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Sample records for anura

  1. ANURA: RANIDAE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Amphibia of southern Africa. Ann. Natal Mus. 17: 1-334. SCHl0TZ, A. 1967. The treefrogs (Rhacophoridae) of West Africa. Spolia zool. Mus. haun. 25: 1-346. SCIDSTZ, A. 1971. The superspecies Hyperolius viridiflavus (Anura). Vidensk. Meddr. dansk naturh. Foren. 134:21-76. SCIDSTZ, A. 1975. The treefrogs of eastern ...

  2. Generic diversity and distributional dynamics of the Palaeobatrachidae (Amphibia: Anura)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wuttke, M.; Přikryl, Tomáš; Ratnikov, V. Y.; Dvořák, Z.; Roček, Zbyněk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 3 (2012), s. 367-395 ISSN 1867-1594 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Anura * Anura (Europe) * evolution * osteology * Palaeobatrachidae * palaeogeography Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  3. Mesozoic and Tertiary Anura of Laurasia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 4 (2013), s. 397-439 ISSN 1867-1594 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Anura * Laurasia * taxonomic diagnoses * systematic review * stratigraphy * distribution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  4. The sperm of Hylodinae species (Anura, Leptodactylidae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 3. The sperm of Hylodinae species (Anura, Leptodactylidae): Ultrastructural characteristics and their relevance to interspecific taxonomic relationships. O Aguiar-Jr A A Giaretta S M Recco-Pimentel. Articles Volume 31 Issue 3 September 2006 pp 379-388 ...

  5. KEANEKARAGAMAN JENIS KATAK DAN KODOK (ORDO ANURA DI SEPANJANG SUNGAI OPAK PROPINSI DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donan Satria Yudha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anura sering disebut sebagai katak dan kodok (Iskandar, 1998. Penelitian mengenai keanekaragaman anggota Anura di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY telah banyak dilakukan. Penelitian tersebut sebagian besar difokuskan di lereng selatan Gunung Merapi, tetapi beberapa penelitian juga telah dilakukan di sekitar kampus UGM dan di Sungai Code (Eprilurahman, 2007; Eprilurahman & Kusuma, 2011; Yudha, dkk, 2013. Wilayah DIY dialiri oleh banyak sungai, beberapa diantaranya yang banyak dikenal, diurutkan dari barat ke timur adalah Sungai Progo,Sungai Winongo, Sungai Code, Sungai Gajah Wong dan Sungai Opak (Anonim, 2010; Brontowiyono, 2010; Siradz et al., 2008. Sungai Opak merupakan salah satu sungai besar di DIY yang berhulu di Gunung Merapi. Jalur utama Sungai Opak menjadi pertemuan beberapa sungai, hal tersebut dapat diasumsikan bahwa pada beberapa titik pertemuan merupakan area yang subur dan rimbun. Daerah yang rimbun tersebut merupakan habitat yang baik bagi herpetofauna, terutama anggota Anura. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman spesiesAnura. Pengambilan sampel disepanjang Sungai Opak dari hulu hingga hilir menggunakan gabungan beberapa metode, yaitu VES (Visual Encounter Survey, River bank cruising dantransek. Sampling secara umum dibagi tiga bagian, bagian hulu, tengah dan hilir. Hasil yang diperoleh adalah 9 spesies anggota Ordo Anura dengan 2 spesies Anura arboreal, 3 spesies Anura terrestrial dan 4 spesies Anura akuatik dan semi-akuatik. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut dapat diketahui bahwa Sungai Opak merupakan habitat bagi banyak spesies Anura.

  6. Fossil frogs (Anura) from Shanwang (Middle Miocene; Shandong Province, China)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk; Dong, L.; Přikryl, Tomáš; Sun, Ch.; Tan, J.; Wang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 5 (2011), s. 499-518 ISSN 0016-6995 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Anura * Neogene * Bufo * Macropelobates * Rana * Tadpole * East Asia Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.010, year: 2011

  7. .i.Palaeobatrachus eurydices./i., sp. nov. (Amphibia, Anura), the last Western European palaeobatrachid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Villa, A.; Roček, Zbyněk; Tschopp, E.; van den Hoek Ostende, L. W.; Delfino, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 6 (2016), č. článku e1211664. ISSN 0272-4634 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Palaeobatrachus * Palaeobatrachus eurydices * Anura Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.114, year: 2016

  8. Frontoparietal Bone in Extinct Palaeobatrachidae (Anura): Its Variation and Taxonomic Value

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk; Boistel, R.; Lenoir, N.; Mazurier, A.; Pierce, S. E.; Rage, J. C.; Smirnov, S. V.; Schwermann, A. H.; Valentin, X.; Venczel, M.; Wuttke, M.; Zikmund, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 298, č. 11 (2015), s. 1848-1863 ISSN 1932-8486 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Anura * Albionbatrachus * Palaeobatrachus * Xenopus * Palaeobatrachidae * frontoparietale * development * variation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.507, year: 2015

  9. Osteology of Atelopus muisca (Anura, Bufonidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Julio Mario; Medina, Paola; Schoch, Paulette

    2015-01-09

    The first comprehensive description of the skeleton of Atelopus muisca Rueda-Almonacid & Hoyos, 1991 (Bufonidae, Anura) from the Chingaza Natural National Park (Colombia) is provided, and comparisons with some characters described for this species by Coloma and related frogs of the group A. ignescens are done. The humerus of male presenting more developed crista ventralis and crista lateralis, and the articulation of the frontoparietal bones showed the presence of sexual dimorphism. These are character not described for species of the genus Atelopus belonging to the group A. ignescens. A. ignescens. Among the other osteological characters we did not find unique feature for the species. 

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Danna; Zhang, Jiayong; Zheng, Rongquan; Shao, Chen

    2012-10-01

    The mitochondrial genome of Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Anura: Dicroglossidae) is a circular molecule of 20,309 bp in length, containing 39 genes (including the extra copy of ND5 and tRNA(Met) genes). The following four distinctive features are observed: the cluster of rearranged tRNA genes (TPF tRNA gene cluster), the translocation of tRNA(Leu(CUN)) and ND5 genes, the tandem duplication of tRNA(Met) genes (Met1 and Met2), and the duplicated d-loop-ND5 regions.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of Feirana taihangnica (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhai, Xiaofei; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Feirana taihangnica (Anura: Dicroglossidae) was determined. It is a circular molecule of 17,412 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a control region. The tRNA(Thr) gene located in the LTPF tRNA gene cluster typically found in other anurans is absent from the F. taihangnica mtDNA and a tandem duplication of tRNA(Met) gene is observed. The A+T content of the overall base compositon of H-strand is 57.2% and the length of control region is 1972 bp with 61.8% A+T content.

