database of the Hospital Sant Joan de Déu of Barcelona (Spain). Bones analysed corresponded to individuals from 9 to 14 years old. Size and shape variation of the entire femur was quantified by 22 two-dimensional landmarks. Landmark digitisation errors were assessed using Procrustes anova test. Centroid size (CS) variation with age was evaluated by an anova test. Shape variation was assessed by principal component analysis. A mancova test between the first five principal components and age, using the CS as covariable, was applied. Results indicated that both size and shape vary significantly with age. Several age-related shape changes remained significant after removing the allometric effect. In general, an increase in the robustness of the bone and noticeable phenotypic changes in certain areas of the femur were observed. During growth in the proximal region of the femur, the collo-diaphyseal angle decreases, the neck of the femur widens and the fovea moves to a lower position, standing more in line with the plane of the neck. Likewise, the size of the greater and lesser trochanters increase. In the distal region, a significant increase of epiphyseal dimensions was recorded, mainly in the medial condyle. The angular remodelling of the neck and the bicondylar region of the femur in females continues until 13 years old. The information provided in the present study increases our knowledge on the timing and morphology of the femur during development, and in particular the morphology of the different femoral ossification centres during development. PMID:24975495

  1. Semi-automated landmark-based 3D analysis reveals new morphometric characteristics in the trochlear dysplastic femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haver, Annemieke; De Roo, Karel; De Beule, Matthieu; Van Cauter, Sofie; Audenaert, Emmanuel; Claessens, Tom; Verdonk, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The authors hypothesise that the trochlear dysplastic distal femur is not only characterised by morphological changes to the trochlea. The purpose of this study is to describe the morphological characteristics of the trochlear dysplastic femur in and outside the trochlear region with a landmark-based 3D analysis. Arthro-CT scans of 20 trochlear dysplastic and 20 normal knees were used to generate 3D models including the cartilage. To rule out size differences, a set of landmarks were defined on the distal femur to isotropically scale the 3D models to a standard size. A predefined series of landmark-based reference planes were applied on the distal femur. With these landmarks and reference planes, a series of previously described characteristics associated with trochlear dysplasia as well as a series of morphometric characteristics were measured. For the previously described characteristics, the analysis replicated highly significant differences between trochlear dysplastic and normal knees. Furthermore, the analysis showed that, when knee size is taken into account, the cut-off values of the trochlear bump and depth would be 1 mm larger in the largest knees compared to the smallest knees. For the morphometric characteristics, the analysis revealed that the trochlear dysplastic femur is also characterised by a 10% smaller intercondylar notch, 6-8% larger posterior condyles (lateral-medial) in the anteroposterior direction and a 6% larger medial condyle in the proximodistal direction compared to a normal femur. This study shows that knee size is important in the application of absolute metric cut-off values and that the posterior femur also shows a significantly different morphology.

  2. Bone Parameters and Risk of Hip and Femur Fractures in Patients on Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzan, Azzour D.; Jhaveri, Kenar D.; Ma, Lin; Lacson, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Patients on hemodialysis have a high rate of hip fractures. In this study, we performed a contemporary analysis of mineral and bone parameters and their relationship to hip and femur fracture risk. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Patients on hemodialysis treated between 2000 and 2013 in Fresenius Medical Care North America facilities were included. Predictors were on the basis of data as of December 31 of each baseline year and time-averaged values of selected laboratory parameters and medication doses throughout the year. Four period cohorts were constructed from baseline years: 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009. Follow-up for each cohort was ≤3 years. Results The incidence of hip and femur fractures remained generally unchanged (P=0.40), except among patients who were white and >65 years of age, in whom the rate decreased significantly over the 14-year period (P<0.01). Results from combined multivariable models indicated that the lowest quartiles of time–averaged intact parathyroid hormone were independently associated with higher hip fracture risk (intact parathyroid hormone =181–272 pg/ml: hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.03 to 1.41 and intact parathyroid hormone <181 pg/ml: hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.44; referent third quartile, 273 to <433 pg/ml). The lowest quartile of time–averaged serum calcium was also associated with higher risk (calcium <8.7 mg/dl; hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.37) compared with the referent third quartile of 9.1 to <9.5 mg/dl. Conclusions We found an association between lower levels of intact parathyroid hormone and serum calcium and greater risk for hip and femur fractures among patients on hemodialysis. These findings support additional research toward elucidating long-term safety of treatment approaches for hyperparathyroidism in patients with ESRD. PMID:27026521

  3. [New anterolateral approach of distal femur for treatment of distal femoral fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Dai, Min; Zou, Fan; Luo, Song; Li, Binhua; Qiu, Ping; Nie, Tao

    2013-11-01

    To assess the effectiveness of the new anterolateral approach of the distal femur for the treatment of distal femoral fractures. Between July 2007 and December 2009, 58 patients with distal femoral fractures were treated by new anterolateral approach of the distal femur in 28 patients (new approach group) and by conventional approach in 30 patients (conventional approach group). There was no significant difference in gender, age, cause of injury, affected side, type of fracture, disease duration, complication, or preoperative intervention (P > 0.05). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative fluoroscopy frequency, hospitalization days, and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score of knee were recorded. Operation was successfully completed in all patients of 2 groups, and healing of incision by first intention was obtained; no vascular and nerves injuries occurred. The operation time and intraoperative fluoroscopy frequency of new approach group were significantly less than those of conventional approach group (P 0.05). All patients were followed up 12-36 months (mean, 19.8 months). Bone union was shown on X-ray films; the fracture healing time was (12.62 +/- 2.34) weeks in the new approach group and was (13.78 +/- 1.94) weeks in the conventional approach group, showing no significant difference (t=2.78, P=0.10). The knee HSS score at last follow-up was 94.4 +/- 4.2 in the new approach group, and was 89.2 +/- 6.0 in the conventional approach group, showing significant difference between 2 groups (t=3.85, P=0.00). New anterolateral approach of the distal femur for distal femoral fractures has the advantages of exposure plenitude, minimal tissue trauma, and early function rehabilitation training so as to enhance the function recovery of knee joint.

  4. Bone density of the radius, spine, and proximal femur in osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazess, R.B.; Barden, H.; Ettinger, M.; Schultz, E.

    1988-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 140 normal young women (aged 20 to 39 years) and in 423 consecutive women over age 40 referred for evaluation of osteoporosis. Lumbar spine and proximal femur BMD was measured using dual-photon absorptiometry ( 153 Gd), whereas the radius shaft measurement used single-photon absorptiometry ( 125 I). There were 324 older women with no fractures, of which 278 aged 60 to 80 years served as age-matched controls. There were 99 women with fractures including 32 with vertebral and 22 with hip fractures. Subsequently, another 25 women with hip fractures had BMD measured in another laboratory; their mean BMD was within 2% of that of the original series. The mean age in both the nonfracture and fracture groups was 70 +/- 5 years. The BMD in the age-matched controls was 20% to 25% below that of normal young women for the radius, spine, and femur, but the Ward's triangle region of the femur showed even greater loss (35%). The mean BMD at all sites in the crush fracture cases was about 10% to 15% below that of age-matched controls. Spinal abnormality was best discriminated by spine and femoral measurements (Z score about 0.9). In women with hip fractures, the BMD was 10% below that of age-matched controls for the radius and the spine, and the BMD for the femoral sites was about 25% to 30% below that of age-matched control (Z score about 1.6). Femoral densities gave the best discrimination of hip fracture cases and even reflected spinal osteopenia. In contrast, neither the spine nor the radius reflected the full extent of femoral osteopenia in hip fracture

  5. Effect of Pentoxifylline Administration on an Experimental Rat Model of Femur Fracture Healing With Intramedullary Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashghani Farahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Masteri Farahani, Reza; Mostafavinia, Ataroalsadat; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Pouriran, Ramin; Noruzian, Mohammad; Ghoreishi, Seyed Kamran; Aryan, Arefe; Bayat, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Globally, musculoskeletal injuries comprise a major public health problem that contributes to a large burden of disability and suffering. Pentoxifylline (PTX) has been originally used as a hemorheologic drug to treat intermittent claudication. Previous test tube and in vivo studies reported the beneficial effects of PTX on bony tissue. This study aims to evaluate the effects of different dosages of PTX on biomechanical properties that occur during the late phase of the fracture healing process following a complete femoral osteotomy in a rat model. We applied intramedullary pin fixation as the treatment of choice. This experimental study was conducted at the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. We used the simple random technique to divide 35 female rats into five groups. Group 1 received intraperitoneal (i.p.) PTX (50 mg/kg, once daily) injections, starting 15 days before surgery, and group 2, group 3, and group 4 received 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg i.p. PTX injections, respectively, once daily after surgery. All animals across groups received treatment for six weeks (until sacrificed). Complete surgical transverse osteotomy was performed in the right femur of all rats. At six weeks after surgery, the femurs were subjected to a three-point bending test. Daily administration of 50 mg/kg PTX (groups 1 and 2) decreased the high stress load in repairing osteotomized femurs when compared with the control group. The highest dose of PTX (200 mg/kg) significantly increased the high stress load when compared with the control group (P = 0.030), group 1 (P = 0.023), group 2 (P = 0.008), and group 3 (P = 0.010), per the LSD findings. Treatment with 200 mg/kg PTX accelerated fracture healing when compared with the control group.

  6. Effect of calcium citrate on bone integration in a rabbit femur defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Wei; Chen, Qing-Yu; Lin, Zhong-Qin; Cheng, Shao-Wen; Kou, Dong-Quan; Ying, Xiao-Zhou; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiao-Jie; Nie, Peng-Fei; Li, Xiu-Cui; Rompis, Ferdinand An; Huang, Hang; Zhang, Hua; Mu, Zhong-Lin; Peng, Lei

    2012-04-01

    To explore effect of calcium citrate on bone integration in a rabbit femur defect model, and to compare the bone formation with different sizes by radiological and histological study. Twenty-four male Japanese white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (Group A, B, C) in this study. Under anesthesia, defects of four sizes (1.2, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mm) were created in each of the rabbits. Commercially pure calcium citrate powder was placed inside the medullary compartment of the femur (Experimental), while in the contralateral femur (Control) nothing was implanted. The defects were analyzed using radiography and histological analysis by using Imagepro-Plus 6.0 software after animal was sacrificed at 4th(Group A), 6th(Group B) and 8th(Group C) weeks postoperatively. Four samples were analyzed for each size of defect and each healing period. The histological and the radiologic evaluation were performed after sacrification of all rabbits on postoperative 4th and 6th weeks, It showed significant difference between the experimental group and the control group when these defects were less than or equal to 2.0 mm. No statistical difference was observed when these defects were larger than 2.0 mm at all healing periods except at the 4th week. Calcium citrate affects the early periods of bone defects healing mechanism in Japanese white rabbits positively, especially when the defect is not too large. We suggest further studies on calcium citrate to determine the effects of various dosages, administration ways and the experimental time on the bone defects. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of canal fill on paediatric femur fractures treated with titanium elastic nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, E; Bonsu, N; Andras, L M; Goldstein, R Y

    2018-02-01

    Traditional teaching for fixation of paediatric femur fractures recommends 80% nail diameter/medullary canal diameter ratio (ND/MCD) for successful maintenance of reduction. Prior studies have investigated this with stainless steel Enders nails. Our aim was to assess the impact of ND/MCD on maintenance of reduction and malunion rates in paediatric femur fractures treated with flexible intramedullary nails (FINs). Retrospective data was collected on all paediatric patients treated with FINs for diaphyseal femur fractures at a single tertiary care institution over a ten-year period. Patients with co-morbidities affecting bone quality were excluded. Patients were subdivided into groups based on ND/MCD. A total of 66 patients met inclusion criteria. Mean ND/MCD was 76.3% (32.9% to 98.8%, SD 14.3). In all, 50% (n = 33/66) of patients had > 80% ND/MCD, and only 13.6% (n = 9/66) of patients had less than 60% ND/MCD. When controlling for fracture stability, ND/MCD had no correlation with mean shortening (p = 0.07) There was no correlation between ND/MCD and angulation in the sagittal (p = 0.96) or coronal plane (p = 0.20). Three patients fit malunion criteria. ND/MCD for these patients were 40%, 67% and 79%. There was no correlation between ND/MCD and shortening or malangulation. The majority of patients in this series with less than 80% fill with FIN healed within acceptable parameters. III.

  8. Ligament of the head of femur: A comprehensive review of its anatomy, embryology, and potential function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Vivek; Woodley, Stephanie J; Nicholson, Helen D

    2016-03-01

    The functional significance of the ligament of the head of femur (LHF), or ligamentum teres has often been debated. Having gained recent attention in clinical practice, it is suggested to partly provide some mechanical stability to the hip joint. However, the anatomy of this ligament is not well studied. This paper systematically reviews the anatomy of the LHF with the aim of exploring our current understanding of this structure and identifying any gaps in knowledge regarding its morphology and function. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, ProQuest, Web of Science, and Scopus databases was undertaken and relevant data extracted, analyzed. A total of 69 references were obtained, that included 53 full text articles, three published abstracts, and 13 textbooks. Many publications related to clinical studies (n = 11) rather than gross anatomy (n = 7), with one report on variation of the LHF. Considerable inconsistency in the naming and description of the LHF morphology was observed. Variable attachment sites were reported except for the acetabular notch, transverse acetabular ligament, and the femoral fovea. Presence and patency of the ligamental arteries supplying the head of the femur and their exact location were variably described and were often incomplete. The LHF is believed to be taught in extreme hip adduction, but there is little evidence to support this. In conclusions, further investigation of the anatomy of the LHF is recommended, particularly to clarify its mechanical role, innervation, and vascular contribution to the developing and adult femur, so to better inform clinical practice. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Radiographic anatomy of the proximal femur: femoral neck fracture vs. transtrochanteric fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lecia Carneiro Leão de Araújo Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between radiographic parameters of the proximal femur with femoral neck fractures or transtrochanteric fractures. METHODS: Cervicodiaphyseal angle (CDA, femoral neck width (FNW, hip axis length (HAL, and acetabular tear drop distance (ATD were analyzed in 30 pelvis anteroposterior view X-rays of patients with femoral neck fractures (n = 15 and transtrochanteric fractures (n = 15. The analysis was performed by comparing the results of the X-rays with femoral neck fractures and with transtrochanteric fractures. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences between samples were observed. CONCLUSION: There was no correlation between radiographic parameters evaluated and specific occurrence of femoral neck fractures or transtrochanteric fractures.

  10. Comparison of the effectiveness of phalanges vs. humeri and femurs to estimate lizard age with skeletochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comas, M.; Reguera, S.; Zamora-Camacho, F.J.; Salvado, H.; Moreno-Rueda, G.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletochronology allows estimation of lizard age with a single capture (from a bone), making long–term monitoring unnecessary. Nevertheless, this method often involves the death of the animal to obtain the bone. We tested the reliability of skeletochronology of phalanges (which may be obtained without killing) by comparing the estimated age from femurs and humeri with the age estimated from phalanges. Our results show skeletochronology of phalanges is a reliable method to estimate age in lizards as cross–section readings from all bones studied presented a high correlation and repeatability regardless of the bone chosen. This approach provides an alternative to the killing of lizards for skeletochronology studies. (Author)

  11. Diaphyseal pseudarthrosis of the femur in a patient with poliomyelitis. A special case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Enríquez-Castro

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of long bone pseudarthrosis ranges from 2% to 10%, with the femur being the second most commonly affected bone. There are local and systemic factors that influence the development of this condition. Various implants such as plates, nails, external fixators and combinations of the foregoing, plus grafts and materials to facilitate consolidation are reported in the literature to treat pseudarthrosis. Objective: To present the special case study of a patient diagnosed with pseudarthrosis of the femur who presented with poliomyelitis sequelae. Case report: A 40-year-old man with a history of poliomyelitis previously treated with osteosynthesis on 2 occasions due a fracture of the left femur. He was assessed and diagnosed with pseudarthrosis of the left femur with poliomyelitis sequelae. He underwent surgery with Luque rod fixation, frozen fibular graft and bone graft chips. His bones consolidated 12 months after the operation and he was able to resume normal activities at 16 months. Resumen: Introducción: La pseudoartrosis en los huesos largos tiene una incidencia del 2 al 10%; el fémur ocupa el segundo lugar en frecuencia. Existen factores locales y sistémicos en el desarrollo de esta patología. Para su tratamiento está descrito el uso de diversos implantes, placas, clavos, fijadores externos y combinaciones entre los mismos, más aplicación de injerto y materiales que coadyuven en la consolidación. Objetivo: Presentación de un caso especial con diagnóstico de pseudoartrosis en fémur que presenta secuelas de poliomielitis. Caso clínico: Hombre de 40 años con antecedente de poliomielitis, inicialmente tratado con osteosíntesis en 2 ocasiones por fractura de fémur izquierdo. Es valorado y se hace diagnóstico de pseudoartrosis de fémur izquierdo y secuelas de poliomielitis. Tratamiento enclavado con una barra de Luque, injerto de peroné congelado y chips. Tuvo una consolidación a los 12 meses postcirug

  12. Comparison of the effectiveness of phalanges vs. humeri and femurs to estimate lizard age with skeletochronology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comas, M.; Reguera, S.; Zamora-Camacho, F.J.; Salvado, H.; Moreno-Rueda, G.

    2016-07-01

    Skeletochronology allows estimation of lizard age with a single capture (from a bone), making long–term monitoring unnecessary. Nevertheless, this method often involves the death of the animal to obtain the bone. We tested the reliability of skeletochronology of phalanges (which may be obtained without killing) by comparing the estimated age from femurs and humeri with the age estimated from phalanges. Our results show skeletochronology of phalanges is a reliable method to estimate age in lizards as cross–section readings from all bones studied presented a high correlation and repeatability regardless of the bone chosen. This approach provides an alternative to the killing of lizards for skeletochronology studies. (Author)

  13. CLINICAL STUDY OF MANAGEMENT OF INTRACAPSULAR FRACTURE NECK OF THE FEMUR IN ELDERLY WITH BIPOLAR HEMIARTHROPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemiarthroplasty is a common treatment for fracture neck of femur in elderly patients. Unipolar hemiarthroplasty has shown good results, though there is high incidence of erosion, protrusion and needs revision in future. The concept of dual bearing surfaces results in sharing of motion at the two surfaces and hence reduction of net wears at either surface, thus reducing erosion at the acetabular - joint interface. From our relatively short term prospective non - randomized study, we conclude that bipolar hemiarthroplasty gives good results

  14. Comparison of Percutaneous Cementoplasty with and Without Interventional Internal Fixation for Impending Malignant Pathological Fracture of the Proximal Femur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Qing-Hua, E-mail: ddqinghua-tian@163.com; He, Cheng-Jian, E-mail: tianhechengjian@163.com; Wu, Chun-Gen, E-mail: 649514608@qq.com; Li, Yong-Dong, E-mail: tianliyongdong@163.com; Gu, Yi-Feng, E-mail: tianyifenggu@163.com; Wang, Tao, E-mail: tianandwangtao@163.com; Xiao, Quan-Ping, E-mail: tianxiaoquanping@163.com; Li, Ming-Hua, E-mail: tianminghuali@163.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (China)

    2016-01-15

    PurposeTo compare the efficacy of percutaneous cementoplasty (PCP) with and without interventional internal fixation (IIF) on malignant impending pathological fracture of proximal femur.MethodsA total of 40 patients with malignant impending pathological fracture of proximal femur were selected for PCP and IIF (n = 19, group A) or PCP alone (n = 21, group B) in this non-randomized prospective study. Bone puncture needles were inserted into the proximal femur, followed by sequential installation of the modified trocar inner needles through the puncture needle sheath. Then, 15–45 ml cement was injected into the femur lesion.ResultsThe overall excellent and good pain relief rate during follow-ups were significantly higher in group A than that in group B (89 vs. 57 %, P = 0.034). The average change of VAS, ODI, KPS, and EFES in group A were significantly higher than those in group B at 1-, 3-, 6-month, 1-year (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, The stability of the treated femur was significantly higher in group A than that in group B (P < 0.05).ConclusionPCP and IIF were not only a safe and effective procedure, but resulted in greater pain relief, bone consolidation, and also reduced the risk of fracture than the currently recommended approach of PCP done on malignant proximal femoral tumor.

  15. Comparison of Percutaneous Cementoplasty with and Without Interventional Internal Fixation for Impending Malignant Pathological Fracture of the Proximal Femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Qing-Hua; He, Cheng-Jian; Wu, Chun-Gen; Li, Yong-Dong; Gu, Yi-Feng; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Quan-Ping; Li, Ming-Hua

    2016-01-01

    PurposeTo compare the efficacy of percutaneous cementoplasty (PCP) with and without interventional internal fixation (IIF) on malignant impending pathological fracture of proximal femur.MethodsA total of 40 patients with malignant impending pathological fracture of proximal femur were selected for PCP and IIF (n = 19, group A) or PCP alone (n = 21, group B) in this non-randomized prospective study. Bone puncture needles were inserted into the proximal femur, followed by sequential installation of the modified trocar inner needles through the puncture needle sheath. Then, 15–45 ml cement was injected into the femur lesion.ResultsThe overall excellent and good pain relief rate during follow-ups were significantly higher in group A than that in group B (89 vs. 57 %, P = 0.034). The average change of VAS, ODI, KPS, and EFES in group A were significantly higher than those in group B at 1-, 3-, 6-month, 1-year (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, The stability of the treated femur was significantly higher in group A than that in group B (P < 0.05).ConclusionPCP and IIF were not only a safe and effective procedure, but resulted in greater pain relief, bone consolidation, and also reduced the risk of fracture than the currently recommended approach of PCP done on malignant proximal femoral tumor

  16. ENSAIO: HOMENAGEM AO PROFESSOR REINIER ROZESTRATEN

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    Antonio C. R. Tupinambá

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma homenagem póstuma ao Professor Doutor Reinier Rozestraten. O texto apresenta, suscintamente, o percurso acadêmico do nomeado professor, em especial a sua passagem pela Psicologia do Trânsito. Paralelamente discorre sobre sua principal obra na área, que, de certo modo introduz o discurso psicológico sobre o comportamento de trânsito em perspectiva nacional, juntamente com sua preocupação em imprimir um caráter científico ao tema e introduzi-lo no contexto da academia e na sociedade em perspectivas teórica e prática. A obra escolhida é considerada um marco para o estabelecimento teórico da disciplina da psicologia do trânsito no Brasil. A homenagem foi originalmente escrita por ocasião dos cinco anos de falecimento do professor Reinier.

  17. Sensibilidade da rosa 'Osiana' ao etileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delaine Cristina Cordeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar a sensibilidade e as respostas da rosa cultivar Osiana (Rosa × hybrida à presença de etileno ao longo da vida pós-colheita. Para determinar a sensibilidade da flor ao etileno, hastes foram cortadas e colocadas em câmaras herméticas e em seguida tratadas por 24 horas com diferentes concentrações de etileno variando de 0,0; 0,1; 1,0; 10; 100 e 1000 µL L-1do ar no interior da câmara. A rosa teve a vida pós-colheita reduzida pelo etileno, quando exposta a concentração igual ou superior a 10 µL L-1 de etileno. As flores tratadas com no mínimo de 10 µL L-1de etileno desenvolveram necrose, murcha e abscisão prematura das pétalas ainda túrgidas. As concentrações de 0,1 e 1,0 µL L-1de etileno estimularam a abertura do botão floral durante o período de 24 horas de exposição ao etileno, sem no entanto, reduzir a vida pós-colheita. A rosa 'Osiana' pode ser classificada como uma cultivar sensível ao etileno e a concentração influência os processos estimulados.

  18. Robo-AO M Dwarf Multiplicity Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamman, Claire; Baranec, Christoph; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Law, Nicholas M.; Ziegler, Carl; Schonhut-Stasik, Jessica

    2018-06-01

    We analyzed close to 7,000 observations from Robo-AO’s field M dwarf survey taken on the 2.1m Kitt Peak telescope. Results will help determine the total multiplicity fraction and multiplicity functions of M dwarfs, which are crucial steps towards understanding their evolution and formation mechanics. Through its robotic, laser-guided, and automated system, the Robo-AO instrument has yielded the largest adaptive-optics M dwarf survey to date. I developed a graphical user interface to quickly analyze this data. Initial data analysis included assessing data quality, checking the result from Robo-AO’s automatic reduction pipeline, and determining existence as well as the relative position of companions through a visual inspection. This program can be applied to other datasets and was successfully tested by re-analyzing observations from a separate Robo-AO survey. After a conservative initial cut for quality, over 350 companions were found within 4” of a primary star out of 2,746 high quality Robo-AO M dwarf observations, including four triple systems. Further observations were done with the Keck II telescope by using its NIRC2 imager to follow up on ten select targets for the existence and physical association of companions. Future research will yield insights into low-mass stellar formation and provide a database of nearby M dwarf multiples that will potentially assist ongoing and future surveys for planets around these stars, such as the NASA TESS mission.

  19. Role of gamma nail in management of pertrochanteric fractures of femur

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    Sharma Vipin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pertrochanteric fractures which involve trochanteric fractures with varying fracture geometry pose a significant challenge to the treating orthopedic surgeon. The aim of this study is to evaluate the management of pertrochanteric fractures of the femur using gamma nail [Asia pacific (AP]. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients of pertrochanteric fractures were treated by closed reduction internal fixation by gamma nail from 1 January 1993 to 31 December 2000. Four patients were lost to follow-up. The remaining 56 patients were followed for a mean period of 3.2 years (range 2-4 years.The results were evaluated by assessing the patients regarding their clinical and functional outcome at follow-up as per Kyle′s criteria. Results: Peroperative jamming of nail ( n = 1, failed distal locking ( n = 1, superior cut out of lag screw ( n = 1 and postoperative varus malreduction ( n = 1 were the complications observed. End results were excellent in 46.34%, good in 36.58%, fair in 14.64%, poor in 2.43%. Conclusion: Gamma nail in expert hands is a suitable implant for management of pertrochanteric fractures of the femur.

  20. Finite element analysis of functionally graded bone plate at femur bone fracture site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapathy, Pravat Kumar; Sahoo, Bamadev; Panda, L. N.; Das, S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis of fractured Femur bone with functionally graded bone plate. The Femur bone is modeled by using the data from the CT (Computerized Tomography) scan and the material properties are assigned using Mimics software. The fracture fixation plate used here is composed of Functionally Graded Material (FGM). The functionally graded bone plate is considered to be composed of different layers of homogeneous materials. Finite element method approach is adopted for analysis. The volume fraction of the material is calculated by considering its variation along the thickness direction (z) according to a power law and the effective properties of the homogeneous layers are estimated. The model developed is validated by comparing numerical results available in the literature. Static analysis has been performed for the bone plate system by considering both axial compressive load and torsional load. The investigation shows that by introducing FG bone plate instead of titanium, the stress at the fracture site increases by 63 percentage and the deformation decreases by 15 percentage, especially when torsional load is taken into consideration. The present model yields better results in comparison with the commercially available bone plates.

  1. The Tribology of Explanted Hip Resurfacings Following Early Fracture of the Femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, James K; Langton, David J; Nargol, Antoni V F; Meek, R M Dominic; Joyce, Thomas J

    2015-10-15

    A recognized issue related to metal-on-metal hip resurfacings is early fracture of the femur. Most theories regarding the cause of fracture relate to clinical factors but an engineering analysis of failed hip resurfacings has not previously been reported. The objective of this work was to determine the wear volumes and surface roughness values of a cohort of retrieved hip resurfacings which were removed due to early femoral fracture, infection and avascular necrosis (AVN). Nine resurfacing femoral heads were obtained following early fracture of the femur, a further five were retrieved due to infection and AVN. All fourteen were measured for volumetric wear using a co-ordinate measuring machine. Wear rates were then calculated and regions of the articulating surface were divided into "worn" and "unworn". Roughness values in these regions were measured using a non-contacting profilometer. The mean time to fracture was 3.7 months compared with 44.4 months for retrieval due to infection and AVN. Average wear rates in the early fracture heads were 64 times greater than those in the infection and AVN retrievals. Given the high wear rates of the early fracture components, such wear may be linked to an increased risk of femoral neck fracture.

  2. Study of treatment of short oblique and transverse fractures near isthmus of femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently, the standard treatment for femoral shaft fractures in adults is intramedullary nailing. Objectives: Comparative assessment of results with open Kuntscher′s nailing (K-nailing and closed interlocking intramedullary nail in case of fracture shaft femur. Materials and Methods: This pilot project was conducted in a tertiary care hospital of a developing country on 40 patients in a time period of 1 year. A total of 20 patients were treated with intramedullary nailing in the tertiary care hospital while twenty received open fixation with K-nailing in a rural center. Results: There was no significant difference with regard to union rate, implant failure, infection, and fracture alignment between both groups. Conclusion: Open fixation with unlocked femoral nailing is technically less demanding and requires less operating time; additionally, there is no exposure to radiation and cost of the implant is cheaper. So, open K-nailing is still remains an option for the management of noncomminuted isthmus fractures of the femur in a developing country.

  3. Associated ilium and femur from Koobi Fora, Kenya, and postcranial diversity in early Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Carol V; Feibel, Craig S; Hammond, Ashley S; Leakey, Louise N; Moffett, Elizabeth A; Plavcan, J Michael; Skinner, Matthew M; Spoor, Fred; Leakey, Meave G

    2015-04-01

    During the evolution of hominins, it is generally accepted that there was a shift in postcranial morphology between Australopithecus and the genus Homo. Given the scarcity of associated remains of early Homo, however, relatively little is known about early Homo postcranial morphology. There are hints of postcranial diversity among species, but our knowledge of the nature and extent of potential differences is limited. Here we present a new associated partial ilium and femur from Koobi Fora, Kenya, dating to 1.9 Ma (millions of years ago) that is clearly attributable to the genus Homo but documents a pattern of morphology not seen in eastern African early Homo erectus. The ilium and proximal femur share distinctive anatomy found only in Homo. However, the geometry of the femoral midshaft and contour of the pelvic inlet do not resemble that of any specimens attributed to H. erectus from eastern Africa. This new fossil confirms the presence of at least two postcranial morphotypes within early Homo, and documents diversity in postcranial morphology among early Homo species that may reflect underlying body form and/or adaptive differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fracture prevention by prophylactic femoroplasty of the proximal femur--metallic compared with cemented augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springorum, Hans-Robert; Gebauer, Matthias; Mehrl, Alexander; Stark, Olaf; Craiovan, Benjamin; Püschel, Klaus; Amling, Michael; Grifka, Joachim; Beckmann, Johannes

    2014-07-01

    To compare 2 different femoral neck augmentation techniques at improving the mechanical strength of the femoral neck. Twenty pairs of human cadaveric femora were randomly divided into 2 groups. In 1 group, the femora were augmented with a steel spiral; the other group with the cemented technique. The untreated contralateral side served as an intraindividual control. Fracture strength was evaluated using an established biomechanical testing scenario mimicking a fall on the greater trochanter (Hayes fall). The peak load to failure was significantly higher in the steel spiral group (P = 0.0024) and in the cemented group (P = 0.001) compared with the intraindividual controls. The peak load to failure showed a median of 3167 N (1825-5230 N) in the spiral group and 2485 N (1066-4395 N) in the spiral control group. The peak load to failure in the cemented group was 3698 N (SD ± 1249 N) compared with 2763 N (SD ± 1335 N) in the cement control group. Furthermore, fracture displacement was clearly reduced in the steel spiral group. Femoral augmentations using steel spirals or cement-based femoroplasty are technically feasible procedures. Our results demonstrate that a prophylactic reinforced proximal femur has higher strength when compared with the untreated contralateral limb. Prophylactic augmentation has potential to become an auxiliary treatment option to protect the osteoporotic proximal femur against fracture.

  5. The effect of rapid decompression on femur blood flow of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shaoning; Tian Wuxun; Zhu Xiangqi

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the influence of regional blood flow in femur trochanter (FT) of rabbits' under rapid decompression after exposure to hyperbaric air. METHODS: Rabbits were placed in a hyperbaric chamber and exposed to the pressure of 0.5 MPa for 1.5 h, and the pressure was reduced to the atmosphere pressure at a uniform rate of 0.03 mPa/min. The regional blood flow of FT in rabbits were measured with 133 Xe washout methods. RESULTS: The normal average regional blood flow in left and right FT were 14.5 +- 1.7 and 14.1 +- 1.9 ml/(min·100g) respectively. After exposure to hyperbaric air with rapid decompression, the average regional blood flow of left and right FT were 11.1 +- 1.2 and 10.5 +- 1.6 ml/(min·100g) respectively. But the symptoms of dysbarism in these rabbits were various each other. CONCLUSIONS: After being exposed to hyperbaric air with rapid decompression, the blood flow of rabbits' femur trochanter were noticeably reduced

  6. Mortality and morbidity in elderly patients with fracture neck of femur treated by hemi arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    2006-01-01

    To determine mortality and morbidity in elderly patients with fracture neck of femur treated by hemiarthroplasty (Austin Moore Prosthesis) during one year postoperatively. During the study period, all patients with fracture neck of femur, who were 65 years of age or above and treated by Austin Moore Prosthesis (AMP), were included. The patients were followed for one year at intervals of 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 months, and one year. All surviving patients were assessed for complications, both general and mechanical, related to the implant. The mortality and morbidity were compared for various age subgroups, and in patients with and without systemic co-morbidities.Chi square test was applied to see the significance of results. The total number of patients was 46 with average age of 70 years. Male to female ratio was 1:2. There were 70% patients who had one or more associated systemic disease. The mortality at 2 weeks was 4.3%, 17.4% at 6 months and 26% at one year. The overall dislocation rate was 4.3%. Two patients had infection and 17.4% patients had thigh pain at one year. The mortality and morbidity was high in patients with systemic comorbidities, and those above 70 years of age, but this was statistically not significant (p value >0.05). The functional assessment of surviving patients at one year was graded as excellent or good in 76.4% of patients. (author)

  7. Mathematical representation of the normal proximal human femur: application in planning of cam hip surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjedi, Milad; Harris, Simon J; Davda, Kinner; Cobb, Justin P

    2013-04-01

    Precise modelling of the proximal femur can be used for detecting and planning corrective surgery for subjects with deformed femurs using robotic technology or navigation systems. In this study, the proximal femoral geometry has been modelled mathematically. It is hypothesised that it is possible to fit a quadratic surface or combinations of them onto different bone surfaces with a relatively good fit. Forty-six computed tomography datasets of normal proximal femora were segmented. A least-squares fitting algorithm was used to fit a quadratic surface on the femoral head and neck such that the sum of distances between a set of points on the femoral neck and the quadratic surface was minimised. Furthermore, the position of the head-neck articular margin was also measured. The femoral neck was found to be represented as a good fit to a hyperboloid with an average root mean-squared error of 1.0 ± 0.13 mm while the shape of the femoral articular margin was a reproducible sinusoidal wave form with two peaks. The mathematical description in this study can be used for planning corrective surgery for subjects with cam-type femoroacetabular impingement.

  8. Insights into the effects of tensile and compressive loadings on human femur bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havaldar, Raviraj; Pilli, S C; Putti, B B

    2014-01-01

    Fragile fractures are most likely manifestations of fatigue damage that develop under repetitive loading conditions. Numerous microcracks disperse throughout the bone with the tensile and compressive loads. In this study, tensile and compressive load tests are performed on specimens of both the genders within 19 to 83 years of age and the failure strength is estimated. Fifty five human femur cortical samples are tested. They are divided into various age groups ranging from 19-83 years. Mechanical tests are performed on an Instron 3366 universal testing machine, according to American Society for Testing and Materials International (ASTM) standards. The results show that stress induced in the bone tissue depends on age and gender. It is observed that both tensile and compression strengths reduces as age advances. Compressive strength is more than tensile strength in both the genders. The compression and tensile strength of human femur cortical bone is estimated for both male and female subjecting in the age group of 19-83 years. The fracture toughness increases till 35 years in male and 30 years in female and reduces there after. Mechanical properties of bone are age and gender dependent.

  9. Forensic Applicability of Femur Subtrochanteric Shape to Ancestry Assessment in Thai and White American Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, Sean D; Winburn, Allysha P

    2015-09-01

    Ancestry assessment from the postcranial skeleton presents a significant challenge to forensic anthropologists. However, metric dimensions of the femur subtrochanteric region are believed to distinguish between individuals of Asian and non-Asian descent. This study tests the discriminatory power of subtrochanteric shape using modern samples of 128 Thai and 77 White American males. Results indicate that the samples' platymeric index distributions are significantly different (p≤0.001), with the Thai platymeric index range generally lower and the White American range generally higher. While the application of ancestry assessment methods developed from Native American subtrochanteric data results in low correct classification rates for the Thai sample (50.8-57.8%), adapting these methods to the current samples leads to better classification. The Thai data may be more useful in forensic analysis than previously published subtrochanteric data derived from Native American samples. Adapting methods to include appropriate geographic and contemporaneous populations increases the accuracy of femur subtrochanteric ancestry methods. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. The Effect of Gabapentin and Tramadol in Cancer Pain Induced by Glioma Cell in Rat Femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Ramos, Janette Nallely; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Romero-Piña, Mario; Medina, Luis A; Martínez-Racine, Issac; Jaramillo-Morales, Osmar A; García-López, Patricia; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2017-08-01

    Preclinical Research The presence of pain as part of the cancer process is variable. Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) can produce bone metastasis, a condition that involves other pathological phenotypes including neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Tramadol and gabapentin are drugs used in the treatment of neuropathic pain. However, there are no studies evaluating their analgesic effects in bone metastasis. We produced a pain model induced by the inoculation of glioma cells (10 5 ) into the rat femur, by perforating the intercodiloid fossa. Painful behavior was evaluated by measuring mechanical allodynia using the Von Frey test while thermal hyperalgesia was assessed in the plantar test. Histopathological features were evaluated and antinociceptive responses were compared using tramadol and gabapentin. The inoculation of cells inside the right femur produced nociceptive behaviors. Tramadol and gabapentin produced an anti-allodynic effect in this condition, but tramadol did not produce an anti-hyperalgesic response. The development of this model will allow us to perform tests to elucidate the pathology of bone metastasis, cancer pain, and in particular the pain produced by glioma. Drug Dev Res 78 : 173-183, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The chondrogenic response to exercise in the proximal femur of normal and mdx mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nye David J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Submaximal exercise is used in the management of muscular dystrophy. The effects of mechanical stimulation on skeletal development are well understood, although its effects on cartilage growth have yet to be investigated in the dystrophic condition. The objective of this study was to investigate the chondrogenic response to voluntary exercise in dystrophin-deficient mice. Methods Control and dystrophin-deficient (mdx mice were divided into sedentary and exercise-treated groups and tested for chondral histomorphometric differences at the proximal femur. Results Control mice ran 7 km/week further than mdx mice on average, but this difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. However, exercised control mice exhibited significantly enlarged femur head diameter, articular cartilage thickness, articular cartilage tissue area, and area of calcified cartilage relative to sedentary controls and exercised mdx mice (P Conclusions Mdx mice exhibit a reduced chondrogenic response to increased mechanical stimulation relative to controls. However, no significant reduction in articular dimensions was found, indicating loss of chondral tissue may not be a clinical concern with dystrophinopathy.

  12. [Simultaneous existence of unicameral bone cysts involving the femur and ischium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Vassilios; Papavasiliou, Kyriakos A; Bobos, Mattheos; Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Kirkos, John M; Kapetanos, George A

    2009-01-01

    We report a 30-year-old male patient with two unicameral bone cysts (UBC) simultaneously located in the proximal third of the right femur and ipsilateral ischium ramus, respectively. Fine needle biopsies were attempted for both lesions. Biopsy of the femoral lesion under local anesthesia was unsuccessful, so an open biopsy was performed which confirmed the diagnosis of UBC. Biopsy of the ischial lesion was not sufficient for diagnosis. Cytological examination of both specimens showed no other benign or malignant pathology. The femoral lesion was treated with intralesional (due to its large size) excision-curettage, bone grafting, and the introduction of a long gamma locking intramedullary nail to prevent the occurrence of a pathological fracture. The ischial lesion was left untreated and followed conservatively. The patient was free of any symptoms and complications three years postoperatively. This is the first report of an adult patient with UBCs simultaneously located both in a long tubular bone (femur) and a flat bone (ischium ramus).

  13. Effects of chronic lead exposure on bone mineral properties in femurs of growing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Lloret, Pedro; Lee, Ching Ming; Conti, María Inés; Terrizzi, Antonela Romina; González-López, Santiago; Martínez, María Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Lead exposure has been associated with several defective skeletal growth processes and bone mineral alterations. The aim of the present study is to make a more detailed description of the toxic effects of lead intoxication on bone intrinsic material properties as mineral composition, morphology and microstructural characteristics. For this purpose, Wistar rats were exposed (n = 12) to 1000 ppm lead acetate in drinking water for 90 days while control group (n = 8) were treated with sodium acetate. Femurs were examined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-Computed Tomography (μCT). Results showed that femur from the lead-exposed rats had higher carbonate content in bone mineral and (Ca 2+ + Mg 2+ + Na + )/P ratio values, although no variations were observed in crystal maturity and crystallite size. From morphological analyses, lead exposure rats showed a decreased in trabecular bone surface and distribution while trabecular thickness and cortical area increased. These overall effects indicate a similar mechanism of bone maturation normally associated to age-related processes. These responses are correlated with the adverse actions induced by lead on the processes regulating bone turnover mechanism. This information may explain the osteoporosis diseases associated to lead intoxication as well as the risk of fracture observed in populations exposed to this toxicant.

  14. Effects of chronic lead exposure on bone mineral properties in femurs of growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Lloret, Pedro; Lee, Ching Ming; Conti, María Inés; Terrizzi, Antonela Romina; González-López, Santiago; Martínez, María Pilar

    2017-02-15

    Lead exposure has been associated with several defective skeletal growth processes and bone mineral alterations. The aim of the present study is to make a more detailed description of the toxic effects of lead intoxication on bone intrinsic material properties as mineral composition, morphology and microstructural characteristics. For this purpose, Wistar rats were exposed (n=12) to 1000ppm lead acetate in drinking water for 90days while control group (n=8) were treated with sodium acetate. Femurs were examined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-Computed Tomography (μCT). Results showed that femur from the lead-exposed rats had higher carbonate content in bone mineral and (Ca 2+ +Mg 2+ + Na + )/P ratio values, although no variations were observed in crystal maturity and crystallite size. From morphological analyses, lead exposure rats showed a decreased in trabecular bone surface and distribution while trabecular thickness and cortical area increased. These overall effects indicate a similar mechanism of bone maturation normally associated to age-related processes. These responses are correlated with the adverse actions induced by lead on the processes regulating bone turnover mechanism. This information may explain the osteoporosis diseases associated to lead intoxication as well as the risk of fracture observed in populations exposed to this toxicant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the generality and accuracy of a new mesh morphing procedure for the human femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Lorenzo; Hraiech, Najah; Schileo, Enrico; Ansaloni, Mauro; Rochette, Michel; Viceconti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Various papers described mesh morphing techniques for computational biomechanics, but none of them provided a quantitative assessment of generality, robustness, automation, and accuracy in predicting strains. This study aims to quantitatively evaluate the performance of a novel mesh-morphing algorithm. A mesh-morphing algorithm based on radial-basis functions and on manual selection of corresponding landmarks on template and target was developed. The periosteal geometries of 100 femurs were derived from a computed tomography scan database and used to test the algorithm generality in producing finite element (FE) morphed meshes. A published benchmark, consisting of eight femurs for which in vitro strain measurements and standard FE model strain prediction accuracy were available, was used to assess the accuracy of morphed FE models in predicting strains. Relevant parameters were identified to test the algorithm robustness to operative conditions. Time and effort needed were evaluated to define the algorithm degree of automation. Morphing was successful for 95% of the specimens, with mesh quality indicators comparable to those of standard FE meshes. Accuracy of the morphed meshes in predicting strains was good (R(2)>0.9, RMSE%0.05) and partially to the number of landmark used. Producing a morphed mesh starting from the triangularized geometry of the specimen requires on average 10 min. The proposed method is general, robust, automated, and accurate enough to be used in bone FE modelling from diagnostic data, and prospectively in applications such as statistical shape modelling. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiobjective topology optimization of trabecular Bone Structure in the spine and the femur: Implications for biomimcry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbanna, Ahmed; Peetz, Darin

    Bone is classically considered to be a self-optimizing structure in accordance with Wolff's law. However, while the structure's ability to adapt to changing stress patterns has been well documented, whether it is fully optimal for compliance is less certain (Sigmund, 2002). Given the complexity of many biological systems, it is expected that this structure serves several purposes. We present a multi-objective topology optimization formulation for trabecular bone in the human body at two locations: the vertebrae and the femur. We account for the effect of different conflicting objectives such as maximization of stiffness, maximization of surface area, and minimization of buckling susceptibility. Our formulation enables us to determine the relative role of each of these objective in optimizing the structure. Moreover, it provides an opportunity to explore what structural features have to evolve to meet a certain objective requirements that may have been absent otherwise. For example, inclusion of stability considerations introduce numerous horizontal and diagonal members in the topology in the case of human vertebrae under vertical loading. However, the stability is found to play a lesser role in the case of the femur bone optimization. Our formulation enables investigation of bone adaptation at different locations of the body as well as under different loading and boundary conditions (e.g. healthy and diseased discs for the case of the spine). We discuss the implications of our findings on developing design rules for bio-inspired and bio-mimetic architectured materials. National Science Foundation: CMMI.

