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Sample records for anxiety correlate differently

  1. Race and Gender Differences in Correlates of Death Anxiety Among Elderly in the United States.

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    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    Death anxiety among elderly is a major public health concern. Few studies, however, have been conducted on factors associated with death anxiety. This study investigated race and gender differences in psychosocial correlates of death anxiety among elderly in the US. With a cross-sectional design, we used data of the Religion, Aging, and Health survey. 1,074 White and Black elderly (age > 65 years, 615 women, 359 men) were entered to this study. Demographic (age, gender, and race), socio-economic (family income, perceived financial difficulty), health (number of chronic medical conditions and self-rated health), and psychological (perceived control over life) factors were measured. Death anxiety was measured using four items. We used linear regressions to determine factors associated with death anxiety based on race and gender. Although race and gender did not have main effects on death anxiety (P > 0.05), they altered correlates of death anxiety. Age was a predictor of death anxiety among women (B = 0.165, P = 0.002) but not men (B = 0.082, P = 0.196). Self-rated health was associated with death anxiety among Whites (B = - 0.120, P = 0.050) but not Blacks (B = - 0.077, P = 0.268). Total family income was only associated with death anxiety among White men. Demographic, socio-economic, health, and psychological determinants of death anxiety in United States differ based on race, gender, and their intersection. Findings advocate that geriatric psychiatrists and gerontologists who wish to reduce death anxiety among elderly people may need to tailor their interventions to race and gender.

  2. Race and Gender Differences in Correlates of Death Anxiety Among Elderly in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background Death anxiety among elderly is a major public health concern. Few studies, however, have been conducted on factors associated with death anxiety. Objectives This study investigated race and gender differences in psychosocial correlates of death anxiety among elderly in the US. Materials and Methods With a cross-sectional design, we used data of the Religion, Aging, and Health survey. 1,074 White and Black elderly (age > 65 years, 615 women, 359 men) were entered to this study. Demographic (age, gender, and race), socio-economic (family income, perceived financial difficulty), health (number of chronic medical conditions and self-rated health), and psychological (perceived control over life) factors were measured. Death anxiety was measured using four items. We used linear regressions to determine factors associated with death anxiety based on race and gender. Results Although race and gender did not have main effects on death anxiety (P > 0.05), they altered correlates of death anxiety. Age was a predictor of death anxiety among women (B = 0.165, P = 0.002) but not men (B = 0.082, P = 0.196). Self-rated health was associated with death anxiety among Whites (B = - 0.120, P = 0.050) but not Blacks (B = - 0.077, P = 0.268). Total family income was only associated with death anxiety among White men. Conclusions Demographic, socio-economic, health, and psychological determinants of death anxiety in United States differ based on race, gender, and their intersection. Findings advocate that geriatric psychiatrists and gerontologists who wish to reduce death anxiety among elderly people may need to tailor their interventions to race and gender. PMID:27803717

  3. Individual differences in circadian locomotor parameters correlate with anxiety- and depression-like behavior.

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    Jeffrey Anyan

    Full Text Available Disrupted circadian rhythms are a core feature of mood and anxiety disorders. Circadian rhythms are coordinated by a light-entrainable master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Animal models of mood and anxiety disorders often exhibit blunted rhythms in locomotor activity and clock gene expression. Interestingly, the changes in circadian rhythms correlate with mood-related behaviours. Although animal models of depression and anxiety exhibit aberrant circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior, it is possible that the methodology being used to induce the behavioral phenotype (e.g., brain lesions, chronic stress, global gene deletion affect behavior independently of circadian system. This study investigates the relationship between individual differences in circadian locomotor parameters and mood-related behaviors in healthy rats. The circadian phenotype of male Lewis rats was characterized by analyzing wheel running behavior under standard 12h:12h LD conditions, constant dark, constant light, and rate of re-entrainment to a phase advance. Rats were then tested on a battery of behavioral tests: activity box, restricted feeding, elevated plus maze, forced swim test, and fear conditioning. Under 12h:12h LD conditions, percent of daily activity in the light phase and variability in activity onset were associated with longer latency to immobility in the forced swim test. Variability in onset also correlated positively with anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Rate of re-entrainment correlated positively with measures of anxiety in the activity box and elevated plus maze. Lastly, we found that free running period under constant dark was associated with anxiety-like behaviors in the activity box and elevated plus maze. Our results provide a previously uncharacterized relationship between circadian locomotor parameters and mood-related behaviors in healthy rats and provide a basis for future examination into circadian clock

  4. Neuroanatomical correlates of individual differences in social anxiety in a non-clinical population.

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    Tian, Xue; Hou, Xin; Wang, Kangcheng; Wei, Dongtao; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Socially anxious individuals are characterized as those with distorted negative self-beliefs (NSBs), which are thought to enhance reactions of social distress (emotional reactivity) and social avoidance (social functioning). However, it remains unclear whether individual differences in social distress and social avoidance are represented by differences in brain morphometry. To probe into these neural correlates, we analyzed magnetic resonance images of a sample of 130 healthy subjects and used the Connectome Computation System (CCS) to evaluate these factors. The results showed that social distress was correlated with the cortical volume of the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the subcortical volume of the left amygdala, while social avoidance was correlated with the cortical volume of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Additionally, loneliness might mediate the relationship between the amygdala volume and the social distress score. Our results demonstrated that social distress and social avoidance were represented by segregated cortical regions in the healthy individuals. These findings might provide a valuable basis for understanding the stable brain structures underlying individual differences in social anxiety.

  5. Correlation of Numerical Anxiety and Mathematics Performance

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    Michael Howard D. Morada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been observed that most students had negative view towards mathematics and as a result, they also performed poorly.As such, it is imperative for every math teacher to understand the reasons behind this negative view to improve their student’s performance. This observation led the researcher to conduct a study on Correlation of Mathematics Performance and Anxiety of third and fourth year students for school year 2012-2013 across the different programs.This study determined the numerical anxiety level and mathematics performance of the respondents along age, gender and programs. The study revealed that students, regardless of age had passing performance. However, female and male students had fair and passing mathematics performance, respectively. Students from College of Business Education, Teacher Education and Computer Studies had fair performance while those from Marine Transportation, Criminal Justice Education and Engineering had passing performance. The study also revealed that students across different variables had moderate numerical anxiety level. Furthermore, it was found out that mathematics performance is significantly related to numerical anxiety. However, the relationship was inverse and small.

  6. [Girls are more successful than boys at the university. Gender group differences in models integrating motivational and aggressive components correlated with Test-Anxiety].

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    Masson, A-M; Hoyois, Ph; Cadot, M; Nahama, V; Petit, F; Ansseau, M

    2004-01-01

    It is surprising to note the evolution of success rates in Belgian universities especially in the first Year. Men are less successful than women and the differences are escalating in an alarming way. Dropouts take the same direction and women now represent a majority of the students at the university. In a previous study, we assessed 616 students in the first Year at the university of Liège with Vasev, the English name of which was TASTE, a self report questionnaire constituted of 4 factors: anxiety, self confidence, procrastination and performance value; anxiety particularly concerned somatic expression of students before and during test evaluations; self confidence was a cognitive component close to self efficacy; procrastination was the behavioral component characterizing avoidance when students are confronted with the risk of failure; performance value referred to intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. French validation of TASTE led to an abbreviated version of 50 items (THEE) consisting of 5 factors, the four of TASTE and an additional one, very consistent, at first called depression because of its correlations with this dimension, then called sense of competence on account of its semantic content. Self-competence has been described in the literature of Achievement Motivation and corresponded to expectancy and ability beliefs in performance process which was also relevant to self-efficacy except the particularity of comparison with others, which was not included in the last construct. Self-competence has been considered as an important part of the Worry component of test anxiety. Some Authors didn't hesitate to view causality flowing from self-competence to test anxiety and have conceptualized the latter as a failure of the self where one's sense of competence has been undermined as a result of experienced failure. In our study, only that factor was equally scored in women and men whereas it was scored higher in failed students. In other respects anxiety and

  7. Psychologic correlates of dental anxiety.

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    Schuurs, A H; Duivenvoorden, H J; Thoden van Velzen, S K; Verhage, F; Makkes, P C; Eijkman, M A

    1986-04-01

    In an attempt to establish the relationships between dental anxiety and personality traits, such as neuroticism and locus of control, a survey has been carried out among 30-40-yr-olds in a Dutch town. In the first instance, the questionnaires comprising the psychologic items were treated by Non-Metric Principal Components analysis to detect the underlying structure. The principal components found were then used in a second-stage analysis. The results appear to be at variance with the literature, i.e. subgroups discernible in the sample by sets of psychologic features were not associated with dental anxiety categories.

  8. Trait vs. state anxiety in different threatening situations

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    Pollyana Caldeira Leal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Anxiety as a uni- or multidimensional construct has been under discussion. The unidimensional approach assumes that there is a general trait anxiety, which predisposes the individuals to increases in state anxiety in various threatening situations. In this case, there should be a correlation between state and trait anxiety in any situation of threat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between trait and state anxiety in participants exposed to two different anxiogenic situations: interpersonal threat (Video-Monitored Stroop Test – VMST and physical threat (third molar extraction – TME. Methods Participants with various levels of trait anxiety (general trait: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – STAI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; specific trait: Social Phobia Inventory, Dental Anxiety Scale had their anxious state evaluated (STAI, self-evaluation of tension level, heart rate, electromyogram activity before, during and after the VMST or the TME. Results In VMST, trait anxiety correlated to state anxiety (psychological parameters in all test phases. However, in TME, the only trait measurement that correlated to state anxiety (psychological parameters was the Dental Anxiety Scale. Conclusion Trait anxiety correlates positively to state anxiety in situations of interpersonal threat, but not of physical threat.

  9. Neurocognitive Correlates of Apathy and Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease

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    Yelena Bogdanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is associated with various nonmotor symptoms including neuropsychiatric and cognitive dysfunction. We examined the relation between apathy, anxiety, side of onset of motor symptoms, and cognition in PD. We hypothesized that PD patients would show different neuropsychiatric and neurocognitive profiles depending on the side of onset. 22 nondemented PD patients (11 right-side onset (RPD with predominant left-hemisphere pathology, and 11 LPD and 22 matched healthy controls (NC were administered rating scales assessing apathy and anxiety, and a series of neuropsychological tests. PD patients showed a higher anxiety level than NC. There was a significant association between apathy, anxiety, and disease duration. In LPD, apathy but not anxiety was associated with performance on nonverbally mediated executive function and visuospatial measures, whereas, in RPD, anxiety but not apathy correlated with performance on verbally mediated tasks. Our findings demonstrated a differential association of apathy and anxiety to cognition in PD.

  10. Religiousness and preoperative anxiety: a correlational study

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    Karimollahi Mansoureh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major life changes are among factors that cause anxiety, and one of these changes is surgery. Emotional reactions to surgery have specific effects on the intensity and velocity as well as the process of physical disease. In addition, they can cause delay in patients recovery. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety. Methods This survey is a correlational study to assess the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety of patients undergoing abdominal, orthopaedic, and gynaecologic surgery in educational hospitals. We used the convenience sampling method. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire containing the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and another questionnaire formulated by the researcher with queries on religious beliefs and demographic characteristics as well as disease-related information. Analysis of the data was carried out with SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results were arranged in three tables. Results The findings showed that almost all the subjects had high level of religiosity and moderate level of anxiety. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between religiosity and intensity of anxiety, though this was not statistically significant. Conclusion The results of this study can be used as evidence for presenting religious counselling and spiritual interventions for individuals undergoing stress. Finally, based on the results of this study, the researcher suggested some recommendations for applying results and conducting further research.

  11. Correlates of death anxiety in Pakistan.

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    Suhail, Kausar; Akram, Saima

    2002-01-01

    To ascertain the effect of gender, age, and religiosity on death anxiety, 132 participants were interviewed using Templer Death Anxiety Scale and Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale (CLS). Women, older participants, and less religious participants were found to be more scared of their impending death. Gender effect was more pronounced, however, on the CLS. Women and less religious people reported to experience greater anxiety than their respective counterparts about different dimensions of death, for example, the shortness of life, total isolation of death, fear of not being, and disintegration of body after dying. The findings of the current work indicate that the general predictors of death anxiety, gender, age, and religiosity reported in Western, predominantly Christian samples also hold in an Eastern, Muslim sample.

  12. Parental state anxiety correlates with preoperative anxiety in Chinese preschool children.

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    Cui, Xulei; Zhu, Bo; Zhao, Jing; Huang, Yuguang; Luo, Ailun; Wei, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Preoperative anxiety in children is largely dependent on age and is influenced by anxiety level in parents. The current study compared the level of preoperative anxiety in preschool children versus school-aged children and its relationship with the state and trait anxiety of the parents. This study included 54 preschool children (2-5 years of age) and 48 school-age children (6-12 years) scheduled to receive ear, nose and throat, plastic or ophthalmologic surgeries. Preoperative anxiety of children was assessed in the holding area immediately prior to the surgery using a modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (m-YPAS). Compliance with anaesthesia induction was assessed using an Induction Compliance Checklist (ICC). The state and trait anxiety of the parent who accompanied the child was assessed using a State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaire. Both m-YPAS and ICC scores were higher in preschool children than in school-age children with significant correlation between the two measures. The STAI-S score of parents was higher in the preschool group than in the school-age group. No significant difference was found in STAI-T score between the two age groups. Children's m-YPAS score correlated with parental STAI-T score in both groups (rho = 0.297, P = 0.029 and rho = 0.338, P = 0.019, respectively) but only with STAI-S score in the preschool group (rho = 0.400, P = 0.003). Both preschool children and their parents are more anxious than school-age dyads prior to surgery. The anxiety level of the children correlates with state anxiety of the parents in preschool children but not in school-age children. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  13. Neural correlates of math anxiety - an overview and implications.

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    Artemenko, Christina; Daroczy, Gabriella; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety is a common phenomenon which can have a negative impact on numerical and arithmetic performance. However, so far little is known about the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. This mini review provides an overview of studies investigating the neural correlates of math anxiety which provide several hints regarding its influence on math performance: while behavioral studies mostly observe an influence of math anxiety on difficult math tasks, neurophysiological studies show that processing efficiency is already affected in basic number processing. Overall, the neurocognitive literature suggests that (i) math anxiety elicits emotion- and pain-related activation during and before math activities, (ii) that the negative emotional response to math anxiety impairs processing efficiency, and (iii) that math deficits triggered by math anxiety may be compensated for by modulating the cognitive control or emotional regulation network. However, activation differs strongly between studies, depending on tasks, paradigms, and samples. We conclude that neural correlates can help to understand and explore the processes underlying math anxiety, but the data are not very consistent yet.

  14. Neural correlates of math anxiety – an overview and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemenko, Christina; Daroczy, Gabriella; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety is a common phenomenon which can have a negative impact on numerical and arithmetic performance. However, so far little is known about the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. This mini review provides an overview of studies investigating the neural correlates of math anxiety which provide several hints regarding its influence on math performance: while behavioral studies mostly observe an influence of math anxiety on difficult math tasks, neurophysiological studies show that processing efficiency is already affected in basic number processing. Overall, the neurocognitive literature suggests that (i) math anxiety elicits emotion- and pain-related activation during and before math activities, (ii) that the negative emotional response to math anxiety impairs processing efficiency, and (iii) that math deficits triggered by math anxiety may be compensated for by modulating the cognitive control or emotional regulation network. However, activation differs strongly between studies, depending on tasks, paradigms, and samples. We conclude that neural correlates can help to understand and explore the processes underlying math anxiety, but the data are not very consistent yet. PMID:26388824

  15. All anxiety is not created equal: Correlates of parent/youth agreement vary across subtypes of anxiety.

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    Becker, Emily M; Jensen-Doss, Amanda; Kendall, Philip C; Birmaher, Boris; Ginsburg, Golda S

    2016-12-01

    Research has examined patterns and correlates of parent/youth informant discrepancies in the reporting of youth anxiety. However, little work has examined whether it is better to conceptualize patterns and correlates of informant disagreement across anxiety broadly, or more useful to consider disagreement on specific symptom clusters. Using data from the Child Adolescent/Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS; N = 488; Walkup et al., 2008), the current study applied the most recent recommended analytic strategies to study informant discrepancies and examined differences in the magnitude and patterns of disagreement for: (a) broadband anxiety symptoms, versus (b) symptoms of specific anxiety diagnoses (or anxiety subtypes; e.g., separation, social anxiety). Correlates of informant discrepancies were also examined. Results indicated that there was variability in agreement across anxiety subtypes, with parent/youth agreement higher on separation anxiety and school refusal symptoms relative to other domains. Parental psychopathology was associated with disagreement on broadband anxiety symptoms, such that parental psychopathology was highest when parents reported higher symptoms than their children; however, this finding was largely driven by a relationship between parental psychopathology and disagreement on separation anxiety symptoms. Age was associated with disagreement on total and separation anxiety symptoms. Gender was not associated with disagreement. Clinical implications are discussed.

  16. How smartphone usage correlates with social anxiety and loneliness.

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    Gao, Yusong; Li, Ang; Zhu, Tingshao; Liu, Xiaoqian; Liu, Xingyun

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of social anxiety and loneliness might be useful to prevent substantial impairment in personal relationships. Understanding the way people use smartphones can be beneficial for implementing an early detection of social anxiety and loneliness. This paper examines different types of smartphone usage and their relationships with people with different individual levels of social anxiety or loneliness. A total of 127 Android smartphone volunteers participated in this study, all of which have agreed to install an application (MobileSens) on their smartphones, which can record user's smartphone usage behaviors and upload the data into the server. They were instructed to complete an online survey, including the Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS) and the University of California Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS). We then separated participants into three groups (high, middle and low) based on their scores of IAS and UCLA-LS, respectively. Finally, we acquired digital records of smartphone usage from MobileSens and examined the differences in 105 types of smartphone usage behaviors between high-score and low-score group of IAS/UCLA-LS. Individuals with different scores on social anxiety or loneliness might use smartphones in different ways. For social anxiety, compared with users in low-score group, users in high-score group had less number of phone calls (incoming and outgoing) (Mann-Whitney U = 282.50∼409.00, p loneliness, users in low-score group, users in high-score group had less number of phone calls (incoming and outgoing) (Mann-Whitney U = 305.00∼407.50, p social media (RenRen) (Mann-Whitney >U = 388.50, p social anxiety or loneliness receive less incoming calls and use healthy applications more frequently, but they do not show differences in outgoing-call-related features. Individuals with higher levels of social anxiety also receive less SMSs and use camera apps less frequently, while lonely individuals tend to use system, beautify

  17. How smartphone usage correlates with social anxiety and loneliness

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    Yusong Gao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early detection of social anxiety and loneliness might be useful to prevent substantial impairment in personal relationships. Understanding the way people use smartphones can be beneficial for implementing an early detection of social anxiety and loneliness. This paper examines different types of smartphone usage and their relationships with people with different individual levels of social anxiety or loneliness. Methods: A total of 127 Android smartphone volunteers participated in this study, all of which have agreed to install an application (MobileSens on their smartphones, which can record user’s smartphone usage behaviors and upload the data into the server. They were instructed to complete an online survey, including the Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS and the University of California Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS. We then separated participants into three groups (high, middle and low based on their scores of IAS and UCLA-LS, respectively. Finally, we acquired digital records of smartphone usage from MobileSens and examined the differences in 105 types of smartphone usage behaviors between high-score and low-score group of IAS/UCLA-LS. Results: Individuals with different scores on social anxiety or loneliness might use smartphones in different ways. For social anxiety, compared with users in low-score group, users in high-score group had less number of phone calls (incoming and outgoing (Mann-Whitney U = 282.50∼409.00, p U = 388.50, p < 0.01. Discussion: The results show that individuals with social anxiety or loneliness receive less incoming calls and use healthy applications more frequently, but they do not show differences in outgoing-call-related features. Individuals with higher levels of social anxiety also receive less SMSs and use camera apps less frequently, while lonely individuals tend to use system, beautify, browser and social media (RenRen apps more frequently. Conclusion: This paper finds that

  18. Correlates of depression, anxiety and stress among Malaysian university students.

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    Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Fadzil, Fariza; Ismail, Wan Salwina Wan; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Omar, Khairani; Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Jaffar, Aida; Ismail, Aniza; Mahadevan, Raynuha

    2013-08-01

    University students face not only challenges related with independent living, but also academic challenges. This predisposes them to depression, anxiety and stress, which are fairly common. The aim was to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress, and identify their correlates among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 506 students between the ages of 18 and 24 years from four public universities in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Through an anonymous, self administered questionnaire, they were assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Data on socio-demographic, family characteristics and living arrangement were also obtained. Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to explore association between these aspects. Analysis showed among all students, 27.5% had moderate, and 9.7% had severe or extremely severe depression; 34% had moderate, and 29% had severe or extremely severe anxiety; and 18.6% had moderate and 5.1% had severe or extremely severe stress scores based on the DASS-21 inventory. Both depression and anxiety scores were significantly higher among older students (20 and above) and those born in rural areas. Whereas, higher stress scores were significantly higher among older students (20 and above), females, Malays and those whose family had either low or high incomes compared to those with middle incomes. The prevalence of anxiety is much higher than either depression or stress, with some differences in their correlates except for age. These differences need to be further explored for development of better intervention programs and appropriate support services targeting this group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Amygdalar volumetric correlates of social anxiety in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

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    Park, Min-Hyeon; Garrett, Amy; Boucher, Spencer; Howe, Meghan; Sanders, Erica; Kim, Eunjoo; Singh, Manpreet; Chang, Kiki

    2015-11-30

    The prevalence of social anxiety disorder is high in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) and anxiety may be a significant risk factor in these youth for developing BD. We compared social anxiety symptoms between BD offspring with mood symptoms (high-risk group for developing BD I or II: HR) and healthy controls (HC). We also explored the correlations between the amygdalar volumes and social anxiety symptoms in the HR group with high social anxiety scores (HRHSA) due to the potential involvement of the amygdala in the pathophysiology of both BD and social anxiety. Youth participating in the study included 29h and 17HC of comparable age and gender. To assess social anxiety symptoms, we used the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) social anxiety subscale. The HR group's MASC social anxiety score was significantly higher than that of the HC group. Among the 29h, 17 subjects (58.6%) showed high social anxiety and they were classified as the HRHSA group. No significant difference was observed in amygdalar volume between the HRHSA and HC groups. However, there were significant negative correlations between amydalar volumes and MASC social anxiety score in the HRHSA group. These findings have implications for the link between amygdalar structure and both anxiety and mood control. This link may serve to implicate high social anxiety as a risk marker for future BD development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Understanding Pregnancy Anxiety: Concepts, Correlates, and Consequences

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    Guardino, Christine M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy anxiety is a particular emotional state tied to pregnancy-specific concerns, such as worries about the health of the baby and childbirth. A growing body of research demonstrates that pregnancy anxiety is an important risk factor for preterm birth and other adverse birth and child development outcomes. This article defines and describes…

  1. A Neural Network Model for the Correlation between Sprinters’ Pre-competition Anxiety and Competition Performance

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    Jiwei Yao; Yongliang Yang; Xiang Xie; Wenxin Xu; Xiushi Ding

    2013-01-01

    Sprint is an important sporting event in track and field competition, in which, athletes’ pre-competition anxiety will greatly affect them in bringing into play their competence, which will then influence their final performance in the competition. For this reason, to study the correlation between sprinters’ pre-competition anxiety and their competition performance is of great significance in predicting athletes’ performance under difference anxiety state. After having analyzed domestic and f...

  2. Trait vs. state anxiety in different threatening situations

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    Pollyana Caldeira Leal; Tiago Costa Goes; Luiz Carlos Ferreira da Silva; Flavia Teixeira-Silva

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective Anxiety as a uni- or multidimensional construct has been under discussion. The unidimensional approach assumes that there is a general trait anxiety, which predisposes the individuals to increases in state anxiety in various threatening situations. In this case, there should be a correlation between state and trait anxiety in any situation of threat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between trait and state anxiety in participants exposed...

  3. The Correlation among EFL Learners' Test Anxiety, Foreign Language Anxiety and Language Achievement

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    Cakici, Dilek

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the correlation among test anxiety (TA), foreign language anxiety (FLA) and language achievement of university preparatory students learning English as a foreign language. The sample of the research consisted of 301 (211 females, 90 males) attending a one-year EFL preparatory school at Ondokuz Mayis…

  4. How smartphone usage correlates with social anxiety and loneliness

    OpenAIRE

    Yusong Gao; Ang Li; Tingshao Zhu; Xiaoqian Liu; Xingyun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Early detection of social anxiety and loneliness might be useful to prevent substantial impairment in personal relationships. Understanding the way people use smartphones can be beneficial for implementing an early detection of social anxiety and loneliness. This paper examines different types of smartphone usage and their relationships with people with different individual levels of social anxiety or loneliness. Methods: A total of 127 Android smartphone volunteers participated...

  5. The prevalence and correlates of adult separation anxiety disorder in an anxiety clinic

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    Wagner Renate

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD has been identified recently, but there is a paucity of data about its prevalence and associated characteristics amongst anxiety patients. This study assessed the prevalence and risk factor profile associated with ASAD in an anxiety clinic. Methods Clinical psychologists assigned 520 consecutive patients to DSM-IV adult anxiety subcategories using the SCID. We also measured demographic factors and reports of early separation anxiety (the Separation Anxiety Symptom Inventory and a retrospective diagnosis of childhood separation anxiety disorder. Other self-report measures included the Adult Separation Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (ASA-27, the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS-21, personality traits measured by the NEO PI-R and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. These measures were included in three models examining for overall differences and then by gender: Model 1 compared the conventional SCID anxiety subtypes (excluding PTSD and OCD because of insufficient numbers; Model 2 divided the sample into those with and without ASAD; Model 3 compared those with ASAD with the individual anxiety subtypes in the residual group. Results Patients with ASAD had elevated early separation anxiety scores but this association was unique in females only. Except for social phobia in relation to some comparisons, those with ASAD recorded more severe symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, higher neuroticism scores, and greater levels of disability. Conclusions Patients with ASAD attending an anxiety clinic are highly symptomatic and disabled. The findings have implications for the classification, clinical identification and treatment of adult anxiety disorders.

  6. Correlations between Academic Achievement and Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students Experiencing Integrated Curriculum Reform

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    Yi-Chun Yeh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the correlations between academic achievement and levels of anxiety and depression in medical students who were experiencing curriculum reform. The differences in academic achievement and the directions of correlations between academic achievement and anxiety and depression among the medical students with different levels of anxiety and depression were also examined. Grade 1 students from graduate-entry program and grade 3 students from undergraduate-entry program in their first semester of the new curriculum were recruited to complete the Zung's Anxiety and Depression Scale twice to examine their levels of anxiety and depression. Their academic achievement ratings in the four blocks of the first semester of the new curriculum were collected. The results indicated that no significant correlation was found between academic achievement and global anxiety and depression. However, by dividing the medical students into low, moderate and high level anxiety or depression groups, those who had poorer academic achievement in the first learning block were more likely to have higher levels of depression in the first psychologic assessment. Among the medical students who were in the high anxiety level group in the first psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the low anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had better academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the moderate anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the second learning block. Among the medical students who were in the high depression level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe depression had poorer academic achievement in the fourth

  7. Preschool anxiety disorders: comprehensive assessment of clinical, demographic, temperamental, familial, and life stress correlates.

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    Dougherty, Lea R; Tolep, Marissa R; Bufferd, Sara J; Olino, Thomas M; Dyson, Margaret; Traditi, Jennifer; Rose, Suzanne; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Klein, Daniel N

    2013-01-01

    This study examined correlates of preschoolers' anxiety disorders using a comprehensive, multimethod design. Participants included a community sample of 541 three-year-old children, of whom 106 (19.6%) met criteria for at least 1 anxiety disorder. Child and parental psychopathology and life stress were assessed with clinical interviews. Child temperament and parenting behavior were assessed with laboratory observations. Mothers and fathers reported on their parenting styles. Compared to preschoolers with no anxiety disorder, preschoolers with an anxiety disorder were more likely to meet criteria for comorbid depressive and oppositional defiant disorders and to exhibit greater temperamental behavioral inhibition and lower positive affectivity, and more sleep problems. Children with anxiety disorders also experienced more stressful life events in the previous 6 months, and their mothers had a higher rate of current anxiety disorders. Compared to children with other anxiety disorders, children with only specific phobia exhibited a somewhat different pattern of associations than children with other anxiety disorders. Overall, the findings suggest that many of the correlates observed in older youth with anxiety disorders are also observed in preschoolers.

  8. CORRELATION BETWEEN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN ANXIETY AND STYLE OF FAMILY UPBRINGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Mazurova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Children personality is actively formed at the preschool period, as they enter wider circle of social relationships and everyday tasks become more complicated. The most common emotional problem among preschool children is anxiety as a possible precursor of neurosis. Aim: to study the character of anxiety and the main causes of its development in preschool children in order to determine the structure of psychological care. Patients and methods: 68 children, 68 mothers and 22 fathers were included into the study. We used the following methods: observation, interview, projective and test methods. Results: each third child was diagnosed increased level of anxiety. Anxiety-inducing situations were mainly associated with disturbances of safety feeling in family. Correlation between ineffective types of parental relationship and high level of children anxiety was established. Conclusions: decrease in children anxiety is impossible without harmonization of parental aims in accordance to age and special features of children development. Structure and duration of rehabilitation should be based on analysis of somatic and neuro-psychic state of children, as well as social situation of development.

  9. Anxiety, psychosis and substance use: prevalence, correlates and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anxiety, psychosis and substance use: prevalence, correlates and recognition in an outpatient mental health setting. KM Wyman1,JA Chamberlain1, DJ Castle2. 1Frameworks for Health, St Vincent's Health, Melbourne, Australia. 2Department of Psychiatry, St Vincent's Health and The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, ...

  10. Prevalence, structure and correlates of anxiety-depression in boys with an autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F; Andronicos, Nicholas M; Agnew, Linda L

    2016-01-01

    Comorbidity of anxiety and depression predicts impaired treatment outcomes, poor quality of life and increased suicide risk. No study has reported on a combined measure of anxiety-depression in boys with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. To explore the prevalence, underlying factor structure and relationships between anxiety-depression, physiological stress and symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). 150 boys (aged 6-18 years; IQ M=94.9, range=73-132) with an ASD plus their parents (135 mothers, 15 fathers) completed scales about the boys' anxiety and depression, and the boys provided samples of their saliva in the morning and afternoon. Parents also completed the ASD Behaviour Checklist about the boys' ASD symptoms. The two sources of ratings were not significantly different for prevalence of anxiety-depression but the factor structures varied between the parents' and boys' responses, with a four-factor solution for the boys' ratings and a three-factor solution for the parents' ratings. There were also differences in the correlations between cortisol and anxiety-depression and between ASD symptoms and anxiety depression across the boys' and parents' data. Assessment of anxiety and depression comorbidity from parents and from children with an ASD themselves could provide a valuable adjunct datum when diagnosing ASD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlations Between Nutrition Habits, Anxiety and Metabolic Parameters in Greek Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinakou, Stavroula; Katsa, Maria Efthymia; Zyga, Sofia; Ioannidis, Anastasios; Sachlas, Athanasios; Panoutsopoulos, Georgios; Pistikou, Anna Maria; Magana, Maria; Kougioumtzi Dimoligianni, Dafni Eleni; Kolovos, Petros; Rojas Gil, Andrea Paola

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety combined with nervousness and apprehension consist a focal response to different life conditions. Lifestyle habits, anxiety and biochemical markers are in a constant interaction. To investigate the prevalence of anxiety in healthy adults and its possible association with biochemical factors-lipid profile, liver markers, thyroid hormones-and lifestyle habits. Quantitative descriptive correlation study. A total of 100 healthy adults participated in the research. A specially designed questionnaire and Hamilton's scale were used. Anthropometric and biochemical analyses were performed. Overall, 61% of the participants presented moderate to very serious anxiety. The average score on the Hamilton scale was 13.82 (±9.000), with men exhibiting less stress than women. For p ≤ 0.05: Stress was positively correlated with impaired thyroid and hepatic function. Hepatic function was affected by both sugar products and water melon, which were positively correlated with total bilirubin and AST/SGOT respectively. Tomato, peppers and legumes were negatively correlated with AST/SGOT. Deep fried food was positively correlated with GGT and triglycerides. Legumes and fish were negatively correlated with CPK. Regarding the lipid metabolism, it was found that food cooked with oil was positively associated with uric acid, but non-cooked olive oil was negatively correlated with the risk for CAD. Thyroid function was negatively correlated with non-homemade food and pasta consumption and positively correlated with consumption of whole grains and green tea. Participants with subclinical hypothyroidism seemed to consume less vitamin B12, folic acid and vegetables. No direct correlation between lifestyle habits and anxiety was found. Nevertheless, eating habits influenced biochemical markers-especially the thyroid hormones-which may be indirectly responsible for anxiety and related moods.

  12. Behavioral correlates of anxiety in well-functioning older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Pachana, Nancy A; Wetherell, Julie L; Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Nogales-González, Celia; Ruiz-Díaz, Miguel

    2015-07-01

    Research on the behavioral correlates of anxiety in older adults is sparse. The aim of this study was to explore the association of anxiety with behavioral patterns defined by health, activity, emotional and social variables. A convenience sample of 395 older adults completed measures of health, activity, emotions, social variables and experiential avoidance. Cross-sectional data were analysed using cluster analysis. Five clusters were identified: active healthy, healthy, active vulnerable, lonely inactive and frail lonely. Participants in the active healthy and healthy clusters showed the highest scores on health variables (vitality and physical function), and adaptive scores on the rest of variables. They also reported the lowest scores on anxiety and included the lowest number of cases with clinically significant anxiety levels. Active vulnerable showed high scores on social support, leisure activities and capitalization on them but low scores in vitality and physical functioning. Participants in the lonely inactive cluster reported the highest mean score in experiential avoidance and high scores on boredom and loneliness, and low scores on social support, leisure activities capitalizing on pleasant activities and health variables. Frail lonely represent a particularly vulnerable profile of participants, similar to that of lonely inactive, but with significantly lower scores on health variables and higher scores on boredom and hours watching TV. Anxiety in older adults is not only linked to poor health, but also to dysfunctional social behavior, loneliness, boredom and experiential avoidance. Maladaptive profiles of older adults with regard to these variables have been identified.

  13. Dental anxiety among university students and its correlation with their field of study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Mousa AL-Omari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the subjective ratings of dental anxiety levels among university students enrolled at Jordan University of Science and Technology. In addition, the present study aimed to explore the sources of dental anxiety and the impact of gender on the perceived dental anxiety and the correlation between field of study and dental anxiety level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Modified Corah Dental Anxiety Scale was used to measure dental anxiety among the study population. Six hundred subjects were recruited into the study from Jordanian undergraduate students from the faculties of Medicine, Engineering, and Dentistry. RESULTS: Five hundred and thirty five complete questionnaires were returned, which accounts for a response rate of 89.2%. The totals of the mean anxiety scores were the following: Medical students, 13.58%; Engineering students, 13.27% and dental students, 11.22%. About 32% of the study population has scored 15 or more. Dental students had the lowest percentage of those who scored 15 or more. Surprisingly, the medical students were responsible for the highest percentage of those who scored 15 or above. Although women demonstrated statistically higher total dental anxiety scores than men (p= 0.03, the difference between both genders was small and could be clinically insignificant. The students were anxious mostly about tooth drilling and local anesthetic injection. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of adequate dental health education may result in a high level of dental anxiety among non-dental university students in Jordan. Further studies are required to identify the correlates of dental anxiety among university students.

  14. Comparative Study on Anxiety between Student Players of Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anxiety is made up of mental and physiological components. Researchers have indicated that there is a relationship between anxiety and performance. Present paper tries to investigate the level of anxiety between student players of different games, football volleyball and basketball representing different universities at ...

  15. DENTAL ANXIETY AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH THEIR FIELD OF STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Omari, Wael Mousa; Al-Omiri, Mahmoud Khalid

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the subjective ratings of dental anxiety levels among university students enrolled at Jordan University of Science and Technology. In addition, the present study aimed to explore the sources of dental anxiety and the impact of gender on the perceived dental anxiety and the correlation between field of study and dental anxiety level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Modified Corah Dental Anxiety Scale was used to measure dental anxiety among the study...

  16. The neural correlates of impaired inhibitory control in anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Tahereh L; Derakshan, Nazanin

    2011-04-01

    According to Attentional Control Theory (Eysenck et al., 2007) anxiety impairs the inhibition function of working memory by increasing the influence of stimulus-driven processes over efficient top-down control. We investigated the neural correlates of impaired inhibitory control in anxiety using an antisaccade task. Low- and high-anxious participants performed anti- and prosaccade tasks and electrophysiological activity was recorded. Consistent with previous research high-anxious individuals had longer antisaccade latencies in response to the to-be-inhibited target, compared with low-anxious individuals. Central to our predictions, high-anxious individuals showed lower ERP activity, at frontocentral and central recording sites, than low anxious individuals, in the period immediately prior to onset of the to-be-inhibited target on correct antisaccade trials. Our findings indicate that anxiety interferes with the efficient recruitment of top-down mechanisms required for the suppression of prepotent responses. Implications are discussed within current models of attentional control in anxiety (Bishop, 2009; Eysenck et al., 2007). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. All anxiety is not created equal: Correlates of parent/youth agreement vary across subtypes of anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Emily M.; Jensen-Doss, Amanda; Kendall, Philip C.; Birmaher, Boris; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2016-01-01

    Research has examined patterns and correlates of parent/youth informant discrepancies in the reporting of youth anxiety. However, little work has examined whether it is better to conceptualize patterns and correlates of informant disagreement across anxiety broadly, or more useful to consider disagreement on specific symptom clusters. Using data from the Child Adolescent/Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS; N = 488; Walkup et al., 2008), the current study applied the most recent recommended analyt...

  18. Precursors and Correlates of Anxiety Trajectories from Late Childhood to Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Primrose; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana; Toumbourou, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The present research employed a prospective, multi-informant design to examine precursors and correlates of differing anxiety profiles from late childhood to late adolescence. The sample consisted of 626 boys and 667 girls who are participants in the Australian Temperament Project, a large, longitudinal, community-based study that has followed…

  19. Children with Epilepsy and Anxiety: Subcortical and Cortical Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jana E.; Jackson, Daren C.; Chambers, Karlee L.; Dabbs, Kevin; Hsu, David A.; Stafstrom, Carl E.; Seidenberg, Michael; Hermann, Bruce P.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective Using a hypothesis driven approach, subcortical and cortical regions implicated in anxiety disorders in the general population were examined in children with recent-onset epilepsy with versus without anxiety compared to controls. This study reports frequency of anxiety disorders while examining familial, clinical and demographic variables associated with anxiety in children with epilepsy. Method Participants included 88 children with epilepsy aged 8–18 years; 25 with a current anxiety disorder and 63 children with epilepsy no current anxiety disorder. 49 controls without anxiety disorders were included. T1 volumetric MRI scans were collected; subcortical volumes and cortical thickness were computed using the FreeSurfer image analysis suite. Analyses focused on adjusted measures of subcortical volumes and cortical thickness. Results Relative to controls, larger left amygdala volumes were found in the Epilepsy Anxiety group compared to the Epilepsy No Anxiety group (p = 0.027). In the hippocampus there were no significant differences between groups. Examination of cortical thickness demonstrated that the Epilepsy Anxiety group showed thinning in left medial orbitofrontal (p=0.001), right lateral orbitofrontal (p=0.017), and right frontal pole (p=0.009). There were no differences between groups in age, sex, IQ, age of onset, medications, or duration of epilepsy. There were more family members with a history of anxiety disorders in the Epilepsy Anxiety group compared to the Epilepsy No Anxiety group (p=0.005). Significance Anxiety is a common psychiatric comorbidity in children with recent-onset epilepsy with volumetric enlargement of the amygdala and thinner cortex in orbital and other regions of prefrontal cortex, suggesting structural abnormalities in brain regions that are part of the dysfunctional networks reported in individuals with anxiety disorders in the general population. These findings are evident early in the course of epilepsy, are

  20. White matter correlates of anxiety sensitivity in panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Kyoung; Kim, Borah; Kiu Choi, Tai; Lee, Sang-Hyuk

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) refers to a fear of anxiety-related sensations and is a dispositional variable especially elevated in patients with panic disorder (PD). Although several functional imaging studies of AS in patients with PD have suggested the presence of altered neural activity in paralimbic areas such as the insula, no study has investigated white matter (WM) alterations in patients with PD in relation to AS. The objective of this study was to investigate the WM correlates of AS in patients with PD. One-hundred and twelve right-handed patients with PD and 48 healthy control (HC) subjects were enrolled in this study. The Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory-Revised (ASI-R), the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS), the Albany Panic and Phobia Questionnaire (APPQ), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered. Tract-based spatial statistics were used for diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging analysis. Among the patients with PD, the ASI-R total scores were significantly correlated with the fractional anisotropy values of the WM regions near the insula, the splenium of the corpus callosum, the tapetum, the fornix/stria terminalis, the posterior limb of the internal capsule, the retrolenticular part of the internal capsule, the posterior thalamic radiation, the sagittal striatum, and the posterior corona radiata located in temporo-parieto-limbic regions and are involved in interoceptive processing (p<0.01; threshold-free cluster enhancement [TFCE]-corrected). These WM regions were also significantly correlated with the APPQ interoceptive avoidance subscale and BDI scores in patients with PD (p<0.01, TFCE-corrected). Correlation analysis among the HC subjects revealed no significant findings. There has been no comparative study on the structural neural correlates of AS in PD. The current study suggests that the WM correlates of AS in patients with PD may be associated with the insula and the adjacent temporo

  1. Different Luminosity Correlation of GRBs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 35; Issue 3. Different Luminosity Correlation of GRBs ... We report our recent understanding about a tight correlation between relative spectral lag and luminosity (or redshift) for -ray bursts. The latest investigations indicate that the empirical ...

  2. Gender Differences in Anxiety Trajectories from Middle to Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Milan, Stephanie; Vannucci, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Although developmental trajectories of anxiety symptomatology have begun to be explored, most research has focused on total anxiety symptom scores during childhood and early adolescence, using racially/ethnically homogenous samples. Understanding the heterogeneous courses of anxiety disorder symptoms during middle to late adolescence has the potential to clarify developmental risk models of anxiety and to inform prevention programs. Therefore, this study specifically examined gender differences in developmental trajectories of anxiety disorder symptoms (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder) from middle to late adolescence in a diverse community sample (N = 1000; 57 % female; 65 % White), assessed annually over 2 years. Latent growth curve modeling revealed that girls exhibited a slight linear decrease in generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder symptoms, whereas boys exhibited a stable course. These models suggested that one trajectory was appropriate for panic disorder symptoms in both girls and boys. Growth mixture models indicated the presence of four latent generalized anxiety disorder symptom trajectory classes: low increasing, moderate decreasing slightly, high decreasing, and very high decreasing rapidly. Growth mixture models also suggested the presence of five latent social anxiety disorder symptom trajectory classes: a low stable trajectory class and four classes that were qualitatively similar to the latent generalized anxiety disorder trajectories. For both generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder symptoms, girls were significantly more likely than boys to be in trajectory classes characterized by moderate or high initial symptoms that subsequently decreased over time. These findings provide novel information regarding the developmental course of anxiety disorder symptoms in adolescents.

  3. Anxiety from a Phylogenetic Perspective: Is there a Qualitative Difference between Human and Animal Anxiety?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Belzung

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A phylogenetic approach to anxiety is proposed. The different facets of human anxiety and their presence at different levels of the phylum are examined. All organisms, including unicellular such as protozoan, can display a specific reaction to danger. The mechanisms enabling the appraisal of harmful stimuli are fully present in insects. In higher invertebrates, fear is associated with a specific physiological response. In mammals, anxiety is accompanied by specific cognitive responses. The expression of emotions diversifies in higher vertebrates, only primates displaying facial expressions. Finally, autonoetic consciousness, a feature essential for human anxiety, appears only in great apes. This evolutive feature parallels the progress in the complexity of the logistic systems supporting it (e.g., the vegetative and central nervous systems. The ability to assess one's coping potential, the diversification of the anxiety responses, and autonoetic consciousness seem relevant markers in a phylogenetic perspective.

  4. Anxiety from a phylogenetic perspective: is there a qualitative difference between human and animal anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzung, Catherine; Philippot, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    A phylogenetic approach to anxiety is proposed. The different facets of human anxiety and their presence at different levels of the phylum are examined. All organisms, including unicellular such as protozoan, can display a specific reaction to danger. The mechanisms enabling the appraisal of harmful stimuli are fully present in insects. In higher invertebrates, fear is associated with a specific physiological response. In mammals, anxiety is accompanied by specific cognitive responses. The expression of emotions diversifies in higher vertebrates, only primates displaying facial expressions. Finally, autonoetic consciousness, a feature essential for human anxiety, appears only in great apes. This evolutive feature parallels the progress in the complexity of the logistic systems supporting it (e.g., the vegetative and central nervous systems). The ability to assess one's coping potential, the diversification of the anxiety responses, and autonoetic consciousness seem relevant markers in a phylogenetic perspective.

  5. Gender differences in Internet identification and Internet anxiety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This resulted in three factors namely, Internet identification, Internet anxiety and Internet use. A significant negative relationship was found between Internet identification and Internet anxiety and a significant positive relationship was found between Internet identification and Internet use. Significant gender differences were ...

  6. Individual differences in social anxiety affect the salience of errors in social contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tyson V; Troller-Renfree, Sonya; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-12-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential that occurs approximately 50 ms after an erroneous response. The magnitude of the ERN is influenced by contextual factors, such as when errors are made during social evaluation. The ERN is also influenced by individual differences in anxiety, and it is elevated among anxious individuals. However, little research has examined how individual differences in anxiety interact with contextual factors to impact the ERN. Social anxiety involves fear and apprehension of social evaluation. In the present study, we explored how individual differences in social anxiety interact with social contexts to modulate the ERN. The ERN was measured in 43 young adults characterized as being either high or low in social anxiety, while they completed a flanker task in two contexts: alone and during social evaluation. The results revealed a significant interaction between social anxiety and context, such that the ERN was enhanced in a social relative to a nonsocial context only among highly socially anxious individuals. Furthermore, the degree of such enhancement significantly correlated with individual differences in social anxiety. These findings demonstrate that social anxiety is characterized by enhanced neural activity to errors in social-evaluative contexts.

  7. Differentiating Interpersonal Correlates of Depressive Symptoms and Social Anxiety in Adolescence: Implications for Models of Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Lisa R.; Davila, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    Research on psychosocial correlates of depression and social anxiety often has not accounted for their comorbidity. Differentiating correlates of depression and social anxiety may inform the development of comorbidity models. Building on research linking both disorders to interpersonal dysfunction, this study examined interpersonal correlates of…

  8. correlates of course anxiety and academic procrastination in higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    KEY WORDS: Course Anxiety, Academic Procrastination, Task Aversiveness, Research Methods. .... methodology courses. (Onwuegbuzie & Wilson, 2003). A growing body of research has documented a consistent negative relationship between statistics anxiety, academic .... sections of an introductory-level psychology.

  9. Neural correlates of mindfulness meditation-related anxiety relief

    OpenAIRE

    Zeidan, Fadel; Martucci, Katherine T.; Kraft, Robert A.; McHaffie, John G.; Coghill, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety is the cognitive state related to the inability to control emotional responses to perceived threats. Anxiety is inversely related to brain activity associated with the cognitive regulation of emotions. Mindfulness meditation has been found to regulate anxiety. However, the brain mechanisms involved in meditation-related anxiety relief are largely unknown. We employed pulsed arterial spin labeling MRI to compare the effects of distraction in the form of attending to the breath (ATB; be...

  10. Neural correlates of mindfulness meditation-related anxiety relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martucci, Katherine T.; Kraft, Robert A.; McHaffie, John G.; Coghill, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is the cognitive state related to the inability to control emotional responses to perceived threats. Anxiety is inversely related to brain activity associated with the cognitive regulation of emotions. Mindfulness meditation has been found to regulate anxiety. However, the brain mechanisms involved in meditation-related anxiety relief are largely unknown. We employed pulsed arterial spin labeling MRI to compare the effects of distraction in the form of attending to the breath (ATB; before meditation training) to mindfulness meditation (after meditation training) on state anxiety across the same subjects. Fifteen healthy subjects, with no prior meditation experience, participated in 4 d of mindfulness meditation training. ATB did not reduce state anxiety, but state anxiety was significantly reduced in every session that subjects meditated. Meditation-related anxiety relief was associated with activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex and anterior insula. Meditation-related activation in these regions exhibited a strong relationship to anxiety relief when compared to ATB. During meditation, those who exhibited greater default-related activity (i.e. posterior cingulate cortex) reported greater anxiety, possibly reflecting an inability to control self-referential thoughts. These findings provide evidence that mindfulness meditation attenuates anxiety through mechanisms involved in the regulation of self-referential thought processes. PMID:23615765

  11. Neural correlates of mindfulness meditation-related anxiety relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, Fadel; Martucci, Katherine T; Kraft, Robert A; McHaffie, John G; Coghill, Robert C

    2014-06-01

    Anxiety is the cognitive state related to the inability to control emotional responses to perceived threats. Anxiety is inversely related to brain activity associated with the cognitive regulation of emotions. Mindfulness meditation has been found to regulate anxiety. However, the brain mechanisms involved in meditation-related anxiety relief are largely unknown. We employed pulsed arterial spin labeling MRI to compare the effects of distraction in the form of attending to the breath (ATB; before meditation training) to mindfulness meditation (after meditation training) on state anxiety across the same subjects. Fifteen healthy subjects, with no prior meditation experience, participated in 4 d of mindfulness meditation training. ATB did not reduce state anxiety, but state anxiety was significantly reduced in every session that subjects meditated. Meditation-related anxiety relief was associated with activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex and anterior insula. Meditation-related activation in these regions exhibited a strong relationship to anxiety relief when compared to ATB. During meditation, those who exhibited greater default-related activity (i.e. posterior cingulate cortex) reported greater anxiety, possibly reflecting an inability to control self-referential thoughts. These findings provide evidence that mindfulness meditation attenuates anxiety through mechanisms involved in the regulation of self-referential thought processes. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Gender differences in mathematics anxiety and the relation to mathematics performance while controlling for test anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Amy; Fawcett, Kayleigh; Szűcs, Dénes; Dowker, Ann

    2012-07-09

    Mathematics anxiety (MA), a state of discomfort associated with performing mathematical tasks, is thought to affect a notable proportion of the school age population. Some research has indicated that MA negatively affects mathematics performance and that girls may report higher levels of MA than boys. On the other hand some research has indicated that boys' mathematics performance is more negatively affected by MA than girls' performance is. The aim of the current study was to measure girls' and boys' mathematics performance as well as their levels of MA while controlling for test anxiety (TA) a construct related to MA but which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Four-hundred and thirty three British secondary school children in school years 7, 8 and 10 completed customised mental mathematics tests and MA and TA questionnaires. No gender differences emerged for mathematics performance but levels of MA and TA were higher for girls than for boys. Girls and boys showed a positive correlation between MA and TA and a negative correlation between MA and mathematics performance. TA was also negatively correlated with mathematics performance, but this relationship was stronger for girls than for boys. When controlling for TA, the negative correlation between MA and performance remained for girls only. Regression analyses revealed that MA was a significant predictor of performance for girls but not for boys. Our study has revealed that secondary school children experience MA. Importantly, we controlled for TA which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Girls showed higher levels of MA than boys and high levels of MA were related to poorer levels of mathematics performance. As well as potentially having a detrimental effect on 'online' mathematics performance, past research has shown that high levels of MA can have negative consequences for later mathematics education. Therefore MA warrants attention in the mathematics classroom, particularly because

  13. Gender differences in mathematics anxiety and the relation to mathematics performance while controlling for test anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Mathematics anxiety (MA), a state of discomfort associated with performing mathematical tasks, is thought to affect a notable proportion of the school age population. Some research has indicated that MA negatively affects mathematics performance and that girls may report higher levels of MA than boys. On the other hand some research has indicated that boys’ mathematics performance is more negatively affected by MA than girls’ performance is. The aim of the current study was to measure girls’ and boys’ mathematics performance as well as their levels of MA while controlling for test anxiety (TA) a construct related to MA but which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Methods Four-hundred and thirty three British secondary school children in school years 7, 8 and 10 completed customised mental mathematics tests and MA and TA questionnaires. Results No gender differences emerged for mathematics performance but levels of MA and TA were higher for girls than for boys. Girls and boys showed a positive correlation between MA and TA and a negative correlation between MA and mathematics performance. TA was also negatively correlated with mathematics performance, but this relationship was stronger for girls than for boys. When controlling for TA, the negative correlation between MA and performance remained for girls only. Regression analyses revealed that MA was a significant predictor of performance for girls but not for boys. Conclusions Our study has revealed that secondary school children experience MA. Importantly, we controlled for TA which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Girls showed higher levels of MA than boys and high levels of MA were related to poorer levels of mathematics performance. As well as potentially having a detrimental effect on ‘online’ mathematics performance, past research has shown that high levels of MA can have negative consequences for later mathematics education. Therefore MA warrants attention in

  14. Gender differences in anxiety and concerns about the cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Johansen, Jens B; Andersen, Kirsten Krogh

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about gender differences in the response to implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy. We compared female and male ICD patients on anxiety, depression, health-related quality of life (HRQL), ICD concerns, and ICD acceptance.......Little is known about gender differences in the response to implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy. We compared female and male ICD patients on anxiety, depression, health-related quality of life (HRQL), ICD concerns, and ICD acceptance....

  15. Anxiety and its correlates among young adults with a history of parental cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Christina A; Arch, Joanna J; Greer, Joseph A

    2017-01-01

    We assessed whether experiencing parental cancer during childhood was associated with anxiety levels during young adulthood-and whether parental survival status moderated anxiety or related psychosocial outcomes. Young adults who experienced parental cancer during their childhood (n = 68) and those who did not (n = 298) completed measures of current anxiety and family functioning. The parental cancer group completed measures of social support and life changes during the parental cancer and posttraumatic growth. Young adults who experienced parental cancer endorsed higher state and trait anxiety than matched controls. Higher anxiety correlated with less current family cohesion and lower past social support satisfaction. Parental cancer outcome moderated the relationship between current anxiety and dimensions of posttraumatic growth and predicted the number of cancer-related life changes. Experiencing parental cancer during childhood predicted higher reported anxiety during young adulthood. Anxiety levels were partially moderated by parental survival status.

  16. Anti-anxiety activity of Coriandrum sativum assessed using different experimental anxiety models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, Poonam; Bisht, Shradha

    2011-09-01

    Interest in alternative medicine and plant-derived medications that affect the "mind" is growing. The aim of present study was to explore the anti-anxiety activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum (Linn.) using different animal models (elevated plus maze, open field test, light and dark test and social interaction test) of anxiety in mice. Diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) was used as the standard and dose of hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum fruit (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) was selected as per OECD guidelines. Results suggested that extract of C. sativum at 100 and 200 mg/kg dose produced anti-anxiety effects almost similar to diazepam, and at 50 mg/kg dose did not produce anti-anxiety activity on any of the paradigm used. Further studies are needed to identify the anxiolytic mechanism(s) and the phytoconstituents responsible for the observed central effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum.

  17. Neural correlates of emotional interference in social anxiety disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Boehme

    Full Text Available Disorder-relevant but task-unrelated stimuli impair cognitive performance in social anxiety disorder (SAD; however, time course and neural correlates of emotional interference are unknown. The present study investigated time course and neural basis of emotional interference in SAD using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Patients with SAD and healthy controls performed an emotional stroop task which allowed examining interference effects on the current and the succeeding trial. Reaction time data showed an emotional interference effect in the current trial, but not the succeeding trial, specifically in SAD. FMRI data showed greater activation in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and left opercular part of the inferior frontal gyrus during emotional interference of the current trial in SAD patients. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between patients' interference scores and activation in the mPFC, dorsal ACC and left angular/supramarginal gyrus. Taken together, results indicate a network of brain regions comprising amygdala, insula, mPFC, ACC, and areas strongly involved in language processing during the processing of task-unrelated threat in SAD. However, specifically the activation in mPFC, dorsal ACC, and left angular/supramarginal gyrus is associated with the strength of the interference effect, suggesting a cognitive network model of attentional bias in SAD. This probably comprises exceeded allocation of attentional resources to disorder-related information of the presented stimuli and increased self-referential and semantic processing of threat words in SAD.

  18. Anxiety in Spanish EFL students in different university degree programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Arnaiz-Castro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have studied the effects of anxiety on foreign language learning since the 1970's, and despite significant advances in approaches to language teaching, the literature continues to report the existence of language apprehension in the classroom and its debilitating effect on the learning process. However, very few studies have been developed in a socio-cultural context comparable to ours, namely, a Spanish university in which English is learnt. This study set out to examine and compare the feelings of anxiety experienced by university students enrolled in six different degree programs. A total of 200 students participated in this study. The data were collected using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS (Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope, 1986. The analyses reveal, firstly, that all the students suffered from average anxiety levels; secondly, that only in one of the aspects is the anxiety level of participants with English as a main subject (i.e. chosen lower than that of participants for whom English is a non-elective degree requirement; and in the third place, that the relationship between anxiety and the mark obtained by participants is stronger in the case of those who have English as a degree requirement. The implications of these results for a better understanding of anxiety and foreign language learning are discussed.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of anxiety and depression among family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... Background: The process of caregiving may cause emotional distress in form of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients. Little is ... circumstances, such as generalized anxiety disorder, pan- ic attacks and ... Survivors of cancer diseases also suffer from psychological distress such as ...

  20. Assessment of Social Anxiety and Its Correlates among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical analysis, using Regression Analysis and Four-Way ANOVA, revealed that while some factors predicted social anxiety (such as dating anxiety and fear of negative evaluation); Self esteem, Social maladjustment and assertiveness did not. Also demographic variables did not have any significant effect on social ...

  1. Correlates of anxiety symptoms in physically disabled older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenes, G.A.; Guralnik, J.M.; Williamson, J.D.; Fried, L.P.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors describe characteristics that are associated with chronic anxiety symptoms and examine the use of anxiolytic and antidepressant medications in physically disabled women with and without symptoms of anxiety. METHODS: Participants were 791 physically disabled women age 65+ years

  2. Anxiety, psychosis and substance use: prevalence, correlates and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The current study examined anxiety in people with substance use disorder (SUD) and a psychotic disorder. It is hypothesised that: anxiety disorders (AD) would be highly prevalent (greater than 20%) in people identified as having SUD and psychotic disorders; those with comorbid AD would fair worse than those ...