  12. Development of the Ethmoidal Structures of the Endocranium in Discoglossus pictus (Anura: Discoglossidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Královec, K.; Roček, Zbyněk; Žáková, P.; Mužáková, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 271, č. 9 (2010), s. 1078-1093 ISSN 0362-2525 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Anura * Discoglossidae * Discoglossus * development * cranium Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.773, year: 2010

  13. Pelvic and thigh musculature in frogs (Anura) and origin of anuran jumping locomotion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Aerts, C.; Havelková, P.; Herrel, A.; Roček, Zbyněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 214, č. 1 (2009), s. 100-139 ISSN 0021-8782 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) KONTAKT 1-06-05 (2006-2007) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Anura * anuran jumping * Caudata * comparative myology * evolution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.134, year: 2009

  14. Development of the pelvis and posterior part of the vertebral column in the Anura

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ročková, H.; Roček, Zbyněk

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 206, č. 1 (2005), s. 35-35 ISSN 0021-8782 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3013206 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : Anura * development * evolution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.010, year: 2005

  15. Eimeria terraepokotorum sp.n. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Hoplobatrachus occipitalis (Anura: Ranidae) from Kenya

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, M.; Modrý, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2006), s. 443-447 ISSN 0065-1583 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA ČR GA206/03/1544 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Eimeria * coccidia * Anura Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.162, year: 2006

  16. Skeletal development and adult osteology of Hypsiboas pulchellus (Anura: Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio M. Hoyos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteological and skeletal characters have long been proven to be particularly informative in taxonomic and systematic research. Furthermore, ossification sequences are assumed to be a potential tool to investigate developmental states and developmental modes of fossil and extant skeletal specimens. Herein, we provide a detailed account on adult osteology and skeletogenesis in the Montevideo treefrog, Hypsiboas pulchellus (Anura: Hylidae based on evaluation of a series of cleared and stained specimens. A consensus sequence of ossification, i.e., the order of appearance of mineralized elements until early metamorphosis could be determined as (parasphenoid, presacral vertebrae I-VII, frontoparietal, exoccipital – transverse processes of presacral vertebrae I-VIII – sacral vertebra – (humerus, radioulna, ilium, femur, tibiofibula, scapula – (cleithrum, clavicle, coracoids, metacarpals, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges, hypochord – (prootic, angulosplenial, dentary, maxilla, premaxilla, squamosal. Comparing the state of mineralized elements in individual specimens, a number of skeletal elements, including the exoccipital, frontoparietal, parasphenoid and prootic, as well as elements of the shoulder and pelvic girdles, and the phalanges, were found to vary intraspecifically regarding the relative time of their ossification within the ossification sequence.

  17. Landing on branches in the frog Trachycephalus resinifictrix (Anura: Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijma, Nienke N; Gorb, Stanislav N; Kleinteich, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Frogs (Lissamphibia: Anura) are famous for their saltatory or hopping locomotion, which is related to numerous anatomical specialisations that are characteristic for the group. However, while the biomechanics of take-off in frogs have been studied in detail, much less is known on how frogs land after a jump. Besides terrestrial and aquatic species, several lineages of frogs adopted an arboreal lifestyle and especially the biomechanics of landing on challenging, small, and unpredictable substrates, such as leaves or branches, are virtually unknown. Here we studied the landing kinematics of the arboreal frog Trachycephalus resinifictrix (Hylidae) on a wooden stick that was used to mimic a small tree branch. We observed two different landing behaviours: (1) landing on the abdomen and (2) attachment with the toes of either the forelimb or the hindlimb. In the latter case, the frogs performed a cartwheel around the stick, while they were only attached by their adhesive toe pads. We estimated the forces that act on the toes during this behaviour to be up to fourteen times the body weight of the animals. This behaviour demonstrates the remarkable adhesive capabilities of the toe pads and the body control of the frogs.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Ye's spiny-vented frog Yerana yei (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhai, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanjun; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    Yerana yei (Anura: Dicroglossidae) is the only one species in the genus Yerana and the taxonomy of the Y. yei remains unresolved and controversial. The complete mitochondrial genome of Yerana yei (Anura: Dicroglossidae) was sequenced in the present study, and it is a circular molecule of 17,072 bp in length and contains the 38 genes typically found in other anurans: 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 23 transfer RNA genes (including an extra copy of tRNA(Met)). The order and orientation of the genes is the same as that found in other Paini species. The A + T content of the overall base composition of H-strand is 58% (T, 29.4%; C, 27.3%; A, 28.6%; G, 14.7%) and the length of control region is 1580 bp with 67% A + T content.

  19. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Hyla ussuriensis (Anura: Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qinglin; Xie, Yuhui; Zhao, Wenge; Liu, Peng

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of Hyla ussuriensis (Anura: Hylidae) is first determined using long PCR. It is a circular molecule of 18 023 bp in length (GenBank accession no. KT964710). Similar to the typical mtDNA of amphibians, the complete mtDNA sequence of Hyla ussuriensis contained two rRNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA), 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), and a control region (D-loop). The nucleotide composition was 29.9% A, 25.4% C, 14.5% G, and 30.2% T. Mitochondrial genomes analyses based on NJ method yield phylogenetic trees, indicating 13 reported Anura frogs belonging to five families (Hylidae, Bufonidae, Microhylidae, Ranidae, and Rhacophoridae). These molecular data presented here provide a useful tool for systematic analyses of genus Hyla and family Hylidae.

  20. Effects of Foodstuffs on Intestinal Length in Larvae of Rhacophorus arboreus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) : Developmental Biology

    OpenAIRE

    SHINRI, HORIUCHI; YUTAKA, KOSHIDA; Department of Biology, College of General Education, Osaka University; Department of Biology, College of General Education, Osaka University

    1989-01-01

    Correlation between foodstuffs and intestinal length was examined in larvae of Rhacophorus arboreus (Anura: Rhacophoridae). The larva, being heterophagous, has a tube-like intestine provided with neither epithelial outfoldings nor villi, and intestinal length is found to be a good morphological index of digestive and absorptive functions of the intestine. The results obtained were summarized as follows: The grown larva fed on boiled spinach had an intestine more than 1.5 times as long as that...

