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Sample records for anxiety correlate differently

  1. Illusory correlation and social anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Peter; Merckelbach, H; Bogels, S; Kindt, M

    1998-01-01

    An illusory correlation (IC) experiment examined the presence of a phobia-relevant covariation bias in the context of social anxiety. Low (n = 28) and high (n = 32) social anxious women were shown a series of slides comprising pictures of angry, happy and neutral faces which were randomly paired wit

  2. Nonverbal Correlates of Anxiety.

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    Eckman, Bruce K.

    Twenty college age males' hand shrugs, face-play manipulations, and frequency and duration of mutual eye contact were recorded in response to a female counterpart who varied her assertiveness and attractiveness in a two by two factorial design. Mutual eye contact, which increased under attractive conditions, was a useful negative correlate of…

  3. Correlation of Numerical Anxiety and Mathematics Performance

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    Michael Howard D. Morada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been observed that most students had negative view towards mathematics and as a result, they also performed poorly.As such, it is imperative for every math teacher to understand the reasons behind this negative view to improve their student’s performance. This observation led the researcher to conduct a study on Correlation of Mathematics Performance and Anxiety of third and fourth year students for school year 2012-2013 across the different programs.This study determined the numerical anxiety level and mathematics performance of the respondents along age, gender and programs. The study revealed that students, regardless of age had passing performance. However, female and male students had fair and passing mathematics performance, respectively. Students from College of Business Education, Teacher Education and Computer Studies had fair performance while those from Marine Transportation, Criminal Justice Education and Engineering had passing performance. The study also revealed that students across different variables had moderate numerical anxiety level. Furthermore, it was found out that mathematics performance is significantly related to numerical anxiety. However, the relationship was inverse and small.

  4. Neurocognitive Correlates of Apathy and Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease

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    Yelena Bogdanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is associated with various nonmotor symptoms including neuropsychiatric and cognitive dysfunction. We examined the relation between apathy, anxiety, side of onset of motor symptoms, and cognition in PD. We hypothesized that PD patients would show different neuropsychiatric and neurocognitive profiles depending on the side of onset. 22 nondemented PD patients (11 right-side onset (RPD with predominant left-hemisphere pathology, and 11 LPD and 22 matched healthy controls (NC were administered rating scales assessing apathy and anxiety, and a series of neuropsychological tests. PD patients showed a higher anxiety level than NC. There was a significant association between apathy, anxiety, and disease duration. In LPD, apathy but not anxiety was associated with performance on nonverbally mediated executive function and visuospatial measures, whereas, in RPD, anxiety but not apathy correlated with performance on verbally mediated tasks. Our findings demonstrated a differential association of apathy and anxiety to cognition in PD.

  5. [Girls are more successful than boys at the university. Gender group differences in models integrating motivational and aggressive components correlated with Test-Anxiety].

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    Masson, A-M; Hoyois, Ph; Cadot, M; Nahama, V; Petit, F; Ansseau, M

    2004-01-01

    It is surprising to note the evolution of success rates in Belgian universities especially in the first Year. Men are less successful than women and the differences are escalating in an alarming way. Dropouts take the same direction and women now represent a majority of the students at the university. In a previous study, we assessed 616 students in the first Year at the university of Liège with Vasev, the English name of which was TASTE, a self report questionnaire constituted of 4 factors: anxiety, self confidence, procrastination and performance value; anxiety particularly concerned somatic expression of students before and during test evaluations; self confidence was a cognitive component close to self efficacy; procrastination was the behavioral component characterizing avoidance when students are confronted with the risk of failure; performance value referred to intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. French validation of TASTE led to an abbreviated version of 50 items (THEE) consisting of 5 factors, the four of TASTE and an additional one, very consistent, at first called depression because of its correlations with this dimension, then called sense of competence on account of its semantic content. Self-competence has been described in the literature of Achievement Motivation and corresponded to expectancy and ability beliefs in performance process which was also relevant to self-efficacy except the particularity of comparison with others, which was not included in the last construct. Self-competence has been considered as an important part of the Worry component of test anxiety. Some Authors didn't hesitate to view causality flowing from self-competence to test anxiety and have conceptualized the latter as a failure of the self where one's sense of competence has been undermined as a result of experienced failure. In our study, only that factor was equally scored in women and men whereas it was scored higher in failed students. In other respects anxiety and

  6. Correlation of cerebrovascular disorder and anxiety: The Kecskemet study

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    Sipos, Kornel; Bodo, Michael; Szalay, Piroska; Szucs, Attila

    2010-04-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that anxiety is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, specifically stroke, we simultaneously measured anxiety and cerebral vascular alternation, using a computer-based system, "Cerberus." Sixty nine psychiatric patients (including an alcoholic subgroup) were selected as subjects for measurements conducted in Kecskemet, Hungary. The five-item short form of anxiety test (STAI) was administered twice during the same session. Between each test, brain pulse waves were recorded by rheoencephalogram (REG). A REG peak time above 180 milliseconds was considered a cerebrovascular alteration (modified after Jenkner). Data were sorted into two groups: low anxiety (N=10) and high anxiety (N=10). Significant differences were found between cardiovascular risk factors (panxiety group, and two in the low anxiety group. For the two anxiety groups, there were no significant differences in body mass index, cardiovascular sympathetic-parasympathetic balance, age and symptoms of transient ischemic attack. The correlation of REG and age was significantly different only for the alcoholic subgroup (Szalay et al, 2007). These data support the hypothesis that a correlation exists between cerebrovascular disorder and anxiety in the studied population.

  7. Religiousness and preoperative anxiety: a correlational study

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    Karimollahi Mansoureh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major life changes are among factors that cause anxiety, and one of these changes is surgery. Emotional reactions to surgery have specific effects on the intensity and velocity as well as the process of physical disease. In addition, they can cause delay in patients recovery. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety. Methods This survey is a correlational study to assess the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety of patients undergoing abdominal, orthopaedic, and gynaecologic surgery in educational hospitals. We used the convenience sampling method. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire containing the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and another questionnaire formulated by the researcher with queries on religious beliefs and demographic characteristics as well as disease-related information. Analysis of the data was carried out with SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results were arranged in three tables. Results The findings showed that almost all the subjects had high level of religiosity and moderate level of anxiety. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between religiosity and intensity of anxiety, though this was not statistically significant. Conclusion The results of this study can be used as evidence for presenting religious counselling and spiritual interventions for individuals undergoing stress. Finally, based on the results of this study, the researcher suggested some recommendations for applying results and conducting further research.

  8. Neural correlates of math anxiety – An overview and implications

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    Christina eArtemenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety is a common phenomenon which can have a negative impact on numerical and arithmetic performance. However, so far little is known about the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. This mini review provides an overview of studies investigating the neural correlates of math anxiety which provide several hints regarding its influence on math performance: while behavioral studies mostly observe an influence of math anxiety on difficult math tasks, neurophysiological studies show that processing efficiency is already affected in basic number processing. Overall, the neurocognitive literature suggests that (i math anxiety elicits emotion- and pain-related activation during and before math activities, (ii that the negative emotional response to math anxiety impairs processing efficiency, and (iii that math deficits triggered by math anxiety may be compensated for by modulating the cognitive control or emotional regulation network. However, activation differs strongly between studies, depending on tasks, paradigms and samples. We conclude that neural correlates can help to understand and explore the processes underlying math anxiety, but the data are not very consistent yet.

  9. Neural correlates of math anxiety - an overview and implications.

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    Artemenko, Christina; Daroczy, Gabriella; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety is a common phenomenon which can have a negative impact on numerical and arithmetic performance. However, so far little is known about the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. This mini review provides an overview of studies investigating the neural correlates of math anxiety which provide several hints regarding its influence on math performance: while behavioral studies mostly observe an influence of math anxiety on difficult math tasks, neurophysiological studies show that processing efficiency is already affected in basic number processing. Overall, the neurocognitive literature suggests that (i) math anxiety elicits emotion- and pain-related activation during and before math activities, (ii) that the negative emotional response to math anxiety impairs processing efficiency, and (iii) that math deficits triggered by math anxiety may be compensated for by modulating the cognitive control or emotional regulation network. However, activation differs strongly between studies, depending on tasks, paradigms, and samples. We conclude that neural correlates can help to understand and explore the processes underlying math anxiety, but the data are not very consistent yet.

  10. How smartphone usage correlates with social anxiety and loneliness

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    Yusong Gao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early detection of social anxiety and loneliness might be useful to prevent substantial impairment in personal relationships. Understanding the way people use smartphones can be beneficial for implementing an early detection of social anxiety and loneliness. This paper examines different types of smartphone usage and their relationships with people with different individual levels of social anxiety or loneliness. Methods: A total of 127 Android smartphone volunteers participated in this study, all of which have agreed to install an application (MobileSens on their smartphones, which can record user’s smartphone usage behaviors and upload the data into the server. They were instructed to complete an online survey, including the Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS and the University of California Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS. We then separated participants into three groups (high, middle and low based on their scores of IAS and UCLA-LS, respectively. Finally, we acquired digital records of smartphone usage from MobileSens and examined the differences in 105 types of smartphone usage behaviors between high-score and low-score group of IAS/UCLA-LS. Results: Individuals with different scores on social anxiety or loneliness might use smartphones in different ways. For social anxiety, compared with users in low-score group, users in high-score group had less number of phone calls (incoming and outgoing (Mann-Whitney U = 282.50∼409.00, p U = 388.50, p < 0.01. Discussion: The results show that individuals with social anxiety or loneliness receive less incoming calls and use healthy applications more frequently, but they do not show differences in outgoing-call-related features. Individuals with higher levels of social anxiety also receive less SMSs and use camera apps less frequently, while lonely individuals tend to use system, beautify, browser and social media (RenRen apps more frequently. Conclusion: This paper finds that

  11. Understanding Pregnancy Anxiety: Concepts, Correlates, and Consequences

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    Guardino, Christine M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy anxiety is a particular emotional state tied to pregnancy-specific concerns, such as worries about the health of the baby and childbirth. A growing body of research demonstrates that pregnancy anxiety is an important risk factor for preterm birth and other adverse birth and child development outcomes. This article defines and describes…

  12. A Neural Network Model for the Correlation between Sprinters’ Pre-competition Anxiety and Competition Performance

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    Jiwei Yao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sprint is an important sporting event in track and field competition, in which, athletes’ pre-competition anxiety will greatly affect them in bringing into play their competence, which will then influence their final performance in the competition. For this reason, to study the correlation between sprinters’ pre-competition anxiety and their competition performance is of great significance in predicting athletes’ performance under difference anxiety state. After having analyzed domestic and foreign research achievements related with sport anxiety and sport performance, the study further applied CSAI-2 (1994 questionnaire to investigate athletes’ anxiety in sprint competition of a university sports meeting in Changsha. Moreover, based on neural network model, the study also constructed related models concerning athletes’ pre-competition anxiety and their competition performance. In addition, related curves concerning athletes’ pre-competition anxiety and specific performance are also formulated.

  13. Correlates, Causes, Effects, and Treatment of Test Anxiety.

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    Hembree, Ray

    1988-01-01

    A meta-analysis of the results of 562 studies illustrates the nature, effect, and treatment of academic test anxiety (TA). TA correlated inversely to students' self-esteem and directly to their fears of negative evaluation, defensiveness, and other forms of anxiety. Ability, gender, and school grade level also affect TA. (TJH)

  14. The Correlation among EFL Learners' Test Anxiety, Foreign Language Anxiety and Language Achievement

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    Cakici, Dilek

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the correlation among test anxiety (TA), foreign language anxiety (FLA) and language achievement of university preparatory students learning English as a foreign language. The sample of the research consisted of 301 (211 females, 90 males) attending a one-year EFL preparatory school at Ondokuz Mayis…

  15. The prevalence and correlates of adult separation anxiety disorder in an anxiety clinic

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    Wagner Renate

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD has been identified recently, but there is a paucity of data about its prevalence and associated characteristics amongst anxiety patients. This study assessed the prevalence and risk factor profile associated with ASAD in an anxiety clinic. Methods Clinical psychologists assigned 520 consecutive patients to DSM-IV adult anxiety subcategories using the SCID. We also measured demographic factors and reports of early separation anxiety (the Separation Anxiety Symptom Inventory and a retrospective diagnosis of childhood separation anxiety disorder. Other self-report measures included the Adult Separation Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (ASA-27, the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS-21, personality traits measured by the NEO PI-R and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. These measures were included in three models examining for overall differences and then by gender: Model 1 compared the conventional SCID anxiety subtypes (excluding PTSD and OCD because of insufficient numbers; Model 2 divided the sample into those with and without ASAD; Model 3 compared those with ASAD with the individual anxiety subtypes in the residual group. Results Patients with ASAD had elevated early separation anxiety scores but this association was unique in females only. Except for social phobia in relation to some comparisons, those with ASAD recorded more severe symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, higher neuroticism scores, and greater levels of disability. Conclusions Patients with ASAD attending an anxiety clinic are highly symptomatic and disabled. The findings have implications for the classification, clinical identification and treatment of adult anxiety disorders.

  16. The Correlation of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory with Depression and Anxiety in Veterans with Tinnitus

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    Jinwei Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The mechanisms of tinnitus are known to alter neuronal circuits in the brainstem and cortex, which are common to several comorbid conditions. This study examines the relationship between tinnitus and anxiety/depression. Subjects and Methods. Ninety-one male veterans with subjective tinnitus were enrolled in a Veterans Affairs Tinnitus Clinic. The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI was used to assess tinnitus severity. ICD-9 codes for anxiety/depression were used to determine their prevalence. Pure tone averages (PTA were used to assess hearing status. Results. Descriptive analyses revealed that 79.1% of the 91 tinnitus sufferers had a diagnosis of anxiety, 59.3% had depression, and 58.2% suffered from both anxiety/depression. Patients with anxiety had elevated total THI scores as compared to patients without anxiety (p<0.05. Patients with anxiety or depression had significantly increased Functional and Emotional THI scores, but not Catastrophic THI score. Significant positive correlations were illustrated between the degree of tinnitus and anxiety/depression (p<0.05. There were no differences in PTA among groups. Conclusions. A majority of patients with tinnitus exhibited anxiety and depression. These patients suffered more severe tinnitus than did patients without anxiety and depression. The data support the need for multidisciplinary intervention of veterans with tinnitus.

  17. Correlational study of psychological variables self-confidence and anxiety

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    Gloria González Campos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study is to analyze the concurrent validity of the psychological variables self-confidence and anxiety among the psychological measurement instruments: Psychological Characteristics Questionnaire related to Sports Performance (CPRD; Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2; and Sports Psychological Inventory LOEHR. For this purpose, a correlational study was conducted between the selected variables and pertinent aspects of the measurement instruments. The study has revealed that the psychological variables self-confidence and anxiety are relevant in all three instruments, although not in all of the selected items.

  18. Examining sex and gender differences in anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard

    2015-01-01

    ), specific phobia (SP), social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and acute and posttraumatic stress disorder (ASD and PTSD), although the latter three are technically no longer categorised as anxiety disorders according to DSM-5. This chapter...... provides an overview of research on sex and gender differences in anxiety disorders ranging from the well-established female preponderance in prevalence and severity to possible sex differences in the risk and protective factors associated with anxiety, sex differences in the clinical presentation......Several studies have examined sex differences in different anxiety disorders. Females are repeatedly found to be more likely than males to suffer from anxiety in general and to be diagnosed with most anxiety disorders, including agoraphobia (AG), panic disorder (PD), separation anxiety (SA...

  19. Belief in Afterlife and Death Anxiety: Correlates and Comparisons.

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    Aday, Ronald H.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated key variables associated with death anxiety and belief in afterlife among college students (N=181). Results supported the notion that belief in afterlife is primarily a function of religion and not directly a correlate of fear of death. Church attendance was found to be significantly related to both. (JAC)

  20. Precursors and Correlates of Anxiety Trajectories from Late Childhood to Late Adolescence

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    Letcher, Primrose; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana; Toumbourou, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The present research employed a prospective, multi-informant design to examine precursors and correlates of differing anxiety profiles from late childhood to late adolescence. The sample consisted of 626 boys and 667 girls who are participants in the Australian Temperament Project, a large, longitudinal, community-based study that has followed…

  1. Gender Differences in Anxiety Trajectories from Middle to Late Adolescence.

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    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Milan, Stephanie; Vannucci, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Although developmental trajectories of anxiety symptomatology have begun to be explored, most research has focused on total anxiety symptom scores during childhood and early adolescence, using racially/ethnically homogenous samples. Understanding the heterogeneous courses of anxiety disorder symptoms during middle to late adolescence has the potential to clarify developmental risk models of anxiety and to inform prevention programs. Therefore, this study specifically examined gender differences in developmental trajectories of anxiety disorder symptoms (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder) from middle to late adolescence in a diverse community sample (N = 1000; 57 % female; 65 % White), assessed annually over 2 years. Latent growth curve modeling revealed that girls exhibited a slight linear decrease in generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder symptoms, whereas boys exhibited a stable course. These models suggested that one trajectory was appropriate for panic disorder symptoms in both girls and boys. Growth mixture models indicated the presence of four latent generalized anxiety disorder symptom trajectory classes: low increasing, moderate decreasing slightly, high decreasing, and very high decreasing rapidly. Growth mixture models also suggested the presence of five latent social anxiety disorder symptom trajectory classes: a low stable trajectory class and four classes that were qualitatively similar to the latent generalized anxiety disorder trajectories. For both generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder symptoms, girls were significantly more likely than boys to be in trajectory classes characterized by moderate or high initial symptoms that subsequently decreased over time. These findings provide novel information regarding the developmental course of anxiety disorder symptoms in adolescents.

  2. Individual differences in the ability to recognise facial identity are associated with social anxiety.

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    Joshua M Davis

    Full Text Available Previous research has been concerned with the relationship between social anxiety and the recognition of face expression but the question of whether there is a relationship between social anxiety and the recognition of face identity has been neglected. Here, we report the first evidence that social anxiety is associated with recognition of face identity, across the population range of individual differences in recognition abilities. Results showed poorer face identity recognition (on the Cambridge Face Memory Test was correlated with a small but significant increase in social anxiety (Social Interaction Anxiety Scale but not general anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The correlation was also independent of general visual memory (Cambridge Car Memory Test and IQ. Theoretically, the correlation could arise because correct identification of people, typically achieved via faces, is important for successful social interactions, extending evidence that individuals with clinical-level deficits in face identity recognition (prosopagnosia often report social stress due to their inability to recognise others. Equally, the relationship could arise if social anxiety causes reduced exposure or attention to people's faces, and thus to poor development of face recognition mechanisms.

  3. Anxiety from a Phylogenetic Perspective: Is there a Qualitative Difference between Human and Animal Anxiety?

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    Catherine Belzung

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A phylogenetic approach to anxiety is proposed. The different facets of human anxiety and their presence at different levels of the phylum are examined. All organisms, including unicellular such as protozoan, can display a specific reaction to danger. The mechanisms enabling the appraisal of harmful stimuli are fully present in insects. In higher invertebrates, fear is associated with a specific physiological response. In mammals, anxiety is accompanied by specific cognitive responses. The expression of emotions diversifies in higher vertebrates, only primates displaying facial expressions. Finally, autonoetic consciousness, a feature essential for human anxiety, appears only in great apes. This evolutive feature parallels the progress in the complexity of the logistic systems supporting it (e.g., the vegetative and central nervous systems. The ability to assess one's coping potential, the diversification of the anxiety responses, and autonoetic consciousness seem relevant markers in a phylogenetic perspective.

  4. Individual differences in social anxiety affect the salience of errors in social contexts.

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    Barker, Tyson V; Troller-Renfree, Sonya; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-12-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential that occurs approximately 50 ms after an erroneous response. The magnitude of the ERN is influenced by contextual factors, such as when errors are made during social evaluation. The ERN is also influenced by individual differences in anxiety, and it is elevated among anxious individuals. However, little research has examined how individual differences in anxiety interact with contextual factors to impact the ERN. Social anxiety involves fear and apprehension of social evaluation. In the present study, we explored how individual differences in social anxiety interact with social contexts to modulate the ERN. The ERN was measured in 43 young adults characterized as being either high or low in social anxiety, while they completed a flanker task in two contexts: alone and during social evaluation. The results revealed a significant interaction between social anxiety and context, such that the ERN was enhanced in a social relative to a nonsocial context only among highly socially anxious individuals. Furthermore, the degree of such enhancement significantly correlated with individual differences in social anxiety. These findings demonstrate that social anxiety is characterized by enhanced neural activity to errors in social-evaluative contexts.

  5. Gender differences in mathematics anxiety and the relation to mathematics performance while controlling for test anxiety

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    Devine Amy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematics anxiety (MA, a state of discomfort associated with performing mathematical tasks, is thought to affect a notable proportion of the school age population. Some research has indicated that MA negatively affects mathematics performance and that girls may report higher levels of MA than boys. On the other hand some research has indicated that boys’ mathematics performance is more negatively affected by MA than girls’ performance is. The aim of the current study was to measure girls’ and boys’ mathematics performance as well as their levels of MA while controlling for test anxiety (TA a construct related to MA but which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Methods Four-hundred and thirty three British secondary school children in school years 7, 8 and 10 completed customised mental mathematics tests and MA and TA questionnaires. Results No gender differences emerged for mathematics performance but levels of MA and TA were higher for girls than for boys. Girls and boys showed a positive correlation between MA and TA and a negative correlation between MA and mathematics performance. TA was also negatively correlated with mathematics performance, but this relationship was stronger for girls than for boys. When controlling for TA, the negative correlation between MA and performance remained for girls only. Regression analyses revealed that MA was a significant predictor of performance for girls but not for boys. Conclusions Our study has revealed that secondary school children experience MA. Importantly, we controlled for TA which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Girls showed higher levels of MA than boys and high levels of MA were related to poorer levels of mathematics performance. As well as potentially having a detrimental effect on ‘online’ mathematics performance, past research has shown that high levels of MA can have negative consequences for later mathematics education

  6. Anti-anxiety activity of Coriandrum sativum assessed using different experimental anxiety models.

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    Mahendra, Poonam; Bisht, Shradha

    2011-09-01

    Interest in alternative medicine and plant-derived medications that affect the "mind" is growing. The aim of present study was to explore the anti-anxiety activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum (Linn.) using different animal models (elevated plus maze, open field test, light and dark test and social interaction test) of anxiety in mice. Diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) was used as the standard and dose of hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum fruit (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) was selected as per OECD guidelines. Results suggested that extract of C. sativum at 100 and 200 mg/kg dose produced anti-anxiety effects almost similar to diazepam, and at 50 mg/kg dose did not produce anti-anxiety activity on any of the paradigm used. Further studies are needed to identify the anxiolytic mechanism(s) and the phytoconstituents responsible for the observed central effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum.

  7. Neural correlates of mindfulness meditation-related anxiety relief.

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    Zeidan, Fadel; Martucci, Katherine T; Kraft, Robert A; McHaffie, John G; Coghill, Robert C

    2014-06-01

    Anxiety is the cognitive state related to the inability to control emotional responses to perceived threats. Anxiety is inversely related to brain activity associated with the cognitive regulation of emotions. Mindfulness meditation has been found to regulate anxiety. However, the brain mechanisms involved in meditation-related anxiety relief are largely unknown. We employed pulsed arterial spin labeling MRI to compare the effects of distraction in the form of attending to the breath (ATB; before meditation training) to mindfulness meditation (after meditation training) on state anxiety across the same subjects. Fifteen healthy subjects, with no prior meditation experience, participated in 4 d of mindfulness meditation training. ATB did not reduce state anxiety, but state anxiety was significantly reduced in every session that subjects meditated. Meditation-related anxiety relief was associated with activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex and anterior insula. Meditation-related activation in these regions exhibited a strong relationship to anxiety relief when compared to ATB. During meditation, those who exhibited greater default-related activity (i.e. posterior cingulate cortex) reported greater anxiety, possibly reflecting an inability to control self-referential thoughts. These findings provide evidence that mindfulness meditation attenuates anxiety through mechanisms involved in the regulation of self-referential thought processes.

  8. Anxiety in Spanish EFL students in different university degree programmes

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    Patricia Arnaiz-Castro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have studied the effects of anxiety on foreign language learning since the 1970's, and despite significant advances in approaches to language teaching, the literature continues to report the existence of language apprehension in the classroom and its debilitating effect on the learning process. However, very few studies have been developed in a socio-cultural context comparable to ours, namely, a Spanish university in which English is learnt. This study set out to examine and compare the feelings of anxiety experienced by university students enrolled in six different degree programs. A total of 200 students participated in this study. The data were collected using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS (Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope, 1986. The analyses reveal, firstly, that all the students suffered from average anxiety levels; secondly, that only in one of the aspects is the anxiety level of participants with English as a main subject (i.e. chosen lower than that of participants for whom English is a non-elective degree requirement; and in the third place, that the relationship between anxiety and the mark obtained by participants is stronger in the case of those who have English as a degree requirement. The implications of these results for a better understanding of anxiety and foreign language learning are discussed.

  9. Attention bias to threat indicates anxiety differences in sheep.

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    Lee, Caroline; Verbeek, Else; Doyle, Rebecca; Bateson, Melissa

    2016-06-01

    Humans and animals show increased attention towards threatening stimuli when they are in increased states of anxiety. The few animal studies that have examined this phenomenon, known as attention bias, have applied environmental manipulations to induce anxiety but the effects of drug-induced anxiety levels on attention bias have not been demonstrated. Here, we present an attention bias test to identify high and low anxiety states in sheep using pharmacological manipulation. Increased anxiety was induced using 1-methyl-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) and decreased anxiety with diazepam, and then we examined the behaviour of sheep in response to the presence of a dog as a threat. Increased attention towards the threat and increased vigilance were shown in sheep that received the m-CPP and reduced in sheep receiving the diazepam. The modulated attention towards a threat displayed by the m-CPP and diazepam animals suggests that attention bias can assess different levels of anxiety in sheep. Measuring attention bias has the potential to improve animal welfare assessment protocols.

  10. Hoarding in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Anxiety: Incidence, Clinical Correlates, and Behavioral Treatment Response.

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    Storch, Eric A; Nadeau, Joshua M; Johnco, Carly; Timpano, Kiara; McBride, Nicole; Jane Mutch, P; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the nature and correlates of hoarding among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Forty children with ASD and a comorbid anxiety disorder were administered a battery of clinician-administered measures assessing presence of psychiatric disorders and anxiety severity. Parents completed questionnaires related to child hoarding behaviors, social responsiveness, internalizing and externalizing behaviors, and functional impairment. We examined the impact of hoarding behaviors on treatment response in a subsample of twenty-six youth who completed a course of personalized cognitive-behavioral therapy targeting anxiety symptoms. Hoarding symptoms were common and occurred in a clinically significant manner in approximately 25 % of cases. Overall hoarding severity was associated with increased internalizing and anxiety/depressive symptoms, externalizing behavior, and attention problems. Discarding items was associated with internalizing and anxious/depressive symptoms, but acquisition was not. Hoarding decreased following cognitive-behavioral therapy but did not differ between treatment responders and non-responders. These data are among the first to examine hoarding among youth with ASD; implications of study findings and future directions are highlighted.

  11. Different Luminosity Correlation of GRBs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Z. B. Zhang; H. C. Liu; L. Y. Jiang; D. Y. Chen

    2014-09-01

    We report our recent understanding about a tight correlation between relative spectral lag and luminosity (or redshift) for -ray bursts. The latest investigations indicate that the empirical correlations got from BATSE bursts also exist for Swift/BAT ones. The special luminosity-lag correlation is much similar to that of the luminosity with pulse number proposed by Schaefer (2003), but largely different from most others ever discovered. Note that our newly built luminosity-lag correlation predicts that luminosity should evolve with cosmological redshift as p ∝ (1 + )2.4 ± 0.7 that is excellently confirmed by Salvaterra et al. (2012) and Geng & Huang (2013). In addition, it is also surprisingly found that the luminosity-lag correlation can account for both long and short Swift/BAT bursts, which might be an evidence of the same radiation mechanism for diverse burst groups.

  12. Maternal anxiety and its correlation with pain experience during chorion villus sampling and amniocentesis

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    Klages, Katharina; Kundu, Sudip; Erlenwein, Joachim; Elsaesser, Michael; Hillemanns, Peter; Scharf, Alexander; Staboulidou, Ismini

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures, such as chorion villus sampling (CVS) and amniocentesis (AC), are routinely performed to exclude or diagnose fetal chromosomal abnormalities. The aim of this study was to investigate anxiety-dependent pain experience during CVS and AC and the potential factors that increase anxiety and pain levels. Patients and methods During a 2-year period, women undergoing invasive procedures in three specialist centers were asked to participate in the study. Anxiety was evaluated before the procedure using the Spielberger State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory, and pain was evaluated directly after the procedure using a verbal rating scale. Results Among the women, 348/480 (73%) underwent AC, while 131/480 (27%) underwent CVS. There was a significant correlation between state and trait anxiety (p<0.0001). A positive correlation existed between the degree of anxiety and the level of pain experienced (p=0.01). There was a positive correlation for trait anxiety (p=0.0283) as well as for state anxiety (p=0.0001) and pain perception (p=0.0061) when invasive procedure was performed owing to abnormal ultrasound finding or to a history of fetal aneuploidy. Maternal age was found to be another influencing factor for the experienced pain (p=0.0016). Furthermore, the analysis showed a significant negative correlation between maternal age and anxiety. That applies for trait anxiety (p=0.0001) as well as for state anxiety (p=0.0001). The older the woman, the less anxious the reported feeling was in both groups. The main indication for undergoing CVS was abnormal ultrasound results (45%), and the main reason for undergoing AC was maternal age (58%). Conclusion Procedure-related pain intensity is highly dependent on the degree of anxiety before the invasive procedure. In addition, the indication has a significant impact on the emerging anxiety and consequential pain experiences. These influencing factors should therefore be considered during counseling

  13. Intrinsic Brain Activity Responsible for Sex Differences in Shyness and Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Zhou, Ming; Lama, Sunima; Chen, Lizhou; Hu, Xinyu; Wang, Song; Chen, Taolin; Shi, Yan; Huang, Xiaoqi; Gong, Qiyong

    2017-01-01

    Male and female show significant differences in important behavioral features such as shyness, yet the neural substrates of these differences remain poorly understood. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that both shyness and social anxiety in healthy subjects are associated with increased activation in the fronto-limbic and cognitive control areas. However, it remains unknown whether these brain abnormalities would be shared by different genders. Therefore, in the current study, we used resting-state fMRI (r-fMRI) to investigate sex differences in intrinsic cerebral activity that may contribute to shyness and social anxiety. Sixty subjects (28 males, 32 females) participated in r-fMRI scans, and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF) were used to measure the spontaneous regional cerebral activity in all subjects. We first compared the differences between male and female both in the ALFF and fALFF and then we also examined the whole brain correlation between the ALFF/fALFF and the severity of shyness as well as social anxiety by genders. Referring to shyness measure, we found a significant positive correlation between shyness scores (CBSS) and ALFF/fALFF value in the frontoparietal control network and a negative correlation in the cingulo-insular network in female; while in male, there is no such correlation. For the social anxiety level, we found positive correlations between Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) scores and spontaneous activity in the frontal-limbic network in male and negative correlation between the frontal-parietal network; however, such correlation was not prominent in female. This pattern suggests that shy female individuals engaged a proactive control process, driven by a positive association with activity in frontoparietal network and negative association in cingulo-insular network, whereas social anxiety males relied more on a reactive control process, driven by a positive correlation of

  14. Self Statements, Test Anxiety and Academic Achievement: A Correlational Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, James V.; And Others

    An investigation of self-statements, test anxiety and academic achievement studied 426 college students. Research methodology is defined, demographics and student profiles for both facilitative and debilitative test anxiety are presented, with the resulting findings for each testing component. The student profile for high facilitative test anxiety…

  15. Serum level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in fibromyalgia syndrome correlates with depression but not anxiety.

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    Nugraha, Boya; Korallus, Christoph; Gutenbrunner, Christoph

    2013-02-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been known to play a role in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients. Depression and anxiety are quite common additional symptoms in FMS. However the role of BDNF in these symptoms still needs to be elucidated. Although BDNF has been shown to be relevant in major depression, however studies could not show such differences between FMS patients with and without major depression. As mood-related symptom occurs frequently and differs in its intensity in FMS patients, BDNF level should be measured in subgroup regarding depression and anxiety scale. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of BDNF in serum of FMS with intensity of depression and anxiety. Additionally, interleukin (IL)-6 was measured. This study showed that serum level of BDNF was age-dependent in HCs. FMS patients had higher level of serum BDNF as compared to HC. Additionally, serum level of BDNF showed correlation with depression, but not with anxiety. Serum level of BDNF increased with depression score in FMS. However, serum level of IL-6 was not correlated with both depression and anxiety scores. Taken together, BDNF is involved in the pathophysiology of FMS. Additionally, it seems to be correlated with intensity of depressive symptoms in FMS.

  16. Correlation among High School Senior Students' Test Anxiety, Academic Performance and Points of University Entrance Exam

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    Karatas, Hakan; Alci, Bulent; Aydin, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure. The aim of this study is to define the correlation among high school senior students' test anxiety, academic performance (GPA) and points of university entrance exam (UEE). The study group of…

  17. Mathematics Anxiety and Attitudes of Secondary School Students in Rural Area: A Correlational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Karadağ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between mathematics anxiety and attitude of children who are educated in rural areas were analyzed in this research. Research was premeditated as a correlational design because it was presumed that there was correlation between two main variables. The population of the study was consisted of secondary school students who were educated in a region called rural areas in the central district of Meram/Konya in the school year of 2012-2013. 726 students who were educated in five secondary schools comprised of research sample which was designated as stratified sampling method according to educational regions. Research data were collected by the Mathematics Anxiety Scale, and Mathematics Attitude Scale. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to examine data. Findings show that correlation between anxiety and attitude of secondary school students from rural area is in negative direction.Key Words:    Rural education, mathematics attitude, mathematics anxiety

  18. Correlations among Social Anxiety, Self-Esteem, Impulsivity, and Game Genre in Patients with Problematic Online Game Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Ha; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recent studies of online game addiction have suggested that social interaction and impulsivity are critical factors for the etiology and progress of online game addiction. We hypothesized that the genre of the online game is associated with impulsivity and sociality in individuals with online game addictions. Methods In total, 212 patients with problematic online game playing were divided into four groups by game genre: 1) massive multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG), 2) real-time strategy (RTS), 3) first-person shooter (FPS), and 4) other. Their symptoms and characteristics were assessed using 8 scales and 2 tests to estimate self-esteem, impulsiveness, comorbidity, social interaction status, and cognitive function. Results The mean social anxiety score was highest in the MMORPG group and lowest in the FPS group. The mean self-esteem score was highest in the RTS group. Social anxiety score was positively correlated with Internet addiction score in the MMORPG group, and the self-esteem score was positively correlated with Internet addiction score in the RTS group. Conclusion The genre of online game was not associated with impulsivity, but social anxiety status varied significantly with game genre, and differences in social anxiety were especially pronounced in patients playing the MMORPG (highest social anxiety) and FPS (lowest social anxiety) game genres. In addition, self-esteem was highest in the RTS game genre. PMID:27247595

  19. Correlates of anxiety and depression among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Research has established the relation between diabetes and depression. Both diabetes and anxiety/depression are independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Aims: The present study aims at assessing the prevalence of anxiety/depression among outpatients receiving treatment for type 2 diabetes. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in the endocrinology outpatient department of an urban tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: The instruments used included a semi-structured questionnaire, HbA1c levels, fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose, Brief Patient Health Questionnaire, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis was carried out using the SPSS version 16.0. Pearson′s correlation coefficient was calculated to find out the correlations. ANOVA was carried out for the in between group comparisons. Results: There was a significant correlation between the HADS-Anxiety scale and Body Mass Index (BMI with a correlation coefficient of 0.34 (P = 0.008. Also, a significant correlation existed between HADS-Depression scale and BMI (correlation coefficient, 0.36; P = 0.004. Significant correlation were observed between the duration of daily physical exercise and HADS-Anxiety (coefficient of correlation, -0.25; P = 0.04 scores. HADS-Anxiety scores were found to be related to HbA1c levels (correlation-coefficient, 0.41; P = 0.03 and postprandial blood glucose levels (correlation-coefficient, 0.51; P = 0.02. Conclusions: Monitoring of biochemical parameters like HbA1c and postprandial blood glucose levels and BMI could be a guide to development of anxiety in these patients. Also, physical exercise seems to have a protective effect on anxiety in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  20. Anti-anxiety activity of Coriandrum sativum assessed using different experimental anxiety models

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    Poonam Mahendra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in alternative medicine and plant-derived medications that affect the "mind" is growing. The aim of present study was to explore the anti-anxiety activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum (Linn. using different animal models (elevated plus maze, open field test, light and dark test and social interaction test of anxiety in mice. Diazepam (0.5 mg/kg was used as the standard and dose of hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum fruit (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was selected as per OECD guidelines. Results suggested that extract of C. sativum at 100 and 200 mg/kg dose produced anti-anxiety effects almost similar to diazepam, and at 50 mg/kg dose did not produce anti-anxiety activity on any of the paradigm used. Further studies are needed to identify the anxiolytic mechanism(s and the phytoconstituents responsible for the observed central effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum.

  1. Abnormal Axon Reflex-Mediated Sweating Correlates with High State of Anxiety in Atopic Dermatitis

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    Akiko Kijima

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the number of study subjects was little, abnormal AXR sweating in patients with AD was observed. Correlative analysis suggests possible involvement of continuous anxiety and the immune system in such abnormal sudomotor function.

  2. Trait anxiety affects decision-making differently in healthy men and women: towards gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety.

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    de Visser, L; van der Knaap, L J; van de Loo, A J A E; van der Weerd, C M M; Ohl, F; van den Bos, R

    2010-05-01

    Excessive levels of trait anxiety are a risk factor for psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders and substance abuse. High trait anxiety has been associated with altered cognitive functioning, in particular with an attentional bias towards aversive stimuli. Decision-making is a crucial aspect of cognitive functioning that relies on the correct processing and control of emotional stimuli. Interestingly, anxiety and decision-making share underlying neural substrates, involving cortico-limbic pathways, including the amygdala, striatum and medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between trait anxiety, measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and complex decision-making, measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, in healthy male and female volunteers. The main focus of this study was the inclusion of gender as a discriminative factor. Indeed, we found distinct gender-specific effects of trait anxiety: in men, both low and high anxiety groups showed impaired decision-making compared to medium anxiety individuals, whereas in women only high anxiety individuals performed poorly. Furthermore, anxiety affected decision-making in men early in the task, i.e. the exploration phase, as opposed to an effect on performance in women during the second part of the test, i.e. the exploitation phase. These findings were related to different profiles of trait anxiety in men and women, and were independent of performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and cortisol levels. Our data show gender-specific effects of trait anxiety on emotional decision-making. We suggest gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety to exist, that differentially affect cognitive functioning.

  3. Individual differences in anxiety and executive functioning: a multidimensional view.

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    Visu-Petra, Laura; Miclea, Mircea; Visu-Petra, George

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between individual differences in anxiety and executive functioning was investigated in a sample of young adults. Verbal and spatial working memory, resistance to interference, negative priming, and task-switching measures were used to assess three executive functioning dimensions: updating, inhibition, and shifting. An additional index of basic psychomotor speed was added to this cognitive battery. According to the multidimensional interaction model of anxiety proposed by Endler (1997), state (cognitive-worry and autonomic-emotional) and trait (related to social evaluation, physical danger, ambiguous situations, and daily routines) anxiety were assessed in this evaluation context. Results indicated that shifting and inhibition (negative priming) efficiency were negatively related to state (cognitive-worry) and trait (related to social evaluation) anxiety. However, there was a relative advantage of subjects higher in social evaluation apprehensions in their memory updating performance. The results are consistent with several predictions of the attentional control theory (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), and are relevant for research regarding the interaction of situational, personality, and cognitive functioning dimensions.

  4. Proinflammatory Cytokines Correlate with Depression and Anxiety in Colorectal Cancer Patients

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    Diego Oliveira Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate whether serum cytokine levels correlate with depression and anxiety in colorectal cancer (CRC patients. Twenty patients hospitalized for surgical resection of CRC were included in the study group and twenty healthy volunteers comprised the control group. Depression and anxiety were analyzed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, and TGF-β were measured by Cytometric Bead Array. We found that more than half of CRC patients presented clinically significant levels of anxiety or depression, and 65% of them manifested a combination of severe anxiety and depression. CRC patients had increased serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α but lower IL-10 concentrations. Correlation analysis between HADS score and cytokine levels revealed a positive association of anxiety and/or depression with IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α and a negative correlation with IL-10. These results indicate that circulating proinflammatory cytokines are involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression in CRC patients. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in these psychological disorders will allow the design of therapeutic interventions that lead to an improved quality of life and overall survival of CRC patients.

  5. Individual differences in nonverbal number skills predict math anxiety.

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    Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Poom, Leo

    2017-02-01

    Math anxiety (MA) involves negative affect and tension when solving mathematical problems, with potentially life-long consequences. MA has been hypothesized to be a consequence of negative learning experiences and cognitive predispositions. Recent research indicates genetic and neurophysiological links, suggesting that MA stems from a basic level deficiency in symbolic numerical processing. However, the contribution of evolutionary ancient purely nonverbal processes is not fully understood. Here we show that the roots of MA may go beyond symbolic numbers. We demonstrate that MA is correlated with precision of the Approximate Number System (ANS). Individuals high in MA have poorer ANS functioning than those low in MA. This correlation remains significant when controlling for other forms of anxiety and for cognitive variables. We show that MA mediates the documented correlation between ANS precision and math performance, both with ANS and with math performance as independent variable in the mediation model. In light of our results, we discuss the possibility that MA has deep roots, stemming from a non-verbal number processing deficiency. The findings provide new evidence advancing the theoretical understanding of the developmental etiology of MA.

  6. Phenomenology and clinical correlates of family accommodation in pediatric anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A; Salloum, Alison; Johnco, Carly; Dane, Brittney F; Crawford, Erika A; King, Morgan A; McBride, Nicole M; Lewin, Adam B

    2015-10-01

    Despite evidence documenting high prevalence of family accommodation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, examination in other pediatric anxiety disorders is limited. Preliminary evidence suggests that family accommodation is common amongst children with anxiety disorders; however, the impact on clinical presentation and functional impairment has not been addressed. This study assessed the nature and clinical correlates of family accommodation in pediatric anxiety, as well as validating a mechanistic model. Participants included 112 anxious youth and their parents who were administered a diagnostic clinical interview and measure of anxiety severity, as well as questionnaires assessing internalizing and externalizing symptoms, family accommodation and functional impairment. Some form of accommodation was present in all families. Family accommodation was associated with increased anxiety severity and externalizing behaviors, having a diagnosis of separation anxiety, and increased functional impairment. Family accommodation partially mediated the relationship between anxiety severity and functional impairment, as well as externalizing behaviors and functional impairment. Family accommodation is common in pediatric anxiety disorders, and is associated with more severe clinical presentations and functional impairment. These findings highlight the importance of parental involvement in treatment and the need to specifically target accommodation practices during interventions to mitigate negative outcomes in anxious youth. Further studies utilizing longitudinal data are needed to validate mechanistic models.

  7. Attention bias to threat indicates anxiety differences in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Humans and animals show increased attention towards threatening stimuli when they are in increased states of anxiety. The few animal studies that have examined this phenomenon, known as attention bias, have applied environmental manipulations to induce anxiety but the effects of drug-induced anxiety levels on attention bias have not been demonstrated. Here, we present an attention bias test to identify high and low anxiety states in sheep using pharmacological manipulation. Increased anxiety ...

  8. Gender differences and correlation between social anxiety and children neglect in grade 4-6 primary school students in Chongqing, China%重庆市主城区4~6年级小学生社交焦虑与忽视特点及相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马中锐; 蒙华庆; 胡华; 王慧; 陈品红; 邹志礼; 傅一笑; 杜莲

    2013-01-01

    目的 探索城市儿童社交焦虑与被忽视的性别差异及社交焦虑与被忽视关系.方法 分层抽取重庆市主城1 523名4~6年级小学生,运用儿童社交焦虑量表、儿童被忽视量表进行横断面调查.结果 男生忽视总分(Z=-3.83)、情感忽视(Z=-3.81)、交流忽视(Z=-3.15)、安全忽视(Z=-3.33)显著高于女孩(P<0.01),女孩害怕否定(Z=-6.50)、社交焦虑总分(Z=-5.39)高于男孩(P<0.01);按情感忽视、交流忽视、忽视总分严重程度比较,害怕否定、回避苦恼、社交焦虑总分均有显著差异(P<0.01);情感忽视与害怕否定(r =0.386)、社交焦虑总分(r=0.380)显著正相关(P<0.01),交流忽视与害怕否定(r=0.351)、社交焦虑总分(r=0.358)显著正相关(P<0.0i);多元逐步回归分析以害怕否定、回避苦恼、社交焦虑总分作为应变量时,忽视维度被纳入的变量分别能解释15.1%、5.0%、13.9%.结论 儿童社交焦虑与忽视,特别是情感忽视和交流忽视有关;尽管男生被忽视程度高于女生,但忽视对女孩社交焦虑影响更大.%Objective To study the gender differences and correlation between social anxiety and children neglect in grade 4-6 primary school students in Chongqing,China.Methods Using stratified randomization sampling method,1 523 primary students were enrolled in this study.Students with social anxiety and neglected situation were accessed with the Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Child Neglect Scale.Results The levels of neglect score (Z =-3.83),emotion neglect (Z =-3.81),communication neglect (Z =-3.15) and safety neglect of the boys were more serious than those of the girls (P <0.01),but the fear of negative evaluation (P < 0.01) and social anxiety score (P < 0.01) of the girls were more serious than those of the boys.There were significant differences in fear of negative evaluation,avoidance of distress and social anxiety score (P < 0.01) according to the severity of

  9. Anxiety-Like Behavioural Inhibition Is Normative under Environmental Threat-Reward Correlations.

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    Dominik R Bach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural inhibition is a key anxiety-like behaviour in rodents and humans, distinct from avoidance of danger, and reduced by anxiolytic drugs. In some situations, it is not clear how behavioural inhibition minimises harm or maximises benefit for the agent, and can even appear counterproductive. Extant explanations of this phenomenon make use of descriptive models but do not provide a formal assessment of its adaptive value. This hampers a better understanding of the neural computations underlying anxiety behaviour. Here, we analyse a standard rodent anxiety model, the operant conflict test. We harvest Bayesian Decision Theory to show that behavioural inhibition normatively arises as cost-minimising strategy in temporally correlated environments. Importantly, only if behavioural inhibition is aimed at minimising cost, it depends on probability and magnitude of threat. Harnessing a virtual computer game, we test model predictions in four experiments with human participants. Humans exhibit behavioural inhibition with a strong linear dependence on threat probability and magnitude. Strikingly, inhibition occurs before motor execution and depends on the virtual environment, thus likely resulting from a neural optimisation process rather than a pre-programmed mechanism. Individual trait anxiety scores predict behavioural inhibition, underlining the validity of this anxiety model. These findings put anxiety behaviour into the context of cost-minimisation and optimal inference, and may ultimately pave the way towards a mechanistic understanding of the neural computations gone awry in human anxiety disorder.

  10. Neudesin is involved in anxiety behavior: structural and neurochemical correlates

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    Ashley eNovais

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neudesin (also known as neuron derived neurotrophic factor, Nenf is a scarcely studied putative non-canonical neurotrophic factor. In order to understand its function in the brain, we performed an extensive behavioral characterization (motor, emotional and cognitive dimensions of neudesin-null mice. The absence of neudesin leads to an anxious-like behavior as assessed in the elevated plus maze, light/dark box and novelty suppressed feeding tests, but not in the acoustic startle test. This anxious phenotype is associated with reduced dopaminergic input and impoverished dendritic arborizations in the dentate gyrus granule neurons of the ventral hippocampus. Interestingly, shorter dendrites are also observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST of neudesin-null mice. These findings lead us to suggest that neudesin is a novel relevant player in the maintenance of the anxiety circuitry.

  11. Math anxiety: A review of its cognitive consequences, psychophysiological correlates, and brain bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, María Isabel; Colomé, Àngels

    2016-02-01

    A decade has passed since the last published review of math anxiety, which was carried out by Ashcraft and Ridley (2005). Given the considerable interest aroused by this topic in recent years and the growing number of publications related to it, the present article aims to provide a full and updated review of the field, ranging from the initial studies of the impact of math anxiety on numerical cognition, to the latest research exploring its electrophysiological correlates and brain bases from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Finally, this review describes the factors and mechanisms that have been claimed to play a role in the origins and/or maintenance of math anxiety, and it examines in detail the main explanations proposed to account for the negative effects of math anxiety on performance: competition for working memory resources, a deficit in a low-level numerical representation, and inhibition/attentional control deficit.

  12. Physiologic and laboratory correlates of depression, anxiety, and poor sleep in liver cirrhosis

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    Ko Fang-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown psychological distress in patients with cirrhosis, yet no studies have evaluated the laboratory and physiologic correlates of psychological symptoms in cirrhosis. This study therefore measured both biochemistry data and heart rate variability (HRV analyses, and aimed to identify the physiologic correlates of depression, anxiety, and poor sleep in cirrhosis. Methods A total of 125 patients with cirrhosis and 55 healthy subjects were recruited. Each subject was assessed through routine biochemistry, 5-minutes ECG monitoring, and psychological ratings of depression, anxiety, and sleep. HRV analysis were used to evaluate autonomic functions. The relationship between depression, sleep, and physiologic correlates was assessed using a multiple regression analysis and stepwise method, controlling for age, duration of illness, and severity of cirrhosis. Results Reduced vagal-related HRV was found in patients with severe liver cirrhosis. Severity of cirrhosis measured by the Child-Pugh score was not correlated with depression or anxiety, and only had a weak correlation with poor sleep. The psychological distress in cirrhosis such as depression, anxiety, and insomnia were correlated specifically to increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, increased ratios of low frequency to high frequency power, or reduced nonlinear properties of HRV (α1 exponent of detrended fluctuation analysis. Conclusions Increased serum AST and abnormal autonomic nervous activities by HRV analysis were associated with psychological distress in cirrhosis. Because AST is an important mediator of inflammatory process, further research is needed to delineate the role of inflammation in the cirrhosis comorbid with depression.

  13. Anxiety

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    ... Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Anxiety Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & Information Causes & Symptoms Diagnosis & Tests Care & Treatment Lifestyle & Management Other Resources Caregiving How ...

  14. Computerized Adaptive Testing, Anxiety Levels, and Gender Differences

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    Fritts, Barbara E.; Marszalek, Jacob M.

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the amount of test anxiety experienced on a computerized adaptive test (CAT) to a paper-and-pencil test (P&P), as well as the state test anxiety experienced between males and females. Ninety-four middle school CAT examinees were compared to 65 middle school P&P examinees on their responses to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory…

  15. Reducing the Sex Difference in Math Anxiety: The Role of Spatial Processing Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin A.; Waechter, Stephanie; Risko, Evan F.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Decades of research have demonstrated that women experience higher rates of math anxiety--that is, negative affect when performing tasks involving numerical and mathematical skill--than men. Researchers have largely attributed this sex difference in math anxiety to factors such as social stereotypes and propensity to report anxiety. Here we…

  16. Anxiety and Depression Are Better Correlates of Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Than Apathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jacob D; Butterfield, London C; Song, Woojin; Lafo, Jacob; Mangal, Paul; Okun, Michael S; Bowers, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Due to controversy regarding the influence of apathy on quality of life (QoL), the authors examined the independent influence of apathy, depression, and trait anxiety in a nondemented sample of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Participants (N=107) completed standard self-report measures of QoL and mood/motivation. Analyses investigated the contribution of these measures and empirically derived factor scores on QoL. QoL was predicted by trait anxiety, dysphoria, and decreased interest, with no independent contribution of apathy. Different patterns emerged with respect to domain-specific QoL, with trait anxiety being the strongest predictor across most domains. Anxiety was most widely related to QoL in PD, with minimal contribution of apathy. Future studies should examine different roles of PD mood/motivation symptoms on caregiver QoL.

  17. Interaction Effects between Maternal Lifetime Depressive/Anxiety Disorders and Correlates of Children's Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piche, Genevieve; Bergeron, Lise; Cyr, Mireille; Berthiaume, Claude

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the interaction effects between mother's lifetime depressive/anxiety disorders and psychosocial correlates of 6 to 11 year-old children's self-reported externalizing symptoms in the Quebec Child Mental Health Survey. A representative subsample of 1,490 Quebec children aged 6 to 11 years was selected from the original sample. We…

  18. Comparison of EEG propagation speeds under emotional stimuli on smartphone between the different anxiety states.

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    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Muramatsu, Ayumi; Hayashi, Takuto; Urata, Tatsuya; Taya, Masato; Mizuno-Matsumoto, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of different anxiety states on information processing as measured by an electroencephalography (EEG) using emotional stimuli on a smartphone. Twenty-three healthy subjects were assessed for their anxiety states using The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and divided into two groups: low anxiety (I, II) or high anxiety (III and IV, V). An EEG was performed while the participant was presented with emotionally laden audiovisual stimuli (resting, pleasant, and unpleasant sessions) and emotionally laden sentence stimuli (pleasant sentence, unpleasant sentence sessions) and EEG data was analyzed using propagation speed analysis. The propagation speed of the low anxiety group at the medial coronal for resting stimuli for all time segments was higher than those of high anxiety group. The low anxiety group propagation speeds at the medial sagittal for unpleasant stimuli in the 0-30 and 60-150 s time frames were higher than those of high anxiety group. The propagation speeds at 150 s for all stimuli in the low anxiety group were significantly higher than the correspondent propagation speeds of the high anxiety group. These events suggest that neural information processes concerning emotional stimuli differ based on current anxiety state.

  19. Cognitive bias measurement and social anxiety disorder: Correlating self-report data and attentional bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Miloff

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD and attentional bias are theoretically connected in cognitive behavioral therapeutic models. In fact, there is an emerging field focusing on modifying attentional bias as a stand-alone treatment. However, it is unclear to what degree these attentional biases are present before commencing treatment. The purpose of this study was to measure pre-treatment attentional bias in 153 participants diagnosed with SAD using a home-based Internet version of the dot-probe paradigm. Results showed no significant correlation for attentional bias (towards or away from negative words or faces and the self-rated version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR. However, two positive correlations were found for the secondary measures Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7 and Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9. These indicated that those with elevated levels of anxiety and depression had a higher bias towards negative faces in neutral–negative and positive–negative valence combinations, respectively. The unreliability of the dot-probe paradigm and home-based Internet delivery are discussed to explain the lack of correlations between LSAS-SR and attentional bias. Changes to the dot-probe task are suggested that could improve reliability.

  20. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatalović Vorkapić Sanja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. METHODS: The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A, Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. Their average age was 22. RESULTS: In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. CONCLUSION: Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.

  1. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatalović Vorkapić, Sanja; Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ružić, Klementina

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. Methods. The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users) clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A), Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Their average age was 22. Results. In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. Conclusion. Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.

  2. Gender Differences in Computer Anxiety among University Entrants since 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todman, John

    2000-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated self-reported computer anxiety scores for five samples of first-year undergraduates between 1992 and 1998. Confirms a reduction in mean levels of computer anxiety and in the proportion of computerphobic students and shows a widening gap between scores of female and male students. (Author/LRW)

  3. A Survey of the Correlation between Language Anxiety and Senior High School Student’s Oral English Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴安; 甘田

    2014-01-01

    Language anxiety is a kind of apprehension occurs when student need to perform oral English.Many researchers agree that language anxiety is an important factor in English learning.This thesis is going to test 80 students from Bordertown high school,Hunan Province,to uncover the English learning situation of senior high school students,to survey the correlation between language anxiety and oral English performance,and to give inspiration for senior middle school English teaching.

  4. Test anxiety in medical school is unrelated to academic performance but correlates with an effort/reward imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Henry; Kropp, Peter; Kirschstein, Timo; Rücker, Gernot; Müller-Hilke, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Purpose During their early years at medical school, students repeatedly criticize their workload, time constraints and test associated stress. At the same time, depressiveness and anxiety among first and second year medical students are on the rise. We therefore hypothesized that test anxiety may be related to depressiveness and considered cognitive and academic performances as confounders for the former and psychosocial distress for the latter. Methods A whole class of 200 second year students was invited to participate in the study. Anxiety as a trait, depressiveness, crystallized intelligence, verbal fluency and psychosocial distress were assessed using validated tests and questionnaires. Acute state anxiety and sympathetic stress parameters were measured in real life situations immediately before an oral and a written exam and paired tests were used to compare the individual anxieties at the various time points. Previous academic performances were self-reported, the results of the impending exams were monitored. Finally, correlations were performed to test for interrelatedness between academic performances and the various personal, cognitive and psychosocial factors. Results Acute test anxiety did not correlate with depressiveness nor did it correlate with previous nor impending academic performances nor any of the expected confounders on academic performance. However both, depressiveness and test anxiety strongly correlated with the perceived imbalance between efforts spent and rewards received. Moreover, anxiety as a trait not only correlated with acute state anxiety before an exam but was also significantly correlated to the feeling of over-commitment. Conclusion Depressiveness during the early years of medical school seems unrelated to test anxiety and academic performance. Instead, it strongly correlated with the psychosocial distress emanating from attending medical school and points at a perceived imbalance between efforts spent and rewards received

  5. Differences in social anxiety between men and women across 18 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballo, Vicente E; Salazar, Isabel C; Irurtia, María Jesús; Arias, Benito; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2014-07-01

    Sex differences between men and women in social anxiety are largely unexplored. This study sought to shed some light on this topic. We administered self-report measures of social anxiety to community samples of 17,672 women and 13,440 men from 16 Latin American countries, Spain and Portugal, as well as to a clinical sample of 601 patients diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. Small but significant differences were found between men and women in the general degree of social anxiety and self-reported fears of interactions with the opposite sex, criticism and embarrassment, and speaking in public-talking to people in authority. These results point to small, but meaningful differences between men and women in social anxiety. Implications of these results for the self-report measurement of social anxiety in men and women are discussed.

  6. Neural correlates of anticipation and processing of performance feedback in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Carina Y; Peterburs, Jutta; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Hallfarth, Marlit C; Böhme, Stephanie; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Straube, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Fear of negative evaluation, such as negative social performance feedback, is the core symptom of social anxiety. The present study investigated the neural correlates of anticipation and perception of social performance feedback in social anxiety. High (HSA) and low (LSA) socially anxious individuals were asked to give a speech on a personally relevant topic and received standardized but appropriate expert performance feedback in a succeeding experimental session in which neural activity was measured during anticipation and presentation of negative and positive performance feedback concerning the speech performance, or a neutral feedback-unrelated control condition. HSA compared to LSA subjects reported greater anxiety during anticipation of negative feedback. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results showed deactivation of medial prefrontal brain areas during anticipation of negative feedback relative to the control and the positive condition, and medial prefrontal and insular hyperactivation during presentation of negative as well as positive feedback in HSA compared to LSA subjects. The results indicate distinct processes underlying feedback processing during anticipation and presentation of feedback in HSA as compared to LSA individuals. In line with the role of the medial prefrontal cortex in self-referential information processing and the insula in interoception, social anxiety seems to be associated with lower self-monitoring during feedback anticipation, and an increased self-focus and interoception during feedback presentation, regardless of feedback valence.