  17. Risk of septic knee following retrograde intramedullary nailing of open and closed femur fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halvorson Jason J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One potential complication of retrograde femoral nailing in the treatment of femur fractures is the risk of septic knee. This risk theoretically increases in open fractures as a contaminated fracture site has the potential to seed the instrumentation being passed in and out of the sterile intraarticular starting point. There are few studies examining this potential complication in a relatively commonly practiced technique. Methods All patients who received a retrograde femoral nail for femur fracture between September 1996 and November 2006 at a Level 1 trauma center were retrospectively reviewed. This yielded 143 closed fractures, 38 open fractures and 4 closed fractures with an ipsilateral traumatic knee arthrotomy. Patient follow-up records were reviewed for documentation of septic knee via operative notes, wound culture or knee aspirate data, or the administration of antibiotics for suspected septic knee. Results No evidence of septic knee was found in the 185 fractures examined in the dataset. Utilizing the Wilson confidence interval, the rate of septic knee based on our population was no greater than 2%, with that of the open fracture group alone being 9%. Conclusions Based on these results and review of the literature, the risk of septic knee in retrograde femoral nailing of both open and closed femoral shaft fractures appears low but potentially not insignificant. Funding There was no outside source of funding from either industry or other organization for this study.

  18. Relationship between number of spleen colonies and 125IdUrd incorporation into spleen and femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.; Bullis, J.E.; Cronkite, E.P.; Hubner, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    Graded numbers of bone marrow (BM) cells were injected into fatally irradiated mice. Eight days later the mice were given 3.0 μCi (1 Ci = 3.7 x 10 10 Bq) of 125 IdUrd to label proliferating cells in the spleen and BM. On day 9 the mice were killed and the spleens and femurs were removed for splenic colony assay and measurement of radioactivity in the spleen and femurs. The number of splenic colonies shows a linear relationship with dose of marrow cells injected from 10 4 to 10 5 cells. The slope of the curve of spleen colonies versus number of cells injected is 5 and below 10 4 there is a striking departure from the simple linearity. Below 2 x 10 3 cells injected, the logarithm of the observed colony yield is linear with logarithm of the number of cells injected. Poisson calculation of the average number of pluripotent stem cells that should be present with numbers of marrow cells injected below 2 x 10 3 followed closely the actual observations. The data show that there is no detectible proliferation in the BM until the dose of marrow cells exceeds 3.5 x 10 4 cells. Induction of cells into cycle increases the seeding into the BM, and thymidine cytocide drastically reduces seeding in the BM, leading us to conclude that the BM is repopulated almost exclusively by stem cells in DNA synthesis

  19. Atypical location of osteonecrosis of the proximal femur: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez López, Alejandro; García Lorenzo, Yenima

    2016-01-01

    Background: avascular necrosis of the femoral head is an infrequent lesion, especially when it is located in other areas of the proximal femur like the femoral neck. Objective: to present the case of a patient with atypical location of avascular necrosis in the proximal femur. Clinical case: a forty-nine-year-old white female patient with a personal medical record who six months ago started presenting pain in the right hip. The intensity and duration of the pain gradually increased. It also got worse at walking and standing for long periods of time, associated with limp. A simple radiographic examination showed an osteolytic image of well-defined edges in the anteroposterior side of the right hip. To check the presence of this image, a CT scan was performed. A sliding screw fixation was placed to keep the normal anatomical structure and avoid a pathological fracture. Conclusion: the location of avascular necrosis out of the femoral head is extremely infrequent. In these cases other surgical procedures, like resection and fixation with nails and screws, are needed particularly when the location is at the level of the femoral neck and there are risks of a pathological fracture. (author)

  20. The Tribology of Explanted Hip Resurfacings Following Early Fracture of the Femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Lord

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A recognized issue related to metal-on-metal hip resurfacings is early fracture of the femur. Most theories regarding the cause of fracture relate to clinical factors but an engineering analysis of failed hip resurfacings has not previously been reported. The objective of this work was to determine the wear volumes and surface roughness values of a cohort of retrieved hip resurfacings which were removed due to early femoral fracture, infection and avascular necrosis (AVN. Nine resurfacing femoral heads were obtained following early fracture of the femur, a further five were retrieved due to infection and AVN. All fourteen were measured for volumetric wear using a co-ordinate measuring machine. Wear rates were then calculated and regions of the articulating surface were divided into “worn” and “unworn”. Roughness values in these regions were measured using a non-contacting profilometer. The mean time to fracture was 3.7 months compared with 44.4 months for retrieval due to infection and AVN. Average wear rates in the early fracture heads were 64 times greater than those in the infection and AVN retrievals. Given the high wear rates of the early fracture components, such wear may be linked to an increased risk of femoral neck fracture.

  1. A comparison of bone mineral density in osteoporotic fracture of the proximal femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Seok; Yoo, Beong Gyu; Kim, Keung Sik

    2000-01-01

    There were some controversies about direct cause of hip fracture. We attempted to look at 40 osteoporotic proximal femur fractures in women over 50 years between March in 1999 and February in 2000. The bone density of the fracture group and the healthy 85 control group was measured by Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The result was compared using age matched paired T test. The results were as follows: The femoral neck fractures were 14 cases and the trochanteric fractures were 26 cases. Mean age at a fracture was 67.1 years in neck fracture group and 76.5 years in trochanteric fracture. In the control group, the bone density of both side of the proximal femur was measured and it showed statistically no difference between both sides in same person. The bone density of neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter (P<0.05) and lumbar spine (P<0.001) was significantly reduced in the proximal femoral fracture group comparing with the control group. The bone density of neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter (P<0.05) was significantly reduced in the proximal femoral neck fracture group comparing with the control group, but there was no statistical difference in lumbar spine comparing with the control group. The bone density of neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter and lumbar spine (P<0.001) was significantly reduced in the proximal femoral neck fracture group comparing with the control group. We concluded that the bone mineral densities (BMD) of proximal femur and lumbar spine had decreased in hip fractures but that the bone mineral density and T-score % of the proximal femur were statistically lower than that of the lumbar spine. We suggest that measuring the bone mineral density of the proximal femur may reflect the weakness of the proximal femur more precisely than measuring the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine

  2. Measurements of bone mineral density of the proximal femur by two commercially available dual energy X-ray absorptiometric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, O.L.; Marslew, U.; Hassager, C.; Christiansen, C.

    1992-01-01

    Two dual energy X-ray absorptiometric (DXA) instruments have recently become commercially available for local bone densitometry: the QDR-1000 (Hologic Inc.) and the DPX (Lunar Radiation Corp.). We report the precision, influence of femoral, rotation, correlation and agreement of bone mineral measurements of the proximal fermur by these two instruments. In vitro (femur phantom) short-term precision was 1.1%-3.5%, and the long-term precision was 1.2%-3.8%. In vivo (groups of 10 premenopausal and 10 postmenopausal women) short-term precision of duplicate measurements was 1.6%-4.7%, and long-term precision was 1.9%-5.5%. Overall, the precision for Ward's triangle was over 3% and that for the femoral neck and trochanter, 2%-3%. Rotation of the femur phantom produced a statistically significant change in the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck. Within a clinically relevant range of femoral rotation (20deg inward rotation ±5deg) the coefficient of variation (CV%) increased by a mean factor of 1.1-1.4. Although the correlation (r<0.9) between BMD measurements of the proximal femur by the DPX and QDR-1000 in 30 postmenopausal women was high, there was lack of agreement between the two instruments. We found no statistically significant differences between the right and left femur in 30 postmenopausal women. A bilateral femur scan took a mean total time of about 22 min. We conclude that with the introduction of DXA instruments, the precision of bone mineral measurments of the proximal femur has improved. However, for comparability between commercially available DXA instruments, it might be advantageous if units were standardized. (orig.)

  3. Usefullness of three-dimensional templating software to quantify the contact state between implant and femur in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Daisuke; Kabata, Tamon; Maeda, Toru; Kajino, Yoshitomo; Fujita, Kenji; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Takashi; Takagi, Tomoharu; Ohmori, Takaaki; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    It would be ideal if surgeons could precisely confirm whether the planned femoral component achieves the best fit and fill of implant and femur. However, the cortico-cancellous interfaces can be difficult to standardize using plain radiography, and therefore, determining the contact state is a subjective decision by the examiner. Few reports have described the use of CT-based three-dimensional templating software to quantify the contact state of stem and femur in detail. The purpose of this study was to use three-dimensional templating software to quantify the implant-femur contact state and develop a technique to analyze the initial fixation pattern of a cementless femoral stem. We conducted a retrospective review of 55 hips in 53 patients using a short proximal fit-and-fill anatomical stem (APS Natural-Hip™ System). All femurs were examined by density mapping which can visualize and digitize the contact state. We evaluated the contact state of implant and femur by using density mapping. The varus group (cases that had changed varus 2° by 3 months after surgery) consisted of 11 hips. The varus group showed no significant difference with regard to cortical contact in the proximal medial portion (Gruen 7), but the contact area in the distal portion (Gruen 3 and Gruen 5) was significantly lower than that of non-varus group. Density mapping showed that the stem only has to be press-fit to the medial calcar, but also must fill the distal portion of the implant in order to achieve the ideal contact state. Our results indicated that quantifying the contact state of implant and femur by using density mapping is a useful technique to accurately analyze the fixation pattern of a cementless femoral stem.

  4. A comparison of bone mineral density in osteoporotic fracture of the proximal femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Seok; Yoo, Beong Gyu [Wonkwang Health Science College, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keung Sik [Yonsei University Yong Dong Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-15

    There were some controversies about direct cause of hip fracture. We attempted to look at 40 osteoporotic proximal femur fractures in women over 50 years between March in 1999 and February in 2000. The bone density of the fracture group and the healthy 85 control group was measured by Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The result was compared using age matched paired T test. The results were as follows: The femoral neck fractures were 14 cases and the trochanteric fractures were 26 cases. Mean age at a fracture was 67.1 years in neck fracture group and 76.5 years in trochanteric fracture. In the control group, the bone density of both side of the proximal femur was measured and it showed statistically no difference between both sides in same person. The bone density of neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter (P<0.05) and lumbar spine (P<0.001) was significantly reduced in the proximal femoral fracture group comparing with the control group. The bone density of neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter (P<0.05) was significantly reduced in the proximal femoral neck fracture group comparing with the control group, but there was no statistical difference in lumbar spine comparing with the control group. The bone density of neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter and lumbar spine (P<0.001) was significantly reduced in the proximal femoral neck fracture group comparing with the control group. We concluded that the bone mineral densities (BMD) of proximal femur and lumbar spine had decreased in hip fractures but that the bone mineral density and T-score % of the proximal femur were statistically lower than that of the lumbar spine. We suggest that measuring the bone mineral density of the proximal femur may reflect the weakness of the proximal femur more precisely than measuring the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine.

  5. [Individual difference of coronal bowing of femur and its influence on the lower limbs alignment after the total knee arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W; Guo, W S; Cheng, L M; Liu, Z H; Zhang, Q D; Zhang, N F

    2017-04-04

    Objective: To disclose the correlation between the femur bowing angle(FBA) and vulgas correction angle(VCA), anlysys its influence on the total knee arthroplasty and the lower limbs alignment. Methods: From Janurary 2013 to December 2015, 699 patients who had received total knee arthroplasty(TKA)were collected in the Department of Joint Surgery, China-Japan Friendship. The FBA, VCA, offset of the proximal femur, the lengh of the femur, the neck shaft angle of the femur of the eligible cases from the long leg X-ray were measured.All the data were analysed for the following steps: the FBA's mean value and characteristics of distributation of all the cases; the VCA's mean value and characteristics of distributation of all the cases; correlations between the VCA and the other parameters; divide all the cases into four groups based on the value of FBA : group A(FBA3°, 236)and then plan to cut the distal femur with 5° and 6°, respectively. The percent of ideal alignmental outcome's percentage of every group were compared. Results: The mean Value of the FBA is -7.1--12.1(1.4±2.4)°; the mean Value of the VCA is 2.5--11.9(6.5±1.3)°. The correlation index between VCA and FBA, the neck shaft angle of the femur , offset of the hip joint, the lengh of the femur is 0.72, -0.26, 0.45 and -0.08, perspectively. The theoretical ideal alignment percentage of the 5 degree-valgus-bone cut and 6 degree-valgus-bone cut in every group is group A: 89.7% and 66.5%; group B: 93.7% and 95.7%; group C: 71.9% and 94.6%; group D: 21.2% and 50.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The cases whose femur bowing angles are outliers are common in daily medical practice, so the vulgas correction angles need be ajusted for its significant correlation with FBA. 5 degree-valgus-bone cut or 6 degree-valgus-bone cut could not get the ideal alignment some times.

  6. Mechanical properties of radial bone defects treated with autogenous graft covered with hydroxyapatite in rabbit Propriedades mecânicas de defeito de osso radial tratado com enxerto autógeno coberto com nano-hydroxyapatite em coelho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Sharifi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine biomechanical property of autogenous bone graft covered with hydroxyapatite in the defect of radial bone in rabbit. METHODS: Eighteen adult male New Zealand white rabbits were used which were divided into three groups (I, II, III of six rabbits each. A segmental bone defect of 10 mm in length was created in the middle of the right radial shaft under general effective anesthesia in all rabbits and were stabilized using mini-plate with four screws. The defects In group I were left as such without filler, whereas in group II the defect were filled up with harvested 10 mm rib bone and in group III the defect were packed with rib bone covered with nano-hydroxyapatite. All rabbits in three groups were divided into two subgroups (one month and three months duration with three rabbits in each one. RESULTS: The mechanical property and the mean load for fracturing normal radial bone was recorded 388.2±6 N whereas it was 72.4±12.8 N for group I in 1 month duration which was recorded 182.4±14.2 N for group II and 211.6±10.4 N for group III at the end of 1 month. These values were 97.6±10.2 N for group I and 324.6±8.2 N for group II and 372.6±17.4 N for group III at the end of three months after implantation. CONCLUSION: Implantation of autologous graft covered with hydroxyapatite indicated to have positive effect in integral formation of qualitative callus at the site of fracture and early re-organization of callus to regain mechanical strength too.OBJETIVO: Determinar as propriedades biomecânicas de enxerto ósseo autógeno coberto com hidroxiapatita em defeito do osso radial em coelhos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 18 coelhos adultos, machos, brancos, Nova Zelândia, distribuídos em três grupos (I, II, III de seis coelhos cada. Um defeito segmentar de 10 mm de comprimento foi criado no meio do eixo radial direito sob anestesia geral efetiva em todos os coelhos e foram fixados usando mini-placa com quatro parafusos. Os

  7. Ontogeny of the cranial bones of the giant amazon river turtle Podocnemis expansa Schweigger, 1812 (Testudines, Podocnemididae = Ontogenia dos ossos do crânio em tartaruga-da-amazônia Podocnemis expansa Schweigger, 1812 (Testudines, Podocnemididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Gonçalves Vieira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the normal stages of formation in the sequence of ossification of the cranium of Podocnemis expansa in its various stages of development, embryos were collected starting on the 18th day of natural incubation and were subjected to bone diaphanization and staining. In the neurocranium, the basisphenoid and basioccipitalbones present ossification centers in stage 19, the supraoccipital and opisthotic in stage 20, the exoccipital in stage 21, and lastly the prooptic in stage 24. Dermatocranium: the squamosal, pterygoid and maxilla are the first elements to begin the ossification process,which occurs in stage 16. However, ossification centers begin to appear in stage 17 in most of these bone elements, i.e., the frontal, jugal, postorbital, parietal, premaxilla and prefrontal, followed by the palatine and quadratojugal in stage 19 and lastly by the vomer instage 25. The quadrate bone of the splanchnocranium ossifies in stage 23. The mandible and hyoid apparatus, the dentary, coronoid and supra-angular, show ossification centers in stage 16 and the branchial horn I in stage 17. The sequence and synchronization of ossification in P. expansa show similarities as well as differences when compared with other species of Testudines.Com o propósito de estabelecer etapas normais de formação da sequência de ossificação do crânio em Podocnemis expansa, nos diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento, coletaram-se embriões a partir do 18º dia de incubação natural, os quais foram submetidos à técnica de diafanização e coloração dos ossos. No neurocrânio, no estágio 19, o basisfenoide e o basioccipital apresentam centro de ossificação; no estágio 20, o supraoccipital e o opistótico; no estágio 21, o exoccipital; somente no estágio 24, o proótico. Dermatocrânio: o esquamosal, o pterigoide e a maxila são os primeiros elementos a iniciar o processo de ossificação, que ocorre no estágio 16. Mas a maioria desses elementos

  8. Fraturas proximais do fêmur em idosos: qual o melhor tratamento? Proximal fracture of the femur on the elderly: what's the best treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Paccini Lustosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As fraturas proximais do fêmur em idosos representam um sério problema dentro do contexto da saúde pública, devido aos elevados custos econômicos para o tratamento e as suas consequências, assim como pela alta taxa de morbidade e mortalidade. O objetivo desse estudo foi discutir quais os tratamentos mais indicados para esse tipo de fratura, em idosos, por meio de uma revisão da literatura. As bases de dados pesquisadas foram MEDLINE, COCHRANE e PEDro. Os critérios de inclusão foram estudos publicados nos últimos sete anos; nos idiomas português, inglês e espanhol; realizados em seres humanos, sem distinção de gênero e com idade maior que 60 anos; estudos com desenho metodológico de ensaios clínicos, ensaios clínicos aleatorizados e revisões sistemáticas com e sem meta-análise. Foram encontrados sete artigos e após a análise pode se afirmar que não existe um tratamento específico para as fraturas proximais do fêmur em idosos. O tratamento normalmente indicado na maioria dessas fraturas é cirúrgico e requer envolvimento fisioterápico para uma reabilitação adequada. Apesar da dificuldade de comparação entre os estudos, foi observado que uma equipe de profissionais da saúde parece promover uma reabilitação mais efetiva, além de prevenir complicações.The proximal fractures of the femur on the elderly represent a serious problem inside the public health context, because of the high economic costs needed for the treatment and it's consequence, as the high taxes of morbidity and mortality. The goal of this study was to discuss, through a literature revision, which is the most indicated treatment for the proximal fractures of the femur, on the elderly. The researched data bases were MEDLINE, COCHRANE and PEDro. The inclusion criterions were published studies on the last seven years, only on the Portuguese, English and Spanish languages, accomplished on human beings, with no genre distinction and with ages above 60

  9. Remoção da cartilagem articular associada ou não a implante homógeno ou enxerto autógeno de osso esponjoso em cães submetidos à artrodese atlantoaxial Joint cartilage removal associated or not to homologous implant or autologous cancellous bone graft in dogs submitted to atlantoaxial arthrodesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Festugatto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o grau de fusão articular e formação óssea na articulação atlantoaxial de cães submetidos à artrodese após a remoção da cartilagem articular associada ou não ao implante homógeno ou enxerto autógeno de osso esponjoso. Foram utilizados 12 cães, adultos, distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos iguais. Grupo I (GI: realizada apenas a remoção da cartilagem articular e imobilização articular com pinos e resina acrílica. Grupo II (GII: feita a remoção da cartilagem articular e imobilização da articulação, seguida da colocação e modelagem do implante ósseo esponjoso homógeno entre as superfícies articulares. Grupo III (GIII: foi realizado o mesmo procedimento do GII, mais o enxerto ósseo esponjoso autógeno no local determinado. Realizaram-se exames radiográficos em todos os animais aos 30, 60 e 90 dias de pós-operatório (PO. Aos 90 dias de PO foi feita a eutanásia para o emprego do teste de palpação manual, avaliação tomográfica e histopatológica. Para análise estatística da associação entre o grau de fusão articular, aplicou-se o Teste Qui-quadrado de independência. Os resultados dos testes foram avaliados pela significância exata e considerados significantes a 5% (PThe aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of joint fusion and bone formation in dogs undergoing atlantoaxial arthrodesis after removal of articular cartilage associated or not to implant homogenous or autogenous cancellous bone. Twelve dogs, weighing between 8 and 12kg were randomly divided into three groups. Group I (GI performed only the removal of joint cartilage and joint immobilization with acrylic resin and pins. Group II (GII: after removel of joint cartilage and articular immobilization was performed modeling and placement of homogenous cancellous bone at the given location. The volume of homograft placed in the joint was measured using a precision balance and all animals received the

  10. ROBO-AO M DWARF MULTIPLICITY SURVEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamman, Claire; Berta-Thompson, Zachory; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas; Schonhut, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    We analyzed over 7,000 observations from Robo-AO’s field M dwarf survey taken on the 2.1m Kitt Peak telescope. Results will help determine the multiplicity fraction of M dwarfs as a function of primary mass, which is a crucial step towards understanding their evolution and formation mechanics. Through its robotic, laser-guided, and automated system, the Robo-AO instrument has yielded the largest adaptive-optics M dwarf survey to date. I developed a graphical user interface to quickly analyze this data. Initial data analysis included assessing data quality, checking the result from Robo-AO’s automatic reduction pipeline, and determining existence as well as the relative position of companions through a visual inspection. This program can be applied to other datasets and was successfully tested by re-analyzing observations from a separate Robo-AO survey. Following the preliminary results from this data analysis tool, further observations were done with the Keck II telescope by using its NIRC2 imager to follow up on ten select targets for the existence and physical association of companions. After a conservative initial cut for quality, 356 companions were found within 4” of a primary star out of 2,746 high quality Robo-AO M dwarf observations, including four triple systems. We will present a preliminary estimate for the multiplicity rate of wide M dwarf companions after accounting for observation limitations and the completeness of our search. Future research will yield insights into low-mass stellar formation and provide a database of nearby M dwarf multiples that will potentially assist ongoing and future surveys for planets around these stars, such as the NASA TESS mission.

  11. Hepatotoxicidade associada ao uso de esteroides anabolizantes

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Brinquinho; Ana Andresa Sousa; Janine Resende; João Valente

    2017-01-01

    O consumo de esteroides androgénicos anabolizantes tem vindo a aumentar no meio desportivo amador, sendo de fácil acesso apesar de se tratarem de substâncias proibidas. Estão descritos múltiplos efeitos laterais, sendo a hepatotoxicidade uma das mais reportadas. Apresentam-se dois casos clínicos representativos da lesão hepática associada ao consumo de esteroides anabolizantes. Ambos evidenciaram morbilidade significativa, embora nenhum deles tenha evoluído para falência hepática. Os autores ...

  12. Development and testing of texture discriminators for the analysis of trabecular bone in proximal femur radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, M. B.; Carballido-Gamio, J.; Fritscher, K.; Schubert, R.; Haenni, M.; Hengg, C.; Majumdar, S.; Link, T. M. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, 400 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); University of Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, 6060 Hall (Austria); AO Development Institute, 7270 Davos Platz (Switzerland); Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, 400 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Texture analysis of femur radiographs may serve as a potential low cost technique to predict osteoporotic fracture risk and has received considerable attention in the past years. A further application of this technique may be the measurement of the quality of specific bone compartments to provide useful information for treatment of bone fractures. Two challenges of texture analysis are the selection of the best suitable texture measure and reproducible placement of regions of interest (ROIs). The goal of this in vitro study was to automatically place ROIs in radiographs of proximal femur specimens and to calculate correlations between various different texture analysis methods and the femurs' anchorage strength. Methods: Radiographs were obtained from 14 femoral specimens and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in the femoral neck. Biomechanical testing was performed to assess the anchorage strength in terms of failure load, breakaway torque, and number of cycles. Images were segmented using a framework that is based on the usage of level sets and statistical in-shape models. Five ROIs were automatically placed in the head, upper and lower neck, trochanteric, and shaft compartment in an atlas subject. All other subjects were registered rigidly, affinely, and nonlinearly, and the resulting transformation was used to map the five ROIs onto the individual femora. Results: In each ROI, texture features were extracted using gray level co-occurence matrices (GLCM), third-order GLCM, morphological gradients (MGs), Minkowski dimensions (MDs), Minkowski functionals (MFs), Gaussian Markov random fields, and scaling index method (SIM). Coefficients of determination for each texture feature with parameters of anchorage strength were computed. In a stepwise multiregression analysis, the most predictive parameters were identified in different models. Texture features were highly correlated with anchorage strength estimated by the failure load of up to R{sup 2

  13. Interval hypoxic training in complex treatment of fractures of trochanteric area of the femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Василь Михайлович Шимон

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The method of interval hypoxic training (IHT is used to increase physical endurance of athletes and for treatment of certain systemic diseases, due to the ability of IHT affect metabolism, homeostasis and the immune system. The aims of the article are improving the results of treatment and rehabilitation of patients with fractures of the trochanteric area of the femur by the method of interval hypoxic training and study its influence on bone metabolism.Materials and methods. 17 patients who were hospitalized in the clinic of general surgery UzhNU with fractures of the trochanteric area of the femur are examined in the period from 2012 to 2015.The first group consisted of 6 patients who from day-patient treatment is conducted IHT by gas mixture of 12 % oxygen. The second group consisted of 4 patients with thyrotoxicosis who are also receiving IHT by gas mixture of 12% oxygen.The control group consisted of 7 patients with fractures of the trochanteric area of the femur who refused from IHT.Results and its discussion. The best physical activity is observed in the first group. Starting physical activity is the lowest in the second group, but its development is faster. Slowly increase the duration of physical activity compared with the first two groups is observed in the control group.In the control study after 1 month it is noted that calcium level increased in all three groups. Increase in the second group is biggest. The level of phosphorus decreased in the first and the control group and increased in the second group.The levels of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase increased. Rates were higher and increase was substantial in the first two groups in comparison with the control group.Conclusions.• Intensive growth of length of one-time physical activity most notably in patients with thyrotoxicosis is observed in patients who are receiving IHT.• Improvement of the activity of bone metabolism is observed in patients after IHT

  14. Use of femur bone density to segregate wild from farmed Dybowski's frog (Rana dybowskii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu Hui; Huang, Xiao Ming; Xia, Rui; Xu, Yan Chun; Dahmer, Thomas D

    2011-04-15

    Wildlife has been utilized by humans throughout history and demand continues to grow today. Farming of wildlife can supplement the supply of wild-harvested wildlife products and, in theory, can reduce pressure on free-ranging populations. However, poached wildlife products frequently enter legal markets where they are fraudulently sold as farmed wildlife products. To effectively close this illegal trade in wild-captured wildlife, there is a need to discriminate wild products from farmed products. Because of the strong market demand for wild-captured frog meat and the resulting strong downward pressure on wild populations, we undertook research to develop a method to discriminate wild from farmed Dybowski's frog (Rana dybowskii) based on femur bone density. We measured femur bone density (D(f)) as the ratio of bone mass to bone volume. D(f) of wild frogs revealed a slightly increasing linear trend with increasing age (R(2)=0.214 in males and R(2)=0.111 in females, p=0.000). Wild males and wild females of age classes from 2 to ≥ 5 years had similar D(f) values. In contrast, 2-year-old farmed frogs showed significantly higher D(f) values (p=0.000) among males (mean D(f)=0.623 ± 0.011 g/ml, n=32) than females (mean D(f)=0.558 ± 0.011 g/ml, n=27). For both sexes, D(f) of wild frogs was significantly higher than that of farmed frogs (p=0.000). Among males, 87.5% (28 of 32 individuals) of farmed frogs were correctly identified as farmed frogs and 86.3% (69 of 80 individuals) of wild frogs were correctly identified as wild frogs. These results suggest that femur bone density is one reliable tool for discriminating between wild and farmed Dybowski's frog. This study also highlights a novel strategy with explicit forensic potential to discriminate wild from captive bred wildlife species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and testing of texture discriminators for the analysis of trabecular bone in proximal femur radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, M. B.; Carballido-Gamio, J.; Fritscher, K.; Schubert, R.; Haenni, M.; Hengg, C.; Majumdar, S.; Link, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Texture analysis of femur radiographs may serve as a potential low cost technique to predict osteoporotic fracture risk and has received considerable attention in the past years. A further application of this technique may be the measurement of the quality of specific bone compartments to provide useful information for treatment of bone fractures. Two challenges of texture analysis are the selection of the best suitable texture measure and reproducible placement of regions of interest (ROIs). The goal of this in vitro study was to automatically place ROIs in radiographs of proximal femur specimens and to calculate correlations between various different texture analysis methods and the femurs' anchorage strength. Methods: Radiographs were obtained from 14 femoral specimens and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in the femoral neck. Biomechanical testing was performed to assess the anchorage strength in terms of failure load, breakaway torque, and number of cycles. Images were segmented using a framework that is based on the usage of level sets and statistical in-shape models. Five ROIs were automatically placed in the head, upper and lower neck, trochanteric, and shaft compartment in an atlas subject. All other subjects were registered rigidly, affinely, and nonlinearly, and the resulting transformation was used to map the five ROIs onto the individual femora. Results: In each ROI, texture features were extracted using gray level co-occurence matrices (GLCM), third-order GLCM, morphological gradients (MGs), Minkowski dimensions (MDs), Minkowski functionals (MFs), Gaussian Markov random fields, and scaling index method (SIM). Coefficients of determination for each texture feature with parameters of anchorage strength were computed. In a stepwise multiregression analysis, the most predictive parameters were identified in different models. Texture features were highly correlated with anchorage strength estimated by the failure load of up to R 2 =0.61 (MF

  16. Time domain optical coherence tomography investigation of bone matrix interface in rat femurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Laura-Cristina; Negruá¹±iu, Meda-Lavinia; Sinescu, Cosmin; Hoinoiu, Bogdan; Topala, Florin-Ionel; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2013-08-01

    The materials used to fabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering are derived from synthetic polymers, mainly from the polyester family, or from natural materials (e.g., collagen and chitosan). The mechanical properties and the structural properties of these materials can be tailored by adjusting the molecular weight, the crystalline state, and the ratio of monomers in the copolymers. Quality control and adjustment of the scaffold manufacturing process are essential to achieve high standard scaffolds. Most scaffolds are made from highly crystalline polymers, which inevitably result in their opaque appearance. Their 3-D opaque structure prevents the observation of internal uneven surface structures of the scaffolds under normal optical instruments, such as the traditional light microscope. The inability to easily monitor the inner structure of scaffolds as well as the interface with the old bone poses a major challenge for tissue engineering: it impedes the precise control and adjustment of the parameters that affect the cell growth in response to various mimicked culture conditions. The aim of this paper is to investigate the interface between the femur rat bone and the new bone that is obtained using a method of tissue engineering that is based on different artificial matrixes inserted in previously artificially induced defects. For this study, 15 rats were used in conformity with ethical procedures. In all the femurs a round defect was induced by drilling with a 1 mm spherical Co-Cr surgical drill. The matrixes used were Bioss and 4bone. These materials were inserted into the induced defects. The femurs were investigated at 1 week, 1 month, 2 month and three month after the surgical procedures. The interfaces were examined using Time Domain (TD) Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) combined with Confocal Microscopy (CM). The optical configuration uses two single mode directional couplers with a superluminiscent diode as the source centered at 1300 nm. The scanning

  17. Resposta tecidual ao compósito 50% hidroxiapatita: 50% poli-hidroxibutirato para substituição óssea em coelhos Tissue response to the composite 50% hydroxyapatite: 50% polyhydroxybutyrate for bone substitution in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Carlo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a biocompatibilidade, a osseointegração, a osseocondução e a biodegradação de compósitos de 50% hidroxiapatita (HAP-91® e 50% poli-hidroxibutirato. O compósito foi implantado em defeitos ósseos em 12 coelhos (grupo experimental, sendo comparado a defeitos não preenchidos (grupo-controle, de igual número. Os parâmetros clínicos dor, claudicação, infecção, deiscência e edema foram avaliados nos primeiros oito dias após a cirurgia e aos 45 e 90 dias. Radiografias foram realizadas aos oito, 45 e 90 dias após a cirurgia em quatro animais por grupo que, em seguida, foram submetidos à eutanásia para coleta de amostras destinadas a análises histológica e histomorfométrica. Não ocorreram diferenças entre os grupos para todos os parâmetros clínicos. Radiografias demonstraram um compósito com radiopacidade semelhante à do osso vizinho e contato direto entre osso e compósito aos 45 e 90 dias. Diferença significativa foi observada entre a porcentagem dos tecidos ósseo e conjuntivo dentro do defeito nos dias oito, 45 e 90, assim como na interface aos 45 e 90 dias. Foram observadas projeções dos tecidos ósseo e conjuntivo no interior do compósito e sinais de biodegradação na ausência de infiltrado inflamatório. Pode-se concluir que o compósito é biocompatível, osseocondutor, biodegradável e se integra ao tecido ósseo.The biocompatibility, osseointegration, osseoconductivity, and biodegradation of a 50-50% hydroxyapatite (HAP-91®-polyhydroxybutyrate were evaluated. The composite was implanted in bone defects of 12 rabbits (experimental group, being compared to unfilled defects (control group, 12 animals. The clinical parameters of pain, lameness, infection, dehiscence, and edema were evaluated during the first eight days and on the 45th and 90th days after surgery. Radiographs were taken in four animals per group at 8, 45, and 90 days after surgery, when animals were euthanized to collect samples for

  18. Escala de valores relativos ao trabalho : EVT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porto Juliana Barreiros

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Na literatura internacional são encontradas várias escalas para medir valores relativos ao trabalho, porém a maioria apresenta problemas com relação à definição do conceito ou a falta de integração com os modelos teóricos sobre valores pessoais. No Brasil foram encontrados dois instrumentos, um não foi validado para a população brasileira e o outro foi validado para uma população de baixa escolaridade. Foi objetivo do presente estudo desenvolver e validar uma Escala de Valores relativos ao Trabalho. Para o desenvolvimento da EVT foi realizado um levantamento de instrumentos anteriores e foram entrevistados trabalhadores. Após a análise de juízes e validação semântica, o instrumento foi respondido por 394 pessoas. A análise fatorial apontou para quatro fatores: Realização no trabalho, Relações sociais, Prestígio e Estabilidade. O instrumento após validação é composto por 45 itens. Os resultados corroboraram o modelo teórico previsto e conclui-se que a escala foi devidamente estabelecida e pode ser utilizada para pesquisa e diagnóstico.

  19. Nefrocalcinose associada ao uso de esteroide anabolizante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weverton Machado Luchi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Os esteroides anabolizantes têm sido usados como arma terapêutica em diversas condições clínicas. Entretanto, o uso abusivo e indiscriminado, associado a outros suplementos nutricionais, tem gerado efeitos adversos graves. Relato do caso: Sexo masculino, 21 anos, admitido com náuseas, astenia, hiporexia, cefaleia e hipertensão arterial. Exames no sangue evidenciaram Cr: 3,9 mg/dl U:100 mg/dl e Cálcio total 14 mg/dl. Ultrassonografia e biópsia renal compatíveis com nefrocalcinose. Houve melhora gradativa da função renal e da calcemia após hidratação vigorosa e furosemida. Entretanto, após 1 ano, persistiram depósitos renais de cálcio e relação córticomedular reduzida ao ultrassom e creatinina estável em 1,4 mg/dl. Casos anteriores evidenciaram necrose tubular aguda e nefrite intersticial com poucos depósitos de cálcio no interstício renal. Nesse caso, encontramos nefrocalcinose acentuada associada à nefroesclerose. O objetivo deste estudo é relatar a ocorrência de injúria renal aguda com nefrocalcinose associada ao uso de esteroide anabolizante e oferecer uma revisão do assunto.

  20. Tratamento radioterápico dos tumores glômicos do osso temporal Radiation therapy for glomus tumors of the temporal bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Dall'Igna

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento dos tumores glômicos tem sido motivo de controvérsia desde sua primeira publicação, podendo ser cirúrgico, radioterápico ou apenas expectante. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a efetividade e as complicações do tratamento radioterápico para esses tumores. FORMA DE ESTUDO: clínico com coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Trata-se de uma coorte histórica de pacientes com tumor glômico jugular submetidos à radioterapia. Os critérios de controle da doença foram não haver progressão dos sintomas ou disfunção de nervos cranianos, sem aumento do tamanho da lesão ao exame físico ou controle radiológico. Avaliamos também a presença de seqüelas do tratamento. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 12 pacientes, sendo oito mulheres. O tempo de follow-up variou de 3 a 35 anos, com uma media de 11,6 anos. Os principais sintomas foram: hipoacusia, zumbido pulsátil e tontura ou vertigem. Os achados de exame físico mais freqüentes foram massa pulsátil retrotimpanica, paralisia facial e anacusia, sendo os tumores estadiados segundo a classificação proposta por Fisch. A radioterapia foi realizada com acelerador linear com doses variando de 4500-5500 Rads por 4-6 semanas. As seqüelas mais comuns foram a dermatite, estenose do conduto auditivo externo, anacusia e paralisia facial. DISCUSSÃO: Os sintomas e achados de exame físico e o método e dosagem da radioterapia não diferiram daqueles encontrados na literatura. Todos os pacientes tiveram melhora dos sintomas e apenas um não foi considerado como tendo controle da doença. As complicações do tratamento foram de pouca repercussão, com exceção da anacusia e da paralisia facial. CONCLUSÃO: A radioterapia é uma alternativa viável para o tratamento desses tumores pela boa resposta e baixo índice de complicações. Deve ser considerada especialmente em tumores mais avançados onde um procedimento cirúrgico pode trazer grande morbidade.The treatment of glomic

  1. INCIDENCE AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ELDERLY IN THE ORTHOPEDIC CLINIC FOR FEMUR FRACTURE, CACERES MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Costa Ferreira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The elderly population is growing gradually in recent years, it increases theincidence of elderly people at risk of falls and hip fractures develop.Objective:To identifythe incidence and characterize elderly patients hospitalized with hip fractures in theOrthopedic Clinic of the Hospital Regional Dr º Antonio Cáceres sources.Methodology:Thisis an epidemiological, descriptive, quantitative and retrospective data collection documentbasis. The study population comprised 105.Results:It was found that the fracture of thefemur showed predominance in females, comprising 40.90% of the cases and the right lowerlimb most affected. As for location, the trochanteric fractures showed 39.04%, followed byfractures of the femoral shaftwith 27.61% of the cases. The treatment applied in 62.85% ofpatients went to surgery.Conclusion:It is concluded that the femur fracture may preclude theelderly in their daily activities.

  2. Infected Textiloma, 35 Years after the Operation for Femur Fracture, an extermly rare occurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghifar, Amir R; Saeed, Ali R

    2013-09-01

    Retained gauze after surgery is an uncommon error and it may be associated with many complications. We are reporting our case to call attention to the fact that retained gauze may become symptomatic even after a very long interval. Herein we report on a patient who developed infection and fistula with discharge from this error 35 years after a surgery for femur fracture and insertion of a IM nail. The diagnosis was easily made because of a marker in the gauze. Removal of the gauze and irrigation and debridement of the wound in two stages led to complete recovery of the patient as was shown in the 1 year follow up. Retained gauze after surgery is a preventable complication and may be asymptomatic for a very long period, but can become a complication post-operatively at any time. Hence, if diagnosed immediately after the surgery or at any other time, the gauze should be removed.

  3. Three-dimensional quantitative CT of the proximal femur: Relationship to vertebral trabecular bone density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasin, S.; Zlatkin, M.B.; Sartoris, D.J.; Andre, M.; Resnick, D.

    1987-01-01

    Integrated cancellous, cortical, and total bone density in the femoral neck and inter-trochanteric region was measured bilaterally in 25 women aged 35-90 years (mean age, 65). Contiguous-section (1-cm-thick) data were analyzed using three-dimensional histogram software on a Cemax 1000 image processor. Single-section quantitative CT was used to determine mean mineral equivalent values for vertebral cancellous bone from T-11 to L-3 in each woman. Significant correlation was found between cancellous bone density at the two sites. Cortical and total bone densities in the proximal femur were predicted less well with vertebral cancellous data, suggesting a greater dependence on weight-bearing and activity factors

  4. The impact of nicotine on osseointegration. An experimental study in the femur and tibia of rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balatsouka, Dimitra; Gotfredsen, Klaus; Lindh, Christian H

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of an enhanced systematic dose of nicotine on osseointegration of titanium implants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen female rabbits received either nicotine (n=8) or saline (n=8) administered subcutaneously via mini-osmotic pumps...... for 2 months. The pump delivered 6 mug/kg/min of nicotine for the animals in the test group. Blood was withdrawn and plasma cotinine levels were measured weekly. Thirty-two titanium implants were inserted into the femur and tibia of all rabbits after 4 weeks and after 6 weeks of nicotine...... and the peri-implant BD-i showed no significant differences between the test and the control group after 2 or after 4 weeks. CONCLUSION: Nicotine exposure for a short period of time even in a high dose did not have a significant impact on implant osseointegration in rabbits....

  5. Mechanical evaluation of hip pads to protect against fracture of elderly femurs in falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadano, Shigeru; Nakatsuchi, Hiroki; Goto, Naoko; Fujisaki, Kazuhiro; Nakatsuchi, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Hip fracture in the aged easily occurs by falls and may cause these persons to become bedridden. Hip pads are effective in protecting hip fracture as they directly deflect and absorb the impact forces by falls. It is necessary for the material and the structure of hip pads to be designed to realize both high impact absorption and compliance (comfort during wearing). In this report, an impact testing system was developed to test the impact absorbing performance of hip pad with air cushions designed by the research group. The impact absorbing performance was evaluated by the impact load, collision time, and maximum load. To confirm the effectiveness in protecting against hip fracture, an impact force was applied to the greater trochanter of the human femur and the degree of fracture was measured by X-ray examination. As a result, the hip pad with air cushions had a high impact absorbing performance and was sufficiently effective to protect against hip fracture.

  6. Total femur arthroplasty for revision hip failure in osteogenesis imperfecta: limits of biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sanz-Ruiz, PhD, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is a rare congenital disease characterized by alterations in bone quality, with susceptibility to fractures, instability, deformities, and osteoarthrosis. Prosthetic surgery in these patients is associated with an abnormally high rate of implant failures. On the other hand, abnormal bone fragility adds to the complexity of revision surgery in such individuals—thus representing a genuine challenge for the orthopaedic surgeon. We present a case of femoral reconstruction in a patient with OI and prosthetic loosening after reconstruction secondary to femoral septic pseudoarthrosis. Intramedullary total femoral reconstruction was carried out after exceeding the biological reconstruction limits. This is the first reported instance of the use of an intramedullary total femur arthroplasty as salvage technique in an OI patient. This technique should be considered when we have exceeded biological limits for femoral fixation.

  7. Bone architecture analyses of rat femur with 3D microtomographics images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, I.C.B.; Lopes, R.T.; Oliveira, L.F.

    2006-01-01

    One of the great 3D micro tomography (3D-μCT) applications in the medical area is the characterization of bone architecture, especially when it is spoken in osteoporosis because, among other factors, is characterized by the deterioration of the architecture. This work shows the 3D quantification, based on stereological concepts, of the bone tissue through 3D-μCT in real time. The analyses were carried out in femur rat and the 3D visualizations helped to understand bones morphology. The results showed the potential of this computational technique to verify the capability of characterization of the internal bone structures and the importance of the threshold level in the binarization process. (author)

  8. The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Overgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    of 3 months without treatment. Group 3 was left untreated and served as controls. All sheep received a restricted diet with low calcium and phosphorus. At sacrifice, cortical bone samples from the femur midshaft of each sheep were harvested, micro-CT scanned and subjected to three-point bending...... and tensile strength testing. Bone collagen and mineral were determined. Cortical porosity was significantly increased in the glucocorticoid-2 compared with the glucocorticoid-1 and control groups. Apparent density was significantly decreased in the glucocorticoid-2 compared with the glucocorticoid-1 group....... Collagen content was significantly increased in the glucocorticoid-2 compared with the glucocorticoid-1 and control groups. Bone mineral content did not differ between the groups. Neither the three-point bending mechanical properties nor the tensile mechanical properties differed significantly between...