  1. Ultrastructural analysis of spermiogenesis in Rhacophorus arboreus (Amphibia, Anura, Rhacophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Kohei; Kubota, Hiroshi Y

    2011-12-01

    The spermatozoa of the Japanese green tree frog, Rhacophorus arboreus (Amphibia, Anura, Rhacophoridae), have a characteristic corkscrew-shaped head and a thick tail that extends perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the head. We examined the process of spermatogenesis in Rh. arboreus, particularly spermiogenesis, using light and transmission electron microscopy. Spermiogenesis was categorized into the early, mid, and late stages based on the spermatid morphology and their location within the cyst. Early spermatids had a round nucleus and two independent flagella that elongated from a pair of parallel centrioles. The centrioles became embedded in centriolar adjunct material and attached to the nucleus. Then, the flagella were covered with a mantle-like cytoplasm that contained many microtubules. An acrosome appeared on the pointed side of the slightly elongated nucleus. Mid spermatids had an elongated rod-like head. As the nucleus elongated, the chromatin fibers became thicker and were arranged parallel to the elongation axis. An elongated acrosome was attached helically along the lateral side of the elongated nucleus. The biflagellate spermatids transformed into monoflagellate spermatids with two axonemes through a process in which the plasma membrane of each flagellum expanded. Late spermatids had a coiled or corkscrew-shaped head. An acrosome was located on the inside of the coiled cone composed of a nucleus. Parallel microtubules were connected in rows, and then became crystallized in the tail. The present report contains the first morphological description of spermatogenesis in Rhacophorus and suggests that spermiogenesis evolved to adapt to the fertilization environment. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. The evolution of amphibian metamorphosis: insights based on the transformation of the aortic arches of Pelobates fuscus (Anura)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolesová, H.; Lametschwandtner, A.; Roček, Zbyněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 210, č. 4 (2007), s. 379-393 ISSN 0021-8782 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Anura * circulatory system * development * evolution * metamorphosis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.547, year: 2007

  3. Nine new species of microhylid frogs from the Muller Range in western Papua New Guinea (Anura, Microhylidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Günther, R.; Richards, S. J.; Dahl, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2014), s. 59-97 ISSN 1864-5755 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * Microhylidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.593, year: 2014 http://www.whose-tadpole.de/SNSD/VZ/VZ_64_1/06_vertebrate_zoology_64-1_Guenther_59-94.pdf

  4. Dry-season retreat and dietary shift of the dart-poison frog Dendrobates tinctorius (Anura: Dendrobatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Born, M.; Bongers, F.; Poelman, E.H.; Sterck, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Dry-season retreat and dietary shift of the dart-poison frog Delldrobates tillCtOrillS (Anura: Dendrobatidae). Seasonal rainfall affects tropical forest dynamics and behavior of species that are part of these ecosystems. TIle positive correlation between amphibian ac tivity pattems and rainfall has

  5. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two brown frogs, Rana dybowskii and Rana cf. chensinensis (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiao; Lei, Guangchun; Fu, Cuizhang

    2016-01-01

    We first determined complete mitochondrial genomes of Rana dybowskii and Rana cf. chensinensis (Anura: Ranidae). The mitogenomic lengths of R. dybowskii and R. cf. chensinensis were 18,864 and 18,808 bp, respectively. The two mitogenomes have similar gene compositions including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and a control region. Rana dybowskii and R. cf. chensinensis mitogenomes displayed same gene order arrangements and similar base compositions with an A + T bias. Mitogenomic data of the two species contributed to provide molecular marker for their conservative genetics and clarified their phylogenetic position under mitogenome-based phylogeny of the genus Rana.

  6. New species of Prosotocus (Digenea; Pleurogenidae) and other helminths in Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Rizvi, Anjum N; Maity, Pallab

    2015-09-01

    Prosotocus punjabensis sp. nov. (Digenea, Pleurogenidae) from the intestine of the water skipper, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Anura, Dicroglossidae), from Punjab, India is described and illustrated. Prosotocus punjabensis sp. nov. is the 13th Oriental species assigned to the genus and is separated from its congeners based upon the morphology of the vitellaria and cecal terminations. In addition, E. cyanophlyctis was found to harbour three species of Nematoda, Aplectana macintoshii, Cosmocerca kalesari and an unidentified species assigned to Cosmocerca.

  7. A new species of Pristimantis from eastern Brazilian Amazonia (Anura, Craugastoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Elciomar Araújo De; Rodrigues, Luis Reginaldo; Kaefer, Igor Luis; Pinto, Karll Cavalcante; Hernández-Ruz, Emil José

    2017-01-01

    In this study a new species of Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae) of the P. conspicillatus species group is described. Pristimantis latro sp. n. is known only from the municipalities of Altamira, Anapu, Brasil Novo, Medicilândia, Uruará and Aveiro (Flona Tapajós, right bank of Tapajós river), in Pará state, Brazil. Morphologically, the new species distinguishes from known congeners in the group mainly by the presence of dorsal tubercles and absence of discoidal folds, smooth belly skin, as well as the presence of supernumerary tubercles on hands. The call of the new species consists of seven ascending notes, the first of which has a dominant frequency of 2635 Hz and the last 3272 Hz. Molecular analysis of the 16S mtDNA indicates a genetic distance of 8% to P. chiastonotus , its closet relative, and between 9% and 11% to populations of P. fenestratus .

  8. A new species of Megophrys (Amphibia: Anura: Megophry-idae from the northwestern Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang MO, Youhui SHEN, Honghui LI, Xiushan WU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Megophrys (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae, Megophrys tuberogranulatus Shen, Mo et Li, sp. nov. (Holotype HNUL 03080902, adult male, SVL: 38.2 mm, from Sangzhi County, Hunan Province, is described. Megophrys tuberogranulatus is closely related to both Megophrys kuatunensis and Megophrys minor. Characters of the new species that differentiate this species from close relatives are skin granulated with big tubercles on the dorsal sides of both thigh and tibia, the bigger inner metacarpal tubercle, upper eyelid wider than the interorbital space, hind limbs longer, overlapping of the left and right calcaneal parts. The type specimens are deposited in the Animal Museum of Life Sciences College of Hunan Normal University [Current Zoology 56 (4: 432–436, 2010].

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of the green odorous frog Odorrana margaretae (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Jie; Zhai, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanjun; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the green odorous frog Odorrana margaretae (Anura: Ranidae) has been studied. The 17,903 bp circular genome contains the typical complement of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a control region. The AT content of the overall base compositon of H-strand is 56% and the length of control region is 2501 bp with 63.8% AT content. The arrangement of the protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes was the same as that found in other anurans. The cluster of rearranged LTPF tRNA genes and the translocation of tRNA(His) gene into the D-loop region are observed.

  10. Phylogeography of the fanged dicroglossine frog, Limnonectes fujianensis (Anura, Ranidae), in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Chou, Wen-Hao

    2011-04-01

    A phylogenetic analysis of Taiwanese fanged dicroglossine frog, Limnonectes fujianensis (Anura, Ranidae), was conducted to examine its genetic diversification using sequence data from a portion of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b sequences. We collected genetic data from 200 individuals at 23 localities in Taiwan and three localities in China. A neighbor-joining tree of 39 haplotypes revealed two clades in Taiwan and a clade in China, each showing restricted geographical distribution. The pattern of geographical divergence suggests a single invasion into Taiwan. Divergence times between clades were inferred using molecular clock tests. The population relationship of L. fujianensis between Taiwan and mainland China, and the phylogenetic relationships with its congeners, e.g., L. bannaensis, L. fragilis and L. kuhlii, were obtained and discussed.