  3. Intrinsic Brain Activity Responsible for Sex Differences in Shyness and Social Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Zhou, Ming; Lama, Sunima; Chen, Lizhou; Hu, Xinyu; Wang, Song; Chen, Taolin; Shi, Yan; Huang, Xiaoqi; Gong, Qiyong

    2017-01-01

    Male and female show significant differences in important behavioral features such as shyness, yet the neural substrates of these differences remain poorly understood. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that both shyness and social anxiety in healthy subjects are associated with increased activation in the fronto-limbic and cognitive control areas. However, it remains unknown whether these brain abnormalities would be shared by different genders. Therefore, in the current study, we used resting-state fMRI (r-fMRI) to investigate sex differences in intrinsic cerebral activity that may contribute to shyness and social anxiety. Sixty subjects (28 males, 32 females) participated in r-fMRI scans, and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF) were used to measure the spontaneous regional cerebral activity in all subjects. We first compared the differences between male and female both in the ALFF and fALFF and then we also examined the whole brain correlation between the ALFF/fALFF and the severity of shyness as well as social anxiety by genders. Referring to shyness measure, we found a significant positive correlation between shyness scores (CBSS) and ALFF/fALFF value in the frontoparietal control network and a negative correlation in the cingulo-insular network in female; while in male, there is no such correlation. For the social anxiety level, we found positive correlations between Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) scores and spontaneous activity in the frontal-limbic network in male and negative correlation between the frontal-parietal network; however, such correlation was not prominent in female. This pattern suggests that shy female individuals engaged a proactive control process, driven by a positive association with activity in frontoparietal network and negative association in cingulo-insular network, whereas social anxiety males relied more on a reactive control process, driven by a positive correlation of

  4. Perfectionism in Social Anxiety: Cognitive and Behavioral Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, Douglas E.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perfectionism and social anxiety in general as well as social phobia, specifically. Subjects completed the Personal Standards Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, and the Social Phobia and Agoraphobia Inventory. Results indicated that neurotic perfectionism is positively associated with both general social anxiety and social phobia. Moreover, the neurotic elements of perfectionism -- "concern over making mistakes" and ...

  5. Serum level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in fibromyalgia syndrome correlates with depression but not anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Boya; Korallus, Christoph; Gutenbrunner, Christoph

    2013-02-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been known to play a role in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients. Depression and anxiety are quite common additional symptoms in FMS. However the role of BDNF in these symptoms still needs to be elucidated. Although BDNF has been shown to be relevant in major depression, however studies could not show such differences between FMS patients with and without major depression. As mood-related symptom occurs frequently and differs in its intensity in FMS patients, BDNF level should be measured in subgroup regarding depression and anxiety scale. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of BDNF in serum of FMS with intensity of depression and anxiety. Additionally, interleukin (IL)-6 was measured. This study showed that serum level of BDNF was age-dependent in HCs. FMS patients had higher level of serum BDNF as compared to HC. Additionally, serum level of BDNF showed correlation with depression, but not with anxiety. Serum level of BDNF increased with depression score in FMS. However, serum level of IL-6 was not correlated with both depression and anxiety scores. Taken together, BDNF is involved in the pathophysiology of FMS. Additionally, it seems to be correlated with intensity of depressive symptoms in FMS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Neural correlates of anxiety sensitivity during masked presentation of affective faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Britton, Jennifer C; Price, Lauren M; Gold, Andrea L; Deckersbach, Thilo; Rauch, Scott L

    2011-03-01

    Anxiety Sensitivity (AS), the tendency to fear the thoughts, symptoms, and social consequences associated with the experience of anxiety, is associated with increased risk for developing anxiety disorders. Some evidence suggests that higher scores on the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), a measure of the AS construct, are associated with activation of the anterior insular cortex during overt emotion perception. Although the ASI provides subscale scores measuring Physical, Mental Incapacitation, and Social Concerns of AS, no study has examined the relationship between these factors and regional brain activation during affect processing. We hypothesized that insular responses to fear-related stimuli would be primarily related to the Physical Concerns subscale of the ASI, particularly for a sample of subjects with specific phobias. Adult healthy controls (HC; n = 22) and individuals with specific phobia, small animal subtype (SAP; n = 17), completed the ASI and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while engaged in a backward-masked affect perception task that presents emotional facial stimuli below the threshold of conscious perception. Groups did not differ in ASI, state or trait anxiety scores, or insula activation. Total ASI scores were positively correlated with activation in the right middle/anterior insula for the combined sample and for the HC and SAP groups separately. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the relationship between AS and insular activation was primarily accounted for by Physical Concerns only. Findings support the hypothesized role of the right anterior insula in the visceral/interoceptive aspects of AS, even in response to masked affective stimuli. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Gender differences in Internet identification and Internet anxiety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This exploratory study investigated gender differences in Internet identification and Internet anxiety. A sample of 231 students (138 females and 93 males) from four different schools participated in the study. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data. Factor analysis was carried out to test for construct validity.

  8. Hoarding in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Anxiety: Incidence, Clinical Correlates, and Behavioral Treatment Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Nadeau, Joshua M.; Johnco, Carly; Timpano, Kiara; McBride, Nicole; Mutch, P. Jane; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the nature and correlates of hoarding among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Forty children with ASD and a comorbid anxiety disorder were administered a battery of clinician-administered measures assessing presence of psychiatric disorders and anxiety severity. Parents completed questionnaires related to child…

  9. Correlation among High School Senior Students' Test Anxiety, Academic Performance and Points of University Entrance Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Hakan; Alci, Bulent; Aydin, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure. The aim of this study is to define the correlation among high school senior students' test anxiety, academic performance (GPA) and points of university entrance exam (UEE). The study group of…

  10. Correlates of anxiety and depression among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Research has established the relation between diabetes and depression. Both diabetes and anxiety/depression are independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Aims: The present study aims at assessing the prevalence of anxiety/depression among outpatients receiving treatment for type 2 diabetes. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in the endocrinology outpatient department of an urban tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: The instruments used included a semi-structured questionnaire, HbA1c levels, fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose, Brief Patient Health Questionnaire, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis was carried out using the SPSS version 16.0. Pearson′s correlation coefficient was calculated to find out the correlations. ANOVA was carried out for the in between group comparisons. Results: There was a significant correlation between the HADS-Anxiety scale and Body Mass Index (BMI with a correlation coefficient of 0.34 (P = 0.008. Also, a significant correlation existed between HADS-Depression scale and BMI (correlation coefficient, 0.36; P = 0.004. Significant correlation were observed between the duration of daily physical exercise and HADS-Anxiety (coefficient of correlation, -0.25; P = 0.04 scores. HADS-Anxiety scores were found to be related to HbA1c levels (correlation-coefficient, 0.41; P = 0.03 and postprandial blood glucose levels (correlation-coefficient, 0.51; P = 0.02. Conclusions: Monitoring of biochemical parameters like HbA1c and postprandial blood glucose levels and BMI could be a guide to development of anxiety in these patients. Also, physical exercise seems to have a protective effect on anxiety in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  11. Gender differences in test anxiety and their impact on higher education students' academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Peña, María Isabel; Suárez Pellicioni, Macarena; Bono Cabré, Roser

    2016-01-01

    Test anxiety has detrimental effects on the academic performance of many university students. Moreover, female students usually report higher levels of test anxiety than do their male peers. The present study examined gender differences in test, trait, and math anxiety among university students, as well as differences in their academic achievement. Participants were 168 students from the University of Barcelona, all of whom completed measures of test anxiety, math anxiety, and trait anxiety. ...

  12. Correlations among Social Anxiety, Self-Esteem, Impulsivity, and Game Genre in Patients with Problematic Online Game Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Ha; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Lee, Young-Sik

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies of online game addiction have suggested that social interaction and impulsivity are critical factors for the etiology and progress of online game addiction. We hypothesized that the genre of the online game is associated with impulsivity and sociality in individuals with online game addictions. In total, 212 patients with problematic online game playing were divided into four groups by game genre: 1) massive multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG), 2) real-time strategy (RTS), 3) first-person shooter (FPS), and 4) other. Their symptoms and characteristics were assessed using 8 scales and 2 tests to estimate self-esteem, impulsiveness, comorbidity, social interaction status, and cognitive function. The mean social anxiety score was highest in the MMORPG group and lowest in the FPS group. The mean self-esteem score was highest in the RTS group. Social anxiety score was positively correlated with Internet addiction score in the MMORPG group, and the self-esteem score was positively correlated with Internet addiction score in the RTS group. The genre of online game was not associated with impulsivity, but social anxiety status varied significantly with game genre, and differences in social anxiety were especially pronounced in patients playing the MMORPG (highest social anxiety) and FPS (lowest social anxiety) game genres. In addition, self-esteem was highest in the RTS game genre.

  13. Abnormal Axon Reflex-Mediated Sweating Correlates with High State of Anxiety in Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kijima

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the number of study subjects was little, abnormal AXR sweating in patients with AD was observed. Correlative analysis suggests possible involvement of continuous anxiety and the immune system in such abnormal sudomotor function.

  14. Learning style, school environment and test anxiety as correlates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated learning styles, school environment and test anxiety as predictors of learning outcomes among secondary school students. The participants were three hundred senior secondary two students randomly selected from randomly selected secondary schools in Iseyin Local Government Area of Oyo State.

  15. Correlates of depression and anxiety among the cancer patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On logistic regression, age, religion, educational level and treatment type significant factors for anxiety. Specifically, being older than 40 years, being a Christian, not reporting educational qualification and not yet commencing treatment compared to having surgery as the current treatment type was significant risk factors for ...

  16. Correlates of course anxiety and academic procrastination in higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the prevalence of procrastination among graduate students, and also investigated the relationship between academic procrastination and six dimensions of statistics anxiety. Participants were 103 Masters of Education graduate students enrolled in the final phase of a two-year Sandwich programme at ...

  17. correlates of course anxiety and academic procrastination in higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    The study examined the prevalence of procrastination among graduate students, and also investigated the relationship between academic procrastination and six dimensions of statistics anxiety. Participants were 103 Masters of Education graduate students enrolled in the final phase of a two-year. Sandwich programme at ...

  18. Symptom Similarities and Differences in Anxiety and Depressive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Sirvanli Ozen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The question if there is a valid distinction between depression and anxiety disorders remains controversial. These two disorders have various overlaps in the symptomatology and sometimes it is difficult to make a clear diagnosis. The difficulty in making a definite diagnosis destined researchers to determine the differences and the similarities between anxiety and depression. The negative affect which has multiple dimensions such as low self-esteem, negative mood and negative cognitions is seen as the common factor in both disorders. The positive affect which has been defined as the harmony and satisfaction with others and milieu, is regarded as the discriminating factor for the diagnosis of depression. Further research has characterized somatic arousal as the third dimension, a candidate to be the discriminating factor for anxiety disorders. Although phenotypic models appear to find a solution for this problem the facts that negative affect dimension is more loaded compared to the other two dimensions and predominance of negative affect on several symptom patterns prevent researchers to reach a conclusive results regarding the differences between these two disorders. In this review article, symptom similarities and differences of anxiety and depressive disorders are discussed within the frame of phenotypic models and some alternative ideas are provided for possible changes in upcoming versions of classification systems.

  19. Neural correlates of anxiety sensitivity in panic disorder: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Sara; Radaelli, Daniele; Cucchi, Michele; Ricci, Liana; Vai, Benedetta; Smeraldi, Enrico; Benedetti, Francesco

    2015-08-30

    Panic disorder has been associated with dysfunctional neuropsychological dimensions, including anxiety sensitivity. Brain-imaging studies of the neural correlates of emotional processing have identified a network of structures that constitute the neural circuitry for emotions. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and insula, which are part of this network, are also involved in the processing of threat-related stimuli. The aim of the study was to investigate if neural activity in response to emotional stimuli in the cortico-limbic network is associated to anxiety sensitivity in panic disorder. In a sample of 18 outpatients with panic disorder, we studied neural correlates of implicit emotional processing of facial affect expressions with a face-matching paradigm; correlational analyses were performed between brain activations and anxiety sensitivity. The correlational analyses performed showed a positive correlation between anxiety sensitivity and brain activity during emotional processing in regions encompassing the PFC, ACC and insula. Our data seem to confirm that anxiety sensitivity is an important component of panic disorder. Accordingly, the neural underpinnings of anxiety sensitivity could be an interesting focus for treatment and further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gender Differences in and the Relationships Between Social Anxiety and Problematic Internet Use: Canonical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloğlu, Mustafa; Özteke Kozan, Hatice İrem; Kesici, Şahin

    2018-01-24

    The cognitive-behavioral model of problematic Internet use (PIU) proposes that psychological well-being is associated with specific thoughts and behaviors on the Internet. Hence, there is growing concern that PIU is associated with psychological impairments. Given the proposal of gender schema theory and social role theory, men and women are predisposed to experience social anxiety and engage in Internet use differently. Thus, an investigation of gender differences in these areas is warranted. According to the cognitive-behavioral model of PIU, social anxiety is associated with specific cognitions and behaviors on the Internet. Thus, an investigation of the association between social anxiety and PIU is essential. In addition, research that takes into account the multidimensional nature of social anxiety and PIU is lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to explore multivariate gender differences in and the relationships between social anxiety and PIU. Participants included 505 college students, of whom 241 (47.7%) were women and 264 (52.3%) were men. Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 22 years, with a mean age of 20.34 (SD=1.16). The Social Anxiety Scale and Problematic Internet Use Scale were used in data collection. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and canonical correlation analysis were used. Mean differences between men and women were not statistically significant in social anxiety (λ=.02, F3,501=2.47, P=.06). In all three PIU dimensions, men scored higher than women, and MANOVA shows that multivariate difference was statistically significant (λ=.94, F3,501=10.69, Psocial anxiety levels between men and women. We found that men showed more difficulties than women in terms of running away from personal problems (ie, social benefit), used the Internet more excessively, and experienced more interpersonal problems with significant others due to Internet use. We conclude that men are under a greater risk of social impairments due to PIU. Our overall

  1. Correlates of comorbid depression, anxiety and helplessness with obsessive-compulsive disorder in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Li, Zhanjiang; Buys, Nicholas; Storch, Eric A

    2015-03-15

    Youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are at risk of experiencing comorbid psychiatric conditions, such as depression and anxiety. Studies of Chinese adolescents with OCD are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of depression, anxiety, and helplessness with the occurrence of OCD in Chinese adolescents. This study consisted of two stages. The first stage used a cross-sectional design involving a stratified clustered non-clinical sample of 3174 secondary school students. A clinical interview procedure was then employed to diagnose OCD in students who had a Leyton 'yes' score of 15 or above. The second phase used a case-control study design to examine the relationship of OCD to depression, anxiety and helplessness in a matched sample of 288 adolescents with clinically diagnosed OCD and 246 students without OCD. Helplessness, depression and anxiety scores were directly associated with the probability of OCD caseness. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that the OCD correlated significantly with depression, anxiety, and helplessness. Cluster analysis further indicated that the degree of the OCD is also associated with severity of depression and anxiety, and the level of helplessness. These findings suggest that depression, anxiety and helplessness are important correlates of OCD in Chinese adolescents. Future studies using longitudinal and prospective designs are required to confirm these relationships as causal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Proinflammatory Cytokines Correlate with Depression and Anxiety in Colorectal Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Oliveira Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate whether serum cytokine levels correlate with depression and anxiety in colorectal cancer (CRC patients. Twenty patients hospitalized for surgical resection of CRC were included in the study group and twenty healthy volunteers comprised the control group. Depression and anxiety were analyzed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, and TGF-β were measured by Cytometric Bead Array. We found that more than half of CRC patients presented clinically significant levels of anxiety or depression, and 65% of them manifested a combination of severe anxiety and depression. CRC patients had increased serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α but lower IL-10 concentrations. Correlation analysis between HADS score and cytokine levels revealed a positive association of anxiety and/or depression with IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α and a negative correlation with IL-10. These results indicate that circulating proinflammatory cytokines are involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression in CRC patients. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in these psychological disorders will allow the design of therapeutic interventions that lead to an improved quality of life and overall survival of CRC patients.

  3. Individual differences in anxiety and executive functioning: a multidimensional view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visu-Petra, Laura; Miclea, Mircea; Visu-Petra, George

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between individual differences in anxiety and executive functioning was investigated in a sample of young adults. Verbal and spatial working memory, resistance to interference, negative priming, and task-switching measures were used to assess three executive functioning dimensions: updating, inhibition, and shifting. An additional index of basic psychomotor speed was added to this cognitive battery. According to the multidimensional interaction model of anxiety proposed by Endler (1997), state (cognitive-worry and autonomic-emotional) and trait (related to social evaluation, physical danger, ambiguous situations, and daily routines) anxiety were assessed in this evaluation context. Results indicated that shifting and inhibition (negative priming) efficiency were negatively related to state (cognitive-worry) and trait (related to social evaluation) anxiety. However, there was a relative advantage of subjects higher in social evaluation apprehensions in their memory updating performance. The results are consistent with several predictions of the attentional control theory (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), and are relevant for research regarding the interaction of situational, personality, and cognitive functioning dimensions.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of dental anxiety in patients seeking dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Marisol; Kinner, Dina G; Heimberg, Richard G; Lim, Sungwoo; Ismail, Amid I

    2015-04-01

    To examine the prevalence of dental anxiety and its associations with pain and other psychological variables among patients seeking dental treatment and develop a directed acyclical graph of these relationships. One hundred and twenty patients who sought regular or emergency dental care completed a semi-structured interview assessing DSM-IV specific phobia of dental procedures and questionnaires assessing dental anxiety, pain at last dental visit, blood-injection-injury (BII) phobia, social appearance anxiety, and other psychological constructs. Differences between regular and emergency patients were explored using t-tests. Potential excess risk of dental anxiety due to interactions between pain and psychological processes was explored. Finally, multivariate linear regression was conducted. Thirty-five percent of participants came for emergency care. Almost half (49.2%) reported moderate or high anxiety, and 20% met criteria for specific phobia. The relationship between pain at the last dental visit and dental anxiety scores was confounded by social appearance anxiety and BII phobia. The dental anxiety-pain response may be affected by psychological processes such as social appearance anxiety and BII phobia. Targeting these related psychological constructs may improve the management of anxiety treatment among adult patients seeking dental care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A Study on the Correlation between Pain and Pain Anxiety during Wound Care in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Mazlom

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Wound care in burn patients is associated with severe anxiety that is characterized by feeling of fear and prediction of burn dressing pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between pain and pain anxiety in burn patients. Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 60 eligible patients hospitalized in men’s and women’s burn wards of Mashhad Imam Reza Hospital, were selected using available sampling. Pain anxiety and pain severity were measured using self-report pain anxiety questionnaire and visual analog scale, respectively, before and after burn dressing during three weeks (once a week. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation test. Results: In this study, there was a significant linear correlation between pain and pain anxiety in the first week (r=0.512, p<0.001, but there was no significant linear correlation between these variables in the second (r=0.079, p=0.547 and third (r=0.167, p=0.203 weeks. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, assessment and treatment of pain anxiety are essential elements of pain care and management in burn patients.            

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow and anxiety: a correlation study in neurologically normal patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Cogorno, P.; Gris, A.; Marenco, S.; Mesiti, C.; Nobili, F.; Rosadini, G.

    1989-01-01

    Regional CBF (rCBF) was evaluated by the 133 Xe inhalation method in 60 neurologically normal patients (30 men and 30 women) and hemispheric and regional values were correlated with anxiety measurements collected by a self-rating questionnaire before and after the examination. Statistically significant negative correlations between rCBF and anxiety measures were found. rCBF reduction for high anxiety levels is in line with results previously reported by others and could be related to lower performance levels for moderately high anxiety scores as those reported in the present population. This could perhaps be explained by rearrangement of flow from cortical zones to deeper areas of the brain, classically known to be implicated in the control of emotions. However, these results should be interpreted cautiously, since they were obtained in patients and not in normal subjects

  7. Structural Integrity of the Limbic-Prefrontal Connection: Neuropathological Correlates of Anxiety in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Rowena; Brown, Timothy T.; Järvinen, Anna M.; Erhart, Matthew; Korenberg, Julie R.; Bellugi, Ursula; Halgren, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by a hypersocial personality and desire to form close relationships, juxtaposed with significant anxieties of non-social events. The neural underpinnings of anxiety in individuals with WS are currently unknown. Aberrations in the anatomical and microstructural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus (UF) have been recently implicated in social and generalized anxiety disorders. Based on these findings, we tested the hypothesis that the reported anxieties in individuals with WS share similar neuropathological correlates. Towards this end, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) methods were employed to examine the microstructural integrity (fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, longitudinal diffusivity) of the UF in 18 WS and 15 typically developing adults (TD). Anxiety and sociability questionnaires were administered to determine associations with DTI indices of UF across groups. Results revealed comparable white matter integrity of the UF across groups, yet elevated subjective experience of anxiety in those with WS. Additionally, sociability and UF microstructural properties were dissociated across both groups. Whereas no relationships were found between DTI indices and anxiety in TD participants, strong negative associations were observed between these constructs in individuals with WS. Findings indicated that increased anxiety manifested by individuals with WS was associated with DTI measures of the UF and may signal structural or possibly physiological aberration involving this tract within the prefrontal-temporal network. PMID:26214361

  8. Depression, Anxiety, Stress and Hyperemesis Gravidarum: Temporal and Case Controlled Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Peng Chiong; Zaidi, Syeda Nureena; Azmi, Noor; Omar, Siti Zawiah; Khong, Su Yen

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the temporal and case-controlled correlations of anxiety, depression and stress with hyperemesis gravidarum. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a longitudinal cohort study of women with hyperemesis gravidarum using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) to evaluate psychological distress at hospitalization and in the third trimester of pregnancy (from 28 weeks gestation). Third pregnancy trimester controls were recruited from routine antenatal clinic attendees who w...

  9. Neudesin is involved in anxiety behavior: structural and neurochemical correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eNovais

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neudesin (also known as neuron derived neurotrophic factor, Nenf is a scarcely studied putative non-canonical neurotrophic factor. In order to understand its function in the brain, we performed an extensive behavioral characterization (motor, emotional and cognitive dimensions of neudesin-null mice. The absence of neudesin leads to an anxious-like behavior as assessed in the elevated plus maze, light/dark box and novelty suppressed feeding tests, but not in the acoustic startle test. This anxious phenotype is associated with reduced dopaminergic input and impoverished dendritic arborizations in the dentate gyrus granule neurons of the ventral hippocampus. Interestingly, shorter dendrites are also observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST of neudesin-null mice. These findings lead us to suggest that neudesin is a novel relevant player in the maintenance of the anxiety circuitry.

  10. Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, H

    1990-03-01

    The analysis is a study of the nature of anxiety in human experience. The author reviews the work of theologian Paul Tillich and psychologist Rollo May and clarifies the role of anxiety in life. The article reflects the need for a basic religious affirmation as one faces the anxiety of life which comes from the many threats to human existence.

  11. Clinical features of bipolar disorder comorbid with anxiety disorders differ between men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Erika F H; Fitzgerald, Kate D; Zhang, Peng; McInnis, Melvin G

    2012-08-01

    Anxiety disorders are commonly comorbid with bipolar disorder (BP) and may worsen course of illness, but differential impact of specific anxiety disorders in men and women remains unknown. We measured the impact of comorbid panic disorder (PD), social phobia, specific phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in 460 women and 276 men with Bipolar I Disorder (BPI) or schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type from the National Institute of Mental Health Bipolar Genetics Initiative. We compared clinical characteristics in BP with and without each anxiety disorder in men and women separately correcting for family relatedness. Comorbid PD, OCD, and specific phobia were more common in women with BP than men. Comorbid social phobia correlated with increased risk of alcohol abuse in BP women, but not men. Women with comorbid PD attended fewer years of school. Comorbidity with OCD was associated with earlier age at the onset of BP for both genders. Comorbid PD, OCD, and specific phobia were associated with more antidepressant trials in BP, across both genders, compared to BP patients without these anxiety disorders. In BP, comorbid anxiety disorders are associated with increased risk for functional impairment, and women had differently associated risks than men. Clinicians should be aware of an increased risk for comorbid PD, OCD, and specific phobia in women with BP, and an increased risk of alcohol abuse in women with BD and comorbid social phobia. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Integrative clinico-biological, pharmacogenetic, neuroimagistic, neuroendocrinological and psychological correlations in depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogea, Lavinia Maria; Nussbaum, Laura Alexandra; Chiriac, Daniela Veronica; Ageu, LuminiŢa Ştefania; Andreescu, Nicoleta Ioana; Grigoraş, Mirela Loredana; Folescu, Roxana; Bredicean, Ana Cristina; Puiu, Maria; Roşca, Elena Cecilia Ildikó; Simu, Mihaela Adriana; Levai, Codrina Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    We approach the theme of modern treatment strategies, based on clinico-biological, pharmacogenetic, neuroimagistic, neuroendocrinological and psychological integrative correlations in the management of depressive and comorbid anxiety disorders. We target to evaluate the efficacy of the pharmacogenetic testing and the evolution, functioning of patients in correlation with specific neurobiological, neuroimagistic and neuroendocrinological markers. Our research was conducted between 2010-2016 on 80 children and adolescents with depressive and comorbid anxiety disorders - 40 children (G1 group), who benefited in choosing the pharmacotherapy from pharmacogenetic testing and 40 children without testing (G2 group). Also, the patients were evaluated through magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy at baseline and after pharmacotherapy. The efficacy of the chosen therapy in correlation with the pharmacogenetic testing was evaluated through the mean change in the CDRS (Children's Depression Rating Scale) total scores, in the CGI-S÷I (Clinical Global Impression - Severity÷Improvement), CGAS (Children's Global Assessment Scale) and through the change of the relevant neurobiological markers and MR spectroscopy metabolites. We evaluated the side effects through the PAERS (Pediatric Adverse Events Rating Scale)-Clinician. Our results show statistically significant differences of the clinical scores between the studied groups: for those subjects who benefited of pharmacogenetic testing, the CDRS, the global functioning scores prove a higher clinical improvement, a better compliance and lower PAERS side effects scores and also improvement concerning the MR spectroscopy dosed metabolites values. Our research was a proof sustaining the use of the pharmacogenetic testing in clinical practice and the value of investigating relevant neurobiological, neuroimagistic and neuroendocrinological markers for a personalized therapy in depressive disorders.

  13. Anxiety-Like Behavioural Inhibition Is Normative under Environmental Threat-Reward Correlations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik R Bach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural inhibition is a key anxiety-like behaviour in rodents and humans, distinct from avoidance of danger, and reduced by anxiolytic drugs. In some situations, it is not clear how behavioural inhibition minimises harm or maximises benefit for the agent, and can even appear counterproductive. Extant explanations of this phenomenon make use of descriptive models but do not provide a formal assessment of its adaptive value. This hampers a better understanding of the neural computations underlying anxiety behaviour. Here, we analyse a standard rodent anxiety model, the operant conflict test. We harvest Bayesian Decision Theory to show that behavioural inhibition normatively arises as cost-minimising strategy in temporally correlated environments. Importantly, only if behavioural inhibition is aimed at minimising cost, it depends on probability and magnitude of threat. Harnessing a virtual computer game, we test model predictions in four experiments with human participants. Humans exhibit behavioural inhibition with a strong linear dependence on threat probability and magnitude. Strikingly, inhibition occurs before motor execution and depends on the virtual environment, thus likely resulting from a neural optimisation process rather than a pre-programmed mechanism. Individual trait anxiety scores predict behavioural inhibition, underlining the validity of this anxiety model. These findings put anxiety behaviour into the context of cost-minimisation and optimal inference, and may ultimately pave the way towards a mechanistic understanding of the neural computations gone awry in human anxiety disorder.

  14. Math anxiety: A review of its cognitive consequences, psychophysiological correlates, and brain bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, María Isabel; Colomé, Àngels

    2016-02-01

    A decade has passed since the last published review of math anxiety, which was carried out by Ashcraft and Ridley (2005). Given the considerable interest aroused by this topic in recent years and the growing number of publications related to it, the present article aims to provide a full and updated review of the field, ranging from the initial studies of the impact of math anxiety on numerical cognition, to the latest research exploring its electrophysiological correlates and brain bases from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Finally, this review describes the factors and mechanisms that have been claimed to play a role in the origins and/or maintenance of math anxiety, and it examines in detail the main explanations proposed to account for the negative effects of math anxiety on performance: competition for working memory resources, a deficit in a low-level numerical representation, and inhibition/attentional control deficit.

  15. Anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with dengue fever and their correlation with symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Ali M; Butt, Zeeshan; Idrees, Zaidan; Niazi, Mehreen; Yousaf, Zohaib; Haider, Syed Furqan; Bhatti, Muhammad R

    2012-01-01

    To study the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with dengue and to examine their correlation with symptom severity. In this cross sectional study, 531 consecutive patients who met the World Health Organization criteria for dengue fever admitted to Mayo Hospital, Lahore between September and November 2011 were administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). In addition to the HADS, the severity of their symptoms, like headache, myalgias/arthralgias, fever, and retro/periorbital pain, was assessed on a 3-point scale (mild, moderate, and severe). About 60% of the patients in our study met the criteria for anxiety and 62.2% of the patients met criteria for depression. Severity of fever, headache, myalgias and arthralgias, and retro/periorbital pain was positively correlated with both anxiety (Correlation coefficients: 0.148, 0.247, 0.184, 0.184 respectively and P dengue have anxiety and depression symptoms. Psychiatric evaluation should be done in all Dengue patients so timely treatment can be initiated.

  16. CORRELATION BETWEEN ANXIETY AND AGRESSION WITH SPECIFIC BASKETBALL PRECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadil Nika

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The research has been conducted on 89 entities – active basketball players aged from 15 to 18. The aim of the research is to establish the level of correlation between the conative pathological factors and specific basketball precision. According to the obtained data the conclusion is that there is significant interdependence of these two sides of anthropologic status with the treated basketball players.

  17. Examining sex and gender differences in anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard

    2015-01-01

    ), specific phobia (SP), social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and acute and posttraumatic stress disorder (ASD and PTSD), although the latter three are technically no longer categorised as anxiety disorders according to DSM-5. This chapter...

  18. Comparative Study on Anxiety between Student Players of Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    sports performance. In essence, anxiety is a psychological and physical state characterized by somatic, emotional, cognitive and behavioral components. The root meaning of the word anxiety is to vex or trouble; in either the absence or presence of psychological stress, anxiety can create feelings of fear, worry, uneasiness ...

  19. The correlates and consequences of early appearing social anxiety in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Murray; Coplan, Robert J; Kingsbury, Adam

    2009-10-01

    Social anxiety is the fear of social situations and being negatively evaluated by others. Most previous studies of childhood social anxiety have employed clinical samples of children aged 10 years and older. The current study explored the correlates of social anxiety in an unselected sample of young children. Participants were n=178 elementary school children in grade 2 (aged 7-8 years). Children were individually administered the Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised (SASC-R), as well as measures of socio-emotional adjustment. Teachers completed measures of children's socio-emotional problems and school adjustment. Results indicated that social anxiety was positively associated with self-reported loneliness, school avoidance, and internalizing coping, and negatively related to school liking. However, social anxiety was mostly unrelated to teacher-rated outcomes. Findings are discussed in terms of use of the SASC-R for this type of population and reasons for the disparity between child and teacher reports of adjustment outcomes.

  20. Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... take a test or walk down a dark street. This kind of anxiety is useful - it can make you more alert or careful. It usually ends soon after you are out of the situation that caused it. But for millions of people in the United States, the anxiety does not ...

  1. Cognitive bias measurement and social anxiety disorder: Correlating self-report data and attentional bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Miloff

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD and attentional bias are theoretically connected in cognitive behavioral therapeutic models. In fact, there is an emerging field focusing on modifying attentional bias as a stand-alone treatment. However, it is unclear to what degree these attentional biases are present before commencing treatment. The purpose of this study was to measure pre-treatment attentional bias in 153 participants diagnosed with SAD using a home-based Internet version of the dot-probe paradigm. Results showed no significant correlation for attentional bias (towards or away from negative words or faces and the self-rated version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR. However, two positive correlations were found for the secondary measures Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7 and Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9. These indicated that those with elevated levels of anxiety and depression had a higher bias towards negative faces in neutral–negative and positive–negative valence combinations, respectively. The unreliability of the dot-probe paradigm and home-based Internet delivery are discussed to explain the lack of correlations between LSAS-SR and attentional bias. Changes to the dot-probe task are suggested that could improve reliability.

  2. Differences in mathematics anxiety by sex, program, and education of university mathematics students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Arif

    2005-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to re-examine sex-related differences in mathematics anxiety and to investigate the effects of two different programs associated with mathematics education applied in Turkish universities on mathematics anxiety. Mathematics anxiety scores were assessed in 221 male and 142 female students, 238 in the education faculty and 125 in the science faculty. There were no sex-related mean differences for mathematics anxiety scores, and scores were not related to faculty program. The lower mean mathematics performance on the university entry examination of the students of science faculty may be associated with the mathematics anxiety.

  3. Reducing the Sex Difference in Math Anxiety: The Role of Spatial Processing Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin A.; Waechter, Stephanie; Risko, Evan F.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Decades of research have demonstrated that women experience higher rates of math anxiety--that is, negative affect when performing tasks involving numerical and mathematical skill--than men. Researchers have largely attributed this sex difference in math anxiety to factors such as social stereotypes and propensity to report anxiety. Here we…

  4. Family accommodation of anxiety symptoms in youth undergoing intensive multimodal treatment for anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder: Nature, clinical correlates, and treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Buissonnière-Ariza, Valérie; Schneider, Sophie C; Højgaard, Davíð; Kay, Brian C; Riemann, Bradley C; Eken, Stephanie C; Lake, Peter; Nadeau, Joshua M; Storch, Eric A

    2018-01-01

    Family accommodation is associated with a range of clinical features including symptom severity, functional impairment, and treatment response. However, most previous studies in children and adolescents investigated family accommodation in samples of youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or anxiety disorders receiving non-intensive outpatient services. In this study, we aimed to investigate family accommodation of anxiety symptoms in a sample of youth with clinical anxiety levels undergoing an intensive multimodal intervention for anxiety disorders or OCD. We first assessed the internal consistency of the Family Accommodation Scale - Anxiety (FASA). We next examined family accommodation presentation and correlates. The FASA showed high internal consistency for all subscales and total score, and good item and subscale correlations with the total score. All parents reported at least mild accommodation, and the mean levels of family accommodation were particularly high. Child age, anxiety severity, and comorbid depressive symptoms predicted baseline accommodation. However, the association between anxiety severity and family accommodation no longer remained significant after adding the other factors to the model. In addition, family accommodation partially mediated the relationship between anxiety severity and functional impairment. Finally, post-treatment changes in family accommodation predicted changes in symptom severity and functional impairment. These findings suggest the FASA is an appropriate tool to assess family accommodation in intensive treatment samples. Further, they underline the importance of addressing family accommodation in this population given the particularly high levels of accommodating behaviors and the evidence for adverse outcomes associated with this feature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Parental accommodation of child anxiety and related symptoms: range, impact, and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Kerns, Caroline E; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S

    2014-12-01

    Parental accommodation--i.e., changes in parents' behavior in attempts to prevent or reduce child distress--has been most studied in relation to OCD. Although recent work suggests parents of children with non-OCD anxiety diagnoses also engage in accommodation, little is known about the specific forms, correlates, and associated interference of such accommodation. The present study examined the range and associated interference of parental accommodation behaviors using the newly developed Family Accommodation Checklist and Interference Scale (FACLIS) in a sample of the parents of 71 clinic-referred children with anxiety disorders (NMothers-68; NFathers-51). The FACLIS demonstrated good reliability and validity. Ninety-seven percent of mothers and 88% of fathers reported engaging in at least one type of accommodation in the previous two weeks, with parents reporting an average of roughly 4 interfering parental accommodation behaviors. Greater parental accommodation and associated interference were associated with higher maternal distress. Among the anxiety disorders, accommodation was most strongly associated with generalized and separation anxiety disorder, as well as specific phobias. Findings (a) offer psychometric support for the FACLIS as a reliable and valid tool for the assessment of accommodation range and impact, and (b) help clarify the considerable scope and interference associated with parental accommodation of childhood anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Japanese form of social anxiety (taijin kyofusho): frequency and correlates in two generations of the same family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essau, Cecilia A; Sasagawa, Satoko; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Okajima, Isa; O'Callaghan, Jean; Bray, Diane

    2012-11-01

    One specific type of social anxiety, occurring primarily in Japanese culture, is called taijin kyofusho. Taijin kyofusho is characterized by an intense fear that one's body parts or functions displease, embarrass or are offensive to others. The main aim of the present study was to compare the frequency and correlates of taijin kyofusho symptoms (TKS) in Japanese adolescents and their parents. The sample included 351 adolescents, aged 12 to 17 years, and one of their parents/guardians. These adolescents were recruited from secondary schools in Miyazaki, Japan. All participants completed a set of questionnaires that were used to measure TKS, DSM-IV anxiety disorder symptoms, general difficulties and positive attributes, self-construals and social support. Adolescents reported significantly more TKS than their parent/guardians. In each generational sample high TKS was significantly associated with high levels of anxiety symptoms, the strongest correlation being with social phobia. The pattern of the relationship between self-construal and TKS differed across the two generations. Among adolescents, independent self-construal was associated with lower TKS, whereas among parents, interdependent self-construal was associated with lower evaluative concerns from others. The present study illustrates the importance of the diverse roles that self-construals play in TKS across different generations of the same family constellation in contemporary Japanese culture.

  7. Difference in anxiety symptoms between children and their parents facing a first seizure or epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Save-Pédebos, Jessica; Bellavoine, Vanina; Goujon, Estelle; Danse, Marion; Merdariu, Dana; Dournaud, Pascal; Auvin, Stéphane

    2014-02-01

    Many studies have shown that anxiety disorders are common in children with epilepsy. We explored symptoms of anxiety simultaneously in children and their parents. We conducted a cross-sectional study using the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale in children and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adult in parents. We included 118 parents and 67 children, who were divided into three groups: (1) first seizure, (2) epilepsy, and (3) nonepileptic paroxysmal event. We found that the level of anxiety in parents and children differed. We observed a significant increase in the anxiety level of parents whose children have had a first seizure, while we found a significant increase in the anxiety level of children and adolescents followed for epilepsy. These findings suggest that there is no direct relationship in the anxiety of the parents and their child. Further studies are needed to understand this variation over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Emotional intelligence subscales: are they correlated with child anxiety and behavior in the dental setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser Asl; Adhami, Ziya Ebrahim; Oskouei, Sina Ghertasi; Najafpour, Ebrahim; Jamali, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the correlation between emotional intelligence subscales and childs anxiety and behavior in the dental setting. The study included 123 children aged 7-12 years, who were scheduled to attend two consecutive sessions. In the first session, the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (Bar-on EQ-I: YV) was administered to participants. The anxiety and behavior in children was evaluated during similar dental procedures in the second session using the Clinical Anxiety Rating Scale and the Frankl scale, respectively. 23 children were eliminated from the study, leaving 100 participants (47 boys and 53 girls) with a mean age of 9.32 +/- 1.59 years for study. There were statistically significant positive correlations between Frankl score and EQ total score (p interpersonal scale (p interpersonal scale (p 0.05). The results provide evidence that children with higher total EQ as well as higher scores of intrapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability and stress management scales can generally be flexible and effective in coping in the dental setting. Higher score in stress management subscale seems to be related to better control over affective information including anxiety compared with other subscales in stressful situations. Overall, they behave and cooperate better than children with lower scores.

  9. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatalović Vorkapić Sanja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. METHODS: The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A, Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. Their average age was 22. RESULTS: In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. CONCLUSION: Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.

  10. Correlations between sexual dysfunction, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms among patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiao-Fan; Juang, Yeong-Yuh; Wen, Jung-Kwang; Liu, Chia-Yih; Hung, Ching-I

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of correlation between sexual dysfunction and depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and to identify the dimension most predictive of sexual dysfunction. One-hundred and thirty-five outpatients with MDD were enrolled and were treated with open-label venlafaxine 75 mg daily for one month. The Arizona Sexual Experience Scale-Chinese Version (ASEX-CV), Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were administered at baseline and at one-month follow-up and the improvement percentage (IP) of each scale posttreatment was calculated. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the dimension most predictive of the total ASEX-CV score. Seventy subjects (20 men, 50 women) completed the one-month pharmacotherapy and the four scales. The depression subscale of the HADS was most strongly correlated with the ASEX-CV scale and was the only subscale to independently predict the total ASEX-CV score at the two points. However, the somatic subscale of the DSSS was not correlated with any ASEX-CV item. At the endpoint, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms were significantly improved (IP 48.5% to 26.0%); however, very little improvement was observed in the total ASEX-CV score (IP -1.6%). The severity of sexual dysfunction among patients with MDD was most correlated with the severity of the depressive dimension, but not the severity of the somatic dimension. Further studies are indicated to explore the relationships between sexual dysfunction, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms.

  11. Racial Identity Attitudes as Predictors of Cognitive Correlates of Social anxiety in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Weeks, Cheri

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between racial identity attitudes derived from Crossis (1978) theory of Racial Identity Development, the cognitive correlates of social anxiety, and indices of psychological functioning were explored. Subjects were 101 African American college students. Preencounter, Encounter and Immersion attitudes were all positively related to increased personal distress as indicated by positive relations to fear of negative evaluation, social avoidance and distress, and negative relation...

  12. Parental accommodation of child anxiety and related symptoms: Range, impact, and correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Kerns, Caroline E.; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Parental accommodation—i.e., changes in parents’ behavior in attempts to prevent or reduce child distress—has been most studied in relation to OCD. Although recent work suggests parents of children with non-OCD anxiety diagnoses also engage in accommodation, little is known about the specific forms, correlates, and associated interference of such accommodation. The present study examined the range and associated interference of parental accommodation behaviors using the newly developed Family...

  13. Test anxiety in medical school is unrelated to academic performance but correlates with an effort/reward imbalance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Hahn

    Full Text Available During their early years at medical school, students repeatedly criticize their workload, time constraints and test associated stress. At the same time, depressiveness and anxiety among first and second year medical students are on the rise. We therefore hypothesized that test anxiety may be related to depressiveness and considered cognitive and academic performances as confounders for the former and psychosocial distress for the latter.A whole class of 200 second year students was invited to participate in the study. Anxiety as a trait, depressiveness, crystallized intelligence, verbal fluency and psychosocial distress were assessed using validated tests and questionnaires. Acute state anxiety and sympathetic stress parameters were measured in real life situations immediately before an oral and a written exam and paired tests were used to compare the individual anxieties at the various time points. Previous academic performances were self-reported, the results of the impending exams were monitored. Finally, correlations were performed to test for interrelatedness between academic performances and the various personal, cognitive and psychosocial factors.Acute test anxiety did not correlate with depressiveness nor did it correlate with previous nor impending academic performances nor any of the expected confounders on academic performance. However both, depressiveness and test anxiety strongly correlated with the perceived imbalance between efforts spent and rewards received. Moreover, anxiety as a trait not only correlated with acute state anxiety before an exam but was also significantly correlated to the feeling of over-commitment.Depressiveness during the early years of medical school seems unrelated to test anxiety and academic performance. Instead, it strongly correlated with the psychosocial distress emanating from attending medical school and points at a perceived imbalance between efforts spent and rewards received.

  14. Test anxiety in medical school is unrelated to academic performance but correlates with an effort/reward imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Henry; Kropp, Peter; Kirschstein, Timo; Rücker, Gernot; Müller-Hilke, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    During their early years at medical school, students repeatedly criticize their workload, time constraints and test associated stress. At the same time, depressiveness and anxiety among first and second year medical students are on the rise. We therefore hypothesized that test anxiety may be related to depressiveness and considered cognitive and academic performances as confounders for the former and psychosocial distress for the latter. A whole class of 200 second year students was invited to participate in the study. Anxiety as a trait, depressiveness, crystallized intelligence, verbal fluency and psychosocial distress were assessed using validated tests and questionnaires. Acute state anxiety and sympathetic stress parameters were measured in real life situations immediately before an oral and a written exam and paired tests were used to compare the individual anxieties at the various time points. Previous academic performances were self-reported, the results of the impending exams were monitored. Finally, correlations were performed to test for interrelatedness between academic performances and the various personal, cognitive and psychosocial factors. Acute test anxiety did not correlate with depressiveness nor did it correlate with previous nor impending academic performances nor any of the expected confounders on academic performance. However both, depressiveness and test anxiety strongly correlated with the perceived imbalance between efforts spent and rewards received. Moreover, anxiety as a trait not only correlated with acute state anxiety before an exam but was also significantly correlated to the feeling of over-commitment. Depressiveness during the early years of medical school seems unrelated to test anxiety and academic performance. Instead, it strongly correlated with the psychosocial distress emanating from attending medical school and points at a perceived imbalance between efforts spent and rewards received.

  15. The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5): Correlations with anxiety, fear, and depression scales in non-clinical children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Mannens, Janne; Peters, Lisanne; Meesters, Cor

    2017-10-01

    The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5) is a newly developed rating scale for assessing anxiety disorder symptoms of children and adolescents in terms of the contemporary classification system. In the present study, 187 children aged 8-12 years completed the new measure as well as the trait version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), the Short Form of the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (FSSC-R-SF), the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ), and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Results indicated that part one of the YAM-5, which measures symptoms of the major anxiety disorders, was most substantially linked with the trait anxiety scale of the STAIC, whereas part two, which measures phobic symptoms, was most clearly associated with the FSSC-R-SF. The correlation between the YAM-5 and the SCAS was also robust, and particularly strong correlations were found between subscales of both questionnaires that assessed similar symptoms. Further, the selective mutism subscale of the YAM-5 was most clearly linked to the SMQ. Finally, the YAM-5 was also significantly correlated with depression symptoms as indexed by the CDI. These findings provide further support for the concurrent validity of the YAM-5. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Correlational Study Between Students' Anxiety, Vocabulary Mastery, and Speaking Skill

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Yunita Puspita; Nurkamto, Joko; Pudjobroto, Ambrosyus Handoko

    2013-01-01

    The study is aimed to find out the correlation between students' anxiety, vocabulary mastery, and speaking skill of the eleventh grade students of SMA Negeri 1 Kartasura in the academic year of 2011/ 2012; both partially and simultaneously. The study belongs to a correlational study which uses a questionnaire and a test to collect the data. The population is all of the eleventh grade students while the sample is the students of class XI A3 taken by cluster random sampling technique. The techn...

  17. The Examination of the Correlation between Social Physique Anxiety Levels and Narcissism Levels of the Students Who Studied at the SPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezer, Engin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to discover the correlation between social physique anxiety levels and narcissism levels of the students of the school of the physical education and sports. A total of 308 students who studied at different academic departments of the school of the physical education and sports of Mustafa Kemal University participated in…

  18. Gender differences in depression, but not in anxiety in people with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaus, Verena; Kiep, Henriette; Holtkamp, Martin; Burkert, Silke; Kendel, Friederike

    2015-11-01

    Anxiety and depression are frequent comorbidities in people with epilepsy (PWE), but possible gender differences are often neglected. The aim of the present study was to analyze if men and women with epilepsy differ with regard to anxiety and depressive symptoms and to identify possible predictors. Adult consecutive PWE (N=302; 53% women) completed self-report questionnaires, including the depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the anxiety module of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A) and the subscales "medication effects" and "seizure worry" of the Patient-weighted Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory-31-P (QOLIE-31-P). There was no gender difference in extent of anxiety (p=.532), which was mainly due to higher anxiety levels in men compared to the general population. The gender difference in depressive symptoms was significant (p=.009), with female patients being more affected. The most important predictors for anxiety and depressive symptoms were detrimental effects of medication (QOL medication effects) and of seizure worry (QOL seizure worry). Moreover, these predictors were more closely associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms in men. Future intervention studies could show whether providing more information about the illness and medication effects may improve anxiety and depression. Our results suggest that such interventions should be tailored to the different needs of men and women. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Developmental differences in the linkages between anxiety control beliefs and posttraumatic stress in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F; Russell, Justin D; Graham, Rebecca A; Neill, Erin L; Banks, Donice M

    2015-05-01

    Anxiety control beliefs have emerged as a trans-diagnostic risk factor for anxiety disorders and a potential mechanism of change in cognitive and behavioral therapies. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between anxiety control beliefs and anxiety disorder symptoms following exposure to hurricanes in youth and test a developmental hypothesis about those associations. A large school-based sample of (N = 1048) children and adolescents with a history of exposure to natural disaster were assessed with the short form of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire for Children (ACQ-C), symptom measures (PTSD and generalized anxiety disorder symptoms) and level of disaster exposure. Developmental differences in the association between ACQ-C scores and symptoms were tested, as well as the ACQ-C's ability to assess symptoms beyond level of exposure. ACQ-C scores were associated with symptoms beyond level of exposure, but age moderated the strength of the association. Modeling the interaction suggested that the ACQ-C short had incremental validity beyond hurricane exposure in youth over 12 years. Findings extend previous work to a novel population of youth and add to the developmental understanding of the role of anxiety control beliefs in anxiety regulation. Age differences in the linkages between anxiety control and symptoms is consistent with a developmental model where low perceived control exhibited by younger children may be less indicative of problems with anxiety but may instead be related to normal cognitive development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The structure of evaluative anxiety among children differing in socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhine, W R; Spaner, S D

    1983-11-01

    Following Anastasi and Thurstone, the factor structure of evaluative anxiety was examined among six groups of primary age boys and girls (N = 8064). A factor matching technique was used to study hypotheses about the effects of group differences in socioeconomic status (SES), ethnicity, and sex on the pattern of the children's responses to the Test Anxiety Scale for Children (TASC). Hypotheses about the congruence of factor patterns were based on both demographic differences and results of developmental research. The hypothesis of an SES X ethnicity X sex interaction was strongly supported. Implications for comparing factor structures, measuring evaluative anxiety, and future research of evaluative anxiety are discussed.

  1. Individual Differences in Anticipatory Somatosensory Cortex Activity for Shock is Positively Related with Trait Anxiety and Multisensory Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G. Greening

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is associated with an exaggerated expectancy of harm, including overestimation of how likely a conditioned stimulus (CS+ predicts a harmful unconditioned stimulus (US. In the current study we tested whether anxiety-associated expectancy of harm increases primary sensory cortex (S1 activity on non-reinforced (i.e., no shock CS+ trials. Twenty healthy volunteers completed a differential-tone trace conditioning task while undergoing fMRI, with shock delivered to the left hand. We found a positive correlation between trait anxiety and activity in right, but not left, S1 during CS+ versus CS− conditions. Right S1 activity also correlated with individual differences in both primary auditory cortices (A1 and amygdala activity. Lastly, a seed-based functional connectivity analysis demonstrated that trial-wise S1 activity was positively correlated with regions of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC, suggesting that higher-order cognitive processes contribute to the anticipatory sensory reactivity. Our findings indicate that individual differences in trait anxiety relate to anticipatory reactivity for the US during associative learning. This anticipatory reactivity is also integrated along with emotion-related sensory signals into a brain network implicated in fear-conditioned responding.

  2. Anxiety Level Differences Between The Face Of Labour And Multigravida Primigravida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Roisa Shodiqoh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Facing childbirth is one thing that can cause anxiety. The process of giving birth is not always only somatic, but also psychosomatic. It is because many psychological elements affect the process of giving birth. This study aimed to analyze the differences of the level anxiety in facing childbirth between primigravida and multigravida.The research was conducted with cross-sectional design using questionnaires and Hamilton Rating Scale Anxiety (HRS-A. Interviews were conducted on 43 primigravidae and multigravidae pregnant women on 3rd trimester who checkup at Puskesmas Talango Sumenep.  Sample was taken by simple random sampling. Independent variables in this study were maternal characteristics, internal and external factors which cause anxiety. The dependent variable was the level of anxiety in facing labor.Testing difference in the level anxiety in the face of labor between primigravida and multigravida with Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney U test, where statistic values sig. (2-tailed is 0,006 or p<0,05 indicating that there were differences in anxiety levels between primigravida and multigravida. The conclusions that can be drawn is that there are differences in the level of anxiety in facing childbirth between primigravida and multigravida. It is recommended for health worker to concern not only on the pregnancy but also on mother’s psychology condition. Health worker should inform husbands to accompany their wife from pregnancy to childbirth. Keyword: anxiety level, labor, primigavida, multigravid

  3. "University Student Perspectives on English Language Classroom Anxiety:Majors, Gender Differences, and Changes"

    OpenAIRE

    河内, 千栄子; Chieko, Kawauchi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we investigated English language learning anxiety of university students, focusing on differences in their majors and genders, and related factors such as motivation and self-assessment of English ability. We also examined whether or not anxiety changed after one year of learning English and how students tried to relieve anxiety. A total of 103 English majors and 114 non-English majors were provided with a questionnaire composed of 55 items adapted by Hojo (1996) and Ga...

  4. 2015 Arte Poster Competition First Place Winner: Assessing the Correlation Between Patient Anxiety and Satisfaction for Mohs Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Maren C; Wilkerson, Eric C; Mistur, Rachel L; Nisar, Mahrukh; Love, W Elliot

    2015-09-01

    Skin cancer and the surgical treatment thereof have the potential to be sources of great anxiety for patients. Examination of patient satisfaction, anxiety, and contributing factors has the potential to provide information surgeons can use to implement practices that have an impact on patient anxiety and satisfaction regarding dermatologic surgery. This study used a prospective interview to catalog patients' anxiety and experiences before and during the surgical process. Our results indicate that several pre- and perioperative factors have the potential to decrease a patient's overall anxiety. Notably, 33% of surgical patients reported a decrease in anxiety from the time of diagnosis until the day of surgery. Factors that contributed to this included a call discussing the diagnosis and what to expect on the day of surgery as well as reading written material or searching the internet for more information regarding the procedure. Furthermore, a call from the physician compared to a call from a nurse or other team member showed a greater effect on decreasing anxiety. During the surgical procedure, our results highlight several factors that can decrease a patient's anxiety. Most notably, eating, watching TV, bringing a guest, and engaging in small talk with surgeon and staff during the procedure subjectively decreased patients' anxiety. In summary, our results suggest that patients respond to a variety of factors to reduce anxiety and that each patient derives relief from anxiety in different manners. Therefore, offering a spectrum of comforting or distracting activities during the Mohs procedure is ideal and may reduce the need for pharmacologic anxiolytics.

  5. Gender Differences in Anxiety Disorders: Prevalence, Course of Illness, Comorbidity and Burden of Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Carmen P.; Asnaani, Anu; Litz, Brett T.; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2011-01-01

    Women have consistently higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders, but less is known about how gender affects age of onset, chronicity, comorbidity, and burden of illness. Gender differences in DSM-IV anxiety disorders were examined in a large sample of adults (N = 20,013) in the United States using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES). The lifetime and 12-month male:female prevalence ratios of any anxiety disorder were 1:1.7 and 1:1.79, respectively. Women had higher rates of lifetime diagnosis for each of the anxiety disorders examined, except for social anxiety disorder which showed no gender difference in prevalence. No gender differences were observed in the age of onset and chronicity of the illness. However, women with a lifetime diagnosis of an anxiety disorder were more likely than men to also be diagnosed with another anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, and major depressive disorder. Furthermore, anxiety disorders were associated with a greater illness burden in women than in men, particularly among European American women and to some extend also among Hispanic women. These results suggest that anxiety disorders are not only more prevalent but also more disabling in women than in men. PMID:21439576

  6. Correlates of memory complaints and personality, depression, and anxiety in a memory clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabi, Mohammad; Zhand, Naista; Eybpoosh, Sana; Yazdi, Narges; Ansari, Sahar; Ramezani, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find whether there is an association between subjective memory complaint and memory impairment and probable underlying psychological conditions. A total of 90 patients with subjective memory complaint enrolled in this study. Short history and demographic information were obtained and then the patients underwent memory and mental health assessments, using Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) test tools. The mean age of the participants was 52.31 ± 17.97. Forty patients out of 90 (44.4%) were male. The prevalence of depression, anxiety and memory impairment was 10%, 12.2%, and 28.8%, respectively. Memory impairment has only shown a significant association with the presence of anxiety disorder according to the HADS findings (P=0.001). Regarding the MMPI, considerable differences were observed in the average grade of hysteria among patients with and without memory impairment: 8.38 ± 2.27 vs. 4.35 ± 1.96. There was also significant statistical association between the average score of depression on the MMPI in patients with and without memory impairment that were 13.7 ± 3.33 and 8.31 ±3.86, (P=0.03). The result of the current study shows that underlying psychological conditions such as anxiety, depression, and histrionic personality are associated with memory impairment.

  7. Correlates of memory complaints and personality, depression, and anxiety in a memory clinic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arbabi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to find whether there is an association between subjective memory complaint and memory impairment and probable underlying psychological conditions. A total of 90 patients with subjective memory complaint enrolled in this study. Short history and demographic information were obtained and then the patients underwent memory and mental health assessments, using Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI test tools. The mean age of the participants was 52.31 ± 17.97. Forty patients out of 90 (44.4% were male. The prevalence of depression, anxiety and memory impairment was 10%, 12.2%, and 28.8%, respectively. Memory impairment has only shown a significant association with the presence of anxiety disorder according to the HADS findings (P=0.001. Regarding the MMPI, considerable differences were observed in the average grade of hysteria among patients with and without memory impairment: 8.38 ± 2.27 vs. 4.35 ± 1.96. There was also significant statistical association between the average score of depression on the MMPI in patients with and without memory impairment that were 13.7 ± 3.33 and 8.31 ±3.86, (P=0.03. The result of the current study shows that underlying psychological conditions such as anxiety, depression, and histrionic personality are associated with memory impairment.

  8. Comorbid atypical depression in borderline personality disorder is common and correlated with anxiety-related psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremaud-Heitz, Daniela; Riemenschneider, Anke; Walter, Marc; Sollberger, Daniel; Küchenhoff, Joachim; Dammann, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    The core features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) are affective instability, unstable relationships and identity disturbance. Axis I comorbidities are frequent, in particular affective disorders. The concept of atypical depression is complex and often underestimated. The purpose of the study was to investigate the comorbidity of atypical depression in borderline patients regarding anxiety-related psychopathology and interpersonal problems. Sixty patients with BPD were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and II Disorders (SCID I, SCID II) as well as the Atypical Depression Diagnostic Scale (ADDS). Additionally, patients completed a questionnaire (SCL-90-R, BDI, STAI, STAXI, IIP-C). Forty-five BPD patients (81.8%) had a comorbid affective disorder of which 15 (27.3%) were diagnosed with an atypical depression. In comparison to patients with major depressive disorder or no comorbid depression, patients with atypical depression showed significant higher scores in psychopathological symptoms regarding anxiety and global severity as well as interpersonal problems. The presence of atypical depression in borderline patients is correlated with psychopathology, anxiety, and interpersonal problems and seems to be of clinical importance for personalized treatment decisions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Depression, anxiety, stress and hyperemesis gravidarum: temporal and case controlled correlates.

