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Sample records for anura

  1. Mesozoic and Tertiary Anura of Laurasia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 4 (2013), s. 397-439. ISSN 1867-1594 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Anura * Laurasia * taxonomic diagnoses * systematic review * stratigraphy * distribution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  2. Hubungan Kekerabatan Amfibi (Ordo Anura) di Kecamatan Sibolangit Kabupaten Deli Serdang Berdasarkan Morfometrik

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Junaydy Michael Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The research of Amphibians (order Anura) relationship based on morphometrics in Sibolangit, Deli Serdang District, North Sumatera has been conducted in January to July 2015. The purpose of this research was to determine the types and descriptions of Anura species, morphometrics diversity and morphometrics relationship of Anura. Study site was divided into seven different locations settled using Purposive Random Sampling Method. This study was conducted by the active search (...

  3. KEANEKARAGAMAN JENIS KATAK DAN KODOK (ORDO ANURA DI SEPANJANG SUNGAI OPAK PROPINSI DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA

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    Donan Satria Yudha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anura sering disebut sebagai katak dan kodok (Iskandar, 1998. Penelitian mengenai keanekaragaman anggota Anura di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY telah banyak dilakukan. Penelitian tersebut sebagian besar difokuskan di lereng selatan Gunung Merapi, tetapi beberapa penelitian juga telah dilakukan di sekitar kampus UGM dan di Sungai Code (Eprilurahman, 2007; Eprilurahman & Kusuma, 2011; Yudha, dkk, 2013. Wilayah DIY dialiri oleh banyak sungai, beberapa diantaranya yang banyak dikenal, diurutkan dari barat ke timur adalah Sungai Progo,Sungai Winongo, Sungai Code, Sungai Gajah Wong dan Sungai Opak (Anonim, 2010; Brontowiyono, 2010; Siradz et al., 2008. Sungai Opak merupakan salah satu sungai besar di DIY yang berhulu di Gunung Merapi. Jalur utama Sungai Opak menjadi pertemuan beberapa sungai, hal tersebut dapat diasumsikan bahwa pada beberapa titik pertemuan merupakan area yang subur dan rimbun. Daerah yang rimbun tersebut merupakan habitat yang baik bagi herpetofauna, terutama anggota Anura. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman spesiesAnura. Pengambilan sampel disepanjang Sungai Opak dari hulu hingga hilir menggunakan gabungan beberapa metode, yaitu VES (Visual Encounter Survey, River bank cruising dantransek. Sampling secara umum dibagi tiga bagian, bagian hulu, tengah dan hilir. Hasil yang diperoleh adalah 9 spesies anggota Ordo Anura dengan 2 spesies Anura arboreal, 3 spesies Anura terrestrial dan 4 spesies Anura akuatik dan semi-akuatik. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut dapat diketahui bahwa Sungai Opak merupakan habitat bagi banyak spesies Anura.

  4. Frontoparietal Bone in Extinct Palaeobatrachidae (Anura): Its Variation and Taxonomic Value

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk; Boistel, R.; Lenoir, N.; Mazurier, A.; Pierce, S. E.; Rage, J. C.; Smirnov, S. V.; Schwermann, A. H.; Valentin, X.; Venczel, M.; Wuttke, M.; Zikmund, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 298, č. 11 (2015), s. 1848-1863. ISSN 1932-8486 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Anura * Albionbatrachus * Palaeobatrachus * Xenopus * Palaeobatrachidae * frontoparietale * development * variation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.542, year: 2014

  5. Osteology of Atelopus muisca (Anura, Bufonidae) from Colombia.

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    Hoyos, Julio Mario; Medina, Paola; Schoch, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    The first comprehensive description of the skeleton of Atelopus muisca Rueda-Almonacid & Hoyos, 1991 (Bufonidae, Anura) from the Chingaza Natural National Park (Colombia) is provided, and comparisons with some characters described for this species by Coloma and related frogs of the group A. ignescens are done. The humerus of male presenting more developed crista ventralis and crista lateralis, and the articulation of the frontoparietal bones showed the presence of sexual dimorphism. These are character not described for species of the genus Atelopus belonging to the group A. ignescens. A. ignescens. Among the other osteological characters we did not find unique feature for the species.  PMID:25661025

  6. Development of the Ethmoidal Structures of the Endocranium in Discoglossus pictus (Anura: Discoglossidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Královec, K.; Roček, Zbyněk; Žáková, P.; Mužáková, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 271, č. 9 (2010), s. 1078-1093. ISSN 0362-2525 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Anura * Discoglossidae * Discoglossus * development * cranium Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.773, year: 2010

  7. Pelvic and thigh musculature in frogs (Anura) and origin of anuran jumping locomotion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Aerts, C.; Havelková, P.; Herrel, A.; Roček, Zbyněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 214, č. 1 (2009), s. 100-139. ISSN 0021-8782 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) KONTAKT 1-06-05 (2006-2007) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Anura * anuran jumping * Caudata * comparative myology * evolution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.134, year: 2009

  8. New data for the Palaeobiographical history of the Pelobates (Amphibia, Anura) in Italy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blain, H-A.; Delfino, M.; Přikryl, Tomáš

    Dallas : Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, 2015 - (MacKenzie, A.; Maxwell, E.; Miller-Camp, J.). s. 91-91 ISBN N. [Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Annual Meeting /75./. 14.10.2015-17.10.2015, Dallas] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * genus Pelobates Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  9. Eimeria terraepokotorum sp.n. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Hoplobatrachus occipitalis (Anura: Ranidae) from Kenya

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, M.; Modrý, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2006), s. 443-447. ISSN 0065-1583 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA ČR GA206/03/1544 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Eimeria * coccidia * Anura Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.162, year: 2006

  10. Landing on branches in the frog Trachycephalus resinifictrix (Anura: Hylidae).

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    Bijma, Nienke N; Gorb, Stanislav N; Kleinteich, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Frogs (Lissamphibia: Anura) are famous for their saltatory or hopping locomotion, which is related to numerous anatomical specialisations that are characteristic for the group. However, while the biomechanics of take-off in frogs have been studied in detail, much less is known on how frogs land after a jump. Besides terrestrial and aquatic species, several lineages of frogs adopted an arboreal lifestyle and especially the biomechanics of landing on challenging, small, and unpredictable substrates, such as leaves or branches, are virtually unknown. Here we studied the landing kinematics of the arboreal frog Trachycephalus resinifictrix (Hylidae) on a wooden stick that was used to mimic a small tree branch. We observed two different landing behaviours: (1) landing on the abdomen and (2) attachment with the toes of either the forelimb or the hindlimb. In the latter case, the frogs performed a cartwheel around the stick, while they were only attached by their adhesive toe pads. We estimated the forces that act on the toes during this behaviour to be up to fourteen times the body weight of the animals. This behaviour demonstrates the remarkable adhesive capabilities of the toe pads and the body control of the frogs. PMID:26803830

  11. Reprodução de Pseudis minuta (Anura, Hylidae) no sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Janaine Melchiors; Marcos Di-Bernardo; Glaucia Maria Funk Pontes; Roberto Baptista de Oliveira; Mirco Solé; Axel Kwet

    2004-01-01

    Reproduction of Pseudis minuta (Anura, Hylidae) in southern Brazil.This study was based on individuals of Pseudis minuta captured or observed in the municipality of Candiota, Campanha region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Sampling occurred along ten non-consecutive months in 2000, 2001 and 2002. The reproductive phases were characterized based on the gonadal development stage of39 males and 50 females, and on the observation, in nature, of the seasonal distribution of cal...

  12. Phylogenetic relationships linking Duttaphrynus (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) species based on 12S and 16S rDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratihar, Suman; Bhattacharya, Manojit; Deuti, Kaushik

    2016-07-01

    Genus Duttaphrynus (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) is endemic to southwestern and southern China and throughout southern Asia. Duttaphrynus phylogeny was also under debate for many years. 12S and 16S rDNAs help us to elucidate Duttaphrynus phylogeny. PMID:26155970

  13. Nine new species of microhylid frogs from the Muller Range in western Papua New Guinea (Anura, Microhylidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Günther, R.; Richards, S. J.; Dahl, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2014), s. 59-97. ISSN 1864-5755 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * Microhylidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.593, year: 2014 http://www.whose-tadpole.de/SNSD/VZ/VZ_64_1/06_vertebrate_zoology_64-1_Guenther_59-94.pdf

  14. The evolution of amphibian metamorphosis: insights based on the transformation of the aortic arches of Pelobates fuscus (Anura)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolesová, H.; Lametschwandtner, A.; Roček, Zbyněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 210, č. 4 (2007), s. 379-393. ISSN 0021-8782 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Anura * circulatory system * development * evolution * metamorphosis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.547, year: 2007

  15. Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae) in Duttaphrynus himalayanus (Amphibia, Anura) from Dehradun (Uttarakhand), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Anjum N; Bursey, Charles R

    2014-03-01

    Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae) from the large intestine of Duttaphrynus himalayanus (Amphibia, Anura) from Dehradun, India is described and illustrated. Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. represents the 21st species assigned to the genus and the 9th species from the Oriental biogeographical region. Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. differs from the previously described Oriental species in number and position of rosette papillae; it is the only species possessing 24 or more rosette papillae to have 4 postcloacal papillae. In addition, a list of species assigned to Cosmocercoides is provided; however, C. fotedari Arya, 1992 is removed from the genus and until further study is considered a species inquirenda. PMID:24570052

  16. Oviposition and development in the glass frog Hyalinobatrachium orientale (Anura: Centrolenidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nokhbatolfoghahai, Mohsen; Christopher J. Pollock; Downie, J. Roger

    2015-01-01

    Oviposition and development in the glass frog Hyalinobatrachium orientale (Anura: Centrolenidae). Oviposition and external embryonic developmental features are described in the Tobago glass frog, Hyalinobatrachium orientale. Egg clutches are nearly always laid on the undersides of leaves (one exception); usually leaves of Heliconia sp. are used, but Philodendron and palms may be used in the absence of Heliconia. Clutches contain 28.0 ± 5.3 eggs (mean ± SD) and eggs are 1.86 ± 0.11 mm in diame...

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of Rhacophorus dennysi (Anura: Rhacophoridae) and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Minyi; Lv, Tong; Duan, Renyan; Zhang, Siyu; Li, Hairong

    2016-09-01

    Rhacophorus dennysi is one species of the family Rhacophoridae. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of R. dennysi. The complete mitochondrial genome of R. dennysi was 17 572 bp in length (GenBank accession number KT191129). Similar to the typical mtDNA of amphibians, the complete mtDNA sequence of R. dennysi contained two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), and one D-loop region. The complete mitogenome sequence data in R. dennysi would provide a basis and important molecular data for studying the phylogenetic relationship, molecular identification and evolutionary analysis in anura species. The results will be useful for the detailed study of mitogenome evolution and the phylogenetic relationships among the orders in the class Rhacophoridae. PMID:26329505

  18. Dieta de Leptodactylus ocellatus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Anura:Leptodactylidae en un humedal del oeste de Argentina

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    Eduardo A. Sanabria

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo estudia la dieta de una población de Leptodactylus ocellatus de los Humedales de Zonda, San Juan, al oeste de Argentina. Se analizaron 35 estómagos, las presas fueron clasificadas y los individuos se midieron en ancho y largo para calcular su volumen con la fórmula de la esfera elipsoide; además, se estimó la frecuencia de ocurrencia y abundancia. Se calcularon índices de diversidad, de similitud, amplitud de nicho e importancia relativa (IRI. Los presas mas importantes fueron: Hymenoptera, Anura, Coleoptera. Las presas con mayor porcentaje de presencia fueron los Hymenoptera Formicidae que representaron el 22,4%. No se encontró una relación significativa entre el ancho de la boca del depredador y el tamaño medio de la presa. La dieta observada en ambos sexos resultó similar.

  19. A new species of Osteocephalus (Anura: Hylidae) from Amazonian Bolivia: first evidence of tree frog breeding in fruit capsules of the Brazil nut tree

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, J.; Aparicio, J.; Guerrero-Reinhard, M.; Calderón, G.; Jungfer, K. H.; Gvoždík, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2215, - (2009), s. 37-54. ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * Molecular phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.891, year: 2009

  20. Genetic analysis reveals candidate species in the Scinax catharinae clade (Amphibia: Anura) from Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lídia; Solé, Mirco; Siqueira, Sérgio; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Strüssmann, Christine; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2016-03-01

    Scinax (Anura: Hylidae) is a species-rich genus of amphibians (113 spp.), divided into five species groups by morphological features. Cladistic analyses however revealed only two monophyletic clades in these groups: Scinax catharinae and Scinax ruber. Most species from the S. catharinae clade are found in Atlantic rainforest, except for Scinax canastrensis,S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi,S. pombali and S. skaios. In the present work, specimens of Scinax collected in Chapada dos Guimarães, central Brazil, were morphologically compatible with species from theS. catharinae group. On the other hand, genetic analysis based on mitochondrial (16S and 12S) and nuclear (rhodopsin) sequences revealed a nucleotide divergence of 6 to 20% between Scinax sp. and other congeners from the Brazilian savannah (Cerrado). Accordingly, Bayesian inference placed Scinax sp. in the S. catharinae clade with high support values. Hence, these findings strongly indicate the presence of a new species in the S. catharinae clade from the southwestern portion of the Brazilian savannah. To be properly validated as a novel species, detailed comparative morphological and bioacustic studies with other taxa from Brazil such asS. canastrensis, S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi, S. pombali and S. skaios are required. PMID:27007898

  1. Variability of Structural and Biomechanical Parameters of Pelophylax Esculentus (Amphibia, Anura Limb Bones

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    Broshko Ye. O.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Variability of Structural and Biomechanical Prameters of Pelophylax esculentus (Amphibia, Anura Limb Bones. Broshko Ye. O. — Structural and biomechanical parameters of Edible Frog, Pelophylax esculentus (Linnaeus, 1758, limb bones, namely, mass, linear dimensions, parameters of the shaft’s cross-sectional shape (cross-sectional area, moments of inertia, radiuses of inertia were investigated. Some coefficients were also estimated: diameters ratio (df/ds, cross-sectional index (ik, principal moments of inertia ratio (Imax/Imin.. Coefficients of variation of linear dimensions (11.9-20.0 % anrelative bone mass (22-35 % were established. Moments of inertia of various bones are more variable (CV = 41.67-56.35 % in relation to radii of inertia (CV = 9.68-14.67 %. Shaft’s cross-sectional shape is invariable in all cases. However, there is high individual variability of structural and biomechanical parameters of P. esculentus limb bones. Variability of parameters was limited by the certain range. We suggest the presence of stable norm in bone structure. Stylopodium bones have the primary biomechanical function among the elements of limb skeleton, because their parameters most clearly responsive to changes in body mass.

  2. Reprodução de Pseudis minuta (Anura, Hylidae no sul do Brasil

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    Janaine Melchiors

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction of Pseudis minuta (Anura, Hylidae in southern Brazil.This study was based on individuals of Pseudis minuta captured or observed in the municipality of Candiota, Campanha region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Sampling occurred along ten non-consecutive months in 2000, 2001 and 2002. The reproductive phases were characterized based on the gonadal development stage of39 males and 50 females, and on the observation, in nature, of the seasonal distribution of calling males, occurrence of amplectant pairs, and presence of larvae, juveniles and adults. Calls were recorded from August to April, amplectant pairs from October to February (except January, tadpoles from October to March (except February, and juveniles in all the sampled months (except January. Reproductive activity was not observed in late fall and early winter, even though females with post-vitellogenic oocytes and males with spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules were recorded in allthe seasons. Mature females were statistically larger and heavier than mature males.The smallest female with post-vitellogenic oocytes had 32.0 mm of snout-vent length,and the smallest male with spermatozoa in its seminiferous tubules had 20.6 mm. The number of post-vitellogenic oocytes was directly proportional to the mass and to the snout-vent length of females, and the length of testis was directly proportional to the snout-vent length and to the mass of males.

  3. Comparative Phylogeography of Direct-Developing Frogs (Anura: Craugastoridae: Pristimantis) in the Southern Andes of Colombia

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    García-R, Juan C.; Crawford, Andrew J.; Mendoza, Ángela María; Ospina, Oscar; Cardenas, Heiber; Castro, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The Andes of South America hosts perhaps the highest amphibian species diversity in the world, and a sizable component of that diversity is comprised of direct-developing frogs of the genus Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae). In order to better understand the initial stages of species formation in these frogs, this study quantified local-scale spatial genetic structuring in three species of Pristimantis. DNA sequences of two mitochondrial gene fragments (16S and COI) were obtained from P. brevifrons, P. palmeri and P. jubatus at different locations in the Cordillera Occidental. We found high levels of genetic diversity in the three species, with highly structured populations (as measured by FST) in P. brevifrons and P. palmeri while P. jubatus showed panmixia. Large effective population sizes, inferred from the high levels of genetic diversity, were found in the three species and two highly divergent lineages were detected within P. jubatus and P. palmeri. Estimated divergence times among populations within P. brevifrons and P. palmeri coincide with the Pleistocene, perhaps due to similar responses to climatic cycling or recent geological history. Such insights have important implications for linking alpha and beta diversity, suggesting regional scale patterns may be associated with local scale processes in promoting differentiation among populations in the Andes. PMID:23049941

  4. First records of five species of the genus Eleutherodactylus Duméril and Bibron, 1841 (Anura, Leptodactylidae for Bolivia

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    De la Riva, Ignacio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Five species of the genus Eleutherodactylus (Anura, Leptodactylidae are reported from Bolivia for the first time: E. altamazonicus from Departments Pando and La Paz; E. carvalhoi from Cochabamba; and E. ockendeni, E. skydmainos and E. zimmermanae from Pando. New departmental records are provided for other species: E. cruralis for Department Pando, E. danae for Beni and La Paz, E. platydactylus for Beni, E. toftae for Pando and La Paz and E. ventrimarmoratus for La Paz. Currently, 25 species of Eleutherodactylus are known in Bolivia. The taxonomic status of some species remains uncertain, new species are being described and others are still to be discovered. Therefore, the actual number of Bolivian Eleutherodactylus species is still unknown.En este trabajo se publican los primeros registros de cinco especies del género Eleutherodactylus (Anura, Leptodactylidae para Bolivia: E. altamazonicus en los Departamentos de Pando y La Paz; E. carvalhoi en Cochabamba; y E. ockendeni, E. skydmainos y E. zimmermanae en Pando. Además, se aportan las primeras citas de E. cruralis para el Departamento de Pando, de E. danae para Beni y La Paz, de E. platydactylus para Beni, de E. toftae para Pando y La Paz y de E. ventrimarmoratus para La Paz. La diversidad conocida de Eleutherodactylus en Bolivia es de 25 especies, aunque los problemas taxonómicos sin resolver, las especies en descripción y el alto número de especies aún no citadas que se considera probable encontrar, hacen que aún desconozcamos la verdadera diversidad de este género en Bolivia.

  5. Diets of tadpoles from a temporary pond in southeastern Brazil (Amphibia, Anura

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    Denise de C. Rossa-Feres

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet of tadpoles of 13 anuran species was determined to verify whether food resource partitioning occurs and whether the degree of diet similarity is related to taxonomic affinity. Tadpoles of all species studied were mainly herbivorous, except for these of Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 which were mycophagous. Although some species had exclusive items in their diet, most tadpole species ingested the same items, but differed in the amount of each item consumed. Two guilds were found: tadpoles that feed on diatoms on the pond bottom, and tadpoles that feed on Oedogonium Link, 1820 algae in midwater. Diet similarity was related to the taxonomic relationship, microhabitat and feeding behavior of tadpoles indicating that the community organization is complex and resulting from the interaction of several parameters.Dieta dos girinos de um açude temporário no sudeste do Brasil (Amphibia, Anura. Determinou-se a dieta dos girinos de 13 espécies de anuros, com o objetivo de verificar se ocorre partilha de recursos alimentares e se o grau de similaridade na dieta é relacionado ao parentesco, inferido pela proximidade taxonômica. Os girinos de todas as espécies estudadas foram preponderantemente herbívoros, exceto os de Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 que foram micófagos. Embora algumas espécies tenham apresentado itens exclusivos em sua dieta, os girinos da maioria das espécies ingeriram os mesmos itens, diferindo na quantidade consumida de cada item. Duas guildas foram encontradas: girinos que se alimentam de diatomáceas no fundo do corpo d'água e girinos que se alimentam de algas do gênero Oedogonium Link, 1820 à meia-água. A similaridade na dieta foi relacionada à proximidade taxonômica, ao microhabitat e ao comportamento de alimentação, indicando que a organização desta comunidade é complexa e resultante da interação entre vários fatores.

  6. Survey of helminths, ectoparasites, and chytrid fungus of an introduced population of cane toads, Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae), from Grenada

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    Drake, Michael C.; Zieger, Ulrike; Groszkowski, Andrew; Gallardo, Bruce; Sages, Patti; Reavis, Roslyn; Faircloth, Leslie; Jacobson, Krystin; Lonce, Nicholas; Pinckney, Rhonda D.; Cole, Rebecca Ann

    2014-01-01

    One hundred specimens of Rhinella marina, (Anura: Bufonidae) collected in St. George's parish, Grenada, from September 2010 to August 2011, were examined for the presence of ectoparasites and helminths. Ninety-five (95%) toads were parasitized by one or more parasite species. Nine species of parasites were found: 1 digenean, 2 acanthocephalans, 4 nematodes, 1 arthropod and 1 pentastome. The endoparasites represented 98.9% of the total number of parasite specimens collected. Grenada represents a new locality record for Mesocoelium monas, Raillietiella frenatus, Pseudoacanthacephalus sp., Aplectana sp., Physocephalus sp., Acanthacephala cystacanth and Physalopteridae larvae. The digenean M. monas occurred with the highest prevalence of 82%, contrasting many studies of R. marina where nematodes dominate the parasite infracommunity. Female toads were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of Amblyomma dissimile than male toads. Only two parasites exhibited a significant difference between wet and dry season with Parapharyngodon grenadensis prevalence highest in the wet season and A. dissimile prevalence highest during the dry season. Additionally, A. dissimile was significantly more abundant during the dry season.

  7. Revisión taxonómica de Alytes grandis Brunner (Amphibia, Anura

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    Sanchiz, B.

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The holotype and only existing remain referred to Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, presumably a discoglossid frog from the German Pleistocene, is examined and compared with other living and fossil Palaearctic anurans. The analysis rejects its validity as an independent extinct species, as The material is clearly within the known variability of living Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, of which it should be considered merely a sinonym.

    Se examina el holotipo y único resto atribuido de Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, un supuesto discoglósido del Pleistoceno alemán, comparándose con otros anuros actuales y fósiles del Paleártico. El análisis permite desechar su pertenencia a una especie extinta independiente, siendo en cambio atribuible con toda claridad a la viviente Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, de la que debe considerarse sinónimo.
    Zum systematischen Status von Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957 (Amphibia, Anura. Der bislang einzig bekannte und von Brunner (1957 beschriebene Rest zu Alytes grandis aus pleistozänen Ablagerungen der Breitenberghöhle bei Gössweinstein (Fränk, Alb wird beschrieben und aufgrund ausführlicher Vergleichsuntersuchungen der rezenten Art Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, zugeordnet, Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, ist somit als synonyrn zu Rana temporaria zu betrachten.

  8. Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil

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    Roger Maia Dias Ledo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil. This paper presents a list of necrophagous insects associated with small size carrions of two reptiles and one amphibian, found in areas of riparian forests and Cerrado sensu stricto physiognomies in a Conservation Unit located in Brasilia, Distrito Federal. We found seven species of insects related to these carcasses, being five Sarcophagidae, one Calliphoridae and one Braconidae parasitoid wasp. Lucilia eximia and Peckia (Pattonella intermutans were the most abundant species in the study, corroborating with other studies that suggests that these species have specializations for colonization of small size animal carcasses.

  9. Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil Sarcophagidae e Calliphoridae associados às carcaças de Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes e Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia em Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil

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    Roger Maia Dias Ledo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil. This paper presents a list of necrophagous insects associated with small size carrions of two reptiles and one amphibian, found in areas of riparian forests and Cerrado sensu stricto physiognomies in a Conservation Unit located in Brasilia, Distrito Federal. We found seven species of insects related to these carcasses, being five Sarcophagidae, one Calliphoridae and one Braconidae parasitoid wasp. Lucilia eximia and Peckia (Pattonella intermutans were the most abundant species in the study, corroborating with other studies that suggests that these species have specializations for colonization of small size animal carcasses.Sarcophagidae e Calliphoridae associados às carcaças de Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes e Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia em Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Este trabalho apresenta uma lista de insetos decompositores associados a carcaças de pequeno porte de dois répteis e de um anfíbio, encontrados em áreas de matas de galeria e de cerrado sensu stricto em unidades de conservação do Distrito Federal. Foram encontradas sete espécies de insetos associados a essas carcaças, sendo cinco sarcofagídeos, um califorídeo e uma vespa parasitóide Braconidae. Lucilia eximia e Peckia (Pattonella intermutans foram as espécies mais abundantes, corroborando com outros estudos que sugerem que estas espécies apresentam especializações para a colonização de carcaças menores.

  10. Uncovering the diversity in the Amazophrynella minuta complex: integrative taxonomy reveals a new species of Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) from southern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Rommel R; Chaparro, Juan C; Carvalho, Vinícius Tadeu De; Ávila, Robson W; Farias, Izeni Pires; Hrbek, Tomas; Gordo, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) is described from the departments of Madre de Dios, Cusco and Junin in Peru. An integrative taxonomy approach is used. A morphological diagnosis, morphometrics comparisons, description of the advertisement call, and the phylogenetic relationships of the new species are provided. Amazophrynella javierbustamantei sp. n. differs from other species of Amazophrynella by: intermediate body-size (snout-vent length 14.9 mm in males, n = 26 and 19.6 mm in females, n = 20), tuberculate skin texture of body, greatest hand length of the Amazophrynella spp. (3.6 mm in males, n = 26 and 4.6 mm in females, n = 20), venter coloration yellowish, tiny rounded black points covering the venter, and thirteen molecular autapomorphies in the 16S RNA gene. Its distribution varies from 215 to 708 m a.s.l. This discovery highlights the importance of the remnant forest in preserving the biodiversity in Peru, and increase in seven the species formally described in the genus Amazophrynella. PMID:27047239

  11. Uncovering the diversity in the Amazophrynella minuta complex: integrative taxonomy reveals a new species of Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) from southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Rommel R.; Chaparro, Juan C.; Carvalho, Vinícius Tadeu De; Ávila, Robson W.; Farias, Izeni Pires; Hrbek, Tomas; Gordo, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) is described from the departments of Madre de Dios, Cusco and Junin in Peru. An integrative taxonomy approach is used. A morphological diagnosis, morphometrics comparisons, description of the advertisement call, and the phylogenetic relationships of the new species are provided. Amazophrynella javierbustamantei sp. n. differs from other species of Amazophrynella by: intermediate body-size (snout-vent length 14.9 mm in males, n = 26 and 19.6 mm in females, n = 20), tuberculate skin texture of body, greatest hand length of the Amazophrynella spp. (3.6 mm in males, n = 26 and 4.6 mm in females, n = 20), venter coloration yellowish, tiny rounded black points covering the venter, and thirteen molecular autapomorphies in the 16S RNA gene. Its distribution varies from 215 to 708 m a.s.l. This discovery highlights the importance of the remnant forest in preserving the biodiversity in Peru, and increase in seven the species formally described in the genus Amazophrynella. PMID:27047239

  12. A new species of the Boophis rappiodes group (Anura, Mantellidae from the Sahamalaza Peninsula, northwest Madagascar, with acoustic monitoring of its nocturnal calling activity

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    Samuel Penny

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of treefrog of the Boophis rappiodes group (Anura, Mantellidae is described from the Sahamalaza – Iles Radama National Park in northwest Madagascar. This new species is green in colour with bright red speckling across its head and dorsum; similar in morphology to other species of this group including: B. bottae, B. rappiodes, B. erythrodactylus and B. tasymena. The new species can be distinguished by its advertisement call and by a genetic divergence of more than 4.9% in the analysed mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene fragment. Its call consists of two note types: a trill and a click; although similar sounding to B. bottae, the trill note of the new species has a faster pulse rate while the click note is predominantly two-pulsed rather than three. All individuals were detected from the banks of two streams in Ankarafa Forest. The new species represents the only member of the B. rappiodes group endemic to Madagascar’s western coast, with the majority of other members known from the eastern rainforest belt. Despite its conspicuous call, it has not been detected from other surveys of northwest Madagascar and it is likely to be a local endemic to the peninsula. The ranges of two other amphibian species also appear restricted to Sahamalaza, and so the area seems to support a high level of endemicity. Although occurring inside a National Park, this species is highly threatened by the continuing decline in the quality and extent of its habitat. Due to these threats it is proposed that this species should be classified as Critically Endangered according to the IUCN Red List criteria.

  13. A new species of Andean frog of the genus Bryophryne from southern Peru Anura: Craugastoridae) and its phylogenetic position, with notes on the diversity of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Juan C; Padial, José M; Gutiérrez, Roberto C; De La Riva, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new species of terrestrial frog of the genus Bryophryne (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the wet puna and elfin forests of the Amazonian versant of the Andes. The new species seems to be restricted to high altitude environments at elevations between 3506-3651 m in the area now protected by Megantoni National Sanctuary and Manu National Park (Distrito de Echarate, Provincia La Convención, Departamento Cusco, Peru). The new species is characterized by lacking vomerine processes of vomers, by having tympanic annulus and tympanic membrane not evident through the skin, smooth dorsal skin with scattered warts, conspicuous dorsolateral, middorsal, and occipital folds, warty flanks, areolate skin on ventral surfaces of the body, and by lacking finger and toe fringes and basal web on feet. In life, specimens have bright and highly variable dorsal coloration that ranges from olive-green to red with variable combinations of red or orange marks (red or orange in the green form and olive-green in the red form). Molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA place the new species within the genus Bryophryne and as sister group of B. cophites. Bryophryne bustamantei, also sequenced for this study, is found as the sister group of the clade formed by B. cophites and the new species. Bryophryne is found as sister group of Psychrophrynella in maximum likelihood analyses and as the sister group of a large clade of holoadenines in parsimony analyses. The genus Bryophryne now contains nine species, all of them distributed along the Cordillera Oriental of the Peruvian Andes, southeast of the Apurimac River valley. PMID:26250261

  14. Hematología y citoquímica de las células sanguíneas de Rhinella fernandezae (Anura: Bufonidae en Espinal y Delta-Islas del río Paraná, Argentina

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    Mariana C Cabagna Zenklusen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La descripción de la hematología de los anfibios anuros es escasa, habiéndose realizado la mayoría de los trabajos en especies de Norteamérica, Asia y Europa. Con el propósito de obtener datos hematológicos para Rhinella fernandezae, fueron estudiados 23 especímenes provenientes de zonas protegidas de las provincias de Santa Fe y Entre Ríos. Se les extrajo sangre por punción cardíaca y se realizaron hemogramas. En los extendidos sanguíneos, se efectuaron la descripción morfológica y citoquímica de las células sanguíneas y búsqueda de parásitos. Se observaron cinco tipos de leucocitos, donde predominaron los linfocitos pequeños. Heterófilos y eosinófilos resultaron positivos para PAS, Sudan B y peroxidasa; contrariamente, los eritrocitos y sus precursores fueron negativos. Los puntajes de las reacciones citoquímicas fueron variables para basófilos, linfocitos, monocitos y trombocitos. Las frecuencias de micronúcleos y de alteraciones nucleares fueron escasas. No se observaron diferencias significativas (p>0.05 entre sexos en el hemograma ni en la morfología sanguínea. Los únicos hemoparásitos encontrados fueron microfilarias (Nematoda: Filaroidea, cuya prevalencia e intensidad de infección fueron bajas. Las características hematológicas estudiadas fueron semejantes a los valores reportados para otros anfibios, pudiendo inferir que los individuos de R. fernandezae estudiados se encuentran en un buen estado nutricional e inmunológico.Hematology and blood cell cytochemistry of Rhinella fernandezae (Amphibia: Anura from Espinal and Delta-Islands of Paraná River, Argentina. The description of amphibian hematology is scarce and most of these studies have been done in species from North America, Asia and Europe. With the purpose to obtain basic hematological information of Rhinella fernandezae, 23 blood samples from Santa Fe and Entre Ríos natural reserves were studied. Blood of each individual was extracted by cardiac

  15. Physalaemus albonotatus Steindachner, 1864 (Anura: Leptodactylidae

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    Herrera, Raúl

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available República Argentina, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Partido de Ramallo. Islas de Obligado (33º 32' S, 59º 53' O. 1.- Colector: R. Herrera, 24 de enero de 2001, MACN 37381. 2.- Cueva de los lechuzones (33º 27' S, 60º 02' O. Colector: D. Voglino, 30 de marzo de 2002, MLP A. 3421.

  16. Chromosome evolution in dendropsophini (Amphibia, Anura, Hylinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, P; Cardozo, D; Baldo, D; Pereyra, M O; Faivovich, J; Orrico, V G D; Catroli, G F; Grabiele, M; Bernarde, P S; Nagamachi, C Y; Haddad, C F B; Pieczarka, J C

    2013-01-01

    Dendropsophini is the most species-rich tribe within Hylidae with 234 described species. Although cytogenetic information is sparse, chromosome numbers and morphology have been considered as an important character system for systematic inferences in this group. Using a diversity of standard and molecular techniques, we describe the previously unknown karyotypes of the genera Xenohyla, Scarthyla and Sphaenorhynchus and provide new information on Dendropsophus and Lysapsus. Our results reveal significant karyotype diversity among Dendropsophini, with diploid chromosome numbers ranging from 2n = 22 in S. goinorum, 2n = 24 in Lysapsus, Scinax, Xenohyla, and almost all species of Sphaenorhynchus and Pseudis, 2n = 26 in S. carneus, 2n = 28 in P. cardosoi, to 2n = 30 in all known Dendropsophus species. Although nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and C-banding patterns show a high degree of variability, NOR positions in 2n = 22, 24 and 28 karyotypes and C-banding patterns in Lysapsus and Pseudis are informative cytological markers. Interstitial telomeric sequences reveal a diploid number reduction from 24 to 22 in Scarthyla by a chromosome fusion event. The diploid number of X. truncata corroborates the character state of 2n = 30 as a synapomorphy of Dendropsophus. PMID:24107475

  17. Osteological differentiation among Iberian Pelodytes (Anura, Pelodytidae

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    Sánchez-Herráiz, M. J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphological differentiation among Pelodytes species is analysed based on a sample of disarticulated bones from the main osteological regions of the male adult skeleton. A set of 35 interspecifically diagnostic characters, analysed under different outgroup hypotheses, clearly shows that P. ibericus and P. punctatus are a sister-group with respect to P. caucasicus. The Caucasian species retains a very primitive morphology, with only 17-23 % derived character-states, while both living Iberian species reach percentages of derivation over 68 %. There is little difference between P. ibericus and P. punctatus in their relative degree of evolutionary transformation, and when using P. caucasicus as the outgroup the percentage of derived character-states is 45 and 60 % respectively. Differentiation rates are calculated in darwin units for several characters, and we show that the skull components have higher rates than the traits directly related with locomotion. Several adult growth trajectories, different between species, are described and identified as diverse allometric heterochronies. Three factors have been detected that might have grouped several characters as coevolutionary units. These factors are: a an ontogenetic factor, operating through heterochronic processes, expressed as a tendency to reduce ossification; b a functional morphological integration, detected in the elements involved in skull size and proportions; and c an ecomorphological factor, presumably an adaptive response, can be assumed for characters related to limb shape.Se analiza la diferenciación morfológica en Pelodytes mediante el análisis comparado de una muestra de elementos óseos desarticulados procedentes de las principales regiones del esqueleto macho adulto. Un conjunto de 35 rasgos interespecíficamente diferenciales, analizada bajo diversos grupos externos, permite inferir que P. ibericus y P. punctatus forman un grupo hermano frente a P. caucasicus. La especie caucásica mantiene una morfología muy primitiva, con sólo 17-23% de estados derivados, en tanto que las especies ibéricas son ambas muy derivadas, con porcentajes superiores al 68 % de los rasgos. Hay poca diferencia entre P. ibericus y P. punctatus en cuanto a su grado relativo de transformación evolutiva, y utilizando a P. caucasicus como grupo externo presentan porcentajes de estados derivados del 45 y 60 % respectivamente. Se calculan las tasas de diferenciación de varios caracteres en darwines, presentando los componentes craneales tasas más altas que los rasgos directamente relacionados con la locomoción. Se describen e identifican en términos de alometrías heterocrónicas diversas trayectorias de crecimiento adulto, diferenciales entre especies. Se han detectado tres factores que permiten agrupar los caracteres en unidades de evolución conjunta. Estos factores son: a un factor ontogenético producido mediante procesos heterocrónicos, apreciable en una tendencia a la disminución de la osificación; b una integración morfológica funcional, detectable en los elementos implicados en el tamaño y proporciones del cráneo; y c un factor ecomorfológico, presumiblemente una respuesta adaptativa, puede inferirse en rasgos relacionados con la robustez de las extremidades.

  18. Pore-linked filaments in anura spermatocyte nuclei

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    Maria Luiza Beçak

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Pore-linked filaments were visualized in spreads of anuran spermatocyte nuclei using transmission electron microscope. We used Odontophrynus diplo and tetraploid species having the tetraploid frogs reduced metabolic activities. The filaments with 20-40 nm width are connected to a ring component of the nuclear pore complex with 90-120 nm and extend up to 1µm (or more into the nucleus. The filaments are curved and connect single or neighboring pores. The intranuclear filaments are associated with chromatin fibers and related to RNP particles of 20-25 nm and spheroidal structures of 0.5µm, with variations. The aggregates of several neighboring pores with the filaments are more commonly observed in 4n nuclei. We concluded that the intranuclear filaments may correspond to the fibrillar network described in Xenopus oocyte nucleus being probably related to RNA transport. The molecular basis of this RNA remains elusive. Nevertheless, the morphological aspects of the spheroidal structures indicate they could correspond to nucleolar chromatin or to nucleolus-derived structures. We also speculate whether the complex aggregates of neighboring pores with intranuclear filaments may correspond to pore clustering previously described in these tetraploid animals using freeze-etching experiments.Filamentos ligados a poros foram visualizados em núcleos de espermatócitos de anuros através da técnica de espalhamento para microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. Os animais usados pertencem ao gênero Odontophrynus com espécies cripticas diplo e tetraplóides naturais, tendo os tetraplóides atividade metabólica reduzida. Os filamentos com 20-40 nm de largura são ligados a um anel componente do complexo poro nuclear de 90-120 nm e estendem-se até 1 µm (ou mais para dentro do núcleo. Os filamentos são curvos e ligam poros simples ou poros vizinhos. Os filamentos intranucleares são associados a fibras de cromatina e relacionados a partículas de RNP de 20-25 nm e a estruturas esféricas de 0.5µm, com variações. Os agregados de poros vizinhos com os filamentos longos são mais freqüentemente observados em núcleos 4n. Concluímos que os filamentos intranucleares podem corresponder aos emaranhados fibrilares descritos em núcleos de oócitos de Xenopus e possivelmente relacion ados ao transporte de RNA. A base molecular desse RNA não é conhecida. Contudo, os aspectos morfológicos das estruturas esféricas parecem indicar que elas podem corresponder à cromatina nucleolar ou a estruturas derivadas do nucléolo. Também, especulamos se os agregados complexos de poros vizinhos com os filamentos intranucleares podem corresponder aos aglomerados de poros previamente descritos nesses animais tetraplóides através da técnica''freeze-etching''.

  19. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of Amolops tuberodepressus (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaohua; Xia, Yun; Zeng, Xiaomao

    2016-07-01

    Amolops tuberodepressus is a vulnerable torrent frog, and only know distributed in the Wuliang Mountain in southwestern China. In the present study, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of A. tuberodepressus was determined. The genome was 18 348 bp in length, and it contained 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, and 22 transfer RNAs), one partial control region and one light strand replication origin. The gene rearrangement was observed within the WANCY tRNA gene cluster region, which similar to other Amolops species. In this paper, we utilized 13 protein-coding genes of A. tuberodepressus and other 10 closely ranid species to construct the species phylogenetic tree to verify the A. tuberodepressus was accuracy. PMID:26153745

  20. Diet and trophic niche of Lithobates catesbeianus (Amphibia: Anura

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    Peterson T. Leivas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802 is an invasive anuran introduced in Brazil that is associated with the displacement and the decline of populations of native species worldwide. There is evidence that biological invasions are facilitated by certain attributes of the invading species, for instance niche breath, and that invasive species have a broader ecological niche with respect to native ones. We designed a study to ascertain the temporal, ontogenetic, and sex differences in the niche dynamics of the American bullfrog. We sampled monthly from June 2008 to May 2009 in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. For each individual, we gathered biometric and stomach content data. We then estimated the niche breath of the juveniles and adults, and compared it between the sexes. A total of 104 females and 77 males were sampled. Lithobates catesbeianus has a generalist diet, preying upon invertebrates and vertebrates. Even though the diet of the studied population varied seasonally, it did not differ between the sexes nor did it respond to biometric variables. Niche breadth was more restricted in the winter than in the autumn. The trophic niche of juveniles and adults did not overlap much when compared with the trophic niche overlap between males and females. Adult males and females had a considerable niche overlap, but females had a broader trophic niche than males in the winter and in the spring. These niche characteristics point to an opportunistic predation strategy that may have facilitated the process of invasion and establishment of this species in the study area.

  1. Alsodes pehuenche (Anura: Cycloramphidae: Past, present and future

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    Corbalán, Valeria

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Alsodes pehuenche es una especie endémica del Valle Pehuenche, en los Andes centrales de la Argentina, en el límite con Chile. Su biología es pobremente conocida y, en consecuencia, ha sido incluida en la categoría de Datos Insuficientes por la UICN. En esta contribución se proporcionan nuevos datos para la especie y se describen las amenazas que está sufriendo. La pavimentación de la ruta nacional 145 ha modificado los cursos de agua de los arroyos habitados por A. pehuenche, produciendo una alteración del hábitat y una mortalidad cercana al 25% de la población. Se cita por primera vez a A. pehuenche para Chile, aumentando su distribución geográfica conocida que alcanza los 9 km2. En el futuro, partículas contaminantes provenientes del tránsito vehicular podrían alcanzar los arroyos modificando seriamente la calidad del agua. Tanto la alteración de los cursos de agua como la contaminación, junto a otras amenazas importantes como el ganado doméstico, eventos de crecidas naturales y el cambio climático, podrían afectar severamente la supervivencia de la especie, especialmente si se tienen en cuenta sus hábitos acuáticos y su peculiar ciclo de vida con un período metamórfico que dura varios años. Se están llevando a cabo acciones de conservación, pero el éxito de las mismas aún no está garantizado. El esfuerzo conjunto de investigadores y gobierno es esencial para lograrlo. Consideramos que en la actualidad hay datos suficientes para realizar un cambio de categoría de amenaza, de Datos Insuficientes a especie Críticamente Amenazada. Alsodes pehuenche is an endemic species of the Pehuenche Valley in the Central Andes of Argentina, on the border with Chile. Its biology is poorly known, and in consequence, has been categorized as Data Deficient by IUCN. In this contribution, we give new data on the species, and describe the threats it is facing. The paving of national route 145 modified the courses of the streams inhabited by A. pehuenche, producing habitat alteration and mortality of nearly 25% of the population. For the first time, A. pehuenche is cited for Chile, expanding its known geographical distribution area that reaches 9 km2. In the future, contaminant particles from vehicle traffic could arrive in the streams modifying water quality. Alteration of watercourses and contamination, as well as other important threats like domestic livestock, natural flooding events and climate change, could severely affect survival of the species, especially taking into account their aquatic habits and their peculiar life cycle with a metamorphic period that lasts many years. Conservation actions are in progress, but success is not yet guaranteed. A partnership between researchers and government is essential for success. We believe that information about P. pehuenche is now enough to make a category change from Data Deficient to Critically Endangered.

  2. Evolution of erythrocyte morphology in amphibians (Amphibia: Anura

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    Jie Wei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We compared the morphology of the erythrocytes of five anurans, two toad species - Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842 and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799 and three frog species - Fejervarya limnocharis (Gravenhorst, 1829, Microhyla ornata (Duméril & Bibron, 1841, and Rana zhenhaiensis (Ye, Fei & Matsui, 1995. We then reconstructed the ancestral state of erythrocyte size (ES and nuclear size (NS in amphibians based on a molecular tree. Nine morphological traits of erythrocytes were all significantly different among the five species. The results of principal component analysis showed that the first component (49.1% of variance explained had a high positive loading for erythrocyte length, nuclear length, NS and ratio of erythrocyte length/erythrocyte width; the second axis (28.5% of variance explained mainly represented erythrocyte width and ES. Phylogenetic generalized least squares analysis showed that the relationship between NS and ES was not affected by phylogenetic relationships although there was a significant linear relationship between these two variables. These results suggested that (1 the nine morphological traits of erythrocytes in the five anuran species were species-specific; (2 in amphibians, larger erythrocytes generally had larger nuclei.

  3. Evolution of erythrocyte morphology in amphibians (Amphibia: Anura)

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Wei; Yan-Yan Li; Li Wei; Guo-Hua Ding; Xiao-Li Fan; Zhi-Hua Lin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We compared the morphology of the erythrocytes of five anurans, two toad species - Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842) and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799) and three frog species - Fejervarya limnocharis (Gravenhorst, 1829), Microhyla ornata (Duméril & Bibron, 1841), and Rana zhenhaiensis (Ye, Fei & Matsui, 1995). We then reconstructed the ancestral state of erythrocyte size (ES) and nuclear size (NS) in amphibians based on a molecular tree. Nine morphological traits of eryth...

  4. Description of Duttaphrynus atukoralei (Anura: Bufonidae) tadpoles from Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopage, Malaka M; Wewelwala, Krishan; Krvavac, Milivoje; Jovanovic, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Duttaphrynus atukoralei (Bogert & Senanayake, 1966) is a relatively abundant toad known from Southern and Southeastern Sri Lanka. It occurs from sea level up to ~200 m above sea level (IUCN 2014). For almost half a century since its original description there was no information on its life cycle; the only information available is related to its description and distribution (Dutta & Manamendra-Arachchi 1996; Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda 2006). PMID:26249461

  5. Alimentación en Melanophryniscus stelzneri (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Fillipelo, Ana María

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The alimentary categories of a population of Melanophryniscus stelzneri are studied cuantitatively and cualitatively utilizing a sample of 57 specimens obtained from "El Trapiche", province of San Luis, Argentine, in order to know the grade of trophic overlap and predation strategies. The main alimentary categories for males and females are: Formicidae, Collembola, Acari, Coleoptera, Isoptera and larvae. Although the diets of both sexes show a high grade of trophic overlap, males and females differ in the amount of each resource used. Adults and juveniles present a low grade of trophic overlap. The juveniles follow the "widely foraging" strategy and the adults follow an intermidiate one, between "sit and wait" and "widely foraging".

  6. Morphology of skin incubation in Pipa carvalhoi (Anura: Pipidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, Hartmut; Richter, Susanne

    2009-11-01

    South American Pipidae show a unique reproductive mode, in which the fertilized eggs develop in temporarily formed brood chambers of the dorsal skin after eggs have been deposited on the back of the female. We studied the skin incubation of Pipa carvalhoi using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The skin consists of a stratified epithelium with a one-layered stratum corneum, and the dermis. The dermis of the dorsal skin of nonreproductive and reproductive females lacks a distinct stratum compactum, which is typical for most anuran skins. The entire dermis shows irregularly arranged collagen bundles like a stratum spongiosum. Before egg laying, the skin swells, primarily by thickening and further by loosening of the middle zone of the dermis. In the epidermis, large furrows develop that are the prospective sites of egg nidation. The epidermis, which forms a brood chamber around the developing egg becomes bi-layered and very thin and lacks a stratum corneum. Further, the dermis loosens and becomes heavily vascularized. Egg carrying females do not have mature oocytes in their ovaries indicating a slow down or interruption of egg maturation during this period. Similarities with the brood pouch of marsupial frogs are discussed. PMID:19434720

  7. The advertisement call of Ameerega pulchripecta (Silverstone, 1976)(Anura, Dendrobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Campos, Carlos Eduardo; Lima, Albertina Pimentel; Amézquita, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    The name Ameerega picta was once used to denote a lineage of poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) distributed throughout most of the Amazon basin (Silverstone 1976); more recently, to describe a phenetic group involving at least 18 species, Lötters et al. (2007) pointed out that some of the lineages were indeed derived from the former A. picta. Among them, the nominal species with the widest distribution is A. hahneli (Haddad & Martins 1994; Twomey & Brown 2008), also an alleged complex of poorly defined species (Grant et al. 2006; Fouquet et al. 2007; Roberts et al. 2007). The mate-recognition signal, the advertisement call, was part of the evidence used to revalidate A. hahneli as a different species from A. picta. Although the advertisement call has been described for one or few individuals of other species in the group (Haddad & Martins 1994; Costa et al. 2006; Twomey & Brown 2008; Lötters et al. 2009), namely A. flavopicta, A. braccata and A. boehmei, and A. hahneli, we still lack a formal description for A. pulchripecta, the sister taxon of A. hahneli (Twomey & Brown 2008). Its call has been qualitatively described as similar to A. hahneli's call, but "deeper-voiced" (Lötters et al. 2007). PMID:27395723

  8. Advertisement calls of Bolivian species of Scinax (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riva, de la Ignacio; Márquez, Rafael; Bosch, Jaime

    1994-01-01

    The advertisement calls of eight Bolivian species of Scinax are described including information on the calling behaviour of each species. A characteristic audiospectrogram and oscillogram are presented for each species, as well as numerical information about the spectral and temporal features of the

  9. [Bioacoustic of the advertisement call of Ceratophrys cranwelli (Anura: Ceratophryidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valetti, Julián Alonso; Salas, Nancy Edith; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico

    2013-03-01

    The advertisement call plays an important role in the life history of anuran amphibians, mainly during the breeding season. Call features represent an important character to discriminate species, and sound emissions are very effective to assure or reinforce genetic incompatibility, especially in the case of sibling species. Since frogs are ectotherms, acoustic properties of their calls will vary with temperature. In this study, we described the advertisement call of C. cranwelli, quantifying the temperature effect on its components. The acoustic emissions were recorded during 2007 using a DAT record Sony TCD-100 with stereo microphone ECM-MS907 Sony and tape TDK DAT-RGX 60. As males emit their calls floating in temporary ponds, water temperatures were registered after recording the advertisement calls with a digital thermometer TES 1300+/-0.1 degreeC. Altogether, 54 calls from 18 males were analyzed. The temporal variables of each advertisement call were measured using oscillograms and sonograms and the analyses of dominant frequency were performed using a spectrogram. Multiple correlation analysis was used to identify the temperature-dependent acoustic variables and the temperature effect on these variables was quantified using linear regression models. The advertisement call of C. cranwelli consists of a single pulse group. Call duration, Pulse duration and Pulse interval decreased with the temperature, whereas the Pulse rate increased with temperature. The temperature-dependent variables were standardized at 25 degreeC according to the linear regression model obtained. The acoustic variables that were correlated with the temperature are the variables which emissions depend on laryngeal muscles and the temperature constraints the contractile properties of muscles. Our results indicated that temperature explains an important fraction of the variability in some acoustic variables (79% in the Pulse rate), and demonstrated the importance of considering the effect of temperature in acoustic components. The results suggest that acoustic variables show geographic variation to compare data with previous works. PMID:23894980

  10. Diferenciación sexual de Phyllomedusa boliviana (Anura: Hylidae

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    Rengel, Dora

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Phyllomedusa boliviana (Hylidae es una especie que se distribuye desde el centro de Bolivia y oeste de Brasil hasta el Norte de Argentina, ocupando diversos ambientes en un amplio rango altitudinal (350-2000 m.s.n.m.. La gónada de Phyllomedusa boliviana se diferencia antes de llegar a los procesos de metamorfosis en una estructura orientada a la formación de un testículo o hacia la constitución de un ovario; lo que encuadra a esta especie en el concepto de "raza diferenciada" en el sentido de Witshi (1924 a diferencia de lo reportado en Phyllomedusa sauvagii, que ha sido considerada una "raza indiferenciada de tipo masculino", hecho único entre los anuros conocidos (Rengel y Pisanó, 1981. Phyllomedusa boliviana (Hylidae is a species that distributes from mid Bolivia and west of Brazil to the north of Argentine, occupying different habitats in a wide altitudinous range (350- 2000 m. P. boliviana's gonad is differentiated before metamorphosis in a structure orientated at the formation of the testicle or ovary. For this reason, this species is framed in the concept of "differentiated sexual race" (Wistchi 1924. This observation is different that reported in Phyllomedusa sauvagii, which has been considered an "indifferentiated race of masculine type". This matter is unique in anurans (Rengel y Pisanó, 1981.

  11. A new minute Andean Pristimantis (Anura: Strabomantidae from Venezuela

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    César L. Barrio-Amorós

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pristimantis is described from the Venezuelan Andes. The new species is the smallest in its genus known in Venezuela and belongs to the Pristimantis unistrigatus Group. It differs from the rest of Venezuelan Andean congeners in body size (mean male SVL < 21.3 mm, female SVL < 26.3 mm, expanded discs on fingers and toes, absence of dorsolateral folds, and a distinctivecall consisting in 2–5 cricket-like short notes. The new species inhabits the southwestern part of the Cordillera de Mérida in Venezuela and the Venezuelan side of the Cordillera Oriental deColombia, and could be present on the Colombian portion of the cordillera as well.

  12. The identity of Rana lutea Molina, 1782 (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Daiana P; Lavilla, Esteban O

    2013-01-01

    Rana lutea is one of the two anuran species described in 1782 by the Chilean born priest and naturalist Juan Ignacio Molina, and its nomenclatural history is confusing. After a detailed revision of the pertinent literature, we demonstrate that Bufo thaul Schneider, 1799, is a junior objective synonym of Rana lutea Molina, 1782, but based on the usage of both nomina, we revert the precedence and consider Rana lutea Molina, 1782 as a nomen oblitum whereas Bufo thaul Schneider, 1799 is a nomen protectum. Thus, the authorship of the species currently known as Pleurodema thaul (Lesson, 1826) changes to Pleurodema thaul (Schneider, 1799). PMID:24614468

  13. Chromosomal analysis of Physalaemus kroyeri and Physalaemus cicada (Anura, Leptodactylidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni; Solé, Mirco; Faria, Renato Gomes; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract All the species of Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826 karyotyped up until now have been classified as 2n = 22. The species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group analyzed by C-banding present a block of heterochromatin in the interstitial region of the short arm of pair 5. Physalaemus cicada Bokermann, 1966 has been considered to be a member of the Physalaemus cuvieri species group, although its interspecific phylogenetic relationships remain unknown. The PcP190 satellite DNA has been mapped on the chromosomes of most of the species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. For two species, Physalaemus cicada and Physalaemus kroyeri (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862), however, only the chromosome number and morphology are known. Given this, the objective of the present study was to analyze the chromosomes of Physalaemus cicada and Physalaemus kroyeri, primarily by C-banding and PcP190 mapping. The results indicate that Physalaemus kroyeri and Physalaemus cicada have similar karyotypes, which were typical of Physalaemus. In both species, the NORs are located on the long arm of pair 8, and the C-banding indicated that, among other features, Physalaemus kroyeri has the interstitial band on chromosome 5, which is however absent in Physalaemus cicada. Even so, a number of telomeric bands were observed in Physalaemus cicada. The mapping of the PcP190 satellite DNA highlighted areas of the centromeric region of the chromosomes of pair 1 in both species, although in Physalaemus kroyeri, heteromorphism was also observed in pair 3. The cytogenetic evidence does not support the inclusion of Physalaemus cicada in the Physalaemus cuvieri group. In the case of Physalaemus kroyeri, the interstitial band on pair 5 is consistent with the existence of a cytogenetic synapomorphy in the Physalaemus cuvieri species group. PMID:27551351

  14. Phylogenetics, classification, and biogeography of the treefrogs (Amphibia: Anura: Arboranae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duellman, William E; Marion, Angela B; Hedges, S Blair

    2016-01-01

    A phylogenetic analysis of sequences from 503 species of hylid frogs and four outgroup taxa resulted in 16,128 aligned sites of 19 genes. The molecular data were subjected to a maximum likelihood analysis that resulted in a new phylogenetic tree of treefrogs. A conservative new classification based on the tree has (1) three families composing an unranked taxon, Arboranae, (2) nine subfamilies (five resurrected, one new), and (3) six resurrected generic names and five new generic names. Using the results of a maximum likelihood timetree, times of divergence were determined. For the most part these times of divergence correlated well with historical geologic events. The arboranan frogs originated in South America in the Late Mesozoic or Early Cenozoic. The family Pelodryadidae diverged from its South American relative, Phyllomedusidae, in the Eocene and invaded Australia via Antarctica. There were two dispersals from South America to North America in the Paleogene. One lineage was the ancestral stock of Acris and its relatives, whereas the other lineage, subfamily Hylinae, differentiated into a myriad of genera in Middle America. PMID:27394762

  15. Kin discrimination in tadpoles of Hylarana temporalis (Anura: Ranidae and Sphaerotheca breviceps (Anura: Dicroglossidae hydroperiod and social habits

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    Amrapali P. Rajput

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kin discrimination ability was studied in tadpoles of Hylarana temporalis and Sphaerotheca breviceps, which live in two distinctly different habitats; the former shows social aggregation and the latter live scattered. Early in development, tadpoles of H. temporalis are found in small aggregations in the streams of Western Ghats but in later stages they are generally seen in isolated pools cut off from the main channel following drying up of the stream. Sphaerotheca breviceps breed during south-west monsoons in rain-filled puddles and its tadpoles are always found scattered. We hypothesized that the tadpoles living in aggregation exhibit kin discrimination while those not living in aggregation may not exhibit kin discrimination. Further, tadpoles that face desiccation threat may also not exhibit kin discrimination behavior. Tests were conducted on tadpoles of the above two species at two developmental stages (Gosner Stages 28-30 and 34-36 to reveal their association choice with sibs and non-sibs. Tadpoles of H. temporalis associated with both familiar (reared with sibs and unfamiliar (reared in isolation sibs in early but not in later stages of development. Tadpoles of S. breviceps showed no association preference with sibs (familiar or unfamiliar in both early and later stages. The findings on H. temporalis suggest that kin discrimination between sib from non-sib may be benficial during early stages of development that takes place in flowing streams and it may be less important in later stages of development taking place in pools of water bodies that face desiccation. Absence of kin recognition in S. breviceps is associated with their lack of natural aggregation and perennial desiccation threat of the ephemeral ponds. We suggest that kin discrimination behavior in tadpoles is related to their social habits and hydroperiod of their habitat.

  16. Metacercárias livres (Digenea: Diplostomidae em Rhinella fernandezae (Anura: Bufonidae no Sul do Brasil Free metacercariae (Digenea, Diplostomidae in Rhinella fernandezae (Anura: Bufonidae in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Gularte Tavares dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Metacercárias livres de uma espécie não determinada de trematódeo digenético (Diplostomidae foram encontradas nos rins de anuros da espécie Rhinella fernandezae coletados no Município de Imbé, Litoral Norte do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Em uma amostra de 90 anuros, as metacercárias apresentaram prevalência de 3,3% e intensidade de infecção de 8,7 helmintos/hospedeiro. Este é o primeiro registro de metacercárias livres de diplostomídeos em anuros da região Sul do Brasil e do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.Free metacercariae of an undetermined species of digenetic (Diplostomidae were found over in the kidneys of anurans of the species Rhinella fernandezae collected in the in the municipality of Imbé, on the northern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil. In a sample of 90 anurans, the prevalence of free metacercariae was 3,3, and the mean intensity of infection was 8,7 helminths/host. This is the first record of free metacercariae in anurans from Southern Brazil and from the State of Rio Grande do Sul.

  17. First record of the torrent frog Hylodes heyeri (Anura, Hylodidae in Santa Catarina State, South Brazil and acoustic comparison with the cryptic species Hylodes perplicatus (Anura, Hylodidae

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    Juliane Petry de Carli Monteiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report the first record of the torrent frog Hylodes heyeri in Santa Catarina State, South Brazil, previously known from localities along the Atlantic Rainforest in the states of São Paulo and Paraná. We also performed an acoustic comparison between the calls of H. heyeri and H. perplicatus due to their morphological similarity and because now they could be found in sympatry. There was a greater variation in advertisement call duration for both species, than previously stated in the literature, probably related to variation in air temperature. To distinguish the two species, besides the differences in dominant frequency, a temporal parameter that could be used was the interval between notes, but call duration should not be used due to the influence of air temperature. Our findings reinforce the urgency for more field activities to enhance our knowledge of the geographic distribution of anuran amphibians, to promote their conservation, and to call attention to the importance of detailed acoustic analysis to distinguish cryptic species.