  7. Serotonergic, Brain Volume and Attentional Correlates of Trait Anxiety in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheenko, Yevheniia; Shiba, Yoshiro; Sawiak, Stephen; Braesicke, Katrin; Cockcroft, Gemma; Clarke, Hannah; Roberts, Angela C

    2015-01-01

    Trait anxiety is a risk factor for the development and maintenance of affective disorders, and insights into the underlying brain mechanisms are vital for improving treatment and prevention strategies. Translational studies in non-human primates, where targeted neurochemical and genetic manipulations can be made, are critical in view of their close neuroanatomical similarity to humans in brain regions implicated in trait anxiety. Thus, we characterised the serotonergic and regional brain volume correlates of trait-like anxiety in the marmoset monkey. Low- and high-anxious animals were identified by behavioral responses to a human intruder (HI) that are known to be sensitive to anxiolytic drug treatment. Extracellular serotonin levels within the amygdala were measured with in vivo microdialysis, at baseline and in response to challenge with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, citalopram. Regional brain volume was assessed by structural magnetic resonance imaging. Anxious individuals showed persistent, long-term fearful responses to both a HI and a model snake, alongside sustained attention (vigilance) to novel cues in a context associated with unpredictable threat. Neurally, high-anxious marmosets showed reduced amygdala serotonin levels, and smaller volumes in a closely connected prefrontal region, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. These findings highlight behavioral and neural similarities between trait-like anxiety in marmosets and humans, and set the stage for further investigation of the processes contributing to vulnerability and resilience to affective disorders. PMID:25586542

  8. The Examination of the Correlation between Social Physique Anxiety Levels and Narcissism Levels of the Students Who Studied at the SPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezer, Engin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to discover the correlation between social physique anxiety levels and narcissism levels of the students of the school of the physical education and sports. A total of 308 students who studied at different academic departments of the school of the physical education and sports of Mustafa Kemal University participated in…

  9. Adult Attachment and Parental Bonding: Correlations between Perceived Relationship Qualities and Self-Reported Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambruster, Ellen W.; Witherington, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Adult attachment and parental bonding have been linked to anxiety disorders, but rarely have these associations been demonstrated in the same study. To fill this gap in the research literature, we utilized several different self-report measures to examine the relationships among adult attachment style, memories of early bonding experiences, and…

  10. Correlação entre ansiedade e performance comunicativa Correlation between anxiety and communicative performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Alice Figueirêdo de Almeida

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a correlação entre ansiedade-traço, ansiedade-estado e parâmetros vocais. MÉTODOS: Participaram 24 adultos, 12 homens e 12 mulheres, com idades entre 19 e 42 anos e sem antecedentes psiquiátricos. O escore do Inventário de Ansiedade Traço-Estado (IDATE, principalmente o Ansiedade-Traço, possibilitou a divisão dos participantes em dois grupos: baixa ansiedade (BA e alta ansiedade (AA. Foram avaliados parâmetros psicológicos (IDATE e vocais (auto-avaliação por questionário de sinais e sintomas vocais, QSSV; protocolo de Qualidade de Vida em Voz - QVV; avaliação perceptivo-auditiva-visual do comportamento vocal com a descrição de parâmetros de voz, fala e corpo; e análise acústica. O material de fala analisado foi a emissão sustentada da vogal /a/, contagem de números e um discurso sobre momentos de maior ansiedade ao longo da vida. RESULTADOS: Quanto maior o traço de ansiedade indicado pelo IDATE, maior a evidência de ansiedade na fala encadeada e no discurso; quanto mais agudo o pitch da voz, maior o comprometimento da articulação da fala, da coordenação pneumofono-articulatória, da movimentação corporal e da expressão facial. Quanto maior o estado de ansiedade, maior a evidência de ansiedade em diversos parâmetros do discurso, com desequilíbrio na ressonância vocal, comprometimento na modulação, na articulação da fala e na expressão facial. CONCLUSÃO: O traço e o estado de ansiedade diferenciaram o comportamento comunicativo dos indivíduos, envolvendo modificações no corpo, na fala e na voz.PURPOSE: To investigate the possible existing correlations between trait anxiety, state anxiety, and vocal parameters. METHODS: Participants were 24 adult subjects, 12 men and 12 women, with ages between 19 and 42 years, with no psychiatric history. The score in the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, especially the STAI-Trait, enabled the division of participants into two groups: low

  11. The difference of dental anxiety in children based on frequency of dental appointment

    OpenAIRE

    Mia Giri Astri; Eka Chemiawan; Eriska Rriyanti

    2011-01-01

    Background: Problem of children’s anxiety during dental procedures is a common phenomenon. This is called dental anxiety. The anxiety children patien need to be paid a special attention, because it will affect the success of dental treatment. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to find out the difference of dental anxiety degree in children aged 8 to 12 years old based on the frequency of dental visits in dental community health centre Bandung. Methods: The method of this research was a...

  12. 2015 Arte Poster Competition First Place Winner: Assessing the Correlation Between Patient Anxiety and Satisfaction for Mohs Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Maren C; Wilkerson, Eric C; Mistur, Rachel L; Nisar, Mahrukh; Love, W Elliot

    2015-09-01

    Skin cancer and the surgical treatment thereof have the potential to be sources of great anxiety for patients. Examination of patient satisfaction, anxiety, and contributing factors has the potential to provide information surgeons can use to implement practices that have an impact on patient anxiety and satisfaction regarding dermatologic surgery. This study used a prospective interview to catalog patients' anxiety and experiences before and during the surgical process. Our results indicate that several pre- and perioperative factors have the potential to decrease a patient's overall anxiety. Notably, 33% of surgical patients reported a decrease in anxiety from the time of diagnosis until the day of surgery. Factors that contributed to this included a call discussing the diagnosis and what to expect on the day of surgery as well as reading written material or searching the internet for more information regarding the procedure. Furthermore, a call from the physician compared to a call from a nurse or other team member showed a greater effect on decreasing anxiety. During the surgical procedure, our results highlight several factors that can decrease a patient's anxiety. Most notably, eating, watching TV, bringing a guest, and engaging in small talk with surgeon and staff during the procedure subjectively decreased patients' anxiety. In summary, our results suggest that patients respond to a variety of factors to reduce anxiety and that each patient derives relief from anxiety in different manners. Therefore, offering a spectrum of comforting or distracting activities during the Mohs procedure is ideal and may reduce the need for pharmacologic anxiolytics.

  13. The Role of Anxiety and Working Memory in Gender Differences in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Vasilyeva, Marina

    2014-01-01

    This research examined a potential mechanism underlying gender differences in math performance by testing a mediation model in which women's higher anxiety taxes their working memory resources, leading to underperformance on a mathematics test. Participants for the 2 studies were college students (N = 87, N = 118) who completed an anxiety measure,…

  14. Developmental Differences in the Expression of Childhood Anxiety Symptoms and Fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F.; Costa, Natalie M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine age differences in the expression of childhood fears and anxiety symptoms. Method: A cross-sectional design was used to test recently formulated developmental hypotheses regarding the differential expression of childhood anxiety symptoms and fears in a community sample of youths (N = 145). Three groups of youths were…

  15. Questioning the Stability of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety and Motivation across Different Classroom Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Yeon

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether foreign language learner anxiety and motivational goal orientations remained stable across two different classroom contexts: a reading course and a conversation course. The researcher measured anxiety and four types of motivational goal orientations by surveying 59 Korean college students learning English in both…

  16. Mother-Child Attachment Patterns and Different Types of Anxiety Symptoms: Is There Specificity of Relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumariu, Laura E.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test Manassis' proposal (Child-parent relations: Attachment and anxiety disorders, 255-272, 2001) that attachment patterns (secure, ambivalent, avoidant, and disorganized) may relate to different types of anxiety symptoms, and that behavioral inhibition may moderate these relations. Using a story stem interview to…

  17. Correlates of memory complaints and personality, depression, and anxiety in a memory clinic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arbabi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to find whether there is an association between subjective memory complaint and memory impairment and probable underlying psychological conditions. A total of 90 patients with subjective memory complaint enrolled in this study. Short history and demographic information were obtained and then the patients underwent memory and mental health assessments, using Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI test tools. The mean age of the participants was 52.31 ± 17.97. Forty patients out of 90 (44.4% were male. The prevalence of depression, anxiety and memory impairment was 10%, 12.2%, and 28.8%, respectively. Memory impairment has only shown a significant association with the presence of anxiety disorder according to the HADS findings (P=0.001. Regarding the MMPI, considerable differences were observed in the average grade of hysteria among patients with and without memory impairment: 8.38 ± 2.27 vs. 4.35 ± 1.96. There was also significant statistical association between the average score of depression on the MMPI in patients with and without memory impairment that were 13.7 ± 3.33 and 8.31 ±3.86, (P=0.03. The result of the current study shows that underlying psychological conditions such as anxiety, depression, and histrionic personality are associated with memory impairment.

  18. Correlations of anxiety and depression at different phases with curative outcomes in female patients at IVF-ET Cycle%体外受精-胚胎移植不同阶段焦虑、抑郁情绪与治疗结局的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽平; 杨广清; 吴方贵; 王细林; 邹红艳

    2014-01-01

    探讨体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)周期女性不同阶段焦虑、抑郁情绪变化及其与治疗结局的相关性。方法对117例体外受精-胚胎移植患者应用焦虑自评量表(self-rating anxiety scale,SAS)、抑郁自评量表(self-rating depression scale,SDS)在患者进入周期时(T1期)、取卵前1 d(T2期)、胚胎移植后5~7 d(T3期)进行问卷调查。比较不同时期患者 SAS 和 SDS 评分情况;妊娠与未妊娠组不同时期 SAS 和 SDS 评分情况,用 Logistic 回归分析不同治疗阶段 SAS 评分与是否妊娠的相关性。结果患者 T1、T2、T3期 SDS 评分比较,差异无统计学意义(均 P>0.05),T1、T2、T3期 SAS 评分比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),T2、T3期 SAS 评分明显高于 T1期(均 P<0.05),T2期 SAS 评分高于 T3期(P<0.05)。不同治疗阶段两组比较,T2期未妊娠组 SAS 评分明显高于妊娠组(P<0.05)。Logistic 回归分析显示,T2期 SAS 评分为预测妊娠因素(OR=0.685,P<0.05),低评分预示高妊娠率。结论行 IVF-ET 治疗的女性患者取卵前期焦虑评分最高;取卵前期未妊娠患者焦虑评分明显高于妊娠者;取卵前期焦虑评分与治疗结局相关,评分较低者临床妊娠率较高。提示在 IVF-ET 周期中需特别关注取卵前期不孕妇女的焦虑情绪。%Objective To study the correlations of anxiety and depression at different phases with curative outcomes in female patients at IVF-ET cycle.Methods One hundred and seventeen patients were involved the study using the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self-Rating Depression(SDS)questionnaires when registered for IVF-ET cycle(T1), one day prior to oocyte retrieval(T2), and 5 to 7 days after embryo transfer(T3).SDS scores and SAS scores were compared between different phases.Logistic regression was used to analyze the correlation of SAS scores with outcome.Results SDS scores of T

  19. Depression, anxiety, stress and hyperemesis gravidarum: temporal and case controlled correlates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chiong Tan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the temporal and case-controlled correlations of anxiety, depression and stress with hyperemesis gravidarum. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a longitudinal cohort study of women with hyperemesis gravidarum using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21 to evaluate psychological distress at hospitalization and in the third trimester of pregnancy (from 28 weeks gestation. Third pregnancy trimester controls were recruited from routine antenatal clinic attendees who were matched to gestational age at the second DASS-21 assessment in the HG cohort. RESULTS: The prevalences of nausea and vomiting, depression, anxiety and stress caseness in newly hospitalised hyperemesis gravidarum women were 100% and 100%, 19%, 69% and 21% which by the third trimester had fallen to 15.7% and 9.9%, 4%, 19% and 3% and in third trimester controls were 15.9% and 14.2%, 14%, 61% and 20% respectively. Within the hyperemesis gravidarum cohort, nausea, vomiting depression, anxiety and stress reduced significantly by an absolute 84.3% (95% CI 76.2%-89.8%, 90.1% (82.8%-94.2%, 14.9% (7.2%-23.0%, 49.6% (38.6%-58.7% and 18.2% (10.4%-26.4% respectively between hospitalization for hyperemesis gravidarum and at the third trimester. In the third trimester, when comparing the hyperemesis gravidarum cohort to controls, the risk of nausea or vomiting was similar but depression, anxiety and stress were significantly lower: adjusted odds ratio AOR 0.10 (95% CI 0.03-0.5, 0.11 (0.05-0.23 and 0.08 (0.02-0.33 respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed a reassuring pattern of a strong rebound from depression, anxiety and stress in women with hyperemesis gravidarum such that by the third pregnancy trimester the level of psychological distress was even lower than in controls. This observation imply that much of the psychological distress in acute hyperemesis gravidarum is self-limiting and probably in the causal pathway of hyperemesis gravidarum. Care in women with

  20. Anxiety and Depression Among Patients With Different Types of Vestibular Peripheral Vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing; Yu, Lisheng; Shi, Dongmei; Ke, Xingxing; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Numerous studies have been published on comorbid anxiety and depression in patients with vertigo. However, very few studies have separately described and analyzed anxiety or depression in patients with different types of vestibular peripheral vertigo. The present study investigated anxiety and depression among patients with 4 different types of peripheral vertigo. A total of 129 patients with 4 types of peripheral vertigo, namely, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, n = 49), migrainous vertigo (MV, n = 37), Menière disease (MD, n = 28), and vestibular neuritis (VN, n = 15), were included in the present study. Otological and neurootological examinations were carefully performed, and self-rating anxiety scale and self-rating depression scale were used to evaluate anxiety and depression. Patients were divided into 2 groups, according to the vestibular function: normal and abnormal vestibular function. There was no significant difference in the risk of anxiety/depression between these 2 groups. However, for patients with the 4 different vertigo types, the prevalence of anxiety (MV = 45.9%, MD = 50%) and depression (MV = 27%, MD = 28.6%) was significantly higher in the patients with MV or MD than those with BPPV or VN (P BPPV or VN. This may be due to the different mechanisms involved in these 4 types of vertigo, as well as differences in the prevention and self-control of the patients against the vertigo. PMID:25654382

  1. Neural correlates of aversive conditioning: development of a functional imaging paradigm for the investigation of anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Isabelle; Jansen, Andreas; Kellermann, Thilo; Schüppen, André; Kohn, Nils; Gerlach, Alexander L; Kircher, Tilo

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish a short paradigm for the examination of classical aversive conditioning processes for application in patients with anxiety disorders. We measured behavioral, autonomic and neural correlates of the paradigm in healthy subjects, applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and measurement of skin conductance. Therefore, neutral visual stimuli were paired with an unpleasant white noise as unconditioned stimulus. Twenty healthy subjects performed three experimental phases of learning: familiarization, acquisition and extinction. Subjective ratings of valence and arousal after each phase of conditioning as well as skin conductance measurement indicated successful conditioning. During acquisition, fMRI results showed increased activation for the conditioned stimulus (CS+(unpaired)) when compared with the non-conditioned stimulus (CS-) in the right amygdala, the insulae, the anterior cingulate cortex and the parahippocampal gyrus, all regions known to be involved in emotional processing. In addition, a linearly decreasing activation in the right amygdala/hippocampus for the CS- across the acquisition phase was found. There were no significant differences between CS+ and CS- during extinction. In conclusion, the applicability of this paradigm for the evaluation of neural correlates in conditioning and extinction processes has been proven. Thus, we present a promising paradigm for the examination of the fear-circuit in patients with anxiety disorders and additionally effects of cognitive-behavioral interventions.

  2. Study of influential factors about trait coping style and the correlation between it and anxiety and depression in different student groups in Bengbu district%蚌埠地区不同学习阶段学生特质应对方式影响因素及与抑郁、焦虑相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄颖; 陶芳标; 姚荣英; 张勤; 付连国; 韩慧

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the coping style and their influential factors in different student groups.Methods Use stratified and random cluster sampling to collect 7315 students in seven high school and mid-schools in Bengbu district. The valid questionnaires were 7104. In these students,there were 1919 junior schools students,1865 high school students, and boys were 3533, girls were 3571. Age from 12 to 22. The questionnaires which contained demographic characteristics, family factors and multidimensional sub-health questionnaire of adolescents (MSQA) were used to test these students. The single factor analysis and Regression analysis were analyzed by SPSS (statistical package for social science) 13.0. Results There were significance difference between positive coping style,negative coping style and fathers' and mothers' education ( P < 0. 01 ). There were significance difference between positive coping style and the parents' expectations(P < 0. 01 ). The patients' education, friends, characters and coping style were positively correlated( P < 0. 01 ). There were correlation between coping styles and anxiety and depression(P <0. 01 ). There were positive correlation between passive coping style and anxiety and depression (P<0.0l ), and there were negative correlation between active coping style ( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion There was relationship between patients' education, friends, characters and adolescents' coping style, and there were high correlation between coping style and anxiety and depression. Enhance capacity to respond actively and cultivate optimistic attitude of learning were help to maintain and improve their positive coping style.%目的 探讨不同学习阶段学生特质应对方式的影响因素及与抑郁、焦虑的相关性.方法 采用分 层、随机整群方法抽取蚌埠地区2所大学,7所中学学生7315名,回收有效问卷7104份,其中初中生1919名,高中生1865名,大学生3320名,男生3533名,女生3571

  3. The response of social anxiety disorder patients to threat scenarios differs from that of healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C.V. Mesquita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the response of social anxiety disorder (SAD patients to threat scenarios. First-choice responses to 12 scenarios describing conspecific threatening situations and mean scores of defensive direction and defensive intensity dimensions were compared between 87 SAD patients free of medication and 87 matched healthy controls (HC. A significant gender difference in the first-choice responses was identified for seven scenarios among HCs but only for two scenarios among SAD patients. A significantly higher proportion of SAD patients chose "freezing" in response to "Bush" and "Noise" scenarios, whereas the most frequent response by HCs to these scenarios was "check out". SAD males chose "run away" and "yell" more often than healthy men in response to the scenarios "Park" and "Elevator", respectively. There was a positive correlation between the severity of symptoms and both defensive direction and defensive intensity dimensions. Factorial analysis confirmed the gradient of defensive reactions derived from animal studies. SAD patients chose more urgent defensive responses to threat scenarios, seeming to perceive them as more dangerous than HCs and tending to move away from the source of threat. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the physiopathology of anxiety disorders involves brain structures responsible for defensive behaviors.

  4. How research on the meta-structure of psychopathology aids in understanding biological correlates of mood and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofrat Shani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research on biological correlates of psychopathology stands to benefit from being interwoven with an empirically based, quantitative model of mental disorders. Empirically-based classification approaches help to deal effectively with issues such as comorbidity among diagnoses, which often serve as challenges to interpreting research on biological correlates. With regard to the mood and anxiety disorders specifically, quantitative research shows how mood and anxiety disorders are well conceptualized as elements within a broad internalizing spectrum of psychopathology, such that many putative biological correlates of specific disorders may be better conceptualized as delineating the pathophysiology of the broader mechanisms underlying multiple disorders.

  5. Preschool anxiety disorders predict different patterns of amygdala-prefrontal connectivity at school-age.

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    Kimberly L H Carpenter

    Full Text Available In this prospective, longitudinal study of young children, we examined whether a history of preschool generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and/or social phobia is associated with amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation at school-age. As an exploratory analysis, we investigated whether distinct anxiety disorders differ in the patterns of this amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation.Participants were children taking part in a 5-year study of early childhood brain development and anxiety disorders. Preschool symptoms of generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and social phobia were assessed with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA in the first wave of the study when the children were between 2 and 5 years old. The PAPA was repeated at age 6. We conducted functional MRIs when the children were 5.5 to 9.5 year old to assess neural responses to viewing of angry and fearful faces.A history of preschool social phobia predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces. Preschool generalized anxiety predicted less functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices in response to fearful faces. Finally, a history of preschool separation anxiety predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces and greater school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices to angry faces.Our results suggest that there are enduring neurobiological effects associated with a history of preschool anxiety, which occur over-and-above the effect of subsequent emotional symptoms. Our results also provide preliminary evidence for the neurobiological differentiation of specific preschool anxiety disorders.

  6. Interpretation of ambiguity: Differences between children and adolescents with and without an anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Polly; Codd, Jon; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Background Theory and treatment of anxiety disorders in young people are commonly based on the premise that interpretation biases found in anxious adults are also found in children and adolescents. Although there is some evidence that this may be the case, studies have not typically taken age into account, which is surprising given the normative changes in cognition that occur throughout childhood. The aim of the current study was to identify whether associations between anxiety disorder status and interpretation biases differed in children and adolescents. Methods The responses of children (7–10 years) and adolescents (13–16 years) with and without anxiety disorders (n=120) were compared on an ambiguous scenarios task. Results Children and adolescents with an anxiety disorder showed significantly higher levels of threat interpretation and avoidant strategies than non-anxious children and adolescents. However, age significantly moderated the effect of anxiety disorder status on interpretation of ambiguity, in that adolescents with anxiety disorders showed significantly higher levels of threat interpretation and associated negative emotion than non-anxious adolescents, but a similar relationship was not observed among children. Conclusions The findings suggest that theoretical accounts of interpretation biases in anxiety disorders in children and adolescents should distinguish between different developmental periods. For both ages, treatment that targets behavioral avoidance appears warranted. However, while adolescents are likely to benefit from treatment that addresses interpretation biases, there may be limited benefit for children under the age of ten. PMID:26363617

  7. Gender Differences in Anxiety Disorders: Prevalence, Course of Illness, Comorbidity and Burden of Illness

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Carmen P.; Asnaani, Anu; Litz, Brett T; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2011-01-01

    Women have consistently higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders, but less is known about how gender affects age of onset, chronicity, comorbidity, and burden of illness. Gender differences in DSM-IV anxiety disorders were examined in a large sample of adults (N = 20,013) in the United States using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES). The lifetime and 12-month male:female prevalence ratios of any anxiety disorder were 1:1.7 and 1:1.79, respectively. Women h...

  8. Gender Differences and Foreign Language Reading Anxiety of High School Learners in an Iraqi EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulateef Sabti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades Investigation of foreign language anxiety generally has progressively caught the attention of numerous investigators in the area of foreign language. Yet, anxiety variable that affects the students’ acquisition of particular language skills for instance, reading specifically have actually seldom been investigated in the context of EFL Arab learners in particular with Iraqi students. So, the study aimed to investigate the influence of anxiety variable towards reading comprehension of Iraqi high school learners. This study also sought to examine the gender differences towards reading language anxiety. Quantitative approach was applied in this research, which involved 20 Iraqi students of a high school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The respondents comprised 10 males and 10 females with ages between 16 years and 18 years. This study made use of Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS. The results of the study showed that both male and female participants had a high level of anxiety towards the reading comprehension. Furthermore, the analysis revealed that gender played a slight role in the results of the study. Female students showed a slightly higher level of anxiety towards the reading comprehension than their male counterparts. Iraqi learners need to be exposed to the four skills of English language generally and the reading skill in particular. This exposure makes the learners aware of the four skills (Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking that need to be acquired and also to decrease the rate of anxiety variable in addition to its influence on their performance. Keywords: Gender Differences; High school learners; Foreign language reading anxiety; Iraqi EEL context

  9. Gender Differences in the Neurobiology of Anxiety: Focus on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Although the literature reports a higher incidence of anxiety disorders in women, the majority of basic research has focused on male rodents, thus resulting in a lack of knowledge on the neurobiology of anxiety in females. Bridging this gap is crucial for the design of effective translational interventions in women. One of the key brain mechanisms likely to regulate anxious behavior is adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). This review paper aims to discuss the evidence on the differences betw...

  10. Gender Differences in the Neurobiology of Anxiety:Focus on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Although the literature reports a higher incidence of anxiety disorders in women, the majority of basic research has focused on male rodents, thus resulting in a lack of knowledge on the neurobiology of anxiety in females. Bridging this gap is crucial for the design of effective translational interventions in women. One of the key brain mechanisms likely to regulate anxious behavior is adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). This review paper aims to discuss the evidence on the differences betw...

  11. A network of amygdala connections predict individual differences in trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Steven G; Mitchell, Derek G V

    2015-12-01

    In this study we demonstrate that the pattern of an amygdala-centric network contributes to individual differences in trait anxiety. Individual differences in trait anxiety were predicted using maximum likelihood estimates of amygdala structural connectivity to multiple brain targets derived from diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) and probabilistic tractography on 72 participants. The prediction was performed using a stratified sixfold cross validation procedure using a regularized least square regression model. The analysis revealed a reliable network of regions predicting individual differences in trait anxiety. Higher trait anxiety was associated with stronger connections between the amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, an area implicated in the generation of emotional reactions, and inferior temporal gyrus and paracentral lobule, areas associated with perceptual and sensory processing. In contrast, higher trait anxiety was associated with weaker connections between amygdala and regions implicated in extinction learning such as medial orbitofrontal cortex, and memory encoding and environmental context recognition, including posterior cingulate cortex and parahippocampal gyrus. Thus, trait anxiety is not only associated with reduced amygdala connectivity with prefrontal areas associated with emotion modulation, but also enhanced connectivity with sensory areas. This work provides novel anatomical insight into potential mechanisms behind information processing biases observed in disorders of emotion.

  12. Evidence for serotonin function as a neurochemical difference between fear and anxiety disorders in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corchs, Felipe; Nutt, David J; Hince, Dana A; Davies, Simon J C; Bernik, Marcio; Hood, Sean D

    2015-10-01

    The relationships between serotonin and fear and anxiety disorders have been much studied yet many important questions remain, despite selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors having been the primary treatments for these disorders for some time. In order to explore this issue we performed a pooled analysis of six of our studies in remitted patients with a fear/anxiety disorder who were exposed to syndrome-specific aversive stimulation under acute tryptophan depletion. We based our analysis on the hypothesis that the inconsistencies observed in the studies could be predicted by Deakin and Graeff's theory about the dual role of serotonin in responses to threats, whereby serotonin is critical to prevent fear (panic) but not anxiety. In accordance with this view, our results give support to a dissociation of the disorders traditionally grouped under fear and anxiety-related disorders in terms of different roles of serotonin in modulation of responses to aversive stimulation. Implications for future studies and psychiatric nosology are discussed.

  13. On 'the fear of death' as the primary anxiety: how and why Klein differs from Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Rachel B

    2014-08-01

    It is well known that Melanie Klein held the view that 'fear of death' is the primary source of anxiety and that her position is explicitly opposed to that of Sigmund Freud, who maintained that that fear cannot in any way or form be a source of anxiety. In a previous article on Freud's Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety (Blass, 2013), the author argued that, counter to what is commonly portrayed in the literature, Freud's considerations for rejecting the fear of death as a source of anxiety were based on relational and experiential factors that are usually associated with Kleinian psychoanalysis. In light of this affinity of Freud with Klein a question arises as to the actual source of their differences in this context. The present paper offers an answer to this question. The author first presents some of her earlier findings on what led Freud to reject the fear of death as a source of anxiety and then turns to investigate Klein's considerations for accepting it. This takes us beyond her explicit statements on this matter and sheds new light on the relationship of her views regarding death and anxiety and those of Freud. In turn this deepens the understanding of the relationship of Freud and Klein's conceptualizations of the psyche and its internal object relations, pointing to both surprising common ground and foundational differences.

  14. Does anxiety sensitivity correlate with startle habituation? An examination in two independent samples

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Miranda L.; Gorka, Stephanie M; McGowan, Sarah Kate; Nelson, Brady D.; Sarapas, Casey; Katz, Andrea C.; Robison-Andrew, E. Jenna; Shankman, Stewart A.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with anxiety disorders have previously demonstrated abnormal habituation to aversiveness over time. As anxiety sensitivity (AS), or an individuals’ propensity to fear anxiety-related sensations, has been shown to be a risk factor for anxiety disorders (particularly panic disorder), the present study examined whether AS was also associated with abnormal habituation. This association was examined in two independent samples of undergraduates (total N=178). Habituation was operational...

  15. Computer Anxiety Correlates and What They Tell Us: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Matthew M.

    1994-01-01

    Research suggests that computer anxiety and computer experience are related. Some relationship between age and gender and computer anxiety has been suggested but not sufficiently examined. Other relationships have been explored with little result, and little is known about mediating computer anxiety. A model of the development of computer anxiety…

  16. A Study on the Correlation between Self Efficacy and Foreign Language Learning Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubukcu, Feryal

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety in language learning is one of the less researched areas; that is why this study explores whether the anxiety level of foreign language learners is related to their self efficacy levels. For this purpose, 100 participants joined the study and the Foreign Language Learning Anxiety Scale and The Self Efficacy Scale were administered to them.…

  17. Correlation between anxiety and anxiety-relief strategies of nurses in infection departmet%感染科护士心理焦虑与缓解方式相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方映娜; 陈丽洪; 周敏

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨感染科护士心理焦虑、缓解方式的相关性,为医院对感染科护士的心理干预提供心理学依据.方法 采用状态特质焦虑量表调查我院感染科29名护士的状态-特质焦虑现况.结果 感染科护士状态焦虑(45.39±9.51)分、特质焦虑(45.85±9.91)分高于健康人群女性常模,高于儿科与普通科室护士、女性干部、女性科技人员,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 感染科护士存在焦虑抑郁等危险的心理问题,重视感染科护士的心理健康,有利于提高护理质量,降低医疗风险.感染科护士的心理焦虑与失衡是医院行政思想工作值得重视的新课题.%Objective To explore the correlation between anxiety and anxiety-relief strategies of nurses in infection department,and provide the reference for the work of hospital.Methods State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was taken to analyze the state-trait anxiety status of 29 nurses in infection department.Results The infection department nurses state anxiety (45.39 ± 9.51) and trait anxiety (45.85 ± 9.91) were higher than those of healthy women norms,pediatrics nurses,general nurses,women cadres,and technological personnel,respectively.The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01).Conclusion Infection department nurses have mental health problems such as anxiety and depression.Paying attention to nurses' mental health problems in infection department is helpful to improve the quality of nursing work and reduce the medical risk.Nurses' psychological anxiety and disorder is considered to be a new topic worthy for attention of hospital administration work

  18. Individual differences in behavioral and cardiovascular reactivity to emotive stimuli and their relationship to cognitive flexibility in a primate model of trait anxiety.

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    Yoshiro eShiba

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available High trait anxiety is a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders. Like the disorders themselves high trait anxiety has marked phenotypic variation at the level of symptomatology and neural circuits, suggesting that there may be different symptoms and distinct neural circuits associated with risk for these disorders. To address these issues, it is essential to develop reliable animal models of trait anxiety in a non-human primate whose brain bears structural and functional similarity to humans. The present study investigated individual variation in responsivity to fearful and anxiety provoking stimuli in the common marmoset monkey. Seven out of 27 animals failed to display discriminative, conditioned cardiovascular and behavioral responses on an auditory fear discrimination task, similar to that seen in high anxious humans and rodents. Their heightened emotionality to a rubber snake was consistent with the hypothesis that they were high in trait-like anxiety. Evidence for phenotypic variation in the high anxiety group was provided by the finding that discrimination failure was predicted early in conditioning by either hyper-vigilant scanning to the cues or a reduction in blood pressure to the context, i.e. test apparatus. Given that high trait anxiety in humans can be associated with altered prefrontal cognitive functioning and previously we implicated the marmoset anterior orbitofrontal (antOFC and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC in negative emotion regulation, we also tested the marmosets on two tests of cognitive flexibility differentially dependent on these two regions. While the high anxious group did not differ overall in their perseverative performance, the two distinct phenotypes were differentially correlated with reduced perseverative responding on the OFC- and vlPFC-dependent flexibility tests. Together, this study provides a new model of trait anxiety in marmosets amenable to analysis of phenotypic variation and

  19. The minimal important difference of the hospital anxiety and depression scale in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Büchi Stefan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interpretation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, commonly used to assess anxiety and depression in COPD patients, is unclear. Since its minimal important difference has never been established, our aim was to determine it using several approaches. Methods 88 COPD patients with FEV1 ≤ 50% predicted completed the HADS and other patient-important outcome measures before and after an inpatient respiratory rehabilitation. For the anchor-based approach we determined the correlation between the HADS and the anchors that have an established minimal important difference (Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire [CRQ] and Feeling Thermometer. If correlations were ≥ 0.5 we performed linear regression analyses to predict the minimal important difference from the anchors. As distribution-based approach we used the Effect Size approach. Results Based on CRQ emotional function and mastery domain as well as on total scores, the minimal important difference was 1.41 (95% CI 1.18–1.63 and 1.57 (1.37–1.76 for the HADS anxiety score and 1.68 (1.48–1.87 and 1.60 (1.38–1.82 for the HADS total score. Correlations of the HADS depression score and CRQ domain and Feeling Thermometer scores were Conclusion The minimal important difference of the HADS is around 1.5 in COPD patients corresponding to a change from baseline of around 20%. It can be used for the planning and interpretation of trials.

  20. 焦虑障碍患者焦虑敏感与特质焦虑的相关研究%Correlation between anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety of patients with anxiety disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方芳; 王亚光; 汪作为

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨焦虑障碍患者焦虑敏感与特质焦虑、临床特征的相关性. 方法:68例焦虑障碍患者(焦虑组)根据汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)评分≥7分为分界值,分为焦虑未缓解组43例和缓解组25例,进行焦虑敏感测定量表(ASI-R)及状态-特质焦虑问卷中特质焦虑量表部份(T-AI)的评定;ASI-R评分结果与70名正常对照(正常对照组)进行比较,分析ASI-R评分与T-AI总分及临床特征的相关性. 结果:焦虑组ASI-R总分、对躯体感觉的焦虑因子分、对躯体感觉的恐惧因子分、对认知失控焦虑恐惧因子分、对社会后果焦虑恐惧因子分均高于正常对照组(t分别=8.51,9.00,8.15,8.74,3.24;P均<0.01).焦虑缓解组ASI-R总分、及对躯体感觉的焦虑因子分、对躯体感觉的恐惧因子分、对认知失控焦虑恐惧因子分均高于正常对照组(t分别=4.41,3.37,4.24,3.76;P均<0.01);未缓解组ASI-R 总分及各因子分高于缓解组(t分别=3.30,3.41,2.61,2.78,2.14;P<0.05或P<0.01).经相关分析,ASI-R总分、及躯体感觉的焦虑因子分、对认知失控的焦虑恐惧因子分与T-AI总分显著相关(r分别=0.33,0.28,0.40;P<0.05或P<0.01);ASI-R总分、对认知失控焦虑恐惧因子分、对社会后果焦虑恐惧因子分与病程显著相关(r分别=0.27,0.26,0.31;P均<0.05). 结论:焦虑障碍患者的焦虑敏感程度高于正常人群;焦虑敏感水平部分与焦虑特质有关.%Objective:To explore the correlation between anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety,clinical features of patients with anxiety disorders.Method:We investigated 68 patients with anxiety disorder(anxiety group) and 70 normal individuals(control group).The anxiety group was separated into the non-remission group [Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) ≥ 7,n =43] and the remission group (HAMA < 7,n =25).The anxiety group was assessed by anxiety sensitivity index-revised(ASI-R),trait anxiety inventory(part of state

  1. Different patterns of respiration in rat lines selectively bred for high or low anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Carnevali

    Full Text Available In humans, there is unequivocal evidence of an association between anxiety states and altered respiratory function. Despite this, the link between anxiety and respiration has been poorly evaluated in experimental animals. The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that genetic lines of rats that differ largely in their anxiety level would display matching alterations in respiration. To reach this goal, respiration was recorded in high-anxiety behavior (HAB, n = 10 and low-anxiety behavior (LAB, n = 10 male rats using whole-body plethysmography. In resting state, respiratory rate was higher in HABs (85 ± 2 cycles per minute, cpm than LABs (67 ± 2 cpm, p<0.05. During initial testing into the plethysmograph and during a restraint test, HAB rats spent less time at high-frequency sniffing compared to LAB rats. In addition, HAB rats did not habituate in terms of respiratory response to repetitive acoustic stressful stimuli. Finally, HAB rats exhibited a larger incidence of sighs during free exploration of the plethysmograph and under stress conditions. We conclude that: i HAB rats showed respiratory changes (elevated resting respiratory rate, reduced sniffing in novel environment, increased incidence of sighs, and no habituation of the respiratory response to repetitive stimuli that resemble those observed in anxious and panic patients, and ii respiratory patterns may represent a promising way for assessing anxiety states in preclinical studies.

  2. [Hyperhidrosis and social anxiety disorder--the same old thing under a different cloak?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahaloni, Elad; Iancu, Iulian

    2014-10-01

    Hyperhidrosis is a reason for treatment by many specialists in medicine, such as dermatologists, family medicine doctors, surgeons and also psychiatrists. Hyperhidrosis causes considerable distress and disability. Despite the fact that the condition has been known for thousands of years, it is yet unclear whether excessive sweating derives from emotional" activation of the central nervous system, whether the emotional symptoms evolve due to local dysfunction of the sweat glands, or a combination of the two problems. In this article, we will present two conditions: hyperhidrosis and Social Anxiety Disorder, a mental condition with anxiety and avoidanrce in social settings that is frequently accompanied by sweating. We will discuss the similarities and differences between these disorders and the various treatments available for these conditions. Research shows that social anxiety does not explain hyperhidrosis, but that excessive sweating reduces the threshold for social anxiety. Among people with hyperhidrosis, the functional disability and the emotional problems are mediated by the social anxiety. We propose treating the symptoms of hyperhidrosis and social anxiety disorder in combination in order to achieve maximal improvement in these patients.

  3. Anxiety towards Mathematics and Educational Level: A Study on Means Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera-Chávez, Milka Elena; García-Santillán, Arturo; Córdova-Rangel, Arturo; González-Gómez, Santiago; Tejada-Peña, Esmeralda

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research work is to analyze whether there is a difference in the degree of anxiety towards mathematics among students of different educational levels. The study is not experimental and cross sectional, and it is based on difference of means between groups. The sample is not probabilistic, and consisted of 226 students from…

  4. Putative EEG measures of social anxiety : Comparing frontal alpha asymmetry and delta-beta cross-frequency correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrewijn, A.; Van, der Molen M.J.W.; Westenberg, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine whether frontal alpha asymmetry and delta-beta cross-frequency correlation during resting state, anticipation, and recovery are electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of social anxiety. For the first time, we jointly examined frontal alpha asymmetry and d

  5. Give or Take a Few? Comparing Measured and Self-Reported Height and Weight as Correlates of Social Physique Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Jennifer; Monsma, Eva V.; Torres-McGehee, Toni

    2009-01-01

    Statistically controlling for physical size is common practice, especially in self-perception studies uncovering the etiology of maladaptive behaviors, such as eating disorders. For example, social physique anxiety (SPA)--apprehension about social evaluations while presenting oneself in front of others (Leary, 1992)--is a prominent correlate of…

  6. Effects of Multiple Simulation Presentation among Students of Different Anxiety Levels in the Learning of Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Soon Fook; Por, Fei Ping; Tang, Ai Ling

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of multiple simulation presentation in interactive multimedia are on the achievement of students with different levels of anxiety in the learning of Probability. The interactive multimedia courseware was developed in two different modes, which were Multiple Simulation Presentation (MSP) and…

  7. A Review of the Evidence for Birth Order Differences in Anxiety and Affiliation in Stressful Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, T.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews literature on birth order. An important conclusion is that birth order differences in anxiety level and affiliation are not generalized phenomena. Consistent birth order differences in both variables are found only among females. Firstborns are not habitually more anxious than laterborns and are not generally more affiliative than…

  8. Subcortical correlates of individual differences in aptitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex E Jung

    Full Text Available The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N = 107, healthy, young (age range  = 16-29 cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math--higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary--higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding--higher right thalamus volume; Foresight--lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning--higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary.

  9. Subcortical correlates of individual differences in aptitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Rex E; Ryman, Sephira G; Vakhtin, Andrei A; Carrasco, Jessica; Wertz, Chris; Flores, Ranee A

    2014-01-01

    The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N = 107), healthy, young (age range  = 16-29) cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer) across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math--higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary--higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding--higher right thalamus volume; Foresight--lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning--higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus) and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary).

  10. An examination of Euro-American and African-American differences in social physique anxiety among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Eleanor H; Smisson, Cassandra P; Burke, Kevin L; Joyner, A Barry; Czech, Daniel R

    2005-02-01

    Many studies have examined sex differences in social physique anxiety; however, few researchers have examined possible perceptual differences in such anxiety based on ethnicity. The present purpose was to examine social physique anxiety among college-age women of Euro-American and African-American descent. Participants (N = 91) from physical activity classes at a university located in the southeastern United States completed the Social Physique Anxiety Scale. The participants were 67 Euro-Americans and 24 African Americans. An independent t test yielded a significant difference (p =.01) between groups on Eklund's scale, which supports the hypothesis.

  11. Dental coping strategies, general anxiety, and depression among adult patients with dental anxiety but with different dental-attendance patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernson, Jenny M; Elfström, Magnus L; Hakeberg, Magnus

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate dental coping strategies, general anxiety, and depression in relation to regularity of dental treatment among persons with either regular dental care or phobic avoidance, whilst controlling for sociodemographic factors. Psychometric questionnaires on dental anxiety, dental coping strategies, general anxiety, and depression were delivered to 263 adult patients with dental phobic avoidance behavior who were seeking help from a specialized dental fear clinic and to 141 adult patients with dental anxiety who were receiving regular dental care from various public dental clinics. The results showed that the levels of dental and general anxiety and of depression were significantly higher among irregular attendees compared with regular attendees. Irregular attendees admitted fewer adaptive coping strategies. Predictive of irregular dental care were gender, dental anxiety, general anxiety, and the nonuse of the coping strategy 'optimism'. This study further confirms earlier preliminary results that the use of optimistic thinking is predictive for regular dental attendance habits and that male gender is a risk factor for irregular attendance. Moreover, this study adds that a high level of general anxiety indicates a higher risk for irregular dental care.

  12. Psychological and Sociodemographic Correlates of Communicative Anxiety L2 and L3 Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes foreign language anxiety in the French as a second language and English as a third language speech production of 100 Flemish students. Findings suggest that foreign language anxiety is not a stable personality trait among experienced language learners. Societal as well as the individual contexts were found to determine levels of…

  13. Differences in Music Performance Anxiety Levels between Underclassmen and Upperclassmen Music Education Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, Jordan M.

    2012-01-01

    Research looking specifically at the performance anxiety levels of undergraduate music education majors is sparse. In one of the few studies that examined this issue, Conway, Eros, Pellegrino, and West (2010) found that the different emphases placed on music education majors made for a wider array of activities and foci. Undergraduates who focus…

  14. Differences between Male and Female Students' Confidence, Anxiety, and Attitude toward Learning Jazz Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr-Flowers, Erin

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the gender differences in the social-psychological constructs of confidence, anxiety, and attitude as they relate to jazz improvisation participation. Three subscales of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Survey (1976) were modified for this task, and surveys (N = 332) were given to students of…

  15. Test Anxiety Prevalence and Gender Differences in a Sample of English Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, Dave; Daly, Anthony L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of students who report themselves as highly test anxious in a sample of English secondary schools and whether this proportion differed by gender. Self-report test anxiety data were collected from 2435 secondary school students in 11 schools. Results showed that 16.4% of the sample reported…

  16. Predictors of dental avoidance among Australian adults with different levels of dental anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armfield, J.M.; Ketting, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: It has been proposed that avoidance of dental visits might be the main determinant of poor oral health outcomes in people with high dental anxiety (HDA). This study aimed to determine the predictors of dental avoidance among people with HDA and also whether these predictors differed from

  17. Correlation analysis between different hypoglycemic scheme and anxiety depression of outpatient diabetic patients and nursing countermeasures%门诊不同降糖方案与糖尿病患者焦虑抑郁程度相关性分析及护理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽梅; 张学慧; 王慧兵

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analysis the depression severity of outpatient diabetic patients with different hypoglycemic programs,to put forward targeted nursing intervention to reduce the degree of anxiety and depression of patients and improve patients' quality of life.Methods A total of 296 cases of outpatient diabetic patients according to different hypoglycemic scheme were divided into life intervention group with 66 cases,oral medicine group with 98 cases,insulinum group with 72 cases and combination therapy group with 60 cases.Those patients were investigated by Zung's anxiety (SAS) checklist,Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) to compare the differences of SAS,SDS.Results The score of SAS of the outpatient diabetic patients was significantly higher than that of the national norm,the score of SDS was slightly higher than that of the norm.The differences of different hypoglycemic scheme in the scores of SAS,SDS were statistically significant (P < 0.05).Conclusions Different hypoglycemic scheme for outpatient diabetic patients had significant anxiety and depression.Patients with life intervention group (diet and exercise in patients with blood sugar control) had serious anxiety and depression mood,they should be carried on the nursing intervention.%目的 通过对门诊执行不同降糖方案的糖尿病患者抑郁程度的分析,提出有针对性地护理干预,以减轻患者焦虑抑郁程度,提高患者的生活质量.方法 将来我院门诊就诊的296例糖尿病患者按降糖方案不同分为生活干预组66例,口服药组98例,胰岛素组72例和联合治疗组60例.采用Zung氏焦虑自评量表(SAS)、Zung氏抑郁自评量表(SDS)对患者进行问卷调查,比较不同降糖方案患者之间的SAS、SDS的差异性.结果 门诊糖尿病患者SAS评分明显高于国内常模,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);SDS评分比常模略高,但无统计学意义.不同降糖方案患者之间的SAS、SDS评分,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).

  18. Cellular correlates of enhanced anxiety caused by acute treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine in rats

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    Shilpa eRavinder

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are used extensively in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. The therapeutic benefits of SSRIs typically require several weeks of continuous treatment. Intriguingly, according to clinical reports, symptoms of anxiety may actually increase during the early stages of treatment although more prolonged treatment alleviates affective symptoms. Consistent with earlier studies that have used animal models to capture this paradoxical effect of SSRIs, we find that rats exhibit enhanced anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus-maze one hour after a single injection of the SSRI fluoxetine. Next we investigated the potential neural substrates underlying the acute anxiogenic effects by analyzing the morphological and physiological impact of acute fluoxetine treatment on principal neurons of the basolateral amygdala (BLA, a brain area that plays a pivotal role in fear and anxiety. Although earlier studies have shown that behavioral or genetic perturbations that are anxiogenic for rodents also increase dendritic spine-density in the BLA, we find that a single injection of fluoxetine does not cause spinogenesis on proximal apical dendritic segments on BLA principal neurons an hour later. However, at the same time point when a single dose of fluoxetine caused enhanced anxiety, it also enhanced action potential firing in BLA neurons in ex vivo slices. Consistent with this finding, in vitro bath application of fluoxetine caused higher spiking frequency and this increase in excitability was correlated with an increase in the input resistance of these neurons. Our results suggest that enhanced excitability of amygdala neurons may contribute to the increase in anxiety-like behavior observed following acute fluoxetine treatment.

  19. Anxiety State and Its Comparison between Two Different Personality Types in Perspective of Unani Tib

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    Farkhunda Jabin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Unani system of medicine or Tib is one of the Indian Systems of Medicine; it is based on the fundamentals given by Hippocrates, Galen and Ibne Sina. It has holistic approach to healing; it gives equal emphasis to patient’s individuality (Temperament and lifestyle factors. Temperament of the individual is the key concept in total diagnosis, prevention and treatment procedure. Each temperament is defined by peculiar personality traits and associated qualities. The purpose of the present study was to compare the anxiety state between Sanguinous/Damvi and Phlegmatic/ Balghami temperaments. The total hundred (50 Damvi and 50 Balghami temperament males were selected for this study. The ages of the subjects were ranged between 25 to 35 years and their temperament was assessed based on Galen 10 parameters. The data on anxiety state of the subjects were obtained by using a questionnaire developed by Neary and Zuckerman (1976. The t test was used to determine the difference between the mean score of anxiety level between Damvi and Balghami temperaments. Results revealed that there was a significant difference between Damvi and Balghami temperaments at 0.05 level of significance with 98 degree of freedom. Study showed that Damvi temperament males have higher level of anxiety state as compared to Balghami temperament males.

  20. 高二学生数学焦虑与数学成绩的相关性%Study on the Correlation between Anxiety about Mathematics and Achievement of Mathematics of Grade 2-High School Student

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏红; 刘咏梅; 温芳勇

    2012-01-01

    高二学生数学焦虑与数学成绩呈显著负相关,且不同水平的数学焦虑被试者在数学成绩上存在显著性差异.数学焦虑程度越高,数学成绩越差,两者是一种线性关系.高二学生数学焦虑在性别、文理科方面的整体特点是:女生数学焦虑水平高于男生数学焦虑水平;理科生数学焦虑水平高于文科生数学焦虑水平.%There is a negative correlation between anxiety about mathematics and achievement of mathematics of Grade 2-High school students. What's more, the achievement of mathematics leaded by different levels of mathematics anxieties have significant differences. The higher the mathematics anxiety is, the worse the mathematics achievement is, the relationship between them is a linear. The general characteristics of anxiety mathematics of Grade 2-high students in gender differences and in subject differences are: (1) The mathematics anxiety of female students is bigger than male students'. (2) The mathematics anxiety of science students is bigger than arts students'.

  1. Correlates of anxiety and depression among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara; Rajesh Sagar

    2011-01-01

    Context: Research has established the relation between diabetes and depression. Both diabetes and anxiety/depression are independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Aims: The present study aims at assessing the prevalence of anxiety/depression among outpatients receiving treatment for type 2 diabetes. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in the endocrinology outpatient department of an urban tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: The instruments used include...

  2. The Correlation of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory with Depression and Anxiety in Veterans with Tinnitus

    OpenAIRE

    Jinwei Hu; Jane Xu; Matthew Streelman; Helen Xu; O’neil Guthrie

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The mechanisms of tinnitus are known to alter neuronal circuits in the brainstem and cortex, which are common to several comorbid conditions. This study examines the relationship between tinnitus and anxiety/depression. Subjects and Methods. Ninety-one male veterans with subjective tinnitus were enrolled in a Veterans Affairs Tinnitus Clinic. The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) was used to assess tinnitus severity. ICD-9 codes for anxiety/depression were used to determine their p...

  3. Stress, anxiety & depression among medical undergraduate students & their socio-demographic correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Shawaz Iqbal; Sandhya Gupta; Venkatarao, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Presence of psychological morbidity in medical undergraduate students has been reported from various countries across the world. Indian studies to document this burden are very few. Therefore, the presence of depression, anxiety and stress among medical undergraduate students was assessed using a previously validated and standardized instrument, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS 42) and the associations with their socio-demographic and personal characteristics wer...

  4. Sex differences in anxiety disorders: Interactions between fear, stress, and gonadal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Lisa Y; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Women are more vulnerable to stress- and fear-based disorders, such as anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite the growing literature on this topic, the neural basis of these sex differences remains unclear, and the findings appear inconsistent. The neurobiological mechanisms of fear and stress in learning and memory processes have been extensively studied, and the crosstalk between these systems is beginning to explain the disproportionate incidence and differences in symptomatology and remission within these psychopathologies. In this review, we discuss the intersect between stress and fear mechanisms and their modulation by gonadal hormones and discuss the relevance of this information to sex differences in anxiety and fear-based disorders. Understanding these converging influences is imperative to the development of more effective, individualized treatments that take sex and hormones into account.

  5. The correlation of anxiety and depression with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

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    Fariborz Rezaeitalab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a common sleep disorder characterized by repeated upper airway obstruction during sleep. While respiratory pauses followed by loud snoring and daytime sleepiness are the main symptoms of OSAS, the patients may complain from sleep disruption, headache, mood disturbance, irritability, and memory impairment. However, the association of sleep apnea with anxiety and depression is not completely understood. Adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, the treatment of choice for OSAS, may be influenced by psychological conditions, especially claustrophobia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of OSAS with anxiety and depression symptoms. This study also investigated the association of anxiety with body mass index (BMI and the severity of OSAS. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 178 adult individuals diagnosed with OSAS at the sleep laboratory between September 2008 and May 2012. The participants were interviewed according to a checklist regarding both their chief complaints and other associated symptoms. The psychological status was assessed according to Beck anxiety inventory (BAI and Beck depression inventory (BDI scoring. The severity of breathing disorder was classified as mild, moderate, and severe based on apnea-hypopnea index (AHI which was ascertained by overnight polysomnography. Daytime sleepiness was assessed by Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS. Results: The mean (SD age of participants was 50.33 years. In terms of sex, 85.5% of the study population were males and14.4% were females. We found no relation between sex and the symptoms of OSAS. Regarding the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms, 53.9% of the individuals had some degree of anxiety, while 46.1% demonstrated depressive symptoms. In terms of OSAS severity, this study showed that OSAS severity was associated with the frequency of anxiety, chocking, and sleepiness (P

  6. Analyzing Musical Self-Esteem and Performance Anxiety Levels of Students Receiving Professional Music Education at Different Institutions in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otacioglu, Sena Gürsen

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to establish which variables cause the interrelations between musical self-esteem and performance-anxiety levels of students receiving professional music education at different institutions to vary. In relation to this framework, "musical self-esteem" and "performance anxiety" scores of students…

  7. School Anxiety Inventory-Short Version: Factorial Invariance and Latent Mean Differences Across Gender and Age in Spanish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Candido J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Marzo, Juan C.; Martinez-Monteagudo, Maria C.; Estevez, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the School Anxiety Inventory-Short Version across gender and age groups for 2,367 Spanish students, ranging in age from 12 to 18 years. Configural and measurement invariance were found across gender and age samples for all dimensions of the School Anxiety Inventory-Short…

  8. Speaking Anxiety among Different Grades of K12: 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th Grades

    OpenAIRE

    Tuğçe Mestan

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the speaking anxiety among different grades, ages and genders of EFL students in Turkey and their views toward speaking anxiety. It was also investigated if they have any strategy to overcome the speaking anxiety. The participants were 80 students from four different schools. The study included four different grades; 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th. 6th and 8th graders (N=30) were from two different secondary schools. 10th and 12th (N=50) graders were from two ...

  9. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents: factorial invariance and latent mean differences across gender and age in Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Candido J; La Greca, Annette M; Marzo, Juan C; Garcia-Lopez, Luis J; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M

    2010-12-01

    Little is known about the factorial invariance across gender and age for self-report measures of social anxiety in adolescence. This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) across gender and age groups in 1570 Spanish adolescents (54% girls), ranging in age from 14 to 17 years. Equality of factor structures was compared using multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. Measurement invariance for the correlated three-factor model of the SAS-A was found across gender and age samples. Analyses of latent mean differences revealed that girls exhibited higher means than boys on two SAS-A subscales, Fear of Negative Evaluation and Social Avoidance and Distress-New (SAD-New). In addition, on the SAD-New subscale, the structured means significantly diminished from 14-year olds to 16- and 17-year olds and from 15-year olds to 17-year olds. Findings are discussed in terms of the use of the SAS-A with Spanish adolescents.

  10. Anti-anxiety activity of hydro alcoholic extract of Scoparia dulcis Linn. assessed using different experimental anxiety models In rodents

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    Arasan Elayaraja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Scoparia dulcis belonging to the family Scrophulariaceae is an valuable medicinal herb, had showed antiviral, antimalarial, anticancer and antidiabetic activities. The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-anxiety activity of crude ethanolic extract of S.dulcis L by various behavioural models. Preliminary phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of  phenols and flavonoids. The extract at 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg was evaluated for anti anxiety activity by  Open-field test [OFT], Elevated plus-maze test [EPM], Elevated Zero-maze test [EZM],, Social interaction test [SI] And  Novelty induced suppressed feeling latency test [FL]   and the results of behavioral tests indicated the dose dependent anti-anxiety activity of  Scoparia dulcis which is comparable to standard. It was concluded that crude ethanolic extract showed anti anxiety activity.Further studies are needed to identify the anxiolytic mechanism(s and the phytochemicals responsible for the observed anxiolytic effect  of the hydroalcoholic extract of Scoparia dulcis. 

  11. Neural Correlates of Suspiciousness and Interactions with Anxiety during Emotional and Neutral Word Processing

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    Joscelyn E Fisher

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Suspiciousness is usually classified as a symptom of psychosis, but it also occurs in depression and anxiety disorders. Though how suspiciousness overlaps with depression is not obvious, suspiciousness does seem to overlap with anxious apprehension and anxious arousal (e.g., verbal iterative processes and vigilance about environmental threat. However, suspiciousness also has unique characteristics (e.g., concern about harm from others and vigilance about social threat. Given that both anxiety and suspiciousness have been associated with abnormalities in emotion processing, it is unclear whether it is the unique characteristics of suspiciousness or the overlap with anxiety that drive abnormalities in emotion processing.. Event-related brain potentials were obtained during an emotion-word Stroop task. Results indicated that suspiciousness interacts with anxious apprehension to modulate initial stimulus perception processes. Suspiciousness is associated with attention to all stimuli regardless of emotion content. In contrast, anxious arousal is associated with a later response to emotion stimuli only. These results suggest that suspiciousness and anxious apprehension share overlapping processes, but suspiciousness alone is associated with a hyperactive early vigilance response. Depression did not interact with suspiciousness to predict response to emotion stimuli. These findings suggest that it may be informative to assess suspiciousness in conjunction with anxiety in order to better understand how these symptoms interact and contribute to dysfunctional emotion processing.

  12. Psychological Correlates of School Bullying Victimization: Academic Self-Concept, Learning Motivation and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims at detecting the association between students' bullying victimization at school and some psychological dimensions, referred to academic self-concept (for both Mathematics and Reading), learning motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, commitment to study) and test anxiety. A questionnaire including these measures was…

  13. Neural correlates of suspiciousness and interactions with anxiety during emotional and neutral word processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Joscelyn E; Miller, Gregory A; Sass, Sarah M; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Edgar, J Christopher; Stewart, Jennifer L; Zhou, Jing; Heller, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Suspiciousness is usually classified as a symptom of psychosis, but it also occurs in depression and anxiety disorders. Though how suspiciousness overlaps with depression is not obvious, suspiciousness does seem to overlap with anxious apprehension and anxious arousal (e.g., verbal iterative processes and vigilance about environmental threat). However, suspiciousness also has unique characteristics (e.g., concern about harm from others and vigilance about social threat). Given that both anxiety and suspiciousness have been associated with abnormalities in emotion processing, it is unclear whether it is the unique characteristics of suspiciousness or the overlap with anxiety that drive abnormalities in emotion processing. Event-related brain potentials were obtained during an emotion-word Stroop task. Results indicated that suspiciousness interacts with anxious apprehension to modulate initial stimulus perception processes. Suspiciousness is associated with attention to all stimuli regardless of emotion content. In contrast, anxious arousal is associated with a later response to emotion stimuli only. These results suggest that suspiciousness and anxious apprehension share overlapping processes, but suspiciousness alone is associated with a hyperactive early vigilance response. Depression did not interact with suspiciousness to predict response to emotion stimuli. These findings suggest that it may be informative to assess suspiciousness in conjunction with anxiety in order to better understand how these symptoms interact and contribute to dysfunctional emotion processing.

  14. Correlates of benzodiazepine dependence in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Leonie; Lohbeck, Marijke; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veena, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are effective in the short term against anxiety and insomnia. However, some BZD users develop BZD dependence after a relatively short period of time. Therefore, we aimed to identify the risk factors of BZD dependence. Design An observational cohort study. Setting The Neth

  15. Different gene sets contribute to different symptom dimensions of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Tineke; Goeman, Jelle J; Monajemi, Ramin; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Hartman, Catharina A; Snieder, Harold; Nolte, Ilja M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Zitman, Frans G

    2012-07-01

    Although many genetic association studies have been carried out, it remains unclear which genes contribute to depression. This may be due to heterogeneity of the DSM-IV category of depression. Specific symptom-dimensions provide a more homogenous phenotype. Furthermore, as effects of individual genes are small, analysis of genetic data at the pathway-level provides more power to detect associations and yield valuable biological insight. In 1,398 individuals with a Major Depressive Disorder, the symptom dimensions of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression, General Distress, Anhedonic Depression, and Anxious Arousal, were measured with the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (30-item Dutch adaptation; MASQ-D30). Association of these symptom dimensions with candidate gene sets and gene sets from two public pathway databases was tested using the Global test. One pathway was associated with General Distress, and concerned molecules expressed in the endoplasmatic reticulum lumen. Seven pathways were associated with Anhedonic Depression. Important themes were neurodevelopment, neurodegeneration, and cytoskeleton. Furthermore, three gene sets associated with Anxious Arousal regarded development, morphology, and genetic recombination. The individual pathways explained up to 1.7% of the variance. These data demonstrate mechanisms that influence the specific dimensions. Moreover, they show the value of using dimensional phenotypes on one hand and gene sets on the other hand.