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    Peng Chiong Tan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the temporal and case-controlled correlations of anxiety, depression and stress with hyperemesis gravidarum. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a longitudinal cohort study of women with hyperemesis gravidarum using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21 to evaluate psychological distress at hospitalization and in the third trimester of pregnancy (from 28 weeks gestation. Third pregnancy trimester controls were recruited from routine antenatal clinic attendees who were matched to gestational age at the second DASS-21 assessment in the HG cohort. RESULTS: The prevalences of nausea and vomiting, depression, anxiety and stress caseness in newly hospitalised hyperemesis gravidarum women were 100% and 100%, 19%, 69% and 21% which by the third trimester had fallen to 15.7% and 9.9%, 4%, 19% and 3% and in third trimester controls were 15.9% and 14.2%, 14%, 61% and 20% respectively. Within the hyperemesis gravidarum cohort, nausea, vomiting depression, anxiety and stress reduced significantly by an absolute 84.3% (95% CI 76.2%-89.8%, 90.1% (82.8%-94.2%, 14.9% (7.2%-23.0%, 49.6% (38.6%-58.7% and 18.2% (10.4%-26.4% respectively between hospitalization for hyperemesis gravidarum and at the third trimester. In the third trimester, when comparing the hyperemesis gravidarum cohort to controls, the risk of nausea or vomiting was similar but depression, anxiety and stress were significantly lower: adjusted odds ratio AOR 0.10 (95% CI 0.03-0.5, 0.11 (0.05-0.23 and 0.08 (0.02-0.33 respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed a reassuring pattern of a strong rebound from depression, anxiety and stress in women with hyperemesis gravidarum such that by the third pregnancy trimester the level of psychological distress was even lower than in controls. This observation imply that much of the psychological distress in acute hyperemesis gravidarum is self-limiting and probably in the causal pathway of hyperemesis gravidarum. Care in women with

  10. Depression, anxiety, stress and hyperemesis gravidarum: temporal and case controlled correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Peng Chiong; Zaidi, Syeda Nureena; Azmi, Noor; Omar, Siti Zawiah; Khong, Su Yen

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the temporal and case-controlled correlations of anxiety, depression and stress with hyperemesis gravidarum. We performed a longitudinal cohort study of women with hyperemesis gravidarum using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) to evaluate psychological distress at hospitalization and in the third trimester of pregnancy (from 28 weeks gestation). Third pregnancy trimester controls were recruited from routine antenatal clinic attendees who were matched to gestational age at the second DASS-21 assessment in the HG cohort. The prevalences of nausea and vomiting, depression, anxiety and stress caseness in newly hospitalised hyperemesis gravidarum women were 100% and 100%, 19%, 69% and 21% which by the third trimester had fallen to 15.7% and 9.9%, 4%, 19% and 3% and in third trimester controls were 15.9% and 14.2%, 14%, 61% and 20% respectively. Within the hyperemesis gravidarum cohort, nausea, vomiting depression, anxiety and stress reduced significantly by an absolute 84.3% (95% CI 76.2%-89.8%), 90.1% (82.8%-94.2%), 14.9% (7.2%-23.0%), 49.6% (38.6%-58.7%) and 18.2% (10.4%-26.4%) respectively between hospitalization for hyperemesis gravidarum and at the third trimester. In the third trimester, when comparing the hyperemesis gravidarum cohort to controls, the risk of nausea or vomiting was similar but depression, anxiety and stress were significantly lower: adjusted odds ratio AOR 0.10 (95% CI 0.03-0.5), 0.11 (0.05-0.23) and 0.08 (0.02-0.33) respectively. Our study revealed a reassuring pattern of a strong rebound from depression, anxiety and stress in women with hyperemesis gravidarum such that by the third pregnancy trimester the level of psychological distress was even lower than in controls. This observation imply that much of the psychological distress in acute hyperemesis gravidarum is self-limiting and probably in the causal pathway of hyperemesis gravidarum. Care in women with hyperemesis gravidarum should focus on the relief of

  11. Childhood history of anxiety disorders among adults with social phobia: rates, correlates, and comparisons with patients with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, M W; Pollack, M H; Maki, K M; Gould, R A; Worthington, J J; Smoller, J W; Rosenbaum, J F

    2001-01-01

    We examined the rates and correlates of a childhood history of anxiety disorders in 100 adults with a primary diagnosis of social phobia (social anxiety disorder). Adulthood and childhood disorders were assessed by experienced clinicians with structured clinical interviews. Rates of childhood anxiety disorders were evaluated to diagnostic comorbidity and a comparison group of patients with panic disorder. Onset of social phobia occurred before age 18 in 80% of the sample. Over half of the sample (54%) met criteria for one or more childhood anxiety disorders other than social phobia: 47% for overanxious disorder, 25% for avoidant disorder, 13% for separation anxiety disorder, and 1% for childhood agoraphobia. A history of childhood anxiety was associated with an early age of onset of social phobia, greater severity of fear and avoidance of social situations, greater fears of negative evaluation, and greater anxiety and depression morbidity. Rates of childhood social phobia, overanxious disorder, and avoidant disorder were significantly higher in patients with social phobia relative to our panic-disordered comparison group. We found approximately equal rates of a childhood history of separation anxiety disorder in patients with social phobia and panic disorder, providing further evidence against a unique relationship between separation anxiety disorder and panic disorder. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Bad dream frequency in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder: prevalence, correlates, and effect of cognitive behavioral treatment for anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadorff, Michael R; Porter, Ben; Rhoades, Howard M; Greisinger, Anthony J; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and frequency of bad dreams in older adults. A secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety to enhanced usual care (EUC) assessed bad dream frequency at baseline, post treatment (3 months), and at 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Of 227 participants (mean age = 67.4), 134 met GAD diagnostic criteria (CBT = 70, EUC = 64), with the remaining 93 serving as a comparison group. Patients with GAD had significantly more bad dreams than those without, and bad dream frequency was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, worry, and poor quality of life. CBT for anxiety significantly reduced bad dream frequency at post treatment and throughout follow up compared to EUC.

  13. Bad Dream Frequency in Older Adults with Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Prevalence, Correlates, and Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadorff, Michael R.; Porter, Ben; Rhoades, Howard M.; Greisinger, Anthony J.; Kunik, Mark E.; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and frequency of bad dreams in older adults. A secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety (CBT) to enhanced usual care (EUC), it assessed bad dream frequency at baseline, post-treatment (3 months), and 6, 9, 12 and 15 months. Of 227 participants (mean age = 67.4), 134 met GAD diagnostic criteria (CBT = 70, EUC = 64), with the remaining 93 serving as a comparison group. Patients with GAD had significantly more bad dreams than those without, and bad dream frequency was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, worry, and poor quality of life. CBT for anxiety significantly reduced bad dream frequency at post-treatment and throughout follow-up compared to EUC. PMID:23470116

  14. Exploring Undergraduate Gender Differences in Anxiety about Meeting Their Assigned Therapist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Gary; DiMino, John; DeMaria, Peter A., Jr.; Beverly, Clyde; Chessler, Marcy

    2016-01-01

    An online survey sample of 166 non-urgent undergraduates, N = 47 (male) and N = 119 (female) waiting to begin counseling after triage found that females had significantly higher anxiety about meeting their assigned (intake) therapist than males. This gender difference of females being higher in counselor meeting anxiety could not be accounted for…

  15. Investigating Unique Environmental Influences of Parenting Practices on Youth Anxiety: A Monozygotic Twin Differences Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Yu, Jing; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    The associations between parenting practices and adolescent anxiety symptoms were examined in both individual and monozygotic (MZ) twin differences levels. Participants were 804 pairs of Chinese MZ adolescent twins aged 10-18 years (M = 13.57, SD = 2.67, 52% females). Twins' anxiety symptoms were assessed by self- and parent-reports. Twins also…

  16. The Role of Anxiety and Working Memory in Gender Differences in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Vasilyeva, Marina

    2014-01-01

    This research examined a potential mechanism underlying gender differences in math performance by testing a mediation model in which women's higher anxiety taxes their working memory resources, leading to underperformance on a mathematics test. Participants for the 2 studies were college students (N = 87, N = 118) who completed an anxiety measure,…

  17. Examination of Athletes' Anxiety, Motivation, Imagination Value in Competitions with Different Severity Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallayici, Mustafa; Eroglu Kolayis, Ipek; Kesilmis, Inci; Kesilmis, Mehmet Melih

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine athletes' anxiety, motivation, and imagination value in competitions with different severity level. The research was conducted on swimming athlete in elite level 18 female and 19 male totally 37. To measure the level of imagination, imagine inventory in sports and to measure trait anxiety levels STAI were…

  18. Sociotropic personality traits positively correlate with the severity of social anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan Fistikci

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate sociotropic-autonomic personality characteristics and their clinical implications in social anxiety disorder (SAD.  Methods. The study included 68 consecutive patients who were either being followed up on an outpatient basis or presented for the first time to the psychiatric clinics of Bakirkoy Research and Training Hospital for Psychiatry, Neurology and Neurosurgery or Trakya University School of Medicine between May 2012 and May 2013, and were diagnosed primarily with generalised SAD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Sociotropy-Autonomy Scale (SAS, Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS and a sociodemographic data collection form designed by the authors were used as primary assessment instruments.  Results. The mean age (standard deviation (SD of the sample group was 23.73 (8.85 years; 37 (54.4% were female and 31 (45.6% were male. LSAS mean (SD total fear score was 63.51 (13.74, mean total avoidance score was 61.24 (14.26, BDI mean score was 16.99 (9.58, SAS mean sociotropy score was 71.06 (16.79, and mean autonomy score was 63.22 (16.04. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between SAS sociotropy scores and LSAS fear and avoidance total scores, BDI scores and all subscales of SCL-90-R (p0.05.  Conclusion. Sociotropic personality characteristics in patients with SAD have been found to positively correlate with depression and social anxiety levels. Addressing this finding during treatment sessions and helping the patient increase flexibility in appraisal of social life events may have a positive impact on treatment outcome.

  19. Attenuated positive psychotic symptoms and social anxiety: Along a psychotic continuum or different constructs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Shanna; Klugman, Joshua; Heimberg, Richard G; Anglin, Deidre M; Ellman, Lauren M

    2016-01-30

    Social anxiety commonly occurs across the course of schizophrenia, including in the premorbid and prodromal phases of psychotic disorders. Some have posited that social anxiety may exist on a continuum with paranoia; however, empirical data are lacking. The study aim was to determine whether attenuated positive psychotic symptoms are related to social anxiety. Young adults (N=1378) were administered the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ), which measures attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS), and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS), which measures a subset of social anxiety symptoms. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to address the extent to which social anxiety and APPS tap distinct dimensions. Confirmatory factor analyses support the existence of a separate social anxiety factor scale and four separate, though interrelated, APPS factor domains (unusual thought content, paranoia/suspiciousness, disorganized thinking, and perceptual abnormalities). Additionally, social anxiety was significantly, but not differently related to each APPS domain, although the magnitude was reduced between social anxiety and distressing APPS. The current study suggests that social anxiety and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms are separable constructs, but are significantly associated with each other. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Children and adolescents referred for treatment of anxiety disorders: differences in clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Polly; Creswell, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Reports of the clinical characteristics of children and adolescents with anxiety disorders are typically based on community populations or from clinical samples with exclusion criterion applied. Little is known about the clinical characteristics of children and adolescents routinely referred for treatment for anxiety disorders. Furthermore, children and adolescents are typically treated as one homogeneous group although they may differ in ways that are clinically meaningful. A consecutive series of children (n=100, aged 6-12 years) and adolescents (n=100, aged 13-18 years), referred to a routine clinical service, were assessed for anxiety and comorbid disorders, school refusal and parental symptoms of psychopathology. Children with a primary anxiety disorder were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with separation anxiety disorder than adolescents. Adolescents with a primary anxiety disorder had significantly higher self and clinician rated anxiety symptoms and had more frequent primary diagnoses of social anxiety disorder, diagnoses and symptoms of mood disorders, and irregular school attendance. Childhood and adolescence were considered categorically as distinct, developmental periods; in reality changes would be unlikely to occur in such a discrete manner. The finding that children and adolescents with anxiety disorders have distinct clinical characteristics has clear implications for treatment. Simply adapting treatments designed for children to make the materials more 'adolescent-friendly' is unlikely to sufficiently meet the needs of adolescents. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Identifying Dental Anxiety in Children's Drawings and correlating It with Frankl's Behavior Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Jyoti; Diwanji, Amish; Sarvaiya, Bhumi; Sharma, Dipal

    2017-01-01

    To develop a simple method to assess the level of anxiety by using children's drawings and correlating them with Frankl's behavior rating scale. A total of 178 patients aged of 3 to 14 years were handed out two-page forms which contained three sections on coloring and drawing, along with general information, and Frankl's behavior rating scale for the visit. The three types of drawing exercises given to the patients were geometric copy drawings, coloring a nonthreatening figure, and an empty sheet for freehand drawing. Out of 178 patients, 60 showed definitely positive behavior, 73 exhibited positive behavior, 37 showed negative behavior, and 8 were definitely negative on Frankl's behavior rating scale; 133 children had none or, 1 stress marker and 45 exhibited 2 or 3 stress markers in their drawings. Chi-square (χ 2 ) analysis was done with a 2 × 2 contingency table. Observed χ 2 value was 46.166, which at 1 degree of freedom was much greater than that at 0.995 percentile. Therefore, the result was highly significant. Children requiring specialized behavioral techniques can be identified by the presence of stress markers in their drawings. This nonverbal activity by itself can have an overall positive effect on the behavior displayed in the dental clinic. Mathur J, Diwanji A, Sarvaiya B, Sharma D. Identifying Dental Anxiety in Children's Drawings and correlating It with Frankl's Behavior Rating Scale. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):24-28.

  2. Correlates of comorbid anxiety and externalizing disorders in childhood obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Audra K; Lewin, Adam B; Bergman, R Lindsey; Lee, Joyce C; Piacentini, John

    2010-08-01

    The present study examines the influence of diagnostic comorbidity on the demographic, psychiatric, and functional status of youth with a primary diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Two hundred and fifteen children (ages 5-17) referred to a university-based OCD specialty clinic were compared based on DSM-IV diagnostic profile: OCD without comorbid anxiety or externalizing disorder, OCD plus anxiety disorder, and OCD plus externalizing disorder. No age or gender differences were found across groups. Higher OCD severity was found for the OCD + ANX group, while the OCD + EXT group reported greater functional impairment than the other two groups. Lower family cohesion was reported by the OCD + EXT group compared to the OCD group and the OCD + ANX group reported higher family conflict compared to the OCD + EXT group. The OCD + ANX group had significantly lower rates of tic disorders while rates of depressive disorders did not differ among the three groups. The presence of comorbid anxiety and externalizing psychopathology are associated with greater symptom severity and functional and family impairment and underscores the importance of a better understanding of the relationship of OCD characteristics and associated disorders. Results and clinical implications are further discussed.

  3. Correlates of comorbid anxiety and externalizing disorders in childhood obsessive compulsive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Adam B.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Lee, Joyce C.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the influence of diagnostic comorbidity on the demographic, psychiatric, and functional status of youth with a primary diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Two hundred and fifteen children (ages 5–17) referred to a university-based OCD specialty clinic were compared based on DSM-IV diagnostic profile: OCD without comorbid anxiety or externalizing disorder, OCD plus anxiety disorder, and OCD plus externalizing disorder. No age or gender differences were found across groups. Higher OCD severity was found for the OCD + ANX group, while the OCD + EXT group reported greater functional impairment than the other two groups. Lower family cohesion was reported by the OCD + EXT group compared to the OCD group and the OCD + ANX group reported higher family conflict compared to the OCD + EXT group. The OCD + ANX group had significantly lower rates of tic disorders while rates of depressive disorders did not differ among the three groups. The presence of comorbid anxiety and externalizing psychopathology are associated with greater symptom severity and functional and family impairment and underscores the importance of a better understanding of the relationship of OCD characteristics and associated disorders. Results and clinical implications are further discussed. PMID:20349255

  4. Comparison of the effectiveness of two different interventions to reduce preoperative anxiety: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertuğ, Nurcan; Ulusoylu, Özge; Bal, Ayça; Özgür, Hazal

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine and compare the effectiveness of nature sounds and relaxation exercises for reducing preoperative anxiety. A repeated measures randomized controlled trial design was used. We divided 159 preoperative patients into three groups: nature sounds (n = 53), relaxation exercises (n = 53), and control groups (n = 53). We evaluated anxiety using the visual analog scale and state anxiety inventory scores immediately before, immediately after, and 30 min after interventions in nature sounds and relaxation exercises groups, and silent rest in the control. We found no differences between the measurement values in the intervention groups, but we did observe a difference between the intervention and control groups. The two interventions were similarly effective in reducing preoperative anxiety. These simple and low-cost interventions can be used to reduce preoperative anxiety in surgical clinics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Inverse correlation between cardiac injury and cardiac anxiety: A potential role for communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, M.H.C.T.; Voshaar, R.C.O.; van Deelen, F.M.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; Pop, G.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: General anxiety in cardiac patients is associated with worsened cardiac course. An acute coronary syndrome (ACS) might evoke specific cardiac anxiety. We explored the characteristics associated with cardiac anxiety in ACS patients. Methods: We assessed cardiac anxiety in 237 patients

  6. Inverse Correlation Between Cardiac Injury and Cardiac Anxiety A Potential Role for Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Maria H. C. T.; Oude Voshaar, Richard; van Deelen, Femke M.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; Pop, Gheorghe; Speckens, Anne E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: General anxiety in cardiac patients is associated with worsened cardiac course. An acute coronary syndrome (ACS) might evoke specific cardiac anxiety. We explored the characteristics associated with cardiac anxiety in ACS patients. Methods: We assessed cardiac anxiety in 237 patients

  7. Inverse correlation between cardiac injury and cardiac anxiety: a potential role for communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, M.H.C.T. van; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Deelen, F.M. van; Balkom, A.J.L.M. van; Pop, G.A.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: General anxiety in cardiac patients is associated with worsened cardiac course. An acute coronary syndrome (ACS) might evoke specific cardiac anxiety. We explored the characteristics associated with cardiac anxiety in ACS patients. METHODS: We assessed cardiac anxiety in 237 patients

  8. Subcortical correlates of individual differences in aptitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex E Jung

    Full Text Available The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N = 107, healthy, young (age range  = 16-29 cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math--higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary--higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding--higher right thalamus volume; Foresight--lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning--higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary.

  9. Subcortical correlates of individual differences in aptitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Rex E; Ryman, Sephira G; Vakhtin, Andrei A; Carrasco, Jessica; Wertz, Chris; Flores, Ranee A

    2014-01-01

    The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N = 107), healthy, young (age range  = 16-29) cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer) across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math--higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary--higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding--higher right thalamus volume; Foresight--lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning--higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus) and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary).

  10. The Relationship Between Procrastination, Learning Strategies and Statistics Anxiety Among Iranian College Students: A Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Shahrum; Farrokhi, Farahman; Gahramani, Farahnaz; Issazadegan, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Approximately 66-80%of graduate students experience statistics anxiety and some researchers propose that many students identify statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing courses in their academic curriculums. As such, it is likely that statistics anxiety is, in part, responsible for many students delaying enrollment in these courses for as long as possible. This paper proposes a canonical model by treating academic procrastination (AP), learning strategies (LS) as predictor variables and statistics anxiety (SA) as explained variables. Methods: A questionnaire survey was used for data collection and 246-college female student participated in this study. To examine the mutually independent relations between procrastination, learning strategies and statistics anxiety variables, a canonical correlation analysis was computed. Results: Findings show that two canonical functions were statistically significant. The set of variables (metacognitive self-regulation, source management, preparing homework, preparing for test and preparing term papers) helped predict changes of statistics anxiety with respect to fearful behavior, Attitude towards math and class, Performance, but not Anxiety. Conclusion: These findings could be used in educational and psychological interventions in the context of statistics anxiety reduction. PMID:24644468

  11. The relationship between procrastination, learning strategies and statistics anxiety among Iranian college students: a canonical correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Shahrum; Farrokhi, Farahman; Gahramani, Farahnaz; Issazadegan, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 66-80%of graduate students experience statistics anxiety and some researchers propose that many students identify statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing courses in their academic curriculums. As such, it is likely that statistics anxiety is, in part, responsible for many students delaying enrollment in these courses for as long as possible. This paper proposes a canonical model by treating academic procrastination (AP), learning strategies (LS) as predictor variables and statistics anxiety (SA) as explained variables. A questionnaire survey was used for data collection and 246-college female student participated in this study. To examine the mutually independent relations between procrastination, learning strategies and statistics anxiety variables, a canonical correlation analysis was computed. Findings show that two canonical functions were statistically significant. The set of variables (metacognitive self-regulation, source management, preparing homework, preparing for test and preparing term papers) helped predict changes of statistics anxiety with respect to fearful behavior, Attitude towards math and class, Performance, but not Anxiety. These findings could be used in educational and psychological interventions in the context of statistics anxiety reduction.

  12. Anxiety and Depression Among Patients With Different Types of Vestibular Peripheral Vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing; Yu, Lisheng; Shi, Dongmei; Ke, Xingxing; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Numerous studies have been published on comorbid anxiety and depression in patients with vertigo. However, very few studies have separately described and analyzed anxiety or depression in patients with different types of vestibular peripheral vertigo. The present study investigated anxiety and depression among patients with 4 different types of peripheral vertigo. A total of 129 patients with 4 types of peripheral vertigo, namely, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, n = 49), migrainous vertigo (MV, n = 37), Menière disease (MD, n = 28), and vestibular neuritis (VN, n = 15), were included in the present study. Otological and neurootological examinations were carefully performed, and self-rating anxiety scale and self-rating depression scale were used to evaluate anxiety and depression. Patients were divided into 2 groups, according to the vestibular function: normal and abnormal vestibular function. There was no significant difference in the risk of anxiety/depression between these 2 groups. However, for patients with the 4 different vertigo types, the prevalence of anxiety (MV = 45.9%, MD = 50%) and depression (MV = 27%, MD = 28.6%) was significantly higher in the patients with MV or MD than those with BPPV or VN (P vertigo, as well as differences in the prevention and self-control of the patients against the vertigo. PMID:25654382

  13. The response of social anxiety disorder patients to threat scenarios differs from that of healthy controls

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    S.C.V. Mesquita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the response of social anxiety disorder (SAD patients to threat scenarios. First-choice responses to 12 scenarios describing conspecific threatening situations and mean scores of defensive direction and defensive intensity dimensions were compared between 87 SAD patients free of medication and 87 matched healthy controls (HC. A significant gender difference in the first-choice responses was identified for seven scenarios among HCs but only for two scenarios among SAD patients. A significantly higher proportion of SAD patients chose "freezing" in response to "Bush" and "Noise" scenarios, whereas the most frequent response by HCs to these scenarios was "check out". SAD males chose "run away" and "yell" more often than healthy men in response to the scenarios "Park" and "Elevator", respectively. There was a positive correlation between the severity of symptoms and both defensive direction and defensive intensity dimensions. Factorial analysis confirmed the gradient of defensive reactions derived from animal studies. SAD patients chose more urgent defensive responses to threat scenarios, seeming to perceive them as more dangerous than HCs and tending to move away from the source of threat. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the physiopathology of anxiety disorders involves brain structures responsible for defensive behaviors.

  14. Age-Related Differences of Individuals’ Arithmetic Strategy Utilization with Different Level of Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jiwei; Li, Hongxia; Sun, Yan; Xu, Yanli; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The present study used the choice/no-choice method to investigate the effect of math anxiety on the strategy used in computational estimation and mental arithmetic tasks and to examine age-related differences in this regard. Fifty-seven fourth graders, 56 sixth graders, and 60 adults were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. Results showed the following: (1) High-anxious individuals were more likely to use a rounding-down strategy in the computational estimation task under the best-choice condition. Additionally, sixth-grade students and adults performed faster than fourth-grade students on the strategy execution parameter. Math anxiety affected response times (RTs) and the accuracy with which strategies were executed. (2) The execution of the partial-decomposition strategy was superior to that of the full-decomposition strategy on the mental arithmetic task. Low-math-anxious persons provided more accurate answers than did high-math-anxious participants under the no-choice condition. This difference was significant for sixth graders. With regard to the strategy selection parameter, the RTs for strategy selection varied with age. PMID:27803685

  15. Age-related Differences of Individuals’ Arithmetic Strategy Utilization with Different Level of Math Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwei Si

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study used the choice/no-choice method to investigate the effect of math anxiety on the strategy used in computational estimation and mental arithmetic tasks and to examine age-related differences in this regard. 57 fourth graders, 56 sixth graders, and 60 adults were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. Results showed the following: (1 High-anxious individuals were more likely to use a rounding-down strategy in the computational estimation task under the best-choice condition. Additionally, sixth-grade students and adults performed faster than fourth-grade students on the strategy execution parameter. Math anxiety affected response times (RTs and the accuracy with which strategies were executed. (2 The execution of the partial-decomposition strategy was superior to that of the full-decomposition strategy on the mental arithmetic task. Low-math-anxious persons provided more accurate answers than did high-math-anxious participants under the no-choice condition. This difference was significant for sixth graders. With regard to the strategy selection parameter, the RTs for strategy selection varied with age.

  16. Age-Related Differences of Individuals' Arithmetic Strategy Utilization with Different Level of Math Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jiwei; Li, Hongxia; Sun, Yan; Xu, Yanli; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The present study used the choice/no-choice method to investigate the effect of math anxiety on the strategy used in computational estimation and mental arithmetic tasks and to examine age-related differences in this regard. Fifty-seven fourth graders, 56 sixth graders, and 60 adults were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. Results showed the following: (1) High-anxious individuals were more likely to use a rounding-down strategy in the computational estimation task under the best-choice condition. Additionally, sixth-grade students and adults performed faster than fourth-grade students on the strategy execution parameter. Math anxiety affected response times (RTs) and the accuracy with which strategies were executed. (2) The execution of the partial-decomposition strategy was superior to that of the full-decomposition strategy on the mental arithmetic task. Low-math-anxious persons provided more accurate answers than did high-math-anxious participants under the no-choice condition. This difference was significant for sixth graders. With regard to the strategy selection parameter, the RTs for strategy selection varied with age.

  17. Gender Differences and Foreign Language Reading Anxiety of High School Learners in an Iraqi EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulateef Sabti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades Investigation of foreign language anxiety generally has progressively caught the attention of numerous investigators in the area of foreign language. Yet, anxiety variable that affects the students’ acquisition of particular language skills for instance, reading specifically have actually seldom been investigated in the context of EFL Arab learners in particular with Iraqi students. So, the study aimed to investigate the influence of anxiety variable towards reading comprehension of Iraqi high school learners. This study also sought to examine the gender differences towards reading language anxiety. Quantitative approach was applied in this research, which involved 20 Iraqi students of a high school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The respondents comprised 10 males and 10 females with ages between 16 years and 18 years. This study made use of Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS. The results of the study showed that both male and female participants had a high level of anxiety towards the reading comprehension. Furthermore, the analysis revealed that gender played a slight role in the results of the study. Female students showed a slightly higher level of anxiety towards the reading comprehension than their male counterparts. Iraqi learners need to be exposed to the four skills of English language generally and the reading skill in particular. This exposure makes the learners aware of the four skills (Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking that need to be acquired and also to decrease the rate of anxiety variable in addition to its influence on their performance.

  18. The Association Between Social Network Factors with Depression and Anxiety at Different Life Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levula, Andrew; Harré, Michael; Wilson, Andrew

    2017-11-10

    This study examines whether social network factors influence individual's depression and anxiety outcomes at different life stages. Data was drawn from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey. Hierarchical regression modelling was applied to examine the effects within and across different life stages. The depression and anxiety measures were taken from the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and the social network factors were taken from the self-completion questionnaire. With the exception of social trust in seniors, the social network factors were significant predictors of depression and anxiety. This has practical implications for the design of social policy initiatives.

  19. THE ROLE OF METACOGNITION IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: A CLINICAL STUDY AND ASSESSMENT OF POSSIBLE CORRELATION WITH ANXIETY, DEPRESSION AND COPING STRATEGIES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Quattropani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to explore the relationships between metacognition and anxiety, depression, and coping strategies in MS patients, compared to healthy subjects. The study was conducted on a group of 50 MS patients and a control group of 50 healthy volunteers matched for gender, age, level of education and social status. Metacognitions were assessed with the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30, while anxiety and depression were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and coping strategies were assessed with the Brief COPE. Results did not show significant differences between metacognitive factors for MS patients and healthy subjects. However, we found specific, contrasting correlations between the MS group and the control group. The results of this study could have some implications for clinical practice. Given the relationship between metacognitions and negative emotions, “psychological intervention”, based on the metacognitive approach, could have positive effects on MS patients.

  20. The prevalence and correlates of depression, anxiety, and stress in a sample of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiter, R; Nash, R; McCrady, M; Rhoades, D; Linscomb, M; Clarahan, M; Sammut, S

    2015-03-01

    Over the past four years, the Franciscan University Counseling Center has reported a 231% increase in yearly visits, as well as a 173% increase in total yearly clients. This trend has been observed at many universities as mental health issues pose significant problems for many college students. The objective of this study was to investigate potential correlates of depression, anxiety, and stress in a sample of college students. The final analyzed sample consisted of 374 undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 24 attending Franciscan University, Steubenville, Ohio. Subjects completed a survey consisting of demographic questions, a section instructing participants to rate the level of concern associated with challenges pertinent to daily life (e.g. academics, family, sleep), and the 21 question version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS21). The results indicated that the top three concerns were academic performance, pressure to succeed, and post-graduation plans. Demographically, the most stressed, anxious, and depressed students were transfers, upperclassmen, and those living off-campus. With the propensity for mental health issues to hinder the success of college students, it is vital that colleges continually evaluate the mental health of their students and tailor treatment programs to specifically target their needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Gender Differences in the Difficulty in Disengaging from Threat among Children and Adolescents With Social Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Peng; Ni, Wenjin; Xie, Ruibo; Xu, Jiahua; Liu, Xiangping

    2017-01-01

    There is some research showing that social anxiety is related with attentional bias to threat. However, others fail to find this relationship and propose that gender differences may play a role. The aim of this study was to investigate the gender differences in the subcomponents of attentional bias to threat (hypervigilance and difficulty in disengaging) among children and adolescents with social anxiety. Overall, 181 youngsters aged between 10 and 14 participated in the current study. Images...

  2. Preschool anxiety disorders predict different patterns of amygdala-prefrontal connectivity at school-age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kimberly L H; Angold, Adrian; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Copeland, William E; Gaur, Pooja; Pelphrey, Kevin; Song, Allen W; Egger, Helen L

    2015-01-01

    In this prospective, longitudinal study of young children, we examined whether a history of preschool generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and/or social phobia is associated with amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation at school-age. As an exploratory analysis, we investigated whether distinct anxiety disorders differ in the patterns of this amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation. Participants were children taking part in a 5-year study of early childhood brain development and anxiety disorders. Preschool symptoms of generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and social phobia were assessed with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) in the first wave of the study when the children were between 2 and 5 years old. The PAPA was repeated at age 6. We conducted functional MRIs when the children were 5.5 to 9.5 year old to assess neural responses to viewing of angry and fearful faces. A history of preschool social phobia predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces. Preschool generalized anxiety predicted less functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices in response to fearful faces. Finally, a history of preschool separation anxiety predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces and greater school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices to angry faces. Our results suggest that there are enduring neurobiological effects associated with a history of preschool anxiety, which occur over-and-above the effect of subsequent emotional symptoms. Our results also provide preliminary evidence for the neurobiological differentiation of specific preschool anxiety disorders.

  3. Preschool anxiety disorders predict different patterns of amygdala-prefrontal connectivity at school-age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly L H Carpenter

    Full Text Available In this prospective, longitudinal study of young children, we examined whether a history of preschool generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and/or social phobia is associated with amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation at school-age. As an exploratory analysis, we investigated whether distinct anxiety disorders differ in the patterns of this amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation.Participants were children taking part in a 5-year study of early childhood brain development and anxiety disorders. Preschool symptoms of generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and social phobia were assessed with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA in the first wave of the study when the children were between 2 and 5 years old. The PAPA was repeated at age 6. We conducted functional MRIs when the children were 5.5 to 9.5 year old to assess neural responses to viewing of angry and fearful faces.A history of preschool social phobia predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces. Preschool generalized anxiety predicted less functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices in response to fearful faces. Finally, a history of preschool separation anxiety predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces and greater school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices to angry faces.Our results suggest that there are enduring neurobiological effects associated with a history of preschool anxiety, which occur over-and-above the effect of subsequent emotional symptoms. Our results also provide preliminary evidence for the neurobiological differentiation of specific preschool anxiety disorders.

  4. Interpretation of ambiguity: Differences between children and adolescents with and without an anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Polly; Codd, Jon; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-12-01

    Theory and treatment of anxiety disorders in young people are commonly based on the premise that interpretation biases found in anxious adults are also found in children and adolescents. Although there is some evidence that this may be the case, studies have not typically taken age into account, which is surprising given the normative changes in cognition that occur throughout childhood. The aim of the current study was to identify whether associations between anxiety disorder status and interpretation biases differed in children and adolescents. The responses of children (7-10 years) and adolescents (13-16 years) with and without anxiety disorders (n=120) were compared on an ambiguous scenarios task. Children and adolescents with an anxiety disorder showed significantly higher levels of threat interpretation and avoidant strategies than non-anxious children and adolescents. However, age significantly moderated the effect of anxiety disorder status on interpretation of ambiguity, in that adolescents with anxiety disorders showed significantly higher levels of threat interpretation and associated negative emotion than non-anxious adolescents, but a similar relationship was not observed among children. The findings suggest that theoretical accounts of interpretation biases in anxiety disorders in children and adolescents should distinguish between different developmental periods. For both ages, treatment that targets behavioral avoidance appears warranted. However, while adolescents are likely to benefit from treatment that addresses interpretation biases, there may be limited benefit for children under the age of ten. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The cerebral neurobiology of anxiety, anxiety displacement, and anxiety denial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, L A; Fronczek, J; Abel, L; Buchsbaum, M S; Fallon, J H

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies examining the relationship of anxiety scores, derived from the content analysis of speech of normal individuals, have revealed that the anxiety scores occurring in the dreams associated with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are significantly correlated with localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. These significant intercorrelations occur in different cerebral areas when the anxiety scores are obtained from mental experiences reported during non-REM sleep or during wakeful silent mentation. The purpose of the present study was to examine the intercorrelations found between anxiety attributed to the self, anxiety-displacement, and anxiety denial measured from computerized content analysis of 5-min verbal reports of subjective thoughts and feelings obtained from wakeful normal subjects and localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates during PET scanning. The subjects were 10 wakeful young males. Their anxiety scores were derived from computerized content analysis of 5-min reports they gave of their subjective thoughts, feelings and fantasies during a 30-min period following an intravenous injection of F D-deoxyglucose (FDG). The subjects were moved 32--45 min after this injection to obtain a PET scan, which records all of the localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates during the 30 min following the FDG injection. Significant intercorrelations of localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates with the scores of self-anxiety, anxiety displacement, and anxiety-denial were found in dissimilar cerebral locations depending on the type of anxiety involved. The significant correlations occurred in brain regions known to be associated with the functions of emotions, cognition, memory, and vision. Specific combinations of cerebral areas, based on glucose metabolic rates, appear to distinguish and be associated with different verbal expressions of anxiety. Replication of this preliminary research will be

  6. Evaluation of the Correlations between Depression, Anxiety, and Stress as DASS-21 Subscales and High-Risk Behaviors in the Adolescents in Torghabeh and Shandiz Towns, Iran

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    Emadodin Darchini-Maragheh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a critical period in life, which is associated with tumultuous transitions and “storm and stress. The present study aimed to evaluate the correlation between depression, anxiety, and stress with the high-risk behaviors among the adolescents in Torghabeh and Shandiz towns, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 90 adolescents from the high schools. Participants were selected via two-stage sampling. Data were collected using the validated Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21 and history of high-risk behaviors in the students. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 16. Results:Variable degrees of depression, anxiety, and stress were reported in 43.3%, 43.3%, and 38.9% of the students, respectively. Although the difference was not statistically significant, female students were more affected by the mentioned disorders compared to the male students. Among the high-risk behaviors, smoking cigarettes was significantly correlated with the depression, anxiety, and stress subscales. In addition, a significant association was observed between opium consumption and stress. However, no significant correlation was observed between smoking hookah and the DASS-21 subscales. Regular alcohol consumption was found to be significantly correlated with the higher rate of depression in the studied adolescents. Also, premarital sexual behaviors had a significant association with the stress and depression subscales. Conclusion: Lack of attention to depression, anxiety, and stress and their risk factors in adolescents may lead to variable degrees of life dissatisfaction in the community. Therefore, it is recommended that on-school mental screening programs be performed for high-school students in order prevent these complications.

  7. Social Cost Bias, Probability Bias, and Self-Efficacy as Correlates of Behavioral Action in Social Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carol S; Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A

    2018-03-01

    The present study investigated the role of social cost bias, probability bias, and self-efficacy as correlates of behavioral action in a nonclinical sample of 197 individuals, using a series of vignettes and self-report measures. The findings indicated that, as hypothesized, social cost bias, probability bias, and self-efficacy were associated with social anxiety. While social anxiety was associated with behavioral action, the three cognitive factors were associated with behavioral action above and beyond the contribution of social anxiety. However, contrary to the hypothesis, self-efficacy was the only cognitive factor directly associated with behavioral action when all variables were in the model. This information has implications for potential methods and target mechanisms for increasing client engagement with exposures and behavioral experiments in treatments for social anxiety.

  8. Gender Differences in Anxiety Disorders: Prevalence, Course of Illness, Comorbidity and Burden of Illness

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Carmen P.; Asnaani, Anu; Litz, Brett T.; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2011-01-01

    Women have consistently higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders, but less is known about how gender affects age of onset, chronicity, comorbidity, and burden of illness. Gender differences in DSM-IV anxiety disorders were examined in a large sample of adults (N = 20,013) in the United States using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES). The lifetime and 12-month male:female prevalence ratios of any anxiety disorder were 1:1.7 and 1:1.79, respectively. Women h...

  9. Testing Stereotype Threat: Does Anxiety Explain Race and Sex Differences in Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2001-07-01

    Steele's (1992, 1997) stereotype-threat theory attempts to explain underperformance of minority students in academic domains and of women in mathematics. Steele argues that situational self-relevance of negative group stereotypes in testing situations increases the anxiety these students experience and that these differential anxiety levels explain performance differences. Research shows that manipulation of stereotype threat can affect academic performance. However, there has been little research testing whether anxiety does at least partially explain the relationship between race and achievement. The goal of this study was to examine whether anxiety will explain racial differences in academic performance and gender differences in math performance in the context of a nationally representative sample of high school seniors. Partial mediation was observed, with anxiety explaining significant portions of the racial differences in academic performance. Anxiety also partially explained sex differences in math achievement, although the effect sizes were very small. These results provide general support for Steele's stereotype-threat hypothesis. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  10. The Relationship between Anxiety Disorders and Substance Use among Adolescents in the Community: Specificity and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping; Goodwin, Renee D.; Fuller, Cordelia; Liu, Xinhua; Comer, Jonathan S.; Cohen, Patricia; Hoven, Christina W.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 781 adolescents (ages 13-17, 52.8% male) from a community survey, this study examined gender differences in the co-occurrence of specific anxiety disorders with substance use in adolescents. The associations between anxiety disorders and substance use differed according to the particular anxiety disorders and forms of substance…

  11. Dual Cognitive and Biological Correlates of Anxiety in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollocks, Matthew J.; Pickles, Andrew; Howlin, Patricia; Simonoff, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a high prevalence (~40 %) of anxiety disorders compared to their non-ASD peers. It is unclear whether cognitive and biological processes associated with anxiety in ASD are analogous to anxiety in typically developing (TD) populations. In this study 55 boys with ASD (34 with a co-occurring…

  12. A review of sociocultural factors that may underlie differences in African American and European American anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Patricia D; Shook, Natalie J

    2017-06-01

    Preliminary evidence indicates there may be differences in the prevalence and severity of anxiety in African Americans and European Americans. A number of sociocultural risk and protective factors have been suggested to contribute to these group differences, such as salience of physical illnesses, discrimination, stigma toward mental illness, religiosity, and ethnic identity. In this paper, the literature concerning each of these factors is reviewed. Overall, the strongest evidence was found for ethnic identity and stigma toward mental illness as factors underlying group differences in anxiety. Ethnic identity and stigma toward mental illness consistently differed by racial group and were associated with anxiety in African Americans. Ethnic identity may buffer against the negative consequences of anxiety, reducing prevalence rates in African Americans. Stigma toward mental illness may decrease African Americans willingness to report anxiety symptoms, reducing overall prevalence rates but increasing the severity of treated cases. The research regarding discrimination, salience of physical illnesses, and religiosity was less clear. Much more research is required, but the findings of this review suggest that future studies should put particular emphasis on stigma toward mental illness and ethnic identity as important factors in understanding African American anxiety outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal and child correlates of anxiety in 2½-year-old children.

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    Mount, Kristin S; Crockenberg, Susan C; Jó, Patricia S Bárrig; Wagar, Jessica-Lyn

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this study was to predict the development of anxiety in 2½ year olds as a function of maternal anxiety and child inhibited temperament, and to test the mediating, moderating, and curvilinear effects of maternal sensitivity. Participants were 83 mothers and their 2½-year-old children (32 females). Maternal anxiety, child inhibition, and child anxiety were assessed by maternal report. Maternal sensitivity was rated based on the appropriateness and timeliness of mothers' responses to children's fear observed during their exposure to novel events in the laboratory and from mothers' diaries documenting their responses to children's fear in everyday situations. Gender predicted child anxiety, with mothers reporting girls as more anxious, as did child inhibition, with more inhibited children exhibiting more anxiety. Maternal sensitivity predicted child anxiety as a main effect and, in addition, inhibition moderated the curvilinear association of maternal sensitivity and child anxiety. For highly inhibited children, maternal sensitivity predicted anxiety in both a negative linear and a curvilinear fashion; anxiety decreased as maternal sensitivity increased up to a moderately high level, then increased at very high levels of maternal sensitivity. For less inhibited children, maternal sensitivity showed only a significant negative linear association with child anxiety. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Correlation of Anxiety Levels between Temporomandibular Disorder Patients and Normal Subjects

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    Subhash Vasudeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs are among the common musculoskeletal conditions affecting the individual. Anxiety plays an important role in the pathogenesis of TMD. Modern lifestyle and work environment bring to focus the role of anxiety in everyday life which is changing the demographics of diseases like TMD. This study compared the anxiety scores between TMD patients and normal subjects. Material and Methods. 505 individuals were included in the study who were divided into group 1 with 255 individuals presenting with signs and symptoms of TMD and group 2 with 250 normal individuals as controls. Hospital anxiety depression scale was used to calculate the anxiety scores. Fischer’s t test was used to compare the anxiety scores between the two groups. Results. 80% of individuals in group 2 and 44% in group 1 individuals had normal anxiety scores. 45% of the individuals in group 1 and 19% in group 2 had borderline anxiety scores. 11% of group 1 individuals and <1% of group 2 individuals demonstrated high anxiety scores. These results were statistically significant. Conclusion. Individuals with TMD exhibited higher levels of anxiety scores whereas significant number of control subjects exhibited normal anxiety scores.

  15. Correlates of Social Exclusion in Social Anxiety Disorder: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, Alexandre; Dricot, Laurence; Billieux, Joël; Philippot, Pierre; Grynberg, Delphine; de Timary, Philippe; Maurage, Pierre

    2017-03-21

    Cognitive models posit that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is maintained by biased information-processing vis-à-vis threat of social exclusion. However, uncertainty still abounds regarding the very nature of this sensitivity to social exclusion in SAD. Especially, brain alterations related to social exclusion have not been explored in SAD. Our primary purpose was thus to determine both the self-report and neural correlates of social exclusion in this population. 23 patients with SAD and 23 matched nonanxious controls played a virtual game ("Cyberball") during fMRI recording. Participants were first included by other players, then excluded, and finally re-included. At the behavioral level, patients with SAD exhibited significantly higher levels of social exclusion feelings than nonanxious controls. At the brain level, patients with SAD exhibited significantly higher activation within the left inferior frontal gyrus relative to nonanxious controls during the re-inclusion phase. Moreover, self-report of social exclusion correlates with the activity of this cluster among individuals qualifying for SAD diagnosis. Our pattern of findings lends strong support to the notion that SAD may be better portrayed by a poor ability to recover following social exclusion than during social exclusion per se. These findings value social neuroscience as an innovative procedure to gain new insight into the underlying mechanisms of SAD.

  16. Anxiety, depression and alexithymia in fibromyalgia: are there any differences according to age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñacoba Puente, Cecilia; Velasco Furlong, Lilian; Écija Gallardo, Carmen; Cigarán Méndez, Margarita; McKenney, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the evolution of alexithymia, anxiety, and depression associated with fibromyalgia (FM) in three age groups in comparison to how they evolve in the same age groups in healthy women. A total of 240 women participated in the study (120 diagnosed with fibromyalgia and 120 healthy women), divided into three age groups (≤35 years,>35 and anxiety, and depression in FM patients showed increased levels compared to healthy controls. Also, young women with FM (under 35) show lower alexithymia, anxiety, and depression levels in comparison to older patients (≥65). Alexithymia in FM patients follows a similar pattern as in healthy women (although with significantly higher scores), increasing with age. Our results show that depression, anxiety, and alexithymia develop over age in a different way in FM patients than in healthy individuals, increasing over age.

  17. Sex differences and sex hormones in anxiety-like behavior of aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domonkos, Emese; Borbélyová, Veronika; Csongová, Melinda; Bosý, Martin; Kačmárová, Mária; Ostatníková, Daniela; Hodosy, Július; Celec, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Sex differences in the prevalence of affective disorders might be attributable to different sex hormone milieu. The effects of short-term sex hormone deficiency on behavior, especially on anxiety have been studied in numerous animal experiments, mainly on young adult rats and mice. However, sex differences in aged animals and the effects of long-term hypogonadism are understudied. The aim of our study was to analyze sex differences in anxiety-like behavior in aged rats and to prove whether they can be attributed to endogenous sex hormone production in males. A battery of tests was performed to assess anxiety-like behavior in aged female, male and gonadectomized male rats castrated before puberty. In addition, the aged gonadectomized male rats were treated with a single injection of estradiol or testosterone or supplemented with estradiol for two-weeks. Female rats displayed a less anxious behavior than male rats in most of the conducted behavioral tests except the light-dark box. Long-term androgen deficiency decreased the sex difference in anxiety either partially (open field, PhenoTyper cage) or completely (elevated plus maze). Neither single injection of sex hormones, nor two-week supplementation of estradiol in gonadectomized aged male rats significantly affected their anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. In conclusion, our results confirm sex differences in anxiety in aged rats likely mediated by endogenous testosterone production in males. Whether long-term supplementation with exogenous sex hormones could affect anxiety-like behavior in elderly individuals remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dental anxiety among adult patients and its correlation with self-assessed dental status and treatment needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, S.; Bilal, S.; Dawani, N.; Rizvi, K

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the dental anxiety levels and to assess its correlation with self-assessed dental status and treatment needs of patients. Methods: The study was conducted at the Out Patient Department of Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences, Karachi. Using non-probability quota sampling, the study included the first 32 patients between 18 and 35 years of age, visiting the facility. Over a period of one month (22 working days) 704 patients comprised the study population. They were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to self-assess their dental anxiety levels, oral health status and treatment needs. The data was analysed using SPSS 17.0 with descriptive frequencies and chi-square test. Results: Of the total participants, 650 (92.32%) patients provided consent. Average dental anxiety scale score was 12.46, representing high anxiety score. There were 174 (26.8%) smokers; only 234 (36%) had visited a dentist less than a year ago; 385 (59.2%) considered their dental health to be satisfactory; 306 (47.1%) thought of their treatment needs to be little'; 222 (34.2%) brushed their teeth twice daily. Dental anxiety was statistically significant with treatment needs and dental status. Relation of tooth-brushing with last dental visit and treatment needs was also found to be significant. Conclusion: A high level of dental anxiety was observed among the study population. The dental professionals should seek ways to help dentally anxious individuals. (author)

  19. Dental anxiety among adult patients and its correlation with self-assessed dental status and treatment needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Shahbano; Bilal, Sobia; Dawani, Narendar; Rizvi, Kulsoom

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the dental anxiety levels and to assess its correlation with self-assessed dental status and treatment needs of patients. The study was conducted at the Out Patient Department of Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences, Karachi. Using non-probability quota sampling, the study included the first 32 patients between 18 and 35 years of age, visiting the facility. Over a period of one month (22 working days) 704 patients comprised the study population. They were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to self-assess their dental anxiety levels, oral health status and treatment needs. The data was analysed using SPSS 17.0 with descriptive frequencies and chi-square test. Of the total participants, 650 (92.32%) patients provided consent. Average dental anxiety scale score was 12.46, representing high anxiety score. There were 174 (26.8%) smokers; only 234 (36%) had visited a dentist less than a year ago; 385 (59.2%) considered their dental health to be satisfactory; 306 (47.1%) thought of their treatment needs to be 'little'; 222 (34.2%) brushed their teeth twice daily. Dental anxiety was statistically significant with treatment needs and dental status. Relation of tooth-brushing with last dental visit and treatment needs was also found to be significant. A high level of dental anxiety was observed among the study population. The dental professionals should seek ways to help dentally anxious individuals.

  20. Putative EEG measures of social anxiety : Comparing frontal alpha asymmetry and delta-beta cross-frequency correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrewijn, A.; Van, der Molen M.J.W.; Westenberg, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine whether frontal alpha asymmetry and delta-beta cross-frequency correlation during resting state, anticipation, and recovery are electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of social anxiety. For the first time, we jointly examined frontal alpha asymmetry and

  1. Give or Take a Few? Comparing Measured and Self-Reported Height and Weight as Correlates of Social Physique Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Jennifer; Monsma, Eva V.; Torres-McGehee, Toni

    2009-01-01

    Statistically controlling for physical size is common practice, especially in self-perception studies uncovering the etiology of maladaptive behaviors, such as eating disorders. For example, social physique anxiety (SPA)--apprehension about social evaluations while presenting oneself in front of others (Leary, 1992)--is a prominent correlate of…

  2. On 'the fear of death' as the primary anxiety: how and why Klein differs from Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Rachel B

    2014-08-01

    It is well known that Melanie Klein held the view that 'fear of death' is the primary source of anxiety and that her position is explicitly opposed to that of Sigmund Freud, who maintained that that fear cannot in any way or form be a source of anxiety. In a previous article on Freud's Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety (Blass, 2013), the author argued that, counter to what is commonly portrayed in the literature, Freud's considerations for rejecting the fear of death as a source of anxiety were based on relational and experiential factors that are usually associated with Kleinian psychoanalysis. In light of this affinity of Freud with Klein a question arises as to the actual source of their differences in this context. The present paper offers an answer to this question. The author first presents some of her earlier findings on what led Freud to reject the fear of death as a source of anxiety and then turns to investigate Klein's considerations for accepting it. This takes us beyond her explicit statements on this matter and sheds new light on the relationship of her views regarding death and anxiety and those of Freud. In turn this deepens the understanding of the relationship of Freud and Klein's conceptualizations of the psyche and its internal object relations, pointing to both surprising common ground and foundational differences. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  3. A comparison of the nature and correlates of panic attacks in the context of Panic Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lily A; LeBeau, Richard; Liao, Betty; Niles, Andrea N; Glenn, Daniel; Craske, Michelle G

    2016-01-30

    Panic attacks occurring outside of Panic Disorder are not well-understood despite their inclusion as a diagnostic specifier in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5). This study compares panic attacks in the context of Panic Disorder compared to social anxiety in terms of their symptom frequency, severity, and clinical correlates. Participants (n=404) were interviewed using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (ADIS-IV-L; Brown et al., 1994), from which we analyzed interviewer ratings of panic attacks and panic attack symptoms, as well as other demographic and clinical characteristics. Panic attacks in the context of Panic Disorder were characterized by a greater number and severity of symptoms compared to panic attacks in the context of Social Anxiety Disorder, and were associated with a history of traumatization, inpatient psychiatric treatment, and benzodiazepine use. Social anxiety panic attacks were associated with reduced physical health concerns. Cognitive panic attack symptoms were more prevalent in Panic Disorder and were associated with a variety of poor clinical correlates. Panic attacks in the context of Panic Disorder are more severe than those in social anxiety, and this may be driven by cognitive disturbances during those attacks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anxiety towards Mathematics and Educational Level: A Study on Means Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera-Chávez, Milka Elena; García-Santillán, Arturo; Córdova-Rangel, Arturo; González-Gómez, Santiago; Tejada-Peña, Esmeralda

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research work is to analyze whether there is a difference in the degree of anxiety towards mathematics among students of different educational levels. The study is not experimental and cross sectional, and it is based on difference of means between groups. The sample is not probabilistic, and consisted of 226 students from…

  5. A profile of social, separation and generalized anxiety disorders in an Australian nationally representative sample of children and adolescents: Prevalence, comorbidity and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Susan H; Zubrick, Stephen R; Lawrence, David

    2017-11-01

    To examine (1) the 12-month prevalence of social anxiety disorder (SOC), separation anxiety disorder (SEP) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a large, nationally representative sample of Australian youth; (2) patterns of comorbidity between these disorders; (3) demographic and socio-environmental correlates and (4) the psychosocial impact and service use associated with each condition. Data are from the 2013/2014 Australian national, face-to-face household Young Minds Matter survey of mental health and wellbeing. Informants were parents or carers reporting on 6310, 4- to 17-year-olds (55% of eligible households). The presence of each of the three anxiety disorders was determined based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Version IV. In the past 12 months, 6.6% of youth had experienced at least one of SOC, SEP or GAD, with rates of 2.3% for SOC, 4.3% for SEP and 2.3% for GAD. Rates did not differ by gender but were significantly higher for SOC and GAD and lower for SEP in 12- to 17-year-olds than 4- to 11-year-olds. Comorbidity between these disorders was high, although lower for SEP. Having SOC, SEP or GAD was associated with not living with both biological parents, having a parent with a mental health problem, elevated negative family events, low carer employment and peer victimization. The association with family risk factors was greater for SEP than for SOC and GAD. Although the majority of anxious youth had received professional help, this was less likely in the younger cohort. Social, separation and generalized anxiety disorders in young people are relatively common and impairing, with a high level of comorbidity. There are both commonalities and differences in socio-environmental correlates. The majority of anxious youth received some form of professional assistance, although the rate was lower among children compared to adolescents.

  6. Raised Anxiety Levels Among Outpatients Preparing to Undergo a Medical Imaging Procedure: Prevalence and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshaw, Kristy L; Boyes, Allison W; Carey, Mariko L; Hall, Alix E; Symonds, Michael; Brown, Sandy; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W

    2018-04-01

    To examine the percentage of patients with raised state anxiety levels before undergoing a medical imaging procedure; their attribution of procedural-related anxiety or worry; and sociodemographic, health, and procedural characteristics associated with raised state anxiety levels. This prospective cross-sectional study was undertaken in the outpatient medical imaging department at a major public hospital in Australia, with institutional board approval. Adult outpatients undergoing a medical imaging procedure (CT, x-ray, MRI, ultrasound, angiography, or fluoroscopy) completed a preprocedural survey. Anxiety was measured by the short-form state scale of the six-item State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI: Y-6). The number and percentage of participants who reported raised anxiety levels (defined as a STAI: Y-6 score ≥ 33.16) and their attribution of procedural-related anxiety or worry were calculated. Characteristics associated with raised anxiety were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Of the 548 (86%) patients who consented to participate, 488 (77%) completed all STAI: Y-6 items. Half of the participants (n = 240; 49%) experienced raised anxiety, and of these, 48% (n = 114) reported feeling most anxious or worried about the possible results. Female gender, imaging modality, medical condition, first time having the procedure, and lower patient-perceived health status were statistically significantly associated with raised anxiety levels. Raised anxiety is common before medical imaging procedures and is mostly attributed to the possible results. Providing increased psychological preparation, particularly to patients with circulatory conditions or neoplasms or those that do not know their medical condition, may help reduce preprocedural anxiety among these subgroups. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Differences in latency to first pharmacological treatment (duration of untreated illness) in anxiety disorders: a study on patients with panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Camuri, Giulia; Benatti, Beatrice; Buoli, Massimiliano; Altamura, A Carlo

    2013-11-01

    The latency to first pharmacological treatment (duration of untreated illness or 'DUI') is supposed to play a major role in terms of outcome in psychotic conditions. Interest in the field of affective disorders and, in particular, of duration of untreated anxiety, has been recently registered as well. However, a preliminary epidemiologic investigation of the phenomenon is necessary. The present study was aimed to investigate and compare age at onset, age at first pharmacological treatment and DUI in a sample of patients affected by different anxiety disorders. DUI was defined as the interval between the onset of the specific anxiety disorder and the administration of the first adequate pharmacological treatment in compliant subjects. Study sample included 350 patients, of both sexes, with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of panic disorder (n = 138), generalized anxiety disorder (n = 127) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 85). Panic disorder was associated with the shortest DUI (39.5 months), whereas obsessive-compulsive disorder was associated with the longest latency to treatment (94.5 months) (F = 13.333; P anxiety disorder showed a mean DUI of 81.6 months. Present results indicate that patients with different anxiety disorders may wait for years (from 3 up to 8) before receiving a first adequate pharmacological treatment. Differences in terms of age at onset, age at the first pharmacological treatment and, ultimately, in DUI in specific anxiety disorders may depend on multiple clinical and environmental factors. Latency to non-pharmacological interventions (e.g. psychoeducation and different forms of psychotherapy) needs to be addressed and correlated with DUI in future studies. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. [Hyperhidrosis and social anxiety disorder--the same old thing under a different cloak?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahaloni, Elad; Iancu, Iulian

    2014-10-01

    Hyperhidrosis is a reason for treatment by many specialists in medicine, such as dermatologists, family medicine doctors, surgeons and also psychiatrists. Hyperhidrosis causes considerable distress and disability. Despite the fact that the condition has been known for thousands of years, it is yet unclear whether excessive sweating derives from emotional" activation of the central nervous system, whether the emotional symptoms evolve due to local dysfunction of the sweat glands, or a combination of the two problems. In this article, we will present two conditions: hyperhidrosis and Social Anxiety Disorder, a mental condition with anxiety and avoidanrce in social settings that is frequently accompanied by sweating. We will discuss the similarities and differences between these disorders and the various treatments available for these conditions. Research shows that social anxiety does not explain hyperhidrosis, but that excessive sweating reduces the threshold for social anxiety. Among people with hyperhidrosis, the functional disability and the emotional problems are mediated by the social anxiety. We propose treating the symptoms of hyperhidrosis and social anxiety disorder in combination in order to achieve maximal improvement in these patients.

  9. Symptomatic heart failure is the most important clinical correlate of impaired quality of life, anxiety, and depression in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jens B; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Spindler, Helle

    2008-01-01

    To identify correlates of impaired quality of life (QOL), anxiety, and depression in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD).......To identify correlates of impaired quality of life (QOL), anxiety, and depression in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)....

  10. Food risk perceptions, gender, and individual differences in avoidance and approach motivation, intuitive and analytic thinking styles, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikas, Sointu; Lindeman, Marjaana; Roininen, Katariina; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2007-03-01

    Risks appear to be perceived in two different ways, affectively and rationally. Finnish adult internet users were contacted via e-mail and asked to fill an internet questionnaire consisting of questions of food risks and measures of avoidance and approach motivation, analytic and intuitive information processing style, trait anxiety, and gender in order to find out (1) whether food risks are perceived two-dimensionally, (2) how individual differences in motivation, information processing, and anxiety are associated with the different dimensions of food risk perceptions, and (3) whether gender moderates these associations. The data were analyzed by factor, correlation and regression analyses. Three factors emerged: risk scariness, risk likelihood, and risks of cardiovascular disease. Personality and gender x personality interactions predicted food risk perceptions. Results showed that food risk perceptions generally form two dimensions; scariness and likelihood, but that this may depend on the nature of the risk. In addition, results imply that individuals with high avoidance motivation perceive food risks as scarier and more likely than others, and that individuals with an analytic information processing style perceive food risks as less likely than others. Trait anxiety seems to be associated with higher food risk perceptions only among men.