  11. Histochemistry of skin glands of Trachycephalus aff. venulosus Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigolo, J R; Almeida, J A; Ananias, F

    2008-01-01

    The skin of the adult tree frog, Trachycephalus aff. venulosus, was investigated by light microscopy. Histochemistry was carried out using various stain techniques and showed the basic integument morphology of the skin with squamous epithelium in the epidermis and connective tissue in the dermis, subdivided into spongy and compact layers. The integument observed contains two types of gland; the mucous glands and granular glands. The mucous glands are small and located in the upper layer of the stratum spongiosum of the connective tissue and contain neutral and acid sulfated glycoproteins. The granular glands are large and form a syncytial secretory compartment within the acinus, which is surrounded by smooth muscle cells. Histochemical analyses demonstrated the presence of collagen proteins in both types of gland. An unusual finding was the different densities of the granules in the granular glands. The morphological characteristics of the integument in Trachycephalus aff. venulosus was also compared with others species of Anura.

  12. A new species of Osteocephalus (Anura: Hylidae) from Amazonian Bolivia: first evidence of tree frog breeding in fruit capsules of the Brazil nut tree

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, J.; Aparicio, J.; Guerrero-Reinhard, M.; Calderón, G.; Jungfer, K. H.; Gvoždík, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2215, - (2009), s. 37-54 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * Molecular phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.891, year: 2009

  13. Contribution to the Head Anatomy of the Basal Frog .i.Barbourula busuangensis./i. and the Evolution of the Anura

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk; Baleeva, N.; Vazeille, A.; Bravin, A.; van Dijk, E.; Nemoz, Ch.; Přikryl, Tomáš; Smirina, E. M.; Boistel, R.; Claessens, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2016), s. 163-194 ISSN 1026-2296 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Anura * Barbourula * Liaobatrachus * head anatomy * evolutionary trends * relationships * cranium * palatoquadrate * cranial nerves * jaw adductors * extrinsic eye muscles Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.384, year: 2016 http://rjh.folium.ru/index.php/rjh/article/view/1132

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of Nanorana pleskei (Amphibia: Anura: Dicroglossidae and evolutionary characteristics of the amphibian mitochondrial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiying CHEN, Bin WANG, Jiongyu LIU, Feng XIE, Jianping JIANG

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The complete mitochondrial genome of Nanorana pleskei from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was sequenced. It includes 17,660 base pairs, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNAs and 23 tRNAs. A tandem duplication of tRNAMet gene was found in this mitochondrial genome, and the similarity between the two tRNAMet genes is 85.8%, being the highest in amphibian mitochondrial genomes sequenced thus far. Based on gene organization, 24 types were found from 145 amphibian mitochondrial genomes. Type 1 was present in 108 species, type 11 in 11 species, types 5, 16, 17, and 20 each in two species, and the others each present in one species. Fifteen types were found in Anura, being the most diversity in three orders of the Lissamphibia. Our phylogenetic results using 11 protein-coding gene sequences of 145 amphibian mitochondrial genomes strongly support the monophyly of the Lissamphibia, as well as its three orders, the Gymnophiona, Caudata, and Anura, among which the relationships were ((Gymnophiona (Caudata, Anura. Based on the phylogenetic trees, type 1 was recognized as the ancestral type for amphibians, and type 11 was the synapomorphic type for the Neobatrachia. Gene rearrangements among lineages provide meaningful phylogenetic information. The rearrangement of the LTPF tRNA gene cluster and the translocation of the ND5 gene only found in the Neobatrachia support the monophyly of this group; similarly, the tandem duplication of the tRNAMet genes only found in the Dicroglossidae support the monophyly of this family [Current Zoology 57 (6: 785–805, 2011].

  15. New species of Gorgoderina (Digenea; Gorgoderidae) and other helminths in Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Dehradun, (Uttarakhand), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Rizvi, Anjum N; Maity, Pallab

    2014-10-01

    Gorgoderina spinosa sp. nov. (Digenea, Gorgoderidae) from the bladder of the water skipper, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Anura, Dicroglossidae), from Dehradun, India is described and illustrated. Gorgoderina spinosa is the 6th Indian species assigned to the genus and is separated from its congeners based upon the morphology of vitelline glands and the presence of a spinose integument. Two additional digenean species, Diplodiscus amphichrus and Ganeo tigrinus, and 3 nematode species, Cosmocerca kalesari, Gendria chauhani, and unidentified larvae were found. Diplodiscus amphichrus, Ganeo tigrinus, Cosmocerca kalesari, and Gendria chauhani have previously been reported to infect Indian individuals of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis.

  16. Reprodução de Pseudis minuta (Anura, Hylidae no sul do Brasil

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    Janaine Melchiors

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction of Pseudis minuta (Anura, Hylidae in southern Brazil.This study was based on individuals of Pseudis minuta captured or observed in the municipality of Candiota, Campanha region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Sampling occurred along ten non-consecutive months in 2000, 2001 and 2002. The reproductive phases were characterized based on the gonadal development stage of39 males and 50 females, and on the observation, in nature, of the seasonal distribution of calling males, occurrence of amplectant pairs, and presence of larvae, juveniles and adults. Calls were recorded from August to April, amplectant pairs from October to February (except January, tadpoles from October to March (except February, and juveniles in all the sampled months (except January. Reproductive activity was not observed in late fall and early winter, even though females with post-vitellogenic oocytes and males with spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules were recorded in allthe seasons. Mature females were statistically larger and heavier than mature males.The smallest female with post-vitellogenic oocytes had 32.0 mm of snout-vent length,and the smallest male with spermatozoa in its seminiferous tubules had 20.6 mm. The number of post-vitellogenic oocytes was directly proportional to the mass and to the snout-vent length of females, and the length of testis was directly proportional to the snout-vent length and to the mass of males.

  17. Variability of Structural and Biomechanical Parameters of Pelophylax Esculentus (Amphibia, Anura Limb Bones

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    Broshko Ye. O.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Variability of Structural and Biomechanical Prameters of Pelophylax esculentus (Amphibia, Anura Limb Bones. Broshko Ye. O. — Structural and biomechanical parameters of Edible Frog, Pelophylax esculentus (Linnaeus, 1758, limb bones, namely, mass, linear dimensions, parameters of the shaft’s cross-sectional shape (cross-sectional area, moments of inertia, radiuses of inertia were investigated. Some coefficients were also estimated: diameters ratio (df/ds, cross-sectional index (ik, principal moments of inertia ratio (Imax/Imin.. Coefficients of variation of linear dimensions (11.9-20.0 % anrelative bone mass (22-35 % were established. Moments of inertia of various bones are more variable (CV = 41.67-56.35 % in relation to radii of inertia (CV = 9.68-14.67 %. Shaft’s cross-sectional shape is invariable in all cases. However, there is high individual variability of structural and biomechanical parameters of P. esculentus limb bones. Variability of parameters was limited by the certain range. We suggest the presence of stable norm in bone structure. Stylopodium bones have the primary biomechanical function among the elements of limb skeleton, because their parameters most clearly responsive to changes in body mass.