  9. Spectroscopic studies of cow femurs and porites species coral from Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhlia Zafarina Zakaria; Fauziah Abdul Aziz; Nahulan Thevarajah

    2007-01-01

    Some cortical bone specimens from the femurs of adult cows and sea coral of Porites species were studied by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, FTIR. Carbonate were shown to be present by indication of C-O stretch found between 1510-1410 cm -1 in both cortical bone and porites. Based on the comparison of the relative intensity of CO 3 2- bands with respect to the PO 4 3- bands, peak intensity of porites was found to be higher than peak intensity of cortial bone at carbonated band. This explains that porites skeleton is made up of CaCO 3 while bone consists of a mineral, hydroxyapatite Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH with the present of carbonate ions, typically from 3 to 7 wt %. (Author)

  10. Customization of a generic 3D model of the distal femur using diagnostic radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, B; Reynolds, K J; Slavotinek, J P

    2008-01-01

    A method for the customization of a generic 3D model of the distal femur is presented. The customization method involves two steps: acquisition of calibrated orthogonal planar radiographs; and linear scaling of the generic model based on the width of a subject's femoral condyles as measured on the planar radiographs. Planar radiographs of seven intact lower cadaver limbs were obtained. The customized generic models were validated by comparing their surface geometry with that of CT-reconstructed reference models. The overall mean error was 1.2 mm. The results demonstrate that uniform scaling as a first step in the customization process produced a base model of accuracy comparable to other models reported in the literature.

  11. The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, Carl C; Overgaard, Søren

    2010-01-01

    The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone – Validation of large animal model for tissue engineering and biomaterial research Ming Ding,1* Carl Christian Danielsen,2 Søren Overgaard1 1Orthopaedic Research Laboratory......, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Odense University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense C, Denmark 2Department of Connective Tissue Biology, Institute of Anatomy, University of Aarhus, Aarhus C, Denmark Osteopenia in sheep has been successfully induced...... by glucocorticoid treatment and the changes in properties of cancellous bone were comparable with those observed in humans after long-term glucocorticoid treatment. However, the influence on cortical bone has not been thoroughly elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the influence of glucocorticoid on sheep...

  12. Study on validation method for femur finite element model under multiple loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Fengjiao; Zhang, Guanjun; Liu, Jie; Wang, Shujing; Luo, Xu

    2018-03-01

    Acquisition of accurate and reliable constitutive parameters related to bio-tissue materials was beneficial to improve biological fidelity of a Finite Element (FE) model and predict impact damages more effectively. In this paper, a femur FE model was established under multiple loading conditions with diverse impact positions. Then, based on sequential response surface method and genetic algorithms, the material parameters identification was transformed to a multi-response optimization problem. Finally, the simulation results successfully coincided with force-displacement curves obtained by numerous experiments. Thus, computational accuracy and efficiency of the entire inverse calculation process were enhanced. This method was able to effectively reduce the computation time in the inverse process of material parameters. Meanwhile, the material parameters obtained by the proposed method achieved higher accuracy.

  13. Relationship of homocysteine levels with lumbar spine and femur neck BMD in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Bahtiri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The focus of several studies in recent years has been the association between increased plasma concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy, reduced bone mineral density and increased risk of bone fractures. Nevertheless, inconsistencies persist in the literature. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between serum Hcy and vitamin B12 status, and bone mineral density, on a group of post-menopausal women. Materials and methods: One hundred thirty-nine postmenopausal women were recruited to enter this cross-sectional study. Bone mineral density (BMD of total hip, femoral neck and lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and serum Hcy, vitamin B12, parathyroid hormone (PTH, total calcium and magnesium levels were determined. In addition, we investigated the relationship of Hcy and vitamin B12 and BMD using a meta-analysis approach. Results: Serum Hcy levels were significantly higher in osteoporotic women when compared to other BMD groups, and were inversely related to lumbar spine BMD and femur neck BMD. Body mass index and serum Hcy levels were shown to be significant predictors of BMD at lumbar spine, femur neck and total hip. The performed meta-analysis showed that serum Hcy levels were significantly higher in osteoporotic subjects compared to normal BMD subjects. Conclusion: This study shows that Hcy status, but not vitamin B12 status, is associated with BMD in this cohort of postmenopausal women. We therefore confirm that high Hcy levels are an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. BMD evaluation in women at post menopause with high Hcy levels may be helpful in advising precautionary measures.

  14. Relationship of homocysteine levels with lumbar spine and femur neck BMD in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtiri, E; Islami, H; Rexhepi, S; Qorraj-Bytyqi, H; Thaçi, K; Thaçi, S; Karakulak, C; Hoxha, R

    2015-01-01

    The focus of several studies in recent years has been the association between increased plasma concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy), reduced bone mineral density and increased risk of bone fractures. Nevertheless, inconsistencies persist in the literature. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between serum Hcy and vitamin B12 status, and bone mineral density, on a group of post-menopausal women. One hundred thirty-nine postmenopausal women were recruited to enter this cross-sectional study. Bone mineral density (BMD) of total hip, femoral neck and lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and serum Hcy, vitamin B12, parathyroid hormone (PTH), total calcium and magnesium levels were determined. In addition, we investigated the relationship of Hcy and vitamin B12 and BMD using a meta-analysis approach. Serum Hcy levels were significantly higher in osteoporotic women when compared to other BMD groups, and were inversely related to lumbar spine BMD and femur neck BMD. Body mass index and serum Hcy levels were shown to be significant predictors of BMD at lumbar spine, femur neck and total hip. The performed meta-analysis showed that serum Hcy levels were significantly higher in osteoporotic subjects compared to normal BMD subjects. This study shows that Hcy status, but not vitamin B12 status, is associated with BMD in this cohort of postmenopausal women. We therefore confirm that high Hcy levels are an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. BMD evaluation in women at post menopause with high Hcy levels may be helpful in advising precautionary measures.

  15. Effect of Guava Extract Administration on Megakaryocytes Amount in Mice Femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Atik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a disease spread by mosquito’s bite. Dengue fever is marked by the presence of thrombocytopenia. Traditional crops such as guava are commonly used to treat dengue fever. This research aims to know the effect of guava extract administration towards megakaryocytes amount in mice femur. The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Pharmacology and Therapy, Histology Laboratory of Faculty of Medicine at Universitas Padjadjaran, Eijkman, Bandung from September until November 2016 using laboratory experimental study design. 20 Swiss webster mice strains were divided randomly into 4 groups. Group I and II were administered quinine 2.8 mg/20 grBW/day for 14 days to decrease amount of trombocytes. Group II and III were administered guava extract 0.785 mg/20 grBW/day for 5 days. Group IV was administered aquadest for 19 days. In the 27th day, the mice left femurs were collected and made into paraffin section preparations with hematoxylin-eosin staining and then observed under microscope. Group IV had the most megakaryocytes followed by Group II, III, and I. Based on Kruskal-Wallis test, a significant difference was shown (p<0.05. Mann-Whitney test showed that there were significant differences between Group I and Group II, III, and IV. Meanwhile there was no significant difference between normal mice and extract-given mice. Guava extract is proven statistically significant to increase the megakaryocytes amount in thrombocytopenic mice without increasing number of megakaryocytes in normal mice.

  16. Segmentation of radiographic images under topological constraints: application to the femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Pavan; Xie, Sheng Quan; Delmas, Patrice; Xu, Wei Liang

    2010-09-01

    A framework for radiographic image segmentation under topological control based on two-dimensional (2D) image analysis was developed. The system is intended for use in common radiological tasks including fracture treatment analysis, osteoarthritis diagnostics and osteotomy management planning. The segmentation framework utilizes a generic three-dimensional (3D) model of the bone of interest to define the anatomical topology. Non-rigid registration is performed between the projected contours of the generic 3D model and extracted edges of the X-ray image to achieve the segmentation. For fractured bones, the segmentation requires an additional step where a region-based active contours curve evolution is performed with a level set Mumford-Shah method to obtain the fracture surface edge. The application of the segmentation framework to analysis of human femur radiographs was evaluated. The proposed system has two major innovations. First, definition of the topological constraints does not require a statistical learning process, so the method is generally applicable to a variety of bony anatomy segmentation problems. Second, the methodology is able to handle both intact and fractured bone segmentation. Testing on clinical X-ray images yielded an average root mean squared distance (between the automatically segmented femur contour and the manual segmented ground truth) of 1.10 mm with a standard deviation of 0.13 mm. The proposed point correspondence estimation algorithm was benchmarked against three state-of-the-art point matching algorithms, demonstrating successful non-rigid registration for the cases of interest. A topologically constrained automatic bone contour segmentation framework was developed and tested, providing robustness to noise, outliers, deformations and occlusions.

  17. Segmentation of radiographic images under topological constraints: application to the femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamage, Pavan; Xie, Sheng Quan; Delmas, Patrice; Xu, Wei Liang

    2010-01-01

    A framework for radiographic image segmentation under topological control based on two-dimensional (2D) image analysis was developed. The system is intended for use in common radiological tasks including fracture treatment analysis, osteoarthritis diagnostics and osteotomy management planning. The segmentation framework utilizes a generic three-dimensional (3D) model of the bone of interest to define the anatomical topology. Non-rigid registration is performed between the projected contours of the generic 3D model and extracted edges of the X-ray image to achieve the segmentation. For fractured bones, the segmentation requires an additional step where a region-based active contours curve evolution is performed with a level set Mumford-Shah method to obtain the fracture surface edge. The application of the segmentation framework to analysis of human femur radiographs was evaluated. The proposed system has two major innovations. First, definition of the topological constraints does not require a statistical learning process, so the method is generally applicable to a variety of bony anatomy segmentation problems. Second, the methodology is able to handle both intact and fractured bone segmentation. Testing on clinical X-ray images yielded an average root mean squared distance (between the automatically segmented femur contour and the manual segmented ground truth) of 1.10 mm with a standard deviation of 0.13 mm. The proposed point correspondence estimation algorithm was benchmarked against three state-of-the-art point matching algorithms, demonstrating successful non-rigid registration for the cases of interest. A topologically constrained automatic bone contour segmentation framework was developed and tested, providing robustness to noise, outliers, deformations and occlusions. (orig.)

  18. Segmentation of radiographic images under topological constraints: application to the femur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamage, Pavan; Xie, Sheng Quan [University of Auckland, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Mechatronics), Auckland (New Zealand); Delmas, Patrice [University of Auckland, Department of Computer Science, Auckland (New Zealand); Xu, Wei Liang [Massey University, School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2010-09-15

    A framework for radiographic image segmentation under topological control based on two-dimensional (2D) image analysis was developed. The system is intended for use in common radiological tasks including fracture treatment analysis, osteoarthritis diagnostics and osteotomy management planning. The segmentation framework utilizes a generic three-dimensional (3D) model of the bone of interest to define the anatomical topology. Non-rigid registration is performed between the projected contours of the generic 3D model and extracted edges of the X-ray image to achieve the segmentation. For fractured bones, the segmentation requires an additional step where a region-based active contours curve evolution is performed with a level set Mumford-Shah method to obtain the fracture surface edge. The application of the segmentation framework to analysis of human femur radiographs was evaluated. The proposed system has two major innovations. First, definition of the topological constraints does not require a statistical learning process, so the method is generally applicable to a variety of bony anatomy segmentation problems. Second, the methodology is able to handle both intact and fractured bone segmentation. Testing on clinical X-ray images yielded an average root mean squared distance (between the automatically segmented femur contour and the manual segmented ground truth) of 1.10 mm with a standard deviation of 0.13 mm. The proposed point correspondence estimation algorithm was benchmarked against three state-of-the-art point matching algorithms, demonstrating successful non-rigid registration for the cases of interest. A topologically constrained automatic bone contour segmentation framework was developed and tested, providing robustness to noise, outliers, deformations and occlusions. (orig.)

  19. Individual-specific multi-scale finite element simulation of cortical bone of human proximal femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascenzi, Maria-Grazia; Kawas, Neal P.; Lutz, Andre; Kardas, Dieter; Nackenhorst, Udo; Keyak, Joyce H.

    2013-01-01

    We present an innovative method to perform multi-scale finite element analyses of the cortical component of the femur using the individual’s (1) computed tomography scan; and (2) a bone specimen obtained in conjunction with orthopedic surgery. The method enables study of micro-structural characteristics regulating strains and stresses under physiological loading conditions. The analysis of the micro-structural scenarios that cause variation of strain and stress is the first step in understanding the elevated strains and stresses in bone tissue, which are indicative of higher likelihood of micro-crack formation in bone, implicated in consequent remodeling or macroscopic bone fracture. Evidence that micro-structure varies with clinical history and contributes in significant, but poorly understood, ways to bone function, motivates the method’s development, as does need for software tools to investigate relationships between macroscopic loading and micro-structure. Three applications – varying region of interest, bone mineral density, and orientation of collagen type I, illustrate the method. We show, in comparison between physiological loading and simple compression of a patient’s femur, that strains computed at the multi-scale model’s micro-level: (i) differ; and (ii) depend on local collagen-apatite orientation and degree of calcification. Our findings confirm the strain concentration role of osteocyte lacunae, important for mechano-transduction. We hypothesize occurrence of micro-crack formation, leading either to remodeling or macroscopic fracture, when the computed strains exceed the elastic range observed in micro-structural testing

  20. Individual-specific multi-scale finite element simulation of cortical bone of human proximal femur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascenzi, Maria-Grazia, E-mail: mgascenzi@mednet.ucla.edu [UCLA/Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rehabilitation Bldg, Room 22-69, 1000 Veteran Avenue, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kawas, Neal P., E-mail: nealkawas@ucla.edu [UCLA/Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rehabilitation Bldg, Room 22-69, 1000 Veteran Avenue, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lutz, Andre, E-mail: andre.lutz@hotmail.de [Institute of Biomechanics and Numerical Mechanics, Leibniz University Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Kardas, Dieter, E-mail: kardas@ibnm.uni-hannover.de [ContiTech Vibration Control, Jaedekamp 30 None, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Nackenhorst, Udo, E-mail: nackenhorst@ibnm.uni-hannover.de [Institute of Biomechanics and Numerical Mechanics, Leibniz University Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Keyak, Joyce H., E-mail: jhkeyak@uci.edu [Department of Radiological Sciences, Medical Sciences I, Bldg 811, Room B140, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-5000 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We present an innovative method to perform multi-scale finite element analyses of the cortical component of the femur using the individual’s (1) computed tomography scan; and (2) a bone specimen obtained in conjunction with orthopedic surgery. The method enables study of micro-structural characteristics regulating strains and stresses under physiological loading conditions. The analysis of the micro-structural scenarios that cause variation of strain and stress is the first step in understanding the elevated strains and stresses in bone tissue, which are indicative of higher likelihood of micro-crack formation in bone, implicated in consequent remodeling or macroscopic bone fracture. Evidence that micro-structure varies with clinical history and contributes in significant, but poorly understood, ways to bone function, motivates the method’s development, as does need for software tools to investigate relationships between macroscopic loading and micro-structure. Three applications – varying region of interest, bone mineral density, and orientation of collagen type I, illustrate the method. We show, in comparison between physiological loading and simple compression of a patient’s femur, that strains computed at the multi-scale model’s micro-level: (i) differ; and (ii) depend on local collagen-apatite orientation and degree of calcification. Our findings confirm the strain concentration role of osteocyte lacunae, important for mechano-transduction. We hypothesize occurrence of micro-crack formation, leading either to remodeling or macroscopic fracture, when the computed strains exceed the elastic range observed in micro-structural testing.

  1. Cyclic hydrostatic pressure stimulates enhanced bone development in the foetal chick femur in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henstock, J R; Rotherham, M; Rose, J B; El Haj, A J

    2013-04-01

    Mechanical loading of bone and cartilage in vivo results in the generation of cyclic hydrostatic forces as bone compression is transduced to fluid pressure in the canalicular network and the joint synovium. It has therefore been suggested that hydrostatic pressure is an important stimulus by which osteochondral cells and their progenitors sense and respond to mechanical loading in vivo. In this study, hydrostatic pressure regimes of 0-279kPa at 0.005-2Hz were applied to organotypically cultured ex vivo chick foetal femurs (e11) for 1hour per day in a custom designed bioreactor for 14days and bone formation assessed by X-ray microtomography and qualified by histology. We found that the mineralised portion of the developing femur cultured under any cyclic hydrostatic pressure regime was significantly larger and/or denser than unstimulated controls but that constant (non-cycling) hydrostatic pressure had no effect on bone growth. Further experiments showed that the increase in bone formation was directly proportional to stimulation frequency (R(2)=0.917), but independent of the magnitude of the pressure applied, whilst even very low frequencies of stimulation (0.005Hz) had significant effects on bone growth. Expression of Type-II collagen in both epiphyses and diaphysis was significantly upregulated (1.48-fold and 1.95-fold respectively), together with osteogenic genes (osteonectin and osteopontin) and the osteocyte maturation marker CD44. This work demonstrates that cyclic hydrostatic pressure promotes bone growth and mineralisation in a developmental model and supports the hypothesis that hydrostatic forces play an important role in regulating bone growth and remodelling in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mineral to matrix ratio determines biomaterial and biomechanical properties of rat femur--application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Shinjiro; Yonezu, Hiroshi; Shibata, Akira; Enishi, Tetsuya; Sato, Nori; Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Nakao, Shigetaka; Komatsu, Koji; Yasui, Natsuo

    2011-08-01

    We studied the changes of biomaterial and biomechanical properties of the rat femur during development. Thirty male Wistar rats were allocated to 6 groups: aged 6 weeks (n=5), 9 weeks (n=5), 12 weeks (n=5), 15 weeks (n=5), 24 weeks (n=5), and 36 weeks (n=5). The mineral to matrix ratio (M/M ratio) of rat femur by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was 0.97 ± 0.10 at the age of 6 weeks, and reached the maximum of 1.52 ± 0.17 at the age of 36 weeks. Total bone mineral density (BMD) by peripheral quantitative computed tomography of the femoral shaft aged 6 weeks was 479.1 ± 58.7 mg/cm(3), and reached the maximum of 1022.2 ± 42.3 mg/cm(3) at the age of 36 weeks. The ultimate load to failure of the femur of the rat aged 6 weeks by the three-point bending test was 29.6 ± 6.1 N. At the age of 36 weeks, the ultimate load to failure of the rat femur increased to the maximum of 283.5 ± 14.7 N. The results showed that the M/M ratio increased with development as total BMD and bone strength increased. The results suggest that the M/M ratio is one of the determinants of the biomaterial and biomechanical properties of bone.

  3. Subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femur fractures in patients treated with alendronate: a register-based national cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Eiken, Pia; Eastell, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Alendronate (aln) is a potent bisphosphonate with a prolonged duration of action. Recent reports have found long-term aln use to be common in patients with subtrochanteric or proximal diaphyseal femur fracture, raising concerns that these fractures could be a consequence of excessive suppression...

  4. One-Piece Zirconia Ceramic versus Titanium Implants in the Jaw and Femur of a Sheep Model: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, A; Duncan, W J; De Silva, R K; Zafar, S

    2016-01-01

    Reports have documented titanium (Ti) hypersensitivity after dental implant treatment. Alternative materials have been suggested including zirconia (Zr) ceramics, which have shown predictable osseointegration in animal studies and appear free of immune responses. The aim of the research was to investigate the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) of one-piece Zr, compared with one-piece Ti implants, placed in the jaws and femurs of domestic sheep. Ten New Zealand mixed breed sheep were used. A One-piece prototype Ti (control) and one Zr (test) implant were placed in the mandible, and one of each implant (Ti and Zr) was placed into the femoral epicondyle of each animal. The femur implants were submerged and unloaded; the mandibular implants were placed using a one-stage transgingival protocol and were nonsubmerged. After a healing period of 12 weeks, %BIC was measured. The overall survival rate for mandibular and femur implants combined was 87.5%. %BIC was higher for Zr implants versus Ti implants in the femur (85.5%, versus 78.9%) ( p = 0.002). Zirconia implants in the mandible showed comparable %BIC to titanium implants (72.2%, versus 60.3%) ( p = 0.087). High failure rate of both Zr and Ti one-piece implants in the jaw could be attributed to the one-piece design and surface characteristics of the implant that could have influenced osseointegration. Further clinical trials are recommended to evaluate the performance of zirconia implants under loading conditions.

  5. [Remodeling simulation of human femur under bed rest and spaceflight circumstances based on three dimensional finite element analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenting; Wang, Dongmei; Lei, Zhoujixin; Wang, Chunhui; Chen, Shanguang

    2017-12-01

    Astronauts who are exposed to weightless environment in long-term spaceflight might encounter bone density and mass loss for the mechanical stimulus is smaller than normal value. This study built a three dimensional model of human femur to simulate the remodeling process of human femur during bed rest experiment based on finite element analysis (FEA). The remodeling parameters of this finite element model was validated after comparing experimental and numerical results. Then, the remodeling process of human femur in weightless environment was simulated, and the remodeling function of time was derived. The loading magnitude and loading cycle on human femur during weightless environment were increased to simulate the exercise against bone loss. Simulation results showed that increasing loading magnitude is more effective in diminishing bone loss than increasing loading cycles, which demonstrated that exercise of certain intensity could help resist bone loss during long-term spaceflight. At the end, this study simulated the bone recovery process after spaceflight. It was found that the bone absorption rate is larger than bone formation rate. We advise that astronauts should take exercise during spaceflight to resist bone loss.

  6. Safe zones and a technical guide for cerclage wiring of the femur: a computed topographic angiogram (CTA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apivatthakakul, Theerachai; Siripipattanamongkol, P; Oh, Chang-Wug; Sananpanich, K; Phornphutkul, C

    2018-01-01

    Cerclage wiring for reduction of complex femoral shaft fractures can create iatrogenic vascular injury. To describe the anatomical relation of blood vessels to the femur and develop a technical guide for safe passage of cerclage wire. CT lower-limb angiographs (CTA) of 80 patients were reviewed and analysed to identify the superficial femoral artery (SFA) and the deep femoral artery (DFA) as well as the relation of those arteries to the femoral cortex. The total length of the femur was measured and divided into eight equal segments (seven levels). At each level, the medial half of the femur was divided into eight sectors labelled A through H and the position of the SFA and DFA was recorded. The shortest distance between the femoral cortex and the SFA and DFA at each level was measured. The data was analysed using STATA version 10.0. The average total femoral length from the tip of greater trochanter to lateral joint line was 402.98 ± 26.16 cm. The average distances from the SFA to the femur (d1) for levels 1 through 7 were 37.20 ± 5.0, 32.09 ± 4.74, 27.13 ± 4.19, 27.71 ± 5.46, 23.71 ± 4.40, 13.63 ± 3.59 and 10.08 ± 3.09 mm, respectively. The average distances between the DFA and the femur (d2) for levels 1 through 3 were 26.70 ± 4.13, 14.76 ± 3.27 and 9.58 ± 3.79 mm, respectively. The position of the SFA is located in sectors B through E at levels 1-3 and in sectors E through H at levels 4-7 and the position of the DFA located in sectors B through F at levels 1-3. Cerclage wiring should be started from the posterior intermuscular septum at the linea aspera. The safe area is the proximal half (midshaft) of the femur where the SFA and DFA lie at a safe distance from the femur. Between the midshaft and the distal 1/4, insertion of the passer must be done meticulously with the tip kept close to posteromedial cortex. Below the distal 1/4, the tip of the passer should be kept close to the posterior cortex to avoid injury to the SFA and

  7. PROSPECTIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE CLINICAL, RADIOGRAPHIC AND FUNCTIONAL EVOLUTION OF TREATMENT FOR UNSTABLE TROCHANTERIC FRACTURES OF THE FEMUR USING A CEPHALOMEDULLARY NAIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borger, Richard Armelin; Borger, Frederico Araújo; Pires de Araújo, Rodrigo; Pereira, Thiago Ferreira Nunes; Queiroz, Roberto Dantas

    2011-01-01

    To assess the clinical, radiological and functional evolution of osteosynthesis using a cephalomedullary nail, in unstable trochanteric fractures of the femur, over a one-year postoperative follow-up. Fourteen men and 23 women of mean age 77.7 years were evaluated. Twenty-seven of them had fractures classified as AO/ASIF 31A2 and ten as 31A3. The patients were evaluated clinically, radiologically and functionally one week, two weeks, one month, two months, six months and one year after the operation. The clinical complications comprised five cases of death, one case of calcaneal ulcer, one case of acute arterial obstruction and two cases of deep vein thrombosis. The radiographic evaluation showed that the mean cervicodiaphyseal angle in the immediate postoperative period was 132.5°. The mean tip-apex index was 22.8 mm. After one year, the mean cervicodiaphyseal angle was 131.7°. Fracture consolidation was seen in all the patients six months after the operation, except in one case that presented cut-out. There were no cases of fracture below the implant. The functional evaluation using the Harris score after one year showed a mean of 69.3 points. The evaluation of walking progress showed that after one year, 40.6% of the patients had the same ability to walk that they had before the fracture. The visual analogue pain scale showed that a significant decrease in pain complaints occurred, going from 5.19 in the first week to 2.25 after 1 year. Osteosynthesis using a cephalomedullary nail resulted in low rates of clinical and mechanical complications and adequate functional outcomes.

  8. Reconstruction of juxta-articular huge defects of distal femur with vascularized fibular bone graft and Ilizarov's distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Davy; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Chiu, Fang-Yao; Chang, Ming-Chau; Chen, Tain-Hsiung

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the effect of reconstructing huge defects (mean, 15.8 cm) of the distal femur with Ilizarov's distraction osteogenesis and free twin-barreled vascularized fibular bone graft (TVFG). We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive series of five patients who had cases of distal femoral fractures with huge defects and infection that were treated by the Ilizarov's distraction osteogenesis. After radical debridement, two of the five cases had free TVFG and monolocal distraction osteogenesis, and another two cases had multilocal distraction osteogenesis with knee fusion because of loss of the joint congruity. The other case with floating knee injury had bilocal distraction osteogenesis and a preserved knee joint. The mean defect of distal femur was 15.8 cm (range, 14-18 cm) in length. The mean length of distraction osteogenesis by Ilizarov's apparatus was 8.2 cm. The mean length of TVFG was 8 cm. The average duration from application of Ilizarov's apparatus to achievement of bony union was 10.2 months (range, 8-13 months). At the end of the follow-up, ranges of motion of three knees were 0 to 45 degrees, 0 to 60 degrees, and 0 to 90 degrees. Two cases had knee arthrodesis with bony fusion because of loss of the joint congruity. There were no leg length discrepancies in all five patients. In addition, three patients had pin tract infections and one case had a 10 degree varus deformity of the femur. Juxta-articular huge defect (>10 cm) of distal femur remains a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. Ilizarov's technique provides the capability to maintain stability, eradicate infection, restore leg length, and to perform adjuvant reconstructive procedure easily. In this study, we found that combining Ilizarov's distraction osteogenesis with TVFG results in improved patient outcome for patients with injuries such as supracondylar or intercondylar infected fractures or nonunion of distal femur with huge bone defect.

  9. A novel framework for the temporal analysis of bone mineral density in metastatic lesions using CT images of the femur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, Tom H.; Derikx, Loes C.; Verdonschot, Nico; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2015-03-01

    In the progressive stages of cancer, metastatic lesions in often develop in the femur. The accompanying pain and risk of fracture dramatically affect the quality of life of the patient. Radiotherapy is often administered as palliative treatment to relieve pain and restore the bone around the lesion. It is thought to affect the bone mineralization of the treated region, but the quantitative relation between radiation dose and femur remineralization remains unclear. A new framework for the longitudinal analysis of CT-scans of patients receiving radiotherapy is presented to investigate this relationship. The implemented framework is capable of automatic calibration of Hounsfield Units to calcium equivalent values and the estimation of a prediction interval per scan. Other features of the framework are temporal registration of femurs using elastix, transformation of arbitrary Regions Of Interests (ROI), and extraction of metrics for analysis. Build in Matlab, the modular approach aids easy adaptation to the pertinent questions in the explorative phase of the research. For validation purposes, an in-vitro model consisting of a human cadaver femur with a milled hole in the intertrochanteric region was used, representing a femur with a metastatic lesion. The hole was incrementally stacked with plates of PMMA bone cement with variable radiopaqueness. Using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test, changes in density distribution due to an increase of the calcium concentration could be discriminated. In a 21 cm3 ROI, changes in 8% of the volume from 888 ± 57mg • ml-1 to 1000 ± 80mg • ml-1 could be statistically proven using the proposed framework. In conclusion, the newly developed framework proved to be a useful and flexible tool for the analysis of longitudinal CT data.

  10. Short-term muscle atrophy caused by botulinum toxin-A local injection impairs fracture healing in the rat femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yongqiang; Ma, Yongcheng; Wang, Xuepeng; Jin, Fangchun; Ge, Shengfang

    2012-04-01

    Damaged bone is sensitive to mechanical stimulation throughout the remodeling phase of bone healing. Muscle damage and muscular atrophy associated with open fractures and subsequent fixation are not beneficial to maintaining optimum conditions for mechanical stability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether local muscle atrophy and dysfunction affect fracture healing in a rat femur fracture model. We combined the rat model of a short period atrophy of the quadriceps with femur fracture. Forty-four-month-old male Wistar rats were adopted for this study. Two units of botulinum toxin-A (BXTA) were administered locally into the right side of the quadriceps of each rat, while the same dose of saline was injected into the contralateral quadriceps. After BXTA had been fully absorbed by the quadriceps, osteotomy was performed in both femurs with intramedullary fixation. Gross observation and weighing of muscle tissue, X-ray analysis, callus histology, and bone biomechanical testing were performed at different time points up to 8 weeks post-surgery. Local injection of BXTA led to a significant decrease in the volume and weight of the quadriceps compared to the control side. At the eighth week, the left side femurs of the saline-injected quadriceps almost reached bony union, and fibrous calluses were completely calcified into woven bone. However, a gap was still visible in the BXTA-treated side on X-ray images. As showed by bone histology, there were no mature osseous calluses or woven bone on the BXTA-treated side, but a resorption pattern was evident. Biomechanical testing indicated that the femurs of the BXTA-treated side exhibited inferior mechanical properties compared with the control side. The inferior outcome following BXTA injection, compared with saline injection, in terms of callus resistance may be the consequence of unexpected load and mechanical unsteadiness caused by muscle atrophy and dysfunction. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  11. Effects of administration of four different doses of Escherichia coli phytase on femur properties of 16-week-old turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Kozłowski, Krzysztof; Drażbo, Aleksandra; Jankowski, Jan

    2015-03-18

    The enzyme phytase is able to initiate the release of phosphates from phytic acid, making it available for absorption within gastrointestinal tract and following utilization. The aim of the study was to determine effects of Escherichia coli phytase administration on morphological, densitometric and mechanical properties of femur in 16-week-old turkeys. One-day-old BUT Big-6 males were assigned to six weight-matched groups. Turkeys receiving diet with standard phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) content belonged to the positive control group (Group I). Negative control group (Group II) consisted of birds fed diet with lowered P and Ca content. Turkeys belonging to the remaining groups have received the same diet as group II but enriched with graded levels of Escherichia coli phytase: 125 (Group III), 250 (Group IV), 500 (Group V) and 1000 (Group VI) FTU/kg. At the age of 112 days of life, the final body weights were determined and the turkeys were sacrificed to obtain right femur for analyses. Geometric and densitometric properties of femur were determined using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) technique, while mechanical evaluation was performed in three-point bending test. Phytase administration increased cross-sectional area, second moment of inertia, mean relative wall thickness, cortical bone mineral density and maximum elastic strength decreasing cortical bone area of femur (P phytase administration on geometric, densitometric and mechanical properties of femur were observed in turkeys receiving 125 and 250 FTU/kg of the diet. Phytase administration at the dosages of 500 and 1000 FTU/kg of the diet improved the final body weight in turkeys. The results obtained in this study indicate a possible practical application of Escherichia coli phytase in turkey feeding to improve skeletal system properties and function.

  12. Hepatotoxicidade associada ao uso de esteroides anabolizantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Brinquinho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de esteroides androgénicos anabolizantes tem vindo a aumentar no meio desportivo amador, sendo de fácil acesso apesar de se tratarem de substâncias proibidas. Estão descritos múltiplos efeitos laterais, sendo a hepatotoxicidade uma das mais reportadas. Apresentam-se dois casos clínicos representativos da lesão hepática associada ao consumo de esteroides anabolizantes. Ambos evidenciaram morbilidade significativa, embora nenhum deles tenha evoluído para falência hepática. Os autores pretendem chamar a atenção para o consumo destes fármacos, particularmente frequente em indivíduos jovens, praticantes de desporto amador.

  13. Do thoraco-lumbar spinal injuries classification systems exhibit lower inter- and intra-observer agreement than other fractures classifications?: A comparison using fractures of the trochanteric area of the proximal femur as contrast model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Julio; Zamora, Tomas; Klaber, Ianiv; Carmona, Maximiliano; Palma, Joaquin; Campos, Mauricio; Yurac, Ratko

    2016-04-01

    It has been postulated that the complex patterns of spinal injuries have prevented adequate agreement using thoraco-lumbar spinal injuries (TLSI) classifications; however, limb fracture classifications have also shown variable agreements. This study compared agreement using two TLSI classifications with agreement using two classifications of fractures of the trochanteric area of the proximal femur (FTAPF). Six evaluators classified the radiographs and computed tomography scans of 70 patients with acute TLSI using the Denis and the new AO Spine thoraco-lumbar injury classifications. Additionally, six evaluators classified the radiographs of 70 patients with FTAPF using the Tronzo and the AO schemes. Six weeks later, all cases were presented in a random sequence for repeat assessment. The Kappa coefficient (κ) was used to determine agreement. Inter-observer agreement: For TLSI, using the AOSpine classification, the mean κ was 0.62 (0.57-0.66) considering fracture types, and 0.55 (0.52-0.57) considering sub-types; using the Denis classification, κ was 0.62 (0.59-0.65). For FTAPF, with the AO scheme, the mean κ was 0.58 (0.54-0.63) considering fracture types and 0.31 (0.28-0.33) considering sub-types; for the Tronzo classification, κ was 0.54 (0.50-0.57). Intra-observer agreement: For TLSI, using the AOSpine scheme, the mean κ was 0.77 (0.72-0.83) considering fracture types, and 0.71 (0.67-0.76) considering sub-types; for the Denis classification, κ was 0.76 (0.71-0.81). For FTAPF, with the AO scheme, the mean κ was 0.75 (0.69-0.81) considering fracture types and 0.45 (0.39-0.51) considering sub-types; for the Tronzo classification, κ was 0.64 (0.58-0.70). Using the main types of AO classifications, inter- and intra-observer agreement of TLSI were comparable to agreement evaluating FTAPF; including sub-types, inter- and intra-observer agreement evaluating TLSI were significantly better than assessing FTAPF. Inter- and intra-observer agreements using the Denis

  14. Identify fracture-critical regions inside the proximal femur using statistical parametric mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjun; Kornak, John; Harris, Tamara; Keyak, Joyce; Li, Caixia; Lu, Ying; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Lang, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We identified regions inside the proximal femur that are most strongly associated with hip fracture. Bone densitometry based on such fracture-critical regions showed improved power in discriminating fracture patients from controls. Introduction Hip fractures typically occur in lateral falls, with focal mechanical failure of the sub-volumes of tissue in which the applied stress exceeds the strength. In this study, we describe a new methodology to identify proximal femoral tissue elements with highest association with hip fracture. We hypothesize that bone mineral density (BMD) measured in such sub-volumes discriminates hip fracture risk better than BMD in standard anatomic regions such as the femoral neck and trochanter. Materials and Methods We employed inter-subject registration to transform hip QCT images of 37 patients with hip fractures and 38 age-matched controls into a voxel-based statistical atlas. Within voxels, we performed t-tests between the two groups to identify the regions which differed most. We then randomly divided the 75 scans into a training set and a test set. From the training set, we derived a fracture-driven region of interest (ROI) based on association with fracture. In the test set, we measured BMD in this ROI to determine fracture discrimination efficacy using ROC analysis. Additionally, we compared the BMD distribution differences between the 29 patients with neck fractures and the 8 patients with trochanteric fractures. Results By evaluating fracture discrimination power based on ROC analysis, the fracture-driven ROI had an AUC (area under curve) of 0.92, while anatomic ROIs (including the entire proximal femur, the femoral neck, trochanter and their cortical and trabecular compartments) had AUC values between 0.78 and 0.87. We also observed that the neck fracture patients had lower BMD (p=0.014) in a small region near the femoral neck and the femoral head, and patients with trochanteric fractures had lower BMD in trochanteric regions

  15. Hemi replacement arthroplasty for unstable inter-trochanteric fractures of femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhir; Shrivastava, Chetan; Kumar, Sanjiv

    2014-10-01

    Unstable inter-trochanteric fracture in the geriatric population is a common injury and is associated with poor bone quality, excessive collapse, loss of fixation, and cut-out of the lag screw, are the common problems of attempts to fix these fractures. Present study is an attempt to evaluate the functional outcome of primary cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty in unstable inter-trochanteric fractures in elderly patients. This prospective study included 25 cases with unstable inter-trochanteric fracture of femur between 60 -75 y of age in whom primary Cemented Bipolar hemi - arthroplasty was performed. The patients were followed up at six week, three month, six month and one year postoperatively and assessed using Harris Hip Score (HHS), Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS), Visual analogue scale (VAS) for evaluation of outcome. The mean HHS score was 78.86+8.13 by the end of one year. Similarly mean LEFS score was 34.36+7.01 by the end of one year, whereas the mean pain score on VAS Scale by the year end was 1.04+1.02. The changes in HHS, LEFS and VAS up to six months periods are much greater which starts showing a stable trend thereafter. Fair to good scores were observed in all the patients. We compared our results with those reported by other authors and our study gave quite comparable results. We also used lower extremity function status score (LEFS) for assessment of functional ability. The purpose of its use was that while Harris Hip Score (HHS) provides information on a multitude of factors, LEFS is more patient oriented and provides the correct information about the level of activities a patient can resume post-operatively and can be offered as a self assessment tool. No significant complication except for grade I pressure sores in four patients were seen in postoperative period but they all resolved with proper nursing care by six week follow up. No patient required revision surgery. The authors believe that primary cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty for

  16. Computer-navigated minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty for patients with retained implants in the femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yen Lin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Total knee arthroplasty (TKA in patients with knee arthritis and retained implants in the ipsilateral femur is a challenge for knee surgeons. Use of a conventional intramedullary femoral cutting guide is not practical because of the obstruction of the medullary canal by implants. Previous studies have shown that computer-assisted surgery (CAS can help restore alignment in conventional TKA for patients with knee arthritis with retained femoral implants or extra-articular deformity, without the need for implant removal or osteotomy. However, little has been published regarding outcomes with the use of navigation in minimally invasive surgery (MIS-TKA for patients with this complex knee arthritis. MIS has been proven to provide less postoperative pain and faster recovery than conventional TKA, but MIS-TKA in patients with retained femoral implants poses a greater risk in limb malalignment. The purpose of this study is to report the outcome of CAS-MIS-TKA in patients with knee arthritis and retained femoral implants. Between April 2006 and March 2008, eight patients with knee arthritis and retained femoral implants who underwent the CAS-MIS-TKA were retrospectively reviewed. Three of the eight patients had extra-articular deformity, including two femur bones and one tibia bone, in the preoperative examination. The anteroposterior, lateral, and long-leg weight-bearing radiographs carried out at 3-month follow-up was used to determine the mechanical axis of lower limb and the position of components. The mean preoperative femorotibial angle in patients without extra-articular deformity was 3.8° of varus and was corrected to 4.6° of valgus. With the use of navigation in MIS-TKA, the two patients in this study with extra-articular femoral deformity also obtained an ideal postoperative mechanical axis within 2° of normal alignment. Overall, there was a good restoration of postoperative mechanical alignment in all cases, with a mean angle of 0.4° of

  17. Computed tomographic evaluation of the proximal femur: A predictive classification in displaced femoral neck fracture management

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    Narender Kumar Magu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femoral neck fracture is truly an enigma due to the high incidence of avascular necrosis and nonunion. Different methods have been described to determine the size of the femoral head fragment, as a small head has been said to be associated with poor outcome and nonunion due to inadequate implant purchase in the proximal fragment. These methods were two dimensional and were affected by radiography techniques, therefore did not determine true head size. Computed tomography (CT is an important option to measure true head size as images can be obtained in three dimensions. Henceforth, we subjected patients to CT scan of hip in cases with displaced fracture neck of femur. The study aims to define the term "small head or inadequate size femoral head" objectively for its prognostic significance. Materials and Methods: 70 cases of displaced femoral neck fractures underwent CT scan preoperatively for proximal femoral geometric measurements of both hips. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was done in all cases. Patients were treated with either intertrochanteric osteotomy or lag screw osteosynthesis based on the size of the head fragment on plain radiographs. Results: The average femoral head fragment volume was 57 cu cm (range 28.3-84.91 cu cm; standard deviation 14 cu cm. Proximal fragment volume of >43 cu cm was termed adequate size (type I and of ≤43 cu cm as small femoral head (type II. Fractures which united (n = 54 had a relatively large average head size (59 cu cm when compared to fractures that did not (n = 16, which had a small average head size (49 cu cm and this difference was statistically significant. In type I fractures union rate was comparable in both osteotomy and lag screw groups (P > 0.05. Lag screw fixation failed invariably, while osteotomy showed good results in type II fractures (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Computed tomography scan of the proximal femur is advisable for measuring true size of head fragment. An objective

  18. The efficacy of single-stage open intramedullary nailing of neglected femur fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopalan, P R J V C; Sait, Azad; Jepegnanam, Thilak Samuel; Matthai, Thomas; Varghese, Viju Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Neglected femur fractures are not rare in the developing world. Treatment options include single-stage open reduction and intramedullary nailing, or open release, skeletal traction, and then second-stage open intramedullary nailing, with bone grafting. Single-stage procedures have the potential advantage of avoiding neurovascular complications secondary to acute lengthening, but they require a second operation, with potentially increased resource use and infection risk. We sought to determine the (1) likelihood of union, (2) complications and reoperations, and (3) functional results with single-stage open intramedullary nailing without bone grafting in patients with neglected femur fractures. Between January 2003 and December 2007, 17 consecutive patients presented to our practice with neglected femoral shaft fractures. All were treated with single-stage nailing without bone grafting. There were 15 men and two women with a median age of 27 years. The average time from fracture to treatment was 13 weeks (range, 4-44 weeks). Eleven patients underwent open nailing with interlocked nails and six were treated with cloverleaf Kuntscher nails. Patients were followed for a minimum of 6 months (mean, 33 months; range, 6-72 months). The mean preoperative ROM of the knee was 28° (range, 10°-150°) and femoral length discrepancy was 3.1 cm (range, 1-5 cm). All fractures united and the mean time to union was 16 weeks (range, 7-32 weeks). There were no neurologic complications secondary to acute lengthening. The mean postoperative ROM of the knee was 130° (range, 60°-150°). All patients were able to return to preinjury work. Sixteen patients regained their original femoral length. One-stage open intramedullary nailing of neglected femoral diaphyseal fractures without bone grafting was safe and effective, and obviated the need for a two-stage approach. Although the findings need to be replicated in larger numbers of patients, we believe this technique may be useful in

  19. Photon counting arrays for AO wavefront sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Vallerga, J; McPhate, J; Mikulec, Bettina; Clark, Allan G; Siegmund, O; CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Future wavefront sensors for AO on large telescopes will require a large number of pixels and must operate at high frame rates. Unfortunately for CCDs, there is a readout noise penalty for operating faster, and this noise can add up rather quickly when considering the number of pixels required for the extended shape of a sodium laser guide star observed with a large telescope. Imaging photon counting detectors have zero readout noise and many pixels, but have suffered in the past with low QE at the longer wavelengths (>500 nm). Recent developments in GaAs photocathode technology, CMOS ASIC readouts and FPGA processing electronics have resulted in noiseless WFS detector designs that are competitive with silicon array detectors, though at ~40% the QE of CCDs. We review noiseless array detectors and compare their centroiding performance with CCDs using the best available characteristics of each. We show that for sub-aperture binning of 6x6 and greater that noiseless detectors have a smaller centroid error at flu...