  16. Neural correlates of second-language communication and the effect of language anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sugiura, Motoaki; Suzuki, Wataru; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-01-01

    Communicative speech is a type of language use that involves goal-directed action targeted at another person based on social interactive knowledge. Previous studies regarding one's first language (L1) have treated the theory of mind system, which is associated with understanding others, and the sensorimotor system, which is associated with action simulation, as important contributors to communication. However, little is known about the neural basis of communication in a second language (L2), which is limited in terms of its use as a communication tool. In this fMRI study, we manipulated the type of speech (i.e., communication vs. description) and the type of language (L1 vs. L2) to identify the specific brain areas involved in L2 communication. We also attempted to examine how the cortical mechanisms underlying L2 speech production are influenced by oral proficiency and anxiety regarding L2. Thirty native Japanese speakers who had learned English as an L2, performed communicative and descriptive speech-production tasks in both L1 and L2 while undergoing fMRI scanning. We found that the only the L2 communication task recruited the left posterior supramarginal gyrus (pSMG), which may be associated with the action simulation or prediction involved in generating goal-directed actions. Furthermore, the neural mechanisms underlying L2 communication, but not L2 description, were sensitive to both oral proficiency and anxiety levels; (a) activation in the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) increased as oral proficiency levels increased, and (b) activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), including the left insula, decreased as L2 anxiety levels increased. These results reflect the successful retrieval of lexical information in a pragmatic context and an inability to monitor social behaviors due to anxiety. Taken together, the present results suggest that L2 communication relies on social skills and is mediated by anxiety and oral proficiency.

  17. Neural correlates of second-language communication and the effect of language anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sugiura, Motoaki; Suzuki, Wataru; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-04-01

    Communicative speech is a type of language use that involves goal-directed action targeted at another person based on social interactive knowledge. Previous studies regarding one's first language (L1) have treated the theory of mind system, which is associated with understanding others, and the sensorimotor system, which is associated with action simulation, as important contributors to communication. However, little is known about the neural basis of communication in a second language (L2), which is limited in terms of its use as a communication tool. In this fMRI study, we manipulated the type of speech (i.e., communication vs. description) and the type of language (L1 vs. L2) to identify the specific brain areas involved in L2 communication. We also attempted to examine how the cortical mechanisms underlying L2 speech production are influenced by oral proficiency and anxiety regarding L2. Thirty native Japanese speakers who had learned English as an L2, performed communicative and descriptive speech-production tasks in both L1 and L2 while undergoing fMRI scanning. We found that the only the L2 communication task recruited the left posterior supramarginal gyrus (pSMG), which may be associated with the action simulation or prediction involved in generating goal-directed actions. Furthermore, the neural mechanisms underlying L2 communication, but not L2 description, were sensitive to both oral proficiency and anxiety levels; a) activation in the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) increased as oral proficiency levels increased, and b) activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), including the left insula, decreased as L2 anxiety levels increased. These results reflect the successful retrieval of lexical information in a pragmatic context and an inability to monitor social behaviors due to anxiety. Taken together, the present results suggest that L2 communication relies on social skills and is mediated by anxiety and oral proficiency.

  18. Estimation of the level of anxiety in rats: differences in results of open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, and Vogel's conflict test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, S K; Nazarova, G A; Alekseeva, E V; Bashkatova, V G

    2013-07-01

    We compared individual anxiety assessed by three standard tests, open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, and Vogel conflict drinking test, in the same animals. No significant correlations between the main anxiety parameters were found in these three experimental models. Groups of animals with high and low anxiety rats were formed by a single parameter and subsequent selection of two extreme groups (10%). It was found that none of the tests could be used for reliable estimation of individual anxiety in rats. The individual anxiety level with high degree of confidence was determined in high-anxiety and low-anxiety rats demonstrating behavioral parameters above and below the mean values in all tests used. Therefore, several tests should be used for evaluation of the individual anxiety or sensitivity to emotional stress.

  19. Individual correlates of self-stigma in patients with anxiety disorders with and without comorbidities

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    Ociskova M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marie Ociskova,1,2 Jan Prasko,1 Dana Kamaradova,1 Ales Grambal,1 Zuzana Sigmundova1 1Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital in Olomouc, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, 2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, Palacky University in Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic Background: A number of psychiatric patients experience stigma connected to prejudices about mental disorders. It has been shown that stigma is most harmful when it is internalized. Most of the studies were performed on individuals either with psychoses or with mood disorders, and hence, there are almost no studies with other diagnostic categories. The goals of this research were to identify factors that are significantly related to self-stigma in patients with anxiety disorders and to suggest possible models of causality for these relationships.Methods: A total of 109 patients with anxiety disorders and possible comorbid depressive or personality disorders, who were admitted to the psychotherapeutic department participated in this study. All patients completed several psychodiagnostic methods, ie, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Version, Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, and Clinical Global Impression (also completed by the senior psychiatrist.Results: The overall level of self-stigma was positively associated with a comorbid personality disorder, more severe symptomatology, more intense symptoms of anxiety and depression, and higher levels of dissociation and harm avoidance. Self-stigma was negatively related to hope, reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness. Multiple regression analysis showed that the most significant factors connected to self-stigma are harm avoidance, the intensity of depressive symptoms, and self-directedness. Two models of causality were proposed and validated. It

  20. Electrophysiological Correlates of Emotional Source Memory in High-Trait-Anxiety Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lixia; Shi, Guangyuan; He, Fan; Zhang, Qin; Oei, Tian P S; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between recognition memory and emotion has become a research hotspot in recent years. Dual process theory posits that familiarity and recollection are two separate processes contributing to recognition memory, but further experimental evidence is needed. The present study explored the emotional context effects on successful and unsuccessful source retrieval amongst 15 high-trait-anxiety college students by using event-related potentials (ERPs) measurement. During study, a happy, fearful, or neutral face picture first was displayed, then a Chinese word was superimposed centrally on the picture and subjects were asked to remember the word and the corresponding type of picture. During the test participants were instructed to press one of four buttons to indicate whether the displayed word was an old or new word. And then, for the old word, indicate whether it had been shown with a fearful, happy, or neutral face during the study. ERPs were generally more positive for remembered words than for new words and the ERP difference was termed as an old/new effect. It was found that, for successful source retrieval (it meant both the item and the source were remembered accurately) between 500 and 700 ms (corresponding to a late positive component, LPC), there were significant old/new effects in all contexts. However, for unsuccessful source retrieval (it meant the correct recognition of old items matched with incorrect source attribution), there were no significant old/new effects in happy and neutral contexts, though significant old/new effects were observed in the fearful context. Between 700 and 1200 ms (corresponding to a late slow wave, LSW), there were significant old/new effects for successful source retrieval in happy and neutral contexts. However, in the fearful context, the old/new effects were reversed, ERPs were more negative for successful source retrieval compared to correct rejections. Moreover, there were significant emotion effects for

  1. Are anxiety and fear separable emotions in driving? A laboratory study of behavioural and physiological responses to different driving environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, M P; Chapman, P

    2016-01-01

    Research into anxiety and driving has indicated that those higher in anxiety are potentially more dangerous on the roads. However, simulator findings suggest that conclusions are mixed at best. It is possible that anxiety is becoming confused with fear, which has a focus on more clearly defined sources of threat from the environment, as opposed to the internal, thought-related process associated with anxiety. This research aimed to measure feelings of fear, as well as physiological and attentional reactions to increasing levels of accident risk. Trait anxiety was also measured to see if it interacted with levels of risk or its associated reactions. Participants watched videos of driving scenarios with varying levels of accident risk and had to rate how much fear they would feel if they were the driver of the car, whilst skin conductance, heart rate, and eye movements were recorded. Analysis of the data suggested that perceptions of fear increased with increasing levels of accident risk, and skin conductance reflected this pattern. Eye movements, when considered alongside reaction times, indicated different patterns of performance according to different dangerous situations. These effects were independent of trait anxiety, which was only associated with higher rates of disliking driving and use of maladaptive coping mechanisms on questionnaires. It is concluded that these results could provide useful evidence in support for training-based programmes; it may also be beneficial to study trait anxiety within a more immersive driving environment and on a larger scale.

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma oxytocin concentrations are positively correlated and negatively predict anxiety in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, D S; Berquist, S W; Trujillo, T H; Garner, J P; Hannah, S L; Hyde, S A; Sumiyoshi, R D; Jackson, L P; Moss, J K; Strehlow, M C; Cheshier, S H; Partap, S; Hardan, A Y; Parker, K J

    2015-09-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) exerts anxiolytic and prosocial effects in the central nervous system of rodents. A number of recent studies have attempted to translate these findings by investigating the relationships between peripheral (e.g., blood, urinary and salivary) OXT concentrations and behavioral functioning in humans. Although peripheral samples are easy to obtain in humans, whether peripheral OXT measures are functionally related to central OXT activity remains unclear. To investigate a possible relationship, we quantified OXT concentrations in concomitantly collected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples from child and adult patients undergoing clinically indicated lumbar punctures or other CSF-related procedures. Anxiety scores were obtained in a subset of child participants whose parents completed psychometric assessments. Findings from this study indicate that plasma OXT concentrations significantly and positively predict CSF OXT concentrations (r=0.56, P=0.0064, N=27). Moreover, both plasma (r=-0.92, P=0.0262, N=10) and CSF (r=-0.91, P=0.0335, N=10) OXT concentrations significantly and negatively predicted trait anxiety scores, consistent with the preclinical literature. Importantly, plasma OXT concentrations significantly and positively (r=0.96, P=0.0115, N=10) predicted CSF OXT concentrations in the subset of child participants who provided behavioral data. This study provides the first empirical support for the use of blood measures of OXT as a surrogate for central OXT activity, validated in the context of behavioral functioning. These preliminary findings also suggest that impaired OXT signaling may be a biomarker of anxiety in humans, and a potential target for therapeutic development in individuals with anxiety disorders.

  3. Study on dental anxiety and correlation factors in patients undergoing prosthodontic treatment%口腔修复患者牙科焦虑及相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆英; 刘丽; 王诗美

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the distribution of dental anxiety in patients undergoing prosthodontic treatment, and to reveal the correlation between dental anxiety and demographic factors and trait anxiety. This survey data may assist to increase the frequency of dental visits and to prompt the corresponding satisfaction. Methods: Subjects consisted of 230 adult patients (twenty to eighty-two years old) undergoing restorative treatment. The patients were asked to complete a self-questionnaire consisting of the demographic information concerning the participants, Corah's dental anxiety scale (DAS), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and questionaire about prosthetics designed by authors. All the statistical analysis was carried out by the SPSS (version 11.5) statistical software package. Results: The average level of anxiety was 9.0 +/-3.1 according to the DAS of the people (the maximum score = 18, the minimum score=4), 13.0% suffered from dental anxiety. A positive correlation was found between dental anxiety and trait anxiety. There was a statistically significant difference between patients who had dentistry experience and the remaining group on the DAS total score (P<0.01). A negative correlation was found between dental anxiety and dentistry experience. Women were more anxious than men (P<0.05). A fear of pain while receiving dental treatment was more easily lead to the occurrence of dental anxiety. Conclusions: This study was found a lower prevalence of dental anxiety in patients undergoing prosthodontic treatment than other therapies. However, individual responses varied greatly. Correlation was found between dental anxiety and some factors including of trait anxiety in the patients. It appeared necessary to screen the phobics out of all patients and then offer them adequate therapy.%目的:了解口腔修复患者牙科焦虑症的流行情况及相关因素,探讨牙科焦虑程度与人口统计学因子、特质焦虑等的关系.方

  4. Test Anxiety and Foreign Language Reading Anxiety in a Reading-Proficiency Test

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    Ya-Chin Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The impact of foreign-language anxiety has been researched with respect to the reading domain; however, how it affects reading proficiency in relation to test anxiety in a test situation is yet to be explored. Approach: This study investigated possible relationships between test anxiety, foreign language reading anxiety and English reading proficiency by using scales published in previous studies. A total of 302 EFL college freshmen enrolled in Freshman English were assessed with the Test Anxiety Scale, the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale and a reading-proficiency test. Data were analyzed by means of Pearson’s product-moment correlations and independent-samples t-tests. Results: Several findings were reported. First, English reading proficiency was found negatively related to test anxiety and foreign language reading anxiety. Second, test anxiety was found correlated positively with foreign language reading anxiety. Third, the reading-proficiency difference between Low Anxiety Testees and High Anxiety Testees did not reach a significance level. Fourth, the reading-proficiency difference between Low Anxiety Readers and High Anxiety Readers did not reach a significance level, either. Conclusion/Recommendations: It was possible that the sample sizes may not be enough to make the reading-proficiency difference between LAT and HAT or between LAR and HAR reach a significance level. In addition, the reading-proficiency test in the form of multiple-choice questions could not have differentiated low anxiety participants from high anxiety ones. In the future, the number of participants should be increased to increase the power of the statistical procedure. In addition, various reading-proficiency assessments should be considered.

  5. A novel visual facial anxiety scale for assessing preoperative anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuezhao; Yumul, Roya; Elvir Lazo, Ofelia Loani; Friedman, Jeremy; Durra, Omar; Zhang, Xiao; White, Paul F.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is currently no widely accepted instrument for measuring preoperative anxiety. The objective of this study was to develop a simple visual facial anxiety scale (VFAS) for assessing acute preoperative anxiety. Methods The initial VFAS was comprised of 11 similarly styled stick-figure reflecting different types of facial expressions (Fig 1). After obtaining IRB approval, a total of 265 participant-healthcare providers (e.g., anesthesiologists, anesthesiology residents, and perioperative nurses) were recruited to participate in this study. The participants were asked to: (1) rank the 11 faces from 0–10 (0 = no anxiety, while 10 = highest anxiety) and then to (2) match one of the 11 facial expression with a numeric verbal rating scale (NVRS) (0 = no anxiety and 10 = highest level of anxiety) and a specific categorical level of anxiety, namely no anxiety, mild, mild-moderate, moderate, moderate-high or highest anxiety. Based on these data, the Spearman correlation and frequencies of the 11 faces in relation to the 11-point numerical anxiety scale and 6 categorical anxiety levels were calculated. The highest frequency of a face assigned to a level of the numerical anxiety scale resulted in a finalized order of faces corresponding to the 11-point numeric rating scale. Results The highest frequency for each of the NVRS anxiety scores were as follow: A0, A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A7, A6, A8, A9 and A10 (Fig 2). For the six categorical anxiety levels, a total of 260 (98.1%) participants chose the face A0 as representing ‘no’ anxiety, 250 (94.3%) participants chose the face A10 as representing ‘highest’ anxiety and 147 (55.5%) participants chose the face A8 as representing ‘moderate-high’ anxiety. Spearman analysis showed a significant correlation between the faces A3 and A5 assigned to the mild-moderate anxiety category (r = 0.58), but A5 was ultimately chosen due to its higher frequency compared to the frequency of A3 (30.6% vs 24.9%)(Fig 3

  6. Individual correlates of self-stigma in patients with anxiety disorders with and without comorbidities

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    Ociskova, Marie; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Grambal, Ales; Sigmundova, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Background A number of psychiatric patients experience stigma connected to prejudices about mental disorders. It has been shown that stigma is most harmful when it is internalized. Most of the studies were performed on individuals either with psychoses or with mood disorders, and hence, there are almost no studies with other diagnostic categories. The goals of this research were to identify factors that are significantly related to self-stigma in patients with anxiety disorders and to suggest possible models of causality for these relationships. Methods A total of 109 patients with anxiety disorders and possible comorbid depressive or personality disorders, who were admitted to the psychotherapeutic department participated in this study. All patients completed several psychodiagnostic methods, ie, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Version, Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, and Clinical Global Impression (also completed by the senior psychiatrist). Results The overall level of self-stigma was positively associated with a comorbid personality disorder, more severe symptomatology, more intense symptoms of anxiety and depression, and higher levels of dissociation and harm avoidance. Self-stigma was negatively related to hope, reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness. Multiple regression analysis showed that the most significant factors connected to self-stigma are harm avoidance, the intensity of depressive symptoms, and self-directedness. Two models of causality were proposed and validated. It seems that the tendency to dissociate in stress increases the probability of development of self-stigma, and this relationship is entirely mediated by avoidance of harm. Conversely, self-directedness lowers the probability of occurrence of self-stigma, and this effect is partly mediated by hope

  7. [Relation between perception of differences and intergroup anxiety: moderator and mediator variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles, María N; Rodríguez, Armando; Navas, Marisol; Rodríguez, Ramón; Betancor, Verónica; Coello, Efrén

    2006-02-01

    This research has two aims: first, to determine the relationship between the intergroup differences perceived and the anxiety experienced by ingroup members in their contact with members of the outgroup. Second, to examine the moderator and/or mediator role of a series of variables considered relevant in the literature on intergroup prejudice, take into account Baron and Kenny's (1986) requeriments. This analysis is carried out from the perspective of the minority group, in this case Moroccan inmigrants to Almería. The results confirm the moderating role of the variables pressure to assimilate and perception of xenophobia and the mediating role of inmigrants' attitude towards local people and social paranoia.

  8. Is a prostate cancer screening anxiety measure invariant across two different samples of age-appropriate men?

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    Linder Suzanne K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to explore the influence of anxiety on decision–making processes, valid anxiety measures are needed. We evaluated a prostate cancer screening (PCS anxiety scale that measures anxiety related to the prostate–specific antigen (PSA test, the digital rectal examination (DRE, and the decision to undergo PCS (PCS-D using two samples in different settings. Methods We assessed four psychometric properties of the scale using baseline data from a randomized, controlled decision aid trial (n = 301, private clinic; n = 149, public. Results The 3-factor measure had adequate internal consistency reliability, construct validity, and discriminant validity. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the 3–factor model did not have adequate fit. When subscales were considered separately, only the 6–item PCS-D anxiety measure had adequate fit and was invariant across clinics. Conclusions Our results support the use of a 6–item PCS-D anxiety measure with age-appropriate men in public and private settings. The development of unique anxiety items relating to the PSA test and DRE is still needed.

  9. A FISTful of Emotion: Individual Differences in Trait Anxiety and Cognitive-Affective Flexibility During Preadolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mărcuş, Oana; Stanciu, Oana; MacLeod, Colin; Liebregts, Heather; Visu-Petra, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive-affective flexibility represents the ability to switch between alternative ways of processing emotional stimuli according to situational demands and individual goals. Although reduced flexibility has been implicated as a mechanism for the development of anxiety, there is very limited data on this relationship in children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to investigate cognitive-affective flexibility in preadolescents (N = 112, 50 girls, 11-12 and 13-14 years old) and to examine if this ability is related to individual differences in trait anxiety. Their interplay was assessed using the modified version of the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST; Jacques and Zelazo 2001) with non-emotional stimuli (geometrical shapes) and the Emotional FIST (EM-FIST) with emotional stimuli (emotional facial expressions). Performance on the EM-FIST indicated that across the whole age range, trials requiring greater cognitive flexibility were more demanding than nonflexible ones, as revealed by both response time and accuracy performance. Moreover, flexibility demands were higher for younger children than for older ones but only in terms of response speed. Individual differences in trait anxiety moderated the impact of flexibility only on the EM-FIST. Being flexible on the EM-FIST was more demanding for high trait anxious children than for their low trait anxious peers. Lastly, overall girls responded faster than boys, but only in the EM-FIST. These findings extend the presently limited literature concerning variability in cognitive-affective flexibility during this sensitive developmental window.

  10. No distinctions between different types of anxiety symptoms in pre-adolescents from the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdinand, RF; van Lang, NDJ; Ormel, J; Verhulst, FC

    2006-01-01

    Studies aimed at anxiety symptoms in children from the general population samples often make distinctions between symptoms of Separation Anxiety, Social Phobia, Panic Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Given the high comorbidity rates between these disorders, the usefulness of such distinct

  11. Perceived Performance Anxiety in Advanced Musicians Specializing in Different Musical Genres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgi, Ioulia; Creech, Andrea; Welch, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Most research on musical performance anxiety has focused on musicians coming from a classical background, and performance anxiety experiences of musicians outside the western classical genre remain under-researched. The aim of this study was to investigate perceived performance anxiety experiences in undergraduate and professional musicians and to…

  12. A Study on Listening Anxiety and Listening Proficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Ju-hong

    2015-01-01

    Three instruments are adopted including the Foreign Language Listening Anxiety Scales (FLLAS), a listening metacog⁃nitive strategy-use questionnaire and a CET-4 listening test. The results indicate that a large proportion of students report experi⁃encing listening anxiety. There is significantly negative correlation between listening anxiety and listening proficiency and there is significant difference in the use of metacognitive strategies across three listening anxiety levels.

  13. Examination of the Relationship among Death Anxiety, Spirituality, Religious Orientation and Existential Anxiety

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    Merve Halıcı Kurtulan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the associations among death anxiety, spiritual tendencies, existential anxiety, and religious tendencies were examined. In addition, this study investigated whether these variables changed with respect to demographic characteristics. The study group was composed of 404 university students. Data was collected by administering the personal demographic form, Death Anxiety Scale, Existential Scale, Religious Tendency Scale, and Spirituality Scale. In line with the purpose of the study, the relational screening model and descriptive methods have been used and participants are identified as study groups. Male participants scored significantly higher than female participants. Gender was not found to have an effect on the other variables. Existential anxiety did not differ within groups with respect to having a religious education. Participants who had received a religious education had higher death anxiety and less spiritual tendencies. Motivation for religious tendencies was found to be external. According to the results, death anxiety and existential anxiety are negatively correlated; existential anxiety and spiritual tendencies are positively correlated; and religious tendencies, which have externally motivations, and spiritual tendencies are negatively correlated. Death anxiety, spiritual tendencies, and religious tendencies predict existential anxiety. As suggestions, the number of studies that examine the associations among existential anxiety, religious tendencies, and spiritual tendencies should be increased, and the quality of religious education should be discussed in detail.

  14. The Effects of Anxiety on the Recognition of Multisensory Emotional Cues with Different Cultural Familiarity

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    Ai Koizumi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Anxious individuals have been shown to interpret others' facial expressions negatively. However, whether this negative interpretation bias depends on the modality and familiarity of emotional cues remains largely unknown. We examined whether trait-anxiety affects recognition of multisensory emotional cues (ie, face and voice, which were expressed by actors from either the same or different cultural background as the participants (ie, familiar in-group and unfamiliar out-group. The dynamic face and voice cues of the same actors were synchronized, and conveyed either congruent (eg, happy face and voice or incongruent emotions (eg, happy face and angry voice. Participants were to indicate the perceived emotion in one of the cues, while ignoring the other. The results showed that when recognizing emotions of in-group actors, highly anxious individuals, compared with low anxious ones, were more likely to interpret others' emotions in a negative manner, putting more weight on the to-be-ignored angry cues. This interpretation bias was found regardless of the cue modality. However, when recognizing emotions of out-group actors, low and high anxious individuals showed no difference in the interpretation of emotions irrespective of modality. These results suggest that trait-anxiety affects recognition of emotional expressions in a modality independent yet cultural familiarity dependent manner.

  15. Sensed presence as a correlate of sleep paralysis distress, social anxiety and waking state social imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonova, Elizaveta; Nielsen, Tore; Stenstrom, Philippe; Simard, Valérie; Frantova, Elena; Donderi, Don

    2008-03-01

    Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) is a common parasomnia characterized by an inability to move or speak and often accompanied by hallucinations of a sensed presence nearby. Recent research has linked ISP, and sensed presence more particularly, with social anxiety and other psychopathologies. The present study used a large sample of respondents to an internet questionnaire (N=193) to test whether these associations are due to a general personality factor, affect distress, which is implicated in nightmare suffering and hypothesized to involve dysfunctional social imagery processes. A new measure, ISP distress, was examined in relation to features of ISP experiences, to self-reported psychopathological diagnosis, to scores on the Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale and to scores on a new questionnaire subscale assessing social imagery in a variety of waking states. Three main results were found: (1) ISP experiences are only weakly associated with a prior diagnosis of mental disorder, (2) sensed presence during ISP is associated preferentially with ISP distress, and (3) ISP distress is associated with dysfunctional social imagery. A general predisposition to affective distress may influence the distress associated with ISP experiences; overly passive social imagery may, in turn, be implicated in this affect distress influence.

  16. Speaking Anxiety among Different Grades of K12: 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th Grades

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    Tuğçe Mestan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the speaking anxiety among different grades, ages and genders of EFL students in Turkey and their views toward speaking anxiety. It was also investigated if they have any strategy to overcome the speaking anxiety. The participants were 80 students from four different schools. The study included four different grades; 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th. 6th and 8th graders (N=30 were from two different secondary schools. 10th and 12th (N=50 graders were from two different high schools. They were all from different age groups and genders. A questionnaire was used as data collection instrument and the data were collected and analysed in both qualitative and quantitative manners. Results showed that students in Turkey have speaking anxiety due to their negative feelings and fear of making mistake while producing language orally. Also it was revealed that students have some basic suggestions to overcome the anxiety but they do not use them and they require teachers’ help and support.

  17. Up-regulation of leucocytes genes implicated in telomere dysfunction and cellular senescence correlates with depression and anxiety severity scores.

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    Jean-Raymond Teyssier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD is frequently associated with chronic medical illness responsible of increased disability and mortality. Inflammation and oxidative stress are considered to be the major mediators of the allostatic load, and has been shown to correlate with telomere erosion in the leucocytes of MDD patients, leading to the model of accelerated aging. However, the significance of telomere length as an exclusive biomarker of aging has been questioned on both methodological and biological grounds. Furthermore, telomeres significantly shorten only in patients with long lasting MDD. Sensitive and dynamic functional biomarkers of aging would be clinically useful to evaluate the somatic impact of MDD. METHODOLOGY: To address this issue we have measured in the blood leucocytes of MDD patients (N=17 and controls (N=16 the expression of two genes identified as robust biomarkers of human aging and telomere dysfunction: p16(INK4a and STMN1. We have also quantified the transcripts of genes involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage at telomeres (OGG1, telomere regulation and elongation (TERT, and in the response to biopsychological stress (FOS and DUSP1. RESULTS: The OGG1, p16(INK4a, and STMN1 gene were significantly up-regulated (25 to 100% in the leucocytes of MDD patients. Expression of p16(INK4a and STMN1 was directly correlated with anxiety scores in the depression group, and that of p16(INK4a, STMN and TERT with the depression and anxiety scores in the combined sample (MDD plus controls. Furthermore, we identified a unique correlative pattern of gene expression in the leucocytes of MDD subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of p16(INK4 and STMN1 is a promising biomarker for future epidemiological assessment of the somatic impact of depressive and anxious symptoms, at both clinical and subclinical level in both depressive patients and general population.

  18. Changes over time in adult dental fear and correlation to depression and anxiety: a cohort study of pregnant mothers and fathers.

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    Tolvanen, Mimmi; Hagqvist, Outi; Luoto, Anni; Rantavuori, Kari; Karlsson, Linnea; Karlsson, Hasse; Lahti, Satu

    2013-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate (i) changes in dental fear over time during pregnancy and after delivery among mothers and fathers and (ii) whether these changes inter-relate to changes in depression and anxiety. Longitudinal pilot data for the FinnBrain Cohort study were used. Of 254 pregnant families, 80% agreed to participate and 60% returned questionnaires at the first data-collection point. After three data-collection points [weeks 18-20 and 32-34 of pregnancy (H18-20 and H32-34, respectively), and 3 months after childbirth], 99 mothers and 74 fathers had filled out at least two out of three Modified Dental Anxiety Scale questionnaires and were included in this study. Other questionnaires used were the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Pregnancy Related Anxiety Questionnaire. All scales were analyzed as sum scores. Among mothers, dental fear decreased during late pregnancy and increased slightly after childbirth, but no statistically significant correlations between dental fear and depression or anxiety, except for fear of giving birth, were found. Among fathers dental fear increased and was correlated with depression and anxiety. Dental fear seems to fluctuate among women during pregnancy and could be affected by hormonal changes.

  19. Should Test Anxiety Be Measured Differently for Males and Females? Examination of Measurement Bias across Gender on Measures of Test Anxiety for Middle and High School, and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined measurement invariance across gender and gender differences on two measures of test anxiety developed for U.S. middle and high school, and college students. It was hypothesized that measurement invariance and gender differences would be found on the two measures of test anxiety, suggesting no separate scoring system is…

  20. Reduced white matter integrity and its correlation with clinical symptom in first-episode, treatment-naive generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Qian, Shaowen; Liu, Kai; Li, Bo; Li, Min; Xin, Kuolin; Sun, Gang

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore white matter microstructural alterations in the patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique, and to assess neural associations with the symptom severity. Twenty-eight first-episode, treatment-naive GAD patients without co-morbidities and 28 matched healthy controls underwent DTI acquisition and clinical symptom assessments. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to analyze white matter microstructural abnormalities in patients with GAD, as well as their associations with clinical symptom scores in a voxel-wise manner. Compared to controls, patients showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values in 7 clusters of white matter in bilateral uncinate fasciculus, body of corpus callosum, left middle cingulum (cingulate gyrus), bilateral anterior thalamic radiation and corona radiate, right anterior limb of internal capsule, bilateral inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus, bilateral superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and increased mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity in widespread white matter regions. Reduced FA values in right uncinate fasciculus, left cingulum bundle showed significantly negative correlations with clinical symptom severity for Hamilton anxiety Rating Scale scores. Our findings suggest microstructural abnormalities in uncinate fasciculus and cingulum bundle play key roles in the underlying neural basis of GAD.

  1. Neural correlates of psychotherapy in anxiety and depression: a meta-analysis.

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    Irene Messina

    Full Text Available Several studies have used neuroimaging methods to identify neural change in brain networks associated to emotion regulation after psychotherapy of depression and anxiety. In the present work we adopted a meta-analytic technique specific to neuroimaging data to evaluate the consistence of empirical findings and assess models of therapy that have been proposed in the literature. Meta-analyses were conducted with the Activation Likelihood Estimation technique, which evaluates the overlap between foci of activation across studies. The analysis included 16 studies found in Pubmed (200 foci of activation and 193 patients. Separate meta-analyses were conducted on studies of 1 depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and panic disorder investigated with rest state metabolism (6 studies, 70 patients; 2 depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and panic disorder investigated with task-related activation studies (5 studies, 65 patients; 3 the previous studies considered jointly; and 4 phobias investigated with studies on exposure-related activation (5 studies, 57 patients. Studies on anxiety and depression gave partially consistent results for changes in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and in the posterior cingulated gyrus/precuneus. Several areas of change in the temporal lobes were also observed. Studies on the therapy of phobia were consistent with a reduction of activity in medial temporal areas. The cluster of change in the prefrontal cortex may refer to increased recruitment of control processes, as hypothesized by influential models of emotion regulation changes due to psychotherapy. However, not all areas associated with controlled emotion regulation were detected in the meta-analysis, while involvement of midline structures suggested changes in self-related information processing. Changes in phobia were consistent with reduced reactivity to phobic stimuli.

  2. [Evaluation of exploratory activity and anxiety in rats with different levels of impulsive behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levandovskaia, A A; Zaĭchenko, M I; Merzhanova, G H; Salozhin, S V

    2013-01-01

    Rats were divided into 3 groups according to their preference for reinforcements of different values. Animals that preferred valuable but delayed reinforcement in more than 70% of cases formed as self-controlled group, less than 30% of cases formed an impulsive group, the rest formed an ambivalent group. Behavior of animals of different groups was scored for exploratory activity and anxiety in x-maze, fear-conditioning and novelty suppressed feeding. The least active and the most anxious in all procedures used were self-controlled rats. Ambivalent animals as compared to self-controlled and impulsive rats were the least anxious in x-maze and had more successful trials in novelty suppressed feeding test. Impulsive animals demonstrated greater percent of freezing response during acquisition of conditioned fear and they were quicker in finding food in novel environment.

  3. Level of school anxiety of girls aged 12-13 years old with different kinds of postural

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    Tamozhanskaya A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to identify the level of school anxiety of girls with signs of normal, round-shouldered, lardotic, kyphotic and straightened by the types of carriages during a school year. Material : the study involved 137 girls 12-13 years old. Was held diagnostics level of school anxiety Phillips. Results : It was found that girls with normal posture there is a general anxiety in school, fear of the situation knowledge test. With stooping - frustration needs to succeed, fear of self-expression. With lardotic - frustration needs to succeed, fear of self-expression. With kyphotic - general anxiety at school, frustration needs to succeed, fear not meet the expectations of others. With straight - manifestation of the general emotional state, negative attitudes and experience of anxiety in the situation knowledge test. Conclusions : factors of school anxiety have different effects on girls. It was established that during adolescence the need to integrate and correction of psychological state and the musculoskeletal system. This is due to the formation of morphological features, formation of character traits.

  4. Clinical, functional and health-related quality of life correlates of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with systemic sclerosis: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Christelle Nguyen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical, functional and health-related quality of life (HRQoL correlates of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc. METHODS: Three-hundred-and-eighty-one patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology and/or the Leroy and Medsger criteria for SSc were assessed for visceral involvement, disability and HRQoL (assessed by SF-36. Clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression were evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HAD (defined cut-off≥8. RESULTS: 9.2% the patients had limited SSc, 50.5% limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc, and 40.3% diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc. Overall, 40.4% and 58.8% of the patients had clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Compared to patients without clinically significant symptoms of depression, patients with clinically significant symptoms of depression had poorer health status, HRQoL mental and physical component, and greater global disability, hand disability and aesthetic impairment. Compared to patients without clinically significant symptoms of anxiety, patients with clinically significant symptoms of anxiety had poorer SF-36 mental and physical component scores. On multivariable analysis, excluding mental component score of SF-36, variables independently associated with clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety were global disability and physical component of SF-36, plus female gender for clinically significant symptoms of anxiety only. Remarkably, patients with and without clinically significant psychiatric symptoms were comparable for all disease-related clinical features assessed. CONCLUSION: High levels of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression are observed among SSc patients. Clinically significant psychiatric symptoms are rather associated with increased disability and altered HRQoL, than with disease-specific organ

  5. Sex differences in diazepam effects and parvalbumin-positive GABA neurons in trait anxiety Long Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenelle, Rebecca; Neugebauer, Nichole M; Niedzielak, Timothy; Donaldson, S Tiffany

    2014-08-15

    In clinical populations, prevalence rates for a number of anxiety disorders differ between males and females and gonadal hormones are thought to contribute to these differences. While these hormones have been shown to modulate the anxiolytic effects of the benzodiazepine agonist diazepam in some models, findings are inconsistent. Here, we tested for sex differences in response to anxiogenic stimuli following a 30-min diazepam (1.0mg/kg) pre-treatment in male and female rats showing high (HAn) and low (LAn) anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus maze. Acute diazepam administration resulted in decreased anxiety-like behavior only in HAn males as demonstrated by a significant increase in percent open arm time in the elevated plus maze (EPM). Immunohistochemical analysis for parvalbumin (PV; a calcium-binding protein that selectively stains GABAergic neurons) in central amygdala (CeA), caudate putamen (CPu) and the hippocampus indicated the number of GABAergic interneurons in these areas differed across sex and anxiety trait. In the CPu, females had significantly more PV-immunoreactive (IR) cells than males, and LAn females had greater PV-IR neurons than HAn females. In the CeA, males displayed an increased number of PV-IR neurons compared to females, with no differences found between LAn and HAn. Further, trait differences were evident in the CA2 region of the hippocampus, regardless of sex. Taken together, these data suggest that gonadal hormones and trait anxiety may influence the sensitivity to the anti-anxiety effects of diazepam and these differences may be due in part to the distribution of GABA-containing interneurons.

  6. [Subjective verbal methods in preoperative measurement of anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfling, S; Hutner, G; Ott, H; Fichte, K; Doenicke, A

    1988-06-01

    The role of preoperative anxiety in perioperative adaptation is viewed in two different ways. Janis suggested that anxiety is a drive that evokes the cognitive work of worrying. Leventhal stresses the importance of coping behavior for adaptation, while anxiety may or may not accompany this coping process. Both theories have empirical support. The aim of this study was to determine whether both theories could show empirical support because the scientists chose different methods: Janis used interviews, Leventhal and Lazarus anxiety scales. The study analyzed the pre- and postoperative emotional reactions of surgical patients with three different methods of anxiety measurement: an anxiety scale, a fear thermometer, and a psychoanalytic interview (Gottschalk-Gleser content analysis method). The different methods were compared and related to the adaptation behavior (Table 3). The data showed a clear interaction between the selected methods and respective theories about the effects of preoperative anxiety on intra- and postoperative adaptation. The anxiety scales showed no correlation with adaptation behavior (blood pressure and heart rate during surgery; postoperative pain medication) and were not related to the anxiety scores obtained from the interview (content analysis). On the other hand, the interview anxiety measurements showed a clear relationship between separation anxiety (and also shame anxiety), physiological excitement during surgery (increase in heart rate), and postoperative medication (increased analgesics and tranquilizers). The patients who worried about the risks of surgery (Verletzungsangst, see Fig. 3) had very good perioperative adjustment, so that the quality of anxiety measured in the interview was very important for the prediction of adaptation.

  7. The crossroads of anxiety: distinct neurophysiological maps for different symptomatic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerez M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Montserrat Gerez,1–3 Enrique Suárez,2,3 Carlos Serrano,2,3 Lauro Castanedo,2 Armando Tello1,3 1Departamento de Neurofisiología Clínica, Hospital Español de México, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Departamento de Psiquiatría, Hospital Español de México, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Unidad de Postgrado, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico Background: Despite the devastating impact of anxiety disorders (ADs worldwide, long-lasting debates on causes and remedies have not solved the clinician’s puzzle: who should be treated and how? Psychiatric classifications conceptualize ADs as distinct entities, with strong support from neuroscience fields. Yet, comorbidity and pharmacological response suggest a single “serotonin dysfunction” dimension. Whether AD is one or several disorders goes beyond academic quarrels, and the distinction has therapeutic relevance. Addressing the underlying dysfunctions should improve treatment response. By its own nature, neurophysiology can be the best tool to address dysfunctional processes.Purpose: To search for neurophysiological dysfunctions and differences among panic disorder (PD, agoraphobia-social-specific phobia, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD and generalized anxiety disorder.Methods: A sample population of 192 unmedicated patients and 30 aged-matched controls partook in this study. Hypothesis-related neurophysiological variables were combined into ten independent factors: 1 dysrhythmic patterns, 2 delta, 3 theta, 4 alpha, 5 beta (whole-head absolute power z-scores, 6 event-related potential (ERP combined latency, 7 ERP combined amplitude (z-scores, 8 magnitude, 9 site, and 10 site of hyperactive networks. Combining single variables into representative factors was necessary because, as in all real-life phenomena, the complexity of interactive processes cannot be addressed through single variables and the multiplicity of potentially implicated variables would demand an extremely large

  8. Escitalopram in the treatment of social anxiety disorder: analysis of efficacy for different clinical subgroups and symptom dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Dan J; Kasper, Siegfried; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford

    2004-01-01

    Escitalopram has demonstrated efficacy for the acute treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in two placebo-controlled trials and for long-term treatment in a relapse-prevention study. Social anxiety disorder is a heterogeneous disorder. This study questions whether this new selective serotonin...... reuptake inhibitor is effective across different subgroups of patients. Data from two randomised, placebo-controlled, 12-week escitalopram SAD trials were pooled. General linear models were used to determine the efficacy of escitalopram in different patient subgroups. Furthermore, a factor analysis...... of the primary efficacy scale, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), was undertaken, and a determination made of whether treatment effects were similar for the different symptom dimensions. Escitalopram was effective in both younger and older patients, in male and female patients, and in patients with more...

  9. In the company we keep: social physique anxiety levels differ around parents and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of two scales which assessed social physique anxiety (SPA) in the context of peers (peer SPA) and parents (parent SPA), and differences in reported levels of peer SPA and parent SPA. Young adults (N = 381, 161 males, M(age) = 18.69 years) completed self-report measures. Results supported the internal consistency, convergent validity and factor structure of the peer SPA and parent SPA scales. Also, participants reported significantly higher levels of peer SPA compared to parent SPA. Findings offer preliminary support for the investigation of contextualized SPA using the scales tested in this study, and suggest more research is needed to better understand the processes that may increase or decrease SPA when surrounded by peers and parents.

  10. Alterations in white matter volume and its correlation with clinical characteristics in patients with generalized anxiety disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Chung-Man [Chonnam National University Hospital, Research Institute for Medical Imaging, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Gwang-Woo [Chonnam National University Hospital, Research Institute for Medical Imaging, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Only a few morphological studies have focused on changes in white matter (WM) volume in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We evaluated alterations in WM volume and its correlation with symptom severity and duration of illness in adults with GAD. The 44 subjects were comprised of 22 patients with GAD (13 males and nine females) diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and 22 age-matched healthy controls (13 males and nine females). High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were processed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis based on diffeomorphic anatomical registration using the exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm in SPM8. Patients with GAD showed significantly reduced WM volume, particularly in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC), and midbrain. In addition, DLPFC volume was negatively correlated with GAD-7 score and illness duration. ALIC volume was negatively correlated with GAD-7 score. Female patients had significantly less orbitofrontal cortex volume compared to that in male patients. The findings demonstrate localized changes in WM volume associated with cognitive and emotional dysfunction in patients with GAD. The finding will be helpful for understanding the neuropathology in patients with GAD. (orig.)

  11. [Anxiety level during morphine abstinence correlates with the status of nitrergic system in the rat hippocampus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peregud, D I; Vorontsova, O N; Iakovlev, A A; Panchenko, L F; Guliaeva, N V

    2007-04-01

    Opiate addiction is accompanied by long-term structural and functional changes in brain regions persisting during abstinence, this status being an experimental model of the aberrant neuroplasticity. Nitric oxide is known to be involved in mechanisms of psychopathological events during opiate abstinence. In this study, indices of a nitregic system (nitric synthase activity--NOS, nitrites and nitrates concentration--NOx-) were measured in the rat brain region during morphine abstinence. Prior to this, the rats were tested for anxiety in an elevated plus maze. NOS activity increased in hippocampus 3 days after morphine withdrawal, while NOx--6 days after withdrawal. No changes of the nitrergic system could be revealed in other brain regions under study. Six days (but not 3 days) after morphine withdrawal, rats visited the open arms of the plus maze more frequently and spent more time in these arms as compared with respective controls. The data suggest that nitrergic system changes in the hippocampus may be involved in molecular mechanisms of behavioural alteration during morphine abstinence in rats.

  12. Childrearing Style in Families of Anxiety-Disordered Children: Between-Family and within-Family Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhout, Ingeborg E.; Markus, Monica Th.; Borst, Sophie R.; Hoogendijk, Thea H. G.; Dingemans, Peter M. A. J.; Boer, Frits

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether (1) parents of anxiety-disordered (AD) children differed from those of non-clinical controls in their childrearing style, and whether (2) the child-rearing style of parents towards AD children is different from that towards their siblings. A clinical sample of 25 AD children, age range 8-13 years, was compared with 25…

  13. Anxiety and depression correlate with disease and quality-of-life parameters in Chinese patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu X

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Xujuan Xu,1,* Biyu Shen,2,3,* Aixian Zhang,4 Jingwei Liu,3 Zhanyun Da,4 Hong Liu,4 Zhifeng Gu4 1Department of Nursing, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 2School of Nursing, Nantong University, 3Department of Nursing, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 4Department of Rheumatology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Aim: To evaluate the relationship between mental and physical health in Chinese patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and to identify the predictors of psychological status.Methods: Patients with AS (n=103 and healthy controls (n=121 were surveyed between 2010 and 2011 (cross-sectional study. The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index, pain visual analog scale, Health Assessment Questionnaire, revised Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, revised Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Short-Form 36 questionnaire were administered.Results: The frequency of anxiety and depression in patients with AS was higher than that in healthy controls (P<0.001. Severe disease status and reduced quality of life (QoL were associated with anxiety and depression. Disease activity and somatic pain were more severe in the anxious and depressed subgroups. Impaired physical functioning (assessed by Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index was higher in the anxious and depressed subgroups, while measures of spinal mobility (assessed by Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index were not associated with depression. Lower QoL was observed in the depressed subgroup.Conclusion: Low socioeconomic status, lack of health insurance, and fatigue contributed to depression in Chinese patients with AS. These patients may require a psychological care approach that is different from those of other countries. Keywords: ankylosing spondylitis, disease activity

  14. Salivary Cortisol Levels in Persons With and Without Different Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Zitman, Frans G.; van Pelt, Johannes; DeRijk, Roel H.; Verhagen, Jolanda C. M.; van Dyck, Richard; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between several subtypes of anxiety disorders and various cortisol indicators in a large cohort study. Anxiety disorders have been suggested to be linked to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, although results are scarce and inconsistent. No earl

  15. Profiles of School Anxiety: Differences in Social Climate and Peer Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Monteagudo, Maria C.; Ingles, Candido J.; Trianes, Maria V.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: School anxiety is often defined as a set of symptoms grouped into cognitive, psychophysiological and motor responses emitted by an individual in school situations that can be perceived as threatening and/or dangerous. School anxiety may be influenced--among other relevant school variables - by the perception of social climate and the…

  16. The reported pain coping strategies of pediatric burn survivors-does a correlation exist between coping style and development of anxiety disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Ruth Brubaker; Alam, Now Bahar; Bay, R Curt; Sadler, Ian J; Foster, Kevin N; Caruso, Daniel M

    2015-01-01

    Unresolved pediatric pain, both acute and chronic, has been associated with negative short- and long-term physical and mental health outcomes. This study sought to determine whether an association existed between self-reported pain coping skills and anxiety levels in a cohort of pediatric burn patients, and whether gender would influence their responses. The sample comprised burn-injured children in attendance at one of three mature burn camp sites. The self-report measures utilized included the 41-item Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders Child Version and the 39-item Pain Coping Questionnaire. Parental consent was obtained. A psychologist administered the measures. Participants included 187 youth, mean age 12.4 ± 2.4 years, girls (n = 89) boys (n = 98) with 67% reporting visible burn scars. Among boys, the use of Internalizing Coping Strategies was moderately correlated with elevated scores on Panic Disorder symptoms (r = .42, P Strategies was associated with elevated Generalized Anxiety (r = .51, P Strategies did not have any elevated anxiety scores. These findings suggest that burn-injured children, who employ Internalization as their pain coping strategy, may be more vulnerable to the development of long-term anxiety disorder, which, if left untreated may result in a negative psycho/social outcome. Applicability to Practice: Assessment of in-patient pediatric patients with the Pain Coping Questionnaire may help to identify children who are more likely to experience long-term anxiety. Future studies should seek to confirm these findings and determine whether improved pain management and early treatment of anxiety can help to diminish the long-term implications of unhelpful pain strategies and increased anxiety in burn-injured children.

  17. Individual differences at high perceptual load: the relation between trait anxiety and selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Naomi; Bredemeier, Keith

    2011-06-01

    Attentional control theory (Eysenck et al., 2007) posits that taxing attentional resources impairs performance efficiency in anxious individuals. This theory, however, does not explicitly address if or how the relation between anxiety and attentional control depends upon the perceptual demands of the task at hand. Consequently, the present study examined the relation between trait anxiety and task performance using a perceptual load task (Maylor & Lavie, 1998). Sixty-eight male college students completed a visual search task that indexed processing of irrelevant distractors systematically across four levels of perceptual load. Results indicated that anxiety was related to difficulty suppressing the behavioural effects of irrelevant distractors (i.e., decreased reaction time efficiency) under high, but not low, perceptual loads. In contrast, anxiety was not associated with error rates on the task. These findings are consistent with the prediction that anxiety is associated with impairments in performance efficiency under conditions that tax attentional resources.

  18. Resting-state neuroimaging studies: a new way of identifying differences and similarities among the anxiety disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Andrew; Thome, Janine; Frewen, Paul; Lanius, Ruth A

    2014-06-01

    This review examines recent functional neuroimaging research of resting-state regional connectivity between brain regions in anxiety disorders. Studies compiled in the PubMed- National Center for Biotechnology Information database targeting resting-state functional connectivity in anxiety disorders were reviewed. Diagnoses included posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder (PD), and specific phobia (SP). Alterations to network connectivity were demonstrated in PTSD, GAD, SAD, OCD, and PD in several resting-state investigations. Differences from control subjects were primarily observed in the default mode network within PTSD, SAD, and OCD. Alterations within the salience network were observed primarily in PTSD, GAD, and SAD. Alterations in corticostriatal networks were uniquely observed in OCD. Finally, alterations within somatosensory networks were observed in SAD and PD investigations. Resting-state studies involving SPs as a primary diagnosis (with or without comorbidities) were not generated during the literature search. The emerging use of resting-state paradigms may be an effective method for understanding associations between anxiety disorders. Targeted studies of PD and SPs, meta-analyses of the studies conducted to date, and studies of the impact of specific comorbid presentations, are recommended future research directions.

  19. Animal models of human psychopathology based on individual differences in novelty-seeking and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Cornelius R; Ho, Ying-Jui; Schwarting, Rainer K W

    2008-10-01

    The role of individual factors in behavioural neuroscience is an important, but still neglected area of research. The present review aims to give, first, an outline of the most elaborated theory on animal behaviour, and second, an overview of systematic approaches of historic and present animal models of human psychopathology based on individual differences. This overview will be focused on animal models of unselected subjects (i.e. natural variance of a specific behaviour within a given population) and selected breeding for a specific behaviour. Accordingly, an outline of the personality model from Gray and McNaughton of individual behaviour in animals is given first. Then, a comprehensive overview of past and current animal models in novelty-seeking (i.e. psychomotor activation and exploration behaviour) based on systematic individual differences and its relationship to addiction is presented. Third, this will be followed by a comprehensive overview of individual differences in previous and present animal models for anxiety. Finally, critical aspects of such approaches in animal research are discussed, and suggestions are given where to go from here.

  20. Sources of Individual Differences in L2 Narrative Production: The Contribution of Input, Processing, and Output Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebits, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive task complexity and individual differences in input, processing, and output anxiety (IPOA) on L2 narrative production. The participants were enrolled in a bilingual secondary educational program. They performed two narrative tasks in speech and writing. The participants' level of…

  1. Algorithm for image fusion via gradient correlation and difference statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Wang, Li-juan; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lian-fa; Mao, Ningjie

    2016-10-01

    In order to overcome the shortcoming of traditional image fusion based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT), a novel image fusion algorithm based on gradient correlation and difference statistics is proposed in this paper. The source images are decomposed into low-frequency coefficients and high-frequency coefficients by DWT: the former are fused by a local gradient correlation based scheme to extract the local feature information in source images; the latter are fused by a neighbor difference statistics based scheme to reserve the conspicuous edge information. Finally, the fused image is reconstructed by inverse DWT. Experimental results show that the proposed method performs better than other methods in reserving details.

  2. ERα基因多态性与更年期焦虑抑郁发生的相关性%Correlation between polymorphism of estrogen receptor a gene and anxiety and depression during menopause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伯荣; 胡佳佳; 张慧敏; 张敏; 邓燕华

    2011-01-01

    目的:探索ERa基因多态性与更年期焦虑抑郁发生的相关性.方法:收集更年期焦虑抑郁患者78例(焦虑抑郁组)和无焦虑抑郁症状的更年期妇女72例(对照组),采用限制性片段酶切基因多态性分析方法(RFLP)分析所有样本的Pvu II、Xba I基因多态性,采用Greene更年期症状量表分析临床症状群的特征,采用心理症状评分(HAMD,HAMA)评定样本的抑郁焦虑程度,采用简易精神智力评定量表(MMSE)评定认知功能.结果:①焦虑抑郁组的MMSE评分和E,,P水平较对照组下降(P 0.05),Logistics 回归分析显示,ERa基因型与各症状群无相关性.ERa基因型与MMSE的评分呈现负相关(r=0.108,P=0.033).结论:ERa基因的Pvu II和Xba I的等位基因与焦虑抑郁障碍的发生无相关性,ERa Pvu II的Pp基因型与焦虑抑郁障碍的认知功能下降相关.%Objective: To explore the correlation between polymorphism of estrogen receptor α gene and anxiety and depression during menopause.Methods: 78 menopausal women with anxiety and depression ( anxiety - depression group) and 72 menopausal women without anxiety and depression (control group) were selected, RFLP was used to analyze the polymorphisms of Pvu Ⅱ and Xba Ⅰ ,GreeneClimacteric -Scale was used to analyze the characteristics of clinical symptoms, Psychological symptom scores (HAMD, HAMA) were used to assess the degrees of anxiety and depression, MMSE was used to assess the cognitive function.Results: The MMSE score, estrogen and progesterone levels in anxiety - depression group were significantly lower than those in control group ( P < 0.01 ).The scores of anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms and somatic symptoms in anxiety- depression group assessed by Greene -Climacteric -Scale were significantly higher than those in control group, the score of vasomotor symptoms decreased significantly ( P < 0.01 ).There was no significant difference in allele frequency and genotype of estrogen receptor

  3. The Effect of English Learning Anxiety on Iranian High-School Students’ English Language Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Atef-Vahid

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored English language learning anxiety among 38 third-year high school students in English classrooms and its relationship with overall English achievement. Students’ foreign language anxiety was surveyed and analyzed using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986 [14] and their English achievement was measured through their final standardized English exam administered by the school. The results showed that although some students felt extremely confident and relaxed, however, one-third of the
    students experienced moderate to high-anxiety levels while learning the English language in class. Correlational analysis revealed that the total FLCAS scores had a significantly moderate negative correlation (r=-.0586, p<.01 with the total final English exams scores of the participants. Anxiety was also analyzed according to the four different variables of anxiety (communication anxiety, test anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, English classroom anxiety which were measured by the FLCAS. The results of the Pearson correlational analysis indicated that English achievement was modestly correlated with all four anxiety variables (p<0.01. Of the four types of anxiety, English Classroom anxiety had the highest correlational value. Finally, possible anxiety provoking factors
    leading to these findings are examined and discussed, and some pedagogical implications are proposed.

  4. The prediction of undergraduates’ self-regulation strategies, motivational beliefs, attitudes towards English, and speaking anxiety on foreign language classroom anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Bademcioglu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences are considered as important factors in the language learning process. Apart from individual differences, affective factors such as attitudes and motivation of individuals and their anxiety levels which affect the individuals’ language learning directly or indirectly are also believed as significant impacts in this process. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to examine the relationship between self-regulation strategies, motivational beliefs, attitudes, speaking anxiety and foreign language classroom anxiety and to investigate the predictive power of these variables for foreign language classroom anxiety. The relational model was used in the current study. The research group included 320 male (65.6 % and 168 female (34.4 % English preparatory students at Istanbul Technical University. Attitudes toward English Lesson Scale, Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety Questionnaire, The Motivational Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale were used as the data collection tool. The statistical methods used for analyses were correlation and multiple regression. The findings indicated that there is a significant positive correlation between foreign language classroom anxiety and self-regulation, test anxiety, and foreign language speaking anxiety. Also, there is significant negative correlation between foreign language classroom anxiety and self-efficacy intrinsic value perception, and attitude towards English. Moreover, self-efficacy, test anxiety, attitude towards English, and foreign language speaking anxiety are predictors of the university students’ foreign language classroom anxiety.

  5. Smartphone-based Music Listening to Reduce Pain and Anxiety Before Coronarography: A Focus on Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guétin, Stéphane; Brun, Luc; Deniaud, Maelle; Clerc, Jean-Michel; Thayer, Julian F; Koenig, Julian

    2016-07-01

    Background • Music Care is a smartphone-based application providing a musical intervention for the management of pain and anxiety in a clinical setting. Coronarography is a medical procedure frequently associated with examination anxiety. Objectives • The study intended to perform an initial evaluation of the application for use with patients undergoing a coronarography. Design • The research team performed an uncontrolled, observational study. Setting • The study took place at Nouméa General Hospital in Nouméa, New Caledonia, France. Participants • Participants were 35 patients, 17 women and 18 men, who were undergoing a coronarography between November 2010 and April 2011 at the Nouméa General Hospital. Intervention • Participants listened to a standardized musical sequence of adjustable length by choosing a preferred style of music (eg, classic rock or folk music) from a variety of choices that the research team had chosen to include in the application. Outcome Measures • Before and after listening to the music, all participants were asked to rate their anxiety and pain on an 11-item, visual analogue scale and to complete a questionnaire on their satisfaction with use of the application. Results • The paired sample t test revealed a significant reduction in participants' anxiety (t33 = 4.12, P music. No significant reduction in self-reported pain occurred; however, only a few participants reported pain associated with the procedure. No significant sex differences existed. Women and men both showed reduced anxiety after listening to music as well as reported a high level of satisfaction in using the Music Care application. Conclusions • The smartphone-based Music Care application is an easy-to-use tool to reduce anxiety in patients undergoing coronarography. Future large-scale, controlled trials are necessary to compare its effectiveness with other interventions. Both women and men can benefit from the use of the application.

  6. Quantum correlations dynamics under different non-markovian environmental models

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ying-Jie; Shan, Chuan-Jia; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the roles of different environmental models on quantum correlation dynamics of two-qubit composite system interacting with two independent environments. The most common environmental models (the single-Lorentzian model, the squared-Lorentzian model, the two-Lorentzian model and band-gap model) are analyzed. First, we note that for the weak coupling regime, the monotonous decay speed of the quantum correlation is mainly determined by the spectral density functions of these different environments. Then, by considering the strong coupling regime we find that, contrary to what is stated in the weak coupling regime, the dynamics of quantum correlation depends on the non-Markovianity of the environmental models, and is independent of the environmental spectrum density functions.

  7. Race and Sex Differences in College Student Physical Activity Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Laura H.; Raedeke, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess sex/race differences on psychosocial correlates of physical activity among college students. Methods: Survey research protocol. Results: Students (n = 636) exercised an average of 3.5 days per week, with black females being the least active. Across subgroups, health/fitness was rated as the most important motive for exercise,…

  8. Anxiety symptoms in Chinese and German adolescents: their relationship with early learning experiences, perfectionism, and learning motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essau, Cecilia A; Leung, Patrick W L; Conradt, Judith; Cheng, Halina; Wong, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency and correlates of DSM-IV anxiety disorder symptoms among non-referred adolescents in Germany and in Hong Kong. A total of 1,022 adolescents (594 from Germany and 428 from Hong Kong) between the ages of 12 and 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in Hong Kong reported significantly higher levels of anxiety symptoms than adolescents in Germany. Anxiety symptoms showed different correlates in different cultures. Specifically, academic motivational goals to compete to get good grades and to be rewarded for their performance correlated significantly with anxiety symptoms in Hong Kong. In Germany, anxiety symptoms correlated significantly with reinforcement received for anxiety-related problems (i.e., instrumental learning) and with parental verbal transmission about the danger of anxiety (i.e., informational learning). The findings underscore the importance of cultural factors on adolescent's anxiety.

  9. Optimization of integer wavelet transforms based on difference correlation structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Liu, Guizhong; Zhang, Zhongwei

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, a novel lifting integer wavelet transform based on difference correlation structure (DCCS-LIWT) is proposed. First, we establish a relationship between the performance of a linear predictor and the difference correlations of an image. The obtained results provide a theoretical foundation for the following construction of the optimal lifting filters. Then, the optimal prediction lifting coefficients in the sense of least-square prediction error are derived. DCCS-LIWT puts heavy emphasis on image inherent dependence. A distinct feature of this method is the use of the variance-normalized autocorrelation function of the difference image to construct a linear predictor and adapt the predictor to varying image sources. The proposed scheme also allows respective calculations of the lifting filters for the horizontal and vertical orientations. Experimental evaluation shows that the proposed method produces better results than the other well-known integer transforms for the lossless image compression.