  11. Common chronic pain conditions in developed and developing countries: gender and age differences and comorbidity with depression-anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Adley; Von Korff, Michael; Lee, Sing; Alonso, Jordi; Karam, Elie; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Borges, Guilherme Luiz Guimaraes; Bromet, Evelyn J; Demytteneare, K; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Gureje, Oye; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Haro, Josep Maria; Levinson, Daphna; Oakley Browne, Mark A; Posada-Villa, Jose; Seedat, Soraya; Watanabe, Makoto

    2008-10-01

    Although there is a growing body of research concerning the prevalence and correlates of chronic pain conditions and their association with mental disorders, cross-national research on age and gender differences is limited. The present study reports the prevalence by age and gender of common chronic pain conditions (headache, back or neck pain, arthritis or joint pain, and other chronic pain) in 10 developed and 7 developing countries and their association with the spectrum of both depressive and anxiety disorders. It draws on data from 18 general adult population surveys using a common survey questionnaire (N = 42,249). Results show that age-standardized prevalence of chronic pain conditions in the previous 12 months was 37.3% in developed countries and 41.1% in developing countries, with back pain and headache being somewhat more common in developing than developed countries. After controlling for comorbid chronic physical diseases, several findings were consistent across developing and developed countries. There was a higher prevalence of chronic pain conditions among females and older persons; and chronic pain was similarly associated with depression-anxiety spectrum disorders in developed and developing countries. However, the large majority of persons reporting chronic pain did not meet criteria for depression or anxiety disorder. We conclude that common pain conditions affect a large percentage of persons in both developed and developing countries. Chronic pain conditions are common in both developed and developing countries. Overall, the prevalence of pain is greater among females and among older persons. Although most persons reporting pain do not meet criteria for a depressive or anxiety disorder, depression/anxiety spectrum disorders are associated with pain in both developed and developing countries.

  12. Individual Differences in Fear Extinction and Anxiety-Like Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gabrielle; Scott, Elliot; Graham, Bronwyn M.; Richardson, Rick

    2017-01-01

    There is growing appreciation for the substantial individual differences in the acquisition and inhibition of aversive associations, and the insights this might give into identifying individuals particularly vulnerable to stress and psychopathology. We examined whether animals that differed in rate of extinction (i.e., Fast versus Slow) were…

  13. Gender Differences in the Neurobiology of Anxiety: Focus on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Alessandra Aparecida; Bevilaqua, Mário Cesar do Nascimento; da Fonseca, Alberto Morais Pinto; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Thuret, Sandrine; Dias, Gisele Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Although the literature reports a higher incidence of anxiety disorders in women, the majority of basic research has focused on male rodents, thus resulting in a lack of knowledge on the neurobiology of anxiety in females. Bridging this gap is crucial for the design of effective translational interventions in women. One of the key brain mechanisms likely to regulate anxious behavior is adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). This review paper aims to discuss the evidence on the differences between male and female rodents with regard to anxiety-related behavior and physiology, with a special focus on AHN. The differences between male and female physiologies are greatly influenced by hormonal differences. Gonadal hormones and their fluctuations during the estrous cycle have often been identified as agents responsible for sexual dimorphism in behavior and AHN. During sexual maturity, hormone levels fluctuate cyclically in females more than in males, increasing the stress response and the susceptibility to anxiety. It is therefore of great importance that future research investigates anxiety and other neurophysiological aspects in the female model, so that results can be more accurately applicable to the female population. PMID:26885403

  14. Correlates of Bulimia in College Students: Anxiety, Assertiveness, and Locus of Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCanne, Lynn P. Fisher

    1985-01-01

    Examined the relationship of anxiety, assertiveness, and locus of control to bulimia in college students. Those in therapy for bulimia (N=23) scored lower in assertivenss than did other clients in therapy (N=15) or those in the nonclient control group (N=18). All clients showed greater anxiety than did controls. (Author/BH)

  15. Anxiolytic effects of aniracetam in three different mouse models of anxiety and the underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Kurasawa, M

    2001-05-18

    The anxiolytic effects of aniracetam have not been proven in animals despite its clinical usefulness for post-stroke anxiety. This study, therefore, aimed to characterize the anxiolytic effects of aniracetam in different anxiety models using mice and to examine the mode of action. In a social interaction test in which all classes (serotonergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic) of compounds were effective, aniracetam (10-100 mg/kg) increased total social interaction scores (time and frequency), and the increase in the total social interaction time mainly reflected an increase in trunk sniffing and following. The anxiolytic effects were completely blocked by haloperidol and nearly completely by mecamylamine or ketanserin, suggesting an involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine, 5-HT2A and dopamine D2 receptors in the anxiolytic mechanism. Aniracetam also showed anti-anxiety effects in two other anxiety models (elevated plus-maze and conditioned fear stress tests), whereas diazepam as a positive control was anxiolytic only in the elevated plus-maze and social interaction tests. The anxiolytic effects of aniracetam in each model were mimicked by different metabolites (i.e., p-anisic acid in the elevated plus-maze test) or specific combinations of metabolites. These results indicate that aniracetam possesses a wide range of anxiolytic properties, which may be mediated by an interaction between cholinergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. Thus, our findings suggest the potential usefulness of aniracetam against various types of anxiety-related disorders and social failure/impairments.

  16. Anxiety and depression in adults in their eighties: do gender differences remain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachana, Nancy A; McLaughlin, Deirdre; Leung, Janni; Byrne, Gerard; Dobson, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Women report higher rates of depression and anxiety than men; however, it is uncertain whether this gender difference continues into advanced old age. 78 men and 111 women aged 82-87 years from the Men, Women and Ageing Project completed measures of anxiety (Geriatric Anxiety Inventory), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire; PHQ9), general psychological well-being (Mental Health subscale of SF-36), general health (general health item of SF-36) and cognitive status (Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status; TICS). Results revealed no significant gender differences on any of the psychological measures, after controlling for cognitive status, general health and education. These results support the proposition that the female predominance in psychological distress diminishes with increasing age. The congruence between men and women may reflect changes in identity associated with age or the effect of decreased emotional valence of some social roles.

  17. Effects of between-person differences and within-person changes in symptoms of anxiety and depression on older age cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukka, E J; Dykiert, D; Allerhand, M; Starr, J M; Deary, I J

    2017-10-17

    Anxiety and depression are both important correlates of cognitive function. However, longitudinal studies investigating how they covary with cognition within the same individual are scarce. We aimed to simultaneously estimate associations of between-person differences and within-person variability in anxiety and depression with cognitive performance in a sample of non-demented older people. Participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 study, a population-based narrow-age sample (mean age at wave 1 = 79 years, n = 535), were examined on five occasions across 13 years. Anxiety and depression were measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and cognitive performance was assessed with tests of reasoning, logical memory, and letter fluency. Data were analyzed using two-level linear mixed-effects models with within-person centering. Divergent patterns were observed for anxiety and depression. For anxiety, between-person differences were more influential; people who scored higher on HADS anxiety relative to other same-aged individuals demonstrated poorer cognitive performance on average. For depression, on the other hand, time-varying within-person differences were more important; scoring higher than usual on HADS depression was associated with poorer cognitive performance relative to the average level for that participant. Adjusting for gender, childhood mental ability, emotional stability, and disease burden attenuated these associations. The results from this study highlight the importance of addressing both between- and within-person effects of negative mood and suggest that anxiety and depression affect cognitive function in different ways. The current findings have implications for assessment and treatment of older age cognitive deficits.

  18. Fatigue in Patients With Advanced Terminal Cancer Correlates With Inflammation, Poor Quality of Life and Sleep, and Anxiety/Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Alex Rua; Trufelli, Damila Cristina; Fonseca, Fernando; de Paula, Larissa Carvalho; Giglio, Auro Del

    2016-12-01

    To assess which laboratory and clinical factors are associated with fatigue in patients with terminal cancer. We evaluated 51 patients with advanced incurable solid tumors using the Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire (CFQ) and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) scale for fatigue; the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-BR) for sleep quality; the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) for anxiety and depression; the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Core Quality of Life Questionnaire, Version 3.0 (QLQ C-30); and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) for quality of life. We also analyzed several inflammatory markers and the modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS). We observed severe fatigue in 19 (38%) patients (FACIT-F score >36). There was a significant correlation between fatigue as evaluated by the CFQ and quality of sleep and between the CFQ mental fatigue subscale scores and TNF-α level. When fatigue was evaluated using the FACIT-F scale, we observed a significant association between fatigue and anxiety/depression, quality of sleep, mGPS, and hemoglobin levels. Fatigue measured both with the CFQ and FACIT-F scale correlated with poor quality of life according to the EORTC QLQ C-30. In patients with advanced cancer, fatigue is a common symptom associated with the presence of inflammation, poor quality of sleep, depression/anxiety, and poor quality of life. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Neural correlates of attention biases, behavioral inhibition, and social anxiety in children: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Nhi; Taber-Thomas, Bradley C; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly E

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a biologically-based temperament characterized by vigilance toward threat. Over time, many children with BI increasingly fear social circumstances and display maladaptive social behavior. BI is also one of the strongest individual risk factors for developing social anxiety disorder. Although research has established a link between BI and anxiety, its causal mechanism remains unclear. Attention biases may underlie this relation. The current study examined neural markers of the BI-attention-anxiety link in children ages 9-12 years (N=99, Mean=9.97, SD=0.97). ERP measures were collected as children completed an attention-bias (dot-probe) task with neutral and angry faces. P2 and N2 amplitudes were associated with social anxiety and attention bias, respectively. Specifically, augmented P2 was related to decreased symptoms of social anxiety and moderated the relation between BI and social anxiety, suggesting that increasing attention mobilization may serve as a compensatory mechanism that attenuates social anxiety in individuals with high BI. The BI by N2 interaction found that larger N2 related to threat avoidance with increasing levels of BI, consistent with over-controlled socio-emotional functioning. Lastly, children without BI (BN) showed an augmented P1 to probes replacing angry faces, suggesting maintenance of attentional resources in threat-related contexts. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Symptoms of anxiety and depression: A comparison among patients with different chronic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Bayat

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Although all chronic conditions may require psychological consideration; be that as it may, different chronic diseases are dissimilar in terms of their mental health need. Anxiety for rheumatoid arthritis and hepatitis as well as depression for coronary artery disease and chronic hemodialysis is more important.

  1. Predictors of dental avoidance among Australian adults with different levels of dental anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armfield, J.M.; Ketting, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: It has been proposed that avoidance of dental visits might be the main determinant of poor oral health outcomes in people with high dental anxiety (HDA). This study aimed to determine the predictors of dental avoidance among people with HDA and also whether these predictors differed from

  2. Functional magnetic resonance imaging correlates of emotional word encoding and recognition in depression and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Marie-José; Demenescu, Liliana R; van der Wee, Nic J A; Kortekaas, Rudie; Marjan M A, Nielen; Boer, J A Den; Renken, Remco J; van Buchem, Mark A; Zitman, Frans G; Aleman, André; Veltman, Dick J

    2012-04-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder are among the most prevalent and frequently co-occurring psychiatric disorders in adults and may be characterized by a common deficiency in processing of emotional information. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging during the performance of an emotional word encoding and recognition paradigm in patients with MDD (n = 51), comorbid MDD and anxiety (n = 59), panic disorder and/or social anxiety disorder without comorbid MDD (n = 56), and control subjects (n = 49). In addition, we studied effects of illness severity, regional brain volume, and antidepressant use. Patients with MDD, prevalent anxiety disorders, or both showed a common hyporesponse in the right hippocampus during positive (>neutral) word encoding compared with control subjects. During negative encoding, increased insular activation was observed in both depressed groups (MDD and MDD + anxiety), whereas increased amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex activation during positive word encoding were observed as depressive state-dependent effects in MDD only. During recognition, anxiety patients showed increased inferior frontal gyrus activation. Overall, effects were unaffected by medication use and regional brain volume. Hippocampal blunting during positive word encoding is a generic effect in depression and anxiety disorders, which may constitute a common vulnerability factor. Increased insular and amygdalar involvement during negative word encoding may underlie heightened experience of, and an inability to disengage from, negative emotions in depressive disorders. Our results emphasize a common neurobiological deficiency in both MDD and anxiety disorders, which may mark a general insensitiveness to positive information. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stress, anxiety & depression among medical undergraduate students & their socio-demographic correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Shawaz; Gupta, Sandhya; Venkatarao, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Presence of psychological morbidity in medical undergraduate students has been reported from various countries across the world. Indian studies to document this burden are very few. Therefore, the presence of depression, anxiety and stress among medical undergraduate students was assessed using a previously validated and standardized instrument, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS 42) and the associations with their socio-demographic and personal characteristics wer...

  4. The effects of three different distraction methods on pain and anxiety in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahiner, Nejla Canbulat; Bal, Meltem Demirgoz

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate of three different distraction methods (distraction cards, listening to the music of cartoon and balloon inflation) on pain and anxiety relief of children during phlebotomy. This study is a prospective, randomized, and controlled trial. The sample consisted of 6 to 12 years old children who require blood tests. Children were randomized into four groups as the distraction cards, the music, the balloon inflation, and the control. Data were obtained by conducting interviews with the children, their parents, and the observer before and after the procedure. The pain levels of the children were assessed by the parent and observer reports as well as self-report using the Wong-Baker FACES. The anxiety levels of children were assessed by parent and observer reports using Children Fear Scale. One hundred and twenty children (mean age: 9.1 ± 1.6 years) were included. The self-reported procedural pain levels showed significant differences among the study groups (p = .040). The distraction card group (2.33 ± 3.24) had significantly lower pain levels (p = .057) than the control group (4.53 ± 3.23). The procedural child anxiety levels reported by the observer showed a significant difference among the study groups (p = .032). All the forms of distraction significantly reduced pain and anxiety perception. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. The correlation of anxiety and depression with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Rezaeitalab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a common sleep disorder characterized by repeated upper airway obstruction during sleep. While respiratory pauses followed by loud snoring and daytime sleepiness are the main symptoms of OSAS, the patients may complain from sleep disruption, headache, mood disturbance, irritability, and memory impairment. However, the association of sleep apnea with anxiety and depression is not completely understood. Adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, the treatment of choice for OSAS, may be influenced by psychological conditions, especially claustrophobia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of OSAS with anxiety and depression symptoms. This study also investigated the association of anxiety with body mass index (BMI and the severity of OSAS. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 178 adult individuals diagnosed with OSAS at the sleep laboratory between September 2008 and May 2012. The participants were interviewed according to a checklist regarding both their chief complaints and other associated symptoms. The psychological status was assessed according to Beck anxiety inventory (BAI and Beck depression inventory (BDI scoring. The severity of breathing disorder was classified as mild, moderate, and severe based on apnea-hypopnea index (AHI which was ascertained by overnight polysomnography. Daytime sleepiness was assessed by Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS. Results: The mean (SD age of participants was 50.33 years. In terms of sex, 85.5% of the study population were males and14.4% were females. We found no relation between sex and the symptoms of OSAS. Regarding the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms, 53.9% of the individuals had some degree of anxiety, while 46.1% demonstrated depressive symptoms. In terms of OSAS severity, this study showed that OSAS severity was associated with the frequency of anxiety, chocking, and sleepiness (P

  6. Elite Athletes’ In-event Competitive Anxiety Responses and Psychological Skills Usage under Differing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Hagan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Even though the assessment of competitive anxiety responses (intensity, interpretation, and frequency using the time-to-event paradigm has gained much attention, literature on the account of these same experiences in-event and their corresponding psychological skills adopted under differing conditions is limited. This is a follow up investigation to establish the extent to which associated anxiety responses are stable or dynamic and whether this pattern could be related to reported psychological skills under low or high stressful conditions across gender.Methods: Twenty-three high level (N = 13 males and 10 females Ghanaian Table Tennis players provided data through completion of modified versions of Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2, incorporated with directional and frequency of intrusion scales and the Test of Performance Strategies inventory during breaks within competitive fixtures.Results: MANCOVAs (gender × stress condition with follow-up analyses revealed no significant interactions and no main effect for gender but significant main effects were realized for all anxiety dimensions and psychological skills for only the second factor. Specifically, the intensity and frequency of cognitive and somatic state anxiety symptoms increased and were interpreted as debilitative under the high stress condition, although self-confidence and other array of psychological skills were highly displayed under the same stressful condition.Conclusion: Findings highlight the dynamic characteristics of in-event associated anxiety responses and ineffectiveness of deployed psychological skills regardless of gender. These perhaps show the exceptionality of affective experiences in an African setting, suggesting a culturally diversified approach to psychological skills application, if desirable effects are to be attained.

  7. Elite Athletes’ In-event Competitive Anxiety Responses and Psychological Skills Usage under Differing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, John E.; Pollmann, Dietmar; Schack, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Even though the assessment of competitive anxiety responses (intensity, interpretation, and frequency) using the time-to-event paradigm has gained much attention, literature on the account of these same experiences in-event and their corresponding psychological skills adopted under differing conditions is limited. This is a follow up investigation to establish the extent to which associated anxiety responses are stable or dynamic and whether this pattern could be related to reported psychological skills under low or high stressful conditions across gender. Methods: Twenty-three high level (N = 13 males and 10 females) Ghanaian Table Tennis players provided data through completion of modified versions of Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2, incorporated with directional and frequency of intrusion scales and the Test of Performance Strategies inventory during breaks within competitive fixtures. Results: MANCOVAs (gender × stress condition) with follow-up analyses revealed no significant interactions and no main effect for gender but significant main effects were realized for all anxiety dimensions and psychological skills for only the second factor. Specifically, the intensity and frequency of cognitive and somatic state anxiety symptoms increased and were interpreted as debilitative under the high stress condition, although self-confidence and other array of psychological skills were highly displayed under the same stressful condition. Conclusion: Findings highlight the dynamic characteristics of in-event associated anxiety responses and ineffectiveness of deployed psychological skills regardless of gender. These perhaps show the exceptionality of affective experiences in an African setting, suggesting a culturally diversified approach to psychological skills application, if desirable effects are to be attained. PMID:29312103

  8. Cannabinoids increase conditioned ultrasonic vocalisations and cat odour avoidance in rats: strain differences in drug-induced anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jonathon C; Dielenberg, Robert A; McGregor, Iain S

    2010-10-23

    Genetic disposition modulates the psychoactive effects of cannabis. Cannabinoids have a greater impact on brain regions that subserve anxiety in Wistar compared to Lewis strain rats. Here we aim to show that this correlates with strain differences in cannabinoid-induced anxiety-related behaviour. Lewis and Wistar rats were administered vehicle or the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist, CP 55,940 (10, 25 and 50μg/kg) before testing in the conditioned ultrasonic vocalization (USV), cat odour avoidance or open area avoidance models. Animals were placed in a chamber in which they had previously received footshock. Wistar but not Lewis rats re-exposed under the influence of all CP 55,940 doses emitted significantly more USVs than vehicle-treated rats. In the cat odour avoidance model, rats were exposed to cat odour and given the opportunity to hide in a small box. In Wistar but not Lewis rats, 50μg/kg of CP 55,940 magnified hiding behaviour promoted by cat odour exposure. Animals were also tested in the open area avoidance model which occurred in the same arena as the predatory avoidance model but without cat odour. In Wistar, but not Lewis rats, 25 and 50μg/kg of CP 55,940 increased the avoidance of the open space. CP 55,940 increased anxiety-related behaviour in Wistar rats but not Lewis rats providing a model to dissect the genetic basis of cannabinoid-induced anxiety. We show for the first time that cannabinoids magnify conditioned USVs and cat odour avoidance behaviour dependent on the strain being tested. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pediatric Cancer Patients' Treatment-Related Distress and Longer-Term Anxiety: An Individual Differences Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J; Harper, Felicity W K; Albrecht, Terrance L; Taub, Jeffrey W; Phipps, Sean; Penner, Louis A

    Although distress during treatment procedures and longer-term treatment-related anxiety are among the most common cancer-related stressors for children and their families, they are not invariant. This study examined whether individual differences in temperament and personality play a role in how children respond to treatment procedures. Attention control, a facet of the effortful control dimension of temperament, and the personality attribute ego-resilience were hypothesized to predict lower levels of distress during procedures. Moreover, ego-resilience and distress during procedures were hypothesized to account for indirect associations between attention control and longer-term treatment-related anxiety. Child gender was examined as a potential moderator of these relationships. Participants were 147 children undergoing treatment for pediatric cancer and their parents. At baseline, parents reported on children's effortful control and ego-resilience. Multiple raters assessed children's distress during multiple cancer-related procedures. Treatment-related anxiety was measured 3 and 9 months after the last assessed treatment procedure. Attention control was linked to ego-resilience and lower levels of distress, and these variables, in turn, accounted for indirect associations between attention control and treatment-related anxiety. Associations involving ego-resilience were stronger for boys than girls. Attention control plays an important role in children's immediate and longer-term responses to cancer-related medical procedures. Medical staff should consider individual differences in child temperament and personality when considering the nature and extent of support to provide to pediatric cancer patients and their families.

  10. Differences in HPA-axis and heart rate responsiveness to psychosocial stress in children with autism spectrum disorders with and without co-morbid anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollocks, Matthew J; Howlin, Patricia; Papadopoulos, Andrew S; Khondoker, Mizanur; Simonoff, Emily

    2014-08-01

    Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have much higher rates of anxiety disorders relative to their typically developing peers. However, there have been few attempts to investigate what physiological parameters may be associated with this elevated rate of anxiety. Therefore, this study investigated the physiological correlates of anxiety in ASD, with a focus on whether measures of heart rate and cortisol responsiveness to psychosocial stress differentiate those participants with ASD with and without a co-occurring anxiety disorder. A total of 75 male participants aged 10-16 years with normal intellectual ability underwent a psychosocial stress test. The participants included healthy controls (n=23), ASD only (ASD; n=20) and ASD with a comorbid anxiety disorder (ASDanx; n=32). Heart rate, heart rate variability and salivary cortisol were compared by fitting a piecewise regression model to examine baseline levels and change over time within and between the rest, stress and recovery phases of the stress test. The ASDanx group had different response patterns from both the ASD and control groups. The ASDanx group was characterized by a blunted cortisol and heart rate response to psychosocial stress. Furthermore, in the ASDanx group, reduced heart rate and cortisol responsiveness were significantly related to increased anxiety symptoms. This is the first study to report a possible physiological basis for co-occurring anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with ASD. It is possible that a non-adaptive physiological response to psychosocial stress may be related to the high prevalence of co-occurring anxiety disorders in people with ASD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anxiety Symptoms During Adolescence Predicts Salivary Cortisol in Early Adulthood Among Blacks; Sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Although the link between psychological distress and altered cortisol level has been already shown; very limited information exists about this association among Black youth. We tested sex differences in predictive role of symptoms of anxiety during adolescence on annual decline in morning salivary cortisol levels in early adulthood among Black youth. Data came from wave 1 (year 1994), wave 6 (year 2000), and wave 7 (year 2001) of the Flint adolescent study. In this study 176 Black youth (85 males and 91 females) were followed for 7 years from mean age of 15 at baseline to 22 at the end of follow up. Linear regression was used for data analysis with change in salivary cortisol from 2000 to 2001 as the dependent variable, symptoms of anxiety, at 1994 as independent variable, age, number of employed parents, depressive symptoms and alcohol use at 1994 as controls, and sex as the moderator. Higher level of anxiety symptoms at 1994 was predictive of a higher decline in morning salivary cortisol from 2000 to 2001 for all youths, while the effects of baseline socio-economics, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use were controlled. Among female participants, anxiety symptoms at 1994 were predictive of a greater decline in morning salivary cortisol level from 2000 to 2001. The association was not found among males. Our findings suggest sex differences in the predictive role of anxiety symptoms during adolescence on the annual decline in cortisol level during early adulthood. While most research on this topic is among White middle class individuals, our findings shed more light on the longitudinal links between psychological distress and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function among Black youth.

  12. Anxiety Symptoms During Adolescence Predicts Salivary Cortisol in Early Adulthood Among Blacks; Sex differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although the link between psychological distress and altered cortisol level has been already shown; very limited information exists about this association among Black youth. Objectives: We tested sex differences in predictive role of symptoms of anxiety during adolescence on annual decline in morning salivary cortisol levels in early adulthood among Black youth. Patients and Methods: Data came from wave 1 (year 1994), wave 6 (year 2000), and wave 7 (year 2001) of the Flint adolescent study. In this study 176 Black youth (85 males and 91 females) were followed for 7 years from mean age of 15 at baseline to 22 at the end of follow up. Linear regression was used for data analysis with change in salivary cortisol from 2000 to 2001 as the dependent variable, symptoms of anxiety, at 1994 as independent variable, age, number of employed parents, depressive symptoms and alcohol use at 1994 as controls, and sex as the moderator. Results: Higher level of anxiety symptoms at 1994 was predictive of a higher decline in morning salivary cortisol from 2000 to 2001 for all youths, while the effects of baseline socio-economics, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use were controlled. Among female participants, anxiety symptoms at 1994 were predictive of a greater decline in morning salivary cortisol level from 2000 to 2001. The association was not found among males. Conclusions: Our findings suggest sex differences in the predictive role of anxiety symptoms during adolescence on the annual decline in cortisol level during early adulthood. While most research on this topic is among White middle class individuals, our findings shed more light on the longitudinal links between psychological distress and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function among Black youth. PMID:26633980

  13. Evidence for serotonin function as a neurochemical difference between fear and anxiety disorders in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corchs, Felipe; Nutt, David J; Hince, Dana A; Davies, Simon J C; Bernik, Marcio; Hood, Sean D

    2015-10-01

    The relationships between serotonin and fear and anxiety disorders have been much studied yet many important questions remain, despite selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors having been the primary treatments for these disorders for some time. In order to explore this issue we performed a pooled analysis of six of our studies in remitted patients with a fear/anxiety disorder who were exposed to syndrome-specific aversive stimulation under acute tryptophan depletion. We based our analysis on the hypothesis that the inconsistencies observed in the studies could be predicted by Deakin and Graeff's theory about the dual role of serotonin in responses to threats, whereby serotonin is critical to prevent fear (panic) but not anxiety. In accordance with this view, our results give support to a dissociation of the disorders traditionally grouped under fear and anxiety-related disorders in terms of different roles of serotonin in modulation of responses to aversive stimulation. Implications for future studies and psychiatric nosology are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Individual differences in frontolimbic circuitry and anxiety emerge with adolescent changes in endocannabinoid signaling across species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Dylan G.; Fetcho, Robert N.; Jing, Deqiang; Li, Anfei; Glatt, Charles E.; Drysdale, Andrew T.; Cohen, Alexandra O.; Dellarco, Danielle V.; Yang, Rui R.; Dale, Anders M.; Jernigan, Terry L.; Lee, Francis S.; Casey, B.J.

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders peak in incidence during adolescence, a developmental window that is marked by dynamic changes in gene expression, endocannabinoid signaling, and frontolimbic circuitry. We tested whether genetic alterations in endocannabinoid signaling related to a common polymorphism in fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which alters endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) levels, would impact the development of frontolimbic circuitry implicated in anxiety disorders. In a pediatric imaging sample of over 1,000 3- to 21-y-olds, we show effects of the FAAH genotype specific to frontolimbic connectivity that emerge by ∼12 y of age and are paralleled by changes in anxiety-related behavior. Using a knock-in mouse model of the FAAH polymorphism that controls for genetic and environmental backgrounds, we confirm phenotypic differences in frontoamygdala circuitry and anxiety-related behavior by postnatal day 45 (P45), when AEA levels begin to decrease, and also, at P75 but not before. These results, which converge across species and level of analysis, highlight the importance of underlying developmental neurobiology in the emergence of genetic effects on brain circuitry and function. Moreover, the results have important implications for the identification of risk for disease and precise targeting of treatments to the biological state of the developing brain as a function of developmental changes in gene expression and neural circuit maturation. PMID:27001846

  15. No distinctions between different types of anxiety symptoms in pre-adolescents from the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdinand, RF; van Lang, NDJ; Ormel, J; Verhulst, FC

    2006-01-01

    Studies aimed at anxiety symptoms in children from the general population samples often make distinctions between symptoms of Separation Anxiety, Social Phobia, Panic Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Given the high comorbidity rates between these disorders, the usefulness of such

  16. Investigation on the neurobiological correlates of social anxiety disorder using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladky, R.

    2012-01-01

    Functional MRI is based on the very intuitive principle that neuronal activity leads to locally increased energy demand, which can be measured due to the different magnetic properties of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Interdisciplinary research and development in MR physics, engineering, bioinformatics and neuroscience have made fMRI an indispensible research tool for all domains of cognitive science. Besides basic research, fMRI has become a gold standard diagnostic method for clinical applications, as well. The main goal of the present doctoral thesis was to contribute to the understanding of the neural mechanisms of social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients. SAD is a disabling psychiatric conditions that impairs social interactions and acts as a major risk factor for depression and addiction. To this end, an fMRI study has been conducted on a population of SAD patients and healthy controls to highlight functional aberrations within the emotion regulation network. Failed adaptation towards social stressors, such as emotional faces, is a characterizing symptom of SAD. And indeed, in this study, which involved an emotion discrimination task, group differences in neural habituation of SAD patients were found in the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), two central nodes of the emotion regulation network. To highlight the causal neurobiological mechanisms, the same data were analyzed using dynamic causal modeling (DCM). In this study, a difference in effective connectivity between the OFC and the amygdala was found. In healthy subjects, the OFC showed to down-regulate amygdalar activation, which corresponds to the conception of cognitive top-down control over affective influences. In SAD patients, however, a positive effective connectivity from OFC to amygdala was found, indicating a positive feedback loop between these regions. This finding, thus, nurtures a neurobiological model that could explain the decreased inhibition of affective stimuli by cognitive

  17. Empirically Derived Subtypes of Lifetime Anxiety Disorders: Developmental and Clinical Correlates in U.S. Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Marcy; Georgiades, Katholiki; Lamers, Femke; Swanson, Sonja A.; Cui, Lihong; He, Jian-Ping; Avenevoli, Shelli; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the sex- and age-specific structure and comorbidity of lifetime anxiety disorders among U.S. adolescents. Method: The sample consisted of 2,539 adolescents (1,505 females and 1,034 males) from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement who met criteria for "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  18. Psychological Correlates of School Bullying Victimization: Academic Self-Concept, Learning Motivation and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims at detecting the association between students' bullying victimization at school and some psychological dimensions, referred to academic self-concept (for both Mathematics and Reading), learning motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, commitment to study) and test anxiety. A questionnaire including these measures was…

  19. Neural Correlates of Suspiciousness and Interactions with Anxiety during Emotional and Neutral Word Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joscelyn E Fisher

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Suspiciousness is usually classified as a symptom of psychosis, but it also occurs in depression and anxiety disorders. Though how suspiciousness overlaps with depression is not obvious, suspiciousness does seem to overlap with anxious apprehension and anxious arousal (e.g., verbal iterative processes and vigilance about environmental threat. However, suspiciousness also has unique characteristics (e.g., concern about harm from others and vigilance about social threat. Given that both anxiety and suspiciousness have been associated with abnormalities in emotion processing, it is unclear whether it is the unique characteristics of suspiciousness or the overlap with anxiety that drive abnormalities in emotion processing.. Event-related brain potentials were obtained during an emotion-word Stroop task. Results indicated that suspiciousness interacts with anxious apprehension to modulate initial stimulus perception processes. Suspiciousness is associated with attention to all stimuli regardless of emotion content. In contrast, anxious arousal is associated with a later response to emotion stimuli only. These results suggest that suspiciousness and anxious apprehension share overlapping processes, but suspiciousness alone is associated with a hyperactive early vigilance response. Depression did not interact with suspiciousness to predict response to emotion stimuli. These findings suggest that it may be informative to assess suspiciousness in conjunction with anxiety in order to better understand how these symptoms interact and contribute to dysfunctional emotion processing.

  20. Physical and Physiological Correlates of Social Physique Anxiety in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Çetin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship among social physique anxiety, physical measures such as body fat and physical self-concept. 367 (226 male and 141 female) college students ranging in age from 21 to 33 participated in the study. Participants were randomly chosen among the healthy students without any metabolic and…

  1. Neural Correlates of Outcome of the Psychotherapy Compared to Antidepressant Therapy in Anxiety and Depression Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kalsi, Navkiran; Altavilla, Daniela; Tambelli, Renata; Aceto, Paola; Trentini, Cristina; Di Giorgio, Chiara; Lai, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    The most prevalent mental disorders, anxiety and depression, are commonly associated with structural and functional changes in the fronto-limbic brain areas. The clinical trials investigating patients with affective disorders showed different outcome to different treatments such as psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy. It is, however, still unexplored how these interventions approach affect the functional brain. This meta-analysis aims to compare the effects of psychotherapy compared to antidepre...

  2. Gender difference of unconscious attentional bias in high trait anxiety individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jieqing; Ma, Zheng; Gao, Xiaochao; Wu, Yanhong; Fang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    By combining binocular suppression technique and a probe detection paradigm, we investigated attentional bias to invisible stimuli and its gender difference in both high trait anxiety (HTA) and low trait anxiety (LTA) individuals. As an attentional cue, happy or fearful face pictures were presented to HTAs and LTAs for 800 ms either consciously or unconsciously (through binocular suppression). Participants were asked to judge the orientation of a gabor patch following the face pictures. Their performance was used to measure attentional effect induced by the cue. We found gender differences of attentional effect only in the unconscious condition with HTAs. Female HTAs exhibited difficulty in disengaging attention from the location where fearful faces were presented, while male HTAs showed attentional avoidance of it. Our results suggested that the failure to find attentional avoidance of threatening stimuli in many previous studies might be attributed to consciously presented stimuli and data analysis regardless of participants' gender. These findings also contributed to our understanding of gender difference in anxiety disorder.

  3. Gender difference of unconscious attentional bias in high trait anxiety individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqing Tan

    Full Text Available By combining binocular suppression technique and a probe detection paradigm, we investigated attentional bias to invisible stimuli and its gender difference in both high trait anxiety (HTA and low trait anxiety (LTA individuals. As an attentional cue, happy or fearful face pictures were presented to HTAs and LTAs for 800 ms either consciously or unconsciously (through binocular suppression. Participants were asked to judge the orientation of a gabor patch following the face pictures. Their performance was used to measure attentional effect induced by the cue. We found gender differences of attentional effect only in the unconscious condition with HTAs. Female HTAs exhibited difficulty in disengaging attention from the location where fearful faces were presented, while male HTAs showed attentional avoidance of it. Our results suggested that the failure to find attentional avoidance of threatening stimuli in many previous studies might be attributed to consciously presented stimuli and data analysis regardless of participants' gender. These findings also contributed to our understanding of gender difference in anxiety disorder.

  4. Differences among Adult COAs and Adult Non-COAs on Levels of Self-Esteem, Depression, and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, David T.; Roberts, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    Examined self-esteem, depression, and anxiety among 60 adult children of alcoholics (COAs) and 143 adult non-COAs. Subjects completed Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, demographic questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Found no significant differences between COAs and…

  5. Anxiety sensitivity and racial differences in sleep duration: Results from a national survey of adults with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Carmela; Giorgio Cosenzo, Luciana Andrea; Fan, Weijia; Doyle, David Matthew; Shaffer, Jonathan A

    2017-05-01

    Although Blacks sleep between 37 and 75min less per night than non-Hispanic Whites, research into what drives racial differences in sleep duration is limited. We examined the association of anxiety sensitivity, a cognitive vulnerability, and race (Blacks vs. White) with short sleep duration (anxiety sensitivity mediated race differences in sleep duration in a nationally representative sample of adults with cardiovascular disease. Overall, 1289 adults (115 Black, 1174 White) with a self-reported physician/health professional diagnosis of ≥1 myocardial infarction completed an online survey. Weighted multivariable logistic regressions and mediation analyses with bootstrapping and case resampling were conducted. Anxiety sensitivity and Black vs. White race were associated with 4%-84% increased odds, respectively, of short sleep duration. Anxiety sensitivity mediated Black-White differences in sleep duration. Each anxiety sensitivity subscale was also a significant mediator. Implications for future intervention science to address sleep disparities are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Individual correlates of self-stigma in patients with anxiety disorders with and without comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ociskova M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marie Ociskova,1,2 Jan Prasko,1 Dana Kamaradova,1 Ales Grambal,1 Zuzana Sigmundova1 1Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital in Olomouc, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, 2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, Palacky University in Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic Background: A number of psychiatric patients experience stigma connected to prejudices about mental disorders. It has been shown that stigma is most harmful when it is internalized. Most of the studies were performed on individuals either with psychoses or with mood disorders, and hence, there are almost no studies with other diagnostic categories. The goals of this research were to identify factors that are significantly related to self-stigma in patients with anxiety disorders and to suggest possible models of causality for these relationships.Methods: A total of 109 patients with anxiety disorders and possible comorbid depressive or personality disorders, who were admitted to the psychotherapeutic department participated in this study. All patients completed several psychodiagnostic methods, ie, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Version, Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, and Clinical Global Impression (also completed by the senior psychiatrist.Results: The overall level of self-stigma was positively associated with a comorbid personality disorder, more severe symptomatology, more intense symptoms of anxiety and depression, and higher levels of dissociation and harm avoidance. Self-stigma was negatively related to hope, reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness. Multiple regression analysis showed that the most significant factors connected to self-stigma are harm avoidance, the intensity of depressive symptoms, and self-directedness. Two models of causality were proposed and validated. It

  7. Individual Differences in Subjective Utility and Risk Preferences: The Influence of Hedonic Capacity and Trait Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon R. Howlett

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in decision-making are important in both normal populations and psychiatric conditions. Variability in decision-making could be mediated by different subjective utilities or by other processes. For example, while traditional economic accounts attribute risk aversion to a concave subjective utility curve, in practice other factors could affect risk behavior. This distinction may have important implications for understanding the biological basis of variability in decision-making and for developing interventions to improve decision-making. Another aspect of decision-making that may vary between individuals is the sensitivity of subjective utility to counterfactual outcomes (outcomes that could have occurred, but did not. We investigated decision-making in relation to hedonic capacity and trait anxiety, two traits that relate to psychiatric conditions but also vary in the general population. Subjects performed a decision-making task, in which they chose between low- and high-risk gambles to win 0, 20, or 40 points on each trial. Subjects then rated satisfaction after each outcome on a visual analog scale, indicating subjective utility. Hedonic capacity was positively associated with the subjective utility of winning 20 points but was not associated with the concavity of the subjective utility curve (constructed using the mean subjective utility of winning 0, 20, or 40 points. Consistent with economic theory, concavity of the subjective utility curve was associated with risk aversion. Hedonic capacity was independently associated with risk seeking (i.e., not mediated by the shape of the subjective utility curve, while trait anxiety was unrelated to risk preferences. Contrary to our expectations, counterfactual sensitivity was unrelated to hedonic capacity and trait anxiety. Nevertheless, trait anxiety was associated with a self-report measure of regret-proneness, suggesting that counterfactual influences may occur via a pathway

  8. Anxiety disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women of other races and ethnicities. 7 What causes anxiety disorders? Researchers think anxiety disorders are caused by a ... Asnaani, A… .Hofmann, S.G. (2011). Gender Differences in Anxiety Disorders: Prevalence, Course of Illness, Comorbidity and Burden of Illness . Journal of Psychiatric ...

  9. Electrophysiological correlates of emotional source memory in high-trait-anxiety individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Cui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between recognition memory and emotion has become a research hotspot in recent years. Dual process theory posits that familiarity and recollection are two separate processes contributing to recognition memory, but further experimental evidence is needed. The present study explored the emotional context effects on successful and unsuccessful source retrieval amongst 15 high-trait-anxiety college students by using event-related potentials (ERPs measurement. During study, a happy, fearful, or neutral face picture firstly was displayed, then a Chinese word was superimposed centrally on the picture and subjects were asked to remember the word and the corresponding type of picture. During test participants were instructed to press one of four buttons to indicate whether displayed word was an old or new word? And then, for old word, indicate whether it had been shown with a fearful, happy or neutral face during study. ERPs were generally more positive for remembered words than for new words and the ERP difference was termed as an old/new effect. It was found that, for successful source retrieval (it meaned both item and source were remembered accurately between 500 and 700ms (corresponding to a late positive component, LPC, there were significant old/new effects in all contexts. However, for unsuccessful source retrieval (it meaned the correct recognition of old items matched with incorrect source attribution, there were no significant old/new effects in happy and neutral contexts, though significant old/ new effects were observed in the fearful context. Between 700 and 1200ms (corresponding to a late slow wave, LSW, there were significant old/new effects for successful source retrieval in happy and neutral contexts. However, in the fearful context, the old/new effects were reversed, ERPs were more negative for successful source retrieval compared to correct rejections. Moreover, there were significant emotion effects for successful

  10. Pediatric Cancer Patients’ Treatment-Related Distress and Longer-Term Anxiety: An Individual Differences Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Harper, Felicity W. K.; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Taub, Jeffrey W.; Phipps, Sean; Penner, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although distress during treatment procedures and longer-term treatment-related anxiety are among the most common cancer-related stressors for children and their families, they are not invariant. This study examined whether individual differences in temperament and personality play a role in how children respond to treatment procedures. Attention control, a facet of the effortful control dimension of temperament, and the personality attribute ego-resilience were hypothesized to predict lower levels of distress during procedures. Moreover, ego-resilience and distress during procedures were hypothesized to account for indirect associations between attention control and longer-term treatment-related anxiety. Child gender was examined as a potential moderator of these relationships. Method Participants were 147 children undergoing treatment for pediatric cancer and their parents. At baseline, parents reported on children’s effortful control and ego-resilience. Multiple raters assessed children’s distress during multiple cancer-related procedures. Treatment-related anxiety was measured 3 months and 9 months after the last assessed treatment procedure. Results Attention control was linked to ego-resilience and lower levels of distress, and these variables, in turn, accounted for indirect associations between attention control and treatment-related anxiety. Associations involving ego-resilience were stronger for boys than girls. Conclusion Attention control plays an important role in children’s immediate and longer-term responses to cancer-related medical procedures. Medical staff should consider individual differences in child temperament and personality when considering the nature and extent of support to provide to pediatric cancer patients and their families. PMID:27802258

  11. Anti-anxiety activity of hydro alcoholic extract of Scoparia dulcis Linn. assessed using different experimental anxiety models In rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arasan Elayaraja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Scoparia dulcis belonging to the family Scrophulariaceae is an valuable medicinal herb, had showed antiviral, antimalarial, anticancer and antidiabetic activities. The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-anxiety activity of crude ethanolic extract of S.dulcis L by various behavioural models. Preliminary phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of  phenols and flavonoids. The extract at 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg was evaluated for anti anxiety activity by  Open-field test [OFT], Elevated plus-maze test [EPM], Elevated Zero-maze test [EZM],, Social interaction test [SI] And  Novelty induced suppressed feeling latency test [FL]   and the results of behavioral tests indicated the dose dependent anti-anxiety activity of  Scoparia dulcis which is comparable to standard. It was concluded that crude ethanolic extract showed anti anxiety activity.Further studies are needed to identify the anxiolytic mechanism(s and the phytochemicals responsible for the observed anxiolytic effect  of the hydroalcoholic extract of Scoparia dulcis. 

  12. DSM-5 illness anxiety disorder and somatic symptom disorder: Comorbidity, correlates, and overlap with DSM-IV hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Jill M; Hobbs, Megan J; Mahoney, Alison E J; Wong, Shiu Kelvin; Andrews, Gavin

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the reliability, validity and utility of DSM-5 illness anxiety disorder (IAD) and somatic symptom disorder (SSD), and explore their overlap with DSM-IV Hypochondriasis in a health anxious sample. Treatment-seeking patients with health anxiety (N=118) completed structured diagnostic interviews to assess DSM-IV Hypochondriasis, DSM-5 IAD, SSD, and comorbid mental disorders, and completed self-report measures of health anxiety, comorbid symptoms, cognitions and behaviours, and service utilization. IAD and SSD were more reliable diagnoses than Hypochondriasis (kappa estimates: IAD: 0.80, SSD: 0.92, Hypochondriasis: 0.60). 45% of patients were diagnosed with SSD, 47% with IAD, and 8% with comorbid IAD/SSD. Most patients with IAD fluctuated between seeking and avoiding care (61%), whereas care-seeking (25%) and care-avoidant subtypes were less common (14%). Half the sample met criteria for DSM-IV Hypochondriasis; of those, 56% met criteria for SSD criteria, 36% for IAD, and 8% for comorbid IAD/SSD. Compared to IAD, SSD was characterized by more severe health anxiety, somatic symptoms, depression, and higher health service use, and higher rates of major depressive disorder, panic disorder and agoraphobia. DSM-5 IAD and SSD classifications reliably detect more cases of clinically significant health anxiety than DSM-IV Hypochondriasis. The differences between IAD and SSD appear to be due to severity. Future research should explore the generalizability of these findings to other samples, and whether diagnostic status predicts treatment response and long-term outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gender differences in major depressive disorder: results from the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Jérôme J J; Roest, Annelieke M; Nolen, Willem A; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Jonge, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Although an overall gender difference in prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been well established, several questions concerning gender differences in the clinical manifestation of depression remain. This study aims to identify gender differences in psychopathology, treatment, and public health consequences in patients with MDD. Baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used, including 1115 participants (364 men, 751 women, mean age 41 years) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of current MDD. Characteristics studied included symptom profiles, comorbidity, treatment, and public health consequences. Women reported a younger age of onset of single (27.8 years vs. 31.6 years; p=0.001) and recurrent MDD (24.8 years vs. 27.6 years; p=0.014), a higher comorbidity of panic disorder with agoraphobia (24.9% vs. 17.3%; p=0.006) and life-time overall anxiety disorder (77.6% vs. 71.4%; p=0.029) than men. More men than women suffered from comorbid alcohol dependence or abuse (48.1% vs. 24.5%; pdepression in women (24.6% vs. 17.3%; p=0.009) was found. Women were treated more frequently by an alternative caretaker (20.6% vs. 14.8%; p=0.025), men more often in mental health care organizations (61.0% vs. 53.7%; p=0.025). No gender differences in frequency of medication use or counseling were found. Cross sectional design. Main gender differences in the clinical presentation of MDD concerned a younger age of onset, higher anxiety and lower alcohol use comorbidity and higher prevalence of atypical depression in women. These differences were accompanied by differences in health care use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Neural Correlates of Outcome of the Psychotherapy Compared to Antidepressant Therapy in Anxiety and Depression Disorders: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Navkiran; Altavilla, Daniela; Tambelli, Renata; Aceto, Paola; Trentini, Cristina; Di Giorgio, Chiara; Lai, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    The most prevalent mental disorders, anxiety and depression, are commonly associated with structural and functional changes in the fronto-limbic brain areas. The clinical trials investigating patients with affective disorders showed different outcome to different treatments such as psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy. It is, however, still unexplored how these interventions approach affect the functional brain. This meta-analysis aims to compare the effects of psychotherapy compared to antidepressant therapy on functional brain activity in anxiety and depression disorders. Twenty-one samples with psychotherapy and seventeen samples with antidepressant therapy were included. The main finding showed an inverse effect of the two treatments on the right paracingulate activity. The patients undergoing psychotherapy showed an increase in the right paracingulate activity while pharmacological treatment led to a decrease of activation of this area. This finding seems to support the recent studies that hypothesize how psychotherapy, through the self-knowledge and the meaning processing, involves a top-down emotional regulation.

  15. Differences in acculturation and trajectories of anxiety and alcohol consumption among Latino mothers and daughters in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Maritza; Sanchez, Mariana; Rojas, Patria; Villar, Maria Elena; De La Rosa, Mario

    2015-01-01

    This study documents generational differences in the impact of acculturation related factors on anxiety and alcohol use behaviors between adult Latino mothers and adult daughters. Findings indicate that for mothers (n=144) and daughters (n=149), self-reported anxiety levels decreased from baseline to follow up (p=.001). For mothers at follow up (n=147), results indicate that affiliation to Latino culture is negatively associated with anxiety (p= .018). Conversely, employment and partner relationship stress are positively associated with anxiety (p = .05 and p = .016 respectively). In addition, self-reported anxiety is positively associated with alcohol intake (p = .002) and employment (p = .007). For daughters(n=149), partner relationship stressors, anxiety and alcohol intake decreased significantly from baseline to follow up at a p = .01, p = .01 , p = .05 respectively. In addition, for daughters at baseline (n=160), affiliation to U.S. culture is positively associated with self-reported anxiety (p = .01). Employment is negatively associated with alcohol consumption (p = .027). At follow up (n=152), daughters’ partner relationship stress is positively associated with self- reported anxiety (p = .049). Findings in this study can be used to develop culturally appropriate interventions, support groups and individual therapy sessions by taking into consideration generational differences among Latino women. PMID:26399773

  16. Variation in levels of anxiety to dental treatment among nonorphan and orphan children living under different systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikkala, Jayanth; Chandrabhatla, Srinivas Kumar; Vanga, Narasimha Rao V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is essential to understand the factors influencing the level of anxiety to dental treatment among different children as it can influence seeking dental care. Here, we assessed the impact of parental loss on dental anxiety among 6-13-year-old children. Materials and Methods: A total of 444 children within the age group 6-13 years were selected. Group 1 consisted of orphan children living in government-run orphanages, Group 2 consisted of orphan children taken care by a person with a motherly relationship, Group 3 consisted of abandoned children living in private organization and Group 4 consisted of children living with their parents. Dental anxiety was measured using children's fear survey schedule-dental subscale and modified faces version of modified child dental anxiety scale. Results: The highest number of anxious children were observed in Group 4 and the difference in the anxiety levels among the four groups was found to be highly statistically significant. Children living in government-run orphanages had least dental anxiety. Conclusion: All the orphans may not have the same anxiety levels and the environment of upbringing the orphans plays a significant role in the development of the anxiety. PMID:26604601

  17. The effect of different types of music on patients' preoperative anxiety: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uğraş, Gülay Altun; Yıldırım, Güven; Yüksel, Serpil; Öztürkçü, Yusuf; Kuzdere, Mustafa; Öztekin, Seher Deniz

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine effect of three different types of music on patients' preoperative anxiety. This randomized controlled trial included 180 patients who were randomly divided into four groups. While the control group didn't listen to music, the experimental groups respectively listened to natural sounds, Classical Turkish or Western Music for 30 min. The State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR) and cortisol levels were checked. The post-music STAI-S, SBP, DBP, HR and cortisol levels of the patients in music groups were significantly lower than pre-music time. All types of music decreased STAI-S, SBP, and cortisol levels; additionally natural sounds reduced DBP; Classical Turkish Music also decreased DBP, and HR. All types of music had an effect on reducing patients' preoperative anxiety, and listening to Classical Turkish Music was particularly the most effective one. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cortical differences in diverticular disease and correlation with symptom reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitiot, A; Smith, J K; Humes, D J; Garratt, J; Francis, S T; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C; Marciani, L

    2018-02-02

    Recent studies have shown that the brain of patients with gastrointestinal disease differ both structurally and functionally from that of controls. Highly somatizing diverticular disease (HSDD) patients were also shown to differ from low somatizing (LSDD) patients functionally. This study aimed to investigate how they differed structurally. Four diseases subgroups were studied in a cross-sectional design: 20 patients with asymptomatic diverticular disease (ADD), 18 LSDD, 16 HSDD, and 18 with irritable bowel syndrome. We divided DD patients into LSDD and HSDD using a cutoff of 6 on the Patient Health Questionnaire 12 Somatic Symptom (PHQ12-SS) scale. All patients underwent a 1-mm isotropic structural brain MRI scan and were assessed for somatization, hospital anxiety, depression, and pain catastrophizing. Whole brain volumetry, cortical thickness analysis and voxel-based morphometry were carried out using Freesurfer and SPM. We observed decreases in gray matter density in the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and in the mid-cingulate and motor cortex, and increases in the left (19, 20) and right (19, 38) Brodmann Areas. The average cortical thickness differed overall across groups (P = .002) and regionally: HSDD > ADD in the posterior cingulate cortex (P = .03), HSDD > LSDD in the dlPFC (P = .03) and in the ventrolateral PFC (P diverticular disease patients. The data show brain differences in the pain network. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Do the various categories of somatoform disorders differ from each other in symptom profile and psychological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Aneja, Jitender; Sharma, Akhilesh; Malhotra, Rama; Varma, Sannidhya; Basu, Debasish; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-03-01

    In routine clinical practice, the subcategories of various somatoform disorders are rarely used by the primary care physicians and there is lack of data to suggest any difference in the clinical manifestations of these subcategories. To compare the symptom profile, anxiety, depression, alexithymia, somato-sensory amplification and hypochondriasis of patients with persistent somatoform pain disorder with other subtypes of somatoform disorder. A total of 119 patients diagnosed with somatoform disorders according to the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision (ICD-10) were evaluated for prevalence of somatic symptoms, anxiety, depression, alexithymia, hypochondriacal worry and somato-sensory amplification. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of various somatic complaints between those with persistent somatoform pain disorder group and those diagnosed with other somatoform disorders. Co-morbid anxiety and depression were seen in two-thirds of the patients, but again there was no difference in the prevalence of the same between the two groups. Similarly, no significant differences were found on alexithymia, hypochondriasis and somato-sensory amplification scales between the persistent somatoform pain disorder group and the group with other somatoform disorders. There are no significant differences between the various subcategories of somatoform disorders with regard to the prevalence of somatic symptoms, anxiety or depression and psychological correlates of alexithymia, hypochondriasis and somato-sensory amplification. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Disability in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Hardeveld, F.; de Graaf, R.; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety

  1. Disability in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety

  2. Disability in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety

  3. Sensed presence as a correlate of sleep paralysis distress, social anxiety and waking state social imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonova, Elizaveta; Nielsen, Tore; Stenstrom, Philippe; Simard, Valérie; Frantova, Elena; Donderi, Don

    2008-03-01

    Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) is a common parasomnia characterized by an inability to move or speak and often accompanied by hallucinations of a sensed presence nearby. Recent research has linked ISP, and sensed presence more particularly, with social anxiety and other psychopathologies. The present study used a large sample of respondents to an internet questionnaire (N=193) to test whether these associations are due to a general personality factor, affect distress, which is implicated in nightmare suffering and hypothesized to involve dysfunctional social imagery processes. A new measure, ISP distress, was examined in relation to features of ISP experiences, to self-reported psychopathological diagnosis, to scores on the Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale and to scores on a new questionnaire subscale assessing social imagery in a variety of waking states. Three main results were found: (1) ISP experiences are only weakly associated with a prior diagnosis of mental disorder, (2) sensed presence during ISP is associated preferentially with ISP distress, and (3) ISP distress is associated with dysfunctional social imagery. A general predisposition to affective distress may influence the distress associated with ISP experiences; overly passive social imagery may, in turn, be implicated in this affect distress influence.

  4. Sex differences in the neuro-immune consequences of stress: Focus on depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhbat, Mandakh; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2018-01-01

    Women appear to be more vulnerable to the depressogenic effects of inflammation than men. Chronic stress, one of the most pertinent risk factors of depression and anxiety, is known to induce behavioral and affective-like deficits via neuroimmune alterations including activation of the brain's immune cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and subsequent changes in neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity within stress-related neural circuitry. Despite well-established sexual dimorphisms in the stress response, immunity, and prevalence of stress-linked psychiatric illnesses, much of current research investigating the neuroimmune impact of stress remains exclusively focused on male subjects. We summarize and evaluate here the available data regarding sex differences in the neuro-immune consequences of stress, and some of the physiological factors contributing to these differences. Furthermore, we discuss the extent to which sex differences in stress-related neuroinflammation can account for the overall female bias in stress-linked psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. The currently available evidence from rodent studies does not unequivocally support the peripheral inflammatory changes seen in women following stress. Replication of many recent findings in stress-related neuroinflammation in female subjects is necessary in order to build a framework in which we can assess the extent to which sex differences in stress-related inflammation contribute to the overall female bias in stress-related affective disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Peer influence and gender differences in problematic cannabis use among individuals with social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Mallott, Michael A; Schmidt, Norman B; Taylor, Jeanette

    2006-01-01

    Despite epidemiological reports indicating that individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are at heightened risk for cannabis use disorders (CUD), there is a dearth of research investigating the mechanisms underlying the nature of this co-occurrence. The present study examined the role of a well-established risk factor for cannabis use, peer influence, on the relationship between symptoms of SAD and CUD in a non-referred sample (N = 123). Lifetime symptoms of SAD and CUD were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview. SAD symptoms were significantly correlated with CUD symptoms and this relationship was moderated by peer use of both alcohol and cannabis. Further, a gender effect indicated that the relationship between symptoms of SAD and CUD occurred only in women. Implications of these novel findings are discussed.

  6. Differences in clinical intrusive thoughts between obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and hypochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Nogueira-Arjona, Raquel; Godoy-Ávila, Antonio; Gavino-Lázaro, Aurora; Freeston, Mark H

    2017-11-01

    Differences and similarities between intrusive thoughts typical of obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and hypochondriasis are relevant for their differential diagnosis, formulation, and psychological treatment. Previous research in non-clinical samples pointed out the relevance of some process variables, such as responsibility, guilt, or neutralization strategies. This research is aimed to investigate the differences and similarities between clinical obsessions, worries, and illness intrusions in some of these process variables. A second aim is to identify models based on these variables that could reliably differentiate between them. Three groups of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 35; 60% women, mean age 38.57), generalized anxiety disorder (n = 36; 61.1% women, mean age 41.50), and hypochondriasis (n = 34; 70.6% women, mean age 31.59) were evaluated using the Cognitive Intrusions Questionnaire-Transdiagnostic Version (Romero-Sanchiz, Nogueira-Arjona, Godoy-Ávila, Gavino-Lázaro, & Freeston, ). The results showed that some appraisals (e.g., responsibility or egodystonicity), emotions (e.g., guilt or insecurity), neutralization strategies, and other variables (e.g., verbal content or trigger from body sensation) are relevant for the discrimination between obsessions, worries, and illness intrusions. The results also showed 3 stable models based on these variables for the discrimination between these thoughts. The implication of these results in the diagnosis, formulation, and psychological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and hypochondriasis is discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Correlates of (inappropriate) benzodiazepine use: the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthey, Leonie; van Veen, Tineke; Giltay, Erik J; Stoop, José E; Neven, Arie Knuistingh; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Zitman, Frans G

    2011-02-01

    Results on determinants of benzodiazepine (BZD) use in general and inappropriate use were inconsistent and mostly univariate. The relative importance of sociodemographic, psychological and physical determinants has never been investigated in a comprehensive, multivariate model. We included 429 BZD users and 2423 non-users from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) in order to investigate sociodemographic, psychological and physical determinants of BZD use and inappropriate use by logistic and linear regression analyses. BZDs were used by a considerable proportion of the 2852 NESDA participants (15.0%). BZD use was independently associated with older age, singleness, unemployment, treatment in secondary care, higher medical consumption (more severe) anxiety, depression (OR [95% CI]=1.95 [1.29, 2.93]), comorbidity, insomnia, SSRI (OR [95% CI]=2.05 [1.55, 2.70]), TCA and other antidepressant (OR [95% CI]=2.44 [1.64, 3.62]) use. Overall, BZD use was rarely in accordance with all guidelines, mainly because most users (82.5%) exceeded the recommended duration of safe use. Inappropriate use was independently associated with older age (β=0.130) and chronic illnesses (β=0.120). Higher scores on agreeableness were associated with less inappropriate use. Mentally or physically vulnerable subjects were most likely to use BZDs. The most vulnerable (i.e. the old and physically ill) BZD users were at highest risk of inappropriate BZD use. Without further evidence of the effectiveness of BZDs in long-term use, caution in initiating BZD prescriptions is recommended, particularly when patients are chronically ill and old, as those are most likely to display inappropriate use. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Neural correlates of psychotherapy in anxiety and depression: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Messina

    Full Text Available Several studies have used neuroimaging methods to identify neural change in brain networks associated to emotion regulation after psychotherapy of depression and anxiety. In the present work we adopted a meta-analytic technique specific to neuroimaging data to evaluate the consistence of empirical findings and assess models of therapy that have been proposed in the literature. Meta-analyses were conducted with the Activation Likelihood Estimation technique, which evaluates the overlap between foci of activation across studies. The analysis included 16 studies found in Pubmed (200 foci of activation and 193 patients. Separate meta-analyses were conducted on studies of 1 depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and panic disorder investigated with rest state metabolism (6 studies, 70 patients; 2 depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and panic disorder investigated with task-related activation studies (5 studies, 65 patients; 3 the previous studies considered jointly; and 4 phobias investigated with studies on exposure-related activation (5 studies, 57 patients. Studies on anxiety and depression gave partially consistent results for changes in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and in the posterior cingulated gyrus/precuneus. Several areas of change in the temporal lobes were also observed. Studies on the therapy of phobia were consistent with a reduction of activity in medial temporal areas. The cluster of change in the prefrontal cortex may refer to increased recruitment of control processes, as hypothesized by influential models of emotion regulation changes due to psychotherapy. However, not all areas associated with controlled emotion regulation were detected in the meta-analysis, while involvement of midline structures suggested changes in self-related information processing. Changes in phobia were consistent with reduced reactivity to phobic stimuli.