  18. Helmintos parásitos de Telmatobius jelskii (Peters (Anura, Leptodactylidae de Lima, Perú Helminth parasites of Telmatobius jelskii (Peters (Anura, Leptodactylidae from Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Iannacone

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative research of parasites of 67 endemic frog Telmatobius jelskii (Peters, 1863 collected from Laguna Tucto (76°46'11"W, 10°39'11"S where Pativilca River is originated was conducted, and was located in the Province of Oyon, high Andean area from the Department of Lima, Peru during September-October 2000. Of the frogs collected, 23 were females and 44 males. Male showed a length between 5.2 ± 0.5 cm (range = 4.0-6.4 cm and female between 5.5 ± 1 cm (range = 3.9-7.6 cm and were not found differences between both sexes. 86 specimens of parasite and three species in total during all the survey were collected. 28 hosts were infected (41.8%. twenty-five hosts (37.3% showed infection with one parasite species, and three (4.5% had two parasite species. Three parasite species were found: Gorgoderina parvicava Travassos, 1922 (Digenea: Gorgoderidae (Prevalence = 40.3%; mean Intensity = 3.1; mean abundance = 1.2, Cylindrotaenia americana Jewell, 1916 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae (Prevalence = 3%; mean Intensity = 1; mean abundance = 0.02 and Aplectana hylambatis (Baylis, 1927 (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae (Prevalence = 3%; mean Intensity = 1; mean abundance = 0.02. G. parvicava had an overdispersed distribution and was the dominant species. An effect of sex and length with prevalence and mean abundance of infection of G. parvicava was not found. The relationship of helminthes parasites with T. jelskii is discussed. G. parvicava and C. americana are new records for T. jelskii.

  19. Dieta y parasitismo de Leptodactylus diptyx (Anura: Leptodactylidae del nordeste argentino Diet and parasitism of Leptodactylus diptyx (Anura: Leptodactylidae from Northeastern Argentina

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    Víctor Hugo Zaracho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversos aspectos de la historia natural de especies del grupo Leptodactylus marmoratus son escasamente conocidos y la poca información existente aborda principalmente los de la biología reproductiva. El objetivo de este trabajo es aportar información acerca de la dieta y del parasitismo de poblaciones de Leptodactylus diptyx del nordeste argentino. Para el estudio trófico, se analizó el contenido estomacal e intestinal de 22 individuos adultos, mientras que para el estudio parasitario, se examinó el tubo digestivo de 40 individuos. Se registró un total de 91 presas, clasificadas en 17 categorías, entre los cuales los himenópteros formícidos fueron los más numerosos (45% y frecuentes (55%. Otras presas importantes fueron colémbolos, coleópteros y arañas. Los valores de diversidad de presas (índice de Shannon y amplitud del nicho (índice de Levins fueron 2.06 y 4.29, respectivamente. El 57.5% de los individuos examinados resultó positivo al examen de endoparásitos, entre los que se incluyen nematodos y acantocefalos. Leptodactylus diptyx representa un nuevo hospedador para los nematodos Cosmocerca sp. y Aplectana sp.The natural history of the Leptodactylus marmoratus species group is poorly known, and there is scarce available information mainly referred to aspects of the reproductive biology. The objective of this study was to contribute to the knowledge of the trophic biology and of the parasitism of Leptodactylus diptyx populations from Northeastern Argentina. The stomach and intestine contents of 22 adult individuals were analyzed for the trophic study, while the alimentary canal and body cavity of 40 individuals were examined for parasites. The diet consisted of 17 different prey items, including mainly Formicidae hymenopterans, collembolans, coleopterans, and spiders. The values of prey diversity calculated by Shannon's index (H' and niche amplitude by Levins's index were 2.06 and 4.29, respectively. The 57.5% of the examined individuals were parasitized by nematodes and acanthocephalans. Leptodactylus diptyx is a new host for Cosmocerca sp. and Aplectana sp. nematodes.

  20. Algunos digéneos de Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae en Colombia Some digeneans of Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae in Colombia

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    Mauricio Bechara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 40 sapos Rhinella marina Linnaeus, 1758 (24 machos y 16 hembras del Valle de Aburrá, Antioquia, Colombia, 8 de los cuales se encontraron parasitados por 2 especies de digéneos: Pseudosonsinotrema chabaudi (Caballero y Caballero, 1969 Sullivan, 1974 (Pleurogenidae (primer registro para Colombia y para el hospedero y Mesocoelium monas (Rudolphi, 1819 Freitas, 1958 (Brachycoeliidae, previamente registrado para este país. De las 2 especies de helmintos recolectadas, la que alcanzó los mayores niveles de prevalencia (40% y abundancia media (14.7 fue P. chabaudi en San Antonio de Prado, y la intensidad promedio más elevada fue para M. monas, en los sapos de Barbosa (46.7.Eight of 40 Rhinella marina Linnaeus, 1758 (24 males and 16 females from Aburrá Valley, Antioquia, Colombia, were infected with 2 digenea species: Pseudosonsinotrema chabaudi (Caballero y Caballero, 1969 Sullivan, 1974 (Pleurogenidae, which represents new host and country records, and Mesocoelium monas (Rudolphi, 1819 Freitas, 1958 (Brachycoeliidae, which was previously reported for the country. Pseudosonsinotrema chabaudi in San Antonio de Prado reached the highest prevalence levels (40% and mean abundance (14.7, whereas the highest mean intensity was recorded for M. monas in cane toads from Barbosa (46.7.

  1. Morfometria testicular durante o ciclo reprodutivo de Dendropsophus minutus (Peters (Anura, Hylidae Testicular morphometry during the reproductive cycle of Dendropsophus minutus (Peters (Anura, Hylidae

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    Lia R. de S. Santos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreve o ciclo reprodutivo de machos de Dendropsophus minutus (Peters, 1872 com base na análise da morfometria testicular e a correlação com parâmetros climáticos. Cinqüenta indivíduos foram coletados em São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo. Após as análises macroscópicas, os testículos foram encaminhados à rotina histológica, fixados com Bouin e incluídos em historesina. Cortes de 2 µm foram corados com azul de toluidina 1% e observados ao microscópio. Testículos de D. minutus são órgãos pequenos (comprimento 1,90 ± 0,13 mm, esbranquiçados, com forma oval e encontrados na cavidade abdominal. Estão localizados na extremidade cranial dos rins e apresentam assimetria quanto a sua posição. Estatisticamente não há variação intra-individual no comprimento e no peso dos testículos, bem como na área e diâmetro dos lóculos seminíferos. Quanto à histologia testicular, foi possível identificar ao longo do ano nos lóculos seminíferos, todos os tipos celulares da linhagem espermatogênica, caracterizando uma gametogênese contínua, corroborada por fatores ecológicos e comportamentais. Informações sobre a morfometria testicular e ciclo reprodutivo tem importante valor biológico para anuros de regiões neotropicais.This study describes the male reproductive cycle of Dendropsophus minutus (Peters, 1872 based on testicular morphometric analysis, related to climatic conditions. Fifty individuals where collected in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo. After macroscopic analysis, the testes were submitted to histological routine, fixed with Bouin, embedded in historesin. Sections of 2 µm were stained with 1% toluidine blue and observed to the microscope. The testes of D. minutus are small organs (length 1.90 ± 0.13 mm, whitish, oviform and found in the abdominal cavity. They are located in the cranial extremity of the kidneys and present asymmetry as far as position. According to statistical analyses, there is no intra-individual variation in length and weight of the testes, as well as in the area and diameter of the seminiferous locules. Concerning the testicular histology, it was possible to identify, throughout the year, in seminiferous locules, all the cellular types from the spermatogenic lineage, characterizing a continuous gametogenesis, corroborated by ecological and behavioral factors. Information about testicular morphometry and reproductive cycle has important biological value for anurans in the neotropics.

  2. Descrição do girino de Physalaemus cicada (Anura, Leiuperidae Description of the tadpole of Physalaemus cicada (Anura, Leiuperidae

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    Washington L. da S. Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O girino de Physalaemus cicada Bokermann, 1966 é descrito com base em exemplares obtidos a partir de uma desova coletada em uma poça temporária na Fazenda Olho D’água localizada no município de São João do Cariri, Estado da Paraíba. No estágio 37, o girino possui comprimento total de 17,5mm, corpo correspondendo a 42% do comprimento total, oval em vista dorsal, levemente deprimido em vista lateral e fórmula das fileiras de dentes labiais 2(2/3(1. A presença de um disco oral com o lábio posterior estreito presente no girino de P. cicada possibilita diferencia-lo dos demais girinos das outras espécies pertencentes ao gênero Physalaemus.The tadpole of Physalaemus cicada Bokermann, 1966 is described with base in specimens obtained through a spawning collected in a temporary pond in Fazenda Olho D’água, municipality of São João do Cariri, state of Paraiba, Brazil. In the stage 37, the tadpole attains a total length of 17,5 mm, body corresponding to 42% of the total length, oval in dorsal view, slightly depressed in lateral view and tooth row formula 2(2/3(1. The presence of an oral disc with a narrow posterior labium makes possible differentiates the tadpole of P. cicada from other species of Physalaemus.

  3. Aspects of gene regulation in the diploid and tetraploid Odontophrynus americanus (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cianciarullo Aurora M.; Naoum Paulo C.; Bertho Álvaro L; Kobashi Leonardo S.; Beçak Willy; Soares Maurilio J

    2000-01-01

    Erythropoietic and hemoglobin DNA transcriptional activities were analyzed in the diploid and the tetraploid Odontophrynus americanus. Flow cytometric analyses of DNA, RNA and mitochondrial contents showed increased genic activity in both diploid and tetraploid animals during erythropoiesis in vivo elicited by pretreatment phenylhydrazine. Generally, higher values were seen in immature tetraploid erythroid cells. On the 10th day of recovery from anemia, large amounts of messenger RNA were fou...

  4. The First Bromeligenous Species of Dendropsophus (Anura: Hylidae) from Brazil's Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo B. Ferreira; Faivovich, Julián; Beard, Karen H.; Pombal, José P., Jr

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new treefrog species of Dendropsophus collected on rocky outcrops in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Ecologically, the new species can be distinguished from all known congeners by having a larval phase associated with rainwater accumulated in bromeliad phytotelms instead of temporary or lentic water bodies. Phylogenetic analysis based on molecular data confirms that the new species is a member of Dendropsophus; our analysis does not assign it to any recognized species group in th...

  5. A new species of flea-toad (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condez, Thais Helena; Monteiro, Juliane Petry De Carli; Comitti, Estevão Jasper; Garcia, Paulo Christiano De Anchietta; Amaral, Ivan Borel; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Brachycephalus that is morphologically similar to the flea-toads B. didactylus, B. hermogenesi, and B. pulex. The new species occurs from the sea level up to 1000 m and it is widely distributed throughout southern Atlantic Forest. Brachycephalus sulfuratus sp. nov. is distinguished from all of its congeners by the combination of the following characters: (1) small body size (SVL of adults: 7.4-8.5 mm for males and 9.0-10.8 mm for females); (2) "leptodactyliform" body; (3) pectoral girdle arciferal and less robust compared to the Brachycephalus species with "bufoniform" body; (4) procoracoid and epicoracoid fused with coracoid but separated from the clavicle by a large fenestrae; (5) toe I externally absent; toes II, III, IV, and V distinct; phalanges of toes II and V reduced; (6) skin smooth with no dermal ossifications; (7) in life, general background color brown with small dark-brown spots; skin of throat, chest, arms, and forearms with irregular yellow blotches; in ventral view, cloacal region of alive and preserved specimens surrounded by a dark-brown inverted v-shaped mark outlined with white; (8) advertisement call long, composed of a set of 4-7 high-frequency notes (6.2-7.2 kHz) repeated regularly. PMID:27394218

  6. A new genus and species of treefrog from Medog, southeastern Tibet, China (Anura, Rhacophoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    JIANG, Ke; YAN, Fang; WANG, Kai; ZOU, Da-Hu; LI, Cheng; CHE, Jing

    2016-01-01

    A new genus and species of threefrog is described from Medog, southeastern Tibet, China based on morphological and phylogenetic data. The new genus can be distinguished from other treefrog genera by the following combination of characters: (1) body size moderate, 45.0 mm in male; (2) snout rounded; (3) canthus rostralis obtuse and raised prominently, forming a ridge from nostril to anterior corner of eyes; (4) web rudimentary on fingers; (5) web moderately developed on toes; (6) phalange "Y" shaped, visible from dorsal side of fingers and toes; (7) skin of dorsal surfaces relatively smooth, scatted with small tubercles; (8) iris with a pale yellow, "X" shaped pattern of pigmentation. PMID:26828030

  7. A new species of the genus Scutiger (Anura: Megophryidae) from Medog of southeastern Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    JIANG, Ke; WANG, Kai; ZOU, Da-Hu; YAN, Fang; LI, Pi-Peng; CHE, Jing

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Scutiger Theobald, 1868 is described from Medog, southeastern Tibet, China, based on morphological and molecular data. The new species was previously identified as Scutiger nyingchiensis, but it can be differentiated from the latter and all other congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) medium adult body size, SVL 50.5-55.6 mm in males and 53.8-57.2 mm in females; (2) maxillary teeth absent; (3) web rudimentary between toes; (4) prominent, conical-shaped tubercles on dorsal and lateral surfaces of body and limbs; (5) tubercles covered by black spines in both sexes in breeding condition; (6) a pair of pectoral glands and a pair of axillary glands present and covered by black spines in males in breeding condition, width of axillary gland less than 50% of pectoral gland; (7) nuptial spines present on dorsal surface of first and second fingers, and inner side of third finger in males in breeding condition; (8) spines absent on the abdominal region; (9) vocal sac absent. In addition, the distribution and conservation status of the new species are also discussed. PMID:26828031

  8. Oviposition-site selection by Phyllomedusa sauvagii (Anura: Hylidae): An arboreal nester inhabiting arid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Cecilia G.; Lescano, Julián N.; Leynaud, Gerardo C.

    2013-08-01

    Breeding biology in Phyllomedusa sauvagii is related to vegetation since the species encloses its eggs in leaves above water. Considering that arid environments may represent high risks of death by desiccation for amphibians with this reproductive mode, we evaluated plant characteristics associated with sites used for oviposition in semi-permanent ponds in the Arid Chaco region of Argentina. Plant characteristics were used to fit a statistical habitat selection model that allows the prediction of nest presence. Our results show that P. sauvagii needs substrate with specific features for oviposition that would help to reduce the probability of eggs and tadpoles desiccation.

  9. A De Novo Case of Floating Chromosomal Polymorphisms by Translocation in Quasipaa boulengeri (Anura, Dicroglossidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Liyan Qing; Yun Xia; Yuchi Zheng; Xiaomao Zeng

    2012-01-01

    Very few natural polymorphisms involving interchromosomal reciprocal translocations are known in amphibians even in vertebrates. In this study, thirty three populations, including 471 individuals of the spiny frog Quasipaa boulengeri, were karyotypically examined using Giemsa stain or FISH. Five different karyomorphs were observed. The observed heteromorphism was autosomal but not sex-related, as the same heteromorphic chromosomes were found both in males and females. Our results indicated th...

  10. Flesh fly myiasis (Diptera, Sarcophagidae) in Peruvian poison frogs genus Epipedobates (Anura, Dendrobatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mattias Hagman; Thomas Pape; Rainer Schulte

    2005-01-01

    In this note we review records of myiasis in poison frogs collected in various locations in Peru during 1982-2005 and present evidence that larger and medium-sized poison frogs (Epipedobates) are infected with sarcophagid fly larvae.

  11. The choice of bromeliads as a microhabitat by Scinax argyreornatus (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederassi, J; Lima, M S C S; Peixoto, O L; Souza, C A S

    2012-05-01

    The association of anurans to bromeliads presents different degrees of interaction such as: eventual, obligatory and bromeligen. The frog species Scinax argyreornatus shows a regular association with these plants. The goal of this study is to characterise the degree of association between the frog S. argyreornatus to different species of bromeliads. We identified which species of bromeliad is regularly associated with S. argyreornatus and recognised which factors interfere with this association preference. We analysed the Concentration of Relative Dominance of frogs per bromeliad species. As possible criteria for frog association preference to different bromeliads species we established the analysis of leaves number, length and width, number of leaf axils, stored water in the axils, pH and relative humidity, among other organographic components. Our observations were analyzed by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test. We also evaluated the preference for association by the constancy of Bodenheimer. The correlation matrix indicated that the relative humidity is the factor responsible for the frog-bromeliads association, except for Aechmea sp.. However Aechmea sp. was the species with greater constancy of occupation followed by Quesnelia arvensis and Neoregelia johannis. According to our statistical results, Aechmea sp. and Q. arvensis are not different regarding organographic parameters, but differ from N. johannis. Our observations suggest that the bromeliads organographic structure and the relative humidity are key conditions which influence the preferences of S. argyreornatus to bromeliad species, while the other features showed no correlation. PMID:22735128

  12. Diets of tadpoles from a temporary pond in southeastern Brazil (Amphibia, Anura)

    OpenAIRE

    Denise de C. Rossa-Feres; Jorge Jim; Mariluce Gonçalves Fonseca

    2004-01-01

    The diet of tadpoles of 13 anuran species was determined to verify whether food resource partitioning occurs and whether the degree of diet similarity is related to taxonomic affinity. Tadpoles of all species studied were mainly herbivorous, except for these of Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799) which were mycophagous. Although some species had exclusive items in their diet, most tadpole species ingested the same items, but differed in the amount of each item consumed. Two guilds were fou...

  13. Two new species of fanged frogs from Peninsular Malaysia (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Masafumi; Belabut, Daicus M; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomic status of fanged frogs from the Peninsular Malaysia, previously assigned to Limnonectes kuhlii, is assessed using genetic and morphological approaches. Phylogenetic relationships inferred from sequences of the mitochondrial and nuclear genes revealed that the fanged frogs from the Peninsula form a monophyletic group and are clearly divergent from other species previously, or even now, assigned to L. kuhlii from Mainland Southeast Asia. In both mtDNA and nuDNA phylogeny, the Malay Peninsula clade diverges into two lineages, one from north (Larut Hill, Perak, and Hulu Terengganu, Terengganu) and another from south (Genting Highlands, Pahang, and Gombak, Selangor). These lineages are separated by large genetic distances, comparable with those observed between some other species of L. kuhlii-like frogs. Although the two lineages are very similar morphologically, they are distinguishable in several morphological traits and are considered heterospecific. We therefore describe them as L. utara sp. nov. and L. selatan sp. nov. These new species differ from all other species of kuhlii-like frogs from Mainland Southeast Asia by the surface of tibia, which is densely covered by large warts.  PMID:25543621

  14. Systematics of the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex (Anura, Hylidae from Ecuador and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ron

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new phylogeny, based on DNA sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, for frogs of the genus Osteocephalus with emphasis in the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex. Genetic, morphologic, and advertisement call data are combined to define species boundaries and describe new species. The phylogeny shows strong support for: (1 a basal position of O. taurinus + O. oophagus, (2 a clade containing phytotelmata breeding species, and (3 a clade that corresponds to the O. buckleyi species complex. Our results document a large proportion of hidden diversity within a set of populations that were previously treated as a single, widely distributed species, O. buckleyi. Individuals assignable to O. buckleyi formed a paraphyletic group relative to O. verruciger and O. cabrerai and contained four species, one of which is O. buckleyi sensu stricto and three are new. Two of the new species are shared between Ecuador and Peru (O. vilmae sp. n. and O. cannatellai sp. n. and one is distributed in the Amazon region of southern Peru (O. germani sp. n.. We discuss the difficulties of using morphological characters to define species boundaries and propose a hypothesis to explain them.

  15. A New Species of Frog (Anura: Dicroglossidae) Discovered from the Mega City of Dhaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Merilä, Juha

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of frog of the genus Zakerana discovered from the urban core of Dhaka, Bangladesh, one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Although the new species is morphologically similar to the geographically proximate congeners in the Bangladeshi cricket frog group, we show that it can be distinguished from all congeners on the basis of morphological characters, advertisement calls and variation in two mitochondrial DNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). Apart from several diagnostic differences in body proportions, the new species differs from other Zakerana species in having a flattened snout (from ventral view) projecting over the lower jaw, and diagnostic trapezoid-shaped red markings on the vocal sac in males. Molecular genetic analyses show that the new species is highly divergent (3.1-20.1% sequence divergence) from all congeneric species, and forms a well-supported clade with its sister species, Zakerana asmati. The discovery of a new amphibian species from the urban core of Dhaka together with several recent descriptions of new amphibian species from Bangladesh may indicate that more amphibian species remain to be discovered from this country. PMID:26934699

  16. Meiotic behavior of two polyploid species of genus Pleurodema (Anura: Leiuperidae from central Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E. Salas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidy is an important evolutionary force but rare in vertebrates. However, in anurans, the genus Pleurodema has polyploid species, two of them tetraploid and one octoploid. The manner in which the chromosomes join in diakinesis can vary among species and, crucially, if they differ in their ploidy levels. In this work, we describe the meiotic configurations in two cryptic species from central Argentina, with different ploidy levels, Pleurodema kriegi (tetraploid and P. cordobae (octoploid. A total of 306 diakineses from 19 individuals were analyzed. In meiosis, P. kriegi form 22 bivalents, whereas P. cordobae exhibits variation in meiotic figures. We discuss the possible allo- and autopolyploid origin of these species, and we consider that the autopolyploid origin of P. cordobae from P. kriegi might be the most feasible.

  17. A new species of Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from the highest mountain in Indochina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Dau, Vinh Quang; Nguyen, Tao Thien

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new species of Leptolalax from northern Vietnam. Leptolalax botsfordi sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of (1) supra-axillary and ventrolateral glands present; (2) dark brownish red ventral surface with white speckling; (3) medium body size for the genus (29.1-32.6 mm in 7 adult males, 30.0-31.8 mm in 2 females); (4) black markings on the flanks absent; (5) toes with rudimentary webbing and weak lateral fringing; (6) large pectoral glands (1.1-1.9 mm; 4-6% SVL) and femoral glands (2.4-4.3 mm; 7-14% SVL); and (7) an advertisement call with a dominant frequency of 2.6-3.2 kHz (at 14.0º C). At present, the new species is known only from upper montane forest between 2,795-2,815 m elevation on Mount Fansipan, Hoang Lien National Park. To our knowledge, Leptolalax botsfordi sp. nov. occurs at higher elevations than any other species in the genus. If L. botsfordi sp. nov. is truly restricted to a narrow, high-elevation band, it is likely to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The new species also faces the immediate threat of habitat degradation and pollution due to tourist activity. PMID:25112762

  18. Ecology of the bromeligenous frog Phyllodytes luteolus (Anura, Hylidae) from three restinga remnants across Brazil's coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Tavares, Tatiana; Maia-Carneiro, Thiago; Dantas, Leonardo F; Sluys, Monique Van; Hatano, Fábio H; Vrcibradic, Davor; Rocha, Carlos F D

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we analyzed diet, sexual dimorphism and bromeliad use in three populations of the hylid frog Phyllodytes luteolus from restinga habitats along the Brazilian coast. We found 13 arthropods categories in 161 stomachs. Ants and termites were the dominant prey items. The similar trophic niche across populations suggests this species has a conservative diet. We found sexual dimorphism regarding body size and jaw width. We recordedP. luteolus in five bromeliad species, but predominantly inAechmeablanchetiana (35.6% of individuals recorded). We recorded solitary individuals in 44% of occupied bromeliads, and never found two males sharing the same bromeliad. The data is suggestive that populations ofP. luteolus has a conservative diet independent of area, with ants and termites the being most relevant prey items. The sexual dimorphism in jaw and the solitary males may suggest that this species have territorial behavior. PMID:26871497

  19. Platyhelminthes, Trematoda, Digenea Carus, 1863: distribution extension in Argentina and new anura and Ophidia hosts

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to increase the knowledge on the diversity of digenean parasites in ophidians and anurans from northeastern Argentina. Specimens of the snakes Eunectes notaeus, Hydrodynastes gigas, Micrurus corallinus, Philodryas sp. and Sibynomorphus sp., and the anurans Rhinella schneideri, Phyllomedusa azurea and Leptodactylus latrans were examined. Twelve digenean species were identified: Catadiscus corderoi Mañé-Garzón, 1958, Catadiscus dolichocotyle (Cohn, 1903), Catadiscus uru...

  20. The Green Clade grows: A phylogenetic analysis of Aplastodiscus (Anura; Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berneck, Bianca V M; Haddad, Célio F B; Lyra, Mariana L; Cruz, Carlos A G; Faivovich, Julián

    2016-04-01

    Green tree frogs of the genus Aplastodiscus occur in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes of South America. The genus comprises 15 medium-sized species placed in three species groups diagnosed mainly by cloacal morphology. A phylogenetic analysis was conducted to: (1) test the monophyly of these species groups; (2) explore the phylogenetic relationships among putative species; and (3) investigate species boundaries. The dataset included eight mitochondrial and nuclear gene fragments for up to 6642bp per specimen. The results strongly support the monophyly of Aplastodiscus and of the A. albofrenatus and A. perviridis groups. Aplastodiscus sibilatus is the sister taxon of all other species of Aplastodiscus, making the A. albosignatus Group non-monophyletic as currently defined. At least six unnamed species are recognized for Aplastodiscus, increasing the diversity of the genus by 40%. A fourth species group, the A. sibilatus Group is recognized. Aplastodiscus musicus is transferred from the A. albofrenatus Group to the A. albosignatus Group, and A. callipygius is considered a junior synonym of A. albosignatus. Characters related to external cloacal morphology reveal an interesting evolutionary pattern of parallelisms and reversions, suggesting an undocumented level of complexity. We analyze, in light of our phylogenetic results, the evolution of reproductive biology and chromosome morphology in Aplastodiscus. PMID:26802207

  1. The potential effects of climate change on the status of Seychelles frogs (Anura: Sooglossidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gerlach

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The status of the Seychelles frogs of the family Sooglossidae was investigated, using monitoring data from 1993-2010, climate data from 1998-2010 and studies of populations and local climate effects. Climate monitoring at each plot covered rainfall and temperature, with leaf wetness and soil moisture being monitored additionally at one site. Analysis of the data and ecological modelling of the distribution identify geographical patterns in climate which explain the present distribution of the different sooglossid species. In addition it identifies a drying trend in the first quarter of the year which corresponds to frog population declines in mid-altitude forests. This is interpreted as evidence of an ongoing deterioration in the suitability of habitats for the frogs, with declines recorded in areas of marginal suitability. By extension it is assumed that currently optimal frog habitat is also undergoing a decline in suitability, due to early year decreases in moisture. Projected changes in climate were used to predict changes in ranges of the sooglossids over the next 90 years. This predicts significant declines, with the possible extinction of the palm frog Sooglossus pipilodryas by 2100. Accordingly all four sooglossid species should be categorised as Endangered, rather than their current status of Vulnerable. Captive assurance colonies have not been successfully established to date. Captive groups have been maintained with a high degree of success but breeding has not been recorded so far. Further work needed for the conservation of the frogs is outlined: development of a reliable method of monitoring the cryptic S. thomasseti and development of captive breeding techniques.

  2. New species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) in Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae) from Grenada, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles; Drake, Michael; Cole, Rebecca; Sterner, Mauritz, III; Pinckney, Rhonda; Zieger, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Parapharyngodon grenadaensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the large intestine of the cane toad, Rhinella marina, is described and illustrated. Parapharyngodon grenadaensis n. sp. is the 48th species assigned to the genus and the 16th species from the Neotropical region. It differs from other species in the genus by possessing 4 pairs of caudal papillae, an echinate anterior cloacal lip, and a blunt spicule of 67–104 μm. This is only the second report of R. marina harboring a species of Parapharyngodon.

  3. First report of satellite males during breeding in Leptodactylus latrans (Amphibia, Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Laufer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of satellite males is a common behaviour across anuran taxa. Satellite males take peripheral positions to calling males and adopt tactics in an attempt to intercept females that are attracted to calling males to increase their own mating success. Satellite males could have an inexpensive form of mate-locating, avoiding predators, and saving energy. Furthermore, this strategy could play an important role in the genetic structure of populations. The genus Leptodactylus consists of approximately 70 described species that are widely distributed in South America. The literature on the biology of this genus is extensive; however, we found only two reports on the existence of multi-male mating behavior in the genus (L. chaquensis and L. podicipinus. Herein, we report intrasexual competition in the form of satellite behavior in Leptodactylus latrans, where multiple satellite males were observed in close vicinity to a calling male.

  4. Molecular cloning and analysis of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 from Bufo gargarizans (Amphibia: Anura

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    Ning Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The protein of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 has been reported to repress the transcriptional activity of the proto-oncogene c-Myc in humans. Moreover, it was shown to be the subunit 5 of human prefoldin (PFD. So far, this gene and its homologs have been isolated and sequenced in many organisms, such as mammals and fish, but has not been sequenced for any amphibian or reptile. In order to better understand the function and evolution of Mm-1, we isolated a full-length Mm-1 cDNA (BgMm-1, GenBank accession no. EF211947 from Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842 using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Mm-1 in B. gargarizans is 755 bp long, comprising an open reading frame (ORF of 459 bp encoding 152 amino acids. The amino acid sequence had a prefoldin α-like domain, partially including a typical putative leucine zipper motif. BgMm-1 showed high similarity to its homolog of Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 (82% and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 MM-1 isoform a (81% at the amino acid level. The protein secondary structure modeled with the SWISS MODEL server revealed that there were two α-helices and four b-strands in BgMm-1 as its human orthologue, and both proteins belonged to the a class of PFD family. The phylogenetic relationships of Mm-1s from lower archaea to high mammals was consistent with the evolution of species, meanwhile the cluster result was consistent with the multiple alignment and the sequence identity analysis. RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that BgMm-1 expressed widely in ten tissues of adult toad. These results can be helpful for the further investigation on the evolution of Mm-1.

  5. The potential effects of climate change on the status of Seychelles frogs (Anura: Sooglossidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlach, J.

    2011-01-01

    The status of the Seychelles frogs of the family Sooglossidae was investigated, using monitoring data from 1993-2010, climate data from 1998-2010 and studies of populations and local climate effects. Climate monitoring at each plot covered rainfall and temperature, with leaf wetness and soil moisture being monitored additionally at one site. Analysis of the data and ecological modelling of the distribution identify geographical patterns in climate which explain the present distribution of t...

  6. Indirana salelkari, a new species of leaping frog (Anura: Ranixalidae) from Western Ghats of Goa, India

    OpenAIRE

    Nikhil Modak; Neelesh Dahanukar; Ninad Gosavi; Anand D. Padhye

    2015-01-01

    Indirana salelkari, a new species of leaping frog, is described from Netravali, Goa, India.  The species can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of morphological characters, viz., head longer than wide, narrow and deep buccal cavity, vomerine teeth large and acutely placed close to each other, oval choanae, distinct canthus rostralis, first finger longer than or equal to second, presence of double outer palmer tubercles, elongated inner metatarsal tubercle, moderate webbing, ...

  7. Sobre la oviposición de Chiasmocleis leucosticta (Boulenger, 1888) (Anura: Microhylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Segalla, Magno V.; Langone, José A.

    1999-01-01

    Haddad & Hödl (1997) concluyeron que Chiasmocleis leucosticta posee un modo reproductivo único entre los anuros por incluir en su oviposición burbujas de aire generadas por la respiración de la pareja en amplexo. Estos autores compararon este modo de oviposición con otros géneros de microhylidos. La presente nota tiene como cometido compararla con las de otras especies del género a la luz de las observaciones llevadas a cabo por los autores.

  8. Call intercalation in dyadic interactions in natural choruses of Johnstone's whistling frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárano, Zaida; Carballo, Luisana

    2016-05-01

    Communal signaling increases the likelihood of acoustic interference and impairs mate choice; consequently, mechanisms of interference avoidance are expected. Adjustment of the timing of the calls between signalers, specifically call alternation, is probably the most efficient strategy. For this reason, in the present study we analyzed call timing in dyads of males of E. johnstonei in six natural assemblages. We addressed whether males entrain their calls with those of other males at the assemblage and if they show selective attention in relation to perceived amplitude of the other males' calls, inter-male distance, or intrinsic call features (call duration, period or dominant frequency). We expected males to selectively attend to closer or louder males and/or to those of higher or similar attractiveness for females than themselves, because those would be their strongest competitors. We found that most males intercalated their calls with those of at least one male. In assemblages of 3 individuals, males seemed to attend to a fixed number of males regardless of their characteristics. In assemblages of more than 3 individuals, the perceived amplitude of the call of the neighboring male was higher, and the call periods of the males were more similar in alternating dyads than in the non-alternating ones. At the proximate level, selective attention based on perceived amplitude may relate to behavioral hearing thresholds. Selective attention based on the similarity of call periods may relate to the properties of the call oscillators controlling calling rhythms. At the ultimate level, selective attention may be related to the likelihood of acoustic competition for females. PMID:26988233

  9. AVALIATION OF VENTILATORY PATTERN IN THE TOAD RHINELLA SCHNEIDERI (ANURA: BUFONIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    FERNANDES, Marcelo dos Santos; GIUSTI, HumbertoGLASS; Glass, Mogens Lesner

    2010-01-01

    Amphibians ventilated their lungs by buccal pumping mechanism, which was first described in 1969 as a model for studying anurans respiration. Since amphibians do not have alveoli in their lungs, wecalculated to the toad Rhinella schneideri the equivalent lung ventilation from the equation VEFF = (VLCO2·RT)/PLCO2. We analyzed buccal and pulmonary pressures, respiratory volumes, lung and buccalventilation, and ventilation frequency. [VE (12,1 ± 0,6ml BTPS.min-1.kg-1 ) ; VEB (164,3 ± 2,2ml BTPS....

  10. AVALIATION OF VENTILATORY PATTERN IN THE TOAD RHINELLA SCHNEIDERI (ANURA: BUFONIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDES, Marcelo dos Santos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Amphibians ventilated their lungs by buccal pumping mechanism, which was first described in 1969 as a model for studying anurans respiration. Since amphibians do not have alveoli in their lungs, wecalculated to the toad Rhinella schneideri the equivalent lung ventilation from the equation VEFF = (VLCO2·RT/PLCO2. We analyzed buccal and pulmonary pressures, respiratory volumes, lung and buccalventilation, and ventilation frequency. [VE (12,1 ± 0,6ml BTPS.min-1.kg-1 ; VEB (164,3 ± 2,2ml BTPS.min-1.kg- 1 ; fR (5,8 ± 0,4min-1; buccal frequencies (68,5 ± 1,6min-1; Tidal volume(VT = 2.4 ml BTPS·kg-1]. The low oxygen extraction (17,3 ± 2,8% was used to explain the high frequency of pulmonary and buccal ventilation.Os anfíbios ventilam seus pulmões por meio de bombeamento bucal, mecanismo que foi primeiramente descrito 1969 como um modelo para a respiração de anuros. Como os anfíbios não possuem alvéolos em seus pulmões, foi calculado para o sapo Rhinella schneideri a ventilação equivalente do pulmão por meio da equação VEFF = (VLCO2·RT/PLCO2. Analisamos as pressões bucais e pulmonares, os volumes respiratórios, ventilação pulmonar e bucal, e frequências de ventilação. [VE (12,1 ± 0,6 ml BTPS.min-1.kg-1; VEB (164,3 ± 2,2 ml BTPS.min-1.kg-1; fR (5,8 ± 0,4 min -1; Freqüência bucal (68,5 ± 1,6 min-1; volume corrente(VT = 2,4 BTPS ml • kg-1]. A baixa extração de oxigênio (17,3% ± 2,8 foi utilizada para explicar a alta freqüência da ventilação pulmonar e bucal.

  11. Osteologia do sincrânio de Ceratophrys aurita (Raddi, 1823 (Anura, Leptodactylidae

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    Stela Máris Pires Gayer

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available The syncranial osteology of Ceratophrys aurita, a largosized and characteristic anuran of southeastern Brazil, is described. The main osteological features and their resultant manifestations, as well as the exostosic dermal ornamentation and the specialized dentition clearly confirm this species as a terrestrial, fossorial and phragmotic type, with active predatory habits.

  12. Status sistematico del género geobatrachus ruthven 1915 (amphibia: anura)

    OpenAIRE

    Ardila Robayo, María Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The different familial assignations proposed until now for Geobatracbus are compiled. Through the collection of a virtual topotypical series of this monotypic genus, which is endemic of the NW section of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Massif (Departamento del Magdalena, Colombia), a detailed description was made.  67 morphological characters were selected according to the criteria used by Lynch and Heyer in their studies on the philogeny and classification of the leptodactylid frogs, and su...

  13. Osteologia do sincrânio de Ceratophrys aurita (Raddi, 1823) (Anura, Leptodactylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Stela Máris Pires Gayer

    1983-01-01

    The syncranial osteology of Ceratophrys aurita, a largosized and characteristic anuran of southeastern Brazil, is described. The main osteological features and their resultant manifestations, as well as the exostosic dermal ornamentation and the specialized dentition clearly confirm this species as a terrestrial, fossorial and phragmotic type, with active predatory habits.

  14. Chromosome banding in Amphibia. XXIV. The B chromosomes of Gastrotheca espeletia (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, M; Ziegler, C G; Steinlein, C; Nanda, I; Haaf, T

    2002-01-01

    The mitotic chromosomes of an Ecuadorian population of the marsupial frog Gastrotheca espeletia were analyzed by means of banding techniques and fluorescence in situ hybridization. This species is characterized by unusual supernumerary (B) chromosomes. The maximum number of B chromosomes is 9 and they occur in three different morphological types. Banding analyses show that the B chromosomes are completely heterochromatic, consist of AT base pair-rich repeated DNA sequences, replicate their DNA in very late S-phase of the cell cycle, and are probably derived from a centromeric or paracentromeric region of a standard (A) chromosome. Exceptionally, the B chromosomes carry 18S + 28S ribosomal RNA genes and the conserved vertebrate telomeric DNA sequence appears to be underrepresented. Flow cytometric measurements of the nuclear DNA content differentiate between individuals with different numbers of B chromosomes. Significantly more B chromosomes are present in female than in male animals. PMID:12438715

  15. Indirana salelkari, a new species of leaping frog (Anura: Ranixalidae from Western Ghats of Goa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Modak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Indirana salelkari, a new species of leaping frog, is described from Netravali, Goa, India.  The species can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of morphological characters, viz., head longer than wide, narrow and deep buccal cavity, vomerine teeth large and acutely placed close to each other, oval choanae, distinct canthus rostralis, first finger longer than or equal to second, presence of double outer palmer tubercles, elongated inner metatarsal tubercle, moderate webbing, discs of fingers and toes with crescentic deep marginal grooves restricted only to the anterior side of the discs, dorsal skin with glandular folds but without warts, ventral skin granular with some mottling on throat and, palms and soles dark brown.  Indirana salelkari differs from its sister taxa, I. chiravasi, in the placement and structure of vomerine teeth and choanae.  The new species is genetically distinct from I. chiravasi, with a genetic distance of 3.8% for the 16S rRNA gene.  We also provide phylogentic placement of Indirana salelkari based on mitochondrial 12S and 16S ribosomal genes and nuclear rhodopsin gene along with molecular clock analysis, which further confirms its genetic distinctness from other related taxa.  

  16. A new species of Duttaphrynus (Anura:Bufonidae) from Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Abhijit; Chetia, Mitali; Dutta, Sushil Kumar; Sengupta, Saibal

    2013-01-01

    A new species of montane toad Duttaphrynus is described from Nagaland state of Northeast India. The new species is diagnosable based on following combination of characters: absence of preorbital, postorbital and orbitotympanic ridges, elongated and broad parotid gland, first finger longer than second and presence of a mid-dorsal line. The tympanum is hidden under a skin fold (in male) or absent (in female). The species is compared with its congers from India and Indo-China. We propose to consider Duttaphrynus wokhaensis as junior synonym of Duttaphrynus melanostictus. PMID:26213769

  17. Molecular phylogeny of frogs (Amphibia: Anura) based on complete mitochondrial genomes and partial nuclear genes

    OpenAIRE

    Irisarri, Íker

    2012-01-01

    New mitogenomic and nuclear data on basal neobatrachian families provided insights into their phylogenetic position. Heleophryne was recovered as the sister group to all other neobatrachians. Lechriodus and Calyptocephalella were recovered as sister taxa, and both as sister to Nobleobatrachia. Within Nobleobatrachia, Duttaphrynus and Telmatobius were sister genera to the exclusion of Hyla. Phylogenetic analyses also suggested a sister group relationship between Sooglossus and R...

  18. Antipredator Behaviour of Limnonectes blythii (Boulenger, 1920 (Anura: Dicroglossidae from Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia

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    Shahriza Shahrudin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The frog Limnonectes blythii was collected at different locations in Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia, three from Sungai Sedim Recreational Forest, two from Bukit Hijau Recreational Forest, and two from Ulu Paip Recreational Forest. Nine antipredator mechanisms were displayed by this species, including fleeing, hiding among leaf litter, diving into water, bladder discharge, defensive call, feigning death, crouching, inflating the body, and body-raising. The two latter actions were accompanied by a defensive call. These observations document for the first time antipredator behaviour in L. blythii.

  19. Visual and acoustic signaling in three species of Brazilian nocturnal tree frogs (Anura, Hylidae

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    Luís Felipe Toledo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual communication seems to be widespread among nocturnal anurans, however, reports of these behaviors in many Neotropical species are lacking. Therefore, we gathered information collected during several sporadic field expeditions in central and southern Brazil with three nocturnal tree frogs: Aplastodiscus perviridis, Hypsiboas albopunctatus and H. bischoffi. These species displayed various aggressive behaviors, both visual and acoustic, towards other males. For A. perviridis we described arm lifting and leg kicking; for H. albopunctatus we described the advertisement and territorial calls, visual signalizations, including a previously unreported behavior (short leg kicking, and male-male combat; and for H. bischoffiwe described the advertisement and fighting calls, toes and fingers trembling, leg lifting, and leg kicking. We speculate about the evolution of some behaviors and concluded that the use of visual signals among Neotropical anurans may be much more common than suggested by the current knowledge.

  20. Use of Reproductive Microhabitat by Melanophryniscus montevidensis (Anura: Bufonidae) from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gisela; Maneyro, Raúl

    2016-08-01

    This study describes the reproductive microhabitat of Melanophryniscus montevidensis and its use in two water bodies (WBs) in Barra de la Laguna de Rocha, Uruguay. Monthly field trips were performed between March 2012 and February 2013. Variables related to the WBs and vegetation, as well as parameters linked to the usage the amphibians make of the site (e.g: distance to the border of the pond, water depth and the vegetation use) were recorded. The behavior shown by the individuals during the breeding activity was recorded. This activity occurs in shallow temporary WBs with abundant hydrophilic vegetation. The individuals were found more frequently in areas near the edge of the pond, which has denser vegetation. The calling males were found closer to the border of the pond, and they showed better body condition than the non-calling males. In addition to calling activities, males used alternative tactics to find couples, such as active search of females, and aggressive behaviors, such as male displacing and physical combat. Such behaviors are common in anurans with explosive reproductive dynamics. The characterization of the reproductive microhabitats permits the proposal of strategies for the conservation of the species in Uruguay, given that the loss and fragmentation of habitats is one of the main causes considered for the decrease in their populations. PMID:27498792

  1. Intraspecific variation in the advertisement call of the cloud-forest frog Eleutherodactylus glamyrus (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, A; de la Nuez, D.; Alonso, R.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed variation in the advertisement calls among three localities of Eleutherodactylus glamyrus, a frog endemic to the Sierra Maestra mountains in Eastern Cuba. We assessed the levels of withinmale variation of each call property and the influence of temperature and size of calling male on acoustical features. The typical single-note advertisement call of the species was described using temporal and spectral parameters. Rise time and frequency modulation were highly variable...

  2. Temporal and spatial changes in the diet of Hyla pulchella (Anura, Hylidae in southern Uruguay

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    Inés da Rosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we report the diet of a population of the hylid frogHyla pulchella from southeastern Uruguay. We collected the specimens in ponds, where we identified microenvironments defined by the invertebrate assemblage, during one year divided into two seasons (warm and cold. We taxonomically determined 10365 invertebrates belonging to 21 categories in the digestive tracts of frogs. Weestimated the diversity of the diet and alimentary preference according to microenvironments and seasons. We estimated the expected richness of both diet and prey availability using a null model based on the hypergeometric distribution. We performed Discriminant Analyses and Kruskal-Wallis tests to detect changes in prey availability among microenvironments and between seasons. The overall diet in terms of frequencies was composed primarily of arthropods (mainly Araneae, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Coleoptera and in terms of volume, by larvae. The most relevantitems to study the microenvironmental and seasonal variation in the available preys were Araneae, Collembola, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Dictioptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and larvae. Based on the null model curves and preference indexes we inferred positive selection by larvae, Isopoda, Dictioptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera, and negative selection by Collembola and Hymenoptera. The diversityof diet and the null model curves indicated that the diet changes among microenvironments and seasons. This frog may be considered as a middle generalist predator, with some selective behavior and a combined search strategy (active and sit-and-wait. We conclude that the knowledge about the availability of preys is a relevant tool for trophic studies.

  3. A new species of the genus Liuixalus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Huan; Rao, Ding-Qi; Wang, Ying-Yong

    2015-01-01

    A new tree frog species of the genus Liuixalus was described from Heishiding Nature Reserve, Guangdong Province, China based on a combination of morphological characters and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Liuixalus feii sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of following characters: small size (SVL 16.2-17.6 mm in adult males and 18.0-18.7 mm in adult females); snout obtusely pointed; tympanum distinct, about half size of eye diameter; nostril closer to eye than to the tip of snout; fingers free of webbing; toe III longer than toe V; toes weakly webbed; tibiotarsal articulation reaching the naris or loreal; dorsal skin smooth and scattered with fine granulars; a subtle longitudinal median ridge present on dorsum; weak skin folds present on dorsal surface of body and thighs; supratympanic fold distinct and curved; ventral surface dull white with more or less irregular dark spots; iris bicolored. The new species appears to be forest-dependent and to date has only been found on the forest floor in primary forests at elevations between 350-800 m. Based on our molecular analyses, we consider Liuixalus catbaensis as a junior synonym of L. calcarius. Thus, with the description of the new species, the genus Liuixalus hitherto contains five recognized species, four of which are endemic to China. PMID:26250231

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Greek marsh frog Pelophylax cretensis (Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Sebastian; Pabijan, Maciej; Osikowski, Artur; Szymura, Jacek M

    2016-05-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Greek marsh frog Pelophylax cretensis, a water frog species endemic to the island of Crete. The genome sequence was 17,829 bp in size, and the gene order and contents were identical to those of previously reported mitochondrial genomes of other water frog species. This is the first complete mitogenome (i.e. including control region) described for western Palaearctic water frogs. PMID:25329260

  5. The sperm of Hylodinae species (Anura, Leptodactylidae): Ultrastructural characteristics and their relevance to interspecific taxonomic relationships

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O Aguiar-Jr; A A Giaretta; S M Recco-Pimentel

    2006-09-01

    Hylodinae leptodactylids (sensu Lynch 1971) form a group of diurnal frogs, which is hypothesized on the basis of morphological traits to be the closest relatives of the dendrobatid frogs. Our study describes ultrastructural characteristics of sperm from three hylodine species (Hylodes phyllodes, Crossodactylus sp. n. and Megaelosia massarti) to reassess the intergeneric relationships within the Hylodinae, as well as the supposed relationship between the Hylodinae and Dendrobatidae. The ultrastructure of the sperm is very similar among the three species and is indicative of its conserved nature within the Hylodinae. The structure of the acrosomal complex was very similar to that of other leptodactylid species, to most of the remaining species included in the Bufonoidea lineage, and also to that observed in the dendrobatid species examined so far. Since such a structure has been considered a plesiomorphic trait, it contributes little to our understanding of the relationships between the Hylodinae and Dendrobatidae. The flagellar apparatus of Crossodactylus sp. n. is very similar to that of most leptodactylids. The sperm of Megaelosia massarti and Hylodes phyllodes display a distinctive condition in their axial and juxtaxonemal fibers. This distinctive flagellar condition expands the already known variability in sperm structure within the Leptodactylidae.

  6. Alimentación y fecundidad de Bufo variegatus (Anura: Bufonidae en Santa Cruz, Argentina

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    Rappi, Guillermina E.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la alimentación de una población de Bufo variegatus procedente de la región de Lago del Desierto, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. De los 11 ítems presa identificados, los más consumidos por los adultos (tanto machos como hembras fueron los coleópteros. En los machos la segunda categoría presa mas importante en la contribución a la dieta fueron los ácaros, mientras que en las hembras las hormigas y las larvas de insectos siguieron en importancia al consumo de coleópteros. En los especímenes juveniles, los ácaros fueron las presas más consumidas, quedando los coleópteros en segundo lugar en importancia relativa. Se demuestra la existencia de una correlación positiva significativa entre el volumen de las presas y el tamaño del depredador. Se aportan datos referentes a la fecundidad de B. variegatus y se comprueba la ausencia de correlación entre el tamaño de las hembras grávidas y el número de óvulos maduros. The diet of a population of Bufo variegatus from the region of Lago del Desierto, Santa Cruz province, Argentina, is described. Of the 11 prey items identified, Coleoptera was the most consumed prey both for males and females. In males, the second most important prey was Acarii, while in females they were the ants and insect larvae. Acarii was the most consumed prey for juveniles, followed by Coleoptera. A significant positive correlation was found between prey volume and predator body size. Fecundity information for B. variegwus is given, and a lack of correlation between snout-vent length of mature females and ovarian egg complement is demonstrated.

  7. Integrative taxonomic revision of mantellid frogs of the genus Aglyptodactylus (Anura: Mantellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Jörn; Glaw, Frank; Pabijan, Maciej; Vences, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetic studies have in recent years revealed the presence of hidden species diversity in Madagascar's amphibians, and numerous genera contain candidate species awaiting description. We here revise the taxonomy of one such genus within the endemic Malagasy-Comorian family Mantellidae. The target taxon, Aglyptodactylus, is classified in the subfamily Laliostominae and to date contained three recognized nominal species. We focus in particular on clarifying the status of three candidate species proposed for the genus, and for this purpose integrate evidence from molecular genetics, bioacoustics and morphology. We furthermore summarize the information available for all species in the genus concerning their taxonomic identities, distributions and advertisement calls. Our analyses of advertisement calls revealed significant differences coinciding with major clades revealed by phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. Together with the new molecular dataset this provides clear evidence for evolutionary lineage divergence and supports the three candidate species previously characterized by mtDNA divergence of single specimens only. We also observed morphological differences among some of the lineages but these were in most cases not unambiguously diagnostic. As a taxonomic consequence we describe two new species: Aglyptodactylus australis sp. nov. from Andohahela rainforest in southeastern Madagascar, which so far is the largest species known in the genus with females reaching 82.5 mm snout-vent length; and Aglyptodactylus chorus sp. nov. from northeastern lowland rainforests in the Maroantsetra region. For the third proposed and confirmed candidate species we resurrect the name Rana inguinalis Günther, 1877 as Aglyptodactylus inguinalis (Günther, 1877) from the synonymy of A. madagascariensis. This name is applied to populations distributed in lowlands along most of the east coast of Madagascar, from Marojejy in the north southward to Tolagnaro. Genetic data indicate strong differentiation of A. inguinalis with three sub-lineages receiving support, and we cannot exclude that A. inguinalis as defined herein is a complex of species warranting further partition in the future. As a result of the revised taxonomy, A. madagascariensis remains restricted to rainforests at higher elevations (650‒1500 m a.s.l.) ranging from northern to south-central Madagascar, and showing some further differentiation with respect to a northern and a southern sub-lineage. Difficulties in the assignment of historical type specimens are discussed, as well as the biogeography and conservation status of the recognized species. PMID:26623776

  8. A new species of Andinobates (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae) from west central Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Abel; Jaramillo, César A; Ponce, Marcos; Crawford, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Dendrobatid frogs are among the best known anurans in the world, mainly due to their toxicity and associated bright colors. A recently described dendrobatid genus, Andinobates, comprises frogs distributed among the Colombian Andes and Panama. During field work in the Distrito de Donoso, Colón province, Panama, we found a poison frog that we here describe as a new species. The new species belongs to the A. minutus species group and is described herein as Andinobates geminisae sp. nov. This new species differs from all other members of the group by having uniformly orange smooth skin over the entire body and a distinctive male advertisement call. The new species is smaller than other colorful dendrobatids present in the area, such as Oophaga pumilio and O. vicentei. We also provide molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences of dendrobatids and summarize genetic distances among Andinobates species. Andinobates geminisae occurs in Caribbean versant rainforest on the westernmost edge of the known distribution of A. minutus, and represents the fourth species within this genus in Panama. This is vulnerable to habitat loss and excessive harvesting and requires immediate conservation plans to preserve this species with a restricted geographic range. PMID:25283663

  9. An Acoustic Analysis of the Genus Microhyla (Anura: Microhylidae) of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayathilaka, Nayana

    2016-01-01

    Vocalizing behavior of frogs and toads, once quantified, is useful for systematics, rapid species identification, behavioral experimentation and conservation monitoring. But yet, for many lineages vocalizations remain unknown or poorly quantified, especially in diversity rich tropical regions. Here we provide a quantitative acoustical analysis for all four Sri Lankan congeners of the genus Microhyla. Three of these species are endemic to the island, but Microhyla ornata is regionally widespread. Two of these endemics, M. karunaratnei (Critically Endangered) and M. zeylanica (Endangered), are highly threatened montane isolates; the other, M. mihintalei, is relatively common across the dry lowlands. We recorded and analyzed 100 advertisement calls from five calling males for each species, except for M. zeylanica, which only had 53 calls from three males suitable for analyses. All four species call in choruses and their vocal repertoires are simple compared to most frogs. Their calls contain multiple pulses and no frequency modulation. We quantified eight call characters. Call duration and number of pulses were higher for the two montane isolates (inhabiting cooler habitats at higher altitudes) compared to their lowland congeners. Microhyla zeylanica has the longest call duration (of 1.8 ± 0.12 s) and the highest number of pulses (of 61–92 pulses). The smallest of the species, Microhyla karunaratnei (16.2–18.3 mm), has the highest mean dominant frequency (3.3 ± 0.14 kHz) and pulse rate (77 ± 5.8 pulses per second). The calls separate well in the Principal Component space: PC1 axis is mostly explained by the number of pulses per call and call duration; PC2 is mostly explained by the pulse rate. A canonical means plot of a Discriminant Function analysis shows non-overlapping 95% confidence ellipses. This suggests that some call parameters can be used to distinguish these species effectively. We provide detailed descriptions for eight call properties and compare these with congeners for which data is available. This work provides a foundation for comparative bioacoustic analyses and species monitoring while facilitating the systematics of Microhyla across its range. PMID:27403744

  10. An Acoustic Analysis of the Genus Microhyla (Anura: Microhylidae) of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayathilaka, Nayana; Meegaskumbura, Madhava

    2016-01-01

    Vocalizing behavior of frogs and toads, once quantified, is useful for systematics, rapid species identification, behavioral experimentation and conservation monitoring. But yet, for many lineages vocalizations remain unknown or poorly quantified, especially in diversity rich tropical regions. Here we provide a quantitative acoustical analysis for all four Sri Lankan congeners of the genus Microhyla. Three of these species are endemic to the island, but Microhyla ornata is regionally widespread. Two of these endemics, M. karunaratnei (Critically Endangered) and M. zeylanica (Endangered), are highly threatened montane isolates; the other, M. mihintalei, is relatively common across the dry lowlands. We recorded and analyzed 100 advertisement calls from five calling males for each species, except for M. zeylanica, which only had 53 calls from three males suitable for analyses. All four species call in choruses and their vocal repertoires are simple compared to most frogs. Their calls contain multiple pulses and no frequency modulation. We quantified eight call characters. Call duration and number of pulses were higher for the two montane isolates (inhabiting cooler habitats at higher altitudes) compared to their lowland congeners. Microhyla zeylanica has the longest call duration (of 1.8 ± 0.12 s) and the highest number of pulses (of 61-92 pulses). The smallest of the species, Microhyla karunaratnei (16.2-18.3 mm), has the highest mean dominant frequency (3.3 ± 0.14 kHz) and pulse rate (77 ± 5.8 pulses per second). The calls separate well in the Principal Component space: PC1 axis is mostly explained by the number of pulses per call and call duration; PC2 is mostly explained by the pulse rate. A canonical means plot of a Discriminant Function analysis shows non-overlapping 95% confidence ellipses. This suggests that some call parameters can be used to distinguish these species effectively. We provide detailed descriptions for eight call properties and compare these with congeners for which data is available. This work provides a foundation for comparative bioacoustic analyses and species monitoring while facilitating the systematics of Microhyla across its range. PMID:27403744

  11. Description of a new Allobates (Anura, Dendrobatidae from the eastern Andean piedmont, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Luis Barrio-Amorós

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new nurse frog in the genus Allobates (Dendrobatidae from Río Negro, Municipio Córdoba, Estado Táchira, in western Venezuela. This species is a leaflitter inhabitant of primary and secondary lowland rainforest at altitudes from 400 to 1000 m. The new species is similar to the species in the Allobates marchesianus group and is restricted to the slopes of the western Venezuelan Andes. It differs from its congeners by having an irregularly spotted dorsalpattern, diffuse oblique lateral stripe, ventrolateral stripe and yellowish belly on males.

  12. An elusive new species of Marsupial Frog (Anura: Hemiphractidae: Gastrotheca from the Andes of northern Peru

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    William E. Duellman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of marsupial frog, genus Gastrotheca, is described from high-elevation grasslands in the Andes in Región Amazonas in northernPeru, where even calling males are well hidden in deep moss. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its unique color pattern that includes a narrow, blackbordered, yellow middorsal stripe. The species apparently belongs to the Gastrotheca plumbea Group, which ranges in the Andes from northern Colombia to northern Peru.

  13. Schellackia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae of the brazilian tree-frog, Phrynohyas venulosa (Amphibia: Anura from Amazonian Brazil

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    I. Paperna

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous stages of a Schellackia species are described in histological sections of the intestine of the tree-frog, Phrynohyas venulosa, from North Brazil. Most oocysts sporulate within the epithelial cells of the gut, but a few were detected in the lamina propria.

  14. New material of Beelzebufo, a hyperossified frog (Amphibia: Anura from the late cretaceous of Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E Evans

    Full Text Available The extant anuran fauna of Madagascar is exceptionally rich and almost completely endemic. In recent years, many new species have been described and understanding of the history and relationships of this fauna has been greatly advanced by molecular studies, but very little is known of the fossil history of frogs on the island. Beelzebufo ampinga, the first named pre-Holocene frog from Madagascar, was described in 2008 on the basis of numerous disarticulated cranial and postcranial elements from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian Maevarano Formation of Madagascar. These specimens documented the presence of a hyperossified taxon that differed strikingly from extant Malagasy frogs in its large size and heavy coarse cranial exostosis. Here we describe and analyse new, articulated, and more complete material of the skull, vertebral column, and hind limb, as well as additional isolated elements discovered since 2008. μCT scans allow a detailed understanding of both internal and external morphology and permit a more accurate reconstruction. The new material shows Beelzebufo to have been even more bizarre than originally interpreted, with large posterolateral skull flanges and sculptured vertebral spine tables. The apparent absence of a tympanic membrane, the strong cranial exostosis, and vertebral morphology suggest it may have burrowed during seasonally arid conditions, which have been interpreted for the Maevarano Formation from independent sedimentological and taphonomic evidence. New phylogenetic analyses, incorporating both morphological and molecular data, continue to place Beelzebufo with hyloid rather than ranoid frogs. Within Hyloidea, Beelzebufo still groups with the South American Ceratophryidae thus continuing to pose difficulties with both biogeographic interpretations and prior molecular divergence dates.

  15. Metamorfosis del aparato digestivo de larvas carnívoras de Ceratophrys cranwelli (Anura: Leptodactylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ulloa Kreisel, Zandra E.

    2000-01-01

    Las larvas carnívoras de Ceratophrys cranwelli presentan un tubo digestivo más corto que la mayoría de las larvas de anuros, tiene 6 veces la longitud del cuerpo del renacuajo y se caracteriza también por tener un estómago larval. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo el determinar el grado de transformaciones en la cavidad bucofaríngea y tubo digestivo en larvas de esta especie durante la metamorfosis y comparar las estructuras digestivas estudiadas en otras especies de Leptodactylidae de ...

  16. Future climate change spells catastrophe for Blanchard’s cricket frog, Acris blanchardi (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm L. McCallum

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change may be one of the greatest environmental catastrophes encountered by modern human civilization. The potential influence of this global disaster on wildlife populations is subject to question. I interpolated how seasonal variation in weather patterns influences growth and reproduction in the Blanchard’s cricket frog (Acris blanchardi. Then I extrapolated the influence of future climate conditions on these life history characteristics using fuzzy regression. Fuzzy regression was an accurate predictor of growth and reproduction based on the climate conditions present from 1900–2007. It predicted that the climate projections expected for Arkansas by 2100 could reduce total reproductive investment in the Blanchard’s cricket frog by 33–94%. If these results reflect responses by other poikilotherms, climate change could induce major population declines in many species. Because poikilotherms represent the vast majority of vertebrates and significant ecosystem components, it is imperative that we implement strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and circumvent this possible catastrophe.