  10. Culture of honour theory and social anxiety: Cross-regional and sex differences in relationships among honour-concerns, social anxiety and reactive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Ashley N; Buckner, Julia D; Weeks, Justin W

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with the "flight or fight" model of anxiety, social anxiety may incite withdrawal or attack; yet, it is unclear why some socially anxious individuals are vulnerable to aggress. It may be that culture impacts tendencies to "fight" or "flee" from social threat. Honour cultures, including the American South, permit or even promote aggression in response to honour-threats. Thus, social anxiety in the South may be more associated with aggression than in non-honour cultures. In the current sample, region moderated the relation between social anxiety and aggression; social anxiety related positively to reactive (but not proactive) aggression among Southerners (n = 285), but not Midwesterners (n = 258). Participant sex further moderated the relationship, such that it was significant only for Southern women. Also, for Southerners, prototypically masculine honour-concerns mediated the relationship between social anxiety and reactive aggression. Cultural factors may play key roles in aggressive behaviour among some socially anxious individuals.

  11. The effect of falling anxiety on selected physiological parameters with different rope protocols in sport rock climbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicle Aras

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of falling anxiety on selected physiological parameters in sport rock climbing. For this aim, before performing the top-rope and lead climbing, the anxiety inventory was used in sport rock climbers. Afterwards, the selected physiological parameters were recorded during the climbing.Four female and 22 male, totally 26 middle level rock climber were participated to the study. The mean age of the subjects was 27.73 ± 6.67, climbing years 6.61 ±4.84 and lead climbing age was 5.71 ±4.34. In order to eliminate force loss differences between top-rope and lead climbing, top rope climbing was designed as if it is a lead climbing. The second rope was connected on the waist of the athletes during top-rope climbing and they clipped it to expresses such as leading. The ascents were perforformed on 15 m high climbing wall. The route was rated as VI grad (Unıon Internationale des Association d’Alpinisme.During both climbing hearth rate was recorded and energy consumption was measured by portable gas analyzer as MET and VO2ml.min.kg units. Though gas analyzer VE, RER were measured. When two types of climbing trial compared, results indicated that there were statistically significant mean difference between CSAI-2 subscales cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self confidence. When physiological parameters examined in terms of two different types of climbing, results showed that there was no statistically significant difference in HR values. However, there were significant differences found between VO2ml.min.kg, VE, RER, and MET values.There wasn’t found significant difference in climbing times between two trials. This result shows us that we designed the ascents successfully and could eliminate the physical differences both lead and top-rope climbing. We observed on the same work load of two climbing trials more oxygen consumption, energy expenditure and anxiety scores during leading. This

  12. The effect of falling anxiety on selected physiological parameters with different rope protocols in sport rock climbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicle Aras

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of falling anxiety on selected physiological parameters in sport rock climbing. For this aim, before performing  the top-rope and lead climbing, the anxiety inventory was used in sport rock climbers. Afterwards, the selected physiological parameters were recorded during the climbing. Four female and 22 male, totally 26 middle level rock climber were participated to the study. The mean age of the subjects was 27.73 ± 6.67, climbing years 6.61 ±4.84 and lead climbing age was 5.71 ±4.34.  In order to eliminate force loss differences between top-rope and lead climbing, top rope climbing was designed as if it is a lead climbing. The second rope was connected on the waist of the athletes during top-rope climbing and they clipped it to expresses such as leading. The ascents were perforformed on 15 m high climbing wall. The route was rated as VI grad (Unıon Internationale des Association d’Alpinisme. During both climbing  hearth rate was recorded and energy consumption was measured by portable gas analyzer as MET and VO2ml.min.kg units. Though gas analyzer VE, RER were measured.  When two types of climbing trial compared, results indicated that there were statistically significant mean difference between CSAI-2 subscales cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self confidence. When physiological parameters examined in terms of two different types of climbing, results showed that there was no statistically significant difference in HR values. However, there were significant differences found between VO2ml.min.kg, VE, RER, and MET values. There wasn’t found significant difference in climbing times between two trials. This result shows us that we designed the ascents successfully and could eliminate the physical differences both lead and top-rope climbing. We observed on the same work load of two climbing trials more oxygen consumption, energy expenditure and anxiety scores during leading

  13. The Neural Correlates of Worry in Association with Individual Differences in Neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Servaas, Michelle Nadine; Riese, Harriette; Ormel, Johan; Aleman, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The tendency to worry is a facet of neuroticism that has been shown to mediate the relationship between neuroticism and symptoms of depression and anxiety. The aim of the current study was to investigate the neural correlates of state worry in association with neuroticism. One-hundred twenty partici

  14. Behavioral Parenting Interventions for Child Disruptive Behaviors and Anxiety: What’s Different and What’s the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, Rex; Jones, Deborah J.; Parent, Justin

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of parents in behavioral interventions with children’s disruptive and anxiety problems. The evolution of interventions for these two types of problems differs, as has the role of parents in these interventions. In contrast to the central role of parents in the conceptualization and treatment of disruptive behaviors, parents have played a more varied and less prominent role in the conceptualization and treatment of children’s anxiety. Furthermore, the literature involving parents in the treatment of children’s anxiety indicates these interventions are more efficacious than control groups but not more efficacious than intervening with the child alone. Some limited evidence emerges for parenting as a mediator in the treatment of disruptive behaviors, but not of anxiety, where the role of parenting has rarely been measured. Implications for conceptualizing the role of parents in intervention programs for youth are discussed and directions for future research are delineated (e.g., collecting long term follow-up data, examine moderators of treatment response, develop programs for comorbid diagnoses). PMID:23178234

  15. Specificity of emotion regulation difficulties related to anxiety in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Brittany L; Kerns, Kathryn A; Ciesla, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Etiological models identify difficulties in emotion regulation as potential contributors to the development and maintenance of anxiety. To date, studies with adolescents have not tested whether different types of anxiety symptoms are related to different emotion regulation difficulties. The current study aimed to examine specificity of associations between emotion regulation difficulties and symptoms of social and generalized anxiety in early adolescence. Ninety adolescents (ages 11-14 years) completed measures of emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms. Social and generalized anxiety symptoms showed similar bivariate correlations with emotion regulation. However, when controlling for generalized anxiety, social anxiety symptoms were uniquely related to emotion understanding, acceptance, evaluation, and reactivity. Generalized anxiety symptoms were uniquely related to emotion modification. The current study suggests that social and generalized anxiety symptoms have both common and unique associations with emotion regulation difficulties in early adolescence, and has implications for which emotion regulation skills to target in clinical interventions.

  16. Association between Types of Involvement in School Bullying and Different Dimensions of Anxiety Symptoms and the Moderating Effects of Age and Gender in Taiwanese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Huang, Mei-Feng; Kim, Young Shin; Wang, Peng-Wei; Tang, Tze-Chun; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Lin, Huang-Chi; Liu, Tai-Ling; Wu, Yu-Yu; Yang, Pinchen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations of various types of school bullying involvement experiences with different dimensions of anxiety symptoms on the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and to examine the moderating effects of gender and age on the associations in Taiwanese adolescent…

  17. Different effects of diazepam in Fischer rats and two stocks of Wistar rats in tests of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, B; Fink, H; Sohr, R; Rex, A

    2001-01-01

    The behaviour of animals in tests of anxiety varies between strains, even in identical tests and surroundings. To evaluate the results obtained, a more detailed knowledge of the behaviour of different rat strains is indispensable. Identically raised Fischer 344 rats and two stocks of Wistar rats were examined in two animal tests of anxiety: the X-maze and a modified open-field test following diazepam treatment (0.5-4.0 mg/kg). Harlan-Wistar rats were the least 'anxious' when the behaviour of vehicle treated controls was compared. The largest effect of the anxiolytic diazepam, however, was observed in Harlan-Fischer rats. To determine possible reasons for strain and stock differences, plasma concentrations of diazepam and metabolites and concentrations of serotonin (5-HT) in the CNS were measured. Plasma concentrations of diazepam and metabolites differed between the strains with the Harlan-Fischer rats showing higher diazepam concentrations. 5-HT levels in discrete brain regions varied with Harlan-Fischer rats having higher 5-HT concentrations. Strain differences influence the anxiety-associated behaviour of untreated animals and the effect of anxiolytics.

  18. Do panic patients process unconditioned fear vs. conditioned anxiety differently than normal subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Ben, C M; Vilela, J A; Hetem, L A; Guimarães, F S; Graeff, F G; Zuardi, A W

    2001-11-30

    Panic patients were evaluated with two models of experimental anxiety that are believed to generate distinct emotional states: (1) a stimulated public speaking test (SPS), a presumed indicator of unconditioned fear, and (2) conditioning of skin conductance responses (CSCR) to a tone associated with an aversive white noise, an index of conditioned anxiety. Subjective states were evaluated through the visual analogue mood scale (VAMS) and a bodily symptoms scale (BSS). In the SPS test, panic patients showed higher baseline levels of VAMS-measured anxiety than controls. Unlike controls, panic patients failed to show increased anxiety before and during speech. Although baseline levels of arousal were similar in both groups, VAMS mental sedation decreased in controls, but not in panic patients during the SPS. Panic patients showed more discontent than controls throughout the whole experimental session. They also scored higher than controls on several items of the BSS. In the CSCR test, panic patients showed more spontaneous fluctuations of skin conductance than controls. Nevertheless, conditioning of skin conductance responses to the tone was similar in both groups. Therefore, panic patients seemed to process unconditioned fear abnormally.

  19. Learner Differences among Children Learning a Foreign Language: Language Anxiety, Strategy Use, and Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-ju; Chen, Ting-Han

    2014-01-01

    This study mainly investigates language anxiety and its relationship to the use of learning strategies and multiple intelligences among young learners in an EFL educational context. The participants were composed of 212 fifth- and sixth-graders from elementary schools in central Taiwan. Findings indicated that most participants generally…

  20. Individual differences in text comprehension as a function of test anxiety and prior knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaert, A E

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between reading comprehension and comprehension monitoring with undergraduates (223 women, 69 men). Further, the effect of test anxiety and of prior knowledge on reading comprehension and on comprehension monitoring was examined in groups of students of equal

  1. The interplay of parental support, parental pressure and test anxiety--Gender differences in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringeisen, Tobias; Raufelder, Diana

    2015-12-01

    This study examined gender-specific relationships between adolescents' perceptions of school-related support/pressure from their parents and test anxiety. A sample of German students (N = 845; Mage = 15.32; SD = .49) completed questionnaires that measured their perceived parental support/pressure (for mother and father separately) as well as the four main components of test anxiety (worry, interference, lack of confidence, and emotionality). Gender-specific relations were identified using multigroup structural equation modeling: For girls, perceived maternal pressure was positively associated with emotionality and interference; for boys, perceived father pressure and father support were positively associated with interference and worry, respectively. For both genders, perceived mother pressure and support were related to lack of confidence. Our findings suggest that adolescents' perceptions of maternal attitudes are associated with students' self-confidence irrespective of the child's gender, whereas the remaining facets of test anxiety follow same-sex trajectories between perceived parental attitudes and adolescents' test anxiety.

  2. Fear less : Individual differences in fear conditioning and their relation to treatment outcome in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duits, P.

    2016-01-01

    Findings from animal and human experimental studies highlight the importance of fear conditioning processes in the development and treatment of anxiety disorders. The work reported in this thesis was focused on potential abnormalities in the acquisition and extinction of fear in patients with anxiet

  3. Gender Differences in Factors Pertaining to Math Anxiety among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Math anxiety has been seen as one of the biggest obstacles to student success in mathematics. The nature of this condition, as well as its relationships with numerous predictors, has been investigated for decades. However, there is still a significant lack of agreement among the findings of these research studies. The current study examines gender…

  4. The GABAА receptors agonists and antagonists influence on formation of a latent inhibition at rats with different levels of anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Redkina; L. V. Loskutova; Т. A. Zamoshchina

    2012-01-01

    Latent inhibition phenomenon indexes the ability to ignore irrelevant stimuli. Disturbance of latent inhibition is registered in different psychiatric populations with pathology in the emotional and cognitive spheres. In our experiments latent inhibition was measured in a conditioned passive avoidance reaction in rats that previously received 0 or 20 conditioned stimuli exposures followed by foot shock. Latent inhibition was disrupted in high-anxiety rats and pathologically enhanced in low-an...

  5. A Correlation Study of Listening Anxiety and English Listening Achievement%听力焦虑与听力水平的相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶薇

    2012-01-01

    Based on interviews and questionnaires in accords to Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale(FLCAS),this study attempts to investigate empirically the listening anxiety among 60 English major students in University of Science and Technology,Liao Ning,focusing on the degree of the anxiety and the relationship between anxiety and listening score.According to the research,it is found that most college students majoring in English experience a large amount of listening anxiety in the process of learning English listening,and listening anxiety is negatively correlated with listening proficiency.The purpose of this study also explores possible sources of anxiety and puts forward some teaching methods and strategies in order to ease the students’ anxiety in listening and try to improve the listening teaching for students.%采用定量和定性相结合的分析方法,利用英语焦虑量表(FLCAS)和访谈作为测试工具对辽宁科技大学60名英语专业学生英语听力焦虑程度与听力水平之间的关系进行了调查。调查结果显示,听力焦虑策略与听力测试成绩呈负相关,且达到了显著水平;低分组学生中的听力焦虑问题比高分组更加突出,即听力焦虑感越强,测试成绩越差。根据调查结果,还探讨了焦虑可能的成因并提出有效的教学手段和应对策略,对大学英语听力教学和提高学习者听力水平都有一定的现实指导意义。

  6. Determination and Correlation of Solubility of Nonivamide in Different Solvents☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yifeng Cao; Qiwei Yang; Huabin Xing⁎; Zongbi Bao; Baogen Su; Yiwen Yang; Qilong Ren

    2014-01-01

    The solubility of nonivamide in dimethyl sulfoxide, methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, methyl tert-butyl ether, ace-tonitrile, n-hexane and water over the temperature range of 293.2 K to 323.2 K was measured. The results reveal that the solubility of nonivamide is greatly influenced by the hydrogen-bond basicity of solvent and increases with temperature. The experimental data were correlated with the modified Apelblat equation. The dissolution enthalpy and entropy of nonivamide in different solvents were obtained from the correlation of lnx with 1/T using the van't Hoff equation. The calculated nonivamide solubility is in good agreement with experimental data for most of the solvents.

  7. Death and Dying Anxiety among Bereaved and Nonbereaved Elderly Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Tinsky-Roimi, Tal

    2011-01-01

    This study examines differences in death and dying anxiety between bereaved and nonbereaved elderly Israeli parents, as well as correlates of these factors among bereaved parents. A total of 97 parents (49 bereaved, 48 nonbereaved) completed measures of death and dying anxiety and religiosity. Bereaved parents reported significantly higher dying…

  8. Differences in anxiety between victims of violence brought up in children’s homes and in families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Dzieduszyński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In academic literature on the subject it is assumed that being subjected during one’s childhood to various forms of aggressive behaviour and violence affects development of personality and negatively determines further functioning of an individual in different spheres of life, i.e. attitude towards oneself (self-esteem and self-acceptance, ability to cope with exposure to stress, interpersonal contacts and one’s level of manifestation of anxiety and aggression. Despite the commonness of this theoretical stand there are relatively few reliable empirical studies verifying this view. The main purpose of research was verification of the thesis which states that being a victim of violence as a child unfavourably of children in children’s homes and it manifests itself in excessive anxiety.

  9. A computational model for exploratory activity of rats with different anxiety levels in elevated plus-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ariadne A; Morato, Silvio; Roque, Antonio C; Tinós, Renato

    2014-10-30

    The elevated plus-maze is an apparatus widely used to study the level of anxiety in rodents. The maze is plus-shaped, with two enclosed arms and two open arms, and elevated 50cm from the floor. During a test, which usually lasts for 5min, the animal is initially put at the center and is free to move and explore the entire maze. The level of anxiety is measured by variables such as the percentage of time spent and the number of entries in the enclosed arms. High percentage of time spent at and number of entries in the enclosed arms indicate anxiety. Here we propose a computational model of rat behavior in the elevated plus-maze based on an artificial neural network trained by a genetic algorithm. The fitness function of the genetic algorithm is composed of reward (positive) and punishment (negative) terms, which are incremented as the computational agent (virtual rat) moves in the maze. The punishment term is modulated by a parameter that simulates the effects of different drugs. Unlike other computational models, the virtual rat is built independently of prior known experimental data. The exploratory behaviors generated by the model for different simulated pharmacological conditions are in good agreement with data from real rats.

  10. A field investigation of flight anxiety: Evidence of gender differences in consumer behaviors among Las Vegas passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey A Harvell

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines how anxious the Las Vegas public is through a case study of one local international airport. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study examines gender differences in consumer behaviors among the flying public inside Las Vegas McCarran International Airport in a field experiment theoretically grounded in Terror Management Theory. Findings and Originality/Value: Because airports are replete with reminders of human mortality, it is not a surprise that death awareness and flight anxiety may be closely related. The flying public that is anxious to fly presents an interesting public relations situation for airports. Therefore, this study examines how anxious the Las Vegas public is through a case study of one local international airport. Results show that flight anxiety does provoke the same kind of existential defenses that traditional death awareness does. This study also suggests that men and women do not react to flight anxiety in a uniform way, they are different in their reactions in seeking to gamble, eating unhealthy food, and an increased desire for electronic entertainment.

  11. Escitalopram versus paroxetine for social anxiety disorder: an analysis of efficacy for different symptom dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Dan J; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Lader, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A previous factor analysis of pooled data demonstrated that the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) can be divided into six subscales. This paper examines data from a fixed-dose trial of escitalopram versus paroxetine, in order to determine the differential effects of these agents...... on symptom dimensions in social anxiety disorder (SAD). METHODS: Data from a 24-week randomised, placebo-controlled, comparative study of fixed doses of escitalopram (5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg) versus paroxetine (20 mg) in SAD were examined. The six factors identified in a previous factor analysis of baseline data...... from escitalopram studies on the primary efficacy scale, the LSAS, were used to compute subscale scores. These were analysed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and standardised effect sizes were calculated. RESULTS: The combined escitalopram data and the paroxetine data both demonstrated...

  12. Choke or thrive? The relation between salivary cortisol and math performance depends on individual differences in working memory and math-anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattarella-Micke, Andrew; Mateo, Jill; Kozak, Megan N; Foster, Katherine; Beilock, Sian L

    2011-08-01

    In the current study, we explored how a person's physiological arousal relates to their performance in a challenging math situation as a function of individual differences in working memory (WM) capacity and math-anxiety. Participants completed demanding math problems before and after which salivary cortisol, an index of arousal, was measured. The performance of lower WM individuals did not depend on cortisol concentration or math-anxiety. For higher WM individuals high in math-anxiety, the higher their concentration of salivary cortisol following the math task, the worse their performance. In contrast, for higher WM individuals lower in math-anxiety, the higher their salivary cortisol concentrations, the better their performance. For individuals who have the capacity to perform at a high-level (higher WMs), whether physiological arousal will lead an individual to choke or thrive depends on math-anxiety.

  13. The Correlation Analysis between the Test Anxiety and the Way of Accomplishment Attribution about the High-school Student%高中生考试焦虑与成就归因方式的相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙宗宏; 刘维

    2011-01-01

    为了研究不同程度考试焦虑学生的成就归因方式之间的差异以及考试焦虑与成就归因方式的相关关系,采用Sarason考试焦虑量表(TAS)和根据韦纳归因理论所编制的归因问卷,在考试前对120名中学生施测.经过统计,分析的主要结果如下:①考试焦虑与对考试成败的归因都成负相关.②高考试焦虑者容易将成功归因于外部、不稳定因素,将失败归因于内部、稳定因素;低考试焦虑者与之相反.%In order to study the difference between the different degree of test anxious student's achievement to attribution style and the relevant relationship between test anxiety and accomplishment to the way of attribution, this article uses Sarason' test anxious scale(TAS) and attribution questionnaire which according to Weiner the theory establishes, measures 90 middle-school students before the test. Through data analysis, the main result is as follows:①Test anxiety has negative correlation with the attribution about success or failure.②The one with high-text anxiety is easy to attribute success to the facts which is external and instability and attribute failure to the facts which is internal and stability. The one with low-text anxiety is opposite with it.

  14. Neural correlates of gender differences in reputation building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarini, Francesca; Boero, Riccardo; D'Agata, Federico; Bravo, Giangiacomo; Mosso, Cristina; Cauda, Franco; Duca, Sergio; Geminiani, Giuliano; Sacco, Katiuscia

    2014-01-01

    Gender differences in cooperative choices and their neural correlates were investigated in a situation where reputation represented a crucial issue. Males and females were involved in an economic exchange (trust game) where economic and reputational payoffs had to be balanced in order to increase personal welfare. At the behavioral level, females showed a stronger reaction to negative reputation judgments that led to higher cooperation than males, measured by back transfers in the game. The neuroanatomical counterpart of this gender difference was found within the reward network (engaged in producing expectations of positive results) and reputation-related brain networks, such as the self-control network (engaged in strategically resisting the temptation to defect) and the mentalizing network (engaged in thinking about how one is viewed by others), in which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the medial (M)PFC respectively play a crucial role. Furthermore, both DLPFC and MPFC activity correlated with the amount of back transfer, as well as with the personality dimensions assessed with the Big-Five Questionnaire (BFQ-2). Males, according to their greater DLPFC recruitment and their higher level of the BFQ-2 subscale of Dominance, were more focused on implementing a profit-maximizing strategy, pursuing this target irrespectively of others' judgments. On the contrary, females, according to their greater MPFC activity and their lower level of Dominance, were more focused on the reputation per se and not on the strategic component of reputation building. These findings shed light on the sexual dimorphism related to cooperative behavior and its neural correlates.

  15. Neural correlates of gender differences in reputation building.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Garbarini

    Full Text Available Gender differences in cooperative choices and their neural correlates were investigated in a situation where reputation represented a crucial issue. Males and females were involved in an economic exchange (trust game where economic and reputational payoffs had to be balanced in order to increase personal welfare. At the behavioral level, females showed a stronger reaction to negative reputation judgments that led to higher cooperation than males, measured by back transfers in the game. The neuroanatomical counterpart of this gender difference was found within the reward network (engaged in producing expectations of positive results and reputation-related brain networks, such as the self-control network (engaged in strategically resisting the temptation to defect and the mentalizing network (engaged in thinking about how one is viewed by others, in which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and the medial (MPFC respectively play a crucial role. Furthermore, both DLPFC and MPFC activity correlated with the amount of back transfer, as well as with the personality dimensions assessed with the Big-Five Questionnaire (BFQ-2. Males, according to their greater DLPFC recruitment and their higher level of the BFQ-2 subscale of Dominance, were more focused on implementing a profit-maximizing strategy, pursuing this target irrespectively of others' judgments. On the contrary, females, according to their greater MPFC activity and their lower level of Dominance, were more focused on the reputation per se and not on the strategic component of reputation building. These findings shed light on the sexual dimorphism related to cooperative behavior and its neural correlates.

  16. Multi-scale correlations in different future markets

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolozzi, M; Di Matteo, T; Aste, T

    2007-01-01

    In the present work we investigate the multiscale nature of the correlations for high frequency data (1 minute) in different futures markets over a period of two years, starting on the 1st of January 2003 and ending on the 31st of December 2004. In particular, by using the concept of "local" Hurst exponent, we point out how the behaviour of this parameter, usually considered as a benchmark for persistency/antipersistency recognition in time series, is largely time-scale dependent in the market context. These findings are a direct consequence of the intrinsic complexity of a system where trading strategies are scale-adaptive. Moreover, our analysis points out different regimes in the dynamical behaviour of the market indices under consideration.

  17. Multi-scale correlations in different futures markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolozzi, M.; Mellen, C.; di Matteo, T.; Aste, T.

    2007-07-01

    In the present work we investigate the multiscale nature of the correlations for high frequency data (1 min) in different futures markets over a period of two years, starting on the 1st of January 2003 and ending on the 31st of December 2004. In particular, by using the concept of local Hurst exponent, we point out how the behaviour of this parameter, usually considered as a benchmark for persistency/antipersistency recognition in time series, is largely time-scale dependent in the market context. These findings are a direct consequence of the intrinsic complexity of a system where trading strategies are scale-adaptive. Moreover, our analysis points out different regimes in the dynamical behaviour of the market indices under consideration.

  18. Test Anxiety among College Students with Specific Reading Disability (Dyslexia): Nonverbal Ability and Working Memory as Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety and its correlates were examined with college students with and without specific reading disability (RD; n = 50 in each group). Results indicated that college students with RD reported higher test anxiety than did those without RD, and the magnitude of these differences was in the medium range on two test anxiety scales. Relative to…

  19. The Relationship between Irrational Beliefs and Foreign Language Anxiety among Jordanian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Rahman H. Abu-Melhim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the relationship between irrational beliefs and foreign language anxiety among a sample of (118 undergraduate students at Ajloun National University in Jordan. To achieve the purpose of the study, two scales were used: An irrational scale and an Arabic version of Horwitz and Cope's foreign language anxiety scale. The correlation descriptive method was used for data analysis. The results showed that there is statistically significant correlation between irrational beliefs and foreign language anxiety. Significant differences were found in the strength of relationship between irrational beliefs and foreign language anxiety according to gender in favor of meals. No Significant differences were found in the strength of relationship between irrational beliefs and foreign language anxiety due to academic level. Keywords: Anxiety, Irrational Beliefs, Foreign Language Anxiety, University Students

  20. THE CONNECTION BETWEEN PERFECTIONISM AND ANXIETY IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raspopovic Milena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Perfectionism is a relatively stable personality trait which refers to setting high personal standards and the pursuit of perfection. Anxiety as personality trait represents propensity to observe objectively harmless situations as endangering and to react signifficantly more intensive than the particular situation requires. Earlier results have shown positive correlation between exam anxiety and negative perfectionism (fear of failure. Also, some gender differences where found regarding perfectionism and anxiety, showing girls as more anxious and more perfectionists than boys. Aim: The aim of this research was to examine if there is any correlation between perfectionism and anxiety, what is it’s level and direction. Also, we wanted to examine if there are any gender differences regarding these two personality traits. Method: Systematic non-experimental research. The study involved 202 students of Belgrade University, 158 girls (78% and 44 boys (22%. Perfectionism level was measured with Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, by Frost et al., while anxiety was measured with Enler Multidimensional Anxiety Scale - Trait. Statistical analysis included Pearson correlation and t-test of independent samples. Results: The results show moderate positive correlation between anxiety and perfectionism (r = 0.29, p= 0.01, and slightly higher positive correlation between anxiety and negative aspects of perfectionism (r =0.40, p = 0.01. There is a gender difference shown in anxiety level between female and male students, i.e. Girls have shown significantly higher anxiety level than boys (t = 3.39, p < 0.01, ŋ²= 0.05. Regarding perfectionism, only significant gender difference was on the subdimension doubt about the action (t = 2.11, p =0.04, ŋ²= 0.02, showing girls as more likely to express this trait than boys. Conclusion: Based on this research we conclude that more anxious persons are more of perfectionists (especially negative

  1. A meta-analysis on the relationship between self-reported presence and anxiety in virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yun; Nefs, Harold T; Morina, Nexhmedin; Heynderickx, Ingrid; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2014-01-01

    In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results on the correlation between the two. In this meta-analysis, we reviewed publications on VRET for anxiety that included self-reported presence and anxiety. The comprehensive search of the literature identified 33 publications with a total of 1196 participants. The correlation between self-reported sense of presence and anxiety was extracted and meta-analyzed. Potential moderators such as technology characteristics, sample characteristics including age, gender and clinical status, disorder characteristics and study design characteristics such as measurements were also examined. The random effects analysis showed a medium effect size for the correlation between sense of presence and anxiety (r = .28; 95% CI: 0.18-0.38). Moderation analyses revealed that the effect size of the correlation differed across different anxiety disorders, with a large effect size for fear of animals (r = .50; 95% CI: 0.30-0.66) and a no to small effect size for social anxiety disorder (r = .001; 95% CI: -0.19-0.19). Further, the correlation between anxiety and presence was stronger in studies with participants who met criteria for an anxiety disorder than in studies with a non-clinical population. Trackers with six degrees of freedom and displays with a larger field of view resulted in higher effect sizes, compared to trackers with three degrees of freedom and displays with a smaller field of view. In addition, no difference in effect size was found for the type of presence measurement and the type of anxiety measurement. This meta-analysis confirms the positive relation between sense of presence and anxiety and demonstrates that this relation can be affected by various moderating factors.

  2. A meta-analysis on the relationship between self-reported presence and anxiety in virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ling

    Full Text Available In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results on the correlation between the two. In this meta-analysis, we reviewed publications on VRET for anxiety that included self-reported presence and anxiety. The comprehensive search of the literature identified 33 publications with a total of 1196 participants. The correlation between self-reported sense of presence and anxiety was extracted and meta-analyzed. Potential moderators such as technology characteristics, sample characteristics including age, gender and clinical status, disorder characteristics and study design characteristics such as measurements were also examined. The random effects analysis showed a medium effect size for the correlation between sense of presence and anxiety (r = .28; 95% CI: 0.18-0.38. Moderation analyses revealed that the effect size of the correlation differed across different anxiety disorders, with a large effect size for fear of animals (r = .50; 95% CI: 0.30-0.66 and a no to small effect size for social anxiety disorder (r = .001; 95% CI: -0.19-0.19. Further, the correlation between anxiety and presence was stronger in studies with participants who met criteria for an anxiety disorder than in studies with a non-clinical population. Trackers with six degrees of freedom and displays with a larger field of view resulted in higher effect sizes, compared to trackers with three degrees of freedom and displays with a smaller field of view. In addition, no difference in effect size was found for the type of presence measurement and the type of anxiety measurement. This meta-analysis confirms the positive relation between sense of presence and anxiety and demonstrates that this relation can be affected by various moderating

  3. Ethnic Minorities with Diabetes Differ in Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms and Diabetes-Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter van Loon, Bert Jan; Torensma, Bart; Snoek, Frank J.; Honig, Adriaan

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the association between ethnicity, diabetes-distress, and depressive and anxiety symptoms in adult outpatients with diabetes. Research Design and Methods. Diabetes-distress (Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale, PAID5), depressive and anxiety symptoms (Extended Kessler-10, EK10), and quality of life (Short-Form 12, SF12) were assessed in an ethnic diverse diabetes outpatient population of a teaching hospital in Amsterdam. Descent of one's parents and self-classified ethnicity were obtained to define ethnicity. HbA1c, clinical data, and socioeconomic status were derived from the medical charts. Based on established cut-offs for PAID5- and EK10-scores, emotional distress was dichotomized for the purpose of logistic regression analyses. Results. Of 1007 consecutive patients approached, 575 participated. Forty-nine percent were of non-Dutch ethnicity and 24.7% had type 1 diabetes. Diabetes-distress was reported by 12.5% of the native Dutch patients and by 22.0%, 34.5%, and 42.6% of the Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan patients, respectively. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 9.4% in native Dutch patients and 20.4%, 34.5%, and 27.3% in the other groups mentioned. Diabetes-distress and Moroccan origin were significantly associated (OR = 3.60, p clinical attention. Future research should elucidate explanatory factors and opportunities for tailored interventions. PMID:28373992

  4. The prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a group of 1,940 Serbian university students

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    Simić-Vukomanović Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Mental health of university students is under increasing concern worldwide, because they face challenges which predisposes them to depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to identify demographic and socioeconomic variables associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms among university students. Methods. This cross-sectional study on 1,940 university students was performed using a questionnaire including demographic and socioeconomic variables, Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Results. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in students was 23.6%, while the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was 33.5%. The depressive symptoms were significantly related to the study year (p = 0.002, type of faculty (p = 0.014, satisfaction with college major choice (p < 0.001, satisfaction with grade point average (p < 0.001. Female students (odds ratio - OR = 1.791, 95% confidence interval - CI = 1.351-2.374, older students (OR = 1.110, 95% CI = 1.051-1.172, students who reported low family economic situation (OR = 2.091, 95% CI = 1.383-3.162, not owning the room (OR = 1.512, 95% CI = 1.103-2.074, dissatisfaction with graduate education (OR = 1.537, 95% CI = 1.165-2.027 were more likely to show depressive symptoms. The anxiety symptoms were significantly related to study year (p = 0.034, type of faculty (p < 0.001, family economic situation (p = 0.011, college residence (p = 0.001 satisfaction with the college major choice (p = 0.001, and satisfaction with graduate education (p < 0.001. Female students (OR = 1.901, 95% CI = 1.490-2.425, and students who reported parents high expectations of academic success (OR = 1.290, 95% CI = 1.022-1.630 were more likely to show anxiety symptoms. Conclusion. This is one of the largest study examining mental disorders in a sample of university students in Serbia. These findings underscore the importance of early detections of mental problems and prevention interventions in university

  5. ANXIETY DISORDERS: A REVIEW

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    Arya Ashwani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with substantial distress, morbidity and mortality. Recent epidemiological studies of anxiety disorders provided evidence of their high frequency in the general population worldwide. Anxiety disorders afflict an estimated 15.7 million people in the United States each year. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in adults with females showing higher preponderance of 2:1 as compared to males. Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by various combinations of key features - Irritability, fear, Insomnia, Nervousness, Tachycardia, Inability to concentrate, poor coping skills, Palpitation, Sweating, Agoraphobia and Social Withdrawal. The anxiety disorders, including panic disorder (PD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, social anxiety disorder (SAD, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, are among the disabling medical disorders. The neurobiology of anxiety disorders is not fully understood, but several different biologic abnormalities have been implicated in their etiology. The GABA, NE and 5HT systems play crucial roles in mediating the affective circuitry underlying the highly related clinical disorders of anxiety. Anxiety is a common psychiatric condition characterized by unnecessary aggression, poor quality of life, fear, worry, avoidance, and compulsive rituals that are associated with significant distress.

  6. Correlation between social anxiety and psychological traits among university students%大学生社交焦虑情绪影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敬阳; 刘洋; 万洪泉; 梅松丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the correlation between social anxiety and psychological traits among university students. Methods The correlations between the social anxiety and self-esteem, self-monitoring, and self-consciousness were measured with Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LS AS) .Texas Social Behavior Inventory, Self-Monitoring Scale, and Self-Consciousness Scale(SCS) among 1 600 university students in Changchun city,Jilin province. Results There were significant negative correlations between the level of social anxiety and self-esteem, self-monitoring,and private self-consciousness (p < 0.01). In regression analyses, self-esteem was a predictor for social anxiety (b' = - 0.27, p < 0.01) and low self-esteem was a prevailing social psychological characteristics in the students with higher social anxiety. Conclusion The interpersonal quality, emotional response, and behavior feedback of university students with social anxiety are directly impacted by self-esteem, self-monitoring, and private self-consciousness.%目的 了解心理特质因素对大学生社交焦虑情绪的影响.方法 采用Liebowitz社交焦虑量表、德克萨斯行为问卷、自我监控量表、自我意识量表对吉林省长春市1600名大学生进行调查.结果 高社交焦虑大学生的自尊(49.50±7.46)、自我监控(17.17±9.83)和私我意识(23.46±5.68)评分均低于低焦虑个体的(52.96 ±7.26)、(21.06±11.54)、(24.49±6.18)分,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);社交焦虑分值与自尊、私我意识、自我监控呈负相关(P<0.01),进一步回归分析表明,自尊对社交焦虑的预测作用最大(b’=-0.27,P<0.01).结论 自尊、自我监控、私我意识的心理特质与社交焦虑情绪有关,低自尊、低自我监控和低私我意识水平可能导致大学生个体在社交情境中产生更高的社交焦虑水平和更多的回避行为.

  7. Multidimensional assessment of empathic abilities: neural correlates and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derntl, Birgit; Finkelmeyer, Andreas; Eickhoff, Simon; Kellermann, Thilo; Falkenberg, Dania I; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Empathy is a multidimensional construct and comprises the ability to perceive, understand and feel the emotional states of others. Gender differences have been reported for various aspects of emotional and cognitive behaviors including theory of mind. However, although empathy is not a single ability but a complex behavioral competency including different components, most studies relied on single aspects of empathy, such as perspective taking or emotion perception. To extend those findings we developed three paradigms to assess all three core components of empathy (emotion recognition, perspective taking and affective responsiveness) and clarify to which extent gender affects the neural correlates of empathic abilities. A functional MRI study was performed with 12 females (6 during their follicular phase, 6 during their luteal phase) and 12 males, measuring these tasks as well as self-report empathy questionnaires. Data analyses revealed no significant gender differences in behavioral performance, but females rated themselves as more empathic than males in the self-report questionnaires. Analyses of functional data revealed distinct neural networks in females and males, and females showed stronger neural activation across all three empathy tasks in emotion-related areas, including the amygdala. Exploratory analysis of possible hormonal effects indicated stronger amygdala activation in females during their follicular phase supporting previous data suggesting higher social sensitivity and thus facilitated socio-emotional behavior. Hence, our data support the assumption that females and males rely on divergent processing strategies when solving emotional tasks: while females seem to recruit more emotion and self-related regions, males activate more cortical, rather cognitive-related areas.

  8. Cultural and Gender Differences in Experiences and Expression of Test Anxiety among Chinese, Finnish, and Swedish Grade 3 Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyroos, Mikaela; Korhonen, Johan; Peng, Aihui; Linnanmäki, Karin; Svens-Liavåg, Camilla; Bagger, Anette; Sjöberg, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    While test anxiety has been studied extensively, little consideration has been given to the cultural impacts of children's experiences and expressions of test anxiety. The aim of this work was to examine whether variance in test anxiety scores can be predicted based on gender and cultural setting. Three hundred and ninety-eight pupils in Grade 3…

  9. Differences of Anxiety Levels between Students of Natural Sciences and Social Studies Major Based on School Environmental Factors in Senior High Schools with Rintisan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional Scheme

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    Arviana Adamantina Putri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Senior High Schools with Rintisan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional (RSBI scheme are senior high schools that pilot international standards in learning methods and high curriculum targets. This factor may lead to a rise of anxiety amongst students, both for students in Natural Sciences major and Social Studies major. There are three factors which cause anxiety in the school environment, namely: dissatisfaction towards the curriculum, the teacher, and the school management. Methods: This study used retrospective cohort design. Subjects were selected using the convenience sampling method. Natural Sciences students (n=32 and Social Studies students (n=14 had their anxiety level measured using the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. The dissatisfaction towards the school environment factors was assessed using a school evaluation questionnaire. Results: The anxiety measurement showed that students in both Natural Sciences and Social Studies major experienced severe anxiety (Natural Sciences vs. Social Studies: 75% vs. 86%. The study results based on the school evaluation questionnaire showed dissatisfactions towards the three school environmental factors (curriculum factor, Natural Sciences vs. Social Studies: 59% vs. 64%; teacher factor, Natural Sciences vs. Social Studies: 3% vs. 43%; school management factor, Natural Sciences vs. Social Studies: 3% vs. 14%. The chi-square test results showed that the difference in the anxiety levels between the students of Natural Sciences and Social Studies majors was insignificant (p>0.05. Conclusions: Students of Natural Sciences and Social Studies majors of senior high schools with RSBI scheme experienced severe anxiety. However, there is no strong evidence that the school environment causes this severe anxiety.

  10. Correlation analysis of anxiety status and sub-health status among students of 13-26 years old

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yingshui; WANG, Linghong; Chen, Yan; Kang,Yaowen; Gu, Qinjun; Fang, Wenhua; Qing, Rui; Lu, Wei; Jin,Yuelong; Ren, Xiaohua; He, Lianping; Guo, Daoxia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the survey is to investigate the relationship between anxiety statuses and suboptimal health status among students from south of Anhui in china. Our study was a population-based, cluster sampling method survey with a sample consisting of 5249 students, who come from a university, four high schools and four middle schools in Wannan Area in China. Sub-health status was measured by multidimensional sub-health questionnaire of adolescents, and anxious status was assessed using anxi...

  11. Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety among Iraqi Students and its Relation With Gender and Achievement

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    Taha Talib Ali

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Language anxiety is always seen as debilitative factor that deters learners from successfully learning a foreign language. Although many studies have been reported on foreign language learners’ anxieties, little research, if any, has been undertaken on Iraqi postgraduate EFL learners. The objective of the present study is threefold: a to investigate the factors contributing to foreign language classroom anxiety among Iraqi postgraduate EFL students, b to investigate the difference between both genders in the level of anxiety and c to investigate the relationship between the level of anxiety and the academic achievement of the students based on GPA. The study employed a mixed mode approach using survey questionnaire (AFLAQand semi-structured interview. The study reported that three factors such as communication apprehension, negative evaluation and test anxiety are anxiety-arousing factors with test anxiety has the greatest contribution. The study also reported that females show more anxiety compared to males. It was also shown that there is a negative correlation between language anxiety and academic achievement which means that students with high level of FL anxiety tend to yield lower grades and vice-versa. Keywords: Arabic Foreign Language Anxiety Questionnaire (AFLAQ, Anxiety factors, Gender differences, Academic achievement

  12. Gender differences in perceived environmental correlates of physical activity

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    Spence John C

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited research has been conducted on gender differences in perceived environmental correlates of physical activity (PA. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential role of gender in the link between perceived environment and PA. Methods Using a telephone-administered survey, data was collected on leisure time physical activity (LTPA, perceptions of the neighbourhood environment, and self-efficacy in a representative sample of 1209 adults from the province of Alberta, Canada. LTPA was regressed on ten measures of perceived neighbourhood environment and self-efficacy in a series of logistic regressions. Results Women were more likely than men to perceive their neighbourhood as unsafe to go for walks at night (χ2 = 67.46, p 2 = 6.73, p 2 = 11.50, p 2 = 4.30, p Conclusion The results provide additional support for the use of models in which gender is treated as a potential moderator of the link between the perceived environment and PA. Further, the results suggest the possibility of differential interventions to increase PA based on factors associated with gender.

  13. STOCK Market Differences in Correlation-Based Weighted Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Janghyuk; Lee, Junghoon; Chang, Woojin

    We examined the sector dynamics of Korean stock market in relation to the market volatility. The daily price data of 360 stocks for 5019 trading days (from January, 1990 to August, 2008) in Korean stock market are used. We performed the weighted network analysis and employed four measures: the average, the variance, the intensity, and the coherence of network weights (absolute values of stock return correlations) to investigate the network structure of Korean stock market. We performed regression analysis using the four measures in the seven major industry sectors and the market (seven sectors combined). We found that the average, the intensity, and the coherence of sector (subnetwork) weights increase as market becomes volatile. Except for the "Financials" sector, the variance of sector weights also grows as market volatility increases. Based on the four measures, we can categorize "Financials," "Information Technology" and "Industrials" sectors into one group, and "Materials" and "Consumer Discretionary" sectors into another group. We investigated the distributions of intrasector and intersector weights for each sector and found the differences in "Financials" sector are most distinct.

  14. The nitric oxide donor molsidomine induces anxiolytic-like behaviour in two different rat models of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalouda, Triantafyllia; Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2015-11-01

    Experimental evidence indicates the implication of the nitric oxide (NO) in anxiety. Contradictory results were reported however, concerning the effects of NO donors in animal models of anxiety disorders. The present study investigated the effects of the NO donor molsidomine on anxiety-like behaviour and compared them with the anxiolytic diazepam in rats. For this purpose, the light/dark and the open field tests were used. The effects of molsidomine on motility were also assessed. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of molsidomine (1 and 4mg/kg) did not influence rats' performance either in the light/dark or in the open field test. Administration of 2mg/kg molsidomine significantly prolonged the time spent in the light chamber in the rats compared with the vehicle-treated animals, did not affect the first latency to enter the dark chamber and did not influence the number of transitions between the light and dark compartments of the apparatus. In the open field test, rats that received 2mg/kg molsidomine spent more time in the central zone of the apparatus and exhibited an increment of rearing episodes compared with control and to molsidomine 1 and 4mg/kg-treated rats. Nevertheless, molsidomine, at any dose tested, did not alter locomotor activity compared with vehicle-treated rats in a motility test. The present results indicate that the 2mg/kg molsidomine induced anxiolytic-like effects in the light/dark and open field tests in the rat cannot be attributed to changes in locomotor activity. The magnitude of the molsidomine (2mg/kg)-induced anxiolytic-like effects was not different to that produced by the benzodiazepine anxiolytic diazepam (1mg/kg).

  15. Math Anxiety: What Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Nancy E.

    While much progress has been made in treating math anxiety, little is yet known about its causes, correlates or effects. The present study examined factors related to the prevalence and intensity of math anxiety in college students and the extent to which math anxiety is predictive of math course grades. The 655 subjects were obtained from two…

  16. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anxiety Disorders KidsHealth > For Teens > Anxiety Disorders A A ... Do en español Trastornos de ansiedad What Is Anxiety? Liam had always looked out for his younger ...

  17. A Correlational Analysis of Test Anxiety and Response Time on a Computerized Adaptive Math Test among Seventh Grade Students by Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Michael Wayde

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that test anxiety has become more prevalent since the adoption of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001 and that test anxiety negatively affects student achievement. Early research viewed test anxiety as being a unidimensional construct; however, recent research has purported that test anxiety is a multidimensional construct.…

  18. Neuroimaging in anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Kirsten; Bandelow, Borwin; Gruber, Oliver; Wedekind, Dirk

    2009-06-01

    Neuroimaging studies have gained increasing importance in validating neurobiological network hypotheses for anxiety disorders. Functional imaging procedures and radioligand binding studies in healthy subjects and in patients with anxiety disorders provide growing evidence of the existence of a complex anxiety network, including limbic, brainstem, temporal, and prefrontal cortical regions. Obviously, "normal anxiety" does not equal "pathological anxiety" although many phenomena are evident in healthy subjects, however to a lower extent. Differential effects of distinct brain regions and lateralization phenomena in different anxiety disorders are mentioned. An overview of neuroimaging investigations in anxiety disorders is given after a brief summary of results from healthy volunteers. Concluding implications for future research are made by the authors.

  19. Flexible generation of correlated photon pairs in different frequency ranges

    CERN Document Server

    Oster, Fernando; Macovei, Mihai

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility to generate correlated photon pairs at variable frequencies is investigated. For this purpose, we consider the interaction of an off-resonant laser field with a two-level system possessing broken inversion symmetry. We show that the system generates non-classical photon pairs exhibiting strong intensity-intensity correlations. The intensity of the applied laser tunes the degree of correlation while the detuning controls the frequency of one of the photons which can be in the THz-domain. Furthermore, we observe the violation of a Cauchy-Schwarz inequality characterizing these photons.

  20. Non Correlation DWT Based Watermarking Behavior in Different Color Spaces

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    Mehdi Khalili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two digital watermarking techniques. Digital watermarking techniques based on correlation and digital watermarking techniques that are not based on correlation. In previous work, we proposed a DWT2 based CDMA image watermarking scheme to study the effects of using eight color spaces RGB, YCbCr, JPEG-YCbCr, YIQ, YUV, HSI, HSV and CIELab, on watermarking algorithms based on correlation techniques. This paper proposes a non correlation based image watermarking scheme in wavelet transform domain and tests it in the same color spaces, to develop studying, reach a comprehensive analysis and focus on satisfying the requirements of based non coloration watermarking algorithms. To achieve more security, imperceptibility and robustness of the proposed scheme, first, the binary watermark image encodes by applying ATM, CCM and exclusive OR. Then, the scrambled watermark embeds into intended quantized approximation coefficients of wavelet transform by LSB insertion technique.

  1. Investigating the influence of attachment styles on anxiety sensitivity

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    Atilgan Erozkan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine if there are significant relationships between anxiety sensitivity and attachment styles and if attachment styles predict anxiety sensitivity. Descriptive method was used in this study. The study group is composed by 781 (379 females; 402 males students studying in different departments of the Faculties of Education and Technical Education, and department of physical education and sports teaching of School of Physical Education and Sports at Mugla University. The data were collected using the Relationship Scales Questionnaire and Anxiety Sensitivity Index-R. Pearson Product-Moment Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis was employed. Attachment styles were found to be significantly correlated to anxiety sensitivity. A significant effect of attachment styles, on anxiety sensitivity was detected.

  2. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and usefulness: insights from the Polish adaptation

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    Krzysztof eCipora

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS, known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations.We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857 was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety.The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.

  3. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and Usefulness: Insights from the Polish Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipora, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Monika; Willmes, Klaus; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations. We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857) was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance, and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety. The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.

  4. Evaluation of death anxiety and effecting factors in a Turkish sample

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    Zümrüt Gedik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that people with higher levels of self-actualization have lower death anxiety and that negative emotional states are related to death anxiety. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between death anxiety and self-actualization, depression, and trait anxiety. A Turkish sample of 116 undergraduates and adults completed Templer’s Death Anxiety Scale, Personal Orientation Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory’s Trait Anxiety Form. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the only significant predictors of death anxiety were trait anxiety and gender. The correlation between death anxiety and self - actualization was found to be negative and statistically significant (p < .001. Women had significantly higher death anxiety compared to men; whereas death anxiety mean scores did not show significant differences by age group and the belief in afterlife. In conclusion, this study supports the assumptions of the existential school regarding the association between death anxiety and self-actualization.

  5. The Relationship between Virtual Self Similarity and Social Anxiety

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    Laura eAymerich-Franch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In virtual reality (VR it is possible to embody avatars that are dissimilar to the physical self. We examined whether embodying a dissimilar self in VR would decrease anxiety in a public speaking situation. We report the results of an observational pilot study and two laboratory experiments. In the pilot study (N=252, participants chose an avatar to use in a public speaking task. Trait public speaking anxiety correlated with avatar preference, such that anxious individuals preferred dissimilar self-representations. In Study 1 (N=82, differences in anxiety during a speech in front of a virtual audience were compared among participants embodying an assigned avatar whose face was identical to their real self, an assigned avatar whose face was other than their real face, or embodied an avatar of their choice. Anxiety differences were not significant, but there was a trend for lower anxiety with the assigned dissimilar avatar compared to the avatar looking like the real self. Study 2 (N=105 was designed to explicate that trend, and further investigated anxiety differences with an assigned self or dissimilar avatar. The assigned dissimilar avatar reduced anxiety relative to the assigned self avatar for one measure of anxiety. We discuss implications for theories of self-representation as well as for applied uses of VR to treat social anxiety.

  6. The Relationship between Virtual Self Similarity and Social Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymerich-Franch, Laura; Kizilcec, René F; Bailenson, Jeremy N

    2014-01-01

    In virtual reality (VR), it is possible to embody avatars that are dissimilar to the physical self. We examined whether embodying a dissimilar self in VR would decrease anxiety in a public speaking situation. We report the results of an observational pilot study and two laboratory experiments. In the pilot study (N = 252), participants chose an avatar to use in a public speaking task. Trait public speaking anxiety correlated with avatar preference, such that anxious individuals preferred dissimilar self-representations. In Study 1 (N = 82), differences in anxiety during a speech in front of a virtual audience were compared among participants embodying an assigned avatar whose face was identical to their real self, an assigned avatar whose face was other than their real face, or embodied an avatar of their choice. Anxiety differences were not significant, but there was a trend for lower anxiety with the assigned dissimilar avatar compared to the avatar looking like the real self. Study 2 (N = 105) was designed to explicate that trend, and further investigated anxiety differences with an assigned self or dissimilar avatar. The assigned dissimilar avatar reduced anxiety relative to the assigned self avatar for one measure of anxiety. We discuss implications for theories of self-representation as well as for applied uses of VR to treat social anxiety.

  7. The relationship of hormone-metabolic disorders and indicators of anxiety and depression in young men with obesity on different types of therapy

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    M E Tel'nova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess hormonal and metabolic parameters and psychological status of young men with obesity. Methods: The study included 60 men with obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2 divided in two groups. Patients in the first group (n=30 received orlistat for 12 weeks (120 mg 3 times daily with meal. Patients in second group (n=30 followed hypocaloric diet and aerobic exercise. All patients were examined before treatment and after 12 weeks. Evaluation included hormonal and biochemical analyses, 48 patients were examined by psychological questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Results: Patients that received orlistat treatment showed significant decrease of body mass: 50% of patients had decrease more than 5%, 30% of patients - more than 10% (p<0,05. In first group after 12 weeks of treatment level of cortisol decreased and level of testosterone increased. The results of treatment in second group were less significant. There was a significant decrease in anxiety and depression scales in patients taking orlistat (p<0,05. High levels of social anxiety did not decrease in both groups after treatment. As a result of orlistat treatment there was a decrease in external eating behavior and increase in expression of restraint eating behavior by DEBQ (p<0,05. Conclusions: treatment with orlistat reduces body weight, which is correlated by improvement of hormonal and biochemical parameters. Weight loss is accompanied by changes in rates of anxiety and depression.

  8. The Examination of the State-Trait Anxiety Levels of the Male Football Players at the Age of 13-15 in Terms of Different Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Olcay KARABULUT

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is a screening model research that aims to examine the state-trait anxiety levels of the male football players at the age of 13-15 in terms. The participants of the study include 61 volunteer footballers chosen randomly among the 80 footballers in Nike Premier Cup U-15 Turkey Championship held in Kırşehir in 2008. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory by Spielberger et al. (1970 is utilized to measure the footballers' anxiety levels. Its translation into Turkish and validity and reliability studies on it were implemented by Öner and Le Compte (1983. In the analysis of the data, their arithmetic mean, standard deviations, frequency (f levels and percentage (% values are calculated. As a result of these calculations, Mann Whitney U and Krusukal Wallis analyses are applied for the nonparametric groups and the significance level of all the data is found. As a result, at the end of the study, it is found that the participants have high anxiety levels, that the sport year and the fathers' perceived house management attitude variables cause no significant difference in state-trait anxiety levels of the footballers and that the fathers' high education levels affect the participants' anxiety levels negatively.

  9. German Anxiety Barometer-Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Dirk; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g., economic, political, personal) anxieties. Furthermore, factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N = 2229). Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within 1 year (women > men), 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms. Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected. A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include, in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking, and leisure behavior, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors, such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties.

  10. German Anxiety Barometer—Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Dirk; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g., economic, political, personal) anxieties. Furthermore, factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N = 2229). Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within 1 year (women > men), 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms. Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected. A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include, in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking, and leisure behavior, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors, such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties. PMID:27667977

  11. Sex differences in stress-related receptors: ″micro″ differences with ″macro″ implications for mood and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangasser Debra A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as unipolar depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, occur more frequently in women than in men. Emerging research suggests that sex differences in receptors for the stress hormones, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF and glucocorticoids, contribute to this disparity. For example, sex differences in CRF receptor binding in the amygdala of rats may predispose females to greater anxiety following stressful events. Additionally, sex differences in CRF receptor signaling and trafficking in the locus coeruleus arousal center combine to make females more sensitive to low levels of CRF, and less adaptable to high levels. These receptor differences in females could lead to hyperarousal, a dysregulated state associated with symptoms of depression and PTSD. Similar to the sex differences observed in CRF receptors, sex differences in glucocorticoid receptor (GR function also appear to make females more susceptible to dysregulation after a stressful event. Following hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis activation, GRs are critical to the negative feedback process that inhibits additional glucocorticoid release. Compared to males, female rats have fewer GRs and impaired GR translocation following chronic adolescent stress, effects linked to slower glucocorticoid negative feedback. Thus, under conditions of chronic stress, attenuated negative feedback in females would result in hypercortisolemia, an endocrine state thought to cause depression. Together, these studies suggest that sex differences in stress-related receptors shift females more easily into a dysregulated state of stress reactivity, linked to the development of mood and anxiety disorders. The implications of these receptor sex differences for the development of novel pharmacotherapies are also discussed.

  12. Countries with Higher Levels of Gender Equality Show Larger National Sex Differences in Mathematics Anxiety and Relatively Lower Parental Mathematics Valuation for Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoet, Gijsbert; Bailey, Drew H; Moore, Alex M; Geary, David C

    2016-01-01

    Despite international advancements in gender equality across a variety of societal domains, the underrepresentation of girls and women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related fields persists. In this study, we explored the possibility that the sex difference in mathematics anxiety contributes to this disparity. More specifically, we tested a number of predictions from the prominent gender stratification model, which is the leading psychological theory of cross-national patterns of sex differences in mathematics anxiety and performance. To this end, we analyzed data from 761,655 15-year old students across 68 nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Most importantly and contra predictions, we showed that economically developed and more gender equal countries have a lower overall level of mathematics anxiety, and yet a larger national sex difference in mathematics anxiety relative to less developed countries. Further, although relatively more mothers work in STEM fields in more developed countries, these parents valued, on average, mathematical competence more in their sons than their daughters. The proportion of mothers working in STEM was unrelated to sex differences in mathematics anxiety or performance. We propose that the gender stratification model fails to account for these national patterns and that an alternative model is needed. In the discussion, we suggest how an interaction between socio-cultural values and sex-specific psychological traits can better explain these patterns. We also discuss implications for policies aiming to increase girls' STEM participation.

  13. [The Manifestation of the Anxiety during Fear Conditioning in Wistar Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, I V; Rysakova, M P

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify the correlation between anxiety and conditioned fear, the behavior of the same male Wistar rats was compared in three anxiety tests (open field, light-dark box and elevated plus-maze) and in Pavlovian auditory fear conditioning paradigm using correlation, factor and variance analyses. The correlation between anxiety/bravery and locomotion indexes in different tests was not revealed. Positive correlations between grooming, urinations and defecations, rearing in three tests were revealed. These data suggest that animals reacted to various tests differently, resulting, apparently in the emergence of different anxiety levels, specific for each test. Vegetative reactions, inclination to exploration and substituting behavior were more stable characteristics of rats. Anxiety behavior in elevated plus-maze correlated to freezing response to context after fear conditioning, while high-anxiety rats had higher level of freezing to context than low-anxiety rats. The higher freezing response to sound after fear conditioning was found in rats with middle locomotor activity in open field. Conditioned fear to the context and to the sound was associated with different forms of rat anxiety during different tests.

  14. A STUDY OF ADOLESCENTS’ ANXIETY AND ACHIEVEMENT IN ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridha Fadillah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating whether there is relationship between students’ anxiety and students’ achievement in English as a foreign language among adolescents at Sekolah Menengah Umum Negeri 1 Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan. The sample was 152 students of sixteen and seventeen years old at second grade. The results indicate that the students’ anxiety in learning English as foreign language is at moderate level. There is no significant relationship between English language anxiety and students’ achievement in English as a foreign language as a whole. But a significant negative correlation between test anxiety and students’ achievement is indicated. And the difference of English language anxiety between male and female occurred on communication apprehension, it shows that female is more apprehensive than male in English communication but for overall anxiety, there is no difference in English language anxiety by gender at second grade in this school.

  15. Gender differences in major depressive disorder : Results from the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuch, Jerome J. J.; Roest, Annelieke M.; Nolen, Willem A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; de Jonge, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although an overall gender difference in prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been well established, several questions concerning gender differences in the clinical manifestation of depression remain. This study aims to identify gender differences in psychopathology, treatme

  16. RESEARCH ON CORRELATION AMONG DIFFERENT OSSIFICATION CENTRES IN FEMALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golakoti Sree Rama Krishna Gangadhara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Medico-legal age estimation is one of the tasks in clinical forensic medicine. In many instances, the courts of law seek medical opinion on the age of an individual. The circumstances may be civil, like to find the date of retirement in cases where the birth record is not available or criminal as in cases of child labour, juvenile delinquency, rape, kidnapping from lawful guardian, etc. There is a wide confusion and controversy regarding the standard method to be used for estimating age in the Indian Subcontinent. The aim of the current study is to find the correlation among the various parameters of commonly examined ossification centres, through which a regression formula with positive correlation and maximum coefficient of determination can be derived which can be attempted to be standardised for the estimation of age.