  20. Adesao ao guia alimentar para populacao brasileira

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    Eliseu Verly Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO : Analisar a adesão ao Guia Alimentar para População Brasileira. MÉTODOS : Amostra composta por participantes do Inquérito de Saúde de São Paulo (n = 1.661 que preencheram dois recordatórios de 24 horas. Foi utilizado modelo bivariado de efeito misto para a razão entre o consumo de energia do grupo de alimentos e o consumo calórico total. A razão estimada foi utilizada para calcular o percentual de indivíduos com consumo abaixo ou acima da recomendação. RESULTADOS : Pelo menos 80,0% da população consome abaixo do recomendado para: leite e derivados; frutas e sucos de frutas; e cereais, tubérculos e raízes; aproximadamente 60,0% para legumes e verduras; 30,0% para feijões; e 8,0% para carnes e ovos. Adolescentes apresentaram a maior inadequação para legumes e verduras (90,0%, e o estrato de maior renda foi associado à menor inadequação para óleos, gorduras e sementes oleaginosas (57,0%. CONCLUSÕES : Foi observado consumo inadequado dos grupos de alimentos relacionados com aumento do risco de doenças crônicas.

  1. Toxicologia do tolueno: aspectos relacionados ao abuso

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    Forster Letícia M.K.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available O tolueno está presente em muitos produtos de uso doméstico e industrial e é o principal solvente envolvido no abuso de substâncias e na exposição ocupacional. O problema mais grave no estudo de patologias relacionadas ao tolueno é que este está geralmente associado, em suas preparações comerciais, a outras substâncias. O potencial tóxico do tolueno foi abordado nos seguintes aspectos: parâmetros farmacológicos; características físico-químicas; exposição; estudos clínicos; diagnóstico; pesquisa experimental; tolerância e dependência; efeitos agudos e crônicos; neurotoxicidade; teratogenicidade; doenças psiquiátricas; carcinogenicidade e tratamento. Conclui-se ser de grande importância e urgência que se realizem estudos clínicos com amostras maiores para definição mais precisa das conseqüências do uso crônico

  2. Toxicologia do tolueno: aspectos relacionados ao abuso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia M.K. Forster

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available O tolueno está presente em muitos produtos de uso doméstico e industrial e é o principal solvente envolvido no abuso de substâncias e na exposição ocupacional. O problema mais grave no estudo de patologias relacionadas ao tolueno é que este está geralmente associado, em suas preparações comerciais, a outras substâncias. O potencial tóxico do tolueno foi abordado nos seguintes aspectos: parâmetros farmacológicos; características físico-químicas; exposição; estudos clínicos; diagnóstico; pesquisa experimental; tolerância e dependência; efeitos agudos e crônicos; neurotoxicidade; teratogenicidade; doenças psiquiátricas; carcinogenicidade e tratamento. Conclui-se ser de grande importância e urgência que se realizem estudos clínicos com amostras maiores para definição mais precisa das conseqüências do uso crônico

  3. Flexible Intramedullary Nailing for Paediatric Shaft of Femur Fractures – Does the Number of Nails Alter the Outcome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Kanthimathi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of flexible intramedullary nailing, allowing micro movement at the fracture site, results in excellent outcomes regardless of the number of nails used. We undertook analysis of the outcomes of flexible nailing with reference to the number of nails used. METHODS: Twenty patients with diaphyseal femur fracture aged 5-15 years were treated with retrograde flexible intramedullary nailing. The number of nails varied from single to multiple. The results were analysed with regard to the number of nails used. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 7.9 years; patients were followed up for a mean duration of 13.2 months. Those with two and three nails had similar results. CONCLUSION: A minimum of two flexible nails is needed for optimal fixation in paediatric femur shaft fractures. Also, limiting the number of implants to two is cost effective, decreases operative time, reduces radiation exposure and offers equal results to that of three nails.

  4. Ununited fracture neck of femur treated with closed reduction and internal fixation with cancellous screw and fibular strut graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Daria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ununited fracture neck of femur in young adults has been tackled in various ways. Methods: Twenty five patients of ununited fracture neck of femur in age group 21-55 years were treated by closed reduction, cancellous screw fixation and fibular strut graft and followed up for 2-6 years. Time gap between injury and operation was 6 weeks to 58 weeks. Five cases were previously fixed with various fixation devices. Results: Osseous union was achieved in 24 cases with average time of 18.16 weeks. Main complication encountered in follow-up was avascular necrosis of femoral head, others were joint stiffness and shortening. Functional end results were good to excellent in 24 cases. Conclusion: Closed reduction with internal fixation by cancellous screw and fibular strut grafting is easy and useful procedure.

  5. Steroid Induced Bilateral Avascular Necrosis of Head of Femur in an Adult Male Patient - A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadeja, Dharamvirsinh; Solanki, Vipul; Chavada, Bhavesh; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu

    2016-01-01

    A 28 year old male patient, known case of pemphigus vulgaris was on dexamethasone pulse therapy. Total 7 pulses were given after that he developed avascular necrosis of head of femur on both sides, which was confirmed by digital X- ray and MRI. Avascular necrosis is a disabling and progressive condition in young patients gradually leads to femoral head collapse and eventual total hip arthroplasty. As per WHO-UMC causality assessment criteria, the association between reaction and drug was possible, Naranjo's score was 7. According to Modified Schumock and Thornton's criteria, this reaction was not preventable. The Modified Hartwig and Siegel's scale showed that the reaction was severe (level 6). Here we present a case where the use of steroid for pemphigus vulgaris resulting in the development of bilateral avascular necrosis of head of femur.

  6. Recognizing different tissues in human fetal femur cartilage by label-free Raman microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstar, Aliz; Leijten, Jeroen; van Leuveren, Stefan; Hilderink, Janneke; Otto, Cees; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.; Karperien, Marcel; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.

    2012-11-01

    Traditionally, the composition of bone and cartilage is determined by standard histological methods. We used Raman microscopy, which provides a molecular "fingerprint" of the investigated sample, to detect differences between the zones in human fetal femur cartilage without the need for additional staining or labeling. Raman area scans were made from the (pre)articular cartilage, resting, proliferative, and hypertrophic zones of growth plate and endochondral bone within human fetal femora. Multivariate data analysis was performed on Raman spectral datasets to construct cluster images with corresponding cluster averages. Cluster analysis resulted in detection of individual chondrocyte spectra that could be separated from cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) spectra and was verified by comparing cluster images with intensity-based Raman images for the deoxyribonucleic acid/ribonucleic acid (DNA/RNA) band. Specific dendrograms were created using Ward's clustering method, and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed with the separated and averaged Raman spectra of cells and ECM of all measured zones. Overall (dis)similarities between measured zones were effectively visualized on the dendrograms and main spectral differences were revealed by PCA allowing for label-free detection of individual cartilaginous zones and for label-free evaluation of proper cartilaginous matrix formation for future tissue engineering and clinical purposes.

  7. Analysis of microstructure in mouse femur and decalcification effect on microstructure by electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehoon Jeon

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure and decalcification effect by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA on microstructure were studied for the compact bone of mouse femur by optical and electron microscopy. Especially the (002 reflection plane on the selected area electron diffraction (SAED of hydroxyapatite (HA was analyzed in detail. Two types of HA crystals were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. One was needle-like crystals known as general HA crystals, and the other was flake-like crystals. Major constituents of two types of crystals were calcium, phosphorus, and oxygen. The Ca/P ratios of two types of crystals were close to the ideal value of HA within experimental error. Intensity data obtained from each crystals were also very similar. These results indicated that two types of crystals were actually same HA crystals. It was noticed that the (002 reflection plane on SAED displayed ring, spot, or arc patterns in accordance with orientations of HA crystals. Decalcification by EDTA process obsecured outline of osteons and havarsian canals, and changed morphology of the bone section. As the results of decalcification it was observed by TEM-EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy that all peaks of calcium and phosphorus disappeared, and intensity of oxygen peak was substantially reduced. Moreover, collagen appeared to be disaggreated.

  8. Does Computer-Assisted Femur First THR Improve Musculoskeletal Loading Conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim A. Weber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a novel, computer-assisted operation method for minimal-invasive total hip replacement (THR following the concept of “femur first/combined anteversion,” which incorporates various aspects of performing a functional optimization of the prosthetic stem and cup position (CAS FF. The purpose of this study is to assess whether the hip joint reaction forces and patient’s gait parameters are being improved by CAS FF in relation to conventional THR (CON. We enrolled 60 patients (28 CAS FF/32 CON and invited them for gait analysis at three time points (preoperatively, postop six months, and postop 12 months. Data retrieved from gait analysis was processed using patient-specific musculoskeletal models. The target parameters were hip reaction force magnitude (hrf, symmetries, and orientation with respect to the cup. Hrf in the CAS FF group were closer to a young healthy normal. Phase-shift symmetry showed an increase in the CAS FF group. Hrf orientation in the CAS FF group was closer to optimum, though no edge or rim-loading occurred in the CON group as well. The CAS FF group showed an improved hrf orientation in an early stage and a trend to an improved long-term outcome.

  9. Quantitative computed tomography derived structural geometric accuracy using custom built anthropometric phantom of the proximal femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, B.C.C.; Price, R.; Hicks, N.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Material and structural properties influence bone strength. Structural strength may be determined through imaging methods, though currently there is no commercially available phantom to assess structural geometrical (SG) accuracy. This paper describes the design of an anthropometric SG phantom of the proximal femur and the performance testing on quantitative computed tomography (QCT) derived SG outcomes. Aims of study were to determine accuracy of QCT-derived SG outcomes and its effects from kYp. The phantom consists of three basic components; femoral head, a modular and interchangeable neck insert and shaft. The interchangeable neck modules were designed with different cortical thickness and shape. QCT scans were performed with Mindways QA (Mindways Software Inc., USA) phantom, then with anthropometric phantom in water bath together with Mindways calibration phantom. All QCT scans were done on Philips 64 MDCT (Philips Healthcare, USA). Three neck modules were selected and scanned. Each neck module was repeated scanned five times at 120 mAs, 0.67 mm slice thickness and 0.33 mm increment and at 80, 120 and 140 kYps. SG parameters analysed included bone mineral density(aBMD) and outer-diameter (OD).

  10. Acute postoperative osteomyelitis in femur fracture: contribution of bone scintilography (case report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Natalie Ferreira; Rezende, Cleuza Maria de Faria; Sanchez-Ucros, Natalia; Laguardia, Priscilla [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Veterinaria; Diniz, Simone Odilia Fernandes; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia; Rodrigues, Carlos Jorge Simal [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolcimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia

    2009-07-01

    The treatment of bone fractures is aimed at consolidating and returns of function as soon as possible and can be performed by different methods. Treatment with the plate in fractures of the femur in bridge aims not to address the location of fracture and stabilize it, maintaining the anatomical axis by the fixation of proximal and distal segments. Postoperative follow-up of the fracture is necessary to evaluate the irrigation of the bone structure and the effect of the method. The scintigraphy is a method capable of assessing the degree of bone remodeling and the presence or absence of local bone homeostasis. The objective of this report is to present the case of a rabbit, male, which was subjected to osteotomy and fixation of the femoral diaphysis by means of the plate in the bridge. After 10 days the animal was subjected to scintigraphic and radiographic evaluations. The animal came to death and an autopsy was performed on the same when it was observed macroscopy consistent with acute osteomyelitis due to contamination postoperative time. Radiographic evaluation in acute osteomyelitis is unclear. The methods assist in the scintigraphic diagnosis of osteomyelitis by allowing the detection of functional changes in this infectious process. The bone scintigraphy with diphosphonates labeled with technetium-99m shows increased bone turnover in the infected area and its high sensitivity, even in an early stage makes it the method of choice in the diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis in patients without prior bone disease and bone radiologically normal. (author)

  11. Acute postoperative osteomyelitis in femur fracture: contribution of bone scintilography (case report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Natalie Ferreira; Rezende, Cleuza Maria de Faria; Sanchez-Ucros, Natalia; Laguardia, Priscilla; Diniz, Simone Odilia Fernandes; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Rodrigues, Carlos Jorge Simal; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of bone fractures is aimed at consolidating and returns of function as soon as possible and can be performed by different methods. Treatment with the plate in fractures of the femur in bridge aims not to address the location of fracture and stabilize it, maintaining the anatomical axis by the fixation of proximal and distal segments. Postoperative follow-up of the fracture is necessary to evaluate the irrigation of the bone structure and the effect of the method. The scintigraphy is a method capable of assessing the degree of bone remodeling and the presence or absence of local bone homeostasis. The objective of this report is to present the case of a rabbit, male, which was subjected to osteotomy and fixation of the femoral diaphysis by means of the plate in the bridge. After 10 days the animal was subjected to scintigraphic and radiographic evaluations. The animal came to death and an autopsy was performed on the same when it was observed macroscopy consistent with acute osteomyelitis due to contamination postoperative time. Radiographic evaluation in acute osteomyelitis is unclear. The methods assist in the scintigraphic diagnosis of osteomyelitis by allowing the detection of functional changes in this infectious process. The bone scintigraphy with diphosphonates labeled with technetium-99m shows increased bone turnover in the infected area and its high sensitivity, even in an early stage makes it the method of choice in the diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis in patients without prior bone disease and bone radiologically normal. (author)

  12. A large parosteal ossifying lipoma of lower limb encircling the femur

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lipoma is a benign soft tissue neoplasm that may contain mesenchymal elements, as a result of metaplastic process. Ossification in benign and malignant soft tissue tumors can also manifest due to metaplastic process. Case presentation A 45 year old woman presented with a large thigh mass. The mass was developed one and a half year ago which insidiously increased in size and was associated with movement restriction. Radiological findings revealed soft tissue neoplasm on antero-medial aspect of thigh encircling the femur and displacing adjacent muscles. Fine trabeculations were seen in neoplasm suggestive of ossification. Excision of the mass was performed and histopathology revealed adipocytes with mature bony trabeculae possessing prominent osteoblastic rimming suggestive of ossifying lipoma. Conclusion It is important to recognize this variant of lipoma as it is associated with a better clinical outcome in contrast to most of the deep seated soft tissue neoplasms. Secondly it should also be differentiated from myositis ossificans and heterologous differentiation in other soft tissue neoplasms. We suggest an algorithmic approach to the diagnosis of ossifying soft tissue neoplasms histopathologically. Mature bony trabeculae with prominent osteoblastic rimming in a soft tissue lesion are due to a metaplastic process and should not be confused with osteosarcoma. PMID:24433545

  13. Outcomes in closed reamed interlocking nail in fractures of shaft of femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, T.; Sawati, A.; Ahmed, A.

    2015-01-01

    Femoral shaft fracture is one of the common fractures seen in accident and emergency department of our hospital. Violent forces are required to break this and strongest of human bones. There are various treatment modalities for femoral shaft fractures in adults like traction, brace, platting, intramedullary nail (IMN), external fixators and inter locking nails. The study was done with an objective to evaluate the results of closed reamed interlocking nail in fractures of shaft of femur. Methods: A prospective study of 114 cases of femoral shaft fractures was carried out at orthopaedic unit of Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad during 1 year. All these cases were treated with statically locked nails under spinal or general anaesthesia. These cases were followed up for up to one year and Results of the interlocking nail were observed in terms of union and complications. Results: Out of 114 patients, 95 underwent union in 90-150 days with a mean of 110.68 days. Ten patients had dynamization within six weeks because of obvious fracture gap in radiograph. There were 3 patients who had non-union, and 6 patients had delayed union which was treated with dynamization. Conclusion: Close reamed interlocking intramedullary nail in femoral shaft fractures is the treatment of choice. Patient rehabilitation is early, hospitalization is short, and fracture healing response is good. (author)

  14. Synthesis and characterization of bovine femur bone hydroxyapatite containing silver nanoparticles for the biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirmala, R.; Sheikh, Faheem A.; Kanjwal, Muzafar A.; Lee, John Hwa; Park, Soo-Jin; Navamathavan, R.; Kim, Hak Yong

    2011-01-01

    Bovine femur bone hydroxyapatite (HA) containing silver (Ag) nanoparticles was synthesized by thermal decomposition method and subsequent reduction of silver nitrate with N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in the presence of poly(vinylacetate) (PVAc). The structural, morphological, and chemical properties of the HA–Ag nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). TEM images showed that the Ag nanoparticles with size ranging from 8 to 20 nm and were arranged at the periphery of HA crystals. Bactericidal activity of HA–Ag with different concentration of Ag nanoparticles immobilized on the surface of HA was investigated against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, non-MRSA), Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and gram-negative Escherichia coli (E.coli) by the disc diffusion susceptibility test. The HA–Ag nanoparticles showed that broad spectrum activity against non-MRSA, MRSA, and E. coli bacterial strains.

  15. Salubrinal improves mechanical properties of the femur in osteogenesis imperfecta mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigawa, Shinya; Frondorf, Brian; Liu, Shengzhi; Liu, Yang; Li, Baiyan; Sudo, Akihiro; Wallace, Joseph M; Yokota, Hiroki; Hamamura, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Salubrinal is an agent that reduces the stress to the endoplasmic reticulum by inhibiting de-phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α). We and others have previously shown that the elevated phosphorylation of eIF2α stimulates bone formation and attenuates bone resorption. In this study, we applied salubrinal to a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta (Oim), and examined whether it would improve Oim's mechanical property. We conducted in vitro experiments using RAW264.7 pre-osteoclasts and bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs), and performed in vivo administration of salubrinal to Oim (+/-) mice. The animal study included two control groups (wildtype and Oim placebo). The result revealed that salubrinal decreased expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) and suppressed osteoclast maturation, and it stimulated mineralization of mesenchymal stem cells from BMDCs. Furthermore, daily injection of salubrinal at 2 mg/kg for 2 months made stiffness (N/mm) and elastic module (GPa) of the femur undistinguishable to those of the wildtype control. Collectively, this study supported salubrinal's beneficial role to Oim's femora. Unlike bisphosphonates, salubrinal stimulates bone formation. For juvenile OI patients who may favor strengthening bone without inactivating bone remodeling, salubrinal may present a novel therapeutic option. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Automatic allograft bone selection through band registration and its application to distal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Qiu, Lei; Li, Fengzan; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Li; Niu, Xiaohui

    2017-09-01

    Clinical reports suggest that large bone defects could be effectively restored by allograft bone transplantation, where allograft bone selection acts an important role. Besides, there is a huge demand for developing the automatic allograft bone selection methods, as the automatic methods could greatly improve the management efficiency of the large bone banks. Although several automatic methods have been presented to select the most suitable allograft bone from the massive allograft bone bank, these methods still suffer from inaccuracy. In this paper, we propose an effective allograft bone selection method without using the contralateral bones. Firstly, the allograft bone is globally aligned to the recipient bone by surface registration. Then, the global alignment is further refined through band registration. The band, defined as the recipient points within the lifted and lowered cutting planes, could involve more local structure of the defected segment. Therefore, our method could achieve robust alignment and high registration accuracy of the allograft and recipient. Moreover, the existing contour method and surface method could be unified into one framework under our method by adjusting the lift and lower distances of the cutting planes. Finally, our method has been validated on the database of distal femurs. The experimental results indicate that our method outperforms the surface method and contour method.

  17. Atypical Femur Fractures in Patients Treated with Bisphosphonates: Identification, Management, and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Sarah Bubbear

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a common condition with significant health care costs. First-line therapy is with bisphosphonates, which have proven anti-fracture efficacy. Around 10 years after the introduction of bisphosphonates reports began to be published of atypical femoral fractures (AFFs that may be associated with this therapy. These fractures are associated with significant morbidity although lower mortality than the more common osteoporotic neck-of-femur fractures. A case definition has been described to allow identification of this class of fracture. Further work has established a high relative risk of AFFs in patients treated with bisphosphonates, but a low absolute risk in comparison to that of osteoporotic fractures. Proposed pathological mechanisms include low bone turnover states leading to stress/insufficiency fractures. Clinicians should be aware of the risk of AFFs and in particular the high rate of prodromal thigh/groin pain that warrants investigation in a patient receiving a bisphosphonate. If an incomplete fracture is diagnosed then bisphosphonate therapy needs to be stopped and prophylactic surgery may be considered. Due to these rare side effects patients on bisphosphonates require regular review, and this is particularly advised after 5 years of oral or 3 years of intravenous therapy.

  18. Risk of refracture through unicameral bone cysts of the proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman-Taylor, Fabian H; Hashemi-Nejad, Aresh; Gillingham, Bruce L; Stevens, David; Cole, William G

    2002-01-01

    The authors determined the results after traction or traction and hip spica treatment of the initial fractures through unicameral bone cysts of the proximal femur in 20 children. All of the eight displaced fractures healed, but with coxa vara and avascular necrosis in one, coxa vara in a second, and coxa breva in a third. Spontaneous healing of the cyst occurred in three of the eight children; satisfactory healing was achieved and maintained after intralesional corticosteroid injections in four of the eight children. In the remaining child with a displaced fracture, reactivation of the cyst and exercise-related pain, indicative of an incipient refracture, occurred 3 years after initial presentation. All of the 12 undisplaced fractures healed without deformity or avascular necrosis. Intralesional corticosteroids were used in all of the 12 children because none of them showed spontaneous healing of their cysts. Satisfactory radiographic healing was achieved 1 year after presentation in all of the 12 children. However, one or more refractures resulting from reactivation of the cyst occurred in 6 of the 12 children 2 to 5 years after initial presentation. The results of this study indicate that satisfactory radiographic healing needs to be achieved by the end of the first year and needs to be maintained thereafter to prevent refractures.

  19. Progress towards in vitro quantitative imaging of human femur using compound quantitative ultrasonic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasaygues, Philippe; Ouedraogo, Edgard; Lefebvre, Jean-Pierre; Gindre, Marcel; Talmant, Marilyne; Laugier, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to make cross-sectional ultrasonic quantitative tomography of the diaphysis of long bones. Ultrasonic propagation in bones is affected by the severe mismatch between the acoustic properties of this biological solid and those of the surrounding soft medium, namely, the soft tissues in vivo or water in vitro. Bone imaging is then a nonlinear inverse-scattering problem. In this paper, we showed that in vitro quantitative images of sound velocities in a human femur cross section could be reconstructed by combining ultrasonic reflection tomography (URT), which provides images of the macroscopic structure of the bone, and ultrasonic transmission tomography (UTT), which provides quantitative images of the sound velocity. For the shape, we developed an image-processing tool to extract the external and internal boundaries and cortical thickness measurements. For velocity mapping, we used a wavelet analysis tool adapted to ultrasound, which allowed us to detect precisely the time of flight from the transmitted signals. A brief review of the ultrasonic tomography that we developed using correction algorithms of the wavepaths and compensation procedures are presented. Also shown are the first results of our analyses on models and specimens of long bone using our new iterative quantitative protocol

  20. Dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry of the lumbar spine and proximal femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscona, A.; Gundry, C.; Sartoris, D.J.; Barrett-Connor, E.; Stein, J.A.; Resnick, D.

    1988-01-01

    Dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry (DRA), dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA), and single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) were used for comprehensive densitometry of 500 men and women aged 65-100 years, within an epidemiologic study of osteoporosis risk factors. DRA and DPA of the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and proximal femur were performed with a Hologic QDR-100 system and a Lunar DP3 system, respectively, and SPA of the 33% shaft and ultradistal forearm sites was performed with a Lunar SP2 system. DRA and DPA results showed high correlation at both sites (tau=.9,P<.001); data conversion factors were derived. SPA results for the ultradistal site correlated better with vertebral and femoral density (tau=.6,P<.1) than did those for the shaft site (tau=.4,P<.5) but neither forearm measurement was reliable predictive of axial mineral status. The various measurements displayed an age-dependent interrelationship. The DRA method offers the advantage of short examination times (about 5 minutes per site) and high precision (about 1%)

  1. Stress Fractures of the Distal Femur Involving Small Nonossifying Fibromas in Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michael; Gilley, Jasen; Nicholas, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Small nonossifying fibromas (ie, fibrocortical defects) are incidental findings commonly seen on radiographs of young patients evaluated for extremity pain or sport-related trauma. Although pathological fractures have been reported in larger lesions, the subcentimeter, intracortical defects are not generally thought to predispose to pathological fractures. The authors report on 2 young athletes who presented with knee pain after initiating conditioning exercise programs (cross-training). Both were diagnosed with transverse metaphyseal stress fractures involving fibrous cortical defects of the distal femur. Initial radiographs were interpreted without evidence of fractures. However, subsequent magnetic resonance imaging was informative, suggesting that magnetic resonance imaging may have value in identifying potential stress reactions in young athletes. In addition, subsequent plain radiographs of both patients showed subperiosteal new bone formation in these nondisplaced fractures, suggesting that serial radiographs and close clinical follow-up are warranted for patients with persistent symptoms. The authors propose that, in the appropriate clinical setting, the presence of a small nonossifying fibroma may be a clinical indication that further evaluation is needed when plain radiographs show normal findings, as the defect could be an unrecognized area of fracture initiation. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(6):e1197-e1200.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Morphological analysis of the proximal femur by computed tomography in Japanese subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Masashi

    1995-01-01

    In order to evaluate the morphological features of the proximal femur in the Japanese, 100 femora of normal Japanese subjects (normal group) and 60 femora of 43 Japanese patients with secondary osteoarthrosis of the hip (OA group) were analyzed using CT images. The scans for the dried bones (normal group) were done at a setting of 80 kV and 20 mA, for 2 sec duration. The scans were reconstructed using the soft tissue algorithm built into the GE-9800 scanner. The patient scans (OA group) were done at 120 kV and 170 mA also for 2 sec duration, and reconstructed using the same bone algorithm. The results were as follows: Thinning of the femoral cortex occurred in normal females over 60 years of age. The canal flare index at the proximal part of the femoral diaphysis was negatively correlated with the canal diameter at the isthmus. The index at the upper part was greater than that at the lower part. The two groups showed no statistical difference in this index. In the metaphysis, the canal flare index at the anterior portion was twice that at the posterior portion. In absolute terms, the OA group had a reduced flare or curve along the medial portion. In cross-section, the canal shape of the diaphysis was more elliptical in the OA group than in the normal group. The longitudinal axis of the canal was directed more sagittally in the OA group than in the normal group. (author)

  3. Assessment of femur length for fetal biometry in Malaysian pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Ramzun Maizan; Adam, Noraina; Jaafar, Mohamad Suhaimi; Rahman, Azhar Abdul; Mustafa, Iskandar Shahrim; Radzi, Yasmin; Nordin, Suriani; Kamarudin, Izyani

    2013-05-01

    The fetal biometry assessment of femur length (FL) was developed in most countries to evaluate the foetus growth. In this study, the FL values for Malaysia population were determined. A prospective study was conducted and a number of 6501 pregnant women were involved with 12372 FL data were collected, performed at antenatal care clinic of Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. The SPSS software version 17 (regression analysis and paired sample t-test) were used for analysis. The FL values of this study were constructed and rapid FL growth rate in second trimester (2.59 mm/week) than third trimester (1.43 mm/week) was observed. By ethnicity, no significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) was found between the FL values for fetuses of Malay and Indian ethnic's mother (t = -2.042), however these two groups shows significantly (p Chinese ethnic's mother (t = 4.019, 4.083; accordingly). The FL values of Malaysian resulted as significant difference with the common reference FL values from USA and UK, and also with selected Asian populations (India, China, Korea and Japan). As conclusion, it is strong suggested that medical practitioner in Malaysia should avoid in using biometry references based on other population to avoid under- or over-estimation and for accurate assessment of the fetus growth. As this study involved local Malaysian fetuses, therefore the medical practitioner can use the FL values of this study as reference value for fetus biometry assessment in Malaysia.

  4. Sex Specific Association of Physical Activity on Proximal Femur BMD in 9 to 10 Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardadeiro, Graça; Baptista, Fátima; Ornelas, Rui; Janz, Kathleen F.; Sardinha, Luís B.

    2012-01-01

    The results of physical activity (PA) intervention studies suggest that adaptation to mechanical loading at the femoral neck (FN) is weaker in girls than in boys. Less is known about gender differences associated with non-targeted PA levels at the FN or other clinically relevant regions of the proximal femur. Understanding sex-specific relationships between proximal femur sensitivity and mechanical loading during non-targeted PA is critical to planning appropriate public health interventions. We examined sex-specific associations between non-target PA and bone mineral density (BMD) of three sub-regions of the proximal femur in pre- and early-pubertal boys and girls. BMD at the FN, trochanter (TR) and intertrochanter (IT) regions, and lean mass of the whole body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 161 girls (age: 9.7±0.3 yrs) and 164 boys (age: 9.7±0.3 yrs). PA was measured using accelerometry. Multiple linear regression analyses (adjusted for body height, total lean mass and pubertal status) revealed that vigorous PA explained 3–5% of the variability in BMD at all three sub-regions in boys. In girls, vigorous PA explained 4% of the variability in IT BMD and 6% in TR BMD. PA did not contribute to the variance in FN BMD in girls. An additional 10 minutes per day of vigorous PA would be expected to result in a ∼1% higher FN, TR, and IT BMD in boys (pgirls. In conclusion, vigorous PA can be expected to contribute positively to bone health outcomes for boys and girls. However, the association of vigorous PA to sub-regions of the proximal femur varies by sex, such that girlś associations are heterogeneous and the lowest at the FN, but stronger at the TR and the IT, when compared to boys. PMID:23209801

  5. EVALUATION OF FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME AFTER OPEN REDUCTION AND INTERNAL FIXATION OF DISTAL FEMUR FRACTURES BY LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lokanadha Rao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In the supra and intercondylar fractures of femur particularly with intra articular extension, patient may develop stiffness of knee, shortening, rotational deformities, internal derangement of knee with instability, varus and valgus deformities which affect patient’s routine lifestyle. If these cases were treated with locking compression plate, the results obtained were successful, superior, timesaving providing early ambulation and least disability improving the functional outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective interventional study. This study includes 25 supracondylar and intercondylar fractures of femur (both Muller’s Type ‘A’, Type B and Type ‘C’ fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation by Locking Compression Plate in the Department of Orthopaedics, King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam from September 2013 to September 2015. There are 16 males and 9 females with age ranging from 20 to 80 years with an average of 44.6 years. Average age for males is 28.9 years and average age for females is 25 years. 18 fractures were due to road traffic accidents and 6 cases are due to fall from significant heights, 1 case due to simple fall from standing (osteoporosis. 15 cases were in right femur (60% and 10 cases were in left femur (40%. RESULTS 25 cases were included in the study. There is an increase in the rate of union, decreased time taken for union, increased knee range of motion, decreased time for weight-bearing, postoperative complications and duration for hospital stay. CONCLUSION LCP proved to be a good implant which could take the challenges like poor bone stock, severe comminution both metaphyseal and articular and prove successful. The locking head screws distally have prevented varus collapse, even in cases of osteoporosis. The Condylar LCP can be used in either an open or a minimally invasive manner.

  6. SUPRACONDYLAR FRACTURE FEMUR T REATED WITH INTRAMEDULLARY NAIL : A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswara Rao; Chaitanya; Anvesh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supracondylar fractures are one of the commonest fractures encountered in high velocity trauma which are associated with high morbidity and mortality . 1 Isolated fracture can itself lead to complications such as ARDS and pulmonary embo lism 1 . This necessitates early stabilization of fractures. Internal fixation is the choice of treatment in supracondylar fractures (AO type – A) . 2 Retrograde supracondylar nail has shown to giv...

  7. Comparison of Primary Hip Spica with Crossed Retrograde Intramedullary Rush Pins for the Management of Diaphyseal Femur Fractures in Children: A Prospective, Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ruhullah

    2013-12-01

    Conclusions: Intra-medullary crossed Rush pinning is an effective method of paediatric diaphyseal femur fracture fixation as compared to primary hip spica in terms of early weight bearing and restoration of normal anatomy.

  8. A Prospective Study to Evaluate the Management of Sub-trochanteric Femur Fractures with Long Proximal Femoral Nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M; Akshat, V; Kanwariya, A; Gandhi, M

    2017-11-01

    Introduction: Sub-trochanteric fractures of the femur remains one of the most challenging fractures faced by orthopaedic surgeons. This study was done to analyse the management and complications of sub-trochanteric fractures using long proximal femoral nail (PFN). Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of 50 patients with sub-trochanteric fractures of femur who were treated with long PFN at a tertiary care center from July 2012 to June 2016. The fractures were classified according to Seinsheimer classification. All patients were assessed functionally by Harris Hip Score. Results: Average duration of union was 17.08 weeks (range 13 to 32 weeks), union was achieved in 92% cases. Closed reduction was achieved in 68% cases and open reduction was required in 32% cases. Various intraoperative complications were seen in 12% and delayed complications in 26% of cases. Good anatomical results were achieved in 86% of cases and 14% were fair. As per Harris Hip score, excellent results were noted in 28% cases, good in 56% cases and fair in 16% cases. Conclusion: The long PFN is a reliable implant for subtrochanteric femur fractures, with high rate of bone union and minimal soft tissue damage. Intramedullary fixation has biological and biomechanical advantages, but the surgery is technically demanding.

  9. A Prospective Study to Evaluate the Management of Sub-trochanteric Femur Fractures with Long Proximal Femoral Nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar M

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sub-trochanteric fractures of the femur remains one of the most challenging fractures faced by orthopaedic surgeons. This study was done to analyse the management and complications of sub-trochanteric fractures using long proximal femoral nail (PFN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study of 50 patients with sub-trochanteric fractures of femur who were treated with long PFN at a tertiary care center from July 2012 to June 2016. The fractures were classified according to Seinsheimer classification. All patients were assessed functionally by Harris Hip Score. RESULTS: Average duration of union was 17.08 weeks (range 13 to 32 weeks, union was achieved in 92% cases. Closed reduction was achieved in 68% cases and open reduction was required in 32% cases. Various intraoperative complications were seen in 12% and delayed complications in 26% of cases. Good anatomical results were achieved in 86% of cases and 14% were fair. As per Harris Hip score, excellent results were noted in 28% cases, good in 56% cases and fair in 16% cases. CONCLUSION: The long PFN is a reliable implant for sub-trochanteric femur fractures, with high rate of bone union and minimal soft tissue damage. Intramedullary fixation has biological and biomechanical advantages, but the surgery is technically demanding.

  10. Robotic technique improves entry point alignment for intramedullary nailing of femur fractures compared to the conventional technique: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suero, Eduardo M; Westphal, Ralf; Citak, Musa; Hawi, Nael; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Krettek, Christian; Stuebig, Timo

    2017-08-11

    We aimed to test whether a robotic technique would offer more accurate access to the proximal femoral medullary cavity for insertion of an intramedullary nail compared to the conventional manual technique. The medullary cavity of ten femur specimens was accessed in a conventional fashion using fluoroscopic control. In ten additional femur specimens, ISO-C 3D scans were obtained and a computer program calculated the ideal location of the cavity opening based on the trajectory of the medullary canal. In both techniques, the surgeon opened the cavity using a drill and inserted a radiopaque tube that matched the diameter of the cavity. The mean difference in angle between the proximal opening and the medullary canal in the shaft of the femur was calculated for both groups. Robotic cavity opening was more accurate than the manual technique, with a mean difference in trajectory between the proximal opening and the shaft canal of 2.0° (95% CI 0.6°-3.5°) compared to a mean difference of 4.3° (95% CI 2.11°-6.48°) using the manual technique (P = 0.0218). The robotic technique was more accurate than the manual procedure for identifying the optimal location for opening the medullary canal for insertion of an intramedullary nail. Additional advantages may include a reduction in total radiation exposure, as only one ISO-C 3D scan is needed, as opposed to multiple radiographs when using the manual technique.

  11. Bone mineral density of the proximal femur after hip resurfacing arthroplasty: 1-year follow-up study

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    Anttila Esa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA is considered a bone-preserving procedure and may eliminate proximal femoral stress shielding and osteolysis. However, in addition to implant-related stress-shielding factors, various patient-related factors may also have an effect on bone mineral density (BMD of the proximal femur in patients with HRA. Thus, we studied the effects of stem-neck angle, demographic variables, and physical functioning on the BMD of the proximal femur in a one-year follow-up. Methods Thirty three patients (9 females and 24 males with a mean (SD age of 55 (9 years were included in the study. BMD was measured two days and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively and 10 regions of interest (ROI were used. Stem-neck angle was analyzed from anteroposterior radiographs. Results Three months postoperatively, BMD decreased in six out of 10 regions of interest (ROI on the side operated on and in one ROI on the control side (p Conclusions After an early drop, the BMD of the upper femur was restored and even exceeded the preoperative level at one year follow-up. From a clinical standpoint, the changes in BMD in these HRA patients could not be explained by stem-neck angle or patient related factors.

  12. Bioceramic inlays do not improve mechanical incorporation of grit-blasted titanium stems in the proximal sheep femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keränen, Pauli; Koort, Jyri; Itälä, Ari; Ylänen, Heimo; Dalstra, Michel; Hupa, Mikko; Kommonen, Bertel; Aro, Hannu T

    2010-03-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine, if bioactive glass (BG) surface inlays improve osseointegration of titanium implants in the proximal femur of adult sheep. In simulation of uncemented primary stems (nine animals), only the proximal part of the implants was grit-blasted and three surface slots of the grit-blasted region were filled with sintered BG microspheres. Primary stems were implanted using press-fit technique. In revision stem simulation (eight animals), grit-blasting was extended over the whole implant and seven perforating holes of the stem were filled by sintered BG granules. Revision stems were implanted with a mixture of autogenous bone graft and BG granules. Comparison with solid partially or fully grit-blasted control stems implanted in the contralateral femurs was performed in the primary and revision stem experiments at 12 and 25 weeks, respectively. Implant incorporation was evaluated by torsional failure testing and histomorphometry. Only one-third of the primary stems anchored mechanically to bone. The revision stems incorporated better and the BG inlays of the revision stems showed ingrowth of new bone. However, there were no significant differences in the torsional failure loads between the stems with BG inlays and the control stems. In conclusion, surface BG inlays gave no measurable advantage in mechanical incorporation of grit-blasted titanium implants. Overall, the proximal sheep femur, characterized by minimal amount of cancellous bone and the presence of adipocytic bone marrow, seemed to present compromised bone healing conditions. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. CORRELATION BETWEEN TIME UNTIL SURGICAL TREATMENT AND MORTALITY AMONG ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH FRACTURES AT THE PROXIMAL END OF THE FEMUR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; da Costa Astur, Diego; Linhares, Glauber Kazuo; Balbachevsky, Daniel; Fernandes, Hélio Jorge Alvachian; Dos Reis, Fernando Baldy

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to analyze the possible association between delay in receiving surgical treatment and mortality among elderly patients with fractures at the proximal end of the femur. 269 patients with fractures at the proximal end of the femur (femur neck and intertrochanteric fractures) who were treated surgically at Hospital São Paulo, UNIFESP, São Paulo, between January 2003 and December 2007, were studied. The following attributes were analyzed and compared with the literature relating to this subject: sex, age, type of fracture, classification of the fracture, affected side, synthesis used, trauma mechanism, length of hospitalization, waiting time for surgery, associated comorbidities, hemogram on admission, type of anesthesia, need for blood transfusion, day of the week and season of the year of the fracture. The study showed that higher mortality correlated with higher numbers of clinical comorbidities, longer hospitalization and use of general anesthesia during the surgery. There was no association between the time spent waiting for surgery and mortality.

  14. Effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics and morphology the bone in rat femurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J A D; Souza, A L T; Cruz, L H C; Marques, P P; Camilli, J A; Nakagaki, W R; Esteves, A; Rossi-Junior, W C; Fernandes, G J M; Guerra, F D; Soares, E A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics, area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone in rat femur. This was an experimental study in which 18 male Wistar rats were used, with 40 days of age, weighing 179 ± 2.5 g. The rats were divided into three groups (n=06): CT (control), AC (chronic alcoholic), DT (detoxification). After experimental procedures, the animals were euthanized by an overdose of the anesthetic and their femurs were collected for mechanical testing and histological processing. All animals did not present malnutrition or dehydration during experimentation period. Morphometric analysis of cortical and trabecular bones in rat femurs demonstrated that AC animals showed inferior dimensions and alcohol detoxification (DT) allowed an enhancement in area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone. Material and structural properties data of AC group highlighted the harmful effects of ethanol on bone mechanical properties. The results of this study demonstrated that chronic alcoholic rats (AC) presented major bone damage in all analyzed variables. Those findings suggested that alcohol detoxification is highly suggested in pre-operative planning and this corroborates to the success of bone surgery and bone tissue repair. Thanks to the financial support offered by PROBIC - UNIFENAS.

  15. Effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics and morphology the bone in rat femurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. D. Garcia

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to verify the effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics, area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone in rat femur. This was an experimental study in which 18 male Wistar rats were used, with 40 days of age, weighing 179±2.5 g. The rats were divided into three groups (n=06: CT (control, AC (chronic alcoholic, DT (detoxification. After experimental procedures, the animals were euthanized by an overdose of the anesthetic and their femurs were collected for mechanical testing and histological processing. All animals did not present malnutrition or dehydration during experimentation period. Morphometric analysis of cortical and trabecular bones in rat femurs demonstrated that AC animals showed inferior dimensions and alcohol detoxification (DT allowed an enhancement in area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone. Material and structural properties data of AC group highlighted the harmful effects of ethanol on bone mechanical properties. The results of this study demonstrated that chronic alcoholic rats (AC presented major bone damage in all analyzed variables. Those findings suggested that alcohol detoxification is highly suggested in pre-operative planning and this corroborates to the success of bone surgery and bone tissue repair. Thanks to the financial support offered by PROBIC – UNIFENAS.

  16. Sensibilidade de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium ao glyphosate

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    Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti Jacques

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação do glyphosate sobre a soja resistente a este herbicida pode causar prejuízos à simbiose com o rizóbio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade ao herbicida glyphosate de três estirpes de Bradyrhizobium recomendadas para a produção de inoculantes de sementes de soja no Brasil. Avaliou-se o efeito das concentrações de 0,0; 5,4; 10,8; 21,6 e 43,2 µg L-1 do ingrediente ativo do glyphosate [N-(fosfonometil glicina] no meio YM líquido sobre o crescimento de B. japonicum (estirpe SEMIA 5079 e de B. elkanii (estirpe SEMIA 5019 e estirpe SEMIA 587, por meio de leituras das densidades óticas e geração de curvas de crescimento. As reduções de crescimento na presença da menor concentração do glyphosate foram de 18% para SEMIA 5079, 29% para SEMIA 5019 e de 35% para SEMIA 587, sendo, de modo geral, quanto maior a concentração do herbicida no meio de cultura maior a inibição do crescimen­to. As estirpes apresentaram sensibilidade diferencial somente às concentrações mais baixas do glyphosate; nesse caso, foi possível determinar a seguinte ordem de sensibilidade: SEMIA 587 > SEMIA 5019 > SEMIA 5079. Essa sensibilidade diferencial é dependente da concentração do herbicida, pois na presença de 43,2 µg L-1 todas as estirpes tiveram seu crescimento severamente reduzido, não havendo diferença entre elas.

  17. The Analysis of Treatment Modes of Juxta-articular Fractures of Proximal Part of a Femur and their Effect (Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Kauts

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns the current status of the topical problem in traumatology - treatment of juxta-articular fractures of proximal part of a femur and their effect. Analytical review of domestic and foreign literature has allowed to determine the basic problems in treatment of the particular group of patients and to define long-term trends of osteosynthesis of juxta-articular fractures of proximal part of a femur at the present stage

  18. Peculiarities of X-ray appearances of aseptic necrosis of head of the femur in adults and children and their connection with bio mechanical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslova, O.Ya.; Shargorodskij, C.S.; Antipova, A.A.; Naumenko, N.A.; Kresnyj, D.I.