  17. DNA barcoding and the identification of tree frogs (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Ning-Xin; Sun, Feng-Hui; Lv, Yun-Yun; Zhao, Bo-Han; Wang, Ji-Chao; Murphy, Robert W; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Li, Jia-Tang

    2016-07-01

    The DNA barcoding gene COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) effectively identifies many species. Herein, we barcoded 172 individuals from 37 species belonging to nine genera in Rhacophoridae to test if the gene serves equally well to identify species of tree frogs. Phenetic neighbor joining and phylogenetic Bayesian inference were used to construct phylogenetic trees, which resolved all nine genera as monophyletic taxa except for Rhacophorus, two new matrilines for Liuixalus, and Polypedates leucomystax species complex. Intraspecific genetic distances ranged from 0.000 to 0.119 and interspecific genetic distances ranged from 0.015 to 0.334. Within Rhacophorus and Kurixalus, the intra- and interspecific genetic distances did not reveal an obvious barcode gap. Notwithstanding, we found that COI sequences unambiguously identified rhacophorid species and helped to discover likely new cryptic species via the synthesis of genealogical relationships and divergence patterns. Our results supported that COI is an effective DNA barcoding marker for Rhacophoridae. PMID:26004249

  18. Light shines through the spindrift – Phylogeny of African torrent frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Petropedetidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barej, M. F.; Rödel, M.-O.; Loader, S. P.; Menegon, M.; Gonwouo, N.L.; Penner, J.; Gvoždík, Václav; Günther, R.; Bell, R. C.; Nagel, B.; Schmitz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2014), s. 261-273. ISSN 1055-7903 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Africa * Amphibians * Taxonomy * Arthroleptides * Petropedetes * Odontobatrachus gen. nov Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.916, year: 2014

  19. Development and morphological variation of the axial and appendicular skeleton in hylidae (Lissamphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliz, Mónica; Ponssa, María Laura

    2016-06-01

    The axial and appendicular skeleton, the associated musculature and tendons form a functional system related to specific modes of locomotion in anurans. Many transformations in the structures linked with the locomotor function of the adult occur during larval stages and metamorphosis. In this study, we present the larval ontogeny and adult morphology of the axial and appendicular skeletons of 14 species of frogs in the family Hylidae with different locomotor modes and habitat uses. Among Hylidae, a diversity of shapes, locomotory types occurs (e.g., walker, swimmer, jumper, hopper) and different habitat types occupied (shrubby, terrestrial, aquatic, arboreal). Many elements complete differentiation at the end of metamorphosis; others, such as sesamoids, still show an incomplete development at that stage. Sixty seven characters were scored and optimized in an available phylogeny. Nine characters of developmental timing and adult osteology are optimized as synapomorphies of specific groups. Some characters appear to be related to the locomotor type (e.g., the sacro-urostyle region configuration is highly linked with the jumping mode; nonexpanded diapophyses would related to aquatic habitat use). Nevertheless, the functional interpretations are quite particular to this family. Monophyletic clades are also groups with shared locomotory modes or habitat uses. Hence, the hypothesis of common ancestry or adaptation can be evaluated, taking into account the analysis level of the phylogenetic context, so that, when a character is inherited via common ancestry, it necessarily means that functional constraints could also be inherited. Here, we outline the basis for further work on: postmetamorphic development as a fundamental period for the complete differentiation of structures related to a full locomotor functionality; the biomechanical performance in relationship to the variation in ligaments and sesamoids; the importance of analyzing these topics within the frame of heterochrony. J. Morphol. 277:786-813, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27012309

  20. TESTICULAR MORPHOHISTOLOGY OF ODONTOPHRYNUS AMERICANUS (DUMERIL & BIBRÓN, 1841) (ANURA, ODONTOPHRYNIDAE) OF ARGENTINA

    OpenAIRE

    MATÍAS ALONSO; KARINA DORFLINGER; SERGIO URQUIZA; FERNANDO CAREZZANO

    2013-01-01

    We described the morphohistological features of the testis of adult Odontophrynus americanus (Dumeril & Bibrón 1841) (n = 7) from wetlands of central Argentina. Testes were processed by routine histological techniques, sectioned at 8 microns and stained with hematoxylin–eosin. The gonads are paired, yellowish and ovoid organs, 5.25 ± 0.17 mm long x 2.15 ± 0.15 mm wide. Histologically, there is a thin tunica albuginea (4.90 ± 1.05 mμ) surrounding the testicles. Inside them, there are seminifer...

  1. La posición de Pleurodema borellii en las razas sexuales (Anura: Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rengel, Dora

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex differentiation was studied in tadpoles of Pleurodema borellii which lives in different geographic area of Argentina, fixed at various stages of metamorphosis. Gonads are sexually undifferentiated till the larva reach about 20 mm body length stage. Nevertheless sex differentiations occurs before metamorphosis take place, at about 30 mm. body length stage; gonads show macroscopic and microscopic difference at this time. Therefore P. borellii seems to belong to a "differentiated race".

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Xizang Plateau frog, Nanorana parkeri (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lichun; Ruan, Qiping; Chen, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The Xizang Plateau frog (Nanorana parkeri) belongs to the family Dicroglossidae, which distributes in southern and eastern Xizang, southern-most Qinghai in China, high elevations of north-central Nepal, Himalayan Bhutan, northeastern Kashmir and India. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of N. parkeri was sequenced. The mitogenome was 17,837 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding control region (CR). As in other vertebrates, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. The overall base composition of the N. parkeri is A: 27.7 % A, T: 30.1 % T, C: 26.6% and G: 15.6%. The alignment of the Nanorana species CRs exhibited high genetic variability and rich A + T content. In comparison with the mtDNA sequences typical of vertebrates, a tandem duplication of the tRNA(Met) gene and a rearrangement of the tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Leu) (CUN) genes were found. The complete mitogenome of N. parkeri can provided an important data for the studies on phylogenetic relationship and population genetics to further explore the taxonomic status of this species. PMID:25758045

  3. The First Bromeligenous Species of Dendropsophus (Anura: Hylidae) from Brazil's Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rodrigo B.; Faivovich, Julián; Beard, Karen H.; Pombal, José P.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new treefrog species of Dendropsophus collected on rocky outcrops in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Ecologically, the new species can be distinguished from all known congeners by having a larval phase associated with rainwater accumulated in bromeliad phytotelms instead of temporary or lentic water bodies. Phylogenetic analysis based on molecular data confirms that the new species is a member of Dendropsophus; our analysis does not assign it to any recognized species group in the genus. Morphologically, based on comparison with the 96 known congeners, the new species is diagnosed by its small size, framed dorsal color pattern, and short webbing between toes IV-V. The advertisement call is composed of a moderate-pitched two-note call (~5 kHz). The territorial call contains more notes and pulses than the advertisement call. Field observations suggest that this new bromeligenous species uses a variety of bromeliad species to breed in, and may be both territorial and exhibit male parental care. PMID:26650515

  4. Cytological evidence for population-specific sex chromosome heteromorphism in Palaearctic green toads (Amphibia, Anura)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Odierna; G Aprea; T Capriglione; S Castellano; E Balletto

    2007-06-01

    A chromosome study was carried out on a number of European and Central Asiatic diploid green toad populations by means of standard and various other chromosome banding and staining methods (Ag-NOR-, Q-, CMA3-, late replicating [LR] banding pattern, C- and sequential C-banding + CMA3 + DAPI). This study revealed the remarkable karyological uniformity of specimens from all populations, with the only exception being specimens from a Moldavian population, where one chromosome pair was heteromorphic. Though similar in shape, size and with an identical heterochromatin distribution, the difference in the heteromorphic pair was due to a large inverted segment on its long arms. This heteromorphism was restricted to females, suggesting a female heterogametic sex chromosome system of ZZ/ZW type at a very early step of differentiation.

  5. [Historic record of Gastrotheca ovifera (Anura: Hemiphractidae): decline evidence in Venezuelan coastal cloud forests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera-Leal, Javier; Acevedo, Aldemar; Pérez-Sánchez, Antonio; Vega, Jorge; Manzanilla, Jesús

    2011-03-01

    G. ovifera is a marsupial frog of the cloud and riparian forest from Western and Litoral sections of the Venezuelan Cordillera de la Costa (820-2 000m). This amphibian is considered as an endangered species by the IUCN Species Red List, due to its population decline in pristine and well preserved environments. This conservation status is based on anecdotic interpretations. We collected disperse data from museum records (national and international) and explored the possible association between collection records and precipitation data available for the Henri Pittier National Park (PNHP). Likewise, we carried out a systematic population monitoring of G. ovifera in historic and additional localities among the cloud forest of Rancho Grande, PNHP. We found 106 individuals in 11 zoological collections deposited during 1929-2007. After an effort of 646 hours/person we did not detect G. ovifera individuals in the evaluated localities; as well as no statistical significant associations between the annual precipitation average and the historic records of the species during 1941-1997 period (r = -0.054, p = 0.820, n = 19). We discussed the distribution, fluctuation and population changes of this species, analyzing it conservation status. PMID:21516654

  6. Phylogenetic systematics of egg-brooding frogs (Anura: Hemiphractidae) and the evolution of direct development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Padial, José M; De La Riva, Ignacio; Pombal, José P; Da Silva, Helio R; Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J M; Medina-Méndez, Esteban; Frost, Darrel R

    2015-01-01

    Egg-brooding frogs (Hemiphractidae) are a group of 105 currently recognized Neotropical species, with a remarkable diversity of developmental modes, from direct development to free-living and exotrophic tadpoles. Females carry their eggs on the back and embryos have unique bell-shaped gills. We inferred the evolutionary relationships of these frogs and used the resulting phylogeny to review their taxonomy and test hypotheses on the evolution of developmental modes and bell-shaped gills. Our inferences relied on a total evidence parsimony analysis of DNA sequences of up to 20 mitochondrial and nuclear genes (analyzed under tree-alignment), and 51 phenotypic characters sampled for 83% of currently valid hemiphractid species. Our analyses rendered a well-resolved phylogeny, with both Hemiphractidae (sister of Athesphatanura) and its six recognized genera being monophyletic. We also inferred novel intergeneric relationships [((Cryptobatrachus, Flectonotus), (Stefania, (Fritziana, (Hemiphractus, Gastrotheca))))], the non-monophyly of all species groups previously proposed within Gastrotheca and Stefania, and the existence of several putative new species within Fritziana and Hemiphractus. Contrary to previous hypotheses, our results support the most recent common ancestor of hemiphractids as a direct-developer. Free-living aquatic tadpoles apparently evolved from direct-developing ancestors three to eight times. Embryos of the sister taxa Cryptobatrachus and Flectonotus share a pair of single gills derived from branchial arch I, while embryos of the clade including the other four genera have two pairs of gills derived from branchial arches I and II respectively. Furthermore, in Gastrotheca the fusion of the two pairs of gills is a putative synapomorphy. We propose a revised taxonomy concordant with our optimal topologies. PMID:26623754

  7. A new species of arboreal toad (Anura : Bufonidae : Chaunus) from Madidi National Park, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padial, J.M.; Reichle, S.; McDiarmid, R.; De la Riva, I.

    2006-01-01

    A new arboreal species of the Chaunus veraguensis group is described for the humid montane forest of Madidi National Park, in northern Bolivia. The new species differs from other species in the group by the combination small size, long and slender extremities, webbed hands, conspicuous tympanic membrane, well developed parotoid glands, absence of large glands on dorsum and extremities, nuptial excrescences of males composed of pungent spines on dorsal surface of thumb, greenish-brown coloration on dorsum with red warts in life, and green iris. It is only known from two nearby localities in the Serran Eslabon, Department La Paz. An operational key for species in the C. veraguensis group is provided.

  8. Flutamide effects on morphology of reproductive organs and liver of Neotropical Anura, Rhinella schneideri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gregorio, Lara S; Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Gomes, Fernando R; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-07-01

    Water contamination is one of the factors influencing the decline of amphibians. Flutamide is an antiandrogenic medicine that occurs as water contaminant. This compound especially affects the reproductive organs, but it can also show hepatotoxic effects. The Bufonidae family has a peculiar organ named Bidder's organ, considered by some authors as a rudimentary ovary, but capable to respond to some external stimuli. This study investigated flutamide effects on testes and Bidder's organ germ cells, liver pigmentation, and sexual hormones levels in Rhinella schneideri males. We randomly divided 15 males in three groups (N=5): two groups were injected with flutamide, at 1 and 5mg/kg, while the control group received only mineral oil, for 7days. After euthanasia, blood samples were collected and the organs were sent to histological routine. In the testes, both treatments caused an increase in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, and a decrease in spermatozoa and locular area. In the Bidder's organ, the final diplotene oocytes increased, but the initial diplotene, degrading and atresic oocytes reduced in both treatments. The lipofuscin in the Bidder's organ was not affected. In the liver, melanin and lipofuscin increased only for the 1mg/kg flutamide treatment. The 5mg/kg treatment did not affect the liver. Serum testosterone and estradiol levels did not vary compared with the control group. This compound has antiandrogenic activity, which can affect the spermatogenetic process. The decrease in degrading and atresic Bidderian oocytes indicated that flutamide could stimulate the organ, retarding the degradation processes. The increase in liver melanin, which has protective role, and lipofuscin, a sign of degradation, indicates that flutamide cause hepatotoxic effects. So we conclude that flutamide negatively affects the testes, especially by reducing the sperm area, and the liver, inducing cell degradation and producing protective responses. Furthermore, the compound encourages lower degradation rates of the Bidder's organ germ cells. PMID:27152939

  9. Oviposition and development in the glass frog Hyalinobatrachium orientale (Anura: Centrolenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Nokhbatolfoghahai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition and external embryonic developmental features are described in the Tobago glass frog, Hyalinobatrachium orientale. Egg clutches are nearly always laid on the undersides of leaves (one exception; usually leaves of Heliconia sp. are used, but Philodendron and palms may be used in the absence of Heliconia. Clutches contain 28.0 ± 5.3 eggs (mean ± SD and eggs are 1.86 ± 0.11 mm in diameter. The behavior of one amplectant pair was followed for more than five hours; the pair rotated several times around a small area of the leaf depositing eggs in a tight spiral formation. External embryonic features were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Surface ciliation is extensive up to the time of hatching when it is lost; external gills are short and a cement gland is absent. Hatching gland cells were detectable on the anterodorsal surface of the head from Day 4 after deposition and persisted until at least Day 10, and hatching occurred between Days 9 and 16. During this period, progressive development in tail length, surface pigmentation, intestinal coiling, and oral disc features was observed. Post-hatching larvae reared for six weeks grew 37% in length and tripled in weight, but remained at Gosner Stage 25.

  10. Oviposition and development in the glass frog Hyalinobatrachium orientale (Anura: Centrolenidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Nokhbatolfoghahai; Christopher J. Pollock; J. Roger Downie

    2015-01-01

    Oviposition and external embryonic developmental features are described in the Tobago glass frog, Hyalinobatrachium orientale. Egg clutches are nearly always laid on the undersides of leaves (one exception); usually leaves of Heliconia sp. are used, but Philodendron and palms may be used in the absence of Heliconia. Clutches contain 28.0 ± 5.3 eggs (mean ± SD) and eggs are 1.86 ± 0.11 mm in diameter. The behavior of one amplectant pair was followed for more than five hours; the pair rotated s...

  11. Atividade reprodutiva de Physalaemus signifer (Anura, Leptodactylidae) em ambiente temporário

    OpenAIRE

    Wogel Henrique; Abrunhosa Patrícia A.; Pombal Jr. José P.

    2002-01-01

    The breeding activity of Physalaemus signifer (Girard, 1853) was monitored from July 1999 to July 2000 in a temporary pond in Palmital, Municipality of Saquarema, State of Rio de Janeiro, Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil. Males were sexually actives only in four nights, arriving at the pond on the early rainy season. Males in amplexus were larger and spent more nights in the reproductive aggregation than solitary ones. The number of nights was correlated with the mass of the males. Males adopted ...

  12. Description of the tadpole of Scinax auratus (Wied-Neuwied) (Anura, Hylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana C. R. Alves; Márcia dos Reis Gomes; Sergio P. de Carvalho e Silva

    2004-01-01

    Scinax auratus occurs in the Atlantic Rain Forest of northeastern Brazil. It is found inside the forest on outcrop rocks and in open areas along the forest border. The tadpoles are found in temporary ponds. Herein we describe the tadpole of S. auratus and compare it with those of other related species of the genus Scinax. The diagnostic characteristics of the tadpole of S. auratus include aspects of the general colour and forms of the body, tail, third posterior tooth row, and jaw sheaths.Sci...

  13. Atividade reprodutiva de Physalaemus signifer (Anura, Leptodactylidae em ambiente temporário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wogel Henrique

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The breeding activity of Physalaemus signifer (Girard, 1853 was monitored from July 1999 to July 2000 in a temporary pond in Palmital, Municipality of Saquarema, State of Rio de Janeiro, Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil. Males were sexually actives only in four nights, arriving at the pond on the early rainy season. Males in amplexus were larger and spent more nights in the reproductive aggregation than solitary ones. The number of nights was correlated with the mass of the males. Males adopted satellite behavior as alternative tactic for mate acquisition. Changes between calling and satellite tactics were observed in different nights. Calling males were not larger and heavier than satellite ones. Satellite behavior seemed to be related with the order of arrival on the pond. Size and mass of males did not influence the results of fights. Resident males won the majority of agonistics combats. Three types of vocalizations are described: advertisement, territorial, and encounter calls.

  14. Morfohistología testicular de Ceratophrys ornata (Bell (Amphibia, Anura, Ceratophryidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Carezzano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se describen las características morfohistológicas del testículo de individuos adultos (n=5 de Ceratophrys ornata (Bell, 1843 provenientes de humedales del centro de Argentina. Los mismos se procesaron mediante técnicas histológicas de rutina, se cortaron a 8 µm y las láminas obtenidas se tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina y tricrómico de Masson. Las gónadas son órganos pares, amarillentos, alargados y contorneados de 18,58 ± 0,23 mm de largo por 1,51 ± 0,13 mm de ancho. Histológicamente se observa una delgada túnica albugínea (6,29 ± 0,83 µm rodeando a los testículos. En su interior se hallan lóculos seminíferos que miden 240,64 ± 38,52 µm de diámetro, en ellos se distinguen cistos con células espermatogénicas en distintas etapas de desarrollo. El tejido intersticial es escaso y en él se destacan las células de Leydig y vasos sanguíneos. Las espermatogonias I son las células más grandes de la serie germinal (20,03 ± 2,27 µm; poseen la cromatina granular y de aspecto multilobular, hallándose comúnmente una por cisto, estas originan a las espermatogonias II, más pequeñas (12,06 ± 1,14 µm. Los espermatocitos I presentan la cromatina levemente condensada y son un poco más chicos que sus precedentes (11,64 ± 0,36 µm. Los espermatocitos II miden 8,85 ± 0,54 µm. Las espermátidas I son esféricas, miden 5,95 ± 0,42 µm y se agrupan en cistos redondeados. Las espermátidas II, en cambio son alargadas y no se hallan dentro de cistos, pero siguen organizadas en paquetes asociadas a células de Sertoli. Los espermatozoides son células libres hacia el centro del lóculo, alargadas, flageladas y con una notable compactación nuclear. La morfohistología de los testículos analizados muestran características macroscópicas e histológicas similares a las observadas en otras especies de anfibios anuros neotropicales, presentando todas las células del linaje espermatogénico en un mismo lóculo, lo que indicaría que presentan ciclos espermatogénicos continuos.

  15. Behavioural responses of Odontophrynus americanus tadpoles (Anura: Leptodactylidae to fish chemical cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarabotti, Pablo A.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Las larvas de muchas especies de anfibios viven en ambientes con vegetación y de aguas turbias, donde la visibilidad es muy limitada. En estos ambientes, la utilización de señales químicas para la detección de depredadores podría ser más confiable que la utilización de señales visuales. Las larvas de Odontophrynus americanus habitan en las lagunas del valle aluvial del río Paraná Medio, Argentina, donde normalmente se dan condiciones de baja visibilidad. La hipótesis de este trabajo fue que los renacuajos de esta especie pueden detectar a los depredadores y responder subsecuentemente con conducta antipredador ante la percepción de señales químicas de los depredadores. En el presente trabajo se llevaron a cabo tres experimentos de laboratorio para evaluar si los renacuajos de O. americanus responden conductualmente al estímulo químico del pez Astyanax fasciatus. Las respuestas conductuales fueron evaluadas observando cambios en actividad, utilización de refugio y distribución espacial de los renacuajos. En presencia del estímulo químico del pez, los renacuajos redujeron su actividad en un 27%, incrementaron cinco veces la utilización de refugios, pero no exhibieron una respuesta de elusión espacial al estímulo del depredador. Las respuestas conductuales de los renacuajos de esta especie podrían reducir las probabilidades de encuentro y ataque por parte de los depredadores. Many amphibian larvae live in turbid and vegetated habitats with very limited visibility. In these habitats, the use of chemical cues for predator detection may be more reliable than visual ones. Odontophrynus americanus tadpoles inhabit floodplain ponds of the middle Paraná River, Argentina, where they frequently encounter low visibility conditions. We hypothesize that tadpoles of this species can detect predators and subsequently respond with antipredator behaviour by means of chemical cues from predators. In the present work, we ran three separate laboratory experiments to evaluate whether O. americanus tadpoles respond behaviourally to a chemical stimulus of the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus. We evaluated behavioural responses by observing changes in activity level, refuge use and spatial distribution of the tadpoles. In the presence of the fish chemical stimulus, tadpoles reduced their activity by 27% and increased refuge use approximately five-fold, but they did not exhibit spatial avoidance from the predator stimulus. The behavioural responses of the tadpoles of this species may reduce the rate of encounter and attack by predators.

  16. Vocalizations of eight species of Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae) with comments on communication in the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocroft, R.B.; McDiarmid, R.W.; Jaslow, A.P.; Ruiz-Carranza, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Vocalizations of frogs of the genus Atelopus include three discrete types of signals: pulsed calls, pure tone calls, and short calls. Repertoire composition is conservative across species. Repertoires of most species whose calls have been recorded contain two or three of these identifiable call types. Within a call type, details of call structure are very similar across species. This apparent lack of divergence in calls may be related to the rarity of sympatry among species of Atelopus and to the relative importance of visual communication in their social interactions.

  17. Cytogenetics and sperm ultrastructure of Atelopus spumarius (Anura, Bufonidae) from the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Sérgio; Junior, Odair Aguiar; Lima, Albertina Pimentel; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2013-12-01

    The current taxonomy of most Atelopus species is based on morphological and color data only. Recent studies suggest that A. spumarius may represent a species complex assigned under the same name. Karyotypic data and description of sperm ultrastructure for 13 specimens of A. spumarius are presented here for the first time. A chromosomal analysis revealed 2n = 22 chromosomes, with centromeric heterochromatin in all pairs and a nucleolar organizer region (NOR) on the telomere of pair 7. The sperm was of the bufonoid type, presenting a filiform nucleus covered by an acrosomal complex and a mitochondrial collar in the neck region. The tail was composed of an axoneme, an undulating membrane and an axial rod. A karyotype analysis of A. spumarius showed the same chromosome number and similar chromosomal morphology as described for congeneric species, with slight differences probably resulting from pericentric inversions. The NOR location (on pair 7) was the same as that observed for species belonging to the genus Rhinella. The spermatological findings indicate a close relationship between Atelopus and the bufonoid lineage. The present data are useful for reference in future studies to determine whether more than one species are assigned to A. spumarius. PMID:24385856

  18. Annular bone growth in phalanges of five Neotropical Harlequin Frogs (Anura: Bufonidae: Atelopus)

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Lindquist; Michael Redmer; Emily Brantner

    2012-01-01

    Skeletochronological studies were conducted on museum specimensrepresenting five species of the highly threatened Neotropical genus Atelopus (Bufonidae). We detected annular bone growth (expressed as lines of arrested growth [LAGs]) patterns in each species, and this might provide insight to understand demographic constituency infuture studies. In four of the five species under consideration, LAG counts in fore and hind limb bone occurred in a 1:1 ratio, indicating that bone growth was consis...

  19. Annular bone growth in phalanges of five Neotropical Harlequin Frogs (Anura: Bufonidae: Atelopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Lindquist

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Skeletochronological studies were conducted on museum specimensrepresenting five species of the highly threatened Neotropical genus Atelopus (Bufonidae. We detected annular bone growth (expressed as lines of arrested growth [LAGs] patterns in each species, and this might provide insight to understand demographic constituency infuture studies. In four of the five species under consideration, LAG counts in fore and hind limb bone occurred in a 1:1 ratio, indicating that bone growth was consistent within each individual. The use of skeletochronology in understanding historic and existing populations of Atelopus might assist in situ and ex situ population managers in making informed strategic conservation plans.

  20. Thermal ecology of montane Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae): A study of intrageneric diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda Solano, Luis Alberto; Navas, Carlos A; Carvajalino-Fernández, Juan Manuel; Amézquita, Adolfo

    2016-05-01

    Harlequin frogs (Bufonidae: Atelopus) are among the most threatened frog genus in the world and reach very high elevations in the tropical Andes and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM). Learning about their thermal ecology is essential to infer sensitivity to environmental changes, particularly climate warming. We report on the activity temperature and thermoregulatory behavior of three high-elevation species of harlequin frogs, Atelopus nahumae, Atelopus laetissimus and Atelopus carrikeri. The first two mentioned live in streams in Andean rain forests, whereas A. carrikeri inhabits paramo streams in the SNSM. We studied the thermal ecology of these species in tree localities differing in altitude, and focused on activity body, operative, substrate and air temperature. A main trend was lower body temperature as elevation increased, so that differences among species were largely explained by differences in substrate temperature. However, this temperature variation was much lower in forest species than paramo species. The Atelopus species included in this work proved to be thermoconformers, a trend that not extended to all congenerics at high elevation. This diversity in thermal ecology poses important questions when discussing the impact of climate warming for high-elevation harlequin frogs. For example, forest species show narrow thermal ranges and, if highly specialized, may be more susceptible to temperature change. Paramo species such as A. carrikeri, in contrast, may be more resilient to temperature change. PMID:27157338

  1. Cytogenetics and sperm ultrastructure of Atelopus spumarius (Anura, Bufonidae from the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Siqueira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current taxonomy of most Atelopus species is based on morphological and color data only. Recent studies suggest that A. spumarius may represent a species complex assigned under the same name. Karyotypic data and description of sperm ultrastructure for 13 specimens of A. spumarius are presented here for the first time. A chromosomal analysis revealed 2n = 22 chromosomes, with centromeric heterochromatin in all pairs and a nucleolar organizer region (NOR on the telomere of pair 7. The sperm was of the bufonoid type, presenting a filiform nucleus covered by an acrosomal complex and a mitochondrial collar in the neck region. The tail was composed of an axoneme, an undulating membrane and an axial rod. A karyotype analysis of A. spumarius showed the same chromosome number and similar chromosomal morphology as described for congeneric species, with slight differences probably resulting from pericentric inversions. The NOR location (on pair 7 was the same as that observed for species belonging to the genus Rhinella. The spermatological findings indicate a close relationship between Atelopus and the bufonoid lineage. The present data are useful for reference in future studies to determine whether more than one species are assigned to A. spumarius.

  2. NUEVO REGISTRO DE DISTRIBUCIÓN DE Atelopus spumarius Cope, 1871 (ANURA: BUFONIDAE) PARA ECUADOR

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo-Bilbao, Gabriel; Martin, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The Atelopus spumarius species, also known as Amazonian Arlequin was registered in the equatorial amazon. Through several censuses carried out in February and August 2011, two records of the Atelopus spumarius species were found at the Fatima Agroecological Research Station (ECAF), in the Pastaza Province. These records allow us to widen the range of distribution from 600 m.a.s.l to 950 m.a.s.l. and confirm the presence of this species, which according to data provided on the International Un...

  3. Cytogenetics and sperm ultrastructure of Atelopus spumarius (Anura, Bufonidae) from the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Siqueira; Odair Aguiar Junior; Albertina Pimentel Lima; Shirlei Maria Recco-Pimentel

    2013-01-01

    The current taxonomy of most Atelopus species is based on morphological and color data only. Recent studies suggest that A. spumarius may represent a species complex assigned under the same name. Karyotypic data and description of sperm ultrastructure for 13 specimens of A. spumarius are presented here for the first time. A chromosomal analysis revealed 2n = 22 chromosomes, with centromeric heterochromatin in all pairs and a nucleolar organizer region (NOR) on the telomere of pair 7. The sper...

  4. Karyological and flow cytometric evidence of triploid specimens in Bufo viridis (Amphibia Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cavallo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyological and flow cytometric (FCM analyses were performed on a group of 14 green toads of the Bufo viridis species from seven Eurasian populations. Both approaches gave concordant results concerning the DNA ploidy level. All the populations examined were represented exclusively by diploid or tetraploid specimens, except one, where triploids were found. Results evidenced an interpopulation variability in DNA content against the same ploidy level, as well as an unusually high number of triploids in a particular reproductive place. The origin of polyploidy and the presence and persistence of a high number of triploids in a particular population are discussed.

  5. Aspects of gene regulation in the diploid and tetraploid Odontophrynus americanus (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae

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    Cianciarullo Aurora M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietic and hemoglobin DNA transcriptional activities were analyzed in the diploid and the tetraploid Odontophrynus americanus. Flow cytometric analyses of DNA, RNA and mitochondrial contents showed increased genic activity in both diploid and tetraploid animals during erythropoiesis in vivo elicited by pretreatment phenylhydrazine. Generally, higher values were seen in immature tetraploid erythroid cells. On the 10th day of recovery from anemia, large amounts of messenger RNA were found in both specimens. Based on the mitochondrial content, the tetraploid cells had more intense energy metabolism than the diploid cells. Diploid O. americanus had about three times more erythroid cells than tetraploid specimens, indicating that there were differences in the regulatory mechanisms of erythroid cells. Hematological parameters showed that tetraploid cells had 30% more hemoglobin than the diploid, suggesting a regulatory mechanism of hemoglobin synthesis at the transcriptional level. Cytoplasmic inclusions resembling Heinz bodies were found in both types of cells. In the tetraploid cells they were previously found associated with RNA or RNP, suggesting that other regulatory system which controls the accumulation of nontranslated RNA transcribed in excess must be present. These differences at the physiological and molecular levels during erythropoiesis reinforce the hypothesis that speciation is occurring between diploid and tetraploid O. americanus.

  6. Chromosome analysis of five Brazilian species of poison frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paula Camargo Rodrigues; Odair Aguiar; Flávia Serpieri; Albertina Pimentel Lima; Masao Uetanebaro; Shirlei Maria Recco-Pimentel

    2011-04-01

    Dendrobatid frogs have undergone an extensive systematic reorganization based on recent molecular findings. The present work describes karyotypes of the Brazilian species Adelphobates castaneoticus, A. quinquevittatus, Ameerega picta, A. galactonotus and Dendrobates tinctorius which were compared to each other and with previously described related species. All karyotypes consisted of $2n = 18$ chromosomes, except for A. picta which had $2n = 24$. The karyotypes of the Adelphobates and D. tinctorius species were highly similar to each other and to the other $2n = 18$ previously studied species, revealing conserved karyotypic characteristics in both genera. In recent phylogenetic studies, all Adelphobates species were grouped in a clade separated from the Dendrobates species. Thus, we hypothesized that their common karyotypic traits may have a distinct origin by chromosome rearrangements and mutations. In A. picta, with $2n = 24$, chromosome features of pairs from 1 to 8 are shared with other previously karyotyped species within this genus. Hence, the A. picta data reinforced that the C-banding pattern and the NOR location are species-specific traits in the genus Ameerega. Moreover, the Ameerega monophyletism proposed by previous phylogenetic studies indicates that the karyotypic differences among species in this genus result from a long divergence time.

  7. A comparative ultrastructural analysis of spermatozoa in Pleurodema (Anura, Leptodactylidae, Leiuperinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Julio C; Ferraro, Daiana P; Farías, Alejandro; Santos, Julio S; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei M; Faivovich, Julián; Hermida, Gladys N

    2016-07-01

    This study describes the spermatozoa of 10 of the 15 species of the Neotropical frog genus Pleurodema through transmission electron microscopy. The diversity of oviposition modes coupled with a recent phylogenetic hypothesis of Pleurodema makes it an interesting group for the study of ultrastructural sperm evolution in relation to fertilization environment and egg-clutch structure. We found that Pleurodema has an unusual variability in sperm morphology. The more variable structures were the acrosomal complex, the midpiece, and the tail. The acrosomal complex has all the structures commonly reported in hyloid frogs but with different degree of development of the subacrosomal cone. Regarding the midpiece, the variability is given by the presence or absence of the mitochondrial collar. Finally, the tail is the most variable structure, ranging from single (only axoneme) to more complex (presence of paraxonemal rod, cytoplasmic sheath, and undulating membrane), with the absence of the typical axial fiber present in hyloid frogs, also shared with some other genera of Leiuperinae. J. Morphol. 277:957-977, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27151937

  8. Molecular cloning and expression patterns of the Vasa gene from Rana nigromaculata (Amphibia: Anura

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    Rui Jia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Vasa protein is a member of the DEAD (Asp-Glu-Alu-Asp box family of ATP-dependent RNA helicases. The Vasa gene is specifically expressed in germ-line cells of many metazoans and is known to play a critical role in gametogenesis and reproductive regulation. In this paper, we isolate the full length cDNA sequence of the Vasa gene from the frog Rana nigromaculata Hallowell, 1861. The open reading frame (ORF encoding 398 amino acid residues has nine conserved motifs. According to the similarities at the amino acid sequenceythe phylogenetic analysis of Vasa gene was consistent with the evolution relationships from chordates to mammals. Furthermore, the expression pattern analysis of RnVasa mRNA, using the technique of Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR, showed a high level of transcripts in testis, ovary and kidney, whereas little to no signal was detected in other tissues, which suggests that it may play a role during gametogenesis.

  9. Breeding biology and advertisement call of the horned leaf-frog, Proceratophrys appendiculata (Amphibia: Anura: Odontophrynidae

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    Pedro Henrique dos Santos Dias

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe the breeding biology and the advertisement call of the horned leaf-frog, Proceratophrys appendiculata (Günther, 1873 in the Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos, municipality of Teresópolis. The reproductive period of P. appendiculata is short and is associated with the end of the winter and the beginning of the spring, when males call night and day under large rocks in sandy bottom rock streams. The amplexus is axillary and one female laid about 656 viscous eggs. The advertisement call of P. appendiculata is unique among congeners. The call lasts approximately two seconds, with about 85 pulses/call at a rate of 45 pulses/s and frequency around 0.620 kHz. It is one of the longest calls and lowest in dominant frequency. Moreover, the call of P. appendiculata is characterized by the greatest number of pulses so far registered, reaching 129 pulses in a single call.

  10. The breeding behaviour, advertisement call and tadpole of Limnonectes dabanus (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Le, Duong Thi Thuy; Hoang, Huy Duc; Altig, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Fanged frogs (Limnonectes) are a group of dicroglossid frogs from Asia that often have reversed sexual dimorphism with larger males. Limnonectes dabanus is a poorly known species of fanged frog from forested habitats in southern Vietnam and eastern Cambodia. Adult males exhibit an extreme degree of megacephaly and possess bizarre head ornamentation. L. dabanus breeds in shallow, non-flowing or very slow-flowing pools, puddles, and drainage ditches. Eggs are laid as a widely spaced array, and the larvae have a morphology typical of pond-dwelling tadpoles. Although males of the species lack vocal sacs, they produce a low-pitched (0.4-0.6 kHz), single-note advertisement call that sounds like a drop of water falling into water. Given the spacing of calling males, presence of multiple females near breeding sites, and reversed sexual dimorphism, the mating system of L. dabanus may be an example of resource-defense polygyny, and the massive head of the male is likely used in male combat. PMID:25543630

  11. The advertisement call, color patterns and distribution of Ischnocnema izecksohni (Caramaschi and Kisteumacher, 1989 (Anura, Brachycephalidae

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    Pedro P. G. Taucce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischnocnema izecksohni inhabits the gallery forests from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Southern Espinhaço range, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, and it is considered endemic to this region. Its closest related species is I. nasuta according to the original description. We describe the advertisement call of I. izecksohni based on specimens recorded and collected at the municipality of Nova Lima, state of Minas Gerais, distant about 10 km straight line from its type locality. The advertisement call consists of a group of notes emitted sporadically without a regular interval between the calls. Call duration (n = 36 calls in four individuals ranged from 1.03 to 1.85 s (= 1.52 ± 0.21 s and the call rise time from 0.66 to 1.52 s (= 1.16 ± 0.25 s, with 34-57 notes per call (= 47.42 ± 6.03. Peak frequency ranged from 2250 to 2625 Hz, the dominant frequency from 1317.8 to 3128.0 Hz and interval between notes from 22.00 to 41.00 ms (= 28.63 ± 0.03 ms. From the examination of herpetological collections, morphological and bioacoustical data we extended the species known distribution ca. 200 km eastward, to ten new localities, all of them outside the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, at the Mantiqueira mountain range. We analyzed color patterns and we find some dorsal patterns not described at the original description of I. izecksohni. We also make some comments concerning the taxonomic status of I. izecksohni and I. nasuta.

  12. Larval morphology and advertisement call of Phyllodytes acuminatus Bokermann, 1966 (Anura: Hylidae) from Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Thamires F; De Lima, Marcelo G; Do Nascimento, Filipe Augusto C; Dos Santos, Ednilza M

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the tadpole and advertisement call of Phyllodytes acuminatus, based on specimens from the Parque Nacional do Catimbau, in the municipality of Buíque, State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. The overall morphology of P. acuminatus tadpole is similar to that of most species of the genus. The presence of a double row of marginal papillae surrounding all the oral apparatus (except on most of the upper labium which has a dorsal gap) was a characteristic that differentiate P. acuminatus from the other species of the genus. Furthermore, the call structure of the species (unpulsed notes with harmonic structure) fits it in the group composed of P. kautskyi and P. melanomystax. PMID:24871716

  13. Temperature effect on the advertisement call of Pleurodema tucumanum (Anura: Leiuperidae.

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    Julián Alonso Valetti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The advertisement call represents an important character to discriminate species, mainly between sibling species. The genus Pleurodema has cryptic species, therefore its acoustical characteristics could represent an useful tool to solve taxonomicproblems. It is expected that the advertisement call acoustic properties of the amphibian anurans will vary with the temperature because the frogs are ectotherms. We evaluated the effect of temperature in the acoustic variables of the advertisement call of Pleurodema tucumanum. The inter-call interval, number of pulses per call, inter-pulse interval and pulse rate showed covariation with temperature, whereas the call duration, pulse duration and dominant frequency were temperature-independent. The advertisement call of P.tucumanum corresponds to a single periodic pulse train. The call showed an average duration of 289 ms, dominant frequency of 2552 Hz and 35 pulses of 2.38 ms at 22˚C. The number of pulses increased with temperature. The discrimination of exogenous variabilityfrom the acoustic components allows one to analyze the intrinsic variability of the advertisement calls.

  14. A new species of Scinax Wagler, 1830 (Anura: Hylidae from the middle Amazon river basin, Brazil

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    Marcelo José Sturaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the hylid genus Scinax is described and illustrated. The new taxon was found in the Amazonian rainforest of northern Brazil, municipalities of Maués and Careiro da Várzea, state of Amazonas. The new species is characterized by its moderate size (male mean snout-vent length 36.3mm; body robust; large, orange, black-bordered axillary and inguinal spots; and bilobate vocal sac. This new species was found in primary and secondary forest on branches of shrubs or trees in, or next to, permanent ponds and flooded areas.

  15. Adrenaline-, noradrenaline- and small granule- containing cells in the adrenal gland of Discoglossus pictus (Amphibia, Anura).

    OpenAIRE

    Accordi, F; Gallo, V P

    1982-01-01

    In the adrenal gland of Discoglossus pictus, various types of chromaffin cells are described: noradrenaline cells, adrenaline cells and small granule-containing cells (on the basis of electron density and shape of the granules). The chromaffin cells occur in small groups, and have cytoplasmic processes which may surround them in the form of parallel layers. Their nerve supply is sparse. The possible function of SGC-cells, in relation to those described in other vertebrates, is discussed.

  16. La musculatura mandibular e hioidea de la larva de Leptodactylus chaquensis (Anura: Leptodactylidae

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    Palavecino, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la musculatura de los arcos viscerales en la larva de Leptodactylus chaquensis. La misma presenta un patrón similar al encontrado en otros Leptodactylinae; sin embargo a diferencia de lo observado en otras especies del género Leptodactylus, se destaca la presencia sólo de la pars posterior del músculo levator mandibulae externus; y se describen seis músculos relacionados con el arco hioideo. The musculature of the visceral archs of Leptodactylus chaquensis tadpoles show a pattern common tu the members of the Leptodactylinae. I recorded the absence of the m. levatorae mandibulae externus pars anterior and six muscles instead of five related to the hyoid arch as the main differences with another species of the genera.

  17. Helminth infracommunities of Rana vaillanti brocchi (Anura: Ranidae) in Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Calderón, Laura; León-Règagnon, Virginia; García-Prieto, Luis

    2004-08-01

    A total of 76 adult individuals of Rana vaillanti were collected in Laguna Escondida, Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico, and their helminth infracommunity structure was determined. Among the 21 helminth taxa collected (10 digeneans, 8 nematodes, and 3 acanthocephalans), the digenean Langeronia macrocirra reached the highest prevalence (64.4%), mean abundance (6.6), and mean intensity (10.4), as well as the highest total number of individuals (499). Only 2 frogs were uninfected, the remainder harbored between 1 and 7 helminth species and 1-102 individuals; mean species richness and abundance were 3.49 +/- 0.22 and 16.1 +/- 16.3, respectively. Langeronia macrocirra dominated in 50.6% of the infracommunities, with relatively low Berger-Parker index values (0.56); for this reason, the evenness was high (0.70 +/- 0.31), and consequently, diversity values are the highest recorded to date in species of Rana. However, patterns of helminth infracommunity richness and diversity were similar to those previously observed in amphibians. This structure is attributed to the feeding habits (between 66.7 and 81% of helminth species parasitizing R. vaillanti enter using the food web dynamics) and low vagility (the remainder species infect by host penetration). PMID:15357055

  18. Natural history and distribution of Agalychnis craspedopus (Funkhouser, 1957) (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Cadle, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Aspects of reproductive behaviour, calls, clutch sizes, and larval morphology are described for Agalychnis craspedopus (Funkhouser, 1957). New distributional records extend the range of this species to southern Amazonian Peru. In most respects reproductive behaviour of A. craspedopus is similar to that of other phyllomedusine frogs. In southern Peru clutches were suspended above water-filled hollow cavities in logs, but in Ecuador tadpoles were found in a pool on the ground with no directlyov...

  19. Metamorfosis del aparato digestivo de larvas carnívoras de Ceratophrys cranwelli (Anura: Leptodactylidae

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    Ulloa Kreisel, Zandra E.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Las larvas carnívoras de Ceratophrys cranwelli presentan un tubo digestivo más corto que la mayoría de las larvas de anuros, tiene 6 veces la longitud del cuerpo del renacuajo y se caracteriza también por tener un estómago larval. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo el determinar el grado de transformaciones en la cavidad bucofaríngea y tubo digestivo en larvas de esta especie durante la metamorfosis y comparar las estructuras digestivas estudiadas en otras especies de Leptodactylidae de la subfamilia Ceratophryinae y especies con otros hábitos alimenticios. Carnivorous larvae from Ceratophrys cranwelli present a digestive tube shorter than most of the anuran larvae, have 6 times a tadpole’s body length and they are also characterized by the presence of a larval stomach. The aim of this work is determine the grade of transformations in the buccopharyngeal cavity and digestive tube during the metamorphosis in larvae of this species and compare the digestive structures studied in other species of Leptodactylidae of the subfamily Ceratophryinae and another species with different diets.

  20. Conservation status of the only Lungless Frog Barbourula kalimantanensis Iskandar, 1978 (Amphibia: Anura: Bombinatoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Rachmayuningtyas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the recent rediscovery of Barbourula kalimantanensis, which is currently the only known lungless frog, a number of biologically important aspects of the species were examined and its taxonomy and conservation status was reviewed. Based on the species’ ecological requirements, habitat restrictions and recent severe habitat loss, we propose to change the conservation status of Endangered B2ab(iii to Vulnerable B1ab(iii and earmark the species as a conservation flagship for the region and for Indonesia.

  1. A new species of Melanophryniscus (Anura, Bufonidae from the Campos Gerais region of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna C. Steinbach-Padilha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Melanophryniscus is described from the Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, municipality of Ponta Grossa, Paraná State,Southern Brazil. The Parque Estadual de Vila Velha is located in the Campos Gerais region, an environment dominated by natural grasslands with patches of Araucaria Forest. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its small size (12.8-14.0 mm snout-vent length in adult males and unique color pattern of copper brown dorsum covered with small spinulose black warts; ventral surface black finely spotted with white, posterior abdomen and ventral surfaces of the forearm, hand and foot with red stains. The new species is nocturnal and breeds in the water accumulated in the leaf-axils of phytotelmata.

  2. Visual communication, reproductive behavior, and home range of Hylodes dactylocinus (Anura, Leptodactylidae

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    Patrícia Narvaes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the signaling, reproductive and courtship behaviors of the diurnal stream-dwelling frog Hylodes dactylocinus. The repertoire of visual signals of H. dactylocinus includes foot-flagging, leg-stretching, body movements, and toe-wiggling. The visual signals are performed only by males and are used to defend territories against intruders and to attract females. Home rangesize varied from 0.12 to 13.12 m2 for males (N = 44, and from 0.45 to 7.98 m2 for females (N = 24; residency time varied from one to 12 months for males, and from two to 10 months for females. During the courtship of H. dactylocinus the male gives an encounter call towards an approaching female, touches her snout, and guides her to a previously dug nest. After oviposition, the female leaves the nest and returns to her own home range; the male remains calling after concealing the nest entrance.

  3. Exceptional diversity of Stefania (Anura, Cryptobatrachidae II: Six species from Mount Wokomung, Guyana

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    Ross D. MacCulloch

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Six species of Stefania were collected on Mount Wokomung, a tepui in the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana. This unusually high diversity of Stefania is similar to that found on a neighbouring tepui, Mt. Ayanganna. The two tepuis support slightly different habitats. Conspecific Stefania from the two mountains differ somewhat in body size, toe disc size and colouration. Specimens from Mt. Wokomung are used to expand descriptions and distributions of some species.

  4. A reappraisal of the geographic distribution of Bokkermannohyla sazimai (Anura: Hylidae through morphological and bioacoustic approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ribeiro de Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The type locality of Bokermannohyla sazimai is in the municipality of São Roque de Minas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In this paper, we reassess the geographic distribution of B. sazimai and provide additional information on variation of several other non-topotypic populations in comparisons of topotypic populations (São Roque de Minas and Vargem Bonita, on the basis of three lines of evidence (color-pattern, morphometry and vocalizations. Differences obtained among all populations with respect to color pattern, morphometry and advertisement calls were attributed to interpopulational variation, so that this variation was not enough to recognize any population as a distinctive lineage in comparison with the topotypic information available on B. sazimai.

  5. Scanning electron microscopy of the oral apparatus and buccopharyngeal cavity of Atelognathus salai larvae (Anura, Neobatrachia

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    Dinorah D. Echeverría

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe the horny structures of the buccal apparatus and buccopharyngeal cavity of A. salai by means ofscanning electron microscopy (SEM, and to compare them to those of the other known species of Atelognathus and related genera.

  6. Observations on the ecology of Pseudis bolbodactyla (Anura, Pseudidae in central Brazil.

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    Reuber A. Brandão

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on diet, activity, habitat use, and anti-predator behavior are presented for a population of Pseudis bolbodactyla in central Brazil. The most common diet items were diurnal plant-associated insects. Pseudis bolbodactyla shows both diurnal and nocturnal activity and uses mainly areas with aquatic vegetation (submerged and emergent. Individuals detect predators Visually and through vibrations in the water.

  7. Microhabitat use and spatial distribution in Picado’s Bromeliad Treefrog, Isthmohyla picadoi (Anura, Hylidae

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    Adam M. M. Stuckert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Isthmohyla picadoi is a Neotropical hylid frog found in upper humid montane forests of Costa Rica and Panama. The species is of particular interest because it continues to persist in an area in which the amphibian community has otherwise been decimated by the pathogenic fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Ground search, ladder climbing, and tree climbing techniques were used to locate 32 individuals; including adult males and females, juveniles, andmetamorphosing frogs. The majority of frogs were found in bromeliads, although some individuals were found on plants of the Euphorbiaceae, Musaceae, and Heliconiaceae families. Most frogs were found in larger bromeliads (45 cm or wider. There was a positive correlation between SUL and bromeliad width within the population but not within maturity classes (adult males, adult females, all adults, nonmetamorphosingjuveniles, suggesting that juvenile and adult frogs differ in bromeliad usage. Ranges of SUL and body weight in this particular population are much greater than those reported in previous species accounts.

  8. Flesh fly myiasis (Diptera, Sarcophagidae in Peruvian poison frogs genus Epipedobates (Anura, Dendrobatidae

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    Mattias Hagman

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this note we review records of myiasis in poison frogs collected in various locations in Peru during 1982-2005 and present evidence that larger and medium-sized poison frogs (Epipedobates are infected with sarcophagid fly larvae.

  9. Validity of photo-identification technique to analyze natural markings in Melanophryniscus montevidensis (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Ernesto Elgue

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Individual identification is useful for answering a variety of biological questions about animal life histories. Most of the techniques used to mark amphibians are invasive and can cause negative effects, compromising individual survivorship and biasing studies. Photo-identification consists in the identification of specimens based on photographic records of unique color-design patterns. This technique has been used with success in several amphibian species. Melanophryniscus montevidensis is an endangered anuran species inhabiting the Uruguayan Atlantic coast. The general pattern of coloration is black with red and yellow blotches on the belly. In this study, we validated the technique of photo-identification assisted by software for individual recognition in M. montevidensis using natural markings. Field trips were performed over 16 months during which, the ventral color pattern of specimens was photographed. The photos were edited and analyzed with the Wild-ID 1.0 software for photographic reconnaissance. An efficiency of 100% was obtained in the visual recognition and 90% in the detection of recaptures using the software. The use of photo-identification using natural marks is an effective technique in this species, because the color pattern of the belly was highly variable among individuals and remained unchanged in individuals over the 16 month period. In this evaluation the use of software for photo-identification was necessary for the treatment of large databases.

  10. Niche overlap and resource partitioning among five sympatric bufonids (Anura, Bufonidae from northeastern Argentina

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    Marta I. Duré

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The niche overlap and resource partitioning were analyzed for five sympatric bufonids from Northeastern Argentina: Rhinella schneideri, R. bergi, R. fernandezae, R. granulosa, and Melanophryniscus cupreuscapularis. The primary objectives were to analyze the diet and pattern of coexistence relative to the microhabitats among species. The bufonids, which are primarily terrestrial, exhibited a preference for small, hard prey such as formicids or coleopterans. The smallest species preferably consumed ants, while R. schneideri preferred beetles. Significant differences were detected for the diets of these five species. In addition, significant overlap in the trophic niche was noted for all species except between R. granulosa and R. schneideri. Studying the diet behaviors and trophic parameters of sympatric species provides important data for understandingthe community and for the development of conservation guidelines.

  11. The first report of Cosmocerca parva (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae from Colostethus fraterdanieli (Anura: Dendrobatidae in Colombia

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    Sandra M. Sánchez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We discovered the nematode parasite, Cosmocerca parva, in C. fraterdanieli; this is the first record of this nematode species inColombia and C. fraterdanieli is a novel host of C. parva.

  12. The phylogenetic position and diversity of the enigmatic mongrel frog Nothophryne Poynton, 1963 (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt-Silva, Gabriela B; Conradie, Werner; Siu-Ting, Karen; Tolley, Krystal A; Channing, Alan; Cunningham, Michael; Farooq, Harith M; Menegon, Michele; Loader, Simon P

    2016-06-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the African mongrel frog genus Nothophryne are poorly understood. We provide the first molecular assessment of the phylogenetic position of, and diversity within, this monotypic genus from across its range-the Afromontane regions of Malawi and Mozambique. Our analysis using a two-tiered phylogenetic approach allowed us to place the genus in Pyxicephalidae. Within the family, Nothophryne grouped with Tomopterna, a hypothesis judged significantly better than alternative hypotheses proposed based on morphology. Our analyses of populations across the range of Nothophryne suggest the presence of several cryptic species, at least one species per mountain. Formal recognition of these species is pending but there is a major conservation concern for these narrowly distributed populations in an area impacted by major habitat change. The phylogenetic tree of pyxicephalids is used to examine evolution of life history, ancestral habitat, and biogeography of this group. PMID:27001603

  13. Histopathological study of toxic effects of carbaryl on digestive tract of Bufotes variabilis (Anura: Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakıcı, Özlem

    2016-07-01

    Due to the negative effects of pesticide usage in environment, i.e., decline in amphibian populations, this study was designed to examine histopathologic changes following carbaryl exposure for 96 h in the digestive tract of variable toad, Bufotes variabilis. After exposure to single doses of carbaryl (low dose 50 μg/g, medium dose 100 μg/g, and high dose: 200 μg/g), the toads were euthanized and dissected and digestive tract samples were quickly removed. Histopathology revealed esophageal vacuolization and necrosis in esophageal cells. Hemorrhage was also observed in the esophagus. In the stomach, necrosis in the glandular epithelium, congested blood vessels, edema among gastric glands, dilated tips of the mucosal epithelial layer, gastric glandular atrophy, and hemorrhage were found. In the intestine, edema within villi, hemorrhage, inflammation, vacuolization, and necrosis in epithelial cells of villi were detected. This study clearly showed that carbaryl caused adverse effects on the digestive tract of B. variabilis in all dose groups. PMID:27026545

  14. A new species of Noblella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae from the humid montane forests of Cusco, Peru

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    Alessandro Catenazzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Noblella is described from the humid montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Specimens were collected at 2330–2370 m elevation in Madre Selva, near Santa Ana, in the province of La Convención. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Noblella by having a broad, irregularly shaped, white mark on black background on chest and belly. The new species further differs from known Peruvian species of Noblella by the combination of the following characters: tympanic membrane absent, small tubercles on the upper eyelid and on dorsum, tarsal tubercles or folds absent, tips of digits not expanded, no circumferential grooves on digits, dark brown facial mask and lateral band extending from the tip of the snout to the inguinal region. The new species has a snout-to-vent length of 15.6 mm in one adult male and 17.6 mm in one adult female. Like other recently described species in the genus, this new Noblella inhabits high-elevation forests in the Andes and likely has a restricted geographic distribution.

  15. Distribución geográfica de Scinax nasica (Cope, 1862) (Anura: Hylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rozzi Giménez, Cristina; Gallego, Fernando L.

    2000-01-01

    República Argentina, Provincia de Córdoba, Dpto. Unión, Alto Alegre (32º 22' S- 62º 53' W), 14 ejemplares colectados por Cristina Rozzi Giménez y Fernando Gallego entre abril de 1998 y abril de 2000. Depositados en la Colección de Zoología de Vertebrados, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Río Cuarto, Argentina, números ZVUNRC: 4353, 4354, 4356, 4390, 4411, 4655, 4756, 5123, 6136, 6216, 6217, 6466, 6762, 7118. Dpto. General San Martín, Villa María (32º 25' S y 63º 15' W),...

  16. Melanophryniscus stelzneri fulvoguttatus (Anura: Bufonidae). Primera cita para la provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Baldo, Jorge L.; Arzamendia, Yanina

    1998-01-01

    República Argentina, provincia de Santa Fe, desembocadura del Arroyo El Sombrerito en el Arroyo Los Amores, 28° 43' S, 59° 27' W, Departamento General Obligado. Tres ejemplares adultos, depositados en el Museo de Zoología, F.C.E.F y N. (U.N.C.), números MZUC.2121:91, MZUC.2121:92 y MZIJC.2121:93. Colectados por Jorge L. Baldo y Yanina Arzamendia, el 4/V/1997.

  17. Feeding mechanisms in two treefrogs, Hyla nana and Scinax nasicus (Anura: Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera Candioti, M F; Lavilla, E O; Echeverría, D D

    2004-08-01

    After the description of the chondrocranium, hyobranchial apparatus, associated musculature, buccal apparatus, buccopharyngeal cavity, digestive tract, and gut contents, it was possible to define the feeding modes of Scinax nasicus and Hyla nana tadpoles (Gosner Stages 31-36). Scinax nasicus larvae are "typical" microphagous tadpoles, with keratodonts and robust rostrodonts appropriate for rasping surfaces and mincing of food particles; the buccopharyngeal cavity is equipped with filtering structures and has a conspicuous glandular zone and a highly developed branchial basket. In contrast, H. nana tadpoles have a modified buccal apparatus; the reduction of the buccopharyngeal and branchial basket structures, together with the high lever-arm ratio and the great development of the depressor muscles of the buccal floor are indicative of macrophagous feeding. PMID:15216525

  18. Nest site selection by Hypsiboas faber(Anura, Hylidae) in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    André L. Luza; Eliane R. da Silva; Daniela M. Failace; Patrick Colombo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Male gladiator frogs of Hypsiboas Wagler, 1830 build nests on available substrate surrounding ponds and streams where female spawn eggs during the breeding period. Although gladiator frogs seem to show plasticity in the way they construct their nests, there is no study reporting if these species present preferences about microhabitat conditions for nest-building (mainly under subtropical climate). Predation pressure and environmental conditions have been considered major processes sh...

  19. Nest site selection by Hypsiboas faber(Anura, Hylidae in Southern Brazil

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    André L. Luza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Male gladiator frogs of Hypsiboas Wagler, 1830 build nests on available substrate surrounding ponds and streams where female spawn eggs during the breeding period. Although gladiator frogs seem to show plasticity in the way they construct their nests, there is no study reporting if these species present preferences about microhabitat conditions for nest-building (mainly under subtropical climate. Predation pressure and environmental conditions have been considered major processes shaping the great diversity of reproductive strategies performed by amphibians, but microhabitat conditions should explain where to build a nest as well as how nest looks. This study aimed to test nest site selection for nest-building by Hypsiboas faber(Wied-Neuwied, 1821, determining which factors are related to nest site selection and nest features. The survey was conducted at margins of two permanent ponds in Southern Brazil. Habitat factors were evaluated in 18 plots with nest and 18 plots in the surrounding without nest (control, describing vegetation structure and heterogeneity, and substrate characteristics. Water temperature was measured inside the nest and in its adjacency. Nest features assessed were area, depth and temperature. Habitat characteristics differed between plots with and without nest. Microhabitat selected for nest-building was characterized by great vegetation cover and height, as well as shallower water and lower cover of organic matter in suspension than in plots without nest. Differences between temperature inside nest and in its adjacency were not observed. No relationship between nest features and habitat descriptors was evidenced. Results revealed that Hypsiboas faber does not build nests anywhere. Males seem to prefer more protected habitats, probably avoiding predation, invasion of conspecific males and inclement weather. Lack of differences between temperature inside- and outside-nest suggest that nest do not improve this condition for eggs and tadpole development. Nest architecture was not related to habitat characteristics, which may be determined by other factors, as nest checking by females before amplexus. Nest site selection should increase offspring survival as well the breeding success of Hypsiboas faber.

  20. A new species of Microhyla (Anura: Microhylidae) from Sri Lanka: an integrative taxonomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayathilaka, Nayana; Garg, Sonali; Senevirathne, Gayani; Karunarathna, Nuwan; Biju, S D; Meegaskumbura, Madhava

    2016-01-01

    Species boundaries of Microhyla rubra of India and Sri Lanka were assessed using the following criteria: genetic barcoding, morphology, and vocalization. We use a ca. 500 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene and show that there is an uncorrected pairwise distance of 2.7-3.2% between the Indian and Sri Lankan populations of M. rubra. We show that they are different in several call characteristics such as, dominant frequency, call duration, call rise time and pulse rate. Morphologically, the Sri Lankan population can be distinguished from the typical M. rubra described from southern India, by a combination of characters: body size, skin texture, and feet dimensions. We recognize the population from Sri Lanka as a new species, Microhyla mihintalei sp. nov., a widely distributed lowland species with an elevational distribution of up to 500 m a.s.l. PMID:27395556

  1. Cytogenetics and sperm ultrastructure of Atelopus spumarius (Anura, Bufonidae) from the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Sérgio; Junior, Odair Aguiar; Lima, Albertina Pimentel; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2013-01-01

    The current taxonomy of most Atelopus species is based on morphological and color data only. Recent studies suggest that A. spumarius may represent a species complex assigned under the same name. Karyotypic data and description of sperm ultrastructure for 13 specimens of A. spumarius are presented here for the first time. A chromosomal analysis revealed 2n = 22 chromosomes, with centromeric heterochromatin in all pairs and a nucleolar organizer region (NOR) on the telomere of pair 7. The sperm was of the bufonoid type, presenting a filiform nucleus covered by an acrosomal complex and a mitochondrial collar in the neck region. The tail was composed of an axoneme, an undulating membrane and an axial rod. A karyotype analysis of A. spumarius showed the same chromosome number and similar chromosomal morphology as described for congeneric species, with slight differences probably resulting from pericentric inversions. The NOR location (on pair 7) was the same as that observed for species belonging to the genus Rhinella. The spermatological findings indicate a close relationship between Atelopus and the bufonoid lineage. The present data are useful for reference in future studies to determine whether more than one species are assigned to A. spumarius. PMID:24385856

  2. Reproductive effort and the egg number vs. size trade-off in Physalaemus frogs (Anura: Leiuperidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Arley; Sarroca, Macarena; Maneyro, Raúl

    2008-09-01

    Patterns of reproductive allocation are expected to differ between species according to temporally and spatially variable costs of reproduction. Even when reproductive allocation patterns are the same, species can also differ in how the reproductive effort is allocated between offspring number and size. In this study, we compared the reproductive allocation patterns and the offspring number vs. size trade-off in two frog species, Physalaemus biligonigerus and P. gracilis, using bivariate (standardized major axis) and multiple linear regressions. Both species showed a common slope between body size and reproductive effort and thus a similar allocation pattern although P. biligonigerus has a larger body size (shift along common slope) and makes a lower reproductive effort (shift in intercept) than P. gracilis. We suggest that similar allocation patterns may be related to the shared phenologies of these frogs and that the differences in reproductive effort could represent either an adaptive shift (e.g., change in body space for the clutch) or a historical constraint. There was a negative correlation between fecundity and egg size in P. biligonigerus but not in P. gracilis as predicted by the acquisition-allocation model (Y-model). This study constitutes the first valid test of the Y-model based on recent predictions derived for the trade-off between offspring size vs. number. We conclude that future studies should compare reproductive allocation patterns between species using tests of allometric slopes with appropriate phylogenetic control to detect both adaptive shifts in allocation strategies and correlations with other life-history traits.