  17. Reliability and convergent validity of the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Isolan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and the convergent validity of the Children Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI with DSM-IV anxiety disorder symptoms, by comparison with the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED, in a community sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. METHODS: Children and adolescents from five schools were selected from a larger study that aimed to assess different aspects of childhood anxiety disorders. All participants completed the CASI and the SCARED. RESULTS: This study supported the reliability of the CASI total score. Girls reported higher total anxiety sensitivity scores than boys and there were no differences in total anxiety sensitivity scores between children and adolescents. This study showed moderate to high correlations between the CASI scores with SCARED scores, all correlations coefficients being positive and significant. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate an appropriate reliability and evidence of convergent validity in the CASI in a sample of Brazilian children and adolescents.

  18. Path analysis of influencing factors correlated with test anxiety in middle school students%中学生考试焦虑相关影响因素的径路分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙月吉; 朱程清; 庞鑫鑫; 林媛; 郑亚; 周世昱; 吴军; 李娜; 沈惠娟; 丁慧敏

    2010-01-01

    (FES-CV). Statistics were done with version of SPSS14.0,and data were analyzed by Pearson correlation, multiple linenear stepwise regression and path analysis. Results The rates of test anxiety respectively was mild 25.97% ,moderate 45.65% ,severe 28.38%; there were no significant different between the male and female students anxiety ( 16.71 ± 6.44,17.01 ± 7.02, t = 1. 469, P = 0.334). Test anxiety positively correlated with Achievement motivation, reach motivation of competition, endurance, escape, expos, deny the fantasy,family conflicts,parental punished severely,excessive interference,objective deny,overprotective of father.( r 1-16 :0. 214,0. 135,0. 254,0. 216,0. 308,0.472,0. 492,0. 168,0. 249,0. 537,0. 282,0. 102,0. 238,0. 185,0. 233,0.301,0.273; P 1-16 = 0. 000 ~ 0. 030) , and negatively correlated with Problem-solving, rationalizing interpretation, family cohesion, informative, entertaining, emotional expression, organization, parental warmth and understanding ( r1-9: -0. 121, -0. 134, -0. 178, -0. 215, -0. 221, -0. 101, -0. 298, -0. 136, -0. 168; P 1-9 =0.000 ~0.007). Enter test anxiety regression equation is the reached motivation of competition,emotional expose,organization, psychosis, Neuroticism, parent's warm and understanding , mother's refuse and deny ( t 1-7: 2.496,2.521, -2.687, -2. 150,3.503,2.237,2.259; P1-7 =0.001 ~0.038). Conclusion Test anxiety is commonly find in middle school students. Test anxiety is affected by some paths that are personality,achievement motivation,emotional coping style,family environment and parental education methods.

  19. Multidimensional Perfectionism and Anxiety: Differences among Individuals with Perfectionism and Tests of a Coping-Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnilka, Philip B.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, anxiety, and coping processes in a sample of 329 undergraduate students. Specifically, participants with adaptive perfectionism had the lowest levels of anxiety, followed by participants with nonperfectionism, and participants with maladaptive perfectionism had…

  20. Correlations between different line-forming regions in quasar environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Hamann, Fred; Lundgren, Britt

    2017-01-01

    The early stage of massive galaxy evolution can involve outflows driven by a starburst or a central quasar plus cold mode accretion (infall) adding to the mass build-up in the galaxies. We are using SDSS-BOSS DR12 database to study the nature of infall and outflows in quasar environments by examining the relationships of their narrow absorption lines (NALs) at positive and negative velocity shifts to other quasar properties such as their broad absorption line (BAL) outflows, emission line characteristics, radio-loudness, and reddening by dust. We also test for extreme high-velocity NAL outflows (with speeds 0.1-0.2c) based on relationships to low-speed NALs and quasar properties, and we perform detailed analyses of particular cases of rich multi-component NAL complexes that might result from high-speed quasar outflows shredding and dispersing interstellar clouds in the host galaxies. Our results show that low-velocity NALs and rich NAL complexes correlate strongly with BALs, suggesting a physical relationship. Infalling systems are less common in quasars with BALs, suggesting that BAL outflows can halt or disrupt gas accretion. The extreme high-velocity NALs (at 0.1-0.2c) show a weak relationship to BALs and a strong dependence on low-velocity NALs, indicating that a significant fraction of these systems is ejected from the quasars (and are *not* unrelated intervening clouds). We find no correlations between radio flux and low-velocity NALs, infalling systems, or rich complexes, which indicates that none of these features are closely tied to quasar radio properties. We analyze the relationship of the N V/C IV line strengths (a possible abundance/metallicity probe) in emission versus absorption lines and find no correlation between them.

  1. Relations among religiosity, health, happiness, and anxiety for Kuwaiti adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroun, Khader A

    2006-12-01

    The present study investigated correlations among religiosity, health, happiness, and anxiety for 941 Kuwaiti adolescents. A convenience sample of male (n=408) and female (n=533) students (M age = 16.5, SD = 1.2 yr.) was randomly selected from secondary school students of different districts of the State of Kuwait. The Intrinsic Religious Motivation scale, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, and six self-rating scales assessing religiosity, strength of religious belief, physical health, mental health, happiness, and life satisfaction were applied to assess correlations among Kuwaiti adolescents. Analysis showed boys had significantly higher mean scores than girls on all measures except anxiety, on which girls scored significantly higher than boys. There also were significant and positive correlations among the variables, except for anxiety, which was significant and negative.

  2. 不同数学焦虑成人的算术策略运用差异:ERP研究%Differences of Arithmetic Strategy Use in Adults with Different Math Anxieties:An ERP Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司继伟; 徐艳丽; 封洪敏; 许晓华; 周超

    2014-01-01

    采用事件相关电位(ERP)技术和选择/无选法范式,在两位数加法心算和估算中,探索高、低数学焦虑个体的算术计算策略运用及其内在机制。行为结果:数学焦虑效应在策略运用的反应时和正确率指标上的差异都不显著;而脑电结果:高数学焦虑个体的 N400波幅显著高于低数学焦虑个体;选择条件中,估算与心算的数学焦虑效应的N100波幅差异;无选条件中,高低数学焦虑个体N1-P2复合波的波幅和潜伏期差异显著。数学焦虑效应在策略编码(0~250 ms)和策略选择/执行阶段(250 ms之后)存在差异。%As one of the leading researching topics of contemporary cognitive science, strategy use depends on many factors, such as situation, problem characteristics, individual differences including math anxiety, etc. (Siegler, 2007;Imbo& Vandierendonck, 2007).Various theories on arithmetic anxiety have been proposed, however, the role of arithmetic anxiety in strategy utilization and its potential mechanism is still far from clear (Wang&Liu, 2007). The neural mechanism of arithmetic strategies utilization affected by math anxiety still needs further exploring. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) is usually utilized in exploring brain mechanisms in arithmetic performance, and the choice/no-choice method is a standard method to obtain unbiased data about strategy utilization. In this study, we employed the ERPs and choice/no-choice method to investigate the influence of math anxiety upon individual strategy utilization during arithmetic processing. Revised Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (R-MARS) and Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to test 154 students and 34 participants were picked and divided to two groups (17 high math anxiety and 17 low math anxiety). Participants were required to finish the two-digit addition computational mental arithmetic and computational estimation based on applying the ERP technique to test the neurophysiologic

  3. Effects of the beta-carboline, FG 7142, in the social interaction test of anxiety and the holeboard: correlations between behaviour and plasma concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    File, S E; Pellow, S; Braestrup, C

    1985-06-01

    The behavioural effects of the beta-carboline FG 7142 were investigated in the social interaction test of anxiety and the holeboard test of exploration and locomotor activity. FG 7142 (5-20 mg/kg) produced a significant decrease in the time spent in social interaction by pairs of rats, without an accompanying decrease in motor activity. This anxiogenic effect was highly correlated with the plasma concentrations of FG 7142 for the rats receiving 5 and 10 mg/kg doses, but not for those receiving the 20 mg/kg dose. In the holeboard, FG 7142 had no effect on exploratory head-dipping at the doses tested, but selectively reduced locomotor activity and the number of rears. The profile of FG 7142 in these tests is compared with those of the beta-carbolines, B-CCE and B-CCP.

  4. Symptom provocation in dental anxiety using cross-phobic video stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueken, Ulrike; Hoyer, Jürgen; Siegert, Jens; Gloster, Andrew T; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-02-01

    Although video stimulation has been successfully employed in dental phobia, conclusions regarding the specificity of reactions are limited. A novel, video-based paradigm using cross-phobic video stimulation was validated based on subjective and autonomic responses. Forty subjects were stratified according to dental anxiety as measured by the Dental Fear Survey (DFS) using a median-split procedure (high-DFS and low-DFS groups). Anxiety stimuli comprised dental-anxiety scenes and non-dental-anxiety control scenes (snake stimuli). Neutral scenes were tailored to each anxiety stimulus. Dental, but not snake, stimuli were rated as more anxiety provoking only in the high-DFS group. Elevated skin-conductance amplitudes were observed in the high-DFS group for dental anxiety vs. neutral videos, but not for snake anxiety vs. neutral videos. State and trait anxiety and autonomic reactivity were correlated according to expectations. Using cross-phobic video stimulation, it was demonstrated that phobogenic reactions in dental anxiety are specific to the respective stimulus material and do not generalize to other non-dental-anxiety control conditions. The validation of the paradigm may support and stimulate future research on the characterization of dental anxiety on different response systems, including its underlying neural substrates.

  5. Anxiety, Gambling Activity, and Neurocognition: A Dimensional Approach to a Non-Treatment-Seeking Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Gustavo C; Sampaio, Daniela G; Leppink, Eric W; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Grant, Jon E

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Previous analyses have highlighted significant associations between gambling disorder (GD)/subsyndromal GD and increased rates of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders relative to the general population. However, less is known about how anxiety symptoms influence the clinical presentation of gambling problems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between anxiety symptoms, gambling activity, and neurocognition across the spectrum of gambling behavior. Methods The sample consisted of 143 non-treatment-seeking young adults (aged 18-29 years), in which 63 individuals (44.1%) were classified as recreational gamblers, 47 (32.9%) as having subsyndromal GD, and 33 (23.1%) met criteria for GD. Results The main findings were: (a) there was a positive correlation between anxiety severity and gambling severity measured by the number of DSM-5 GD criteria met; (b) there was a positive correlation between anxiety severity and attentional impulsiveness; (c) subjects with suicidality presented higher levels of anxiety; and (d) the severity of anxiety symptoms was negatively correlated with the quality of life. Discussion and conclusions This study suggests that anxiety may be associated with relevant clinical variables in the broad spectrum of gambling activity. Therefore, proper management of anxiety symptoms might improve the clinical presentation of gamblers in different areas.

  6. Validity study of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (Portuguese version by the Rasch Rating Scale model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Quintão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to conduct a validation study of the Portuguese version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI by means of the Rasch Rating Scale Model, and then compare it with the most used scales of anxiety in Portugal. The sample consisted of 1,160 adults (427 men and 733 women, aged 18-82 years old (M=33.39; SD=11.85. Instruments were Beck Anxiety Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. It was found that Beck Anxiety Inventory's system of four categories, the data-model fit, and people reliability were adequate. The measure can be considered as unidimensional. Gender and age-related differences were not a threat to the validity. BAI correlated significantly with other anxiety measures. In conclusion, BAI shows good psychometric quality.

  7. The correlation between emotional distress and aging males’ symptoms at a psychiatric outpatient clinic: sexual dysfunction as a distinguishing characteristic between andropause and anxiety/depression in aging men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen CY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ching-Yen Chen,1,4,5 Chin-Pang Lee,1,4 Yu Chen,2,4,5 Jun-Ran Jiang,3,4,5 Chun-Lin Chu,1,4,5 Chun-Liang Chen3,4,5 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Urology, 3Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 4Men’s Health Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Taiwan; 5School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Background: Andropause and psychiatric disorders are associated with various symptoms in aging males and are part of the differential diagnosis of depression and anxiety. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between symptoms of aging, anxiety, and depression, and to determine if sexual dysfunction could be a differentiating characteristic in the psychiatric outpatient clinic. Methods: One hundred seventy-six male psychiatric outpatients participated in the study and completed self-reported measures assessing symptoms of aging, depression, and anxiety. Symptoms of aging were assessed by the Aging Males’ Symptoms scale. Anxiety and depression were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Erectile dysfunction was considered if a response to item 15 on the Aging Males’ Symptoms scale (impaired sexual potency was rated with 4 or 5 points. Affective disturbance was assessed by the total scores of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: Age was correlated with less anxiety and more sexual symptoms. Anxiety and depression were associated with more severe symptoms of aging, and depression was associated with more sexual symptoms than was anxiety. Impaired sexual potency was the only sexual symptom not significantly associated with depression and anxiety. Depression was associated with an interspousal age gap of ≥6 years. The point prevalence of erectile dysfunction was 28.4%, and age and affective disturbance were associated with the risk of erectile dysfunction. Conclusion: Impaired sexual potency should raise the suspicion of androgen deficiency rather than depression

  8. First- and last-year medical students: is there a difference in the prevalence and intensity of anxiety and depressive symptoms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Bassols

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Medical training is considered a significant stress factor. We sought to assess the prevalence and intensity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in medical students and compare samples of first-year and sixth-year students. Method: This was a cross-sectional study of first- and sixth-year medical students who attended classes regularly. The study instruments were a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI. Results: A total of 232 students (110 first-year, 122 sixth-year completed the questionnaires, for a response rate of 67.4%. Overall 50.4% of respondents were male (56.4% of first-year and 45.1% of sixth-year students. Anxiety symptoms were reported by 30.8% of first-year students and 9.4% of sixth-year students (p < 0.001. Female students were more affected by anxiety. There were no significant between-group differences in depressive symptoms. Conclusion: A higher prevalence of anxiety symptoms was found in first-year medical students as compared with sixth-year students. Strategies should be developed to help medical students, particularly female students, manage these symptoms at the beginning of their medical training.

  9. Individual differences in reinforcement learning: behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesso, Diane L; Dillon, Daniel G; Birk, Jeffrey L; Holmes, Avram J; Goetz, Elena; Bogdan, Ryan; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2008-08-15

    During reinforcement learning, phasic modulations of activity in midbrain dopamine neurons are conveyed to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and basal ganglia (BG) and serve to guide adaptive responding. While the animal literature supports a role for the dACC in integrating reward history over time, most human electrophysiological studies of dACC function have focused on responses to single positive and negative outcomes. The present electrophysiological study investigated the role of the dACC in probabilistic reward learning in healthy subjects using a task that required integration of reinforcement history over time. We recorded the feedback-related negativity (FRN) to reward feedback in subjects who developed a response bias toward a more frequently rewarded ("rich") stimulus ("learners") versus subjects who did not ("non-learners"). Compared to non-learners, learners showed more positive (i.e., smaller) FRNs and greater dACC activation upon receiving reward for correct identification of the rich stimulus. In addition, dACC activation and a bias to select the rich stimulus were positively correlated. The same participants also completed a monetary incentive delay (MID) task administered during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to non-learners, learners displayed stronger BG responses to reward in the MID task. These findings raise the possibility that learners in the probabilistic reinforcement task were characterized by stronger dACC and BG responses to rewarding outcomes. Furthermore, these results highlight the importance of the dACC to probabilistic reward learning in humans.

  10. Personality and individual difference correlates of positive body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Hadji-Michael, Maria; Furnham, Adrian

    2008-09-01

    In the present study, 101 women and 106 men from a community sample of British adults completed the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS), along with a battery of individual difference measures and demographics. Contrary to previous findings, there were no sex differences in BAS scores, either before or after controlling for individual differences in other measures. The results also showed that, moderating for participants' sex, self-assessed attractiveness, educational qualifications, neuroticism, extraversion, and BMI were all significant predictors of body appreciation. In addition, higher media consumption and higher (male-stereotypic) instrumentality were associated with, but did not predict, higher body appreciation. These results are discussed in relation to the extant work on body image.

  11. [Anxiety in progressive disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Michaela; Heydweiller, Katrin; Mücke, Martin; Cuhls, Henning; Radbruch, Lukas

    2016-08-01

    Anxiety in terminally ill patients has a high impact on symptoms, trajectory and quality of life. There are different screening instruments for diagnosis. The holistic approach of palliative care considers the physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs and can improve the distress caused by anxiety. Early integration in palliative care decreases burden of symptoms and increases quality of life.

  12. Effect of Foreign Language Anxiety on Gender and Academic Achievement among Yemeni University EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Norizan Abdul; Yassin, Amr Abdullatif; Maasum, Tengku Nor Rizan Bt Tengku Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the gender differences in terms of anxiety among Yemeni university EFL learners. It also aimed to investigate the correlation between the level of anxiety and the academic achievement of the students. The participants of this study were 155 students chosen from the population through stratified random sampling. The…

  13. Nocturnal Orgasm in College Women: Its Relation to Dreams and Anxiety Associated with Sexual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henton, Comradge L.

    1976-01-01

    A total of 774 female undergraduates were administered a structured questionnaire and an anxiety scale. It was found that women do experience nocturnal orgasms during sleep. Differences were found according to year at school as well as a positive correlation between level of anxiety and sexual excitement. (MS)

  14. Quantifying the Search Behaviour of Different Demographics Using Google Correlate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Letchford

    Full Text Available Vast records of our everyday interests and concerns are being generated by our frequent interactions with the Internet. Here, we investigate how the searches of Google users vary across U.S. states with different birth rates and infant mortality rates. We find that users in states with higher birth rates search for more information about pregnancy, while those in states with lower birth rates search for more information about cats. Similarly, we find that users in states with higher infant mortality rates search for more information about credit, loans and diseases. Our results provide evidence that Internet search data could offer new insight into the concerns of different demographics.

  15. New evidence of heterogeneity in social anxiety disorder: defining two qualitatively different personality profiles taking into account clinical, environmental and genetic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binelli, C.; Muniz, A.; Sanches, S.; Ortiz, A.; Navines, R.; Egmond, E.; Udina, M.; Batalla, A.; Lopez-Sola, C.; Crippa, J.A.; Subira, S.; Martin-Santos, R.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study qualitatively different subgroups of social anxiety disorder (SAD) based on harm avoidance (HA) and novelty seeking (NS) dimensions. METHOD: One hundred and forty-two university students with SAD (SCID-DSM-IV) were included in the study. The temperament dimensions HA and NS from th

  16. A Pilot Examination of Differences in College Adjustment Stressors and Depression and Anxiety Symptoms between White, Hispanic and White, Non-Hispanic Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Ryan; Anderson, Elizabeth; Williams, Rush; Bird, Jessica; Matlock, Alyse; Ali, Sania; Edmondson, Christine; Morris, E. Ellen; Mullen, Kacy; Surís, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Differences in four adjustment stressors (family, interpersonal, career, and academic), and depression and anxiety symptoms were examined between White, non-Hispanic and White, Hispanic undergraduate college female students. White, Hispanic female college students reported significantly greater academic and family adjustment stressors than White,…

  17. Correlation of cutting fluid performance in different machining operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Belluco, Walter

    2001-01-01

    and tapping, with respect to tool life, cutting forces and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity). A number of different work materials were considered, with emphasis on austenitic stainless steel, and cutting fluids from two main groups, water miscible and straight oils, were...

  18. Individual Differences in Reinforcement Learning: Behavioral, Electrophysiological, and Neuroimaging Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesso, Diane L.; Dillon, Daniel G.; Birk, Jeffrey L.; Holmes, Avram J.; Goetz, Elena; Bogdan, Ryan; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2008-01-01

    During reinforcement learning, phasic modulations of activity in midbrain dopamine neurons are conveyed to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and basal ganglia and serve to guide adaptive responding. While the animal literature supports a role for the dACC in integrating reward history over time, most human electrophysiological studies of dACC function have focused on responses to single positive and negative outcomes. The present electrophysiological study investigated the role of the dACC in probabilistic reward learning in healthy subjects using a task that required integration of reinforcement history over time. We recorded the feedback-related negativity (FRN) to reward feedback in subjects who developed a response bias toward a more frequently rewarded (“rich”) stimulus (“learners”) versus subjects who did not (“non-learners”). Compared to non-learners, learners showed more positive (i.e., smaller) FRNs and greater dACC activation upon receiving reward for correct identification of the rich stimulus. In addition, dACC activation and a bias to select the rich stimulus were positively correlated. The same participants also completed a monetary incentive delay (MID) task administered during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to non-learners, learners displayed stronger basal ganglia responses to reward in the MID task. These findings raise the possibility that learners in the probabilistic reinforcement task were characterized by stronger dACC and basal ganglia responses to rewarding outcomes. Furthermore, these results highlight the importance of the dACC to probabilistic reward learning in humans. PMID:18595740

  19. German Anxiety Barometer – Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Adolph

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g.,economic,political,personalanxieties.Furthermore,factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N= 2229.Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within one year (women > men, 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms.Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected.A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include,in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking and leisure behaviour, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors,such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties.

  20. Sex Differences in Serum Markers of Major Depressive Disorder in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jordan M.; Cooper, Jason D.; Bot, Mariska; Guest, Paul C.; Lamers, Femke; Weickert, Cynthia S.

    2016-01-01

    Women have a consistently higher prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) than men. Hypotheses implicating hypothalamic-pituitary -adrenal, -gonadal, and -thyroid axes, immune response, genetic factors, and neurotransmitters have emerged to explain this difference. However, more evidence for these hypotheses is needed and new explanations must be explored. Here, we investigated sex differences in MDD markers using multiplex immunoassay measurements of 171 serum molecules in individuals enrolled in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NMDD = 231; Ncontrol = 365). We found 28 sex-dependent markers of MDD, as quantified by a significant interaction between sex and log2-transformed analyte concentration in a logistic regression with diagnosis (MDD/control) as the outcome variable (ptrefoil factor 3, cystatin-C, fetuin-A, β2-microglobulin, CD5L, FASLG receptor, and tumor necrosis factor receptor 2. Furthermore, only male MDD could be classified with an accuracy greater than chance using the measured serum analytes (area under the ROC curve = 0.63). These findings may have consequences for the generalization of inflammatory hypotheses of depression to males and females and have important implications for the development of diagnostic biomarker tests for MDD. More studies are needed to validate these results, investigate a broader range of biological pathways, and integrate this data with brain imaging, genetic, and other relevant data. PMID:27232630

  1. The effect of two different Individually Ventilated Cage systems on anxiety-related behaviour and welfare in two strains of laboratory mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, O; Buccarello, L; Redaelli, V; Cervo, L

    2014-01-30

    The environment in which a laboratory animal is housed can significantly influence its behaviour and welfare, acting as a potential confounding factor for those studies in which it is utilised. This study investigated the impact of two Individually Ventilated Cage (IVC) housing systems on anxiety-related behaviour and welfare indicators in two common strains of laboratory mice. Subjects were juvenile female C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice (N=128) housed in groups of four in two different IVC systems for 7weeks. System One had air delivery at the cage 'cover' level at 75 ACH (Air Changes/Hour) and System Two had air delivery at the 'animal' level at 50 ACH. Mice were assessed twice a week (e.g. bodyweight) or at the end of the study (e.g. anxiety tests). Our results showed significant differences in anxiety-related behaviour between strains and housing systems. Mice in System Two, regardless of strain, defecated more in the Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), spent less time in the open arms of the EPM, and less time in the central zone of the Open Field (OF). Strain differences in anxiety-like behaviour were seen in the increased defecation by BALB/c mice in the OF and EPM and less time spent in the open arms of the EPM compared to C57BL/6J mice. These results suggest that different IVC housing systems can influence mouse behaviour in different ways, with mice of both strains studied exhibiting more anxiety-related behaviour when housed in System Two (air entry at the 'animal' level at 50 ACH), which could impact upon experimental data.

  2. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  3. Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A What's in this article? What Is Test Anxiety? What Causes It? Who's Likely to Have Test Anxiety? What Can You Do? en español Ansiedad ante ... prevent them from doing their best on a test. continue What Causes It? All anxiety is a reaction to anticipating something stressful. Like ...

  4. Negative Social Evaluative Fears Produce Social Anxiety, Food Intake, and Body Dissatisfaction: Evidence of Similar Mechanisms through Different Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid, suggesting there are shared vulnerabilities that underlie the development of these disorders. Two proposed vulnerabilities are fear of negative evaluation and social appearance anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation regarding one's appearance). In the current experimental study (N=160 women) we measured these fears: (a) through a manipulation comparing fear conditions, (b) with trait fears, and (c) state fears. Results indicated tha...

  5. Anxiety in foreign language learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英

    2012-01-01

    Among the affective emotional variables in foreign language learning and teaching, anxiety stands out as one of the main blocking factors for affective language learning. In this paper, the author comes up with some solutions in dealing with different types of anxiety. The author believes the facilitative anxiety may benefit a lot in language teaching and learning.

  6. Can Coloring Mandalas Reduce Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Nancy A.; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of different types of art activities in the reduction of anxiety. After undergoing a brief anxiety-induction, 84 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to color a mandala, to color a plaid form, or to color on a blank piece of paper. Results demonstrated that anxiety levels declined approximately the…

  7. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. METHODS: The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191...

  8. Strategic differences in algebraic problem solving: neuroanatomical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kerry; Lim, Zee Ying; Yeong, Stephanie H M; Ng, Swee Fong; Venkatraman, Vinod; Chee, Michael W L

    2007-06-25

    In this study, we built on previous neuroimaging studies of mathematical cognition and examined whether the same cognitive processes are engaged by two strategies used in algebraic problem solving. We focused on symbolic algebra, which uses alphanumeric equations to represent problems, and the model method, which uses pictorial representation. Eighteen adults, matched on academic proficiency and competency in the two methods, transformed algebraic word problems into equations or models, and validated presented solutions. Both strategies were associated with activation of areas linked to working memory and quantitative processing. These included the left frontal gyri, and bilateral activation of the intraparietal sulci. Contrasting the two strategies, the symbolic method activated the posterior superior parietal lobules and the precuneus. These findings suggest that the two strategies are effected using similar processes but impose different attentional demands.

  9. Toward the validation of visual analogue scale for anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facco, E; Zanette, G; Favero, L; Bacci, C; Sivolella, S; Cavallin, F; Manani, G

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety is a relevant problem in dental practice. The Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A), introduced in dentistry in 1988, has not yet been validated in large series. The aim of this study is to check VAS-A effectiveness in more than 1000 patients submitted to implantology. The VAS-A and the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) were administered preoperatively to 1114 patients (459 males and 655 females, age 54.7 ± 13.1 years). Statistical analysis was conducted with Pearson correlation coefficient, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and McNemar tests. A close correlation between DAS and VAS-A was found (r  =  0.57, P < .0001); the VAS-A thresholds of dental anxiety and phobia were 5.1 and 7.0 cm, respectively. Despite a significant concordance of tests in 800 cases (72%), disagreement was found in the remaining 314 cases (28%), and low DAS was associated with high VAS-A (230 cases) or vice versa (84 cases). Our study confirms that VAS-A is a simple, sensitive, fast, and reliable tool in dental anxiety assessment. The rate of disagreement between VAS-A and DAS is probably due to different test sensitivities to different components of dental anxiety. VAS-A can be used effectively in the assessment of dental patients, using the values of 5.1 cm and 7.0 cm as cutoff values for anxiety and phobia, respectively.

  10. 3-6年级留守儿童孤独感与社交焦虑关系研究%On the Correlations between Loneliness and Social Anxiety of 3 to 6 Grade Left-behind Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段宝军

    2014-01-01

    This study used children’s loneliness scale and social anxiety scale to examine the 3 to 6 grade left-behind children. The results showed that:1) There was not significant gender difference in the whole score of loneliness among the children;2) the loneliness of left-behind children with migrant working parents was significantly higher than that of those children with fathers out for work while no significant difference was found in the children with mothers out for work; 3) significant difference existed in grade variables with higher grades reporting lower loneliness;and 4) loneliness, social anxiety and its two factors were significantly positively correlated whereas the overall social anxiety and social avoidance had significantly predictive to loneliness.%采用儿童孤独感量表和儿童社交焦虑量表,以3-6年级留守儿童为对象进行调查研究。结果发现:(1)3-6年级留守儿童的孤独感在性别变量上无显著差异。(2)父母双方外出打工的留守儿童孤独感显著高于父亲外出打工的留守儿童,与母亲外出打工留守儿童的孤独感无显著差异。(3)3-6年级留守儿童的孤独感在年级变量上的差异显著,随着年级升高,孤独感得分随之降低。(4)3-6年级留守儿童的孤独感与总体社交焦虑及其各因子呈显著正相关,总体社交焦虑和社交回避对孤独感具有显著的联合预测作用。

  11. Test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals explain gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-11-01

    This study uses analysis of co-variance in order to determine which cognitive/learning (working memory, knowledge integration, epistemic belief of learning) or social/personality factors (test anxiety, performance-avoidance goals) might account for gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores. The results revealed that none of the cognitive/learning factors accounted for gender differences in SAT performance. However, the social/personality factors of test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals each separately accounted for all of the significant gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance. Furthermore, when the influences of both of these factors were statistically removed simultaneously, all non-significant gender differences reduced further to become trivial by Cohen's (1988) standards. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance are a consequence of social/learning factors.

  12. 留学生汉语学习焦虑与HSK考试成绩的相关分析%On the Correlation Analysis between Overseas Students' Chinese Learning Anxiety and Their Scores in HSK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞芳; 杨伊生

    2011-01-01

    With the subjects of 51 overseas students from Korea and Mongolia, the paper makes a systematic analysis on the correlation between their Chinese learning anxiety and the scores in HSK.The results are as the following: (1) In all 33 items,the highest average anxiety value is 3.80 and the lowest 1.69,the total average value 2.65, and the standard deviation from 0.95 to 1.54, which shows that the subjects have significant anxiety in Chinese learning and the overseas students from Korea have more anxiety than those from Mongolia.(2) A significant negative correlation exists between the anxiety values of high score group and their reading scores; a significant positive correlation exists between the anxiety values of low score group and their reading scores and total scores; as to Korean students, no significant correlation is found between their anxiety values inall items and their scores.However, for Mongolian students,a significant positive correlation between their total anxiety values, the value in each item, and their scores in HSK; a significant negative correlation between all male students' anxiety values and their total scores and the scores in grammar and reading; a significant positive correlation between all female students' anxiety values and their total scores and the scores in each part of HSK.(3) To certain degree,anxiety can predict the total scores and the scores in each part of HSK,which is also the most effective to the reading and least effective to the listening.The research offers significant guidance to improve the Chinese teaching strategies for overseas students.%以51名韩国和蒙古国留学生为调查对象,分析了留学生汉语学习焦虑水平与其汉语水平考试(HSK)成绩的相关性.结果显示:(1)韩国和蒙古国51名被试各项目平均焦虑值最高3.80分,最低1.69分,33个项目的总平均值为2.65分,标准差为0.95~1.54.留学生汉语学习焦虑的性别差异不显著,韩国留学生汉语学习焦虑

  13. Individual Differences in the Psychobiological Response to Psychosocial Stress (Trier Social Stress Test): The Relevance of Trait Anxiety and Coping Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villada, Carolina; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of some personality traits to the physiological and psychological response to a standardized laboratory psychosocial stressor (trier social stress test). Cortisol and affective response (anxiety and mood) were analysed in a mixed-sex group composed of 35 young adults who participated in a crossover design (18 men and 17 women). After verifying a statistically significant response to the trier social stress test in all parameters studied in both sex groups, exploratory cluster analyses were carried out to identify sub-groups based on their psychophysiological responses. These analyses showed two different groups: subjects displaying lower psychological response along with higher cortisol response (cluster 1) compared with the group with high affective reactivity along with lower cortisol response (cluster 2). Interestingly, we also found significant differences in trait anxiety and coping styles when the two clusters were compared. Subjects in cluster 1 showed lower scores on trait anxiety and higher scores on active coping, whereas the subjects in the second cluster obtained higher scores on anxiety and on coping focused on emotions and mental disengagement. These findings support the importance of personality traits and coping styles in understanding the overall integrative psychobiological responsiveness to social stress.

  14. Neural correlates of individual performance differences in resolving perceptual conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Labrenz

    Full Text Available Attentional mechanisms are a crucial prerequisite to organize behavior. Most situations may be characterized by a 'competition' between salient, but irrelevant stimuli and less salient, relevant stimuli. In such situations top-down and bottom-up mechanisms interact with each other. In the present fMRI study, we examined how interindividual differences in resolving situations of perceptual conflict are reflected in brain networks mediating attentional selection. Doing so, we employed a change detection task in which subjects had to detect luminance changes in the presence and absence of competing distractors. The results show that good performers presented increased activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11, anterior cingulate (BA 25, inferior parietal lobule (BA 40 and visual areas V2 and V3 but decreased activation in BA 39. This suggests that areas mediating top-down attentional control are stronger activated in this group. Increased activity in visual areas reflects distinct neuronal enhancement relating to selective attentional mechanisms in order to solve the perceptual conflict. Opposed to good performers, brain areas activated by poor performers comprised the left inferior parietal lobule (BA 39 and fronto-parietal and visual regions were continuously deactivated, suggesting that poor performers perceive stronger conflict than good performers. Moreover, the suppression of neural activation in visual areas might indicate a strategy of poor performers to inhibit the processing of the irrelevant non-target feature. These results indicate that high sensitivity in perceptual areas and increased attentional control led to less conflict in stimulus processing and consequently to higher performance in competitive attentional selection.

  15. Neural correlates of individual performance differences in resolving perceptual conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrenz, Franziska; Themann, Maria; Wascher, Edmund; Beste, Christian; Pfleiderer, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Attentional mechanisms are a crucial prerequisite to organize behavior. Most situations may be characterized by a 'competition' between salient, but irrelevant stimuli and less salient, relevant stimuli. In such situations top-down and bottom-up mechanisms interact with each other. In the present fMRI study, we examined how interindividual differences in resolving situations of perceptual conflict are reflected in brain networks mediating attentional selection. Doing so, we employed a change detection task in which subjects had to detect luminance changes in the presence and absence of competing distractors. The results show that good performers presented increased activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11), anterior cingulate (BA 25), inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and visual areas V2 and V3 but decreased activation in BA 39. This suggests that areas mediating top-down attentional control are stronger activated in this group. Increased activity in visual areas reflects distinct neuronal enhancement relating to selective attentional mechanisms in order to solve the perceptual conflict. Opposed to good performers, brain areas activated by poor performers comprised the left inferior parietal lobule (BA 39) and fronto-parietal and visual regions were continuously deactivated, suggesting that poor performers perceive stronger conflict than good performers. Moreover, the suppression of neural activation in visual areas might indicate a strategy of poor performers to inhibit the processing of the irrelevant non-target feature. These results indicate that high sensitivity in perceptual areas and increased attentional control led to less conflict in stimulus processing and consequently to higher performance in competitive attentional selection.

  16. Evaluative priming from subliminal emotional words: insights from event-related potentials and individual differences related to anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Henning

    2009-06-01

    The present ERP study investigated effects of subliminal emotional words on preference judgments about subsequent visual target stimuli (paintings, portraits). Each target was preceded by a masked 17-ms emotional adjective. Four classes of prime words were distinguished according to the combinations of positive/negative valence and high/low arousal. Targets were liked significantly more after positive-arousing primes (e.g., happy), relative to negative-arousing (brutal), positive-nonarousing (mild), and negative-nonarousing primes (lazy). In the target ERP, amplitude of right-hemisphere positive slow wave was increased after positive-arousing compared to negative-arousing primes. Evaluative priming effects on judgments and ERPs were more pronounced in high state-anxious participants. The results suggest that (1) there is indeed affective/semantic processing of unconscious words, (2) evaluative priming operates relatively late during target processing, (3) to be effective, prime words need to score high on the arousal dimension, and (4) individual differences in state anxiety modulate the susceptibility to subliminal evaluative priming.

  17. 医学生时间管理倾向与考试焦虑的相关性研究%A correlative study on time management disposition of medical students and their test anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾雨婷; 秦莉

    2016-01-01

    Objective This article aims at the correlation between time management disposition of medical students and their test anxiety.Methods The correlations among their grades, majors, places of residence and genders were studied in the terms of questionnaires.Results With the grade rising, both time management ability and test anxiety increased.Time management ability of Nursing students was relatively strong. Their test anxiety was comparatively high.The correlation between their time management disposition and test anxiety had nothing to do with their majors.Time management ability of urban students was strong, their test anxiety was low and time management disposition was negatively correlated with test anxiety.Conclusions The main direction is provided to resolve the test anxiety of medical students and the reference and theoretical basis are given to establish the effective method to mitigate their test anxiety for future research staff.%目的 本文研究医学生时间管理倾向与考试焦虑的相关性. 方法 以问卷调查的形式研究其在年级、专业、居住地和性别各方面的关联. 结果 随年级的增长,时间管理能力和考试焦虑均增加.护理学学生时间管理能力较强,考试焦虑程度较高,时间管理倾向与考试焦虑相关性与专业无关. 城镇学生时间管理能力强,考试焦虑程度低,时间管理倾向与考试焦虑成负相关. 结论 为解决医学生考试焦虑提供主要方向,为以后研究人员制定有效的缓解医学生考试焦虑方法提供参考和理论依据.

  18. Association Between Anxiety and Depression With Dialysis Adequacy in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Afshan; Keihani, Sorena; Bagheri, Nazila; Ghanbari Jolfaei, Atefeh; Mazaheri Meybodi, Azadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are common among hemodialysis patients and affect their treatment outcomes. Dialysis adequacy also affects the hemodialysis patients’ survival rates. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between anxiety and depression with dialysis adequacy. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 127 hemodialysis patients (73 males, 57.5%) with the mean age of 55.7 ± 17.5 were enrolled. Demographic and recent laboratory data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and by reviewing medical records. Dialysis adequacy measures including the Kt/V and urea reduction rate (URR) were calculated using standard formulas. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to diagnose depression and anxiety. Independent sample t-test and Chi-square test were used to compare the values in different groups. Pearson correlations and linear regression were used to analyze the data using SPSS version 21. Results The prevalence rates of depression and anxiety (HADS score ≥ 8) were 31.5% and 41.7%, respectively. The prevalence of both conditions was significantly higher in women than in men (P < 0.05). The mean values of Kt/V and URR were not different in patients with and without depression or anxiety. The anxiety scores were correlated with age (P = 0.007, r = -0.24) and parathyroid hormone (P = 0.04, r = -0.19). Younger age and lower parathyroid hormone were the only factors that predicted higher scores of anxiety in linear regression. The Kt/V or URR were not significantly correlated with depression and anxiety scores. Conclusions Depression and anxiety are common among hemodialysis patients. There are no statistically significant correlation between depression and anxiety and dialysis adequacy.

  19. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety (worry and oversensitivity, social concerns and concentration, and physiological anxiety) as well as total anxiety symptoms at an initial assessment and 1 year later. Total anxiety and worry and oversensitivity symptoms are found to predict later depressive symptoms more strongly for girls than for boys. There is a similar pattern of results for social concerns and concentration symptoms, although this does not reach statistical significance. Physiological anxiety predicts later depressive symptoms for both boys and girls. These findings highlight the importance of anxiety for the development of depression in adolescence, particularly worry and oversensitivity among girls. PMID:19756209

  20. Attentional Bias in Children with Asthma with and without Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudeney, Joanne; Sharpe, Louise; Sicouri, Gemma; Lorimer, Sarah; Dear, Blake F; Jaffe, Adam; Selvadurai, Hiran; Hunt, Caroline

    2017-01-09

    Children with asthma have a high prevalence of anxiety disorders, however, very little is known about the mechanisms that confer vulnerability for anxiety in this population. This study investigated whether children with asthma and anxiety disorders display attentional biases towards threatening stimuli, similar to what has been seen in children with anxiety disorders more generally. We also examined the relationships between attentional biases and anxiety symptomatology and asthma control for children with asthma. Ninety-three children, aged 8-13, took part in the study and were recruited into one of four conditions (asthma/anxiety, asthma, anxiety, control). Asthma was medically confirmed and anxiety was assessed through clinical interview. We used self- and parent-report questionnaires to measure child asthma (ATAQ) and anxiety (SCAS, CASI) variables. Participants completed a visual dot-probe task designed to measure attentional bias towards two types of stimuli: asthma related words and general threat words, as well as tasks to assess reading ability and attentional control. Results showed that attentional biases did not differ between the groups, although children with anxiety disorders displayed poorer attentional control. A significant correlation was found between poor asthma control and an attentional bias of asthma stimuli. While we found no evidence that anxiety disorders in children with asthma were associated with threat- or asthma-related attentional biases, preliminary evidence suggested that children with poor asthma control displayed biases towards asthma-specific stimuli. Future research is needed to explore whether these attentional biases are adaptive.

  1. Mathematics, anxiety, and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed A; Tindle, Richard; Ansari, Zaheda; Doyle, Margery J; Hewedi, Doaa H; Eissa, Abeer

    2017-02-03

    Given that achievement in learning mathematics at school correlates with work and social achievements, it is important to understand the cognitive processes underlying abilities to learn mathematics efficiently as well as reasons underlying the occurrence of mathematics anxiety (i.e. feelings of tension and fear upon facing mathematical problems or numbers) among certain individuals. Over the last two decades, many studies have shown that learning mathematical and numerical concepts relies on many cognitive processes, including working memory, spatial skills, and linguistic abilities. In this review, we discuss the relationship between mathematical learning and cognitive processes as well as the neural substrates underlying successful mathematical learning and problem solving. More importantly, we also discuss the relationship between these cognitive processes, mathematics anxiety, and mathematics learning disabilities (dyscalculia). Our review shows that mathematical cognition relies on a complex brain network, and dysfunction to different segments of this network leads to varying manifestations of mathematical learning disabilities.

  2. Research on Correlation of Students' Meta-worry, Test Anxiety and Academic Achievement%学生元担忧、考试焦虑与学习成绩的相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋广文; 史菲菲

    2012-01-01

    This research takes high school students as subjects to explore the correlation among students' meta-worry,test anxiety and academic achievement. The results are as follows: (1) there is a very signifi- cant positive correlation between meta-worry and test anxiety,and a very significant negative correlation between meta-worry and academic achievement; (2) meta-worry has no prediction to test anxiety, but has a significant negative prediction to academic achievement; (3) test anxiety has a significant negative prediction to academic achievement.%以初高中学生为研究对象,考察学生的元担忧、考试焦虑现状及其学习成绩三者间的相关。结果发现:(1)元担忧与考试焦虑存在显著正相关,元担忧与学习成绩存在显著负相关,考试焦虑与学习成绩存在显著负相关。(2)元担忧对考试焦虑无预测作用,对学习成绩有负向预测作用。(3)考试焦虑对学习成绩有负向预测作用。

  3. Social Anxiety and Aggression in Behaviorally Disordered Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ketty P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-nine boys in classes for students with behavioral disturbances were given questionnaires on trait anxiety, social anxiety, empathy, depression, and self-esteem, while teachers rated their aggression. Results showed that anxiety and empathy scores were not correlated with aggression, while social anxiety was positively correlated with trait…

  4. Anxiety and depression symptoms in recurrent painful renal lithiasis colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, D H M P; Blay, S L; Schor, N

    2007-07-01

    Several studies have reported that symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated with diseases characterized by painful crises. However, there is little information about the psychological aspects of recurrent painful episodes of renal stone disease. Our objective was to evaluate the association of symptoms of anxiety, depression and recurrent painful renal colic in a case-control study involving 64 subjects (32 cases/32 controls) matched for age and sex. Cases were outpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of nephrolithiasis as per their case history, physical examination, image examination and other laboratory exams. Patients had a history of at least two episodes within a 3-year period, and were currently in an intercrisis interval. The control group consisted of subjects seen at the Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of this University Hospital with only eye refraction symptoms, and no other associated disease. Symptoms of anxiety were evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and symptoms of depression by the Beck Depression Inventory. Statistically significant differences were observed between patients with nephrolithiasis and controls for anxiety state (P = 0.001), anxiety trait (P = 0.005) and symptoms of depression (odds ratio = 3.74; 95%CI = 1.31-10.62). The Beck Depression Inventory showed 34.5% of respondents with moderate and 6% with severe levels of depression. There was a significant linear correlation between symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.002) and depression (P renal colic and symptoms of both anxiety and depression.

  5. Attachment-style differences in the ability to suppress negative thoughts: exploring the neural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillath, Omri; Bunge, Silvia A; Shaver, Phillip R; Wendelken, Carter; Mikulincer, Mario

    2005-12-01

    Beginning in infancy, people can be characterized in terms of two dimensions of attachment insecurity: attachment anxiety (i.e., fear of rejection and abandonment) and attachment avoidance (distancing oneself from close others, shunning dependency; Bowlby, J., 1969/1982. Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment, 2nd ed., Basic Books, New York). The capacity for emotion regulation varies with attachment style, such that attachment-anxious individuals become highly emotional when threatened with social rejection or relationship loss, whereas avoidant individuals tend to distance themselves or disengage from emotional situations. In the present study, 20 women participated in an fMRI experiment in which they thought about--and were asked to stop thinking about--various relationship scenarios. When they thought about negative ones (conflict, breakup, death of partner), their level of attachment anxiety was positively correlated with activation in emotion-related areas of the brain (e.g., the anterior temporal pole, implicated in sadness) and inversely correlated with activation in a region associated with emotion regulation (orbitofrontal cortex). This suggests that anxious people react more strongly than non-anxious people to thoughts of loss while under-recruiting brain regions normally used to down-regulate negative emotions. Participants high on avoidance failed to show as much deactivation as less avoidant participants in two brain regions (subcallosal cingulate cortex; lateral prefrontal cortex). This suggests that the avoidant peoples' suppression was less complete or less efficient, in line with results from previous behavioral experiments. These are among the first findings to identify some of the neural processes underlying adult attachment orientations and emotion regulation.

  6. A cross-sectional study of correlation of body image anxiety with social phobia and their association with depression in the adolescents from a rural area of Sangli district in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Baliram Waghachavare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevailing socio-cultural influences lead females to desire a thin body and males a muscular body, especially in adolescents. This results in body image anxiety which may lead to social phobia. Together they can develop depression. The aim was to study the correlation of body image anxiety with social phobia and their association with depression, among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in randomly selected colleges from a rural area of Sangli district Maharashtra, India. Stratified random sampling technique used with sample size 805. Pretested self-administered questionnaire used. Percentage, Chi-square test, binary logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratio (OR and its 95% confidence intervals. Results: Of 997 study subjects body image anxiety, social phobia and depression were observed in 232 (23.3%, 193 (19.4% and 326 (32.7% participants, respectively. Binary logistic regression showed that body image anxiety (OR = 1.849 [1.22, 2.804]; P = 0.004 and social phobia (OR = 4.575 [2.952-7.09]; P < 0.001 were significant predictors for depression. Conclusions: Body image anxiety and social phobia are linked with the development of depression. This impresses the need for timely counseling and education among adolescents.

  7. [Semeiology of anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, M

    1983-01-01

    The difference of concept between somatic anxiety (" angoisse ") and psychic anxiety (" anxi été") as it was considered by authors in the past, has now fallen into disuse. However, it is worth considering this difference on the basis of the recent data relative to the selective effect that certain antidepressant drugs may have on panic attacks, while they have no effect on the basic anxiety. Consequently, a new nosography could then be considered in function of several factors: the reaction to imipramine, the preponderance in the disorders of their acuity and of the somatic impact, the spontaneous appearance of these same disorders.

  8. The anxiety-proficiency relationship and the stability of anxiety: The case of Chinese university learners of English and Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinxing Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adopting a longitudinal design, this study investigates the effects of foreign language anxiety on foreign language proficiency over time within English and Japanese learning contexts. It also explores the stability of anxiety in English and Japanese over time and the stability of anxiety across English and Japanese. Chinese university students (N=146, who were simultaneously learning Japanese and English, participated in this study. Data were collected twice over a 2-month interval, using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale, the English Proficiency Scale, and the Japanese Proficiency Scale. Results showed that anxiety changes had a significantly negative, but weak, correlation with the development of overall proficiency and the proficiency in sub- skills such as reading or speaking, for both English and Japanese, suggesting the interference of anxiety with proficiency levels. Anxiety in Japanese tended to decrease significantly over time, but no significant change was found for English. Furthermore, no significant difference between anxiety in Japanese and English was found at either testing time.

  9. Child Negative Emotionality and Parental Harsh Discipline in Chinese Preschoolers: The Different Mediating Roles of Maternal and Paternal Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaopei; Zhang, Hongli; Shao, Shuhui; Wang, Meifang

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that harsh discipline is still prevalent in modern Chinese families and it is necessary to explore the cause and the potential mechanisms of Chinese parental use of harsh discipline. This study examined the mediating effects of parental anxiety in the relations between child negative emotionality and parental harsh discipline in China. Using a sample of 328 Chinese father-mother dyads with their young children, findings revealed that maternal anxiety mediated the relations between child negative emotionality and maternal psychological aggression and corporal punishment, but the mediating effects of paternal anxiety on the relations between child negative emotionality and paternal harsh discipline was not significant. The findings provide an important supplement and extension to previous examinations of the factors associated with Chinese parental use of harsh discipline and its mechanisms. PMID:28326056

  10. Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder, but Not Panic Anxiety Disorder, Are Associated with Higher Sensitivity to Learning from Negative Feedback: Behavioral and Computational Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khdour, Hussain Y; Abushalbaq, Oday M; Mughrabi, Ibrahim T; Imam, Aya F; Gluck, Mark A; Herzallah, Mohammad M; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and panic anxiety disorder (PAD), are a group of common psychiatric conditions. They are characterized by excessive worrying, uneasiness, and fear of future events, such that they affect social and occupational functioning. Anxiety disorders can alter behavior and cognition as well, yet little is known about the particular domains they affect. In this study, we tested the cognitive correlates of medication-free patients with GAD, SAD, and PAD, along with matched healthy participants using a probabilistic category-learning task that allows the dissociation between positive and negative feedback learning. We also fitted all participants' data to a Q-learning model and various actor-critic models that examine learning rate parameters from positive and negative feedback to investigate effects of valence vs. action on performance. SAD and GAD patients were more sensitive to negative feedback than either PAD patients or healthy participants. PAD, SAD, and GAD patients did not differ in positive-feedback learning compared to healthy participants. We found that Q-learning models provide the simplest fit of the data in comparison to other models. However, computational analysis revealed that groups did not differ in terms of learning rate or exploration values. These findings argue that (a) not all anxiety spectrum disorders share similar cognitive correlates, but are rather different in ways that do not link them to the hallmark of anxiety (higher sensitivity to negative feedback); and (b) perception of negative consequences is the core feature of GAD and SAD, but not PAD. Further research is needed to examine the similarities and differences between anxiety spectrum disorders in other cognitive domains and potential implementation of behavioral therapy to remediate cognitive deficits.

  11. 英语专业学生ESL写作焦虑与写作成绩相关性研究%A Study on the Correlations between ESL Writing Anxiety and Writing Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红霞; 朱莹莹

    2012-01-01

    本文旨在测量英语专业学生ESL写作焦虑的程度,及写作焦虑与英语写作成绩是否存在相关.首先,利用二语写作焦虑量表SLWAI[1]测量了英语专业学生英语写作焦虑的程度及类型.其次,利用SPSS相关分析,研究了英语写作焦虑程度与写作成绩之间的联系.研究结果表明英语专业学生存在高度的英语写作焦虑,其中认知焦虑是最主要的表现形式.英语写作焦虑程度与写作成绩呈高度的负相关,说明高度的焦虑对写作存在负面的影响.了解ESL写作焦虑与写作成绩的联系将有助于二语教师和学习者采取积极有效的策略来缓解焦虑,减少焦虑对于二语写作的负面影响.%This essay aims to find out the correlations between ESL writing anxiety and writing performance based on an empirical study on ESL writing anxiety among Chinese English majors. The levels of ESL writing anxiety were measured on the basis of SLWAI (Cheng, 2004), and correlation analysis was also used to find out if there is a significant negative or positive correlation between measure of ESL writing anxiety and measures of writing performance (course grade and timed writing grade). Results show that there is a high level of ESL writing anxiety among Chinese English majors and a significant negative correlation between their ESL writing anxiety and performance, which will provide Chinese ESL learners and teachers with pedagogical implications of successful learning and teaching strategies for reducing ESL writing anxiety.

  12. Afterlife Anxiety in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Steven K.

    Research has shown that the majority of Americans believe in the concept of life after death in some form. To investigate the effects of afterlife anxiety on wellness in the elderly, 293 Los Angeles elderly were interviewed. An afterlife anxiety measure and measures of physical and psychologial health were administered. Pearson correlations failed…

  13. Rats with differential self-grooming expression in the elevated plus-maze do not differ in anxiety-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Adriano Edgar; de Oliveira, Amanda Ribeiro; Diniz, Juliana Belo; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Chiavegatto, Silvana; Brandão, Marcus Lira

    2015-10-01

    Individual differences are important biological predictors for reactivity to stressful stimulation. The extent to which trait differences underlie animal's reactions to conditioned and unconditioned fear stimuli, for example, is still to be clarified. Although grooming behavior has been associated with some aspects of the obsessive-compulsive disorder in humans, its relation with other anxiety disorders is still unknown. Given that grooming behavior could be a component of the whole spectrum of these disorders, in the present study we allocated male Wistar rats in low, intermediate and high self-grooming groups according to the duration of such behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). These groups were then evaluated in unconditioned fear tests, such as the EPM and the open-field, and in conditioned fear tests, such as fear-potentiated startle and fear extinction retention. Additionally, we studied the expression of unconditioned behaviors in marble burying test and the sensorimotor gate function with prepulse inhibition test. Neurochemicals and neuroendocrine parameters were also evaluated, with the quantification of basal corticosterone in the plasma, and dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites in brain structures involved with fear processing. In general, rats classified according to grooming expression showed similar performance in all behavioral tests. Accordingly, corticosterone and monoamine concentrations were similar among groups. Thus, despite grooming expression elicited by different approaches--especially pharmacological ones--has been related with some aspects of anxiety disorders, rats with different expression of spontaneous self-grooming in the EPM do not differ in anxiety-like behaviors nor in neurochemical and neuroendocrine parameters generally associated with anxiety disorders.

  14. [Separation anxiety. Theoretical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandin, N; Parquet, P J; Bailly, D

    1994-01-01

    The interest in separation anxiety is nowadays increasing: this disorder appearing during childhood may predispose to the occurrence of anxiety disorders (such as panic disorder and agoraphobia) and major depression into adulthood. Psychoanalytic theories differ on the nature of separation anxiety and its place in child development. For some authors, separation anxiety must be understood as resulting from the unconscious internal conflicts inherent in the individuation process and gradual attainment of autonomy. From this point of view, the fear of loss of mother by separation is not regarded as resulting from a real danger. However, Freud considers the primary experience of separation from protecting mother as the prototype situation of anxiety and compares the situations generating fear to separation experiences. For him, anxiety originates from two factors: the physiological fact is initiated at the time of birth but the primary traumatic situation is the separation from mother. This point of view may be compared with behavioral theories. Behavioral theories suggest that separation anxiety may be conditioned or learned from innate fears. In Freud's theory, the primary situation of anxiety resulting from the separation from mother plays a role comparable to innate fears. Grappling with the problem of separation anxiety, Bowlby emphasizes then the importance of the child's attachment to one person (mother or primary caregiver) and the fact that this attachment is instinctive. This point of view, based on the watch of infants, is akin to ethological theories on behaviour of non human primates. Bowlby especially shows that the reactions of infant separated from mother evolve on three stages: the phase of protestation which may constitute the prototype of adulthood anxiety, the phase of desperation which may be the prototype of depression, and the phase of detachment. He emphasizes so the role of early separations in the development of vulnerability to depression

  15. Attitude Differences between Male and Female Students at Clovis Community College and Their Relationships to Math Anxiety: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershot, Richard Lane

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of males and females at Clovis Community College towards math anxiety and to look for possible factors that could be used to assist in the assignment of students to various math classes. The subjects in the study were fifty male students and fifty female students. Subjects responded to a math…

  16. Parental rearing as a function of parent's own, partner's, and child's anxiety status: fathers make the difference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bögels, S.M.; Bamelis, L.; van der Bruggen, C.

    2008-01-01

    Parents of children with anxiety disorders are found to be over controlling and more rejecting in parent-child interactions than parents of control children. However, most studies included mothers, and the rearing behaviour of fathers of anxious children is largely unknown. Also, it remains unclear

  17. Is the OSCE more stressful? Examination anxiety and its consequences in different assessment methods in dental education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Schoonheim-Klein, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To measure the levels of anxiety, self-perception of preparation and expectation for success induced by an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), a written examination and a preclinical preparation test, and to examine the effects of the three predictive variables on the outcom

  18. How Do Tests and Summary Writing Tasks Enhance Long-Term Retention of Students with Different Levels of Test Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Wilson Shun; Chan, Winnie Wai

    2016-01-01

    Testing has been found to facilitate students' long-term retention of information. However, the learning performance of highly test-anxious students can be impaired by tests. Thus, these students may learn ineffectively in a testing context. By contrast, summary writing may not trigger test anxiety and is therefore another learning strategy to…

  19. Is the beck anxiety inventory a good tool to assess the severity of anxiety? A primary care study in The Netherlands study of depression and anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntingh, Anna D. T.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Appropriate management of anxiety disorders in primary care requires clinical assessment and monitoring of the severity of the anxiety. This study focuses on the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) as a severity indicator for anxiety in primary care patients with different anxiety disorders (so

  20. Correlations between spectra with different symmetries: any chance to be observed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, P.; Leyvraz, F.; Seligman, T. H.

    2011-06-01

    A standard assumption in quantum chaology is the absence of correlation between spectra pertaining to different symmetries. Doubts were raised about this statement for several reasons, in particular because in semiclassics the spectra of different symmetries are expressed in terms of the same set of periodic orbits. We re-examine this question and notice the absence of correlations in the universal regime. In the case of continuous symmetry, the problem is reduced to parametric correlation, and we expect correlations to be present up to a certain time which is essentially classical but larger than the ballistic time.

  1. Correlations between spectra with different symmetries: any chance to be observed?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, P [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); Leyvraz, F; Seligman, T H, E-mail: leyvraz@fis.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-06-15

    A standard assumption in quantum chaology is the absence of correlation between spectra pertaining to different symmetries. Doubts were raised about this statement for several reasons, in particular because in semiclassics the spectra of different symmetries are expressed in terms of the same set of periodic orbits. We re-examine this question and notice the absence of correlations in the universal regime. In the case of continuous symmetry, the problem is reduced to parametric correlation, and we expect correlations to be present up to a certain time which is essentially classical but larger than the ballistic time.

  2. Trait and neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Mark; Pace-Schott, Edward F

    2010-01-01

    Individuals differ greatly in their dream recall frequency, in their incidence of recalling types of dreams, such as nightmares, and in the content of their dreams. This chapter reviews work on the waking life correlates of these differences between people in their experience of dreaming and reviews some of the neurobiological correlates of these individual differences. The chapter concludes that despite there being trait-like aspects of general dream recall and of dream content, very few psychometrically assessed correlates for dream recall frequency and dream content have been found. More successful has been the investigation of correlates of frequency of particular types of dreams, such as nightmares and lucid dreams, and also of how waking-life experience is associated with dream content. There is also potential in establishing neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content, and recent work on this is reviewed.