  18. Falcaustra sanjuanensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Kathlaniidae) from Odontophrynus cf. barrioi (Anura: Cycloramphidae) from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Cynthya E; Sanabria, Eduardo A; Quiroga, Lorena B

    2013-03-01

    Here, we describe a new kathlaniid nematode, Falcaustra sanjuanensis sp. nov., from the large intestine of Odontophrynus cf. barrioi (Anura: Cycloramphidae), from San Juan Province, Argentina. The new species belongs to the Falcaustra group that possesses a pseudosucker. It resembles F. andrias in the distribution pattern of caudal papillae (six precloacal, four adcloacal, 12 postcloacal, one unpaired median anterior to the cloaca) but differs from F. andrias in the following characters: the longer size of males and females (11.17-13.45 mm and 10.1-15.5 mm, respectively); the longer size and form of the gubernaculum (0.17-0.23 mm, triangular form); the arrangement of postcloacal papillae (three pairs on the ventral side, two pairs on the lateral side, one pair on the subventral side) and unpaired papilla anterior to the cloaca located on the protuberance. The species description is based on light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Falcaustra sanjuanensis sp. nov. represents the 12th Neotropical species assigned to the genus. Also, we added a key to Neotropical species of Falcaustra.

  19. Molecular Confirmation of Frogs (Anura) as Hosts of Corethrellidae (Diptera) in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, William S

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Flies in the family Corethrellidae Edwards 1932 (Diptera) are known to be attracted to the mating calls of male frogs. For the first time, the hosts of corethrellids were identified to species by analyzing bloodmeals taken from resting female flies. A portion of the cytochrome b gene was amplified and sequenced from blood-engorged flies using vertebrate-specific primers. The flies were collected over 6 yr at two locations in the southeastern United States from resting boxes and natural resting sites (rodent burrows). Potential host abundance focused on frog surveillance, and estimation relied on visual encounters, passive trapping (artificial refugia), and call surveys. This study confirms that corethrellids take blood from tree frogs (Hylidae); however, it was found that true frogs (Lithobates Fitzinger 1843 (Ranidae: Anura) sp.) were the principal host selected by Corethrella brakeleyi (Coquillett 1902) (~73% of identified bloodmeals). These preliminary data suggest that host selection of Corethrella Freeman 1962 sp. is not necessarily correlated with host calling abundance. PMID:29117370

  20. Molecular Confirmation of Frogs (Anura) as Hosts of Corethrellidae (Diptera) in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jeremy V; Irby, William S

    2017-09-01

    Flies in the family Corethrellidae Edwards 1932 (Diptera) are known to be attracted to the mating calls of male frogs. For the first time, the hosts of corethrellids were identified to species by analyzing bloodmeals taken from resting female flies. A portion of the cytochrome b gene was amplified and sequenced from blood-engorged flies using vertebrate-specific primers. The flies were collected over 6 yr at two locations in the southeastern United States from resting boxes and natural resting sites (rodent burrows). Potential host abundance focused on frog surveillance, and estimation relied on visual encounters, passive trapping (artificial refugia), and call surveys. This study confirms that corethrellids take blood from tree frogs (Hylidae); however, it was found that true frogs (Lithobates Fitzinger 1843 (Ranidae: Anura) sp.) were the principal host selected by Corethrella brakeleyi (Coquillett 1902) (~73% of identified bloodmeals). These preliminary data suggest that host selection of Corethrella Freeman 1962 sp. is not necessarily correlated with host calling abundance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  1. Multilocus species tree analyses resolve the radiation of the widespread Bufo bufo species group (Anura, Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recuero, E; Canestrelli, D; Vörös, J; Szabó, K; Poyarkov, N A; Arntzen, J W; Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J; Kidov, A A; Cogălniceanu, D; Caputo, F P; Nascetti, G; Martínez-Solano, I

    2012-01-01

    New analytical methods are improving our ability to reconstruct robust species trees from multilocus datasets, despite difficulties in phylogenetic reconstruction associated with recent, rapid divergence, incomplete lineage sorting and/or introgression. In this study, we applied these methods to resolve the radiation of toads in the Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae) species group, ranging from the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa to Siberia, based on sequences from two mitochondrial and four nuclear DNA regions (3490 base pairs). We obtained a fully-resolved topology, with the recently described Bufo eichwaldi from the Talysh Mountains in south Azerbaijan and Iran as the sister taxon to a clade including: (1) north African, Iberian, and most French populations, referred herein to Bufo spinosus based on the implied inclusion of populations from its type locality and (2) a second clade, sister to B. spinosus, including two sister subclades: one with all samples of Bufo verrucosissimus from the Caucasus and another one with samples of B. bufo from northern France to Russia, including the Apennine and Balkan peninsulas and most of Anatolia. Coalescent-based estimations of time to most recent common ancestors for each species and selected subclades allowed historical reconstruction of the diversification of the species group in the context of Mediterranean paleogeography and indicated a long evolutionary history in this region. Finally, we used our data to delimit the ranges of the four species, particularly the more widespread and historically confused B. spinosus and B. bufo, and identify potential contact zones, some of which show striking parallels with other co-distributed species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. On a new species of Cosmocerca (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) from Microhyla rubra (Anura: Microhylidae) from West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sou, Sujan K; Nandi, Anadi P

    2015-06-01

    Cosmocerca microhylae sp. nov., recovered from the rectum of a red narrow-mouthed frog, Microhyla rubra (Jerdon, 1854) (Anura: Microhylidae), collected from Bolpur in the Birbhum district of West Bengal, India, is described and figured. This species is similar to C. acanthurum, C. banyulensis, C. cruzi, C. japonica, C. kalesari, C. novaeguineae, C. ornata, C. paraguayensis, C. parva, C. podicipinus and C. travassosi in having 5 pairs of plectanes supporting preanal papillae but differs from these species by smaller size, absence of somatic papillae in females and having only one pair of adanal papillae in males and one pair postanal papillae in females. Cosmocerca microhylae sp. nov. represents 27th species assigned to the genus, and 4th species from India.

  3. ANURA: RANIDAE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    response to auditory rather than visual cues. In situations where closely spaced calling males were separated by a dense grass tussock and thereby effectively screened from one another, the call was believed to be aurally elicited. Outright aggression has not been observed in this species. The can type here designated as ...

  4. Anura: Bufonidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    distal element appears to be a normal terminal phalanx, but the derivation of the proximal element is in ... no evidence whatever of discrete bony elements in any of the three digits, each possessing merely a single ... Localized osteoporosis is an interesting feature of two of the cases described here. The condition was not ...