    1987-01-01

    260 patients aged from 3 to 56 with aseptic necrosis of head of the femur are examined. Experimental biomechanical simulation of load conditions on femur head and cotyloid cavity was carried out at phantom devices using tensiometry, ichnographic and polarization-optical methods. Peculiarities of X-ray appearances of asceptic necrosis with respect to age are studied. A definite connection between asceptic necrosis and biomechanical factors is established

  19. Primary hydatid disease of the femur: unsuspected and incidental MRI findings with long-term curative results on medical treatment alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poyanli, A.; Sencer, S.; Akan, K.; Poyanli, O.; Sayrak, H.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and long-term follow-up results of albendazole treatment in a 16-year-old girl with primary hydatid disease of the femur diagnosed incidentally during the course of a post-traumatic knee infection. As far as we know, this is the first report of the early MRI findings and long-term outcome of medical treatment in primary hydatid disease of the femur in this age group. (orig.)

  20. Primary hydatid disease of the femur: unsuspected and incidental MRI findings with long-term curative results on medical treatment alone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyanli, A.; Sencer, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Akan, K.; Poyanli, O. [Dept. of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Goeztepe SSK Educational Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Sayrak, H. [Dept. of Pathology, Goeztepe SSK Educational Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2001-11-01

    This report describes the early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and long-term follow-up results of albendazole treatment in a 16-year-old girl with primary hydatid disease of the femur diagnosed incidentally during the course of a post-traumatic knee infection. As far as we know, this is the first report of the early MRI findings and long-term outcome of medical treatment in primary hydatid disease of the femur in this age group. (orig.)

  1. A comparative study of the therapeutic effect between long and short intramedullary nails in the treatment of intertrochanteric femur fractures in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Ke-Ming; Fu, Hong-Bo; Cao, Wen; Dong, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    To compare the clinical effects of long vs. short intramedullary nails in the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures in old patients more than 65 years old. A retrospective analysis of 178 cases of intertrochanteric fractures of the femur (AO type A1 and A2) in the elderly was conducted from January 2008 to December 2013. There were 85 males (47.8%) and 93 females (52.2%) with the age of 65e89 (70.2±10.8) years. The patients were treated by closed reduction and long or short intramedullary nail (Gamma 3) fixation. The length of short nail was 180 mm and that for long nail was 320e360 mm. The general data of patients, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, length of hospital stay, preoperative hemoglobin level, blood transfusion rate, postoperative periprosthetic fractures, infections, complications, etc were carefully recorded. There were 76 cases (42.7%) in the long intramedullary nail group and 102 cases (57.3%) in the short nail group. All the cases were followed up for 12e48 (21.3±6.8) months, during which there were 21 deaths (11.8%), mean (13.8±6.9) months after operation. The intraoperative blood loss was (90.7±50.6) ml in short nail group, greatly less than that in long nail group (127.8±85.9) ml (p=0.004). The short nail group also had a significantly shorter operation time (43.5 min±12.3 min vs. 58.5 min±20.3 min, p=0.002) and lower rate of postoperative transfusion (42.3% vs. 56.7%, p=0.041). But the length of hospital stay showed no big differences. After operation, in each group there was 1 case of periprosthetic fracture with a total incidence of 1.1%, 1.3% in long nail group and 0.9% in short nail group. At the end of the follow-up, all patients achieved bony union. The average healing time of the long nail group was (6.5±3.1) months, and the short nail group was (6.8±3.7) months, revealing no significant differences (p=0.09). Postoperative complications showed no great differences either. Both the intramedullary long and short nail

  2. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Ilizarov Methods in the Treatment of Infected Nonunion of Tibia and Femur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yin

    Full Text Available Infected nonunion of tibia and femur are common in clinical practice, however, the treatment of these diseases has still been a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Ilizarov methods can eradicate infection, compensate bone defects and promote the bone union through progressive bone histogenesis. The objective of this systematic review was to review current available studies reporting on Ilizarov methods in the treatment of infected nonunion of tibia and femur, and to perform meta-analysis of bone and functional results and complications to evaluate the efficacy of Ilizarov methods.A comprehensive literature search was performed from the SCI, PubMed, Cochrane Library; and Embase between January 1995 and August 2015. Some major data were statistically analyzed using weighted means based on the sample size in each study by SPSS 13.0, including number of patients, mean age, mean previous surgical procedures, mean bone defects, mean length of follow-up, bone union, complications per patient, external fixation time, and external fixation index(EFI. Bone results (excellent, good, fair and poor rate, functional results (excellent, good, fair and poor rate and complications were analyzed by Stata 9.0.A total of 590 patients from 24 studies were included in this systematic review. The average of bone union rate was 97.26% in all included studies. The poor rate in bone results and functional results was 8% (95%CI, 0.04-0.12; I2 = 44.1%, P = 0.065 and 10% (95%CI, 0.05-0.14; I2 = 34.7%, P = 0.121 in patients with infected nonunion of tibia and femur treated by Ilizarov methods. The rate of refracture, malunion, infectious recurrence, knee stiffness, amputation, limb edema and peroneal nerve palsy was respectively 4%, 7%, 5%, 12%, 4%, 13% and 13%.Our systematic review showed that the patients with infected nonunion of tibia and femur treated by Ilizarov methods had a low rate of poor bone and functional results. Therefore, Ilizarov methods may be a good choice

  3. Procedimentos em exumações para investigação de vínculo genético em ossos Exhumations procedures for investigating the genetic link in bones

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    João Arnaldo Damião Melki

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar problemas técnicos nas exumações para pesquisa de DNA em ossos e propor soluções por meio de protocolo. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo e qualitativo das exumações, procedendo cada etapa da perícia conforme proposto na literatura médico-legal. Foram realizadas dez exumações no período de 1995 a 1998, para coleta de restos humanos e extração do DNA, sendo sete de interesse civil e três, criminal. As dificuldades técnicas surgidas na execução desses procedimentos foram resolvidas a partir de alternativas estabelecidas. RESULTADOS: A escassez de informações úteis para a identificação do indivíduo, baseada em seus restos mortais, foi observada em todos os casos. As características morfológicas individuais contribuíram para a identificação em 50% dos casos. O auxílio dos familiares foi importante na revelação dessas características. Em três casos, foi indicado apenas o sexo e, em um, a idade. A falta de infra-estrutura dos cemitérios e de segurança policial dificultou o trabalho pericial. CONCLUSÕES: Para garantir a fidelidade do exame molecular do DNA é necessário identificar de quem são os restos mortais a serem exumados. Para a eficiência da perícia, é fundamental o uso de um protocolo que inclua, entre outras questões, as relativas a identificação, infra-estrutura e segurança pessoal dos peritos no local do exame.OBJECTIVE: To identify technical problems in exhumations performed for DNA detection in bones and to propose solutions through a protocol. METHODS: A prospective and qualitative study of exhumations was carried out according to the methods proposed in the medical legal literature. From 1995 to 1998, were performed 10 exhumations to collect human remains for DNA extraction. Of them, seven cases were of civil interest and three of criminal. Alternatives were sought to overcome technical difficulties found during the execution of these procedures. RESULTS: For all cases

  4. Femur-sparing pattern of abnormal fetal growth in pregnant women from New York City after maternal Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christie L; Merriam, Audrey A; Ohuma, Eric O; Dighe, Manjiri K; Gale, Michael; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M

    2018-05-05

    Zika virus is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, which can induce fetal brain injury and growth restriction following maternal infection during pregnancy. Prenatal diagnosis of Zika virus-associated fetal injury in the absence of microcephaly is challenging due to an incomplete understanding of how maternal Zika virus infection affects fetal growth and the use of different sonographic reference standards around the world. We hypothesized that skeletal growth is unaffected by Zika virus infection and that the femur length can represent an internal standard to detect growth deceleration of the fetal head and/or abdomen by ultrasound. We sought to determine if maternal Zika virus infection is associated with a femur-sparing pattern of intrauterine growth restriction through analysis of fetal biometric measures and/or body ratios using the 2014 International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Project and World Health Organization Fetal Growth Chart sonographic references. Pregnant women diagnosed with a possible recent Zika virus infection at Columbia University Medical Center after traveling to an endemic area were retrospectively identified and included if a fetal ultrasound was performed. Data were collected regarding Zika virus testing, fetal biometry, pregnancy, and neonatal outcomes. The 2014 International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Project and World Health Organization Fetal Growth Chart sonographic standards were applied to obtain Z-scores and/or percentiles for fetal head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length specific for each gestational week. A novel 2014 International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Project standard was also developed to generate Z-scores for fetal body ratios with respect to femur length (head circumference:femur length, abdominal circumference:femur length). Data were then grouped within clinically relevant gestational age strata (34 weeks) to

  5. Morphometric analysis of the femur in cerebral palsy: 3-dimensional CT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, Shinichi; Sakai, Takashi; Shibata, Toru; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Sugamoto, Kazuomi

    2010-09-01

    The cause of hip disorder in cerebral palsy (CP) has been thought to involve muscle imbalance, flexion, and adduction contracture of the hip joint, acetabular dysplasia, and femoral growth abnormalities. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the 3-dimensional femoral geometry and subluxation/dislocation of the hip in spastic CP using 3D-CT reconstructed images of the pelvis and the femur, focusing on the femoral growth abnormalities in CP. Between June 2006 and September 2009, 186 hips in 93 bilateral spastic CP patients, including spastic diplegia (SD) in 73 patients and spastic quadriplegia (SQ) in 20 patients, who had not received any surgical treatment, were investigated using 3D-CT at our hospital. There were 59 boys and 34 girls with an average age of 5.3 years (range: 2.6 to 6.8 y). As an index for the femoral geometry, the neck-shaft angle, the femoral anteversion, and the femoral offset were 3-dimensionally measured. The center of the acetabulum and the femoral head were determined to calculate the CT migration percentage as the distance between these centers divided by the femoral head diameter. To elucidate the factors related to hip subluxation/dislocation, the relationships between the neck-shaft angle, the femoral anteversion, the femoral offset, and the CT migration percentage were investigated. The mean neck-shaft angle was 150.4+/-9.4 degrees (range: 129.4 to 173.2 degrees). The mean femoral anteversion was 44.4+/-13.6 degrees (range: 5.8 to 84.0 degrees). The mean CT migration percentage was 22.4+/-22.7% (range: 3 to 129%). There was positive correlation between the CT migration percentage and the neck-shaft angle (r=0.49). Hips with large CT migration percentage tended to show coxa valga. There was an inverse correlation between the neck-shaft angle and the femoral offset (r=-0.90), but no correlation between the CT migration percentage and the femoral anteversion (r=0.26), between the femoral offset and the femoral anteversion (r

  6. [A therapeutic effect analysis of femur first principle and combined anteversion technique during total hip arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X Q; Wu, C S; Sun, S; Wang, J; Li, W; Zhang, W

    2018-04-01

    Objective: To investigate the situation of hip dislocation with the application of "femur first" principle and "combined anteversion technique" during total hip arthroplasty. Methods: A retrospective analysis has been done on the clinical data about 104 patients(133 hips)who were diagnosed as hip disease and were treated with total hip arthroplasty by the doctors from the Department of Joint Orthorpaedics of Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University from June 2014 to June 2016, and all the prostheses applied in the operation were cementless ones.Among them, 65 patients were males, 39 females and their age was 46.6 years (ranging from 23 to 76 years) .And 29 of them underwent bilateral hip operations and 75 unilateral ones.Seventy-six cases of aseptic necrosis of the femoral head in the terminal stage, 28 cases of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis.Surgical approach: of all the operations, 103 hips were operated on with hardinge approach, 30 with posterolateral approach.During the operation, first of all, the femoral medullary cavity was broached and then the anteversion of intramedullary broacher was measured.After that, the anteversion of the acetabular cup was calculated as 37° minus the anteversion of the broacher, and the acetabular cup was implanted at that angle.The patients' prosthesis combined anteversion, range of motion of the hip joint, operation time, hemorrhage amount, and complications had been kept record.One, three, and six months respectively after the operation, all the patients received outpatient review, and took anteroposterior and lateral position X-ray examination.Harris hip score had been applied to evaluate their hip function before the operation and six months after the operation. Results: All the patients had been operated on smoothly, with the operation time of(57.6±14.5)minutes(36-115 minutes)and hemorrhage amount of (336.5±50.8)ml(180-620 ml). The operation finding showed that the combined anteversion by employing"femur

  7. EFEK PEMBERIAN SPILANTHES ACMELLA DAN LATIHAN FISIK TERHADAP JUMLAH SEL OSTEOBLAS FEMUR MENCIT YANG DIINDUKSI DEKSAMETASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hening Laswati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTelah dilakukan penelitian untuk mengetahui uji aktivitas anti-osteoporosis secara in vivo dari tanaman Spilanthes acmella terhadap sel osteoblas tulang trabekula proksimal femur mencit jantan model osteoporosis induksi deksametason. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan rancangan penelitian posttest only control group, 60 ekor mencit jantan sehat (usia >5 bulan dikelompokkan secara random menjadi 10 kelompok yaitu kelompok sehat tanpa induksi deksametason dan kelompok osteoporosis induksi deksametason. Kontrol positif mendapat suspensi alendronat dan kelompok latihan fiik menggunakantreadmill mencit berjalan 10m/menit bertahap selama 5 -12 menit, 3 kali dalam satu minggu, kelompok kombinasi ekstrak etanol 70% dan latihan fiik serta kelompok uji fraksi butanol, heksan, etil asetat dan air. Penelitian ini dilakukan selama 4 minggu. Osteoporosis akibat pemakaian glukokortikoid menjadi penyebab osteoporosis sekunder yang meningkatkan risiko fraktur. Telah banyak bukti klinik tentang peran fioestrogen dalam pengobatan osteoporosis pada pascamenopause. Spilanthes acmella, atau yang dikenal masyarakat dengan sebutan Legetan, termasuk famili Asteracea merupakan satu tanaman obat di Indonesia yang mempunyai kandungan senyawa polifenol dan flvonoid. Dari hasil penelitian sebelumnya diketahui bahwa baik fraksi butanol dan air dari tanaman tersebut mampu meningkatkan aktivitas enzim alkalin fosfatase yang merupakan marker pembentukan tulang. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak etanol 70% Spilanthes acmella dikombinasikan dengan latihan fiik meningkatkan jumlah sel osteoblas secara bermakna bila dibandingkan dengan hanya ekstrak etanol atau latihan fiik. Ini membuktikan bahwa ekstrak etanol 70% Spilanthes acmella mempunyai efek additive terhadap efek latihan pembebanan aksial pada kondisi osteoporosis. Fraksi heksana, etil asetat dan air juga meningkatkan secara bermakna jumlah sel osteoblas. Fraksi non polar merupakan fraksi yang lebih potensial untuk

  8. [Early total care pattern for intertrochanteric fracture of femur in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jie; Kang, Xin-yong; Xu, Hong-wei; Li, Yong-fu; Zahng, Bin; Guo, Jian; He, Zhen-nian

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate clinical results of early total care (ETC) treatment for elderly patients with intertrochanteric femur fractures. Clinical data of 106 elderly patients with intertrochanteric fracture treated from January 2012 and February 2015 were retrospectively studied. According to whether receiving the early total care mode, the patients were divided into 2 groups, 34 cases were diagnosed and treated with early total care pattern (ETC group), including 14 males and 20 females with an average age of (74.88 ± 4.38) years old ranging from 70 to 86. According to Evans types, 4 cases were type I, 5 cases were type II, 13 cases were type III, 11 cases were type IV, 1 case was type V. Seventy-two patients were treated with conventional trauma method (conventional group), including 35 males and 37 females with an average age of (74.46 ± 3.63) years old ranging from 70 to 85. According to Evans type, 8 cases were type I ,13 cases were type II, 25 cases were type III, 25 cases were type IV, and 1 case was type V. All fractures were treated with proximal femoral nails anti-rotation (PFNA). Operative time, hospital stays, leaving bed time, complications, cases of death at 1 year after operation, postoperative Harris score at 12 months were observed and compared. All patients were followed up, the time of ETC group ranged from 9 to 18 months with an average of 13.29 ± 1.51, and the time in conventional group ranged from 12 to 16 months with an average 12.93 ± 1.15, while there was no significant difference between two groups in time of following-up (t = 1.368, P = 0.174). There was no significant meaning in cases of death between ETC group (2 cases) and conventional group (8 cases). Three cases occurred complications in ETC group, and 20 cases in conventional group,there was obvious meaning between two groups (χ² = 0.739, P = 0.318). Operative time,hospital stays,leaving bed time in ETC group respectively was (2.03 ± 0.67) d, (15.41 ± 2.87) d and (3.62 ± 0.74) d

  9. [A clinical study on the relationship of the tail femur distance and the lag screw migration or cutting-out after the third generation of Gamma nail fixation of intertrochanteric fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yu; Yao, Qi; Zhang, Gen'ai; Ding, Lixiang

    2018-01-01

    To confirm the association between tail femur distance (TFD) and lag screw migration or cutting-out in the treatment of intertrochanteric fracture with the third generation of Gamma nail (TGN). The clinical data of 124 cases of intertrochanteric fracture treated with TGN internal fixation and followed up more than 18 months between January 2012 and December 2015 were reviewed and analyzed. There were 52 males and 72 females, with an age of 46-93 years (mean, 78.5 years). According to AO/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO/ASIF) classification, 43 cases were type 31-A1, 69 cases were type 31-A2, and 12 cases were type 31-A3. The time from injury to operation was 1-10 days (mean, 2.9 days). According to the fracture healing of the patients, the patients were divided into the healing group and failure group. The age, gender, height, bone mineral density (BMD), fracture AO/ASIF classification, the time from injury to operation, and the TFD value at 1 day after operation were recorded and compared. The risk factors for the migration or cutting-out of lag screw were analyzed by logistic regression. There were 111 cases in healing group, the healing time was 80-110 days (mean, 95.5 days). There were 13 cases in failure group, including 2 cases of lag screw cutting-out and 11 cases of significant migration. Except for the TFD value at 1 day after operation in failure group was significantly higher than that in the healing group( t =5.14, P =0.00), there was no significant difference in gender, age, height, BMD, fracture of AO/ASIF classification, and the time from injury to operation ( P >0.05) between 2 groups. logistic regression analysis showed that TFD value was a risk factor for the migration or cutting-out of lag screw (B=1.22, standardized coefficient=0.32, Wald χ 2 =14.66, P =0.00, OR=3.37). The patients with higher TFD value had higher risk of postoperative lag screw migration or cutting-out. This result indicates that the appropriate length of the

  10. Use of DXA-Based Structural Engineering Models of the Proximal Femur to Discriminate Hip Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lang; Peel, Nicola; Clowes, Jackie A; McCloskey, Eugene V; Eastell, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Several DXA-based structural engineering models (SEMs) of the proximal femur have been developed to estimate stress caused by sideway falls. Their usefulness in discriminating hip fracture has not yet been established and we therefore evaluated these models. The hip DXA scans of 51 postmenopausal women with hip fracture (30 femoral neck, 17 trochanteric, and 4 unspecified) and 153 age-, height-, and weight-matched controls were reanalyzed using a special version of Hologic’s software that produced a pixel-by-pixel BMD map. For each map, a curved-beam, a curved composite-beam, and a finite element model were generated to calculate stress within the bone when falling sideways. An index of fracture risk (IFR) was defined over the femoral neck, trochanter, and total hip as the stress divided by the yield stress at each pixel and averaged over the regions of interest. Hip structure analysis (HSA) was also performed using Hologic APEX analysis software. Hip BMD and almost all parameters derived from HSA and SEM were discriminators of hip fracture on their own because their ORs were significantly >1. Because of the high correlation of total hip BMD to HSA and SEM-derived parameters, only the bone width discriminated hip fracture independently from total hip BMD. Judged by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve, the trochanteric IFR derived from the finite element model was significant better than total hip BMD alone and similar to the total hip BMD plus bone width in discriminating all hip fracture and femoral neck fracture. No index was better than total hip BMD for discriminating trochanteric fractures. In conclusion, the finite element model has the potential to replace hip BMD in discriminating hip fractures. PMID:18767924

  11. Intra-articular Physeal Fractures of the Distal Femur: A Frequently Missed Diagnosis in Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennock, Andrew T; Ellis, Henry B; Willimon, Samuel C; Wyatt, Charles; Broida, Samuel E; Dennis, M Morgan; Bastrom, Tracey

    2017-10-01

    Intra-articular physeal fractures of the distal femur are an uncommon injury pattern, with only a few small case series reported in the literature. To pool patients from 3 high-volume pediatric centers to better understand this injury pattern, to determine outcomes of surgical treatment, and to assess risk factors for complications. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A multicenter retrospective review of all patients presenting with an intra-articular physeal fracture between 2006 and 2016 was performed. Patient demographic and injury data, surgical data, and postoperative outcomes were documented. Radiographs were evaluated for fracture classification (Salter-Harris), location, and displacement. Differences between patients with and without complications were compared by use of analysis of variance or chi-square tests. A total of 49 patients, with a mean age of 13.5 years (range, 7-17 years), met the inclusion criteria. The majority of fractures were Salter-Harris type III fractures (84%) involving the medial femoral condyle (88%). Football was responsible for 50% of the injuries. The initial diagnosis was missed in 39% of cases, and advanced imaging showed greater mean displacement (6 mm) compared with radiographs (3 mm). All patients underwent surgery and returned to sport with "good to excellent" results after 2 years. Complications were more common in patients with wide-open growth plates, patients with fractures involving the lateral femoral condyle, and patients who were casted ( P < .05). Clinicians evaluating skeletally immature athletes (particularly football players) with acute knee injuries should maintain a high index of suspicion for an intra-articular physeal fracture. These fractures are frequently missed, and advanced imaging may be required to establish the diagnosis. Leg-length discrepancies and angular deformities are not uncommon, and patients should be monitored closely. Surgical outcomes are good when fractures are identified, with high rates

  12. The advantages of tomosynthesis for evaluating bisphosphonate-related atypical femur fractures compared to radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraszko, Andrew; Siegal, Daniel; Flynn, Michael; Rao, Sudhaker D; Peterson, Ed; van Holsbeeck, Marnix

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the advantages of using tomosynthesis (TS) compared to radiographs in the detection, characterization, and follow-up of bisphosphonate-related atypical femur fractures (BP-AFF). Eight patients were identified retrospectively who underwent TS for radiographic findings suspicious for BP-AFF. Two radiologists independently interpreted 15 radiographs and 16 TS examinations, indicating the presence or absence of the following: (1) cortical "beaking" on radiographs, (2) radiolucent fracture line on radiographs, and (3) fracture lucency on TS corresponding to the site of radiographic abnormality. Radiation dose data were calculated for radiographs and TS using Monte Carlo analysis. There was agreement on 100 % of radiographs regarding the presence or absence of a cortical beak. Regarding the presence or absence of a fracture lucency, there was agreement on 100 % of TS examinations (Kappa = 1.0) and 73 % of radiographs (Kappa = 0.40 ± 0.24). For the 46 % of radiographs in which one or both radiologists did not visualize a fracture line, there was 100 % agreement for the presence of a fracture line on the corresponding TS. The interobserver agreement for fracture line detection was significantly higher for TS than for radiographs (p = 0.012). The effective radiation dose using TS was approximately 96 % lower compared to radiography. TS outperformed radiographs in the detection and characterization of BP-AFF. TS may also have advantages over radiography for BP-AFF follow-up through its unique ability to visualize fracture healing with lower effective radiation doses to the patient.

  13. Systemic Inflammatory Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury, Femur Fracture, and Shock: An Experimental Murine Polytrauma Model

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    C. Probst

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Despite broad research in neurotrauma and shock, little is known on systemic inflammatory effects of the clinically most relevant combined polytrauma. Experimental investigation in an animal model may provide relevant insight for therapeutic strategies. We describe the effects of a combined injury with respect to lymphocyte population and cytokine activation. Methods. 45 male C57BL/6J mice (mean weight 27 g were anesthetized with ketamine/xylazine. Animals were subjected to a weight drop closed traumatic brain injury (WD-TBI, a femoral fracture and hemorrhagic shock (FX-SH. Animals were subdivided into WD-TBI, FX-SH and combined trauma (CO-TX groups. Subjects were sacrificed at 96 h. Blood was analysed for cytokines and by flow cytometry for lymphocyte populations. Results. Mortality was 8%, 13% and 47% for FX-SH, WD-TBI and CO-TX groups (P<0.05. TNFα (11/13/139 for FX-SH/WD-TBI/CO-TX; P<0.05, CCL2 (78/96/227; P<0.05 and IL-6 (16/48/281; P=0.05 showed significant increases in the CO-TX group. Lymphocyte populations results for FX-SH, WD-TBI and CO-TX were: CD-4 (31/21/22; P= n.s., CD-8 (7/28/34, P<0.05, CD-4-CD-8 (11/12/18; P= n.s., CD-56 (36/7/8; P<0.05. Conclusion. This study shows that a combination of closed TBI and femur-fracture/ shock results in an increase of the humoral inflammation. More attention to combined injury models in inflammation research is indicated.

  14. Epidemiology of fractures of the proximal third of the femur in elderly patients ☆

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    Daniel Daniachi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: This was an epidemiological study on fractures of the proximal third of the femur in elderly patients who were treated at a teaching hospital in the central region of São Paulo. METHODS: The subjects were patients over the age of 60 years who were attended over a 1-year period. A questionnaire seeking basic sociodemographic data and information on comorbidities presented and medications used was drawn up. The circumstances of the fractures and their characteristics, the treatment instituted and the intra-hospital mortality rate were evaluated. RESULTS: The 113 patients included in the study presented a mean age of 79 years. The ratio between the sexes was three women to each man. Only 30.4% of the patients reported having osteoporosis and only 0.9% had had treatment for the disease. Low-energy trauma was the cause of 92.9% of the fractures. Femoral neck fractures accounted for 42.5% of the fractures and trochanteric fractures, 57.5%. Five patients did not undergo operations; 39 underwent joint replacement; and 69 underwent osteosynthesis. The mean length of hospital stay was 13.5 days and the mean length of waiting time until surgery was 7 days. The intra-hospital mortality rate was 7.1%. CONCLUSION: The patients attended at this institution presented an epidemiological profile similar to what is found in the Brazilian literature. Chronic kidney failure is a significant factor with regard to intra-hospital mortality. Preventive measures such as early diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis and regular physical activity practices were not implemented.

  15. The influence of 241-Am and DTPA on morphometric parameters of the rat femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polig, E.

    1976-01-01

    Microradiographically detectable alterations of the bone structure in the femur of young rats induced by monomeric 241-Am(III) (i.v., 30 μCi/kg) were studied. The morphometric and dosimetric measurements were carried out by means of an electronic image analyzer. 8 weeks after injection of 241-Am a characteristic alteration of the frequency distribution of the chord lengths over the trabeculae in the epiphysis and over the metaphyseal marrow spaces was found. The structure of the spongiosa is irregular with both large, coarse and small fragmented trabeculae. The complexity of the bone architecture and the area of the endosteal surfaces is reduced. The surface/volume ratio in control animals varies between 36 mm -1 in the epiphysis and 64 mm -1 in the region of the epiphyseal cartilage plate. From the specific surface burden (pCi/mm 2 ) the average dose rates were determined. There is no significant difference between the calcified tissue fraction in controls and animals with 241-Am, with the exception of the metaphyseal band where the locally high dose rates cause a devitalization of the tissue with inhibition of bone resorption as well as an abnormal trabeculation in the metaphysis. Treatment by Ca-DTPA reduces the 241-Am deposition nonuniformly and the pathological manifestations are markedly less pronounced. The mean trabecular width is about 100 μm in the epiphysis and has a minimum of 40 μm in the central part of the epiphyseal plate. The mean chord length over the marrow spaces varies between 90 and 210 μm. (orig.) [de

  16. Fractures of the proximal femur: correlation with vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism

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    A.C. Ramalho

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Fractures are the feared consequences of osteoporosis and fractures of the proximal femur (FPF are those that involve the highest morbidity and mortality. Thus far, evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD is the best way to determine the risk of fracture. Genetic inheritance, in turn, is one of the major determinants of BMD. A correlation between different genotypes of the vitamin D receptor (VDR and BMD has been recently reported. On this basis, we decided to determine the importance of the determination of VDR genotype in the presence of an osteoporotic FPF in a Brazilian population. We studied three groups: group I consisted of 73 elderly subjects older than 65 years (78.5 ± 7.2 years hospitalized for nonpathological FPF; group II consisted of 50 individuals older than 65 years (72.9 ± 5.2 years without FPF and group III consisted of 98 young normal Brazilian individuals aged 32.6 ± 6.6 years (mean ± SD. Analysis of VDR gene polymorphism by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP was performed by PCR amplification followed by BsmI digestion of DNA isolated from peripheral leukocytes. The genotype distribution in group I was 20.5% BB, 42.5% Bb and 37% bb and did not differ significantly from the values obtained for group II (16% BB, 36% Bb and 48% bb or for group III (10.2% BB, 47.6% Bb and 41.8% bb. No differences in genotype distribution were observed between sexes or between the young and elderly groups. We conclude that determination of VDR polymorphism is of no practical use for the prediction of FPF. Other nongenetic factors probably start to affect bone mass, the risk to fall and consequently the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures with advancing age.

  17. Fracture morphology of AO/OTA 31-A trochanteric fractures: A 3D CT study with an emphasis on coronal fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Woo; Kent, William T; Yoon, Yong-Cheol; Kim, Youngwoo; Kim, Hyungon; Jha, Ashutosh; Durai, Senthil Kumar; Oh, Jong-Keon

    2017-02-01

    This study was designed to assess the incidence and morphology of coronal plane fragments in AO/OTA 31-A trochanteric fractures. 156 cases of AO/OTA 31-A trochanteric fractures were retrospectively evaluated. Lateral radiographs were analyzed for the presence of coronal plane fragments followed by analysis of 3D CT reconstructions in these fractures. The incidence of coronal fragments identified on the lateral radiograph and 3D CT reconstructions were both calculated. Coronal fragment morphology was described based upon the origin and exit points of fracture lines and the number of fragments. On plain radiographs, a coronal plane fracture was identified in 59 cases, an incidence of 37.8% (59/156). In comparison, 3D CT reconstructions identified coronal plane fractures in 138 cases for an incidence of 88.4% (138/156). 3D CT reconstructions identified coronal fracture fragments in 81.9% (50/61) of AO/OTA 31-A1 cases, 94.5% (69/73) of 31-A2 cases, and 86.3% (19/22) of 31-A3 cases. Incidence of coronal fractures identified on plain radiographs of 3 AO/OTA 31-A1,A2,A3 groups was lower when compared to the incidence of coronal fractures identified on 3D CT. Of the 138 cases that had coronal plane fracture, 82 cases (59.4%) had a single coronal fragment (GT fragment 35 cases, GLT fragment 19 cases, GLPC fragment 28 cases). The remaining 56 cases (40.5%) had two coronal fragments. There is a high incidence of coronal fragments in intertrochanteric femur fractures when analyzed with 3D CT reconstructions. Our study suggests that these coronal fragments are difficult to identify on plain radiographs. Knowledge of the incidence and morphology of coronal fragments helps to avoid potential intraoperative pitfalls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. SCExAO: First Results and On-Sky Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thayne; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Clergeon, Christophe; McElwain, Michael; Thalmann, Christian; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Singh, Garima; Kudo, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    We present new on-sky results for the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics imager (SCExAO) verifying and quantifying the contrast gain enabled by key components: the closed-loop coronagraphic low-order wavefront sensor (CLOWFS) and focal plane wavefront control ("speckle nulling"). SCExAO will soon be coupled with a high-order, Pyramid wavefront sensor which will yield greater than 90% Strehl ratio and enable 10(exp 6) -10(exp 7) contrast at small angular separations allowing us to image gas giant planets at solar system scales. Upcoming instruments like VAMPIRES, FIRST, and CHARIS will expand SCExAO's science capabilities.

  19. Viability of autogenous bone grafts obtained by using bone collectors: histological and microbiological study Viabilidade dos enxertos autógenos obtidos com a utilização de coletores para osso: estudo histológico e microbiológico

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    Alberto Blay

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of autogenous bone grafts is considered to be the best choice for reconstructive surgery. In the periodontal literature, the utilization of osseous coagulum was suggested by the end of the sixties. The purpose of this study is to consider the use of bone collectors (bone traps as an alternative method for obtaining material to fill small bone imperfections, such as fenestrations and dehiscences. Thirty samples were obtained from bone drilling during fixture installation in patients (13 men and 17 women, with an average age of 54 years requiring treatment at the Department of Periodontology and Implant Dentistry, University of Santo Amaro. These samples were fixed in 10% neutral formaldehyde for 24 hours and subjected to histological preparation, in order to evaluate the presence of viable osteoblasts. In addition, the material was placed in a fluid thioglycolate medium and incubated for 24 hours at 36 ± 1°C in aerobiosis and anaerobiosis. Bacterial growth evaluation was made by using six different culture media (MacConkey agar, blood agar base, mannitol salt agar, Anaerokit LTD medium, Anaerokit LTD - bile medium, Anaerinsol. The results show that, if proper care is taken to prevent saliva contamination during the surgical procedure, this method of collecting autogenous bone may be useful in situations where small amounts of bone are required.A utilização de enxertos autógenos é considerada a melhor opção nos tratamentos cirúrgicos de reconstrução óssea. Na literatura periodontal, a utilização de coágulo ósseo foi sugerida no final da década de 60. O objetivo deste estudo é considerar a utilização de coletores para osso como um método alternativo de se obter osso autógeno para preenchimento de defeitos ósseos como fenestrações e deiscências. Trinta amostras foram obtidas no processo de perfuração do tecido ósseo, durante a instalação de implantes em pacientes (13 homens e 17 mulheres, com média etária de

  20. A fase estrogênica altera a resposta do osso e do metabolismo mineral de ratas com hipertireoidismo? Does the estrogenic phase modify the bone and mineral metabolism response in rats under hyperthyroidism?

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    N.M. Ocarino

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the estrogenic phase in the bone and in the mineral metabolism was studied in Wistar adult female rats kept under euthyroidism or hyperthyroidism for 60 days. The rats were divided, according to the stage of the estrous cycle, into four groups: 1 euthyroid (proestrus-estrus, 2 euthyroid (metaestrus-diestrus, 3 hyperthyroid (proestrus-estrus, and 4 hyperthyroid (metaestrus-diestrus. After 60 days the blood plasma was collected and the concentrations of free T4, estradiol, progesterone, calcium, phosphorus, and of alkaline phosphatase were determined. The bones (femur and tibia were analysed microscopically. Despite of the functional state of the thyroid, the levels of estrogen were significantly higher in the proestrus-estrus. The estrogenic phase increased the plasmatic concentration of calcium significantly in the euthyroid rats but it did not alter the levels of phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase. In the hyperthyroid state no significant differences in the plasmatic concentrations of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase throughout the cycle were found. The phases of the cycle did not also influence the bone morphology in the euthyroid and hyperthyroid states. It was concluded that the estrogenic phase increases the plasmatic concentration of calcium, even without altering the bone morphology of the euthyroid rats. In addition the estrogenic phase does not increase the plasmatic calcium and it does not modify the response of the bone as well as of the mineral metabolism under effect of the hyperthyroidism.

  1. DA PSICODINÂMICA DO TRABALHO AO DIREITO FUNDAMENTAL AO CONTEÚDO DO PRÓPRIO TRABALHO E AO MEIO AMBIENTE ORGANIZACIONAL SAUDÁVEL

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    Leonardo Vieira Wandelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo procura traçar alguns elementos que pretendem articular como, a partir do discurso jurídico, podem ser significados os aportes sobre saúde e trabalho, especialmente aqueles trazidos pela abordagem da Psicodinâmica do Trabalho. Um caminho, assim, que vai dos estudos sobre sujeito, trabalho e saúde até o Direito Constitucional, que afirma como seu fundamento a dignidade humana, indissociável da centralidade antropológica do trabalho; um vínculo expressado pelo direito fundamental ao trabalho que, aqui, se propõe reconstruir a partir do desvelamento de um direito fundamental ao conteúdo do próprio trabalho, articulado ao conceito de meio ambiente organizacional do trabalho. 

  2. Adverse Effects of Caffeine on Development of Femur of BALB/c Mice and Protective Role of Vitamin D/sub 3/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Butt, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of caffeine ingestion on the development of femur and role of vitamin D3 in preventing these effects in BALB/c mice. Study Design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, in cooperation with NIH(National Institute of Health), Islamabad, from October 2014 to October 2015. Methodology: Thirty (100%) BALB/c mice, 50% male and female each, three weeks old, weighing 12-14 grams were taken and divided equally and randomly into three groups, each having 10 (33.3%) mice; 5 (16.6%) male and female. G1 (control group) was given normal diet with water ad libitum. G2 and G3 (experimental groups) were given 10 mg of caffeine per 100g body weight, three days a week, through oral gavage for 60 days on alternate days. However, experimental group G3 was additionally provided 0.1 micro g vitamin D3 daily, through oral gavage for 60 days. Experimental groups were compared with control group and data was analyzed statistically. Results: The mean weight of mice femur of G1(control group) was 0.387+-0.019 g; while mean weights of right femur of G2 and G3 (experimental groups) were 0.316+-0.020 g and 0.345+-0.020 g, respectively. Similarly, mean right femur length of group G1 was 20.70 +- 0.609 mm; while for groups G2 and G3, it was 24.382 +- 1.087 mm and 22.966 +- 0.822 mm, respectively. In comparison with group G1 for groups G2 and G3, femur weight decreased, however femur length increased. Conclusion: Caffeine intake caused femur length to increase and weight to decrease, but treatment with vitamin D3 ameliorated these effects of caffeine. (author)

  3. Magnetic resonance perfusion and diffusion imaging characteristics of transient bone marrow edema, avascular necrosis and subchondral insufficiency fractures of the proximal femur

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    Mueller, Dirk, E-mail: d.mueller@uk-koeln.de [Department of Radiology, University of Cologne (Germany); Department of Radiology, Technische Universität München (Germany); Schaeffeler, Christoph, E-mail: schaeffeler@me.com [Department of Radiology, Cantonal Hospital Graubuenden, Chur (Switzerland); Department of Radiology, Cantonal Hospital Graubuenden, Chur (Switzerland); Baum, Thomas, E-mail: thomas-baum@gmx.de [Department of Radiology, Technische Universität München (Germany); Walter, Flavia, E-mail: flavia_walter2000@yahoo.de [Department of Radiology, Technische Universität München (Germany); Rechl, Hans, E-mail: rechl@tum.de [Department of Orthopaedics, Technische Universität München (Germany); Rummeny, Ernst J., E-mail: rummeny@tum.de [Department of Radiology, Technische Universität München (Germany); Woertler, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.woertler@tum.de [Department of Radiology, Technische Universität München (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • DCE-MRI may add information to the pathophysiology of bone marrow edema (BME) of the proximal femur. • Patients with transient bone marrow edema (TBME) or subchondral insufficiency fractures (SIF) and avascular osteonecrosis (AVN) showed different MR perfusion patterns. • Perfusion characteristics suggest different pathophysiology for AVN compared with TBME or SIF. • Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) was not able to discriminate necrotic from edematous bone marrow. • DWI is of limited value to evaluate BME of the proximal femur. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion and diffusion imaging characteristics in patients with transient bone marrow edema (TBME), avascular necrosis (AVN), or subchondral insufficiency fractures (SIF) of the proximal femur. Materials and methods: 29 patients with painful hip and bone marrow edema pattern of the proximal femur on non-contrast MR imaging were examined using diffusion-weighted and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced sequences. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) and perfusion parameters were calculated for different regions of the proximal femur. Regional distribution and differences in ADC values and perfusion parameters were evaluated. Results: Seven patients presented with TBME, 15 with AVN and seven with SIF of the proximal femur. Perfusion imaging showed significant differences for maximum enhancement values (E{sub max}), slope (E{sub slope}) and time to peak (TTP) between the three patient groups (p < 0.05). In contrast, no significant differences for ADC values were calculated when comparing TBME, AVN, and SIF patients. Conclusion: Diffusion weighted imaging of bone marrow of the proximal femur did not show significant differences between patients with TBME, AVN or SIF. In contrast, MR perfusion imaging demonstrated significant differences for the different patient groups and may as a complementary imaging technique add information to the understanding of the pathophysiology

  4. Magnetic resonance perfusion and diffusion imaging characteristics of transient bone marrow edema, avascular necrosis and subchondral insufficiency fractures of the proximal femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Dirk; Schaeffeler, Christoph; Baum, Thomas; Walter, Flavia; Rechl, Hans; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Woertler, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • DCE-MRI may add information to the pathophysiology of bone marrow edema (BME) of the proximal femur. • Patients with transient bone marrow edema (TBME) or subchondral insufficiency fractures (SIF) and avascular osteonecrosis (AVN) showed different MR perfusion patterns. • Perfusion characteristics suggest different pathophysiology for AVN compared with TBME or SIF. • Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) was not able to discriminate necrotic from edematous bone marrow. • DWI is of limited value to evaluate BME of the proximal femur. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion and diffusion imaging characteristics in patients with transient bone marrow edema (TBME), avascular necrosis (AVN), or subchondral insufficiency fractures (SIF) of the proximal femur. Materials and methods: 29 patients with painful hip and bone marrow edema pattern of the proximal femur on non-contrast MR imaging were examined using diffusion-weighted and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced sequences. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) and perfusion parameters were calculated for different regions of the proximal femur. Regional distribution and differences in ADC values and perfusion parameters were evaluated. Results: Seven patients presented with TBME, 15 with AVN and seven with SIF of the proximal femur. Perfusion imaging showed significant differences for maximum enhancement values (E max ), slope (E slope ) and time to peak (TTP) between the three patient groups (p < 0.05). In contrast, no significant differences for ADC values were calculated when comparing TBME, AVN, and SIF patients. Conclusion: Diffusion weighted imaging of bone marrow of the proximal femur did not show significant differences between patients with TBME, AVN or SIF. In contrast, MR perfusion imaging demonstrated significant differences for the different patient groups and may as a complementary imaging technique add information to the understanding of the pathophysiology of

  5. Comparative Study Using Intramedullary K-wire Fixation Over Titanium Elastic Nail in Paediatric Shaft Femur Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Anand, Tushar; Singh, Sudhir

    2014-11-01

    Fracture shaft femur is common paediatric trauma leading to significant morbidity. Conservative treatments available are associated with prolonged periods of immobilization. Use of flexible intramedullary implant allows early rehabilitation in diaphyseal fractures of femur in children. The aim of the present study is to compare fixation of diaphyseal femur fracture by titanium elastic nail and intramedullary K-wires in children. Prospective randomized study in a tertiary care hospital. Fifty-two children between 6 years and 14 years of age with femoral shaft fracture were assigned either in Group I or Group II based on computer generated random numbers. In Group I closed percutaneous intramedullary K- wire fixation and in Group II closed percutaneous intramedullary titanium elastic nail was used to fix the fractures. Partial weight bearing was allowed after 6 weeks of surgery and full weight bearing at clinico-radiological union. Average time of radiological union was 6 to 10 weeks in both groups. In both the groups two cases had entry site irritation which resolved with early implant removal. One case in both the groups had unacceptable mal-alignment. Both the groups had few cases of limb-length discrepancy, which was in acceptable limit, except two cases of TENS. There was no statistically significant difference between the results of both the groups. But, using K-wires significantly reduced the cost of treatment. Most of such fractures in our society are neglected because of high cost of treatment. Providing a cheaper alternative in form of K-wires may be beneficial for the patients from low socio-economic status.

  6. Associations of vitamin D deficiency with postoperative gait and mortality among patients with fractures of the proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nicoletti Gumieiro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess whether serum vitamin D concentration is associated with gait status and mortality among patients with fractures of the proximal femur, six months after suffering the fracture.METHODS: Consecutive patients aged ≥65 years with fractures of the proximal femur, who were admitted to the orthopedics and traumatology ward of our service between January and December 2011, were prospectively evaluated. Clinical, radiological, epidemiological and laboratory analyses were performed, including vitamin D. The patients underwent surgery and were followed up as outpatients, with return visits 15, 30, 60 and 180 days after discharge, at which the outcomes of gait and mortality were evaluated.RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients were evaluated. Two of them were excluded because they presented oncological fractures. Thus, 86 patients of mean age 80.2 ± 7.3 years were studied. In relation to serum vitamin D, the mean was 27.8 ± 14.5 ng/mL, and 33.7% of the patients presented deficiency of this vitamin. In relation to gait, univariate and multivariate logistic regression showed that vitamin D deficiency was not associated with gait recovery, even after adjustment for gender, age and type of fracture (OR: 1.463; 95% CI: 0.524-4.088; p = 0.469. Regarding mortality, Cox regression analysis showed that vitamin D deficiency was not related to its occurrence within six months, even in multivariate analysis (HR: 0.627; 95% CI: 0.180-2.191; p = 0.465.CONCLUSION: Serum vitamin D concentration was not related to gait status and/or mortality among patients with fractures of the proximal femur, six months after suffering the fracture.