  3. A twin study of computer anxiety in Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryakulu, Deniz; Calışkan, Erkan

    2012-04-01

    The present study investigated computer anxiety within a sample of Turkish twins aged 10-18. A total of 185 twin-pairs participated in the study. Of the twins, 64 pairs (34.6 percent) were monozygotic (MZ) and 121 pairs (65.4 percent) were dizygotic (DZ). Of the 121 DZ twins, 54 pairs (44.63 percent) were same-sex twins and 67 pairs (55.37 percent) were opposite-sex twins. Computer anxiety was assessed using Computer Anxiety Rating Scale-Turkish Version (CARS-TV), one of the three main scales of "Measuring Technophobia Instruments" developed by Rosen and Weil. The results of paired t test comparisons showed no significant differences in MZ and same-sex DZ twin-pairs' levels of computer anxiety. On the other hand, a significant difference was found in opposite-sex DZ twin-pairs' level of computer anxiety. Interesting enough, males appeared to be more computer anxious than their female co-twins. In the present study, using Falconer's formula, heritability estimate for computer anxiety was derived from correlations based on MZ and DZ twins' mean scores on CARS-TV. The results showed that 57 percent of the variance in computer anxiety was from genetics and 41.5 percent was from nonshared environmental factors. Shared environmental influence, on the other hand, was very small and negligible. Interpretations of results and potential directions for future research are presented.

  4. Test Anxiety Among College Students With Specific Reading Disability (Dyslexia): Nonverbal Ability and Working Memory as Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety and its correlates were examined with college students with and without specific reading disability (RD; n = 50 in each group). Results indicated that college students with RD reported higher test anxiety than did those without RD, and the magnitude of these differences was in the medium range on two test anxiety scales. Relative to college students without RD, up to 5 times as many college students with RD reported clinically significant test anxiety. College students with RD reported significantly higher cognitively based test anxiety than physically based test anxiety. Reading skills, verbal ability, and processing speed were not correlated with test anxiety. General intelligence, nonverbal ability, and working memory were negatively correlated with test anxiety, and the magnitude of these correlations was medium to large. When these three cognitive constructs were considered together in multiple regression analyses, only working memory and nonverbal ability emerged as significant predictors and varied based on the test anxiety measure. Implications for assessment and intervention are discussed.

  5. Death anxiety in hospitalized end-of-life patients as captured from a structured electronic health record: differences by patient and nurse characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, Muhammad Kamran; Cheema, Umer Iftikhar; Stifter, Janet; Wilkie, Diana J; Keenan, Gail M; Yao, Yingwei; Ansari, Rashid; Khokhar, Ashfaq A

    2014-01-01

    The nursing outcomes of hospitalized patients whose plans of care include death anxiety, which is a diagnosis among patients at the end-of-life, are obscure. The authors of the current article applied data mining techniques to nursing plan-of-care data for patients diagnosed with death anxiety, as defined by North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International, from four different hospitals to examine nursing care outcomes and associated factors. Results indicate that patients met the expected outcome of comfortable death. Gerontology unit patients were more likely to meet the expected outcome than patients from other unit types, although results were not statistically significant. Younger patients (i.e., age patients (i.e., age ≥65) (χ(2)(1) = 9.266, p patients who face the end-of-life transition.

  6. Anxiety and depression symptoms in recurrent painful renal lithiasis colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.H.M.P. Diniz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated with diseases characterized by painful crises. However, there is little information about the psychological aspects of recurrent painful episodes of renal stone disease. Our objective was to evaluate the association of symptoms of anxiety, depression and recurrent painful renal colic in a case-control study involving 64 subjects (32 cases/32 controls matched for age and sex. Cases were outpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of nephrolithiasis as per their case history, physical examination, image examination and other laboratory exams. Patients had a history of at least two episodes within a 3-year period, and were currently in an intercrisis interval. The control group consisted of subjects seen at the Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of this University Hospital with only eye refraction symptoms, and no other associated disease. Symptoms of anxiety were evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and symptoms of depression by the Beck Depression Inventory. Statistically significant differences were observed between patients with nephrolithiasis and controls for anxiety state (P = 0.001, anxiety trait (P = 0.005 and symptoms of depression (odds ratio = 3.74; 95%CI = 1.31-10.62. The Beck Depression Inventory showed 34.5% of respondents with moderate and 6% with severe levels of depression. There was a significant linear correlation between symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.002 and depression (P < 0.001 and the number of recurrent colic episodes (anxiety-state: P = 0.016 and anxiety-trait: P < 0.001. These data suggest an association between recurrent renal colic and symptoms of both anxiety and depression.

  7. Major Difference Analysis of College Students' English Writing Anxiety%大学生外语写作焦虑的专业差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静

    2011-01-01

    焦虑被认为是影响二语或外语学习的重要情感因素。对129名二年级大学生实施问卷调查,旨在探索其外语写作焦虑的现状、专业差异及缓解措施。调查结果显示,大学生在英语写作过程中普遍存在着中等水平的语言焦虑现象且个体差异性较大;英语专业和非英语专业大学生在英语写作焦虑程度上存在显著的专业差异,主要表现在写作意愿和心理状态方面。%It is generally acknowledged that anxiety is regarded as the important affective factor in second language acquisition.Investigating 129 college students by questionnaire,the present study aims to explore the current situation,major difference and solutions to English writing anxiety.Results indicated that college students' writing anxiety have achieved the medium level with a great individual variety;There's significant major difference between English majors and non-English majors,which are mainly reflected in writing willingness and emotional situation.

  8. A comparison of regression analysis for predicting the daily number of anxiety-related outpatient visits with different time series data mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaree Thongkam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop and evaluate different models to forecast the daily number of anxiety-relatedpatients seeking to visit the outpatient department in Prasrimahabhodi Psychiatric Hospital. The authors developed and tested four different models of outpatient visits using total daily counts of anxiety-related patient visits to outpatient at Prasrimahabhodi Psychiatric Hospital, Thailand from January 2011 to December 2013.Multi-Layer Perceptron Regression (MLPR, Radial basis function Regression (RBFR, and Support Vector Regression (SVR were compared with the traditional statistical tool of Linear Regression (LR. The sliding window method was used to prepare the dataset for the number of anxiety-related outpatient visits forecasting process. The performances of the models were compared in terms of the mean absolute error (MAE and root mean square error (RMSE. The performance comparison showed that the SVR exhibited a slightly better performance. The SVR also showed highly stable. The outcome of the study can be of use for planning staff arrangement and material resources distribution.

  9. [fMRI functional connectivity analysis of anxiety disease patients based on spatiotemporal Lyapunov exponent method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhikang; Lou, Haifang; Sun, Jianzhong

    2011-07-01

    Attempting to use nonlinear spatiotemporal Lyapunov exponent to characterize fMRI brain functional connectivity of anxiety disease patients, we adopted the methods of nonlinear spatiotemporal Lyapunov exponent and linear correlation coefficients to analyses fMRI datum of 11 anxiety disease patients and 11 healthy volunteers, respectively. The results show that there are significant normalized variance exponent (NVE) differences in Inferior Frontal Gyrus (rIFG) and Medial Frontal Gyrus (MFG) between the two groups (PLyapunov exponent method had higher sensitivity than the correlation coefficient method in the characterization of functional connectivity; Anxiety disease patients have abnormal functional connectivity in rIFG and MFG during our experiment.

  10. Histological Correlates of Penile Sexual Sensation: Does Circumcision Make a Difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Cox, MA, DPhil

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Based on histological findings and correlates of sexual function, loss of the prepuce by circumcision would appear to have no adverse effect on sexual pleasure. Our evaluation supports overall findings from physiological measurements and survey data. Cox G, Krieger JN, and Morris BJ. Histological correlates of penile sexual sensation: Does circumcision make a difference? Sex Med 2015;3:76–85.

  11. Depressive symptoms, anxiety and academic motivation in youth: Do schools and families make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmelid, Andrea; Stickley, Andrew; Lindblad, Frank; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Henrich, Christopher C; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2015-12-01

    This longitudinal study aimed to examine the association between depressive and anxiety symptoms and academic motivation by gender, and whether positive school and family factors would be associated with academic motivation, in spite of the presence of such symptoms. Study participants were predominantly economically disadvantaged youths aged 13-15 years in a Northeastern US urban public school system. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) served as the basis for a survey undertaken in 2003 and 2004 with information being used from students who participated at both time points (N = 643). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that depressive symptoms were negatively associated with academic motivation, while anxiety was positively related to academic motivation in both genders. Teacher support, school attachment and parental control were positively related to academic motivation even in the presence of internalizing problems. The negative association of depressive symptoms with academic motivation may be potentially decreased by attachment to school.

  12. Spanish "fine tuning" of language to describe depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, Antonio; Centeno, Carlos; Carvajal, Ana; Tejedor, María Angustias Portela; Urdiroz, Juliana; Martínez, Marina

    2009-08-01

    On screening tools for emotional distress, the terms "depression" and "anxiety" are commonly used for patients with advanced cancer. However, these terms could have negative connotations in Spanish such that cultural and unexpected differences in perception may invalidate or skew the results of the screening if the best terms are not chosen. The goal of this study was to determine the best expression that can be used to explore anxiety and depression in Spanish. A prospective study of 100 Spanish-speaking patients was performed. Spanish patients with cancer completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and six Verbal Numerical Scales (VNS) exploring the level of anxiety using the terms ansioso (anxious), nervioso (nervous), or intranquilo (uneasy/disquiet), and the level of depression using the terms deprimido (depressed), desanimado (discouraged), or triste (sad). The correlation, sensitivity, and specificity for all the VNS and HADS (8 and 11 cutoff points) were analyzed. The correlation (Spearman rho) between HADS and the anxiety VNS was r = 0.557 using "anxious"; r = 0.603 using "nervous"; and r = 0.594 using "uneasy." The correlation for the depression VNS was r = 0.662 using "depression"; r = 0.759 using "discouraged" and r = 0.596 using "sad"; alpha anxiety achieved the best levels for sensitivity (0.80) and specificity (0.70). The term "discouraged" with a cutoff point of 4 of 10 shows a sensitivity of 0.89, a specificity of 0.84, as well as a predictive positive value of 0.77 and a negative value of 0.93. In Spanish, the term desanimado seems to be more suitable in screening for depression. Alternate terms could be used to explore anxiety in Spanish. Exploring depression with simple questions in Spanish achieves greater accuracy than the same approach to exploring anxiety.

  13. Diminished autonomic neurocardiac function in patients with generalized anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kyungwook Kim,1 Seul Lee,2 Jong-Hoon Kim1–3 1Gachon University School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University School of Medicine, Gachon University, 3Neuroscience Research Institute, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea Background: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD is a chronic and highly prevalent disorder that is characterized by a number of autonomic nervous system symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the linear and nonlinear complexity measures of heart rate variability (HRV, measuring autonomic regulation, and to evaluate the relationship between HRV parameters and the severity of anxiety, in medication-free patients with GAD. Methods: Assessments of linear and nonlinear complexity measures of HRV were performed in 42 medication-free patients with GAD and 50 healthy control subjects. In addition, the severity of anxiety symptoms was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory. The values of the HRV measures of the groups were compared, and the correlations between the HRV measures and the severity of anxiety symptoms were assessed. Results: The GAD group showed significantly lower standard deviation of RR intervals and the square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal sinus intervals values compared to the control group (P<0.01. The approximate entropy value, which is a nonlinear complexity indicator, was also significantly lower in the patient group than in the control group (P<0.01. In correlation analysis, there were no significant correlations between HRV parameters and the severity of anxiety symptoms. Conclusion: The present study indicates that GAD is significantly associated with reduced HRV, suggesting that autonomic neurocardiac integrity is substantially impaired in patients with GAD. Future prospective studies are required to investigate the effects of pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment on

  14. Differences in finger length ratio between males with autism, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified, ADHD, and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Esther I; Verheij, Fop; Wiegman, T; Ferdinand, Robert F

    2006-12-01

    Children with autism have a relatively shorter index finger (2D) compared with their ring finger (4D). It is often presumed that the 2D:4D ratio is associated with fetal testosterone levels and that high fetal testosterone levels could play a role in the aetiology of autism. It is unknown whether this effect is specific to autism. In this study, 2D:4D ratios of 144 males aged 6 to 14 years (mean age 9y 1 mo [SD 1y 11 mo]) with psychiatric disorders were compared with those of 96 males aged 6 to 13 years from the general population (mean age 9y 1 mo [SD 1y 10 mo]). Psychiatric disorders were divided into autism/Asperger syndrome (n=24), pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS; n=26), attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD; n=68), and anxiety disorders (n=26). Males with autism/Asperger syndrome (p<0.05) and ADHD/ODD (p<0.05) had significantly lower (though not significantly; p=0.52) ratios than males with an anxiety disorder, and males with autism/Asperger syndrome had lower ratios than those in the comparison group. These results indicated that higher fetal testosterone levels may play a role, not only in the origin of autism, but also in the aetiology of PDD-NOS and of ADHD/ODD. Males with anxiety disorders might have been exposed to lower prenatal testosterone levels.

  15. An Evaluation of Computer Anxiety in Sport Organizations

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    Esmaeily Nerges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer with its widespread influence over the world has involved everyone in recent years. The growing demand for this technology is associated somehow with anxiety and stress. Therefore, the present study has been implemented in order to investigate the amount of computer anxiety in iranian sport organizations. 574 managers and experts were selected as a sample by random selection. The tools of the measurement were the standard Computer Anxiety Questionnaire (1987 of Heinz, Glass and Knight for which the face and content validities were confirmed by an expert academic group. Confirmatory factor analysis, t - independent test, correlation coefficients of two fields - points (rPbis, general discipline (rser and one - way ANOVA were used in order to analyze the data. The results demonstrated that there is no significant relationship between age (P<0.821, sex (P<0.599 and computer anxiety, but the relationship between educational level (P <0.025, Organizational post (P<0.035, work history (P<0.037, work experience (P <0.004 and computer anxiety were significant. The results also demonstrated that there is a significant difference between the computer anxiety observed in the organizations of physical education, sport federations and the departments of physical education in the schools (P<0.037 , F2,347 = 3.339. In the end we came to the conclusion that computer anxiety is a dynamic process with a variety of dimensions and complexities that should not be ignored easily and must be studied attentively.

  16. Shame and Anxiety Feelings of a Roma Population in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouva, M; Mentis, M; Kotrotsiou, S; Paralikas, Th; Kotrotsiou, E

    2015-12-01

    Shame is a crucial issue for Roma. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the severity of shame and anxiety feelings in a Roma population living in Greece and assess the differentiation of these feelings between Roma men and women. A quota sample of 194 Roma adult men and women living in Southern Greece was retrieved. The Experiences of Shame Scale (ESS), the Other As Shamer Scale (OAS) and the Spielberg's State/Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires were used. Women scored statistically significantly higher than men on ESS, whereas men scored higher on OAS scale (52.27 ± 16.91 vs 45.42 ± 9.98 and 35.93 ± 16.94 vs 30.87 ± 13.72 respectively). Women scored higher than men in both STAI subscales, however significant differences were observed only in State Anxiety scale (48.83 ± 9.26 vs 43.20 ± 9.81). OAS total score was inversely related to state anxiety, whereas ESS total score was positive related to trait anxiety, all correlations being significant at p Roma men and women exhibit high levels of shame and anxiety. Cultural, social and minority issues contribute to feelings of inferiority and anxiety experience.

  17. Accumulation characteristics and correlation analysis of five ginsenosides with different cultivation ages from different regions

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    Dan Xiao

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: In our study, only the contents of ginsenosides Rg1 and Re were affected by the root age. Ginsenosides Rb1, Rc, and Rd varied widely with ages in samples from different cultivation regions.

  18. Correlation of Abdominal Fat Distribution with Different Types of Diabetes in a Chinese Population

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    Anhui Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate abdominal fat distribution in Chinese subjects with diabetes and its correlation with different types of diabetes. A total of 176 diabetic subjects were enrolled, 92 with type 1 and 84 with type 2, with a mean age of 27.41 and 49.3 yrs. No subject has history of severe diseases. Multi-slice CT was used to measure total abdominal adipose (TA and visceral adipose (VA tissues. Subcutaneous adipose (SA tissue was obtained by subtracting VA from TA. There were differences between subjects with T1DM and T2DM for TA, VA, SA, VA/SA, body mass index (BMI, triglyceride (TG and high density lipoprotein, but not total Cholesterol or low density lipoprotein. There were positive correlations between TA, VA, SA, VA/SA and T1DM and T2DM (P0.86. In subjects with T1DM, VA was negatively correlated with HDL, positively with BMI and age, and SA was positively correlated with BMI and sex (P0.86 for all. In subjects with T2DM, VA was positively correlated to BMI, TG and age, and SA was positively correlated to TG and sex (P0.86 for all. Abdominal fat content was positively correlated to diabetes in Chinese, which differs in different types of diabetes.

  19. Correlation of abdominal fat distribution with different types of diabetes in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Anhui; Cui, Bin; Dang, Haodan; Yao, Dan; Yu, Haitao; Jia, Hongmin; Hu, Zhijun; Zhang, Xiaojin

    2013-01-01

    To investigate abdominal fat distribution in Chinese subjects with diabetes and its correlation with different types of diabetes. A total of 176 diabetic subjects were enrolled, 92 with type 1 and 84 with type 2, with a mean age of 27.41 and 49.3 yrs. No subject has history of severe diseases. Multi-slice CT was used to measure total abdominal adipose (TA) and visceral adipose (VA) tissues. Subcutaneous adipose (SA) tissue was obtained by subtracting VA from TA. There were differences between subjects with T1DM and T2DM for TA, VA, SA, VA/SA, body mass index (BMI), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein, but not total Cholesterol or low density lipoprotein. There were positive correlations between TA, VA, SA, VA/SA and T1DM and T2DM (P 0.86). In subjects with T1DM, VA was negatively correlated with HDL, positively with BMI and age, and SA was positively correlated with BMI and sex (P 0.86 for all). In subjects with T2DM, VA was positively correlated to BMI, TG and age, and SA was positively correlated to TG and sex (P 0.86 for all). Abdominal fat content was positively correlated to diabetes in Chinese, which differs in different types of diabetes.

  20. Factors associated with preoperative anxiety levels of Turkish surgical patients: from a single center in Ankara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkilic, Ezgi; Kesimci, Elvin; Soykut, Cem; Doger, Cihan; Gumus, Tülin; Kanbak, Orhan

    2017-01-01

    Background Preoperative anxiety and stress are undoubtedly a difficult experience in patients undergoing elective surgery. These unpleasant sensations depend on several factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the preoperative anxiety levels in a sample of Turkish population, as well as the underlying causes using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI anxiety) scale. Methods The study was conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the local ethical committee. All participants gave written informed consent upon having received detailed information on the study. Upon entry in the study, state and trait anxiety questionnaires were completed by 186 patients scheduled for elective surgery. The influencing factors in regard to age, sex, educational status and others were also reported. Results There was a statistically significant positive correlation between state and trait anxiety scores in this Turkish population. While the most important predictive factors that affected state-STAI scores were age, sex and duration of sleep the night before surgery; educational status and age were the best predictors for determining the variation in trait-STAI scores. Conclusion The factors affecting anxiety levels in different populations might vary among different countries. Interestingly, in this sample of Turkish population, the trait anxiety levels were found to be higher from state-anxiety levels, especially in women and less educated people. Thus, doubts about operation and anesthesia are overlooked. This could be attributed to the low to intermediate life standards of people admitted to our hospital. PMID:28280304

  1. Precompetitive state anxiety in judo

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    Carlos Montero Carretero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2 in Spanish judokas, and calculate differences in pre-competitive state anxiety due the sport level, age and gender. We analyze these relationships using a multidimensional anxiety perspective.Method: A sample of 128 judokas from amateur to high performance level participated in our study. The intensity and directional somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and self confidence of the CSAI-2 were measured.Results: The results show that the questionnaire administered showed acceptable psychometric properties, and there are differences in directional somatic and cognitive anxiety for age, and in intensity self confidence for sport level. The implications of these findings for the process of training and competition are discussed in the document.

  2. Correlation between social anxiety and fear of negative evaluation and self-esteem in nurses before practice%护生实习前社交焦虑与惧怕否定、自尊水平的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭佳; 何国平

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨护生毕业实习前社交焦虑与惧怕否定、自尊状况的相关性,为心理健康教育提供参考.方法 采用社交苦恼及回避量表(SAD)、惧怕否定评价量表(FNE)、自尊量表(SES)对207名中专、大专、本科护生在其毕业实习前进行测查及相关分析.结果不同学历护生SAD、SES得分比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);SAD与SES得分呈正性相关(r=0.483,P<0.05),SAD与FNE得分呈正性相关(r=0.316,P<0.01).结论 应有针对性地加强护生自尊的培养,指导其摒弃惧怕否定心理,克服社交焦虑.%Objective To investigate the relationship among social anxiety,fear of negative evaluation and self-esteem and supply reference for psychological health education.Methods We adopted Social Avoidance and Distress Scale(SAD),Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale(FNE)and self-esteem(SES)scale to investigate nursing students in a certain university and college.Then we analyzed the investigation results. Results The scores of SAD and SES of nursing students with different education background were distinctly different(P<0.05).The score of SAD was positively correlated with that of SES(r=0.483,P<0.05)and FNE(r=0.316,P<0.01).Conclusion We should strengthen the cuhivation of serf-esteem for nursing students and help them to get rid of fear of negative evaluation and conquer social anxiety.

  3. Developmental trajectories of anxiety symptoms in early adolescence: the influence of anxiety sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Nicholas P; Capron, Daniel W; Lejuez, Carl W; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; MacPherson, Laura; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-05-01

    Children and adolescents seem to suffer from anxiety disorders at rates similar to adults. Interestingly, anxiety symptoms appear to generally decline over time within children as evidenced by lower rates in early and middle adolescence. There is some evidence that there may be heterogeneous subpopulations of adolescent children with different trajectories of anxiety symptoms, including a class of adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety that do not dissipate over time. Anxiety sensitivity has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of anxiety psychopathology. This study prospectively examined the development of anxiety symptoms in a sample of 277 adolescents (M age = 11.52; 44 % female, 56 % male) over a 3 year period including the influence of anxiety sensitivity on this development. Further, this study investigated whether there were distinct classes of adolescents based on their anxiety symptom trajectories and including anxiety sensitivity as a predictor. Consistent with other reports, findings indicated an overall decline in anxiety symptoms over time in the sample. However, three classes of adolescents were found with distinct anxiety symptom trajectories and anxiety sensitivity was an important predictor of class membership. Adolescents with elevated anxiety sensitivity scores were more likely to be classified as having high and increasing anxiety symptoms over time versus having moderate to low and decreasing anxiety symptoms over time. There are important implications for identification of adolescents and children who are at risk for the development of an anxiety disorder.

  4. Anxiety sensitivity in six countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvolensky, MJ; Arrindell, WA; Taylor, S; Bouvard, M; Cox, BJ; Stewart, SH; Sandin, B; Cardenas, SJ; Eifert, GH

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised (ASI-R; Taylor & Cox, Journal of Anxiety Disorders 12 (1998) 463; Behaviour Research and Therapy 36 (1998) 37) was administered to a large sample of persons (n = 2786) from different cultures represented in six different countries: Canada,

  5. 慢性盆腔炎疼痛与焦虑状况相关性分析及护理%Correlation Analysis and Nursing of the Pain and Anxiety of Chronic Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何锋云; 刘瑶; 陈少英

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation analysis and nursing of the pain and anxiety of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease. Methods The pain level of 87 cases of patients with chronic pelvic inflammatory disease treated in our hospital from Jan-uary, 2011 to October, 2013 was evaluated by visual analogue scale, the anxiety of the patients was evaluated by Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and the correlation of these two groups of scores was compared. Results The pain level of the patients was evaluated by vi-sual analogue scale, patients with the score below 4 points accounted for 54.02%, those with the score between 4 points to 6 points accounted for 35.63%, and those with the score over 6 points accounted for 10.35%. The anxiety state of the patients was evaluat-ed by Hamilton Anxiety Scale, patients whose score more than 30 points accounted for 8.05%,those whose score between 29 points to 14 points accounted for 28.73%,and those whose score between 13 points to 7 points accounted for 35.63%, those whose score below 7 points accounted for 27.59%. The correlation between pain and anxiety conditions was analyzed. The average anxi-ety score of patients whose pain score below 4 points was (8.51±1.92)points, and that of the patients whose pain score between 4 points to 6 points was (14.27±1.83) points, that of the patients whose pain score more than 6 points was (20.62±2.57) points, which showed that there was a positive correlation between pain and anxiety conditions (P6分患者占总患者数的10.35%。根据汉密尔顿焦虑量表对患者的焦虑状况进行评分,得分>30分患者占总患者数的8.05%,得分29分~14分患者占总患者数的28.73%,得分为13分~7分患者占总患者数的35.63%,得分6分患者的焦虑平均得分(20.62±2.57)分。疼痛与焦虑状况呈现正相关(P<0.05)。结论慢性盆腔炎患者的疼痛和焦虑状况呈现相关性,疼痛强患者的焦虑状况也随之升高,在临床护理过程中应加

  6. Anxiety in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Kidney Disease - Multicenter National Study Results

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    Katarzyna Kiliś-Pstrusińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chronic medical illness is a significant risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders. The aims of the study were: to investigate the level of anxiety in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD and to identify factors associated with the presence of that emotional problem. Methods: CKD children on hemodialysis (HD, n=22, peritoneal dialysis (PD, n=20, and on conservative treatment (CT, n=95 were enrolled in the study. We used State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI for adolescents and STAI-C for children. Socio-demographic and physical factors were assessed. Results: There was a significantly higher level of anxiety-state among HD children (8-12 years compared with other groups of participants of the same age and Polish population norms. The level of anxiety among adolescents (13-18 years, both anxiety-state and anxiety-trait, was significantly higher in the HD group compared with other groups, which did not differ among themselves. In the HD adolescents, there was a correlation between the anxiety-state and the duration of the disease as well as with the number of hospitalizations. PD adolescents in the mainstream education had higher levels of anxiety-state and anxiety-trait compared with home schooled patients. Conclusions: Even though children and adolescents with CKD are at risk of developing a variety of emotional disorders, the level of anxiety among the researched group, with the exception of HD patients, was not significantly different than the level of anxiety among healthy subjects. Adolescents on HD who present a high level of anxiety should undergo long-term psychological treatment.

  7. Correlation dimension based nonlinear analysis of network traffics with different application protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun-Song; Yuan Jing; Li Qiang; Yuan Rui-Xi

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a correlation dimension based nonlinear analysis approach to analyse the dynamics of network traffics with three different application protocols-HTTP, FTP and SMTP. First, the phase space is reconstructed and the embedding parameters are obtained by the mutual information method. Secondly, the correlation dimensions of three different traffics are calculated and the results of analysis have demonstrated that the dynamics of the three different application protocol traffics is different from each other in nature, i.e. HTTP and FTP traffics are chaotic,furthermore, the former is more complex than the later; on the other hand, SMTP traffic is stochastic. It is shown that correlation dimension approach is an efficient method to understand and to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of HTTP, FTP and SMTP protocol network traffics. This analysis provided insight into and a more accurate understanding of nonlinear dynamics of internet traffics which have a complex mixture of chaotic and stochastic components.

  8. Salience and valence of appearance in a population with a visible difference of appearance: direct and moderated relationships with self-consciousness, anxiety and depression.

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    Timothy P Moss

    Full Text Available Psychometric measures of appearance salience and valence, CARSAL and CARVAL, have been previously demonstrated to be key factors underpinning appearance related self-consciousness and negative affect in the general population. However, the extent to which the scales are appropriate for people with a visibly different appearance has not previously been reported. Neither has the moderating effect of appearance salience (CARSAL on the relationship between appearance valence (CARVAL and appearance self-consciousness, previously shown in a general population sample, been replicated with people who are visibly different. Twelve hundred and sixty five participants with a visible difference in either secondary care (n = 651 or the community (n = 614 provided data. Analysis confirmed the psychometric qualities of both CARSAL and CARVAL, and the conceptual independence of each scale. The scales also demonstrated independent and interdependent relationships with social anxiety and avoidance in relation to appearance, depression and anxiety. Appearance salience moderated the relationship with valence on these psychosocial measures. In summary, this paper corroborates the use of CARSAL and CARVAL with both visibly different and general adult populations for the measurement of appearance salience and valence.

  9. Salience and valence of appearance in a population with a visible difference of appearance: direct and moderated relationships with self-consciousness, anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Timothy P; Lawson, Victoria; White, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric measures of appearance salience and valence, CARSAL and CARVAL, have been previously demonstrated to be key factors underpinning appearance related self-consciousness and negative affect in the general population. However, the extent to which the scales are appropriate for people with a visibly different appearance has not previously been reported. Neither has the moderating effect of appearance salience (CARSAL) on the relationship between appearance valence (CARVAL) and appearance self-consciousness, previously shown in a general population sample, been replicated with people who are visibly different. Twelve hundred and sixty five participants with a visible difference in either secondary care (n = 651) or the community (n = 614) provided data. Analysis confirmed the psychometric qualities of both CARSAL and CARVAL, and the conceptual independence of each scale. The scales also demonstrated independent and interdependent relationships with social anxiety and avoidance in relation to appearance, depression and anxiety. Appearance salience moderated the relationship with valence on these psychosocial measures. In summary, this paper corroborates the use of CARSAL and CARVAL with both visibly different and general adult populations for the measurement of appearance salience and valence.

  10. Emotion-focused coping and distraction: sex differences in the influence of anxiety sensitivity during noxious heat stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T; Keogh, E; Chen, M J-L; French, C C

    2012-03-01

    While previous research has indicated that the relative efficacy of attentional strategies on pain may be influenced by anxiety sensitivity (AS) and sex, no study appears to have examined this within the context of an emotion-focus versus distraction paradigm. The present study compared the effect of attentional emotion-focus and distraction instructions on pain response with noxious heat stimulation in 114 healthy adults (62 women and 52 men) varying in levels of AS. Results indicated that men reported a significantly higher mean tolerance time than women. Moderated regression analysis also revealed a significant strategy × anxiety sensitivity × sex interaction on pain tolerance. For those low in AS, relative efficacy was dependent upon sex, with distraction superior to emotion-focusing in women, but with strategies equivalent in men. For those high in AS, however, distraction resulted in uniformly greater pain tolerance than attentional emotion-focusing. These results indicate that AS and sex may be influential in determining the relative effectiveness of distraction and emotion-based attentional strategies for pain management.

  11. Neuroendocrine response to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine and ipsapirone in relation to anxiety and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Tineke; Riedel, Wim J; van Praag, Herman M; Menheere, Paul P C A; Griez, Eric

    2002-12-15

    The aim of this study was to establish the association of trait anxiety and anger with hormonal responses to acute challenges with two different 5-HT agonists in a mixed group of patients with depressed mood. Fifteen patients and 16 normal controls received single oral doses of 0.5 mg/kg meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (MCPP), a 5-HT(2C) agonist, and 10 mg of ipsapirone, a 5-HT(1A) agonist, according to a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Dutch-adapted versions of the Spielberger Trait-Anxiety Inventory and the Spielberger Trait-Anger Scale administered assessed at study entry. Hormonal responses, expressed as drug-placebo differences, to MCPP and ipsapirone (changes in cortisol, ACTH and prolactin) were measured. Blood levels of MCPP and ipsapirone were also measured. MCPP and ipsapirone elevated cortisol, ACTH and prolactin. In the patient group, there was a significant correlation between trait anxiety and the cortisol response to MCPP. No significant correlations between the ACTH and prolactin responses to MCPP and levels of anxiety/anger were observed in the patients. No significant correlations could be established between levels of anxiety/anger and hormonal responses to ipsapirone. This study provided evidence for an association between measures of anxiety/aggression and the hormonal response to MCPP. Thus, in subjects with depressed mood, high levels of anxiety suggest a higher probability of 5-HT(2C) disturbances.

  12. Cognitive coping and childhood anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Legerstee; N. Garnefski; F.C. Jellesma; F.C. Verhulst; E.M.W.J. Utens

    2010-01-01

    To investigate differences in cognitive coping strategies between anxiety-disordered and non-anxious 9-11-year-old children. Additionally, differences in cognitive coping between specific anxiety disorders were examined. A clinical sample of 131 anxiety-disordered children and a general population s

  13. [Anxiety and depression of cancer patients hospitalized and at home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellone, Ercole; Sinapi, Nadia; Piria, Paola; Bernardi, Francesca M; Dario, Lucia; Brunetti, Annarita

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anxiety and depression of cancer patients hospitalized and at home. Using a descriptive, correlational and comparative design and the Roy Adaptation Model, a sample of 80 oncologic patients was studied. Several instruments were used to measure anxiety and depression (HADS), quality of life and symptoms (RSCL), sociodemographic factors, variables connected to the hospitalization, quality of the relationship with health practitioners, family members and friends and the degree of satisfaction for the received information and support. The examined variables were measured on the same patients at hospital and at home. About the 30% of the patients were anxious and depressed. Statistical analysis showed that while anxiety did not change from the hospital to home, depression increased soon after the discharge and decreased over time and after the increasing of the number of hospital access. Anxiety and depression were positively correlated to boredom during the hospitalization, physical symptoms, number of the patients children, and previous anxious and depressive problems. Anxiety and depression were negatively correlated to the ward comfort, the support of health practitioners, family members and friends and the satisfaction for the received information. Differences between this study and the international literature are discussed. Recommendations for the future research and nursing practice are given.

  14. The role of the harm avoidance personality in depression and anxiety during the medical internship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan; Li, Peng; Huang, Wei-Lieh; Lin, Yu-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether physicians with harm avoidance (HA) personality traits were more prone to developing increased anxiety and depression during the medical internship. A prospective longitudinal study of 74 medical interns was carried out using repeated measures of symptoms of anxiety and depression with the Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories (BAI and BDI) before, at the 3rd, 6th, and 12th months during the internship, and 2 weeks after the internship was completed. Baseline personality was assessed by the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire with 3 dimensions: novelty-seeking, HA, and reward dependence (RD). Levels of both depression and anxiety increased (6.4 and 3.4 on scores for BDI and BAI, respectively) during the internship and returned to baseline 2 weeks after it ended. HA scores were significantly correlated with depression and anxiety (0.3 scores on both the BDI and the BAI) and the scores for RD were significantly correlated with anxiety but not with depression. The interaction of HA and point in internship showed no significant differences. Internship plays a major role in the increase in depression and anxiety. A HA personality was also associated with the development of both depression and anxiety.

  15. Racial differences in sexual prejudice and its correlates among heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daboin, Irene; Peterson, John L; Parrott, Dominic J

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has consistently found sexual prejudice to be a predictor of antigay aggression and has also revealed specific correlates and antecedents of sexual prejudice. However, extant literature reveals mixed findings about potential racial group differences in sexual prejudice, and few studies have examined racial differences in the correlates of sexual prejudice. The aims of this descriptive study were to determine whether there are (a) racial group differences in reports of sexual prejudice and (b) racial group differences in previously identified correlates of sexual prejudice. Participants were 195 heterosexual males, ages 18 to 30 (98 Blacks and 97 Whites), recruited from a large metropolitan city in the southeastern United States. Based on cultural differences in the influence of religion and in attitudes about male sexuality, it was hypothesized that Black participants would report higher sexual prejudice than White participants. Additionally, based on cultural differences in racial views on masculinity and in sociocultural experiences of male gender roles, it was hypothesized that Blacks would report greater endorsement of religious fundamentalism and the traditional male role norm of status than Whites. Results confirmed all of the hypothesized racial differences and revealed additional differences, including a differential effect of the traditional male role norm of status on sexual prejudice, which explains, at least in part, the racial differences found in sexual prejudice. These findings may reflect underlying cultural differences between Black and White males and may aid in the development of future efforts to reduce sexual prejudice and consequently antigay aggression toward sexual minorities.

  16. The Gifted and the Shadow of the Night: Dabrowski's Overexcitabilities and Their Correlation to Insomnia, Death Anxiety, and Fear of the Unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gregory E.; Van Haneghan, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Purportedly fear of the unknown, death anxiety, and insomnia are prevalent problems among some gifted individuals. The present study tested this assertion and examined the relationship of these variables to Dabrowski's (1967) overexcitabilities. The study involved 73 gifted and 143 typical middle and high school adolescents who were given a death…

  17. One milligram of lorazepam does not decrease anxiety induced by CCK-4 in healthy volunteers: investigation of neural correlates with BOLD MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunck, Thérèse; Mathis, Alexandre; Erb, Gilles; Namer, Izzie Jacques; Hode, Yann; Demazières, Agnès; Luthringer, Rémy

    2011-01-01

    Benzodiazepine effects on cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4)-induced panic attack (PA) in humans are incompletely characterized, in particular on the neurofunctional level. This work explores the effects of lorazepam on brain activity and behavioral and physiological symptoms related to CCK-4-induced PA in healthy volunteers. Twenty-one male volunteers received 1 mg of lorazepam or placebo orally, 2 hours before an injection of 0.9% saline solution followed by 50 µg of CCK-4 during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and heart rate recording. Panic attacks were defined using the panic symptom scale (PSS). In addition, the Y1-STAI (state anxiety) and the Bond & Lader Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were used. Eleven subjects were classified as panickers. CCK-4 induced behavioral anxiety and cardiovascular effects along with cerebral activation in anxiety-related brain regions. Overall, lorazepam did not significantly modify the anxiogenic and cardiovascular effects of CCK-4. Regarding CCK-4-induced brain activation, lorazepam did not reduce activity in the insulae and cingulate gyrus of panickers. One milligram of lorazepam was not sufficient to reverse strong panicogenic effects, but decreased brain activity in the case of mild anxiety.

  18. Do self-report measures of social anxiety reflect cultural bias or real difficulties for Asian American college students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lorinda Y; Lau, Anna S

    2011-01-01

    Construal of the self as independent or interdependent in relation to others has been found to correlate significantly with social anxiety symptom ratings, raising concerns about possible cultural bias in these measures for Asian Americans. To investigate the validity of self-reported social anxiety symptoms, we examined the role of ethnicity in the associations among social anxiety, self-construal, and adaptive social functioning in a sample of 229 Asian- and European American college students. Results revealed that ethnicity moderated the relationship between self-construal and social anxiety such that interdependent self-construal was associated with higher social anxiety only for first generation Asian Americans. However, there were no significant ethnic differences in the associations between social anxiety self-reports and several measures of social functioning.

  19. A Study on the Correlation between Anxiety and Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Remained Senior High School Students in Changde Area%常德地区留守高中生焦虑情绪与IBS的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜登兵; 覃事斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查常德地区留守高中生焦虑情绪与肠易激综合征(IBS)的关系.方法 采用多级整群随机抽样方法,对湖南省常德市5所农村留守的1635名高中生进行现场调查.结果 被调查者中焦虑情绪的检出率为27.96%;女生焦虑情绪的发生率为42.58%,男生为14.08%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);有焦虑情绪学生IBS的患病率(39.20%)与无焦虑情绪学生(4.24%)比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),且有焦虑情绪学生中男女生比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 IBS是农村中学生的多发病,而焦虑情绪在其致病中发挥重要作用,并存在性别差异.%Objective To investigate the correlation between anxiety and irritable bowel syndrome ( IBS )in remained high school students in Changde area. Methods An on-site investigation on 1635 remained high school students in Changde area of Hunan province was done using a multistage cluster random sampling method. Results The respondents anxious emotion detection rate was 27.96% ;female 42. 58% , male 14.08% , statistically significant difference( P <0. 05 ). The difference of prevalence of IBS in anxiety students( 39.20% )and non-anxiety students( 4. 24% )was statistically significant( P < 0. 05 ), and in the anxiety students between girls and boys there was also statistically significant difference( P <0.05 ). Conclusion IBS is a frequently-occurring disease among the rural middle school students, while anxiety plays an important role in its pathogenesis,and gender differences exist.

  20. 石家庄地区焦虑障碍患者发病率及家庭因素的相关性调查%Study on the correlation between the incidence of anxiety disorder and family factors in Shijiazhuang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩慧英; 张会谦; 张红梅; 高晓娜; 张炜

    2016-01-01

    disorders were more prevalent in women than in men ,and the prevalence rate of anxiety disorder would increase with growing of ages ,with the highest in the population aged more than 50. Also ,those living in rural areas were more vulnerable to prevalence of anxiety disorder. Compared with the pop-ulation in marriage ,those separated or divorced or widowed people were more likely to suffer from anxiety disorders. Lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders in the local population was higher than those from the other regions. Non-conditional Logistic regression analysis showed that the family factors ,including separation or divorce or widowed and lower income were more cor-related with anxiety disorders. FES-CV indexes of the population with anxiety disorders ,including entertainment ,intimacy , knowledge ,and emotional expression were lower than those of healthy people ,and its value of contradiction was higher than that in healthy people. The above differences were statistically significant(P<0.01). Conclusion The incidence of anxiety dis-orders in Shijiazhuang is high ,meriting the attention from the local health department. Female ,growing age ,living in rural are-as are the risk factors of anxiety disorders ,so are family income per capita and relationship between family members ,therefore targeted prevention measures should be given to these high-risk populations.

  1. Diminished autonomic neurocardiac function in patients with generalized anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungwook; Lee, Seul; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic and highly prevalent disorder that is characterized by a number of autonomic nervous system symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the linear and nonlinear complexity measures of heart rate variability (HRV), measuring autonomic regulation, and to evaluate the relationship between HRV parameters and the severity of anxiety, in medication-free patients with GAD. Methods Assessments of linear and nonlinear complexity measures of HRV were performed in 42 medication-free patients with GAD and 50 healthy control subjects. In addition, the severity of anxiety symptoms was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory. The values of the HRV measures of the groups were compared, and the correlations between the HRV measures and the severity of anxiety symptoms were assessed. Results The GAD group showed significantly lower standard deviation of RR intervals and the square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal sinus intervals values compared to the control group (P<0.01). The approximate entropy value, which is a nonlinear complexity indicator, was also significantly lower in the patient group than in the control group (P<0.01). In correlation analysis, there were no significant correlations between HRV parameters and the severity of anxiety symptoms. Conclusion The present study indicates that GAD is significantly associated with reduced HRV, suggesting that autonomic neurocardiac integrity is substantially impaired in patients with GAD. Future prospective studies are required to investigate the effects of pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment on neuroautonomic modulation in patients with GAD. PMID:27994467

  2. Quantification of pizza baking properties of different cheeses, and their correlation with cheese functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xixiu; Balaban, Murat O; Zhang, Lu; Emanuelsson-Patterson, Emma A C; James, Bryony

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the pizza baking properties and performance of different cheeses, including the browning and blistering, and to investigate the correlation to cheese properties (rheology, free oil, transition temperature, and water activity). The color, and color uniformity, of different cheeses (Mozzarella, Cheddar, Colby, Edam, Emmental, Gruyere, and Provolone) were quantified, using a machine vision system and image analysis techniques. The correlations between cheese appearance and attributes were also evaluated, to find that cheese properties including elasticity, free oil, and transition temperature influence the color uniformity of cheeses.

  3. Correlation between specific fine root length and mycorrhizal colonization of maize in different soil types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenke LIU

    2009-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in a glass-house to investigate the correlation between specific fine root length (SFRL) and root colonization (RC) of maize inoculated with six arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in three soil types. The results showed that six AMF associated with maize presented different abilities in RC and effects on SFRL. In addition, there was a significant correlation between SFRL and RC of arbuscular mycor-rhizal maize in Beijing soil (Cinnamon soil), but no significant correlation in Hubei soil (Brunisolic soil) and Guangdong soil (Red soil). It is concluded that mycor-rhizal colonization decreased the SFRL of maize, and the correlation between SFRL and RC of mycorrhizal maize depended on soil type.

  4. The neural correlates of worry in association with individual differences in neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servaas, Michelle Nadine; Riese, Harriëtte; Ormel, Johan; Aleman, André

    2014-09-01

    The tendency to worry is a facet of neuroticism that has been shown to mediate the relationship between neuroticism and symptoms of depression and anxiety. The aim of the current study was to investigate the neural correlates of state worry in association with neuroticism. One-hundred twenty participants were selected from an initially recruited sample of 240 women based on their neuroticism score. First, participants completed a questionnaire to assess the excessiveness and uncontrollability of pathological worry. Second, we measured brain activation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants were randomly presented with 12 worry-inducing sentences and 12 neutral sentences in a mood induction paradigm. Individuals scoring higher on neuroticism reported to worry more in daily life and to have generated more worry-related thoughts after the presentation of a worry-inducing sentence. Furthermore, imaging results showed the involvement of default mode and emotional brain areas during worry, previously associated with self-related processing and emotion regulation. Specifically, cortical midline structures and the anterior insula showed more activation during worry, when individuals indicated to have generated more worry-related thoughts. Activation in the retrosplenial and visual cortex was decreased in individuals scoring higher on neuroticism during worry, possibly suggesting reduced autobiographical specificity and visual mental imagery. In the literature, both these processes have been related to the cognitive avoidance of emotional distress. Excessive worry features in a number of emotional disorders and results from studies that elucidate its neural basis may help explain how and why neuroticism contributes to vulnerability for psychopathology.

  5. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement.

  6. Alexithymia and personality in relation to social anxiety among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Coskun, Kerem Senol; Yıldırım, Fatma Gul; Ugurlu, Hilal

    2013-09-30

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the relationship of social anxiety symptoms with alexithymia and personality dimensions in university students and to control the effects of depression and anxiety on this relationship. A total of 319 university students (85 males and 234 females) from two different universities in Ankara were investigated with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). We found that subscales of the LSAS (fear or anxiety and avoidance) were positively correlated with depression and alexithymia and "difficulty in identifying feelings" (DIF) and "difficulty in describing feelings" (DDF) subscales of the TAS-20. Harm avoidance (HA) showed positive correlations with subscales of the LSAS, whereas self-directedness (SD) showed negative correlations with these subscales. High TAS-20 DDFand HA and low SD predicted fear or anxiety LSAS subscale scores, whereas high TAS-20 DDF, HA and depression scores were predictors for LSAS avoidance subscale scores. Although our sample is not representative of the whole Turkish university student population, we conclude that both fear or anxiety and avoidance were mainly interrelated with DDF and HA, although the causal relationship is not clear.

  7. Correlation Research on English Proficiency, Learning Motivation and Foreign Language Anxiety%学习成绩、学习动机与外语学习焦虑的相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐玲英; 何晓宇

    2015-01-01

    Through qualitative method, this paper makes an investigation of the language learning anxiety, learning motivation, and language proficiency of the 240 Non-English majors in a normal university. Research indicates that:there is a significantly nega-tive correlation between foreign language anxiety and language proficiency, and the foreign language anxiety of those with higher level of learning motivation is significantly lower than that of those with a lower level of learning motivation.%该研究通过定量分析方法对师范学院非英语专业学生的240名学生的语言学习焦虑、学习动机、英语成绩进行了调查分析.结果显示:语言学习焦虑与学习成绩呈显著负相关,学习动机强的学生的语言学习焦虑水平显著低于学习动机弱的学生的语言学习焦虑水平.

  8. A study on test anxiety and its correlative factors in the medical students of military college%军校医学生考试焦虑现况及其相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志群; 樊毫军; 侯世科; 单学娴

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨军校医学生的考试焦虑现况及其相关因素。方法采用Sarason考试焦虑量表(TAS)及90项症状自评量表(SCL-90)测试某军校医学生284名。结果 TAS总分≥12分者159人(56.00%)。女性、低年级、考试成绩差者TAS分数较高,P<0.01。TAS高分数组SCL-90各因子分较高, P<0.01。TAS分数与SCL-90各因子分数呈正相关,P<0.01。结论考试焦虑在学习中不同程度地存在,与性别、年纪、学习成绩有关。%Objective To investigate anxiety caused by test and its correlative factors of the medical students in military college. Methods the (Test Anxiety Scale,TAS) and (Symptom Checklist 90,SCL-90) were employed in the study among 284 medical students 107 male &177 female, age 17~25,80 in laboratory test specialty, 96in Nursing specialty,and 108 in clinical medicine specialty,89 sophomores,79 juniors, and 116 seniors. Results 159 (56.00%) students received their TAS score of 12 or higher. Female students, lower grade students as well as those having poor academic performance received higher scores. The group of higher TAS scores received higher scores in every factors of SCL-90. There were positive correlations in scores of TAS and that of SCL-90 factors. Conclusion Test anxiety exists invarious degree among the medical studentsin militany college,and is correlated with sex,garde,and academic performance.

  9. Calibration of Self-Reports of Anxiety and Physiological Measures of Anxiety While Reading in Adults With and Without Reading Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meer, Yael; Breznitz, Zvia; Katzir, Tami

    2016-08-01

    Reading difficulty has been linked to anxiety in adults yet and has not been systematically studied especially in compensated adults with dyslexia. This study examined the relationships between anxiety ratings and physiological arousal while reading among adults with reading disability (RD) compared to skilled readers (SR). Nineteen compensated adults with RD and 20 SR adults were administered a battery of reading tasks and anxiety self-report questionnaires. Physiological measures of arousal were recorded during text reading task. Adults with RD scored significantly lower than SR on all cognitive and reading related measures. They showed no differences on any of the self-report anxiety measures. Interestingly, in the skilled readers' sample, physiological arousal while reading correlated with trait anxiety. No correlations between physiological and self-reported data were found in the RD sample. These findings suggest a model of resiliency in compensated adults with reading disabilities that includes lower anxiety levels and a discord between anxiety reports and actual arousal rates. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Sex-related similarities and differences in the neural correlates of beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela-Conde, Camilo J; Ayala, Francisco J; Munar, Enric; Maestú, Fernando; Nadal, Marcos; Capó, Miguel A; del Río, David; López-Ibor, Juan J; Ortiz, Tomás; Mirasso, Claudio; Marty, Gisèle

    2009-03-10

    The capacity to appreciate beauty is one of our species' most remarkable traits. Although knowledge about its neural correlates is growing, little is known about any gender-related differences. We have explored possible differences between men and women's neural correlates of aesthetic preference. We have used magnetoencephalography to record the brain activity of 10 male and 10 female participants while they decided whether or not they considered examples of artistic and natural visual stimuli to be beautiful. Our results reveal significantly different activity between the sexes in parietal regions when participants judged the stimuli as beautiful. Activity in this region was bilateral in women, whereas it was lateralized to the right hemisphere in men. It is known that the dorsal visual processing stream, which encompasses the superior parietal areas, has been significantly modified throughout human evolution. We posit that the observed gender-related differences are the result of evolutionary processes that occurred after the splitting of the human and chimpanzee lineages. In view of previous results on gender differences with respect to the neural correlates of coordinate and categorical spatial strategies, we infer that the different strategies used by men and women in assessing aesthetic preference may reflect differences in the strategies associated with the division of labor between our male and female hunter-gatherer hominin ancestors.

  11. STATE ANXIETY, SUBJECTIVE IMBALANCE AND HANDICAP IN VESTIBULAR SCHWANNOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yougan Saman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTEvidence is emerging of a significant clinical and neuro-anatomical relationship between balance and anxiety. Research has suggested a potentially priming effect with anxiety symptoms predicting a worsening of balance function in patients with underlying balance dysfunction. We propose to show that a vestibular stimulus is responsible for an increase in state anxiety and there is a relationship between increased state anxiety and worsening balance function. Aims1.To quantify state anxiety following a vestibular stimulus in patients with a chronic vestibular deficit.2.To determine if state anxiety during a vestibular stimulus would correlate with the severity of chronic balance symptoms and handicap. MethodsTwo separate cohorts Vestibular Schwannoma (VS patients underwent vestibular tests (electronystagmography, cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and caloric responses and questionnaire assessment (Vertigo handicap Questionnaire, Vertigo Symptom Scale, State Trait Anxiety InventoryFifteen post resection Vestibular schwannoma patients, with complete unilateral vestibular deafferentation, were assessed at a minimum of 6 months after surgery in Experiment 1 (Aim 1. Forty-five patients with VS in-situ and with preserved vestibular function formed the cohort for Experiment 2 (Aim 2. Experiment 1: VS subjects (N=15 with a complete post-resection unilateral vestibular deafferentation completed a State anxiety questionnaire before caloric assessment and again afterwards with the point of maximal vertigo as the reference (Aim 1. Experiment 2: State anxiety measured at the point of maximal vertigo following a caloric assessment was compared between two groups of presenting with balance symptoms (Group 1 N=26 and without balance symptoms (Group 2 N=11 (Aim 2. The presence of balance symptoms was defined as having a positive score on the VSS-VER.ResultsIn experiment 1, a significant difference (p<0.01 was found when comparing

  12. 女性非感染性尿道综合征与焦虑障碍的相关性%Correlation between female non-infectious urethral syndrome and anxiety disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祥文; 贾中尉; 李丽华; 夏敬彪

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cause of non-infectious urethral syndrome and to find appropriate treatment for it. Methods 117 adult female patients were divided into two groups by diagnostic criteria: non-infectious urethral syndrome group (group A, n=46) and urinary tract infection group (group B, n=71). All the patients were tested by Hamilton Depression Rating Scale for anxiety and depression before and after treatment The incidence of anxiety disorders, changes in anxiety scores before and after treatment, physical and mental anxiety score weights were compared between the two groups. Results The incidences of anxiety disorders of group A and group B were 84.78% and 7.04% respectively, showing statistically significant difference (P<0.01). No significant difference was found in the incidence of depression between the two groups (P<0.05). HAMA scores of group A were (23.56±7.71) before treatment and (9.34±2.42) after treatment, with a significant statistical difference, while the score in group B showed no statistically significant difference before and after treatment (P<0.01). In group A, somatic anxiety scores were significantly higher than mental anxiety scores (P<0.01). Conclusion Female non-infectious urethral syndrome and anxiety disorders are closely related. Psychological intervention and/or anti-anxiety drug treatment are effective for them.%目的 探讨非感染性尿道综合征患者的病因,寻找合适的治疗方法.方法 分别对非感染性尿道综合征组(A组)和尿路感染组(B组)的成年女性患者治疗前后,采用汉米尔顿焦虑抑郁量表进行焦虑抑郁障碍检测,比较两组患者焦虑障碍的发生率、治疗前后焦虑评分的变化及非感染性尿道综合征组躯体、精神焦虑评分的权重.结果 A组、B组焦虑障碍的发生率分别为84.78%、7.04%,两组比较差异有显著的统计学意义(P<0.01),而抑郁障碍两组比较差异无统计学意义((P>0.05);A组

  13. Quantification of extraprostatic extension in prostate cancer: different parameters correlated to biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veggel, B.A. van; Oort, I.M. van; Witjes, J.A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: Different methods to substage extraprostatic extension (EPE) were correlated with biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and results: A total of 157 consecutive RP specimens with EPE were completely embedded. Twenty-three patients with adjuvant therapy or detect

  14. Examining the Reliability of Interval Level Data Using Root Mean Square Differences and Concordance Correlation Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchard, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces new statistics for evaluating score consistency. Psychologists usually use correlations to measure the degree of linear relationship between 2 sets of scores, ignoring differences in means and standard deviations. In medicine, biology, chemistry, and physics, a more stringent criterion is often used: the extent to which…

  15. Gender Differences in Psychopathic Traits, Types, and Correlates of Aggression among Adjudicated Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickle, Timothy R.; Marini, Victoria A.; Thomas, Jamila N.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated gender differences in types and correlates of aggression among 150 adjudicated youth (M age = 15.2, SD = 1.4). In cluster analysis, consistent with past studies, one aggressive group characterized by moderate levels of reactive aggression and one characterized by high levels of proactive and reactive aggression…

  16. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaards, C.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Hendriksen, I.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA). The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST) in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work

  17. Antioxidant activity of different parts of Pistacia khinjuk Stocks fruit and its correlation to phenolic composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamnia, Ali Asghar; Rostamzad, Arman; Malekzadeh, Parviz; Darvishzadeh, Reza; Abbaspour, Nasser; Hosseini, Mohammadyar; Nourollahi, Khoshnood; Mehr, Reza Sheikh Akbari

    2016-06-01

    The fruits of Pistacia khinjuk Stocks were collected from Ilam province, Iran. The aim of this study was to analyse antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of different parts of P. khinjuk fruit. The antioxidant capacity of extracts was measured using different assays: ferric reducing ability of plasma, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide radical scavenging. The phenolic composition of P. khinjuk fruit is reported for the first time. Amongst different parts of the fruit analysed in this study, hull extract contained the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents. We observed a high correlation between different antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Therefore, antioxidant capacity can be related to total phenolic and flavonoid contents. A correlation analysis revealed that ascorbic acid, gallic acid, rutin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid were the phenolic compounds mainly responsible for antioxidant power of the fruit extracts.

  18. Expression of alcoholism-relevant genes in the liver are differently correlated to different parts of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lishi; Huang, Yue; Jiao, Yan; Chen, Hong; Cao, Yanhong; Bennett, Beth; Wang, Yongjun; Gu, Weikuan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether expression profiles of alcoholism-relevant genes in different parts of the brain are correlated differently with those in the liver. Four experiments were conducted. First, we used gene expression profiles from five parts of the brain (striatum, prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, and cerebellum) and from liver in a population of recombinant inbred mouse strains to examine the expression association of 10 alcoholism-relevant genes. Second, we conducted the same association analysis between brain structures and the lung. Third, using five randomly selected, nonalcoholism-relevant genes, we conducted the association analysis between brain and liver. Finally, we compared the expression of 10 alcoholism-relevant genes in hippocampus and cerebellum between an alcohol preference strain and a wild-type control. We observed a difference in correlation patterns in expression levels of 10 alcoholism-relevant genes between different parts of the brain with those of liver. We then examined the association of gene expression between alcohol dehydrogenases (Adh1, Adh2, Adh5, and Adh7) and different parts of the brain. The results were similar to those of the 10 genes. Then, we found that the association of those genes between brain structures and lung was different from that of liver. Next, we found that the association patterns of five alcoholism-nonrelevant genes were different from those of 10 alcoholism-relevant genes. Finally, we found that the expression level of 10 alcohol-relevant genes is influenced more in hippocampus than in cerebellum in the alcohol preference strain. Our results show that the expression of alcoholism-relevant genes in liver is differently associated with the expression of genes in different parts of the brain. Because different structural changes in different parts of the brain in alcoholism have been reported, it is important to investigate whether those structural differences in

  19. The correlation between preoperative anxiety and propofol concentration of effective compartment%术前焦虑程度与术中丙泊酚血浆和效应室靶浓度相关性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪诚; 郭向阳; 张利萍; 吴任刚; 王军; 李民; 王云; 吴长毅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between preoperative anxiety and intraoperative target-controlled infusion (TCI) concentration of propofol, and to determine which anxiety evaluation scale is more suitable in perioperative practice. Methods Sixty ASA I patients scheduled for laparoscopic surgery were enrolled. Preoperative anxiety was evaluated by the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), the Zung self-rating anxiety scale, and visual analogue scale (VAS) 30 min before surgery. TCI of propofol was started to provide a blood concentration of 1. 5 jug/ml, and increased by 0. 5 μg/ml every 30s until OAA/S value reached 2. The bispectral index (BIS) value, blood and effect-site propofol concentrations (Cpl and Cel ) at this time point were recorded. Subsequently, TCI of propofol was titrated to maintain a BIS value of 50 for 30 minutes; blood and effect-site propofol concentrations were recorded every 5 min and averaged as Cp2 and Ce2. Results There was a significant correlation between SAI, TAI, Zung. VAS and Cpl and Cel (P< 0. 05 or F<0. 01), between SAI, TAI, Zung and BIS value (P< 0. 05), between TAI and Cp2 and Ce2 (P<0. 01), and between VAS and Ce2 (P<0. 05). SAI accounted for 13. 10% and 11. 76% of Cpl and Cel, and TAI accounted for 15. 05% and 14. 98% of Cp2 and Ce2. Patients with low and medium state anxiety required lower Cpl and Cel than patients with high state anxiety (P< 0. 05), and patients with low and medium trait anxiety required lower Cp2 and Ce2 than patients with high trait anxiety (P< 0.05). Conclusion There is a moderate correlation between preoperative anxiety levels and TCI concentration of propofol for induction and maintenance. STAI is more suitable in perioperative practice than other anxiety scales. We suggest that anesthesiologists should modify intraoperative TCI concentration, of propofol based on the anxiety level exhibited by patients.%目的 研究术前焦虑程度与麻醉过程中丙泊酚血浆和效应室靶浓度的相

  20. Test Anxiety in Written and Oral Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Rost, Detlef H.; Baumeister, Ulrike M.; Christ, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The distinction of different test anxiety reactions (e.g., worry, emotionality) is well established. Recently, additional relevance has been given to school-subject-specific test anxiety factors. The present study explored a further aspect concerning the structure of test anxiety experiences, specifically oral versus written examination modes. A…

  1. Anxiety Levels in Adolescents Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.; Maloney, Kristy; Meyer, Crystal; Qualls, Constance Dean

    2007-01-01

    High levels of anxiety can negatively affect the lives of children and adolescents. Thirty-six adolescents who stutter and 36 adolescents who do not stutter were administered standardized scales for anxiety and self-esteem. Significant differences were found for the total T-scores for "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale" for the two groups,…

  2. Correlation between SUVA and DBP formation during chlorination and chloramination of NOM fractions from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Guanghui; Reckhow, David A; Abusallout, Ibrahim

    2015-07-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is the major precursor to the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment. Specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) is a widely used surrogate parameter to characterize NOM and predict its DBP formation potential. The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between SUVA and different classes of DBPs formed by NOM fractions from different sources. Three natural waters with a wide SUVA range were fractionated into differing hydrophobicity and molecular weight groups using XAD-4 and XAD-8 resins and ultrafiltration membranes. Each NOM fraction was treated with chlorine and monochloramine under controlled laboratory conditions. Different classes of DBPs showed different relationships with SUVA. SUVA correlated strongly with trihaloacetic acids (THAAs) and unknown total organic halogen (UTOX) yields whereas weak correlations were observed between SUVA and trihalomethane (THM) and dihaloacetic acid (DHAA) yields during chlorination. These results reinforce the hypothesis that DHAAs and THAAs form through different precursors and reaction pathways. Strong correlation between SUVA and UTOX was also observed during chloramination. However, no significant relationship was observed between SUVA and chloramination THMs and DHAAs. Overall, SUVA is a good indicator for the formation of unknown DBPs. This indicates that UV absorbing compounds and aromatic carbon within NOM are the primary sources of precursors for unknown DBPs.