  5. Diets of tadpoles from a temporary pond in southeastern Brazil (Amphibia, Anura

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    Denise de C. Rossa-Feres

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet of tadpoles of 13 anuran species was determined to verify whether food resource partitioning occurs and whether the degree of diet similarity is related to taxonomic affinity. Tadpoles of all species studied were mainly herbivorous, except for these of Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 which were mycophagous. Although some species had exclusive items in their diet, most tadpole species ingested the same items, but differed in the amount of each item consumed. Two guilds were found: tadpoles that feed on diatoms on the pond bottom, and tadpoles that feed on Oedogonium Link, 1820 algae in midwater. Diet similarity was related to the taxonomic relationship, microhabitat and feeding behavior of tadpoles indicating that the community organization is complex and resulting from the interaction of several parameters.Dieta dos girinos de um açude temporário no sudeste do Brasil (Amphibia, Anura. Determinou-se a dieta dos girinos de 13 espécies de anuros, com o objetivo de verificar se ocorre partilha de recursos alimentares e se o grau de similaridade na dieta é relacionado ao parentesco, inferido pela proximidade taxonômica. Os girinos de todas as espécies estudadas foram preponderantemente herbívoros, exceto os de Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 que foram micófagos. Embora algumas espécies tenham apresentado itens exclusivos em sua dieta, os girinos da maioria das espécies ingeriram os mesmos itens, diferindo na quantidade consumida de cada item. Duas guildas foram encontradas: girinos que se alimentam de diatomáceas no fundo do corpo d'água e girinos que se alimentam de algas do gênero Oedogonium Link, 1820 à meia-água. A similaridade na dieta foi relacionada à proximidade taxonômica, ao microhabitat e ao comportamento de alimentação, indicando que a organização desta comunidade é complexa e resultante da interação entre vários fatores.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships and cryptic species diversity in the Brazilian egg-brooding tree frog, genus Fritziana Mello-Leitão 1937 (Anura: Hemiphractidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marina; Lyra, Mariana L; Haddad, Célio F B

    2018-06-01

    The genus Fritziana (Anura: Hemiphractidae) comprises six described species (F. goeldii, F. ohausi, F. fissilis, F. ulei, F. tonimi, and F. izecksohni) that are endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Although the genus has been the subject of studies dealing with its taxonomy, phylogeny, and systematics, there is considerable evidence for cryptic diversity hidden among the species. The present study aims to understand the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among the species of Fritziana, as well as the relationships among populations within species. We analyzed 107 individuals throughout the distribution of the genus using three mitochondrial gene fragments (12S, 16S, and COI) and two nuclear genes (RAG1 and SLC8A3). Our data indicated that the species diversity in the genus Fritziana is underestimated by the existence of at least three candidate species hidden amongst the group of species with a closed dorsal pouch (i.e. F. fissilis and F. ulei). We also found four species presenting geographical population structures and high genetic diversity, and thus require further investigations. In addition, we found that two candidate species show a new arrangement for the tRNA-Phe gene, unique in Anura so far. Based on our results, we suggest that the conservation status of the species, as well as the species diversity in the genus Fritziana, needs to be reviewed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental, land cover and land use constraints on the distributional patterns of anurans: Leptodacylus species (Anura, Leptodactylidae from Dry Chaco

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    Regina Gabriela Medina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subtropical dry forests are among the most vulnerable biomes to land transformation at a global scale. Among them, the Dry Chaco suffers an accelerated change due to agriculture expansion and intensification. The Dry Chaco ecoregion is characterized by high levels of endemisms and species diversity, which are the result of a variety of climates and reliefs, allowing a wide variety of environments. The amphibian group exhibits a high richness in the Dry Chaco, which has been barely studied in relation to land cover changes. We used ecological niche models (ENMs to assess the potential geographic distribution of 10 Leptodactylus species (Anura, Leptodactylidae, which are mainly distributed within the Dry Chaco. We characterized these distributions environmentally, analyzed their overlap with land cover classes, and assessed their diversity of ecoregions. Also, we evaluated how these species potential distribution is affected by the transformation of land, and quantified the proportional area of the potential distribution in protected areas. We found that temperature seasonality is the main constraint to the occurrence of the species studied, whose main habitats are savannas, grasslands and croplands. The main threats to these species are the effects of climate change over spatial patterns of seasonality, which could affect their breeding and reproduction mode; the loss of their natural habitat; the exposure to contaminants used by intensive agriculture and their underrepresentation in protected areas.

  8. Survey of helminths, ectoparasites, and chytrid fungus of an introduced population of cane toads, Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae), from Grenada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Michael C.; Zieger, Ulrike; Groszkowski, Andrew; Gallardo, Bruce; Sages, Patti; Reavis, Roslyn; Faircloth, Leslie; Jacobson, Krystin; Lonce, Nicholas; Pinckney, Rhonda D.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    One hundred specimens of Rhinella marina, (Anura: Bufonidae) collected in St. George's parish, Grenada, from September 2010 to August 2011, were examined for the presence of ectoparasites and helminths. Ninety-five (95%) were parasitized by 1 or more parasite species. Nine species of parasites were found: 1 digenean, 2 acanthocephalans, 4 nematodes, 1 arthropod and 1 pentastome. The endoparasites represented 98.9% of the total number of parasite specimens collected. Grenada represents a new locality record for Mesocoelium monas, Raillietiella frenatus, Pseudoacanthacephalus sp., Aplectana sp., Physocephalus sp., Acanthacephala cystacanth, and Physalopteridae larvae. The digenean M. monas occurred with the highest prevalence of 82%, contrasting many studies of R. marina where nematodes dominate the parasite infracommunity. Female toads were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of Amblyomma dissimile than male toads. Only 2 parasites exhibited a significant difference between wet and dry season with Parapharyngodon grenadensis prevalence highest in the wet season and A. dissimile prevalence highest during the dry season. Additionally, A. dissimilewas significantly more abundant during the dry season.

  9. Chromosome banding in Amphibia. XXI. Inversion polymorphism and multiple nucleolus organizer regions in Agalychnis callidryas (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, M; Feichtinger, W; Weimer, R; Mais, C; Bolaños, F; León, P

    1995-01-01

    Cytogenetic analyses were performed on several populations of the Central American tree frog Agalychnis callidryas, using conventional methods and banding techniques. The karyotype of this species is distinguished by an inversion polymorphism in chromosome 9, which is either submetacentric or telocentric. The populations examined are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with respect to the two alternative morphs of chromosome 9. This is the first report of the occurrence of an intrapopulational chromosomal inversion polymorphism in the order Anura. In male meiosis, the two chromosomes 9 form a bivalent exhibiting a ring-like pairing configuration with terminal chiasmata in both arms, regardless of whether the paired homologs are heteromorphic or homomorphic. Furthermore, individual specimens of A. callidryas exhibit one or two unexpected 18S + 28S ribosomal RNA gene clusters, in addition to the standard nucleolus organizers. The chromosomal localization of these extra nucleolus organizers is identical in all metaphases from the same specimen and shows a specific intraindividual pattern. The karyotype evolution in the phyllomedusine hylids, the structure of the various classes of heterochromatin, and the occurrence and possible origin of the rare inversion polymorphisms and multiple nucleolus organizers in A. callidryas and a few other amphibian species are discussed.