  9. Race and Sex Differences in College Student Physical Activity Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Laura H.; Raedeke, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess sex/race differences on psychosocial correlates of physical activity among college students. Methods: Survey research protocol. Results: Students (n = 636) exercised an average of 3.5 days per week, with black females being the least active. Across subgroups, health/fitness was rated as the most important motive for exercise,…

  10. Perceived Performance Anxiety in Advanced Musicians Specializing in Different Musical Genres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgi, Ioulia; Creech, Andrea; Welch, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Most research on musical performance anxiety has focused on musicians coming from a classical background, and performance anxiety experiences of musicians outside the western classical genre remain under-researched. The aim of this study was to investigate perceived performance anxiety experiences in undergraduate and professional musicians and to…

  11. Investigation of Preservice Teachers' Speech Anxiety with Different Points of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out the level of speech anxiety of last year students at Education Faculties and the effects of speech anxiety. For this purpose, speech anxiety inventory was delivered to 540 pre-service teachers at 2013-2014 academic year using stratified sampling method. Relational screening model was used in the study. To…

  12. No Differences between Group versus Individual Treatment of Childhood Anxiety Disorders in a Randomised Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Juliette M.; Van Widenfelt, Brigit M.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Van Der Leeden, Adelinde J. M.; Van Gastel, Willemijn; Treffers, Philip D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The present study compares an individual versus a group format in the delivery of manualised cognitive-behavioural therapy (FRIENDS) for children with anxiety disorders. Clinically referred children (aged 8 to 12) diagnosed with Separation Anxiety Disorder (n = 52), Generalised Anxiety Disorder (n = 37), Social Phobia (n = 22) or…

  13. Anxiety and depression symptoms in women and men from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum: parity differences and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Conde, Ana

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate both anxiety and depression symptoms from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum, comparing women and men and first and second-time parents. A sample of 260 Portuguese couples (N=520), first or second-time parents, recruited in an Obstetrics Out-patients Unit, filled in the State-Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) and the Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Scale (EPDS) at the 1st, 2nd and 3rd pregnancy trimesters, childbirth, and 3-months postpartum. A decrease in anxiety and depression symptoms from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum was found in both women and men, as well as in first and second-time parents. Men presented less anxiety and depression symptoms than women, but the same pattern of symptoms over time. Second-time parents showed more anxiety and depression symptoms than first-time parents and a different pattern of symptoms over time: an increase in anxiety and depression symptoms from the 3rd trimester to childbirth was observed in first-time parents versus a decrease in second-time parents. The voluntary nature of the participation may have lead to a selection bias; women and men who agreed to participate could be those who presented fewer anxiety and depression symptoms. Moreover, the use of self-report symptom measures does not give us the level of possible disorder in participants. Anxiety and depression symptoms diminish from pregnancy to the postpartum period in all parents. Patterns of anxiety and depression symptoms from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum are similar in women and men, but somewhat different in first and second-time parents. Second-time parents should also be considered while studying and intervening during pregnancy and the postpartum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Escitalopram in the treatment of social anxiety disorder: analysis of efficacy for different clinical subgroups and symptom dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Dan J; Kasper, Siegfried; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford

    2004-01-01

    Escitalopram has demonstrated efficacy for the acute treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in two placebo-controlled trials and for long-term treatment in a relapse-prevention study. Social anxiety disorder is a heterogeneous disorder. This study questions whether this new selective serotonin...... of the primary efficacy scale, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), was undertaken, and a determination made of whether treatment effects were similar for the different symptom dimensions. Escitalopram was effective in both younger and older patients, in male and female patients, and in patients with more...... and less severe social anxiety symptoms. The LSAS factor analysis showed six factors, which were differentially associated with different areas of disability. Escitalopram was significantly superior to placebo for all six symptom dimensions. The treatment effects of escitalopram were independent of gender...

  15. The relationship of anxiety to childhood depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvell, N; Brophy, C; Finch, A J

    1985-04-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between anxiety and depression in emotionally disturbed children, 30 hospitalized inpatient children were individually administered the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), the Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-Revised (CMAS-R), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC). Results indicated a significant relationship between CDI scores, the CMAS-R and its factors, and the STAIC. Correlations between the various factors of anxiety and depression suggest a complex relationship between the two constructs. Stepwise regression analyses indicated further the complexity of this relationship. Results were discussed in terms of the possible differential role which the different anxiety factors play in depression.

  16. The Effects of Anxiety on the Recognition of Multisensory Emotional Cues with Different Cultural Familiarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Koizumi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Anxious individuals have been shown to interpret others' facial expressions negatively. However, whether this negative interpretation bias depends on the modality and familiarity of emotional cues remains largely unknown. We examined whether trait-anxiety affects recognition of multisensory emotional cues (ie, face and voice, which were expressed by actors from either the same or different cultural background as the participants (ie, familiar in-group and unfamiliar out-group. The dynamic face and voice cues of the same actors were synchronized, and conveyed either congruent (eg, happy face and voice or incongruent emotions (eg, happy face and angry voice. Participants were to indicate the perceived emotion in one of the cues, while ignoring the other. The results showed that when recognizing emotions of in-group actors, highly anxious individuals, compared with low anxious ones, were more likely to interpret others' emotions in a negative manner, putting more weight on the to-be-ignored angry cues. This interpretation bias was found regardless of the cue modality. However, when recognizing emotions of out-group actors, low and high anxious individuals showed no difference in the interpretation of emotions irrespective of modality. These results suggest that trait-anxiety affects recognition of emotional expressions in a modality independent yet cultural familiarity dependent manner.

  17. Is a prostate cancer screening anxiety measure invariant across two different samples of age-appropriate men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In order to explore the influence of anxiety on decision–making processes, valid anxiety measures are needed. We evaluated a prostate cancer screening (PCS) anxiety scale that measures anxiety related to the prostate–specific antigen (PSA) test, the digital rectal examination (DRE), and the decision to undergo PCS (PCS-D) using two samples in different settings. Methods We assessed four psychometric properties of the scale using baseline data from a randomized, controlled decision aid trial (n = 301, private clinic; n = 149, public). Results The 3-factor measure had adequate internal consistency reliability, construct validity, and discriminant validity. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the 3–factor model did not have adequate fit. When subscales were considered separately, only the 6–item PCS-D anxiety measure had adequate fit and was invariant across clinics. Conclusions Our results support the use of a 6–item PCS-D anxiety measure with age-appropriate men in public and private settings. The development of unique anxiety items relating to the PSA test and DRE is still needed. PMID:22681782

  18. Is a prostate cancer screening anxiety measure invariant across two different samples of age-appropriate men?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Suzanne K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to explore the influence of anxiety on decision–making processes, valid anxiety measures are needed. We evaluated a prostate cancer screening (PCS anxiety scale that measures anxiety related to the prostate–specific antigen (PSA test, the digital rectal examination (DRE, and the decision to undergo PCS (PCS-D using two samples in different settings. Methods We assessed four psychometric properties of the scale using baseline data from a randomized, controlled decision aid trial (n = 301, private clinic; n = 149, public. Results The 3-factor measure had adequate internal consistency reliability, construct validity, and discriminant validity. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the 3–factor model did not have adequate fit. When subscales were considered separately, only the 6–item PCS-D anxiety measure had adequate fit and was invariant across clinics. Conclusions Our results support the use of a 6–item PCS-D anxiety measure with age-appropriate men in public and private settings. The development of unique anxiety items relating to the PSA test and DRE is still needed.

  19. Changes over time in adult dental fear and correlation to depression and anxiety: a cohort study of pregnant mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanen, Mimmi; Hagqvist, Outi; Luoto, Anni; Rantavuori, Kari; Karlsson, Linnea; Karlsson, Hasse; Lahti, Satu

    2013-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate (i) changes in dental fear over time during pregnancy and after delivery among mothers and fathers and (ii) whether these changes inter-relate to changes in depression and anxiety. Longitudinal pilot data for the FinnBrain Cohort study were used. Of 254 pregnant families, 80% agreed to participate and 60% returned questionnaires at the first data-collection point. After three data-collection points [weeks 18-20 and 32-34 of pregnancy (H18-20 and H32-34, respectively), and 3 months after childbirth], 99 mothers and 74 fathers had filled out at least two out of three Modified Dental Anxiety Scale questionnaires and were included in this study. Other questionnaires used were the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Pregnancy Related Anxiety Questionnaire. All scales were analyzed as sum scores. Among mothers, dental fear decreased during late pregnancy and increased slightly after childbirth, but no statistically significant correlations between dental fear and depression or anxiety, except for fear of giving birth, were found. Among fathers dental fear increased and was correlated with depression and anxiety. Dental fear seems to fluctuate among women during pregnancy and could be affected by hormonal changes. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  20. Sleep and the heart: Interoceptive differences linked to poor experiential sleep quality in anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Donna L; Manassei, Miranda; Gould van Praag, Cassandra; Philippides, Andrew O; Critchley, Hugo D; Garfinkel, Sarah N

    2017-07-01

    Interoception is the sense through which internal bodily changes are signalled and perceived. Individual differences in interoception are linked to emotional style and vulnerability to affective disorders. Here we test how experiential sleep quality relates to dimensions of interoceptive ability. 180 adults (42 'non-clinical' individuals, 138 patients accessing mental health services) rated their quality of sleep before performing tests of cardiac interoception. Poor sleep quality was associated with lower measures of interoceptive performance accuracy, and higher self-report measures of interoceptive sensibility in individuals with diagnoses of depression and/or anxiety. Additionally, poor sleep quality was associated with impaired metacognitive interoceptive awareness in patients with diagnoses of depression (alone or with anxiety). Thus, poor sleep quality, a common early expression of psychological disorder, impacts cardiac interoceptive ability and experience across diagnoses. Sleep disruption can contribute to the expression of affective psychopathology through effects on perceptual and interpretative dimensions of bodily awareness. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Alterations in white matter volume and its correlation with clinical characteristics in patients with generalized anxiety disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Chung-Man; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Only a few morphological studies have focused on changes in white matter (WM) volume in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We evaluated alterations in WM volume and its correlation with symptom severity and duration of illness in adults with GAD. The 44 subjects were comprised of 22 patients with GAD (13 males and nine females) diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and 22 age-matched healthy controls (13 males and nine females). High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were processed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis based on diffeomorphic anatomical registration using the exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm in SPM8. Patients with GAD showed significantly reduced WM volume, particularly in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC), and midbrain. In addition, DLPFC volume was negatively correlated with GAD-7 score and illness duration. ALIC volume was negatively correlated with GAD-7 score. Female patients had significantly less orbitofrontal cortex volume compared to that in male patients. The findings demonstrate localized changes in WM volume associated with cognitive and emotional dysfunction in patients with GAD. The finding will be helpful for understanding the neuropathology in patients with GAD. (orig.)

  2. Alterations in white matter volume and its correlation with clinical characteristics in patients with generalized anxiety disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Chung-Man [Chonnam National University Hospital, Research Institute for Medical Imaging, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Gwang-Woo [Chonnam National University Hospital, Research Institute for Medical Imaging, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Only a few morphological studies have focused on changes in white matter (WM) volume in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We evaluated alterations in WM volume and its correlation with symptom severity and duration of illness in adults with GAD. The 44 subjects were comprised of 22 patients with GAD (13 males and nine females) diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and 22 age-matched healthy controls (13 males and nine females). High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were processed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis based on diffeomorphic anatomical registration using the exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm in SPM8. Patients with GAD showed significantly reduced WM volume, particularly in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC), and midbrain. In addition, DLPFC volume was negatively correlated with GAD-7 score and illness duration. ALIC volume was negatively correlated with GAD-7 score. Female patients had significantly less orbitofrontal cortex volume compared to that in male patients. The findings demonstrate localized changes in WM volume associated with cognitive and emotional dysfunction in patients with GAD. The finding will be helpful for understanding the neuropathology in patients with GAD. (orig.)

  3. Differences in the neural correlates of frontal lobe tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Teruyuki; Kato, Yuka; Imai, Ayu; Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Keisuke; Nakamura, Kaeko; Yamada, Kei; Narumoto, Jin

    2018-01-01

    The Executive Interview (EXIT25), the executive clock-drawing task (CLOX1), and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) are used to assess executive function at the bedside. These tests assess distinct psychometric properties. The aim of this study was to examine differences in the neural correlates of the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB based on magnetic resonance imaging. Fifty-eight subjects (30 with Alzheimer's disease, 10 with mild cognitive impairment, and 18 healthy controls) participated in this study. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the brain regions correlated with the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB scores. Age, gender, and years of education were included as covariates. Statistical thresholds were set to uncorrected P-values of 0.001 at the voxel level and 0.05 at the cluster level. The EXIT25 score correlated inversely with the regional grey matter volume in the left lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann areas 6, 9, 44, and 45). The CLOX1 score correlated positively with the regional grey matter volume in the right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11) and the left supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40). The FAB score correlated positively with the regional grey matter volume in the right precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 6). The left lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann area 9) and the right lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann area 46) were identified as common brain regions that showed association with EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB based only a voxel-level threshold. The results of this study suggest that the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB may be associated with the distinct neural correlates of the frontal cortex. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  4. Aphid incidence and its correlation with different environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, M.R; Ahmad, M.; Rahman, M.H; Haque, M.A

    2009-01-01

    The aphid incidence and its correlation with environmental factors were studied. Mustard variety “Sampad” was used as test crop. Aphid incidence varied significantly at various parts of mustard plant and time of the day. The highest number of aphid was observed in the vegetative parts of the mustard plant in the morning. High cloudiness, relative humidity and dew point favoured the aphid population and slight rain fall quickly declined the aphid population. Among the different environmental f...

  5. An Examination of Differences in Psychological Resilience between Social Anxiety Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Context of Early Childhood Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Marx

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Much of the research on anxiety disorders has focused on associated risk factors with less attention paid to factors such as resilience that may mitigate risk or offer protection in the face of psychopathology.Objective: This study sought to compare resilience in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and social anxiety disorder (SAD relative to age-, gender- and education- matched individuals with no psychiatric disorder. We further assessed the correlation of resilience scores with childhood trauma severity and type.Method: The sample comprised of 93 participants, 40 with SAD with childhood trauma, 22 with PTSD with childhood trauma, and 31 with no psychiatric disorder (i.e., healthy matched controls. Participants were administered the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire—Short Form (CTQ-SF, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC. The mean age of participants was 34 years (SD = 11. 52 Participants were female (55.9% and 54 Caucasian (58.1%. Analysis of variance was used to assess for significant group differences in resilience scores. Non-parametric correlation analyses were conducted for resilience and different types of childhood trauma.Results: There were significant differences in resilience between the SAD and PTSD groups with childhood trauma, and controls. Both disorder groups had significantly lower levels of resilience than healthy controls. No significant correlation was found between total resilience scores and childhood trauma scores in the childhood trauma (SAD and PTSD groups. However, in the combined dataset (SAD, PTSD, healthy controls, significant negative correlations were found between resilience scores and emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and total childhood trauma scores.Conclusions: Patients who have PTSD and SAD with childhood trauma appear to be

  6. Individual differences in anxiety trajectories from Grades 2 to 8: Impact of the middle school transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelemans, Stefanie A; Hale, William W; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim H J; Rudolph, Karen D

    2017-11-21

    This study examined the impact of the middle school transition on general anxiety trajectories from middle childhood to middle adolescence, as well as how youths' individual vulnerability and exposure to contextual stressors were associated with anxiety trajectories. Participants were 631 youth (47% boys, M age = 7.96 years at Time 1), followed for 7 successive years from second to eighth grade. Teachers reported on youths' individual vulnerability to anxiety (anxious solitude) in second grade; youth reported on their anxiety in second to eighth grade and aspects of their social contexts particularly relevant to the school transition (school hassles, peer victimization, parent-child relationship quality, and friendship quality) in sixth to eighth grade. The results revealed two subgroups that showed either strongly increasing (5%) or decreasing (14%) levels of anxiety across the transition and two subgroups with fairly stable levels of either high (11%) or low (70%) anxiety over time. Youth in the latter two subgroups could be distinguished based on their individual vulnerability to anxiety, whereas youth with increasing anxiety reported more contextual stressors and less contextual support than youth with decreasing anxiety. In sum, findings suggest that the middle school transition has the potential to alter developmental trajectories of anxiety for some youth, for better or for worse.

  7. Differences in Acculturation and Trajectories of Anxiety and Alcohol Consumption Among Latina Mothers and Daughters in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Maritza; Sanchez, Mariana; Rojas, Patria; Villar, Maria Elena; De La Rosa, Mario

    2016-08-01

    This study documents generational differences in the impact of acculturation related factors on anxiety and alcohol use behaviors between adult Latino mothers and adult daughters. Findings indicate that for mothers (n = 144) and daughters (n = 149), self-reported anxiety levels decreased from baseline to follow up (p = 0.001). For mothers at follow up (n = 147), results indicate that affiliation to Latino culture is negatively associated with anxiety (p = 0.018). Conversely, employment and partner relationship stress are positively associated with anxiety (p = 0.05 and p = 0.016 respectively). In addition, self-reported anxiety is positively associated with alcohol intake (p = 0.002) and employment (p = 0.007). For daughters(n = 149), partner relationship stressors, anxiety and alcohol intake decreased significantly from baseline to follow up at a p = 0.01, p = 0.01, p = 0.05 respectively. In addition, for daughters at baseline (n = 160), affiliation to U.S. culture is positively associated with self-reported anxiety (p = 0.01). Employment is negatively associated with alcohol consumption (p = 0.027). At follow up (n = 152), daughters' partner relationship stress is positively associated with self- reported anxiety (p = 0.049). Findings in this study can be used to develop culturally appropriate interventions, support groups and individual therapy sessions by taking into consideration generational differences among Latino women.

  8. Neural Correlates of Outcome of the Psychotherapy Compared to Antidepressant Therapy in Anxiety and Depression Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navkiran Kalsi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The most prevalent mental disorders, anxiety and depression, are commonly associated with structural and functional changes in the fronto-limbic brain areas. The clinical trials investigating patients with affective disorders showed different outcome to different treatments such as psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy. It is, however, still unexplored how these interventions approach affect the functional brain. This meta-analysis aims to compare the effects of psychotherapy compared to antidepressant therapy on functional brain activity in anxiety and depression disorders. Twenty-one samples with psychotherapy and seventeen samples with antidepressant therapy were included. The main finding showed an inverse effect of the two treatments on the right paracingulate activity. The patients undergoing psychotherapy showed an increase in the right paracingulate activity while pharmacological treatment led to a decrease of activation of this area. This finding seems to support the recent studies that hypothesize how psychotherapy, through the self-knowledge and the meaning processing, involves a top-down emotional regulation.

  9. Anxiety and depression correlate with disease and quality-of-life parameters in Chinese patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu X

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Xujuan Xu,1,* Biyu Shen,2,3,* Aixian Zhang,4 Jingwei Liu,3 Zhanyun Da,4 Hong Liu,4 Zhifeng Gu4 1Department of Nursing, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 2School of Nursing, Nantong University, 3Department of Nursing, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 4Department of Rheumatology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Aim: To evaluate the relationship between mental and physical health in Chinese patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and to identify the predictors of psychological status.Methods: Patients with AS (n=103 and healthy controls (n=121 were surveyed between 2010 and 2011 (cross-sectional study. The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index, pain visual analog scale, Health Assessment Questionnaire, revised Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, revised Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Short-Form 36 questionnaire were administered.Results: The frequency of anxiety and depression in patients with AS was higher than that in healthy controls (P<0.001. Severe disease status and reduced quality of life (QoL were associated with anxiety and depression. Disease activity and somatic pain were more severe in the anxious and depressed subgroups. Impaired physical functioning (assessed by Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index was higher in the anxious and depressed subgroups, while measures of spinal mobility (assessed by Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index were not associated with depression. Lower QoL was observed in the depressed subgroup.Conclusion: Low socioeconomic status, lack of health insurance, and fatigue contributed to depression in Chinese patients with AS. These patients may require a psychological care approach that is different from those of other countries. Keywords: ankylosing spondylitis, disease activity

  10. The moderating role of avoidance behavior on anxiety over time: Is there a difference between social anxiety disorder and specific phobia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudaz, M.; Ledermann, T.; Margraf, J.; Becker, E.S.; Craske, M.G.

    2017-01-01

    Theories of anxiety disorders and phobias have ascribed a critical role to avoidance behavior in explaining the persistence of fear and anxiety, but knowledge about the role of avoidance behavior in the maintenance of anxiety in social anxiety disorder relative to specific phobia is lacking. This

  11. Neural Correlates of Choking Under Pressure: Athletes High in Sports Anxiety Monitor Errors More When Performance Is Being Evaluated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Hiroaki; Maruo, Yuya; Meyer, Alexandria; Hajcak, Greg

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between performance-related anxiety and the neural response to errors. Using the sport anxiety scale, we selected university athletes high in sports anxiety and low in sports anxiety. The two groups performed a spatial Stroop task while their performance was being evaluated by an experimenter and also during a control (i.e., no evaluation) condition. The error-related negativity was significantly larger during the evaluation than control condition among athletes who reported high performance-related anxiety. These results suggest that performance evaluation may make errors particularly aversive or salient for individuals who fail to perform well under pressure.

  12. The crossroads of anxiety: distinct neurophysiological maps for different symptomatic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerez M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Montserrat Gerez,1–3 Enrique Suárez,2,3 Carlos Serrano,2,3 Lauro Castanedo,2 Armando Tello1,3 1Departamento de Neurofisiología Clínica, Hospital Español de México, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Departamento de Psiquiatría, Hospital Español de México, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Unidad de Postgrado, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico Background: Despite the devastating impact of anxiety disorders (ADs worldwide, long-lasting debates on causes and remedies have not solved the clinician’s puzzle: who should be treated and how? Psychiatric classifications conceptualize ADs as distinct entities, with strong support from neuroscience fields. Yet, comorbidity and pharmacological response suggest a single “serotonin dysfunction” dimension. Whether AD is one or several disorders goes beyond academic quarrels, and the distinction has therapeutic relevance. Addressing the underlying dysfunctions should improve treatment response. By its own nature, neurophysiology can be the best tool to address dysfunctional processes.Purpose: To search for neurophysiological dysfunctions and differences among panic disorder (PD, agoraphobia-social-specific phobia, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD and generalized anxiety disorder.Methods: A sample population of 192 unmedicated patients and 30 aged-matched controls partook in this study. Hypothesis-related neurophysiological variables were combined into ten independent factors: 1 dysrhythmic patterns, 2 delta, 3 theta, 4 alpha, 5 beta (whole-head absolute power z-scores, 6 event-related potential (ERP combined latency, 7 ERP combined amplitude (z-scores, 8 magnitude, 9 site, and 10 site of hyperactive networks. Combining single variables into representative factors was necessary because, as in all real-life phenomena, the complexity of interactive processes cannot be addressed through single variables and the multiplicity of potentially implicated variables would demand an extremely large

  13. In the company we keep: social physique anxiety levels differ around parents and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of two scales which assessed social physique anxiety (SPA) in the context of peers (peer SPA) and parents (parent SPA), and differences in reported levels of peer SPA and parent SPA. Young adults (N = 381, 161 males, M(age) = 18.69 years) completed self-report measures. Results supported the internal consistency, convergent validity and factor structure of the peer SPA and parent SPA scales. Also, participants reported significantly higher levels of peer SPA compared to parent SPA. Findings offer preliminary support for the investigation of contextualized SPA using the scales tested in this study, and suggest more research is needed to better understand the processes that may increase or decrease SPA when surrounded by peers and parents.

  14. Level of school anxiety of girls aged 12-13 years old with different kinds of postural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Tamozhanskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to identify the level of school anxiety of girls with signs of normal, round-shouldered, lardotic, kyphotic and straightened by the types of carriages during a school year. Material : the study involved 137 girls 12-13 years old. Was held diagnostics level of school anxiety Phillips. Results : It was found that girls with normal posture there is a general anxiety in school, fear of the situation knowledge test. With stooping - frustration needs to succeed, fear of self-expression. With lardotic - frustration needs to succeed, fear of self-expression. With kyphotic - general anxiety at school, frustration needs to succeed, fear not meet the expectations of others. With straight - manifestation of the general emotional state, negative attitudes and experience of anxiety in the situation knowledge test. Conclusions : factors of school anxiety have different effects on girls. It was established that during adolescence the need to integrate and correction of psychological state and the musculoskeletal system. This is due to the formation of morphological features, formation of character traits.

  15. The moderating role of avoidance behavior on anxiety over time: Is there a difference between social anxiety disorder and specific phobia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Rudaz

    Full Text Available Theories of anxiety disorders and phobias have ascribed a critical role to avoidance behavior in explaining the persistence of fear and anxiety, but knowledge about the role of avoidance behavior in the maintenance of anxiety in social anxiety disorder relative to specific phobia is lacking. This study examined the extent to which avoidance behavior moderates the relationship between general anxiety at baseline and 18 months later in women with a diagnosed social anxiety disorder (n = 91 and women with a diagnosed specific phobia (n = 130 at baseline. Circumscribed avoidance of social and specific situations were clinician-rated using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Lifetime (ADIS-IV-L, and general anxiety was measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI. Moderated regression analyses revealed that (a general anxiety at baseline predicted general anxiety at follow-up in both women with a specific phobia and women with a social anxiety disorder and (b avoidance behavior moderated this relationship in women with a specific phobia but not in women with a social anxiety disorder. Specifically, high avoidance behavior was found to amplify the effect between general anxiety at baseline and follow-up in specific phobia. Reasons for the absence of a similar moderating effect of avoidance behavior within social anxiety disorder are discussed.

  16. Cortical Gyrification Patterns Associated with Trait Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Miskovich, Tara A.; Pedersen, Walker S.; Belleau, Emily L.; Shollenbarger, Skyler; Lisdahl, Krista M.; Larson, Christine L.

    2016-01-01

    Dispositional anxiety is a stable personality trait that is a key risk factor for internalizing disorders, and understanding the neural correlates of trait anxiety may help us better understand the development of these disorders. Abnormal cortical folding is thought to reflect differences in cortical connectivity occurring during brain development. Therefore, assessing gyrification may advance understanding of cortical development and organization associated with trait anxiety. Previous liter...

  17. Sex differences in diazepam effects and parvalbumin-positive GABA neurons in trait anxiety Long Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenelle, Rebecca; Neugebauer, Nichole M; Niedzielak, Timothy; Donaldson, S Tiffany

    2014-08-15

    In clinical populations, prevalence rates for a number of anxiety disorders differ between males and females and gonadal hormones are thought to contribute to these differences. While these hormones have been shown to modulate the anxiolytic effects of the benzodiazepine agonist diazepam in some models, findings are inconsistent. Here, we tested for sex differences in response to anxiogenic stimuli following a 30-min diazepam (1.0mg/kg) pre-treatment in male and female rats showing high (HAn) and low (LAn) anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus maze. Acute diazepam administration resulted in decreased anxiety-like behavior only in HAn males as demonstrated by a significant increase in percent open arm time in the elevated plus maze (EPM). Immunohistochemical analysis for parvalbumin (PV; a calcium-binding protein that selectively stains GABAergic neurons) in central amygdala (CeA), caudate putamen (CPu) and the hippocampus indicated the number of GABAergic interneurons in these areas differed across sex and anxiety trait. In the CPu, females had significantly more PV-immunoreactive (IR) cells than males, and LAn females had greater PV-IR neurons than HAn females. In the CeA, males displayed an increased number of PV-IR neurons compared to females, with no differences found between LAn and HAn. Further, trait differences were evident in the CA2 region of the hippocampus, regardless of sex. Taken together, these data suggest that gonadal hormones and trait anxiety may influence the sensitivity to the anti-anxiety effects of diazepam and these differences may be due in part to the distribution of GABA-containing interneurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Decreased sleep quality in Parkinson's patients is associated with higher anxiety and depression prevalence and severity, and correlates with pain intensity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Abdul Qayyum; Qureshi, Abdul Rehman M; Shamli Oghli, Yazan; Saqib, Yosuf; Mohammed, Bilal; Sarfraz, Zainab; Rana, Ruqqiyah

    2018-04-17

    Pain, poor sleep quality, restless legs syndrome (RLS), and other symptoms are frequently reported by patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the impact that pain severity and interference has on non-motor symptoms (NMS) has not been extensively studied. The objective of the present study is to explore the relationship between sleep quality in PD to pain and other NMS that affect quality of life. The study included 100 PD patients and 100 age and gender-matched controls assessed for pain severity and pain interference using the Brief Pain Inventory and sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Participants were also evaluated for their subjective levels of anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. PD patients with poor sleep quality had greater pain severity and pain interference than controls and PD patients with good or borderline sleep quality. PD patients with poor sleep quality also had the greatest case-ness and severity for depression and anxiety. However, RLS was not significantly correlated with depression, anxiety or pain. Poor sleep quality in PD patients is related to greater pain severity, pain interference, and more radiating and paresthestic pain that is independent of RLS. There is a higher prevalence of depression and anxiety in PD patients compared to controls, especially in PD patients with poor sleep quality. Our findings suggest a relationship between poor sleep quality in PD with pain, anxiety and depression. Prospective studies are warranted to investigate the causal relationship.

  19. Longitudinal Trends in Anxiety, Depression, and Quality of Life During Different Intermittent Periods of Adjuvant Breast Cancer Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiayuan; Zhou, Yuqiu; Feng, Ziwei; Xu, Yong; Zeng, Guangchun

    Chemotherapy (CT) is an important adjuvant treatment that has been widely used for breast cancer (BC) patients. However, no research has focused on trends in emotions and quality of life (QOL) during intermittent periods between CT sessions that are critical for recovery. The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinal trends in anxiety, depression, and QOL during the different intermittent periods between adjuvant CT for BC. A longitudinal study design was adopted. Eighty-eight women undergoing CT for BC were selected using a purposive sampling method, and they completed the Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) at 5 points. A repeated-measures analysis-of-variance model was used to compare anxiety, depression, and QOL at different time points. The results showed a significant difference in SAS (F = 187.78, P fashion.

  20. Gender differences in patients with dizziness and unsteadiness regarding self-perceived disability, anxiety, depression, and its associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurre Annette

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that anxiety and depression influence the level of disability experienced by persons with vertigo, dizziness or unsteadiness. Because higher prevalence rates of disabling dizziness have been found in women and some studies reported a higher level of psychiatric distress in female patients our primary aim was to explore whether women and men with vertigo, dizziness or unsteadiness differ regarding self-perceived disability, anxiety and depression. Secondly we planned to investigate the associations between disabling dizziness and anxiety and depression. Method Patients were recruited from a tertiary centre for vertigo and balance disorders. Participants rated their global disability as mild, moderate or severe. They filled out the Dizziness Handicap Inventory and the two subscales of the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS. The HADS was analysed 1 by calculating the median values, 2 by estimating the prevalence rates of abnormal anxiety/depression based on recommended cut-off criteria. Mann-Whitney U-tests, Chi-square statistics and odds ratios (OR were calculated to compare the observations in both genders. Significance values were adjusted with respect to multiple comparisons. Results Two-hundred and two patients (124 women mean age (standard deviation of 49.7 (13.5 years participated. Both genders did not differ significantly in the mean level of self-perceived disability, anxiety, depression and symptom severity. There was a tendency of a higher prevalence of abnormal anxiety and depression in men (23.7%; 28.9% compared to women (14.5%; 15.3%. Patients with abnormal depression felt themselves 2.75 (95% CI: 1.31-5.78 times more severely disabled by dizziness and unsteadiness than patients without depression. In men the OR was 8.2 (2.35-28.4. In women chi-square statistic was not significant. The ORs (95% CI of abnormal anxiety and severe disability were 4.2 (1.9-8.9 in the whole sample, 8.7 (2.5-30.3 in men

  1. Asset allocation with different covariance/correlation estimators

    OpenAIRE

    Μανταφούνη, Σοφία

    2007-01-01

    The subject of the study is to test whether the use of different covariance – correlation estimators than the historical covariance matrix that is widely used, would help in portfolio optimization through the mean-variance analysis. In other words, if an investor would like to use the mean-variance analysis in order to invest in assets like stocks or indices, would it be of some help to use more sophisticated estimators for the covariance matrix of the returns of his portfolio? The procedure ...

  2. Amygdala Volume Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorder Are Related to Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, John D.; Maddox, Brenna B.; Kerns, Connor M.; Rump, Keiran; Worley, Julie A.; Bush, Jennifer C.; McVey, Alana J.; Schultz, Robert T.; Miller, Judith S.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that longstanding findings of abnormal amygdala morphology in ASD may be related to symptoms of anxiety. To test this hypothesis, fifty-three children with ASD (mean age = 11.9) underwent structural MRI and were divided into subgroups to compare those with at least one anxiety disorder diagnosis (n = 29) to those without (n…

  3. Anxiety and Depression in Breast Cancer Survivors of Different Sexual Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, Ulrike; Glickman, Mark; Winter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a study comparing anxiety and depression by sexual orientation in long-term breast cancer survivors, testing the hypothesis that sexual minority women (e.g., lesbian and bisexual women) have greater levels of anxiety and depression. Method: From a state cancer registry, we recruited 257 heterosexual and 69 sexual minority…

  4. Ethnic Minorities with Diabetes Differ in Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms and Diabetes-Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte B. Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the association between ethnicity, diabetes-distress, and depressive and anxiety symptoms in adult outpatients with diabetes. Research Design and Methods. Diabetes-distress (Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale, PAID5, depressive and anxiety symptoms (Extended Kessler-10, EK10, and quality of life (Short-Form 12, SF12 were assessed in an ethnic diverse diabetes outpatient population of a teaching hospital in Amsterdam. Descent of one’s parents and self-classified ethnicity were obtained to define ethnicity. HbA1c, clinical data, and socioeconomic status were derived from the medical charts. Based on established cut-offs for PAID5- and EK10-scores, emotional distress was dichotomized for the purpose of logistic regression analyses. Results. Of 1007 consecutive patients approached, 575 participated. Forty-nine percent were of non-Dutch ethnicity and 24.7% had type 1 diabetes. Diabetes-distress was reported by 12.5% of the native Dutch patients and by 22.0%, 34.5%, and 42.6% of the Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan patients, respectively. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 9.4% in native Dutch patients and 20.4%, 34.5%, and 27.3% in the other groups mentioned. Diabetes-distress and Moroccan origin were significantly associated (OR = 3.60, p<.01 as well as depressive symptoms and Turkish origin (OR = 4.23, p=.04. Conclusions. Different ethnic minorities with diabetes vary in their vulnerability for emotional distress, warranting clinical attention. Future research should elucidate explanatory factors and opportunities for tailored interventions.

  5. Examination of the Relationship among Death Anxiety, Spirituality, Religious Orientation and Existential Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Halıcı Kurtulan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the associations among death anxiety, spiritual tendencies, existential anxiety, and religious tendencies were examined. In addition, this study investigated whether these variables changed with respect to demographic characteristics. The study group was composed of 404 university students. Data was collected by administering the personal demographic form, Death Anxiety Scale, Existential Scale, Religious Tendency Scale, and Spirituality Scale. In line with the purpose of the study, the relational screening model and descriptive methods have been used and participants are identified as study groups. Male participants scored significantly higher than female participants. Gender was not found to have an effect on the other variables. Existential anxiety did not differ within groups with respect to having a religious education. Participants who had received a religious education had higher death anxiety and less spiritual tendencies. Motivation for religious tendencies was found to be external. According to the results, death anxiety and existential anxiety are negatively correlated; existential anxiety and spiritual tendencies are positively correlated; and religious tendencies, which have externally motivations, and spiritual tendencies are negatively correlated. Death anxiety, spiritual tendencies, and religious tendencies predict existential anxiety. As suggestions, the number of studies that examine the associations among existential anxiety, religious tendencies, and spiritual tendencies should be increased, and the quality of religious education should be discussed in detail.

  6. Anxiety and Mood States in Delinquent Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Frank T.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    State-trait anxiety and mood states in delinquents were studied by administering the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children and the Profile of Mood States to 41 behavior problem adolescents, residents of a facility for youthful offenders. The correlations between the instruments, and sex difference are discussed. (Author/MV)

  7. Neural correlates of gender differences in reputation building.

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    Francesca Garbarini

    Full Text Available Gender differences in cooperative choices and their neural correlates were investigated in a situation where reputation represented a crucial issue. Males and females were involved in an economic exchange (trust game where economic and reputational payoffs had to be balanced in order to increase personal welfare. At the behavioral level, females showed a stronger reaction to negative reputation judgments that led to higher cooperation than males, measured by back transfers in the game. The neuroanatomical counterpart of this gender difference was found within the reward network (engaged in producing expectations of positive results and reputation-related brain networks, such as the self-control network (engaged in strategically resisting the temptation to defect and the mentalizing network (engaged in thinking about how one is viewed by others, in which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and the medial (MPFC respectively play a crucial role. Furthermore, both DLPFC and MPFC activity correlated with the amount of back transfer, as well as with the personality dimensions assessed with the Big-Five Questionnaire (BFQ-2. Males, according to their greater DLPFC recruitment and their higher level of the BFQ-2 subscale of Dominance, were more focused on implementing a profit-maximizing strategy, pursuing this target irrespectively of others' judgments. On the contrary, females, according to their greater MPFC activity and their lower level of Dominance, were more focused on the reputation per se and not on the strategic component of reputation building. These findings shed light on the sexual dimorphism related to cooperative behavior and its neural correlates.

  8. Correlation of CA-125 with different stages of endometriosis

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    Runa Laila

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the association of serum cancer antigen (CA-125 level with the severity of pelvic endometriosis. Seventy diagnosed cases of pelvic endometriosis were included in this study. The CA-125 level was estimated in all these patients, cutoff value of the serum CA-125 level was considered 35.0 U/mL. The correlations between serum CA-125 and different stages of endometriosis were evaluated by linear regression analysis. In Stage I of endometriosis, the mean serum CA-125 level was 21.8 ± 15.1 U/mL, in Stage II 26.0 ± 17.3 U/mL, in Stage III 83.2 ± 48.9 U/mL and in Stage IV 117.0 ± 41.6 U/mL. A significant positive correlation (r=0.729; p=0.001 was found between the serum CA-125 and different stages of endometriosis.

  9. Neural correlates of individual differences in manual imitation fidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke eBraadbaart

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Imitation is crucial for social learning, and so it is important to identify what determines between-subject variability in imitation fidelity. This might help explain what makes some people, like those with social difficulties such as in Autism Spectrum Disorder, significantly worse at performance on these tasks than others. A novel paradigm was developed to provide objective measures of imitation fidelity in which participants used a touchscreen to imitate videos of a model drawing different shapes. Comparisons between model and participants’ kinematic data provided three measures of imitative fidelity. We hypothesised that imitative ability would predict variation in BOLD signal whilst performing a simple imitation task in the MRI-scanner. In particular, an overall measure of accuracy (correlation between model and imitator would predict activity in the overarching imitation system, whereas bias would be subject to more general aspects of motor control. Participants lying in the MRI-scanner were instructed to imitate different grips on a handle, or to watch someone or a circle moving the handle. Our hypothesis was partly confirmed as correlation between model and imitator was mediated by somatosensory cortex but also ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and bias was mediated mainly by cerebellum but also by the medial frontal and parietal cortices and insula. We suggest that this variance differentially reflects cognitive functions such as feedback-sensitivity and reward-dependent learning, contributing significantly to variability in individuals’ imitative abilities as characterised by objective kinematic measures.

  10. The relationship between different information sources and disease-related patient knowledge and anxiety in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinger, C P; Carbery, I; Warren, V; Rehman, A F; Williams, C J; Mumtaz, S; Bholah, H; Sood, R; Gracie, D J; Hamlin, P J; Ford, A C

    2017-01-01

    Patient education forms a cornerstone of management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The Internet has opened new avenues for information gathering. To determine the relationship between different information sources and patient knowledge and anxiety in patients with IBD. The use of information sources in patients with IBD was examined via questionnaire. Anxiety was assessed with the hospital anxiety and depression scale and disease-related patient knowledge with the Crohn's and colitis knowledge score questionnaires. Associations between these outcomes and demographics, disease-related factors, and use of different information sources were analysed using linear regression analysis. Of 307 patients (165 Crohn's disease, 142 ulcerative colitis) 60.6% were female. Participants used the hospital IBD team (82.3%), official leaflets (59.5%), and official websites (53.5%) most frequently in contrast to alternative health websites (9%). University education (P sex (P = 0.004), clinically active disease (P sources are associated with better knowledge or worse anxiety levels. Face-to-face education and written information materials remain the first line of patient education. Patients should be guided towards official information websites and warned about the association between the use of alternative health websites or random links and anxiety. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Correlations between subjective well-being – psychopathology and coping with stress of people with different forms of mental health

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    Jacek Konrad Olszewski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the author referred to the complete mental health model by Keyes and Lopez. In this model quality different forms of psychical health are distinguished. They are based on such dimensions as psychopathology (which indicator is higher level of anxiety and well-being (life satisfaction. The author also concentrates on coping with stress. The aim of this study is to show the relation between quality different forms of mental health and the type of coping with stress. The author investigated English and Polish philology students of Maria Curie-Skłodowska University. They were 22-42 years old. Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI and Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced (COPE were used in this study. The results indicates that it is possible to distinguish groups of people with different forms of mental health. There are two groups with two main forms of mental health: “prosperous” and “fearful” people. In the group of “fearful” people there is correlation between factors that decide about the form of mental health (life satisfaction and the level of anxiety and the ways of coping with stress. In the group of “prosperous” people factors that decide about mental health are not connected with the ways of coping.

  12. The Correlation of News Exposure About Drugs and the Anxiety Level of Parents Toward the Intensity Communication of Parents and Children About Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Reonell Rafendi, Mochamad; Herieningsih, MS, Dra. Sri Widowati

    2016-01-01

    Drug abuse in Indonesia has increased from year to year. Not a few reports in the mass media that provide information about drugs. The majority of drug users from among teens. This condition leads to anxiety of parents in their teens in the midst of many drug cases that happened and can happen to anyone. Anxiety can encourage parents to share information to their children about the dangers and effects of drugs. The study aims to determine the correlation of news exposure about drugs and the a...

  13. Self perception score from zero to ten correlates well with standardized scales of adolescent self esteem, body dissatisfaction, eating disorders risk, depression, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A

    2009-01-01

    The ability to quickly and reliably assess mental health status would assist health workers, educators and youth workers to provide appropriate early intervention for adolescents. To investigate the validity of a simple self perception score out of ten by correlating the self perception scores of adolescents from a normal, community sample of adolescents with their scores on standardized mental health measures. Study group was 470 early adolescent students aged 11.0-14.5 years from grades 7 and 8 in two secondary schools. Self perception was self reported using a score of zero to ten points, and the scores were then correlated with scores on the Harter Self Perception Profile, Beck Junior Depression, Speilberger State and Trait Anxiety and the Eating Disorders Inventory. A High Risk group (self perception adolescents also had poor self esteem and risk for depression, anxiety, and eating disorders. Self perception scores correlated positively with self esteem and self concept subscales and it was negatively associated with depression, state and trait anxiety, and EDI scores. Of the 15.1% high risk adolescents in the overall sample, 78% scored below the group average on the mean of all Harter Self Concept scores; 70% scored above average for Beck Depression; 64% and 74% scored above average on Speilberger State/Trait Anxiety respectively; 80% scored higher than the average on the group mean EDI. A self perception score from zero to ten can be a simple and accurate way of gaining an initial insight into the current mental health status of adolescents.

  14. Gender differences in the correlates of adolescents' cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Andrew W; Ratner, Pamela A; Johnson, Joy L

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents' gender-specific cannabis use rates and their correlates were examined. Data were obtained via a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 in British Columbia, Canada, funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. School districts were invited to participate, and schools within consenting districts were recruited. In total, 8,225 students (50% male) from Grades 7 to 12 participated. About 73% were "White," and 47% had used cannabis in their lifetime. Cannabis users were grouped according to their frequency of use: "never users," "frequent users," or "heavy users." Male heavy cannabis users (14.3% of boys) were more likely to be in Grade 9 or higher; be Aboriginal; report poorer economic status; never feel like an outsider; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with family, friends, and school compared with boys that never used. Female heavy users (8.7% of girls) were more likely to be in a higher grade; report poorer economic status, mental health, and academic performance; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with their school compared with female never users. Three important gender differences in the multivariate analysis of the correlates of cannabis use were noted: school grade (for boys only), Aboriginal status (for boys only), and mental health (for girls only). Despite the limitations of relying on self-reports, a subset of youth appears to be at risk for excessive cannabis use that may impair life opportunities and health. The gender differences may be important in the design and implementation of prevention or treatment programs for adolescents.

  15. Gender Differences in Factor Scores of Anxiety and Depression among Australian University Students: Implications for Counselling Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Chris F.; Melham, Therese C.

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety and depression inventory scores from 200 male and female university students attending a private university in Australia were examined for their factor structure. Once established, the two sets of factors were tested for gender-based differences, revealing that females were more likely than males to report symptomatology associated with…

  16. Quality of care for anxiety and depression in different ethnic groups by family practitioners in urban areas in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassaert, T.; Nielen, M.; Verheij, R.; Verhoeff, A.; Dekker, J.; Beekman, A.; Wit, M. de

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is widespread concern about access to good quality health care for ethnic minority groups. This study investigates differences between ethnic groups regarding prevalence of anxiety and depression, and adherence to treatment guidelines by family practitioners in urban areas in the

  17. Quality of care for anxiety and depression in different ethnic groups by family practitioners in urban areas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassaert, T.; Nielen, M.M.A.; Verheij, R.; Verhoeff, A.; Dekker, J.; Beekman, A.T.F.; de Wit, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: There is widespread concern about access to good quality health care for ethnic minority groups. This study investigates differences between ethnic groups regarding prevalence of anxiety and depression, and adherence to treatment guidelines by family practitioners in urban areas in the

  18. Effects of Different Text Difficulty Levels on EFL Learners' Foreign Language Reading Anxiety and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Roghayeh; Farvardin, Mohammad Taghi

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of different text difficulty levels on foreign language reading anxiety (FLRA) and reading comprehension of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. To this end, 50 elementary EFL learners were selected from two intact classes (n = 25 each). Each class was assigned to a text difficulty level (i.e.,…

  19. What Was I Supposed to Do? Effects of Individual Differences in Age and Anxiety on Preschoolers' Prospective Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheie, Lavinia; Miclea, Mircea; Visu-Petra, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) refers to remembering to perform a previously planned action at the appropriate time or in the appropriate context. The present study investigated the effects of individual differences in age and trait anxiety on PM performance in 3-5- and 5-7-year-olds. Two types of PM measures were used: an event-based task, requiring…

  20. Sources of Individual Differences in L2 Narrative Production: The Contribution of Input, Processing, and Output Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebits, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive task complexity and individual differences in input, processing, and output anxiety (IPOA) on L2 narrative production. The participants were enrolled in a bilingual secondary educational program. They performed two narrative tasks in speech and writing. The participants' level of…

  1. Gender differences in the relation between social support, problems in parent-offspring communication, and depression and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman-Peeters, KMC; Hartman, CA; van der Pompe, G; den Boer, JA; Minderaa, RB; Ormel, J

    Gender differences in the buffer-effect of social support in the relation between stressful circumstances and the development of depression and anxiety disorders are widely assumed, but few studies address this three-way interaction between gender, stress, and support. Data in the present study came

  2. Self and Friend’s Differing Views of Social Anxiety Disorder’s Effects on Friendships

    OpenAIRE

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Lim, Michelle H.; Fernandez, Katya C.; Langer, Julia K.; Weisman, Jaclyn S.; Tonge, Natasha; Levinson, Cheri A.; Shumaker, Erik A.

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder is known to be associated with self-report of global friendship quality. However, information about specific friendships, as well as information beyond self-report, is lacking. Such information is crucial, because known biases in information processing related to social anxiety disorder render global self-ratings particularly difficult to interpret. We examined these issues focusing on diagnosed participants (n = 77) compared with community control participants (n = 63...

  3. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Correlates of Anxiety at 1 Year After Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Tessa; Fann, Jesse R; Chervoneva, Inna; Juengst, Shannon B; Rosenthal, Joseph A; Krellman, Jason W; Dreer, Laura E; Kroenke, Kurt

    2016-05-01

    To determine at 1 year after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury the (1) rate of clinically significant anxiety; (2) rates of specific symptoms of anxiety; (3) risk factors for anxiety; and (4) associations of anxiety with other 1-year outcomes, including participation and quality of life. Prospective longitudinal observational study. Inpatient rehabilitation centers, with data capture at injury and 1-year follow-up. Persons with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury who were enrolled in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems database (N=1838). Not applicable. The 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire (9-item screen for depression), FIM, Participation Assessment with Recombined Tools-Objective, and Satisfaction with Life Scale. Clinically significant anxiety was reported by 21% of the participants. Of these, >80% reported interference with daily activities, with the most common symptoms being excessive worry and irritability. A common pattern was comorbid anxiety and depression, with smaller proportions reporting either disorder alone. Anxiety had large effect sizes with respect to life satisfaction and cognitive disability and medium to small effect sizes relative to societal participation and self-care. Middle age, black race, lower socioeconomic status, preinjury mental health treatment, and at least 1 traumatic brain injury prior to the index injury were all risk factors for later anxiety. Anxiety should be screened, fully evaluated, and treated after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Worry and irritability might be treated with pharmacologic agents or relatively simple behavioral interventions, which should be further researched in this population. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Association between joint hypermobility and anxiety in Brazilian university students: gender-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, S B; Osório, F L; Louzada-Junior, P; Moraes, D; Crippa, J A S; Martín-Santos, R

    2014-12-01

    Anxiety disorders may be associated with several non-psychiatric disorders. Current literature has been investigating the association between anxiety and joint hypermobility (JHM), with special interest in non-articular symptoms that may be related to autonomic dysfunction. This study investigated the association between anxiety and JHM in a sample of Brazilian university students. Data were cross-sectionally collected in two Brazilian universities (N=2600). Participants completed three validated self-rating anxiety scales: Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) and the brief-version of SPIN (Mini-SPIN). They also answered the self-rating screening questionnaire for JHM: the Five-part Questionnaire for Identifying Hypermobility. Hypermobile women showed significantly higher scores in all the anxiety scales, when compared with men: BAI total score (t=3.77; panxiety and JHM in women, showing specific gender-related features in this field. It also directs attention to non-articular symptoms that may be enrolled in this association. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Emotional Intelligence, Motivational Climate and Levels of Anxiety in Athletes from Different Categories of Sports: Analysis through Structural Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Castro-Sánchez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Psychological factors can strongly affect the athletes’ performance. Therefore, currently the role of the sports psychologist is particularly relevant, being in charge of training the athlete’s psychological factors. This study aims at analysing the connections between motivational climate in sport, anxiety and emotional intelligence depending on the type of sport practised (individual/team by means of a multigroup structural equations analysis. (2 372 semi-professional Spanish athletes took part in this investigation, analysing motivational climate (PMCSQ-2, emotional intelligence (SSRI and levels of anxiety (STAI. A model of multigroup structural equations was carried out which fitted accordingly (χ2 = 586.77; df = 6.37; p < 0.001; Comparative Fit Index (CFI = 0.951; Normed Fit Index (NFI = 0.938; Incremental Fit Index (IFI = 0.947; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA = 0.069. (3 Results: A negative and direct connection has been found between ego oriented climate and task oriented climate, which is stronger and more differentiated in team sports. The most influential indicator in ego oriented climate is intra-group rivalry, exerting greater influence in individual sports. For task-oriented climate the strongest indicator is having an important role in individual sports, while in team sports it is cooperative learning. Emotional intelligence dimensions correlate more strongly in team sports than in individual sports. In addition, there was a negative and indirect relation between task oriented climate and trait-anxiety in both categories of sports. (4 Conclusions: This study shows how the task-oriented motivational climate or certain levels of emotional intelligence can act preventively in the face of anxiety states in athletes. Therefore, the development of these psychological factors could prevent anxiety states and improve performance in athletes.

  6. Clinical and Physiological Correlates of Irritability in Depression: Results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floor E. A. Verhoeven

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Irritable and nonirritable depressed patients differ on demographic and clinical characteristics. We investigated whether this extends to psychological and physiological measures. Method. We compared irritable and nonirritable unipolar depressed patients on symptomatology, personality, and (psychophysiological measures (cortisol, cholesterol, and heart rate variability. Symptomatology was reassessed after one year, and we also compared depressed patients who were irritable or non-irritable at both time points (Irr++ versus Irr−−. Results. Almost half (46%; N=420 of the sample was classified as irritable. These patients scored higher on depression severity, anxiety, hypomanic symptoms, and psychological variables. No differences were observed on physiological markers after correction for depression severity. The same pattern was found when comparing Irr++ and Irr−− groups. Conclusion. Irritable and non-irritable depressed patients differ on clinical and psychological variables, but not on the currently investigated physiological markers. The clinical relevance of the distinction and the significance of the hypomanic symptoms remain to be demonstrated.

  7. Social Anxiety and Fear of Causing Discomfort to Others: Diagnostic Specificity, Symptom Correlates and CBT Treatment Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Yasunori; Laposa, Judith M; Regev, Rotem; Rector, Neil A

    2017-07-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) report fear content relating to the perceived aversive consequences of their anxiety for others in their social environment. However, no studies to date have examined the diagnostic specificity of these fears to SAD as well as predictors to treatment response of these fears. To examine relative specificity of fears related to causing discomfort to others, as measured by Social Anxiety-Fear of Causing Discomfort to Others (SA-DOS), among patients with anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), in addition to relation between dysfunctional attitudes and treatment response among patients with SAD. In study 1, a large (n=745) sample of DSM diagnosed OCD, MDD and anxiety disorder participants completed the SA-DOS. In study 2, patient participants with SAD (n=186) participated in cognitive behavioural group therapy (CBGT) and completed measures of social anxiety symptoms and dysfunctional attitudes. In study 1, the SAD group demonstrated significantly elevated SA-DOS scores compared with participants with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), OCD and panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A), but not the MDD group. In study 2, CBGT treatment was found to lead to significant reductions in SA-DOS scores. Need for approval (NFA) but not perfectionism, predicted treatment response to fears related to causing discomfort to others, with greater change in NFA relating to greater change in SA-DOS scores. These findings extend previous research linking allocentric fears to the phenomenology and treatment of SAD.

  8. Smartphone-based Music Listening to Reduce Pain and Anxiety Before Coronarography: A Focus on Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guétin, Stéphane; Brun, Luc; Deniaud, Maelle; Clerc, Jean-Michel; Thayer, Julian F; Koenig, Julian

    2016-07-01

    Background • Music Care is a smartphone-based application providing a musical intervention for the management of pain and anxiety in a clinical setting. Coronarography is a medical procedure frequently associated with examination anxiety. Objectives • The study intended to perform an initial evaluation of the application for use with patients undergoing a coronarography. Design • The research team performed an uncontrolled, observational study. Setting • The study took place at Nouméa General Hospital in Nouméa, New Caledonia, France. Participants • Participants were 35 patients, 17 women and 18 men, who were undergoing a coronarography between November 2010 and April 2011 at the Nouméa General Hospital. Intervention • Participants listened to a standardized musical sequence of adjustable length by choosing a preferred style of music (eg, classic rock or folk music) from a variety of choices that the research team had chosen to include in the application. Outcome Measures • Before and after listening to the music, all participants were asked to rate their anxiety and pain on an 11-item, visual analogue scale and to complete a questionnaire on their satisfaction with use of the application. Results • The paired sample t test revealed a significant reduction in participants' anxiety (t33 = 4.12, P music. No significant reduction in self-reported pain occurred; however, only a few participants reported pain associated with the procedure. No significant sex differences existed. Women and men both showed reduced anxiety after listening to music as well as reported a high level of satisfaction in using the Music Care application. Conclusions • The smartphone-based Music Care application is an easy-to-use tool to reduce anxiety in patients undergoing coronarography. Future large-scale, controlled trials are necessary to compare its effectiveness with other interventions. Both women and men can benefit from the use of the application.

  9. Anxiety and performance in elite non-professional athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, B; Fitzgerald, P

    2006-09-01

    Anxiety is one of the main motivators with regards to performance of individuals in any given task, including sporting endeavours. Our study sought to assess state anxiety levels in elite non-professional sportsmen, and to investigate if anxiety correlated with sporting performance, the IDA-Q (irritability, depression & anxiety questionnaire) was used to assess 3 mental state variables in an inter-county hurling team as well as a matched non-sporting control group, and performance was judged by completion of a standard task in 2 different settings: a non-pressurised one and a highly pressurised setting. Subjects had significantly higher anxiety scores on the IDA-Q than the controls (p = 0.019). There were no significant differences and controls in the depression and irritability scales. There was a significantly negative correlation between anxiety scores and performance on the IDA-Q; spearman r = -0.57. High anxiety levels impair sporting performance.

  10. Gender differences in perceived environmental correlates of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spence John C

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited research has been conducted on gender differences in perceived environmental correlates of physical activity (PA. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential role of gender in the link between perceived environment and PA. Methods Using a telephone-administered survey, data was collected on leisure time physical activity (LTPA, perceptions of the neighbourhood environment, and self-efficacy in a representative sample of 1209 adults from the province of Alberta, Canada. LTPA was regressed on ten measures of perceived neighbourhood environment and self-efficacy in a series of logistic regressions. Results Women were more likely than men to perceive their neighbourhood as unsafe to go for walks at night (χ2 = 67.46, p 2 = 6.73, p 2 = 11.50, p 2 = 4.30, p Conclusion The results provide additional support for the use of models in which gender is treated as a potential moderator of the link between the perceived environment and PA. Further, the results suggest the possibility of differential interventions to increase PA based on factors associated with gender.