  7. Fully automatic segmentation of femurs with medullary canal definition in high and in low resolution CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Diogo F; Ruben, Rui B; Folgado, João; Fernandes, Paulo R; Audenaert, Emmanuel; Verhegghe, Benedict; De Beule, Matthieu

    2016-12-01

    Femur segmentation can be an important tool in orthopedic surgical planning. However, in order to overcome the need of an experienced user with extensive knowledge on the techniques, segmentation should be fully automatic. In this paper a new fully automatic femur segmentation method for CT images is presented. This method is also able to define automatically the medullary canal and performs well even in low resolution CT scans. Fully automatic femoral segmentation was performed adapting a template mesh of the femoral volume to medical images. In order to achieve this, an adaptation of the active shape model (ASM) technique based on the statistical shape model (SSM) and local appearance model (LAM) of the femur with a novel initialization method was used, to drive the template mesh deformation in order to fit the in-image femoral shape in a time effective approach. With the proposed method a 98% convergence rate was achieved. For high resolution CT images group the average error is less than 1mm. For the low resolution image group the results are also accurate and the average error is less than 1.5mm. The proposed segmentation pipeline is accurate, robust and completely user free. The method is robust to patient orientation, image artifacts and poorly defined edges. The results excelled even in CT images with a significant slice thickness, i.e., above 5mm. Medullary canal segmentation increases the geometric information that can be used in orthopedic surgical planning or in finite element analysis. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Removal of well-fixed components in femoral revision arthroplasty with controlled segmentation of the proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megas, Panagiotis; Georgiou, Christos S; Panagopoulos, Andreas; Kouzelis, Antonis

    2014-12-31

    The transfemoral and the extended trochanteric osteotomies are the most common osteotomies used in femoral revision, both when proximal or diaphyseal fixation of the new component has been decided. We present an alternative approach to the trochanteric osteotomies, most frequently used with distally fixated stems, to overcome their shortcomings of osteotomy migration and nonunion, but, most of all, the uncontrollable fragmentation of the femur. The procedure includes a complete circular femoral osteotomy just below the stem tip to prevent distal fracture propagation and a subsequent preplanned segmentation of the proximal femur for better exposure and fast removal of the old prosthesis. The bone fragments are reattached with cerclage wires to the revision prosthesis, which is safely anchored distally. A modified posterolateral approach is used, as the preservation of the continuity of the abductors, the greater trochanter, and the vastus lateralis is a prerequisite. Between 2006 and 2012, 47 stems (33 women, 14 men, mean age 68 years, range 39-88 years) were revised using this technique. They were 12 (26%) stable and 35 (74%) loose prostheses and were all revised to tapered, fluted, grit-blasted stems. No fracture of the trochanters or the distal femur occurred intraoperatively. Mean follow-up was 28 months (range 6-70 months). No case of trochanteric migration or nonunion of the osteotomies was recorded. Restoration of the preexisting bone defects occurred in 83% of the patients. Three patients required repeat revision due to dislocation and one due to a postoperative periprosthetic fracture. None of the failures was attributed to the procedure itself. This new osteotomy technique may seem aggressive at first, but, at least in our hands, has effectively increased the speed of the femoral revision, particularly for the most difficult well-fixed components, but not at the expense of safety.

  9. Image-Based Macro-Micro Finite Element Models of a Canine Femur with Implant Design Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Krishnan, Ganapathi; Dyce, Jonathan

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive model of a bone-cement-implant assembly is developed for a canine cemented femoral prosthesis system. Various steps in this development entail profiling the canine femur contours by computed tomography (CT) scanning, computer aided design (CAD) reconstruction of the canine femur from CT images, CAD modeling of the implant from implant blue prints and CAD modeling of the interface cement. Finite element analysis of the macroscopic assembly is conducted for stress analysis in individual components of the system, accounting for variation in density and material properties in the porous bone material. A sensitivity analysis is conducted with the macroscopic model to investigate the effect of implant design variables on the stress distribution in the assembly. Subsequently, rigorous microstructural analysis of the bone incorporating the morphological intricacies is conducted. Various steps in this development include acquisition of the bone microstructural data from histological serial sectioning, stacking of sections to obtain 3D renderings of void distributions, microstructural characterization and determination of properties and, finally, microstructural stress analysis using a 3D Voronoi cell finite element method. Generation of the simulated microstructure and analysis by the 3D Voronoi cell finite element model provides a new way of modeling complex microstructures and correlating to morphological characteristics. An inverse calculation of the material parameters of bone by combining macroscopic experiments with microstructural characterization and analysis provides a new approach to evaluating properties without having to do experiments at this scale. Finally, the microstructural stresses in the femur are computed using the 3D VCFEM to study the stress distribution at the scale of the bone porosity. Significant difference is observed between the macroscopic stresses and the peak microscopic stresses at different locations.

  10. Recurrent Proximal Femur Fractures in a Teenager With Osteogenesis Imperfecta on Continuous Bisphosphonate Therapy: Are We Overtreating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanwala, Rashida F; Sanghrajka, Anish; Bishop, Nicholas J; Högler, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Long-term bisphosphonate (BP) therapy in adults with osteoporosis is associated with atypical femoral fractures, caused by increased material bone density and prolonged suppression of bone remodeling which may reduce fracture toughness. In children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), long-term intravenous BP therapy improves bone structure and mass without further increasing the already hypermineralized bone matrix, and is generally regarded as safe. Here we report a teenage girl with OI type IV, who was started on cyclical intravenous pamidronate therapy at age 6 years because of recurrent fractures. Transiliac bone biopsy revealed classical structural features of OI but unusually low bone resorption surfaces. She made substantial improvements in functional ability, bone mass, and fracture rate. However, after 5 years of pamidronate therapy she started to develop recurrent, bilateral, nontraumatic, and proximal femur fractures, which satisfied the case definition for atypical femur fractures. Some fractures were preceded by periosteal reactions and prodromal pain. Pamidronate was discontinued after 7 years of therapy, following which she sustained two further nontraumatic femur fractures, and continued to show delayed tibial osteotomy healing. Despite rodding surgery, and very much in contrast to her affected, untreated, and normally mobile mother, she remains wheelchair-dependent. The case of this girl raises questions about the long-term safety of BP therapy in some children, in particular about the risk of oversuppressed bone remodeling with the potential for microcrack accumulation, delayed healing, and increased stiffness. The principal concern is whether there is point at which benefit from BP therapy could turn into harm, where fracture risk increases again. This case should stimulate debate whether current adult atypical femoral fracture guidance should apply to children, and whether low-frequency, low-dose cyclical, intermittent, or oral treatment

  11. Extensively coated revision stems in proximally deficient femur: Early results in 15 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya SKS

    2008-01-01

    intraoperative severe comminuted fracture extending into the supracondylar region while hammering in the stem. Post cerclage wiring, she was put on a long knee brace and her mobilization was delayed to 12 weeks. Conclusions: The extensively coated cementless ( ′Solution™′ femoral stem provides a reasonable ′solution′ to the deficient femur in hip revision. The proximal femoral deficiences can be relatively easily bypassed and distal fixation can be achieved with this stem. Extreme care needs to be taken to avoid fractures and penetration of the femoral shaft, which can, however, be managed by cerclage wiring. Principles of a successful outcome include preservation of the functional continuity of the abduction apparatus, care to recognize and prevent distal extension of fracture while inserting the stem (preemptive cerclage wiring and supervised rehabilitation.

  12. Refining Risk Adjustment for the Proposed CMS Surgical Hip and Femur Fracture Treatment Bundled Payment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Mark A; Ostrum, Robert F; Clement, R Carter

    2018-02-21

    The U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has been considering the implementation of a mandatory bundled payment program, the Surgical Hip and Femur Fracture Treatment (SHFFT) model. However, bundled payments without appropriate risk adjustment may be inequitable to providers and may restrict access to care for certain patients. The SHFFT proposal includes adjustment using the Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) and geographic location. The goal of the current study was to identify and quantify patient factors that could improve risk adjustment for SHFFT bundled payments. We retrospectively reviewed a 5% random sample of Medicare data from 2008 to 2012. A total of 27,898 patients were identified who met SHFFT inclusion criteria (DRG 480, 481, and 482). Reimbursement was determined for each patient over the bundle period (the surgical hospitalization and 90 days of post-discharge care). Multivariable regression was performed to test demographic factors, comorbidities, geographic location, and specific surgical procedures for associations with reimbursement. The average reimbursement was $23,632 ± $17,587. On average, reimbursements for male patients were $1,213 higher than for female patients (p payments; e.g., reimbursement for those ≥85 years of age averaged $2,282 ± $389 less than for those aged 65 to 69 (p reimbursement, but dementia was associated with lower payments, by an average of $2,354 ± $243 (p reimbursement ranging from $22,527 to $24,033. Less common procedures varied by >$20,000 in average reimbursement (p reimbursement (p reimbursed by an average of $10,421 ± $543 more than DRG 482. Payments varied significantly by state (p ≤ 0.01). Risk adjustment incorporating specific comorbidities demonstrated better performance than with use of DRG alone (r = 0.22 versus 0.15). Our results suggest that the proposed SHFFT bundled payment model should use more robust risk-adjustment methods to ensure that providers are reimbursed fairly and that

  13. Sensitivity and specificity of CT- and MRI-scanning in evaluation of occult fracture of the proximal femur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haubro, M; Stougaard, C; Torfing, T

    2015-01-01

    AND METHODS: 67 patients (27 males, 40 females, mean age 80.5) seen in the emergency room with hip pain after fall, inability to stand and a primary X-ray without fracture were evaluated with both CT and MRI. The images were analysed by a senior consulting musculoskeletal radiologist, a resident in radiology...... and a resident in orthopaedic surgery. Sensitivity and specificity were estimated with MRI as the golden standard. Kappa value was used to assess level of agreement in both MRI and CT finding. RESULTS: 15 fractures of the proximal femur were found (7 intertrochanteric-, 3 femoral neck and 5 fractures...

  14. Is the rotation of the femural head a potential initiation for cutting out? A theoretical and experimental approach

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lenich, Andreas

    2011-04-22

    Abstract Background Since cut-out still remains one of the major clinical challenges in the field of osteoporotic proximal femur fractures, remarkable developments have been made in improving treatment concepts. However, the mechanics of these complications have not been fully understood. We hypothesize using the experimental data and a theoretical model that a previous rotation of the femoral head due to de-central implant positioning can initiate a cut-out. Methods In this investigation we analysed our experimental data using two common screws (DHS\\/Gamma 3) and helical blades (PFN A\\/TFN) for the fixation of femur fractures in a simple theoretical model applying typical gait pattern on de-central positioned implants. In previous tests during a forced implant rotation by a biomechanical testing machine in a human femoral head the two screws showed failure symptoms (2-6Nm) at the same magnitude as torques acting in the hip during daily activities with de-central implant positioning, while the helical blades showed a better stability (10-20Nm). To calculate the torque of the head around the implant only the force and the leverarm is needed (N [Nm] = F [N] * × [m]). The force F is a product of the mass M [kg] multiplied by the acceleration g [m\\/s2]. The leverarm is the distance between the center of the head of femur and the implant center on a horizontal line. Results Using 50% of 75 kg body weight a torque of 0.37Nm for the 1 mm decentralized position and 1.1Nm for the 3 mm decentralized position of the implant was calculated. At 250% BW, appropriate to a normal step, torques of 1.8Nm (1 mm) and 5.5Nm (3 mm) have been calculated. Comparing of the experimental and theoretical results shows that both screws fail in the same magnitude as torques occur in a more than 3 mm de-central positioned implant. Conclusion We conclude the center-center position in the head of femur of any kind of lag screw or blade is to be achieved to minimize rotation of the femoral head

  15. Study of the variations of fall induced hip fracture risk between right and left femurs using CT-based FEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Tanvir R; Luo, Yunhua

    2017-10-03

    Hip fracture of elderly people-suffering from osteoporosis-is a severe public health concern, which can be reduced by providing a prior assessment of hip fracture risk. Image-based finite element analysis (FEA) has been considered an effective computational tool to assess the hip fracture risk. Considering the femoral neck region is the weakest, fracture risk indicators (FRI) are evaluated for both single-legged stance and sideways fall configurations and are compared between left and right femurs of each subject. Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) scan datasets of thirty anonymous patients' left and right femora have been considered for the FE models, which have been simulated with an equal magnitude of load applied to the aforementioned configurations. The requirement of bilateral hip assessment in predicting the fracture risk has been explored in this study. Comparing the sideways fall and single-legged stance, the FRI varies by 64 to 74% at the superior aspects and by 14 to 19% at the inferior surfaces of both the femora. The results of this in vivo analysis clearly substantiate that the fracture is expected to initiate at the superior surface of femoral neck region if a patient falls from his/her standing height. The distributions of FRI between the femurs vary considerably, and the variability is significant at the superior aspects. The p value (= 0.02) obtained from paired sample t-Test yields p value ≤ 0.05, which shows the evidence of variability of the FRI distribution between left and right femurs. Moreover, the comparison of FRIs between the left and right femur of men and women shows that women are more susceptible to hip fracture than men. The results and statistical variation clearly signify a need for bilateral hip scanning in predicting hip fracture risk, which is clinically conducted, at present, based on one hip chosen randomly and may lead to inaccurate fracture prediction. This study, although preliminary, may play a crucial role in

  16. Sex specific association of physical activity on proximal femur BMD in 9 to 10 year-old children.

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    Graça Cardadeiro

    Full Text Available The results of physical activity (PA intervention studies suggest that adaptation to mechanical loading at the femoral neck (FN is weaker in girls than in boys. Less is known about gender differences associated with non-targeted PA levels at the FN or other clinically relevant regions of the proximal femur. Understanding sex-specific relationships between proximal femur sensitivity and mechanical loading during non-targeted PA is critical to planning appropriate public health interventions. We examined sex-specific associations between non-target PA and bone mineral density (BMD of three sub-regions of the proximal femur in pre- and early-pubertal boys and girls. BMD at the FN, trochanter (TR and intertrochanter (IT regions, and lean mass of the whole body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 161 girls (age: 9.7±0.3 yrs and 164 boys (age: 9.7±0.3 yrs. PA was measured using accelerometry. Multiple linear regression analyses (adjusted for body height, total lean mass and pubertal status revealed that vigorous PA explained 3-5% of the variability in BMD at all three sub-regions in boys. In girls, vigorous PA explained 4% of the variability in IT BMD and 6% in TR BMD. PA did not contribute to the variance in FN BMD in girls. An additional 10 minutes per day of vigorous PA would be expected to result in a ∼1% higher FN, TR, and IT BMD in boys (p<0.05 and a ∼2% higher IT and TR BMD in girls. In conclusion, vigorous PA can be expected to contribute positively to bone health outcomes for boys and girls. However, the association of vigorous PA to sub-regions of the proximal femur varies by sex, such that girlś associations are heterogeneous and the lowest at the FN, but stronger at the TR and the IT, when compared to boys.

  17. Low cost continuous femoral nerve block for relief of acute severe cancer related pain due to pathological fracture femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Cherian Koshy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathological fractures in cancer patient cause severe pain that is difficult to control pharmacologically. Even with good pain relief at rest, breakthrough and incident pain can be unmanageable. Continuous regional nerve blocks have a definite role in controlling such intractable pain. We describe two such cases where severe pain was adequately relieved in the acute phase. Continuous femoral nerve block was used as an efficient, cheap and safe method of pain relief for two of our patients with pathological fracture femur. This method was proved to be quite efficient in decreasing the fracture-related pain and improving the level of well being.

  18. Comparative evaluation of femoral nerve block and intravenous fentanyl for positioning during spinal anaesthesia in surgery of femur fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Jadon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal anaesthesia is the preferred technique to fix fracture of the femur. Extreme pain does not allow ideal positioning for this procedure. Intravenous fentanyl and femoral nerve block are commonly used techniques to reduce the pain during position for spinal anaesthesia however; results are conflicting regarding superiority of femoral nerve block over intravenous fentanyl. Aims: We conducted this study to compare the analgesic effect provided by femoral nerve block (FNB and intra- venous (IV fentanyl prior to positioning for central neuraxial block in patients undergoing surgery for femur fracture. Patients and Methods: In this randomized prospective study 60 patients scheduled for fracture femur operation under spinal were included. Patients were distributed in two groups through computer generated random numbers table; Femoral nerve block group (FNB and Intravenous fentanyl group (FENT. In FNB group patients received FNB guided by a peripheral nerve stimulator (Stimuplex; B Braun, Melsungen, AG 5 minutes prior to positioning. 20mL, 1.5% lidocaine with adrenaline (1:200,000 was injected incrementally after a negative aspiration test. Patients in the fentanyl group received injection fentanyl 1 μg/kg IV 5 mins prior to positioning. Spinal block was performed and pain scores before and during positioning were recorded. Statistical analysis was done with Sigmaplot version-10 computer software. Student t-test was applied to compare the means and P < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: VAS during positioning in group FNB: 0.57 ± 0.31 versus FENT 2.53 ± 1.61 (P = 0.0020. Time to perform spinal anesthesia in group FNB: 15.33 ± 1.64 min versus FENT 19.56 ± 3.09 min (P = 0.000049. Quality of patient positioning for spinal anesthesia in group FNB 2.67± 0.606 versus FENT 1.967 ± 0.85 (P = 0.000027. Patient acceptance was less in group FENT (P = 0.000031. Conclusion: Femoral nerve block provides better analgesia, patient

  19. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the lumbar spine, proximal femur and distal radius in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukahara, H.; Sudo, M.; Umezaki, M.; Hiraoka, M.; Yamamoto, K.; Ishii, Y.; Haruki, S.

    1992-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine, proximal femur and distal radius in 48 Japanese children aged 3-18 years. In the normal children (n=32), BMD increased with age in all locations, with a nearly twofold increase from preschool age to adolescence. Most of the children with chronic diseases known to affect bone metabolism (e.g., steroid osteoporosis) (n=16) had low BMD in every region, indicating that these disease states probably affect multiple sites of the skeleton in children. (orig.)

  20. Efeitos do treinamento físico sobre a resistência mecânica do terço proximal do fêmur de ratos Effects of physical training on the mechanical resistance of rat femur proximal thirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreo Fernando Aguiar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o comportamento mecânico do terço proximal do fêmur de ratos submetidos ao treinamento aeróbio e resistido crônicos. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar machos (80 dias, 300 a 350 g foram divididos em 3 grupos (n=8 por grupo: Treinamento aeróbio/8 semanas (TA, Treinamento resistido/8 semanas (TR e controle/8 semanas (CO. Ao término do período de treinamento os animais foram sacrificados e o fêmur direito coletado. Para análise do comportamento mecânico do fêmur foram realizados ensaios de flexo-compressão. RESULTADOS: O treinamento resistido ocasionou redução significante da força máxima (Fmáx do fêmur. Por outro lado, promoveu um aumento (23,7% relevante, porém não significante, da deformação da força máxima (DFmáx. O treinamento aeróbio não afetou a Fmáx, porém promoveu uma redução (26,6% considerável, também não significante, da DFmáx. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados demonstram que o treinamento resistido e aeróbio, promoveram redução da Fmáx e da DFmáx óssea, respectivamente. Os dados evidenciam uma ação diferencial de ambos os modelos de treinamento físico sobre as propriedades mecânicas do fêmur de ratos.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mechanical behavior of rat femur proximal thirds submitted to chronic aerobic and resistance training. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (80 days of age, weighing 300 to 350 g were divided into 3 groups (n=8 per group: control (CO, aerobic training (TA and resistance training (TR. At the end of the training, the animals were euthanized and the right femur was collected. Flexion-compression tests were carried out to analyze the mechanical behavior of the femurs. RESULTS: The resistance training promoted a significant reduction in maximum force (Fmáx of the femur. However, it also promoted a relevant increase (23.7%, though without statistical significance, in maximum force deformation (DFmáx. The aerobic training did not affect maximum force, however, it caused a

  1. Utilização de plasma rico em plaquetas de coelhos com poucos leucócitos e hemácias para a consolidação de ossos

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    M.G.M.G. Andrade

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se utilizar o plasma rico em plaquetas, obtido por técnica capaz de produzir um produto autólogo, com reduzido número de leucócitos e hemácias, e avaliar, por meio de radiografias, a capacidade de cicatrização de uma falha óssea induzida no rádio de coelhos. Foram coletados 10,5mL de sangue por via intracardíaca, o qual foi distribuído em três tubos de hemossedimentação contendo citrato de sódio. Os tubos contendo as amostras foram submetidos a uma centrifugação a 2.000rpm (670,8G por 20 minutos, e da coluna de sedimentação foram aspirados de cada tubo 1.000µL de plasma para a redução do volume sobrenadante. Aspirou-se o plasma acima do anel de leucócitos e transferiu-se para outro tubo para centrifugação a 2.000rpm por 10 minutos. O conteúdo plaquetário no fundo do tubo foi ressuspendido e homogeneizado a 1.000µL do plasma sobrenadante para formar o PRP líquido. Uma falha de 1,0cm foi realizada no rádio esquerdo de cada coelho. O tempo de consolidação foi observado por meio de exame radiográfico aos 45 e 90 dias de pós-operatório (PO. As imagens foram comparadas entre o grupo controle (G1 e o grupo que recebeu o implante de PRP por via transdérmica (G2. A evolução da cicatrização foi verificada com auxílio do programa Adobe Photoshop CC e em uma escala de cinza que representa o contraste. No G2 foi verificada média de 63% de contraste aos 45 dias de PO e de 65% aos 90 dias de PO. No G2, aos 45 dias de PO, a média encontrada foi de 42,7%, e aos 90 dias de PO, 31,25%, indicando que houve evolução do processo de reparação óssea em comparação ao grupo que não recebeu o implante de PRP. O método de obtenção de plasma rico em plaqueta autólogo de coelhos reduziu o número de leucócitos e hemácias e recuperou o número de plaquetas, sendo este maior ou igual aos valores fisiológicos para a espécie. O PRP obtido foi capaz de acelerar o processo de consolidação óssea em coelhos.

  2. Use of a statistical model of the whole femur in a large scale, multi-model study of femoral neck fracture risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Rebecca; Nair, Prasanth B; Taylor, Mark

    2009-09-18

    Interpatient variability is often overlooked in orthopaedic computational studies due to the substantial challenges involved in sourcing and generating large numbers of bone models. A statistical model of the whole femur incorporating both geometric and material property variation was developed as a potential solution to this problem. The statistical model was constructed using principal component analysis, applied to 21 individual computer tomography scans. To test the ability of the statistical model to generate realistic, unique, finite element (FE) femur models it was used as a source of 1000 femurs to drive a study on femoral neck fracture risk. The study simulated the impact of an oblique fall to the side, a scenario known to account for a large proportion of hip fractures in the elderly and have a lower fracture load than alternative loading approaches. FE model generation, application of subject specific loading and boundary conditions, FE processing and post processing of the solutions were completed automatically. The generated models were within the bounds of the training data used to create the statistical model with a high mesh quality, able to be used directly by the FE solver without remeshing. The results indicated that 28 of the 1000 femurs were at highest risk of fracture. Closer analysis revealed the percentage of cortical bone in the proximal femur to be a crucial differentiator between the failed and non-failed groups. The likely fracture location was indicated to be intertrochantic. Comparison to previous computational, clinical and experimental work revealed support for these findings.

  3. Bilateral undisplaced insufficiency neck of femur fractures associated with short-term steroid use: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdezi Sabahat

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present an interesting and unusual case of a 61-year-old woman with bilateral, undisplaced, stress neck of femur fractures associated with short-term steroid use. Insufficiency fractures of the neck of femur without preceding trauma have been described in the literature, although bilateral involvement is infrequent. These fractures have been associated with strenuous exercise, seizures, renal osteodystrophy, fluoride treatment, long-term corticosteroid use, amenorrhoea, abnormal anatomy and osteomalacia due to nutritional and/or hormonal factors. Case Presentation The case we present differs from other published reports, in that the patient's symptoms developed acutely after only a short course of steroids and with no associated trauma or strenuous exercise. It is also the only case described where no operative intervention was required. Conclusion Our case reiterates the importance of considering insufficiency or stress fractures in high-risk patients who present with musculoskeletal pain. Institution of bone protection should also be considered in these patients. Morbidity related to delayed treatment has been well documented, so a high level of clinical suspicion is imperative.

  4. The use of small interfering RNAs to inhibit adipocyte differentiation in human preadipocytes and fetal-femur-derived mesenchymal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y.; Mirmalek-Sani, S.-H.; Yang, X.; Zhang, J.; Oreffo, R.O.C.

    2006-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been used in functional genomics and offers innovative approaches in the development of novel therapeutics. Human mesenchymal stem cells offer a unique cell source for tissue engineering/regeneration strategies. The current study examined the potential of small interfering RNAs (siRNA) against human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) to suppress adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis) in human preadipocytes and fetal-femur-derived mesenchymal cells. Adipogenesis was investigated using cellular and biochemical analysis. Transient transfection with PPARγ-siRNA using a liposomal-based strategy resulted in a significant inhibition of adipogenesis in human preadipocytes and fetal-femur-derived mesenchymal cells, compared to controls (cell, liposomal and negative siRNA). The inhibitory effect of PPARγ-siRNA was supported by testing human PPARγ mRNA and adipogenic associated genes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 as well as examination of fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP 3 ) expression, an adipocyte-specific marker. The current studies indicate that PPARγ-siRNA is a useful tool to study adipogenesis in human cells, with potential applications both therapeutic and in the elucidation of mesenchymal cell differentiation in the modulation of cell differentiation in human mesenchymal cells

  5. Effects of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field on microstructure and bone metabolism of femur in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling; Zhang, Jun-Ping; Zhang, Ke-Ying; Wang, Huan-Bo; Wang, Huan; An, Guang-Zhou; Zhou, Yan; Meng, Guo-Lin; Ding, Gui-Rong

    2018-04-30

    To investigate the effects of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency (RF) field on bone microstructure and metabolism of femur in mice, C57BL/6 mice (male, age 4 weeks) were whole-body exposed or sham exposed to 1.8 GHz RF field. Specific absorption rates of whole body and bone were approximately 2.70 and 1.14 W/kg (6 h/day for 28 days). After exposure, microstructure and morphology of femur were observed by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) and Masson staining. Subsequently, bone parameters were calculated directly from the reconstructed images, including structure model index, bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume/total volume, connectivity density, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, and trabecular separation. Biomarkers that reflect bone metabolism, such as serum total alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b), were determined by biochemical assay methods. Micro-CT and histology results showed that there was no significant change in bone microstructure and the above parameters in RF group, compared with sham group. The activity of serum ALP and BALP increased 29.47% and 16.82%, respectively, in RF group, compared with sham group (P microstructure; however, it might promote metabolic function of osteoblasts in mice. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. MR assessment of red marrow distribution and composition in the proximal femur: correlation with clinical and laboratory parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, B.C. vande; Lecouvet, F.E.; Moysan, P.; Maldague, B.; Malghem, J.; Jamart, J.

    1997-01-01

    Objective. To correlate the MR appearance of the proximal femur marrow with clinical and blood parameters. Design and patients. The proportion of the femoral neck surface area occupied by red marrow was determined on T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images of the hip in a series of 120 subjects, aged from 15 to 75 years, with ten females and ten males per decade, and correlated with clinical data. This parameter and the bulk T1 values of femoral red marrow were determined in 30 other subjects 25-46 years of age and correlated with their blood parameters. Results. In the series of 120 subjects, the proportion of red marrow surface area decreased with age (P -4 ) and was higher in female than male subjects (P -4 ). Within each decade, the proportion of red marrow surface area was higher in females than in males between 25 and 65 years but neither before 25 nor after 65 years. In the series of 30 subjects, the proportion of red marrow surface area and bulk T1 values of femoral red marrow were significantly negatively correlated with hemoglobin blood levels but not with blood cell counts. Conclusion. The MR appearance of proximal femur red marrow is influenced by age and sex. A relationship with hemoglobin blood level is demonstrated. (orig.)

  7. Age-related proximal femur bone mineral loss in South Indian women: a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anburajan, M; Rethinasabapathi, C; Korath, M P; Ponnappa, B G; Kumar, K S; Panicker, T M; Govindan, A; Jagadeesan, G N

    2001-04-01

    i) To collect normative data for proximal femur bone mineral density (BMD) in South Indian women using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and ii) to study the rate and significance of hip bone mineral loss with advancing age in this population. Forty five women, whose age ranged from 16 to 84 years were studied. This sample was drawn randomly from general medical practice at KJ Hospital, Chennai, South India during November, 1997 to April, 1998. Of these 45 cases, 21 were pre-menopausal (mean +/- SD age = 30.9+/-8.8 years) and 24 post-menopausal (mean +/- SD age = 62.1+/-11.0 years). Subjects with secondary bone diseases were excluded. Also excluded were those taking any drugs known to affect calcium metabolism e.g., thiazide diuretics, oestrogen and calcium. Subjects were divided into seven decadal age groups from 15-24 years to 75-84 years. BMD of the right proximal femur was evaluated using a QDR-1000 DXA bone densitometer (Hologic Inc., Waltham, Massachusetts, USA). Data analysis was done with SPSS/PC statistical software package. Linear regression analysis showed significant (p India women have been evaluated and it may prove useful for diagnosing osteoporosis in the women of South India.

  8. Fecal Fistula Communicating with a Femur Shaft Fracture Secondary to a Malpositioned Suprapubic Catheter: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guled, Uday; Goni, Vijay G; Honnurappa, Arjun R H; John, Rakesh; Vardhana, Harsha; Sharma, Gaurav; Pattabhiraman, Kirubakaran S

    2015-10-06

    Suprapubic catheter (SPC) insertion is a common urological procedure. Though considered a simple and safe procedure, complications are bound to occur if proper precautions are not taken during the procedure. The reported complications include gross hematuria, post-obstruction diuresis, insertion site skin-related complications, and intra-abdominal visceral injuries. Iatrogenic bowel injuries have been reported to occur as a complication in around 2.5% of cases. We report a very rare case of a bowel injury due to improper insertion of a SPC leading to fecal matter tracking along the muscle planes to reach the fracture site of the femur shaft and formation of an external fecal fistula along the lateral aspect of thigh, which according to us is the first reported case in the literature. This case report shows the devastating complication of a technically simple procedure done in an improper manner and successful management of a rare case of femur fracture with communicating fecal fistula. The purpose of this case report is to highlight the importance of taking proper precautions before the procedure.

  9. [The primary stability between manual and robot assisted implantation of hip prostheses: A biomechanical study on synthetic femurs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decking, J; Gerber, A; Kränzlein, J; Meurer, A; Böhm, B; Plitz, W

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the initial stability of cementless stems implanted with robotic milling and conventional manual broaching. Proximally porous structured stems (G2, ESKA-Implants, Luebeck, Germany) were implanted into synthetic femora. In one group, the femoral cavity was prepared by a CT-based robot (CASPAR, URS-Ortho, Germany) with a high-speed milling head. In the other group, femora were rasped manually with broaches. The broaches had 1 mm proximal press-fit, the robotic cavities 1.5 mm. The implants were exposed to 15 000 loading cycles with 1 000 +/- 500 N. The direction of forces on the implant head were chosen to simulate stair climbing. Internal rotation and translation (caudal, dorsal and lateral) of the implants were measured by linear transducers. The robotic group showed significantly less reversible motion regarding translation in caudal, dorsal and lateral directions. The standard deviations of implant motions were smaller in the robotic group. Using robotic preparation of the femur, initial stability was higher and more consistent than with manual broaching, but differences in undersizing of the cavities created in the femur in relation to the implant may have contributed to these differences for the most part. In-vitro-loading experiments focusing on femoral cavities with varying press-fits are recommended before the introduction of new implants or operating procedures.

  10. Simultaneous Bilateral Femur Neck Fracture in A Young Adult with Chronic Renal Failure- A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V, Sathyanarayana; Patel, Maulik Tulsibhai; S, Raghavan; D, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    Pathological bilateral femoral neck fracture due to renal osteodystrophy is rare. This is a report of a chronic renal failure patient who had sustained bilateral intra-capsular displaced fracture neck of femur following an episode of convulsion and the difficulties encountered in early diagnosis and treatment. The pathophysiology of renal osteodystrophy and the treatment of hip fractures in patients with renal failure are also discussed. A 23 years old male patient admitted with h/o dysuria, pyuria and loss of appetite since 3 months. He was a known case of chronic renal failure and reflux nephropathy. On investigating, patient's renal parameters were high and he was started with haemodialysis. The next day patient had c/o bilateral hip pain and inability to move bilateral lower limbs following an episode of seizure. Radiograph of pelvis showed vertical sub capital fractures of bilateral neck of femur. In this patient, considering his age, general condition & prognosis, an elective surgery in the form of bilateral uncemented modular bipolar hemiarthroplasty was done. Overall risk of hip fracture among patients with chronic renal failure is considerably higher than in the general population, independent of age and gender. Simultaneous spontaneous bilateral fractures of the femoral neck are rare and a delayed diagnosis is usual. The study of etiological factors of these fractures is essential to guide us in choosing the treatment of choice. Obviously patient's age, life expectancy as well as renal co morbidity has an influence over deciding treatment and outcome.

  11. 99mTc-MDP bone uptake in secondary hyperparathyroidism: comparison among mandible, cranium, radius and femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boasquevisque, Edson; Silva, Jorge Wagner Esteves da; Bernardo, Vanessa V. de Albuquerque; Macedo, Sara Mello Santana de; Boasquevisque, Camila S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Objective: Evaluating bone involvement in secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) by 99m Tc-MDP uptake in the mandible, cranium, radius and femur and with data correlation with PTHi serum (Intact Parathyroid Hormone). Materials and Methods: In a prospective study of 54 patients with SHPT due to chronic renal disease and 15 normal individuals (control group), all patients had elevated serum PTHi, concentration and positive 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Bone uptake measurements were carried out drawing regions-of-interest (ROI) on the mandible, posterior cranium, distal radius and proximal femur. Additionally, soft tissue uptake was measured with one region-of-interest on the internal tight soft tissue (BG). The ROI-BG ratio used as the index of normalized bone uptake. Results: The uptake differences from SHPT and control groups mainly for mandible (p = 0,001) and cranium (p = 0,002) were statistically significant, even when the SHPT groups were separated according to serum PTHi levels. There was increased bone uptake with the increased levels of PTHi serum. All of the mandibles of the SHPT patients were abnormal with 33% having focal lesions. Conclusions: The bone uptake in SHPT group was abnormal in all areas evaluated, with high uptake of 99m Tc-MDP correlated to the increase of PTHi serum concentration. (author)

  12. 99mTc-MDP bone uptake in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Comparison of the mandible, cranium, radius, and femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boasquevisque, Edson; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A.; Silva, Jorge Wagner Esteves da; Albuquerque Bernardo, V.V. de; Macedo, S. Mello Santana de; Oliveira, Andre Ribeiro Nogueira de; Pires Kasai, Erika Tami; Boasquevisque, Camila S.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study to evaluate the bone involvement of the mandible, cranium, radius, and femur in secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) using 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate sodium (MDP) uptake correlated with the serum intact parathyroid hormone (PTHi). In a prospective study of 54 patients with SHPT due to chronic renal disease and 15 normal individuals (control group), all patients had elevated serum PTHi and 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Bone uptake was measured in regions of interest (ROIs) in the mandible posterior cranium, distal radius, and proximal femur. In addition, soft tissue uptake was measured in one ROI in the soft tissues of the medial thigh (BG). The ROI-BG ratio was used as an index of the normalized bone uptake. The uptake differences in the SHPT and control groups were statistically significant for the mandible (P=0.001) and cranium (P=0.002). When the SHPT group was subclassified according to serum PTHi levels, the bone uptake increased with the serum PTHi level. All mandibles of the patients with SHPT were abnormal, and 33% had focal lesions. The bone uptake in the SHPT group was abnormal in all areas evaluated, and a high uptake of 99m Tc-MDP was correlated with an increased serum PTHi. (author)

  13. MR imaging of the bone marrow in myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Comparison of the lumbar spine and femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Osamu; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Ichikawa, Tamaki; Matsuura, Katsuhiko; Nagai, Jun; Takagi, Shojiro

    1995-01-01

    MR imaging of the lumber spine and the femur was performed with T1-weighted SE sequence and comparison of the MRI findings of the lumber vertebral body and the femoral marrow was made in 15 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 5 chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and 9 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The MRI appearance of the bone marrow was classified into four patterns: 1) fatty marrow; 2) faint signal; 3) heterogeneous infiltration; and 4) diffuse infiltration. The MRI of the lumber vertebral body showed a diffuse marrow infiltration pattern in over the half of the cases of AML and MDS. On the MRI of the femoral marrow, the signal intensity alteration, a low signal on T1-weighted SE image, began in the proximal femurs almost symmetrically. The abnormal low signal intensity area tended to gradually extend towards the distal portion of the femoral marrow with progression of the disease in the patients with AML and MDS. M2 type of AML tended to be demonstrated as a faint signal pattern, which was significantly different from the other types of AML. In all the cases of CML, a diffuse cellular infiltration pattern was noted with total replacement of the fatty marrow on both lumbar spinal and femoral MRI, and the femoral marrow involvement was more downwardly extended than AML. We concluded that MRI of the femoral marrow was more efficient than that of the lumbar spine in the assessment of myeloid leukemia and MDS. (author)

  14. Assistência de enfermagem ao escolar: uma introdução ao problema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças C. Ferriani

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo são apresentados alguns aspectos da assistência de saúde ao escolar através dos tempos. Atualmente, profissionais de saúde estão voltados para a saúde escolar e todos tentam de alguma forma desempenhar o seu papel contribuindo para transformar os escolares em cidadãos úteis e capazes. A enfermagem de há muito tempo despertou seu interesse para melhorar as condições de vida do escolar. Na literatura consultada verificamos que a enfermeira, em alguns países da Europa e Estados Unidos, faz parte integrante do Sistema Escolar, e esta atividade é oficializada pelo governo. No Brasil, embora exista uma lei que coloca a enfermeira no sistema escolar, não encontramos nenhuma atividade de enfermagem oficializada e próprias das Secretarias de Educação dos diversos setores da União. O objet'vo deste ensaio é mostrar a importância da assistência de enfermagem dentro do sistema escolar.

  15. Femur morphometry, densitometry, geometry and mechanical properties in young pigs fed a diet free of inorganic phosphorus and supplemented with phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiba, Grzegorz; Sobol, Monika; Raj, Stanisława

    2017-02-01

    The study investigated in piglets the effect of replacing dietary inorganic P by addition of microbial phytase and its impact on performance, nutrient digestibility and on the geometrical characteristics and mineralisation of the femur. Sixteen pigs on day 58 of age were divided into two groups and fed either a diet free of additional inorganic phosphorus (P) and supplemented with phytase (Diet LP, 4.23 g total P/kg diet) or a diet with a mineral source of P and not supplemented with phytase (Diet SP, 5.38 g total P/kg diet). Performance data and the apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients were estimated between days 58 and 114, and 72 and 86 of age, respectively. On day 114 of age, the pigs were slaughtered, the femur was dissected and the mineral content and mineral density, maximum strength and maximum elastic strength, cortical wall thickness, cross-sectional area and cortical index were analysed. The growth performance and digestibility of nutrient fractions (with exception of P) did not differ between treatment groups. The P-digestibility was significantly higher in Group LP. The femur of pigs in Group LP had significantly greater cortical wall thickness, cortical index, bone mineral content, bone mineral density, maximum strength and maximum elastic strength than Group SP. Femur maximum strength and maximum elastic strength were correlated with cortical wall thickness and cortical index. Resulting from the different supply of digestible P, the femur geometrical, densitometric and mechanical properties of Group LP were better than those of Group SP. The mechanical properties of the femur of pigs depended more on its geometrical characteristics than on the degree of its mineralisation.

  16. Theoretical effects of fully ductile versus fully brittle behaviors of bone tissue on the strength of the human proximal femur and vertebral body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawathe, Shashank; Yang, Haisheng; Fields, Aaron J; Bouxsein, Mary L; Keaveny, Tony M

    2015-05-01

    The influence of the ductility of bone tissue on whole-bone strength represents a fundamental issue of multi-scale biomechanics. To gain insight, we performed a computational study of 16 human proximal femurs and 12 T9 vertebral bodies, comparing the whole-bone strength for the two hypothetical bounding cases of fully brittle versus fully ductile tissue-level failure behaviors, all other factors, including tissue-level elastic modulus and yield stress, held fixed. For each bone, a finite element model was generated (60-82 μm element size; up to 120 million elements) and was virtually loaded in habitual (stance for femur, compression for vertebra) and non-habitual (sideways fall, only for femur) loading modes. Using a geometrically and materially non-linear model, the tissue was assumed to be either fully brittle or fully ductile. We found that, under habitual loading, changing the tissue behavior from fully ductile to fully brittle reduced whole-bone strength by 38.3±2.4% (mean±SD) and 39.4±1.9% for the femur and vertebra, respectively (p=0.39 for site difference). These reductions were remarkably uniform across bones, but (for the femur) were greater for non-habitual (57.1±4.7%) than habitual loading (pductile cases. These theoretical results suggest that the whole-bone strength of the proximal femur and vertebra can vary substantially between fully brittle and fully ductile tissue-level behaviors, an effect that is relatively insensitive to bone morphology but greater for non-habitual loading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of intertrochanteric osteotomy on the proximal femur of rabbits: assessment with power Doppler sonography and scintigraphy Efeito da osteotomia intertrocantérica no femur proximal de coelhos: avaliação com utra-sonografia power Doppler e cintilografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S. Doria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In bone injury, repair results in local increased vascularity and bone marrow remodeling. Characterizing the vascular and metabolic imaging patterns of the proximal femur following an intertrochanteric osteotomy may help clinicians decide proper management of the patient. Our objective was to measure Doppler sonography and scintigraphy interval changes in the proximal femur following intertrochanteric osteotomy and compare imaging and histomorphometric measurements in the late post-operative stage (6 weeks after surgery in a rabbit model of bone injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Both hips of 12 adult rabbits were imaged with power Doppler sonography and scintigraphy prior to and after (7 days and 6 weeks unilateral osteotomy. Accuracy of the imaging methods was evaluated using hip operative status and histomorphometric results (vascular fractional area and number of vessels per area unit as reference standard measures. RESULTS: A significant difference in the mean number of pixels was noted between operated and non-operated femura in late post-operative power Doppler examinations (P=0.049. Although without reaching statistical significance, the AUC of Doppler measurements (AUC=0.99 was numerically greater than the AUC of scintigraphy measurements (AUC=0.857±0.099 (P=0.15 in differentiating proximal femura with regard to their fractional vascular areas in the late post-operative stage. In contrast, scintigraphy tended to perform better (AUC=0.984±0.022 than Doppler ultrasound (AUC=0.746±0.131 to demonstrate the vascularity intensity per area unit (P=0.07 in the late stage. CONCLUSION: Our results warrant further investigation to determine the value of different imaging modalities for assessment of pathologic changes following hip surgery. Power Doppler sonography demonstrated larger AUCs (representing higher accuracy for the discrimination of vascular fractional areas and scintigraphy, for discrimination of the number of vessels per

  18. As sementes geneticamente modificadas e o direito ao desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Barbosa Melo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta como objeto de investigação a ligação entre os direitos da propriedade intelectual no contexto dos organismos geneticamente modificados (OGM´S. Objetivou-se, especificamente, responder inquietações acerca dos danos reais para os consumidores, bem como o lucro para as empresas multinacionais, sem desconsiderar, ainda, os efetivos danos ao meio ambiente e à saúde. Utilizou metodologia pautada em pesquisa bibliográfica e documental a partir do método hermenêutico fazendo uso da interpretação judicial-histórica. Conclui pela relevância da temática para efetivação do direito ao desenvolvimento, bem como pela urgência de uma regulamentação da biossegurança, de forma a permitir melhor sustentação aos OGM´s.