  3. Differences between effects of psychological versus pharmacological treatments on functional and morphological brain alterations in anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quidé, Yann; Witteveen, Anke B; El-Hage, Wissam; Veltman, Dick J; Olff, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    The most prevalent mental disorders, anxiety and mood disorders, are associated with both functional and morphological brain changes that commonly involve the 'fear network' including the (medial) prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. Patients suffering from anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder often show excessive amygdala and reduced prefrontal cortex functioning. It is, however, still unclear whether these brain abnormalities disappear or diminish following effective treatment. This review aims to compare the effects of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy on functional and morphological brain measures in these disorders. Sixty-three studies were included, 30 investigating psychotherapy effects and 33 investigating pharmacotherapy effects. Despite methodological differences, results suggest a functional normalization of the 'fear network'. Pharmacotherapy particularly decreases over-activity of limbic structures (bottom-up effect) while psychotherapy tends to increase activity and recruitment of frontal areas (top-down effect), especially the anterior cingulate cortex. Additionally, pharmacotherapy, but not psychotherapy, has been associated with morphological changes, depending on the disorder. These findings suggest that both types of treatments normalize (functional) brain abnormalities each in specific ways.

  4. Maternal phobic anxiety and child anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Gail A; Layne, Ann E; Egan, Elizabeth A; Nelson, Lara P

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between maternal anxiety symptoms and child anxiety symptoms and evaluated whether a reporting bias is associated with maternal anxiety. Fifty-seven mother-child pairs participated. All children had features or diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder, and/or social phobia. Measures of maternal symptomatology and child anxiety were administered. Higher levels of maternal phobic anxiety on the Brief Symptom Inventory were significantly associated with higher levels of separation anxiety in children. After controlling for clinician rating of SAD severity, maternal phobic anxiety emerged as a significant predictor of maternal ratings of child separation anxiety, accounting for 19% of the variance. Phobic mothers endorsed levels of separation anxiety in their children that exceeded levels endorsed by clinicians, suggesting maternal overreporting.

  5. Relationship between perfectionism and social physique anxiety among male and female college student exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshel, Mark H; Seipel, Scott J

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between two constructs, social physique anxiety and perfectionism, both conceptually linked to exercise behavior. A secondary purpose was to examine sex differences. Men (n = 80) and women (n = 106) university students who exercised regularly at the campus fitness center completed the Brief Multiple Perfectionism Scale and the Social Physique Anxiety Scale immediately prior to their exercise session. A small but significant correlation was found between the two measures through the Brief Multiple Perfectionism Scale Doubts about Actions. It was concluded that the overall relationship between social physique anxiety and perfectionism is weak.

  6. 论焦虑与英语学习成绩的相关性%The Correlation between Anxiety and English Learning Achievement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白晓红

    2011-01-01

    Since the emphasis of English teaching has shifted from "how to teach" to "how to learn",learners have been given more concern.The anxiety has been proved to hinder foreign language learning,so how to reduce the negative effect of anxiety has become a big challenge for the present English teaching.This research investigates the relationships between foreign language anxiety and CET-4 scores of students in Chinese university.%随着外语教学的重点从"如何教"转向"如何学"后,对于学习者的研究开始受到更多的重视。焦虑被证实会阻碍多种类型的学习,那么如何降低焦虑对学习者的负面影响对外语教学而言是一个很大的挑战。本研究旨在调查当今中国大学生的外语学习焦虑水平和大学英语四级考试成绩之间的关系。

  7. Classroom Anxiety and Its Effect on Oral English Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许欣; 周开元

    2013-01-01

    Language anxiety is one of the most common elements that influence language learning. Based on a questionnaire in⁃vestigation, university students’trait anxiety and environmental anxiety in English classes will be analyzed and discussed. The two types of anxiety are positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with the students’oral English ability. Results of this analysis will help promote the teachers’understanding of the classroom environment and create a favorable teaching cir⁃cumstance.

  8. Humans and natural predators induce different fear/anxiety reactions and response pattern to diazepam in marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagni, Priscila; Gonçalves, Israel; Ziller, Felipe; Emile, Nally; Barros, Marilia

    2009-08-01

    The behavioral response of marmoset monkeys in the Human Threat (HT) test of anxiety, and the effects of diazepam (DZP), were compared to those in the Predator Confrontation (PC) procedure. Subjects (n=13) were initially submitted to four habituation trials, followed by four random confrontation sessions for each test (DZP 0, 1, 2 and 3 mg/kg). Each trial was divided into three consecutive 5-min intervals: pre-exposure, exposure (human observer, taxidermized oncilla cat) and post-exposure. As DZP induced sedation, marmosets (n=10) were re-tested in a second experiment, consisting of two habituation trials and four confrontation sessions per stimulus, with lower DZP doses (0, 0.10, 0.25 and 0.50 mg/kg). Exposure to both stimuli significantly increased direct gazes and alarm calls, being dose-dependently reduced by DZP only in the PC test. In the HT protocol, the significant decrease in aerial scans was not detected with 0.10 mg/kg DZP. Locomotion, proximity, displacement activities and vigilance were not consistently influenced by the stimuli and/or DZP. The results thus suggest that the HT test had a greater impact on the marmosets' behavior, while DZP was more effective on the reactions observed in the PC test, possibly due to the inherent nature of each stimulus, distinct threat levels and/or presentation order.

  9. Is math anxiety in the secondary classroom limiting physics mastery? A study of math anxiety and physics performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Gary J.

    This quantitative study examined the relationship between secondary students with math anxiety and physics performance in an inquiry-based constructivist classroom. The Revised Math Anxiety Rating Scale was used to evaluate math anxiety levels. The results were then compared to the performance on a physics standardized final examination. A simple correlation was performed, followed by a multivariate regression analysis to examine effects based on gender and prior math background. The correlation showed statistical significance between math anxiety and physics performance. The regression analysis showed statistical significance for math anxiety, physics performance, and prior math background, but did not show statistical significance for math anxiety, physics performance, and gender.

  10. Intolerance of uncertainty and adult separation anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelen, Paul A; Reijntjes, Albert; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU)-the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain-is involved in different anxiety disorders and depression. No studies have yet examined the association between IU and symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder. However, it is possible that greater difficulties tolerating uncertainties that can occur in relationships with attachment figures inflate fears and worries about the consequences of being separated from these attachment figures. The current study examined the possible role of IU in symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder, relative to its role in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), social anxiety, and depression, using self-reported data from 215 undergraduates (92% women) with elevated separation anxiety. Findings showed that IU was significantly associated with symptom levels of separation anxiety disorder, GAD, OCD, social anxiety, and depression (rs > .30). IU continued to explain variance in OCD, social anxiety, and depression (but not GAD and separation anxiety) when controlling for the association of neuroticism, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance with these symptoms. Additional findings indicated that IU is more strongly associated with symptoms of GAD, OCD, and social anxiety than symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder and depression.

  11. Trichotillomania and Co-occurring Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E.; Redden, Sarah A.; Leppink, Eric W.; Chamberlain, Samuel R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Trichotillomania appears to be a fairly common disorder, with high rates of co-occurring anxiety disorders. Many individuals with trichotillomania also report that pulling worsens during periods of increased anxiety. Even with these clinical links to anxiety, little research has explored whether trichotillomania with co-occurring anxiety is a meaningful subtype. Methods 165 adults with trichotillomania were examined on a variety of clinical measures including symptom severity, functioning, and comorbidity. Participants also underwent cognitive testing assessing motor inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Clinical features and cognitive functioning were compared between those with current co-occurring anxiety disorders (i.e. social anxiety, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and anxiety disorder NOS) (n=38) and those with no anxiety disorder (n=127). Results Participants with trichotillomania and co-occurring anxiety reported significantly worse hair pulling symptoms, were more likely to have co-occurring depression, and were more likely to have a first-degree relative with obsessive compulsive disorder. Those with anxiety disorders also exhibited significantly worse motor inhibitory performance on a task of motor inhibition (stop-signal task). Conclusions This study suggests that anxiety disorders affect the clinical presentation of hair pulling behavior. Further research is needed to validate our findings and to consider whether treatments should be specially tailored differently for adults with trichotillomania who have co-occurring anxiety disorders, or more pronounced cognitive impairment. PMID:27668531

  12. Anxiety symptoms during pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Primeau, Loree A; Levine, Ruth E; Olson, Gayle L; Wu, Z Helen; Berenson, Abbey B

    2006-09-01

    This cross-sectional study compared the distribution of anxiety symptoms among pregnant, non-pregnant, and postpartum women of lower socioeconomic status. Participants were 807 women who were pregnant (24-36 weeks), postpartum (2-8 weeks), or not pregnant. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed by the state-trait anxiety index and the Beck depression inventory, respectively. English and Spanish versions of the instrument were available. Group differences in anxiety were evaluated using analysis of variance. Multivariate regression was performed to evaluate differences in anxiety while controlling for marital status, education, race/ethnicity, employment, cohabitation, income, parity, history of depression/anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Anxiety scores were lower among postpartum women relative to pregnant and non-pregnant women (both P < 0.001), who did not differ (P = 0.99). After controlling for depressive symptoms and patient characteristics, anxiety remained lowest among postpartum women. Additionally, history of depression/anxiety and depressive symptoms were significant predictors of anxiety in the multivariate analysis. Comparatively low anxiety and depressive symptoms were observed among women who were 2-8 weeks postpartum. Anxiety symptoms that occur postpartum may not appear until later in the postpartum period.

  13. Serum cytokines and anxiety in adolescent depression patients: Gender effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavi, Pooja; Sagar, Rajesh; Mehta, Manju; Sharma, Subhadra; Subramanium, Arulselvi; Shamshi, Farah; Sengupta, Utpal; Pandey, Ravindra M; Mukhopadhyay, Asok K

    2015-09-30

    The present study compares the serum cytokine levels between adolescent depression patients and healthy controls and assesses correlation between depression, anxiety scores and serum levels of eight cytokines. Study also checked the variation in serum levels with medication status (medication free/naïve vs. patients on medication). Following clinical and psychometric assessment of 77 adolescent (aged 13-18 years) depression patients (49 males and 28 females; 56 medication free/naïve) and 54 healthy controls (25 males, 29 females), eight cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β1 and IL-17A {denoted IL-17 throughout}) were measured in serum using ELISA. Depressed adolescents had significantly high levels of IL-2 (pcytokine (IL-6) in patients. Anxiety scores showed positive correlation (only in female patients) with IL-1β, IL-10 and negative correlation with TGF-β1 and IL-17. The gender effect in relationship between anxiety and cytokines was not straightforward. On comparing study groups on the medication/naïve status, IL-2 and TGF-β1 showed significant difference between the groups (pcytokines with a gender bias for females. Anxiety scores correlated negatively with TGF-β1 and IL-17.

  14. Seasonal variations of DNA damage in human lymphocytes: Correlation with different environmental variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannelli, Lisa [Dipartimento di Farmacologia Preclinica e Clinica, Universita di Firenze, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: lisa.giovannelli@unifi.it; Pitozzi, Vanessa [Dipartimento di Farmacologia Preclinica e Clinica, Universita di Firenze, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy); Moretti, Silvia [Department of Dermatological Sciences, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Boddi, Vieri [Department of Public Health, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Dolara, Piero [Dipartimento di Farmacologia Preclinica e Clinica, Universita di Firenze, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy)

    2006-01-29

    Several types of DNA damage, including DNA breaks and DNA base oxidation, display a seasonal trend. In the present work, a sample of 79 healthy subjects living in the city of Florence, Italy, was used to analyse this effect. Three possible causative agents were taken into consideration: solar radiation, air temperature and air ozone level. DNA damage was measured in isolated human lymphocytes at different times during the year and the observed damage was correlated with the levels of these three agents in the days preceding blood sampling. Three time windows were chosen: 3, 7 and 30 days before blood sampling. DNA strand breaks and the oxidized purinic bases cleaved by the formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG sites) were measured by means of the comet assay. The results of multivariate regression analysis showed a positive correlation between lymphocyte DNA damage and air temperature, and a less strong correlation with global solar radiation and air ozone levels.

  15. Correlation of neuropathic pain with depression disorder and anxiety disorder%神经病理性疼痛与抑郁和焦虑精神症状的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪雪珺; 杜冬萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation of neuropathic pain with depression disorder and anxiety disorder. Methods Thirty-six patients who were initially diagnosed as neuropathic pain were included ( case group), and were treated with amitriptyline, opioids and nerve block in necessities. Assessment with visual analogue scale (VAS), Zung self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS) was performed before treatment and 2 weeks and 4 weeks after treatment. Besides, 15 healthy volunteers were served as controls, and assessment with SAS and SDS was conducted. Results The duration of neuropathic pain of all patients in case group was more than 3 months. The degree of pain was positively related to the prevalences of depression disorder and anxiety disorder in case group (P < 0. 01), and the prevalences of depression disorder and anxiety disorder in case group were significantly higher than those in control group ( P < 0. 01). Two weeks and 4 weeks after treatment in case group, the pain was effectively relieved ( P < 0. 05) , the degree of pain was also positively related to the prevalences of depression disorder and anxiety disorder (P <0.05), and the prevalences of depression disorder and anxiety disorder were also significantly higher than those in control group (P <0. 05) . Conclusion Patients with neuropathic pain are usually found to experience anxiety disorder and depression disorder. With the relief of pain, anxiety disorder and depression disorder may be relieved, but can not be completely eliminated.%目的 探讨神经病理性疼痛与焦虑和抑郁精神症状之间的相关性.方法 选择神经病理性疼痛初诊患者36例(病例组),根据病情需要分别采用阿米替林、阿片类药物和神经阻滞药物进行镇痛治疗,治疗前进行视觉模拟疼痛评分(VAS)、Zung焦虑评分(SAS)和Zung抑郁评分(SDS),治疗后2和4周再进行SAS和SDS评分.同时选15名健康志愿者作

  16. Wedges of Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Maria; Brandt, Eva

    2005-01-01

    The Heraclitian notion of a reality in constant flux seems to have settled even in the public consciousness. We are, to an ever-increasing extent, on the move; in motion between different places of abode, between domiciles and places of residence, between temporary addresses and provisory settlem...... cones of light, as the cut their way into the unknown, like wedges of anxiety...

  17. Illness anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a serious disease is unreasonable or unfounded. Illness anxiety disorder is different from somatic symptom disorder. With somatic symptom disorder, the person has physical pain or other symptoms, but the medical cause is not found. Exams and Tests The doctor or nurse will examine you and ...

  18. Second language writing anxiety, computer anxiety, and performance in a classroom versus a web-based environment

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of writing anxiety and computer anxiety on language learning for 45 ESL adult learners enrolled in an English grammar and writing course. Two sections of the course were offered in a traditional classroom setting whereas two others were given in a hybrid form that involved distance learning. Contrary to previous research, writing anxiety showed no correlation with learning performance, whereas computer anxiety only yielded a positive correlation with performance...

  19. Second language writing anxiety, computer anxiety, and performance in a classroom versus a web-based environment

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of writing anxiety and computer anxiety on language learning for 45 ESL adult learners enrolled in an English grammar and writing course. Two sections of the course were offered in a traditional classroom setting whereas two others were given in a hybrid form that in-volved distance learning. Contrary to previous research, writing anxiety showed no correlation with learning performance, whereas computer anxie-ty only yielded a positive correlation with performan...

  20. Statistics and mathematics anxiety in social science students: some interesting parallels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidner, M

    1991-11-01

    This study illuminates some interesting parallels between statistics anxiety and mathematics anxiety in social science students. Parallel to what is confirmed for mathematics anxiety, two factors were observed to underly statistics anxiety scores, namely, statistics test anxiety and content anxiety. The study revealed modest though significant correlations between student attributes and the two confirmed dimensions of statistics anxiety. Furthermore, parallel to the inverse correlation reported for mathematics anxiety and maths course performance, statistics anxiety correlated negatively with high school matriculation scores in maths as well as self perceptions of maths abilities. These data lend support to the hypothesis that aversive prior experiences with mathematics, prior poor achievement in maths, and a low sense of maths self-efficacy are meaningful antecedent correlates of statistics anxiety and thus lend some credence to the "deficit" interpretation of statistics anxiety.

  1. A correlation analysis of cone characteristics and central keratometric readings for the different stages of keratoconus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsamy, Alvin Jeffrey; Moodley, Vanessa Racquel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of the cone characteristics for the different stages of keratoconus may potentially assist practitioners in diagnosing and managing keratoconic patients. Aim: This study aims to determine if any correlation exists between the central keratometric readings and the cone characteristics for the different stages of keratoconus. Setting: A university eye clinic. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, a saturated sample of 190 eyes from 106 cases of previously diagnosed keratoconic patient files was analyzed. The stage of keratoconus and cone characteristics, namely, cone location, cone decentration, topographical patterns, and morphology were analyzed using an Oculus 3M corneal topographer. Results: Analysis revealed a correlation between cone decentration and stage of keratoconus (P = 0.007). The association was found to exist when central K-readings were between 45D and 52D and with an apical cone decentration of 3–4 mm. No correlations were obtained for the stage of keratoconus and the cone location; topography and morphology. Conclusion: It can be concluded that cone apices are not central in all stages. Practitioners should consider the peripheral cornea when diagnosing and managing keratoconic patients. No correlation between stage, morphology or topography was respectively revealed. PMID:28300733

  2. Stratigraphic Correlation of Middle Triassic Sequences among Different Paleogeographic Sedimentary Facies in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Affected by the Indosinian movement, the sediments in the main part of South China, Yangtzeplatform, started to transform from marine to continental during the Middle Triassic. In the meantime, a noticeable paleogeographic and sedimentary facies differentiation occurred in the marginal regions of the platforms and produced completely different lithologic and paleontologicsequences in various paleogeographic gradients and sedimentary facies areas, which brought about the difficulties for the stratigraphic correlation based on the traditional stratigraphies. This paper proposes to use some characteristic environmental events as the markers of the stratigraphic corre lation across various paleogeographic sedimentary facies, considering that some distinctive regionalenvironmental events should have affected at the same time on the entire basin or the connectedsedimentary regions and produced some closely related sedimentary records in the stratigraphic sequences though the affected intensity and recorded pattern might be different among the regions.The change of violent relative sea level (generally water depth) and the alteration of tectonic activity summarized from the dynamic mechanism of sedimentation are the best markers of environmental events for stratigraphic correlation. Based on the analysis and recognition of some significantenvironmental events at the typical stratigraphic sequences from various paleogeographic sedimentary facies and combined with the consideration of the variations in expressed form and strength fthe events among different paleogeographic gradients and sedimentary facies, the stratigraphic sequences from different sedimentary facies can be easily correlated directly. Furthermore, the evolutionary history of the whole sedimentary basin can be clearly established.

  3. Antioxidations and Their Correlations with Total Flavones and Anthocyanin Contents in Different Black Rice Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The antioxidations and their correlations with total flavones and anthocyanin contents in different black rice varieties were studied. The results indicated that the great differences in total antioxidant capacity (TAC), scavenging free radical capacity (SFRC), total flavones and anthocyanin contents existed among 242 black rice varieties. Comparisons of TAC,SFRC, total flavones and anthocyanin contents of different black rice types showed that the differences between black rice and white rice, indica one and japonica one, and nonglutinous one and glutinous one were significant at 0.01 levels,respectively. This showed that the TAC, SFRC, total flavones and anthocyanin contents of japonica type were higher than those of indica one, and nonglutinous type were higher than glutinous one. According to the fast clustering procedure, 242 black rice varieties could be clustered into 10 clusters, 184 indica rice varieties into 10 clusters, and 58japonica rice varieties into 6 clusters. Most significant (P<0.01) correlations existed between TAC and total flavones and anthocyanin contents, and between SFRC and total flavones and anthocyanin contents of black rice, respectively. This showed that the antioxidation of black rice was closely correlated with its active compositions of flavones and anthocyanin.

  4. Fear Appeal in Traffic Safety Advertising: The moderating role of medium context, trait anxiety, and differences between drivers and non-drivers

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The impact was investigated of the intensity of a fear appeal, the valence of the medium context, and the individuals' trait anxiety and personal relevance on the responses of 197 individuals to anti-speeding advertisements. A high level of fear attracts more attention. A negative valence context leads to a more positive anti-speeding attitude. The most important moderating effect of trait anxiety is that the attitude is more positive when low-anxiety individuals are exposed to high fear appe...

  5. Antioxidant Properties of Brazilian Tropical Fruits by Correlation between Different Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gregoris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different assays (the Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH, enzymatic method, and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation based on radically different physicochemical principles and normally used to determine the antioxidant activity of food have been confronted and utilized to investigate the antioxidant activity of fruits originated from Brazil, with particular attention to more exotic and less-studied species (jurubeba, Solanum paniculatum; pequi, Caryocar brasiliense; pitaya, Hylocereus undatus; siriguela, Spondias purpurea; umbu, Spondias tuberosa in order to (i verify the correlations between results obtained by the different assays, with the final purpose to obtain more reliable results avoiding possible measuring-method linked mistakes and (ii individuate the more active fruit species. As expected, the different methods give different responses, depending on the specific assay reaction. Anyhow all results indicate high antioxidant properties for siriguela and jurubeba and poor values for pitaya, umbu, and pequi. Considering that no marked difference of ascorbic acid content has been detected among the different fruits, experimental data suggest that antioxidant activities of the investigated Brazilian fruits are poorly correlated with this molecule, principally depending on their total polyphenolic content.

  6. Antioxidant properties of Brazilian tropical fruits by correlation between different assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoris, Elena; Pereira Lima, Giuseppina Pace; Fabris, Sabrina; Bertelle, Mariangela; Sicari, Michela; Stevanato, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Four different assays (the Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH, enzymatic method, and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation) based on radically different physicochemical principles and normally used to determine the antioxidant activity of food have been confronted and utilized to investigate the antioxidant activity of fruits originated from Brazil, with particular attention to more exotic and less-studied species (jurubeba, Solanum paniculatum; pequi, Caryocar brasiliense; pitaya, Hylocereus undatus; siriguela, Spondias purpurea; umbu, Spondias tuberosa) in order to (i) verify the correlations between results obtained by the different assays, with the final purpose to obtain more reliable results avoiding possible measuring-method linked mistakes and (ii) individuate the more active fruit species. As expected, the different methods give different responses, depending on the specific assay reaction. Anyhow all results indicate high antioxidant properties for siriguela and jurubeba and poor values for pitaya, umbu, and pequi. Considering that no marked difference of ascorbic acid content has been detected among the different fruits, experimental data suggest that antioxidant activities of the investigated Brazilian fruits are poorly correlated with this molecule, principally depending on their total polyphenolic content.

  7. Correlative Study on the Type 2 Diabetes with Disease Pain, Anxiety and Depression%2型糖尿病患者疾病痛苦与焦虑、抑郁的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣霞; 王惠丽

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨2型糖尿病患者疾病痛苦与焦虑、抑郁之间的相关性.方法 应用糖尿病痛苦量表和医院焦虑抑郁量表对180例糖尿病患者进行问卷调查.结果 糖尿病患者疾病痛苦的发生率为65.6%(118/180),其中情感负担和生活规律两个维度的痛苦程度较高;糖尿病人群中焦虑和抑郁的发生率分别为37.8%(68/180)、24.2%(44/180);糖尿病痛苦总分与焦虑、抑郁的发生均呈正相关关系(P<0.05).结论 糖尿病病人情感痛苦程度越重,其焦虑、抑郁症状越明显,护理人员应当采取针对性措施,促进病人生活质量的提高.%Objective To investigate the relationship between the anxiety and depression in the patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods the diabetic patients were investigated by using the diabetic pain scale and the anxiety depression scale of the hospital. Results disease of diabetic patien-ts pain occurrence rate was 65.6% (118/180), the two dimensions of emotional burden and life of the high degree of pain;incidence rate of anxiety and depression in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were 37.8%(68), 24.2%(44/180);diabetes mellitus, general pain and anxiety, depression occurred were positively correlated (P<0.05). Conclusion e emoti-onal pain of diabetic patients is more serious, the anxiety and depression symptoms, the nursi-ng staff should take the targeted measures to promote the improvement of the quality of life of patients.

  8. Factors correlating with significant differences between X-ray structures of myoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashin, Alexander A., E-mail: alexander-rashin@hotmail.com [BioChemComp Inc., 543 Sagamore Avenue, Teaneck, NJ 07666 (United States); Iowa State University, 112 Office and Lab Bldg, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Domagalski, Marcin J. [University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Jordan Hall, Room 4223, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Zimmermann, Michael T. [Iowa State University, 112 Office and Lab Bldg, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Minor, Wladek [University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Jordan Hall, Room 4223, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Chruszcz, Maksymilian [University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Jordan Hall, Room 4223, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); University of South Carolina, 631 Sumter Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Jernigan, Robert L. [Iowa State University, 112 Office and Lab Bldg, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); BioChemComp Inc., 543 Sagamore Avenue, Teaneck, NJ 07666 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Conformational differences between myoglobin structures are studied. Most structural differences in whale myoglobin beyond the uncertainty threshold can be correlated with a few specific structural factors. There are always exceptions and a search for additional factors is needed. The results might have serious implications for biological insights from conformational differences. Validation of general ideas about the origins of conformational differences in proteins is critical in order to arrive at meaningful functional insights. Here, principal component analysis (PCA) and distance difference matrices are used to validate some such ideas about the conformational differences between 291 myoglobin structures from sperm whale, horse and pig. Almost all of the horse and pig structures form compact PCA clusters with only minor coordinate differences and outliers that are easily explained. The 222 whale structures form a few dense clusters with multiple outliers. A few whale outliers with a prominent distortion of the GH loop are very similar to the cluster of horse structures, which all have a similar GH-loop distortion apparently owing to intermolecular crystal lattice hydrogen bonds to the GH loop from residues near the distal histidine His64. The variations of the GH-loop coordinates in the whale structures are likely to be owing to the observed alternative intermolecular crystal lattice bond, with the change to the GH loop distorting bonds correlated with the binding of specific ‘unusual’ ligands. Such an alternative intermolecular bond is not observed in horse myoglobins, obliterating any correlation with the ligands. Intermolecular bonds do not usually cause significant coordinate differences and cannot be validated as their universal cause. Most of the native-like whale myoglobin structure outliers can be correlated with a few specific factors. However, these factors do not always lead to coordinate differences beyond the previously determined uncertainty

  9. Correlation of olfactory dysfunction of different etiologies in MRI and comparison with subjective and objective olfactometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goektas, Oender [Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Berlin, Charite Campus Mitte, Smell and Taste Consultation Service, Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: oender.goektas@charite.de; Fleiner, Franca; Sedlmaier, Benedikt [Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Berlin, Charite Campus Mitte, Smell and Taste Consultation Service, Berlin (Germany); Bauknecht, Christian [Department of Radiology, University of Berlin, Charite Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Background: The clinical diagnosis of olfactory dysfunction of different etiologies has been standardized by the German Working Group of Olfactology and Gustology, but there is no agreement about the most suitable imaging modality for diagnosing this disorder. Material and methods: A total of 24 patients (13 women, 11 men; mean age 52 years) with different types of olfactory dysfunction (anosmia, hyposmia) were examined by objective and subjective olfactometry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the olfactory bulb. Results: There was a positive correlation between objective olfactometry and volumetry of the olfactory bulb but no correlation between subjective olfactometry and MRI. Conclusion: MRI allows an evaluation of the olfactory bulb and appears to be superior to other modalities such as computed tomography (CT). Objective olfactometry remains the gold standard for reliable diagnosis of olfactory dysfunction.

  10. Correlation between TCDD acute toxicity and aryl hydrocarbon receptor structure for different mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonghua; Wang, Qiuying; Wu, Bing; Li, Yi; Lu, Guanghua

    2013-03-01

    The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity has large species differences, and TCDD exerts its toxicity by binding into aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). In this study, we applied bioinformatics approaches to quantitatively analyze the correlation between TCDD acute toxicity and AHRs. Seven mammalian AHRs were chosen as target receptors. Low conserved functional domains of AHRs were identified and quantitatively characterized. Linear regression was applied to determine the relationships of different mammalian AHRs and TCDD LD(50) values. The results indicated that ligand binding domain and glutamine-rich domain of mammalian AHRs showed a low degree of conservation. Based on previous literatures, the number of glutamine residues (NOQ) and binding free energy with TCDD were applied to quantitatively represent the differences of glutamine-rich domain and ligand binding domain, respectively. Then, regression equations between studied mammalian AHR structures and TCDD LD(50) were constructed, and high linear correlation was found (R(2)=0.986). This study indicated that mammalian differences of TCDD acute toxicity might be partly determined by the differences of glutamine-rich domain and ligand binding domain of AHR, which provides a potential insight to analyze the species differences of TCDD toxicity.

  11. Wenchuan Event Detection And Localization Using Waveform Correlation Coupled With Double Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinkard, M.; Heck, S.; Schaff, D. P.; Young, C. J.; Richards, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    The well-studied Wenchuan aftershock sequence triggered by the May 12, 2008, Ms 8.0, mainshock offers an ideal test case for evaluating the effectiveness of using waveform correlation coupled with double difference relocation to detect and locate events in a large aftershock sequence. We use Sandia's SeisCorr detector to process 3 months of data recorded by permanent IRIS and temporary ASCENT stations using templates from events listed in a global catalog to find similar events in the raw data stream. Then we take the detections and relocate them using the double difference method. We explore both the performance that can be expected with using just a small number of stations, and, the benefits of reprocessing a well-studied sequence such as this one using waveform correlation to find even more events. We benchmark our results against previously published results describing relocations of regional catalog data. Before starting this project, we had examples where with just a few stations at far-regional distances, waveform correlation combined with double difference did and impressive job of detection and location events with precision at the few hundred and even tens of meters level.

  12. [Social anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabel-Sarron, Christine

    2010-06-20

    Social anxiety disorders are various, frequent and invalidant. Social phobia is characterized by marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur including, for example, fear of public speaking. In clinical setting, the majority of social phobics report fears of more than one type of social situation. Social phobia tends to develop early in life, with a life time prevalence of 2-4%. Pharmacotherapy and behavioural and cognitive therapy are communly used.

  13. Anxiety and unrealistic optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, C; Ing, M; James, S; Nixon, M; Richardson, S

    1990-04-01

    Substantial evidence suggest that people tend to be unrealistically optimistic that positive events will happen to them and that negative events will not. However, recent research indicates that under certain conditions they may be unrealistically pessimistic. Variations in the levels of optimism and pessimism experienced towards events are generally given cognitive explanations. A relation between optimism and pessimism and anxiety, a variable related to emotion as well as cognition, was investigated in the present study. An inverse correlation was found between how anxious female students in England felt about certain negative events and how unrealistically optimistic they were about the occurrence of those events. It was concluded that the degree of anxiety experienced toward a negative event may affect the level of unrealistic optimism or pessimism toward it.

  14. The Correlation between Sleep Quality and Anxiety on 167 Patients with Migraine%167例偏头痛患者的睡眠质量调查与焦虑抑郁相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏桂枝; 张宗泽

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate migraine patients with sleep quality and anxiety and depression situation, analyze the impact of anxiety and depression on the patient's quality of sleep. Methods:167 cases of migraine patients were treated with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index the scale (PSQI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) investigation, to analysis of the relationship of sleep quality and anxiety and depression on the migraine patients. Results:101 patients had sleep quality problems (60.48%), and the MO type were 89 patients (60.54%), the MA type were 12 patients (60.00%), the sleep quality was no statistical difference significant between the different types of migraine patients (P>0.05). In the group of PSQI>5,the migraine patients with anxiety and depression symptoms was 73%(94/101),while in the group of PSQI≤5 it was 43.94%(29/66), the difference was statistically significant (P0.05)。PSQI>5分的偏头痛患者焦虑抑郁症状发生率为73.%(94/101),PSQI≤5分者焦虑抑郁发生率为43.94%(29/66),两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),HADS≥8分患者的PSQI评分均明显高于HADS<8分者(P<0.05)。Pearson相关性分析结果显示,偏头痛患者的PSQI评分与HADS评分呈显著的正相关(r=0.876,P=0.007)。结论:偏头痛患者普遍具有睡眠质量差的现象,且患者的睡眠质量与焦虑抑郁评分成正相关,临床在治疗偏头痛患者时需考虑患者的焦虑抑郁症状,适当给以药物治疗。

  15. Evaluation of Exam Anxiety Level among Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences Students and its Association with Demographic Characteristics in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Test -anxiety is one of the most common mental health problems among the students that can impair performance and leads to failure of the exam. So, this study aimed to determine the rate of exam-anxiety among Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences' students. Methods: This cross sectional-analytic study was conducted on 510 students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences by convenience sampling method in 2014. In this study, data collection tool was Test-Anxiety questionnaire includes 25 questions. Data were analyzed with the Pearson correlation and t-test using SPSS 16 software. Results: 198 students (38. 8% had mild exam-anxiety, 140 students (27. 5% moderate exam-anxiety and 172 students (33. 7% had severe exam-anxiety. The difference between the mean of anxiety scores was significant at various fields of study (P <0. 05.  Midwifery students experienced more stress in comparison with the students of other fields. There was a significant relationship between exam anxiety level, and the variables of gender, location, age and total grades average of students (P<0/05. There was not a significant relationship between exam anxiety level and marital status, parental occupation, semester entrance and employment of students. Conclusion: Due to the high level of exam anxiety among the different fields of medicine as well as the negative effect of this type of anxiety on academic performance of students, the necessity of the use of psychological services, counseling, identification of causes of anxiety, and planning for decreasing this problem was recommended. Obviously, in this regard, more attention should be paid to the highest-risk groups such as female midwifery students.

  16. Risk of prostate cancer and its correlation with different biochemical parameters in non diabetic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Sharma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been hypothesized that men with long term diabetes have a lower risk of prostate cancer then non-diabetic men. Whether diabetes influences level of biomarkers such as prostate specific antigen (PSA, which is involved in the detection of prostate cancer is, unknown. In view of the aforementioned controversial literature, it was decided to evaluate this relation-ship in non-diabetic men. We evaluated the correlation between fasting glucose, prostate specific antigen and different biochemical lipid profile parameters with serum uric acid and serum creatinine in non-diabetic male between age group 40-61 years. Methods: Association between fasting serum glucose , different lipid parameters, serum uric acid, serum creatinine and prostate specific antigen in 83 non-diabetic males aged 40 to 61years were studied retrospectively. Glucose and lipid parameters and serum creatinine, serum uric acid were measured on fully automated analyser using standard reagent kits. Serum prostate specific antigen was measured by TOSOH-AIA-360, immunoassay method. Results: Correlations between different biochemical parameters were determined. Prostate specific antigen were negatively correlated with HDL (r= -0.22, p= 0.03 in age group 40-61 years. At the same fasting blood sugar were correlated positively(r= 0.34, p= 0.02 with prostate specific antigen in age group 51-60 years , but not in age group 40-50 years. Conclusion: We concluded that serum HDL (high density lipoprotein was negatively associated and FBS (fasting blood sugar was positively associated with risk of prostate cancer. We also suggest that in men of this age group a low HDL level should not be ignored while assessing prostate cancer risk especially if accompanied with an elevated FBS level even in the upper normal range. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 476-481

  17. Chromatographic and computational assessment of lipophilicity using sum of ranking differences and generalized pair-correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrić, Filip; Héberger, Károly

    2015-02-06

    Lipophilicity (logP) represents one of the most studied and most frequently used fundamental physicochemical properties. At present there are several possibilities for its quantitative expression and many of them stems from chromatographic experiments. Numerous attempts have been made to compare different computational methods, chromatographic methods vs. computational approaches, as well as chromatographic methods and direct shake-flask procedure without definite results or these findings are not accepted generally. In the present work numerous chromatographically derived lipophilicity measures in combination with diverse computational methods were ranked and clustered using the novel variable discrimination and ranking approaches based on the sum of ranking differences and the generalized pair correlation method. Available literature logP data measured on HILIC, and classical reversed-phase combining different classes of compounds have been compared with most frequently used multivariate data analysis techniques (principal component and hierarchical cluster analysis) as well as with the conclusions in the original sources. Chromatographic lipophilicity measures obtained under typical reversed-phase conditions outperform the majority of computationally estimated logPs. Oppositely, in the case of HILIC none of the many proposed chromatographic indices overcomes any of the computationally assessed logPs. Only two of them (logkmin and kmin) may be selected as recommended chromatographic lipophilicity measures. Both ranking approaches, sum of ranking differences and generalized pair correlation method, although based on different backgrounds, provides highly similar variable ordering and grouping leading to the same conclusions.

  18. Cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Anu Asnaani, M A; Hinton, Devon E

    2010-12-01

    To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that the prevalence and expression of social anxiety/SAD depends on the particular culture. Asian cultures typically show the lowest rates, whereas Russian and US samples show the highest rates, of SAD. Taijin kyofusho is discussed as a possible culture-specific expression of social anxiety, although the empirical evidence concerning the validity of this syndrome has been mixed. It is concluded that the individual's social concerns need to be examined in the context of the person's cultural, racial, and ethnic background in order to adequately assess the degree and expression of social anxiety and SAD. This has direct relevance for the upcoming DSM-V.

  19. Correlation between reticle- and wafer-CD difference of multiple 28nm reticle-sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Guoxiang; Richter, Frank; Thamm, Thomas; Ackmann, Paul; Staples, Marc; Weisbuch, Francois; Kurth, Karin; Schenker, Joerg; Leschok, Andre; GN, Fang Hong

    2012-11-01

    Reticle critical dimension uniformity (CDU) is an important criterion for the qualification of mask layer processes. Normally, the smaller the three sigma value of reticle CDU is, the better is the reticle CDU performance. For qualification of mask processes, the mask layers to be qualified should have a comparable reticle CDU compared to the process of record (POR) mask layers. Because the reticle critical dimension (CD) measurement is based on algorithms like "middle side lobe measurement", evaluation of the reticle CD-values can not reflect aspects like the sidewall angle of the reticle and variation in corner rounding which may be critical for 45nm technology nodes (and below). All involved tools and processes contribute to the wafer intra-field CDU (scanner, track, reticle, metrology). Normally, the reticle contribution to the wafer CDU should be as small as possible. In order to reduce the process contributions to the wafer intra-field CDU during the mask qualification process, the same toolset (exposure tool, metrology tool) should be applied as for the POR. Out of the results of these investigations the correlation between wafer measurement to target (MTT) and reticle MTT can be obtained in order to accurately qualify the CDU performance of the mask processes. We will demonstrate the correlation between reticle MTT and wafer MTT by use of multiple mask processes and alternative mask blank materials. We will investigate the results of four process-layers looking at advanced binary maskblank material from two different suppliers (moreover the results of a 2X-via layer as an example for a phase-shift maskblank is discussed). Objective of this article is to demonstrate the distribution between reticle MTT and wafer MTT as a qualification criterion for mask processes. The correlation between wafer CD-difference and reticle CD-difference of these mask processes are demonstrated by having performed investigations of dense features of different 28nmtechnology

  20. Perceptions of Blended Learning Competencies and Obstacles among Educational Technology Students in Light of Different Anxiety Levels and Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldalalah, Osamah Ahmad; Gasaymeh, Al-Mothana M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of locus of control and anxiety level on the Jordanian educational technology students' perceived blended learning competencies and obstacles. The independent variables were the locus of control (Internal, External) and anxiety level (Low, Moderate, High). The dependent variables were the…

  1. Language Anxiety among Gifted Learners in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, Mohd Hasrul; Ibrahim, Noraniza; Yunus, Melor Md; Ishak, Noriah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Language anxiety has significantly sparked great concern in the second and foreign language learning world. Researches have found negative correlation between language anxiety and academic achievement of English language learners; and, most of the studies focus on average school students and tertiary level students. This paper, however, explores…

  2. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Van Oort, Floor V. A.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative populatio

  3. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Mathyssek (Christina); T.M. Olino (Thomas); C.A. Hartman; J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representati

  4. Pharmacology of human experimental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, F G; Parente, A; Del-Ben, C M; Guimarães, F S

    2003-04-01

    This review covers the effect of drugs affecting anxiety using four psychological procedures for inducing experimental anxiety applied to healthy volunteers and patients with anxiety disorders. The first is aversive conditioning of the skin conductance responses to tones. The second is simulated public speaking, which consists of speaking in front of a video camera, with anxiety being measured with psychometric scales. The third is the Stroop Color-Word test, in which words naming colors are painted in the same or in a different shade, the incongruence generating a cognitive conflict. The last test is a human version of a thoroughly studied animal model of anxiety, fear-potentiated startle, in which the eye-blink reflex to a loud noise is recorded. The evidence reviewed led to the conclusion that the aversive conditioning and potentiated startle tests are based on classical conditioning of anticipatory anxiety. Their sensitivity to benzodiazepine anxiolytics suggests that these models generate an emotional state related to generalized anxiety disorder. On the other hand, the increase in anxiety determined by simulated public speaking is resistant to benzodiazepines and sensitive to drugs affecting serotonergic neurotransmission. This pharmacological profile, together with epidemiological evidence indicating its widespread prevalence, suggests that the emotional state generated by public speaking represents a species-specific response that may be related to social phobia and panic disorder. Because of scant pharmacological data, the status of the Stroop Color-Word test remains uncertain. In spite of ethical and economic constraints, human experimental anxiety constitutes a valuable tool for the study of the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders.

  5. Pharmacology of human experimental anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Graeff

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the effect of drugs affecting anxiety using four psychological procedures for inducing experimental anxiety applied to healthy volunteers and patients with anxiety disorders. The first is aversive conditioning of the skin conductance responses to tones. The second is simulated public speaking, which consists of speaking in front of a video camera, with anxiety being measured with psychometric scales. The third is the Stroop Color-Word test, in which words naming colors are painted in the same or in a different shade, the incongruence generating a cognitive conflict. The last test is a human version of a thoroughly studied animal model of anxiety, fear-potentiated startle, in which the eye-blink reflex to a loud noise is recorded. The evidence reviewed led to the conclusion that the aversive conditioning and potentiated startle tests are based on classical conditioning of anticipatory anxiety. Their sensitivity to benzodiazepine anxiolytics suggests that these models generate an emotional state related to generalized anxiety disorder. On the other hand, the increase in anxiety determined by simulated public speaking is resistant to benzodiazepines and sensitive to drugs affecting serotonergic neurotransmission. This pharmacological profile, together with epidemiological evidence indicating its widespread prevalence, suggests that the emotional state generated by public speaking represents a species-specific response that may be related to social phobia and panic disorder. Because of scant pharmacological data, the status of the Stroop Color-Word test remains uncertain. In spite of ethical and economic constraints, human experimental anxiety constitutes a valuable tool for the study of the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders.

  6. Identifying Differences in Risk Factors for Depression and Anxiety in Pediatric Chronic Disease: A Matched Cross-Sectional Study of Youth with Lupus/Mixed Connective Tissue Disease and Their Diabetic Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrea; Weiss, Pamela; Morales, Knashawn; Gerdes, Marsha; Rearson, Melissa; Vickery, Michelle; Keren, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Objective Depression and anxiety are associated with poor clinical and psychosocial outcomes in youth with chronic disease. To investigate differences in risk factors for depression and anxiety, like central nervous system (CNS) involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)/mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), we compared SLE/MCTD youth to type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) peers. Study Design We conducted a cross-sectional study of 50 outpatient pairs, ages 8 years and above, matching SLE/MCTD and T1D subjects by sex and age group. We screened for depression, suicidal ideation and anxiety using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 and the Screen for Childhood Anxiety Related Disorders, respectively. We collected parent-reported mental health treatment data. We compared prevalence and treatment rates between SLE/MCTD and T1D subjects, and identified disease-specific risk factors using logistic regression. Results Depression symptoms were present in 23%, suicidal ideation in 15% and anxiety in 27% of participants. Compared to T1D, SLE/MCTD subjects had lower adjusted rates of depression and suicidal ideation, yet poorer rates of mental health treatment (24% vs 53%). Non-white race/ethnicity and longer disease duration were independent risk factors for depression and suicidal ideation. Depression was associated with poor disease control in both groups, and anxiety with insulin pump use in T1D subjects. Conclusion Depression and anxiety are high and undertreated in SLE/MCTD and T1D youth. Focusing on risk factors such as race/ethnicity and disease duration may improve their mental health care. Further study of CNS and other disease-related factors may identify targets for intervention. PMID:26316371

  7. Ancient Anxiety Pathways Influence Drosophila Defense Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Farhan; Aryal, Sameer; Ho, Joses; Stewart, James Charles; Norman, Nurul Ayuni; Tan, Teng Li; Eisaka, Agnese; Claridge-Chang, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Summary Anxiety helps us anticipate and assess potential danger in ambiguous situations [1, 2, 3]; however, the anxiety disorders are the most prevalent class of psychiatric illness [4, 5, 6]. Emotional states are shared between humans and other animals [7], as observed by behavioral manifestations [8], physiological responses [9], and gene conservation [10]. Anxiety research makes wide use of three rodent behavioral assays—elevated plus maze, open field, and light/dark box—that present a choice between sheltered and exposed regions [11]. Exposure avoidance in anxiety-related defense behaviors was confirmed to be a correlate of rodent anxiety by treatment with known anxiety-altering agents [12, 13, 14] and is now used to characterize anxiety systems. Modeling anxiety with a small neurogenetic animal would further aid the elucidation of its neuronal and molecular bases. Drosophila neurogenetics research has elucidated the mechanisms of fundamental behaviors and implicated genes that are often orthologous across species. In an enclosed arena, flies stay close to the walls during spontaneous locomotion [15, 16], a behavior proposed to be related to anxiety [17]. We tested this hypothesis with manipulations of the GABA receptor, serotonin signaling, and stress. The effects of these interventions were strikingly concordant with rodent anxiety, verifying that these behaviors report on an anxiety-like state. Application of this method was able to identify several new fly anxiety genes. The presence of conserved neurogenetic pathways in the insect brain identifies Drosophila as an attractive genetic model for the study of anxiety and anxiety-related disorders, complementing existing rodent systems. PMID:27020741

  8. Impact of nonlocal correlations over different energy scales: A dynamical vertex approximation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohringer, G.; Toschi, A.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate how nonlocal correlations affect, selectively, the physics of correlated electrons over different energy scales, from the Fermi level to the band edges. This goal is achieved by applying a diagrammatic extension of dynamical mean field theory (DMFT), the dynamical vertex approximation (D Γ A ), to study several spectral and thermodynamic properties of the unfrustrated Hubbard model in two and three dimensions. Specifically, we focus first on the low-energy regime by computing the electronic scattering rate and the quasiparticle mass renormalization for decreasing temperatures at a fixed interaction strength. This way, we obtain a precise characterization of the several steps through which the Fermi-liquid physics is progressively destroyed by nonlocal correlations. Our study is then extended to a broader energy range, by analyzing the temperature behavior of the kinetic and potential energy, as well as of the corresponding energy distribution functions. Our findings allow us to identify a smooth but definite evolution of the nature of nonlocal correlations by increasing interaction: They either increase or decrease the kinetic energy w.r.t. DMFT depending on the interaction strength being weak or strong, respectively. This reflects the corresponding evolution of the ground state from a nesting-driven (Slater) to a superexchange-driven (Heisenberg) antiferromagnet (AF), whose fingerprints are, thus, recognizable in the spatial correlations of the paramagnetic phase. Finally, a critical analysis of our numerical results of the potential energy at the largest interaction allows us to identify possible procedures to improve the ladder-based algorithms adopted in the dynamical vertex approximation.

  9. Exercise affects memory acquisition, anxiety-like symptoms and activity of membrane-bound enzyme in brain of rats fed with different dietary fats: impairments of trans fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A M; Pase, C S; Boufleur, N; Roversi, K; Barcelos, R C S; Benvegnú, D M; Segat, H J; Dias, V T; Reckziegel, P; Trevizol, F; Dolci, G S; Carvalho, N R; Soares, F A A; Rocha, J B T; Emanuelli, T; Bürger, M E

    2011-11-10

    Here we evaluated the influence of physical exercise on behavior parameters and enzymatic status of rats supplemented with different dietary fatty acids (FA). Male Wistar rats fed diets enriched with soybean oil (SO), lard (L), or hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) for 48 weeks were submitted to swimming (30 min/d, five times per week) for 90 days. Dietary FA per se did not cause anxiety-like symptoms in the animals, but after physical exercise, SO group showed a better behavioral performance than L and the HVF groups in elevated plus maze (EPM). In Barnes maze, HVF group showed impaired memory acquisition as compared to L group, and exercise reversed this effect. SO-fed rats showed an improvement in memory acquisition after 1 day of training, whereas lard caused an improvement of memory only from day 4. HVF-fed rats showed no improvement of memory acquisition, but this effect was reversed by exercise in all training days. A lower activity of the Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in brain cortex of rats fed lard and HVF was observed, and this effect was maintained after exercise. Similarly, the HVF diet was related to lower activity of hippocampal Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, and exercise reduced activity of this enzyme in the SO and L groups. Our findings show influences of dietary FA on memory acquisition, whereas regular exercise improved this function and was beneficial on anxiety-like symptoms. As FA are present in neuronal membrane phospholipids and play a critical role in brain function, our results suggest that low incorporation of trans FA in neuronal membranes may act on cortical and hippocampal Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, but this change appears to be unrelated to the behavioral parameters primarily harmed by consumption of trans and less so by saturated FA, which were reversed by exercise.

  10. 住院患儿家属感知的护士支持与焦虑的相关性研究%Study on the correlation of parents' perception of nursing support and anxiety during their children 's hospitalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨园园; 刘惠丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate parents'perception of nursing support during their children's hospitalization and analyze the relationship with anxiety. Methods Ninty - eight parents of hospitalized children were investigated by the Nurse - Parent Support Tool ( NPST) and the Self - Rating Anxiety Scale ( SAS). Result The average score of NPST was (3. 24 ± 0. 49) , and 63. 27% of the parents showed anxiety. The parents'perception of nursing support were different with different age, the level of disease understanding, family economic burden (P<0.01 or P<0.05). The negatively related was between parents'anxiety and perception of nursing support (P < 0.05). Conclusion The general nursing support perceived by parents is generally good. Parents who are older, less understanding of disease, heavy economic burden or with high level of anxiety should be paid more attention.%目的 调查住院患儿家属感知的护士支持的程度,并探讨其与焦虑的相关性.方法 应用护士对患儿家属的支持量表及焦虑自评量表,对98名住院患儿家属进行问卷调查.结果 住院患儿家属感知的护士支持总分为(3.24±0.49)分.63.27%家属存在焦虑,不同年龄、疾病了解程度和经济负担的家属对护士支持的感知不同(P<0.01或P<0.05).家属的焦虑状况与其感知的护士支持呈负相关(P<0.05).结论 住院患儿家属感知的护士支持总体较好,护士应给予年龄大、对疾病了解少、经济负担重及焦虑程度高的患儿家属更多的支持与关注.

  11. Resolution of ghost imaging with entangled photons for different types of momentum correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, MaLin; Xu, Ping; Lu, LiangLiang; Zhu, ShiNing

    2016-07-01

    We present an analytical analysis of the spatial resolution of quantum ghost imaging implemented by entangled photons from a general, spontaneously parametric, down-conversion process. We find that the resolution is affected by both the pump beam waist and the nonlinear crystal length. Hence, we determined a method to improve the resolution for a certain imaging setup. It should be noted that the resolution is not uniquely related to the degree of entanglement of the photon pair since the resolution can be optimized for a certain degree of entanglement. For certain types of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) states——namely the momentum-correlated or momentum-positively correlated states——the resolution exhibits a simpler relationship with the pump beam waist and crystal length. Further, a vivid numerical simulation of ghost imaging is presented for different types of EPR states, which supports our analysis. This work discusses applicable references to the applications of quantum ghost imaging.

  12. Correlations between Different Heavy Metals in Diverse Body Fluids: Studies of Human Semen Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that exposure to heavy metals may impair male reproduction. To measure the effect produced by low doses of heavy metals on semen parameters, it is necessary to clarify in which body fluids those measurements must be performed. Sixty-one men attending infertility clinics participated in our study. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, and mercury were measured in whole blood, blood plasma, and seminal plasma using spectroanalytical and electrochemical methods. Semen analyses were performed according to World Health Organization criteria. For statistical analysis, Spearman's rank correlations, mean comparison tests, and discriminant analysis were calculated. Significant correlations between the measured concentrations of the three heavy metals in the same biological fluids were observed. However, no similar relationship was seen when comparing the concentrations in different body fluids of the same metal. According to our results and previous publications, seminal plasma might be the best body fluid for assessing impairment of human semen parameters.

  13. Correlation of anxiety and personality traits in military driver%汽车兵焦虑情绪现状及其与人格特征的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈世琴; 耿文秀; 肖凯; 张婵

    2011-01-01

    Objective To survey the anxiety status and its correlation with personality traits of military driver. Methods Self-rating anxiety sale (SAS), trait anxiety inventory (TAI) and Eysenck's personality questionnaire-R short Scale (EPQ-RSC) were used to survey 441 military drivers, all male, at a mean age of 22.86 ± 3.18 (ranging from 17 to 35 ) . Results The mean standard score of SAS and TAI were 43.30 ± 9. 35 and 43.12 ± 7.95 respectively. Both of the mean standard score of SAS and TAI were significantly higher than the norm. The driver with a driving history of 5 to 6 years got the highest score of SAS and significantly higher than those with a history of 1 to 2 years, 2 to 3 years, 3 to 4 years, and over 10 years (P < 0. 05 ). The SAS score of drivers within 1 year driving history ranked the second, with significantly higher than the scores of the the driver with a history of 2 to 3 years and those with 3 to 4 years ( P < 0. 05). What' s more, the drivers within 1 year driving had the lowest score of TAI, significantly lower than that of those with 1 to 2 years' history ( P < 0. 05 ). Both the score of SAS and TAI were positively correlated with the scores of psychoticism and neu roticism. The score of TAI was negatively correlated with the score of extroversion-introversion. Conclusion The military drivers are suffered from state and trait anxiety at certain degrees. Their state and trait anxiety are both positively correlated with psychoticism and neuroticism. The correlation between trait anxiety and neuroti cism is of most significance.%目的 研究汽车兵焦虑现状及其与人格特征的相关性.方法 采用Zung编制的焦虑自评量表(self-ratin anxiety scale,SAS)、Spielberger编制的特质焦虑问卷(trait anxiety inventory,TAI)和艾森克人格问卷简式量表中国版(Eysenck's personality questionnaire-R short scale,EPQ-RSC)对441名汽车兵进行团体测评.结果 汽车兵SAS得分(标准分)均值为(43.30±9.35),TAI

  14. Different results on tetrachorical correlations in Mplus and Stata--Stata announces modified procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Agnes; Höfler, Michael

    2006-01-01

    To identify the structure of mental disorders in large-scale epidemiological data sets, investigators frequently use tetrachoric correlations as a first step for subsequent application of latent class and factor analytic methods. It has been possible to do this with Stata since 2005, whereas the corresponding Mplus routine has been on the market for some years. Using an identical data set we observed considerable differences between the results of the packages. This paper illustrates the differences with several examples from the Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology Study data set, which consists of 3021 subjects, with diagnostic information assessed by the CIDI. Results reveal that tetrachoric correlations resulting from Mplus were often considerably smaller than those computed with Stata. The results were dramatically different, especially where there were few observation per cell or even empty cells. These findings were put to Mplus and Stata, whose responses clarified the discrepancies by describing the different mathematical assumptions and procedures used. Stata announced that it intended to launch a modified procedure.

  15. Dechlorane Plus in paired hair and serum samples from e-waste workers: correlation and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kehui; Zheng, Jing; Yan, Xiao; Yu, Lehuan; Luo, Xiaojun; Peng, Xiaowu; Yu, Yunjiang; Yang, Zhongyi; Mai, Bixian

    2015-03-01

    Dechlorane Plus (DP) and a dechlorinated product of DP were measured in 34 matched human hair and serum samples (19 males and 15 females) collected from e-waste recycling workers in South China. The DP (sum of syn- and anti-DP) concentrations in hair and serum samples ranged from 6.3 to 1100 ng g(-1) dry weight and from 22 to 1400 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw). The levels of anti-Cl11-DP ranged from 0.02 to 1.8 ng g(-1) in hair and from not detected to 7.9 ng g(-1) lw in serum. Significant positive correlations for both DP and anti-Cl11-DP concentrations between hair and serum samples were found (phair to be a suitable matrix for human DP exposure. However, a significant difference was found in the DP isomer composition between hair and serum, suggesting stereoselective bioaccumulation during the absorption of DP into hair. A sharp gender difference was found in the levels of DP in hair. Moreover, syn-DP, anti-DP and anti-Cl11-DP in hair significantly correlated with those in serum for male samples, but not for female samples. The observed gender differences in the present study may be, in part, ascribed to the much longer hair exposure time for females than males due to the difference in sampling distance from the scalp.

  16. Sex-Dependent Individual Differences and the Correlational Relationship Between Proprioceptive and Verbal Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liutsko Liudmila

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between proprioceptive and verbal tests on personality in both sexes separately due to existing proprioceptive differences in fine motor behavior between men and women in our previous studies [1, 2, 3]. Material and methods. 114 middle-aged participants from Belarus completed verbal tests (personality: Eysenck's EPQ, Big Five in Hromov's Russian adaptation, and Rosenberg's Self-esteem together with Proprioceptive Diagnostics of Temperament and Character (by Tous. Complementary information, such as tests of time perception, was collected and used in correlative and ANOVA analyses with the use of SPSS v.19. Results. The relationship between proprioceptive variables in personality and individual differences, time perception and the results of verbal tests were determined for each sex subgroup and discussed. ANOVA results reflected the corresponding differences and similarities between men and women in the variables of each test. Time perception was found to be significantly correlated to all five dimensions of the Big Five Test in both sexes, and both had a significant relationship to the same variables of the DP-TC test. Conclusions. Time perception can be used as an indirect indicator of personality. Existing individual and personality differences should be taken into account in coaching and education to obtain more effective results.