  11. Culture of honour theory and social anxiety: Cross-regional and sex differences in relationships among honour-concerns, social anxiety and reactive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Ashley N; Buckner, Julia D; Weeks, Justin W

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with the "flight or fight" model of anxiety, social anxiety may incite withdrawal or attack; yet, it is unclear why some socially anxious individuals are vulnerable to aggress. It may be that culture impacts tendencies to "fight" or "flee" from social threat. Honour cultures, including the American South, permit or even promote aggression in response to honour-threats. Thus, social anxiety in the South may be more associated with aggression than in non-honour cultures. In the current sample, region moderated the relation between social anxiety and aggression; social anxiety related positively to reactive (but not proactive) aggression among Southerners (n = 285), but not Midwesterners (n = 258). Participant sex further moderated the relationship, such that it was significant only for Southern women. Also, for Southerners, prototypically masculine honour-concerns mediated the relationship between social anxiety and reactive aggression. Cultural factors may play key roles in aggressive behaviour among some socially anxious individuals.

  12. Escitalopram versus paroxetine for social anxiety disorder: an analysis of efficacy for different symptom dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Dan J; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Lader, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    on symptom dimensions in social anxiety disorder (SAD). METHODS: Data from a 24-week randomised, placebo-controlled, comparative study of fixed doses of escitalopram (5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg) versus paroxetine (20 mg) in SAD were examined. The six factors identified in a previous factor analysis of baseline data......BACKGROUND: A previous factor analysis of pooled data demonstrated that the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) can be divided into six subscales. This paper examines data from a fixed-dose trial of escitalopram versus paroxetine, in order to determine the differential effects of these agents...

  13. Testing Stereotype Threat: Does Anxiety Explain Race and Sex Differences in Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jason W.

    The stereotype threat theory of C. Steele (1992, 1997) attempts to explain the underperformance of minority students in academic domains and of women in mathematics. Steele asserts that situational self-relevance of negative group stereotypes in testing situations increases the anxiety these students experience, and that these differential anxiety…

  14. Major Depressive Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Do the Sexual Dysfunctions Differ?

    OpenAIRE

    Kendurkar, Arvind; Kaur, Brinder

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are known to have significant impact on sexual functioning. They have been studied individually. Therefore, this study was planned to compare the sexual dysfunction between MDD, OCD, and GAD with healthy subjects as controls.

  15. Intrapair differences in hippocampal volume in monozygotic twins discordant for the risk for anxiety and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, Eco J. C.; van't Ent, Dennis; Wolfensberger, Saskia P. A.; Heutink, Peter; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Veltman, Dick J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current biological psychiatric models assume that genetic and environmental risk factors for anxiety and depression act on the same brain structures. METHODS: To test this assumption, we assessed brain anatomy by using optimized voxel-based morphometry on magnetic resonance images

  16. Processing Efficiency in Preschoolers' Memory Span: Individual Differences Related to Age and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visu-Petra, Laura; Miclea, Mircea; Cheie, Lavinia; Benga, Oana

    2009-01-01

    In self-paced auditory memory span tasks, the microanalysis of response timing measures represents a developmentally sensitive measure, providing insights into the development of distinct processing rates during recall performance. The current study first examined the effects of age and trait anxiety on span accuracy (effectiveness) and response…

  17. Learner Differences among Children Learning a Foreign Language: Language Anxiety, Strategy Use, and Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-ju; Chen, Ting-Han

    2014-01-01

    This study mainly investigates language anxiety and its relationship to the use of learning strategies and multiple intelligences among young learners in an EFL educational context. The participants were composed of 212 fifth- and sixth-graders from elementary schools in central Taiwan. Findings indicated that most participants generally…

  18. Fear less : Individual differences in fear conditioning and their relation to treatment outcome in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duits, P.

    2016-01-01

    Findings from animal and human experimental studies highlight the importance of fear conditioning processes in the development and treatment of anxiety disorders. The work reported in this thesis was focused on potential abnormalities in the acquisition and extinction of fear in patients with

  19. Differences between charge-charge forward-backward multiplicity correlations in multiparticle production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barshay, S.

    1987-01-01

    We analyze new data from hadron-hadron collisions on forward-backward correlations. The difference between these correlations for unlike and like charges implies different dynamical correlations at fixed impact parameter. These different correlations should be observable in e + e - annihilations. (orig.)

  20. Factors influencing competitive anxiety in Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gimenes Fernandes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n6p705 The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence; and ii investigate the effects of gender, type of sport (individual or collective and competitive experience levels on cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. A total of 303 athletes (233 males and 70 females, from different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M =24.22, SD = 5.07 completed a shortened version of CSAI-2 (i.e., CSAI-2R, about one hour before the start of competitions. Results revealed significant correlations between cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence dimensions, in accordance with the assumptions of the multidimensional theory. Additionally, comparative analyses indicated that female athletes and athletes from collective sports showed higher levels of cognitive anxiety, while male athletes and athletes with high competitive experience reported higher levels of self-confidence. These results were discussed taking into account the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for planning interventions of sport psychology in Brazil with athletes of different contexts.

  1. Factors influencing competitive anxiety in Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gimenes Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence; and ii investigate the effects of gender, type of sport (individual or collective and competitive experience levels on cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. A total of 303 athletes (233 males and 70 females, from different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M =24.22, SD = 5.07 completed a shortened version of CSAI-2 (i.e., CSAI-2R, about one hour before the start of competitions. Results revealed significant correlations between cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence dimensions, in accordance with the assumptions of the multidimensional theory. Additionally, comparative analyses indicated that female athletes and athletes from collective sports showed higher levels of cognitive anxiety, while male athletes and athletes with high competitive experience reported higher levels of self-confidence. These results were discussed taking into account the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for planning interventions of sport psychology in Brazil with athletes of different contexts.

  2. Anxiety due to Dental Treatment and Procedures among University Students and Its Correlation with Their Gender and Field of Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd G. Sghaireen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study. To investigate dental anxiety levels among university students and its relation with their specialty and gender. Materials and Methods. 850 undergraduate university students were recruited into the study. The Modified Corah Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS was used to measure the levels of their dental anxiety. 700 questionnaires were returned, 390 females and 310 males (response rate of 0.92% among females, 0.73% among males. The MDAS score ranged from 5 to 25. Patients were considered to suffer from high dental anxiety if they scored 13 to 20 points. Statistical analysis significance was set at P≤0.05. Results. Seven hundred students participated in this study including 13% of medical students, 10% of dental students, 58% of arts students, and 18% of computer science students. Medical and dental students were less anxious than arts and computer science students (P<0.05. Local anesthesia injection was the most fearful dental procedure (P<0.05. Females were more anxious than males (P<0.05. Conclusion. Male students were less anxious than female students. Students from medical background faculties were less anxious than students from nonmedical faculties. Lack of adequate dental health education may result in a higher level of dental anxiety among nonmedical students in Saudi Arabia.

  3. Novelty-induced locomotion is positively associated with cocaine ingestion in adolescent rats; anxiety is correlated in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Q David; Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L; Caster, Joseph M; Waller, Samuel T; Brooks, Matthew P; Kuhn, Cynthia M

    2009-01-01

    The present studies assessed the roles of sex, age, novelty-seeking and plus-maze behavior on cocaine drinking in rats. Cocaine/saccharin solution was available in three daily, 5-hour sessions then a saccharin-only solution was also available in following sessions. In the one-bottle drinking phase, early and late adolescent males, post-natal day 28 (PN28) and PN42, consumed more cocaine/saccharin solution than young adults (PN65), but females did not exhibit significant age differences. Adolescents of both sexes consumed more cocaine/saccharin than adults during choice drinking. Saccharin availability in the two-bottle trials decreased cocaine/saccharin consumption in PN28 and PN65 rats. After a drug-free period, cocaine-stimulated locomotion was lower in cocaine/saccharin drinking than saccharin-only males, indicating tolerance. We tested the hypothesis that individual differences in pre-screened behavioral traits would correlate with cocaine/saccharin consumption in PN28 and PN65 male rats. High locomotor responses to novelty were associated with greater cocaine/saccharin drinking in adults in one-bottle sessions. In the subsequent choice drinking phase, correlations were age-specific. Adolescents with high novelty-induced locomotion and adults that spent less time on open arms of the elevated plus-maze drank more cocaine/saccharin. Thus, behavioral phenotypes correlated with individual differences in cocaine/saccharin consumption in an age-related manner.

  4. The Effect of English Learning Anxiety on Iranian High-School Students’ English Language Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Atef-Vahid

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored English language learning anxiety among 38 third-year high school students in English classrooms and its relationship with overall English achievement. Students’ foreign language anxiety was surveyed and analyzed using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986 [14] and their English achievement was measured through their final standardized English exam administered by the school. The results showed that although some students felt extremely confident and relaxed, however, one-third of the
    students experienced moderate to high-anxiety levels while learning the English language in class. Correlational analysis revealed that the total FLCAS scores had a significantly moderate negative correlation (r=-.0586, p<.01 with the total final English exams scores of the participants. Anxiety was also analyzed according to the four different variables of anxiety (communication anxiety, test anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, English classroom anxiety which were measured by the FLCAS. The results of the Pearson correlational analysis indicated that English achievement was modestly correlated with all four anxiety variables (p<0.01. Of the four types of anxiety, English Classroom anxiety had the highest correlational value. Finally, possible anxiety provoking factors
    leading to these findings are examined and discussed, and some pedagogical implications are proposed.

  5. PREVALENCE, CAUSES AND PATTERNS OF ANXIETY TOWARDS EXAMINATIONS AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS COPING: A STUDY AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Tassadaq, Mohammad Munaim; Naseem, Muhammed; Zafar, Mehnaz

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The objective of this study is to assess symptoms of test anxiety among medical students and its association with various academic, social and health-related factors. The specific aims are to determine: the prevalence of symptoms of test anxiety, the factors responsible for and different patterns of test anxiety, the correlation of socio-demographic data with test anxiety in medical students and the attitude towards coping strategies developped by them to deal with test anxiety.Methods:...

  6. Association between Types of Involvement in School Bullying and Different Dimensions of Anxiety Symptoms and the Moderating Effects of Age and Gender in Taiwanese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Huang, Mei-Feng; Kim, Young Shin; Wang, Peng-Wei; Tang, Tze-Chun; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Lin, Huang-Chi; Liu, Tai-Ling; Wu, Yu-Yu; Yang, Pinchen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations of various types of school bullying involvement experiences with different dimensions of anxiety symptoms on the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and to examine the moderating effects of gender and age on the associations in Taiwanese adolescent…

  7. The prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a group of 1,940 Serbian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simić-Vukomanović, Ivana; Mihajlović, Goran; Kocić, Sanja; Djonović, Nela; Banković, Dragić; Vukomanović, Vladimir; Djukić-Dejanović, Slavica

    2016-02-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM. Mental health of university students is under increasing concern worldwide, because they face challenges which predisposes them to depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to identify demographic and socioeconomic variables associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms among university students. This cross-sectional study on 1,940 university students was performed using a questionnaire including demographic and socioeconomic variables, Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in students was 23.6%, while the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was 33.5%. The depressive symptoms were significantly related to the study year (p = 0.002), type of faculty (p = 0.014), satisfaction with college major choice (p students (odds ratio--OR = 1.791, 95% confidence interval--CI = 1.351-2.374), older students (OR = 1.110, 95% CI = 1.051-1.172), students who reported low family economic situation (OR = 2.091, 95% CI = 1.383-3.162), not owning the room (OR = 1.512, 95%CI = 1.103-2.074), dissatisfaction with graduate education (OR = 1.537, 95% CI = 1.165-2.027) were more likely toshow depressive symptoms. The anxiety symptoms were significantly related to study year (p = 0.034), type of faculty(p college residence (p = 0.001) satisfaction with the college major choice (p = 0.001), and satisfaction with graduate education(p students (OR = 1.901, 95% CI =1.490-2.425), and students who reported parents high expectations of academic success (OR = 1.290, 95% CI =1.022-1.630) were more likely to show anxiety symptoms. This is one of the largest study examining mental disorders in a sample of university students in Serbia. These findings underscore the importance of early detections of mental problems and prevention interventions in university students.

  8. Late-onset pathological gambling: clinical correlates and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won; Odlaug, Brian L; Buchanan, Stephanie N; Potenza, Marc N

    2009-01-01

    Age at illness onset has significant clinical implications for psychiatric disorders. Prior research has not systematically examined age at illness onset and its relationship to the clinical characteristics of pathological gambling (PG). Among a sample of 322 consecutive subjects with current DSM-IV PG, those with late-onset (at or after age 55 years) PG were compared to those with earlier onsets (at or prior to age 25, 26-54 years old) on measures of PG severity, co-occurring disorders, social and legal problems, and family history. Forty-two (13.4%) subjects reported onset of PG at or after age 55 years, 63 (19.6%) reported onset prior to age 25 years, and the majority (n=217; 67.4%) reported onset between the ages of 26 and 54 years. The late-onset group were less likely to declare bankruptcy (p=.029) or have credit card debt attributable to gambling (p=.006). Late-onset PG subjects were significantly more likely to have an anxiety disorder (pgambling problem. Exploratory analyses identified an age-by-gender interaction with respect to treatment-seeking, with more pronounced age-related shortening in the duration between problem onset and treatment seeking observed in men. Age at onset of PG is associated with multiple important clinical features. Long durations of PG prior to treatment-seeking indicate the need for improved prevention efforts among individuals with early PG onset. Late-onset PG is relatively common and has distinct clinical characteristics suggesting that this population might benefit from unique prevention and treatment strategies.

  9. Initial psychometrics, outcomes, and correlates of the Repetitive Body Focused Behavior Scale: Examination in a sample of youth with anxiety and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selles, Robert R; La Buissonnière Ariza, Valérie; McBride, Nicole M; Dammann, Julie; Whiteside, Stephen; Storch, Eric A

    2018-02-01

    Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors (BFRBs), including skin-picking, hair-pulling, and nail-biting, commonly occur in youth, even at elevated/problematic levels, and are associated with a number of other psychiatric symptoms. The present study examined the internal consistency of a brief screening tool for BFRBs as well as the prevalence, severity, and correlates of BFRBs in a sample of youth with a primary anxiety or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Ninety-three youth-parent dyads presenting for treatment for anxiety or OCD completed study measures including the Repetitive Body Focused Behavior Scale - Parent (RBFBS), which includes subscales for skin-picking, hair-pulling, and nail-biting, as well as a number of additional clinician-, parent-, and child-rated scales. The RBFBS demonstrated good to excellent internal consistency. BFRBs were endorsed in 55% of youths, with elevated levels in 27%. Skin-picking was the most common BFRB (38%), followed by nail-biting (34%) and hair-pulling (4%). Youth with BFRBs, as compared to those without, were rated as more avoidant by their parents. Among those with BFRBs, more avoidant tendencies, anxiety sensitivity, and child-rated panic, separation, and generalized anxiety symptoms were associated with elevated BFRB severity. BFRBs were equally common but more likely to be elevated among youth with a primary anxiety, than OCD, diagnosis. Results provide initial support for the RBFBS as a brief screening tool for the three common BFRBs. In addition, the results suggest avoidant tendencies and physical manifestations of distress may be particularly relevant to the escalation of BFRB symptoms in youth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Disagreement between self-reported and clinician-ascertained suicidal ideation and its correlation with depression and anxiety severity in patients with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Keming; Wu, Renrong; Wang, Zuowei; Ren, Ming; Kemp, David E; Chan, Philip K; Conroy, Carla M; Serrano, Mary Beth; Ganocy, Stephen J; Calabrese, Joseph R

    2015-01-01

    To study the disagreement between self-reported suicidal ideation (SR-SI) and clinician-ascertained suicidal ideation (CA-SI) and its correlation with depression and anxiety severity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BPD). Routine clinical outpatients were diagnosed with the MINI-STEP-BD version. SR-SI was extracted from the 16 Item Quick Inventory of Depression Symptomatology Self-Report (QIDS-SR-16) item 12. CA-SI was extracted from a modified Suicide Assessment module of the MINI. Depression and anxiety severity were measured with the QIDS-SR-16 and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Chi-square, Fisher exact, and bivariate linear logistic regression were used for analyses. Of 103 patients with MDD, 5.8% endorsed any CA-SI and 22.4% endorsed any SR-SI. Of the 147 patients with BPD, 18.4% endorsed any CA-SI and 35.9% endorsed any SR-SI. The agreement between any SR-SI and any CA-SI was 83.5% for MDD and 83.1% for BPD, with weighted Kappa of 0.30 and 0.43, respectively. QIDS-SR-16 score, female gender, and ≥4 year college education were associated with increased risk for disagreement, 15.44 ± 4.52 versus 18.39 ± 3.49 points (p = 0.0026), 67% versus 46% (p = 0.0783), and 61% versus 29% (p = 0.0096). The disagreement was positively correlated to depression severity in both MDD and BPD with a correlation coefficient R(2) = 0.40 and 0.79, respectively, but was only positively correlated to anxiety severity in BPD with a R(2) = 0.46. Self-reported questionnaire was more likely to reveal higher frequency and severity of SI than clinician-ascertained, suggesting that a combination of self-reported and clinical-ascertained suicidal risk assessment with measuring depression and anxiety severity may be necessary for suicide prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [What are the differences between well-being therapy and anxiety management in the school setting?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaise, Carlotta; Tomba, Elena; Offidani, Emanuela; Visani, Dalila; Ottolini, Fedra; Bravi, Alessandra; Albieri, Elisa; Ruini, Chiara; Rafanelli, Chiara; Caffo, Ernesto; Fava, Giovanni A

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade there has been increasing interest in the potential of early preventive interventions capable of promoting psychological well being in order to reduce the risk of childhood psychological distress. This study analyzes the differential effects of strategies for promotion of psychological well-being (Well-Being Therapy, WBT) and removal of distress (Anxiety Management, AM) in a non clinical school setting. Our sample consisted of eight classes (N=162 students) attending middle schools in Northern Italy which were randomly assigned to a protocol derived from WBT (4 classes) and to an anxiety-management protocol (AM) (4 classes). Immediately before and after both school interventions students were assessed using the Psychological Well-Being Scales (PWB), Kellner's Symptom Questionnaire (SQ) and the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (R-CMAS). A six month follow-up was performed in the following school year, and students were re-assessed with the same psychometric instruments. Our results lend support to the possibility to change attitudes to psychological well-being and distress with brief interventions in school (both well-being improving and distress removing). Further investigations should determine whether the combined and sequential integration of well-being and symptom oriented strategies may yield more complete and lasting effects that each strategy alone.

  12. Differences in anxiety between victims of violence brought up in children’s homes and in families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Dzieduszyński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In academic literature on the subject it is assumed that being subjected during one’s childhood to various forms of aggressive behaviour and violence affects development of personality and negatively determines further functioning of an individual in different spheres of life, i.e. attitude towards oneself (self-esteem and self-acceptance, ability to cope with exposure to stress, interpersonal contacts and one’s level of manifestation of anxiety and aggression. Despite the commonness of this theoretical stand there are relatively few reliable empirical studies verifying this view. The main purpose of research was verification of the thesis which states that being a victim of violence as a child unfavourably of children in children’s homes and it manifests itself in excessive anxiety.

  13. A Cross-Cultural Study of Anxiety among Chinese and Caucasian American University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural differences on state, trait, and social anxiety between Chinese and Caucasian American university students. Chinese students reported higher levels of social anxiety than did Caucasian American students. Correlations between trait and state anxiety were compared in light of the trait model of…

  14. A field investigation of flight anxiety: Evidence of gender differences in consumer behaviors among Las Vegas passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey A Harvell

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines how anxious the Las Vegas public is through a case study of one local international airport. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study examines gender differences in consumer behaviors among the flying public inside Las Vegas McCarran International Airport in a field experiment theoretically grounded in Terror Management Theory. Findings and Originality/Value: Because airports are replete with reminders of human mortality, it is not a surprise that death awareness and flight anxiety may be closely related. The flying public that is anxious to fly presents an interesting public relations situation for airports. Therefore, this study examines how anxious the Las Vegas public is through a case study of one local international airport. Results show that flight anxiety does provoke the same kind of existential defenses that traditional death awareness does. This study also suggests that men and women do not react to flight anxiety in a uniform way, they are different in their reactions in seeking to gamble, eating unhealthy food, and an increased desire for electronic entertainment.

  15. Altered neural correlates of affective processing after internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsson, Kristoffer N T; Carlbring, Per; Frick, Andreas; Engman, Jonas; Olsson, Carl-Johan; Bodlund, Owe; Furmark, Tomas; Andersson, Gerhard

    2013-12-30

    Randomized controlled trials have yielded promising results for internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) for patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). The present study investigated anxiety-related neural changes after iCBT for SAD. The amygdala is a critical hub in the neural fear network, receptive to change using emotion regulation strategies and a putative target for iCBT. Twenty-two subjects were included in pre- and post-treatment functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T assessing neural changes during an affective face processing task. Treatment outcome was assessed using social anxiety self-reports and the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale. ICBT yielded better outcome than ABM (66% vs. 25% CGI-I responders). A significant differential activation of the left amygdala was found with relatively decreased reactivity after iCBT. Changes in the amygdala were related to a behavioral measure of social anxiety. Functional connectivity analysis in the iCBT group showed that the amygdala attenuation was associated with increased activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and decreased activity in the right ventrolateral and dorsolateral (dlPFC) cortices. Treatment-induced neural changes with iCBT were consistent with previously reported studies on regular CBT and emotion regulation in general. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Foreign Language Reading Anxiety among Yemeni Secondary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia Ahmed Y. Al-Sohbani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine Foreign Language (FL reading anxiety level of Arabicspeaking Yemeni students learning English as a foreign language (n = 106. It utilized (a a background information questionnaire, (b the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS, and (c students' English school marks. Results of the study showed that learners of English experienced an above moderate level of FL reading anxiety. There was no significant difference between students' FL reading anxiety and their gender. However, a statistically reliable difference between the means of public and private schools regarding their FL reading anxiety in favor of the private school. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between students' FL reading anxiety and their type of school. Difficulties of uncertainty, pronunciation of English words, unfamiliar topic, unknown vocabulary, reading aloud, using word by word translation, unfamiliar English culture and history, unfamiliar grammar, English letters and symbols were identified as the major sources of FL reading anxiety.

  17. [Obesity and symptoms of depression and anxiety in pre- and postmenopausal women: a comparison of different obesity indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedler, Birk; von Lengerke, Thomas; Emeny, Rebecca; Heier, Margit; Lacruz, Maria Elena; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-03-01

    This study examines differences in the rates of depression and anxiety symptoms in overweight vs. normal weight women before and after the menopause. In a population sample of 1 416 participants of the KORA-Survey F3 2004-2005 (age 35-74 years), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) und waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) were measured via physical examination. Depression and anxiety were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Compared with normal weight, obesity was associated with depression in premenopausal women. This held for elevated BMI-, WC- and WHtR-scores (OR=3.7, 4.2, and 2.8), underlining the relevance of both general and abdominal obesity. Menopausal status may be a moderator for the association of obesity and depression, which - given the interaction between these 2 risk factors - may be of preventive importance in regard to the development of cardiovascular outcomes such as coronary heart disease. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Psychological differences between early- and late-onset psoriasis: a study of personality traits, anxiety and depression in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remröd, C; Sjöström, K; Svensson, A

    2013-08-01

    Onset of psoriasis may occur at any age. Early negative experiences often influence personality development, and may lead to physical disease, anxiety and depression in adulthood. Knowledge about onset of psoriasis and psychopathology is limited. To examine whether patients with early-onset psoriasis differ psychologically from patients with late-onset psoriasis, regarding personality traits, anxiety and depression. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 101 consecutively recruited outpatients with psoriasis. A psychosocial interview was performed followed by self-assessment of validated questionnaires: Swedish Universities Scales of Personality (SSP), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory. Psoriasis severity was assessed by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Patients with early-onset psoriasis (age personality traits: SSP-embitterment, -trait irritability, -mistrust and -verbal trait aggression. Our results indicate that early detection of psychological vulnerability when treating children and adolescents with psoriasis seems to be of great importance. Traits of psychological vulnerability and pessimistic personality traits were found to be significantly associated with the early onset of psoriasis, but not with disease duration in this study. These traits may be seen as a consequence of psoriasis, and/or as individual traits modulating and impairing clinical course and efforts to cope with psoriasis. © 2013 The Authors BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with airway obstruction using hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS in different localities of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira H. Allam

    2017-10-01

    Summary at a glance: This study included 420 subjects divided into three groups: Group I asthmatic (150 patients, group II COPD patients (150 and control group contain (120 healthy subjects. All patients and healthy subjects were instructed to answer the questionnaire of HADS. Anxiety and depression scales were calculated with prevalence of each. Anxiety and depression were more common in people with asthma and COPD.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of depression and anxiety disorder in a sample of inmates in a Nigerian prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osasona, Samuel O; Koleoso, Olaide N

    2015-01-01

    Prisoners tend to be marginalized and deprived of the rights and privileges that other citizens in the community enjoy. Their separation from families, adverse effects on health of prison environment, and the uncertainty about the future place a great psychological burden on them which can lead to the development of mental illness. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity (depression and anxiety) and the associated factors among a sample of the prison inmates. The study was descriptive and cross-sectional in design; it was conducted in a medium security prison in Benin City, Nigeria. Participants were interviewed with the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Two hundred and fifty-two prisoners who were selected by systematic sampling techniques participated in the study and the data were analyzed using the 16th version of the SPSS with the statistical level of significance set at p anxiety symptoms respectively on the HADS. Overall, 84.5% of the respondents had at least one type of psychiatric morbidity. Age, marital status, self-reported physical and mental health, previous mental illness, imprisonment status, prison accommodation, prison meal, and health care services were found to be significantly associated with depression, anxiety or general psychiatric morbidity. Self-reported poor current mental health was the only variable that predicted all the three types of psychiatric morbidity. Prisoners in this study, and as in previous reports, had high prevalence rates of psychiatric morbidity. Thus, prisoners have a need for regular psychiatric screening and treatment. The consequences of untreated psychiatric morbidity and the need for improved health care services and infrastructure in the prison were discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Salivary Cortisol, Salivary Alpha Amylase, and the Dental Anxiety Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Sadi, Hana; Finkelman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Morton

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/denta...

  2. The structure, correlates, and treatment related changes of mindfulness facets across the anxiety disorders and obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Lance L; Rogojanski, Jenny; Vorstenbosch, Valerie; Quilty, Lena C; Laposa, Judith M; Rector, Neil A

    2017-06-01

    Research with non-clinical and clinical samples has examined how mindfulness concepts relate to psychological symptom presentations. However, there is less clarity when examining treatment-seeking patients who experience DSM-diagnosed anxiety and obsessional disorders - both cross-sectionally, and following empirically-supported treatments. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ; Baer, Smith, Hopkins, Krietemeyer, & Toney, 2006) conceptualizes mindfulness as consisting of five facets: Observing, Describing, Acting with Awareness, Nonreactivity, and Nonjudging. The current study examines the factor structure and predictive validity of the FFMQ in a large sample of treatment-seeking individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) established that both four and five-factor models (i.e., with and without inclusion of the Observing factor) provided an acceptable representation of the underlying FFMQ structure, but did not support a one-factor solution. For each of these diagnostic groups, hierarchical regression analyses clarified the association between specific FFMQ facets and diagnosis specific symptom change during CBT treatment. These findings are discussed in the context of the possible transdiagnostic relevance of specific mindfulness facets, and how these facets are differentially associated with diagnosis specific symptom alleviation during CBT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anatomical correlation of core muscle activation in different yogic postures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrithunjay Rathore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Faulty postures due to sedentary lifestyle cause weakening of core muscles which contributes to increased incidence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs. Although a few research studies have quantified the core muscle activity in various yogic exercises used in rehabilitation programs, evidence correlating it to functional anatomy is scarce. Such information is important for exercise prescription when formulating treatment plans for MSDs. Therefore, the objective of this review article is to examine the literature and analyze the muscle activity produced across various yoga postures to determine which type of yoga posture elicits the highest activation for the core muscle in individuals. Literature search was performed using the following electronic databases: Cochrane Library, NCBI, PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and web of science. The search terms contained: Core muscle activation and yogic posture OR yoga and rehabilitation OR intervention AND Electromyography. Activation of specific core muscle involved asanas which depended on trunk and pelvic movements. Description of specific yogic exercise as they relate to core muscles activation is described. This information should help in planning yogic exercises that challenge the muscle groups without causing loads that may be detrimental to recovery and pain-free movement. Knowledge of activation of muscles in various yogic postures can assist health-care practitioners to make appropriate decisions for the designing of safe and effective evidence-based yoga intervention for MSDs.

  4. Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Test Anxiety KidsHealth / For Teens / Test Anxiety What's in this ... with their concentration or performance. What Is Test Anxiety? Test anxiety is actually a type of performance ...

  5. Quantifying the Search Behaviour of Different Demographics Using Google Correlate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchford, Adrian; Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2016-01-01

    Vast records of our everyday interests and concerns are being generated by our frequent interactions with the Internet. Here, we investigate how the searches of Google users vary across U.S. states with different birth rates and infant mortality rates. We find that users in states with higher birth rates search for more information about pregnancy, while those in states with lower birth rates search for more information about cats. Similarly, we find that users in states with higher infant mortality rates search for more information about credit, loans and diseases. Our results provide evidence that Internet search data could offer new insight into the concerns of different demographics. PMID:26910464

  6. Correlation of cutting fluid performance in different machining operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Belluco, Walter

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of cutting fluid performance in different metal cutting operations is presented, based on experimental investigations in which type of operation, performance criteria, work material, and fluid type are considered. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming a...

  7. A Binomial Test of Group Differences with Correlated Outcome Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Levin, Joel R.; Ferron, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous arguments for why educational researchers should not provide effect-size estimates in the face of statistically nonsignificant outcomes (Robinson & Levin, 1997), Onwuegbuzie and Levin (2005) proposed a 3-step statistical approach for assessing group differences when multiple outcome measures are individually analyzed…

  8. Gender differences in disordered eating and its correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgin, J; Pritchard, M

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine gender differences in the prevalence of disordered eating and body dissatisfaction as well as examine gender differences in several risk factors: mass media, self-esteem and perfectionism. Three hundred fifty-three undergraduates completed surveys about their body dissatisfaction, disordered eating habits, exposure to and influence of mass media, self-esteem and perfectionistic tendencies. As expected, women experienced more symptoms of disordered eating as well as body dissatisfaction than did their male counterparts. There were also gender differences in the risk factors. For women, mass media, self-esteem, and perfectionism related to disordered eating behaviors, whereas for men, only perfectionism and mass media related to disordered eating behaviors. For women, mass media and self-esteem related to body image dissatisfaction, whereas for men, mass media and perfectionism related to body image dissatisfaction. The results of the present study indicate that risk factors for disordered eating and body dissatisfaction for men and women may be different, which has implications for understanding the etiology of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating and for possible treatment interventions.

  9. Dengue Virus Structural Differences That Correlate with Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitmeyer, Katrin C.; Vaughn, David W.; Watts, Douglas M.; Salas, Rosalba; Villalobos , Iris; de Chacon; Ramos, Celso; Rico-Hesse, Rebeca

    1999-01-01

    The understanding of dengue virus pathogenesis has been hampered by the lack of in vitro and in vivo models of disease. The study of viral factors involved in the production of severe dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), versus the more common dengue fever (DF), have been limited to indirect clinical and epidemiologic associations. In an effort to identify viral determinants of DHF, we have developed a method for comparing dengue type 2 genomes (reverse transcriptase PCR in six fragments) directly from patient plasma. Samples for comparison were selected from two previously described dengue type 2 genotypes which had been shown to be the cause of DF or DHF. When full genome sequences of 11 dengue viruses were analyzed, several structural differences were seen consistently between those associated with DF only and those with the potential to cause DHF: a total of six encoded amino acid charge differences were seen in the prM, E, NS4b, and NS5 genes, while sequence differences observed within the 5′ nontranslated region (NTR) and 3′ NTR were predicted to change RNA secondary structures. We hypothesize that the primary determinants of DHF reside in (i) amino acid 390 of the E protein, which purportedly alters virion binding to host cells; (ii) in the downstream loop (nucleotides 68 to 80) of the 5′ NTR, which may be involved in translation initiation; and (iii) in the upstream 300 nucleotides of the 3′ NTR, which may regulate viral replication via the formation of replicative intermediates. The significance of four amino acid differences in the nonstructural proteins NS4b and NS5, a presumed transport protein and the viral RNA polymerase, respectively, remains unknown. This new approach to the study of dengue virus genome differences should better reflect the true composition of viral RNA populations in the natural host and permit their association with pathogenesis. PMID:10233934

  10. Death and Dying Anxiety among Bereaved and Nonbereaved Elderly Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Tinsky-Roimi, Tal

    2011-01-01

    This study examines differences in death and dying anxiety between bereaved and nonbereaved elderly Israeli parents, as well as correlates of these factors among bereaved parents. A total of 97 parents (49 bereaved, 48 nonbereaved) completed measures of death and dying anxiety and religiosity. Bereaved parents reported significantly higher dying…

  11. Evaluation of fatigue and its correlation with quality of life index, anxiety symptoms, depression and activity of disease in patients with psoriatic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Claudio; Chaves, Mario; Verardino, Gustavo; Frade, Ana Paula; Coscarelli, Pedro Guimaraes; Bianchi, Washington Alves; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia; Carneiro, Sueli

    2017-01-01

    Background Psoriatic arthritis is associated with psychosocial morbidity and decrease in quality of life. Psychiatric comorbidity also plays an important role in the impairment of quality of life and onset of fatigue. Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of fatigue in psoriatic arthritis patients and to correlate it to quality of life indexes, functional capacity, anxiety, depression and disease activity. Patients and methods This cross-sectional study was performed on outpatients with psoriatic arthritis. Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy – Fatigue (FACIT-F; version 4) was used to measure fatigue; 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Psoriasis Disability Index (PDI) to measure quality of life; Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) to assess functional capacity; Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale to measure anxiety and depression symptoms; Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) to evaluate clinical activity. Results In all, 101 patients with mean age of 50.77 years were included. The mean PDI score was 8.01; PASI score, 9.88; BASDAI score, 3.59; HAQ score, 0.85; HAD – Anxiety (HAD A) score, 7.39; HAD Depression (HAD D) score, 5.93; FACIT–Fatigue Scale (FACIT-FS) score, 38.3 and CDAI score, 2.65. FACIT-FS was statistically associated with PASI (rs −0.345, p<0.001), PDI (rs −0.299, p<0.002), HAQ (rs −0.460, p<0.001), HAD A (rs −0.306, p=0.002) and HAD D (rs −0.339, p<0.001). The correlations with CDAI and BASDAI were not confirmed. There was statistically significant correlation with all of the domains of SF-36 and FACIT-F (version 4). Conclusion Prevalence of fatigue was moderate to intense in <25% of patients with psoriatic arthritis. Fatigue seems to be more related to the emotional and social aspects of the disease than to joint inflammatory aspects, confirming that the disease’s visibility is

  12. Individual differences and correlates of highly superior autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patihis, Lawrence

    2016-08-01

    Highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) is a recently identified ability that has been difficult to explain with existing memory science. The present study measured HSAM participants' and age/gender-matched controls' on a number of behavioural measures to test three main hypotheses: imaginative absorption, emotional arousal, and sleep. HSAM participants were significantly higher than controls on the dispositions absorption and fantasy proneness. These two dispositions also were associated with a measure of HSAM ability within the hyperthymesia participants. The emotional-arousal hypothesis yielded only weak support. The sleep hypothesis was not supported in terms of quantity, but sleep quality may be a small factor worthy of further research. Other individual differences are also documented using a predominantly exploratory analysis. Speculative pathways describing how the tendencies to absorb and fantasise could lead to enhanced autobiographical memory are discussed.

  13. [Association between acute coronary events and psychosocial risk factors: vital exhaustion, anxiety and anger in an Argentinian population. A correlation study between risks factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, José; Suárez-Bagnasco, Mariana; Kerbage, Soraya; Bonet, María Fernanda; Mautner, Branco

    2013-01-01

    To study the association between vital exhaustion, anxiety and anger with acute coronary event; second, determine whether they are associated with each other, and third, if the joint interaction of two or more factors increases the risk for coronary event. We conducted a case-control study with 165 patients, both sexes, between 35 and 75 years, 90 patients with acute ischemic coronary event and 75 controls hospitalized with an acute event of non-ischemic cardiac causes. Statistically significant differences between the control group and the ischemic coronary group for vital exhaustion was found (OR = 3.0 (1.6-5.5) p Psychosocial risk factors are associated each with p psychosocial risk factors are associated with each other and simultaneous presence of vital exhaustion and anxiety increases the probability of an acute ischemic coronary event.

  14. Correlates of gratitude disposition in middle school students: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-hyun; Yu, Mi

    2014-01-01

    Gratitude disposition is positively associated with happiness. The purpose of this study was to identify influencing factors on gratitude disposition by gender differences in middle school students. Cross-sectional study using self-reported questionnaires were administered to participants (n=372) aged between 13 ∼ 15 years in Seoul and Chungnam Province in Korea. The collected data were analyzed with SPSS18.0 statistical program, and frequency analysis and logistic regression analysis were used in the research. The mean score of family abuse of boys was significantly higher than girls' score (t=3.016, p=0.003). In subscales of development assets, empowerment (t=2.264, p=0.024), boundaries and expectation (t=2.476, p=0.014), and commitment to learning (t=1.971, p=0.049) were significantly higher in boys. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR 0.334, CI 0.130∼0.862), peer relationship (OR 2.280, CI 1.124∼4.623), social support (OR 2.584, CI 1.176∼5.676), positive identity (OR 3.138, CI 1.256∼7.840) were significantly associated with gratitude disposition for boys, while school violence (OR 0.050, CI 0.003∼0.907) and positive identity (OR 2.937, CI 1.313∼6.567) were significantly associated with gratitude disposition for girls. This study suggests that it is important to protect adolescents from family abuse and school violence, furthermore, developmental assets should be developed to increase to gratitude disposition.

  15. Ethnic Differences in Separate and Additive Effects of Anxiety and Depression on Self-rated Mental Health Among Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Dejman, Masoumeh; Neighbors, Harold W

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore ethnic differences in the separate and additive effects of anxiety and depression on self-rated mental health (SRMH) of Blacks in the USA. With a cross-sectional design, we used data from a national household probability sample of African Americans (n = 3570) and Caribbean Blacks (n = 1621) who participated in the National Survey of American Life, 2001-2003. Demographic factors, socio-economic factors, 12-month general anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), and current SRMH were measured. In each ethnic group, three logistic regressions were used to assess the effects of GAD, MDD, and their combinations on SRMH. Among African Americans, GAD and MDD had separate effects on SRMH. Among Caribbean Blacks, only MDD but not GAD had separate effect on SRMH. Among African Americans, when the combined effects of GAD and MDD were tested, GAD but not MDD was associated with SRMH. The separate and additive effects of GAD and MDD on SRMH among Blacks depend on ethnicity. Although single-item SRMH measures are easy methods for the screening of mental health need, community-based programs that aim to meet the need for mental health services among Blacks in the USA should consider within-race ethnic differences in the applicability of such instruments.

  16. Differences of Anxiety Levels between Students of Natural Sciences and Social Studies Major Based on School Environmental Factors in Senior High Schools with Rintisan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arviana Adamantina Putri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Senior High Schools with Rintisan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional (RSBI scheme are senior high schools that pilot international standards in learning methods and high curriculum targets. This factor may lead to a rise of anxiety amongst students, both for students in Natural Sciences major and Social Studies major. There are three factors which cause anxiety in the school environment, namely: dissatisfaction towards the curriculum, the teacher, and the school management. Methods: This study used retrospective cohort design. Subjects were selected using the convenience sampling method. Natural Sciences students (n=32 and Social Studies students (n=14 had their anxiety level measured using the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. The dissatisfaction towards the school environment factors was assessed using a school evaluation questionnaire. Results: The anxiety measurement showed that students in both Natural Sciences and Social Studies major experienced severe anxiety (Natural Sciences vs. Social Studies: 75% vs. 86%. The study results based on the school evaluation questionnaire showed dissatisfactions towards the three school environmental factors (curriculum factor, Natural Sciences vs. Social Studies: 59% vs. 64%; teacher factor, Natural Sciences vs. Social Studies: 3% vs. 43%; school management factor, Natural Sciences vs. Social Studies: 3% vs. 14%. The chi-square test results showed that the difference in the anxiety levels between the students of Natural Sciences and Social Studies majors was insignificant (p>0.05. Conclusions: Students of Natural Sciences and Social Studies majors of senior high schools with RSBI scheme experienced severe anxiety. However, there is no strong evidence that the school environment causes this severe anxiety.

  17. Test Anxiety among College Students with Specific Reading Disability (Dyslexia): Nonverbal Ability and Working Memory as Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety and its correlates were examined with college students with and without specific reading disability (RD; n = 50 in each group). Results indicated that college students with RD reported higher test anxiety than did those without RD, and the magnitude of these differences was in the medium range on two test anxiety scales. Relative to…

  18. Sex Differences in Serum Markers of Major Depressive Disorder in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jordan M; Cooper, Jason D; Bot, Mariska; Guest, Paul C; Lamers, Femke; Weickert, Cynthia S; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Bahn, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Women have a consistently higher prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) than men. Hypotheses implicating hypothalamic-pituitary -adrenal, -gonadal, and -thyroid axes, immune response, genetic factors, and neurotransmitters have emerged to explain this difference. However, more evidence for these hypotheses is needed and new explanations must be explored. Here, we investigated sex differences in MDD markers using multiplex immunoassay measurements of 171 serum molecules in individuals enrolled in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NMDD = 231; Ncontrol = 365). We found 28 sex-dependent markers of MDD, as quantified by a significant interaction between sex and log2-transformed analyte concentration in a logistic regression with diagnosis (MDD/control) as the outcome variable (pdepression to males and females and have important implications for the development of diagnostic biomarker tests for MDD. More studies are needed to validate these results, investigate a broader range of biological pathways, and integrate this data with brain imaging, genetic, and other relevant data.

  19. Disorder-specific neuroanatomical correlates of attentional bias in obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and hypochondriasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Odile A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Groenewegen, Henk J.; Witter, Menno P.; Merkelbach, Jille; Cath, Danielle C.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; van Oppen, Patricia; van Dyck, Richard

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: Attentional bias to disease-relevant emotional cues is considered to be pathogenetically relevant in anxiety disorders. OBJECTIVE: To investigate functional neural correlates and disease specificity of attentional bias across different anxiety disorders. DESIGN: A cognitive and emotional

  20. Disorder-specific neuroanatomical correlates of attentional bias in obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and hypochondriasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, O.A.; Veltman, D.J.; Groenewegen, H.J.; Witter, M.P.; Merkelbach, J.; Cath, D.C.; van Balkom, A.J.; van Oppen, P.; van Dyck, R.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Attentional bias to disease-relevant emotional cues is considered to be pathogenetically relevant in anxiety disorders. Objective: To investigate functional neural correlates and disease specificity of attentional bias across different anxiety disorders. Design: A cognitive and emotional

  1. Gender differences in major depressive disorder : Results from the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuch, Jerome J. J.; Roest, Annelieke M.; Nolen, Willem A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; de Jonge, Peter

    Background: Although an overall gender difference in prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been well established, several questions concerning gender differences in the clinical manifestation of depression remain. This study aims to identify gender differences in psychopathology,

  2. Evaluation of fatigue and its correlation with quality of life index, anxiety symptoms, depression and activity of disease in patients with psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro C

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Claudio Carneiro,1,2 Mario Chaves,2 Gustavo Verardino,2 Ana Paula Frade,3 Pedro Guimaraes Coscarelli,4 Washington Alves Bianchi,5,6 Marcia Ramos-e-Silva,3 Sueli Carneiro2,3 1Health Ministry, 2Sector of Dermatology, School of Medical Sciences and University Hospital, State University of Rio de Janeiro, 3Sector of Dermatology, University Hospital and School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 4General Medicine Department, University Hospital and School of Medical Sciences, State University of Rio de Janeiro, 5Sector of Rheumatology, Santa Casa da Misericórdia, 6University Hospital and School of Medical Sciences, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Background: Psoriatic arthritis is associated with psychosocial morbidity and decrease in quality of life. Psychiatric comorbidity also plays an important role in the impairment of quality of life and onset of fatigue.Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of fatigue in psoriatic arthritis patients and to correlate it to quality of life indexes, functional capacity, anxiety, depression and disease activity.Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on outpatients with psoriatic arthritis. Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy – Fatigue (FACIT-F; version 4 was used to measure fatigue; 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and Psoriasis Disability Index (PDI to measure quality of life; Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ to assess functional capacity; Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD scale to measure anxiety and depression symptoms; Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI and Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI to evaluate clinical activity.Results: In all, 101 patients with mean age of 50.77 years were included. The mean PDI score was 8.01; PASI score, 9.88; BASDAI score, 3.59; HAQ score, 0.85; HAD – Anxiety (HAD A score, 7.39; HAD Depression (HAD D

  3. Sleep quality and anxiety level in employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teker, Ayse Gulsen; Luleci, Nimet Emel

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the sleep quality and anxiety level of a group of employees, as well as determine the relationship between sleep quality and anxiety and other factors. A total of 130 of 185 employees at a university campus were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. A descriptive questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory were the data collection instruments. In addition to univariate analysis, the relationship between the 2 scales was examined with Spearman correlation analysis. Of the participants, 38.9% had poor sleep quality. Gender, income level, presence of a chronic disease, regular medication use, and relationship with family and the social environment were found to affect both sleep quality and anxiety. A decrease in sleep quality was associated with an increase in the level of anxiety. Poor sleep quality and a high anxiety level are common in this country, as in the rest of the world. Socioeconomic interventions and psychosocial support to improve the status of individuals with risk factors, such as chronic disease, will reduce anxiety and improve sleep quality and overall psychosocial health. Further prospective studies should be conducted with different groups of participants and with larger samples to expand knowledge of the relationship between sleep quality and anxiety.

  4. The relationship of hormone-metabolic disorders and indicators of anxiety and depression in young men with obesity on different types of therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M E Tel'nova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess hormonal and metabolic parameters and psychological status of young men with obesity. Methods: The study included 60 men with obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2 divided in two groups. Patients in the first group (n=30 received orlistat for 12 weeks (120 mg 3 times daily with meal. Patients in second group (n=30 followed hypocaloric diet and aerobic exercise. All patients were examined before treatment and after 12 weeks. Evaluation included hormonal and biochemical analyses, 48 patients were examined by psychological questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Results: Patients that received orlistat treatment showed significant decrease of body mass: 50% of patients had decrease more than 5%, 30% of patients - more than 10% (p<0,05. In first group after 12 weeks of treatment level of cortisol decreased and level of testosterone increased. The results of treatment in second group were less significant. There was a significant decrease in anxiety and depression scales in patients taking orlistat (p<0,05. High levels of social anxiety did not decrease in both groups after treatment. As a result of orlistat treatment there was a decrease in external eating behavior and increase in expression of restraint eating behavior by DEBQ (p<0,05. Conclusions: treatment with orlistat reduces body weight, which is correlated by improvement of hormonal and biochemical parameters. Weight loss is accompanied by changes in rates of anxiety and depression.

  5. Can Listening to Music Decrease Pain, Anxiety, and Stress During a Urodynamic Study? A Randomized Prospective Trial Focusing on Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Ji Sung; Chae, Ji Yun; Kang, Sung Gu; Park, Jae Young; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kang, Seok Ho; Park, Hong Seok; Moon, Du Geon; Cheon, Jun; Lee, Jeong Gu; Kim, Je Jong; Oh, Mi Mi

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of listening to music on pain, anxiety, or stress during a urodynamic study (UDS). A total of 74 female and 74 male patients who underwent UDS between March 2013 and October 2013 were prospectively randomized. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to gender (female, n = 74 vs male, n = 74) and into 2 subgroups according to whether they listened to music or not. Music group subjects played their preferred music during UDS. Before and after UDS, all subjects completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) form and their degree of pain, anxiety, and satisfaction during examination were assessed by the visual analog scale (VAS, 0-10). Basic vital signs were also checked before and after the procedure. In the analysis of anxiety, pain, and stress scores, the mean shame, discomfort, and satisfaction scores (VAS) were significantly higher in female patients, whereas the mean score of willingness to retry the procedure was higher in male patients whether listening to music or not (P music group and the no-music group in either gender. In our study, music during UDS did not reduce anxiety, pain, and stress in either gender. In the analysis focusing on gender difference, female patients showed statistically higher levels of pain, anxiety, and stress scores than male patients whether listening to music or not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Countries with Higher Levels of Gender Equality Show Larger National Sex Differences in Mathematics Anxiety and Relatively Lower Parental Mathematics Valuation for Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Despite international advancements in gender equality across a variety of societal domains, the underrepresentation of girls and women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related fields persists. In this study, we explored the possibility that the sex difference in mathematics anxiety contributes to this disparity. More specifically, we tested a number of predictions from the prominent gender stratification model, which is the leading psychological theory of cross-national patterns of sex differences in mathematics anxiety and performance. To this end, we analyzed data from 761,655 15-year old students across 68 nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Most importantly and contra predictions, we showed that economically developed and more gender equal countries have a lower overall level of mathematics anxiety, and yet a larger national sex difference in mathematics anxiety relative to less developed countries. Further, although relatively more mothers work in STEM fields in more developed countries, these parents valued, on average, mathematical competence more in their sons than their daughters. The proportion of mothers working in STEM was unrelated to sex differences in mathematics anxiety or performance. We propose that the gender stratification model fails to account for these national patterns and that an alternative model is needed. In the discussion, we suggest how an interaction between socio-cultural values and sex-specific psychological traits can better explain these patterns. We also discuss implications for policies aiming to increase girls’ STEM participation. PMID:27100631

  7. Countries with Higher Levels of Gender Equality Show Larger National Sex Differences in Mathematics Anxiety and Relatively Lower Parental Mathematics Valuation for Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoet, Gijsbert; Bailey, Drew H; Moore, Alex M; Geary, David C

    2016-01-01

    Despite international advancements in gender equality across a variety of societal domains, the underrepresentation of girls and women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related fields persists. In this study, we explored the possibility that the sex difference in mathematics anxiety contributes to this disparity. More specifically, we tested a number of predictions from the prominent gender stratification model, which is the leading psychological theory of cross-national patterns of sex differences in mathematics anxiety and performance. To this end, we analyzed data from 761,655 15-year old students across 68 nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Most importantly and contra predictions, we showed that economically developed and more gender equal countries have a lower overall level of mathematics anxiety, and yet a larger national sex difference in mathematics anxiety relative to less developed countries. Further, although relatively more mothers work in STEM fields in more developed countries, these parents valued, on average, mathematical competence more in their sons than their daughters. The proportion of mothers working in STEM was unrelated to sex differences in mathematics anxiety or performance. We propose that the gender stratification model fails to account for these national patterns and that an alternative model is needed. In the discussion, we suggest how an interaction between socio-cultural values and sex-specific psychological traits can better explain these patterns. We also discuss implications for policies aiming to increase girls' STEM participation.

  8. How Do Different Ways of Measuring Individual Differences in Zero-Acquaintance Personality Judgment Accuracy Correlate With Each Other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Judith A; Back, Mitja D; Nestler, Steffen; Frauendorfer, Denise; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Ruben, Mollie A

    2017-02-13

    This research compares two different approaches that are commonly used to measure accuracy of personality judgment: the trait accuracy approach wherein participants discriminate among targets on a given trait, thus making intertarget comparisons, and the profile accuracy approach wherein participants discriminate between traits for a given target, thus making intratarget comparisons. We examined correlations between these methods as well as correlations among accuracies for judging specific traits. The present article documents relations among these approaches based on meta-analysis of five studies of zero-acquaintance impressions of the Big Five traits. Trait accuracies correlated only weakly with overall and normative profile accuracy. Substantial convergence between the trait and profile accuracy methods was only found when an aggregate of all five trait accuracies was correlated with distinctive profile accuracy. Importantly, however, correlations between the trait and profile accuracy approaches were reduced to negligibility when statistical overlap was corrected by removing the respective trait from the profile correlations. Moreover, correlations of the separate trait accuracies with each other were very weak. Different ways of measuring individual differences in personality judgment accuracy are not conceptually and empirically the same, but rather represent distinct abilities that rely on different judgment processes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Measuring Developmental Students' Mathematics Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    This study conducted an item-level analysis of mathematics anxiety and examined the dimensionality of mathematics anxiety in a sample of developmental mathematics students (N = 162) by Multi-dimensional Random Coefficients Multinominal Logit Model (MRCMLM). The results indicate a moderately correlated factor structure of mathematics anxiety (r =…

  10. Prevalence and correlates of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients in a cancer care and treatment facility in Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Katende, Godfrey; Nakimera, Lillian

    2017-01-01

    Background The process of caregiving may cause emotional distress in form of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients. Little is known about the prevalence of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients in Uganda. Objectives To determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression and related factors associated with abnormal levels of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients in a cancer care and treatment facility in Uganda. Methods Aft...

  11. Association between types of involvement in school bullying and different dimensions of anxiety symptoms and the moderating effects of age and gender in Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Huang, Mei-Feng; Kim, Young Shin; Wang, Peng-Wei; Tang, Tze-Chun; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Lin, Huang-Chi; Liu, Tai-Ling; Wu, Yu-Yu; Yang, Pinchen

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations of various types of school bullying involvement experiences with different dimensions of anxiety symptoms on the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and to examine the moderating effects of gender and age on the associations in Taiwanese adolescent students aged at 11-18. Involvement in passive and physical bullying and belongings snatch and multiple dimensions of anxiety symptoms in 5537 adolescents were determined through use of the self-reported Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire (C-SBEQ) and the Taiwanese version of the MASC, respectively. The associations between four types of bullying involvement and four dimensions of anxiety symptoms and the moderating effects of gender and age were examined using linear mixed model analysis. The results indicated that except for the non-significant association between victimization by verbal and relational bullying and harm avoidance, both victims of verbal and relational bullying and physical bullying and belongings snatch reported more severe anxiety symptoms on all four dimensions of MASC-T than non-bullied subjects. While the perpetrators of verbal and relational bullying reported more severe physical symptoms and social anxiety than did non-perpetrators of verbal and relational bullying, the perpetrators of physical bullying and belongings snatch reported less harm avoidance, social anxiety and separation/panic than did non-perpetrators of physical bullying and belongings snatch. Perpetrator-victims of verbal and relational bullying showed more physical symptoms than those who were pure victims or perpetrators of verbal and relational bullying. Perpetrator-victims of physical bullying and belongings snatch had more social anxiety than those who were pure victims or perpetrators. This study also found that gender and age had the moderating effect on the association between some forms of bullying

  12. Trait and neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Mark; Pace-Schott, Edward F

    2010-01-01

    Individuals differ greatly in their dream recall frequency, in their incidence of recalling types of dreams, such as nightmares, and in the content of their dreams. This chapter reviews work on the waking life correlates of these differences between people in their experience of dreaming and reviews some of the neurobiological correlates of these individual differences. The chapter concludes that despite there being trait-like aspects of general dream recall and of dream content, very few psychometrically assessed correlates for dream recall frequency and dream content have been found. More successful has been the investigation of correlates of frequency of particular types of dreams, such as nightmares and lucid dreams, and also of how waking-life experience is associated with dream content. There is also potential in establishing neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content, and recent work on this is reviewed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dental Anxiety and its Association with Behavioral Factors in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    POPESCU, SANDA MIHAELA; DASCĂLU, IONELA TEODORA; SCRIECIU, MONICA; MERCUŢ, VERONICA; MORARU, IREN; ŢUCULINĂ, MIHAELA JANA

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental anxiety is a condition that causes a decrease in population addressability to the dentist with adverse consequences for long-term oral health. Assessment of behavioral factors that correlate with dental anxiety is important for accurate evaluation of dental fear. Its diagnosis in childhood is important for establishing therapeutic management strategies to reduce anxiety and promote oral health. Objective: To determine the prevalence of dental anxiety in a group of Romanian schoolchildren, and assess its correlation with behavioral factors. Methods: This cross-sectional survey included a number of 650 schoolchildren attending public schools, randomly chosen. Data were collected from September 2013 to October 2013. 485 children aged 6–12 years responded the questionnaires and were included in the study (248 female, 237 male). Each subject was asked to independently complete a questionnaire including Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and other questions about children behavior towards dental health education and practice. Children having a score of 13 and above were included in the anxious group while those scoring under 13 were placed in the non anxious group. The data collected was processed and analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. Results: The overall prevalence of dental anxiety was 22.68% amongst subjects included in the study. No significant differences in dental anxiety scores between boys and girls were found in this study. Dental anxiety scores decreased with increasing age. Dental anxiety correlated positively with chewing gum use and sweet consumption frequency and negatively with age and dental health education. Conclusions: Prevalence of dental anxiety in the 6–12 year old children of this study was 22.68%. Factors like chewing gum use, sweet consumption frequency, age and dental health education were correlated with dental anxiety. PMID:26788356

  14. Cognitive and somatic anxiety and self-confidence in athletic performance of beach volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kais, Kristjan; Raudsepp, Lennart

    2004-04-01

    This study considered the influence of competitive anxiety and self-confidence state responses upon athletic performance. 66 male beach volleyball players completed the translated and modified Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 which included the original intensity scale and a direction scale of Jones and Swain. Players' performance was scored from the video records using a standard rating scales. Correlations indicated scores on Direction subscale of modified Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 and Self-confidence were moderately positively (r=.27 to .51) correlated with different skill components and sum of skill components of beach volleyball. Stepwise multiple regressions indicated that, as anticipated, directional perceptions of cognitive and somatic anxiety and self-confidence were significant predictors of beach volleyball performance but accounted for only 42% of variance. Original Intensity subscales of somatic and cognitive anxiety did not predict performance. Findings support the notion that direction of anxiety responses must be taken into consideration when examining anxiety-performance association in sport.