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of "Xenopus tropicalis" Asashima line (Anura: Pipidae), a possible undescribed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramoto, Yoshikazu; Oshima, Tomomi; Takahashi, Shuji; Asashima, Makoto; Ito, Yuzuru; Kurabayashi, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    The diploid Xenopus tropicalis, with its small nuclear genomic size and short generation time compared to the traditional experimental amphibian X. laevis, is considered a next-generation model animal. Several experimental X. tropicalis lines have been used in research studies. Previous studies showed that the mtDNA sequence of the Asashima line is divergent from other lines and that this line may represent a distinct species. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of this unique X. tropicalis experimental line. The genome is 17,700 bp in length and contains 37 genes commonly found in animal mtDNAs. The 16S rRNA gene sequence in Asashima line differed by over 6% from the standard Nigerian lines (a 3% difference is considered the species threshold in anurans), suggesting that this experimental line is a distinct species from the true X. tropicalis. PMID:25714145

  4. Abundance, Disposal Hypsiboas Espaciale lanciformis Natural History (Anura: Hylidae) southwest of the Venezuelan Andes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypsiboas lanciformis is a tree frog belonging to the albopunctatus group. Its distribution ranges from Bolivia, Brazil, Peru to Colombia and Venezuela. We studied the status of a population inhabiting the realms property of Complejo Uribante-Caparo, CORPOELEC, in Tachira state (southwestern Andean Venezuela), by monitoring their call and visual detection across transects, gathering information on their abundance; available space, and other natural history accounts. The abundance decreases as the dry season progresses, while individuals show an aggregate spatial arrangement. Individuals were vocalizing at the edges of secondary forest adjacent to disturbed areas. This species is sympatric with the hylids Hypsiboas pugnax and Scinax manriquei. Some individuals revealed the presence of ectoparasites and endoparasites that might be affecting the species survivalship.

  5. Additional record of Resplendent Bush Frog Raorchestes resplendent (Anura: Rhacophoridae from the Western Ghats, India

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    J. Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Raorchestes resplendens, a Critically Endangered rhacophorid frog until now is known only from the type locality, the Anamudi summit in Eravikulam National Park, southern Western Ghats, Kerala. This species has been sighted from a hitherto unknown location, but within the Eravikulam National Park. The current sighting location of the species is about 20km north-east to the type locality. This report increased the range of R. resplendens and also emphasis the cryptic behavior and microclimate requirement of this species. This sighting once again signifies the importance for the conservation of the high-altitude grasslands of Western Ghats.

  6. The identity of the South African toad Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Annemarie; Dubois, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The toad species Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 was erected for a single specimen from South Africa which has never been properly studied and allocated to a known species. A morphometrical and morphological analysis of this specimen and its comparison with 75 toad specimens referred to five South African toad species allowed to allocate this specimen to the species currently known as Amietophrynus rangeri. In consequence, the nomen Sclerophrys must replace Amietophrynus as the valid nomen of the genus, and capensis as the valid nomen of the species. This work stresses the usefulness of natural history collections for solving taxonomic and nomenclatural problems. PMID:26788431

  7. Diet of the South American frog Leptodactylus ocellatus (Anura, Leptodactylidae) in Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Maneyro; Naya, Daniel E.; Inés da Rosa; Andrés Canavero; Arley Camargo

    2004-01-01

    The diet of Leptodactylus ocellatus (L., 1758) was studied in specimens collected at Maldonado Department (Uruguay), where monthly surveys were made between August 1998 and March 2000. A total of 143 frogs were collected, measured, sexed, and dissected, to assess stomach contents. The anurans were grouped into three age classes and four categories (considering sex and capture date). The trophic amplitude for each age class and sex-season category was quantified using Shannon-Weaver Index, and...

  8. Diet of the South American frog Leptodactylus ocellatus (Anura, Leptodactylidae in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Maneyro

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet of Leptodactylus ocellatus (L., 1758 was studied in specimens collected at Maldonado Department (Uruguay, where monthly surveys were made between August 1998 and March 2000. A total of 143 frogs were collected, measured, sexed, and dissected, to assess stomach contents. The anurans were grouped into three age classes and four categories (considering sex and capture date. The trophic amplitude for each age class and sex-season category was quantified using Shannon-Weaver Index, and the trophic niche overlap between ages and categories by using the Pianka Index. Comparisons among treatments were made by G-tests. The most important prey items were coleopterans (IRI = 2547, and significant correlations were found between predator and prey sizes. The major differences on diet composition were found between extreme age classes (froglets and adults. Significant differences were also detected between sexes in the cold season but not in the warm season. Any of these changes in diet may be related with the availability of prey.

  9. First record of partial albinism and scoliosis in Odontophrynus occidentalis tadpoles (Anura: Cycloramphidae

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    Eduardo Alfredo Sanabria

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Albinism has been widely reported for diverse group of vertebrates. However, scoliosis is a rare abnormality. In this work, the first record of partial albinism and scoliosis case in tadpole of the frog Odontophrynus occidentalis is being presented. The individual was captured in Quebrada de las Flores, Sierra Pie de Palo, Caucete Department, San Juan Province, Argentina.

  10. First record of partial albinism and scoliosis in Odontophrynus occidentalis tadpoles (Anura: Cycloramphidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Alfredo Sanabria; Lorena Beatriz Quiroga; Alejandro Laspiur

    2010-01-01

    Albinism has been widely reported for diverse group of vertebrates. However, scoliosis is a rare abnormality. In this work, the first record of partial albinism and scoliosis case in tadpole of the frog Odontophrynus occidentalis is being presented. The individual was captured in Quebrada de las Flores, Sierra Pie de Palo, Caucete Department, San Juan Province, Argentina.

  11. B-chromosomes in two Brazilian populations of Dendropsophus nanus (Anura, Hylidae

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    Lilian R. Medeiros

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the presence of B-chromosomes in two populations of Dendropsophus nanus (= Hyla nana Boulenger, 1889 from São Paulo State, Brazil. Such chromosomes were observed in 4 out of 43 specimens (9.3% and in 9 out of 15 specimens (60% from the municipalities of Nova Aliança and Botucatu, respectively. The karyotype 2n = 30 + 1B found in D. nanus was similar to that of other species with 2n = 30 chromosomes, except for the presence of an additional small telocentric chromosome. In one specimen from Botucatu, cells with one to three extra chromosomes were observed. These B-chromosomes appeared as univalent in meiosis I and did not bear a nucleolar organizer region or exhibit constitutive heterochromatin.

  12. Vocalizações e interações acústicas em Hyla raniceps (Anura, Hylidae durante a atividade reprodutiva Vocalizations and acoustic interactions in Hyla Raniceps (Anura, Hylidae during the breeding season

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    Lorena dall'Ara Guimarães

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The vocalizations of H. raniceps (Cope, 1826 and their functions are described, including an analysis of the influence of temperature, weight, or SVL (snout-vent length of males on the acoustic parameters. The vocalizations were recorded in three areas in Fazenda Lagoa Grande, Municipality of Pontalina, State of Goiás, central Brazil. Males began their vocalizations just before sunset, extending them, in some cases, to dawn of the following day. The peak of activities happened between 21h and 23h. The height of calling sites varied plenty, being the position horizontal in about 50% of them. Males defended sites in different areas during consecutive nights. Rain and strong winds interrupted the calling activities. Males emitted three vocalizations: advertisement, territorial and distress calls. The advertisement call has pulsionated structures and it is the most common, being emitted in the presence/absence of females. Significant correlation was found between number of notes and air temperature, notes duration and both male weight and air temperature, calling rate and both male SVL or weight, and frequency and male weight.

  13. Helminth fauna of Lithobates brownorum (Anura: Ranidae at three localities in the state of Yucatán, Mexico Helmintofauna de Lithobates brownorum (Anura: Ranidae en tres localidades del estado de Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Yáñez-Arenas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Between July 2004 and June 2005, 84 specimens of Lithobates brownorum (Sanders, 1973 were collected and examined for helminths. Hosts came from 3 localities in the state of Yucatán, Mexico: Celestún (n= 35, Lagunas de Yalahau (n= 33, and Ría Lagartos (n= 16. Twelve helminth taxa were found: 7 nematodes, 4 digeneans, and 1 acanthocephalan. With the exception of Haematoloechus floedae and Megalodiscus temperatus, all helminth taxa found have a Neotropical distribution. Our results differ from those obtained in previous studies dealing with amphibians in Mexico because we found higher richness and abundance of nematodes than digenean species. The relatively low mean intensity and mean abundance values reached by digenean species in this study may be related to the generalist host diet and with the vagility of frogs (from the aquatic to the terrestrial environment or vice versa.Entre julio del 2004 y junio del 2005, se recolectaron y examinaron 84 ejemplares de Lithobates brownorum (Sanders, 1973 en busca de helmintos en 3 localidades del estado de Yucatán: Celestún (n= 35, Lagunas de Yalahau (n= 33 y Ría Lagartos (n= 16. Los ejemplares estuvieron parasitados por 12 taxa de helmintos, 7 de nematodos, 4 digéneos y 1 acantocefalo. Con excepción de Haematoloechus floedae y Megalodiscus temperatus, todos los taxa presentan distribución neotropical. Nuestros resultados difieren de los obtenidos por otros autores que han reportado más especies de digéneos que de nematodos en este grupo de hospederos. Los bajos valores de intensidad y abundancia media de los digéneos encontrados en este estudio pueden estar relacionados con la amplia dieta del hospedero y la vagilidad que éste presenta entre el medio acuático y el terrestre.

  14. Metacercariae of Renifer heterocoelium (Trematoda: Reniferidae) in tadpoles of Rhinella schneideri (Anura: Bufonidae) in Brazil Metacercarias de Renifer heterocoelium (Trematoda: Reniferidae) en renacuajos de Rhinella schneideri (Anura: Bufonidae) en Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson Alves Pinto; Alan Lane de Melo

    2012-01-01

    Renifer heterocoelium is a parasite of the oral cavity of Neotropical snakes for which larval stages and the life cycle are still unknown. During studies of parasites of Rhinella schneideri, tadpoles collected in a lake from the municipality of Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, yielded specimens with metacercariae adhered to the external intestinal wall. After morphological characterization, the metacercariae were identified as R. heterocoelium. This is the first record and morphological cha...

  15. Metacercariae of Renifer heterocoelium (Trematoda: Reniferidae in tadpoles of Rhinella schneideri (Anura: Bufonidae in Brazil Metacercarias de Renifer heterocoelium (Trematoda: Reniferidae en renacuajos de Rhinella schneideri (Anura: Bufonidae en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Alves Pinto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Renifer heterocoelium is a parasite of the oral cavity of Neotropical snakes for which larval stages and the life cycle are still unknown. During studies of parasites of Rhinella schneideri, tadpoles collected in a lake from the municipality of Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, yielded specimens with metacercariae adhered to the external intestinal wall. After morphological characterization, the metacercariae were identified as R. heterocoelium. This is the first record and morphological characterization of metacercariae of R. heterocoelium for Brazil.Renifer heterocoelium es un parásito de la cavidad bucal de las serpientes neotropicales cuyas formas larvales y ciclo de vida son todavía desconocidos. En un estudio de los parásitos de renacuajos de Rhinella schneideri recogidos en un estanque ubicado en el municipio de Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais, Brasil, se encontraron ejemplares con metacercarias en la pared intestinal. Después de caracterizarlos morfológicamente, los quistes fueron identificados como R. heterocoelium. Este es el primer registro y caracterización morfológica de las metacercarias de esta especie en Brasil.

  16. Variación interpoblacional y ontogenética en la dieta de la rana llorona Physalaemus albonotatus (Anura: Leiuperidae Interpopulation and ontogenetic variation in the diet of the menwig frog Physalaemus albonotatus (Anura: Leiuperidae

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    Diego Alejandro Falico

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó y comparó el espectro trófico de 2 poblaciones de Physalaemus albonotatus que habitan en ecosistemas diferentes: a un terreno baldío urbano y b un área protegida del valle aluvial del río Paraná Medio. La dieta de Physalaemus albonotatus está compuesta fundamentalmente de hormigas, coleópteros, colémbolos e isópodos, pero con numerosas presas secundarias. Al comparar 3 grupos etarios de los individuos en cada población (adultos, subadultos y jóvenes se encontró una variación ontogenética relacionada con el volumen, cantidad y tipo de presa ingerida. Los anfibios adultos consumieron mayor cantidad de presas y más voluminosas, pero el nicho trófico de los jóvenes fue más amplio. Entre los adultos, la similitud de la dieta entre sexos fue muy elevada, aunque las hembras consumieron más hormigas que los machos. Si bien el solapamiento trófico entre las poblaciones fue elevado, la amplitud trófica resultó mayor en la población del humedal fluvial. Las diferencias en la alimentación encontradas entre las 2 poblaciones y lo registrado en otros trabajos realizados en diferentes ambientes reflejan la plasticidad trófica de este anuro, característica que le permite prosperar en hábitats diversos, incluso en los muy antropizados.We analyzed and compared the feeding of 2 populations of Physalaemus albonotatus inhabiting different ecosystems: a an urban vacant lot, and b a protected area of Middle Paraná River floodplain. The diet of Physalaemus albonotatus is mainly composed by ants, beetles, springtails and woodlouses, but also included several secondary preys. While comparing adults, subadults and juveniles diet on each population, we found an ontogenetic diet variation related to changes in prey type and volume as well as in number of prey items per gut. Bigger frogs consumed a greater amount of prey and more voluminous arthropods, while juveniles had a larger trophic niche breadth. Despite the great similarity in diet between sexes, adult females consumed a larger amount of ants than males did. Although trophic niche overlap between both populations was high, trophic niche breadth was wider for Paraná River floodplain population. Feeding differences found between studied populations and populations inhabiting other environments as described on literature reflects the trophic plasticity of this species and its capacity to thrive at different habitats, including markedly anthropogenically impacted environments.

  17. Primer registro de miasis por Sarcophagidae (Diptera: Oestroidea) en Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Anura: Centrolenidae) de Panamá First record of myiasis by Sarcophagidae (Diptera: Oestroidea) in Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Anura: Centrolenidae) from Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Medina; Manuel Rivera; Ricardo Cossio; Eduardo Medina; Sergio Bermúdez

    2009-01-01

    Se registra por primera vez un caso de miasis por larva de Sarcophagidae sobre Halinobatrachium fleishmanni colectada en el Parque Nacional Soberanía (Panamá), siendo éste el primer registro de miasis en anuros de la familia Centrolenidae.We report the first record of myiasis by Sarcophagidae, on the glass frog Hyalinobatrachium fleishmanni collected in the Parque Nacional Soberanía (Panama), representing the first record of myiasis for Centrolenidae anurans.

  18. Primer registro de miasis por Sarcophagidae (Diptera: Oestroidea en Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Anura: Centrolenidae de Panamá First record of myiasis by Sarcophagidae (Diptera: Oestroidea in Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Anura: Centrolenidae from Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Medina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez un caso de miasis por larva de Sarcophagidae sobre Halinobatrachium fleishmanni colectada en el Parque Nacional Soberanía (Panamá, siendo éste el primer registro de miasis en anuros de la familia Centrolenidae.We report the first record of myiasis by Sarcophagidae, on the glass frog Hyalinobatrachium fleishmanni collected in the Parque Nacional Soberanía (Panama, representing the first record of myiasis for Centrolenidae anurans.

  19. Comparación ontogénica de la frecuencia de muda en Rhinella marina (Anura, Bufonidae Ontogenetic comparison of the molting frequency in Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Teófila M. Triana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La muda es un proceso de renovación de la capa externa de la epidermis (estrato corneo de los anfibios, la cual suministra protección contra daños, patógenos y pérdida de agua. Este trabajo evalúa la frecuencia de muda entre juveniles y adultos de Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758 y la tasa de ocurrencia entre el día y la noche. Para esto, se realizaron dos observaciones diarias (7 am y 7 pm, entre Octubre de 2011 y Marzo de 2012, a tres grupos de individuos clasificados según su tamaño longitud rostro-cloaca, como adultos (promedio=80 mm, juveniles medianos (promedio=19 mm y juveniles pequeños (promedio=13 mm. Estos animales fueron colocados en terrarios en el laboratorio y marcados en el dorso a través de un punto hecho con un corrector de tinta. La muda se determinó por la pérdida total de la marca y una coloración brillante en el dorso. Se encontró una diferencia significativa (Kruskal-Wallis, H=19.84, pMolting is a process of constant renewal of the outer layer of epidermis (stratum corneum in amphibians, which provides a barrier against injury, pathogens and evaporative water loss. This paper evaluates the molting frequency between juveniles and adults of Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758 and between the night and day time. Two daily observations, at 7 am and 7 pm, were made between October 2011 and March 2012 to three groups of individuals, classified by their size, snout vent length, as adults (mean=80 mm, medium juveniles (mean=19 mm and small juveniles (mean=13 mm. The animals were placed in terrariums in the laboratory and marked on their back with a spot of correction fluid. The molting was determined by the total loss of the mark and a bright color on the dorsal skin. We found a significant difference (Kruskal-Wallis, H=19.84, p<0.0001 in the molting frequency among the three groups: adults=7.5 days, medium juveniles=5.4 days, and small juveniles=5.3 days. Also, between the number of molting frogs during the night and day hours (Chi-square, χ2=7.891, p=0.019, particularly in the two groups of juveniles, who moulted mostly at night, as adults did not show any clear difference. It is possible that the highest molting frequency in juveniles may be related to their ontogenetic status, with a smaller size and higher metabolic and developmental rate.

  20. Morphological and genetic differentiation among Chilean populations of Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae Diferenciación morfológica y genética entre poblaciones chilenas de Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Marco A. Méndez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Bufo spinulosus has a wide and fragmented range distribution in Chile (18° to 33° S along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients. Genetic variation was estimated using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers in 10 populations from northern and central Chile. Morphometric and genetic information was analyzed as a function of geographical origin. The correlation between genetic and morphometric differentiation was analyzed by the Mantel test. An increase in body size as a function of latitude was observed. Specimens from El Tatio had the smallest body size and the greatest morphometric divergence. The AMOVA applied to genetic data indicated that 57.85 % of the variance is explained by interregional differences and that 30.12 % of the variance is found within populations. Low levels of within-regions genetic differentiation was observed in northern populations while higher levels of genetic differentiation was found in populations from central Chile. Mantel tests revealed a significant, positive correlation between genetic variation and geographic distance. When we excluded El Tatio population, Mantel test analyses showed significant correlations between morphological distance and genetic and geographic distances. We discuss whether water temperature could explain the morphological divergence observed in individuals from El TatioBufo spinulosus presenta una amplia y fragmentada distribución en Chile (18º a 33º S a lo largo de gradientes altitudinales y latitudinales. La variación genética fue estimada utilizando marcadores RAPD ("Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA" en diez poblaciones del norte y centro de Chile. La información morfométrica y genética fue analizada en función de la procedencia geográfica. La correlación entre diferenciación genética y morfométrica fue analizada utilizando la prueba de Mantel. Se observó un incremento en el tamaño corporal en función de la latitud. Los individuos de El Tatio mostraron el tamaño corporal más pequeño y la mayor divergencia morfométrica. El AMOVA aplicado a los datos genéticos indicó que el 57.85 % de la varianza es explicada por diferencias entre regiones y que el 30.12 % de la varianza se encuentra dentro de las poblaciones. Bajos niveles de diferenciación genética intraregional fueron observados en las poblaciones del norte de Chile, mientras que las poblaciones de Chile central mostraron niveles más altos de diferenciación genética. Las pruebas de Mantel revelaron una correlación significativa y positiva entre la variación genética y la distancia geográfica. Cuando excluimos la población de El Tatio, las pruebas de Mantel mostraron correlaciones positivas y significativas entre las distancias morfológicas, genéticas y geográficas. Se discute si la temperatura del agua podría explicar la divergencia morfológica observada en los individuos de El Tatio

  1. Diet of Rhinella scitula (Anura, Bufonidae in the Cerrado, Brazil: the importance of seasons and body size Dieta de Rhinella scitula (Anura, Bufonidae: la importancia de la variación estacional y la talla corporal

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    Franciéle P. Maragno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to analyze the diet of Rhinella scitula in different seasons (dry and rainy, and (2 to examine resource partitioning among sexes and body-size categories. Individuals were collected during active searches along a riverbank in the Serra da Bodoquena National Park, Brazil. Formicidae, followed by Coleoptera and Isoptera, had the highest importance index values for males, females, and all individuals combined. Diet composition was similar between males and females. Larger individuals consumed larger prey, although they fed on small prey as well. Similar-sized individuals had high dietary overlap. Smaller individuals had a diet as broad as larger individuals, although composed of different items. Formicidae was the most common prey item for animals collected in both the dry and rainy seasons, but was more important in the rainy season. During the dry season, R. scitula remained closer to the edge of the water bodies and showed the widest dietary niche, represented by similar importance index values.Los objetivos de este estudio fueron (1, analizar la dieta de Rhinella scitula en 2 estaciones del año y (2, examinar el reparto de recursos entre sexos y entre diferentes categorías de tamaño corporal. Los ejemplares fueron capturados mediante búsqueda visual a lo largo de las orillas de un riachuelo del Parque Nacional da Serra da Bodoquena. Los individuos pertenecientes a los grupos Formicidae, seguidos por Coleoptera e Isoptera fueron las presas con mayores valores de importancia para machos, hembras y para todos los individuos de ambos sexos combinados. No se registraron diferencias entre sexos en la composición de la dieta. Los individuos de mayor tamaño, consumieron presas de mayor volumen, si bien no dejaron de consumir presas pequeñas. La superposición de dieta fue mayor entre individuos pertenecientes a clases de talla próximas. Los sapos de menor tamaño presentaron una dieta tan amplia como los más grandes, si bien su dieta estaba compuesta por ítems diferentes. Aunque predominaron ejemplares del grupo Formicidae en los contenidos estomacales de organismos capturados tanto en el período seco como en el lluvioso, su importancia fue mayor en este último. Durante la estación seca, R. scitula permaneció más próximo al agua y presentó un nicho trófico más amplio.

  2. Advertisement call and female sexual cycle in Uruguayan populations of Physalaemus henselii (Anura, Leiuperidae Canto de anuncio y ciclo sexual femenino en poblaciones uruguayas de Physalaemus henselii (Anura, Leiuperidae

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    Raúl Maneyro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Physalaemus henselii (Peters, 1872 is a little known leiuperid frog that has not been studied since the 1960’s. Herein, we redescribe its advertisement call, and assess the female sexual cycle and the reproductive period on the basis of the macroscopic analysis of the ovaries and field observations. The Ovarian Size Factor (OSF was calculated. The study was made in Departamento de Rivera, northern Uruguay. The advertisement call consists of short (177 ± 21ms, multipulsed (20 ± 3 pulses/note notes, with a note repetition rate of 1.57 ± 0.13 notes/s. Physalaemus henselii has a female sexual cycle with unimodal distribution of gravid females, which are present from February to September. The OSF and the ratio "females with mature oocytes / females without mature oocytes" reached the highest values from April to June. The number and size of oocytes were positively correlated with female size. The smallest female (SVL =18.94mm, weight =0.78g with mature oocytes was found in July. The observed sexual cycle with a single annual reproductive period during the cold season (autumn and early winter, is an uncommon fact for anuran species in the region.Physalaemus henselii (Peters, 1872 es un pequeño leiupérido que no ha sido estudiado desde los años 60. Aquí redescribimos su canto de anuncio, y determinamos su ciclo sexual femenino y el período reproductivo en base al análisis macroscópico de los ovarios y de observaciones de campo. Fue calculado el Factor de Tamaño Ovárico (FTO. El estudio fue realizado en el Departamento de Rivera, norte de Uruguay. El canto nupcial consiste en notas cortas (177 ± 21ms y multipulsadas (20 ± 3 pulsos/nota, con una tasa de repetición de notas de 1.57 ± 0.13 notas/s. Physalaemus henselii tiene un ciclo sexual femenino con distribución unimodal de hembras maduras, las que están presentes de Febrero a Setiembre. El FTO y la tasa "hembras con ovocitos maduros / hembras sin ovocitos maduros" alcanzó los valores más altos desde Abril a Junio. El número y tamaño de los ovocitos estuvieron correlacionados positivamente con el tamaño de las hembras. La hembra más pequeña (SVL =18.94mm, masa =0.78g con ovocitos maduros fue encontrada en Julio. El ciclo sexual observado, con un solo periodo reproductivo anual durante la estación fría (otoño e invierno temprano, constituye un hecho poco frecuente en las especies de anuros de la región.

  3. Efecto del tamaño del hábitat en la supervivencia, desarrollo y crecimiento en renacuajos de Engystomops pustulosus (Anura: Leiuperidae y Rhinella humboldti (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Xiomara Katherine Montealegre-Delgado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La supervivencia de los renacuajos es afectada por numerosos factores ambientales como la temperatura, oxigeno, alimento, densidad larval, volumen de agua y desecación de la charca. Renacuajos de las especies Engystomops pustulosus y Rhinella humboldti se desarrollan en hábitats temporales con diferencias en su tamaño (espacio y volumen de agua alrededor de la ciudad de Ibagué, Colombia, y en el campus de la Universidad del Tolima. Este trabajo evalúa el efecto de tres tamaños de hábitat: grande, mediano y pequeño, sobre la supervivencia, el desarrollo y crecimiento de los renacuajos de estas especies en condiciones de laboratorio. Para esto se colocaron cinco recipientes por tratamiento, a cada uno de ellos se le adicionó 4 g de tierra, una macrófita y diez renacuajos en estadío 25. A los 20 días se registró la supervivencia, estadio de desarrollo y longitud total. Los experimentos finalizaron cuando los renacuajos completaron la metamorfosis o murieron. En las dos especies se encontró un resultado similar. La supervivencia de los renacuajos fue significativamente mayor en el hábitat grande que en el hábitat mediano y pequeño a los 120 días para E. pustulosus, y a los 80 días para R. humboldti (Regresión logística, p < 0.01. Sin embargo, la supervivencia hasta alcanzar la metamorfosis fue menor que el 50% para todos los tratamientos. El desarrollo y el crecimiento de los renacuajos también fue significativamente mayor en el hábitat grande que en los hábitats mediano y pequeño, después de 20 días en E. pustulosus y 30 días en R. humboldti (Anova, p < 0.01. Nuestros resultados son contrarios a otros estudios con renacuajos que se desarrollan en hábitats temporales, los cuales aceleran su tasa de desarrollo y metamorfosean a una talla menor. Por lo tanto, se concluye que bajo condiciones naturales, los renacuajos de E. pustulosus y R. humboldti tendrán menos oportunidad de alcanzar la metamorfosis y sobrevivir en charcas temporales con poca disponibilidad de espacio y agua.

  4. Nova espécie de Hyla Laurenti do grupo de H. microcephala Cope (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae) do nordeste do Brasil New species of the Hyla microcephala Cope group (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae) from Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Potsch Carvalho-e-Silva; Ana M. P. Telles Carvalho-e-Silva; Eugenio Izecksohn

    2003-01-01

    A new species, attributed to the group of Hyla microcephala Cope, 1886, is described. The new species is close to H. bipunctata Spix, 1824, and it is found in Quebrangulo, State of Alagoas, in Northeastern Brazil. The eggs and larvae are also described and some ecological information is added. The new species is compared with other species of the same group, and with species of closely related groups that occur in syntopy. With H. bipunctata, it shares the general form of the body, the yellow...

  5. Nematodes parásitos de Chaunus granulosus major (Müller & Hellmich, 1936) (Anura: Bufonidae) en Corrientes, Argentina

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    González, Cynthia Elizabeth; Monika I. Hamann

    2006-01-01

    En nuestro país, estudios previos referidos a la nematofauna de Chaunus granulosus major (Müller y Hellmich, 1936) han sido realizados en la provincia de Corrientes por Mordeglia y Digiani (1998) quienes han reportado la especie Cosmocerca parva Travassos, 1925. Con el presente estudio se incorporan tres nuevos registros de nematodes a la fauna parasitaria de Ch. g. major de la Argentina.

  6. Nematodes parásitos de Chaunus granulosus major (Müller & Hellmich, 1936 (Anura: Bufonidae en Corrientes, Argentina

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    González, Cynthia Elizabeth

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available En nuestro país, estudios previos referidos a la nematofauna de Chaunus granulosus major (Müller y Hellmich, 1936 han sido realizados en la provincia de Corrientes por Mordeglia y Digiani (1998 quienes han reportado la especie Cosmocerca parva Travassos, 1925. Con el presente estudio se incorporan tres nuevos registros de nematodes a la fauna parasitaria de Ch. g. major de la Argentina.

  7. The occurrence of amphibians in bromeliads from a southeastern Brazilian restinga habitat, with special reference to Aparasphenodon brunoi (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, R L; Schineider, J A P; Almeida, G I

    2002-05-01

    Five species of anuran amphibians, all belonging to the family Hylidae, were collected at Praia das Neves, municipality of President Kennedy, southeastern Brazil. The species were represented by four genera: Scinax, Hyla, Aparasphenodon, and Trachycephalus. Four species (A. brunoi, Hyla albomarginata, Scinax altera, and S. cuspidatus) were found during the dry season (August 1999), and two (A. brunoi and Trachycephalus nigromaculatus) in the rainy season (February 2000). Aparasphenodon brunoi was the most abundant species in Praia das Neves. Some reproductive aspects and feeding habits of this hylid were investigated. Aparasphenodon brunoi was found mainly inside the bromeliad Aechmea lingulata, the largest plant analyzed. Fifteen specimens were collected during the dry season (August 1999) (11 males and 4 females). During the rainy season (February 2000), we collected 14 specimens (3 males, 10 females, and 1 juvenile). Sex-ratio was 1:1. Frogs ranged in snout-vent length from 31.2 to 69.3 mm. Females were larger than males. One female had 1,451 fully developed oocytes in her ovaries. The major groups of prey found in the stomachs were: Insecta, Myriapoda, and Arachnida. Blattodea, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera (only ants) were the main food types in frequency, number, and weight. Aparasphenodon brunoi is a threatened species in many habitats of southeastern Brazil. Only natural vegetation protection may guarantee its survival during the immediate future. PMID:12489399

  8. Turgid female toads give males the slip: a new mechanism of female mate choice in the Anura

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    Bruning, Bas; Phillips, Benjamin L.; Shine, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In many anuran species, males vocalize to attract females but will grasp any female that comes within reach and retain their hold unless displaced by a rival male. Thus, female anurans may face strong selection to repel unwanted suitors, but no mechanism is known for doing so. We suggest that a defensive trait (the ability to inflate the body to ward off attack) has been co-opted for this role: by inflating their bodies, females are more difficult for males to grasp and hence, it is easier fo...

  9. Anatomía craneal de las larvas de Lepidobatrachus llanensis y Ceratophrys cranwelli (Anura: leptodactylidae: ceratophrynae)

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    Lavilla, Esteban O.; Fabrezi, Marissa

    1988-01-01

    Los géneros Ceratophrys y Lepidobatrachus se consideran miembros de una entidad monofilética, los Ceratophrynae, en base a dos sinapomorfías del estado adulto: la presencia de dientes no pedicelados y el hecho de que los procesos transversos de las vértebras anteriores del tronco están dilatados (Lynch, 1982).

  10. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis of the montane Craugastor podiciferus species complex (Anura: Craugastoridae) in Isthmian Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher, Jeffrey W; Crawford, Andrew J; Edwards, Cody W

    2009-12-01

    The Craugastor podiciferus complex is a group of phenotypically polymorphic direct-developing frogs that inhabit the Talamancan highlands of Costa Rica and Panama. The montane distribution of this group creates natural allopatry among members and offers an excellent opportunity to explore geographic models of speciation. Using a multilocus approach, we obtained data from one nuclear (c-myc) and three mitochondrial (12S, 16S, and COI) gene regions from 40 individuals within the C. podiciferus complex. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a basal split that placed samples from western Panama as sister to Costa Rican (CR) samples, corroborating a previous suggestion that the former lineage may represent an undescribed species. Within the CR clades we found six distinct haplogroups whose distributions largely corresponded to geographic features and included instances of sympatry. Divergence estimates were used to develop a preliminary evolutionary timeframe for the diversification of the C. podiciferus complex. Based on collective evidence, we hypothesize that movement of the CR haplogroups has occurred between currently isolated areas of suitable habitat via second order climatic fluctuations during the Pleistocene. The levels of genetic differentiation within the C. podiciferus complex are remarkable given the relatively small geographic area (ca. 8000 km(2)) of occurrence. This diversity emphasizes the need for further study and taxonomic revision to aid in conservation planning for this complex which, like many amphibians, has experienced recent population declines. PMID:19602442

  11. From Clinging to Digging: The Postembryonic Skeletal Ontogeny of the Indian Purple Frog, Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis (Anura: Nasikabatrachidae.

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    Gayani Senevirathne

    Full Text Available The Indian Purple frog, Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis, occupies a basal phylogenetic position among neobatrachian anurans and has a very unusual life history. Tadpoles have a large ventral oral sucker, which they use to cling to rocks in torrents, whereas metamorphs possess adaptations for life underground. The developmental changes that underlie these shifts in habits and habitats, and especially the internal remodeling of the cranial and postcranial skeleton, are unknown. Using a nearly complete metamorphic series from free-living larva to metamorph, we describe the postembryonic skeletal ontogeny of this ancient and unique monotypic lineage. The torrent-dwelling larva possesses a dorsoventrally flattened body and a head with tiny dorsal eyes, robust lower and upper jaw cartilages, well-developed trabecular horns, and a definable gap between the trabecular horns and the tip of the snout. Unlike tadpoles of many other frogs, those of Nasikabatrachus retain larval mouthparts into late metamorphic stages. This unusual feature enables the larvae to maintain their clinging habit until near the end of metamorphosis. The subsequent ontogenetic shift from clinging to digging is correlated with rapid morphological changes and behavioral modifications. Metamorphs are equipped with a shortened tibiafibula and ossified prehallical elements, which likely facilitate initial digging using the hind limbs. Subsequently, the frogs may shift to headfirst burrowing by using the wedge-shaped skull, anteriorly positioned pectoral girdle, well-developed humeral crests and spatula-shaped forelimbs. The transition from an aquatic life in torrents to a terrestrial life underground entails dramatic changes in skeletal morphology and function that represent an extreme in metamorphic remodeling. Our analysis enhances the scope for detailed comparative studies across anurans, a group renowned for the diversity of its life history strategies.

  12. enriched diets and the growth, development and survival of litoria moorei (anura) tadpoles reared in captivity at low density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    increasing numbers of amphibian species require conservation breeding programs for their survival.a major challenge is the efficient rearing of tadpoles,many of which require complex habitats and specialised diets.aquatic tadpoles of the west australian frog litoria moorei were kept at low density (1 tadpole per 1.95 litres water) in aquaria at 25℃.fed on a staple diet of boiled lettuce and leaf litter,group of diets were supplemented with either control,wardley(r) premium spirulina discs,seratm gvg-mix tropical fish food,or a combination of wardley(r) premium spirulina discs and seratm gvg-mix fish food.there was a relatively high loss (i.e.,found dead,euthanized due to scoliosis,or not found) of tadpoles fed with the lettuce/leaf litter alone,but this was increased significantly when supplemented with wardley(r) premium spirulina discs,either alone or with seratm gvg-mix fish food,and seratm gvg fish food alone.however,the survived tadpoles fed on the three supplements were all heavier after three weeks and at metamorphosis than those fed with lettuce/leaf litter alone,and reached metamorphosis quicker.it is concluded that any benefit of the food supplements in terms of increasing the rate of growth and development of the tadpoles is outweighed by greater mortality.there is now a need for the efficient rearing of tadpoles,many from novel species that need complex habitats.further studies of diet are required due to the current conservation crisis of amphibians.

  13. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Description of tadpole stages of the Malabar Tree Toad Pedostibes tuberculosis Gunther, 1875 (Anura: Bufonidae

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    K.P. Dinesh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pedostibes tuberculosus, the Malabar tree toad, was described 137 years ago from the Malabar region (now the coastal parts of Kerala of the Western Ghats. Since the description of this arboreal toad, not much information is available on the natural history, breeding habits and life cycle except for its description, range of distribution and advertisement call details. In the present account, the tadpole stages of this toad from Gosner tadpole Stage 21 to 45 are presented and the phytotelmatic mode of life of this toad has been confirmed by locating the tadpoles within the Ochlandra reed culm.

  14. Estimates of DNA damage by the comet assay in the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei (Anura, Eleutherodactylidae)

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    Laura Carolina Valencia; Adriana García; Martha Patricia Ramírez-Pinilla; Jorge Luis Fuentes

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Comet assay to assess genetic damage in the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei. A DNA diffusion assay was used to evaluate the effectiveness of alkaline, enzymatic and alkaline/enzymatic treatments for lysing E. johnstonei blood cells and to determine the amount of DNA strand breakage associated with apoptosis and necrosis. Cell sensitivity to the mutagens bleomycin (BLM) and 4-nitro-quinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) was also assessed using the Com...

  15. Three New Localities for Rana bedriagae caralitana Arıkan, 1988 (Anura: Ranidae) in the West Mediterranean Region

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    DÜŞEN, Serdar; Öz, Mehmet; TUNÇ, Mehmet Rızvan

    2004-01-01

    Thirty adult (16 males 14 females) Rana bedriagae caralitana specimens were investigated morphologically. According to results of the morphological analysis, the Kırkgöz (Antalya), Taşkesiği (Korkuteli/Antalya) and Girdev Plateau (Elmalı/Antalya) populations were included in Rana bedriagae caralitana. Furthermore, the distribution range of R. b. caralitana was extended to the northern part of the west Mediterranean Region.

  16. Phenotypic and molecular variation in the green and black poison-dart frog Dendrobates auratus (Anura: Dendrobatidae from Costa Rica

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    Lisa D Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The green and black poison-dart frog Dendrobates auratus exhibits high intraspecific variation in hue color and pattern throughout its range, making it a very popular species in the pet trade. We analyzed the correspondence between color variation and molecular variation of D. auratus from Costa Rica using RAPD analysis. Twenty-six random primers were analyzed for variation in 99 individuals from seven populations. Color pattern was scored from digital images of the dorsal and ventral views. In general, frogs from the Caribbean coast had significantly more light coloration than black color but cannot be grouped by population based only on hue pattern. Only 3 RAPD primers were found to be polymorphic, representing a total of 16 loci. Most of the molecular variation encountered here occurs within populations, thus making unclear the degree of population structure and differentiation. Further examination of COI mtDNA sequences from our samples also supports these results. Partial Mantel correlations suggested that the pattern of molecular variation is not congruent with the variation in color pattern in this species, an outcome that is discussed in terms of phenotypic evolution. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 313-321. Epub 2009 November 30.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships between telmatobiinids (Anura, Ceratophryidae, Telmatobiinae of central Andes based on morphology of larval and adult stages

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    César Aguilar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Batrachophrynus and Telmatobius are the two genus of Telmatobiinae from the central Andes. Both genera have species with adaptations for life at high altitude in the Andes, with aquatic or semi-aquatic habits in creeks, lagoons and lakes. The objective of this study is to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships between Batrachophrynus and 13 species of Telmatobius from the central Andes using larval and adult morphology including diagnostic characters for Batrachophrynus and Telmatobius, and putative sinapomorphies for Telmatobius. The phylogenetic analysis showed 20 parsimonious trees with 56 steps length. The results of this study hypothesize that the species assigned to Batrachophrynus form a monophyletic group nested within Telmatobius. In this study, most of the synapomorphies that support Telmatobius (including Batrachophrynus come from larval morphology and these sinapomorphies will probably support the whole genus.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships between telmatobiinids (Anura, Ceratophryidae, Telmatobiinae) of central Andes based on morphology of larval and adult stages

    OpenAIRE

    César Aguilar; Niels Valencia

    2011-01-01

    Batrachophrynus and Telmatobius are the two genus of Telmatobiinae from the central Andes. Both genera have species with adaptations for life at high altitude in the Andes, with aquatic or semi-aquatic habits in creeks, lagoons and lakes. The objective of this study is to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships between Batrachophrynus and 13 species of Telmatobius from the central Andes using larval and adult morphology including diagnostic characters for Batrachophrynus and Telmatobius, and ...

  19. Osteology and chondrocranial morphology of Gastrophryne carolinensis (Anura: Microhylidae), with a review of the osteological diversity of New World microhylids

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Trueb; Raul Diaz; Blackburn, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Microhylidae is a large, cosmopolitan anuran family. Recent molecular analyses have demonstrated the monophyly of the family—a conclusion that is supported by the larval morphology, coupled with the unique mode of tongue protrusion in adults, and a suite of osteological and myological characters seemingly associated with this innovation in feeding. Despite this functional constraint, osteological diversity probably exceeds that of any other anuran family, and this diversity is especially evid...

  20. Sex-determining mechanism in Buergeria buergeri (Anura, Rhacophoridae). III. Does the ZZW triploid frog become female or male?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, S; Sumida, M; Nishioka, M

    1999-02-15

    Both triploids and gynogenetic diploids (GDs) were produced to clarify the relationship between the sex-chromosome constitution and the expression of sex in the common bell-ring frog, Buergeria buergeri. The sex differentiation of triploids in B. buergeri is quite remarkable. Triploid frogs consisted of three sex genotypes, ZZZ, ZWW and ZZW. All ZZZ triploids were males, and all ZWW triploids were females. It is very interesting that half of the ZZW triploids became female, and the other half became male. The GD frogs consisted of two sex genotypes, ZW and ZZ, which did not differ from the controls in sex differentiation. Since the ratios of ZZ and ZW eggs were significantly different among female parents, it is assumed that most (approximately 80-90%) of the eggs made pre-reductional division in some females and post-reductional division in others during meiosis. It seems that ZW eggs were produced by the occurrence of recombination between the centromere and the sex-determining genes in B. buergeri. It was also found that the number of Z chromosomes in each cell of these triploids and GDs agreed with that of the nucleoli in each cell. PMID:9933938

  1. Sobre la oviposición de Chiasmocleis leucosticta (Boulenger, 1888) (Anura: microhylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Segalla, Magno V.; Langone, José A.

    1999-01-01

    Haddad & Hödl (1997) concluyeron que Chiasmocleis leucosticta posee un modo reproductivo único entre los anuros por incluir en su oviposición burbujas de aire generadas por la respiración de la pareja en amplexo. Estos autores compararon este modo de oviposición con otros géneros de microhylidos. La presente nota tiene como cometido compararla con las de otras especies del género a la luz de las observaciones llevadas a cabo por los autores.

  2. No detection of chytrid in first systematic screening of Bombina variegata pachypus (Anura: Bombinatoridae in Liguria, northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Canessa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Apennine Yellow-bellied toad Bombina variegata pachypus, a small anuran endemic to peninsular Italy, has been declining throughout its range over the last 30 years. Although mortality by chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, was first reported for the species in 2004, its role in the decline has not yet been assessed. Between 2011 and 2012 we sampled eight populations of B. v. pachypus in Liguria, northern Italy, swabbing 86 and 143 individuals respectively, corresponding to between 24 and 80% of the estimated individuals within each population. We did not detect chytrid in any the samples collected. For the three largest populations in the region, we can rule out infections of prevalence greater than 10% with at least 98% confidence. Research at a larger scale is urgently needed to clarify the role of B. dendrobatidis in the decline of this and other amphibians in Italy.

  3. A new species of Paracapillaria (Nematoda: Capillariidae) from the intestine of the toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Anura) from the Malayan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Modrý, David; Jirků, Miloslav

    2007-08-01

    A new species of parasitic nematode, Paracapillaria malayensis n. sp. (Capillariidae), is described from the small intestine of the toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus imported from the Malayan Peninsula to the Czech Republic. The new species differs from the only other congeneric species, Paracapillaria spratti, mainly in the shape and structure of the spicular proximal end (with a lobular rim), smaller eggs (45-51 x 21-24 microm), longer spicule (336 microm), and the number (37-38) of stichocytes in gravid females; whereas P. spratti parasitizes frogs of the Microhylidae in Papua New Guinea, P. malayensis is a parasite of Bufonidae in the Malayan Peninsula. Other Paracapillaria spp. are parasites of fishes, birds, or mammals and they mostly differ from P. malayensis in the structure of eggs and some other morphological features. PMID:17918374

  4. Three new species of leaflitter frogs from the upper Amazon forests : cryptic diversity within Pristimantis "ockendeni" (Anura: Strabomantidae) in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Elmer, Kathryn R; Cannatella, David C

    2008-01-01

    Describimos tres especies nuevas de ranas del sotobosque de la cuenca Amazónica Ecuatoriana: Pristimantis achuar, Pristimantis altamnis y Pristimantis kichwarum. Estas especies fueron consideradas antes como una sola especie bajo el nombre Eleutherodactylus ockendeni (Boulenger) morfo B. Sin embargo, el análisis de secuencias de ADN y la examinación de la morfología de más que 600 especímenes Ecuatorianos indican que en realidad existen tres especies. Sus diferencias morfológicas son sutiles ...

  5. Anomalías oculares en híbridos Bufo paranecmis ♂ x Bufo arenarum ♀ (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Rengel, Dora

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Los híbridos entre Bufo paracnemis x Bufo arenarum se encuadran en los llamados "híbridos vitales". Los resultados han evidenciado relevantes anomalías oculares que se manifiestan en un 90% de los casos. En algunas larvas falta el cristalino tanto en uno como en ambos ojos (20%; en otras larvas el cristalino se encuentra ubicado en posición opuesta al normal (25% o bien puede ocurrir que se forme un ojo normal y el otro de forma distinta (20%. El análisis histológico mostró anomalías en la zona retiniana, evidenciándose a partir de los estratos pigmentarios, repliegues y movimientos flexuosos (5%. También existen ojos replegados sobre sí mismos (5%. Las alteraciones más severas llevaron a procesos de anoftalmia (10%. En ocasiones (5% en lugar del ojo se evidencian grumos de pigmento. Se obtuvo un 10% con ojos normales. Los otros órganos presentan analogía con los de las larvas de Bufo paracnemis, inclusive la librea dorsal. The hybrids between Bufo paracnemis x Bufo arenarum are counted among tbe so called "vital hybrids". Our results have revealed relevant ocular anomalies in 90% of cases. In some larvae the lens is lacking in either one or both eyes (20%; in others the lens it is found in an opposite position to normal (25% or else one normal and one different eye is formed (20%. Histological analysis reveals anomalies in the retinal area, observing flexuous movements in the pigmentary strata (5%. Eyes folded over themselves were also observed (5%. The most severe alterations produced cases of anophtalmia (10%. On occasions (5%, groupings of pigments were found instead of the eyes. l0% of the larvae were normal. The other organs show analogies to those of the larvae of Bufo paracnemis, including the dorsal pattem.

  6. Reproducción y desarrollo larval del sapo enano Melanophryniscus stelzneri stelzneri (Weyemberg, 1875 (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Bustos Singer, Rodrigo

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron varios aspectos de la reproducción y desarrollo larval de Melanophryniscus stelzneri stelzneri: condiciones ambientales en las que ocurre la reproducción, conductas pre y postreproductivas de los adultos, puesta, desarrollo embrionario, comportamiento larval, y metamorfosis. Se realizó también una descripción anatómica de la larva. La mayor parte de las conductas observadas son corrientes en anuros argentinos. La larva es típicamente pequeña y de tipo léntico-bentónica. Su fórmula dentaria mas común es 2 / 3. El tiempo de metamorfosis está afectada por la disponibilidad de agua, un paulatino descenso en el nivel de agua la acelera. Many aspects about the reproduction of Melanophryniscus stelzneri stelzneri were estudied: environmental conditions in which reproduction occurs, pre and postreproductive adult behaviour, oviposition, larval developement, tadpole habits and metamorphosis. An anatomic description of the larva was also realized. Most of the observed behaviours are usual in argentinian anurans. The tadpole is tiny and typically lentic- bentonic. The most conmon queratodontic formula is 2 / 3. The time of metamorphosis is affected by water availability. A decreasing level of water accelerates the development.

  7. Feeding habits, microhabitat use, and daily activity of Cycloramphus brasiliensis (Anura: Cycloramphidae from the Atlantic Rainforest, Brazil

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    Thiago Maia-Carneiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the feeding habits, microhabitat use, and daily activity period of the anuran species Cycloramphus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1864, endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome. The only previous studies on this species focused on the systematics and new altitudinal records. This study was conducted in a large forest remnant located in the municipalities of Guapimirim and Cachoeiras de Macacu. We captured frogs through visual encounter surveys and recorded the frequency of microhabitat types used by them, and the time of capture. Diet was analyzed in terms of number, volume and frequency of occurrence of items. Individuals of C. brasiliensis occurred in association with fast-moving rocky portions of clear freshwater rivers, indicating a rheophilic habit, and were active mainly at night. Such as most anuran species, the diet of Cycloramphus brasiliensis was mainly based on arthropods, and included Blattodea, Formicidae, and Coleoptera as most important prey items.

  8. Quantitative study of Trichodina heterodentata (Ciliophora: Mobilia infrapopulations infesting tadpoles of a Brazilian endemic toad Rhinella pombali (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Noemi M. Fernandes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the quantitative aspects of the relationship between Rhinella pombali (Baldissera, Caramaschi & Haddad, 2004 tadpoles and their trichodinid ectoparasites. Specimens were collected from a small stream located at an agricultural area between rainforest fragments in southeastern Brazil. A total of 80 tadpoles were investigated. Trichodina heterodentata Duncan, 1977 was the only trichodinid ciliate species recovered. All tadpoles were naturally infested by T. heterodentata with a mean intensity of 695.14 ± 33.33 trichodinid ciliates per tadpole. A positive correlation was observed between the intensity of the infestation and tadpole weight. Intensity of infestation did not significantly influence mean trichodinid diameter in the populations studied. This is the first study investigating density-dependent effects in interspecific interactions between trichodinids and anurans.

  9. Three New Species of Phytotelm-Breeding Melanophryniscus from the Atlantic Rainforest of Southern Brazil (Anura: Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornschein, Marcos R; Firkowski, Carina R; Baldo, Diego; Ribeiro, Luiz F; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Corrêa, Leandro; Morato, Sérgio A A; Pie, Marcio R

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of Melanophryniscus are described from the Serra do Mar mountain range of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. All species are found at intermediate to high altitudes and share phytotelm-breeding as their reproductive strategy. The new species are distinguished from other phytotelm-breeding Melanophryniscus based on different combinations of the following traits: snout-vent length, presence of white and/or yellow spots on forearms, mouth, belly and cloaca, pattern and arrangement of warts, and presence and number of corneous spines. The discovery of these species in a rather restricted geographical area suggests that the diversity of phytotelm-breeding species of Melanophryniscus might be severely underestimated. The conservation status of these species is of particular concern, given that one of them is at risk of extinction not only due to its restricted habitat, but also because of anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:26630281

  10. Ecological aspects of the casque-headed frog Aparasphenodon brunoi (Anura, Hylidae in a Restinga habitat in southeastern Brazil

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    Daniel Oliveira Mesquita

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe some aspects of the ecology of Aparasphenodon brunoi, a species associated with bromeliads. We comment on the relationships of this species with bromeliad size, microhabitat use, diet and sexual dimorphism. This study was conducted on a Restinga habitat near Presidente Kennedy, state of Espírito Santo, southeastern coast of Brazil. When the animals were found inside the bromeliads, we measure bromeliad and head size of frogs. We analyzed stomach contents and determined the sex and reproductive condition. We found 17 individuals (58.6% in bromeliad leafs, six (20.7% in Cactaceae, three (10.3% in liana and three (10.3% on trunks. The correlation between head measurements and bromeliad size were high, indicating that animals apparently use bromeliads based on their size, which could be related to the minimization of water loss. The most common prey items were beetles, ants, and insect larvae, suggesting that the species is relatively generalist in prey consumption. Aparasphenodon brunoi showed significant sexual size and shape dimorphism with females having larger bodies than males (size and females having tibia, eye diameter and SVL larger than males (shape, but larger sample size and more detailed ecological and life history data are needed to elucidate the factors that have led to sexual size dimorphism.

  11. Metamorfosis del aparato digestivo de larvas carnívoras de Ceratophrys cranwelli (Anura: leptodactylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ulloa Kreisel, Zandra E.

    2001-01-01

    Las larvas carnívoras de Ceratophrys cranwelli presentan un tubo digestivo más corto que la mayoría de las larvas de anuros, tiene 6 veces la longitud del cuerpo del renacuajo y se caracteriza también por tener un estómago larval. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo el determinar el grado de transformaciones en la cavidad bucofaríngea y tubo digestivo en larvas de esta especie durante la metamorfosis y comparar las estructuras digestivas estudiadas en otras especies de Leptodactylidae de ...

  12. A skeletochronological study of growth, longevity, and age at sexual maturity in a population of Rana latastei (Amphibia, Anura)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fabio M Guarino; Silvia Lunardi; Michela Carlomagno; Stefano Mazzotti

    2003-12-01

    Longevity and age at sexual maturity in an Italian population of Rana latastei were studied by skeletochronology performed on the phalanges. Frogs collected in 1998 and 1999 by drift fences and pitfall traps were marked by toe-clipping. After marking, individuals were released and the cut phalanges were processed for skeletochronological analysis. The maximum age so far recorded was 3 years in males and 4 years in females. The smallest male and female that were sexually mature on the basis of histological analysis of the gonads were 36 and 35 mm snout vent length (SVL), respectively. In both sexes, most individuals were estimated to breed shortly after emergence from their first overwintering. Among the European Brown Frogs, Rana latastei appears to be one of the shortest-lived and one of the first to reach sexual maturity.

  13. Multilocus Phylogeography of the Treefrog Scinax eurydice (Anura, Hylidae) Reveals a Plio-Pleistocene Diversification in the Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Lucas; Canedo, Clarissa; Batalha-Filho, Henrique; Garda, Adrian Antonio; Gehara, Marcelo; Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras

    2016-01-01

    We aim to evaluate the genetic structure of an Atlantic Forest amphibian species, Scinax eurydice, testing the congruence among patterns identified and proposed by the literature for Pleistocene refugia, microrefugia, and geographic barriers to gene flow such as major rivers. Furthermore, we aim to evaluate predictions of such barriers and refugia on the genetic structure of the species, such as presence/absence of dispersal, timing since separation, and population expansions/contractions. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers on 94 tissue samples from 41 localities. We inferred a gene tree and estimated genetic distances using mtDNA sequences. We then ran population clustering and assignment methods, AMOVA, and estimated migration rates among populations identified through mtDNA and nDNA analyses. We used a dated species tree, skyline plots, and summary statistics to evaluate concordance between population’s distributions and geographic barriers and Pleistocene refugia. Scinax eurydice showed high mtDNA divergences and four clearly distinct mtDNA lineages. Species tree and population assignment tests supported the existence of two major clades corresponding to northeastern and southeastern Atlantic Forest in Brazil, each one composed of two other clades. Lineage splitting events occurred from late Pliocene to Pleistocene. We identified demographic expansions in two clades, and inexistent to low levels of migrations among different populations. Genetic patterns and demographic data support the existence of two northern Refuge and corroborate microrefugia south of the Doce/Jequitinhonha Rivers biogeographic divide. The results agree with a scenario of recent demographic expansion of lowland taxa. Scinax eurydice comprises a species complex, harboring undescribed taxa consistent with Pleistocene refugia. Two rivers lie at the boundaries among populations and endorse their role as secondary barriers to gene flow. PMID:27248688

  14. Future climate change spells catastrophe for Blanchard’s cricket frog, Acris blanchardi (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm L. McCallum

    2010-01-01

    Climate change may be one of the greatest environmental catastrophes encountered by modern human civilization. The potential influence of this global disaster on wildlife populations is subject to question. I interpolated how seasonal variation in weather patterns influences growth and reproduction in the Blanchard’s cricket frog (Acris blanchardi). Then I extrapolated the influence of future climate conditions on these life history characteristics using fuzzy regression. Fuzzy regressi...

  15. Raorchestes ghatei, a new species of shrub frog (Anura: Rhacophoridae from the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India

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    A.D. Padhye

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of shrub frog Raorchestes ghatei is described from the Western Ghats of Maharashtra. The species differs from its congeners based on a combination of characters including small to medium-sized adult males, snout mucronate in dorsal view, canthus rostralis angular and sharp, snout slightly projecting beyond mouth ventrally, tympanum indistinct and one third of the eye diameter, tongue without papilla but with a lingual pit, nuptial pad rudimentary to absent, a bony tubercle on humerus at the end of deltoid ridge present in males and absent in females, skin finely granulated or smooth dorsally, lateral side marbled with white blotches on brown to black background. Molecular phylogeny based on 16S rRNA gene sequence suggests that the new species is genetically distinct and forms a monophyletic clade within Raorchestes. The species exhibits sexual dimorphism with males having single sub-gular vocal sac and a tubercle on the humerus while females lack them. The species shows direct development. The species is widely distributed in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra.

  16. Evolutionary history of the river frog genus Amietia (Anura: Pyxicephalidae) reveals extensive diversification in Central African highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Thornton R; Castro, Delilah; Behangana, Mathias; Greenbaum, Eli

    2016-06-01

    The African river frog genus Amietia is found near rivers and other lentic water sources throughout central, eastern, and southern Africa. Because the genus includes multiple morphologically conservative species, taxonomic studies of river frogs have been relatively limited. We sampled 79 individuals of Amietia from multiple localities in and near the Albertine Rift (AR) of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda. We utilized single-gene (16S) and concatenated (12S, 16S, cyt b and RAG1) gene-tree analyses and coalescent species-tree analyses to construct phylogenetic trees. Two divergence dating approaches were used in BEAST, including secondary calibration points with 12S, 16S, cyt b and RAG1, and a molecular clock with the 12S, 16S, and cyt b genes. All analyses recovered Amietia as monophyletic with strong support, and revealed several well-supported cryptic lineages, which is consistent with other recent phylogeography studies of AR amphibians. Dating estimates were similar, and Amietia diversification is coincident with global cooling and aridification events in the Miocene and Pliocene, respectively. Our results suggest additional taxonomic work is needed to describe multiple new species of AR Amietia, some of which have limited geographic distributions that are likely to be of conservation concern. PMID:27026115

  17. Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in aqueous suspension on the South American common frog Leptodactylus latrans (Anura: Leptodactylidae) tadpoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensisvar.israelensis (Bti) on non-target organisms are still a matter of debate; in amphibians, the risks of Bti are little known. To evaluate the toxicity of a commercial liquid (aqueous suspension, AS) formulation of Bti (Introban®) on Leptodactylus latrans tadpoles, including median lethal concentration (LC50) and no-and lowest–observed-effect concentrations (NOEC and LOEC, respectively), as well as the possible effects of Bti on oxidative responses, erythrocytes genotoxicity, and histology of the intestines. In the laboratory, tadpoles were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/L of formulated Bti-AS. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as formation of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENAs), and histological effect were measured in tadpoles displaying survival rates >85%. L. latrans tadpoles were sensitive to exposure to Bti-AS, reaching 100% mortality after 48 h of exposure at the highest concentration. Bti-AS induced GST and CAT enzymes and genotoxicity (erythrocyte's nuclear abnormalities), and caused intestine's histopathology. Our results demonstrate that toxicity of Bti-AS is dose-dependent for L. latrans tadpoles and that sublethal exposure alters enzymes of oxidative stress, induces genotoxicity, and causes intestine damage. Further research is needed to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk of the massive use of Bti formulations on amphibian populations that commonly used suburban wastewater or urban waterbodies to reproduce and where this biopesticide is frequently applied. - Highlights: • An ecotoxicological evaluation of a Bti formulation on amphibian was conducted. • Toxicity of Bti-AS was dose-dependent for Leptodactylus latrans tadpoles. • Sublethal exposure altered the enzymes of oxidative stress (GST and CAT). • Bti-AS was genotoxic because increased MN frequencies (CO: 0.82–2.74‰). • Bti-AS caused the inflammatory infiltration in the lamina propria of intestine

  18. Diet and nematode infection in Proceratoprhys boiei (Anura: Cycloramphidae from two Atlantic rainforest remnants in Southeastern Brazil

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    Thaís Klaion

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Proceratophrys boiei is an endemic cycloramphid anuran inhabiting the leaf litter of Atlantic rainforests in Southeastern Brazil. We analyzed the whole digestive tract of 38 individuals of Proceratophrys boiei collected in two Atlantic Rainforest areas in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to study the diet composition and the helminth fauna associated with this species. The main food items in P. boiei's diet were Coleoptera, Orthoptera and Blattaria. Five nematode species were found: Aplectana delirae, Cosmocerca parva, Oxyascaris oxyascaris, Physaloptera sp. (larval stage only and an unidentified nematode. Overall prevalence was 71% and mean infection intensity was 7.3 ± 5.8 neatodes per individual.Proceratophrys boiei é um anuro da familia Cycloramphidae que vive no folhico e é endêmico de areas de floresta na Mata Atlantica do Sudeste do Brasil. Nós analisamos o trato digestivo de 38 indivíduos de Proceratophrys boiei provenientes de duas áreas de Mata Atlântica no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, para estudar a composição da dieta e a fauna helmíntica associada a esta espécie. s principais itens alientares na dieta de P. boiei fora Coleoptera, rthoptera e Blattaria. Cinco espécies de nematóides foram encontradas: Aplectana delirae, Cosmocerca parva, Oxyascaris oxyascaris, Physaloptera sp. (apenas larvas e uma espécie de nematóide não identificada. A prevalência total foi de 71% e a intensidade media de infecção foi de 7,3 ± 5,8 nematóides por indivíduo.