  19. Adesão ao tratamento no transtorno bipolar

    OpenAIRE

    Santin,Aida; Ceresér,Keila; Rosa,Adriane

    2005-01-01

    O transtorno bipolar (TB) é uma doença crônica, recorrente, presente em 1,5% da população, estando associada a altas taxas de mortalidade e prejuízos socioeconômicos. O lítio, a carbamazepina e o ácido valpróico são os estabilizadores de humor mais usados. Em tratamentos prolongados, como é o caso do TB, a má-adesão dos pacientes é uma das maiores dificuldades. Verifica-se que fatores ligados ao paciente, aos medicamentos e aos médicos possam ser responsáveis pela baixa adesão. A psicoeducaçã...

  20. EVALUATION OF PRESENTATION OF SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF FEMOROACETABULAR IMPINGEMENT AFTER EPIPHYSIOLYSIS OF THE PROXIMAL FEMUR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Fábio Peng; de Britto, Paulo Sérgio Gérzon; Neto, Lauro Machado; Schwartsmann, Carlos Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an association with compartmental syndrome, and early diagnosis can be achieved through evaluating clinical parameters and constant clinical monitoring. Once the diagnosis has been made, fasciotomy should be performed. It is always difficult to assess consolidation, but the RUST method may help in this. Radiography is assessed in two projections, and points are scored for the presence of the fracture line and a visible bone callus. Today, the dogma of six hours for cleaning the exposed fracture is under discussion. It is considered that an early start to intravenous antibiotic therapy and the lesion severity are very important. The question of early or late closure of the lesion in an exposed fracture has gone through several phases: sometimes early closure has been indicated and sometimes late closure. Currently, whenever possible, early closure of the lesion is recommended, since this diminishes the risk of infection. Milling of the canal when the intramedullary nail is introduced is still a controversial subject. Despite strong personal positions in favor of milling, studies have shown that there may be some advantage in relation to closed fractures, but not in exposed fractures.

  1. Adesão ao tratamento da ambliopia

    OpenAIRE

    Arakaki,Mara Regina; Schellini,Silvana Artioli; Heimbeck,Felipe Jorge; Furuya,Margareth Tiemi; Padovani,Carlos Roberto

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência da adesão no resultado do tratamento da ambliopia. MÉTODOS: Foi feito estudo retrospectivo avaliando a resposta ao tratamento da ambliopia em 151 crianças portadoras de ambliopia, tratadas com esquema de oclusão diária, com o número de dias variando de acordo com a idade da criança. Os pacientes foram separados em dois grupos que diferiam entre si pela adesão ou não ao tratamento. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o tratamento teve melhores resultados nas crianças de ...

  2. High-Performance CCSDS AOS Protocol Implementation in FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Loren P.; Torgerson, Jordan L.; Pang, Jackson

    2010-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS) space data link protocol provides a framing layer between channel coding such as LDPC (low-density parity-check) and higher-layer link multiplexing protocols such as CCSDS Encapsulation Service, which is described in the following article. Recent advancement in RF modem technology has allowed multi-megabit transmission over space links. With this increase in data rate, the CCSDS AOS protocol implementation needs to be optimized to both reduce energy consumption and operate at a high rate.

  3. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF SUPRACONDYLAR FRACTURES OF FEMUR MANAGED BY OPEN REDUCTION AND INTERNAL FIXATION WITH LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Incidence of distal femur fractures is approximately 37 per 1 , 00,000 person - years.¹Distal femoral fractures has two different injury mechanisms, high energy trauma and low energy trauma. In high - energy trauma, the problem of restoring the function in a destroyed knee joint persists. Complex knee ligament injuries frequently occur additionally to extensive cartilage injuries. In elderly patients, extreme osteoporosis represents a particular problem for anchoring the implant. 2 Supracondylar and inter condylar fractures often are unstable and comminuted and tend to occur in the elderly or those with multiple injuries. Treatment options are many with varied results. The final outcome would depend upon the type of fracture, stabilization of fixation and and perhaps patient general condition. 3 The options for operative treatment are traditional plating techniques that require compression of the implant to the femoral shaft (blade plate, Dynamic Condylar Screw, non - locking condylar buttress plate, antegrade nailing fixation, retrograde nailing, sub muscular locked internal fixation and external fixation. 4 However, as the complexity of fractures needing treatment has changed from simple extra - articular supra - condylar types to inter - condylar and metaphyseal comminuted types, these implants may not be ideal. Double plating, and more recently, locked plating techniques have been advocated 5 . However with double plating there is often extensive soft tissue stripping on both sides of the femur, resulting in reduced blood supply and potential non - union and failure of the implants 6 . The LCP is a single beam construct where the strength of its fixation is equal to the sum of all screw - bone interfaces rather than a single screw’s axial stiffness or pullout resistance as seen in unlocked plates 7,8 . Its unique biomechanical function is based on splinting rather than compression resulting in flexible stabilization

  4. A Prediction of the Damping Properties of Hindered Phenol AO-60/polyacrylate Rubber (AO-60/ACM) Composites through Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Da-Wei; Zhao, Xiu-Ying; Zhang, Geng; Li, Qiang-Guo; Wu, Si-Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Molecule dynamics (MD) simulation, a molecular-level method, was applied to predict the damping properties of AO-60/polyacrylate rubber (AO-60/ACM) composites before experimental measures were performed. MD simulation results revealed that two types of hydrogen bond, namely, type A (AO-60) -OH•••O=C- (ACM), type B (AO-60) - OH•••O=C- (AO-60) were formed. Then, the AO-60/ACM composites were fabricated and tested to verify the accuracy of the MD simulation through dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). DMTA results showed that the introduction of AO-60 could remarkably improve the damping properties of the composites, including the increase of glass transition temperature (Tg) alongside with the loss factor (tan δ), also indicating the AO-60/ACM(98/100) had the best damping performance amongst the composites which verified by the experimental.

  5. Reverse Less Invasive Stabilization System (LISS) Plating for Proximal Femur Fractures in Poliomyelitis Survivors: A Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chen; Jin, Dongxu; Zhang, Changqing

    2017-11-15

    BACKGROUND Poliomyelitis is a neuromuscular disease which causes muscle atrophy, skeletal deformities, and disabilities. Treatment of hip fractures on polio-affect limbs is unique and difficult, since routine fixation methods like nailing may not be suitable due to abnormal skeletal structures. CASE REPORT We report one femoral neck fracture and one subtrochanteric fracture in polio survivors successfully treated with reverse less invasive stabilization system (LISS) plating technique. Both fractures were on polio-affected limbs with significant skeletal deformities and low bone density. A contralateral femoral LISS plate was applied upside down to the proximal femur as an internal fixator after indirect or direct reduction. Both patients had uneventful bone union and good functional recovery. CONCLUSIONS Reverse LISS plating is a safe and effective technique to treat hip fractures with skeletal deformities caused by poliomyelitis.

  6. Influence of Lateral Muscle Loading in the Proximal Femur after Fracture Stabilization with a Trochanteric Gamma Nail (TGN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai; Mahaisavariya, Banchong; Suwanprateeb, Jintamai; Bohez, Erik; Vander Sloten, Jos

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of lateral muscle loading on the stress/strain distributions of the trochanteric Gamma nail (TGN) fixation within the healed, trochanteric and subtrochanteric femoral fractures by means of a finite element method. The effect of three muscle groups, the abductors (ABD), the vastus lateralis (VL) and the iliotibial band (ITB), were investigated. The analytical results showed that addition of lateral muscle forces, iliotibial band and vastus lateralis, produced compensation of forces and reduction of bending moments in the bone and in the trochanteric Gamma nail especially in the lateral aspect. The iliotibial band produced a higher impact as compared to the vastus lateralis. Therefore in the finite element analysis of the proximal femur with the trochanteric Gamma nail fracture fixation should include the lateral muscle forces to simulate load condition with maximal physiological relevance to the closed nailing technique.

  7. The study of bone mineral density and structure in proximal femur by quantitative CT in elderly Chinese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xiaoguang; Liu Xia; Wang Yusheng; Li Jin; Qu Hui; Li Jing; Genant, H.; Lang, T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) and structure of proximal femur in elderly Chinese women by quantatitive computed tomography (QCT) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and to further compare the results of these two methods. Methods: Sixty-six healthy Chinese women over 65 years old participated in this study. The left hips of all subjects were measured with DXA and the BMD of femoral neck and trochanteric region were calculated. With QCT, the BMD and tissue volume of cortical, trabecular and integral bone were calculated for femoral neck, trochanteric and total femur regions in both hips. Appropriate statistical analyses were performed with SPSS 11.5. Results: The BMD and structural parameters in different regions and different compartments of the proximal femur could be precisely assessed with QCT technique. The BMD of cortical bone in femoral neck [(0.52±0.04) g/cm 3 ], BMD of cortical bone in trochanteric region [(0.49±0.03) g/cm 3 ] and BMD of integral bone in troehanteric region [(0.22±0.04) g/cm 3 ] were greater in the fight than those in the left [(0.51±0.04), (0.48±0.03), (0.21±0.04)g/cm 3 ]. The difference had statistical signification (P 2 (0.78±0.13) g/cm 2 , 5.80 cm 3 (0.06±0.03) g/cm 3 , (5.19 ± 1.40) cm 3 , (0.25 ± 0.04)g/cm 3 , 15.66 cm 3 , (21.74±3.43) cm 3 , (0.08 ± 0.03)g/cm 3 , (34.27±6.09) cm 3 and (76.12±11.11) cm 3 respectively, in the fight the corresponding parameters being (0.52±0.10) g/cm 2 (0.78±0.13) g/cm 2 6.01 cm 3 , (0.06±0.02) g/cm 3 , (5.17±1.27) cm 3 , (0.25±0.04)g/cm 3 , 15.62 cm 3 , (22.12±3.60) cm 3 , (0.09±0.03) g/cm 3 , (34.17±5.94) cm 3 and (76.53±10.71) cm 3 respectively. There were no significant difference between the left and right parameters above (P>0.0 ). All QCT parameters of the right hip correlated well with their corresponding ones of left hip with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.656-0.955, P<0.05. QCT-derived simulated DXA femoral neck and trochanteric

  8. Modified fixation with pinning and external fixation components for feline femur multiple-lined fracture: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Y.; Minami, S.; Matuhashi, A.

    1992-01-01

    A 3-year-old female Japanese domestic cat, weighing 3kg, was referred to us because of right hind leg lameness occuring for 3 days' duration. Radiography of the affected leg revealed severe femoral diaphysial comminuted fracture. The affected leg was treated using wire with an intramedullary Stainman pin being placed completely through the femur. After suturing the wound, both ends of the intramedullary pin exposed both proximally and distally were fixed with external fixation components (two double clamps, two single clamps, two short rods and one long rod) to prevent the pin from rotation. There was a slight gait problem due to the external apparatus and no post-operative infection. The function of the right hind leg gradually recovered. The intramedullary pin and external fixative apparatus were removed on the 52nd day after surgery. This modified fixation appears to offer versatility in the treatment of various fractures in smaller dogs and cats

  9. Radiographic signs of radiolesions of the pelvis (excluding the femur) after irradiation for epithelioma of the cervix uteri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenny, J.C.; Bergiron, C.; Chassagne, D.; Couanet, D.; Ibrahim, E.; Masselot, J.

    1980-01-01

    Radiolesions of the pelvic bones (excluding the femur) were observed in 29 patients after irradiation therapy for cervix uteri cancer. Three regions can be affected corresponding to the areas irradiated: the sacrum and internal part of the iliac wings, the pubis, and the cotyles. In most cases the lesions appeared after 1 to 4 years. Their radiological appearances are characteristic, the principal sign being irregular bone condensation in a demineralized bone, without true cavitation. The only lytic lesions observed were in the pubis. Calcification of soft tissues may occur and fractures are frequent. There is a slow progression of the lesions over long periods. Clinical, radiological, and progression signs differentiate radiolesions from other affections: metastases, invasion by contiguity, infections, and radio-induced sarcoma [fr

  10. A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH IN THE TREATMENT OF FRACTURES OF THE PROXIMAL FEMUR ON THE BACKGROUND OF SENILE OSTEOPOROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Zagorodniy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review of published data on the problem of osteoporosis in patients older than 75 years who have had fractures of the proximal femur. We used descriptive and analytical methods. Search publications have done in accessible to free search databases. Based on our analysis, it was found: the majority of researchers in Russia and abroad are united in the opinion that this issue requires a multidisciplinary approach; surgical treatment should be initiated as early as possible after the onset of fracture, before the complications from side of the internal organs; patients with fractures on the background of senile osteoporosis should receive drugs that affect to the quantitative and qualitative components of bone.

  11. 2D-3D shape reconstruction of the distal femur from stereo X-Ray imaging using statistical shape models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baka, N.; Kaptein, B. L.; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional patient specific bone models are required in a range of medical applications, such as pre-operative surgery planning and improved guidance during surgery, modeling and simulation, and in vivo bone motion tracking. Shape reconstruction from a small number of X-ray images is desired...... as it lowers both the acquisition costs and the radiation dose compared to CT. We propose a method for pose estimation and shape reconstruction of 3D bone surfaces from two (or more) calibrated X-ray images using a statistical shape model (SSM). User interaction is limited to manual initialization of the mean...... pose estimation of ground truth shapes as well as 3D shape estimation using a SSM of the whole femur, from stereo cadaver X-rays, in vivo biplane fluoroscopy image-pairs, and an in vivo biplane fluoroscopic sequence. Ground truth shapes for all experiments were available in the form of CT segmentations...

  12. Adesão ao tratamento da ambliopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arakaki Mara Regina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência da adesão no resultado do tratamento da ambliopia. MÉTODOS: Foi feito estudo retrospectivo avaliando a resposta ao tratamento da ambliopia em 151 crianças portadoras de ambliopia, tratadas com esquema de oclusão diária, com o número de dias variando de acordo com a idade da criança. Os pacientes foram separados em dois grupos que diferiam entre si pela adesão ou não ao tratamento. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o tratamento teve melhores resultados nas crianças de 4 a 7 anos e que aderiram ao tratamento; as crianças que aderiram ao tratamento necessitaram de tempo menor de permanência em tratamento. Mesmo crianças com idade superior a 7 anos tiveram resultados positivos com a oclusão. CONCLUSÃO:O tratamento oclusivo é um meio terapêutico eficiente desde que haja a cooperação do paciente.

  13. Resposta ao estresse: II. Resiliência e vulnerabilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Leite Galvão-Coelho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ResumoA crescente exposição a estressores na vida cotidiana aumentou significativamente a investigação da resposta ao estresse nas duas últimas décadas. Embora associada a consequências negativas, pois muitas patologias físicas e mentais são desencadeadas por exposição crônica a estressores, esta resposta é indispensável para sobrevivencia do indivíduo e é extremamente adaptativa quando ativada de forma aguda. Na parte I desta revisão foram abordados os conceitos de homestase e alostase e os sistemas fisiológicos ativados durante a resposta ao estresse. Na parte II serão discutidos fatores que modulam a resposta ao estresse tais como sexo, temperamento, períodos críticos do desenvolvimento e a presença ou ausência de suporte social. A interação entre os fatores genéticos e ambientais gera os perfis da resposta psicofisiológica que caracterizam os fenótipos de susceptibilidade e resiliência frente aos estressores e sua relação com uma patologia mental cada vez mais presente na sociedade moderna, o transtorno de estresse pós-traumático.

  14. Polycladida from Curaçao and faunistically related regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bois-Reymond Marcus, du Eveline; Marcus, Ernst

    1968-01-01

    Professor Dr. DIVA DINIZ CORRÊA, Head of the Department of Zoology of the University of São Paulo, was able to work at the “Caraïbisch Marien-Biologisch Instituut” (Caribbean Marine Biological Institute: Carmabi) at Curaçao from December 1965 to March 1966, thanks to a grant received from the

  15. Reptiles and Amphibians of Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, de Nelly

    1922-01-01

    The Zoological Museum of Amsterdam received some collections of reptiles from Curaçao made by Dr. J. BOEKE in 1905, by Dr. C. J. VAN DER HORST in 1920 and by Mr. G. J. H. MOLENGRAAFF „Engineer” in 1921. I had the opportunity of studying them and will here give an enumeration of all the reptiles

  16. On some Polychaetous Annelids from Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1922-01-01

    Though we know already a rather large number of Polychaetous Annelids from the Caribbean Sea, hitherto, as far as I know, no Annelids have been described from the coast of the island Curaçao and I therefore was very glad, that my colleague Dr. VAN DER HORST kindly placed in my hands for

  17. Cortical thickness estimation of the proximal femur from multi-view dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaousis, N.; Gee, A. H.; Treece, G. M.; Poole, K. E. S.

    2013-02-01

    Hip fracture is the leading cause of acute orthopaedic hospital admission amongst the elderly, with around a third of patients not surviving one year post-fracture. Although various preventative therapies are available, patient selection is difficult. The current state-of-the-art risk assessment tool (FRAX) ignores focal structural defects, such as cortical bone thinning, a critical component in characterizing hip fragility. Cortical thickness can be measured using CT, but this is expensive and involves a significant radiation dose. Instead, Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is currently the preferred imaging modality for assessing hip fracture risk and is used routinely in clinical practice. Our ambition is to develop a tool to measure cortical thickness using multi-view DXA instead of CT. In this initial study, we work with digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) derived from CT data as a surrogate for DXA scans: this enables us to compare directly the thickness estimates with the gold standard CT results. Our approach involves a model-based femoral shape reconstruction followed by a data-driven algorithm to extract numerous cortical thickness point estimates. In a series of experiments on the shaft and trochanteric regions of 48 proximal femurs, we validated our algorithm and established its performance limits using 20 views in the range 0°-171°: estimation errors were 0:19 +/- 0:53mm (mean +/- one standard deviation). In a more clinically viable protocol using four views in the range 0°-51°, where no other bony structures obstruct the projection of the femur, measurement errors were -0:07 +/- 0:79 mm.

  18. Effects of different loading patterns on the trabecular bone morphology of the proximal femur using adaptive bone remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banijamali, S Mohammad Ali; Oftadeh, Ramin; Nazarian, Ara; Goebel, Ruben; Vaziri, Ashkan; Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the changes in the bone density of human femur model as a result of different loadings were investigated. The model initially consisted of a solid shell representing cortical bone encompassing a cubical network of interconnected rods representing trabecular bone. A computationally efficient program was developed that iteratively changed the structure of trabecular bone by keeping the local stress in the structure within a defined stress range. The stress was controlled by either enhancing existing beam elements or removing beams from the initial trabecular frame structure. Analyses were performed for two cases of homogenous isotropic and transversely isotropic beams.Trabecular bone structure was obtained for three load cases: walking, stair climbing and stumbling without falling. The results indicate that trabecular bone tissue material properties do not have a significant effect on the converged structure of trabecular bone. In addition, as the magnitude of the loads increase, the internal structure becomes denser in critical zones. Loading associated with the stumbling results in the highest density;whereas walking, considered as a routine daily activity, results in the least internal density in different regions. Furthermore, bone volume fraction at the critical regions of the converged structure is in good agreement with previously measured data obtained from combinations of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography (CT). The results indicate that the converged bone architecture consisting of rods and plates are consistent with the natural bone morphology of the femur. The proposed model shows a promising means to understand the effects of different individual loading patterns on the bone density.

  19. Preoperative morphometric differences in the distal femur are based on skeletal size in Japanese patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Masataka; Owaki, Hajime; Kaneshiro, Shoichi; Fuji, Takeshi

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to measure the morphometric parameters of preoperative distal femurs to determine the differences by diagnosis and gender after accounting for skeletal size. One-hundred and seventy-nine Japanese patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) (25 males and 154 females) were assessed. The anteroposterior length (AP), mediolateral width (ML), aspect ratio (AR), surgical epicondylar axis (SEA) to posterior condylar axis (PCA) angle, and Whiteside to SEA angle were measured on preoperative computed tomography scans. The AP/ML, AR/ML, SEA/PCA, and Whiteside/PCA relationships were evaluated and compared by patient diagnosis and gender. The results were also compared with the sizes of 10 currently available TKA implants in Japan. The mean AP, ML, AR, SEA/PCA angle, and Whiteside/PCA angle were 58.8 mm, 64.7 mm, 0.91, external rotation (ER) 3.5°, and ER 1.6°, respectively. AP and AR each were significantly correlated with ML (p different between patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. AP/ML and AR/ML were significantly correlated within each diagnosis (p differences between the diagnoses. AP and ML were significantly longer (p gender. However, the analysis of covariance showed no significant differences between gender in the AP/ML and AR/MR correlations. The AP/ML ratio of our data was similar to the size variations of the 10 TKA implants, but the AR/ML ratio was quite different from almost all the implants. No differences in preoperative femur morphometry were found between patients with different diagnoses, but the gender difference in AR was related to the difference in skeletal size between males and females. Case series with no comparison groups, Level IV.

  20. Heating produced by therapeutic ultrasound in the presence of a metal plate in the femur of canine cadavers

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    A.O. Andrades

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the heat generated by a therapeutic ultrasound (TUS in a metal bone plate and adjacent structures after fixation to the femur of canine cadavers. Ten pairs of hind limbs were used, and they were equally distributed between groups that were subjected to 1- and 3-MHz frequencies, with each frequency testing 1- and 2-W/cm² intensities. The right hind limb was defined as the control group (absence of the metal plate, and the left hind limb was the test group (presence of the metal plate. Therefore, the control groups (CG were denominated CGI, using TUS with 1-MHz frequency and 1-W/cm² intensity; CGII, using 1-MHz frequency and 2-W/cm² intensity; CGIII, using 3-MHz frequency and 1-W/cm² intensity; and CGIV, using 3-MHz frequency and 2-W/cm² intensity. For each control group, its respective test group (TG was denominated TGI, TGII, TGIII and TGIV. The TUS was applied to the lateral aspect of the thigh using the continuous mode and a 3.5-cm² transducer in a 6.25-cm² area for 2 minutes. Sensors were coupled to digital thermometers that measured the temperature in different sites before (t0 and after (t1 of the TUS application. The temperatures in t1 were higher in all tested groups. The intramuscular temperature was significantly higher (P<0.05 in the groups used to test the 3-MHz frequency in the presence of the metal plate. The therapeutic ultrasound in the continuous mode using frequencies of 1 and 3 MHz and intensities of 1 and 2 W/cm2 for 2 minutes caused heating of the metal plate and adjacent structures after fixation to the femur of canine cadavers.

  1. Radiation injuries of the pelvis and proximal parts of the femur after irradiation of carcinoma of the cervix uteri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimanovskaya, K.; Shiman, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    Data relating to 244 patients with carcinoma of the cervix uteri treated by intensive radiotherapy are given. Radiation injury of bone was diagnosed in 12 cases (4.9 +/- 1.4 percent). After x-ray therapy alone they were found in five of 59 patients treated (8.5 +/- 3.6 percent), and after γ-ray therapy in one of 171 cases (0.6 +/- 0.6 percent). The minimal focal dose of x-ray therapy causing radiation injury to bone was 5,000 rads. With an increase in dose, the frequency of injuries also increased. Radiation injury was found after γ-ray therapy with an absorbed dose of 7,000 rads. The radiological features of radiation injury of bones after irradiation of malignant tumors of the pelvis are increasing osteoporosis and the appearance of foci of sclerosis and osteolysis. Necrotic areas of various sizes may be formed. A fracture of the neck of the femur may be prevented in some cases by taking precautionary measures. Healing of an injured part depends on the size of the dose given. Large doses completely suppressed the reparative powers of the bone. Unlike changes that are traumatic in nature, radiation fractures of the pelvic bones and the proximal part of the femur have a mild clinical course; sometimes the patients continue to use the lower limb, simply complaining of pain that may vary in severity. Metastasization of tumors of the uterus to the pelvic bones is possible but infrequent. Metastases are usually associated with increasing pain

  2. A method for assessment of the shape of the proximal femur and its relationship to osteoporotic hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, J S; Testi, D; Stewart, A; Undrill, P E; Reid, D M; Aspden, R M

    2004-01-01

    The shape of the proximal femur has been demonstrated to be important in the occurrence of fractures of the femoral neck. Unfortunately, multiple geometric measurements frequently used to describe this shape are highly correlated. A new method, active shape modeling (ASM) has been developed to quantify the morphology of the femur. This describes the shape in terms of orthogonal modes of variation that, consequently, are all independent. To test this method, digitized standard pelvic radiographs were obtained from 26 women who had suffered a hip fracture and compared with images from 24 age-matched controls with no fracture. All subjects also had their bone mineral density (BMD) measured at five sites using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. An ASM was developed and principal components analysis used to identify the modes which best described the shape. Discriminant analysis was used to determine which variable, or combination of variables, was best able to discriminate between the groups. ASM alone correctly identified 74% of the individuals and placed them in the appropriate group. Only one of the BMD values (Ward's triangle) achieved a higher value (82%). A combination of Ward's triangle BMD and ASM improved the accuracy to 90%. Geometric variables used in this study were weaker, correctly classifying less than 60% of the study group. Logistic regression showed that after adjustment for age, body mass index, and BMD, the ASM data was still independently associated with hip fracture (odds ratio (OR)=1.83, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 3.11). The odds ratio was calculated relative to a 10% increase in the probability of belonging to the fracture group. Though these initial results were obtained from a limited data set, this study shows that ASM may be a powerful method to help identify individuals at risk of a hip fracture in the future.

  3. Effects of diet-induced obesity and voluntary wheel running on the microstructure of the murine distal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timonen Jussi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and osteoporosis, two possibly related conditions, are rapidly expanding health concerns in modern society. Both of them are associated with sedentary life style and nutrition. To investigate the effects of diet-induced obesity and voluntary physical activity we used high resolution micro-computed tomography (μCT together with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT to examine the microstructure of the distal femoral metaphysis in mice. Methods Forty 7-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to 4 groups: control (C, control + running (CR, high-fat diet (HF, and high-fat diet + running (HFR. After a 21-week intervention, all the mice were sacrificed and the left femur dissected for pQCT and μCT measurements. Results The mice fed the high-fat diet showed a significant weight gain (over 70% for HF and 60% for HFR, with increased epididymal fat pad mass and impaired insulin sensitivity. These obese mice had significantly higher trabecular connectivity density, volume, number, thickness, area and mass, and smaller trabecular separation. At the whole bone level, they had larger bone circumference and cross-sectional area and higher density-weighted maximal, minimal, and polar moments of inertia. Voluntary wheel running decreased all the cortical bone parameters, but increased the trabecular mineral density, and decreased the pattern factor and structure model index towards a more plate-like structure. Conclusions The results suggest that in mice the femur adapts to obesity by improving bone strength both at the whole bone and micro-structural level. Adaptation to running exercise manifests itself in increased trabecular density and improved 3D structure, but in a limited overall bone growth

  4. Treatment of Unicameral Bone Cysts of the Proximal Femur With Internal Fixation Lessens the Risk of Additional Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Benjamin; Houdek, Matthew; Rao, Rameshwar R; Caird, Michelle S; Larson, A Noelle; Milbrandt, Todd

    2017-09-01

    Little data exist to guide the treatment of unicameral bone cysts in the proximal femur. Methods of treatment include corticosteroid injections, curettage and bone grafting, and internal fixation. The authors completed a multi-institutional, retrospective review to evaluate their experience with proximal femoral unicameral bone cysts. They posed the following questions: (1) Does internal fixation reduce the risk of further procedures for the treatment of a unicameral bone cyst? (2) Is radiographic healing faster with internal fixation? Following institutional review board approval, the authors conducted a retrospective review of 36 patients treated for a unicameral bone cyst of the proximal femur at their institutions between 1974 and 2014. Medical records and radiographs were reviewed to identify patient demographics and treatment outcomes. Tumor locations included femoral neck (n=13), intertrochanteric (n=16), and subtrochanteric (n=7). Initial treatment included steroid injection (n=2), curettage and bone grafting (n=9), and internal fixation with curettage and bone grafting (n=25). Mean time was 9 months to radiographic healing and 15 months to return to full activity. The number of patients requiring additional surgeries was increased among those who did not undergo internal fixation. There was no difference in time to radiographic healing. However, time to return to normal activities was reduced if patients had received internal fixation. A significant reduction in additional procedures was observed when patients had been treated with internal fixation. Although this did not influence time to radiographic healing, patients did return to normal activities sooner. Internal fixation should be considered in the treatment of proximal femoral unicameral bone cysts. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(5):e862-e867.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. IDENTIFYING THE ROTATIONAL AXES OF DISTAL FEMUR IN SOUTH ANDHRA POPULATION OF INDIA USING IMAGE TOOL SOFTWARE

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    Sharmila Bhanu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM : To study the normal relationship of the anteroposterior (APA, transepicondylar (TEA and posterior condylar (PCA axis of normal cadaveric femoral bones using digital technology and special computer program. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The study comprised of 196 dry adult femora from 98 right and 98 left sides irrespective of sex and age b elonging to Andhra Pradesh population of India. The bone collections were obtained from the Anatomy department, Narayana medical college, Nellore, India. The femurs were kept in normal anatomical position on OB. The photographs were taken from the distal e nd of all the femurs placing the camera lens 10cm constantly away from it with a digital camera. Using the reference points, angle between APA - TEA, APA - PCA and TEA - PCA were identified. The statistical significance of difference between the right and left g roups was evaluated by using Student paired t - test. Data were presented as mean±SD. P - value less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS : The relationship of the angle between the APA - TEA, APA - PCA and TEA - PCA were observed. The angle o f AP - TE, AP - PC and TE - PC was 94.84±3.43°, 87.64±1.62° and 6.84±2.71° respectively on right side. On the left side, the angle of AP - TE, AP - PC and TE - PC was 92.36±4.06°, 93.61±2.54° and 3.19±0.99° respectively. CONCLUSION: The normal femoral rotational alignment from cadaveric bone study using computer aided software can be helpful to the surgeon in selecting appropriate reference axis in any particular knee surgeries. In this regard the present data can be taken into consi deration for the femoral rotational alignment during any intraoperative surgeries of knee and in total knee arthroplasty

  6. Cumulative Alendronate Dose and the Long-Term Absolute Risk of Subtrochanteric and Diaphyseal Femur Fractures: A Register-Based National Cohort Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Eiken, Pia Agnete; Eastell, Richard

    2010-01-01

    are currently the subject of a U.S. Food and Drug Administration review. Objective: Our objective was to examine the risk of subtrochanteric/diaphyseal femur fractures in long term users of alendronate. Design: We conducted an age- and gender-matched cohort study using national healthcare data. Patients...

  7. Fracture of the Femur of A Newborn after Cesarean Section for Breech Presentation and Fibroid Uterus :A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahima Farikou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The practice of cesarean section is known to decrease the occurrence of long bone fractures. We present here an unusual diaphyseal fracture of the femur of a newborn after cesarean section, the only case observed in our 14 years of practice. Case Report: The patient was a 3.4-kg female child born at 38 weeks of gestation. The mother was a primipara and aged 39 years. Ultrasound examination at 20th week revealed intrauterine fibroids with a breech presentation. Therefore, elective cesarean section was indicated. There was no apparent bone disorder that could predispose to sustain femur fracture. The fracture was treated successfully with a bilateral spica cast. The cesarean section was indicated in an aged primipara, bearer of uterine fibroids, and breech presentation. She had a good general health status, but her bone density was unknown since this examination is not routinely performed in our clinical settings in Africa. Conclusion: Elderly age, primipara status, presence of uterine fibroids, and breech presentation are usual indications for cesarean section. However, there are not many reports on femur fracture after cesarean section. Our present case suggests that despite the latest advances in delivery techniques, cesarean section for breech presentation predisposes the neonate to femoral fractures. Keywords: Femur fracture; Cesarean section; Fibroid; Breech presentation; Africa.

  8. Correlation between quantitative ultrasound parameters of the calcinosis and bone density of the spine and femur in Arabian women: Relation to menopausal status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Suhaili, A.R.; Saadi, H.F.; Reed, R.L.; Carter, A.O.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus is being frequently used to screen for osteoporosis. This technique correlates very well with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the spine and femur, and predicts fracture risk in postmenopausal women. The correlation between QUS and DXA in premenopausal women with prevalent vitamin D deficiency however is not known. We assessed the correlation between both techniques in 55 pre- and postmenopausal Arabian women, a population with high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. Methods: BMD of the right calcaneus was estimated by Sahara ultrasound (Hologic, Waltham, MA). Spine and right total femur BMD was determined by DXA scan (Lunar Expert XL, Madison, WI). Results: Overall, the correlation between calcaneal BMD estimated by QUS and spine and femur BMD measured by DXA in pre- and postmenopausal United Arab Emirates women was statistically significant (r=0.41; p=0.002 for spine and r=0.44; p=0.001 for femur, respectively). In postmenopausal women, all correlations between DXA and QUS parameters were statistically significant. In contrast, only BUA and SOS correlated significantly with spine BMD in premenopausal women. Conclusion: The correlation between DXA and QUS is statistically significant in postmenopausal United Arab Emirates women. However, this correlation is much weaker in premenopausal UAE women suggesting that other factors such as vitamin D deficiency may influence this correlation

  9. Trabecular bone analysis in CT and X-ray images of the proximal femur for the assessment of local bone quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritscher, Karl; Grunerbl, Agnes; Hanni, Markus; Suhm, Norbert; Hengg, Clemens; Schubert, Rainer

    2009-10-01

    Currently, conventional X-ray and CT images as well as invasive methods performed during the surgical intervention are used to judge the local quality of a fractured proximal femur. However, these approaches are either dependent on the surgeon's experience or cannot assist diagnostic and planning tasks preoperatively. Therefore, in this work a method for the individual analysis of local bone quality in the proximal femur based on model-based analysis of CT- and X-ray images of femur specimen will be proposed. A combined representation of shape and spatial intensity distribution of an object and different statistical approaches for dimensionality reduction are used to create a statistical appearance model in order to assess the local bone quality in CT and X-ray images. The developed algorithms are tested and evaluated on 28 femur specimen. It will be shown that the tools and algorithms presented herein are highly adequate to automatically and objectively predict bone mineral density values as well as a biomechanical parameter of the bone that can be measured intraoperatively.

  10. Tamanho ao nascer e problemas de saúde mental aos 11 anos em uma coorte brasileira de nascimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Alejandra Giraldo Gallo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a associação entre tamanho ao nascer e problemas de saúde mental aos 11 anos na Coorte de Nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, de 1993. Foram pesados e medidos ao nascer 4.358 recém-nascidos. Avaliou-se problemas de saúde mental com o questionário de capacidades e dificuldades (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire - SDQ. A prevalência de problemas de saúde mental foi de 32% (IC95%: 31-33. Na análise ajustada, os 291 (6,7% recém-nascidos com escorez de peso/idade e os 268 (6,2% com índice de massa corporal (IMC/idade +2 DP tiveram, respectivamente, 34% (IC95%: 6-71 e 19% (IC95%: 1-40 maior risco de apresentar esses problemas se comparados com aqueles com escore normal. Os resultados sugerem que fatores ocorridos na gestação e refletidos nas medidas de tamanho ao nascer podem ocasionar problemas de saúde mental em etapas tardias.

  11. Coffee consumption and CYP1A2 genotype in relation to bone mineral density of the proximal femur in elderly men and women: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind Lars

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drinking coffee has been linked to reduced calcium conservation, but it is less clear whether it leads to sustained bone mineral loss and if individual predisposition for caffeine metabolism might be important in this context. Therefore, the relation between consumption of coffee and bone mineral density (BMD at the proximal femur in men and women was studied, taking into account, for the first time, genotypes for cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2 associated with metabolism of caffeine. Methods Dietary intakes of 359 men and 358 women (aged 72 years, participants of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS, were assessed by a 7-day food diary. Two years later, BMD for total proximal femur, femoral neck and trochanteric regions of the proximal femur were measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Genotypes of CYP1A2 were determined. Adjusted means of BMD for each category of coffee consumption were calculated. Results Men consuming 4 cups of coffee or more per day had 4% lower BMD at the proximal femur (p = 0.04 compared with low or non-consumers of coffee. This difference was not observed in women. In high consumers of coffee, those with rapid metabolism of caffeine (C/C genotype had lower BMD at the femoral neck (p = 0.01 and at the trochanter (p = 0.03 than slow metabolizers (T/T and C/T genotypes. Calcium intake did not modify the relation between coffee and BMD. Conclusion High consumption of coffee seems to contribute to a reduction in BMD of the proximal femur in elderly men, but not in women. BMD was lower in high consumers of coffee with rapid metabolism of caffeine, suggesting that rapid metabolizers of caffeine may constitute a risk group for bone loss induced by coffee.

  12. A comparative study on BMD of lumbar spine and proximal femur in post-menopausal women using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Han Sik; Mo, Eun Hee

    1999-01-01

    Osteoporosis, which causes mainly fracture of the spine, proximal femur and distal radius by minimal trauma, is a major public health problem and its prevalence is steadily increasing in Korea according to the development of public health care. There are reliable methods for diagnosis based on bone densitometry. Early detection and intervention are important for reducing the incidence of fractures. A consensus definition of osteoporosis, based on bone density measurement, has been developed by the World Health Organization(WHO). In this study, bone mineral density(BMD) was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) at the proximal femur and lumbar spine in 132 post-menopausal women. The purpose of this study is to find influential factors on the BMD of the proximal femur and the lumbar spine and to analyze correlation between BMD and the problematic factors. We obtained the following results : 1. Mean BMD score, T-score and Z-score of the proximal femur were 0.81(g/cm 2 ), -2.45(S.D.) and -2.09(S.D.) respectively and in the lumber spine were 0.83(g/cm 2 ), -2.02(S.D.), -2.43(S.D.) respectively. 2. In correlation analysis between BMD and many factors, correlation coefficients were -0.467, 0.212, -0.321 and 0.241 in age, height, duration after menopause respectively. BMI and the residuals were comparatively small. 3. Correlation coefficients to age matched BMD, in height and body weight were 0.222 and 0.241, in age and duration after menopause were -0.268, -0.282. 4. The fracture threshold of proximal femur BMD to the 90th percentile was 0.845(g/cm 2 ). 5. At the result of multiple regression analysis, age, body weight, BMI(kg/m 2 ) and duration after menopause described as significant variables

  13. A comparative study on BMD of lumbar spine and proximal femur in post-menopausal women using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Han Sik [Wonkwang Health Science College, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Mo, Eun Hee [College of Medicine, Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    Osteoporosis, which causes mainly fracture of the spine, proximal femur and distal radius by minimal trauma, is a major public health problem and its prevalence is steadily increasing in Korea according to the development of public health care. There are reliable methods for diagnosis based on bone densitometry. Early detection and intervention are important for reducing the incidence of fractures. A consensus definition of osteoporosis, based on bone density measurement, has been developed by the World Health Organization(WHO). In this study, bone mineral density(BMD) was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) at the proximal femur and lumbar spine in 132 post-menopausal women. The purpose of this study is to find influential factors on the BMD of the proximal femur and the lumbar spine and to analyze correlation between BMD and the problematic factors. We obtained the following results : 1. Mean BMD score, T-score and Z-score of the proximal femur were 0.81(g/cm{sup 2}), -2.45(S.D.) and -2.09(S.D.) respectively and in the lumber spine were 0.83(g/cm{sup 2}), -2.02(S.D.), -2.43(S.D.) respectively. 2. In correlation analysis between BMD and many factors, correlation coefficients were -0.467, 0.212, -0.321 and 0.241 in age, height, duration after menopause respectively. BMI and the residuals were comparatively small. 3. Correlation coefficients to age matched BMD, in height and body weight were 0.222 and 0.241, in age and duration after menopause were -0.268, -0.282. 4. The fracture threshold of proximal femur BMD to the 90th percentile was 0.845(g/cm{sup 2}). 5. At the result of multiple regression analysis, age, body weight, BMI(kg/m{sup 2}) and duration after menopause described as significant variables.

  14. The Relationship Between Fractures and DXA Measures of BMD in the Distal Femur of Children and Adolescents With Cerebral Palsy or Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Richard C; Berglund, Lisa M; May, Ryan; Zemel, Babette S; Grossberg, Richard I; Johnson, Julie; Plotkin, Horacio; Stevenson, Richard D; Szalay, Elizabeth; Wong, Brenda; Kecskemethy, Heidi H; Harcke, H Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Children with limited or no ability to ambulate frequently sustain fragility fractures. Joint contractures, scoliosis, hip dysplasia, and metallic implants often prevent reliable measures of bone mineral density (BMD) in the proximal femur and lumbar spine, where BMD is commonly measured. Further, the relevance of lumbar spine BMD to fracture risk in this population is questionable. In an effort to obtain bone density measures that are both technically feasible and clinically relevant, a technique was developed involving dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures of the distal femur projected in the lateral plane. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that these new measures of BMD correlate with fractures in children with limited or no ability to ambulate. The relationship between distal femur BMD Z-scores and fracture history was assessed in a cross-sectional study of 619 children aged 6 to 18 years with muscular dystrophy or moderate to severe cerebral palsy compiled from eight centers. There was a strong correlation between fracture history and BMD Z-scores in the distal femur; 35% to 42% of those with BMD Z-scores less than −5 had fractured compared with 13% to 15% of those with BMD Z-scores greater than −1. Risk ratios were 1.06 to 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.04–1.22), meaning a 6% to 15% increased risk of fracture with each 1.0 decrease in BMD Z-score. In clinical practice, DXA measure of BMD in the distal femur is the technique of choice for the assessment of children with impaired mobility. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research PMID:19821773

  15. Coffee consumption and CYP1A2 genotype in relation to bone mineral density of the proximal femur in elderly men and women: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallström, Helena; Melhus, Håkan; Glynn, Anders; Lind, Lars; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2010-02-22

    Drinking coffee has been linked to reduced calcium conservation, but it is less clear whether it leads to sustained bone mineral loss and if individual predisposition for caffeine metabolism might be important in this context. Therefore, the relation between consumption of coffee and bone mineral density (BMD) at the proximal femur in men and women was studied, taking into account, for the first time, genotypes for cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) associated with metabolism of caffeine. Dietary intakes of 359 men and 358 women (aged 72 years), participants of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS), were assessed by a 7-day food diary. Two years later, BMD for total proximal femur, femoral neck and trochanteric regions of the proximal femur were measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Genotypes of CYP1A2 were determined. Adjusted means of BMD for each category of coffee consumption were calculated. Men consuming 4 cups of coffee or more per day had 4% lower BMD at the proximal femur (p = 0.04) compared with low or non-consumers of coffee. This difference was not observed in women. In high consumers of coffee, those with rapid metabolism of caffeine (C/C genotype) had lower BMD at the femoral neck (p = 0.01) and at the trochanter (p = 0.03) than slow metabolizers (T/T and C/T genotypes). Calcium intake did not modify the relation between coffee and BMD. High consumption of coffee seems to contribute to a reduction in BMD of the proximal femur in elderly men, but not in women. BMD was lower in high consumers of coffee with rapid metabolism of caffeine, suggesting that rapid metabolizers of caffeine may constitute a risk group for bone loss induced by coffee.