  15. Strain and sex differences in brain and behaviour of adult rats: Learning and memory, anxiety and volumetric estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R J; Bye, C; Trow, J; McDonald, R J

    2015-07-15

    Alterations in behaviour can arise through a number of factors, including strain and sex. Here, we explored strain and sex differences between Long-Evans (LER) and Wistar (WR) male and female rats that had been trained in a myriad of behavioural tasks. Tests included those assessing motor learning (skilled reaching task), spatial learning and memory (Morris water task), contextual learning (discriminative fear-conditioning to context) and anxiety behaviour (elevated plus maze). Following behavioural assessment, associated brain areas were examined for volumetric differences, including the hippocampus and its subregions, prefrontal cortex areas and the amygdala. LER and WR differed in their rates of performance in the skilled reaching task throughout the training period. Overall, LER outperformed WR in tasks related to contextual and spatial learning, although this was not accompanied by larger volumes of associated brain areas. Males outperformed females in spatial learning, and females outperformed males in the contextual fear-conditioning task and had an associated larger amygdalar volume, although these sexual dimorphisms were only observed within the LER strain. Overall, this study highlights differences between these two rat strains as well as highlights that larger volumetric estimates of brain areas do not always confer improved function of associated behaviours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Individual differences in the effects of chronic stress on memory: behavioral and neurochemical correlates of resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, B M; Veverka, K K; Dhillon, E S; Urban, J H; Lucas, L R

    2013-08-29

    Chronic stress has been shown to impair memory, however, the extent to which memory can be impaired is often variable across individuals. Predisposed differences in particular traits, such as anxiety, may reveal underlying neurobiological mechanisms that could be driving individual differences in sensitivity to stress and, thus, stress resiliency. Such pre-morbid characteristics may serve as early indicators of susceptibility to stress. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and enkephalin (ENK) are neurochemical messengers of interest implicated in modulating anxiety and motivation circuitry; however, little is known about how these neuropeptides interact with stress resiliency and memory. In this experiment, adult male rats were appetitively trained to locate sugar rewards in a motivation-based spatial memory task before undergoing repeated immobilization stress and then being tested for memory retention. Anxiety-related behaviors, among other characteristics, were monitored longitudinally. Results indicated that stressed animals which showed little to no impairments in memory post-stress (i.e., the more stress-resilient individuals) exhibited lower anxiety levels prior to stress when compared to stressed animals that showed large deficits in memory (i.e., the more stress-susceptible individuals). Interestingly, all stressed animals, regardless of memory change, showed reduced body weight gain as well as thymic involution, suggesting that the effects of stress on metabolism and the immune system were dissociated from the effects of stress on higher cognition, and that stress resiliency seems to be domain-specific rather than a global characteristic within an individual. Neurochemical analyses revealed that NPY in the hypothalamus and amygdala and ENK in the nucleus accumbens were modulated differentially between stress-resilient and stress-susceptible individuals, with elevated expression of these neuropeptides fostering anxiolytic and pro-motivation function, thus driving

  17. CONFIDENCE, COGNITIVE AND SOMATIC ANXIETY AMONG ELITE AND NON-ELITE FUTSAL PLAYERS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH SITUATIONAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibi Hassan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare confidence, cognitive and somatic anxiety among elite and non-elite futsal players and its relationship with situational factors. Material: 130 non-elite and 70 elite male futsal players participated in the study. Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 and situational factors Inventory were applied. Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA and product moment correlation. Results: Results showed there was significant difference between competitive state anxiety subscales (cognitive anxiety somatic anxiety & self-confidence and situational factors among elite and non-elite futsal players but there was no significant correlations between situational factors subscales among elite and non-elite futsal players. Conclusion: Competitive state anxiety is part of sport competition and it seems elite athletes can manage and interpret anxiety well with respect to their experiences and psychological intervention and then consider anxiety and situational variables as facilitative factors for his or her competition.

  18. The relationship between anxiety and sexual functioning in lesbians and heterosexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaber, Tera E; Werner, Paul D

    2009-01-01

    The association between anxiety and sexual functioning was studied in relation to women's sexual orientation. Participants in lesbian relationships (n = 42) and heterosexual relationships (n = 78) completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Questionnaire and Female Sexual Function Index. No difference was found between groups on the anxiety measure, but lesbians scored higher than heterosexuals on sexual functioning scales for arousal and orgasm. Intercorrelations among sexual functioning scales were dissimilar for lesbians and heterosexuals. Among heterosexuals, anxiety was negatively correlated with overall sexual functioning, lubrication, orgasm, and pain, but among lesbians anxiety was uncorrelated with all sexual functioning variables.

  19. Friendship Experiences and Anxiety Among Children: A Genetically Informed Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Catherine Serra; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2016-01-01

    This study examined (a) whether, in line with a gene-environment correlation (rGE), a genetic disposition for anxiety puts children at risk of having anxious friends or having no reciprocal friends; (b) to what extent these friendship experiences are related to anxiety symptoms, when controlling for sex and genetic disposition for this trait; and (c) the additive and interactive predictive links of the reciprocal best friend's anxiety symptoms and of friendship quality with children's anxiety symptoms. Using a genetically informed design based on 521 monozygotic and ic twins (264 girls; 87% of European descent) assessed in Grade 4 (M age = 10.04 years, SD = .26), anxiety symptoms and perceived friendship quality were measured with self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that, in line with rGE, children with a strong genetic disposition for anxiety were more likely to have anxious friends than nonanxious friends. Moreover, controlling for their genetic risk for anxiety, children with anxious friends showed higher levels of anxiety symptoms than children with nonanxious friends but did not differ from those without reciprocal friends. Additional analyses suggested a possible contagion of anxiety symptoms between reciprocal best friends when perceived negative features of friendship were high. These results underline the importance of teaching strategies such as problem solving that enhance friendship quality to limit the potential social contagion of anxiety symptoms.

  20. The correlation between emotional distress and aging males’ symptoms at a psychiatric outpatient clinic: sexual dysfunction as a distinguishing characteristic between andropause and anxiety/depression in aging men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen CY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ching-Yen Chen,1,4,5 Chin-Pang Lee,1,4 Yu Chen,2,4,5 Jun-Ran Jiang,3,4,5 Chun-Lin Chu,1,4,5 Chun-Liang Chen3,4,5 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Urology, 3Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 4Men’s Health Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Taiwan; 5School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Background: Andropause and psychiatric disorders are associated with various symptoms in aging males and are part of the differential diagnosis of depression and anxiety. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between symptoms of aging, anxiety, and depression, and to determine if sexual dysfunction could be a differentiating characteristic in the psychiatric outpatient clinic. Methods: One hundred seventy-six male psychiatric outpatients participated in the study and completed self-reported measures assessing symptoms of aging, depression, and anxiety. Symptoms of aging were assessed by the Aging Males’ Symptoms scale. Anxiety and depression were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Erectile dysfunction was considered if a response to item 15 on the Aging Males’ Symptoms scale (impaired sexual potency was rated with 4 or 5 points. Affective disturbance was assessed by the total scores of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: Age was correlated with less anxiety and more sexual symptoms. Anxiety and depression were associated with more severe symptoms of aging, and depression was associated with more sexual symptoms than was anxiety. Impaired sexual potency was the only sexual symptom not significantly associated with depression and anxiety. Depression was associated with an interspousal age gap of ≥6 years. The point prevalence of erectile dysfunction was 28.4%, and age and affective disturbance were associated with the risk of erectile dysfunction. Conclusion: Impaired sexual potency should raise the suspicion of androgen deficiency rather than depression

  1. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and usefulness: insights from the Polish adaptation

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    Krzysztof eCipora

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS, known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations.We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857 was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety.The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.

  2. Constitutive differences in glucocorticoid responsiveness to stress are related to variation in aggression and anxiety-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sophie E; Zanoletti, Olivia; Guillot de Suduiraut, Isabelle; Sandi, Carmen

    2017-10-01

    Glucocorticoids coordinate responses that enable an individual to cope with stressful challenges and, additionally, mediate adaptation following cessation of a stressor. There are important individual differences in the magnitude of glucocorticoid responsiveness to stressors. However, whether individual differences in glucocorticoid responsiveness to stress are linked to different behavioral strategies in coping with social and non-social challenges is not easily studied, owing to the lack of appropriate animal models. To address this, we generated three lines of Wistar rats selectively bred for the magnitude of their glucocorticoid responses following exposure to a variety of stressors over three consecutive days at juvenility. Here, we present findings following observations of a high level of variation in glucocorticoid responsiveness to stress in outbred Wistar rats, and the strong response to selection for this trait over a few generations. When challenged with different stressful challenges, rats from the three lines differed in their coping behaviors. Strikingly, the line with high glucocorticoid responsiveness to stress displayed enhanced aggression and anxiety-like behaviors. In addition, these rats also showed alterations in the expression of genes within both central and peripheral nodes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and enhanced reactivity to acute stress exposure. Together, these findings strongly link differences in glucocorticoid responsiveness to stress with marked differences in coping styles. The developed rat lines are thus a promising model with which to examine the relationship between variation in reactivity of the HPA axis and stress-related pathophysiology and could be employed to assess the therapeutic potential of treatments modulating stress habituation to ameliorate psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Do Zero Correlations Really Exist among Measures of Different Intellectual Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliger, George M.

    1988-01-01

    Whether measures of different intellectual abilities are positively intercorrelated was studied. A data set of over 7,000 correlations analyzed by J. P. Guilford (1964) does not support the existence of zero correlations among tests of intellectual abilities. Guilford's data-based results are flawed by oversights of problems in the data. (TJH)

  4. Histological Correlates of Penile Sexual Sensation: Does Circumcision Make a Difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Cox, MA, DPhil

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Based on histological findings and correlates of sexual function, loss of the prepuce by circumcision would appear to have no adverse effect on sexual pleasure. Our evaluation supports overall findings from physiological measurements and survey data. Cox G, Krieger JN, and Morris BJ. Histological correlates of penile sexual sensation: Does circumcision make a difference? Sex Med 2015;3:76–85.

  5. Decreased sexual motivation and heightened anxiety in male Long-Evans rats are correlated with the memory for a traumatic event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Wayne R; Grissom, Elin M; Belkin, Mark N; James, Thomas F; Dohanich, Gary P

    2013-05-01

    Individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently report disturbances in sexual functioning in addition to alterations in their affective behaviors. Notably, maladaptive cognitions and dysfunctional behaviors are perpetuated by the emergence of the intrusive thoughts that characterize the disorder. In rats, reminders of a traumatic event designed to simulate intrusive thoughts are associated with impairments in affective, social, and sexual behaviors. The current study examined the relationship between the memory for a traumatic event and changes in sexual and affective behaviors in male Long-Evans rats (N = 36). The trauma featured a combination stressor consisting of simultaneous exposure to a footshock and the odor of soiled cat litter. Memory for the trauma was reactivated by re-exposures to the context of the trauma in the absence of stressors and confirmed by assessing the percentage of time spent freezing. Following the second and final reminder, traumatized males exhibited reduced sexual motivation and increased anxiety, signified by longer latencies to achieve their first mount on a post-stress test of sexual behavior, and longer latencies to begin feeding in a novel environment, respectively. Correlational analyses revealed that decreased sexual motivation and heightened anxiety were predicted by the memory for the trauma as indicated by the time spent freezing during the re-exposures. The findings from the current study have implications for understanding the relationship between stress and sexual functioning and indicate that the impairments in sexual behavior that often occur in individuals with PTSD may be impacted by their memory for the trauma.

  6. Self-Perceived Job Insecurity and Social Context: Are There Different European Cultures of Anxiety?

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Erlinghagen

    2007-01-01

    Job insecurity causes far reaching negative outcomes. The fear of job loss damages the health of employees and reduces the productivity of firms. Thus, job insecurity should result in increasing social costs. Analyzing representative data from 17 European countries, this paper investigates self perceived job insecurity. Our multi level analysis reveals significant cross-country differences in individuals' perception of job insecurity. This finding is not only driven by social-structural or in...

  7. Decreasing neuroscience anxiety in an introductory neuroscience course: an analysis using data from a modified science anxiety scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, Melissa; Shelton, Kerisa

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether participation in a neuroscience course reduced neuroscience anxiety, a modified version of the Science Anxiety Scale was administered to students at the beginning and end of an introductory course. Neuroscience anxiety scores were significantly reduced at the end of the course and correlated with higher final grades. Reduced neuroscience anxiety did not correlate with reduced science anxiety, suggesting that neuroscience anxiety is a distinct subtype of anxiety.

  8. Decreasing Neuroscience Anxiety in an Introductory Neuroscience Course: An Analysis Using Data from a Modified Science Anxiety Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Birkett, Melissa; Shelton, Kerisa

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether participation in a neuroscience course reduced neuroscience anxiety, a modified version of the Science Anxiety Scale was administered to students at the beginning and end of an introductory course. Neuroscience anxiety scores were significantly reduced at the end of the course and correlated with higher final grades. Reduced neuroscience anxiety did not correlate with reduced science anxiety, suggesting that neuroscience anxiety is a distinct subtype of anxiety.

  9. Children's behavioral inhibition and anxiety disorder symptom severity: The role of individual differences in respiratory sinus arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Andres G; Palmer, Cara A; Zvolensky, Michael J; Alfano, Candice A; Dixon, Laura J; Raines, Elizabeth M

    2017-06-01

    Although behavioral inhibition (BI) is clearly identified as a temperamental risk factor for childhood anxiety psychopathology, much less is known about whether the strength of this association may vary as a function of parasympathetic nervous system regulation in children with anxiety disorders. To build upon extant research in this area, the present study examined whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) can explicate the conditions in which BI is linked to increased symptom severity among anxiety-disordered children (N = 44; M = 9.61 years, SD = 1.63; 52% female and African American, respectively). We examined RSA responding both during a basal period and during a stressor ("challenge" RSA): interacting with a "mystery guest" who was wearing a mask. As hypothesized, the interaction between BI and both basal and challenge RSA was significantly related to anxiety disorder symptom severity, even after controlling for depressive symptoms. The form of the interaction indicated that highest levels of anxiety disorder symptoms were found among children with high levels of BI and low basal and challenge RSA, respectively. These data provide novel empirical evidence of a clinically-relevant interplay between RSA and BI in relation to anxiety disorder symptom severity among clinical youth. Future work is needed to expand on the specific mechanisms that may be responsible e for the interplay between temperamental and psychobiological risks for childhood anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Relationship between Virtual Self Similarity and Social Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eAymerich-Franch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In virtual reality (VR it is possible to embody avatars that are dissimilar to the physical self. We examined whether embodying a dissimilar self in VR would decrease anxiety in a public speaking situation. We report the results of an observational pilot study and two laboratory experiments. In the pilot study (N=252, participants chose an avatar to use in a public speaking task. Trait public speaking anxiety correlated with avatar preference, such that anxious individuals preferred dissimilar self-representations. In Study 1 (N=82, differences in anxiety during a speech in front of a virtual audience were compared among participants embodying an assigned avatar whose face was identical to their real self, an assigned avatar whose face was other than their real face, or embodied an avatar of their choice. Anxiety differences were not significant, but there was a trend for lower anxiety with the assigned dissimilar avatar compared to the avatar looking like the real self. Study 2 (N=105 was designed to explicate that trend, and further investigated anxiety differences with an assigned self or dissimilar avatar. The assigned dissimilar avatar reduced anxiety relative to the assigned self avatar for one measure of anxiety. We discuss implications for theories of self-representation as well as for applied uses of VR to treat social anxiety.

  11. The Relationship between Virtual Self Similarity and Social Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymerich-Franch, Laura; Kizilcec, René F; Bailenson, Jeremy N

    2014-01-01

    In virtual reality (VR), it is possible to embody avatars that are dissimilar to the physical self. We examined whether embodying a dissimilar self in VR would decrease anxiety in a public speaking situation. We report the results of an observational pilot study and two laboratory experiments. In the pilot study (N = 252), participants chose an avatar to use in a public speaking task. Trait public speaking anxiety correlated with avatar preference, such that anxious individuals preferred dissimilar self-representations. In Study 1 (N = 82), differences in anxiety during a speech in front of a virtual audience were compared among participants embodying an assigned avatar whose face was identical to their real self, an assigned avatar whose face was other than their real face, or embodied an avatar of their choice. Anxiety differences were not significant, but there was a trend for lower anxiety with the assigned dissimilar avatar compared to the avatar looking like the real self. Study 2 (N = 105) was designed to explicate that trend, and further investigated anxiety differences with an assigned self or dissimilar avatar. The assigned dissimilar avatar reduced anxiety relative to the assigned self avatar for one measure of anxiety. We discuss implications for theories of self-representation as well as for applied uses of VR to treat social anxiety.

  12. Neural Correlates of Sex/Gender Differences in Humor Processing for Different Joke Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Humor operates through a variety of techniques, which first generate surprise and then amusement and laughter once the unexpected incongruity is resolved. As different types of jokes use different techniques, the corresponding humor processes also differ. The present study builds on the framework of the 'tri-component theory of humor,' which details the mechanisms involved in cognition (comprehension), affect (appreciation), and laughter (expression). This study seeks to identify differences among joke types and between sexes/genders in the neural mechanisms underlying humor processing. Three types of verbal jokes, bridging-inference jokes (BJs), exaggeration jokes (EJs), and ambiguity jokes (AJs), were used as stimuli. The findings revealed differences in brain activity for an interaction between sex/gender and joke type. For BJs, women displayed greater activation in the temporoparietal-mesocortical-motor network than men, demonstrating the importance of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) presumably for 'theory of mind' processing, the orbitofrontal cortex for motivational functions and reward coding, and the supplementary motor area for laughter. Women also showed greater activation than men in the frontal-mesolimbic network associated with EJs, including the anterior (frontopolar) prefrontal cortex (aPFC, BA 10) for executive control processes, and the amygdala and midbrain for reward anticipation and salience processes. Conversely, AJs elicited greater activation in men than women in the frontal-paralimbic network, including the dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC) and parahippocampal gyrus. All joke types elicited greater activation in the aPFC of women than of men, whereas men showed greater activation than women in the dPFC. To confirm the findings related to sex/gender differences, random group analysis and within group variance analysis were also performed. These findings help further establish the mechanisms underlying the processing of different joke types

  13. Comparison of changes in physical self-concept, global self-esteem, depression and anxiety following two different psychomotor therapy programs in nonpsychotic psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Jan; Van de Vliet, Peter; Van Coppenolle, Herman; David, Ans; Peuskens, Joseph; Pieters, Guido; Knapen, Koen

    2005-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to compare the changes in physical self-concept, global self-esteem, depression and anxiety after participation in one of two 16-week psychomotor therapy programs for nonpsychotic psychiatric inpatients. The second objective was to study the relationship between changes in these variables. One hundred and ninety-nine inpatients were randomly assigned to either a personalized psychomotor fitness program, consisting of aerobic exercise and weight training, or a general program of psychomotor therapy, consisting of different forms of physical exercises and relaxation training. Physical self-concept was evaluated using the Dutch version of the Physical Self-Perception Profile at baseline, after 8 weeks, and after completion of the 16-week interventions. At the same time points, additional variables of global self-esteem, depression and anxiety were assessed by means of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. After 16 weeks, both groups showed significant improvements in all outcome measures (p values ranged from 0.01 to self-esteem and decreased depression and anxiety levels (p self-esteem, depression and anxiety supports the potential role of the physical self-concept in the recovery process of depressed and anxious psychiatric inpatients. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Diffuse correlation tomography reveals spatial and temporal difference in blood flow changes among murine femoral grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Songfeng; Proctor, Ashley R.; Benoit, Danielle S. W.; Choe, Regine

    2017-07-01

    Diffuse correlation tomography was utilized to noninvasively monitor 3D blood flow changes in three types of healing mouse femoral grafts. Results reveal the spatial and temporal difference among the groups.

  15. The prevalence and correlates of depression and anxiety in a sample of diabetic patients in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

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    Tamim Hani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes is very prevalent in the Gulf region, particularly in the United Arab Emirates (UAE which has the second highest prevalence in the world. Factors contributing to this include changes in diet, adoption of sedentary lifestyles, and the consequent increase in rates of obesity. These changes are primarily due to rapid economic development and affluence. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of psychological distress and its correlates in diabetic patients in the United Arab Emirates. Methods Patients diagnosed with diabetes attending diabetes mini-clinics in the primary health care centres or hospitals of Sharjah were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Patients were interviewed using structured questionnaires to gather data on socio-demographics, lifestyle factors, diabetes complications, and medication usage. The K6 was administered as a screening tool for mental health concerns. Results Three hundred and forty-seven participants completed the interview. The majority of participants were females (65.4% and the mean age was 53.2 (sd = 14.6. Approximately 12.5% of patients obtained a score of 19 or above (cut-off score on the K6, indicating possible mental health concerns. Twenty-four percent had diabetes complications, mainly in the form of retinopathy, peripheral vascular disease and peripheral neuropathy. A significant relationship was found between scores on the K6, these complications of diabetes and the use of oral hypoglycemic and lipid lowering therapies. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate a strong correlation between mental health status and diabetic complications. In particular, patients who are depressed tended to have poorer self-care, more severe physical symptoms and were less likely to adhere to prescribed care regimens. These findings raise the possibility that improving the mental health as part of a comprehensive management plan for diabetes may

  16. Dental anxiety in patients with borderline intellectual functioning and patients with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallea, Antonio; Zuccarello, Rosa; Calì, Francesco

    2016-11-03

    This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of dental anxiety in a population of patients with Borderline Intellectual Functioning (BIF) and patients with mild and moderate intellectual disability (ID), and how dental anxiety correlated with their age and gender. The sample was made of 700 patients, 287 females and 413 males, 6-to-47 years old, either with borderline intellectual functioning or mild/moderate intellectual disabilities. All patients were administered the Dental Anxiety Scale to assess their level of dental anxiety. Moderate Anxiety was the most prevalent dental anxiety category for patients with intellectual borderline functioning (15.56 %) and mild intellectual disabilities(18.79 %), while Severe Anxiety was the most prevalent category for patients with moderate intellectual disabilities(21 %). Overall, a statistically significant difference (p dental anxiety was statistically significant (p dental anxiety turned out to decrease with the increasing of the age. Moreover, the analysis between gender and dental anxiety was found to be significant as well (p dental anxiety was found in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study on dental anxiety carried out in the field of intellectual disability. Results show that the higher the level of intellectual disability - and consequently the lower the cognitive functioning - the higher the percentage and the severity of dental anxiety.

  17. Anxiety and personality characteristics in children undergoing dental interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Sarakinova, Olivera; Markovska-Simoska, Silvana; Loleska, Sofija

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety about and fear of dental treatment have been recognized as sources of problems in the management of child dental patients. It has been suggested that some individuals who are fearful of or anxious about dental treatment have a constitutional vulnerability to anxiety disorders as is evidenced by the presence of multiple fears, generalized anxiety or panic disorders. Concerning the child population, maternal anxiety is considered to be a major factor affecting the behaviour of young children expecting dental intervention. The aim of the study was to the measure general anxiety of children undergoing dental intervention and to compare it with some personality characteristics, such as psychopathology, extroversion and neuroticism. The evaluated sample comprises 50 children (31 girls and 19 boys), randomly selected at the University Dental Hospital, Skopje. The mean age for girls was 11.4 (± 2.4) years, and for boys 10.7 (± 2.6) years. Two psychometric instruments were used: the General Anxiety Scale for Children (GASC) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). The study confirms the presence of a high anxiety level (evaluated with GASC) among all children undergoing dental intervention. It also confirmed differences in anxiety scores between girls and boys, girls having higher scores for anxiety. Personality characteristics (evaluated with EPQ) showed low psychopathological traits, moderate extroversion and neuroticism, but accentuated insincerity (evaluated with L scale). L scales are lower with increasing age, but P scores rise with age, which could be related to puberty. No correlation was found between personality traits (obtained scores for EPQ) and anxiety except for neuroticism, which is positively correlated with the level of anxiety. In the management of dental anxiety some response measures (psychological support, biofeedback, and relaxation techniques) are recommended.

  18. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for late-life anxiety: Similarities and differences between Veteran and community participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Terri L; Cully, Jeffrey A; Amspoker, Amber B; Wilson, Nancy L; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Wagener, Paula D; Calleo, Jessica S; Teng, Ellen J; Rhoades, Howard M; Masozera, Nicholas; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based treatment for anxiety; however, a growing body of research suggests that CBT effect sizes are smaller in Veteran samples. The aim of this study was to perform secondary data analyses of a randomized controlled trial of CBT for late-life generalized anxiety disorder compared with treatment as usual (TAU) in a Veteran (n = 101) and community-based (n = 122) sample. Veterans had lower income and less education than community participants, greater severity on baseline measures of anxiety and depression, poorer physical health, and higher rates of psychiatric comorbidity. Treatment effects were statistically significant in the community sample (all ps 0.05). Further analyses in Veterans revealed that poorer perceived social support significantly predicted poorer outcomes (all ps anxiety, and suggest that additional work is needed to improve the efficacy of CBT for Veterans, with particular attention to social support. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Sex differences of anxiety disorders: Possible psychobiological causes - Diferencias entre hombres y mujeres en los trastornos de ansiedad: una aproximación psicobiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Carmen Arenas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are common in both men and women and are particularly disabling for the sufferer. Women of reproductive age are more vulnerable to developing these mental disorders than men; in fact their prevalence is 2-3 times higher among females than among males. Sex differences have also been reported in relation to the manifestation and expression of symptoms, the will to request medical or psychological assistance, the course of the disease, and even in the response to treatment. These sex differences may be attributable to multiple factors, such as genetic predisposition, anatomy, hormones and environment. However, very little is known about the risk factors for women with respect to developing anxiety disorders, and so the origins of sex differences in these disorders is an important topic of research. We consider that variations in stress reactivity may be one of the mechanisms underlying gender differences in anxiety disorders. The purpose of this brief review is to highlight data on the psychobiological factors that make women more prone to suffering anxiety disorders than men.

  20. A Pilot Examination of Differences in College Adjustment Stressors and Depression and Anxiety Symptoms between White, Hispanic and White, Non-Hispanic Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Ryan; Anderson, Elizabeth; Williams, Rush; Bird, Jessica; Matlock, Alyse; Ali, Sania; Edmondson, Christine; Morris, E. Ellen; Mullen, Kacy; Surís, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Differences in four adjustment stressors (family, interpersonal, career, and academic), and depression and anxiety symptoms were examined between White, non-Hispanic and White, Hispanic undergraduate college female students. White, Hispanic female college students reported significantly greater academic and family adjustment stressors than White,…

  1. The Effects of Depression and Stressful Life Events on the Development and Maintenance of Syndromal Social Anxiety: Sex and Age Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, Tore; Stiles, Tore C.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed age and sex differences in the prevalence and incidence rates of syndromal social anxiety (SSA), as well as the predictive role of depressive symptoms and stressful life events on the development and persistence of SSA. A sample of 1,439 young people, between 11 and 14 years of age, was assessed twice within a 12-month…

  2. New evidence of heterogeneity in social anxiety disorder: defining two qualitatively different personality profiles taking into account clinical, environmental and genetic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binelli, C.; Muniz, A.; Sanches, S.; Ortiz, A.; Navines, R.; Egmond, E.; Udina, M.; Batalla, A.; Lopez-Sola, C.; Crippa, J.A.; Subira, S.; Martin-Santos, R.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study qualitatively different subgroups of social anxiety disorder (SAD) based on harm avoidance (HA) and novelty seeking (NS) dimensions. METHOD: One hundred and forty-two university students with SAD (SCID-DSM-IV) were included in the study. The temperament dimensions HA and NS from

  3. Anti-anxiety Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Different Parts of Angelica archangelica Linn.

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    Dinesh Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Angelica archangelica Linn.is a herb distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Indian and Chinese system of medicine, it is used for nervous disorders and cerebral diseases. Previously the aqueous extract of the A. archangelica was evaluated for anxiolytic activity and was found to have significant potential for the same. The present study is aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of root (MER, stem (MES, leaf (MEL, fruit (MEF and whole plant (MEW of Angelica archangelica Linn. All the extracts (MER, MES, MEL, MEF and MEW were evaluated for anxiolytic effects using elevated plus maze test (EPM model in rats. Methanol extracts of different parts of A. archangelica had increased number of entries and time spent in open arms while they decreased the number of entries and duration of time spent in closed arm of the EPM. In a similar fashion, the diazepam increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms (*P <0.05, **P <0.01. Whole plant and the root had the maximum, leaf and fruits showed intermediate, while stem had the least anxiolytic activity (*P <0.05, **P <0.01 in EPM (Figure 1-5. The head dip count in DZ, SMR400, SML400, SMF400 and SMW400 in open arm are significantly shown in Table 1. The DZ, SMF400 and SMW did not show the fecal bolus while other groups were reduced the fecal bolus significantly (**P <0.01 as compared to control (Table 1. Whole plant and leaf showed the most, root and fruit the intermediate and stem the least anxiolytic activity (**P <0.01 in EPM.

  4. Anti-anxiety Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Different Parts of Angelica archangelica Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali

    2012-07-01

    Angelica archangelica Linn.is a herb distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Indian and Chinese system of medicine, it is used for nervous disorders and cerebral diseases. Previously the aqueous extract of the A. archangelica was evaluated for anxiolytic activity and was found to have significant potential for the same. The present study is aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of root (MER), stem (MES), leaf (MEL), fruit (MEF) and whole plant (MEW) of Angelica archangelica Linn. All the extracts (MER, MES, MEL, MEF and MEW) were evaluated for anxiolytic effects using elevated plus maze test (EPM) model in rats. Methanol extracts of different parts of A.archangelica had increased number of entries and time spent in open arms while they decreased the number of entries and duration of time spent in closed arm of the EPM. In a similar fashion, the diazepam increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms (*P <0.05, **P <0.01). Whole plant and the root had the maximum, leaf and fruits showed intermediate, while stem had the least anxiolytic activity (*P <0.05, **P <0.01) in EPM (Figure 1-5). The head dip count in DZ, SMR400, SML400, SMF400 and SMW400 in open arm are significantly shown in Table 1. The DZ, SMF400 and SMW did not show the fecal bolus while other groups were reduced the fecal bolus significantly (**P <0.01) as compared to control (Table 1). Whole plant and leaf showed the most, root and fruit the intermediate and stem the least anxiolytic activity (**P <0.01) in EPM.

  5. Child Negative Emotionality and Parental Harsh Discipline in Chinese Preschoolers: The Different Mediating Roles of Maternal and Paternal Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Xiaopei; Zhang, Hongli; Shao, Shuhui; Wang, Meifang

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that harsh discipline is still prevalent in modern Chinese families and it is necessary to explore the cause and the potential mechanisms of Chinese parental use of harsh discipline. This study examined the mediating effects of parental anxiety in the relations between child negative emotionality and parental harsh discipline in China. Using a sample of 328 Chinese father-mother dyads with their young children, findings revealed that maternal anxiety mediated t...

  6. Psychiatric Disorders Differently Correlate with Physical Self-Rated Health across Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2017-11-13

    In this study, we compared 10 ethnic groups for associations between psychiatric disorders and physical self-rated health (SRH) in the United States. Data came from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001-2003. The study included 7587 non-Latino White, 4746 African American, 1442 Mexican, 1106 other Hispanic, 656 other Asian, 600 Chinese, 577 Cuban, 520 Vietnamese, 508 Filipino, and 495 Puerto Rican individuals. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to measure psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), general anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol abuse, and binge eating disorders. A single-item measure was used to estimate physical SRH. Demographic (age and gender) and socioeconomic (education and income) factors were also measured. Unadjusted and adjusted correlations between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH were calculated. Major ethnic variations were found in the correlation between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH; as well as the role of demographic and socioeconomic status (SES) factors in explaining these associations. non-Hispanic Whites, Cubans, and African Americans showed more correlations between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH than other ethnic groups. In non-Hispanic Whites, the associations between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH were explained by demographic factors. In African Americans, the link between psychiatric disorders and poor physical SRH were explained by SES indicators. In conclusion , although single-item physical SRH measures are traditionally assumed to reflect the physical health needs of populations, they may also indicate psychiatric disorders in some ethnic groups, such as non-Hispanic Whites, Cubans, and African Americans. Demographic and socioeconomic factors also have differential roles in explaining the link between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH. Physical

  7. The Shared Etiology of Attentional Control and Anxiety: An Adolescent Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; O’Sullivan, Deirdre L.; Schmidt, Nicole L.; Spann, Catherine A.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the etiology of attentional control (AC) and four different anxiety symptom types (generalized, obsessive-compulsive, separation, and social) in an adolescent sample of over 400 twin pairs. Genetic factors contributed to 55% of the variance in AC and between 43 and 58% of the variance in anxiety. Negative phenotypic associations between AC and anxiety indicated that lower attentional ability is related to increased risk for all 4 anxiety categories. Genetic correlations between AC and anxiety phenotypes ranged from −.36 to −.47, with evidence of nonshared environmental covariance between AC and generalized and separation anxiety. Results suggest that AC is a phenotypic and genetic risk factor for anxiety in early adolescence, with somewhat differing levels of risk depending on symptomatology. PMID:28498525

  8. A STUDY OF ADOLESCENTS’ ANXIETY AND ACHIEVEMENT IN ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

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    Ridha Fadillah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating whether there is relationship between students’ anxiety and students’ achievement in English as a foreign language among adolescents at Sekolah Menengah Umum Negeri 1 Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan. The sample was 152 students of sixteen and seventeen years old at second grade. The results indicate that the students’ anxiety in learning English as foreign language is at moderate level. There is no significant relationship between English language anxiety and students’ achievement in English as a foreign language as a whole. But a significant negative correlation between test anxiety and students’ achievement is indicated. And the difference of English language anxiety between male and female occurred on communication apprehension, it shows that female is more apprehensive than male in English communication but for overall anxiety, there is no difference in English language anxiety by gender at second grade in this school.

  9. The Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders Is Sensitive but Not Specific in Identifying Anxiety in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Comparison to the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, W David; Daniels, Katherine; Wiemken, Tim; Williams, P Gail; Kelley, Robert R; Kuravackel, Grace; Sears, Lonnie

    2017-01-01

    Validated brief screening instruments are needed to improve the detection of anxiety disorders in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), a 41-item parent- and self-reported scale measuring anxiety, was compared to the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) scales. One hundred participants with a clinical diagnosis of high-functioning ASD, aged 8-18 years, and their parents completed the above scales. We hypothesized that the SCARED would be useful in screening for anxiety and its results for total scores of anxiety would converge with ASEBA syndrome scales for anxiety and internalizing disorders. Significant correlations were shown between the SCARED and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR) across a broad spectrum of scales. The CBCL syndrome scale for anxious/depressed showed the highest correlation and predicted anxiety scores on the SCARED. While many of the YSR scales significantly correlated with child ratings of anxiety, none of the scales predicted the SCARED child scores. Differences in self and parent reports suggest that parents interpret externalizing behaviors as signs of anxiety in ASD, whereas youth may describe internalized symptoms as anxiety. Females were more likely to self-report anxiety than males. Results support the use of the SCARED as a screening tool for anxiety in high-functioning ASD, but it should be supplemented with other tools to increase the specificity of its results.

  10. The Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders Is Sensitive but Not Specific in Identifying Anxiety in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Comparison to the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. David Lohr

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Validated brief screening instruments are needed to improve the detection of anxiety disorders in autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED, a 41-item parent- and self-reported scale measuring anxiety, was compared to the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA scales. One hundred participants with a clinical diagnosis of high-functioning ASD, aged 8–18 years, and their parents completed the above scales. We hypothesized that the SCARED would be useful in screening for anxiety and its results for total scores of anxiety would converge with ASEBA syndrome scales for anxiety and internalizing disorders. Significant correlations were shown between the SCARED and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and Youth Self-Report (YSR across a broad spectrum of scales. The CBCL syndrome scale for anxious/depressed showed the highest correlation and predicted anxiety scores on the SCARED. While many of the YSR scales significantly correlated with child ratings of anxiety, none of the scales predicted the SCARED child scores. Differences in self and parent reports suggest that parents interpret externalizing behaviors as signs of anxiety in ASD, whereas youth may describe internalized symptoms as anxiety. Females were more likely to self-report anxiety than males. Results support the use of the SCARED as a screening tool for anxiety in high-functioning ASD, but it should be supplemented with other tools to increase the specificity of its results.

  11. The effect of two different Individually Ventilated Cage systems on anxiety-related behaviour and welfare in two strains of laboratory mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, O; Buccarello, L; Redaelli, V; Cervo, L

    2014-01-30

    The environment in which a laboratory animal is housed can significantly influence its behaviour and welfare, acting as a potential confounding factor for those studies in which it is utilised. This study investigated the impact of two Individually Ventilated Cage (IVC) housing systems on anxiety-related behaviour and welfare indicators in two common strains of laboratory mice. Subjects were juvenile female C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice (N=128) housed in groups of four in two different IVC systems for 7weeks. System One had air delivery at the cage 'cover' level at 75 ACH (Air Changes/Hour) and System Two had air delivery at the 'animal' level at 50 ACH. Mice were assessed twice a week (e.g. bodyweight) or at the end of the study (e.g. anxiety tests). Our results showed significant differences in anxiety-related behaviour between strains and housing systems. Mice in System Two, regardless of strain, defecated more in the Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), spent less time in the open arms of the EPM, and less time in the central zone of the Open Field (OF). Strain differences in anxiety-like behaviour were seen in the increased defecation by BALB/c mice in the OF and EPM and less time spent in the open arms of the EPM compared to C57BL/6J mice. These results suggest that different IVC housing systems can influence mouse behaviour in different ways, with mice of both strains studied exhibiting more anxiety-related behaviour when housed in System Two (air entry at the 'animal' level at 50 ACH), which could impact upon experimental data. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gender differences in psychosocial functioning of adolescents with symptoms of anxiety and depression: longitudinal findings from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derdikman-Eiron, Ruth; Indredavik, Marit S; Bakken, Inger Johanne; Bratberg, Grete H; Hjemdal, Odin; Colton, Matthew

    2012-11-01

    To explore longitudinally gender differences in the associations between psychosocial functioning, subjective well-being and self-esteem among adolescents with and without symptoms of anxiety and depression. Data were obtained from a major population-based Norwegian study, the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, in which 1,092 boys and 1,262 girls (86% of all invited) completed an extensive self-report questionnaire at baseline (mean age 14.4 years) and at follow-up (mean age 18.4 years). Gender was a moderator variable in the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression and impairment, meaning that boys' functioning was impaired to a larger extent than girls' functioning. A statistically significant interaction effect between gender and symptoms of anxiety and depression was found at follow-up in terms of subjective well-being (p self-esteem (p self-esteem than boys who had no symptoms at both time points. No similar differences were found among the girls. Previous and ongoing symptoms of anxiety and depression had more negative consequences for boys than for girls. These findings may contribute to improved assessment and intervention methods tailored differently for each gender.

  13. [The relationship between career decision-making self efficacy and anxiety].

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    Yao, Chen; Cai, Yun; Liu, Jia; Shan, Dan; Zhou, Xia

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of the paper is to examine the relationship among Career Decision-Making Self Efficacy, existential anxiety and anxiety in the sample of college students during the professional choice. Data on The Revised Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy-Shot Form, Existential Anxiety Scale (EAS), SCL-90 and self-identity status were collected and analyzed on a sample of 500 college students. 201 rural students' career decision making self-efficacy scores were as follows: self-appraisal (12.58 ± 3.48), occupational information (12.07 ± 3.05), goal selection (12.48 ± 3.51), planning (12.17 ± 3.10), problem solving (9.75 ± 2.38), all scores were lower than urban students, the difference was statistically significant (P Students' anxiety dimension score were as follows: death and the fate of anxiety (14.75 ± 2.56), the meaningless and empty anxiety (19.32 ± 2.88), condemnation and guilt anxiety (13.72 ± 2.38), alienation and loneliness anxiety (16.82 ± 2.51), all scores are higher than urban students, the difference was statistically significant (P career decision making self-efficacy. There is a significant positive correlation between anxiety and existential anxiety. There exists a significant negative correlation among factors of student and career decision making self-efficacy and anxiety. Meaningless and emptiness anxiety on career decision making self-efficacy are significant predictors. There is negative correlation among existential anxiety, occupational information and anxiety during the professional choice.

  14. Social anxiety and post-event processing among African-American individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Dean, Kimberlye E

    2017-03-01

    Social anxiety is among the most prevalent psychiatric conditions, yet little attention has been paid to whether putative cognitive vulnerability factors related to social anxiety in predominantly White samples are related to social anxiety among historically underrepresented groups. We tested whether one such vulnerability factor, post-event processing (PEP; detailed review of social event that can increase state social anxiety) was related to social anxiety among African-American (AA; n = 127) persons, who comprise one of the largest underrepresented racial groups in the U.S. Secondarily, we tested whether AA participants differed from non-Hispanic White participants (n = 127) on PEP and social anxiety and whether race moderated the relation between PEP and social anxiety. Data were collected online among undergraduates. PEP was positively correlated with social anxiety among AA participants, even after controlling for depression and income, pr = .30, p = .001. AA and White participants did not differ on social anxiety or PEP, β = -1.57, 95% CI: -5.11, 1.96. The relation of PEP to social anxiety did not vary as a function of race, β = 0.00, 95% CI: -0.02, 0.02. PEP may be an important cognitive vulnerability factor related to social anxiety among AA persons suffering from social anxiety.

  15. Social Anxiety and Post-Event Processing: The Impact of Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D.; Dean, Kimberlye E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Social anxiety is among the most prevalent psychiatric conditions, yet little attention has been paid to whether putative cognitive vulnerability factors related to social anxiety in predominantly White samples are related to social anxiety among historically underrepresented groups. Design We tested whether one such vulnerability factor, post-event processing (PEP; detailed review of social event that can increase state social anxiety) was related to social anxiety among African American (AA; n=127) persons, who comprise one of the largest underrepresented racial groups in the U.S. Secondarily, we tested whether AA participants differed from non-Hispanic White participants (n=127) on PEP and social anxiety and whether race moderated the relation between PEP and social anxiety. Method Data were collected online among undergraduates. Results PEP was positively correlated with social anxiety among AA participants, even after controlling for depression and income, pr=.30, p=.001. AA and White participants did not differ on social anxiety or PEP, β=−1.57, 95% C.I.: −5.11, 1.96. The relation of PEP to social anxiety did not vary as a function of race, β=0.00, 95% C.I.: −0.02, 0.02. Conclusions PEP may be an important cognitive vulnerability factor related to social anxiety among AA persons suffering from social anxiety. PMID:27576610

  16. Test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals explain gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-11-01

    This study uses analysis of co-variance in order to determine which cognitive/learning (working memory, knowledge integration, epistemic belief of learning) or social/personality factors (test anxiety, performance-avoidance goals) might account for gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores. The results revealed that none of the cognitive/learning factors accounted for gender differences in SAT performance. However, the social/personality factors of test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals each separately accounted for all of the significant gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance. Furthermore, when the influences of both of these factors were statistically removed simultaneously, all non-significant gender differences reduced further to become trivial by Cohen's (1988) standards. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance are a consequence of social/learning factors.

  17. Genetic and environmental sources of covariation between generalized anxiety disorder and neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettema, John M; Prescott, Carol A; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2004-09-01

    The authors examined the sources of covariation between generalized anxiety disorder and the personality trait of neuroticism. Because women have higher levels of neuroticism and twice the risk of lifetime generalized anxiety disorder of men, gender-specific effects were also explored. Lifetime generalized anxiety disorder and neuroticism were assessed in more than 8,000 twins from male-male, female-female, and opposite-sex pairs through structured diagnostic interviews. Sex-limited Cholesky structural equation models were used to decompose the correlations between generalized anxiety disorder and neuroticism into genetic and environmental components, including sex-specific factors. Genetic correlations between generalized anxiety disorder and neuroticism were high and differed (nonsignificantly) between men and women (1.00 and 0.58, respectively). When nonsignificant gender differences were removed from the models, correlations between generalized anxiety disorder and neuroticism were estimated at 0.80 (95% confidence interval=0.52-1.00). The individual-specific environmental correlation between generalized anxiety disorder and neuroticism was estimated at 0.20 for both genders. There is substantial overlap between the genetic factors that influence individual variation in neuroticism and those that increase liability for generalized anxiety disorder, irrespective of gender. The life experiences that increase vulnerability to generalized anxiety disorder, however, have only modest overlap with those that contribute to an individual's level of neuroticism.

  18. Magnetoencephalographic correlates of different types of aura in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukao, Kenjiro; Inoue, Yushi; Yagi, Kazuichi

    2010-09-01

    To estimate magnetoencephalography (MEG) correlates of different types of aura in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). MEG study was performed on 57 patients (26 male and 31 female) with TLE, whose ages ranged from 14-46 years (mean 27 years). Interictal magnetoencephalograms showing discharges were analyzed, and spike-dipole clusters were categorized into left and right inferotemporal-horizontal (IH) and superotemporal-vertical (SV) types. Auras were classified into autonomic, auditory, and psychic seizures. The correlation between the four types of interictal spike-dipole and three types of aura was analyzed using Fisher's exact probability test. IH type correlated with autonomic seizures (p = 0.0004), whereas SV type correlated with both auditory (p = 0.0002) and psychic seizures (p = 0.042). When subdivided into left and right, left IH type correlated with autonomic seizures (p = 0.046), but right IH type did not. Right SV type correlated with both auditory (p = 0.014) and psychic seizures (p = 0.002), but left SV did not correlate with either. Both types did not correlate with "no aura." Using our proposed classification of spike-dipoles, MEG distinguishes auras of mesial temporal origin from those of lateral temporal region. Furthermore, by adopting our classification, laterality of spike-dipoles is clearly demonstrated in auditory and psychic seizures. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. Cross-correlations in volume space: Differences between buy and sell volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Young; Hwang, Dong Il; Kim, Min Jae; Koh, In Gyu; Kim, Soo Yong

    2011-03-01

    We study the cross-correlations of buy and sell volumes on the Korean stock market in high frequency. We observe that the pulling effects of volumes are as small as that of returns. The properties of the correlations of buy and sell volumes differ. They are explained by the degree of synchronization of stock volumes. Further, the pulling effects on the minimal spanning tree are studied. In minimal spanning trees with directed links, the large pulling effects are clustered at the center, not uniformly distributed. The Epps effect of buy and sell volumes are observed. The reversal of the cross-correlations of buy and sell volumes is also detected.

  20. Sex Differences and Correlates of Pain in Patients with Comorbid Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences and correlates of pain were examined in a sample of patients with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity. One hundred fifty-two treatment-seeking patients with BED completed the Brief Pain Inventory. Analysis of covariance was utilized to compare women and men on pain, and correlational analysis, overall and by sex, was performed to examine relationships among pain, eating behaviour and metabolic risk factors. Women reported significantly greater pain severity and pa...

  1. Adolescent sedentary behaviors: correlates differ for television viewing and computer use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babey, Susan H; Hastert, Theresa A; Wolstein, Joelle

    2013-01-01

    Sedentary behavior is associated with obesity in youth. Understanding correlates of specific sedentary behaviors can inform the development of interventions to reduce sedentary time. The current research examines correlates of leisure computer use and television viewing among adolescents in California. Using data from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey, we examined individual, family, and environmental correlates of two sedentary behaviors among 4,029 adolescents: leisure computer use and television watching. Linear regression analyses adjusted for a range of factors indicated several differences in the correlates of television watching and computer use. Correlates of additional time spent watching television included male sex, American Indian and African American race, lower household income, lower levels of physical activity, lower parent educational attainment, and additional hours worked by parents. Correlates of a greater amount of time spent using the computer for fun included older age, Asian race, higher household income, lower levels of physical activity, less parental knowledge of free-time activities, and living in neighborhoods with higher proportions of nonwhite residents and higher proportions of low-income residents. Only physical activity was associated similarly with both watching television and computer use. These results suggest that correlates of time spent on television watching and leisure computer use are different. Reducing screen time is a potentially successful strategy in combating childhood obesity, and understanding differences in the correlates of different screen time behaviors can inform the development of more effective interventions to reduce sedentary time. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Do the correlates of screen time and sedentary time differ in preschool children?

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine L Downing; Trina Hinkley; Jo Salmon; Jill A Hnatiuk; Kylie D Hesketh

    2017-01-01

    Background Preschool children can spend up to 12?h a day in sedentary time and few meet current recommendations for screen time. Little is known about ecological correlates that could be targeted to decrease specific versus total sedentary behaviour. This study examined whether the correlates of screen time and sedentary time differ in preschool boys and girls. Methods Parents participating in the HAPPY Study in 2008/09 in Melbourne, Australia reported their child?s usual screen time and pote...

  3. Sex Differences in Serum Markers of Major Depressive Disorder in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M Ramsey

    Full Text Available Women have a consistently higher prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD than men. Hypotheses implicating hypothalamic-pituitary -adrenal, -gonadal, and -thyroid axes, immune response, genetic factors, and neurotransmitters have emerged to explain this difference. However, more evidence for these hypotheses is needed and new explanations must be explored. Here, we investigated sex differences in MDD markers using multiplex immunoassay measurements of 171 serum molecules in individuals enrolled in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NMDD = 231; Ncontrol = 365. We found 28 sex-dependent markers of MDD, as quantified by a significant interaction between sex and log2-transformed analyte concentration in a logistic regression with diagnosis (MDD/control as the outcome variable (p<0.05; q<0.30. Among these were a number of male-specific associations between MDD and elevated levels of proteins involved in immune response, including C-reactive protein, trefoil factor 3, cystatin-C, fetuin-A, β2-microglobulin, CD5L, FASLG receptor, and tumor necrosis factor receptor 2. Furthermore, only male MDD could be classified with an accuracy greater than chance using the measured serum analytes (area under the ROC curve = 0.63. These findings may have consequences for the generalization of inflammatory hypotheses of depression to males and females and have important implications for the development of diagnostic biomarker tests for MDD. More studies are needed to validate these results, investigate a broader range of biological pathways, and integrate this data with brain imaging, genetic, and other relevant data.

  4. Eating disorders with and without comorbid depression and anxiety: similarities and differences in a clinical sample of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Elizabeth K; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Labuschagne, Zandre; Loeb, Katharine L; Sawyer, Susan M; Le Grange, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to describe and compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of children and adolescents with an eating disorder (ED) and comorbid depression or anxiety. Data were drawn from intake assessments of children and adolescents at a specialist ED clinic. Demographic characteristics (e.g. age and gender) and clinical characteristics (e.g. body mass, binge eating and purging) were compared between 217 ED participants without comorbidity, 32 with comorbid anxiety, 86 with comorbid depression and 36 with comorbid anxiety and depression. The groups with comorbid depression had more complex and severe presentations compared with those with an ED and no comorbid disorder and those with comorbid anxiety alone, especially in regard to binge eating, purging, dietary restraint and weight/shape concerns. Depression and anxiety were differentially related to clinical characteristics of EDs. The findings have implications for understanding the relations between these disorders and their potential to impact outcome of ED treatments. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  5. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Therapist Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Helping Kids Cope With Stress Helping Kids Handle Worry Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Childhood Stress Anxiety Disorders Special Needs Factsheet Social Phobia Special Needs Factsheet Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) ...

  6. Mathematics Anxiety and Statistics Anxiety. Shared but Also Unshared Components and Antagonistic Contributions to Performance in Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Paechter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In many social science majors, e.g., psychology, students report high levels of statistics anxiety. However, these majors are often chosen by students who are less prone to mathematics and who might have experienced difficulties and unpleasant feelings in their mathematics courses at school. The present study investigates whether statistics anxiety is a genuine form of anxiety that impairs students' achievements or whether learners mainly transfer previous experiences in mathematics and their anxiety in mathematics to statistics. The relationship between mathematics anxiety and statistics anxiety, their relationship to learning behaviors and to performance in a statistics examination were investigated in a sample of 225 undergraduate psychology students (164 women, 61 men. Data were recorded at three points in time: At the beginning of term students' mathematics anxiety, general proneness to anxiety, school grades, and demographic data were assessed; 2 weeks before the end of term, they completed questionnaires on statistics anxiety and their learning behaviors. At the end of term, examination scores were recorded. Mathematics anxiety and statistics anxiety correlated highly but the comparison of different structural equation models showed that they had genuine and even antagonistic contributions to learning behaviors and performance in the examination. Surprisingly, mathematics anxiety was positively related to performance. It might be that students realized over the course of their first term that knowledge and skills in higher secondary education mathematics are not sufficient to be successful in statistics. Part of mathematics anxiety may then have strengthened positive extrinsic effort motivation by the intention to avoid failure and may have led to higher effort for the exam preparation. However, via statistics anxiety mathematics anxiety also had a negative contribution to performance. Statistics anxiety led to higher procrastination in

  7. Mathematics Anxiety and Statistics Anxiety. Shared but Also Unshared Components and Antagonistic Contributions to Performance in Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paechter, Manuela; Macher, Daniel; Martskvishvili, Khatuna; Wimmer, Sigrid; Papousek, Ilona

    2017-01-01

    In many social science majors, e.g., psychology, students report high levels of statistics anxiety. However, these majors are often chosen by students who are less prone to mathematics and who might have experienced difficulties and unpleasant feelings in their mathematics courses at school. The present study investigates whether statistics anxiety is a genuine form of anxiety that impairs students' achievements or whether learners mainly transfer previous experiences in mathematics and their anxiety in mathematics to statistics. The relationship between mathematics anxiety and statistics anxiety, their relationship to learning behaviors and to performance in a statistics examination were investigated in a sample of 225 undergraduate psychology students (164 women, 61 men). Data were recorded at three points in time: At the beginning of term students' mathematics anxiety, general proneness to anxiety, school grades, and demographic data were assessed; 2 weeks before the end of term, they completed questionnaires on statistics anxiety and their learning behaviors. At the end of term, examination scores were recorded. Mathematics anxiety and statistics anxiety correlated highly but the comparison of different structural equation models showed that they had genuine and even antagonistic contributions to learning behaviors and performance in the examination. Surprisingly, mathematics anxiety was positively related to performance. It might be that students realized over the course of their first term that knowledge and skills in higher secondary education mathematics are not sufficient to be successful in statistics. Part of mathematics anxiety may then have strengthened positive extrinsic effort motivation by the intention to avoid failure and may have led to higher effort for the exam preparation. However, via statistics anxiety mathematics anxiety also had a negative contribution to performance. Statistics anxiety led to higher procrastination in the structural

  8. Mathematics Anxiety and Statistics Anxiety. Shared but Also Unshared Components and Antagonistic Contributions to Performance in Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paechter, Manuela; Macher, Daniel; Martskvishvili, Khatuna; Wimmer, Sigrid; Papousek, Ilona

    2017-01-01

    In many social science majors, e.g., psychology, students report high levels of statistics anxiety. However, these majors are often chosen by students who are less prone to mathematics and who might have experienced difficulties and unpleasant feelings in their mathematics courses at school. The present study investigates whether statistics anxiety is a genuine form of anxiety that impairs students' achievements or whether learners mainly transfer previous experiences in mathematics and their anxiety in mathematics to statistics. The relationship between mathematics anxiety and statistics anxiety, their relationship to learning behaviors and to performance in a statistics examination were investigated in a sample of 225 undergraduate psychology students (164 women, 61 men). Data were recorded at three points in time: At the beginning of term students' mathematics anxiety, general proneness to anxiety, school grades, and demographic data were assessed; 2 weeks before the end of term, they completed questionnaires on statistics anxiety and their learning behaviors. At the end of term, examination scores were recorded. Mathematics anxiety and statistics anxiety correlated highly but the comparison of different structural equation models showed that they had genuine and even antagonistic contributions to learning behaviors and performance in the examination. Surprisingly, mathematics anxiety was positively related to performance. It might be that students realized over the course of their first term that knowledge and skills in higher secondary education mathematics are not sufficient to be successful in statistics. Part of mathematics anxiety may then have strengthened positive extrinsic effort motivation by the intention to avoid failure and may have led to higher effort for the exam preparation. However, via statistics anxiety mathematics anxiety also had a negative contribution to performance. Statistics anxiety led to higher procrastination in the structural

  9. A cross-sectional study of correlation of body image anxiety with social phobia and their association with depression in the adolescents from a rural area of Sangli district in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Baliram Waghachavare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevailing socio-cultural influences lead females to desire a thin body and males a muscular body, especially in adolescents. This results in body image anxiety which may lead to social phobia. Together they can develop depression. The aim was to study the correlation of body image anxiety with social phobia and their association with depression, among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in randomly selected colleges from a rural area of Sangli district Maharashtra, India. Stratified random sampling technique used with sample size 805. Pretested self-administered questionnaire used. Percentage, Chi-square test, binary logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratio (OR and its 95% confidence intervals. Results: Of 997 study subjects body image anxiety, social phobia and depression were observed in 232 (23.3%, 193 (19.4% and 326 (32.7% participants, respectively. Binary logistic regression showed that body image anxiety (OR = 1.849 [1.22, 2.804]; P = 0.004 and social phobia (OR = 4.575 [2.952-7.09]; P < 0.001 were significant predictors for depression. Conclusions: Body image anxiety and social phobia are linked with the development of depression. This impresses the need for timely counseling and education among adolescents.

  10. A Cross-sectional Study of Correlation of Body Image Anxiety with Social Phobia and Their Association with Depression in the Adolescents from a Rural Area of Sangli District in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghachavare, Vivek Baliram; Quraishi, Sanjay R; Dhumale, Girish B; Gore, Alka D

    2014-12-01

    Prevailing socio-cultural influences lead females to desire a thin body and males a muscular body, especially in adolescents. This results in body image anxiety which may lead to social phobia. Together they can develop depression. The aim was to study the correlation of body image anxiety with social phobia and their association with depression, among adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in randomly selected colleges from a rural area of Sangli district Maharashtra, India. Stratified random sampling technique used with sample size 805. Pretested self-administered questionnaire used. Percentage, Chi-square test, binary logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence intervals. Of 997 study subjects body image anxiety, social phobia and depression were observed in 232 (23.3%), 193 (19.4%) and 326 (32.7%) participants, respectively. Binary logistic regression showed that body image anxiety (OR = 1.849 [1.22, 2.804]; P = 0.004) and social phobia (OR = 4.575 [2.952-7.09]; P depression. Body image anxiety and social phobia are linked with the development of depression. This impresses the need for timely counseling and education among adolescents.

  11. Child Negative Emotionality and Parental Harsh Discipline in Chinese Preschoolers: The Different Mediating Roles of Maternal and Paternal Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaopei; Zhang, Hongli; Shao, Shuhui; Wang, Meifang

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that harsh discipline is still prevalent in modern Chinese families and it is necessary to explore the cause and the potential mechanisms of Chinese parental use of harsh discipline. This study examined the mediating effects of parental anxiety in the relations between child negative emotionality and parental harsh discipline in China. Using a sample of 328 Chinese father-mother dyads with their young children, findings revealed that maternal anxiety mediated the relations between child negative emotionality and maternal psychological aggression and corporal punishment, but the mediating effects of paternal anxiety on the relations between child negative emotionality and paternal harsh discipline was not significant. The findings provide an important supplement and extension to previous examinations of the factors associated with Chinese parental use of harsh discipline and its mechanisms. PMID:28326056

  12. Child Negative Emotionality and Parental Harsh Discipline in Chinese Preschoolers: The Different Mediating Roles of Maternal and Paternal Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaopei; Zhang, Hongli; Shao, Shuhui; Wang, Meifang

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that harsh discipline is still prevalent in modern Chinese families and it is necessary to explore the cause and the potential mechanisms of Chinese parental use of harsh discipline. This study examined the mediating effects of parental anxiety in the relations between child negative emotionality and parental harsh discipline in China. Using a sample of 328 Chinese father-mother dyads with their young children, findings revealed that maternal anxiety mediated the relations between child negative emotionality and maternal psychological aggression and corporal punishment, but the mediating effects of paternal anxiety on the relations between child negative emotionality and paternal harsh discipline was not significant. The findings provide an important supplement and extension to previous examinations of the factors associated with Chinese parental use of harsh discipline and its mechanisms.