  17. Mathematics achievement and anxiety and their relation to internalizing and externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sarah S; Willcutt, Erik G; Escovar, Emily; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Although behavioral difficulties are well documented in reading disabilities, little is known about the relationship between math ability and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Here, we use standardized measures to investigate the relation among early math ability, math anxiety, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a group of 366 second and third graders. Math achievement was significantly correlated with attentional difficulties and social problems but not with internalizing symptoms. The relation between math achievement and externalizing behavioral problems was stronger in girls than in boys. Math achievement was not correlated with trait anxiety but was negatively correlated with math anxiety. Critically, math anxiety differed significantly between children classified as math learning disabled (MLD), low achieving (LA), and typically developing (TD), with math anxiety significantly higher in the MLD and LA groups compared to the TD group. Our findings suggest that, even in nonclinical samples, math difficulties at the earliest stages of formal math learning are associated with attentional difficulties and domain-specific anxiety. These findings underscore the need for further examination of the shared cognitive, neural, and genetic influences underlying problem solving and nonverbal learning difficulties and accompanying internalizing and externalizing behaviors.

  18. The Relationships between Social Class, Listening Test Anxiety and Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Talebi Rezaabadi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the social anxiety, social class and listening-test anxiety of students learning English as a foreign language. The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between listening-test anxiety and listening-test performance. The data were collected using an adapted Foreign Language Listening Anxiety Scale and a newly developed Foreign Language Social Anxiety Scale. The potential correlation between social anxiety and listening-test perfor...

  19. Soil structure modeling with different correlation functions: current results and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsanina, M.; Gerke, K.; Vasilyev, R.; Skvortsova, E.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main factors defining numerous flow phenomena in soils and other porous media, including fluid and solute movements, is pore structure, e.g., pore volume and its connectivity. In recent decades different numerical methods were developed to quantify single and multi-phase flow in such media on microscale. Among most popular ones are: 1) a wide range of finite difference/element/volume solutions of Navier-Stokes equations and its simplifications; 2) lattice-Boltzmann method; 3) pore-network models. Each method has some advantages and weak sides, so that different research teams usually utilize more than one, depending on the study case. Recent progress in X-ray tomography and some other techniques allows precise determination of soil three-dimensional structure, however, a trade-off between resolution and sample size is usually unavoidable. There are situations then only standard two-dimensional information of porous structure is known due to tomography high cost or resolution limitations. But physical modeling on microscale, there most interfacial processes take place requires 3D information. There are three main approaches to reconstruct (using 2D cut(s) or some other limited information/properties) porous media: 1) statistical methods (correlation functions and simulated annealing, multi-point statistics, entropy methods), 2) sequential methods (sphere or other granular packs) and 3) morphological methods. Multi-point statistical method is believed to excel others due to its simplicity with respect to practical applications and better results (in particular pore space connectivity and anisotropy issues). Recently it was shown that cluster function implication significantly improve reconstruction quality, especially in comparison with original Yeong-Torquato technique based on two-point probability and linear functions. Another possible reason for these correlation functions poorer performance is computer power limitations of that time, e.g., high energy

  20. Second-language listening anxiety before and after a 1-yr. intervention in extensive listening compared with standard foreign language instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anna Ching-Shyang

    2010-04-01

    Many studies have shown that language anxiety is correlated negatively with language competence. This study tests the hypothesis that second language learners' listening anxiety might be reduced when listening skills improve. Building on previous research showing that extensive reading is as effective and efficient as formal instruction in acquiring English as a foreign language and is even more effective with longer treatment duration, changes in listening anxiety were explored under two different instructional approaches-extensive listening and formal instruction-over a 1-yr. period in a sample of 92 Chinese college students. Listening anxiety and listening comprehension tests were administered to the participants before and after the experiment. Analysis showed that the Extensive Listening group improved more compared to the Formal Instruction group in listening competence, but their mean anxiety score also rose significantly. Factors contributing to the unexpected outcome indicate that the increase in anxiety should be considered facilitative to learning.

  1. Agreement and discrepancy between mother and child in the evaluation of children's anxiety symptoms and anxiety life interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Isabel; Muris, Peter; Barros, Luisa; Goes, Rita; Marques, Teresa; Russo, Vanessa

    2015-03-01

    This study explored the agreement and discrepancy between mother and child reports of children's anxiety symptoms and anxiety life interference. A large community sample of 1,065 Portuguese children aged between 7 and 14 years and their mothers completed a DSM-based anxiety symptoms scale. For a subsample of 135 children with an anxiety disorder, additional data on children's anxiety life interference and maternal anxiety and depression symptoms were collected. The results showed that children generally reported higher levels of anxiety symptoms than their mothers. Overall, most correlations between mother and child reports of anxiety symptoms were significant but in the low to moderate range, with the strongest associations for symptoms of specific phobias and school phobia. In the subsample of children with an anxiety disorder, mothers reported higher levels of anxiety life interference than children, and the correlation between mother and child reports of anxiety life interference was significant but again modest in magnitude. Lastly, maternal anxiety was positively associated with the discrepancy between mother and child reports of anxiety symptoms. Together, the results of this study further underline the importance of a multi-informant approach in the evaluation of children's anxiety problems.

  2. Investigation and Analysis on Test Anxiety of College Students in Different Grades%不同年级大学生考试焦虑状况调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉素真

    2011-01-01

    考试焦虑是影响大学生心理健康的重要因素之一。本研究采用Sarason考试焦虑量表(TAS)对浙江海洋学院大学生考试焦虑状况进行调查。研究结果表明:大一和大四年级学生具有较高程度的考试焦虑,女生的考试焦虑程度普遍较男生高。本文分析了不同年级大学生考试焦虑的原因,旨在为大学生考试焦虑心理健康干预提供帮助。%Test anxiety is an important factor which affects the mental health of college students.According to the Sarason text anxiety scale (TAS),an investigation on college students of Zhejiang Ocean University had been carried out.The result indicates that the freshman and senior have high degree test anxiety and the female students have higher degree test anxiety than male students.In this paper,the author discusses the causes of test anxiety of different grades college students to provide the reference for intervention of mental health problem.

  3. DSM-IV-defined anxiety disorder symptoms in a middle-childhood-aged group of Malaysian children using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Ahmadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pediatric anxiety disorders are the most common mental health disorders in the middle-childhood age group. The purpose of this study is to assess anxiety disorder symptoms, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV, in a large community sample of low socioeconomic level rural children and to investigate some of the psychometric properties (internal consistency, construct and convergent validity and items rated as often or always experienced of the Malay version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale - Child version (SCAS-C. Method Six hundred children aged 9-11 and 424 of their parents completely answered the child or parent versions of the SCAS. Results Results indicated that the internal reliability of subscales were moderate to adequate. Significant correlations between child and parent reports supported the measure's concurrent validity. Additionally, anxiety levels in this Malaysian sample were lower than among South-African children and higher than among their Western peers. There were both similarities and differences between symptom items reported as often or always experienced by Malaysian students and by children from other cultures. Confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence of the existence of five inter-correlated factors for anxiety disorders based on SCAS-C. Conclusion Although some of the instrument's psychometric properties deviated from those observed in some other countries, it nevertheless appears to be useful for assessing childhood anxiety symptoms in this country.

  4. Dental students' perception of patient anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, J; Tripp, G

    1993-04-01

    This study examined the ability of dental students to assess patients' anxiety during dental treatment, and the relationship between patients' general, waiting room and clinic levels of anxiety. Sixty-six restorative dental patients and 35 Final-year dental students participated in the study. Prior to a routine dental appointment, patients completed visual analogue scales indicating their general and waiting room levels of anxiety. During treatment, patients and dental students completed similar scales to indicate patients' levels of anxiety up to and at that time. Patients' general and waiting room levels of anxiety were found to correlate significantly with their reports of anxiety during treatment. Female patients reported higher levels of anxiety than male patients. The correlations between patient and student ratings of patients' anxiety were small and non-significant, suggesting the students were not accurate in their estimates of patients' anxiety during treatment. It is suggested, therefore, that dental students be encouraged to ask patients directly how they are feeling about the dental situation. Such discussion could take place prior to, or at the beginning of, the dental appointment.

  5. Association between quality of life and anxiety, depression, physical activity and physical performance in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Nan Li; Bryan Shapiro; Jun Chul Kim; Min Zhang; Janos Porszasz; Rachelle Bross; Usama Feroze

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients often have impaired quality of life (QOL), anxiety, depression, and reduced daily physical activity (DPA) and physical performance. The contributions of these latter factors to reduced QOL in MHD are poorly understood. We examined the association of QOL with anxiety, depression, DPA, and physical performance.Methods: Seventy-two relatively healthy adult MHD patients, vintage≥6 months, and 39 normals of similar age range and gender distribution were studied. QOL was assessed using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF). Anxiety and depression were each evaluated with two questionnaires. DPA and physical performance were assessed with a physical activity monitor, Human Activity Profile, and 6-minute walk, sit-to-stand, and stair-climbing tests. Results: Most KDQOL components were reduced in MHD patients versus normals. KDQOL components in patients were commonly inversely correlated with measures of anxiety and depression (P<0.05) and were more reduced in patients with both anxiety and depression. KDQOL was often impaired in patients with either anxiety or depression. However, most KDQOL scores did not differ between patients and normals without anxiety or depression. DPA, Human Activity Profile, and physical per-formance often correlated with KDQOL scores in adjusted models, but after further adjustment for anxiety and depression, DPA, Human Activity Profile, and physical performance correlated less frequently with KDQOL scores. This reduction in significant correlations after adjustment for anxiety and depression was particularly pronounced for the association between KDQOL and DPA. Conclusion: In relatively healthy MHD patients, KDQOL scores are usually decreased in those with anxiety and/or depression but are usually normal in those without anxiety or depression. Lower DPA in MHD patients with reduced KDQOL scores often appears to be associated with anxiety and depression. The relationship

  6. Individual differences in non-verbal number acuity correlate with maths achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberda, Justin; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Feigenson, Lisa

    2008-10-02

    Human mathematical competence emerges from two representational systems. Competence in some domains of mathematics, such as calculus, relies on symbolic representations that are unique to humans who have undergone explicit teaching. More basic numerical intuitions are supported by an evolutionarily ancient approximate number system that is shared by adults, infants and non-human animals-these groups can all represent the approximate number of items in visual or auditory arrays without verbally counting, and use this capacity to guide everyday behaviour such as foraging. Despite the widespread nature of the approximate number system both across species and across development, it is not known whether some individuals have a more precise non-verbal 'number sense' than others. Furthermore, the extent to which this system interfaces with the formal, symbolic maths abilities that humans acquire by explicit instruction remains unknown. Here we show that there are large individual differences in the non-verbal approximation abilities of 14-year-old children, and that these individual differences in the present correlate with children's past scores on standardized maths achievement tests, extending all the way back to kindergarten. Moreover, this correlation remains significant when controlling for individual differences in other cognitive and performance factors. Our results show that individual differences in achievement in school mathematics are related to individual differences in the acuity of an evolutionarily ancient, unlearned approximate number sense. Further research will determine whether early differences in number sense acuity affect later maths learning, whether maths education enhances number sense acuity, and the extent to which tertiary factors can affect both.

  7. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Separation Anxiety KidsHealth > For Parents > Separation Anxiety A A A ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  8. Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anxiety, anxiety disorders, anxious, behavior therapy, GAD, generalized anxiety disorder, mental health neuroses, mood disorders, psychiatric disorder, psychotherapy Family Health, Men, Seniors, Women January 1996 Copyright © American Academy of Family PhysiciansThis ...

  9. Correlation study on the influence of parental rearing styles on nursing students' anxiety and depression%父母教养方式与护生焦虑、抑郁情绪的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静平; 郭玉芳; 张娜; 叶曼

    2013-01-01

    ' incidence rate of anxiety and depression were respectively 22.42% and 53.56%.Nursing students' anxiety was negatively correlated with their parents' care,equal communication,respect and understanding,praise and encouragement,free development (r =-0.074,-0.124,-0.121,-0.129,-0.084,-0.063,respectively; P < 0.05),but positively correlated with parents'expectation,strict management and strict teaching (r =0.115,0.115,respectively; P < 0.01).Depression was negatively correlated with mothers' care,equal communication,respect and understanding,praise and encouragement,free development (r =-0.095,-0.118,-0.124,-0.087,-0.075,respectively ; P < 0.05),but positively correlated with strict management and strict teaching (r =0.109; P < 0.01).Respect and understanding,parents' expectations,mothers' care,strict management and strict teaching have the regression relationship with anxiety(t =-2.363,3.574,-3.595,2.867,respectively; P < 0.05),and equal communication,respect and understanding,strict management and strict teaching have the regression relationship with depression (t =-2.180,-2.506,2.604,respectively;P<0.05).Conclusions Nursing students have serious psychological problems and their incidence rates of anxiety and depression were high.Parents have influence on their anxiety and depression,thus effective measures should be taken to improve nursing students' emotional experience.

  10. Studying the correlation between different word sense disambiguation methods and summarization effectiveness in biomedical texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Alberto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Word sense disambiguation (WSD attempts to solve lexical ambiguities by identifying the correct meaning of a word based on its context. WSD has been demonstrated to be an important step in knowledge-based approaches to automatic summarization. However, the correlation between the accuracy of the WSD methods and the summarization performance has never been studied. Results We present three existing knowledge-based WSD approaches and a graph-based summarizer. Both the WSD approaches and the summarizer employ the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS Metathesaurus as the knowledge source. We first evaluate WSD directly, by comparing the prediction of the WSD methods to two reference sets: the NLM WSD dataset and the MSH WSD collection. We next apply the different WSD methods as part of the summarizer, to map documents onto concepts in the UMLS Metathesaurus, and evaluate the summaries that are generated. The results obtained by the different methods in both evaluations are studied and compared. Conclusions It has been found that the use of WSD techniques has a positive impact on the results of our graph-based summarizer, and that, when both the WSD and summarization tasks are assessed over large and homogeneous evaluation collections, there exists a correlation between the overall results of the WSD and summarization tasks. Furthermore, the best WSD algorithm in the first task tends to be also the best one in the second. However, we also found that the improvement achieved by the summarizer is not directly correlated with the WSD performance. The most likely reason is that the errors in disambiguation are not equally important but depend on the relative salience of the different concepts in the document to be summarized.

  11. Different correlation patterns of cholinergic and GABAergic interneurons with striatal projection neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avital eAdler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is populated by a single projection neuron group, the medium spiny neurons (MSNs, and several groups of interneurons. Two of the electrophysiologically well-characterized striatal interneuron groups are the tonically active neurons (TANs, which are presumably cholinergic interneurons, and the fast spiking interneurons (FSIs, presumably parvalbumin (PV expressing GABAergic interneurons. To better understand striatal processing it is thus crucial to define the functional relationship between MSNs and these interneurons in the awake and behaving animal. We used multiple electrodes and standard physiological methods to simultaneously record MSN spiking activity and the activity of TANs or FSIs from monkeys engaged in a classical conditioning paradigm. All three cell populations were highly responsive to the behavioral task. However, they displayed different average response profiles and a different degree of response synchronization (signal correlation. TANs displayed the most transient and synchronized response, MSNs the most diverse and sustained response and FSIs were in between on both parameters. We did not find evidence for direct monosynaptic connectivity between the MSNs and either the TANs or the FSIs. However, while the cross correlation histograms of TAN to MSN pairs were flat, those of FSI to MSN displayed positive asymmetrical broad peaks. The FSI-MSN correlogram profile implies that the spikes of MSNs follow those of FSIs and both are driven by a common, most likely cortical, input. Thus, the two populations of striatal interneurons are probably driven by different afferents and play complementary functional roles in the physiology of the striatal microcircuit.

  12. Television Time among Brazilian Adolescents: Correlated Factors are Different between Boys and Girls

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    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of excess television time and verify correlated factors in adolescent males and females. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 2,105 adolescents aged from 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. Television time was self-reported, corresponding to the time spent watching television in a typical week. Several correlates were examined including age, skin color, socioeconomic status, parent education, physical activity level, consumption of fruits and vegetables, smoking status, alcohol use, and sports team participation. Results. The prevalence excess television time (≥2 hours/day in girls and boys was 70.9% and 66.2%, respectively. Girls with low socioeconomic status or inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables were more likely to have excess television time. Among boys, those >16 years of age or with black skin color were more likely to have excess television time. Conclusions. Excess television time was observed in more than two-thirds of adolescents, being more evident in girls. Correlated factors differed according to sex. Efforts to reduce television time among Brazilian adolescents, and replace with more active pursuits, may yield desirable public health benefits.

  13. The brain structure correlates of individual differences in trait mindfulness: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H; Song, Y; Xu, M; Wang, X; Li, X; Liu, J

    2014-07-11

    Mindfulness is the state of being attentive to and aware of what is taking place in the present, which is beneficial for reducing stress-related symptoms and improving mental and physical health. Previous studies have demonstrated that meditation practice can improve individuals' mindfulness through modifying functions and structures of multiple brain regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, fronto-limbic network, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and temporal-parietal junction. However, little is known about the neuroanatomical correlates of trait mindfulness. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the neural correlates of individual differences in trait mindfulness by correlating the gray matter (GM) volume of each voxel across the whole brain with trait mindfulness measured by the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale in a large sample of young adults (N=247). We found that individuals who were more mindful of the present had greater GM volume in the right hippocampus/amygdala and bilateral ACC, but less GM volume in bilateral PCC and the left orbitofrontal cortex. These results suggest that trait mindfulness is associated with brain regions involved in executive attention, emotion regulation, and self-referential processing, through which mindfulness may exert its beneficial effects on psychological and physical well-being.

  14. Study of the Hall effect in two different strongly correlated fermion systems

    OpenAIRE

    León Surós, Gladys E.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the Hall effect in two different theoretical models of strongly correlated systems: a system made of weakly coupled Luttinger liquids, in the presence of umklapp scattering, and the 2D triangular lattice, with nearest-neighbor hopping and a local Hubbard interaction. In the first model we use a memory function approach to compute the Hall coefficient as a function of temperature and frequency in the presence of umklapp scattering. We find a power-law correction to the free-ferm...

  15. Correlation between Different Patterns of Hypo-Osmotic Swelling and Sperm Functional Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Bassiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sperm membrane integrity is not only important as a barrier between intraandextra-cellular spaces, but also it can be considered as a sign of DNA integrity. Hypoosmoticswelling test reflects membrane integrity and has been used to evaluate spermquality. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI in adjunct with hypo-osmotic swellingtest (HOST has been used for treatment of males with asthenozoospermia. Therefore,this study aims to evaluate correlation of different pattern of HOST with sperm parameters,protamine deficiency and apoptosis.Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, sixteen semen samples were randomlycollected from infertile normozospermic men. Semen samples were divided intotwo portions as follows: one portion was assessed for sperm parameters according toWorldHealth Organization (WHO-2010, while the other portion, after applying HOSTprocedure, was used for assessment of sperm morphology, protamine deficiency and lateor early apoptosis. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package forthe Social Studies (SPSS 11.5.Results: Our results showed that, the lowest odds ratio (OR of abnormal sperm headmorphology and abnormal acrosome was in d-sperm as compared to a-pattern or nonviablespermatozoa (p=0.00, p=0.01. In addition, a significant correlation was observedbetween d-sperm with sperm concentration and percentage of DNA damage (p=0.03and p=0.04, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between percentageof sperm motility and DNA fragmentation (r=-0.56; p=0.01. Furthermore, significantcorrelations were observed between percentages of early apoptotic sperm with protaminedeficiency and sperm concentration (p=0.009 and p=0.01, respectively.Conclusion: Significant correlations exist between d-pattern and sperm DNA integrity.Semen samples with low sperm concentration have low percentage of d-sperm which aremature and intact sperms.

  16. Correlation of diffusion and metabolic alterations in different clinical forms of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannoun, Salem; Bagory, Matthieu; Durand-Dubief, Francoise; Ibarrola, Danielle; Comte, Jean-Christophe; Confavreux, Christian; Cotton, Francois; Sappey-Marinier, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) provide greater sensitivity than conventional MRI to detect diffuse alterations in normal appearing white matter (NAWM) of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients with different clinical forms. Therefore, the goal of this study is to combine DTI and MRSI measurements to analyze the relation between diffusion and metabolic markers, T2-weighted lesion load (T2-LL) and the patients clinical status. The sensitivity and specificity of both methods were then compared in terms of MS clinical forms differentiation. MR examination was performed on 71 MS patients (27 relapsing remitting (RR), 26 secondary progressive (SP) and 18 primary progressive (PP)) and 24 control subjects. DTI and MRSI measurements were obtained from two identical regions of interest selected in left and right centrum semioval (CSO) WM. DTI metrics and metabolic contents were significantly altered in MS patients with the exception of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and NAA/Choline (Cho) ratio in RR patients. Significant correlations were observed between diffusion and metabolic measures to various degrees in every MS patients group. Most DTI metrics were significantly correlated with the T2-LL while only NAA/Cr ratio was correlated in RR patients. A comparison analysis of MR methods efficiency demonstrated a better sensitivity/specificity of DTI over MRSI. Nevertheless, NAA/Cr ratio could distinguish all MS and SP patients groups from controls, while NAA/Cho ratio differentiated PP patients from controls. This study demonstrated that diffusivity changes related to microstructural alterations were correlated with metabolic changes and provided a better sensitivity to detect early changes, particularly in RR patients who are more subject to inflammatory processes. In contrast, the better specificity of metabolic ratios to detect axonal damage and demyelination may provide a better index for identification of PP patients.

  17. Correlation of diffusion and metabolic alterations in different clinical forms of multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Hannoun

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI provide greater sensitivity than conventional MRI to detect diffuse alterations in normal appearing white matter (NAWM of Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients with different clinical forms. Therefore, the goal of this study is to combine DTI and MRSI measurements to analyze the relation between diffusion and metabolic markers, T2-weighted lesion load (T2-LL and the patients clinical status. The sensitivity and specificity of both methods were then compared in terms of MS clinical forms differentiation. MR examination was performed on 71 MS patients (27 relapsing remitting (RR, 26 secondary progressive (SP and 18 primary progressive (PP and 24 control subjects. DTI and MRSI measurements were obtained from two identical regions of interest selected in left and right centrum semioval (CSO WM. DTI metrics and metabolic contents were significantly altered in MS patients with the exception of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA and NAA/Choline (Cho ratio in RR patients. Significant correlations were observed between diffusion and metabolic measures to various degrees in every MS patients group. Most DTI metrics were significantly correlated with the T2-LL while only NAA/Cr ratio was correlated in RR patients. A comparison analysis of MR methods efficiency demonstrated a better sensitivity/specificity of DTI over MRSI. Nevertheless, NAA/Cr ratio could distinguish all MS and SP patients groups from controls, while NAA/Cho ratio differentiated PP patients from controls. This study demonstrated that diffusivity changes related to microstructural alterations were correlated with metabolic changes and provided a better sensitivity to detect early changes, particularly in RR patients who are more subject to inflammatory processes. In contrast, the better specificity of metabolic ratios to detect axonal damage and demyelination may provide a better index for identification of PP patients.

  18. Correlation study of anxiety, depression and suicide idea among medical college students%医学院校大学生焦虑、抑郁与自杀意念相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨传维; 施申超; 贾闪闪; 炊婉婉; 张金胜; 李玉凤

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of anxiety, depression and suicide idea among medical college students and explore their correlations. Methods One thousand three hundred and seventy-two undergraduates from Grade 1 to Grade 4 of Xinxiang Medical College were selected by stratified cluster sampling method and were measured by self-rating anxiety scale, self-rating depression scale and self-rating idea of suicide scale. Results The incidence of anxiety, depression and suicide ideation was 38.99% ,50.07% and 8.02% respectively among medical students. Anxiety was significantly positively related to depression and suicide idea and its each factor ( r = 0. 246 -0.517,P<0.01); depression was significantly positively related to suicide idea and its each factor (r = 0.246 -0.517,P<0.01). Conclusion The incidence of anxiety and depression are high among medical students;anxiety and depression are positively related to suicide idea,and necessary intervening measure should be taken to medical colleges to intervene the psychological problems early.%目的 了解医学院校大学生焦虑、抑郁与自杀意念的发生率,探讨焦虑、抑郁与自杀意念的相关性.方法 应用焦虑自评量表、抑郁自评量表、自杀意念自评量表,采取分层整群抽样方法抽取新乡医学院在校大学生1 372人进行调查.结果 医学院校大学生焦虑、抑郁、自杀意念的发生率分别为38.99%、50.07%、8.02%.焦虑与抑郁、自杀意念及其各因子呈显著正相关(r=0.246~0.517,P<0.01);抑郁与自杀意念及其各因子呈显著正相关(r=0.246~0.517,P<0.01).结论 医学院校大学生焦虑、抑郁的发生率较高,且焦虑、抑郁均与自杀意念有一定的相关性,应采取必要的措施对医学院校大学生的心理问题进行早期干预.

  19. Postpartum Anxiety and Depression in Different Delivery Modes%不同分娩方式产妇的焦虑抑郁情绪调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟琭葭; 谢馨钰; 吕敏; 景璐石

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the different maternal anxiety and depression brought by different delivery modes,and analyze the occurrence and the possible influencing factors.Methods 380 cases of pregnant women hospitalized from October 2013 to May 2014 in one hospital and one Maternal & Child Health Hospital in Chengdu were divided into cesarean section group and natural birth group according to different modes of delivery,General information questionnaire,self rating depression scale,self rating anxiety scale were used to evaluate the maternity patients within 5 days after delivery.Results There was statistically significant difference between cesarean section group and natural birth group in terms of anxiety within the 3 days after delivery (t 1 =-3.292,t 2 =-2.31 6,t 3 =-2.666,P <0.05 ).Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed the influence factor of cesarean group's anxiety was lactation quantity,the influence factors of natural birth group were postpartum days,ambulation and anal exhaust time.Cesarean section group′s depression gradually reduced within the 3 days after delivery but increased afterwards;natural birth group's depression gradually reduced within 5 days.Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed the influence factors of cesarean group depression were lactation quantity and postpartum self urination time,and the influence factors of natural birth group were lactation quantity and postpartum days.Conclusion Postpartum anxiety and depression are common in both modes of delivery.It is of significant importance in postpartum recovery and the healthy growth of the infants to pay attention to the mental health of maternity patients and conduct psychological intervention in a timely manner.%目的:探讨不同分娩方式产妇焦虑抑郁情绪差异,分析其发生状况以及可能的影响因素。方法根据分娩方式不同将2013年10月至2014年5月在成都市某医院产科及某区妇幼保健院分娩的380例产妇分为剖宫产组

  20. [Self-reported Anxiety and Regulation Strategies in Primary School-age Children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Yvonne; Kolmorgen, Katja; Andreas, Anna; Köppe, Claudia; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M

    2015-01-01

    We examined the self-reported anxiety in different situations (social anxiety, cognitive fears, fears of injury) and the use of regulation strategies (problem orientation, problem avoidance and seeking social support) in a sample of N=175 primary school children (mean age 8 years 4 months). At time of recruitment we oversampled for children with internalizing symptoms. In addition, mothers rated the overall anxiety of their children. According to their mothers 14.3% of the children showed anxiety symptoms in an abnormal range which is comparable to prevalence rates of children from population samples. 19.4% of the children described themselves as being anxious in an abnormal range. The correlations between different measures of children's self-reported anxieties were low to moderate. We found no significant correlations between mothers' and children's reports. The higher children's self-reported overall and cognitive anxiety, the more frequently they reported seeking social support in frightening situations. Girls reported more frequently pm cognitive fears than boys. Regarding regulation strategies we found that boys reported more problem orientation than girls whereas girls reported more social support seeking than boys. The results are discussed and practical implications are outlined.

  1. Test anxiety inventory: 30 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafranski, Derek D; Barrera, Terri L; Norton, Peter J

    2012-11-01

    Research suggests that test anxiety is associated with a number of maladaptive factors. The majority of test anxiety research includes the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) as a primary outcome variable. However, the TAI was normed on college undergraduates in 1980. The academic landscape has altered in a variety of ways in the past 30 years, which may result in out-of-date norms. This study examined changes in TAI scores in college undergraduates (n =437) as well as convergent validity with measures of trait anxiety and academic performance. Results indicated increases in TAI scores for females while holding constant for males. Additionally, females and males displayed positive correlations between the TAI and state-trait anxiety inventory, while only females displayed a significant negative correlation between the TAI and grade point average. Data provide evidence of changes in TAI scores. As a result, researchers should be careful when drawing conclusions based on original TAI norms, especially in the case of female undergraduates.

  2. A novel nonparametric confidence interval for differences of proportions for correlated binary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chongyang; Cao, Yingshu; Zhou, Lizhi; Tan, Ming T; Chen, Pingyan

    2016-11-16

    Various confidence interval estimators have been developed for differences in proportions resulted from correlated binary data. However, the width of the mostly recommended Tango's score confidence interval tends to be wide, and the computing burden of exact methods recommended for small-sample data is intensive. The recently proposed rank-based nonparametric method by treating proportion as special areas under receiver operating characteristic provided a new way to construct the confidence interval for proportion difference on paired data, while the complex computation limits its application in practice. In this article, we develop a new nonparametric method utilizing the U-statistics approach for comparing two or more correlated areas under receiver operating characteristics. The new confidence interval has a simple analytic form with a new estimate of the degrees of freedom of n - 1. It demonstrates good coverage properties and has shorter confidence interval widths than that of Tango. This new confidence interval with the new estimate of degrees of freedom also leads to coverage probabilities that are an improvement on the rank-based nonparametric confidence interval. Comparing with the approximate exact unconditional method, the nonparametric confidence interval demonstrates good coverage properties even in small samples, and yet they are very easy to implement computationally. This nonparametric procedure is evaluated using simulation studies and illustrated with three real examples. The simplified nonparametric confidence interval is an appealing choice in practice for its ease of use and good performance.

  3. Conceptual priming and familiarity: different expressions of memory during recognition testing with distinct neurophysiological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Joel L; Lucas, Heather D; Paller, Ken A

    2010-11-01

    Familiarity and recollection are qualitatively different explicit-memory phenomena evident during recognition testing. Investigations of the neurocognitive substrates of familiarity and recollection, however, have typically disregarded implicit-memory processes likely to be engaged during recognition tests. We reasoned that differential neural responses to old and new items in a recognition test may reflect either explicit or implicit memory. Putative neural correlates of familiarity in prior experiments, for example, may actually reflect contamination by implicit memory. In two experiments, we used obscure words that subjects could not formally define to tease apart electrophysiological correlates of familiarity and one form of implicit memory, conceptual priming. In Experiment 1, conceptual priming was observed for words only if they elicited meaningful associations. In Experiment 2, two distinct neural signals were observed in conjunction with familiarity-based recognition: late posterior potentials for words that both did and did not elicit meaningful associations and FN400 potentials only for the former. Given that symbolic meaning is a prerequisite for conceptual priming, the combined results specifically link late posterior potentials and FN400 potentials with familiarity and conceptual priming, respectively. These findings contradict previous interpretations of FN400 potentials as generic signals of familiarity and show that repeated stimuli in recognition tests can engender facilitated processing of conceptual information in addition to retrieval processing that leads to the awareness of memory retrieval. The different characteristics of the electrical markers of these two types of process further underscore the biological validity of the distinction between implicit memory and explicit memory.

  4. Gender differences in correlates of disablement among the elderly in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, V L

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine gender-specific models to determine whether different combinations of correlates are associated with male and female disablement, using a sample of noninstitutionalized elderly persons in Egypt. Because women and men have different work, family, and household roles, as well as different health risks, it is reasonable to assume that there may be differing correlates for disablement for elderly males and females. The dichotomous dependent variable indicates problems, or the inability, in performing at least one of six activities of daily living (ADL). Of interest is the association of health, economic, and family variables, controlling for age. Logistic regression models are estimated for the total, male, and female samples. The results indicate that for males, having to stop working due to illness and having an unattended medical need are associated with higher odds for disablement as compared with females. Additionally, illiteracy increases the odds for male disablement, yet it has no effect on female disablement. Having experienced an injury in the past year is associated with disability for females, as is spending a lifetime in a rural setting and currently living in a fair to poor residence. Also for the females, increased number of living children significantly increases the odds for functional disability. Separate male and female models were estimated for each of the six ADL items. The trends indicated that the model covariates were more useful in modeling female disabilities in personal care activities, rather than problems with eating and mobility. The health variables were significantly associated with most of the specific ADL problems for the males.

  5. Variation in prescribing for anxiety and depression: a reflection of health inequalities, cultural differences or variations in access to care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Jean

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are large variations in mental health prescribing in UK populations. However the underlying reasons for these differences, which may be related to differences in prevalence, cultural expectations or practical difficulties in access to treatment, remain uncertain. Methods Linear modelling was used to investigate whether population characteristics or access to primary care account for variations in mental health prescribing across 39 deprived neighbourhoods. Results The proportion of sampled respondents whose first language was not English and the ratio of general practitioners to population explained 61% of variation. Deprivation and mental health status were not significant predictors of prescribing in these relatively deprived communities. Conclusion These findings suggest that mental health prescribing, within deprived areas, as well as reflecting cultural and social differences in prescribing, may also be a proxy measure of access to care.

  6. The Correlation between Different Facial Measurements and the Width of Maxillary Anterior Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ahangari A.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: One of the most important procedures in the rehabilitation of an edentulous space in the anterior segment is the selection of an appropriate size of the anterior teeth in order to achieve the perfect esthetic results.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between horizontal measurements of the face and width of the maxillary anterior teeth.Material and methods: In this descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study, the face and teeth of the 77 subjects (39 women and 38 men aged between 20-30 with no facial and dental deformities were examined. Some horizontal dimensions of the face including IC (intercanthal, IP (interpupillary, BZW (bizygomatic width, IA (interalar, and ICm (Intercomussural width and perceived width of the teeth were calculated with AutoCAD software with 0.1 mm accuracy on the photos. The actual width of the teeth was calculated with a digital caliper by 0.1 mm accuracy on the maxillary casts. The data were analyzed in SPSS software using the Pearson correlation coefficient and t-test.Results: Except for the IC and the sum of the actual width of the six maxillary anterior teeth on the cast, the rest of the measurements were significantly different by gender ( p < 0.05. All the correlations between facial measurements and width of the teeth were bigger than when they were separated by gender. In women, the correlation between IC and the six anterior teeth in the front view (SANTF was the highest one ( r = 0.436, p = 0.005. However, the highest correlation was related to the ICm and SANTF in men. (r = 0.0501, p =0.001Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, the results suggest that except for the BZW, the rest of the facial measurements including IC, IP, IA and ICm can be used as a preliminary criterion for determining the width of the maxillary anterior teeth of the edentulous patients.

  7. Extending the validity of the Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC) at the time of prostate biopsy in a racially-mixed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, William; Hemmerich, Joshua; Meltzer, David

    2007-05-01

    The Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC) has been validated for assessing men with prostate cancer for cancer-specific anxiety. It was originally validated in a predominantly white population. The MAX-PC Prostate Cancer Anxiety Subscale (MAX-PC-PCAS) may be relevant for measuring cancer-specific anxiety in undiagnosed men at risk for prostate cancer. We assess the validity of the MAX-PC-PCAS at the time of prostate biopsy (n = 178). Questions assessed socio-demographic information, health status, patient-estimated risk of cancer, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale--Anxiety Subscale (HADS-A), and the MAX-PC-PCAS. The patients' most recent PSA was recorded. Cronbach's alpha, inter-item correlations, and Pearson correlations with both the HADS-A and clinical variables were compared with the original validation sample. Our sample was younger (63.1 vs 71.1 years), had a larger fraction of African-Americans (43 vs 10%), and had higher PSAs. Cronbach's alpha was equivalent (0.91 vs 0.90), median inter-item correlation was equivalent (0.63 vs 0.61), and Pearson correlation with HADS-A was higher (0.71 vs 0.57). Anxiety levels were not correlated with PSA levels, and there were minor differences in the validation findings by race. The validity of the MAX-PC-PCAS extends to men without cancer undergoing biopsy and to African-Americans.

  8. Two short-acting kappa opioid receptor antagonists (zyklophin and LY2444296) exhibited different behavioral effects from the long-acting antagonist norbinaltorphimine in mouse anxiety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peng; Yakovleva, Tatyana; Aldrich, Jane V; Tunis, Julia; Parry, Christopher; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan

    2016-02-26

    Prototypical long-acting kappa opioid receptor (KOPR) antagonists [e.g., norbinaltorphimine (norBNI)] have been reported to exert anxiolytic-like effects in several commonly used anxiety tests in rodents including the novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests. It remains unknown if the short-acting KOPR antagonists (e.g., zyklophin and LY2444296) have similar effects. In this study effects of zyklophin and LY2444296 (s.c.) were investigated in the NIH and EPM tests in mice 1h post-injection and compared with norBNI (i.p.) 48h post-administration. In the NIH test, zyklophin at 3 and 1mg/kg, but not 0.3mg/kg, or LY2444296 at 30mg/kg decreased the latency of palatable food consumption in novel cages, but had no effect in training cages, similar to norBNI (10mg/kg). Zyklophin at 3 or 1mg/kg increased or had a trend of increasing the amount of palatable food consumption in novel cages, with no effects in training cages, further indicating its anxiolytic-like effect, but norBNI (10mg/kg) and LY2444296 (30mg/kg) did not. In the EPM test, norBNI (10mg/kg) increased open arm time and % open arm entries or time, but zyklophin at all three doses and LY2444296 (30mg/kg) had no effects. In addition, zyklophin at 3mg/kg increased numbers of close and total arm entries on EPM, suggesting increased activity; however, norBNI and LY2444296 had no effects on close and total arm entries. Thus, all three KOPR antagonists had anxiolytic-like effects in the NIH test. However, only the long-acting one (norBNI), but not the short-acting ones (zyklophin and LY2444296), demonstrated anti-anxiety like effects in the EPM test. It remains to be investigated if the differences are due to the differences in their durations of action and/or pharmacodynamic properties.

  9. 学生自我评价与外语课堂焦虑的相关度调查研究%On Correlations between Learners' Self-evaluations and Anxiety in EFL Classrooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任庆梅; 康淑敏; 胡局香

    2011-01-01

    问卷调查和访谈表明,高中学生自我评价与外语课堂焦虑之间存在具有显著意义的负相关关系,分别体现在课堂上回答问题、对教师纠错的反应、参与学习活动的积极性等具体学习行为方面。数据分析和研究结论显示,教师应分别从创立真实的外语学习认知心理环境、构建和谐的师生情感交流氛围、采用合理而有效的综合式评价、培养学生客观的个体自我意识四个方面,引导学生进行积极而客观地自我评价,在外语课堂上保持适中的焦虑程度,以激发最有效的学习行为。%The article reported the results of a study of correlations between learners' self-evaluationsand anxiety in senior middle school EFL classrooms lay means oi quesuonnaires and interviews. It wasfound that learners' self-evaluations, to some extent, is correlated negatively with foreign languageanxiety, which were manifested in learning behaviors, e. g. question answerings, error corrections and interaction participations. Based on the data analysis, the authors put forward some suggestions onhow to keep optimal anxiety in EFL classrooms from four aspects which are related to cognitivepsychological learning environment, interpersonal relationship between teacher and learners,integrative assessments and learners' self-awareness. The purpose is to help learners to make proper self-evaluations and to keep optimal anxiety in EFL classrooms, which in turn, may result in more efficient foreign language learning behaviors.

  10. 气管异物患儿父母术前焦虑状况与应对方式的相关性分析%Correlative analysis between anxiety and coping mode of parents of children with airway foreign bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵会玲; 余蓉

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解气管异物患儿父母术前焦虑状况与应对方式的相关性。方法采用焦虑自评量表(SAS)及简易应对方式问卷(SCSQ)术前对212名气管异物患儿父母进行调查。结果患儿父母的SAS评分显著高于国内常模,差异具有显著意义;积极应对方式评分高于国内常模,消极应对方式评分低于国内常模;患儿父母积极应对方式评分与SAS评分无显著相关性,消极应对方式评分与SAS评分成显著正相关。结论气管异物患儿父母术前焦虑水平高于正常人群,不同文化程度患儿父母的焦虑水平存在差异,消极的应对方式会增加其焦虑的水平,更倾向于采用积极的应对方式。%OBJECTIVE To investigate the correlative between anxiety and coping mode of parents of children with air way foreign bodies. METHODS Self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and simplified coping style questionnaire (SCSQ) were used to investigate the anxiety level and coping mode among 212 parents of children with airway foreign bodies. RESULTS The SAS scores of parents of children with airway foreign bodies was considerably higher than China normal, there was significant difference between the two (P 0.05). CONCLUSION The parents of children with airway foreign bodies have higher anxiety level than the norm, they often take an positive coping style.

  11. Differences of Anxiety Levels between Students of Natural Sciences and Social Studies Major Based on School Environmental Factors in Senior High Schools with Rintisan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Arviana Adamantina Putri; Leonardo Lubis; Tatang Muchtar Sutaryan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Senior High Schools with Rintisan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional (RSBI) scheme are senior high schools that pilot international standards in learning methods and high curriculum targets. This factor may lead to a rise of anxiety amongst students, both for students in Natural Sciences major and Social Studies major. There are three factors which cause anxiety in the school environment, namely: dissatisfaction towards the curriculum, the teacher, and the school management. Metho...

  12. Zonal Differences in Correlation Patterns Between Soil Organic Carbon and Climate Factors at Multi-extent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Falyu; SHI Xuezheng; XU Shengxiang; YU Dongsheng; WANG Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Studying the relationship between climate factors and soil organic carbon (SOC) is vitally important.However,how SOC responses to climate (temperature and precipitation) at cohesive extents is poorly studied.Two transects of approximately the same length (transect P and transect T) were selected to examine the variation of SOC content in relation to mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP).The coefficients of partial correlation between SOC density and MAT (Rt) and MAP (Rp) were determined to quantify the relationships between SOC density and the two climate factors.The results indicated that for transect T,Rt was statistically significant once the extent level was greater than or equal to two fundamental extent units,while for transect P,Rp showed statistical significance only at extent levels which were greater than two fundamental extent units.At the same extent levels but in different transects,Rts exhibited no zonal difference,but Rps did once the extent level was greater than two fundamental extent units.Therefore,to study the relationship between SOC density and different climate factors,different minimum extent levels should be examined.The results of this paper could deepen the understanding of the impacts that SOC pool has on terrestrial ecosystem and global carbon cycling.

  13. Discrimination and Nitric Oxide Inhibitory Activity Correlation of Ajwa Dates from Different Grades and Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Hamid, Nur Ashikin; Mediani, Ahmed; Maulidiani, M; Abas, Faridah; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Shaari, Khozirah; Lajis, Nordin H

    2016-10-28

    This study was aimed at examining the variations in the metabolite constituents of the different Ajwa grades and farm origins. It is also targeted at establishing the correlations between the metabolite contents and the grades and further to the nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity. Identification of the metabolites was generated using ¹H-NMR spectroscopy metabolomics analyses utilizing multivariate methods. The NO inhibitory activity was determined using a Griess assay. Multivariate data analysis, for both supervised and unsupervised approaches, showed clusters among different grades of Ajwa dates obtained from different farms. The compounds that contribute towards the observed separation between Ajwa samples were suggested to be phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and phenylalanine. Ajwa dates were shown to have different metabolite compositions and exhibited a wide range of NO inhibitory activity. It is also revealed that Ajwa Grade 1 from the al-Aliah farm exhibited more than 90% NO inhibitory activity compared to the other grades and origins. Phenolic compounds were among the compounds that played a role towards the greater capacity of NO inhibitory activity shown by Ajwa Grade 1 from the al-Aliah farm.

  14. A review of studies concerning treatment adherence of patients with anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lívia Santana1, Leonardo F Fontenelle1–31Anxiety and Depression Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Institute of Community Health, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil; 3D’Or Institute for Research and Education (IDOR, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilObjective: This paper aimed at describing the most consistent correlates and/or predictors of nonadherence to treatment of patients with different anxiety disorders.Method: The authors retrieved studies indexed in PubMed/MedLine, PsycINFO, and ISI Web of Knowledge using the following search terms: attrition OR dropout OR attrition rates OR patient dropouts OR treatment adherence AND anxiety disorders. Research was limited to articles published before January 2010.Results: Sixteen studies were selected that investigated the impact of sociodemographic, clinical, or cognitive variables on adherence to treatment for anxiety disorders. While no consistent pattern of sociodemographic or clinical features associated with nonadherence emerged, all studies that investigated cognitive variables in panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder found that expectations and opinions about treatment were related to adherence.Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that it is essential to consider anxiety disorder patients’ beliefs about illness and treatment strategies to increase their compliance with the therapeutic plan.Keywords: attrition, dropout, OCD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder

  15. Parental educational practices in relation to children's anxiety disorder-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Robert C; Moutavelis, Adrianos G

    2011-08-01

    Schoolchildren reported their parents' use of aversive control and positive reinforcement contingencies in their educational interventions, as well as parental non-responsiveness to their requests for educational assistance. They also reported their own levels of six dimensions of anxiety disorder-related phenomena. Both parental use of aversive control and non-responsiveness were directly related to overall levels of child anxiety disorder-related behavior; these correlations were more robust than those observed in previous investigations of more diffuse dimensions of parenting style and trait anxiety. Panic disorder/agoraphobia and Generalized anxiety disorder were the dimensions most strongly correlated with both parental aversive control and non-responsiveness, while Compulsive behavior was uniquely uncorrelated with parental non-responsiveness and uniquely correlated with parental use of positive reinforcement contingencies. Differences in the magnitudes of correlations between anxiety disorder-related dimensions and parental educational practices are interpreted in terms of the probable differential effectiveness of their constituent behaviors in terminating parent-mediated negative reinforcers.

  16. Correlation between the different chain lengths of free fatty acid oxidation and ability of trophoblastic invasion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Huan; Yang Zi; Ding Xiaoyan; Wang Yanling; Han Yiwei

    2014-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with abnormal fatty acid beta-oxidation (FAO),especially metabolic disorders of long-chain fatty acid oxidation.The role of FAO dysfunction in inadequate invasion is unclear.The aim of this study was to explore the influence of various lengths fatty acids oxidation on invasiveness of trophoblasts.Methods Primary human trophoblast cells and HTR8/SVneo cells were treated with fatty acids of various lengths.Morphological changes,lipid deposition and ultrastructure changes of trophoblast cells were detected.Cells invasiveness was determined by transwell insert.CPT1,CPT2 and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) protein expression were analyzed.The correlation between intracellular lipid droplets deposition and cells invasiveness was evaluated.Results Cells treated with long-chain fatty acids showed significant increased lipid droplets deposition,severe mitochondrial damage,decreased CPT2 and LCHAD protein expression (P <0.05) but no significant difference in CPT1 protein expression (P >0.05).Invasiveness of the trophoblast cells of the LC-FFA group significantly decreased (P <0.05).Intracellular lipid droplets deposition was negatively correlated with invasivenss (R=-0.745,P <0.05).Conclusion Trophoblast cells after stimulation with long chain fatty acids exist fatty acid oxidation disorders,and reduce the ability of trophoblastic invasion.

  17. Variation and correlation of properties in different grades of maple syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amritpal S; Jones, A Maxwell P; Saxena, Praveen K

    2014-03-01

    Thirty five commercial maple syrups from twelve producers in Southern Ontario were evaluated for properties including light transmittance, autofluorescence, density, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), glucose and fructose content, total phenol content, antioxidant potential and mineral content (Mg, Mn, P, Zn, Ca, K, Fe and Pb). A high degree of variability was found in many characteristics, often exceeding an order of magnitude. Syrups were categorized based on light transmission at 560 nm into amber (12), dark (13) and very dark (10) using International Maple Syrup Institute (IMSI) guidelines. No statistical differences were found among grades of syrup for density, pH, TSS, glucose, fructose, total reducing sugars, glucose:fructose ratio, magnesium, manganese or potassium. Darker syrups showed significantly higher autofluorescence, total phenol content, antioxidant potential, phosphorous, calcium and total mineral content. Significant negative correlations of percent transmission with total phenol content, antioxidant potential and total mineral content are reported. Significant positive correlations among total phenol content, antioxidant potential and total mineral content are also described. The results from this study suggest that darker syrups tend to contain more beneficial traits and may be applied in developing functional foods and value added products.

  18. Measurement of surface plasmon correlation length differences using Fibonacci deterministic hole arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tho Duc; Nahata, Ajay; Vardeny, Z Valy

    2012-07-02

    Using terahertz (THz) transmission measurements through two-dimensional Fibonacci deterministic subwavelength hole arrays fabricated in metal foils, we find that the surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) correlation lengths for aperiodic resonances are smaller than those associated with the underlying grid. The enhanced transmission spectra associated with these arrays contain two groups of Fano-type resonances: those related to the two-dimensional Fibonacci structure and those related to the underlying hole grid array upon which the aperiodic Fibonacci array is built. For both groups the destructive interference frequencies at which transmission minima occur closely match prominent reciprocal vectors in the hole array (HA) structure-factor in reciprocal space. However the Fibonacci-related transmission resonances are much weaker than both their calculated Fourier intensity in k space and the grid-related resonances. These differences may arise from the complex, multi-fractal dispersion relations and scattering from the underlying grid arrays. We also systematically studied and compared the transmission resonance strength of Fibonacci HA and periodic HA lattices as a function of the number of holes in the array structure. We found that the Fibonacci-related resonance strengths are an order of magnitude weaker than that of the periodic HA, consistent with the smaller SPP correlation length for the aperiodic structure.

  19. Who Believes in the Giant Skeleton Myth? An Examination of Individual Difference Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Swami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined individual difference correlates of belief in a narrative about the discovery of giant skeletal remains that contravenes mainstream scientific explanations. A total of 364 participants from Central Europe completed a survey that asked them to rate their agreement with a short excerpt describing the giant skeleton myth. Participants also completed measures of the Big Five personality factors, New Age orientation, anti-scientific attitudes, superstitious beliefs, and religiosity. Results showed that women, as compared with men, and respondents with lower educational qualifications were significantly more likely to believe in the giant skeleton myth, although effect sizes were small. Correlational analysis showed that stronger belief in the giant skeleton myth was significantly associated with greater anti-scientific attitudes, stronger New Age orientation, greater religiosity, stronger superstitious beliefs, lower Openness to Experience scores, and higher Neuroticism scores. However, a multiple regression showed that the only significant predictors of belief in myth were Openness, New Age orientation, and anti-scientific attitudes. These results are discussed in relation to the potential negative consequences of belief in myths.

  20. Sexism and alexithymia: correlations and differences as a function of gender, age, and educational level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Garaigordobil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The goals of the study were to analyze differences as a function of gender, age, and educational level in sexism and alexithymia in a nonclinical and in a clinical sample, and to explore the relation between these constructs. A descriptive and correlational cross-sectional methodology was used. The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick & Fiske, 1996 and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (Parker et al. 1993 were administered. The sample comprised 989 participants from the Basque Country, aged between 18 and 65 years. The results revealed: 1 Significantly higher scores in the males in sexism (hostile, benevolent, and ambivalent and in alexithymia (difficulties to express emotions and external-oriented thinking in both samples; in the total alexithymia score, the males had significantly higher scores only in the nonclinical sample; 2 As of 55 years of age, a significant increase in benevolent and ambivalent sexism, and in difficulties to identify emotions, external-oriented thinking, and in the total alexithymia score were observed (only in the nonclinical sample; however, no changes with age were observed in hostile sexism and in difficulties to express emotions; 3 A decrease in sexism and alexithymia as the educational level increased; and 4 Significant positive correlations between sexism and alexithymia.

  1. Spatio-temporal correlations in models of collective motion ruled by different dynamical laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Conti, Daniele; Giardina, Irene; Grigera, Tomas S.; Melillo, Stefania; Viale, Massimiliano

    2016-12-01

    Information transfer is an essential factor in determining the robustness of biological systems with distributed control. The most direct way to study the mechanisms ruling information transfer is to experimentally observe the propagation across the system of a signal triggered by some perturbation. However, this method may be inefficient for experiments in the field, as the possibilities to perturb the system are limited and empirical observations must rely on natural events. An alternative approach is to use spatio-temporal correlations to probe the information transfer mechanism directly from the spontaneous fluctuations of the system, without the need to have an actual propagating signal on record. Here we test this method on models of collective behaviour in their deeply ordered phase by using ground truth data provided by numerical simulations in three dimensions. We compare two models characterized by very different dynamical equations and information transfer mechanisms: the classic Vicsek model, describing an overdamped noninertial dynamics and the inertial spin model, characterized by an underdamped inertial dynamics. By using dynamic finite-size scaling, we show that spatio-temporal correlations are able to distinguish unambiguously the diffusive information transfer mechanism of the Vicsek model from the linear mechanism of the inertial spin model.

  2. Gender differences in cognitive and neural correlates of remembrance of emotional words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J D; Soufer, R; McCarthy, G; Delaney, R; Staib, L H; Duncan, J S; Charney, D S

    2001-01-01

    Studies suggest that men and women have important differences in specific cognitive functions. Men show superior spatial memory and women demonstrate superior verbal memory, and women rely on emotional content to a greater degree in the processing of information. In spite of extensive research in neural correlates of human cognition, little is known about possible gender differences or the role of emotional content in the mediation of cognition. Two sets of lists of word pairs were developed, one with neutral (e.g., school-grocery) and the other with emotional (e.g., mutilate-beat) content. Male and female subjects were asked to rate emotions related to the words on several dimensions (e.g., nervous, fearful, happy). In a second experiment, men and women underwent positron emission tomographic (PET) measurement of brain blood flow during retrieval of word pairs. Words in the "emotional" category were rated more highly on the emotional dimensions, and women rated them as having more emotional impact than did the men. During retrieval of emotional words (but not neutral words) there was a different pattern of activation among the women compared with the men, with greater activation in bilateral posterior hippocampus and cerebellum, and decreased activity in medial prefrontal cortex, which are brain areas previously implicated in emotion. There were no significant differences in retrieval of emotional versus neutral words, or in differences in memory performance between men and women. The findings suggest differences in cognitive appraisal and involvement of a broader network of brain regions mediating emotion during remembrance of emotional words in women compared with men.

  3. Exploring individual differences in children's mathematical skills: a correlational and dimensional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsson, H; Polman, R C J; Lorås, H

    2013-08-01

    Individual differences in mathematical skills are typically explained by an innate capability to solve mathematical tasks. At the behavioural level this implies a consistent level of mathematical achievement that can be captured by strong relationships between tasks, as well as by a single statistical dimension that underlies performance on all mathematical tasks. To investigate this general assumption, the present study explored interrelations and dimensions of mathematical skills. For this purpose, 68 ten-year-old children from two schools were tested using nine mathematics tasks from the Basic Knowledge in Mathematics Test. Relatively low-to-moderate correlations between the mathematics tasks indicated most tasks shared less than 25% of their variance. There were four principal components, accounting for 70% of the variance in mathematical skill across tasks and participants. The high specificity in mathematical skills was discussed in relation to the principle of task specificity of learning.

  4. Shear strain determination of the polymer polydimethysiloxane (PMDS) using digital image correlation in different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Oliveira, G N [Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica, TEM/PGMEC, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Passo da Patria, 156, Niteroi, R.J., Brazil, Cep.: 24.210-240 (Brazil); Nunes, L C S [Laboratorio de Mecanica Teorica e Aplicada, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Passo da Patria, 156, Niteroi, R.J., Brazil, Cep.: 24.210-240 (Brazil); Dos Santos, P A M, E-mail: pams@if.uff.br [Instituto de Fisica, Laboratorio de Optica Nao-linear e Aplicada, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Nilton Tavares de Souza, s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, R.J., Brazil, Cep.:24.210-346 (Brazil)

    2011-01-01

    In the present work a digital image correlation (DIC) method is used in order to analyze the adhesive shear modulus of poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) submitted to different loads and temperatures. This is an optical-numerical full-field surface displacement measurement method. It is based on a comparison between two images of a specimen coated by a random speckled pattern in the undeformed and in the deformed states. A single lap joint testing is performed. This is a standard test specimen for characterizing adhesive properties and it is considered the simplest form of adhesive joints. For the single lap joint specimen, steel adherends are bonded using a flexible rubber elastic polymer (PDMS), which is a commercially available silicone elastic rubber.

  5. Spatio-temporal correlations in models of collective motion ruled by different dynamical laws

    CERN Document Server

    Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Grigera, Tomas S; Melillo, Stefania; Viale, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Information transfer is an essential factor in determining the robustness of collective behaviour in biological systems with distributed control. The most direct way to study the information transfer mechanisms is to experimentally detect the propagation across the system of a signal triggered by some perturbation. However, for field experiments this method is inefficient, as the possibilities of the observer to perturb the group are limited and empirical observations must rely on rare natural perturbations. An alternative way is to use spatio-temporal correlations to assess the information transfer mechanism directly from the spontaneous fluctuations of the system, without the need to have an actual propagating signal on record. We test the approach on ground truth data provided by numerical simulations in three dimensions of two models of collective behaviour characterized by very different dynamical equations and information transfer mechanisms: the classic Vicsek model, describing an overdamped noninertia...

  6. Correlation of different bone markers with bone density in patients with rheumatic diseases on glucocorticoid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loddenkemper, Konstanze; Bohl, Nicole; Perka, Carsten; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Buttgereit, Frank

    2006-02-01

    Osteoporosis is a common concomitant disease in patients with rheumatic diseases on glucocorticoid (GC) therapy. Bone status is usually evaluated by determination of bone density in combination with clinical examinations and laboratory tests. However, the strength of individual biochemical bone makers in GC-induced osteoporosis has yet to be fully clarified. For this reason, different bone markers were investigated in correlation with bone density in patients with rheumatic diseases. Approximately 238 patients (212 women, 26 men) with a rheumatic disease and under GC therapy were examined consecutively for the first time with regard to bone density (BMD) and bone markers [osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (precipitation method/tandem-MP ostase), crosslinks [pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyridinoline (DPX), N-terminal telopeptide (NTX)

  7. Statistical propeties of a single-mode laser driven by additive and multiplicative coloured noises with a coloured cross-correlation for different correlation times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁贵云; 曹力; 张莉; 吴大进

    2003-01-01

    We study a system for a single-mode laser driven by additive and multiplicative coloured noises with a coloured cross-correlation. The analytical expression of the stationary intensity distribution (SID) for the laser is derived in the case of three different correlation times. The influences of each stochastic parameter on the SID are discussed, the the skewness, λ3(O) of the single-mode laser are investigated. We find that there are colourful phase transitions for the SID above a threshold, and re-entrant transitions induced by the "colour" of the additive noises. Further research of the not only increases with the additive noise correlation time τ2 and the cross-correlation time τs, but also the quality of the output of laser beams is optimized.

  8. Anxiety affects the amplitudes of red and green color-elicited flash visual evoked potentials in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Yuki; Kitaoka, Kazuyoshi; Urushihara, Ryo; Séi, Hiroyoshi; Kinouchi, Yohsuke

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that negative emotional changes and conditions affect the visual faculties of humans at the neural level. On the other hand, the effects of emotion on color perception in particular, which are based on evoked potentials, are unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether different anxiety levels affect the color information processing for each of 3 wavelengths by using flash visual evoked potentials (FVEPs) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In results, significant positive correlations were observed between FVEP amplitudes and state or trait anxiety scores in the long (sensed as red) and middle (sensed as green) wavelengths. On the other hand, short-wavelength-evoked FVEPs were not correlated w