  19. Advertisement call of Scinax littoralis and S. angrensis (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae, with notes on the reproductive activity of S. littoralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel V. Garey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Scinax littoralis and S. angrensis are poorly known Atlantic forest endemic species from the Scinax catharinae group, which is known from southern and southeastern Brazil. Herein, we describe the advertisement calls of these two species and compare them to other species within the S. catharinae group. Additionally, we provide information on breeding sites, and calling activity in S. littoralis. Advertisement calls of S. angrensis and S. littoralis are composed of multi-pulsed notes with multiple frequency bands and frequency modulation. Scinax littoralis has a higher minimum and maximum frequency, and lower dominant frequency than S. angrensis, while Scinax littoralis has a longer call. Scinax littoralis appears to be a habitat generalist, occurring from secondary to mature forests, and breeding both in temporary and in permanent ponds. Male S. littoralis were usually observed calling perched on shrub stems, and displayed satellite behavior when the male density was high.

  20. Karyotype analysis of seven species of the tribe Lophiohylini (Hylinae, Hylidae, Anura, with conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques

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    Simone Gruber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Few species of the tribe Lophiohylini have been karyotyped so far, and earlier analyses were performed mainly with standard staining. Based on the analysis of seven species with use of routine banding and molecular cytogenetic techniques, the karyotypes were compared and the cytogenetic data were evaluated in the light of the current phylogenies. A karyotype with 2n = 24 and NOR in the chromosome 10 detected by Ag-impregnation and FISH with an rDNA probe was shared by Aparasphenodon bokermanni Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920, Itapotihyla langsdorffii (Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Trachycephalus sp., T. mesophaeus (Hensel, 1867, and T. typhonius (Linnaeus, 1758. Phyllodytes edelmoi Peixoto, Caramaschi et Freire, 2003 and P. luteolus (Wied-Neuwied, 1824 had reduced the diploid number from 2n = 24 to 2n = 22 with one of the small-sized pairs clearly missing, and NOR in the large chromosome 2, but the karyotypes were distinct regarding the morphology of chromosome pairs 4 and 6. Based on the cytogenetic and phylogenetic data, it was presumed that the chromosome evolution occurred from an ancestral type with 2n = 24, in which a small chromosome had been translocated to one or more unidentified chromosomes. Whichever hypothesis is more probable, other rearrangements should have occurred later, to explain the karyotype differences between the two species of Phyllodytes Wagler, 1830. The majority of the species presented a small amount of centromeric C-banded heterochromatin and these regions were GC-rich. The FISH technique using a telomeric probe identified the chromosome ends and possibly (TTAGGGn-like sequences in the repetitive DNA out of the telomeres in I. langsdorffii and P. edelmoi. The data herein obtained represent an important contribution for characterizing the karyotype variability within the tribe Lophiohylini scarcely analysed so far.

  1. Primer Reporte de Huevos de Mosca de la Carne (Diptera: Sarcophagidae en Pristimantis achatinus (Anura: Craugastoridae de Colombia -resumen-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Escobar-Vargas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de un proyecto para el estudio de la microflora bacteriana gramnegativa asociada a la cloaca de ranas de la especie Pristimantis achatinus‚ se hizo el hallazgo de huevos de individuos de la familia Sarcophagidae (Díptera depositados en la cloaca de una de las ranas. El material cloacal fue extraído con micropipetas de punta amarilla (10-100µL y fue disuelto en caldo peptonado e incubado a 37°C durante 24 horas. Posteriormente‚ 0‚1mL de la muestra fueron sembrados por extensión en cajas de Petri con agar cristal violeta.‚ y transcurridas 72 horas de incubación a la misma temperatura‚ se encontraron 12 larvas de Dípteros correspondientes a la familia Sarcophagidae en una de las cajas petri‚ cuyo tamaño se encontraba alrededor de 0‚8mm de longitud. Se plantean varias hipótesis de la causa por la cual estos huevos se encontrasen en la cloaca. Una es que un adulto de Sarcophagidae haya sido ingerido‚ y sus huevos hayan sobrevivido al viaje a través del tracto digestivo del P. achatinus‚ sin embargo nunca ha sido reportado individuos de Sarcophagidae en la dieta de P. achatinus en ninguno de sus estados. Además‚ Se propone también la hipótesis de que puede tratarse de un caso de parasitismo‚ ya que algunas especies de la familia Sarcophagidae han sido categorizadas como parásitos asociados a varias familias de anuros‚ incluso en anuros del mismo género (P. thectopternus. A pesar de la información colectada es imposible concluir con certeza que esto es un caso de depredación o parasitismo‚ incluso cuando la evidencia externa permite suponer que esto es un caso de parasitismo.

  2. Primer Reporte de Huevos de Mosca de la Carne (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) en Pristimantis achatinus (Anura: Craugastoridae) de Colombia -resumen-

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Escobar-Vargas; Mateo Marín-Martínez; Juan C Zuluaga-Izasa

    2014-01-01

    En el marco de un proyecto para el estudio de la microflora bacteriana gramnegativa asociada a la cloaca de ranas de la especie Pristimantis achatinus‚ se hizo el hallazgo de huevos de individuos de la familia Sarcophagidae (Díptera) depositados en la cloaca de una de las ranas. El material cloacal fue extraído con micropipetas de punta amarilla (10-100µL) y fue disuelto en caldo peptonado e incubado a 37°C durante 24 horas. Posteriormente‚ 0‚1mL de la muestra fueron sembrados por extensión e...

  3. Un nuevo y peculiar Odontophrynus de la sierra de Guasayán, Santiago del Estero, Argentina (Anura: Leptodactylidae

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    Cei, José M.

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Un examen crítico de la morfología y cariotipo de los Odontophrynus de las poblaciones de la Sierra de Guayasán, Santiago del Estero, Argentina, permite sustentar su estado específico, frente a las otras formas del conjunto diplo-tetradiploide del grupo americanus. La nueva especie diploide O. lavillai exhibe caracteres diferenciales significativos, somáticos, de estructura cutánea y de coloración. Se presentan datos ecológicos generales y una discusión de sus relaciones cariotípicas con las otras formas diplo-tetraploides del grupo.

  4. Feeding habits of the leaf litter frog Haddadus binotatus (Anura, Craugastoridae from two Atlantic Forest areas in southeastern Brazil

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    LÍVIA COCO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Haddadus binotatus is an endemic anuran of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and currently, there is no information about the diet of this species. We analyzed the diet of two populations of this anuran in two states in southeast Brazil. Samplings were carried out in 2004 in the state of Rio de Janeiro and in 2009 and 2010 in the state of Espírito Santo. Haddadus binotatus presented a rich diet composition, preying 19 prey types. Orthoptera, Coleoptera, and Blattodea were the most important preys in the Rio de Janeiro population, and Orthoptera, Araneae and Hemiptera were the most important in the Espírito Santo population. The diet composition differed numerically between the two localities, but not in terms of volume, which can reflect local differences in the prey availability in the two habitats. The jaw width limited the size of prey, which is expected for predators who swallow the preys without chewing. The proportion of individuals with empty stomachs was higher in the Rio de Janeiro population (39.2% than in the Espírito Santo population (17.9%, suggesting that the former could be in a lower energy balance. The females of the species were larger than the males, which may result from the production of larger eggs.

  5. Anomalías oculares en híbridos Bufo paranecmis ♂ x Bufo arenarum ♀ (Anura: bufonidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rengel, Dora; Pisanó, Armando; Alonso, Diana

    1994-01-01

    Los híbridos entre Bufo paracnemis x Bufo arenarum se encuadran en los llamados "híbridos vitales". Los resultados han evidenciado relevantes anomalías oculares que se manifiestan en un 90% de los casos. En algunas larvas falta el cristalino tanto en uno como en ambos ojos (20%); en otras larvas el cristalino se encuentra ubicado en posición opuesta al normal (25%) o bien puede ocurrir que se forme un ojo normal y el otro de forma distinta (20%). El análisis histológico mostró anomalías en la...

  6. Range extension of the critically endambersngered true poison-dart frog, Phyllobates terribilis (Anura: Dendrobatidae, in western Colombia

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    Roberto Márquez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The poison-dart frog Phyllobates terribilis is currently classified as endangered or critically endangered due to its extremely restricted geographic distribution and intensive smuggling by pet traffickers. Based on molecular data, we here report two new localities representing a 60 km northward extension of its previously recognized range. The identity of other Phyllobates populations in western Colombia is discussed, as well as the current morphological criteria used to distinguish P. terribilis and the similar P. bicolor.

  7. Descripción del canto de anuncio de una población de Oreobates discoidalis (Anura: Strambomantidae

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    Ferrari, Liliana

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, analizamos y describimos la estructura del canto de anuncio de ejemplares de una población de Oreobates discoidalis proveniente de una región de selva de montaña del Noroeste de Argentina (Ecorregión de las Yungas Andinas del Sur, según Dinerstein et al., 1995 y efectuamos una comparación con los parámetros espectrales y temporales del canto de anuncio descriptos para la especie en una población de Campos de Pinos en Bolivia por Padial et al. (2008.

  8. Molecular systematics of terraranas (Anura: Brachycephaloidea) with an assessment of the effects of alignment and optimality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padial, José M; Grant, Taran; Frost, Darrel R

    2014-01-01

    Brachycephaloidea is a monophyletic group of frogs with more than 1000 species distributed throughout the New World tropics, subtropics, and Andean regions. Recently, the group has been the target of multiple molecular phylogenetic analyses, resulting in extensive changes in its taxonomy. Here, we test previous hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships for the group by combining available molecular evidence (sequences of 22 genes representing 431 ingroup and 25 outgroup terminals) and performing a tree-alignment analysis under the parsimony optimality criterion using the program POY. To elucidate the effects of alignment and optimality criterion on phylogenetic inferences, we also used the program MAFFT to obtain a similarity-alignment for analysis under both parsimony and maximum likelihood using the programs TNT and GARLI, respectively. Although all three analytical approaches agreed on numerous points, there was also extensive disagreement. Tree-alignment under parsimony supported the monophyly of the ingroup and the sister group relationship of the monophyletic marsupial frogs (Hemiphractidae), while maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses of the MAFFT similarity-alignment did not. All three methods differed with respect to the position of Ceuthomantis smaragdinus (Ceuthomantidae), with tree-alignment using parsimony recovering this species as the sister of Pristimantis + Yunganastes. All analyses rejected the monophyly of Strabomantidae and Strabomantinae as originally defined, and the tree-alignment analysis under parsimony further rejected the recently redefined Craugastoridae and Pristimantinae. Despite the greater emphasis in the systematics literature placed on the choice of optimality criterion for evaluating trees than on the choice of method for aligning DNA sequences, we found that the topological differences attributable to the alignment method were as great as those caused by the optimality criterion. Further, the optimal tree-alignment indicates that insertions and deletions occurred in twice as many aligned positions as implied by the optimal similarity-alignment, confirming previous findings that sequence turnover through insertion and deletion events plays a greater role in molecular evolution than indicated by similarity-alignments. Our results also provide a clear empirical demonstration of the different effects of wildcard taxa produced by missing data in parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses. Specifically, maximum likelihood analyses consistently (81% bootstrap frequency) provided spurious resolution despite a lack of evidence, whereas parsimony correctly depicted the ambiguity due to missing data by collapsing unsupported nodes. We provide a new taxonomy for the group that retains previously recognized Linnaean taxa except for Ceuthomantidae, Strabomantidae, and Strabomantinae. A phenotypically diagnosable superfamily is recognized formally as Brachycephaloidea, with the informal, unranked name terrarana retained as the standard common name for these frogs. We recognize three families within Brachycephaloidea that are currently diagnosable solely on molecular grounds (Brachycephalidae, Craugastoridae, and Eleutherodactylidae), as well as five subfamilies (Craugastorinae, Eleutherodactylinae, Holoadeninae, Phyzelaphryninae, and Pristimantinae) corresponding in large part to previous families and subfamilies. Our analyses upheld the monophyly of all tested genera, but we found numerous subgeneric taxa to be non-monophyletic and modified the taxonomy accordingly. PMID:24989881

  9. Distribution and morphological variation of Eleutherodactylus mercedesae Lynch & McDiarmid, 1987 (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae) with first record for Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padial, J.M.; McDiarmid, R.; De la Riva, I.

    2006-01-01

    We report new distributional information for Eleutherodactylus mercedesae in Bolivia, and provide the first record for Peru based on an adult female. This species, previously endemic to Bolivia, now ranges across about 1000 km in cloud forests on the Amazonian slopes of the Andes from southern Peru to central Bolivia. We provide the first morphological description of females based on two specimens, compare them with the male type and paratype, add some observations to the original description, and comment on variation in the species.

  10. Red hot chili pepper. A new Calluella stoliczka, 1872 (Lissamphibia: Anura: Microhylidae) from Sarawak, East Malaysia (Borneo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Indraneil; Min, Pui Yong; Hsu, Wayne W; Hertwig, Stefan T; Haas, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A new brightly-coloured (olive and red) species of microhylid frog of the genus Calluella Stoliczka 1872 is described from the upper elevations of Gunung Penrissen and the Matang Range, Sarawak, East Malaysia (Borneo). Calluella capsa, new species, is diagnosable in showing the following combination of characters: SVL up to 36.0 mm; dorsum weakly granular; a faint dermal fold across forehead; toe tips obtuse; webbing on toes basal; lateral fringes on toes present; outer metatarsal tubercle present; and dorsum greyish-olive, with red spots; half of venter bright red, the rest with large white and dark areas. The new species is the eighth species of Calluella to be described, and the fourth known from Borneo. A preliminary phylogeny of Calluella and its relatives is presented, and the new taxon compared with congeners from Malaysia and other parts of south-east Asia.  PMID:24872245

  11. The Euro-American genus Eopelobates, and a re-definition of the family Pelobatidae (Amphibia, Anura)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk; Wuttke, M.; Gardner, J. D.; Bhullar, B.-A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 4 (2014), s. 529-567. ISSN 1867-1594 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Eopelobates * fossoriality * Green River * formation * palaeobiogeography * Pelobates * Pelobatidae Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  12. Morphology, molecular genetics, and bioacoustics support two new sympatric Xenophrys toads (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae) in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingyong; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Jianhuan; Zhou, Zhixin; Chen, Guoling; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Given their recent worldwide declines and extinctions, characterization of species-level diversity is of critical importance for large-scale biodiversity assessments and conservation of amphibians. This task is made difficult by the existence of cryptic species complexes, species groups comprising closely related and morphologically analogous species. The combination of morphology, genetic, and bioacoustic analyses permits robust and accurate species identification. Using these methods, we discovered two undescribed Xenophrys species, namely Xenophrys lini sp. nov. and Xenophrys cheni sp. nov. from the middle range of Luoxiao Mountains, southeast China. These two new species can be reliably distinguished from other known congeners by morphological and morphometric differences, distinctness in male advertisement calls, and substantial genetic distances (>3.6%) based on the mitochondrial 16s and 12s rRNA genes. The two new species, together with X. jinggangensis, are sympatric in the middle range of Luoxiao Mountains but may be isolated altitudinally and ecologically. Our study provides a first step to help resolve previously unrecognized cryptic biodiversity and provides insights into the understanding of Xenophrys diversification in the mountain complexes of southeast China. PMID:24714161

  13. Characterization of microsatellite markers for Thoropa taophora (Anura, Cycloramphidae), a frog endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duryea, M C; Zamudio, K R; Brasileiro, C A

    2008-05-01

    Here we characterize nine microsatellite loci for Thoropa taophora collected from a coastal and an island population in southeastern Brazil. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to 11 for the coastal population and from two to eight for the island population. Observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.308 to 0.778 for the coastal population and from zero to 0.737 for the island population. One locus did not conform to Hardy-Weinberg expectations on the coast, while two were in disequilibrium on the island. These markers are currently being used to examine genetic differentiation and patterns of dispersal in T. taophora. PMID:21585864

  14. A new species of Rhinella Fitzinger, 1826 from the Atlantic Rain Forest, Eastern Brazil (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ulisses Caramaschi; José P. Pombal Jr

    2006-01-01

    A new species of the genus Rhinella is described from Canavieiras, southern State of Bahia, in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Eastern Brazil. Rhinella hoogmoedi sp. nov. is characterized by the medium size for the genus (SVL 39.4-52.1 mm in males), snout rounded in dorsal view, with a vertical apical ridge which gives a nearly mucronate aspect, and nearly acute in profile, antorbital and supra-orbital crests developed, parietal crest poorly developed, post-orbital crest large, forming a small la...

  15. New geographic records and color variation of Dendropsophus pseudomeridianus (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae) in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Lima Silveira; Rafael Cunha Pontes; Rodrigo de Oliveira Lula Salles

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present the new records of Dendropsophus pseudomeridianus in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, obtained through field samplings in several areas of the Atlantic Rain Forest in that state. Herein are also presented the color variations of the species. Dendropsophus pseudomeridianus was collected in the costal lowlands of northern Rio de Janeiro and the capital’s metropolitan region, in the state’s northwest inland localities, in Serra do Desengano and Vale do Paraíba do Su...

  16. Comparación ontogénica de la frecuencia de muda en Rhinella marina (Anura, Bufonidae

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    Teófila M. Triana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La muda es un proceso de renovación de la capa externa de la epidermis (estrato corneo de los anfibios, la cual suministra protección contra daños, patógenos y pérdida de agua. Este trabajo evalúa la frecuencia de muda entre juveniles y adultos de Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758 y la tasa de ocurrencia entre el día y la noche. Para esto, se realizaron dos observaciones diarias (7 am y 7 pm, entre Octubre de 2011 y Marzo de 2012, a tres grupos de individuos clasificados según su tamaño longitud rostro-cloaca, como adultos (promedio=80 mm, juveniles medianos (promedio=19 mm y juveniles pequeños (promedio=13 mm. Estos animales fueron colocados en terrarios en el laboratorio y marcados en el dorso a través de un punto hecho con un corrector de tinta. La muda se determinó por la pérdida total de la marca y una coloración brillante en el dorso. Se encontró una diferencia significativa (Kruskal-Wallis, H=19.84, p<0.0001 en el periodo de muda entre los tres grupos de estudio: adultos=7.5 días, juveniles medianos=5.4 días, juveniles pequeños=5.3 días. También, en la frecuencia de animales que mudaron en el día y la noche (Ji-cuadrado, χ2=7.891, p=0.019, particularmente en los dos grupos de juveniles, quienes lo hicieron en la noche, ya que en los adultos no hubo una diferencia clara. Posiblemente, la mayor frecuencia de la muda en los juveniles puede relacionarse con su condición ontogénica, de un menor tamaño corporal, alta tasa metabólica y mayor tasa de desarrollo.

  17. Infestación por esparganos en ranas del genero Pristimantis (Anura, Strabomantidae del Perú

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    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio, reportamos el parasitismo por esparganos del cestode Spirometra sp. en los anfibios: Pristimantis nephophilus y Pristimantis rhodostichus, provenientes del departamento de San Martin, Perú. Tres estructuras filiformes localizadas a nivel subcutáneo, fueron colectadas e identificadas como esparganos. El hallazgo de este metacestode constituye el primer registro en anfibios del Perú y demuestra que las ranas P. nephophilus y P. rhodostichus son nuevos hospederos intermediarios para Spirometra sp.

  18. Feeding pattern and use of reproductive habitat of the Striped toad Rhinella crucifer (Anura: Bufonidae from Southeastern Brazil

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    Rodrigo B. Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Diet composition, foraging mode, and using of reproductive habitat of Rhinella crucifer was studied in an artificial pond in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The favored substrate was leaf litter, followed by Cyperaceae/Poaceae. Calling sites, preferred for 23.3 % (n = 7 of the observed toads, were within the water, with only the head not submerged. We analyzed a total of 61 specimens, mainly males (98.5% male and 1.5% female. Seven categories of prey were found in the stomach contents: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera (Formicidae, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Gastropoda (Mollusca, Opilionida (Arachnida. Our studies indicate that the diet of Rhinella crucifer consists mainly of terrestrial colonial arthropods. Formicidae was the predominant food item in frequency of occurrence, number of prey and weight. Isoptera and Coleoptera were also relevant in terms of weight. Neither large ontogenetic dietary nor seasonal shifts were observed in the population studied. Our results suggest that no intraspecific food resource partitioning occurs in adult or juveniles. Rhinella crucifer adults avoid competition inhabiting different home range habitats and seem to be ant-specialist with a wide foraging mode.

  19. A new species of Pristimantis (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the foothills of the Andes in Manu National Park, southeastern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepack, Alexander; von May, Rudolf; Ttito, Alex; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of Pristimantis from the humid sub-montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. was collected in the Kosñipata and Entoro valleys at elevations from 740 to 1110 m a.s.l., near the borders of Manu National Park and within the Huachiperi Haramba Queros Conservation Concession. The new species can be distinguished from other members of the genus Pristimantis by its rostral tubercle, smooth dorsal skin, and by its advertisement call. Pristimantis lacrimosus and Pristimantis waoranii superficially most resemble the new species, but Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. differs from both species by having a rostral tubercle (absent in Pristimantis waoranii and variable in Pristimantis lacrimosus) and larger size, from Pristimantis lacrimosus by its call emitted at a lower frequency, and from Pristimantis waoranii for its dorsal coloration with dark markings. Two other species have partially overlapping distributions and resemble the new species, Pristimantis mendax and Pristimantis olivaceus, but they produce advertisement calls with much higher dominant frequencies than the advertisement call of the new species. Furthermore, Pristimantis mendax differs from the new species by lacking a rostral tubercle and by having a sigmoid inner tarsal fold, whereas Pristimantis olivaceus differs by being smaller and by having dorsal skin shagreen with scattered tubercles. The new species has snout-vent length of 21.8–26.9 mm in males (n = 12) and 28.8 mm in a single female. PMID:27408563

  20. Una nueva especie de atelopus (amphibia: anura: bufonidae) del páramo de tama, estado apure, venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    la Marca, Enrique; García Pérez, Juan Elías; Renjifo, Juan Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Se describe una especie nueva de rana, Atelopus tamaense, del páramo el Tama, en el Estado Apure, Venezuela. El taxon se distingue de todos los demás miembros del género por la combinación de extensivo ''webbing" y coloración distintiva. Se suministran datos sobre su morfología externa, piel, coloración, variación intraespecífica, dimorfismo sexual y ecología. Se incluye una clave para la identificación de las especies venezolanas de Atelopus y se hacen algunas comparaciones para diferenciar ...

  1. Tests of phenotypic and genetic concordance and their application to the conservation of Panamanian golden frogs (Anura, Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Corinne L; Knowles, L Lacey

    2007-08-01

    Evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) differ in the extent to which they capture, or even consider, adaptive variation, and most such designations are based solely on neutral genetic differences that may not capture variation relevant to species' adaptabilities to changing environmental conditions. While concordant patterns of divergence among data sets (i.e. neutral and potentially non-neutral characters) can strengthen ESU designations, determining whether such criteria are met for highly variable taxa is especially challenging. This study tests whether previously defined ESUs for endangered Panamanian golden frogs (Atelopus varius and Atelopus zeteki) exhibit concordant variation among multiple phenotypic traits and mitochondrial DNA sequences, and the extent to which such divergence corresponds to environmental differences. Multivariate analyses identify phenotypic and genetic differentiation consistent with proposed ESUs and support the status of A. varius and A. zeteki as separate species. Moreover, the significant association detected between ESU co-membership and genetic similarity, which remained strong after removing the effect of geographic distance, also indicates that genetic differences are not simply due to isolation by distance. Two phenotypic characters (body size and the extent of dorsal black patterning) that differ among ESUs also co-vary with environmental differences, suggesting that to the extent that these phenotypic differences are heritable, variation may be associated with adaptive divergence. Lastly, discriminant function analyses show that the frogs can be correctly assigned to ESUs based on simultaneous analysis of multiple characters. The study confirms the merit of conserving the previously proposed golden frog ESUs as well as demonstrates the utility and feasibility of combined analyses of ecological, morphological and genetic variation in evaluating ESUs, especially for highly variable taxa. PMID:17651191

  2. Predation of Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766 (Chiroptera: Molossidae by Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002 (Anura: Bufonidae in the Caatinga, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augustinho Menezes da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This communication is to report, through a fortuitous event, the predation of the bat Molossus molossus by the toad Rhinella jimi, on 29 May 2003 in the Caatinga, municipality of Orocó, state of Pernambuco, northeast Brazil.

  3. Advertisement and release calls of Phyllomedusa ayeaye (Anura: Hylidae with comments on the social context of emission

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    Renato C. Nali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Male calls play different roles in anuran social organization, such as spacing, territoriality and female attraction. However, calls and associated behaviors remain poorly described for many anuran species. Here we describe the advertisement and release calls of the tree frog Phyllomedusa ayeaye (Lutz, 1966 and report on the social context of emissions and a physical combat. Approximately 35 minutes of digital recordings were obtained from 34 hours of observations at one breeding site in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Bioacoustic analysis showed that males emitted two types of advertisement calls: 1 simple call (a sequence of short pulsed notes and 2 composite call (a sequence of short pulsed notes followed by a long pulsed note. Composite calls were emitted more frequently during more intense chorus activity, with various active males at the breeding site. The release call was also composed by short pulsed notes, with a wider spectrum of frequencies and emitted more rapidly than the advertisement calls. Our results suggest that the composite call of P. ayeaye may represent a mixed advertisement call. Long notes might be the aggressive part directed to males, whereas short notes directed to females. Our description of call types, their functions, and male physical interactions will be useful for studies investigating the systematics and behavior of Phyllomedusa species.

  4. Advertisement and combat calls of the glass frog Centrolene lynchi (Anura: Centrolenidae, with notes on combat and reproductive behaviors

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    Nicole Dautel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe the advertisement and combat calls, combat behavior, and reproductive behavior of the glass frog Centrolene lynchi, an endemic species of the cloud forests of Ecuador. The typical advertisement call consists of a tonal note and 1–3 peaked notes, each with 1–3 pulses. Variations on this advertisement call include the addition of a short note before the tonal note, as well as the absence of the tonal note. These modifications may be similar to thedescribed call modifications of other anurans in response to the presence of conspecific females and males, potential predators and/or changes in the sound environment. Additionally, we describe the combat call emitted during previously undescribed venter-toventercombat between males. The discovery of this combat behavior is consistent with the hypothesis that venter-to-venter combat behavior is a shared derived trait of the subfamily Centroleninae. Finally, we describe male reproductive habits and development of the species, including egg attendance by males and implied male parental care.

  5. The advertisement call of Bokermannohyla flavopicta Leite, Pezzuti & Garcia, 2012 (Anura: Hylidae) from the mountains of Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Pedro Carvalho; Thompson, Julia Resende; Leite, Felipe Sá Fortes; Garcia, Paulo Christiano De Anchietta

    2016-01-01

    Bokermannohyla Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell & Wheeler (2005) is a Brazilian treefrog genus currently composed of 32 species (Brandão et al. 2012; Leite et al. 2012; Frost 2015). The genus comprehends four, putatively monophyletic, species groups: B. circumdata, B. claresignata, B. martinsi, and B. pseudopseudis (sensu Faivovich et al. 2005). The B. pseudopseudis group includes nine species: B. alvarengai (Bokermann 1956), B. flavopicta Leite et al. 2012, B. ibitiguara (Cardoso 1983), B. itapoty Lugli & Haddad 2006a, B. oxente Lugli & Haddad 2006b, B. pseudopseudis (Miranda-Ribeiro 1937), B. sagarana Leite et al. 2011, B. sapiranga Brandão et al. 2012, and B. saxicola (Bokermann 1964). PMID:27395500

  6. Vocal repertory of Scinax littoreus (Anura: Hylidae with comments on the advertisement call of the Scinax perpusillus species group

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    Rafael Pontes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Scinax perpusillus species group consists of thirteen bromeligenous treefrogs, of which only six have had their acoustic parameters appropriately described. In this work, we present the vocal repertory of Scinax littoreus (Peixoto, 1988 based on recordings obtained from three different populations in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Based on our observations we suggest that the vocal repertory of S. littoreus is composed of two distinct types of calls. The call named type A, which corresponds to a long series of multipulsed notes, is likely to have a mating function. This type of call is similar to that reported for Scinax arduous Peixoto, 2002, Scinax peixotoi Brasileiro, Haddad, Sawaya & Martins, 2007, and Scinax perpusillus (Lutz & Lutz, 1939. However, the type A call of S. littoreus is nonetheless readily distinguishable from the comparable call observed in other congeneric species. The call named type B, which exhibits a multipulsed structure, presumably has an aggressive function. We observed that different types of calls could be emitted alone or combined according to the social context. Additionally, we discuss problems involving comparisons of call parameters among species belonging to the S. perpusillus species group, provide an updated geographic distribution map, discuss the conservation status of the included species, and emphasize the importance of acoustic data for the recognition of species groups within Scinax.

  7. A new colorful species of Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the eastern flank of the Cordillera Central in Colombia .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Prieto, Diego A; Rivera-Correa, Mauricio; Daza, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of Pristimantis from the humid forests on the eastern flank of the northern Cordillera Central in Colombia (6º 23' 19.3554" N, 75º 1' 24.0594" W; ca. 1150 m.a.s.l.). Pristimantis jaguensis sp. nov. is characterized by an extraordinary variation in color and is readily distinguished from congeneric species by lacking nuptial pads, discoidal fold and conical calcar tubercles; flanks and belly white to cream without blotches as well as iris yellow ocher to copper with thick brown reticulation and cream sclera. Molecular phylogenetic analyses recovered the new species in a clade with species mostly distributed in Ecuador. Our finding suggests that new taxa can still be discovered in the Middle Magdalena River valley of Colombia despite the extensive sampling this region has received during the last decades.  PMID:25543734

  8. Osteology and chondrocranial morphology of Gastrophryne carolinensis (Anura: Microhylidae, with a review of the osteological diversity of New World microhylids

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    Linda Trueb

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Microhylidae is a large, cosmopolitan anuran family. Recent molecular analyses have demonstrated the monophyly of the family—a conclusion that is supported by the larval morphology, coupled with the unique mode of tongue protrusion in adults, and a suite of osteological and myological characters seemingly associated with this innovation in feeding. Despite this functional constraint, osteological diversity probably exceeds that of any other anuran family, and this diversity is especially evident in the New Worldmicrohylids that comprise two clades, Gastrophryninae and Otophryninae. To facilitate comparisons among these clades, we describe the larval chondrocranium, skeletal development, and adult osteology of Gastrophryne carolinensis. We provide a phylogeneticcontext for these comparisons through a novel phylogenetic analysis of 45 microhylid genera based on data for one mitochondrial and three nuclear loci from previously published studies. Nearly all relationships within the monophyletic Gastrophryninae are resolvedwith robust support. Based on these results, we found that the larval chondrocrania of gastrophrynines share morphological features that distinguish them from Otophryne and other anurans. Among the adults, all gastrophrynines show evidence of an anterior shift ofthe jaws that is correlated with specializations in the otic region, and with the alignment of the planum antorbitale, the cartilage wall separating the nasal capsule from the orbits. The larval infrarostral and the adult mandibles lack a typical anuran mandibular symphysis, and the mentomeckelian bone of the adult is modified with a special process. The most variable part of the skull is the palate in which a neopalatine usually is absent and the vomer may be single or divided. The posteromedial processes of the hyoids of gastrophynines tend to be elaborated, and some taxa bear a peculiar transverse slit in the posterior part of the hyoid corpus. The anterior zonal elements of the pectoral girdle are reduced or absent, and the posterior parts enlarged and shifted posteriorly. Most taxa have eight presacral vertebrae; depending on the taxon the last presacral is amphicoelous or procoelous.

  9. Nestedness in colonization-dominated systems: helminth infracommunities of Rana vaillanti Brocchi (Anura: Ranidae) in Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelmer, Derek A; Paredes-Calderón, Laura; León-Règagnon, Virginia; García-Prieto, Luis

    2004-08-01

    Colonization probabilities of parasite species often are determined by the habitat preference and vagility of host individuals. Although extinction-based interpretations have been investigated for nested subset patterns of parasite infracommunities, the low relative frequency of nestedness in colonization-dominated systems makes the determination and interpretation of nested infracommunities of broad ecological importance. In these systems, ontogenetic shifts in habitat preference or diet of the host have the potential to produce nested subset patterns of parasite infracommunities. Helminth infracommunity structure was investigated for 76 Rana vaillanti individuals collected from Laguna Escondida, Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico, in 1998. Pooled helminth infracommunities were significantly nested, as were penetrating and ingested helminth infracommunities when considered separately. Richness, diversity, and evenness of the helminth infracommunities were not correlated with host size, and did not differ between host sexes, suggesting that the structure of infracommunities simply is a product of the interaction between host individuals and their landscape mediated by individual differences in vagility. It is hypothesized that individual differences in recruitment can produce nested subset infracommunity patterns when the habitats or habitat preferences of hosts are themselves nested. PMID:15357057

  10. Heavy metal mediated immunomodulation of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Anura:Ranidae) in urban wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshani, S; Madhushani, W A N; Jayawardena, U A; Wickramasinghe, D D; Udagama, P V

    2015-06-01

    Impacts of heavy metal toxicity on the immune system of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus, in Bellanwila Attidiya, an urban wetland polluted with high levels of heavy metals, compared to the reference site in Bolgoda, in Sri Lanka was investigated. Significantly higher accumulation of selected heavy metals, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) were detected by AAS in frog liver and gastrocnemius muscle, in the polluted site than in the reference site. Non-functional immunotoxicity tests; total WBC, splenocyte and bone marrow cell counts, spleen weight/body weight ratio, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and basal immunoglobulin levels, and phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophages (immune functional test) were carried out using standard methodology. Test parameters recorded significantly lower values for frogs of the polluted site compared with their reference site counterparts, indicative of lowered immune response of frogs in the former site. In vitro phagocytic assay based on NBT dye reduction, measured the stimulation index (SI) of E. hexadactylus blood leukocytes, splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages, where SIs of frogs in the polluted site were significantly lower. Also, in vitro exposure of frog phagocytes to Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd at 10(-2)-10(-10)M, showed immunomodulation i.e. low concentrations stimulated phagocytosis while increased concentrations showed a trend towards immunosuppression. IC50 values indicated Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb as the decreasing order of the potential of phagocytosis inhibition. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrated immunomodulation of E. hexadactylus, stimulated by heavy metals. In-vitro studies evidently suggested the use of phagocytosis as a biomarker in Ecoimmunotoxicology to detect aquatic heavy metal pollution. PMID:25754457

  11. Phyllomedusa: Posição taxonômica, hábitos e biologia (Amphibia, anura, hylidae

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    Ulisses Caramaschi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis for the Hylidae family of tree-frogs, and diagnosis and included genera for the four subfamilies currently in this family, Hemiphractinae, Hylinae, Pelodryadinae, and Phyllomedusinae, are provided. The genera of the Phyllomedusinae subfamily, Agalychnis, Hylomantis, Pachymedusa, Phasmahyla, Phrynomedusa, and Phyllomedusa are diagnosed and the species included and their geographical distribution are referred. Notes on the habits and biology of members of the genus Phyllomedusa are presented.

  12. Locality Record of Leptobrachium smithi Matsui, Nabhitabhata & Panha, 1999 (Anura: Megophryidae on the north bank of Brahmaputra river in India

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    Dipankar Dutta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Leptobrachium Tschudi, 1838 is currently represented by 32 species all over the world distributed throughout mainland and insular Asia with two species so far from India. Leptobrachium smithi is known from Rani-Gharbhanga Landscape, Borduar-Mayang Landscape, Barail Range and Barak Valley all from south of River Brahmaputra. We herein report additional distribution records of Leptobrachium smithi from Ultapani Reserve Forest, Shankarghala and Mathanguri of Manas National Park on the north bank of the River Brahmaputra. The report from Ultapani, Shankarghala and Mathanguri is an extension of range of species by around 100 to 176 km north. Mineralogic and stratigraphic data of Brahmaputra basin indicates that the Brahmaputra River has changed position several times during the Holocene. The presence of the species on the north bank across the river barrier may be attributed to the positional changes of the river and due to lateral shifting of the river.

  13. Three new species of Pristimantis (Lissamphibia, Anura from montane forests of the Cordillera Yanachaga in Central Peru

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    William E. Duellman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe three additional new species of Pristimantis from the Cordillera Yanachaga, a part of the Andes in central Peru. Analyses of DNA sequences of the mitochondrial rRNA genes show that onespecies is a close relative of P. bipunctatus (P. conspicillatus Group, another is a close relative of P. stictogaster (P. peruvianus Group, and the third is related to several species in the P. unistrigatus Group. The first two species are morphologically similar to their closest relatives but occur at lower elevations. Twenty-nine species of Pristimantis and Phrynopus are known from the vicinity of the Cordillera Yanachaga. The number of species, especially of Pristimantis, is high in the humid montane forestin comparison with other sites in humid montane forests in Peru, but the number is lower than on the western slopes of the Andes in Ecuador.

  14. An addition to the diversity of dendrobatid frogs in Venezuela: description of three new collared frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae: Mannophryne

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    César Luis Barrio-Amorós

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of collared frogs of the genus Mannophryne are described from Venezuela. Two are newly discovered taxa from the Venezuelan Andes, whereas the third species, previously confused with M. trinitatis, is from the Caracas area in the Cordillera de la Costa. The call of the three new species and that of Mannophryne collaris are described. Taxonomic, zoogeographic, and conservation issues are discussed.

  15. A new species of Phrynopus (Anura, Strabomantidae from Peru, with comments on the osteology of the genus

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    Linda Trueb

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A new, small species of Phrynopus is described from the eastern slopes of the Cordillera Oriental just north of the Río Huallaga in central Peru. The species resembles P. montium, but is distinguished from it and other congeners by its spatulate snout. The anterior end of the maxillary arcade is broadly rounded in dorsal view, and composed of wide premaxillae that bear extraordinarily large alary processes that are deflected posteriorly at an acute angle. The configuration of the premaxillae accounts for the wide, depressed snout in this species, which in other osteological features resembles P. montium. The osteology of Phrynopus montium is described in some detail in comparison to the new species, with theintention of establishing a baseline for future morphological studies and taxonomic descriptions of strabomantine anurans of this and related genera.

  16. Population estimates of Dendrobates tinctorius (Anura: Dendrobatidae at three sites in French Guiana and first record of chytrid infection

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    Elodie A. Courtois

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropics shelter the highest number of frog species on Earth and is also one of the regions where anurans are most threatened. Nonetheless, few data are available to assess the population status of Neotropical anurans. We studied three populations (Tresor, Favard, and Nouragues of the poison frog, Dendrobates tinctorius, in French Guiana and used Capture-Mark-Recapture (CMR to make robust estimations of the species’ density at these three sites. In addition, we assessed the prevalence of the pathogen fungal Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd in two populations (Favard and Nouragues. Based on the CMR protocol, the densities of frogs was 8.43 individuals/100 m² at Favard, 4.28 individuals/100 m² at Nouragues and from 2.30 to 4.67 individuals/100 m² at Tresor (depending on the CMR model used; these data provide a baseline for population densities of D. tinctorius in French Guiana, against which future population estimates can be compared. We found that 25 encounter events may be sufficient for stable population estimates, if the captures are concentrated in time. Bd was detected at both sites (Favard 7/152; Nouragues 3/18.

  17. Morphological variation of Telmatobius atahualpai (Anura: Telmatobiidae with comments on its phylogenetic relationships and synapomorphies for the genus

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    César Aguilar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Telmatobius atahualpai was described on the basis of a subadult female and three juveniles. A new diagnosis and a description of the adult skeleton of specimens from two localities are provided. We also comment on synapomorphies of the genus and on possible phylogenetic relationships of T. atahualpai with other members of the genus.

  18. Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in aqueous suspension on the South American common frog Leptodactylus latrans (Anura: Leptodactylidae) tadpoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajmanovich, Rafael C., E-mail: lajmanovich@hotmail.com [National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Faculty of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences (FBCB-UNL), Ciudad Universitaria Paraje el Pozo s/n, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Junges, Celina M. [National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Faculty of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences (FBCB-UNL), Ciudad Universitaria Paraje el Pozo s/n, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Cabagna-Zenklusen, Mariana C. [Faculty of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences (FBCB-UNL), Ciudad Universitaria Paraje el Pozo s/n, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Attademo, Andrés M.; Peltzer, Paola M. [National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Faculty of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences (FBCB-UNL), Ciudad Universitaria Paraje el Pozo s/n, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Maglianese, Mariana; Márquez, Vanina E.; Beccaria, Alejandro J. [Faculty of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences (FBCB-UNL), Ciudad Universitaria Paraje el Pozo s/n, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2015-01-15

    The effects of commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensisvar.israelensis (Bti) on non-target organisms are still a matter of debate; in amphibians, the risks of Bti are little known. To evaluate the toxicity of a commercial liquid (aqueous suspension, AS) formulation of Bti (Introban{sup ®}) on Leptodactylus latrans tadpoles, including median lethal concentration (LC{sub 50}) and no-and lowest–observed-effect concentrations (NOEC and LOEC, respectively), as well as the possible effects of Bti on oxidative responses, erythrocytes genotoxicity, and histology of the intestines. In the laboratory, tadpoles were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/L of formulated Bti-AS. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as formation of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENAs), and histological effect were measured in tadpoles displaying survival rates >85%. L. latrans tadpoles were sensitive to exposure to Bti-AS, reaching 100% mortality after 48 h of exposure at the highest concentration. Bti-AS induced GST and CAT enzymes and genotoxicity (erythrocyte's nuclear abnormalities), and caused intestine's histopathology. Our results demonstrate that toxicity of Bti-AS is dose-dependent for L. latrans tadpoles and that sublethal exposure alters enzymes of oxidative stress, induces genotoxicity, and causes intestine damage. Further research is needed to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk of the massive use of Bti formulations on amphibian populations that commonly used suburban wastewater or urban waterbodies to reproduce and where this biopesticide is frequently applied. - Highlights: • An ecotoxicological evaluation of a Bti formulation on amphibian was conducted. • Toxicity of Bti-AS was dose-dependent for Leptodactylus latrans tadpoles. • Sublethal exposure altered the enzymes of oxidative stress (GST and CAT). • Bti-AS was genotoxic because increased MN frequencies (CO: 0.82–2.74‰). • Bti-AS caused the inflammatory infiltration in the lamina propria of intestine.

  19. Study on the population structure of the paradoxical frog, Pseudis bolbodactyla (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae, using natural markings for individual identification

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    Werther P. Ramalho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the population structure of Pseudis bolbodactyla Lutz, 1925 using natural markings to identify individuals. Recruitment, survival, and population size estimations were obtained using the Jolly-Seber stochastic method. A total of 166 individuals were captured, and the striped, spotted, and dotted patterns that make their recognition possible were recorded. Of the specimens captured, 27 were recaptured, including some at pre and post-metamorphic stages. The estimate maximum population size was 52. The indices of survival and recruitment varied among samplings. Sexual dimorphism in size and in the operational sex ratio were detected. Despite the limited scope of our characterization of the P. bolbodactyla population, our data might be useful in the interpretation and elaboration of new hypotheses about ecological processes acting on anuran populations.

  20. A new species of Pristimantis (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the foothills of the Andes in Manu National Park, southeastern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Catenazzi, Alessandro; von May, Rudolf; Shepack,Alexander; Ttito, Alex

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Pristimantis from the humid sub-montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. was collected in the Kosñipata and Entoro valleys at elevations from 740 to 1110 m a.s.l., near the borders of Manu National Park and within the Huachiperi Haramba Queros Conservation Concession. The new species can be distinguished from other members of the genus Pristimantis by its rostral tubercle, smooth dorsal skin, and by its advertisement ...

  1. A new species of the Rhinella margaritifera species group (Anura, Bufonidae) from the montane forest of the Selva Central, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Jiří; Lehr, Edgar; Cusi, Juan Carlos; Córdova, Jesús H; Gvoždík, Václav

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of the bufonid toad genus Rhinella from transition montane forest of the buffer zones of the Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park and the Pui Pui Protected Forest (eastern slopes of Andes, Selva Central, Peru). The new species belongs to the Rhinella margaritifera species group (confirmed by mtDNA data) and differs from all its members by the absence of tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus. It is characterized by medium size (SVL 57.5-65.5 mm, n = 5), moderately developed cranial crests, absence of neural crest of vertebrae, absence of bone protrusion at angle of jaw, presence of lateral rows of enlarged tubercles, and absence of subgular vocal sac and vocal slits in males. In addition, based on the molecular phylogenetic analyses of selected Rhinella species we propose the monophylum containing R. chavin, R. festae, R. macrorhina, R. manu, R. nesiotes, R. rostrata, and R. yanachaga as a new species group under the name Rhinella festae species group. PMID:24493953

  2. A new species of Pristimantis (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the foothills of the Andes in Manu National Park, southeastern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Shepack,Alexander; von May, Rudolf; Ttito, Alex; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Pristimantis from the humid sub-montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. was collected in the Kosñipata and Entoro valleys at elevations from 740 to 1110 m a.s.l., near the borders of Manu National Park and within the Huachiperi Haramba Queros Conservation Concession. The new species can be distinguished from other members of the genus Pristimantis by its rostral tubercle, smooth dorsal skin, and by its advertisement call. Pristima...

  3. A new species of the Rhinella margaritifera species group (Anura, Bufonidae) from the montane forest of the Selva Central, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Jiri Moravec; Edgar Lehr; Juan Carlos Cusi; Jesus Cordova; Vaclav Gvozdik

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of the bufonid toad genus Rhinella from transition montane forest of the buffer zones of the Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park and the Pui Pui Protected Forest (eastern slopes of Andes, Selva Central, Peru). The new species belongs to the Rhinella margaritifera species group (confirmed by mtDNA data) and differs from all its members by the absence of tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus. It is characterized by medium size (SVL 57.5–65.5 mm, n = 5), mod...

  4. Distribución geográfica de Scinax nasica (Cope, 1862) (Anura: hylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rozzi Giménez, Cristina; Gallego, Fernando L.

    2001-01-01

    República Argentina, Provincia de Córdoba, Dpto. Unión, Alto Alegre (32º 22' S- 62º 53' W), 14 ejemplares colectados por Cristina Rozzi Giménez y Fernando Gallego entre abril de 1998 y abril de 2000. Depositados en la Colección de Zoología de Vertebrados, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Río Cuarto, Argentina, números ZVUNRC: 4353, 4354, 4356, 4390, 4411, 4655, 4756, 5123, 6136, 6216, 6217, 6466, 6762, 7118. Dpto. General San Martín, Villa María (32º 25' S y 63º 15' W), un ejemplar, número...

  5. Patterns of Cranial Development in Larval Rana macrocnemis: Chondrocranial Size and Shape Relationship With Pelophylax bedriagae (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Elıf; Kaya, Uğur

    2016-06-01

    Notwithstanding the abundance of amphibians, there are few descriptions about ranid cranial development. Herein, larval chondrocranial development of Uludağ frog, Rana macrocnemis (Boulenger, 1885), is described on cleared and double-stained specimens. Descriptions are related with the ontogeny of the chondrocranium and osteogenesis of the cranial skeleton. The larval chondrocranial development of R. macrocnemis is compared to those of Rana and Pelophylax larvae (Pelophylax bedriagae, Rana pipiens, R. palustris, R. sphenocephala, R. catesbeiana, R. clamitans and R. sylvatica). In R. macrocnemis, the first bones to ossify are the parasphenoid and exoccipital (Stage 33), followed by the frontoparietal and prootic (stages 35 and 40, respectively). The major reconstruction of the chondrocranium begins at Stage 41. The ossification sequence of R. macrocnemis is distinguished from other ranids. Adult cranial osteology of R. macrocnemis is compared to that of P. bedriagae. Osteologically, R. macrocnemis is different from P. bedriagae by the shape and size of the vomer and number of teeth. Additionally, geometric morphometric methods are used to analyze chondrocranial size and shape changes of ranid larva of R. macrocnemis and P. bedriagae. Anat Rec, 299:711-721, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26950267

  6. Karyological and morphometric variation of the North African green frog Pelophylax saharicus (Anura in north-eastern Africa

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    Nabil AMOR, Sarra FARJALLAH, Slim BEN-YACOUB, Paolo MERELLA, Khaled SAID

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric variation of Pelophylax saharicus was analysed using univariate and multivariate statistics, with both traditional and geometric morphometrics, based on 148 specimens from four different geographical localities in Tunisia and Algeria. The results show the existence of three morphotypes in Tunisia and one in Algeria, and indicate a significant degree of variation in morphometric characters between regions. Specimens from the southernmost region have the smallest body size and the greatest morphometric divergence from other populations. This pattern of morphometric variation probably results from phenotypic plasticity in response to local environmental factors. The results of our chromosomal study (C-, Ag-NOR-, endonuclease digestion, DAPI, CMA3 and Q-banding reveal this species to exhibit the plesiomorphic Pelophylax karyotype of 2n = 26 biarmed chromosomes and NORs on the eleventh pair. Similarities and differences of the North African green frog are discussed in relation to the different forms of data collected (chromosomal, morphometric, ecological [Current Zoology 56 (6: 678–686, 2010].

  7. Karyological and morphometric variation of the North African green frog Pelophylax saharicus (Anura) in north-eastern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil AMOR, Sarra FARJALLAH, Slim BEN-YACOUB, Paolo MERELLA, Khaled SAID

    2010-01-01

    Morphometric variation of Pelophylax saharicus was analysed using univariate and multivariate statistics, with both traditional and geometric morphometrics, based on 148 specimens from four different geographical localities in Tunisia and Algeria. The results show the existence of three morphotypes in Tunisia and one in Algeria, and indicate a significant degree of variation in morphometric characters between regions. Specimens from the southernmost region have the smallest body size and the ...

  8. Helminth fauna of two species of Physalaemus (Anura: Leiuperidae) from an undisturbed fragment of the Atlantic rainforest, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Gislayne M; Aguiar, Aline; Silva, Reinaldo J; Anjos, Luciano A

    2013-10-01

    Two amphibian species, Physalaemus cuvieri and Physalaemus olfersii, from Serra do Mar State Park, which is an old-growth environment of the Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil, were surveyed for endoparasites. Hosts were sampled in 2 ponds; each was colonized by only 1 Physalaemus species. The overall prevalence of helminths was high and similar in both amphibian species. The mean intensity of infection in P. olfersii did not differ statistically from that in P. cuvieri . Nine helminth species were found: 2 acanthocephalans, 1 cestode, and 6 nematodes. Parasite richness in the 2 host species was similar. The composition of helminth fauna differed but the 2 hosts shared the most prevalent taxon of nematode (an unidentified species of Cosmocercidae). All helminth species exhibited an aggregated distribution pattern in the host species. The present results demonstrate relatively low species richness and the dominance of generalist parasite species. This study contributes to knowledge regarding the structure and composition of the helminth community in anurans. PMID:23409941

  9. Microhabitat partitioning between leiuperidae and bufonidae species (amphibia: anura) in tropical dry forest areas in Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed partitioning of microhabitats by five species of frogs in the families, Bufonidae (Rhinella marina, r. granulosa), and Leiuperidae (Engystomops pustulosus, Pleurodema brachyops and Pseudopaludicola pusilla) in six different localities of the Colombian Caribbean with tropical dry forest fragments and different land uses. We identified 29 types of microhabitats; permanent ponds in pastures with trees (CPPA) and flooded pastures without trees (PISA) were the most important environmental used. Engystomops pustulosus used the must microhabitats, and none are used by specialist species. Thus, differences in the use of resource on regional and local scales appeared. Dynamics of microhabitat uses was influenced by the climatic variations of the tropical dry forest. Microhabitats distribution as a mechanism of coexistence in these species is implemented for dry season but in rainfall season this mechanism not exists.

  10. Cytotoxic Activity and Antiproliferative Effects of Crude Skin Secretion from Physalaemus nattereri (Anura: Leptodactylidae on in vitro Melanoma Cells

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    Andréa Cruz e Carvalho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anuran secretions are rich sources of bioactive molecules, including antimicrobial and antitumoral compounds. The aims of this study were to investigate the therapeutic potential of Physalaemus nattereri skin secretion against skin cancer cells, and to assess its cytotoxic action mechanisms on the murine melanoma cell line B16F10. Our results demonstrated that the crude secretion reduced the viability of B16F10 cells, causing changes in cell morphology (e.g., round shape and structure shrinkage, reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, increase in phosphatidylserine exposure, and cell cycle arrest in S-phase. Together, these changes suggest that tumor cells die by apoptosis. This skin secretion was also subjected to chromatographic fractioning using RP-HPLC, and eluted fractions were assayed for antiproliferative and antibacterial activities. Three active fractions showed molecular mass components in a range compatible with peptides. Although the specific mechanisms causing the reduced cell viability and cytotoxicity after the treatment with crude secretion are still unknown, it may be considered that molecules, such as the peptides found in the secretion, are effective against B16F10 tumor cells. Considering the growing need for new anticancer drugs, data presented in this study strongly reinforce the validity of P. nattereri crude secretion as a rich source of new anticancer molecules.

  11. Pseudophilautus dilmah, a new species of shrub frog (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae from a threatened habitat Loolkandura in Sri Lanka

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    L.J. Mendis Wickramasinghe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species of shrub frog Pseudophilautus dilmah is described from the Central Hills of Sri Lanka.  This unique species is distinguished from all the other congeners from a combination of characters; snout rounded in lateral aspect, bluntly pointed in dorsal and ventral aspect, canthus rostralis rounded, vomerine teeth, lingual papilla and nuptial pads absent, dermal fringe distinct on inside of fingers III and IV, small blunt tubercles on metacarpal and ulnar folds, toes basally webbed, interorbital area smooth, upper eyelid prominent tubercles present, anterior and posterior dorsum without horny spinules but tubercles present, upper part of flank weakly granular, supratympanic fold distinct, prominent small calcar present at the distal end of the tibia, throat granular, chest and belly coarsely granular.  Based on comparison of 16s rRNA gene we also show that the species is genetically distinct from other members of Pseudophilautus for which gene sequences are available.  The high rate of deforestation and anthropogenic activities threaten this population in its natural habitat. 

  12. A new species of Paracapillaria (Nematoda: Capillariidae) from the intestine of the toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Anura) from the Malayan Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Modrý, David; Jirků, Miloslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 4 (2007), s. 907-909. ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Paracapillaria * Duttaphrynus * Malayan Peninsula Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.129, year: 2007

  13. Re-evaluating the taxonomic status of Chiromantis in Thailand using multiple lines of evidence (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aowphol, Anchalee; Rujirawan, Attapol; Taksintum, Wut; Arsirapot, Sutipong; McLeod, David S

    2013-01-01

    Because of general phenotypic similarities and distribution of species across two continents, the genus Chiromantis has proven somewhat enigmatic. Among Indochinese species, the validity of C. hansenae has been questioned by some who consider it a junior synonym of C. vittatus. We employ three lines of evidence to elucidate the taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationships of four congeneric species of Chiromantis frogs from Thailand. Results of molecular, morphological, and bioacoustic data analyses support at least four evolutionarily distinct and monophyletic clades: C. doriae, C. nongkhorensis, C. vittatus and C. hansenae. Genetic divergence between C. vittatus and C. hansenae is > 10%, significantly greater than C. doriae and C nongkhorensis (4.5%). Our results support the taxonomic validity of C. hansenae and suggest that there may be more diversity within C. hansenae and C. vittatus than is currently recognized. PMID:26146711

  14. Insights from Integrative Systematics Reveal Cryptic Diversity in Pristimantis Frogs (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the Upper Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Andrade, H. Mauricio; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R.; Valencia, Jorge H.; Espinosa de los Monteros, Alejandro; Morrone, Juan J.; Ron, Santiago R.; Cannatella, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Pluralistic approaches to taxonomy facilitate a more complete appraisal of biodiversity, especially the diversification of cryptic species. Although species delimitation has traditionally been based primarily on morphological differences, the integration of new methods allows diverse lines of evidence to solve the problem. Robber frogs (Pristimantis) are exemplary, as many of the species show high morphological variation within populations, but few traits that are diagnostic of species. We used a combination of DNA sequences from three mitochondrial genes, morphometric data, and comparisons of ecological niche models (ENMs) to infer a phylogenetic hypothesis for the Pristimantis acuminatus complex. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a close relationship between three new species—Pristimantis enigmaticus sp. nov., P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov.—originally confused with Pristimantis acuminatus. In combination with morphometric data and geographic distributions, several morphological characters such as degree of tympanum exposure, skin texture, ulnar/tarsal tubercles and sexual secondary characters (vocal slits and nuptial pads in males) were found to be useful for diagnosing species in the complex. Multivariate discriminant analyses provided a successful classification rate for 83–100% of specimens. Discriminant analysis of localities in environmental niche space showed a successful classification rate of 75–98%. Identity tests of ENMs rejected hypotheses of niche equivalency, although not strongly because the high values on niche overlap. Pristimantis acuminatus and P. enigmaticus sp. nov. are distributed along the lowlands of central–southern Ecuador and northern Peru, in contrast with P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov., which are found in northern Ecuador and southern Colombia, up to 1200 m in the upper Amazon Basin. The methods used herein provide an integrated framework for inventorying the greatly underestimated biodiversity in Amazonia. PMID:26600198

  15. Insights from Integrative Systematics Reveal Cryptic Diversity in Pristimantis Frogs (Anura: Craugastoridae from the Upper Amazon Basin.

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    H Mauricio Ortega-Andrade

    Full Text Available Pluralistic approaches to taxonomy facilitate a more complete appraisal of biodiversity, especially the diversification of cryptic species. Although species delimitation has traditionally been based primarily on morphological differences, the integration of new methods allows diverse lines of evidence to solve the problem. Robber frogs (Pristimantis are exemplary, as many of the species show high morphological variation within populations, but few traits that are diagnostic of species. We used a combination of DNA sequences from three mitochondrial genes, morphometric data, and comparisons of ecological niche models (ENMs to infer a phylogenetic hypothesis for the Pristimantis acuminatus complex. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a close relationship between three new species-Pristimantis enigmaticus sp. nov., P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov.-originally confused with Pristimantis acuminatus. In combination with morphometric data and geographic distributions, several morphological characters such as degree of tympanum exposure, skin texture, ulnar/tarsal tubercles and sexual secondary characters (vocal slits and nuptial pads in males were found to be useful for diagnosing species in the complex. Multivariate discriminant analyses provided a successful classification rate for 83-100% of specimens. Discriminant analysis of localities in environmental niche space showed a successful classification rate of 75-98%. Identity tests of ENMs rejected hypotheses of niche equivalency, although not strongly because the high values on niche overlap. Pristimantis acuminatus and P. enigmaticus sp. nov. are distributed along the lowlands of central-southern Ecuador and northern Peru, in contrast with P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov., which are found in northern Ecuador and southern Colombia, up to 1200 m in the upper Amazon Basin. The methods used herein provide an integrated framework for inventorying the greatly underestimated biodiversity in Amazonia.

  16. Amphibia, Anura, Strabomantidae, Geobatrachus walkeri (Ruthven, 1915): Altitudinal extension and new habitat, Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda-Solano, L. A.; Vargas-Salinas, F.

    2010-01-01

    In September 2008 we registered the frog Geobatrachus walkeri at ~ 3500 m elevation in the Sierra Nevada deSanta Marta, an isolated mountain range in the Caribbean Colombian, South America. Our record expands the knowledge ofthe altitudinal distribution of this species on 700 m and constitutes the first observation in páramo habitat.

  17. A new species of Tomopterna (Anura: Ranidae from the Kruger National Park, with notes on related species

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    N. I. Passmore

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Tomoptema, T. krugerensis, sp. n., has been recorded from the Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa.Morphologically it is very similar to T. delalandei cryptotis (Boulenger but the mating call is markedly different from that of the other members of the genus and this is coupled with small but consistent morphological differences.T. krugerensis sp. n. is known to occur only on a portion of the western fringe of the vast sandveld areas of Mozambique, but possibly has a much wider distribution. Mating call, calling behaviour, eggs, early development and defence mechanisms are described. The affinities of the new form are discussed and the mating calls of other members of the genus are reviewed. Mating call is again shown to be a sensitive non-morphological taxonomic tool.

  18. Tadpole morphology of Leptodactylus plaumanni (Anura: Leptodactylidae, with comments on the phylogenetic significance of larval characters in Leptodactylus

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    Jimena R. Grosso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I summarize the morphology of the Leptodactylus plaumanni tadpoles, describing the external morphology, buccal cavity, and cranial skeleton and associated muscles. A distinctive combination of traits include the truncated snout in dorsal view, dorsal fin originated anterior to the body-tail junction, submarginal papillae present in some specimens, two slight indentations in the lower lip, ceratobranchial III free from the hypobranchial plate, small ventrolateral projections of the corpus of the suprarostral cartilage, m. subarcualis rectus I with three heads, and m. subarcualis rectus II-IV inserting in ceratobranchial I and connective tissue between branchial processes II and III. The buccal cavity shares the typical features in species of the group, namely four lingual papillae, two pairs of infralabial papillae, two postnarial papillae, and one pair of not branched lateral ridge papillae. Attending to the increasing role of larval characters in phylogenetic analyses, further research is needed to understand the evolution of tadpole morphology in this genus.