  10. Revisión taxonómica de Alytes grandis Brunner (Amphibia, Anura

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    Sanchiz, B.

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The holotype and only existing remain referred to Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, presumably a discoglossid frog from the German Pleistocene, is examined and compared with other living and fossil Palaearctic anurans. The analysis rejects its validity as an independent extinct species, as The material is clearly within the known variability of living Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, of which it should be considered merely a sinonym.

    Se examina el holotipo y único resto atribuido de Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, un supuesto discoglósido del Pleistoceno alemán, comparándose con otros anuros actuales y fósiles del Paleártico. El análisis permite desechar su pertenencia a una especie extinta independiente, siendo en cambio atribuible con toda claridad a la viviente Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, de la que debe considerarse sinónimo.
    Zum systematischen Status von Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957 (Amphibia, Anura. Der bislang einzig bekannte und von Brunner (1957 beschriebene Rest zu Alytes grandis aus pleistozänen Ablagerungen der Breitenberghöhle bei Gössweinstein (Fränk, Alb wird beschrieben und aufgrund ausführlicher Vergleichsuntersuchungen der rezenten Art Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, zugeordnet, Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, ist somit als synonyrn zu Rana temporaria zu betrachten.

  11. A new species of Aplectana (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) parasite of Pleurodema nebulosum (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from the Monte desert, Argentina, with a key to Neotropical species of the genus Aplectana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Mauricio D Piñeiro; González, Cynthya E; Sanabria, Eduardo A

    2017-03-27

    Here we describe a new cosmocercid nematode, Aplectana nebulosa sp. nov., from the small and large intestines of Pleurodema nebulosum (Anura: Leptodactylidae), from the Monte desert of San Juan, Argentina. The new species belongs to the Aplectana group that possesses a gubernaculum and unpaired adcloacal papilla anteriorly to cloaca. It resembles A. membranosa, A. paraelenae and A. travassosi by the presence of four adcloacal papillae, but differs from those species by the following characters: number and arrangement of precloacal papillae; number and arrangement of postcloacal papillae; shape and size of spicules and gubernaculum, and by the presence of lateral alae in caudal region of males. The description of the new species is based on light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and we also provide a key to Neotropical species of Aplectana.

  12. Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Maia Dias Ledo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil. This paper presents a list of necrophagous insects associated with small size carrions of two reptiles and one amphibian, found in areas of riparian forests and Cerrado sensu stricto physiognomies in a Conservation Unit located in Brasilia, Distrito Federal. We found seven species of insects related to these carcasses, being five Sarcophagidae, one Calliphoridae and one Braconidae parasitoid wasp. Lucilia eximia and Peckia (Pattonella intermutans were the most abundant species in the study, corroborating with other studies that suggests that these species have specializations for colonization of small size animal carcasses.

  13. Liver Melanomacrophages and Gluthation S-Transferase Activity in Leptodactylus chaquensis (ANURA, LEPTODACTYLIDAE as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress Due to Chlorpyrifos Exposition

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    Ivan Huespe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We quantified and compared the hepatic melanomacrophage (MM and glutathione S-transferase (GST enzyme activity (two oxidative stress biomarkers in the liver of Leptodatylus chaquensis adults (Anura, Leptodactylidae collected in a rice field (CA in San Javier department, Santa Fe (Argentina, seven days after the application of chlorpyrifos and in a reference site (SR. The histological analysis revealed a significant amount (p = 0.028 and area occupied by MM (p = 0.017 in livers of CA compared to SR. Furthermore, a significant inhibition of GST activity was recorded in the CA frogs compared to the SR (p = 0.030. The histopathological and enzymatic effects provide evidences of ecotoxicological risk for anurans in rice field with CPF application.

  14. Complete mitochondrial genomes of Nanorana taihangnica and N. yunnanensis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) with novel gene arrangements and phylogenetic relationship of Dicroglossidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Yong; Zhang, Le-Ping; Yu, Dan-Na; Storey, Kenneth B; Zheng, Rong-Quan

    2018-02-27

    Complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes have been used extensively to test hypotheses about microevolution and to study population structure, phylogeography, and phylogenetic relationships of Anura at various taxonomic levels. Large-scale mt genomic reorganizations have been observed among many fork-tongued frogs (family Dicroglossidae). The relationships among Dicroglossidae and validation of the genus Feirana are still problematic. Hence, we sequenced the complete mt genomes of Nanorana taihangnica (=F. taihangnica) and N. yunnanensis as well as partial mt genomes of six Quasipaa species (dicroglossid taxa), two Odorrana and two Amolops species (Ranidae), and one Rhacophorus species (Rhacophoridae) in order to identify unknown mt gene rearrangements, to investigate the validity of the genus Feirana, and to test the phylogenetic relationship of Dicroglossidae. In the mt genome of N. taihangnica two trnM genes, two trnP genes and two control regions were found. In addition, the trnA, trnN, trnC, and trnQ genes were translocated from their typical positions. In the mt genome of N. yunnanensis, three control regions were found and eight genes (ND6, trnP, trnQ, trnA, trnN, trnC, trnY and trnS genes) in the L-stand were translocated from their typical position and grouped together. We also found intraspecific rearrangement of the mitochondrial genomes in N. taihangnica and Quasipaa boulengeri. In phylogenetic trees, the genus Feirana nested deeply within the clade of genus Nanorana, indicating that the genus Feirana may be a synonym to Nanorana. Ranidae as a sister clade to Dicroglossidae and the clade of (Ranidae + Dicroglossidae) as a sister clade to (Mantellidae + Rhacophoridae) were well supported in BI analysis but low bootstrap in ML analysis. We found that the gene arrangements of N. taihangnica and N. yunnanensis differed from other published dicroglossid mt genomes. The gene arrangements in N. taihangnica and N. yunnanensis could be explained by the Tandem

  15. Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil Sarcophagidae e Calliphoridae associados às carcaças de Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes e Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia em Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Maia Dias Ledo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil. This paper presents a list of necrophagous insects associated with small size carrions of two reptiles and one amphibian, found in areas of riparian forests and Cerrado sensu stricto physiognomies in a Conservation Unit located in Brasilia, Distrito Federal. We found seven species of insects related to these carcasses, being five Sarcophagidae, one Calliphoridae and one Braconidae parasitoid wasp. Lucilia eximia and Peckia (Pattonella intermutans were the most abundant species in the study, corroborating with other studies that suggests that these species have specializations for colonization of small size animal carcasses.Sarcophagidae e Calliphoridae associados às carcaças de Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes e Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia em Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Este trabalho apresenta uma lista de insetos decompositores associados a carcaças de pequeno porte de dois répteis e de um anfíbio, encontrados em áreas de matas de galeria e de cerrado sensu stricto em unidades de conservação do Distrito Federal. Foram encontradas sete espécies de insetos associados a essas carcaças, sendo cinco sarcofagídeos, um califorídeo e uma vespa parasitóide Braconidae. Lucilia eximia e Peckia (Pattonella intermutans foram as espécies mais abundantes, corroborando com outros estudos que sugerem que estas espécies apresentam especializações para a colonização de carcaças menores.