  13. Effect of Foreign Language Anxiety on Gender and Academic Achievement among Yemeni University EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Norizan Abdul; Yassin, Amr Abdullatif; Maasum, Tengku Nor Rizan Bt Tengku Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the gender differences in terms of anxiety among Yemeni university EFL learners. It also aimed to investigate the correlation between the level of anxiety and the academic achievement of the students. The participants of this study were 155 students chosen from the population through stratified random sampling. The…

  14. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  15. [Correlation analysis on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of different vegetations and climatic factors in Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-He; Liu, Shi-Rong

    2011-02-01

    Based on the 1982-2006 NDVI remote sensing data and meteorological data of Southwest China, and by using GIS technology, this paper interpolated and extracted the mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, and drought index in the region, and analyzed the correlations of the annual variation of NDVI in different vegetation types (marsh, shrub, bush, grassland, meadow, coniferous forest, broad-leaved forest, alpine vegetation, and cultural vegetation) with corresponding climatic factors. In 1982-2006, the NDVI, mean annual temperature, and annual precipitation had an overall increasing trend, and the drought index decreased. Particularly, the upward trend of mean annual temperature was statistically significant. Among the nine vegetation types, the NDVI of bush and mash decreased, and the downward trend was significant for bush. The NDVI of the other seven vegetation types increased, and the upward trend was significant for coniferous forest, meadow, and alpine vegetation, and extremely significant for shrub. The mean annual temperature in the areas with all the nine vegetation types increased significantly, while the annual precipitation had no significant change. The drought index in the areas with marsh, bush, and cultural vegetation presented an increasing trend, that in the areas with meadow and alpine vegetation decreased significantly, and this index in the areas with other four vegetation types had an unobvious decreasing trend. The NDVI of shrub and coniferous forest had a significantly positive correlation with mean annual temperature, and that of shrub and meadow had significantly negative correlation with drought index. Under the conditions of the other two climatic factors unchanged, the NDVI of coniferous forest, broad-leaved forest, and alpine vegetation showed the strongest correlation with mean annual temperature, that of grass showed the strongest correlation with annual precipitation, and the NDVI of mash, shrub, grass, meadow, and cultural

  16. Structural and functional connectivity changes in the brain associated with shyness but not with social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Kendrick, Keith Maurice; Wu, Qizhu; Chen, Taolin; Lama, Sunima; Cheng, Bochao; Li, Shiguang; Huang, Xiaoqi; Gong, Qiyong

    2013-01-01

    Shyness and social anxiety are correlated to some extent and both are associated with hyper-responsivity to social stimuli in the frontal cortex and limbic system. However to date no studies have investigated whether common structural and functional connectivity differences in the brain may contribute to these traits. We addressed this issue in a cohort of 61 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were first assessed for their levels of shyness (Cheek and Buss Shyness scale) and social anxiety (Liebowitz Social Anxiety scale) and trait anxiety. They were then given MRI scans and voxel-based morphometry and seed-based, resting-state functional connectivity analysis investigated correlations with shyness and anxiety scores. Shyness scores were positively correlated with gray matter density in the cerebellum, bilateral superior temporal gyri and parahippocampal gyri and right insula. Functional connectivity correlations with shyness were found between the superior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and the frontal gyri, between the insula and precentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, and between the cerebellum and precuneus. Additional correlations were found for amygdala connectivity with the medial frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, despite the absence of any structural correlation. By contrast no structural or functional connectivity measures correlated with social or trait anxiety. Our findings show that shyness is specifically associated with structural and functional connectivity changes in cortical and limbic regions involved with processing social stimuli. These associations are not found with social or trait anxiety in healthy subjects despite some behavioral correlations with shyness.

  17. Structural and functional connectivity changes in the brain associated with shyness but not with social anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Yang

    Full Text Available Shyness and social anxiety are correlated to some extent and both are associated with hyper-responsivity to social stimuli in the frontal cortex and limbic system. However to date no studies have investigated whether common structural and functional connectivity differences in the brain may contribute to these traits. We addressed this issue in a cohort of 61 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were first assessed for their levels of shyness (Cheek and Buss Shyness scale and social anxiety (Liebowitz Social Anxiety scale and trait anxiety. They were then given MRI scans and voxel-based morphometry and seed-based, resting-state functional connectivity analysis investigated correlations with shyness and anxiety scores. Shyness scores were positively correlated with gray matter density in the cerebellum, bilateral superior temporal gyri and parahippocampal gyri and right insula. Functional connectivity correlations with shyness were found between the superior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and the frontal gyri, between the insula and precentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, and between the cerebellum and precuneus. Additional correlations were found for amygdala connectivity with the medial frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, despite the absence of any structural correlation. By contrast no structural or functional connectivity measures correlated with social or trait anxiety. Our findings show that shyness is specifically associated with structural and functional connectivity changes in cortical and limbic regions involved with processing social stimuli. These associations are not found with social or trait anxiety in healthy subjects despite some behavioral correlations with shyness.

  18. Quantification of pizza baking properties of different cheeses, and their correlation with cheese functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xixiu; Balaban, Murat O; Zhang, Lu; Emanuelsson-Patterson, Emma A C; James, Bryony

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the pizza baking properties and performance of different cheeses, including the browning and blistering, and to investigate the correlation to cheese properties (rheology, free oil, transition temperature, and water activity). The color, and color uniformity, of different cheeses (Mozzarella, Cheddar, Colby, Edam, Emmental, Gruyere, and Provolone) were quantified, using a machine vision system and image analysis techniques. The correlations between cheese appearance and attributes were also evaluated, to find that cheese properties including elasticity, free oil, and transition temperature influence the color uniformity of cheeses. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Relaxation dynamics in the presence of pulse multiplicative noise sources with different correlation properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargovsky, A. V.; Chichigina, O. A.; Anashkina, E. I.; Valenti, D.; Spagnolo, B.

    2015-10-01

    The relaxation dynamics of a system described by a Langevin equation with pulse multiplicative noise sources with different correlation properties is considered. The solution of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation is derived for Gaussian white noise. Moreover, two pulse processes with regulated periodicity are considered as a noise source: the dead-time-distorted Poisson process and the process with fixed time intervals, which is characterized by an infinite correlation time. We find that the steady state of the system is dependent on the correlation properties of the pulse noise. An increase of the noise correlation causes the decrease of the mean value of the solution at the steady state. The analytical results are in good agreement with the numerical ones.

  20. Metabolomics reveals variation and correlation among different tissues of olive (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guodong, Rao; Xiaoxia, Liu; Weiwei, Zha; Wenjun, Wu; Jianguo, Zhang

    2017-09-15

    Metabolites in olives are associated with nutritional value and physiological properties. However, comprehensive information regarding the olive metabolome is limited. In this study, we identified 226 metabolites from three different tissues of olive using a non-targeted metabolomic profiling approach, of which 76 named metabolites were confirmed. Further statistical analysis revealed that these 76 metabolites covered different types of primary metabolism and some of the secondary metabolism pathways. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical assay was performed to calculate the variations within the detected metabolites, and levels of 65 metabolites were differentially expressed in different samples. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) dendrograms showed variations among different tissues that were similar to the metabolite profiles observed in new leaves and fruit. Additionally, 5776 metabolite-metabolite correlations were detected by a Pearson correlation coefficient approach. Screening of the calculated correlations revealed 3136, 3025, and 5184 were determined to metabolites and had significant correlations in three different combinations, respectively. This work provides the first comprehensive metabolomic of olive, which will provide new insights into understanding the olive metabolism, and potentially help advance studies in olive metabolic engineering. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Metabolomics reveals variation and correlation among different tissues of olive (Olea europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Guodong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolites in olives are associated with nutritional value and physiological properties. However, comprehensive information regarding the olive metabolome is limited. In this study, we identified 226 metabolites from three different tissues of olive using a non-targeted metabolomic profiling approach, of which 76 named metabolites were confirmed. Further statistical analysis revealed that these 76 metabolites covered different types of primary metabolism and some of the secondary metabolism pathways. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA statistical assay was performed to calculate the variations within the detected metabolites, and levels of 65 metabolites were differentially expressed in different samples. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA dendrograms showed variations among different tissues that were similar to the metabolite profiles observed in new leaves and fruit. Additionally, 5776 metabolite-metabolite correlations were detected by a Pearson correlation coefficient approach. Screening of the calculated correlations revealed 3136, 3025, and 5184 were determined to metabolites and had significant correlations in three different combinations, respectively. This work provides the first comprehensive metabolomic of olive, which will provide new insights into understanding the olive metabolism, and potentially help advance studies in olive metabolic engineering.

  2. Do the correlates of screen time and sedentary time differ in preschool children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Katherine L; Hinkley, Trina; Salmon, Jo; Hnatiuk, Jill A; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2017-03-29

    Preschool children can spend up to 12 h a day in sedentary time and few meet current recommendations for screen time. Little is known about ecological correlates that could be targeted to decrease specific versus total sedentary behaviour. This study examined whether the correlates of screen time and sedentary time differ in preschool boys and girls. Parents participating in the HAPPY Study in 2008/09 in Melbourne, Australia reported their child's usual screen time and potential individual, social and physical environment correlates. Children wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers for eight days to objectively assess sedentary time (child age, preschool/childcare attendance and clustering by centre of recruitment. Correlates significantly associated with screen time or sedentary time in individual models (p sedentary for 301.1 (SD 34.1) minutes/day and spent 108.5 (SD 69.6) minutes/day in screen time. There were no sex differences in screen or sedentary time. In the final models, sleep duration was inversely associated with girls' sedentary time and boys' screen time. The only other consistent correlates for boys and girls were parental self-efficacy to limit screen time and screen time rules, which were inversely associated with screen time for both sexes. Parents reporting that they get bored watching their child play was inversely associated and maternal television viewing was positively associated with boys' screen time. Paternal age was positively associated with boys' sedentary time. Maternal ethnicity was inversely associated and paternal education, child preferences for sedentary behaviour, and parental concerns about child's physical activity and sedentary behaviour were positively associated with girls' screen time. The modifiable correlates of total sedentary and screen time identified in this study could be targeted in interventions to reduce these behaviours. With correlates differing for screen and sedentary time, and between boys and girls

  3. Parental rearing as a function of parent's own, partner's, and child's anxiety status: fathers make the difference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bögels, S.M.; Bamelis, L.; van der Bruggen, C.

    2008-01-01

    Parents of children with anxiety disorders are found to be over controlling and more rejecting in parent-child interactions than parents of control children. However, most studies included mothers, and the rearing behaviour of fathers of anxious children is largely unknown. Also, it remains unclear

  4. Quantitative Study on Computer Self-Efficacy and Computer Anxiety Differences in Academic Major and Residential Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, Zachary Wayne McClellan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates computer self-efficacy and computer anxiety within 61 students across two academic majors, Aviation and Sports and Exercise Science, while investigating the impact residential status, age, and gender has on those two psychological constructs. The purpose of the study is to find if computer self-efficacy and computer anxiety…

  5. Is the OSCE more stressful? Examination anxiety and its consequences in different assessment methods in dental education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Schoonheim-Klein, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To measure the levels of anxiety, self-perception of preparation and expectation for success induced by an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), a written examination and a preclinical preparation test, and to examine the effects of the three predictive variables on the

  6. Attitude Differences between Male and Female Students at Clovis Community College and Their Relationships to Math Anxiety: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershot, Richard Lane

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of males and females at Clovis Community College towards math anxiety and to look for possible factors that could be used to assist in the assignment of students to various math classes. The subjects in the study were fifty male students and fifty female students. Subjects responded to a math…

  7. DSM-IV versus DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder in childhood: Similarities and differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.; de Bruin, E.I.

    2015-01-01

    Within the light of the DSM-5, the current study examined (1) how many and which children with a DSM-IV classification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) fulfill the DSM-5 symptom-criteria, and (2) whether children who did and did not meet DSM-5 symptom-criteria and children with social anxiety

  8. Gender Differences in Depression and Anxiety among Victims of Intimate Partner Violence: The Moderating Effect of Shame Proneness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Sherman, Amanda E.; Kivisto, Aaron J.; Elkins, Sara R.; Rhatigan, Deborah L.; Moore, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating role of shame proneness on the association between physical, psychological, and sexual intimate partner violence victimization and depressive and anxious symptoms among male and female college students (N = 967). Students completed self-report measures of dating violence, depression, anxiety, and shame…

  9. Anxiety and Depression among College Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Cross-Informant, Sex, and Subtype Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Liebel, Spencer W.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study examined symptoms of anxiety and depression among college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants: Data were collected between March 2011 and March 2016 from 150 college students with ADHD and 150 college students without ADHD. Method: Participants with ADHD were compared to a sex- and…

  10. Distinguishing narcissism and hostility: similarities and differences in interpersonal circumplex and five-factor correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J M; Smith, T W; Rhodewalt, F

    2001-06-01

    Narcissism and hostility are both characterized by dysfunctional social interactions, including tendencies to perceive slights, experience anger, and behave aggressively. The aim of this study was to examine the similarities and differences of narcissism and hostility, using 2 conceptual tools-the interpersonal circumplex and the Five-factor model. In a sample of 292 undergraduate men and women, composite measures of hostility (i.e., Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire [Buss & Perry, 1992] and Cook-Medley Hostility [Cook & Medley, 1954] total scores) were inversely correlated with affiliation and unrelated to dominance. In contrast, composite narcissism scores (i.e., Narcissistic Personality Inventory) were positively correlated with dominance and inversely correlated with affiliation. Examination of components of these traits revealed additional similarities and differences, as did associations with other dimensions of the Five-factor model. These findings suggest that the traits of narcissism and hostility are distinguishable by their interpersonal referents, as are their components.

  11. Rats with differential self-grooming expression in the elevated plus-maze do not differ in anxiety-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Adriano Edgar; de Oliveira, Amanda Ribeiro; Diniz, Juliana Belo; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Chiavegatto, Silvana; Brandão, Marcus Lira

    2015-10-01

    Individual differences are important biological predictors for reactivity to stressful stimulation. The extent to which trait differences underlie animal's reactions to conditioned and unconditioned fear stimuli, for example, is still to be clarified. Although grooming behavior has been associated with some aspects of the obsessive-compulsive disorder in humans, its relation with other anxiety disorders is still unknown. Given that grooming behavior could be a component of the whole spectrum of these disorders, in the present study we allocated male Wistar rats in low, intermediate and high self-grooming groups according to the duration of such behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). These groups were then evaluated in unconditioned fear tests, such as the EPM and the open-field, and in conditioned fear tests, such as fear-potentiated startle and fear extinction retention. Additionally, we studied the expression of unconditioned behaviors in marble burying test and the sensorimotor gate function with prepulse inhibition test. Neurochemicals and neuroendocrine parameters were also evaluated, with the quantification of basal corticosterone in the plasma, and dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites in brain structures involved with fear processing. In general, rats classified according to grooming expression showed similar performance in all behavioral tests. Accordingly, corticosterone and monoamine concentrations were similar among groups. Thus, despite grooming expression elicited by different approaches--especially pharmacological ones--has been related with some aspects of anxiety disorders, rats with different expression of spontaneous self-grooming in the EPM do not differ in anxiety-like behaviors nor in neurochemical and neuroendocrine parameters generally associated with anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep in a large, multi-university sample of college students: sleep problem prevalence, sex differences, and mental health correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Jarrett, Matthew A; Luebbe, Aaron M; Garner, Annie A; Burns, G Leonard; Kofler, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    To (1) describe sleep problems in a large, multi-university sample of college students; (2) evaluate sex differences; and (3) examine the unique associations of mental health symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention [ADHD-IN], ADHD hyperactivity-impulsivity [ADHD-HI]) in relation to sleep problems. 7,626 students (70% female; 81% White) ages 18-29 years (M=19.14, SD=1.42) from six universities completed measures assessing mental health symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A substantial minority of students endorsed sleep problems across specific sleep components. Specifically, 27% described their sleep quality as poor, 36% reported obtaining less than 7 hours of sleep per night, and 43% reported that it takes >30 minutes to fall asleep at least once per week. 62% of participants met cut-off criteria for poor sleep, though rates differed between females (64%) and males (57%). In structural regression models, both anxiety and depression symptoms were uniquely associated with disruptions in most PSQI sleep component domains. However, anxiety (but not depression) symptoms were uniquely associated with more sleep disturbances and sleep medication use, whereas depression (but not anxiety) symptoms were uniquely associated with increased daytime dysfunction. ADHD-IN symptoms were uniquely associated with poorer sleep quality and increased daytime dysfunction, whereas ADHD-HI symptoms were uniquely associated with more sleep disturbances and less daytime dysfunction. Lastly, ADHD-IN, anxiety, and depression symptoms were each independently associated with poor sleep status. This study documents a high prevalence of poor sleep among college students, some sex differences, and distinct patterns of mental health symptoms in relation to sleep problems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Mathematics, anxiety, and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed A; Tindle, Richard; Ansari, Zaheda; Doyle, Margery J; Hewedi, Doaa H; Eissa, Abeer

    2017-05-24

    Given that achievement in learning mathematics at school correlates with work and social achievements, it is important to understand the cognitive processes underlying abilities to learn mathematics efficiently as well as reasons underlying the occurrence of mathematics anxiety (i.e. feelings of tension and fear upon facing mathematical problems or numbers) among certain individuals. Over the last two decades, many studies have shown that learning mathematical and numerical concepts relies on many cognitive processes, including working memory, spatial skills, and linguistic abilities. In this review, we discuss the relationship between mathematical learning and cognitive processes as well as the neural substrates underlying successful mathematical learning and problem solving. More importantly, we also discuss the relationship between these cognitive processes, mathematics anxiety, and mathematics learning disabilities (dyscalculia). Our review shows that mathematical cognition relies on a complex brain network, and dysfunction to different segments of this network leads to varying manifestations of mathematical learning disabilities.

  14. Correlates of generalized anxiety disorder: independent of co-morbidity with depression: findings from the first Israeli National Health Interview Survey (2003-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Khitam; Lipsitz, Joshua; Garty-Sandalon, Noga; Gross, Raz; Green, Manfred S

    2008-11-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder with chronic symptoms and is commonly comorbid with depression. To identify correlates of GAD among adults and to describe treatment patterns and functional limitations among individuals with this disorder. Data for 2,082 subjects aged >or=21 years from the first Israeli national health interview survey (INHIS-1) (2003-2004) were analyzed. Information on GAD was collected using the short form of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Data were also obtained on socio-demographic, physical health characteristics, history of life threatening events, treatment seeking behaviors, use of medication and functional impairment. The prevalence of GAD was highest among people aged 40-59 years, in those with asthma, hypertension and in those with osteoporosis. Regular exercise was associated with reduced prevalence for GAD (adjusted OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22-0.95). The exclusion of individuals with major depression from analysis strengthened the association with age (adjusted OR 5.7, 95% CI 1.7, 19.7), weakened the association between GAD and osteoporosis (adjusted OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.2, 9.8), asthma (adjusted OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.2, 9.5) and regular exercise (adjusted OR 0.47 95% CI 0.2, 1.14). In this sub-sample, hypertension was no longer associated with GAD, and a significant association was found between GAD and past experience of life threatening events (adjusted OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.9). Psychiatric and psychological consultations were low among people with GAD (11.5% and 26.4% for those without and with comorbid depression, respectively), concurrent with a high degree of functional limitation. Middle age, history of traumatic life events, and certain chronic medical diseases (e.g., asthma and osteoporosis) are important risk factors for GAD. They could be used to help identify and treat people with GAD.

  15. Gender Differences in Psychopathic Traits, Types, and Correlates of Aggression among Adjudicated Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickle, Timothy R.; Marini, Victoria A.; Thomas, Jamila N.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated gender differences in types and correlates of aggression among 150 adjudicated youth (M age = 15.2, SD = 1.4). In cluster analysis, consistent with past studies, one aggressive group characterized by moderate levels of reactive aggression and one characterized by high levels of proactive and reactive aggression…

  16. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaards, C.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Hendriksen, I.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA). The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST) in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work

  17. Sex differences of anxiety disorders: Possible psychobiological causes - Diferencias entre hombres y mujeres en los trastornos de ansiedad: una aproximación psicobiológica

    OpenAIRE

    Mª Carmen Arenas; Araceli Puigcerver

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are common in both men and women and are particularly disabling for the sufferer. Women of reproductive age are more vulnerable to developing these mental disorders than men; in fact their prevalence is 2-3 times higher among females than among males. Sex differences have also been reported in relation to the manifestation and expression of symptoms, the will to request medical or psychological assistance, the course of the disease, and even in the response to treatment. The...

  18. Exploring Neural Correlates of Different Dimensions in Drug Craving Self-Reports among Heroin Dependents

    OpenAIRE

    Hassani-Abharian, Peyman; Ganjgahi, Habib; Tabatabaei-Jafari, Hosein; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Mokri, Azarakhsh; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Drug craving could be described as a motivational state which drives drug dependents towards drug seeking and use. Different types of self-reports such as craving feeling, desire and intention, wanting and need, imagery of use, and negative affect have been attributed to this motivational state. By using subjective self-reports for different correlates of drug craving along with functional neuroimaging with cue exposure paradigm, we investigated the brain regions that could corr...

  19. Feasibility of the correlation curves method in calorimeters of different types

    OpenAIRE

    Grushevskaya, E. A.; Lebedev, I. A.; Fedosimova, A. I.

    2014-01-01

    The simulation of the development of cascade processes in calorimeters of different types for the implementation of energy measurement by correlation curves method, is carried out. Heterogeneous calorimeter has a significant transient effects, associated with the difference of the critical energy in the absorber and the detector. The best option is a mixed calorimeter, which has a target block, leading to the rapid development of the cascade, and homogeneous measuring unit. Uncertainties of e...

  20. Expression of alcoholism-relevant genes in the liver are differently correlated to different parts of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lishi; Huang, Yue; Jiao, Yan; Chen, Hong; Cao, Yanhong; Bennett, Beth; Wang, Yongjun; Gu, Weikuan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether expression profiles of alcoholism-relevant genes in different parts of the brain are correlated differently with those in the liver. Four experiments were conducted. First, we used gene expression profiles from five parts of the brain (striatum, prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, and cerebellum) and from liver in a population of recombinant inbred mouse strains to examine the expression association of 10 alcoholism-relevant genes. Second, we conducted the same association analysis between brain structures and the lung. Third, using five randomly selected, nonalcoholism-relevant genes, we conducted the association analysis between brain and liver. Finally, we compared the expression of 10 alcoholism-relevant genes in hippocampus and cerebellum between an alcohol preference strain and a wild-type control. We observed a difference in correlation patterns in expression levels of 10 alcoholism-relevant genes between different parts of the brain with those of liver. We then examined the association of gene expression between alcohol dehydrogenases (Adh1, Adh2, Adh5, and Adh7) and different parts of the brain. The results were similar to those of the 10 genes. Then, we found that the association of those genes between brain structures and lung was different from that of liver. Next, we found that the association patterns of five alcoholism-nonrelevant genes were different from those of 10 alcoholism-relevant genes. Finally, we found that the expression level of 10 alcohol-relevant genes is influenced more in hippocampus than in cerebellum in the alcohol preference strain. Our results show that the expression of alcoholism-relevant genes in liver is differently associated with the expression of genes in different parts of the brain. Because different structural changes in different parts of the brain in alcoholism have been reported, it is important to investigate whether those structural differences in

  1. Evaluating correlation between geometrical relationship and dose difference caused by respiratory motion using statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dong Seok; Kim, Dong Su; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Kyeong Hyeon; Yoon, Do Kun; Suh, Tae Suk [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Seong Hee [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Min Seok [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Yu Yoon [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Three-dimensional dose (3D dose) can consider coverage of moving target, however it is difficult to provide dosimetric effect which occurs by respiratory motions. Four-dimensional dose (4D dose) which uses deformable image registration (DIR) algorithm from four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) images can consider dosimetric effect by respiratory motions. The dose difference between 3D dose and 4D dose can be varied according to the geometrical relationship between a planning target volume (PTV) and an organ at risk (OAR). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation between the overlap volume histogram (OVH), which quantitatively shows the geometrical relationship between the PTV and OAR, and the dose differences. In conclusion, no significant statistical correlation was found between the OVH and dose differences. However, it was confirmed that a higher difference between the 3D and 4D doses could occur in cases that have smaller OVH value. No significant statistical correlation was found between the OVH and dose differences. However, it was confirmed that a higher difference between the 3D and 4D doses could occur in cases that have smaller OVH value.

  2. Sex differences in the prevalence and detection of depressive and anxiety disorders in general health care settings - Report from the World Health Organization collaborative study on Psychological Problems in General Health Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gater, R; Tansella, M; Korten, A; Tiemens, BG; Mavreas, VG; Olatawura, MO

    Background: Understanding the relevance of biological and social factors to sex differences in the prevalence and detection of depressive and anxiety disorders has been impaired by the lack of standardized research methods across cultures. Method: Prevalence rates of depressive and anxiety disorders

  3. Racial differences in sexual prejudice and its correlates among heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daboin, Irene; Peterson, John L; Parrott, Dominic J

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has consistently found sexual prejudice to be a predictor of antigay aggression and has also revealed specific correlates and antecedents of sexual prejudice. However, extant literature reveals mixed findings about potential racial group differences in sexual prejudice, and few studies have examined racial differences in the correlates of sexual prejudice. The aims of this descriptive study were to determine whether there are (a) racial group differences in reports of sexual prejudice and (b) racial group differences in previously identified correlates of sexual prejudice. Participants were 195 heterosexual males, ages 18 to 30 (98 Blacks and 97 Whites), recruited from a large metropolitan city in the southeastern United States. Based on cultural differences in the influence of religion and in attitudes about male sexuality, it was hypothesized that Black participants would report higher sexual prejudice than White participants. Additionally, based on cultural differences in racial views on masculinity and in sociocultural experiences of male gender roles, it was hypothesized that Blacks would report greater endorsement of religious fundamentalism and the traditional male role norm of status than Whites. Results confirmed all of the hypothesized racial differences and revealed additional differences, including a differential effect of the traditional male role norm of status on sexual prejudice, which explains, at least in part, the racial differences found in sexual prejudice. These findings may reflect underlying cultural differences between Black and White males and may aid in the development of future efforts to reduce sexual prejudice and consequently antigay aggression toward sexual minorities. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Anxiety and Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mae Wood

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the first preventable cause of death. This is associated not only with physical illness and a shorter life expectancy, but also with different mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. Given the low risk perception of use, this paper reports a systematic review of the scientific literature on the relationship between anxiety and tobacco from an emotional perspective, including data on smoking prevalence, factors associated with the onset and maintenance of tobacco use, as well as those factors that hamper smoking cessation and increase relapse rates. The high rates of comorbidity between tobacco use and anxiety disorders make necessary the development of new and better tobacco cessation treatments, especially designed for those smokers with high state anxiety or anxiety sensitivity, with the aim of maximizing the efficacy.

  5. Behavioral Correlations Associated with Fear of Humans Differ between Rural and Urban Burrowing Owls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Carrete

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies are fundamental to understanding how animal populations face global change. Although much research has centered upon the idea that individuals can adaptively modify their behaviors to cope with environmental changes, recent evidence supports the existence of individual differences in suites of correlated behaviors. However, little is known about how selection can change these behavioral structures in populations subject to different environmental constraints. The colonization of urban environments by birds has been related to their inter-individual variability in their fear of humans, measured as their flight initiation distance to an approaching human, such that urban life would select for fearless individuals. This behavior has been demonstrated to be heritable and highly consistent throughout the adult lifespan of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia. Here, we experimentally assessed, in field conditions, whether urban life involves changes in other behaviors such as exploration and antipredatory response through their correlation with fear of humans. Breeding urban birds were more fearless toward humans and were quicker to explore a new food resource and defend their nests from predators than their rural counterparts. However, while fear of humans positively correlated with exploration and antipredatory response in the rural population, it only correlated with exploration in the urban one. Predator release in urban environments could relax—and even counterselect—antipredator behaviors, thus dismantling the behavioral correlation existent in natural populations. Altogether, our results suggest that rural and urban animals may differ in some behavioral aspects, may be as a consequence of the selection processes acting during the colonization of urban areas as well as the different ecological environments encountered by individuals.

  6. Second language writing anxiety, computer anxiety, and performance in a classroom versus a web-based environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effie Dracopoulos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of writing anxiety and computer anxiety on language learning for 45 ESL adult learners enrolled in an English grammar and writing course. Two sections of the course were offered in a traditional classroom setting whereas two others were given in a hybrid form that involved distance learning. Contrary to previous research, writing anxiety showed no correlation with learning performance, whereas computer anxiety only yielded a positive correlation with performance in the case of classroom learners. There were no significant differences across learning environments on any measures. These observations are discussed in light of the role computer technologies now play in our society as well as the merging of socio-demographic profiles between classroom and distance learners. Our data suggest that comparisons of profiles between classroom and distance learners may not be an issue worth investigating anymore in language studies, at least in developed countries.

  7. Assessing cancer-specific anxiety in Chinese men with prostate cancer: psychometric evaluation of the Chinese version of the Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingmei; Jiang, Ping; Zhang, Zijun; Luo, Jie; Dai, Yun; Zheng, Li; Wang, Wei

    2017-12-01

    The Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC) was developed to identify and assess cancer-specific anxiety among men with prostate cancer (PCa); however, there is no Chinese version. The aim of our study was to translate the English version of MAX-PC into Chinese and evaluate the psychometric properties of it. The study cohort comprised 254 participants. Internal consistency including the Cronbach's alpha coefficient and item-total correlations were used to measure the reliability of the scale. Factor structure was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis and concurrent validity by comparing MAX-PC scores with anxiety subscale scores of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Divergent validity was assessed by correlating MAX-PC with HADS depression subscale, while discriminant ability by comparing differences in MAX-PC scores between different patient groups. The Chinese version of MAX-PC demonstrated good reliability; the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the total and three subscales (prostate cancer anxiety, PSA anxiety, and fear of recurrence) being 0.94, 0.93, 0.82, and 0.85, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis supported the three-factor structure of the scale established in the original version. Despite the somewhat underperformed divergent validity, the scale demonstrated good concurrent validity with a strong correlation with the HADS anxiety subscale (r = 0.71, p anxiety in Chinese PCa patients.

  8. Correlation between metal-ceramic bond strength and coefficient of linear thermal expansion difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Crosara Lopes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metal-ceramic bond strength (MCBS of 6 metal-ceramic pairs (2 Ni-Cr alloys and 1 Pd-Ag alloy with 2 dental ceramics and correlate the MCBS values with the differences between the coefficients of linear thermal expansion (CTEs of the metals and ceramics. Verabond (VB Ni-Cr-Be alloy, Verabond II (VB2, Ni-Cr alloy, Pors-on 4 (P, Pd-Ag alloy, and IPS (I and Duceram (D ceramics were used for the MCBS test and dilatometric test. Forty-eight ceramic rings were built around metallic rods (3.0 mm in diameter and 70.0 mm in length made from the evaluated alloys. The rods were subsequently embedded in gypsum cast in order to perform a tensile load test, which enabled calculating the CMBS. Five specimens (2.0 mm in diameter and 12.0 mm in length of each material were made for the dilatometric test. The chromel-alumel thermocouple required for the test was welded into the metal test specimens and inserted into the ceramics. ANOVA and Tukey's test revealed significant differences (p=0.01 for the MCBS test results (MPa, with PI showing higher MCBS (67.72 than the other pairs, which did not present any significant differences. The CTE (10-6 oC-1 differences were: VBI (0.54, VBD (1.33, VB2I (-0.14, VB2D (0.63, PI (1.84 and PD (2.62. Pearson's correlation test (r=0.17 was performed to evaluate of correlation between MCBS and CTE differences. Within the limitations of this study and based on the obtained results, there was no correlation between MCBS and CTE differences for the evaluated metal-ceramic pairs.

  9. Correlation between metal-ceramic bond strength and coefficient of linear thermal expansion difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Stella Crosara; Pagnano, Valéria Oliveira; Rollo, João Manuel Domingos de Almeida; Leal, Mônica Barbosa; Bezzon, Osvaldo Luiz

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metal-ceramic bond strength (MCBS) of 6 metal-ceramic pairs (2 Ni-Cr alloys and 1 Pd-Ag alloy with 2 dental ceramics) and correlate the MCBS values with the differences between the coefficients of linear thermal expansion (CTEs) of the metals and ceramics. Verabond (VB) Ni-Cr-Be alloy, Verabond II (VB2), Ni-Cr alloy, Pors-on 4 (P), Pd-Ag alloy, and IPS (I) and Duceram (D) ceramics were used for the MCBS test and dilatometric test. Forty-eight ceramic rings were built around metallic rods (3.0 mm in diameter and 70.0 mm in length) made from the evaluated alloys. The rods were subsequently embedded in gypsum cast in order to perform a tensile load test, which enabled calculating the CMBS. Five specimens (2.0 mm in diameter and 12.0 mm in length) of each material were made for the dilatometric test. The chromel-alumel thermocouple required for the test was welded into the metal test specimens and inserted into the ceramics. ANOVA and Tukey's test revealed significant differences (p=0.01) for the MCBS test results (MPa), with PI showing higher MCBS (67.72) than the other pairs, which did not present any significant differences. The CTE (10(-6) oC(-1)) differences were: VBI (0.54), VBD (1.33), VB2I (-0.14), VB2D (0.63), PI (1.84) and PD (2.62). Pearson's correlation test (r=0.17) was performed to evaluate of correlation between MCBS and CTE differences. Within the limitations of this study and based on the obtained results, there was no correlation between MCBS and CTE differences for the evaluated metal-ceramic pairs.

  10. CORRELATION BETWEEN METAL-CERAMIC BOND STRENGTH AND COEFFICIENT OF LINEAR THERMAL EXPANSION DIFFERENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Stella Crosara; Pagnano, Valéria Oliveira; Rollo, João Manuel Domingos de Almeida; Leal, Mônica Barbosa; Bezzon, Osvaldo Luiz

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metal-ceramic bond strength (MCBS) of 6 metal-ceramic pairs (2 Ni-Cr alloys and 1 Pd-Ag alloy with 2 dental ceramics) and correlate the MCBS values with the differences between the coefficients of linear thermal expansion (CTEs) of the metals and ceramics. Verabond (VB) Ni-Cr-Be alloy, Verabond II (VB2), Ni-Cr alloy, Pors-on 4 (P), Pd-Ag alloy, and IPS (I) and Duceram (D) ceramics were used for the MCBS test and dilatometric test. Forty-eight ceramic rings were built around metallic rods (3.0 mm in diameter and 70.0 mm in length) made from the evaluated alloys. The rods were subsequently embedded in gypsum cast in order to perform a tensile load test, which enabled calculating the CMBS. Five specimens (2.0 mm in diameter and 12.0 mm in length) of each material were made for the dilatometric test. The chromel-alumel thermocouple required for the test was welded into the metal test specimens and inserted into the ceramics. ANOVA and Tukey's test revealed significant differences (p=0.01) for the MCBS test results (MPa), with PI showing higher MCBS (67.72) than the other pairs, which did not present any significant differences. The CTE (10-6 °C-1) differences were: VBI (0.54), VBD (1.33), VB2I (-0.14), VB2D (0.63), PI (1.84) and PD (2.62). Pearson's correlation test (r=0.17) was performed to evaluate of correlation between MCBS and CTE differences. Within the limitations of this study and based on the obtained results, there was no correlation between MCBS and CTE differences for the evaluated metal-ceramic pairs. PMID:19274398

  11. Religiosity as correlates of some selected psychological disorders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated Religious correlates of some selected Psychological Distress (Depression, Anxiety, Somatization, Paranoid Ideation and Psychotic Disorder) using Psychiatric outpatients in Lagos State Hospital, Lagos. It also examined gender differences in the level of selected psychological distress and religiosity.

  12. Caregiver Burden, Anxiety, Depression, and Sleep Quality Differences in Caregivers of Hemodialysis Patients Compared With Renal Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avşar, U; Avşar, U Z; Cansever, Z; Yucel, A; Cankaya, E; Certez, H; Keles, M; Aydınlı, B; Yucelf, N

    2015-06-01

    We compared the caregivers of hemodialysis (HD) patients and caregivers of patients with renal transplantation (Tx) in terms of anxiety, depression, sleep quality, and caregiver burden. We believe that caregivers of HD have more difficult conditions than caregivers of the patients with Tx. This cross-sectional study analyzed the psychological status of caregivers of Tx patients compared with those of HD patients with using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Zarit Burden Interview, and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Indexes. We recruited 133 caregivers-65 caregivers in the Tx group and 68 in the HD group. Mean age was 43.1 ± 8.5 years. The age, sex, income level, and education level were similar between the 2 groups. Caregivers in the HD group had significantly higher rates of anxiety and depression compared with the Tx group (P = .007 and P caregivers in the Tx group and caregivers in the HD group were 92% (n = 60) and 63% (n = 43), respectively. Poor sleep quality was significantly higher in caregivers in the HD group compared with caregivers in the Tx group (P Caregiver burden scores were significantly higher for caregivers in the HD group compared with caregivers in the Tx group (P caregivers who undertake the care of patients with end-stage renal disease and chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Death anxiety in hospitalized end-of-life patients as captured from a structured electronic health record: differences by patient and nurse characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, Muhammad Kamran; Cheema, Umer Iftikhar; Stifter, Janet; Wilkie, Diana J; Keenan, Gail M; Yao, Yingwei; Ansari, Rashid; Khokhar, Ashfaq A

    2014-01-01

    The nursing outcomes of hospitalized patients whose plans of care include death anxiety, which is a diagnosis among patients at the end-of-life, are obscure. The authors of the current article applied data mining techniques to nursing plan-of-care data for patients diagnosed with death anxiety, as defined by North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International, from four different hospitals to examine nursing care outcomes and associated factors. Results indicate that patients met the expected outcome of comfortable death. Gerontology unit patients were more likely to meet the expected outcome than patients from other unit types, although results were not statistically significant. Younger patients (i.e., age patients (i.e., age ≥65) (χ(2)(1) = 9.266, p patients who face the end-of-life transition. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Flourishing or floundering? Prevalence and correlates of anxiety and depression among a population-based sample of adult cancer survivors 6months after diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Allison W; Girgis, Afaf; D'Este, Catherine; Zucca, Alison C

    2011-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of anxiety, depression and comorbid anxiety-depression among adult cancer survivors six months following diagnosis, and identify the individual, disease, health behaviour, psychological and social factors associated with psychological morbidity. A population-based sample of adult cancer survivors was recruited from two state-based cancer registries in Australia. Data for 1323 survivors were obtained by self-report questionnaire and linkage with registry data. Anxiety and depression were assessed by the 14-item Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The prevalence of psychological morbidity was 28% (95% CI: 23%-33%). Specifically, 24% (95% CI: 19%-29%) of survivors were identified as cases on anxiety (irrespective of depression), 14% (95% CI: 9%-19%) as cases on depression (irrespective of anxiety) and 10% (95% CI: 5%-15%) as cases on comorbid anxiety-depression. In addition to mental health history prior to cancer, modifiable health behaviours (physical activity, smoking status), psychological (helplessness-hopelessness, anxious preoccupation coping) and social (low positive social interaction) characteristics were stronger indicators of psychological morbidity than survivors' individual or disease characteristics. Psychological morbidity was assessed by self-report screening instrument rather than clinical interview. The extent to which psychological morbidity is age-related versus cancer-related cannot be determined without a gender- and age-matched control group. Although lower than previously reported, psychological morbidity is prevalent six months after a cancer diagnosis and emphasises the need for routine psychosocial assessment throughout the cancer trajectory to identify those at increased risk or in need of immediate intervention. Physical activity, smoking cessation and coping skills training interventions warrant further exploration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring Neural Correlates of Different Dimensions in Drug Craving Self-Reports among Heroin Dependents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani-Abharian, Peyman; Ganjgahi, Habib; Tabatabaei-Jafari, Hosein; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Mokri, Azarakhsh; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2015-10-01

    Drug craving could be described as a motivational state which drives drug dependents towards drug seeking and use. Different types of self-reports such as craving feeling, desire and intention, wanting and need, imagery of use, and negative affect have been attributed to this motivational state. By using subjective self-reports for different correlates of drug craving along with functional neuroimaging with cue exposure paradigm, we investigated the brain regions that could correspond to different dimensions of subjective reports for heroin craving. A total of 25 crystalline-heroin smokers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), while viewing heroin-related and neutral cues presented in a block-design task. During trial intervals, subjects verbally reported their subjective feeling of cue induced craving (CIC). After fMRI procedure, participants reported the intensity of their "need for drug use" and "drug use imagination" on a 0-100 visual analog scale (VAS). Afterwards, they completed positive and negative affect scale (PANAS) and desire for drug questionnaire (DDQ) with 3 components of "desire and intention to drug use," "negative reinforcement," and "loss of control." The study showed significant correlation between "subjective feeling of craving" and activation of the left and right anterior cingulate cortex, as well as right medial frontal gyrus. Furthermore, the "desire and intention to drug use" was correlated with activation of the left precentral gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus, and left middle frontal gyrus. Subjects also exhibited significant correlation between the "need for drug use" and activation of the right inferior temporal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Correlation between subjective report of "heroin use imagination" and activation of the cerebellar vermis was also observed. Another significant correlation was between the "negative affect" and activation of the left precuneus, right

  16. Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder, but Not Panic Anxiety Disorder, Are Associated with Higher Sensitivity to Learning from Negative Feedback: Behavioral and Computational Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khdour, Hussain Y; Abushalbaq, Oday M; Mughrabi, Ibrahim T; Imam, Aya F; Gluck, Mark A; Herzallah, Mohammad M; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and panic anxiety disorder (PAD), are a group of common psychiatric conditions. They are characterized by excessive worrying, uneasiness, and fear of future events, such that they affect social and occupational functioning. Anxiety disorders can alter behavior and cognition as well, yet little is known about the particular domains they affect. In this study, we tested the cognitive correlates of medication-free patients with GAD, SAD, and PAD, along with matched healthy participants using a probabilistic category-learning task that allows the dissociation between positive and negative feedback learning. We also fitted all participants' data to a Q-learning model and various actor-critic models that examine learning rate parameters from positive and negative feedback to investigate effects of valence vs. action on performance. SAD and GAD patients were more sensitive to negative feedback than either PAD patients or healthy participants. PAD, SAD, and GAD patients did not differ in positive-feedback learning compared to healthy participants. We found that Q-learning models provide the simplest fit of the data in comparison to other models. However, computational analysis revealed that groups did not differ in terms of learning rate or exploration values. These findings argue that (a) not all anxiety spectrum disorders share similar cognitive correlates, but are rather different in ways that do not link them to the hallmark of anxiety (higher sensitivity to negative feedback); and (b) perception of negative consequences is the core feature of GAD and SAD, but not PAD. Further research is needed to examine the similarities and differences between anxiety spectrum disorders in other cognitive domains and potential implementation of behavioral therapy to remediate cognitive deficits.

  17. Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety among Iraqi Students and its Relation With Gender and Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Talib Ali

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Language anxiety is always seen as debilitative factor that deters learners from successfully learning a foreign language. Although many studies have been reported on foreign language learners’ anxieties, little research, if any, has been undertaken on Iraqi postgraduate EFL learners. The objective of the present study is threefold: a to investigate the factors contributing to foreign language classroom anxiety among Iraqi postgraduate EFL students, b to investigate the difference between both genders in the level of anxiety and c to investigate the relationship between the level of anxiety and the academic achievement of the students based on GPA. The study employed a mixed mode approach using survey questionnaire (AFLAQand semi-structured interview. The study reported that three factors such as communication apprehension, negative evaluation and test anxiety are anxiety-arousing factors with test anxiety has the greatest contribution. The study also reported that females show more anxiety compared to males. It was also shown that there is a negative correlation between language anxiety and academic achievement which means that students with high level of FL anxiety tend to yield lower grades and vice-versa.

  18. Antioxidant properties of Brazilian tropical fruits by correlation between different assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoris, Elena; Pereira Lima, Giuseppina Pace; Fabris, Sabrina; Bertelle, Mariangela; Sicari, Michela; Stevanato, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Four different assays (the Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH, enzymatic method, and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation) based on radically different physicochemical principles and normally used to determine the antioxidant activity of food have been confronted and utilized to investigate the antioxidant activity of fruits originated from Brazil, with particular attention to more exotic and less-studied species (jurubeba, Solanum paniculatum; pequi, Caryocar brasiliense; pitaya, Hylocereus undatus; siriguela, Spondias purpurea; umbu, Spondias tuberosa) in order to (i) verify the correlations between results obtained by the different assays, with the final purpose to obtain more reliable results avoiding possible measuring-method linked mistakes and (ii) individuate the more active fruit species. As expected, the different methods give different responses, depending on the specific assay reaction. Anyhow all results indicate high antioxidant properties for siriguela and jurubeba and poor values for pitaya, umbu, and pequi. Considering that no marked difference of ascorbic acid content has been detected among the different fruits, experimental data suggest that antioxidant activities of the investigated Brazilian fruits are poorly correlated with this molecule, principally depending on their total polyphenolic content.

  19. Antioxidant Properties of Brazilian Tropical Fruits by Correlation between Different Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gregoris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different assays (the Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH, enzymatic method, and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation based on radically different physicochemical principles and normally used to determine the antioxidant activity of food have been confronted and utilized to investigate the antioxidant activity of fruits originated from Brazil, with particular attention to more exotic and less-studied species (jurubeba, Solanum paniculatum; pequi, Caryocar brasiliense; pitaya, Hylocereus undatus; siriguela, Spondias purpurea; umbu, Spondias tuberosa in order to (i verify the correlations between results obtained by the different assays, with the final purpose to obtain more reliable results avoiding possible measuring-method linked mistakes and (ii individuate the more active fruit species. As expected, the different methods give different responses, depending on the specific assay reaction. Anyhow all results indicate high antioxidant properties for siriguela and jurubeba and poor values for pitaya, umbu, and pequi. Considering that no marked difference of ascorbic acid content has been detected among the different fruits, experimental data suggest that antioxidant activities of the investigated Brazilian fruits are poorly correlated with this molecule, principally depending on their total polyphenolic content.

  20. Do the correlates of screen time and sedentary time differ in preschool children?

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    Katherine L Downing

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preschool children can spend up to 12 h a day in sedentary time and few meet current recommendations for screen time. Little is known about ecological correlates that could be targeted to decrease specific versus total sedentary behaviour. This study examined whether the correlates of screen time and sedentary time differ in preschool boys and girls. Methods Parents participating in the HAPPY Study in 2008/09 in Melbourne, Australia reported their child’s usual screen time and potential individual, social and physical environment correlates. Children wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers for eight days to objectively assess sedentary time (<100 counts.min−1. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed, stratified by sex and controlling for child age, preschool/childcare attendance and clustering by centre of recruitment. Correlates significantly associated with screen time or sedentary time in individual models (p < 0.05 were included in final combined models. Results Children were sedentary for 301.1 (SD 34.1 minutes/day and spent 108.5 (SD 69.6 minutes/day in screen time. There were no sex differences in screen or sedentary time. In the final models, sleep duration was inversely associated with girls’ sedentary time and boys’ screen time. The only other consistent correlates for boys and girls were parental self-efficacy to limit screen time and screen time rules, which were inversely associated with screen time for both sexes. Parents reporting that they get bored watching their child play was inversely associated and maternal television viewing was positively associated with boys’ screen time. Paternal age was positively associated with boys’ sedentary time. Maternal ethnicity was inversely associated and paternal education, child preferences for sedentary behaviour, and parental concerns about child’s physical activity and sedentary behaviour were positively associated with girls’ screen time

  1. Factors correlating with significant differences between X-ray structures of myoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashin, Alexander A., E-mail: alexander-rashin@hotmail.com [BioChemComp Inc., 543 Sagamore Avenue, Teaneck, NJ 07666 (United States); Iowa State University, 112 Office and Lab Bldg, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Domagalski, Marcin J. [University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Jordan Hall, Room 4223, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Zimmermann, Michael T. [Iowa State University, 112 Office and Lab Bldg, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Minor, Wladek [University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Jordan Hall, Room 4223, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Chruszcz, Maksymilian [University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Jordan Hall, Room 4223, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); University of South Carolina, 631 Sumter Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Jernigan, Robert L. [Iowa State University, 112 Office and Lab Bldg, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); BioChemComp Inc., 543 Sagamore Avenue, Teaneck, NJ 07666 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Conformational differences between myoglobin structures are studied. Most structural differences in whale myoglobin beyond the uncertainty threshold can be correlated with a few specific structural factors. There are always exceptions and a search for additional factors is needed. The results might have serious implications for biological insights from conformational differences. Validation of general ideas about the origins of conformational differences in proteins is critical in order to arrive at meaningful functional insights. Here, principal component analysis (PCA) and distance difference matrices are used to validate some such ideas about the conformational differences between 291 myoglobin structures from sperm whale, horse and pig. Almost all of the horse and pig structures form compact PCA clusters with only minor coordinate differences and outliers that are easily explained. The 222 whale structures form a few dense clusters with multiple outliers. A few whale outliers with a prominent distortion of the GH loop are very similar to the cluster of horse structures, which all have a similar GH-loop distortion apparently owing to intermolecular crystal lattice hydrogen bonds to the GH loop from residues near the distal histidine His64. The variations of the GH-loop coordinates in the whale structures are likely to be owing to the observed alternative intermolecular crystal lattice bond, with the change to the GH loop distorting bonds correlated with the binding of specific ‘unusual’ ligands. Such an alternative intermolecular bond is not observed in horse myoglobins, obliterating any correlation with the ligands. Intermolecular bonds do not usually cause significant coordinate differences and cannot be validated as their universal cause. Most of the native-like whale myoglobin structure outliers can be correlated with a few specific factors. However, these factors do not always lead to coordinate differences beyond the previously determined uncertainty

  2. Correlation of olfactory dysfunction of different etiologies in MRI and comparison with subjective and objective olfactometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektas, Oender; Fleiner, Franca; Sedlmaier, Benedikt; Bauknecht, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background: The clinical diagnosis of olfactory dysfunction of different etiologies has been standardized by the German Working Group of Olfactology and Gustology, but there is no agreement about the most suitable imaging modality for diagnosing this disorder. Material and methods: A total of 24 patients (13 women, 11 men; mean age 52 years) with different types of olfactory dysfunction (anosmia, hyposmia) were examined by objective and subjective olfactometry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the olfactory bulb. Results: There was a positive correlation between objective olfactometry and volumetry of the olfactory bulb but no correlation between subjective olfactometry and MRI. Conclusion: MRI allows an evaluation of the olfactory bulb and appears to be superior to other modalities such as computed tomography (CT). Objective olfactometry remains the gold standard for reliable diagnosis of olfactory dysfunction.

  3. The anxiety-proficiency relationship and the stability of anxiety: The case of Chinese university learners of English and Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinxing Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adopting a longitudinal design, this study investigates the effects of foreign language anxiety on foreign language proficiency over time within English and Japanese learning contexts. It also explores the stability of anxiety in English and Japanese over time and the stability of anxiety across English and Japanese. Chinese university students (N=146, who were simultaneously learning Japanese and English, participated in this study. Data were collected twice over a 2-month interval, using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale, the English Proficiency Scale, and the Japanese Proficiency Scale. Results showed that anxiety changes had a significantly negative, but weak, correlation with the development of overall proficiency and the proficiency in sub- skills such as reading or speaking, for both English and Japanese, suggesting the interference of anxiety with proficiency levels. Anxiety in Japanese tended to decrease significantly over time, but no significant change was found for English. Furthermore, no significant difference between anxiety in Japanese and English was found at either testing time.

  4. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey

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    Claire M. Bernaards

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA. The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work day. Methods The study sample consisted of 1895 Dutch children (4–11 years, 1131 adolescents (12–17 years, 8003 adults (18–64 years and 1569 elderly (65 years and older who enrolled in the Dutch continuous national survey ‘Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands’ between 2006 and 2011. Respondents estimated the number of sitting hours during a regular school-/workday and a regular non-school/non-work day. Multiple linear regression analyses on cross-sectional data were used to identify correlates of ST. Results Significant positive associations with ST were observed for: higher age (4-to-17-year-olds and elderly, male gender (adults, overweight (children, higher education (adults ≥ 30 years, urban environment (adults, chronic disease (adults ≥ 30 years, sedentary work (adults, not meeting the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA guideline (children and adults ≥ 30 years and not meeting the vigorous PA (VPA guideline (4-to-17-year-olds. Correlates of ST that significantly differed between day types were working hours and meeting the VPA guideline. More working hours were associated with more ST on school-/work days. In children and adolescents, meeting the VPA guideline was associated with less ST on non-school/non-working days only. Conclusions This study provides new insights in the correlates of ST in different age groups and thus possibilities for interventions in these groups. Correlates of ST appear to differ between age groups and to a lesser degree between day types. This implies that interventions to reduce ST should be age specific. Longitudinal studies are needed to draw conclusions on causality of

  5. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M

    2016-10-26

    Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA). The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST) in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work day). The study sample consisted of 1895 Dutch children (4-11 years), 1131 adolescents (12-17 years), 8003 adults (18-64 years) and 1569 elderly (65 years and older) who enrolled in the Dutch continuous national survey 'Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands' between 2006 and 2011. Respondents estimated the number of sitting hours during a regular school-/workday and a regular non-school/non-work day. Multiple linear regression analyses on cross-sectional data were used to identify correlates of ST. Significant positive associations with ST were observed for: higher age (4-to-17-year-olds and elderly), male gender (adults), overweight (children), higher education (adults ≥ 30 years), urban environment (adults), chronic disease (adults ≥ 30 years), sedentary work (adults), not meeting the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) guideline (children and adults ≥ 30 years) and not meeting the vigorous PA (VPA) guideline (4-to-17-year-olds). Correlates of ST that significantly differed between day types were working hours and meeting the VPA guideline. More working hours were associated with more ST on school-/work days. In children and adolescents, meeting the VPA guideline was associated with less ST on non-school/non-working days only. This study provides new insights in the correlates of ST in different age groups and thus possibilities for interventions in these groups. Correlates of ST appear to differ between age groups and to a lesser degree between day types. This implies that interventions to reduce ST should be age specific. Longitudinal studies are needed to draw conclusions on causality of the relationship between identified correlates and ST.

  6. Distribution-based estimates of minimal important difference for hospital anxiety and depression scale and impact of event scale-revised in survivors of acute respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kitty S; Aronson Friedman, Lisa; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Dinglas, Victor D; Cuthbertson, Brian H; Porter, Richard; Jones, Christina; Hopkins, Ramona O; Needham, Dale M

    2016-01-01

    This study will estimate distribution-based minimal important difference (MID) for the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety (HADS-A) and depression (HADS-D) subscales, and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) in survivors of acute respiratory failure (ARF). Secondary analyses of data from two US and three UK studies of ARF survivors (total N=1223). HADS-D and HADS-A were used to assess depression and anxiety symptoms. IES-R assessed post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Standard error of measurement, minimal detectable change90, 0.5 standard deviation (S.D.), and 0.2 S.D. were used to estimate MID for the combined sample, by studies, 6- and 12-month follow-ups, country and mental health condition. Overall, MID estimates converged to 2.0-2.5 for the HADS-A, 1.9-2.3 for the HADS-D and 0.17-0.18 for the IES-R. MID estimates were comparable across studies, follow-up, country and mental health condition. Among ARF survivors, 2.0-2.5 is a reasonable range for the MID for both HADS subscales, and 0.2 is reasonable for IES-R. Until anchor-based MIDs for these instruments are available, these distribution-based estimates can help researchers plan future studies and interpret the clinical importance of findings in ARF patient populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Differences in major depressive disorder and generalised anxiety disorder symptomatology between prostate cancer patients receiving hormone therapy and those who are not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpley, Christopher F; Bitsika, Vicki; Wootten, Addie C; Christie, David R H

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the associations between hormone treatment variables and depression, and the nature of depression in prostate cancer (PCa) patients by comparing the severity and symptom profile of anxiety and depression in men who were currently receiving hormone therapy (HT) versus those who were not. Self-reports of anxiety and depression on standardized scales of GAD and major depressive disorder (MDD) were collected from 156 PCa patients across two recruitment sites in Australia. Patients who were currently receiving HT were compared with patients not receiving HT for their severity and symptom profiles on GAD and MDD. Participants receiving HT had significantly higher GAD and MDD total scores than patients who were not receiving HT. In addition, the symptom profiles of these two HT subgroups were differentiated by significantly higher scores on the key criteria for GAD and MDD plus fatigue and sleeping difficulties but not the remaining symptoms of GAD and MDD. However, there were no significant differences between HT subgroups for the degree of functional impairment experienced by these symptoms. Although these data confirm the association between HT and anxiety/depression, the range of GAD and MDD symptoms influenced is relatively restricted. Moreover, functional ability does not appear to be impaired by HT. These findings clarify the ways in which HT affects PCa patients and suggests that a simple total scale score for anxiety and depression may not be as helpful in designing treatment as consideration of the symptomatic profiles of PCa patients receiving HT. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. [Summarisation of the NHG practice guideline 'Anxiety'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avendonk, M.J. van; Hassink-Franke, L.J.A.; Terluin, B.; Marwijk, H.W. van; Wiersma, T.; Burgers, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and anxiety disorders are addressed in the practice guideline of the Dutch College of General Practitioners (NHG). It is important to distinguish anxiety and anxiety disorders because of differences in prognosis and treatment. Several visits may be needed before the diagnosis is established.

  9. Correlation between ICDAS and histology: Differences between stereomicroscopy and microradiography with contrast solution as histological techniques.

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    Samara de Azevedo Gomes Campos

    Full Text Available Detection of occlusal caries with visual examination using ICDAS correlates strongly with histology under stereomicroscopy (SM, but dentin aspects under SM are ambiguous regarding mineral content. Thus, our aim was to test two null hypotheses: SM and microradiography result in similar correlations between ICDAS and histology; SM and microradiography result in similar positive (PPV and negative predictive values (NPV of ICDAS cut-off 1-2 (scores 0-2 as sound with histological threshold D3 (demineralization in the inner third of dentin. Occlusal surfaces of extracted permanent teeth (n = 115 were scored using ICDAS. Undemineralized ground sections were histologically scored using both SM without contrast solution and microradiography after immersion in Thoulet's solution 1.47 for 24 h (MRC. Correlation between ICDAS and histology differed from SM (0.782 to MRC (0.511 (p = 0.0002, with a large effect size "q" of 0.49 (95% CI: 0.638/0.338. For ICDAS cut-off 1-2 and D3, PPV from MRC (0.56 was higher than that from SM (0.28 (p< 0.00001; effect size h = 0.81, and NPV from MRC (0.72 was lower than that from SM (1,00 (p < 0.00001; effect size h = 1.58. In conclusion, SM overestimated the correlation between ICDAS and lesion depth, and underestimated the number of occlusal surfaces with ICDAS cut-off 1-2 and deep dentin demineralization.

  10. Altered Brain Excitability and Increased Anxiety in Mice With Experimental Colitis: Consideration of Hyperalgesia and Sex Differences

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    Kewir D. Nyuyki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC are incurable lifelong inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD with a rising worldwide incidence. IBD is characterized by diarrhea, rectal bleeding, severe cramping and weight loss. However, there is a growing evidence that IBD is also associated with anxiety- and depression-related disorders, which further increase the societal burden of these diseases. Given the limited knowledge of central nervous system (CNS changes in IBD, we investigated CNS-related comorbidities in a mouse model of experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS administration in drinking water for 5 days. In male and female C57BL6J mice, DSS treatment caused increased brain excitability, revealed by a decrease in seizure onset times after intraperitoneal administration of kainic acid. Moreover, both sexes showed increased anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM and open field (OF paradigms. We assessed somatic pain levels, because they may influence behavioral responses. Only male mice were hyperalgesic when tested with calibrated von Frey hairs and on the hotplate for mechanical and thermal pain sensitivity respectively. Administration of diazepam (DZP; ip, 1 mg/kg 30 min before EPM rescued the anxious phenotype and improved locomotion, even though it significantly increased thermal sensitivity in both sexes. This indicates that the altered behavioral response is unlikely attributable to an interference with movement due to somatic pain in females. We show that experimental colitis increases CNS excitability in response to administration of kainic acid, and increases anxiety-related behavior as revealed using the EPM and OF tests.

  11. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or dread of what's about to happen or what might happen. While fear is the emotion we feel in the presence ... feel overwhelm