  19. Independent Evolution of Suction Feeding in Neobatrachia: Feeding Mechanisms in Two Species of Telmatobius (Anura:Telmatobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrionuevo, José Sebastián

    2016-02-01

    The most common feeding mechanism among aquatic vertebrates as fishes, turtles, and salamanders is inertial suction. However, among the more than 6,400 species of anurans, suction feeding occurs only in pipids. Pipidae is a small basal lineage relative to Neobatrachia, an enormous clade that contains about 96% of extant anurans. The Andean neobatrachian frogs of the genus Telmatobius include strictly aquatic and semiaquatic species. Diet analyses indicate that some species of Telmatobius feed on strictly aquatic prey, but until now their feeding mechanisms have been unknown. Herein, the feeding mechanisms in two species of Telmatobius, that represent the two predominant modes of life in the genus, are explored. The semiaquatic T. oxycephalus and the fully aquatic T. rubigo are studied using high-speed cinematography and standard anatomical techniques to provide a qualitative approach to feeding behavior and a detailed morphological description of the mouth, tongue, hyoid and related muscles. T. oxycephalus uses similar mechanisms of aquatic prey capture as do the vast majority of anurans that are capable of forage in water, whereas the fully aquatic T. rubigo is an inertial suction feeder. This is the first report of an objective record of this unique feeding behavior in a Neobatrachian. Several morphological characters seem to be related with this function and are convergent with those of pipids. PMID:26575038

  20. Do all frogs swim alike? The effect of ecological specialization on swimming kinematics in frogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Robovská-Havelková, P.; Aerts, P.; Roček, Zbyněk; Přikryl, Tomáš; Fabre, A.-C.; Herrel, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 217, č. 20 (2014), s. 3637-3644. ISSN 0022-0949 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Anura * kinematics * locomotion * swimming Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.897, year: 2014

  1. Larval development and evolutionary origin of the anuran skull

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk

    Vol. 7. Chipping Norton : Surrey Beatty & Sons, 2003 - (Heatwole, H.; Davies, M.), s. 1877-1995 ISBN 0-949324-94-9 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * skull Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  2. Transformations of Aortic Arches During Metamorphosis of the Spade-Foot Toad, Pelobates fuscus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majorová, H.; Roček, Zbyněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 260, č. 3 (2004), s. 309. ISSN 0362-2525. [International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology /7./. 27.07.2004-01.08.2004, Boca Raton] Keywords : Anura * Circulatory System * Metamorphosis Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  3. Nematodes parásitos de Chaunus granulosus major (Müller & Hellmich, 1936) (Anura: Bufonidae) en Corrientes, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    González, Cynthia Elizabeth; Monika I. Hamann

    2006-01-01

    En nuestro país, estudios previos referidos a la nematofauna de Chaunus granulosus major (Müller y Hellmich, 1936) han sido realizados en la provincia de Corrientes por Mordeglia y Digiani (1998) quienes han reportado la especie Cosmocerca parva Travassos, 1925. Con el presente estudio se incorporan tres nuevos registros de nematodes a la fauna parasitaria de Ch. g. major de la Argentina.

  4. Temporada e turno de vocalização de Leptodactylus natalensis Lutz, 1930 (Amphibia, Anura na mata atlântica de Pernambuco, Brasil

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    Fabiana Oliveira de Amorim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de vocalização de uma população de Leptodactylus natalensis foi monitorada em uma poça temporária entre novembro/2002 e outubro/2004. A poça está situada em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica conhecido como Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, município de Igarassu, Estado de Pernambuco. Os animais apresentaram-se ativos na maioria dos meses, apresentando picos na estação seca. A atividade de vocalização foi registrada durante o dia e a noite. Houve influência negativa e significativa entre a atividade vocal e a temperatura. O número de indivíduos vocalizando não foi significantemente afetado pela precipitação pluviométrica, mas o foi pelo número de fêmeas no ambiente. Verificou-se uma grande plasticidade na atividade de vocalização de L. natalensis durante a temporada e turno.Vocalizations of a population of Leptodactylus natalensis were monitored in a temporary pond from November 2002 to October 2004. This pond is located in a fragment of Atlantic rainforest belonging to the private Ecologic Refuge Charles Darwin, in the city of Igarassu, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Individuals were active during most of the studied months, with peaks of activity during dry season. Vocal activity was recorded both in day and nighttime. There was a significant negative effect of temperature on vocal activity. The number of individuals vocalizing was not affected significantly by rainfall, but it was by the number of females on the environment. A great plasticity of vocal activities of L. natalensis was verified, both in season and turn.

  5. Revisión sobre la distribución geográfica de Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824 (Anura: Leptodactylidae

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    Langone, José A.

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Existen con frecuencia en la literatura neotropical, confusiones respecto a la distribución geográfica de las especies de anuros. En el caso de las confusiones del género Physalaemus fueron y son debidas a identificaciones erradas, producto de descripciones originales vagas y del difícil acceso o inexistencia de material tipo. La presente nota trata sobre una de estas confusiones.

  6. Possible interspecific origin of the B chromosome of Hypsiboas albopunctatus (Spix, 1824) (Anura, Hylidae), revealed by microdissection, chromosome painting, and reverse hybridisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Simone Lilian; Diniz, Débora; Sobrinho-Scudeler, Patrícia Elda; Fausto Foresti; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista; Kasahara, Sanae

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The B chromosome in the hylid Hypsiboas albopunctatus (2n = 22 + B) is small, almost entirely composed of C-positive heterochromatin, and does not pair with any chromosome of the A complement. B probe, obtained by microdissection and DOP-PCR amplification, was used to search for homology between the B and regular chromosomes of H. albopunctatus and of the related species H. raniceps (Cope, 1862). Reverse hybridisation was also carried out in the investigation. The B probe exclusively painted the supernumerary, not hybridising any other chromosomes in H. albopunctatus, but all H. raniceps chromosomes showed small labelling signals. This result might be an indication that differences exist between the repetitive sequences of A and B chromosomes of H. albopunctatus, and that the chromosomes of H. raniceps and the heterochromatin of the B chromosome of H. albopunctatus are enriched with the same type of repetitive DNA. In meiotic preparations, the B labelled about 30% of scored spermatids, revealing a non-mendelian inheritance, and the painted B in micronucleus suggests that the supernumerary is eliminated from germ line cells. Although our results could suggest an interespecific origin of the B at first sight, further analysis on its repetitive sequences is still necessary. Nevertheless, the accumulation of repetitive sequences, detected in another species, even though closely related, remains an intriguing question. PMID:25349670

  7. Una nueva especie de sapo del género Osornophryne (Anura: Bufonidae de las estribaciones amazónicas de los Andes de Ecuador

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    Jonh Jairo Mueses-Cisneros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva y llamativa especie de Osornophryne de las estribaciones orientales de los Andes norte de Ecuador, Provincia de Sucumbíos, entre los 2.600 y 2.800 m. La nueva especie se distingue de la mayoría de sus congéneres (excepto de O. guacamayo por presentar los dedos pediales IV y V alargados, probablemente como una adaptación a hábitos arbóreos. Osornophryne cofanorum sp. nov. difiere de todos los Osornophryne conocidos hasta el momento por presentar la piel dorsal co-osificada con el cráneo, con las espinas neurales de las vértebras y con el urostilo, lo cual da a los individuos un aspecto esquelético. Los machos tienen un patrón único de coloración y textura de piel caracterizado por la presencia de pústulas amarillas en la punta del rostro, canthus rostralis, borde externo del párpado y extremidades, y de agrupaciones de pústulas amarillas y/o blanco-cremas dorsolaterales.A new distinctive species of Osornophryne is described from the Amazonian slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes at elevations between 2600 and 2800 m. The new species differ from most congeners (except O. guacamayo by having elongated Toes IV and V, probably as an adaptation for arboreal habits. Osornophryne cofanorum sp. nov. differs from all known Osornophryne by having its skull, vertebrae, and urostlyle coosified with the overlying skin, conferring individuals a squeletic aspect. Males have a unique color pattern of yellow pustules on the tip of the snout, upper eyelid, limbs, and dorsolateral pustular clusters.

  8. Descripción de las larvas de dos centrolénidos (Anura: Centrolenidae del noroccidente de la Cordillera Oriental, Colombia

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    Marco Rada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las larvas de dos especies de la familia Centrolenidae (Hyalinobatrachium ibama y Cochranella daidalea procedentes del flanco occidental de la cordillera Oriental en el departamento de Norte de Santander, Colombia. En la descripción de las larvas, además de las características morfológicas tradicionales, se incorporaron nuevos elementos de juicio como la longitud del tubo cloacal, la forma del rostro, el patrón de color y la posición del espiráculo, los cuales resultaron ser informativos y muy útiles en la diferenciación de las especies. Se proporciona una discusión acerca de la validez taxonómica de algunos de los caracteres morfológicos empleados usualmente en las descripciones y comparaciones de los renacuajos de la familia Centrolenidae.We describe herein the larvae of two species of the family Centrolenidae (Hyalinobatrachium ibama and Cochranella daidalea from the Department of Norte de Santander on the western flank of the Cordillera Oriental, Colombia. In order to provide an adequate description, we incorporate new elements such as: vent-tube length, snout shape, color pattern and spiracle position. A discussion about the taxonomic validity of some tadpole morphological characteristics traditionally used in descriptions and comparisons of the family Centrolenidae is provided.

  9. Revision of the characters of Centrolenidae (Amphibia : Anura : Athesphatanura), with comments on its taxonomy and the description of new taxa of glassfrogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Heredia, D.F.; McDiarmid, Roy W.

    2007-01-01

    Anurans of the family Centrolenidae are a diverse clade of arboreal frogs distributed across tropical America. Knowledge of their taxonomy, systematics, ecology, behavior, morphology, and other evolutionary aspects of their biology is deficient. Relationships among centrolenid species remain largely unresolved, with no satisfactory phylogenetic hypothesis, and none of the current genera has compelling evidence of monophyly. Further, understanding the phylogeny of glassfrogs is constrained by species-level taxonomic problems, including incorrect description of characters, incomplete analyses of intraspecific variation, and lack of appreciation of species diversity. Herein, we define and analyze the 23 characters that are useful, in combination, in diagnosing centrolenid species, and thereby provide a reference for the use of future workers. We propose revised classifications for the parietal and visceral peritoneal pigmentation, liver form and coloration of its associated hepatic peritoneum, nuptial excrescences, and hand ornamentation. We comment on the generic and species-level taxonomy of Centrolenidae, proposing the recognition of a new genus and describing a new species from Ecuador. We treat Hyla ocellifera Boulenger as a synonym of Centrolene prosoblepon (Boettger), Hyalinobatrachium cardiacalyptum McCranie & Wilson as a synonym of Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi (Taylor), and Hyalinobatrachium crybetes McCranie and Wilson as a synonym of Hyalinobatrachium colymbiphyllum (Taylor). We also present an annotated list of the species of glassfrogs from the Republic of Ecuador with some distributional remarks.

  10. Extra-intestinal localization of Goussia sp (Apicomplexa) oocysts in Rana dalmatina (Anura: Ranidae), and the fate of infection after metamorphosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, M.; Modrý, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2006), s. 237-241. ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1544; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Goussia * Rana * Coccidia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.509, year: 2006

  11. A new species of Psychrophrynella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the humid montane forests of Cusco, eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenazzi, Alessandro; Ttito, Alex

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Psychrophrynella from the humid montane forest of the Department Cusco in Peru. Specimens were collected at 2,670-3,165 m elevation in the Área de Conservación Privada Ukumari Llakta, Japumayo valley, near Comunidad Campesina de Japu, in the province of Paucartambo. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Psychrophrynella but P. bagrecito and P. usurpator by possessing a tubercle on the inner edge of the tarsus, and from these two species by its yellow ventral coloration on abdomen and limbs. Furthermore, the new species is like P. bagrecito and P. usurpator in having an advertisement call composed of multiple notes, whereas other species of Psychrophrynella whose calls are known have a pulsed call (P. teqta) or a short, tonal call composed of a single note. The new species has a snout-vent length of 16.1-24.1 mm in males and 23.3-27.7 mm in females. Like other recently described species in the genus, this new Psychrophrynella inhabits high-elevation forests in the tropical Andes and likely has a restricted geographic distribution. PMID:26989637

  12. Systematics of treefrogs of the Hypsiboas calcaratus and Hypsiboas fasciatus species complex (Anura, Hylidae with the description of four new species

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    Marcel Caminer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the systematics of the Hypsiboas calcaratus species complex, a group of widely distributed Amazonian hylid frogs. A comprehensive analysis of genetic, morphological, and bioacoustic datasets uncovered the existence of eleven candidate species, six of which are confirmed. Two of them correspond to Hypsiboas fasciatus and Hypsiboas calcaratus and the remaining four are new species that we describe here. Hypsiboas fasciatus sensu stricto has a geographic range restricted to the eastern Andean foothills of southern Ecuador while Hypsiboas calcaratus sensu stricto has a wide distribution in the Amazon basin. Hypsiboas almendarizae sp. n. occurs at elevations between 500 and 1950 m in central and northern Ecuador; the other new species (H. maculateralis sp. n., H. alfaroi sp. n., and H. tetete sp. n. occur at elevations below 500 m in Amazonian Ecuador and Peru. The new species differ from H. calcaratus and H. fasciatus in morphology, advertisement calls, and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Five candidate species from the Guianan region, Peru, and Bolivia are left as unconfirmed. Examination of the type material of Hyla steinbachi, from Bolivia, shows that it is not conspecific with H. fasciatus and thus is removed from its synonymy.

  13. INTRASPECIFIC VARIATION IN ACOUSTIC TRAITS AND BODY SIZE, AND NEW DISTRIBUTIONAL RECORDS FOR PSEUDOPALUDICOLA GIARETTAI CARVALHO, 2012 (ANURA, LEPTODACTYLIDAE, LEIUPERINAE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ITS CONGENERIC DIAGNOSIS

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    THIAGO RIBEIRO DE CARVALHO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide an updated diagnosis for Pseudopaludicola giarettai based on the morphometric and acoustic variation observed with the assessment of new populations, plus an expansion of its distribution range. Our results support that all acoustic variation observed might be attributed to intraspecific variation. The variation in body size and dorsal stripe patterns observed for Pseudopaludicola giarettai reinforces that the distinctive whistling advertisement call pattern is the most reliable evidence line to diagnose it from its congeners, whereas morphological (robust body, glandular dorsum and morphometric (body size features vary considerably within and among populations so that they should no longer be employed as diagnostic features of Pseudopaludicola giarettai.

  14. Assessment of water pollution in the Brazilian Pampa biome by means of stress biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii (Anura: Hylidae

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    TG Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Pampa biome is currently under constant threat due to increase of agriculture and improper management of urban effluents. Studies with a focus on the assessment of impacts caused by human activities in this biome are scarce. In the present study, we measured stress-related biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii, an endemic species to the Pampa biome, and tested its suitability as a bioindicator for the assessment of potential aquatic contamination in selected ponds (S1 and S2 nearby agricultural areas in comparison to a reference site. A significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. The levels of total-hydroperoxides were increased in S2 site. In parallel, increased activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase were observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. Further studies are necessary in order to correlate the changes observed here with different chemical stressors in water, as well as to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity induced by pesticides in amphibian species endemic to the Pampa biome. Nevertheless, our study validates Phyllomedusa iheringii as a valuable bioindicator in environmental studies.

  15. Feeding habits of the frog Pleurodema diplolistris (Anura, Leptodactylidae in Quaternary sand dunes of the Middle Rio São Francisco, Bahia, Brazil

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    José Wellington Alves dos Santos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate the feeding habits of Pleurodema diplolistris, the most abundant anuran species of the São Francisco sand dunes, during a period of slightly over one year. The fieldwork was undertaken during four excursions to a sand dune in the semiarid Caatinga, Brazil, and the analyses were based on stomach contents. Pleurodema diplolistris were not active during the dry season. The important food categories in diet were Isoptera (winged forms, Coleoptera, and Formicidae. Small and large animals had different food comsumption patterns: small frogs showed positive electivity for termites and large frogs, for ants. The pattern was strongly influenced by large male food electivity. High levels of termite comsumption ocurred during the days of greater capture success. The pattern of high comsumption of termites detected here is different from that described in another study on lizards from the same locality and sampled in the same periods. We discuss alternative hypotheses that could explain the observed patterns.

  16. Scaling new heights: first record of Boulenger’s Lazy Toad Scutiger boulengeri (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae from high altitude lake in Sikkim Himalaya, India

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    Barkha Subba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Frogs in the genus Scutiger of the family Megophryidae are the highest altitude frogs in the world, and are endemic to eastern Himalaya. Here, we report the occurrence of Scutiger boulengeri (Bedriaga, 1898 in one of the highest altitude lakes in the world, Lake Gurudongmar. This is the first report of Scutiger boulengeri from India and the first record of any amphibian species to be found at an altitude as high as 5270m, thus setting a world record for the highest altitude frog. Scutiger sikimmensis (Blyth, 1855 is another species of the genus Scutiger found in this region. This species is often confused with Scutiger boulengeri due to similar morphology and habitat overlap. We provide a detailed account of both S. boulengeri and S. sikimmensis based on morphology and molecular identification techniques. 

  17. Reproduction of the exotic bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802 (Anura, Ranidae in creeks of the Atlantic Rainforest of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Lilian Gomes Afonso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction of the exotic bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus was studied every two months from January 2005 to December 2006, analyzing tadpoles, juveniles, and adult vocalizations at three creeks located in the largest Brazilian center of ornamental fish breeding. Absolute and relative tadpole frequencies were measured bimonthly in three development stages: G1 (no limbs, G2 (hind limbs present, G3 (fore and hind limbs and I (metamorphs. Results show that, during warmest months, a greater proportion of tadpoles in G1, G2, and G3 phases were found in Santo Antônio and Chato creeks, while G1, G3, and I phases were more common in Gavião creek. Tadpoles in G1 and G2 phases predominated in coldest months at all locations. Male calls and highest average water temperatures and rainfall were recorded at 3 streams during the hottest months. Management measures should be adopted, such as the extermination of larval and adult stages, and initiatives should be taken to prevent new re-introductions, such as: (1 installation of fences around tanks where adults are located, (2 placement of protective screens on the pipes that release waste water from tanks directly into streams, (3 capacity building and educational measures on the problems of biological invasions for staff working on ornamental fish farms.

  18. Geographic variation in Incilius occidentalis (Anura: Bufonidae), an endemic toad from Mexico, with a redescription of the species and delimitation of the type locality

    OpenAIRE

    Georgina Santos-Barrera

    2014-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the populations referable to the wide ranging species Incilius occidentalis was conducted based on 10 morphometric variables and other external morphological traits. Thirty three populations were geographically defined from more than 220 locality records of the species. A brief summary of the nomenclatural history of this species is presented and the external morphological variation is analyzed. Incilius occidentalis is here redescribed on the basis of comparisons with...

  19. REPARTICIÓN DE MICROHABITATS ENTRE ESPECIES DE BUFONIDAE Y LEIUPERIDAE (AMPHIBIA: ANURA EN ÁREAS CON BOSQUE SECO TROPICAL DE LA REGION CARIBE-COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla Gómez Maria Argenis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la repartición de microhabitats de cinco especies de anuros pertenecientes a las familias Bufonidae (Rhinella marina, R. granulosa, y Leiuperidae (Engystomops pustulosus, Pleurodema brachyops y Pseudopaludicola pusilla en seis localidades del Caribe Colombiano con fragmentos de bosque seco tropical y diferentes usos de suelo. Se identificaron 29 microhabitats. Los más usado fueron charco de agua Permanente de potreros con arboles (CPPA y potreros inundables sin árboles (PISA. La especie que mayor cantidad de microhabitats usó fue E. pustulosus. No hubo especialistas en el uso de estos ambientes. Se presentaron diferencias en el uso de este recurso a escalas regional y local. La dinámica de uso de los microhabitats estuvo influenciada por las variaciones climáticas del bosque seco tropical. Existe repartición de microhabitats como mecanismo de coexistencia en estas especies para época seca. En el periodo de lluvias este mecanismo no se aplicó.

  20. Nuevos registros para la herpetofauna del departamento de Lima, descripción del renacuajo de Telmatobius rimac Schmidt, 1954 (Anura: Ceratophrydae) y una clave de los anfibios

    OpenAIRE

    César Aguilar; Mikael Lundberg; Karen Siu-Ting; María Elena Jiménez

    2013-01-01

    En el presente trabajo la larva de Telmatobius rimac es descrita y ocho nuevos registros de anfibios y reptiles para el departamento de Lima son dados a conocer. Los nuevos registros de anfibios para Lima son Gastrotheca peruana y Pleurodema marmorata. Los nuevos registros de reptiles son las lagartijas Phyllodactylus gerrhopygus y Ameiva edracantha, y las serpientes Leptotyphlops tricolor, Philodryas tachymenoides, Sibynomorphus vagus y Tantilla capistrata. Con este estudio la herpetofauna p...

  1. Nuevos registros para la herpetofauna del departamento de Lima, descripción del renacuajo de Telmatobius rimac Schmidt, 1954 (Anura: Ceratophrydae y una clave de los anfibios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Aguilar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo la larva de Telmatobius rimac es descrita y ocho nuevos registros de anfibios y reptiles para el departamento de Lima son dados a conocer. Los nuevos registros de anfibios para Lima son Gastrotheca peruana y Pleurodema marmorata. Los nuevos registros de reptiles son las lagartijas Phyllodactylus gerrhopygus y Ameiva edracantha, y las serpientes Leptotyphlops tricolor, Philodryas tachymenoides, Sibynomorphus vagus y Tantilla capistrata. Con este estudio la herpetofauna presente en el departamento de Lima queda compuesta de 7 anfibios y 33 reptiles. Se proporciona una clave de identificación para los anfibios y una lista actualizada de la herpetofauna del departamento de Lima.

  2. Comparación de la respuesta auditiva del tallo cerebral entre Rana catesbiana (Anura: Ranidae) y Sceloporus torcuatus (Sauria: Phrynosomatida)

    OpenAIRE

    Jos\\u00E9 De Jes\\u00FAs Morales Mart\\u00EDnez; Hugo Sol\\u00EDs Ort\\u00EDz

    1999-01-01

    En general se conoce muy poco sobre el sentido de la audición de los anfibios y de los reptiles. El órgano auditivo ha sufrido cambios evolutivos que se relacionan con la transición del medio acuático al terrestre. Por esta razón, los reptiles terrestres muestran aparentemente un sistema auditivo eficiente en comparación con los anfibios. El presente estudio se llevó a cabo con el fin de comparar las respuestas auditivas entre Rana catesbiana y Sceloporus torquatus. Se utilizó la ...

  3. A new species of the genus Centrolene (Amphibia : Anura : Centrolenidae) from Ecuador with comments on the taxonomy and biogeography of Glassfrogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Heredia, D.F.; McDiarmid, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a new species of Glassfrog, Centrolene mariaelenae n. sp., from the Contrafuerte de Tzunantza, southeastern Ecuador. The new species is assigned to the Centrolene gorzulai species group, a clade previously known only from the Guayana Shield region, because the parietal peritoneum is transparent and the hepatic peritoneum is covered by guanophores. We analyze the diversity patterns of Glassfrogs from eastern Ecuador. The distribution of the new species herein described supports previous hypothesis of a biogeographical connection between the Andes and the Guayana Shield for various groups of plants and animals; particularly a relationship between the Guayana Shield and the sandstone outcrops mountain ranges of southeastern Ecuador and northeastern Peru. We also comment on the infrageneric and generic classification of Glassfrogs, and propose the new combinations Centrolene balionotum n. comb., Cochranella antisthenesi n. comb., and Cochranella pulverata n. comb.

  4. A new species of frog of the genus Pristimantis from Tingo María National Park, Huánuco Department, central Peru (Anura, Craugastoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Germán; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Craugastoridae frog encountered from 1000-1700 m in elevation in the premontane forests of the Peruvian central Andes is described. The new species is similar in appearance to many other species of Pristimantis, but is easily distinguishable from these species by having bright red coloration on the groin, posterior surface of thighs, and shanks. The new species is only known for two localities 27 km apart in the Huánuco Region. PMID:27587978

  5. Comparación de la respuesta auditiva del tallo cerebral entre Rana catesbiana (Anura: Ranidae) y Sceloporus torcuatus (Sauria: Phrynosomatida)

    OpenAIRE

    José De Jesús Morales Martínez; Hugo Solís Ortíz

    1999-01-01

    En general se conoce muy poco sobre el sentido de la audición de los anfibios y de los reptiles. El órgano auditivo ha sufrido cambios evolutivos que se relacionan con la transición del medio acuático al terrestre. Por esta razón, los reptiles terrestres muestran aparentemente un sistema auditivo eficiente en comparación con los anfibios. El presente estudio se llevó a cabo con el fin de comparar las respuestas auditivas entre Rana catesbiana y Sceloporus torquatus. Se utilizó la técnica de l...

  6. Two new species of frogs of the genus Pristimantis from Llanganates National Park in Ecuador with comments on the regional diversity of Ecuadorian Pristimantis (Anura, Craugastoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, María J; Venegas, Pablo J; Ron, Santiago R

    2016-01-01

    We describe two new species of frogs of the genus Pristimantis from the eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, at Parque Nacional Llanganates. The new species are characterized by the spiny appearance typical of several species inhabiting montane forests. Pristimantis yanezi sp. n. is most similar to Pristimantis colonensis and Pristimantis incanus but differs from both in groin coloration and by having smaller tubercles on the upper eyelids, heels, and tarsus. Pristimantis llanganati sp. n. is most similar to Pristimantis eriphus and Pristimantis chloronotus. It can be distinguished from Pristimantis eriphus by the color pattern on the scapular region and by having smaller conical tubercles on the dorsum. Pristimantis chloronotus differs from Pristimantis llanganati sp. n. in having a pair of sinuous paravertebral folds. Both new species occur in a region with few amphibian collections and nothing is known about their abundance and ecology. Therefore, it is recommended to assign them to the Data Deficient Red List category. Updated figures of species richness of Pristimantis among biogeographic regions in Ecuador are also presented. Pristimantis reach their highest diversity in Montane Forests of the eastern versant of the Andes. Its species richness across regions cannot be explained by regional area, elevation, temperature, or precipitation. Political endemism in Pristimantis is higher than that of other terrestrial vertebrates. PMID:27408555

  7. Respiration and hemoglobin function in the giant African bullfrog Pyxicephalus adspersus Tschudi (Anura: Pyxicephalidae) during rest, exercise and dormancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Aardt, W.J; Weber, Roy E.

    2010-01-01

    dormancy in soil without forming cocoons. With virtually no information available on the associated respiratory adaptations, we measured oxygen consumption rates of resting and exercising bullfrogs together with haematological and gas-binding properties of blood and haemoglobin (Hb) solutions from non......-dormant frogs and cocoon-less dormant frogs. Treadmill (0.054 ms-1) exercising frogs consumed nearly seven times more oxygen than resting individuals (8.45 and 1.25 mmol O2 kg-1h-1, respectively). During a six-month dormancy period Pyxicephalus lost an average of 13.7% of its body mass, while plasma osmotic...

  8. Polyphyly of Asian Tree Toads, Genus Pedostibes Günther, 1876 (Anura: Bufonidae), and the Description of a New Genus from Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kin Onn Chan; L Lee Grismer; Anil Zachariah; Brown, Rafe M.; Robin Kurian Abraham

    2016-01-01

    The Asian Tree Toad genus Pedostibes, as currently understood, exhibits a conspicuously disjunct distribution, posing several immediate questions relating to the biogeography and taxonomy of this poorly known group. The type species, P. tuberculosus and P. kempi, are known only from India, whereas P. hosii, P. rugosus, and P. everetti are restricted to Southeast Asia. Several studies have shown that these allopatric groups are polyphyletic, with the Indian Pedostibes embedded within a primari...

  9. Polyphyly of Asian Tree Toads, Genus Pedostibes Günther, 1876 (Anura: Bufonidae), and the Description of a New Genus from Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kin Onn; Grismer, L Lee; Zachariah, Anil; Brown, Rafe M; Abraham, Robin Kurian

    2016-01-01

    The Asian Tree Toad genus Pedostibes, as currently understood, exhibits a conspicuously disjunct distribution, posing several immediate questions relating to the biogeography and taxonomy of this poorly known group. The type species, P. tuberculosus and P. kempi, are known only from India, whereas P. hosii, P. rugosus, and P. everetti are restricted to Southeast Asia. Several studies have shown that these allopatric groups are polyphyletic, with the Indian Pedostibes embedded within a primarily South Asian clade of toads, containing the genera Adenomus, Xanthophryne, and Duttaphrynus. Southeast Asian Pedostibes on the other hand, are nested within a Southeast Asian clade, which is the sister lineage to the Southeast Asian river toad genus Phrynoidis. We demonstrate that Indian and Southeast Asian Pedostibes are not only allopatric and polyphyletic, but also exhibit significant differences in morphology and reproductive mode, indicating that the Southeast Asian species' are not congeneric with the true Pedostibes of India. As a taxonomic solution, we describe a new genus, Rentapia gen. nov. to accommodate the Southeast Asian species. PMID:26788854

  10. Historical biogeography resolves the origins of endemic Arabian toad lineages (Anura: Bufonidae): Evidence for ancient vicariance and dispersal events with the Horn of Africa and South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Portik, Daniel M; Papenfuss, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Arabian Peninsula is home to a unique fauna that has assembled and evolved throughout the course of major geophysical events, including the separation of the Arabian Plate from Africa and subsequent collision with Eurasia. Opportunities for faunal exchanges with particular continents occurred in temporally distinct periods, and the presence of African, Western Eurasian, and South Asian derived taxa on the Arabian Peninsula signifies the complexity of these historical biogeograp...

  11. Polyphyly of Asian Tree Toads, Genus Pedostibes Gunther, 1876 (Anura: Bufonidae, and the Description of a New Genus from Southeast Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Onn Chan

    Full Text Available The Asian Tree Toad genus Pedostibes, as currently understood, exhibits a conspicuously disjunct distribution, posing several immediate questions relating to the biogeography and taxonomy of this poorly known group. The type species, P. tuberculosus and P. kempi, are known only from India, whereas P. hosii, P. rugosus, and P. everetti are restricted to Southeast Asia. Several studies have shown that these allopatric groups are polyphyletic, with the Indian Pedostibes embedded within a primarily South Asian clade of toads, containing the genera Adenomus, Xanthophryne, and Duttaphrynus. Southeast Asian Pedostibes on the other hand, are nested within a Southeast Asian clade, which is the sister lineage to the Southeast Asian river toad genus Phrynoidis. We demonstrate that Indian and Southeast Asian Pedostibes are not only allopatric and polyphyletic, but also exhibit significant differences in morphology and reproductive mode, indicating that the Southeast Asian species' are not congeneric with the true Pedostibes of India. As a taxonomic solution, we describe a new genus, Rentapia gen. nov. to accommodate the Southeast Asian species.

  12. Seasonal variation in the leaf-litter frog community (Amphibia: Anura from an Atlantic Forest Area in the Salto Morato Natural Reserve, southern Brazil

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    Manuela Santos-Pereira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we provide the first data regarding community parameters of leaf-litter anurans inhabiting a forest floor in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil, including information on community species richness, composition, specific density and biomass. Our study was conducted at Salto Morato Natural Reserve using forty plots of 4 x 4 m for each one of the four seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn, totaling 2.560 m² of forest floor sampled. We sampled a total of 96 frogs inhabiting the forest floor, belonging to seven species: Brachycephalus hermogenesi (Giaretta & Sawaya, 1998, Ischnocnema guentheri (Steindachner, 1864, Haddadus binotatus (Spix, 1824, Leptodactylus gr. marmoratus, Physalaemus spiniger (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Proceratophrys boiei (Wied-Neuwied, 1824, and Rhinella abei (Baldissera, Caramaschi & Haddad, 2004. The overall frog density in the forest floor was 3.73 ind/100m², with I. guentheri (1.37 ind/100 m² being the most common species and R. abei (0.19 ind/100 m², the rarest. The estimated overall frog mass in the community was 3.29 g. The abundance, richness and density varied consistently among the four seasons sampled, with the highest values occurring in the spring and summer seasons.

  13. Environmental parameters affecting the structure of leaf-litter frog (Amphibia: Anura communities in tropical forests: a case study from an Atlantic Rainforest area in southeastern Brazil

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    Carla C. Siqueira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite a recent increase of information on leaf litter frog communities from Atlantic rainforests, few studies have analyzed the relationship between environmental parameters and community structure of these animals. We analyzed the effects of some environmental factors on a leaf litter frog community at an Atlantic Rainforest area in southeastern Brazil. Data collection lasted ten consecutive days in January 2010, at elevations ranging between 300 and 520 m above sea level. We established 50 quadrats of 5 x 5 m on the forest floor, totaling 1,250 m² of sampled area, and recorded the mean leaf-litter depth and the number of trees within the plot, as well as altitude. We found 307 individuals belonging to ten frog species within the plots. The overall density of leaf-litter frogs estimated from the plots was 24.6 ind/100m², with Euparkerella brasiliensis (Parker, 1926, Ischnocnema guentheri (Steindachner, 1864, Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853 and Haddadus binotatus (Spix, 1824 presenting the highest estimated densities. Among the environmental variables analyzed, only altitude influenced the parameters of anuran community. Our results indicate that the study area has a very high density of forest floor leaf litter frogs at altitudes of 300-500 m. Future estimates of litter frog density might benefit from taking the local altitudinal variation into consideration. Neglecting such variation might result in underestimated/overestimated values if they are extrapolated to the whole area.

  14. Revision of the water-holding frogs, Cyclorana platycephala (Anura: Hylidae), from arid Australia, including a description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstis, Marion; Price, Luke C; Roberts, J Dale; Catalano, Sarah R; Hines, Harry B; Doughty, Paul; Donnellan, Stephen C

    2016-01-01

    The water-holding frog, Cyclorana platycephala, occurs in the Australian arid and semi-arid zones but not in the central Australian deserts. Recent inspection of morphological variation in adults and larvae suggests that the taxon comprises three regional populations: eastern, northern and western that may each represent separate species. To assess the systematic status of these populations, we documented phylogenetic relationships using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers, divergence in adult and larval morphology and male advertisement call. Our molecular genetic data demonstrates that the western population of C. platycephala is not the sister taxon of eastern and northern representatives of this nominate species, as the latter two are more closely related to another morphologically distinct species, C. verrucosa. Discriminant Function Analysis of 14 morphological traits in adults and 15 in larvae showed a high degree of morphological differentiation of western versus eastern/northern C. platycephala. Calls of eastern and western populations differed in duration, pulse rate, frequency and especially in amplitude modulation pattern across the call duration. We describe the western population as a new species, whose range is contained entirely within Western Australia. In addition, we redescribe Cyclorana platycephala, quantify morphological and genetic differences between the eastern and northern populations, and conclude that these data support recognition of a single species, Cyclorana platycephala, for populations found in New South Wales, the Barkly Tablelands and south-eastern Northern Territory, Queensland and South Australia. PMID:27395600

  15. DNA barcoding reveals species level divergence between populations of the microhylid frog genus Arcovomer (Anura: Microhylidae) in the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, W Bryan; Wogel, Henrique; Bilate, Marcos; Salles, Rodrigo de O L; Buckup, Paulo A

    2016-09-01

    The microhylid frogs belonging to the genus Arcovomer have been reported from lowland Atlantic Rainforest in the Brazilian states of Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo. Here, we use DNA barcoding to assess levels of genetic divergence between apparently isolated populations in Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. Our mtDNA data consisting of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) nucleotide sequences reveals 13.2% uncorrected and 30.4% TIM2 + I + Γ corrected genetic divergences between these two populations. This level of divergence exceeds the suggested 10% uncorrected divergence threshold for elevating amphibian populations to candidate species using this marker, which implies that the Espírito Santo population is a species distinct from Arcovomer passarellii. Calibration of our model-corrected sequence divergence estimates suggests that the time of population divergence falls between 12 and 29 million years ago. PMID:26016873

  16. Evaluation of the taxonomic status of populations assigned to Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis (Anura, Hylidae, Phyllomedusinae) based on molecular, chromosomal, and morphological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bruschi, Daniel Pacheco; Busin, Carmen Sílvia; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Vasconcellos, Gilda Andrade; Strussmann, Christine; Weber, Luiz Norberto; Lima, Albertina Pimentel; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2013-01-01

    Background The taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of the genus Phyllomedusa have been amply discussed. The marked morphological similarities among some species hamper the reliable identification of specimens and may often lead to their incorrect taxonomic classification on the sole basis of morphological traits. Phenotypic variation was observed among populations assigned to either P. azurea or P. hypochondrialis. In order to evaluate whether the variation observed in populations assign...

  17. Variación ontogenética en la palatibilidad de los renacuajos de Bufo spinulosus papillosus Philippi, 1902 (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jara, Fabián Gastón

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la variación ontogenética de la palatabilidad en Bufo spinulosus papillosus expuestos a larvas del odonato Rhionaeshna variegata (Odonata, Aeshnidae. Los renacuajos fueron agrupados en cuatro categorías de desarrollo y fueron expuestos a la depredación directa determinándose el número de renacuajos consumidos al finalizar los experimentos. Bufo spinulosus papillosus no fue palatable en los primeros estadios del desarrollo (categorías I, estadios 24-26 y categoría II, estadios 32-34, mientras que los estadios de las categoría III (estadios 38-40 y categoría IV (estadios 42-45 fueron progresivamente palatables. Se observó un comportamiento de rechazo por parte de los depredadores luego de la captura de renacuajos de las categorías I y II. El patrón de palatabilidad encontrado en Bufo spinulosus papillosus difiere del observado en otras especies relacionadas del género Bufo (Brodie y Formanowicz, 1987; Kehr y Schnack, 1991; Lawler y Hero, 1997. We evaluated the ontogenetic variation in the palatability of Bufo spinulosus papillosus tadpoles exposed to odonate larvae of Rhionaeshna variegata (Odonata, Aeshnidae. We exposed tadpoles to direct predation and determined the number of consumed tadpoles in four developmental categories. Bufo spinulosus papillosus tadpoles of categories I (stages 24-26 and II (stages 32-34 were unpalatable, while categories III (stages 38-40 and IV (stages 42-45 were progressively palatable. We observed a post-capture rejection behavior when they caught unpalatable tadpoles in categories I and II. The palatability pattern observed in Bufo spinulosus papillosus was different from related Bufo species (Brodie and Formanowicz, 1987; Kehr and Schnack, 1991; Lawler and Hero, 1997.

  18. Five new species of Pristimantis (Anura: Strabomantidae from the coastal cloud forest of the Península de Paria, Venezuela

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    Hinrich Kaiser

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fieldwork in the cloud forest of Venezuela’s remote Península de Paria in 2001 resulted in the collection of several specimens that could unquestionably be classified as members of the genus Pristimantis.  Subsequent analysis of comparative material in museum collections brought the total number of specimens to 44, and these collectively represent five new species. Two of these species, P. geminus sp. nov. and P. nubisilva sp. nov., have phenotypes remarkably similar to the Trinidadian P. urichi, supporting a prediction that Pristimantis from easternmost Venezuela may have given rise to Trinidadian forms. Pristimantis hoogmoedi sp. nov. is easily identified by its large size and red eyes. Two of the species, P. longicorpus sp. nov. and P. pariagnomus sp. nov., are very distinct morphologically but are known only from the holotypes. The former is characterized by an elongate body form supported by relatively short limbs, whereas the latter has very distinctive hand morphology and is likely the smallest Venezuelan frog. Chromosome banding studies of P. nubisilva sp. nov. and P. hoogmoedi sp. nov. revealed chromosome numbers of 2n = 36 and 2n = 26, respectively, with an unusual submetacentric fusion chromosome 11;18 in some males of the former and a unique meiotic pairing of chromosomes in males of the latter.  All five species can be readily distinguished by their osteology, such as by the extent of the sphenethmoid and features on the roof of the mouth, as well as by the shape and rearrangement of mesopodial elements.  The unexpectedly high diversity of Pristimantis in this region, along with high endemism of amphibians and reptiles in general, underscores the position of the Península de Paria as a center for frog biodiversity in Venezuela.  The similarity of these Paria species to Pristimantis from Trinidad, Tobago and the central Cordillera de la Costa represents a tangible piece of evidence for the close biogeographic link of the anuran fauna of these landmasses.

  19. Egg numbers and fecundity traits in nine species of Mantella poison frogs from arid grasslands and rainforests of Madagascar (Anura, Mantellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreone, F.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The body size and number of eggs in dissected females were analysed in nine species of the Malagasy frog genus Mantella basing upon preserved specimens. These species were distinguished in terms of habitat and grouped as ‘grassland species’ (included M. betsileo, M. expectata, M. viridis, and ‘rainforest species’ (M. baroni, M. crocea, M. cowani, M. laevigata, M. nigricans, M. pulchra. The species with the lowest egg - number was M. cowani with a mean egg number of 37 ± 15, while the species with the highest egg-number was M. viridis with 115 ± 21 eggs. In general, the grassland species are characterised by a higher number of relatively small eggs. Moreover, their fecundity was positively and significantly correlated to femalebody size. Rainforest species were smaller in size and with a lower number of eggs. We interpreted these differences as possible consequences of habitat adaptations. Among the studied species, the Critically Endangered Mantella cowani is also featured by a low number and large size of eggs. This is likely correlated with the high elevation site of the central highlands where this species occurs.

  20. Living within fallen palm leaves: the discovery of an unknown Blommersia (Mantellidae: Anura) reveals a new reproductive strategy in the amphibians of Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreone, Franco; Rosa, Gonçalo M.; Noël, Jean; Crottini, Angelica; Vences, Miguel; Raxworthy, Christopher J.

    2010-06-01

    We describe a new mantelline frog of the genus Blommersia found in rainforest in North East Madagascar, from the protected areas of Ambatovaky, Betampona, Masoala, and Zahamena. Blommersia angolafa n.sp. is a small frog, with a body size of 17-21 mm, expanded finger and toe tips, and colouration ranging from yellow to dark brown, with pale-bluish spots on the flanks and light tips of fingers and toes. A peculiar aspect characterising this new species is its novel life history and reproductive mode. Both sexes live and breed in a phytotelmic habitat of water accumulated within fallen prophylls and fallen leaf sheaths of at least three species of Dypsis palms. Within these phytotelmata, egg laying and complete larval development occur. Thus, B. angolafa n.sp. represents a new evolutionary lineage of Malagasy frogs in which phytotelmy is known. Up to now, reproduction in phytotelmata in Malagasy frogs has been reported for many cophyline microhylids, most species of Guibemantis, Mantella laevigata, and possibly in a still-undescribed species belonging to the genus Spinomantis. We consider the reproductive mode of B. angolafa as a derived character, having evolved from the more typical reproduction in lentic water bodies. The general scarcity of lentic habitats in Malagasy rainforests may have provided the conditions that favoured the evolution of this phytotelmic breeding strategy. The new species, being specialised to a habitat represented by a few selected Dypsis species, potentially suffers the selective exploitation of these palms.

  1. Possible interspecific origin of the B chromosome of Hypsiboas albopunctatus (Spix, 1824 (Anura, Hylidae, revealed by microdissection, chromosome painting, and reverse hybridisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gruber

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The B chromosome in the hylid Hypsiboas albopunctatus (2n = 22 + B is small, almost entirely composed of C-positive heterochromatin, and does not pair with any chromosome of the A complement. B probe, obtained by microdissection and DOP-PCR amplification, was used to search for homology between the B and regular chromosomes of H. albopunctatus and of the related species H. raniceps (Cope, 1862. Reverse hybridisation was also carried out in the investigation. The B probe exclusively painted the supernumerary, not hybridising any other chromosomes in H. albopunctatus, but all H. raniceps chromosomes showed small labelling signals. This result might be an indication that differences exist between the repetitive sequences of A and B chromosomes of H. albopunctatus, and that the chromosomes of H. raniceps and the heterochromatin of the B chromosome of H. albopunctatus are enriched with the same type of repetitive DNA. In meiotic preparations, the B labelled about 30% of scored spermatids, revealing a non-mendelian inheritance, and the painted B in micronucleus suggests that the supernumerary is eliminated from germ line cells. Although our results could suggest an interespecific origin of the B at first sight, further analysis on its repetitive sequences is still necessary. Nevertheless, the accumulation of repetitive sequences, detected in another species, even though closely related, remains an intriguing question.

  2. Genetic divergence and reproductive isolation in the genus Fejervarya (Amphibia: Anura) from Bangladesh inferred from morphological observations, crossing experiments, and molecular analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Kurose, Naoko; Khan, Mdmukhlesur Rahman; Nishizawa, Toshitaka; Kuramoto, Mitsuru; Alam, Mohammad Shafiqul; Hasan, Mahmudul; Kurniawan, Nia; Nishioka, Midori; Sumida, Masayuki

    2008-11-01

    In the present study, morphological examinations, crossing experiments and molecular analyses were performed to elucidate the degree of genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationships within the genus Fejervarya from Bangladesh and other Asian countries. Morphological characteristics revealed that Fejervarya species from Bangladesh were divided into four distinct groups: large, medium, small, and mangrove types. Crossing experiments indicated the involvement of three reproductive isolating mechanisms: gametic isolation between the large type and mangrove type, hybrid inviability between the large type and two other types, and hybrid sterility between the medium and small types. Experimental results also indicated that these four types of frogs merit the status of individual species of Fejervarya . Molecular analyses based on mtDNA gene sequences showed that the Bangladesh Fejervarya species were largely divided into three groups: the mangrove type, large type, and others, with the last further subdivided into the medium and small types. Comparison with other Asian Fejervarya species revealed that the Bangladesh mangrove type (which resembled F. cancrivora in morphology) was closely related to F. cancrivora from India, Thailand, and the Philippines; the large type belonged to the F. iskandari group and closely resembled F. orissaensis ; the small type was included in the South Asian or Indian group, and was closest to F. syhadrensis from India and Sri Lanka, whereas the medium type was most closely related to F. limnocharis from Myanmar among all described species of this genus. PMID:19267620

  3. Una especie nueva de rana arbórea del género Hyloscirtus (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae de la Cordillera del Cóndor

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    Ana Almendáriz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las ranas ecuatorianas del género Hyloscirtus incluyen 16 especies descritas, de las cuales 11 pertenecen al grupo H. larinopygion. Su distribución se limita a los flancos de la Cordillera de los Andes, tanto al oriente como al occidente. Una evaluación de la herpetofauna en el sector meridional de la Cordillera del Cóndor (bosques montanos sobre mesetas de arenisca en la provincia de Zamora Chinchipe, Ecuador, condujo al descubrimiento de una especie nueva del grupo que describimos aquí como Hyloscirtus condor sp. nov.; se analizan los renacuajos, las llamadas de anuncio y se estima las relaciones filogenéticas de la especie nueva y de las especies relacionadas en base a nuevas secuencias de los genes mitocondriales 12S, tRNA Val y 16S, con un total de hasta 2508 bp. Los resultados muestran que el grupo H. larinopygion está conformado por dos clados, uno distribuido en los Andes norte y centro de Ecuador y el otro al sur. La nueva especie pertenece al clado sur y es hermana de H. tapichalaca y de una especie aparentemente no descrita de la Provincia Morona Santiago. La especie nueva difiere de sus congéneres por su patrón de coloración dorsal, que consiste de puntos amarillo obscuro en un fondo canela. Es la especie más grande del grupo H. larinopygion y comparte con H. tapichalaca la presencia de una espina prepólica grande y curvada y brazos hipertrofiados. La especie nueva habita un área remota y bien conservada de la Cordillera del Cóndor. El descubrimiento de ésta y otras especies nuevas del mismo lugar denota la importancia biológica del área y motivan al desarrollo de planes de conservación.

  4. Fauna anura asociada a un sistema de charcos dentro de bosque en el kilómetro 11 carretera leticia-tarapacá (amazonascolombia)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Se hizo un seguimiento durante 34 días a un sistema de charcos dentro de un bosque enel kilómetro 11 vía Leticia-Tarapacá, con el fin de determinar qué especies de anurosse encuentran noche tras noche en el charco y cuáles de ellas presentan algún tipo deactividad reproductiva. Se identificaron 31 especies, ocho de ellas con actividad decanto, tres amplexantes, dos con posturas y siete con hembras grávidas. En 23 de los34 días hubo actividad de canto escuchándose agregaciones, cantos no agreg...

  5. The taxonomic status of two West African Leptopelis species: L. macrotis Schiøtz, 1967 and L. spiritusnoctis Rödel, 2007 (Amphibia: Anura: Arthroleptidae

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    Mark-Oliver Roedel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We herein examine the taxonomic status of two West African forest-dwelling Leptopelis species. The small L. spiritusnoctis, described from the Upper Guinean forests of West Africa, was recently synonymized with L. aubryi, described from Gabon. The large L. macrotis, known from Ghana to Sierra Leone, was downgraded to a subspecies of L. millsoni, ranging from the Niger Delta to eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. These taxonomic decisions are in contrast to the general biogeographic pattern of African forest anurans and we consequently tested if the morphologically similar taxon pairs are indeed conspecifics by applying acoustic and molecular techniques. Both techniques confirmed that populations from West Africa differ significantly from their Central African morphological equivalents. Consequently, we herein resurrect L. spiritusnoctis as a valid species. The acoustic data indicate that L. aubryi may comprise a complex of cryptic species. We further advocate using the name L. macrotis for West African and L. millsoni for Central African populations of these larger arboreal frogs. However, we had neither genetic nor acoustic data from the type locality of L. millsoni available and could not clarify if these frogs belong to the more western or eastern taxon or even represent a Nigerian endemic. Thus, it is possible that West African populations need to be termed L. millsoni in the future. For populations east of the Cross River, Nigeria, the name L. guineensis would be available.

  6. Heavy metal mediated innate immune responses of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Anura: Ranidae): Cellular profiles and associated Th1 skewed cytokine response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Uthpala A; Ratnasooriya, Wanigasekara D; Wickramasinghe, Deepthi D; Udagama, Preethi V

    2016-10-01

    Immune cell and cytokine profiles in relation to metal exposure though much studied in mammals has not been adequately investigated in amphibians, due mainly to lack of suitable reagents for cytokine profiling in non-model species. However, interspecies cross reactivity of cytokines permitted us to assay levels of IFNγ, TNFα, IL6 and IL10in a common anuran, the Indian green frog (Euphlyctis hexadactylus), exposed to heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb, at ~5ppm each) under field and laboratory settings in Sri Lanka. Enumeration of immune cells in blood and melanomacrophages in the liver, assay of serum and hepatic cytokines, and Th1/Th2 cytokine polarisation were investigated. Immune cell counts indicated overall immunosuppression with decreasing total WBC and splenocyte counts while neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased with metal exposure, indicating metal mediated stress. Serum IL6 levels of metal exposed frogs reported the highest (~9360pg/mL) of all cytokines tested. Significantly elevated IFNγ production (Pstress mediated nuclear factor κ-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) which enhances the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Xenobiotic stress has recently imposed an unprecedented level of threat to wildlife, particularly to sensitive species such as amphibians. Therefore, understanding the interactions between physiological stress and related immune responses is fundamental to conserve these environmental sentinels in the face of emerging eco-challenges. PMID:27335164

  7. Dero (Allodero) lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae) associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925) (Anura: Hylidae) from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, F H; Petsch, D K; Ragonha, F H; Batista, V G; Takeda, A M; Takemoto, R M

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero) lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A.) lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A.) lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero) lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species. PMID:25945624

  8. A new and possibly critically endangered species of casque-headed tree frog Aparasphenodon Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 (Anura, Hylidae) from southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Assis, Clodoaldo Lopes; Santana, Diego José; Da Silva, Fabiano Aguiar; Quintela, Fernando Marques; Feio, Renato Neves

    2013-01-01

    A new species of casque-headed tree frog of the genus Aparasphenodon is described from the municipality of Cataguases (21°20'S, 42°45'W; 288 m a.s.l.) in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Aparasphenodon pomba sp. nov. is characterized by medium size (males, snout-vent length, SVL 51.6-60.5 mm; females, SVL 58.7-62.1 mm); snout almost round in dorsal view; dorsum and limbs with cream-colored reticulation on dark-brown background; spots on ventral surface cream-colored; lips white; cream-colored dorsolateral stripe originating on the snout, crossing the upper eyelid and extending posteriorly to the axilla level; and red iris. PMID:26106793

  9. Vocalizações de Scinax perpusillus (A. Lutz & B. Lutz e S. arduous Peixoto (Anura, Hylidae, com comentários taxonômicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pombal Jr. José P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, the advertisement and territorial calls recorded from topotypes of Scinax arduous Peixoto, 2002 and S. perpusillus (A. Lutz & B. Lutz, 1939 are described. These two species belong to the Scinax perpusillus species group and show acoustic parameters of territorial calls similar to the catharinae species group, suggesting that they are phylogenetically related. The acoustic parameters of advertisement calls of S. arduous and S. perpusillus suggest a monophyletic origin for the Scinax perpusillus species group.

  10. Ecology of Ischnocnema parva (Anura: Brachycephalidae at the Atlantic Rainforest of Serra da Concórdia, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Ana Cristina J. S. Martins

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ischnocnema (Brachycephalidae includes many species that are important members of the leaf litter frog communities in the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil. Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853 is endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome and is restricted to the forests of southeastern Brazil. Currently, the available information about the ecology of I. parva is scarce. We studied the diet, the habitat use, reproduction and density of I. parva in an area of Atlantic Rainforest at the Concórdia mountain range, Rio de Janeiro. Individuals of I. parva were captured in April 2005 using different sampling methods: time constrained search (transects, plots of 5 x 5 m (25 m² on the litter, and pitfall traps with drift fences. We found 240 frogs; 35 females and 205 males. Females (mean SVL = 19.1 mm were significantly larger (F1,238 = 143.016, R² = 0.375, p < 0.001 than males (13.2 mm. The species preyed mainly on arthropods, with ants and isopods being the most important items, both showing high values of importance index (Ix = 50.0 and 26.7, respectively. Ischnocnema parva is a terrestrial species whose preferential microhabitat at the Serra da Concórdia was the litter of the forest floor (78.7%. The activity was predominantly crepuscular-nocturnal and the estimated density of I. parva was 24.9 ind/100 m². For the eight ovigerous females captured, the mean number of mature oocytes per female was 25 (range: 22-30 and the oocyte mean diameter was 1.11 mm (N = 40 oocytes. Oocyte number increased with female body size (R² = 0.504, F1,6 = 6.107, p < 0.05, N = 8, indicating that as females increase in size they produce larger clutches. Some ecological aspects such as diet and microhabitat use were similar to that observed for an insular population of I. parva, whereas reproductive traits differed. Thus, long term studies are necessary to understand the extent to which these differences are explained by environmental factors.

  11. Density and richness of leaf litter frogs (Amphibia: Anura of an Atlantic Rainforest area in the Serra dos Órgãos, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Carla C. Siqueira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Data on species composition, richness, and density are presented for the leaf litter frog assemblage of an area of Atlantic Rainforest at the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Three sampling methods were used: plot sampling, visual encounter surveys, and pitfall traps. The local assemblage of leaf litter frogs was composed of 16 species, with the direct-developing species, Euparkerella brasiliensis (Parker, 1926, being the most abundant. The estimated density of the local leaf litter frog assemblage based on plot sampling was 17.1 ind/100 m² and the estimated overall leaf litter frog mass was 684.2 g/ha. The estimated density of leaf litter frogs at the present study is the highest currently reported for Atlantic Rainforest areas, which reinforces the idea of higher densities of leaf litter frogs in the Neotropical Region compared to the Old World tropics.

  12. Ecology of Ischnocnema parva (Anura: Brachycephalidae) at the Atlantic Rainforest of Serra da Concórdia, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cristina J. S. Martins; Mara C. Kiefer; Carla C. Siqueira; Monique Van Sluys; Vanderlaine A Menezes; Carlos Frederico D. Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Ischnocnema (Brachycephalidae) includes many species that are important members of the leaf litter frog communities in the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil. Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853) is endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome and is restricted to the forests of southeastern Brazil. Currently, the available information about the ecology of I. parva is scarce. We studied the diet, the habitat use, reproduction and density of I. parva in an area of Atlantic Rainforest at the Concórdia mount...

  13. Density and richness of leaf litter frogs (Amphibia: Anura) of an Atlantic Rainforest area in the Serra dos Órgãos, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carla C. Siqueira; Davor Vrcibradic; Mauricio Almeida-Gomes; Vitor N.T. Borges-Junior; Patrícia Almeida-Santos; Marlon Almeida-Santos; Ariani, Cristina V.; Diego M. Guedes; Pablo Goyannes-Araújo; Thiago A. Dorigo; Monique Van Sluys; Carlos F.D. Rocha

    2009-01-01

    Data on species composition, richness, and density are presented for the leaf litter frog assemblage of an area of Atlantic Rainforest at the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Three sampling methods were used: plot sampling, visual encounter surveys, and pitfall traps. The local assemblage of leaf litter frogs was composed of 16 species, with the direct-developing species, Euparkerella brasiliensis (Parker, 1926), being the most abundant. Th...

  14. A new genus of Toads (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) from the Pacific Slopes of the Andes in Northern Ecuador and Southern Colombia, with the description of two new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The genus Andinophryne, characterized by the presence of an omosternum, an externally visible tympanum, elongate parotoids and extensively webbed hands and feet is described from the Pacific versant of the Andes in northwestern Ecuador and southwestern Colombia. Two new species, Andinophryne colomai

  15. Advertisement call of Dendropsophus studerae (Carvalho-e-Silva, Carvalho-e-Silva and Izecksohn, 2003) (Anura: Hylidae), with new record and geographic distribution extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras; De Abreu, Rafael Oliveira; Cruz, Deise; Herrera, Jocilene Brandão; Petersen, Emanuela; Klein, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    The treefrog genus Dendropsophus Fitzinger comprises 95 species, with geographic distribution from northern Argentina and Uruguay north through tropical South and Central America to tropical southern Mexico (Frost 2014). Dendropsophus studerae was included in the D. microcephalus clade by Faivovich et al. (2005), which currently consists of 39 species (Frost 2014). The species that most resembles D. studerae is D. bipunctatus (Spix), as already stated in the original description of the former (Carvalho-e-Silva et al. 2003). Thus far, Dendropsophus studerae was only known from its type locality, in the municipality of Quebrangulo (09º19'08"S, 36º28'16"W), State of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The original description of the species also included data on its eggs, tadpole (oral disc and external morphology) and some natural history information of adults and larvae, but its advertisement call remains undescribed.  PMID:25544468

  16. Advertisement call of Scinax camposseabrai (Bokermann, 1968) (Anura: Hylidae), with comments on the call of three species of the Scinax ruber clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Gabriel; Zina, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Scinax camposseabrai was allocated into the Scinax ruber clade by Caramaschi & Cardoso (2006) by overall similarities as snout not pointed, breeding in open areas, and an advertisement calls with multipulsed notes. This assumption about the call was based solely on an onomatopoeia provided by Bokermann (1968). Herein we provide a formal description of the advertisement call of S. camposseabrai and compare it with described calls of other S. ruber clade species. Additionally, we provide descriptions of the advertisement calls of three sympatric species of the S. ruber clade: S. eurydice (Bokermann), S. pachycrus (Miranda-Ribeiro) and S. cf. x-signatus. PMID:27394262

  17. Range extension of Ferguson Toad Duttaphrynus scaber (Schneider (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae up to the northern most limit of Western Ghats, with its advertisement call analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Padhye

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Duttaphrynus scaber (Schneider is known to occur in the southern Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats and northeastern India. However, there is no report of its occurrence from the northern Western Ghats from the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Here we report the occurrence of this species from the northernmost limit of the Western Ghats, a substantial range extension (approx. 550km from the nearest known locality. We confirm our identification on the basis of morphology by comparing our specimens with a previously collected Duttaphrynus scaber specimen from Thrissur in Kerala State as well as on the molecular basis. Analysis based on the advertisement call of Duttaphrynus scaber, albeit preliminary, is provided for the first time for this species.

  18. Advertisement call and morphological variation of the poorly known and endemic Bokermannohyla juiju Faivovich, Lugli, Lourenço and Haddad, 2009 (Anura: Hylidae) from Central Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taucce, Pedro P G; Pinheiro, Paulo D P; Leite, Felipe S F; Garcia, Paulo C A

    2015-01-01

    Bokermannohyla juiju is a member of the B. martinsi species group and it was described based on one male specimen. In order to enhance the knowledge about the species, we describe its advertisement call and morphological variation, including for the first time data on females. We also provide additional comments about its natural history, geographic distribution, and conservation. The advertisement call of B. juiju consists of a single note, non-pulsed, harmonic structured call emitted several times in a row. Four out of five males were found calling in bromeliads. The female, as it is common in many Bokermannohyla species, presents some morphological features not shared with the males, like a non-hypertrophied forearm and less developed prepollex.  PMID:25662112

  19. The tadpole of Chiasmocleis carvalhoi and the advertisement calls of three species of Chiasmocleis (Anura, Microhylidae from the Atlantic rainforest of southeastern Brazil

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    Henrique Wogel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The tadpole of Chiasmocleis carvalhoi is figured and described for the first time from individuals collected in the State of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. The advertisement calls of C. atlantica, C. capixaba, and C. carvalhoi also are described and compared with the advertisement calls of others Chiasmocleis species restricted to Atlantic Rainforest. The advertisement calls of C. atlantica, C. capixaba, and C. carvalhoi are similar, consisting of one pulsed note of harmonic structure emitted repetitively. Our study corroborates the monophyly of the genus Chiasmocleis based on similarities in advertisement calls. Calls of syntopic species (C. atlantica with C. carvalhoi and C. capixaba with C. schubarti were less similar than those of closely related allopatric species.