  16. Holocene Evolution of Qing'ao Embayment, Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, A. D.; Yu, F.; Chen, B.; Zheng, Z.; Wang, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Holocene evolution of the Qing'ao embayment, Nan'ao Island, southern China, is primarily the result of the interaction of tectonic activity, climate variation and changes in relative sea level. Characterizing the evolutionary history of the relatively small Qing'ao embayment during the Holocene will help improve our understanding of the driving mechanisms of coastal evolution in the area. To reconstruct the Holocene evolution history we analyzed the grain size, loss on ignition (LOI) and carbonate content of modern and core samples. Modern environmental analogs were examined in surface samples ranging from the coastal sand dunes through to offshore. The results of these modern samples suggest that dune sand (mean size of ~2.33Phi) are slightly finer than beach sand (mean size of 2.13Phi), and nearshore sediment is much coarser than offshore sediment (mean size of 5.90Phi). This modern analogs were then applied to 8 percussion cores from the Qing'ao embayment. A chronological framework obtained from 11 radiocarbon samples suggests that the embayment started to accept deposition since early Holocene, ~8500 cal. yr. BP. Three main phases of Holocene evolution were identified. A basin wide shell-rich sand sheet forms the basal Holocene facies and overlies clay rich presumably Pleistocene sediments or bedrock. This facies records an initial sedimentation phase associated with the early Holocene transgression into the embayment (~8500-6000 cal. yr. BP). The basal facies grades upward to a mixed sandy-mud facies which includes lagoonal clayey-silts, flood tide delta sands and records an estuarine phase lasting from ~6000-1000 cal. yr. BP that appears coincident with falling regional sea levels. Coincident with the estuarine phase is a period of coastal dune building recorded as yet undated massive sands that are found in the upper fill. Toward the end of the estuarine phase it is apparent that dune migration has restricted the lagoon entrance and that this was

  17. Correlação entre tempo para o tratamento cirúrgico e mortalidade em pacientes idosos com fratura da extremidade proximal do fêmur Correlation between time until surgical treatment and mortality among elderly patients with fractures at the proximal end of the femur

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    Gustavo Gonçalves Arliani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo primário do estudo é analisar a possível associação entre o atraso para a realização do tratamento cirúrgico e mortalidade em pacientes idosos com fratura da extremidade proximal do fêmur. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 269 pacientes com fraturas da extremidade proximal do fêmur (fraturas do colo do fêmur e fraturas intertrocanterianas, tratadas cirurgicamente no Hospital São Paulo - Unifesp-SP, no período de janeiro de 2003 a dezembro de 2007. Foram analisados e comparados com a literatura referente ao assunto os seguintes atributos: sexo, idade, tipo de fratura, classificação da mesma, lado acometido, síntese utilizada, mecanismo de trauma, tempo de internação, tempo para cirurgia, comorbidades associadas, hemograma de entrada, tipo de anestesia, necessidade de transfusão sanguínea, dia da semana e estação do ano da fratura. RESULTADOS: O estudo apresentou correlação entre maior número de comorbidades clínicas, maior tempo de internação e utilização de anestesia geral na cirurgia com maior mortalidade dos pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve associação entre tempo para realização da cirurgia e mortalidade.OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to analyze the possible association between delay in receiving surgical treatment and mortality among elderly patients with fractures at the proximal end of the femur. METHODS: 269 patients with fractures at the proximal end of the femur (femur neck and intertrochanteric fractures who were treated surgically at Hospital São Paulo, UNIFESP, São Paulo, between January 2003 and December 2007, were studied. Sex, age, type of fracture, classification of the fracture, affected side, synthesis used, trauma mechanism, length of hospitalization, length of surgery, associated comorbidities, hemogram at admission, type of anesthesia, need for blood transfusion, day of the week and season of the year of the fracture were analyzed and compared with the literature

  18. Intelligent vibration control of ELTs and large AO hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, J.-U.; Kürster, M.; Trowitzsch, J.; Borelli, J.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Herbst, T.; Böhm, M.; Keck, A.; Ruppel, T.; Sawodny, O.

    2012-07-01

    MPIA leads the construction of the LINC-NIRVANA instrument, the MCAO-supported Fizeau imager for the LBT, serves as pathfinder for future ELT-AO imagers in terms of size and technology. In this contribution, we review recent results and significant progress made on the development of key items of our stratgey to achieve a piston stability of up to 100nm during a science exposure. We present an overview of our vibration control strategies for optical path and tip-tilt stabilization, involving accelerometer based real-time vibration measurements, vibration sensitive active control of actuators, and the development of a dynamical model of the LBT. MPIA also co-develops the E-ELT first-light NIR imager MICADO (both SCAO and MCAO assisted). Our experiences, made with LINC-NIRVANA, will be fed into the MICADO structural AO design to reach highest on-sky sensitivity.

  19. Magnetic MOF for AO7 Removal and Targeted Delivery

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    Xue-Qing Zhan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their high surface area and porosity, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs have been gradually employed for a myriad of applications ranging from sensing, pollutant adsorption, and drug delivery to environmental remediation and catalysis. Magnetic nanoparticles-metal-organic frameworks (MMOFs hybrid materials can facilitate facile removal of MOFs from solutions. In this report, we report the synthesis of Fe3O4@UiO-66 by encapsulation and simulated the drug loading and release by studying the adsorption and release of AO7. Thus, we loaded these MMOFs with AO7 and found that they were able to trigger and control its release by simply applying an external magnetic field. The magnetic field heats the magnets in the MOF, which causes the load to burst from the framework.

  20. Nasal septum resection due congenital thickness in foalsRessecção de septo nasal devido ao espessamento congênito em potros

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    Antônio Felipe Paulino de Figueiredo Wouk

    2012-04-01

    ão foi possível introduzir o equipamento na cavidade nasal devido à estenose bilateral. O exame radiográfico confirmou o aumento na espessura do septo nasal. Os animais foram submetidos à cirurgia de ressecção de septo. Para promover uma melhor condição respiratória a traqueostomia foi realizada nos dois potros antes da cirurgia. A técnica cirúrgica utilizada foi modificado da técnica descrita anteriormente DOYLE (2005. Inicialmente foi realizada a trepanação do osso nasal para osteotomia da porção caudal do septo, com auxilio de osteótomo modificado, sendo os limites dorsais e ventrais do septo removidos com uso de fio serra protegido por guias metálicos. Após a recuperação cirúrgica, nos dois casos, o exame clínico mostrou que o fluxo de ar estava normal e sem ruídos permitindo aos potros respirar normalmente. A traqueostomia cicatrizou por segunda intenção. Após oito meses os dois animais respiravam confortavelmente, estando aptos à atividade física. O exame histopatológico não demonstrou sinais de inflamação, neoplasia ou outro tipo de alteração histológica relacionada aos septos, sugerindo espessamento congênito.

  1. Mujer de 39 a??os con cefalea intensa

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago-D??az, Carlos; Zamora-Pasadas, M??nica; S??nchez-Bern??, Isabel; Jim??nez-Alonso, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Paciente de 39 a??os que acude a urgencias por presentar un cuadro de cefalea intensa, holocraneal, con foto y sonofobia intensas, acompa??ada de febr??cula. En la exploraci??n f??sica ??nicamente destacaban leves roncus en base de hemit??rax izquierdo. Las pruebas complementarias iniciales fueron normales. Tras un estudio exhaustivo y fundamentalmente una insistencia en la anamnesis por ??rganos y aparatos, finalmente se lleg?? al diagn??stico.

  2. Da esclerodermia ao síndrome de poems

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    Ana Sofia Montez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Homem, 84 anos, com antecedentes de hipotiroidismo e alterações cutâneas recentes compatíveis com esclerodermia, confirmadas em biópsia cutânea, mas com estudo auto-imune negativo. Foi internado por queixas constitucionais. Ao exame objetivo, apresentava-se emagrecido, com lesões de vitiligo nas mãos além das de esclerodermia (figura 1 e distensão abdominal com ascite

  3. Da esclerodermia ao síndrome de poems

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Sofia Montez; Elsa Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Homem, 84 anos, com antecedentes de hipotiroidismo e alterações cutâneas recentes compatíveis com esclerodermia, confirmadas em biópsia cutânea, mas com estudo auto-imune negativo. Foi internado por queixas constitucionais. Ao exame objetivo, apresentava-se emagrecido, com lesões de vitiligo nas mãos além das de esclerodermia (figura 1) e distensão abdominal com ascite

  4. Cultivo de Spirulina maxima ao ar livre - I. Inverno

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    Rogério Lacaz Ruiz

    1990-12-01

    e noturno indicaram que o melhor período de produção de biomassa durante o dia foi das 8 - 13 h e a produtividade atingiu valor máximo de 8,08 g/metro quadrado/dia. Durante todo o experimento foi necessário adicionar água ao sistema, devido à ausência de chuvas; e o total acrescentado equivaleu a 72,14 mm de chuva.

  5. Um crime delicado: conversando aos infinitos - "Um retrato de cavalo"

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    Cid Ottoni Bylaardt

    2010-12-01

    um cavalo e seu retrato, a partir dos sentimentos contraditórios de seu dono, que considera um crime aquele clique. Temos aí um retrato, imagem subtraída ilicitamente ao seu dono: escrita, representação. Temos também uma narrativa, escrita do retrato, representação da representação. Este artigo pretende mostrar como Guimarães Rosa manipula as ambiguidades da linguagem literária, levando-a além dos limites da representação, explorando seu fascínio, seu saber, que não é da ordem da compreensão. O cavalo e seu retrato fazem refletir sobre a literatura, sobre seu excesso de verdade que compõe sua mentira. Ao escrever o cavalo e seu retrato, o texto não consegue fixar nenhuma verdade, apenas imagens fugidias que compõem recapítulos: há sempre um escrito a se sobrepor a outro, sem determinar onde está o verdadeiro, onde está o que o nega, a remeter o olhar ao reino da fascinação, onde a imagem perde o valor de significação para se tornar pura paixão da indeterminação, da indiferença.

  6. AO Distal Radius Fracture Classification: Global Perspective on Observer Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Prakash; Teunis, Teun; Giménez, Beatriz Bravo; Verstreken, Frederik; Di Mascio, Livio; Jupiter, Jesse B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The primary objective of this study was to test interobserver reliability when classifying fractures by consensus by AO types and groups among a large international group of surgeons. Secondarily, we assessed the difference in inter- and intraobserver agreement of the AO classification in relation to geographical location, level of training, and subspecialty. Methods A randomized set of radiographic and computed tomographic images from a consecutive series of 96 distal radius fractures (DRFs), treated between October 2010 and April 2013, was classified using an electronic web-based portal by an invited group of participants on two occasions. Results Interobserver reliability was substantial when classifying AO type A fractures but fair and moderate for type B and C fractures, respectively. No difference was observed by location, except for an apparent difference between participants from India and Australia classifying type B fractures. No statistically significant associations were observed comparing interobserver agreement by level of training and no differences were shown comparing subspecialties. Intra-rater reproducibility was “substantial” for fracture types and “fair” for fracture groups with no difference accounting for location, training level, or specialty. Conclusion Improved definition of reliability and reproducibility of this classification may be achieved using large international groups of raters, empowering decision making on which system to utilize. Level of Evidence Level III PMID:28119795

  7. Barreiras ao tratamento da hipertensão arterial

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    Maria Vilani Cavalcante Guedes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se descrever as barreiras encontradas pelas pessoas portadoras de hipertensão arterial para a não adesão ao tratamento e controle dos níveis de sua pressão arterial. Estudo descritivo e transversal realizado em seis unidades básicas de saúde em Fortaleza-Ceará, Brasil, com 246 pessoas inscritas no Programa de Controle de Hipertensão Arterial há, no mínimo, um ano. Coletaram-se dados com entrevista estruturada e no prontuário eletrônico. Identificaram-se 69 pesquisados com níveis pressóricos normalizados. As principais barreiras apontadas foram: baixas condições financeiras, tratamento contínuo com muitos remédios e prática de atividade física. Concluiu-se que as barreiras ao tratamento anti-hipertensivo compreendem a pessoa adoecida, seu ambiente de vida e acesso aos cuidados de saúde.

  8. Resistências aos Antibióticos em Pneumologia

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    J.G. Saraiva da Cunha

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A crescente resistência dos microrganismos aos agentes antimicrobianos tem motivado o interesse da comunidade científica com o objectivo de avaliar a dimensão do problema, perceber a sua origem e encontrar eveotuais soluções. São quatro os mecanismos basicos de resistência das bácterias aos antibióticos: inactivação enzimática, alteração ou excesso de produção das molécules alvo, diminuição da permeabilidade da parede celulalr e eliminação actia (eflauxo do antibiótico para o exterior da bactéria. Para cada uma das diferentes classes de antibioticos sio referidos os priocipais mecanismos de resisteocia, assim como se exemplifica quais os germes de particular relevância em pneumologia que maiores dificuldades terapêuticas actualmente colocam. Finalmente enumeram-se algumas medidas para contrariar a expansão do problema. Palavras-Chave: Resistências aos antibióticos, Pneumologia, Pneumococo

  9. O Primeiro Ano do Grupo de Apoio ao Primeiranista

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    Rodolfo Furlan Damiano

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é um relato de experiência do primeiro ano de funcionamento do Grupo de Apoio ao Primeiranista (GAP. O GAP é um grupo desenvolvido por alunos de Medicina de uma universidade privada do Estado de São Paulo, apoiado por sua direção, com o intuito de amparar e humanizar a recepção aos ingressantes. O início das atividades do GAP ocorreu em 2013 com base nos conceitos de tutoria/mentoring, aplicado por outras escolas médicas brasileiras. Nas reuniões semanais do GAP, os participantes (alunos do primeiro ano e mentores (acadêmicos veteranos e uma psicóloga institucional discutiam temas como resiliência, compaixão, humildade e respeito. Durante as reuniões, notou-se uma problemática extensa em relação ao trote universitário, referido pelos primeiranistas como o pior problema enfrentado na universidade. Na sequência dos encontros, o grupo direcionou suas ações para reduzir o trote na universidade. O GAP, apesar de estar em seu primeiro ano de funcionamento, mostrou ter eficácia relevante, podendo ser um modelo a ser implementado em outras universidades.

  10. Clinical case for the use of intramedullary osteosynthesis in the treatment of pathological fractures of the femur in 6-day newborn girls with a high partial intestinal obstruction

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    Evgeny G. Skryabin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Skeletal bone fractures in newborns present a problem of modern traumatology. Aim. The goal is to present the use of the method of intramedullary osteosynthesis in the treatment of a pathological fracture of the right femur in a newborn girl to a wide audience of pediatric orthopedic traumatologists. Material and methods. We have experience in the treatment of a 6-day-old girl, who was born with intrauterine growth retardation and bowel disease. On the second day of stay in the intensive care unit, she had a pathological fracture of the right femur. Diagnosis of the pathological fracture was established based upon the results of clinical examination and radiography of the injured limb segment. Results. Immediately after the diagnosis, the right lower limb of the child was fixed with a plaster bandage. On the control radiographs, the standing of the bone fragments were unsatisfactory, and a decision was made to use the intramedullary osteosynthesis method with a knitting needle on the 6th day after birth of the child. The need for surgical treatment of a fracture of the femur was due to a congenital abnormality of the intestine in the child, and a need to perform surgery on the abdominal organs. Discussion. Spontaneous fracture of the right femur occurred in the child in treatment in the intensive care unit. The cause of the fracture was osteopenic syndrome, which developed as a result of vitamin D deficiency. During the first 12 days of her life, the newborn had two laparoscopic operations to address the intestinal pathology. Four weeks after the operation using osteosynthesis, the metal from the bone marrow channel of the right femur was removed. After the removal of the needle, the correct axis of the operated segment was fixed to the same length of the lower extremities. The patient had absence of pathological mobility in the fracture region, and full amplitude of movements in the knee and hip joints. Conclusion. When receiving

  11. Fatores associados a baixa adesao ao tratamento medicamentoso em idosos

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    Noemia Urruth Leao Tavares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO : Analisar fatores associados à baixa adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso em idosos. MÉTODOS : Estudo transversal de base populacional, com amostra representativa de 1.593 indivíduos com 60 anos ou mais, residentes na região urbana de Bagé, RS, em 2008. A amostragem foi realizada em múltiplos estágios. Os dados foram coletados em entrevistas individuais nos domicílios. Analisou-se a associação entre a baixa adesão referida ao tratamento medicamentoso mensurado pelo Brief Medication Questionnaire (BMQ e fatores demográficos, socioeconômicos, comportamentais e de saúde, assistência e prescrição. Foi utilizado modelo de regressão de Poisson para estimar as razões de prevalência bruta e ajustada, os respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% e p-valor (teste de Wald. RESULTADOS : Cerca de 78,0% dos indivíduos referiram ter usado algum medicamento nos sete dias precedentes à entrevista. Desses, cerca de 1 / 3 foram considerados com baixa adesão ao tratamento. Os fatores significativamente associados à baixa adesão foram: idade (65 a 74 anos, não ter plano de saúde, ter que comprar (totalmente ou em parte os seus medicamentos, ter três ou mais morbidades, possuir incapacidade instrumental para a vida diária e usar três ou mais medicamentos. CONCLUSÕES : A utilização elevada de medicamentos, decorrente da alta prevalência de doenças crônico-degenerativas em idosos, e o acesso ao tratamento devem ser considerados pelos profissionais de saúde para adoção de estratégias que visem diminuir a baixa adesão ao tratamento, aumentando a resolutividade terapêutica e a qualidade de vida desses pacientes.

  12. SIMS chemical and isotopic analysis of impact features from LDEF experiments AO187-1 and AO187-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadermann, Frank J.; Amari, Sachiko; Foote, John; Swan, Pat; Walker, Robert M.; Zinner, Ernst

    1995-01-01

    Previous secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) studies of extended impact features from LDEF capture cell experiment AO187-2 showed that it is possible to distinguish natural and man-made particle impacts based on the chemical composition of projectile residues. The same measurement technique has now been applied to specially prepared gold target impacts from experiment AO187-1 in order to identify the origins of projectiles that left deposits too thin to be analyzed by conventional energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The results indicate that SIMS may be the method of choice for the analysis of impact deposits on a variety of sample surfaces. SIMS was also used to determine the isotopic compositions of impact residues from several natural projectiles. Within the precision of the measurements all analyzed residues show isotopically normal compositions.

  13. 'Real world' imprecision of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at L2-4 and femur neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipov, G.; Sigalas, V.; Seaborn, C.; Phillips, P.; Rowe, C.; Kitchener, M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: While measurement of bone density (BMD) by DEXA is routinely used to diagnose osteoporosis and estimate future fracture risk, data on what constitutes a significant change between serial BMD measurements has received much less attention. The use of repeat BMD measurements is particularly important to either assess the rate of bone loss or treatment efficacy for individual patients. However to estimate a statistically significant change between consecutive bone mineral density (BMD) measurements requires an accurate knowledge of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) imprecision under actual day-to-day working conditions. DEXA imprecision, based on in vitro models, such as manufacturers' phantoms, leads to a marked under-estimation of true imprecision, since significant sources of variance (patient positioning, inter- and intra-operator variability etc) are ignored. In an attempt to provide a robust estimate of imprecision for our Lunar DPXplus, 28 females and one male(age 72.8 + 7.8 yr)were recruited to have multiple DEXA scans at approximately four week intervals. The subjects were handled using exactly the same procedure as that for our referred patients. Initial findings after each subject has had am average of 6.6 DEXA scans showed that the within subject variability (CV w ) associated with the AP lumbar spine (L2-4)and femur-neck was 1.83 and 2.24% respectively. No significant correlation was found between BMD values and CV w at either site. Since instrument variability is about 0.7% (derived from phantom studies), it is apparent that operator variation accounts for the majority of total variability. From the derived imprecision, the percentage difference for a significant change at a predefined probability limit is 5.1 and 6.2% for the spine and femur-neck sites respectively, when the probability of a false alarm is 5% (bi-directional). Knowledge of the critical difference required between successive measurements, combined with the known rate of

  14. Suppression of Plant Immune Responses by the Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 Type III Effector Tyrosine Phosphatases HopAO1 and HopAO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pilar Castañeda-Ojeda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effector repertoire of the olive pathogen P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 includes two members of the HopAO effector family, one of the most diverse T3E families of the P. syringae complex. The study described here explores the phylogeny of these dissimilar members, HopAO1 and HopAO2, among the complex and reveals their activities as immune defense suppressors. Although HopAO1 is predominantly encoded by phylogroup 3 strains isolated from woody organs of woody hosts, both HopAO1 and HopAO2 are phylogenetically clustered according to the woody/herbaceous nature of their host of isolation, suggesting host specialization of the HopAO family across the P. syringae complex. HopAO1 and HopAO2 translocate into plant cells and show hrpL-dependent expression, which allows their classification as actively deployed type III effectors. Our data also show that HopAO1 and HopAO2 possess phosphatase activity, a hallmark of the members of this family. Both of them exert an inhibitory effect on early plant defense responses, such as ROS production and callose deposition, and are able to suppress ETI responses induced by the effectorless polymutant of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000D28E in Nicotiana. Moreover, we demonstrate that a ΔhopAO1 mutant of P. savastanoi NCPBB 3335 exhibits a reduced fitness and virulence in olive plants, which supports the relevance of this effector during the interaction of this strain with its host plants. This work contributes to the field with the first report regarding functional analysis of HopAO homologs encoded by P. syringae or P. savastanoi strains isolated from woody hosts.

  15. Suppression of Plant Immune Responses by the Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 Type III Effector Tyrosine Phosphatases HopAO1 and HopAO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Ojeda, María Pilar; Moreno-Pérez, Alba; Ramos, Cayo; López-Solanilla, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    The effector repertoire of the olive pathogen P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 includes two members of the HopAO effector family, one of the most diverse T3E families of the P. syringae complex. The study described here explores the phylogeny of these dissimilar members, HopAO1 and HopAO2, among the complex and reveals their activities as immune defense suppressors. Although HopAO1 is predominantly encoded by phylogroup 3 strains isolated from woody organs of woody hosts, both HopAO1 and HopAO2 are phylogenetically clustered according to the woody/herbaceous nature of their host of isolation, suggesting host specialization of the HopAO family across the P. syringae complex. HopAO1 and HopAO2 translocate into plant cells and show hrpL-dependent expression, which allows their classification as actively deployed type III effectors. Our data also show that HopAO1 and HopAO2 possess phosphatase activity, a hallmark of the members of this family. Both of them exert an inhibitory effect on early plant defense responses, such as ROS production and callose deposition, and are able to suppress ETI responses induced by the effectorless polymutant of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000D28E) in Nicotiana. Moreover, we demonstrate that a ΔhopAO1 mutant of P. savastanoi NCPBB 3335 exhibits a reduced fitness and virulence in olive plants, which supports the relevance of this effector during the interaction of this strain with its host plants. This work contributes to the field with the first report regarding functional analysis of HopAO homologs encoded by P. syringae or P. savastanoi strains isolated from woody hosts. PMID:28529516

  16. Suporte relacionado ao cuidado em saúde ao doente com aids: o modelo de comboio e a enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Aparecida Araújo da Silveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a relação e a troca de suporte entre o doente com AIDS e pessoas à sua volta. O estudo está baseado no modelo de comboio das relações sociais que tem como uma de suas características a representação da rede em três círculos concêntricos. Os participantes eram pessoas que estavam internadas e que falaram sobre o suporte relacionado ao cuidado em saúde proporcionado por pessoas próximas, ou seja, que pertenciam ao círculo interno do comboio. A maioria dos participantes descreveu o círculo como sendo composto por no máximo cinco integrantes, sendo que pessoas da família foram as mais citadas. Os profissionais de saúde precisam conhecer o paciente e seu comboio, reconhecendo-os no contexto psicossocial e cultural de forma a favorecer a aceitação da soropositividade, mudanças no estilo de vida, ajuda nos cuidados de saúde e adesão ao tratamento.

  17. Using Anisotropic 3D Minkowski Functionals for Trabecular Bone Characterization and Biomechanical Strength Prediction in Proximal Femur Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; De, Titas; Lochmüller, Eva-Maria; Eckstein, Felix; Wismüller, Axel

    2017-01-01

    The ability of Anisotropic Minkowski Functionals (AMFs) to capture local anisotropy while evaluating topological properties of the underlying gray-level structures has been previously demonstrated. We evaluate the ability of this approach to characterize local structure properties of trabecular bone micro-architecture in ex vivo proximal femur specimens, as visualized on multi-detector CT, for purposes of biomechanical bone strength prediction. To this end, volumetric AMFs were computed locally for each voxel of volumes of interest (VOI) extracted from the femoral head of 146 specimens. The local anisotropy captured by such AMFs was quantified using a fractional anisotropy measure; the magnitude and direction of anisotropy at every pixel was stored in histograms that served as a feature vectors that characterized the VOIs. A linear multi-regression analysis algorithm was used to predict the failure load (FL) from the feature sets; the predicted FL was compared to the true FL determined through biomechanical testing. The prediction performance was measured by the root mean square error (RMSE) for each feature set. The best prediction performance was obtained from the fractional anisotropy histogram of AMF Euler Characteristic (RMSE = 1.01 ± 0.13), which was significantly better than MDCT-derived mean BMD (RMSE = 1.12 ± 0.16, p<0.05). We conclude that such anisotropic Minkowski Functionals can capture valuable information regarding regional trabecular bone quality and contribute to improved bone strength prediction, which is important for improving the clinical assessment of osteoporotic fracture risk. PMID:29170581

  18. Plate fixation in periprosthetic femur fractures Vancouver type B1-Trochanteric hook plate or subtrochanterical bicortical locking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Mark; Stoffel, Karl; Kielstein, Heike; Mayo, Keith; Hofmann, Gunther O; Gueorguiev, Boyko

    2016-12-01

    Proximal plate fixation in periprosthetic femur fractures can be improved by plate anchorage in the greater trochanter (lateral tension band principle) or bicortical locking screw placement beside the prosthesis stem in an embracement configuration. Both concepts were compared in a biomechanical test using a femoral hook plate (hook) or a locking attachment plate (LAP). After bone mineral density (BMD) measurement in the greater trochanter, six pairs of fresh frozen human femora were assigned to two groups and instrumented with cemented hip endoprostheses. A transverse osteotomy was set distal to the tip of the prosthesis, simulating a Vancouver B1 fracture. Each pair was instrumented using a plate tensioner with either hook or LAP construct. Cyclic testing (2Hz) with physiologic profile and monotonically increasing load was performed until catastrophic failure. Plate stiffness was compared in a four-point-bending-test. Paired student's-t-test was used for statistical evaluation (pTrochanteric fixation is highly BMD dependent and may be restricted to major greater trochanteric involvement requiring stabilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pathologic femur fracture due to a brown tumor in a patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D-resistant rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Eric; Day, Matthew; Fadare, Oluwole; Schaefer, Heidi

    2013-02-01

    Vitamin D-resistant rickets is the common clinical outcome of multiple genetic mutations that alter the regulation of phosphorus and vitamin D metabolism, mainly through their effects on fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23). These diseases typically present in childhood with the classic physical examination finding of nutritional rickets, such as genu varum/valgum and rachitic rosary. Treatment, which is aimed at improving severe bone disease with vitamin D and phosphorus supplementation, can cause secondary hyperparathyroidism and/or kidney failure from nephrocalcinosis over the life of the patient. Although FGF-23 has been shown to downregulate parathyroid hormone in vitro, its effect on parathyroid secretion in disease states such as chronic kidney disease and X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets is unclear because elevations in FGF-23 and parathyroid hormone levels characterize both of these disease states. We describe a case of vitamin D-resistant rickets that presented with a femur fracture through a brown tumor. Radiographs show the combination of severe bony abnormalities associated with both long-standing hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D-resistant rickets. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A morphometric and taxonomic assessment of a hominine femur from the lower member, Koobi Fora, Lake Turkana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, G E

    1983-08-01

    Previous research by this author and others has indicated that species-level differentiation within the hominines can be detected in the femur. The femoral shaft of Homo erectus, relative to H. sapiens, demonstrates small anteroposterior diameters, a distally placed point of minimum shaft breadth, and increased cortical thickness resulting in medullary stenosis. This pattern has been identified in specimens from Choukoutien (I and IV), Olduvai (OH 28), and Lake Turkana (KNM ER 737). Findings reported here include anatomical comparisons and univariate and multivariate analyses based on external and internal shaft morphology. These results indicate that the femoral pattern characteristic of H. erectus can be identified in KNM ER 1481a recovered at Lake Turkana below the KBS tuff. Recent dating of that tuff indicates a date of ca. 1.8 mya, thereby yielding a date for KNM ER 1481a of congruent to 2.0 mya. Known H. erectus femora extend over a broad span and yet show very low variability; this pronounced stasis would strongly suggest that, at least in this portion of the postcranium, H. erectus was in a period of profound morphological stasis.

  1. Determination of composition and structure of spongy bone tissue in human head of femur by Raman spectral mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozielski, M; Buchwald, T; Szybowicz, M; Błaszczak, Z; Piotrowski, A; Ciesielczyk, B

    2011-07-01

    Biomechanical properties of bone depend on the composition and organization of collagen fibers. In this study, Raman microspectroscopy was employed to determine the content of mineral and organic constituents and orientation of collagen fibers in spongy bone in the human head of femur at the microstructural level. Changes in composition and structure of trabecula were illustrated using Raman spectral mapping. The polarized Raman spectra permit separate analysis of local variations in orientation and composition. The ratios of ν₂PO₄³⁻/Amide III, ν₄PO₄³⁻/Amide III and ν₁CO₃²⁻/ν₂PO₄³⁻ are used to describe relative amounts of spongy bone components. The ν₁PO₄³⁻/Amide I ratio is quite susceptible to orientation effect and brings information on collagen fibers orientation. The results presented illustrate the versatility of the Raman method in the study of bone tissue. The study permits better understanding of bone physiology and evaluation of the biomechanical properties of bone.

  2. Pneumothorax complicating pulmonary embolism after combined spinal epidural anesthesia in a chronic smoker with open femur fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivendu Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism during or after regional anaesthesia is although very rare, it has been reported in cases undergoing lower limb orthopedic procedures. We presenting a 48 years old male, a known smoker since 25 years, with history of road traffic accident and open fracture right femur for external fixation. Combined spinal epidural anaesthesia was given. After 35 minutes patient complained dyspnea and chest pain. SpO2 decreased to 82% from 100%. Continuous positive airway pressure with 100% oxygen was given. SpO2 increased from 82% to 96%. Suddenly he had bouts of cough and SpO2 became 79-80% with unstable haemodynamics. On chest auscultation there was decreased breath sounds on right side with limited expansion. Trachea was intubated after inducing anaesthesia with fentanyl 70 μg and thiopental 300 mg. Chest radiograph showed right sided pneumothorax. Intercostal drain with a water seal was put. After 5 minutes HR was 80/min, BP was 110/69 mmHg and SpO2 was 97%. Pulmonary thromboembolism secondary to deep vein thrombosis was suspected and was confirmed by D-dimer Elisa and color Doppler of lower limbs. Patient was shifted to intensive care unit after completion of surgery. Anticoagulant therapy was started. He was weaned from the ventilator on 3rd day and trachea was extubated. Chest drain was removed after 9 days and he was discharged from hospital on 15th post operative day

  3. Femur-bending properties as influenced by gravity. V - Strength vs. calcium and gravity in rats exposed for 2 weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunder, Charles C.; Cook, Kenneth M.; Watkins, Stanley R.; Moressi, William J.

    1987-01-01

    The dependence of gravitationally related changes in femur bone strength on the comparable changes in calcium content was investigated in rats exposed to chronic simulations of altered gravity from the 28th to 42nd day of age. Zero G was simulated by harness suspension and 3 G by centrifugation. Bone strength (S) was determined by bending (using modified quasi-static cantilever bending methods and equipment described by Wunder et al., 1977 and 1979) and Ca content (C, by mass pct) determined by atomic absorption spectrometry; results were compared with data obtained on both normal and harnessed control animals at 1 G. Multiple regression showed significant dependence of S upon earth's gravity, independent from C, for which there was no significant coefficient of partial regression. It is suggested that the lack of S/C correlation might have been due to the fact that considerable fraction of the calcium in these young, developing bones has not yet crystallized into the hydroxyapatite which provides strength.

  4. Assessment of polycaprolacton (PCL) nanocomposite scaffold compared with hydroxyapatite (HA) on healing of segmental femur bone defect in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Hadi; Jahandideh, Alireza; Asghari, Ahmad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Hesaraki, Saeed

    2017-08-01

    Segmental bone loss due to trauma, infection, and tumor resection and even non-union results in the vast demand for replacement and restoration of the function of the lost bone. The objective of this study is to utilize novel inorganic-organic nanocomposites for biomedical applications. Biodegradable implants have shown great promise for the repair of bone defects and have been commonly used as bone substitutes, which traditionally would be treated using metallic implants. In this study, 45 mature male New Zealand white rabbits 6-8 months and weighting 3-3.5 kg were examined. Rabbits were divided into three groups. Surgical procedures were done after an intramuscular injection of Ketamine 10% (ketamine hydrochloride, 50 mg/kg), Rompun 5% (xylazine, 5 mg/kg). Then an approximately 6 mm diameter - 5 mm cylinder bone defect was created in the femur of one of the hind limbs. After inducing the surgical wound, all rabbits were colored and randomly divided into three experimental groups of nine animals each: Group 1 received medical pure nanocomposite polycaprolactone (PCL) granules, Group 2 received hydroxyapatite and Group 3 was a control group with no treatment. Histopathological evaluation was performed on days 15, 30 and 45 after surgery. On day 45 after surgery, the quantity of newly formed lamellar bone in the healing site in PCL group was better than onward compared with HA and control groups. Finally, nanocomposite PCL granules exhibited a reproducible bone-healing potential.

  5. Fibrous Dysplasia with Massive Cartilaginous Differentiation (Fibrocartilaginous Dysplasia in the Proximal Femur: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Morioka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fibrous dysplasia (FD is a monostotic or polyostotic benign bone lesion with spindle-cell proliferation in woven bone and stroma. Rarely, cartilaginous differentiation can be seen in the lesions of FD. FD with massive cartilaginous differentiation is called fibrocartilaginous dysplasia (FCD and is considered a rare variant of FD. Although pathological findings of FD show irregular immature bone formation without osteoblastic rimming in fibrous tissue, and rarely show very small amounts of cartilage, histological images of FCD are said to show that cartilage with a relatively high cell density is present in the majority and that FD-like findings are seen in parts of it. The most characteristic feature of FCD on images is calcification in the lesions reflecting cartilaginous tissue. On the other hand, typical radiographic findings of FD include shadows with a ground-glass appearance and thinning and bulging of the cortical bone, the observation if calcification is not usual. Therefore, in the diagnosis of FCD, differentiation from multiple enchondromatosis, Ollier disease, chondrosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma secondary to FD is necessary, and it seems important to make a careful diagnosis based not only on the pathological findings but also on imaging and clinical findings. Herein, we report on a case of FD of the proximal femur associated with intralesional extensive cartilaginous differentiation in which a pathological fracture occurred during follow-up, with a review of the literature.

  6. Auckland City Hospital's Ortho-Geriatric Service: an audit of patients aged over 65 with fractured neck of femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalasena, Bodhi; Harris, Roger

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this audit were to collect the Minimum Data Set outlined by the Australia New Zealand Hip Fracture Registry (ANZHFR), assess patient characteristics, analyse process of care, and evaluate how this compares to NICE guidelines for hip fracture care, as well as to Auckland Hospital data from 2007. Retrospective case record audit of patients with fractured neck of femur aged 65 years and over admitted under Orthopaedics over a 4-month period in 2013. Ninety-one patients were audited; mean age was 83 years, 68% were female. Both inpatient and 30-day mortality was 5%. 120-day mortality was 15%. Seventy-six percent of patients were admitted from ED within the national health target prescribed period of 6 hours. Only one patient was treated non-surgically. Eighty-six percent had surgery within 48 hours of admission. Eighty-two percent of patients had rehabilitation and treatment by Older People's Health. Of those living at home pre-fracture, 76% returned home on discharge. Thirty-seven percent of patients were able to walk unaided prior to hip fracture, but only 1% on discharge. Average overall length of stay was 22 days. Bisphosphonates were prescribed for 56% of patients. Compared to 2007, Auckland City Hospital has demonstrated a significant improvement in the rate of provision of timely surgery for hip fracture patients. Most patients are receiving the guideline recommended fracture-specific surgical interventions. The assessment and treatment of osteoporosis needs further attention.

  7. A Study of Inflammatory/Necrosis Biomarkers in the Fracture of the Femur Treated with Proximal Femoral Nail Antirotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariapaola Marino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pertrochanteric fractures are common injuries in adults and source of morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Different surgical techniques were recommended for their treatment but undoubtedly they add an additional inflammatory trauma along the fracture itself. Many attempts to quantify the degree of approach-related trauma are carried out through measurements of systemic inflammatory parameters. In this study we prospectively analyzed laboratory data of 20 patients over eighty with pertrochanteric fracture of the femur treated with proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA. This is an excellent device for osteosynthesis because it can be easily and quickly inserted by a mini-incision providing stable fixation and early full mobilization. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP, and plasma creatin kinase (CK were evaluated 1 hour preoperatively and 24 hours postoperatively. Our results show that PFNA did not induce significant increments in serum levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6; CRP was elevated preoperatively in correlation with waiting time for surgery; CRP and CK showed a significant increment in the first postoperatory day; CK increment was correlated with surgical time length. We conclude that, for the markers we analyzed, PFNA shows a low biomechanical-inflammatory profile that represents an advantage over other techniques.

  8. Selecting boundary conditions in physiological strain analysis of the femur: Balanced loads, inertia relief method and follower load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyland, Mark; Trepczynski, Adam; Duda, Georg N; Zehn, Manfred; Schaser, Klaus-Dieter; Märdian, Sven

    2015-12-01

    Selection of boundary constraints may influence amount and distribution of loads. The purpose of this study is to analyze the potential of inertia relief and follower load to maintain the effects of musculoskeletal loads even under large deflections in patient specific finite element models of intact or fractured bone compared to empiric boundary constraints which have been shown to lead to physiological displacements and surface strains. The goal is to elucidate the use of boundary conditions in strain analyses of bones. Finite element models of the intact femur and a model of clinically relevant fracture stabilization by locking plate fixation were analyzed with normal walking loading conditions for different boundary conditions, specifically re-balanced loading, inertia relief and follower load. Peak principal cortex surface strains for different boundary conditions are consistent (maximum deviation 13.7%) except for inertia relief without force balancing (maximum deviation 108.4%). Influence of follower load on displacements increases with higher deflection in fracture model (from 3% to 7% for force balanced model). For load balanced models, follower load had only minor influence, though the effect increases strongly with higher deflection. Conventional constraints of fixed nodes in space should be carefully reconsidered because their type and position are challenging to justify and for their potential to introduce relevant non-physiological reaction forces. Inertia relief provides an alternative method which yields physiological strain results. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of explicit finite element and mechanical simulation of the proximal femur during dynamic drop-tower testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, O; Gilchrist, S; Widmer, R P; Guy, P; Ferguson, S J; Cripton, P A; Helgason, B

    2015-01-21

    Current screening techniques based on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measurements are unable to identify the majority of people who sustain hip fractures. Biomechanical examination of such events may help determine what predisposes a hip to be susceptible to fracture. Recently, drop-tower simulations of in-vitro sideways falls have allowed the study of the mechanical response of the proximal human femur at realistic impact speeds. This technique has created an opportunity to validate explicit finite element (FE) models against dynamic test data. This study compared the outcomes of 15 human femoral specimens fractured using a drop tower with complementary specimen-specific explicit FE analysis. Correlation coefficient and root mean square error (RMSE) were found to be moderate for whole bone stiffness comparison (R(2)=0.3476 and 22.85% respectively). No correlation was found between experimentally and computationally predicted peak force, however, energy absorption comparison produced moderate correlation and RMSE (R(2)=0.4781 and 29.14% respectively). By comparing predicted strain maps to high speed video data we demonstrated the ability of the FE models to detect vulnerable portions of the bones. Based on our observations, we conclude that there exists a need to extend the current apparent level material models for bone to cover higher strain rates than previously tested experimentally. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Silver oxide-containing hydroxyapatite coating supports osteoblast function and enhances implant anchorage strength in rat femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Shuichi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Shobuike, Takeo; Noda, Iwao; Akiyama, Takayuki; Tsukamoto, Masatsugu; Ueno, Masaya; Someya, Shinsuke; Kawano, Shunsuke; Sonohata, Motoki; Mawatari, Masaaki

    2015-09-01

    Antibacterial silver with hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA) is a promising coating material for imparting antibacterial properties to implants. We previously reported that 3% (w/w) silver with HA (3% Ag-HA) has both antibacterial activity and osteoconductivity. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ag-HA on the in vitro osteoblast function and the in vivo anchorage strength and osteoconductivity of implants. Production of the osteoblast marker alkaline phosphatase, but not cytotoxicity, was observed in cells of the osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 cultured on the 3% Ag-HA-coated surface. These results were similar to those observed with silver-free HA coating. In contrast, a significant high level of cytotoxicity was observed when the cells were cultured on a 50% Ag-HA-coated surface. The anchorage strength of implants inserted into the femur of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was enhanced by coating the implants with 3% Ag-HA. On the 3% Ag-HA-coated surface, both metaphyseal and diaphyseal areas were largely covered with new bone and had adequate osteoconductivity. These results suggest that 3% Ag-HA, like conventional HA, promotes osteogenesis by supporting osteoblast viability and function and thereby contributes to sufficient anchorage strength of implants. Application of 3% Ag-HA, which combines the osteoconductivity of HA and the antibacterial activity of silver, to prosthetic joints will help prevent postoperative infections. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The influence of process and patient factors on the recall of consent information in mentally competent patients undergoing surgery for neck of femur fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, SK; Karuppaiah, K; Bajwa, AS

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Informed consent is an ethical and legal prerequisite for major surgical procedures. Recent literature has identified ‘poor consent’ as a major cause of litigation in trauma cases. We aimed to investigate the patient and process factors that influence consent information recall in mentally competent patients (abbreviated mental test score [AMTS] ≥6) presenting with neck of femur (NOF) fractures. METHODS A prospective study was conducted at a tertiary unit. Fifty NOF patients (cas...

  12. Accumulation of heavy metals and As in liver, hair, femur, and lung of Persian jird (Meriones persicus) in Darreh Zereshk copper mine, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaee, Manoochehr; Hamidian, Amir Hossein; Alizadeh Shabani, Afshin; Ashrafi, Sohrab; Mirjalili, Seyyed Ali Ashghar; Esmaeilzadeh, Esmat

    2016-02-01

    Rodents frequently serve as bioindicator to monitor the quality of the environment. Concentrations of 11 elements (Cd, Co, Ti, Fe, Mn, Cu, Sb, As, Sr, Ni, and Cr) were investigated and compared in liver, hair, femur, and lung of the Persian jird (Meriones persicus) from Darreh Zereshk copper mine, Iran. Metals were determined in different tissues of 39 individuals of Persian jird, collected by snap trap in 2014 from five areas of Darreh Zereshk copper mine. Samples were prepared by wet digestion method, and the contents of elements were analyzed with ICP-OES (VARIAN, 725-ES) instrument. Cadmium, Sb, and Co were below the limit of detection, and Mn and As were found only in hair and liver tissues. We detected the highest concentration of Cu, As, Ti, Fe, Mn, Cr, and Ni in hair in comparison with other tissues. Significant higher levels of Ti in femur and hair; Fe in liver and hair; Mn in liver; As in hair; Sr in lung; Cr in lung, hair, femur, and liver; Cu in femur; and Ni in liver and lung tissues were observed in females. Nearly all element concentrations in the tissues of Persian jird from flotation site, Darreh Zereshk and Hasan Abad villages and leaching site (mining areas) were higher than those from tailing dump site (reference site). We found the highest concentrations of As in liver and hair; Ni and Cr in liver, hair, and lung; and Sr in lung and hair tissues of Persian jird in leaching site. We tried to specify the status of elements before fully exploitation of Darreh Zereshk copper mine by using bioindicator species. Based on our achievements, initial activities did not strongly pollute the surrounded environment of the mine. The high abundance of Persian jird as well as their several proper features makes them a suitable species for biomonitoring programs especially for further studies will be performed after full exploitation of Darreh Zereshk copper mine.

  13. Green FLASH: energy efficient real-time control for AO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratadour, D.; Dipper, N.; Biasi, R.; Deneux, H.; Bernard, J.; Brule, J.; Dembet, R.; Doucet, N.; Ferreira, F.; Gendron, E.; Laine, M.; Perret, D.; Rousset, G.; Sevin, A.; Bitenc, U.; Geng, D.; Younger, E.; Andrighettoni, M.; Angerer, G.; Patauner, C.; Pescoller, D.; Porta, F.; Dufourcq, G.; Flaischer, A.; Leclere, J.-B.; Nai, A.; Palazzari, P.; Pretet, D.; Rouaud, C.

    2016-07-01

    The main goal of Green Flash is to design and build a prototype for a Real-Time Controller (RTC) targeting the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) Adaptive Optics (AO) instrumentation. The E-ELT is a 39m diameter telescope to see first light in the early 2020s. To build this critical component of the telescope operations, the astronomical community is facing technical challenges, emerging from the combination of high data transfer bandwidth, low latency and high throughput requirements, similar to the identified critical barriers on the road to Exascale. With Green Flash, we will propose technical solutions, assess these enabling technologies through prototyping and assemble a full scale demonstrator to be validated with a simulator and tested on sky. With this R&D program we aim at feeding the E-ELT AO systems preliminary design studies, led by the selected first-light instruments consortia, with technological validations supporting the designs of their RTC modules. Our strategy is based on a strong interaction between academic and industrial partners. Components specifications and system requirements are derived from the AO application. Industrial partners lead the development of enabling technologies aimin