  20. The advertisement and aggressive calls of Rhinella abei (Baldissera, Caramaschi, and Haddad, 2004) (Anura: Bufonidae) from Campo Largo, Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Vinicius Guerra; Ramalho, Werther Pereira; Amaral, Diogo Ferreira Do; Maciel, Natan Medeiros; Bastos, Rogério Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Rhinella abei is a medium-sized species (snout-to-vent length 57.0-76.4 mm in males; 60.4-83.9 mm in females-Baldissera et al. 2004) of the Rhinella crucifer species group, distributed in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest, from the State of Paraná to northern Rio Grande do Sul (Frost 2016). It is recorded in forested areas (Conte & Rossa-Feres 2007), or while breeding along forest edges and open habitats. Information on advertisement calls of species in the R. crucifer group is available for R. casconi, R. crucifer, R. inopina and R. ornata (Andrade et al. 2015; Heyer et al. 1990; Oliveira et al. 2014; Roberto et al. 2014). Here we describe the advertisement and aggressive calls of R. abei recorded in the municipality of Campo Largo (25.507472° S, 49.376632° W, datum "WGS84"), southeast State of Paraná, Brazil. PMID:27394842

  1. Potenciais efeitos das mudanças climáticas futuras sobre a distribuiçãode um anuro da Caatinga Rhinella granulosa (Anura, Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauanny Rodrigues Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, usamos dois tipos de modelagem de distribuição de espécies (correlativo e mecanístico, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito das mudanças climáticas sob a distribuição geográfica de Rhinella granulosa (Spix, 1824, espécie inserida principalmente no bioma Caatinga. Avaliamos a predição, levantada por outros autores, de que espécies de anfíbios distribuídos em climas quentes terão suas distribuições espaciais restringidas por aumento da temperatura considerando cenários futuros. Na abordagem correlativa, os resultados mostraram que as distribuições espaciais geradas pelo modelo de distância Euclidiana foram mais conservativas, ou seja, as áreas que apresentaram menor distância do nicho ótimo se restringiram às áreas de distribuição real da espécie (Caatinga e às pequenas regiões que abrangem o bioma Cerrado. A abordagem mecanística apresentou resultados menos conservativos, onde o habitat indicado como adequado para R. granulosa está contido em grande parte da América do Sul, formando uma extensa área contínua. No geral, verificou-se que R. granulosa não sofrerá forte influência climática sobre sua distribuição geográfica no futuro, pelo menos até 2080, provavelmente por apresentar uma fisiologia extremamente tolerante às altas temperaturas e por possuir adaptações para suportar clima quente e seco.

  2. Molecular phylogenetics of the glass frog Hyalinobatrachium orientale (Anura: Centrolenidae): evidence for Pliocene connections between mainland Venezuela and the island of Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowers, Michael J; Lehtinen, Richard M; Downie, Roger J; Georgiadis, Andrew P; Murphy, John C

    2015-08-01

    The presence of Hyalinobatrachium orientale in Tobago and in northeastern Venezuela is puzzling as this species is unknown from the island of Trinidad, an island often hypothesized to be a stepping-stone for the mainland fauna to colonize Tobago. A period of extended isolation on Tobago could result in the Hyalinobatrachium population becoming distinct from the mainland H. orientale. Here, we use 12S and 16S rDNA gene fragments from nine H. orientale specimens from Tobago and the mainland to assess their relationship and taxonomy, as well as the tempo and mode of speciation. The results suggest H. orientale from Venezuela and Tobago are monophyletic and the two populations diverged about 3 million years ago. This estimate corresponds with the drier climate and lower sea levels of the Pliocene glaciation periods. We hypothesize that lower sea levels resulted in land-bridge formations connecting the mainland and Tobago, with a corridor of habitat allowing H. orientale to colonize Tobago to the west of Trinidad. PMID:24491102

  3. Sexual dimorphism in the Kudremukh Bush Frog (Anura: Rhacophoridae: Raorchestes tuberohumerus of the Western Ghats, India, with a note on its distribution and conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand D. Padhye

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Raorchestes tuberohumerus (Kuramoto & Joshy, 2003 was described based on three male specimens and was diagnosed mainly based on the presence of tubercle on the humerus.  Here we describe the genetically confirmed female of the species and show that tubercle on the humeral bone is a sexually dimorphic character present only in males.  Further, based on current collection and literature review we studied the distribution of the species using niche based modelling. Using the distributional range and our observations on the threats to the habitat we propose that Raorchestes tuberohumerus, currently assessed as Data Deficient, can fall under the ‘Vulnerable’ category of IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.  

  4. Morphological variation, advertisement call, and tadpoles of Bokermannohyla nanuzae (Bokermann, 1973), and taxonomic status of B. feioi (Napoli & Caramaschi, 2004) (Anura, Hylidae, Cophomantini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marina; Lourenço, Ana Carolina Calijorne; Pimenta, Bruno V S; Nascimento, Luciana Barreto

    2015-01-01

    Bokermannohyla nanuzae (Bokermann & Sazima 1973) and B. feioi (Napoli & Caramaschi 2004) belong to the B. cir-cumdata species group. The type locality of the former is Serra do Cipó, Espinhaço mountain range, and of the latter is Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Mantiqueira mountain range, both in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Differences on dorsal draw-ing pattern of adults, oral disc morphology of tadpoles, and temporal properties of calls were proposed to distinguish these two species. However, several specimens found between the two type localities remain unidentified because diagnostic characters and states occur in all of these populations. Thus, in order to assess these characters variations, we performed an analysis of the morphology and morphometry of adults, vocalization, and morphology of tadpoles. Specimens were divided into three operational taxonomic units (OTUs): B. nanuzae (Serra do Cipó and northwards, Espinhaço mountain range), B. cf. nanuzae (Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Espinhaço mountain range, south of Serra do Cipó), and B. feioi (Serra do Ibitipoca, Mantiqueira mountain range). Drawing patterns of the dorsum and limbs show clinal variation and the three units are morphometrically very similar. Temporal and spectral properties of calls overlap in these three units. The diagnostic differences originally proposed for tadpoles are intrapopulational variations and occur in specimens from all of the locations analyzed. We found that these three units are morphologically indistinguishable. Therefore, we designate Bok-ermannohyla feioi (Napoli & Caramaschi 2004) as a junior synonym of Bokermannohyla nanuzae (Bokermann & Sazima 1973), extending its geographical distribution to the Mantiqueira mountain range. PMID:25947466

  5. Two new species of Phrynopus (Anura, Strabomantidae) from high elevations in the Yanachaga-Chemillén National park in Peru (Departamento de Pasco)

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Lehr; Jiri Moravec; Juan Carlos Cusi

    2012-01-01

    We describe two new species of Phrynopus from a cloud forest of the Cordillera Yanachaga, Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park in Peru and describe and document the first clutch and case of parental care for a species of Phrynopus. One of the new species of Phrynopus is described based on two females (SVL 19.1–21.0 mm) which were found in leaf litter and moss layer in a cloud forest at 2900 m elevation. This new species is most similar to Phrynopus bracki. The second new species of ...

  6. Two new species of Phrynopus (Anura, Strabomantidae) from high elevations in the Yanachaga-Chemillén National park in Peru (Departamento de Pasco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Edgar; Moravec, Jiří; Cusi, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    We describe two new species of Phrynopus from a cloud forest of the Cordillera Yanachaga, Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park in Peru and describe and document the first clutch and case of parental care for a species of Phrynopus. One of the new species of Phrynopus is described based on two females (SVL 19.1-21.0 mm) which were found in leaf litter and moss layer in a cloud forest at 2900 m elevation. This new species is most similar to Phrynopus bracki. The second new species of Phrynopus was found in the transitional formation between cloud forest and wet puna at 3000 m elevation. Its description is based on a single female (SVL 20.7 mm) that was observed guarding nine eggs under moss. This new species is most similar to Phrynopus nicoleae. The eggs had a diameter of 5.7-5.8 mm (n = 3) and froglets when hatched a SVL of 6.2-6.5 mm (n = 3). Sympatric anurans include Gastrotheca sp., Pristimantis aniptopalmatus, Pristimantis bromeliaceus, Pristimantis sp., and Rhinella yanachaga. PMID:23226963

  7. Two new species of Phrynopus (Anura, Strabomantidae from high elevations in the Yanachaga-Chemillén National park in Peru (Departamento de Pasco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Lehr

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe two new species of Phrynopus from a cloud forest of the Cordillera Yanachaga, Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park in Peru and describe and document the first clutch and case of parental care for a species of Phrynopus. One of the new species of Phrynopus is described based on two females (SVL 19.1–21.0 mm which were found in leaf litter and moss layer in a cloud forest at 2900 m elevation. This new species is most similar to Phrynopus bracki. The second new species of Phrynopus was found in the transitional formation between cloud forest and wet puna at 3000 m elevation. Its description is based on a single female (SVL 20.7 mm that was observed guarding nine eggs under moss. This new species is most similar to Phrynopus nicoleae. The eggs had a diameter of 5.7–5.8 mm (n = 3 and froglets when hatched a SVL of 6.2–6.5 mm (n = 3. Sympatric anurans include Gastrotheca sp., Pristimantis aniptopalmatus, P. bromeliaceus, Pristimantis sp., and Rhinella yanachaga.

  8. Redescripción de la morfología larval externa de dos especies del grupo de Leptodactylus fuscus (Anura, Leptodactylidae

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    José A. Langone

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The larvae of Leptodactylus gracilis (D’Orbigny y Bibron, 1840 and L. mystacinus Bumeister, 1861 are re-described and compared with previous descriptions noting intraspecific variation in oral disccharacteristics (arrangement of papillae and rows of cornified teeth. The external morphological analysis of larvae of the Leptodactylus fuscus group suggest that the lack of comparable descriptions among species, as well as the lack of analyses of theirintraspecific variation, limits the use of larval characteristics for diagnostic purposes.

  9. Seasonal trophic activity of the aquatic morphotype of Atelognathus patagonicus (Anura, Neobatrachia and prey availability in the littoral benthos of a permanent pond in Argentinean Patagonia

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    María Elena Cuello

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet of the aquatic morphotype of Atelognathus patagonicus was studied in frogs collected from the Laguna Verde pond (Laguna Blanca National Park, Neuquén, Argentina. The content of 35 gastrointestinal tracts of post-metamorphic specimens from November 2003 to April 2006 was related to the composition of the benthos in their microhabitat. Number, size, occurrence and relative importance of preys, diversity of the diet, trophic niche breadth and electivitywere estimated for each season of the year. The diet consisted of aquatic arthropods. The composition of both the benthos and the food (number and occurrence of organisms in the diet were dominated by the amphipod Hyalella sp. The relative importance (IRI of Hyalella sp. in the diet was over 99% in summer and autumn, and 100% in winter and spring. Diptera and Copepoda in summer, and Dytiscidae and Ostracoda in autumn, had seasonal IRI values ≤ 0.2%. Trophic niche breadth was very low in summer and autumn, and null (= 0 in winter and spring. The mean number of preys per individual was highest in spring (19 preys/frog and lowest in winter (4 preys/frog. Frogs continued with their trophic activity in winter, even when the surface of the pond was frozen. There is a correspondence between the frogs’ main food item and its presence in the benthos.

  10. Assessment of laryngeal muscle and testicular cell types in Xenopus laevis (Anura Pipidae) inhabiting maize and non-maize growing areas of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E.E.; Du Preez, L.H.; Gentles, A.; Solomon, K.R.; Tandler, B.; Carr, J.A.; Van Der Kraak, G. L.; Kendall, R.J.; Giesy, J.P.; Gross, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that adult African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) inhabiting water bodies in maize-growing areas (MGA) of South Africa would exhibit differences in testicular structure compared to frogs from water bodies in non-maize-growing areas (NMGA) in the same locale. Adults of both sexes were collected during the autumn of 2002 in South Africa, and stereological analytical techniques were used to quantify the distribution of testicular cell types. In addition, total laryngeal mass was used as a gauge of secondary sex differences in animals from MGA and NMGA study sites. Evaluation of the total laryngeal mass revealed that there were no statistically significant differences between X. laevis of the same sex from the NMGA and MGA sites. Mean percent fractional-volume values for seminiferous tubule distribution of testicular cell types of mature X. laevis, ranged from 3-4% for spermatogonia, 26-28% for spermatocytes, 54-57% for spermatozoa, and 14-15% for other cells types. The mean percent volume for blood vessels ranged from 0.3-0.4%. These values did not differ significantly between frogs from NMGA and MGA areas. Collectively, these data demonstrated no differences in gonadal and laryngeal development in X. laevis collected in South Africa from MGA and NMGA areas and that there is little evidence for an effect of agricultural chemicals used in maize production functioning as endocrine disrupters in this species. Screening of X. laevis testes revealed a small incidence of Stage 1 testicular oocytes in adult male frogs collected from the NMGA (3%) and MGA (2%).

  11. A new species of Colostethus (Anura, Dendrobatidae from French Guiana with a redescription of Colostethus beebei (Noble, 1923 from its type locality

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    Philippe J. R. Kok

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Colostethus, long mistaken for Colostethus beebei, is described from French Guiana. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by absence of median lingual process, first finger longer than second, third finger not distinctly swollen in males, differences in tadpole morphology, coloration and pattern (e.g. absence of dorsolateral stripe, bioacoustics, and reproductive behavior. A complete redescription of Colostethus beebei plus description of its tadpole and call is provided on the basis of recently collected topotypic specimens. The range of C. beebei is restricted to the Kaieteur plateau, Pakaraima Mountains, Guyana.

  12. A new species of frog of the genus Pristimantis from Tingo María National Park, Huánuco Department, central Peru (Anura, Craugastoridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez,Germán; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Craugastoridae frog encountered from 1000–1700 m in elevation in the premontane forests of the Peruvian central Andes is described. The new species is similar in appearance to many other species of Pristimantis, but is easily distinguishable from these species by having bright red coloration on the groin, posterior surface of thighs, and shanks. The new species is only known for two localities 27 km apart in the Huánuco Region.

  13. Estado sistemático y distribución geográfica de Argenteohyla siemersi (Mertens, 1937 en la República Argentina (Anura: Hylidae

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    Williams, Jorge Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Argenteohyla siemersi pederseni n. subsp. is described from the province of Corrientes, Argentina. The new subspecies is differentiated from Argenteohyla siemersi siemersi by the coloration pattern and the presence of two longitudinal black lines in the dorsum. Comments on the habitat and biogeography are added.

  14. A new species of the Rhinella margaritifera species group (Anura, Bufonidae from the montane forest of the Selva Central, Peru

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    Jiri Moravec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of the bufonid toad genus Rhinella from transition montane forest of the buffer zones of the Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park and the Pui Pui Protected Forest (eastern slopes of Andes, Selva Central, Peru. The new species belongs to the Rhinella margaritifera species group (confirmed by mtDNA data and differs from all its members by the absence of tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus. It is characterized by medium size (SVL 57.5–65.5 mm, n = 5, moderately developed cranial crests, absence of neural crest of vertebrae, absence of bone protrusion at angle of jaw, presence of lateral rows of enlarged tubercles, and absence of subgular vocal sac and vocal slits in males. In addition, based on the molecular phylogenetic analyses of selected Rhinella species we propose the monophylum containing R. chavin, R. festae, R. macrorhina, R. manu, R. nesiotes, R. rostrata, and R. yanachaga as a new species group under the name Rhinella festae species group.

  15. Nova espécie de Hyla Laurenti do grupo de H. microcephala Cope (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae) do nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho-e-Silva Sergio Potsch; Carvalho-e-Silva Ana M. P. Telles; Izecksohn Eugenio

    2003-01-01

    A new species, attributed to the group of Hyla microcephala Cope, 1886, is described. The new species is close to H. bipunctata Spix, 1824, and it is found in Quebrangulo, State of Alagoas, in Northeastern Brazil. The eggs and larvae are also described and some ecological information is added. The new species is compared with other species of the same group, and with species of closely related groups that occur in syntopy. With H. bipunctata, it shares the general form of the body, the yellow...

  16. Nova espécie de Hyla Laurenti do grupo de H. microcephala Cope (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae do nordeste do Brasil

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    Carvalho-e-Silva Sergio Potsch

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species, attributed to the group of Hyla microcephala Cope, 1886, is described. The new species is close to H. bipunctata Spix, 1824, and it is found in Quebrangulo, State of Alagoas, in Northeastern Brazil. The eggs and larvae are also described and some ecological information is added. The new species is compared with other species of the same group, and with species of closely related groups that occur in syntopy. With H. bipunctata, it shares the general form of the body, the yellow ventral coloration and the orange color of the thighs, but it is distinguished by the dorsal Paris-green coloration (beige in H. bipunctata, absence of a dorsal pattern, light red thighs, and ornamentation of the upper lip with two or three yellow stains instead of the characteristic aureolate of H. bipunctata. With H. elegans Wied-Neuwied, 1824, it also shares the general form of the body and the ventral and the thighs coloration, but it is distinguished by the smaller size, absence of a dorsal pattern and light red thighs. From H. oliveirai Bokermann, 1963, the new species is distinguished by the dorsal coloration, the ornamentation of the upper lip and larger size. From H. branneri Cochran, 1948, it differs by the presence of the stains in the upper lip (just one in H. branneri, absence of the dorsal pattern and green dorsal coloration, which is more intense. The tadpole of the new species is provided.

  17. Diversity of the strongly rheophilous tadpoles of Malagasy tree frogs, genus Boophis (Anura, Mantellidae), and identification of new candidate species via larval DNA sequence and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianiaina, Roger Daniel; Strauß, Axel; Glos, Julian; Vences, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    This study provides detailed morphological descriptions of previously unknown tadpoles of the treefrog genus Boophis Tschudi and analyses of habitat preferences of several of these tadpoles in Ranomafana National Park. A total of twenty-two tadpoles determined via DNA barcoding are characterized morphologically herein, fourteen of them for the first time. Twelve of these tadpoles belong to taxonomically undescribed candidate species which in several cases are so far only known from their larval stages. Our data show that the larvae of some of these candidate species occur syntopically yet maintaining a clearly correlated genetic and morphological identity, suggesting that they indeed are true biological and evolutionary species. Tadpoles considered to belong to the "adherent" ecomorphological guild inhabit fast-running waters and their oral disc is commonly to continuously attached to the rocky substrate, supposedly to keep their position in the water current. Some of these species are characterized by the presence of a dorsal gap of papillae and the absence of an upper jaw sheath. This guild includes the tadpoles of the Boophis albipuncatus group (Boophis ankaratra, Boophis schuboeae, Boophis albipunctatus, Boophis sibilans, Boophis luciae), and of the Boophis mandraka group (Boophis sambirano and six candidate species related to this species and to Boophis mandraka). Tadpoles considered belonging to the "suctorial" guild inhabit fast-running waters where they use frequently their oral disc to attach to the substrate. They have an enlarged oral disc without any dorsal gap, including two nominal species (Boophis marojezensis, Boophis vittatus), and five candidate species related to Boophis marojezensis. An ecological analysis of the tadpoles of Boophis luciae, Boophis schuboeae and Boophis marojezensis [Ca51 JQ518198] from Ranomafana National Park did not provide evidence for a clear preference of these tadpoles to the fast flowing microhabitat sections of the stream, although the tadpoles discussed in this study are typically caught in this habitat. PMID:22539880

  18. Diversity of the strongly rheophilous tadpoles of Malagasy tree frogs, genus Boophis (Anura, Mantellidae, and identification of new candidate species via larval DNA sequence and morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Daniel Randrianiaina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study provides detailed morphological descriptions of previously unknown tadpoles of the treefrog genus Boophis Tschudi and analyses of habitat preferences of several of these tadpoles in Ranomafana National Park. A total of twenty-two tadpoles determined via DNA barcoding are characterized morphologically herein, fourteen of them for the first time. Twelve of these tadpoles belong to taxonomically undescribed candidate species which in several cases are so far only known from their larval stages. Our data show that the larvae of some of these candidate species occur syntopically yet maintaining a clearly correlated genetic and morphological identity, suggesting that they indeed are true biological and evolutionary species. Tadpoles considered to belong to the “adherent” ecomorphological guild inhabit fast-running waters and their oral disc is commonly to continuously attached to the rocky substrate, supposedly to keep their position in the water current. Some of these species are characterized by the presence of a dorsal gap of papillae and the absence of an upper jaw sheath. This guild includes the tadpoles of the B. albipuncatus group (B. ankaratra, B. schuboeae, B. albipunctatus, B. sibilans, B. luciae, and of the B. mandraka group (B. sambirano and six candidate species related to this species and to B. mandraka. Tadpoles considered belonging to the “suctorial” guild inhabit fast-running waters where they use frequently their oral disc to attach to the substrate. They have an enlarged oral disc without any dorsal gap, including two nominal species (B. marojezensis, B. vittatus, and five candidate species related to B. marojezensis. An ecological analysis of the tadpoles of B. luciae, B. schuboeae and B. marojezensis [Ca51 JQ518198] from Ranomafana National Park did not provide evidence for a clear preference of these tadpoles to the fast flowing microhabitat sections of the stream, although the tadpoles discussed in this study are typically caught in this habitat.

  19. Amphibia, Anura, Strabomantidae, Pristimantis permixtus Lynch, Ruiz-Carranza, and Ardila-Robayo, 1994: Distribution extension, Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Mendez-Narvaez, J.; Bolivar-G, W.; Castro-Herrera, F.

    2010-01-01

    Pristimantis permixtus is a moderate sized frog tipically of upper cloud forests and sub-páramo areas. Herewe provide the second record and southernmost of P. permixtus in the Occidental Cordillera in the department of Valle delCauca, Vereda Chicoral, municipality of La Cumbre, Colombia.

  20. Multilocus phylogeography of the common midwife toad, Alytes obstetricans (Anura, Alytidae): Contrasting patterns of lineage diversification and genetic structure in the Iberian refugium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, H; Maia-Carvalho, B; Sousa-Neves, T; García-París, M; Sequeira, F; Ferrand, N; Martínez-Solano, I

    2015-12-01

    Recent investigations on the evolutionary history of the common midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans) revealed high levels of geographically structured genetic diversity but also a situation where delineation of major historical lineages and resolution of their relationships are much more complex than previously thought. We studied sequence variation in one mitochondrial and four nuclear genes throughout the entire distribution range of all recognized A. obstetricans subspecies to infer the evolutionary processes that shaped current patterns of genetic diversity and population subdivision. We found six divergent, geographically structured mtDNA haplogroups diagnosing population lineages, and varying levels of admixture in nuclear markers. Given the timeframe inferred for the splits between major lineages, the climatic and environmental changes that occurred during the Pleistocene seem to have shaped the diversification history of A. obstetricans. Survival of populations in allopatric refugia through the Ice Ages supports the generality of the "refugia-within-refugia" scenario for the Iberian Peninsula. However, lineages corresponding to subspecies A. o. almogavarii, A. o. pertinax, A. o. obstetricans, and A. o. boscai responded differently to Pleistocene climatic oscillations after diverging from a common ancestor. Alytes o. obstetricans expanded northward from a northern Iberian refugium through the western Pyrenees, leaving a signal of contrasting patterns of genetic diversity, with a single mtDNA haplotype north of the Pyrenees from SW France to Germany. Both A. o. pertinax and A. o. boscai are widespread and genetically diverse in Iberia, the latter comprising two divergent lineages with a long independent history. Finally, A. o. almogavarii is mostly restricted to the north-eastern corner of Iberia north of the Ebro river, with additional populations in a small region in south-eastern France. This taxon exhibits unparalleled levels of genetic diversity and little haplotype sharing with other lineages, suggesting a process of incipient speciation. PMID:26282950

  1. Determination of Nuclear Abnormalities in Peripheral Erythrocytes of the Frog Pelophylax ridibundus (Anura: Ranidae sampled from Karasu River Basin (Turkey for Pollution Impacts

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    Turgay ŞİŞMAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Karasu River, which is the only river in the Erzurum plain, is the source of the river Euphrates (Eastern Anatolia of Turkey. The river is in a serious environmental situation as a result of pollution by agricultural and industrial sewage and domestic discharges. The present study aims to evaluate genotoxic effects of toxic metals in marsh frog, Pelophylax ridibundus collected from two contaminated wetlands environments of the Karasu River Basin, in comparison with frogs from one non-polluted reference site. Heavy metal concentrations in surface water of the river were determined. Genotoxicity assays such as micronucleus (MN and other nuclear abnormalities (NA were carried out on the frogs studied. MN and NA (kidney-shaped nucleus, notched nucleus and lobed nucleus were assessed in peripheral blood erythrocytes of the frog. A significant elevation in MN and NA frequencies was observed in frog collected from the polluted sites compared with those from the reference site. Results of the current study suggest that there is a close realtion between increasing of erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities and environmental contamination. High concentrations of heavy metals have a potential genotoxic effects, and the toxicity is possibly related to industrial, agricultural and domestic activities.

  2. Microhyla laterite sp. nov., A New Species of Microhyla Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae) from a Laterite Rock Formation in South West India

    OpenAIRE

    Seshadri, KS; Singal, Ramit; Priti, H.; G. Ravikanth; Vidisha, MK; Saurabh, S; Pratik, M.; Gururaja, Kotambylu Vasudeva

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, several new species of amphibians have been described from India. Many of these discoveries are from biodiversity hotspots or from within protected areas. We undertook amphibian surveys in human dominated landscapes outside of protected areas in south western region of India between years 2013-2015. We encountered a new species of Microhyla which is described here as Microhyla laterite sp. nov. It was delimited using molecular, morphometric and bioacoustics comparisons. Micro...

  3. The Pectoral Girdles of Nanorana Species (Anura:Ranidae)%倭蛙属(无尾目:蛙科)肩带研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温晓敏; 吴贯夫; 赵尔宓

    2005-01-01

    对倭蛙属(Nanorana)已知3种:高山倭蛙(Nanorana parkeri)、倭蛙(N. pleskei)和腹斑倭蛙(N. ventripunctata)的肩带作了连续切片后进行Masson染色,发现其上喙骨(epicoracoid)的融合与重叠的状况与虎纹蛙(Rana rugulosa)较相似,而与无尾目中其它物种已知的肩带形态存在较大的差异.倭蛙属和虎纹蛙等与已知肩带类型的蛙亚科其它的物种在系统进化中可能来源于不同的最近共同祖先.

  4. Nicho ecológico e aspectos da história natural de Phyllomedusa azurea (Anura: Hylidae, Phyllomedusinae) no Cerrado do Brasil Central

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Evellyn Borges de; De-Carvalho, Crizanto Brito; Faria, Renato Gomes; Batista, Renato de Carvalho; Batista, Cássio de Carvalho; Coelho, Welington Araújo; Bocchiglieri, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Aspectos da ecologia e da história natural de Phyllomedusa azurea foram estudados em uma área de cerrado do Brasil Central, entre abril de 2006 e fevereiro de 2007. As observações foram realizadas entre as 18:00 e 5:00 h. Os aspectos investigados são referentes aos nichos espacial, temporal e trófico, morfometria e reprodução. A maioria dos animais vocalizou em locais com predominância do estrato herbáceo e de dossel aberto. Os principais substratos utilizados foram arbustos e árvores. Com re...

  5. Two new species of frogs of the genus Pristimantis from Llanganates National Park in Ecuador with comments on the regional diversity of Ecuadorian Pristimantis (Anura, Craugastoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, María J.; Venegas, Pablo J.; Ron, Santiago R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe two new species of frogs of the genus Pristimantis from the eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, at Parque Nacional Llanganates. The new species are characterized by the spiny appearance typical of several species inhabiting montane forests. Pristimantis yanezi sp. n. is most similar to Pristimantis colonensis and Pristimantis incanus but differs from both in groin coloration and by having smaller tubercles on the upper eyelids, heels, and tarsus. Pristimantis llanganati sp. n. is most similar to Pristimantis eriphus and Pristimantis chloronotus. It can be distinguished from Pristimantis eriphus by the color pattern on the scapular region and by having smaller conical tubercles on the dorsum. Pristimantis chloronotus differs from Pristimantis llanganati sp. n. in having a pair of sinuous paravertebral folds. Both new species occur in a region with few amphibian collections and nothing is known about their abundance and ecology. Therefore, it is recommended to assign them to the Data Deficient Red List category. Updated figures of species richness of Pristimantis among biogeographic regions in Ecuador are also presented. Pristimantis reach their highest diversity in Montane Forests of the eastern versant of the Andes. Its species richness across regions cannot be explained by regional area, elevation, temperature, or precipitation. Political endemism in Pristimantis is higher than that of other terrestrial vertebrates. PMID:27408555

  6. Relationship between the genetic structure of the Andean toad Rhinella spinulosa (Anura: Bufonidae and the northern Chile landscape (21°- 24° S Relación entre la estructura genética del sapo andino Rhinella spinulosa (Anura: Bufonidae y el paisaje del norte de Chile (21°- 24° S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA E GALLARDO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the relationship of landscape and environmental features on the genetic differentiation of Rhinella spinulosa (Wiegmann, 1834 in the Altiplano of Antofagasta (Chile. We performed three types of analyses at different spatial scales: (1 Considering all populations; (2 Grouping populations by watershed and by sub-watershed; and (3 Using the results of a spatial analysis of molecular variation (SAMOVA. Landscape features were incorporated using Geographic Information Systems, with three hypothetical dispersal models: (1 Euclidean distance (null model; (2 Least cost based on wetland locations; and (3 Least cost based on least slopes. We also included differences in temperature, precipitation and altitude among localities. The Akaike information criterion was used to select the best model and the relative importance of each variable in the model was estimated with partial regressions. We found a high genetic differentiation among populations (Fst = 0.693 and isolation by distance (r = 0.767. AMOVA showed that the watersheds explained 8.67 % of the genetic variance and sub-watersheds 35.99 %. At the largest spatial scale, considering all populations, the model that best explained genetic differentiation included Euclidean distance, altitude and annual precipitation. At a smaller scale, in two of three sub-watersheds (Río San Pedro and Salar de Atacama the genetic differentiation was best explained by landscape variables (principally temperature and altitude. At the smallest scale, considering those populations that have diverged recently detected by SAMOVA, the genetic differentiation was best explained by the wetland-based route and annual precipitation. This approach revealed the importance of landscape features in the colonization of R. spinulosa in this zone.Se evaluó la relación entre las características del paisaje y ambientales y la diferenciación genética de Rhinella spinulosa en el altiplano de la Región de Antofagasta (Chile. Para esto se realizaron tres tipos de análisis a diferentes escalas espaciales: (1 considerando todas las poblaciones; (2 agrupando las poblaciones por cuencas y por subcuencas; y (3 utilizando los resultados del análisis espacial de variación molecular (SAMOVA. Las características del paisaje se incorporaron diseñando tres modelos hipotéticos de dispersión con los Sistemas de Información Geográfico: (1 distancia euclidiana (modelo nulo; (2 de menor costo basado en la localización de los humedales; y (3 de menor costo basado en las pendientes menores. Además, se incluyeron las diferencias en temperatura, precipitación y altitud entre localidades. Para seleccionar el modelo que mejor explicara la diferenciación genética se utilizó el Criterio de Información de Akaike y se estimó la importancia relativa de cada variable del modelo seleccionado utilizando regresiones parciales. Se encontró una alta diferenciación genética entre las poblaciones (Fst = 0.693 y un patrón claro de aislamiento por distancia (r = 0.767. El análisis AMOVA mostró que las cuencas explicaron un 8.67 % de la varianza genética y las subcuencas un 35.99 %. A mayor escala espacial, considerando todas las poblaciones, el mejor modelo que explicó la diferenciación genética incluyó las variables distancia euclidiana, altitud y precipitación anual. A menor escala, en dos de las tres subcuencas (Río San Pedro y Salar de Atacama la diferenciación genética fue mejor explicada por variables del paisaje (temperatura y altitud, principalmente. A menor escala, considerando las poblaciones que han divergido recientemente detectadas por SAMOVA, la diferenciación genética fue mejor explicada por la ruta basada en humedales y la precipitación anual. Esta aproximación muestra la importancia de las características del paisaje en la colonización de R. spinulosa en esta zona.

  7. Relationship between the genetic structure of the Andean toad Rhinella spinulosa (Anura: Bufonidae) and the northern Chile landscape (21°- 24° S) Relación entre la estructura genética del sapo andino Rhinella spinulosa (Anura: Bufonidae) y el paisaje del norte de Chile (21°- 24° S)

    OpenAIRE

    CAROLINA E GALLARDO; HÉCTOR J HERNÁNDEZ; Diniz-Filho, José A. F.; R. EDUARDO PALMA; MARCO A MÉNDEZ

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the relationship of landscape and environmental features on the genetic differentiation of Rhinella spinulosa (Wiegmann, 1834) in the Altiplano of Antofagasta (Chile). We performed three types of analyses at different spatial scales: (1) Considering all populations; (2) Grouping populations by watershed and by sub-watershed; and (3) Using the results of a spatial analysis of molecular variation (SAMOVA). Landscape features were incorporated using Geographic Information Systems, wi...

  8. Assimilation efficiency in Bufo spinulosus tadpoles (Anura: Bufonidae: effects of temperature, diet quality and geographic origin Eficiencia de asimilación en larvas de Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae: efecto de la temperatura, calidad de dieta y origen geográfico

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    A. GONZALO BENAVIDES

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The assimilation efficiency of Bufo spinulosus tadpoles from four localities in Chile was evaluated for two different temperatures (15 and 25 ºC and two different diets (low nutritional quality diet (LQD: 22.28 mg g N-1; high nutritional quality diet (HQD: 47.53 mg g N-1 using ash as a marker of digestion. Results showed that geographic origin did not affect assimilation efficiency, while the relationship observed between temperature and diet quality was significant. Assimilation efficiency was greater for the HQD when tadpoles were maintained at 15 °C, instead significant differences were not found between diets for tadpoles maintained at 25 °C. Our results suggest that the effect of temperature on digestive processes is more relevant than its effect on transit time in the digestive tract. The differences in size at metamorphosis in B spinulosus populations of distinct geographic origin could not be explained by the existence of differences in physiologic digestive capacitiesLa eficiencia de asimilación de materia en larvas de Bufo spinulosus provenientes de cuatro localidades de Chile, fue evaluada para dos temperaturas (15 y 25 ºC y dos dietas diferentes (pobre: 22,28 mg g N-1 y rica 47,53 mg g N-1, utilizando la ceniza cómo marcador de digestión. Los resultados mostraron que la localidad de origen de las larvas no afecta la eficiencia de asimilación, mientras que se registró una interacción significativa entre la temperatura y la calidad de la dieta. La eficiencia de asimilación es mayor para la dieta rica cuando las larvas fueron mantenidas a 15 °C, no existiendo diferencias entre dietas cuando fueron mantenidas a 25 °C. Nuestros resultados sugieren que para B. spinulosus el efecto de la temperatura sobre los procesos digestivos es más relevante que su efecto sobre el tiempo de tránsito en el tracto digestivo. Las diferencias en el tamaño alcanzado a la metamorfosis en poblaciones de B. spinulosus de origen geográfico distinto, no podrían ser explicadas por la existencia de diferencias en las capacidades fisiológicas digestivas

  9. Pigmentação testicular em Physalaemus nattereri (Steindachner (Amphibia, Anura com observações anatômicas sobre o sistema pigmentar extracutâneo Testicular pigmentation in Physalaemus nattereri (Steindachner (Amphibia, Anura with anatomical observations on the extracutaneous pigmentary system

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    Classius de Oliveira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado com o intuito de relatar a ocorrência e morfologia de células pigmentares viscerais constituintes do "sistema pigmentar extracutâneo" em Physalaemus nattereri (Steindachner, 1863 (Leptodactylidae. Foram utilizados dez exemplares machos para a análise macroscópica e obtenção de fragmentos testiculares incluídos em resina e corados com H/E. Os anuros, dentre outros animais exotérmicos, possuem células especiais, os melanócitos, que se caracteriza por intensa pigmentação e sintetiza melanina, além de melanomacrófagos, que se caracteriza por atividade fagocítica e muitas vezes apresentam intensa pigmentação. A nomenclatura destas células não é consensual e, por isso, várias denominações são apresentadas, principalmente nos seguintes órgãos: fígado (como sinônimo de células de Kupffer, rins, baço e menos freqüentemente em outras localizações, com os termos - células pigmentares, células pigmentares extracutâneas, macrófagos pigmentados, melanomacrófagos, melanófagos, melanóforos e melanócitos. Para os anuros os estudos são recentes e relatam células pigmentares em poucas espécies. Em Physalaemus nattereri e alguns anuros, os pigmentos melânicos são encontrados, além da cútis, em outros órgãos constituindo um sistema pigmentar extracutâneo, com diferentes ocorrências, tipos e quantidade em distintas espécies. Associados ao aparelho reprodutor de P. nattereri, os melanócitos foram observados nas gônadas, na albugínea e no interstício, especialmente associado com vasos sangüíneos. A notória presença de numerosas células com pigmento distribuídas no testículo confere uma coloração que varia do preto mesclado com branco ao preto intenso. Trata-se de uma rara peculiaridade e não há informações sobre seu significado funcional ou valor biológico.The testes in the anurans are paired ovoid organs constituted by seminiferous structures surrounded by the fibrous connective tissue, commonly unprovided of pigments. This study tried to analyze the morphological characteristics of rare and conspicuous pigment-containing cells and their relationship with other structures. The pigment cells are variously and indistinctly also termed Kuppfer cells in the liver, pigment cells, extracutaneous pigment cells, pigmented macrophages, melanomacrophages, melanophage, melanophores and melanocytes in the liver, spleen and kidney and other visceral structures of exothermic vertebrates. Ten male samples of Physalaemus nattereri (Steindachner, 1863 (Leptodactylidae were used. After macroscopic analyses, the testicular fragments were submitted to the histological routine, fixed with karnovisky, embedded Historesin and coloration with Haematoxylin/Eosin. A rare peculiarity was the presence of numerous pigment-containing cells (melanocytes randomly distributed in the albuginea tunic and testicular interstitium, giving the testes a dark brown coloration. This unusual characteristic has been rarely described and in other lower vertebrates, the pigment cells can be found in different organs, constituting an extracutaneous pigmentary system of unknown function. Further, it was identified a conspicuous variation, as to presence and distribution pattern due to possible species-specific aspects. However, histologically there is no difference in the germ epithelium arrangement. Between the seminiferous locules, there is an inter-locular tissue composed by Leydig interstitial cells, fibroblasts, efferent ductules, melanocytes and blood vessels. This inter-locular tissue is relatively scarce, presenting melanocytes in all specimens analyzed intimate associated with blood vessels. They are irregular cells with numerous melanosomes and long cytoplasmic processes.

  10. PARTICIÓN DE MICROHÁBITATS ENTRE ESPECIES DE BUFONIDAE Y LEIUPERIDAE (AMPHIBIA: ANURA EN ÁREAS CON BOSQUE SECO TROPICAL DE LA REGIÓN CARIBE-COLOMBIA Microhábitat Partitioning Between Leiuperidae and Bufonidae Species (Amphibia: Anura in Tropical Dry Forest Areas in Colombian Caribbean

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    ARGELINA BLANCO TORRES

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se analizó la partición de microhábitats de cinco especies de anuros pertenecientes a las familias Bufonidae (Rhinella marina, R. granulosa, y Leiuperidae (Engystomops pustulosus, Pleurodema brachyops y Pseudopaludicola pusilla en seis localidades del Caribe colombiano con fragmentos de bosque seco tropical y diferentes usos de suelo. Se identificaron 29 microhábitats. Los más usados fueron charco de agua permanente de potreros con árboles (CPPA y potreros inundables sin árboles (PISA. La especie que mayor cantidad de microhábitats utilizó, fue E. pustulosus. No hubo especialistas en el uso de estos ambientes. Se presentaron diferencias en el uso de este recurso a escalas regional y local. La dinámica de uso de los microhábitats estuvo influenciada por las variaciones climáticas del bosque seco tropical. Existió partición de microhábitats como mecanismo de coexistencia en estas especies para época seca y no ocurre en época de lluvias.ABSTRACT We analyzed partitioning of microhábitats by five species of frogs in the families Bufonidae (Rhinella marina, R. granulosa, and Leiuperidae (Engystomops pustulosus, Pleurodema brachyops and Pseudopaludicola pusilla in six different localities of the Colombian Caribean with tropical dry forest fragments and different land uses. We identified 29 types of microhábitats; permanent ponds in pastures with trees (CPPA and flooded pastures without trees (PISA were the most important environmental used. Engystomops pustulosus used the must microhábitats, and none are used by specialist species. Thus, differences in the use of resource on regional and local scales appeared. Dynamics of microhábitat uses was influenced by the climatic variations of the tropical dry forest. Microhábitats distribution as a mechanism of coexistence in these species is implemented for dry season but in rainfall season this mechanism not exists.

  11. New species of Haematoloechus (Digenea: Plagiorchidae in the lung of the foothill yellow-legged frog Rana boylii (Anura, from Humboldt County, California, USA Especie nueva de Haematoloechus (Digenea: Plagiorchidae del pulmón de la rana de patas amarillas Rana boylii (Anura, de Humboldt County, California, Estados Unidos de América

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    David Zamparo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Haematoloechus is described from the lungs of Rana boylii from Humboldt County, California. The new species is similar to Haematoloechus buttensis, Haematoloechus kernensis, and Haematoloechus complexus in general course of the uterus and gonad shape. It is similar to H. buttensis by having a cirrus sac terminating midway between the posterior margin of the pharynx and the anterior margin of the ovary, and having a smaller oral/ventral sucker ratio; to H. complexus by having the genital pore ventral to the pharynx, and it is similar to H. kernensis by having a larger oral sucker to pharynx width ratio. The new species is unique by lacking an extra-cecal longitudinal uterine loop from the hind-body. Molecularly, the new species differs 1.04-1.15% in partial 28S sequence with respect to H. complexus, and a monophyletic grouping of these specimens in a phylogenetic analysis of all available sequence data consistent with the species-specific status proposed herein. Evidence is also presented to suggest that specimens identified as H. buttensis in Rana pretiosa from British Columbia, Canada represents a new, but still undescribed species. The importance of conducting biological inventories of helminths, along with continued monitoring of populations, and collections based taxonomy are related.Una especie nueva de Haematoloechus es descrita de los pulmones de Rana boylii de Humboldt County, California. La especie nueva guarda semejanza con Haematoloechus buttensis, Haematoloechus kernensis, y Haematoloechus complexus en la disposición general del útero y en la forma de las gónadas. Es similar a H. buttensis en que la bolsa del cirro finaliza entre el margen posterior de la faringe y el margen anterior del ovario, y en presentar una relación menor entre la ventosa oral y el acetábulo; a H. complexus por tener el poro genital ventral a la faringe, y a H. kernensis por tener una relación mayor del ancho de la ventosa oral contra la faringe. La especie nueva es única por carecer de asas uterinas extracecales longitudinales. Molecularmente, la especie nueva muestra 1.04-1.15% de diferencia en secuencias parciales de 28S con respecto H. complexus; esta información complementa las diferencias morfológicas. También se presenta evidencia para sugerir que ejemplares identificados como H. buttensis de Rana pretiosa en British Columbia, Canadá probablemente representan una especie nueva aún no descrita. Se aborda la importancia de la realización de inventarios biológicos de helmintos, el monitoreo continuo de las poblaciones y las colecciones basadas en la taxonomía.

  12. Descrição da larva de Scinax similis (Cochran com notas comparativas sobre o grupo "ruber" no sudeste do Brasil (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae Description of the larva of Scinax similis (Cochran with comparative notes on the Scinax ruber group in Southeastern Brazil (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae

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    Ana C.R Alves

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The larva of Scinax similis (Cochran, 1952 is described from Ilha do Fundão (Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Comparisons with other species of the group that occur in Southeastern Brazil are added. The larva of S. similis can be distinguished by the following diagnostic features: (1 eyes large in relation to body length (17,3%, body height (26,8%, and body width (29,7%, interocular distance three times larger than eye diameter; (2 lower beak with two transverse stripes, proximal half white and distal half black.

  13. Feeding overlap in two sympatric species of Rhinella (Anura: Bufonidae of the Atlantic Rain Forest Sobreposição alimentar em duas espécies simpátricas de Rhinella (Anura: Bufonidae da Mata Atlântica

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    Leandro T. Sabagh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A clear understanding of the relationships between overlapping, similarity, and competition is necessary to understand many of the questions about the structure and operation of a community. Rhinella icterica (Spix, 1824 and Rhinella crucifer (Wied Neuwied, 1821 are sympatric species of toads occurring in the National Park of Serra dos Órgãos in southeastern Brazil. The aim of the present study was to assess the dietary overlap of these two species. Ninety-four stomachs were analyzed, and 2245 prey items were found. Common prey were Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera larvae, Blattaria, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Opiliones, and Aranaea. Ants were the most important prey in both diets, followed by beetles and cockroaches. The niche breadth of R. icterica was 1.76 and of R. crucifer was 1.28. The dietary overlap between the species was 98.62%. A positive correlation was observed between jaw width and prey size consumed by R. icterica.Um claro entendimento das relações entre sobreposição, similaridade e competição é necessário para entender muitas questões sobre a estrutura e o funcionamento de uma comunidade. Rhinella icterica (Spix, 1824 e Rhinella crucifer (Wied Neuwied, 1821 são espécies simpátricas que ocorrem no Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos, região sudeste do Brasil. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a sobreposição alimentar dessas duas espécies. Foram analisados 94 estômagos e encontradas 2245 presas. Os grupos comuns foram: Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, larva de Lepidoptera, Blattaria, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Opiliones e Aranaea. Formigas foram as presas mais importantes na dieta, seguidas por besouros e baratas. A amplitude de nicho de R. icterica foi de 1,76 e a de R. cruicifer 1,28. A sobreposição de nicho alimentar entre as espécies foi de 98,62%. Houve relação positiva entre a largura da mandíbula e a dimensão das presas consumidas em R. icterica.

  14. Seasonality, age structure and reproduction of Leptodactylus (Lithodytes lineatus (Anura, Leptodactylidae in Rondônia state, southwestern Amazon, Brazil Sazonalidade, estrutura etária e reprodução de Leptodactylus (Lithodytes lineatus (Anura, Leptodactylidae no estado de Rondônia, Brasil

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    Paulo Sérgio Bernarde

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Leptodactylus(Lithodytes lineatus (Schneider, 1799 is an Amazonian leaf litter frog considered rare or uncommon in several studies on anuran communities. Despite being a widely distributed frog in Amazonian forests, knowledge of the biology and ecology of this species is relatively scarce. This species has been reported to live in association with leaf-cutter ant nests (Atta spp. during the breeding period. In this paper we present data on the seasonality of this species and some reproductive information gathered at a locality of Rondônia state, northwestern Brazil. Field work was carried out between April 2001 and March 2002, with the use of pitfall traps with drift fences as a survey method. Leptodactylus (L. lineatus had a higher capture frequency in this locality compared to that of other studies carried out in other Amazonian localities, possibly because this species has secretive habits, such as calling and breeding from nests of leaf-cutting ants, and are difficult to find during visual encounter surveys. The breeding period occurs between October and March. Calling males and egg-bearing females were found between September and February and juvenile recruitment occurred mainly from the end of the rainy season to the beginning of the dry season (February to June. Males and females show sexual dimorphism in SVL, females being significantly larger than males. The number of ovarian eggs per female varies from 110 to 328 and analyses indicate that there is a significant correlation with SVL.Leptodactylus(Lithodytes lineatus (Schneider, 1799 é uma espécie de anuro amazônico considerado raro ou incomum em diversos estudos de comunidades de anfíbios. Embora apresente ampla distribuição na Floresta Amazônica, conhecimento sobre a sua biologia e ecologia são escassos. Esta espécie tem sido relatada por viver em associação com ninhos de formigas cortadeiras (Atta spp. durante o período reprodutivo. Neste trabalho, nós apresentamos dados de sazonalidade e reprodução desta espécie em uma localidade do estado de Rondônia, noroeste do Brasil. Trabalhos de campo foram conduzidos de abril de 2001 a março de 2002, com o uso de armadilhas de queda com rede direcionadora. Leptodactylus (L. lineatus teve uma alta taxa de captura nesta localidade, quando comparada com outros estudos em outras localidades na Amazônia, possivelmente devido a esta espécie possuir hábitos crípticos, como vocalizar e reproduzir dentro de ninhos de formigas, e ser dificilmente encontrada durante procura visual ativa. O período reprodutivo ocorre entre outubro e março. Machos vocalizando e fêmeas ovuladas foram encontrados entre setembro e janeiro e o recrutamento de juvenis ocorreu principalmente no final do período chuvoso. Machos e fêmeas apresentaram dimorfismo sexual quanto ao comprimento rostro-cloacal (CRC, sendo as fêmeas maiores que os machos. O número de folículos ovarianos por fêmea variou de 110 a 328 e análises indicaram que existe uma correlação significativa entre este número e o CRC.

  15. Diet and microhabitat use by two Hylodinae species (Anura, Cycloramphidae living in sympatry and syntopy in a Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest area Dieta e uso do microhabitat em duas espécies de Hylodinae (Anura, Cycloramphidae vivendo em simpatria e sintopia em uma área de Mata Atlântica

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    Mauricio Almeida-Gomes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the diet and microhabitat use for two Hylodinae anurans (Cycloramphidae, Hylodes phyllodes Heyer & Cocroft, 1986 and Crossodactylus gaudichaudii Duméril & Bibron, 1841, living in sympatry at an Atlantic Rainforest area of Ilha Grande, in southeastern Brazil. The two species live syntopically at some rocky streams. The two species differed strongly in microhabitat use. Hylodes phyllodes occurred mainly on rocks, whereas C. gaudichaudii was observed mostly on the water. Regarding diet, coleopterans, hymenopterans (ants, and larvae were the most important prey item consumed by both species. Data suggest that microhabitat use appears to be an important parameter differentiating these frogs with respect to general resource utilization.Nós analisamos a dieta e o uso do microhabitat em duas espécies de anuros da subfamília Hylodinae (Cycloramphidae, Hylodes phyllodes Heyer & Cocroft, 1986 e Crossodactylus gaudichaudii Duméril & Bibron, 1841, que vivem em simpatria em uma área de Mata Atlântica na Ilha Grande, na região sudeste do Brasil. As duas espécies vivem sintopicamente em alguns riachos pedregosos. As duas espécies diferiram fortemente no uso do microhabitat. Hylodes phyllodes ocorreu principalmente sobre pedras, enquanto C. gaudichaudii foi observado na maioria das vezes dentro d'água. Com relação à dieta, coleópteros, himenópteros (formigas, e larvas foram as presas mais consumidas por ambas as espécies. Os dados sugerem que o uso do microhabitat parece ser um importante parâmetro diferenciando esses anuros com respeito a utilização de recursos.

  16. Efeitos da sucessão florestal sobre a anurofauna (Amphibia: Anura da Reserva Catuaba e seu entorno, Acre, Amazônia sul-ocidental Effect of the forest succession on the anurans (Amphibia: Anura of the Reserve Catuaba and its periphery, Acre, southwestern Amazonia

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    Vanessa M. de Souza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a abundância, riqueza e a composição da anurofauna em diferentes estágios sucessionais em uma floresta do Acre (10º04'S, 67º37'W e seu entorno. Os dados foram obtidos entre agosto de 2005 a abril de 2006 em doze parcelas, localizadas em três áreas diferentes da floresta. Em cada área foram escolhidos quatro tipos de ambientes: floresta primária (mata, floresta secundária (capoeira, entorno (matriz e floresta secundária (sucessão. Observou-se a presença de 27 espécies distribuídas em sete famílias. Maior abundância foi constatada na matriz dois e capoeira três, e a menor na sucessão um. A maior riqueza foi constatada na matriz dois, com o maior número de espécies exclusivas. A abundância de anuros correlacionou-se significativamente com a circunferência das árvores e lianas. A riqueza de anuros correlacionou-se marginalmente com a circunferência das árvores. A maior riqueza em ambientes de capoeiras e matriz pode ser explicada em grande parte pela existência nesses locais de poças d'água, maior heterogeneidade estrutural e poderem constituir estágios intermediários de perturbação. Esses estágios têm sido apontados como fatores que promovem e mantêm níveis elevados de biodiversidade. Ambientes com níveis intermediários de perturbação são importantes para a conservação da anurofauna.The objective of this work it was verify the abundance, richness, and the anuran composition in plots of vegetation of different succession stages in a forest and the matrix that surrounds it, of Acre (10º04'S, 67º37'W. The sampling was carried out between August 2005 and April 2006 in twelve plots located in three different sites in the forest. In each site four kinds of environments were chosen: primary forest (wood, secondary forest (capoeira, periphery (matrix and secondary forest (succession. A total of twenty-seven species distributed in seven families was found. Greater abundance was registered in the plots of matrix two and capoeira three and the least in succession one. The richness was greater in matrix two, with the greater number of exclusive species. The abundance of anurans correlated significantly, with the average circumference at the breast height of the trees of the plots. The richness however correlated only marginally, with this structural feature. The larger richness in plots of capoeira and matrix can be explained partially by the existence of temporary ponds and more structural heterogeneity is able constitute intermediary stages in a gradient of perturbation and this can increase the biodiversity. Thus environments with intermediary levels of disturbance are important for the conservation of the diversity of anuran amphibians.

  17. Eimeria fragilis and E. wambaensis, two new species of Eimeria Schneider (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from African anurans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, M.; Modrý, David

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 2 (2005), s. 167-173. ISSN 0065-1583 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/03/1544; GA ČR(CZ) GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Eimeria * Anura * Apicomplexa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.987, year: 2005

  18. Gigantism in tadpoles of the Neogene frog Palaeobatrachus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk; Böttcher, R.; Wassersug, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2006), s. 666-675. ISSN 0094-8373 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013206 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * Neogene * Germany * development Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.405, year: 2006

  19. Patterns of larval development in Cretaceous pipid frogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk; van Dijk, E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2006), s. 111-126. ISSN 0567-7920 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013206 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Anura * Pipidae * Cretaceous Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.076, year: 2006 http://app.pan.pl/archive/published/app51/app51-111.pdf

  20. A new squeaker frog (Arthroleptidae: Arthroleptis) from the mountains of Cameroon and Nigeria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blackburn, D. C.; Gvoždík, Václav; Leache, A. D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2010), s. 335-348. ISSN 0018-0831 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Amplubia * Anura * Biodiveristy hotspot * Federal Republic of Nigeria Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.667, year: 2010

  1. Goussia Labbé , 1896 (Apicomplexa, Eimeriorina) in Amphibia: Diversity, Biology, Molecular Phylogeny and Comments on theStatus of the Genus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Miloslav; Jirků, Milan; Oborník, Miroslav; Lukeš, Julius; Modrý, David

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 1 (2009), s. 123-136. ISSN 1434-4610 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/03/1544 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Anura * coccidia * cryptic species * Goussia * phylogeny * ultrastructure Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.853, year: 2009

  2. Anuran Ilia from the Upper Cretaceous of Utah - Diversity and Stratigraphic Patterns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk; Gardner, J. D.; Eaton, J. G.; Přikryl, Tomáš

    Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 2013 - (Titus, A.; Loewen, M.), s. 273-294 ISBN 978-0-253-00883-1. - (Life of the Past) R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08066 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Anura * Upper Cretaceous * diversity * stratigraphy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  3. Similarities and differences in the ilia of Late Cretaceous anurans and urodeles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk; Gardner, J. D.; Eaton, J. G.; Přikryl, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 183, č. 6 (2012), s. 529-535. ISSN 0037-9409 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08066 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Anura * Cretaceous * Ilium * North America * Postcranial skeleton * Urodela Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.182, year: 2012

  4. The Late Cretaceous frog Gobiates from Central Asia: its evolutionary status and possible phylogenetic relationships

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 4 (2008), s. 577-591. ISSN 0195-6671 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * Gobiatidae * Cretaceous * Cretaceous (Mongolia) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2008

  5. Notes on the herpetofauna of western Bas-Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagy, Z. T.; Kusamba, C.; Collet, M.; Gvoždík, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2013), s. 413-419. ISSN 2071-5773 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Anura * checklist * mangroves * Mayombe * Squamata * Testudines Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.herpetologynotes.seh-herpetology.org/Volume6_PDFs/Nagy_HerpetologyNotes_volume6_pages413-419.pdf

  6. Thaumastosaurus bottii, amphibien anoure des phosphorites. Des anciennes collections aux nouvelles récoltes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rage, J. C.; Roček, Zbyněk

    Montpellier : University of Montpellier, 2005. s. 26-26. [Journées Bernard Geze. 01.10.2005-03.10.2005, Lalbenque and Limogne-en-Quercy] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * Eocene Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  7. Maturation of the gastric microvasculature in Xenopus laevis (Lissamphibia, Anura) occurs at the transition from the herbivorous to the carnivorous lifestyle, predominantly by intussuceptive microvascular growth (IMG): a scanning electron microscope study of microvascular corrosion casts and correlative light microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Lametschwandtner, Alois; Höll, Monika; Bartel, Heidi; Anupunpisit, Vipavee; Minnich, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The microvascular bed of the stomach of Xenopus laevis and the changes it undergoes when the herbivorous tadpole becomes a carnivorous adult were studied by scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts and light microscopy of stained tissue sections. In tadpoles an upper and a lower gastric artery supplied, and upper, middle and lower medial and lateral gastric veins drained the vertically extending stomach. During metamorphosis, the stomach gained a horizontal cranio-caudal exten...

  8. Nomenclatural availability of the names applied to “varieties” of the green toad (Bufo viridis subgroup in the Italian territory, with emphasis on the variety lineata of Ninni (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Novarini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent molecular investigations on Eurasian green toads led to the recognition of distinct lineages and to the establishment of new taxa within the former Bufo viridis; as a consequence, significant range-wide nomenclatural changes have been proposed, although some uncertainties remained on the available names applicable within the Italian territory. In order to contribute to clarify the matter, we evaluated, under the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the nomenclatural availability of all the names that have been applied to infrasubspecific entities of the Bufo viridis subgroup within the Italian territory. We also provided a historical overview of the usage of all these names, as well as detailed information on the original material upon which the variety lineata of A.P. Ninni was established. Our analysis supports the view that only the names crucigera Eichwald, 1831 and balearica Boettger, 1880 are available, the former being however junior synonym of B. viridis Laurenti, 1768, whereas the names acutirostris and obtusirostris of Lessona, lineata of Ninni, concolor and maculata of Camerano, and nardoi of Paolucci, Fuhn and Bruno are all not available.

  9. Range extension of Ferguson Toad Duttaphrynus scaber (Schneider) (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) up to the northern most limit of Western Ghats, with its advertisement call analysis

    OpenAIRE

    A. Padhye; Pandit, R.; Patil, R; S Gaikwad; N. Dahanukar; Y. Shouche

    2013-01-01

    Duttaphrynus scaber (Schneider) is known to occur in the southern Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats and northeastern India. However, there is no report of its occurrence from the northern Western Ghats from the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Here we report the occurrence of this species from the northernmost limit of the Western Ghats, a substantial range extension (approx. 550km) from the nearest known locality. We confirm our identification on the basis of morphology by comparing our spec...

  10. Una nueva especie colombiana del género centrolene jiménez de la espada 1872 (amphibia: anura) y redefinición del género

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Carranza, Pedro M.; Hernández Camacho, Jorge; Ardila Robayo, María Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Se presenta una redefinición de Centrolene mediante el uso de nuevos caracteres, basada en una revisión del historial taxonómico del género y en el examen de una serie de ejemplares de C. geckoideum: Se describe la segunda especie del género Centrolene de la selva andina subhigrofítica nebulosa de la vertiente oriental de la Cordillera Central, arriba de Inzá, Cauca, Colombia. La nueva especie se caracteriza por su menor tamaño, cuerpo y extremidades menos robustos, anchura cefálica proporcio...

  11. The genetics of amphibian declines: Population substructure and molecular differentiation in the Yosemite Toad, Bufo canorus (Anura, Bufonidae) based on single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Shaffer H.; Fellers, G.M.; Magee, A.; Randal, Voss S.

    2000-01-01

    We present a comprehensive survey of genetic variation across the range of the narrowly distributed endemic Yosemite toad Bufo canorus, a declining amphibian restricted to the Sierra Nevada of California. Based on 322 bp of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data, we found limited support for the monophyly of B. canorus and its closely related congener B. exsul to the exclusion of the widespread western toad B. boreas. However, B. exsul was always phylogenetically nested within B. canorus, suggesting that the latter may not be monophyletic. SSCP (single-strand conformation polymorphism) analysis of 372 individual B. canorus from 28 localities in Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks revealed no shared haplotypes among these two regions and lead us to interpret these two parks as distinct management units for B. canorus. Within Yosemite, we found significant genetic substructure both at the level of major drainages and among breeding ponds. Kings Canyon samples show a different pattern, with substantial variation among breeding sites, but no substructure among drainages. Across the range of B. canorus as well as among Yosemite ponds, we found an isolation-by-distance pattern suggestive of a stepping stone model of migration. However, in Kings Canyon we found no hint of such a pattern, suggesting that movement patterns of toads may be quite different in these nearby parklands. Our data imply that management for B. canorus should focus at the individual pond level, and effective management may necessitate reintroductions if local extirpations occur. A brief review of other pond-breeding anurans suggests that highly structured populations are often the case, and thus that our results for B. canorus may be general for other species of frogs and toads.

  12. The genetics of amphibian decline: population substructure and molecular differentiation in the Yosemite toad, Bufo canorus (Anura, Bufonidae) based on single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, H.B.; Fellers, G.M.; Magee, A.; Voss, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    (1) DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor were each applied to separate replicate plots in a hay field at 0.6, 2.2, or 9.0 kg/ha. For 11 yr thereafter, soil and earthworms were analysed for residues. (2) The average ratios of residues in earthworms (dry weight) to residues in soil (dry weight) were: total DDT, 5; dieldrin, 8; and heptachlor epoxide, 10. The average time for the initial residues in soil to be reduced by 50% were: total DDT, 3.2 yr; dieldrin, 5.1 yr; and heptachlor epoxide, 3.2 yr. The corresponding times for residues in earthworms were: total DDT, 3.2 yr; dieldrin, 2.6 yr; and heptachlor epoxide, 3.0 yr. (3) DDE was most persistent, and in plots treated at 9.0 kg/ha its concentration remained constant at about 0.4 ppm in soil and about 7 ppm in earthworms. (4) When applied at 9.0 kg/ha, DDT accumulated in earthworms to concentrations (32 ppm) which laboratory studies have shown to be hazardous to some sensitive bird species. When heptachlor was applied at 2.2 or 9.0 kg/ha, heptachlor epoxide in earthworms reached concentrations (8 ppm) potentially hazardous to woodcock. Dieldrin remained at potentially hazardous concentrations (8 ppm) for 3 yr in plots treated with 2.2 kg/ha and for 11 yr in plots treated with 9.0 kg/ha.

  13. Primer reporte de parasitismo de una garrapata blanda del género Ornithodoros (Ixodida: Argasidae sobre Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae en el departamento de Valle Fértil, San Juan, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta, Juan Carlos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente comunicación es reportar por primera vez un caso de parasitismo en Rhinella arenarum y a la vez mencionar el primer registro del género Ornithodoros en el departamento de Valle Fértil, San Juan, Argentina. Siendo el primer registro de parasitismo de anfibios por Ornithodoros en la Argentina y el segundo para el neotrópico.

  14. Actividad Antiviral Contra el Virus H1N1 y Sarampión de la Secreción Cutánea de Rhinella jimi y Rhinella ictericia (Anura: Bufonidae -resumen-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cuoco-Badari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La piel de los anfibios es un medio de protección con funciones de importancia vital que permite a estos animales sobrevivir y adaptarse a diferentes nichos ecológicos. Además‚ la secreción cutánea poseén una grand diversidad de moléculas que brindan una protección química contra depredadores y microorganismos patógenos. La secreción cutánea de R. jimi y R. icterica‚ principalmente los alcaloides propios de esta secreción‚ han sido estudiados previamente corroborando que poseen efectos contra patógenos en especial virus. En este estudio se utilizó la secreción cutánea purificada de R. jimi y R. icterica‚ para evaluar el efecto de las moléculas extraídas sobre el proceso de infección del virus H1N1 y del sarampión en células de mamíferos (MDCK y VERO‚ respectivamente. Las pruebas para comprobar los efectos de adición al virus fueron la determinación del efecto citopático en células de la inhibición de la fluorescencia. Fue observado que la fracción purificada reduce en 128 veces la replicación del virus de la H1N1‚ 32 veces la replicación del sarampión y 16 veces la replicación del virus EMC (picornavírus. El análisis de la fracción con actividad fue realizada por espectrometría de masa y se encontró el alcaloide indolico‚ N'N'- dimethyl 5-hydroxytryptalamina (Bufotenina. Actualmente se están determinando los posibles mecanismos de acción de este alcaloide.

  15. Hematología y citoquímica de las células sanguíneas de Rhinella fernandezae (Anura: Bufonidae) en Espinal y Delta-Islas del río Paraná, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana C Cabagna Zenklusen; Rafael C. Lajmanovich; Andrés M. Attademo; Peltzer, Paola M.; Celina M Junges; Gabriela Fiorenza Biancucci; Agustín Bassó

    2011-01-01

    La descripción de la hematología de los anfibios anuros es escasa, habiéndose realizado la mayoría de los trabajos en especies de Norteamérica, Asia y Europa. Con el propósito de obtener datos hematológicos para Rhinella fernandezae, fueron estudiados 23 especímenes provenientes de zonas protegidas de las provincias de Santa Fe y Entre Ríos. Se les extrajo sangre por punción cardíaca y se realizaron hemogramas. En los extendidos sanguíneos, se efectuaron la descripción morfológica y citoquími...

  16. New insights to the molecular phylogenetics and generic assessment in the Rhacophoridae (Amphibia: Anura) based on five nuclear and three mitochondrial genes, with comments on the evolution of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Tang; Che, Jing; Murphy, Robert W; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Er-Mi; Rao, Ding-Qi; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2009-11-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among 12 genera of treefrogs (Family, Rhacophoridae), were investigated based on a large sequence data set, including five nuclear (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, proopiomelanocortin, recombination activating gene 1, tyrosinase, rhodopsin) and three mitochondrial (partial 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA and the complete valine t-RNA) genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the nuclear gene sequences resolved three major clades. The first group included Philautus, Pseudophilautus, Kurixalus, Gracixalus, and Theloderma moloch; Pseudophilautus and Kurixalus were sister taxa. The second group consisted of Nyctixalus and Theloderma. The third group contained Feihyla, Polypedates, Rhacophorus, and Chiromantis vittatus; Polypedates and Feihyla were sister taxa. Analyses of the nuclear and mitochondrial genes supported the following results: (1) Genus Liuixalus formed the sister group of all other rhacophorines. (2) Philautus, Theloderma, and Chiromantis were not resolved as monophyletic genera. Four groups, including Philautus ocellatus and P. hainanus, P. longchuanensis and P. gryllus, P. banaensis, and P. quyeti nested well within the genera Liuixalus, Pseudophilautus, Kurixalus, and Gracixalus, respectively. (3) Theloderma moloch and Chiromantis vittatus did not cluster with other species of Theloderma and Chiromantis, respectively. Foam nesting evolved only once, as did laying eggs in a jelly-like matrix containing some bubbles. Terrestrial direct development evolved twice in the Rhacophoridae. PMID:19616637

  17. [Ecological studies on helminthic taxocenosis of sympatric Chaunus ictericus (Spix, 1824) and Chaunus schneideri (Werner, 1894) (Anura: Bufonidae) captured on São Cristóvão district, Três Barras county, Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Estevam G Lux; Pedrassani, Daniela; Hoffmann-Inocente, Ana Cecília; Tebaldi, José H; Storti, Luis Fernando; Zanuzzo, Felipe S; Avancini, Neuri; Do Nascimento, Adjair Antonio

    2008-09-01

    Fifty eight Chaunus ictericus and 42 C. schneideri specimens were collected on São Cristóvão district, Três Barras, SC for helminthological studies. Fourteen helminth species were diagnosed, from which only five species were found on both hosts. Chaunus ictericus showed higher values of species richness (2,8448+/-1,1516) and diversity (H = 1,374), with mild dominance (1-D = 0,642, J = 0,5528), in comparison with C. schneideri (0,6428+/-1,007; H = 1,165; 1-D = 0,5822 e J = 0,5985). Also, descriptors of helminthic infection were superior in the former host. Little number of shared species between the analyzed toad species suggests parasitic host-specificity. PMID:20059839

  18. Redescription of the advertisement call of Aplastodiscus arildae (Cruz & Peixoto) and description of the call of Aplastodiscus weygoldti (Cruz & Peixoto) with general notes about the genus in Southeastern Brazil (Anura, Hylidae) Redescrição do canto de anúncio de Aplastodiscus arildae (Cruz & Peixoto) e descrição do canto de Aplastodiscus weygoldti (Cruz & Peixoto) com notas morfológicas sobre o gênero no Sudeste Brasileiro (Anura, Hylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Orrico, Victor G. D.; Ana Maria P. T. Carvalho-e-Silva; Sergio P. de Carvalho-e-Silva

    2006-01-01

    The study of anuran advertisement calls is very significant for it is an important premating premating mechanism. Herein we redescribe the advertisement call of Aplastodiscus arildae from an area near type-locality and describe the advertisement call of A. weygoldti comparing them to previously described advertisement calls of species of the genus Aplastodiscus. Both advertisement calls are simple, non-modulated calls, very similar to each other, but significantly different in what matters to...

  19. Non-invasive reproductive and stress endocrinology in amphibian conservation physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, E. J.

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive endocrinology utilizes non-invasive biological samples (such as faeces, urine, hair, aquatic media, and saliva) for the quantification of hormones in wildlife. Urinary-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and radio-immunoassay have enabled the rapid quantification of reproductive and stress hormones in amphibians (Anura: Amphibia). With minimal disturbance, these methods can be used to assess the ovarian and testicular endocrine functions as well as physiological stress in captive and ...

  20. Ultrastructure and localisation of late-sporogonic developmental stages of Sphaerospora ranae (Myxosporea: Sphaerosporidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Miloslav; Bartošová, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2014), s. 311-321. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2330; GA ČR(CZ) GPP506/11/P724 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * Europe * kidneys * myxospore * Myxozoa * Rana * sporogony * synchronisation * in situ hybridisation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.147, year: 2014

  1. A Model for Taxonomic Work on Homoxenous Coccidia: Redescription, Host Specificity, and Molecular Phylogeny of Eimeria ranae Dobell, 1909, with a Review of Anuran-Host Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriorina)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Miloslav; Jirků, Milan; Oborník, Miroslav; Lukeš, Julius; Modrý, David

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2009), s. 39-51. ISSN 1066-5234 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1544 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * experimental infections * metamorphosis * morphotypes * SSU rDNA sequence * tadpoles * ultrastructure Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2009

  2. How complex is the Bufo bufo species group?

    OpenAIRE

    Arntzen, J. W.; Recuero, E.; Canestrelli, D.; Martínez-Solano, I.

    2013-01-01

    Species delineation remains one of the most challenging tasks in the study of biodiversity, mostly owing to the application of different species concepts, which results in contrasting taxonomic arrangements. This has important practical consequences, since species are basic units in fields like ecology and conservation biology. We here review molecular genetic evidence relevant to the systematics of toads in the Bufo bufo species group (Anura, Bufonidae). Two studies recently published in thi...

  3. Boletín de la AHA | Volumen 2 | Número 1-3

    OpenAIRE

    Asociación Herpetológica Argentina (AHA)

    1985-01-01

    - Resúmenes de los trabajos presentados en la II Reunión de Comunicaciones Herpetológicas: -- Un nuevo anfibio para la provincia de Mendoza (Argentina): Ceratophrys cranwelli Barrio (Anura, Leptodactylidae); Enrique Richard -- El cariotipo de Amphisbaena munoai y comentarios sobre la meiosis en los Amphisbaenidae; Gabriel Skuk -- Histología del tracto digestivo de Lilaemus multimaculatus (Dumeril y Bibron, 1837); Viviana C. Devincenti, Lía Goldemberg y José M. Chani -- Estudio...

  4. Toad envenoming in dogs: effects and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    M. SAKATE; P. C. Lucas de Oliveira

    2000-01-01

    Toads (order: Anura; family: Bufonidae; genus: Bufo) are distributed throughout the world, but more species are found in areas of tropical and humid temperate climates. Although toads do not have a venom inoculation system, they are venomous animals because the glands covering the whole surface of their bodies secrete a milk-like venom of which composition is not yet completely known. Some of these glands are the bilateral glands located in post-orbital position. These glands, which are somew...

  5. Another Chloromyxid Lineage: Molecular Phylogeny and Redescription of Chloromyxum careni from the Asian Horned frog Megophrys nasuta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Miloslav; Bartošová, Pavla; Kodádková, Alena; Mutschmann, F.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2011), s. 50-59. ISSN 1066-5234 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2330 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * Chloromyxum careni * LSU rDNA * Megophrys nasuta * molecular phylogeny * Myxozoa * redescription * SSU rDNA * ultrastructure Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.659, year: 2011

  6. High levels of diversity uncovered in a widespread nominal taxon: continental phylogeography of the Neotropical tree frog Dendropsophus minutus

    OpenAIRE

    Gehara, Marcelo; De la Riva, Ignacio; Köhler, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    Species distributed across vast continental areas and across major biomes provide unique model systems for studies of biotic diversification, yet also constitute daunting financial, logistic and political challenges for data collection across such regions. The tree frog Dendropsophus minutus (Anura: Hylidae) is a nominal species, continentally distributed in South America, that may represent a complex of multiple species, each with a more limited distribution. To understand the spatial patter...

  7. FREE RADICALS AND THEIR ACTION IN THE MIDDLE INTESTINE STRUCTURES DURING THE METAMORPHOSIS OF RANA TEMPORARIA TEMPORARIA (LINNAEUS, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Sarbu; Luminta Jerca; Anica Iacobovici

    2007-01-01

    The action of free radicals in the middle intestine structures during the metamorphosis of anura amphibians represents a hint to some profound structural and ultrastructural reshuffling. By following the values of the free radicals one can observe that between the XX and XXII stages there is an explosion at the level of free radicals, whichcorresponds to the destruction of the larval epithelium at structural level. The oxidative explosion takes place with the contribution of macrophages, whos...

  8. Distribution and Ecology of the Western Ecuador Frog Leptodactylus labrosus (Amphibia: Anura: Leptodactylidae)%厄瓜多尔西部新热带蛙(两栖纲: 无尾目:细趾蟾科)的分布特征及生态习性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Leptodactylus labrosus is a terrestrial sit-and-wait predator; its diet includes ground-level, fossorial, and flying insects, and ants numerically predominate. Bothrops asper is recorded as a predator of L. labrosus. L. labrosus lives mainly in deciduous and semi-deciduous forests, where it is restricted to wet microhabitats, and occasionally in evergreen forests. L. labrosus inhabits northern, central, and southern regions of western coastal Ecuador and northern and central western coastal Peru up to 700 m, and into the dry interandean valleys of southern Ecuador and northern Peru up to 1 300 m. Its distribution encompasses moistly seasonally dry forest in coastal Ecuador and Peru. It also occupies moister areas towards the slopes of the Andes where it is sympatric with three other congeneric species, but at sites of sympatry the species show habitat segregation. The distribution pattern of L. labrosus is shared by several other range-restricted amphibians corresponding to the Tumbesian region, which should be recognized as an endemic Amphibian area. The zone between the Choco and Tumbesian regions, where L. labrosus gets in sympatry with other Leptodactylus species, possess ecological and climatic characteristics that have shaped a unique fauna, including several endemic taxa; and it should be recognized as the west Ecuadorian endemic region.%Leptodactylus labrosus属于陆地坐-等型的捕食者, 其食物包括地表的、掘地的及飞行昆虫, 其中蚂蚁数量最多. 曾有报道Bothrops asper是其天敌. L. labrosus主要栖息于落叶及半落叶林潮湿的环境中, 偶尔也栖息于常绿林中. L. labrosus分布于厄瓜多尔西海岸的北部、中部、南部; 秘鲁西海岸的北部、中部, 分布地海拔可达600 m; 及位于南厄瓜多尔和北秘鲁海拔高达1 300 m的干燥的安第斯山谷. 其分布地区包括了厄瓜多尔和秘鲁海岸的潮湿的、季节性干燥的森林. 在安第斯山脉斜坡的潮湿地带,L. labrosus与其他3种细趾蟾科的分布区重叠, 但表现为生境分离. 其分布特征与其他几种活动区域受限的两栖动物相似.Tumbesian地区应被认为是地方特有两栖动物的分布区. Choco和Tumbesian的中间区域是L.labrosus与其他细趾蟾科的生境分布重叠区, 其生态及气候特征使其形成了独特的动物区系, 包括几种地方特有物种. 因此该地区应被划为西厄瓜多尔地方种区域.

  9. Where to look when identifying roadkilled amphibians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Franch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Roads have multiple effects on wildlife; amphibians are one of the groups more intensely affected by roadkills. Monitoring roadkills is expensive and time consuming. Automated mapping systems for detecting roadkills, based on robotic computer vision techniques, are largely necessary. Amphibians can be recognised by a set of features as shape, size, colouration, habitat and location. This species identification by using multiple features at the same time is known as “jizz”. In a similar way to human vision, computer vision algorithms must incorporate a prioritisation process when analysing the objects in an image. Our main goal here was to give a numerical priority sequence of particular characteristics of roadkilled amphibians to improve the computing and learning process of algorithms. We asked hundred and five amateur and professional herpetologists to answer a simple test of five sets with ten images each of roadkilled amphibians, in order to determine which body parts or characteristics (body form, colour, and other patterns are used to identify correctly the species. Anura was the group most easily identified when it was roadkilled and Caudata was the most difficult. The lower the taxonomic level of amphibian, the higher the difficulty of identifying them, both in Anura and Caudata. Roadkilled amphibians in general and Anura group were mostly identified by the Form, by the combination of Form and Colour, and finally by Colour. Caudata was identified mainly on Form and Colour and on Colour. Computer vision algorithms must incorporate these combinations of features, avoiding to work exclusively in one specific feature.

  10. Boletín de la AHA | Volumen 5 | Número 1-2

    OpenAIRE

    Asociación Herpetológica Argentina (AHA)

    1989-01-01

    - VI Reunión de Comunicaciones Herpetológioas (Circular Nro. 1) - II Congreso Argentino de Herpetología - Notas Herpetológicas -- Grisolia, C. S.; N. O. Stanchi. Labio leporino bilateral en una nidada de cascabel (Crotalus durissus terrificus) -- Martori, R.; L. J. Ávila. Partenogénesis en el género Teius (Sauria: Teiidae) - Novedades Zoogeográficas -- Filipello, A. M.; D. D. Echeverría. Acerca de la presencia de Leptodactylus latinasus anceps Gallardo 1964 (Anura: Leptodac...

  11. Herpetofauna de la estrella fluvial de Inírida (ríos Inírida, Guaviare, Atabapo y Orinoco), Orinoquia colombiana lista preliminar de especies

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-Betancourt, Mónica A.; Lasso, Carlos A.; Renjifo, Juan Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Con base en una evaluación rápida de campo realizada durante la estación seca (febrero 2008) en la Estrella Fluvial de Inírida (confluencia de los ríos Guaviare, Inírida, Atabapo y Orinoco), revisión de los decomisos faunísticos de las corporaciones regionales y análisis bibliográfico, se consolida un listado herpetológico preliminar. Fueron identificadas 62 especies, 31 para la clase Amphibia y 31 para Reptilia. La clase Amphibia está representada por el orden Anura y seis familias, siendo H...

  12. Nueva especie de rana (atelopus) de los farallones de cali, cordillera occidental de colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Kattan, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Durante la realización de colecciones herpetológicas en el Departamento del Valle del Cauca, fue encontrada una especie no descrita de Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae) en los farallones de Cali, a 2600 m de altura. Esta es la primera especie en este género que se encuentra a elevaciones superiores a 2000 m en la Cordillera Occidental. Se conocen varias especies de Atelopus en las Cordilleras Central y Oriental de Colombia y en los Andes ecuatorianos (COCHRAN y GOIN 1970; PETERS 1973; RIVERO 1963) ...

  13. The authorships and dates of the specific nomina Megophrys shuichengensis and Pseudohynobius shuichengensis (Amphibia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Annemarie; Frétey, Thierry; Dubois, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Two amphibian species from China are designated by the specific nomen shuichengensis, which refers to the Shuicheng County (26°34'N, 104°51'E), south of the city of Liupanshui in the province of Guizhou: Megophrys shuichengensis (Amphibia, Anura) and Pseudohynobius shuichengensis (Amphibia, Urodela). The holotypes (holophoronts) of both species were deposited in Department of Biology of the Liupanshui Teachers Higher College (LTHC below). Both species share the particularity of having been described as new twice, at different dates, in different journals and with different authorships. Although this has been acknowledged for the salamander, it has not yet been so for the frog. PMID:26249416

  14. Preliminary list of anuran larvae in ponds and temporary pools of tropical savanna in times high rainfall season, Yopal, Casanare

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia P. Camacho-Rozo; Jairo A. Camacho-Reyes

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary report of tadpoles of anura, on the 144 lot in the two semipermanent tropical ponds and four rain temporally pond, in flooded savanna and overflow in the high plains of the municipality of Yopal-Casanare municipality, department of Casanare (05° 21' 31''N 072º 13' 16''W, 214 msnm). This collect was in temporally high rain (may, june and july) of 2008. The fauna consisted of five family of frogs reported with ten genus and thirteen species. The Hylidae family, preset seven specie...

  15. Rana Dorada: un caminante hacia la extinción (artículo de opinión)

    OpenAIRE

    Nury Natalia Garzón-Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    La extinción animal es un asunto muy amplio que a muchos interesa, algunos ignoran y otros desconocen, este es el tema a tratar en el presente artículo, tomando como ejemplo la rana dardo dorada (Phyllobates terribilis), un hermoso anfibio endémico de Colombia, denominado como el animal más venenoso y como una de las siete maravillas del mundo entre las especies amenazadas de extinción. Perteneciente al Reino ANIMALIA, al fillum de los Cordados, orden Anura y familia Dendrobatidae. En el Géne...

  16. [Quantitative evaluation of the genetic divergence of amphibian taxa of different rank by the spectra of total proteins and nonspecific esterases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshov, K I; Truveller, K A

    2007-01-01

    Based on the PAAG disc-electrophoretic spectra of water-soluble total proteins (Pr) and non-specific esterases (Est) from several types of tissues in representatives of Urodela (Triturus vulgaris vulgaris, T. v. lantzi, T. cristatus, T. montandoni, T. dobrogicus) and Anura amphibians (Rana ridibunda, R. lessonae, R. temporaria, R. arvalis; Bufo bufo, B. viridis, Bombina bombina; Xenopus laevis, X. borealis; Hymenochirus boettgeri), mean genetic distances (D = -ln[2i/(2i + d)], where i is the number of fractions identical and d is the number of fractions different by Rf-bands, were estimated within and between taxa of intra-, inter-, and superspecific ranks. The most stable estimates were obtained for Pr and Est spectra of skeletal muscles and eyes. In most cases, the spectra of tissues of the digestive system gave higher D values than those of the other organs. The levels of intraspecific differentiation by D (both Pr and Est) were higher in the studied representatives of the order Urodela, probably due to their lower migration ability and more conservative choice of water-bodies for spawning than in the representatives of the other order; the same trend is true for the interspecific differentiation by Pr spectra. Est, on the contrary, gave lighter interspecific differentiation level in Anura than in Urodela, evidently due to the prevalence of sympatric species pairs able to hybridize among the studied representatives of the latter order. PMID:17484154

  17. Predação oportunista de Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae por marsupiais e anuro na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil Opportunistic predation of Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae by marsupials and anuran in the APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isai Jorge de Castro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudos com morcegos em floresta de várzea na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil, observamos três casos de predações oportunistas de morcegos frugívoros capturados em redes de neblina. Duas destas predações ocorreram por marsupiais e uma por anuro. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. A vocalização dos morcegos provavelmente atraiu os marsupiais para a rede, onde estes os predaram aproveitando que estavam presos. Este tipo de interação pode ocorrer naturalmente, no entanto, com maior dificuldade de registro.We observed three occasional predations of bats captured in mist nets by marsupials and a frog during studies in a várzea forest in the Amapá state. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed upon by Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed on by Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. The bats vocalizations probably attracted the marsupials and a frog to the mist nets where they preyed. This interaction form can occur naturally, however, are more difficult to observed.

  18. МАТЕРИАЛЫ К ГЕЛЬМИНТОФАУНЕ ЗЕЛЕНОЙ ЖАБЫ B UFO VIRIDIS LAURENTI, 1768 (AMPHIBIA: ANURA) В САМАРСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ

    OpenAIRE

    Чихляев, И.

    2014-01-01

    Представлены данные о гельминтофауне зеленой жабы Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768 на территории Самарской области. Всего обнаружено 14 видов гельминтов из 5 классов: Monogenea (1), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (6), Nematoda (5) и Acanthocephala (1). Типичными паразитами с высокой степенью инвазии являются геонематоды Cosmocerca commutata (Diesing, 1851), Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Goeze, 1782) и Rhabdias bufonis (Schrank, 1788). Моногенеи, цестоды, трематоды и скребни относятся к числу редких паразитов ...

  19. Contributions to the knowledge of amphibians and reptiles from Volta Grande do Xingu, northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Silva, W; Oliveira, R M; Gonzaga, A F N; Pinto, K C; Poli, F C; Bilce, T M; Penhacek, M; Wronski, L; Martins, J X; Junqueira, T G; Cesca, L C C; Guimarães, V Y; Pinheiro, R D

    2015-08-01

    The region of Volta Grande do Xingu River, in the state of Pará, presents several kinds of land use ranging from extensive cattle farming to agroforestry, and deforestation. Currently, the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Power Plant affects the region. We present a checklist of amphibians and reptiles of the region and discuss information regarding the spatial distribution of the assemblies based on results of Environmental Programmes conducted in the area. We listed 109 amphibian (Anura, Caudata, and Gymnophiona) and 150 reptile (Squamata, Testudines, and Crocodylia) species. The regional species richness is still considered underestimated, considering the taxonomic uncertainty, complexity and cryptic diversity of various species, as observed in other regions of the Amazon biome. Efforts for scientific collection and studies related to integrative taxonomy are needed to elucidate uncertainties and increase levels of knowledge of the local diversity. PMID:26691094

  20. The vertebrate fauna from the stipite layers of the Grands Causses (Middle Jurassic, France

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    Fabien eKnoll

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The stipites are Bathonian (Middle Jurassic coals that formed in an everglades-like environment and are now exposed in the Grands Causses (southern France. The vertebrate assemblage of the stipites and of the transitional layers to the carbonates in which they are interspersed are reviewed. To date, only small-sized and isolated vertebrate bones, teeth, and scales have been recovered. These record the presence of sharks (Hybodus, Asteracanthus, bony fishes (Lepidotes, Pycnodontiformes, Caturus, Aspidorhynchus, amphibians (Anura, Albanerpetontidae, and reptiles (Crocodylomorpha, Ornithischia, Theropoda. Despite its relatively limited taxonomic diversity, the vertebrate assemblage from the stipites and from their associated layers is notable for being one of the few of this age with both terrestrial and marine influences. Compared to other approximately coeval formations in Western Europe, the stipites vertebrate assemblage is surpassed in diversity only by those from the British Isles.

  1. Amphibians of the Simbruini Mountains (Latium, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Crucitti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Little attention has been paid to the herpetological fauna of the Simbruini Mountains Regional Park, Latium (Central Italy. In this study, we surveyed 50 sites in the course of about ten years of field research, especially during the period 2005-2008. Nine amphibian species, four Caudata and five Anura, 60.0% out of the 15 amphibian species so far observed in Latium, were discovered in the protected area: Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina perspicillata, Lissotriton vulgaris, Triturus carnifex, Bombina pachypus, Bufo balearicus, Bufo bufo, Rana dalmatina, Rana italica. Physiography of sites has been detailed together with potential threatening patterns. For each species the following topics have been discussed; ecology of sites, altitudinal distribution, phenology, sintopy. Salamandra salamandra and Bombina pachypus are at higher risk. The importance of the maintenance of artificial/natural water bodies for the conservation management of amphibian population of this territory is discussed.

  2. Light-dependent magnetic compass in Iberian green frog tadpoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego-Rasilla, Francisco Javier; Luengo, Rosa Milagros; Phillips, John B.

    2010-12-01

    Here, we provide evidence for a wavelength-dependent effect of light on magnetic compass orientation in Pelophylax perezi (order Anura), similar to that observed in Rana catesbeiana (order Anura) and Notophthalmus viridescens (order Urodela), and confirm for the first time in an anuran amphibian that a 90° shift in the direction of magnetic compass orientation under long-wavelength light (≥500 nm) is due to a direct effect of light on the underlying magnetoreception mechanism. Although magnetic compass orientation in other animals (e.g., birds and some insects) has been shown to be influenced by the wavelength and/or intensity of light, these two amphibian orders are the only taxa for which there is direct evidence that the magnetic compass is light-dependent. The remarkable similarities in the light-dependent magnetic compasses of anurans and urodeles, which have evolved as separate clades for at least 250 million years, suggest that the light-dependent magnetoreception mechanism is likely to have evolved in the common ancestor of the Lissamphibia (Early Permian, ~294 million years) and, possibly, much earlier. Also, we discuss a number of similarities between the functional properties of the light-dependent magnetic compass in amphibians and blue light-dependent responses to magnetic stimuli in Drosophila melanogaster, which suggest that the wavelength-dependent 90° shift in amphibians may be due to light activation of different redox forms of a cryptochrome photopigment. Finally, we relate these findings to earlier studies showing that the pineal organ of newts is the site of the light-dependent magnetic compass and recent neurophysiological evidence showing magnetic field sensitivity in the frog frontal organ (an outgrowth of the pineal).

  3. ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПОЛИМОРФИЗМА ПО ПРИЗНАКУ STRIATA В ПОПУЛЯЦИЯХ ОЗЕРНОЙ ЛЯГУШКИ R ANA RIDIBUNDA PALLAS, 1771 (ANURA, AMPHIBIA) РЕСПУБЛИКИ БАШКОРТОСТАН

    OpenAIRE

    Файзулин, Александр; Зарипова, Фалия; Хусаинова, Ильнара

    2013-01-01

    В 2006 – 2012 гг. исследован полиморфизм по признаку striata популяций озерной лягушки ( Rana ridibunda Pallas, 1771) на территории Республики Башкортостан для районов со средним – Предуралье и высоким – Зауралье природным фоновым содержанием тяжелых металлов в среде (меди, цинка, кадмия). Установлено, что в условиях техногенного загрязнения особи с признаком striata отличаются меньшим накоплением тяжелых металлов в Предуралье – меди в 1,9, кадмия в 1,4, цинка в 1,2 раза; для Зауралья – кадми...

  4. Malnutrition in farm-cultured bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana fed on bovine milled lung in Argentina

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    J A Coppo, N B Mussart

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The true nutritional requirements of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana, Anura: Ranidae are still controversial. In Argentine hatcheries, bullfrogs are fed on commercial balanced diets elaborated for fish; high price of balanced food decreases the relationship cost / benefit. This study had the objective to verify the nutritious effectiveness of bovine lung, by means of liveweight gains and metabolic and nutritional biochemical indicators controls. Eighty frogs were randomly divided into experimental (E and control (C groups of 40 animals each. Controls consumed a fish commercial balanced diet (23% protein in dry matter, DM, while those in group E were fed on bovine milled lung (16% protein, DM. Food was administered at a rate of 5% of liveweight/day (DM for both groups. The weighings and collection of samples were made on days 0 and 120. One frog of group C and 8 frogs of group E died during the study. Control animals did not register physical abnormalities. On the other hand, emaciation, adynamia, weakness, anorexy, and skin abnormal coloration were verified in some amphibians of group E. At the end of the study, liveweight and albumin, creatinine, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, phosphorous and magnesium serum values, were significantly lower in group E than in group C (p < 0.05. This changes are attributed to metabolic imbalances related to malnutrition and reveal that bovine lung is not an appropriate food for captive bullfrog.

  5. Caracterización espeleológica e inventario biológico de la Caverna del Diablo en el municipio de Becerril, Departamento del Cesar, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Vides-Navarro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to characterize the most important aspects of the Devil´s cave, including biophysical, geological, speleological and morphological components. Methods: A descriptive research from observations in situ, specific technical work of topography, geology, speleology and biology, along with study of related literature has been conducted. Results: The methods used allowed us to learn about the natural richness inside the cave, with outstanding karst landforms (speleothems, presence of fish, crustaceans and other organisms that might be endemic. The information obtained indicates that the origin of the cavity is due to fluvial erosion processes and forced circulation of streams, evidenced in its shaped rosary surface on the interior walls of the structure. Landforms are mostly at the entrance of the cavity in varieties like Stalactites, Castings, Sandsicles and Gours. The biophysical component is the most distinctive aspect of the cave, consisting in a good dynamic of ventilation, permanent presence of water, high humidity and variety of wildlife, including taxa as Chiroptera, Araneae, Anura, Lepidoptera, Blattodea stand, Rodents, Oligochaeta, Dermaptera, siluriform and Decapods. Conclusions: Lithologically, the cavity is framed in limestone rocks rich in organic matter with variation in surface color belonging to the La Luna Formation, the low humidity of the cavity at its entrance and high carbonate content favored the formation of large numbers of speleothems. The inside observations and studies on the water stream showed that biophysical conditions of this place are suitable to house a rich diversity of wildlife.

  6. Myxozoan infections of caecilians demonstrate broad host specificity and indicate a link with human activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Ashlie; Wilkinson, Mark; Gower, David J; Streicher, Jeffrey W; Holzer, Astrid S; Okamura, Beth

    2016-05-01

    Myxozoans are parasitic cnidarians that infect a wide variety of hosts. Vertebrates typically serve as intermediate hosts whereas definitive hosts are invertebrates, including annelids and bryozoans. Myxozoans are known to exploit species in two of the three extant amphibian orders (Anura: frogs and toads; Caudata: newts and salamanders). Here we use museum collections to determine, to our knowledge for the first time, whether myxozoans also exploit the third amphibian order (Gymnophiona: caecilians). Caecilians are a poorly known group of limbless amphibians, the ecologies of which range from aquatic to fully terrestrial. We examined 12 caecilian species in seven families (148 individuals total) characterised by a diversity of ecologies and life histories. Using morphological and molecular surveys, we discovered the presence of the myxozoan Cystodiscus axonis in two South American species (one of seven examined families) of aquatic caecilians - Typhlonectes natans and Typhlonectes compressicauda. All infected caecilians had been maintained in captivity in the United Kingdom prior to their preservation. Cystodiscus axonis is known from several Australian frog species and its presence in caecilians indicates a capacity for infecting highly divergent amphibian hosts. This first known report of myxozoan infections in caecilians provides evidence of a broad geographic and host range. However, the source of these infections remains unknown and could be related to exposure in South America, the U.K. or to conditions in captivity. PMID:26945641

  7. Thin film scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Warren; McKinney, George; Tzolov, Marian

    2015-03-01

    Scintillating materials convert energy flux (particles or electromagnetic waves) into light with spectral characteristic matching a subsequent light detector. Commercial scintillators such as yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) and yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) are commonly used. These are inefficient at lower energies due to the conductive coating present on their top surface, which is needed to avoid charging. We hypothesize that nano-structured thin film scintillators will outperform the commercial scintillators at low electron energies. We have developed alternative thin film scintillators, zinc tungstate and zinc oxide, which show promise for higher sensitivity to lower energy electrons since they are inherently conductive. Zinc tungstate films exhibit photoluminescence quantum efficiency of 74%. Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy was applied in transmission and reflection geometries. The comparison between the thin films and the YAG and YAP commercial scintillators shows much higher light output from the zinc tungstate and zinc oxide at electron energies less than 5 keV. Our films were integrated in a backscattered electron detector. This detector delivers better images than an identical detector with commercial YAG scintillator at low electron energies. Dr. Nicholas Barbi from PulseTor LLC, Dr. Anura Goonewardene, NSF Grants: #0806660, #1058829, #0923047.

  8. Extinction Resilience of Island Species: An Amphibian Case and a Predictive Model

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    Cristian R. Altaba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme overall divergence and high extinction rates are typical of insular endemics. Thus, detecting and understanding nativeness is critical on islands. Resilience to extinction is explored through a mechanistic approach focusing on midwife toads (Anura: Alytidae: Alytinae, an ancient lineage that includes continental and insular species. All alytines need urgent conservation action, including control of emerging diseases and spatially explicit reserve design aimed at ensuring ecosystem health and connectivity. The only extant insular alytine is additionally affected by an introduced continental predator. This alien species acts as a driver of the prey’s near-extinction and has not elicited any evolutionary response. Both IUCN criteria and EDGE scores show that alytines are top conservation priorities. However, there is a need for also considering phenotypic and ecological uniqueness in the assessment of conservation status and urgency. The reason is that phenotypes render ecosystems functional and insular ones uniquely so. In contrast, phylogenetic relatedness is just a constraint upon, not a motor of, evolutionary novelty. Insular species are indeed particularly susceptible, but can be similarly endangered as continental ones. This paradox may be solved by recognizing the insularity syndrome in any isolated or nearly-insular ecosystem, as a function of evolutionary and dispersal potentials. This predictive model may be useful for island biogeography, invasion biology and conservation planning.

  9. Environmental influences on egg and clutch sizes in lentic- and lotic-breeding salamanders

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    Jon M. Davenport

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that social and environmental factors influence egg and clutch sizes in amphibians. However, most of this work is based on the reproductively diverse order Anura (frogs and toads, whereas less research has been conducted on Caudata (salamanders and Gymnophiona (caecilians. Researchers have suggested that a relationship exists between social and environmental factors and egg and clutch sizes in salamanders, but studies controlling for phylogenetic context are lacking. We could not identify a sufficient number of comparisons for social influences on egg and clutch sizes; therefore, we focused on environmental influences for this study. Data on egg size, clutch size, environmental factors, and phylogenies for salamanders were assembled from the scientific literature. We used independent, pair-wise comparisons to investigate the association of larval salamander habitat and egg size and the association of larval salamander habitat with clutch sizes within a phylogenetic framework. There is a significant association between larval habitat and egg size; specifically, stream-breeding species produce larger eggs. There is no significant association between larval habitat and clutchsize. Our study confirms earlier reports that salamander egg size is associated with larval environments, but is the first to use phylogenetically independent contrasts to account for the lack of phylogenetic independence of the traits measured (egg size and clutch size associated with many of the diverse lineages. Our study shows that environmental selection pressure can be quite strong on one aspect of salamander reproduction—egg size.

  10. [On a contribution of Boris Balinsky to the comparative and ecological embryology of amphibians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnitskiĭ, A G

    2014-01-01

    The outstanding embryologist Boris Ivanovich Balinsky (1905-1997) worked in the Soviet Union up to 1941 and in South Africa since 1949. His experimental studies fulfilled during the Soviet period of his scientific career mainly on the embryos of the caudate amphibians are widely known. After moving to Africa (Johannesburg), he continued the research of amphibian development, with using those possibilities, which were offered by the diverse fauna of local Anura. Other embryologists started complex studies of tropical frog ontogenies (mainly from South and Central America) 30-40 years later than Balinsky. Unfortunately, his pioneering works on numerous African species are poorly known (with the exceptions of the description of the development of endodermal derivatives in Xenopus laevis and the analysis of limb induction in the toad genus Amietophrynus). In this paper, the works of Balinsky are analyzed (with the emphasis on comparative and ecological aspects) and his priority in using of "nonmodel" tropical and subtropical anurans in embryological studies has been shown. PMID:25720271

  11. Исследование локализации инсулин-, глюкагон-, соматостатин-позитивных клеток островков Лангерганса в различные периоды годового цикла бесхвостых земноводных (Anura)

    OpenAIRE

    Савельева, Е.

    2013-01-01

    Проведено иммуногистохимическое исследование локализации типов эндокринных клеток (инсулин-, глюкагони соматостатин-продуцирующих) в островках Лангерганса у амфибий в различных периодах годового жизненного цикла. Работа выполнена на поджелудочных железах следующих видов амфибий: пипа суринамская (Pipa Pipa L. 1758), травяная лягушка (Rana temporaria, L. 1758) и озерная лягушка (Rana ridibunda, Pallas 1771). Выявлено, что соотношение количества различных типов эндокринных клеток не одинаково в...

  12. The creation of voxel phantoms for the purpose of environmental dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, E.; Higley, K. [Oregon State University (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Basic geometric shapes have long been used as the standard for calculating radiation dose rates in non-human biota (NHB). Regulation standards have seen a shift recently, towards protection of NHB as its own endpoint. As such, there has been a growing interest in improving the calculations for NHB dose rates. To address calls for additional data, the development of voxelized models for the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) twelve reference animal and plants (RAP) has been undertaken. Voxel models of a crab (Metacarcinus magister), flatfish (Pleuronectiformes), trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), worm (Lumbricina), honey bee (Apis), frog (Anura), and rat, (Rattus) have been created to date. The purpose of this submission is to describe the processes of creating these voxel phantoms from radiological imaging data (i.e., Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), etc.). CT/MRI images of the organism are obtained and uploaded into a software package capable of segmenting the images (3D Doctor was used for the crab, flatfish, trout, worm, and honey bee). On each image slice, individual organs and other relevant anatomical features (e.g. bones or other structural tissues) are identified and segmented. Once segmentation is complete, a boundary file that describes the positioning of the organs and tissues in lattice geometry format is exported into software called Voxelizer, created by the Human Monitoring Laboratory of Canada. This software writes the boundary file geometry into an input file for Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) based simulations. The user can then add appropriate materials, densities, and a desired source term. These simulations yield absorbed fraction (AF) values that are used in subsequent dose calculations with environmental concentration data. AFs are now available for the crab, flatfish, trout, worm, and honey bee at twelve photon and nine electron energies, consistent with ICRP AFs for human dosimetry

  13. Convergent Substitutions in a Sodium Channel Suggest Multiple Origins of Toxin Resistance in Poison Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvin, Rebecca D; Santos, Juan C; O'Connell, Lauren A; Zakon, Harold H; Cannatella, David C

    2016-04-01

    Complex phenotypes typically have a correspondingly multifaceted genetic component. However, the genotype-phenotype association between chemical defense and resistance is often simple: genetic changes in the binding site of a toxin alter how it affects its target. Some toxic organisms, such as poison frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae), have defensive alkaloids that disrupt the function of ion channels, proteins that are crucial for nerve and muscle activity. Using protein-docking models, we predict that three major classes of poison frog alkaloids (histrionicotoxins, pumiliotoxins, and batrachotoxins) bind to similar sites in the highly conserved inner pore of the muscle voltage-gated sodium channel, Nav1.4. We predict that poison frogs are somewhat resistant to these compounds because they have six types of amino acid replacements in the Nav1.4 inner pore that are absent in all other frogs except for a distantly related alkaloid-defended frog from Madagascar, Mantella aurantiaca. Protein-docking models and comparative phylogenetics support the role of these replacements in alkaloid resistance. Taking into account the four independent origins of chemical defense in Dendrobatidae, phylogenetic patterns of the amino acid replacements suggest that 1) alkaloid resistance in Nav1.4 evolved independently at least seven times in these frogs, 2) variation in resistance-conferring replacements is likely a result of differences in alkaloid exposure across species, and 3) functional constraint shapes the evolution of the Nav1.4 inner pore. Our study is the first to demonstrate the genetic basis of autoresistance in frogs with alkaloid defenses. PMID:26782998

  14. Non-invasive reproductive and stress endocrinology in amphibian conservation physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, E J

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive endocrinology utilizes non-invasive biological samples (such as faeces, urine, hair, aquatic media, and saliva) for the quantification of hormones in wildlife. Urinary-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and radio-immunoassay have enabled the rapid quantification of reproductive and stress hormones in amphibians (Anura: Amphibia). With minimal disturbance, these methods can be used to assess the ovarian and testicular endocrine functions as well as physiological stress in captive and free-living populations. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring has therefore greatly advanced our knowledge of the functioning of the stress endocrine system (the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal axis) and the reproductive endocrine system (the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis) in the amphibian physiological stress response, reproductive ecology, health and welfare, and survival. Biological (physiological) validation is necessary for obtaining the excretory lag time of hormone metabolites. Urinary-based EIA for the major reproductive hormones, estradiol and progesterone in females and testosterone in males, can be used to track the reproductive hormone profiles in relationship to reproductive behaviour and environmental data in free-living anurans. Urinary-based corticosterone metabolite EIA can be used to assess the sublethal impacts of biological stressors (such as invasive species and pathogenic diseases) as well as anthropogenic induced environmental stressors (e.g. extreme temperatures) on free-living populations. Non-invasive endocrine methods can also assist in the diagnosis of success or failure of captive breeding programmes by measuring the longitudinal patterns of changes in reproductive hormones and corticosterone within captive anurans and comparing the endocrine profiles with health records and reproductive behaviour. This review paper focuses on the reproductive and the stress endocrinology of anurans and demonstrates the uses of non-invasive endocrinology for

  15. New species of Cryptosporidium Tyzzer, 1907 (Apicomplexa) from amphibian host: morphology, biology and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirků, Miloslav; Valigurová, Andrea; Koudela, Bretislav; Krízek, Jaroslav; Modrý, David; Slapeta, Jan

    2008-06-01

    Cryptosporidium fragile sp. n. (Apicomplexa) is described from black-spined toads, Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider) (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae) from the Malay Peninsula. The parasitized animals were directly imported from Malaysia and harboured C. fragile at the time of arrival. Oocysts were subspherical to elliptical with irregular contour in optical section, measuring 6.2 (5.5-7.0) x 5.5 (5.0-6.5) microm. Oocyst wall was smooth and colourless in light microscopy. The endogenous development of C. fragile in the stomach of black-spined toad was analysed in detail using light and electron microscopy. Cryptosporidian developmental stages were confined to the surface of gastric epithelial cells. In transmission experiments, C. fragile has not been infective for one fish species, four amphibian species, one species of reptile and SCID mice. Full length small subunit rRNA gene sequence was obtained. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed distinct status of C. fragile within the clade of species with gastric localisation including Cryptosporidium muris Tyzzer, 1907, Cryptosporidium serpentis Levine, 1980 and Cryptosporidium andersoni Lindsay, Upton, Owens, Morgan, Mead et Blagburn, 2000. Described characteristics differentiate C. fragile from the currently recognized Cryptosporidium species. Our experience with the description of C. fragile has led us to revise the recommended criteria for an introduction of a new Cryptosporidium species name. C. fragile is the first species described and named from an amphibian host. Its prevalence of 83% (15/18) in black-spined toads within the 3 months after importation calls for strict quarantine measures and import regulation for lower vertebrates. PMID:18666410

  16. Hormonal induction of spawning in 4 species of frogs by coinjection with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and a dopamine antagonist

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    Wignall Jacqui

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that many anurans do not reproduce easily in captivity. Some methods are based on administration of mammalian hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin, which are not effective in many frogs. There is a need for simple, cost-effective alternative techniques to induce spawning. Methods Our new method is based on the injection of a combination of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist and a dopamine antagonist. We have named this formulation AMPHIPLEX, which is derived from the combination of the words amphibian and amplexus. This name refers to the specific reproductive behavior of frogs when the male mounts and clasps the female to induce ovulation and to fertilize the eggs as they are laid. Results We describe the use of the method and demonstrate its applicability for captive breeding in 3 different anuran families. We tested several combinations of GnRH agonists with dopamine antagonists using Lithobates pipiens. The combination of des-Gly10, D-Ala6, Pro-LHRH (0.4 microrams/g body weight and metoclopramide (10 micrograms/g BWt. MET was most effective. It was used in-season, after short-term captivity and in frogs artificially hibernated under laboratory conditions. The AMPHIPLEX method was also effective in 3 Argentinian frogs, Ceratophrys ornata, Ceratophrys cranwelli and Odontophrynus americanus. Conclusion Our approach offers some advantages over other hormonally-based techniques. Both sexes are injected only once and at the same time, reducing handling stress. AMPHIPLEX is a new reproductive management tool for captive breeding in Anura.

  17. The creation of voxel phantoms for the purpose of environmental dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic geometric shapes have long been used as the standard for calculating radiation dose rates in non-human biota (NHB). Regulation standards have seen a shift recently, towards protection of NHB as its own endpoint. As such, there has been a growing interest in improving the calculations for NHB dose rates. To address calls for additional data, the development of voxelized models for the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) twelve reference animal and plants (RAP) has been undertaken. Voxel models of a crab (Metacarcinus magister), flatfish (Pleuronectiformes), trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), worm (Lumbricina), honey bee (Apis), frog (Anura), and rat, (Rattus) have been created to date. The purpose of this submission is to describe the processes of creating these voxel phantoms from radiological imaging data (i.e., Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), etc.). CT/MRI images of the organism are obtained and uploaded into a software package capable of segmenting the images (3D Doctor was used for the crab, flatfish, trout, worm, and honey bee). On each image slice, individual organs and other relevant anatomical features (e.g. bones or other structural tissues) are identified and segmented. Once segmentation is complete, a boundary file that describes the positioning of the organs and tissues in lattice geometry format is exported into software called Voxelizer, created by the Human Monitoring Laboratory of Canada. This software writes the boundary file geometry into an input file for Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) based simulations. The user can then add appropriate materials, densities, and a desired source term. These simulations yield absorbed fraction (AF) values that are used in subsequent dose calculations with environmental concentration data. AFs are now available for the crab, flatfish, trout, worm, and honey bee at twelve photon and nine electron energies, consistent with ICRP AFs for human dosimetry. Document

  18. Estudio de la anurofauna del municipio de Ibagué

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    Páez C. A.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Colombia es considerada, en el mundo, el país más rico en especies de anfibios (Lynch, 1998. De las 4.300 especies registradas en el planeta, Colombia presenta 583 (Ruiz et al., 1996. Esto refleja la gran riqueza que el país tiene respecto a la diversidad  no sólo de anfibios, sino también de otros grupos de animales y plantas. Entre los anfibios el mayor número de especies se encuentra en el orden Anura, los comúnmente conocidos como ranas y sapos, le sigue el orden Urodela (salamandras y por ultimo esta el Apoda (cecilias. En Colombia se han reportado 540 especies de anuros, pertenecientes a 56 géneros y 9 familias (Ruiz et 01., 1996. Por otra parte, entre las regiones de Colombia con mayor aporte a la diversidad de anuros esta la Cordillera Central. Estimulados por esta riqueza de anuros y dada las amplias zonas del país aún desconocidas a nivel de inventarios, entre ellas el municipio de Ibagué, el cual por su posición geográfica en la Cordillera Central y por su variedad de niveles altitudinales, ecosistemas y el hábitat para el albergue de los anuros, se llevó a cabo el presente estudio, con el propósito de reconocer el aporte de este municipio a la diversidad descrita con respecto a la Cordillera Central ya Colombia.

  19. Effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia) at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides based on the active ingredient glyphosate are frequently applied in agriculture, horticulture and private gardens all over the world. Recently, leaching of glyphosate or its metabolite (AMPA) into water bodies inhabited by amphibians has been reported. However, very little is known about non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians and even less is known to what extent different temperatures might alter these effects. Using climate chambers, we investigated the effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup PowerFlex® (480 g L-1 glyphosate, formulated as 588 g L-1 potassium salt) on the larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia: Anura) under different temperature regimes (15°C vs. 20°C). We established five herbicide concentrations: 0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent L-1 and a 4 mg a.e. L-1 pulse treatment (totally three applications of 1.5, 1.5 and another 1 mg a.e. L-1) at each temperature in a full-factorial design. Each treatment combination was replicated five times, the experiment ran for 24 days. Results showed a highly significant effect of temperature on body length and body width but no effect of herbicide concentration on these growth parameters. Moreover, highly significant interactions between herbicide and temperature on body length and body width were observed suggesting that herbicides had different effects on different temperatures. In conclusion, although Roundup PowerFlex® at the tested concentrations appeared to have no acute toxicity to larvae of Common toads, the observed effects on tadpole morphology will potentially affect competitive interactions in spawning ponds of amphibia. Our findings of herbicide x temperature interactions might become more prevalent when human-induced climate change will lead to more extreme temperatures.

  20. Thal and technologies for fodder production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climate of the study area is arid and semi-arid subtropical, characterized by high summer- temperature (1200 F) with hot dry winds, frequent dust-storms and torrential and erratic rains. Winter is mild, with cold nights having temperature 320 F. The fodder tree species in arid and semi-arid regions are a valuable resource of feeding livestock in these regions during the lean periods of both winter and summer seasons. Fodder trees are properly looked after, not only for their usefulness for fuel and furniture, etc., but good environment would improve the quality of life, along with manifold higher fodder- production for animals. Fodder trees should be lopped only when they are about two to three meters in height and branches more than 7.5 cm thick should not be lopped. Lopping of the whole tree, as usually practiced, is injurious to trees and affects their vigor. Lopping cycle should be such that we get new leaves at the desired time of the year. It is recommended that; (i) proven grass-species, like Cenchrus ciliaris, Lasiurus sindicus, Pennisetum orientale and Panicum antidotale, be introduced in Thai, (ii) the improved varieties of some fodder-crops like oats, berseem, lucerne, sorghum sudan grass hybrid and mott grass being multicut (would cover the scarcity periods) can be introduced in the irrigated areas and (iii) the trees and shrub-species, such as Acacia tortilis, Zizyphus nummularia, Acacia anura, Prosopis cineraria, Acacia nilotica, Tacomella undulate, Zizyphus mauritiana, Calligonum polygonoides, Tamarax aphylla and Albizia lebbeck, can be propagated and promoted in Thai desert. (author)

  1. Postglacial colonization of the Qinling Mountains: phylogeography of the swelled vent frog (Feirana quadranus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations on intraspecific diversification in the Qinling-Daba Mountains of East Asia remains poorly investigated. We tested hypotheses concerning refugia during the last glacial maximum (LGM in this region by examining the phylogeography of the swelled vent frog (Feirana quadranus; Dicroglossidae, Anura, Amphibia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained complete mitochondrial ND2 gene sequences of 224 individuals from 34 populations of Feirana quadranus for phylogeographic analyses. Additionally, we obtained nuclear tyrosinase gene sequences of 68 F. quadranus, one F. kangxianensis and three F. taihangnica samples to test for mitochondrial introgression among them. Phylogenetic analyses based on all genes revealed no introgression among them. Phylogenetic analyses based on ND2 datasets revealed that F. quadranus was comprised of six lineages which were separated by deep valleys; the sole exception is that the Main Qinling and Micang-Western Qinling lineages overlap in distribution. Analyses of population structure indicated restricted gene flow among lineages. Coalescent simulations and divergence dating indicated that the basal diversification within F. quadranus may be associated with the dramatic uplifts of the Tibetan Plateau during the Pliocene. Coalescent simulations indicated that Wuling, Daba, and Western Qinling-Micang-Longmen Mountains were refugia for F. quadranus during the LGM. Demographic analyses indicated that the Daba lineage experienced population size increase prior to the LGM but the Main Qinling and the Micang-Western Qinling lineages expanded in population size and range after the LGM, and the other lineages almost have stable population size or slight slow population size decline. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Qinling-Daba Mountains hosted three refugia for F. quadranus during the LGM. Populations that originated in the Daba Mountains colonized the Main Qinling

  2. Rana Dorada: un caminante hacia la extinción (artículo de opinión

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    Nury Natalia Garzón-Aguiar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La extinción animal es un asunto muy amplio que a muchos interesa, algunos ignoran y otros desconocen, este es el tema a tratar en el presente artículo, tomando como ejemplo la rana dardo dorada (Phyllobates terribilis, un hermoso anfibio endémico de Colombia, denominado como el animal más venenoso y como una de las siete maravillas del mundo entre las especies amenazadas de extinción. Perteneciente al Reino ANIMALIA, al fillum de los Cordados, orden Anura y familia Dendrobatidae. En el Género Phyllobates se encuentra la especie P. terribilis, la cual, puede alcanzar un tamaño de hasta 47 mm en edad adulta y presentar distintas tonalidades de coloración. En Colombia, D. terribilis habita en la Costa Caribe así como en selvas húmedas, lugares con altos índices de explotación de los recursos naturales mediante la tala y la extracción minera, motivo por el cual está en vía de extinción. En este orden de ideas, el propósito principal es dar a conocer la importancia de atesorar los bosques y contribuir así a la conservación de las diversas especies, principalmente de la clase AMPHIBIA, y dentro de esta, el género Phyllobates, que puede representar una solución natural al control de plagas, así como probable remedio a un problema médico actual tan complejo como el dolor.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of Chilean leptodactylids: a molecular approach based on mitochondrial genes 12S and 16S Relaciones filogenéticas de los leptodactílidos chilenos: una aproximación molecular basada en los genes mitocondriales 12S y 16S

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    CLAUDIO CORREA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Most Chilean amphibians belong to the subfamily Telmatobiinae (Anura, Leptodactylidae. Several phylogenetic studies of Leptodactylidae and Telmatobiinae, based principally on morphological characters, have implicitly suggested closer relationships of some species of the Telmatobiinae with members of other subfamilies of leptodactylids, including the leptodactyline genus Pleurodema which is present in Chile. Furthermore, a growing number of molecular studies suggest a non monophyletic status for Telmatobiinae, although none of these studies have investigated the phylogenetic relationships of this subfamily. We compared partial sequences of the ribosomal mitochondrial genes 12S and 16S to determine the phylogenetic relationships of Chilean leptodactylids and its position within the modern anurans (Neobatrachia. We included 22 species from nine of the 10 genera of telmatobiines present in Chile (Alsodes, Atelognathus, Batrachyla, Caudiverbera, Eupsophus, Hylorina, Insuetophrynus, Telmatobufo and Telmatobius, two species of the genus Pleurodema, and one species of Rhinodermatidae, which is considered a leptodactylid derivative family by some authors. We also included 51 species representing most of the families that compose Neobatrachia. Phylogenetic reconstructions were performed using the methods of maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. The topologies obtained in all the analyses indicate that Telmatobiinae is a polyphyletic assemblage, composed by species belonging to Hyloidea (most of the genera and species more related to Australasian taxa (the clade Caudiverbera + Telmatobufo, defined as the tribe Calyptocephalellini. These molecular data support groups based on other kinds of evidence (Caudiverbera + Telmatobufo, Alsodes + Eupsophus and Batrachyla + Hylorina and raise new phylogenetic hypotheses for several genera of telmatobiines (Atelognathus with Batrachyla and Hylorina, Insuetophrynus + Rhinoderma. The phylogenetic

  4. Nomenclatural notes on living and fossil amphibians

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    Martín, C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of extinct and living amphibians known from fossils (Allocaudata, Anura and Caudata has revealed several cases that require nomenclatural changes in order to stabilize the taxonomy of the group. Nomenclatural changes include homonym replacements, corrections of spelling variants and authorships, name availabilities, and in particular, the proposal of new combinations. These changes will allow the incorporation of some palaeontological taxa to the current evolutionary models of relationship of modern forms based on molecular phylogenies. Rana cadurcorum for Rana plicata Filhol, 1877, Rana auscitana for Rana pygmaea Lartet, 1851, and Rana sendoa for Rana robusta Brunner, 1956. Anchylorana Taylor, 1942 is considered a new synonym of Lithobates Fitzinger, 1843. New combinations proposed are: Anaxyrus defensor for Bufo defensor Meylan, 2005; Anaxyrus hibbardi for Bufo hibbardi Taylor, 1937; Anaxyrus pliocompactilis for Bufo pliocompactilis Wilson, 1968; Anaxyrus repentinus for Bufo repentinus Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus rexroadensis for Bufo rexroadensis Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus spongifrons for Bufo spongifrons Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus suspectus for Bufo suspectus Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus tiheni for Bufo tiheni Auffenberg, 1957; Anaxyrus valentinensis for Bufo valentinensis Estes et Tihen, 1964; Ichthyosaura wintershofi for Triturus wintershofi Lunau, 1950; Incilius praevius for Bufo praevius Tihen, 1951; Lithobates bucella for Rana bucella Holman, 1965; Lithobates dubitus for Anchylorana dubita Taylor, 1942; Lithobates fayeae for Rana fayeae Taylor, 1942; Lithobates miocenicus for Rana miocenica Holman, 1965; Lithobates moorei for Anchylorana moorei Taylor, 1942; Lithobates parvissimus for Rana parvissima

  5. Report of a consultants meeting on impact of ageing on human energy, macro- and micronutrient metabolism and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna convened a Consultants' Meeting from 9-13 December, 2002, to provide the Agency with current insights into the application of nuclear and isotopic techniques as a means to support research on the impact of ageing on human energy and macro-nutrient metabolism and requirements. The Consultants were: Dr. Anura Kurpad, Dr. Victoria Lambert, Dr. June Stevens, Dr. Benjamin Torun and Dr. Mauro Valencia-Juillerat. Dr. Pirjo Pietinen, from the World Health Organization, and Dr. Barry Popkin, from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, were present as Observers during the initial part of the Meeting. Given the Consultants' areas of expertise and the topics covered in the discussions, the scope of the Meeting was modified as 'The Application of Nuclear and Isotopic Techniques to improve Research on Body Composition, Energy Expenditure, Non-communicable Chronic Diseases, and the Ageing Process, with particular emphasis on Developing Countries'. The objectives of the Meeting were to: i) Evaluate the overall scope of a new Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) and suggest options for specific areas of research within that scope; ii) Suggest approaches to improve the use of nuclear and isotopic techniques for the evaluation of energy and macro-nutrient requirements of older adults in diverse populations of the developing world; iii) Discuss and make recommendations for the use of these techniques in the measurement of energy expenditure, physical activity, total body fat and body fat distribution; and, iv) Propose a harmonization of methods for direct use or for validation of field measurements aimed at obtaining a better understanding of the ageing process and its relation to the incidence of obesity and non-communicable chronic diseases in communities in transition. This meeting benefited from the broad areas of experience of scientists from both developed and developing countries. Their expertise in the use of