  16. Los cromosomas meióticos de la rana arborícola Smilisca baudinii (Anura: Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Hernández-Guzmán

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La rana arborícola mexicana Smilisca baudinii, es una especie de rana común en Centroamérica. Sin embargo, la biología y genética de la especie, es pobremente conocida a pesar de su importancia para mantener en equilibrio ecológico las selvas tropicales. Con el propósito de contribuir con el conocimiento biológico de esta especie, establecimos el cariotipo típico en meiosis en especímenes recolectados en Tabasco, México, mediante procedimientos citogenéticos estándares. El estudio, se fundamentó en el análisis de 131 dispersiones cromosómicas en estadio meiótico de dos adultos de la especie (una hembra y un macho. El análisis de las metafases, permitió establecer el número modal haploide de 1n=12 cromosomas bivalentes. La fórmula cromosómica del cariotipo haploide, se integró por 12 cromosomas birrámeos caracterizado por 12 pares de cromosomas bivalentes metacéntricos-submetacéntricos (msm. Los conteos en meiosis, hacen suponer como número diploide de cromosomas a un complemento integrado por 2n=24 cromosomas birrámeos. No fue posible observar presencia de cromosomas sexuales, entre las dispersiones meióticas del espécimen hembra y macho. Los resultados sugieren que la estructura cromosómica de S. baudinii, es compartida ampliamente entre las especies de la familia Hylidae y los cromosomas "B" son estructuras importantes en la diversificación de las especies.Meiotic chromosomes of the tree frog Smilisca baudinii (Anura: Hylidae. The Mexican tree frog Smilisca baudinii, is a very common frog in Central America. In spite their importance to keep the ecological equilibrium of the rainforest, its biology and genetics are poorly known. In order to contribute with its biological knowledge, we described the typical meiotic karyotype based in standard cytogenetic protocols to specimens collected in Tabasco, Mexico. The study was centered in the analysis of 131 chromosome spreads at meiotic stage from two adults of the

  17. Consideraciones ecológicas sobre la dieta, la reproducción y el parasitismo de Pseudopaludicola boliviana (Anura, Leptodactylidae de Corrientes, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo I. Kehr

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological aspects of diet, reproduction, and parasitism of Pseudopaludicola boliviana (Anura, Leptodactylidae from Corrientes, Argentina.The main objectives of this paper were to update the distribution range of Pseudopaludicola boliviana in Argentina, to determine its diet composition and the feeding patterns, to analyze some reproductive variables as mature ova count and diameter in relation to female snoutvent length, to describe the advertisement call for Argentinean populations, and to identify and to localize its helminth parasites. Eleven prey types were identified; dipterans were more important both in number (23.53% and in volume (41.30%;other important preys were collembolans, arachnids and coleopterans. The trophic niche width was 7.15 and the standardized trophic niche value was 0.61. Ovarian complement (number of mature ova for female ranged from 50 to 319 (mean 175.3 ± 86.12, while ovum diameter ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 mm (mean 0.27 ± 0.062. The nuptial call is composed by five notes. The dominant frequency ranged from 3.488 to5.927 kHz; emphasized frequency fluctuated between 4.942 and 5.224 kHz. A total of 10 helminth species (larvae and adults were found in 54 (96% infected frogs. Helminths were represented by Trematoda (7 species, Cestoda (1, Nematoda (1, and Acanthocephala (1.

  18. Uncovering the diversity in the Amazophrynella minuta complex: integrative taxonomy reveals a new species of Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) from southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Rommel R.; Chaparro, Juan C.; Carvalho, Vinícius Tadeu De; Ávila, Robson W.; Farias, Izeni Pires; Hrbek, Tomas; Gordo, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) is described from the departments of Madre de Dios, Cusco and Junin in Peru. An integrative taxonomy approach is used. A morphological diagnosis, morphometrics comparisons, description of the advertisement call, and the phylogenetic relationships of the new species are provided. Amazophrynella javierbustamantei sp. n. differs from other species of Amazophrynella by: intermediate body-size (snout-vent length 14.9 mm in males, n = 26 and 19.6 mm in females, n = 20), tuberculate skin texture of body, greatest hand length of the Amazophrynella spp. (3.6 mm in males, n = 26 and 4.6 mm in females, n = 20), venter coloration yellowish, tiny rounded black points covering the venter, and thirteen molecular autapomorphies in the 16S RNA gene. Its distribution varies from 215 to 708 m a.s.l. This discovery highlights the importance of the remnant forest in preserving the biodiversity in Peru, and increase in seven the species formally described in the genus Amazophrynella. PMID:27047239

  19. DIET OF DENDROPSOPHUS MICROCEPHALUS AND SCARTHYLA VIGILANS (ANURA: HYLIDAE AT A LOCALITY IN NORTH-WESTERN VENEZUELA WITH NOTES ON MICROHABITAT OCCUPATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIMBERLYN A. FONSECA-PÉREZ

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The coexistence of species with similar ecological requirements (food, space, time has typically drawn attention of researchers because competition for resources is expected to be high. The diet and microhabitat occupation of two morphologically and ecologically similar species of Hylidae (Anura, Dendropsophus microcephalus and Scarthyla vigilans, were analyzed at a locality in north-western Venezuela, with the aim of addressing the potential for space and food competition between them. Diet was estimated through the analysis of stomach contents and microhabitat occupation was estimated through recordings of perch type, height and horizontal distance to water. Thirty-six prey categories (32 families, 4 orders of arthropods were identified: 30 categories in D. microcephalus and 21 categories in S. vigilans. The most important prey (RII in D. microcephalus were Agelenidae (11.1%, Tachinidae (9.32% and Lepidoptera-larvae (7.96%. Gryllidae (14.13%, Cicadidae (9.1%, Cicadellidae (8.3% and Delphacidae (8.02% were the most important in S. vigilans. Diet overlap was relatively low (0.32. Both species have relatively generalist diets. Both species occupied the same type of perches (leaves and stems of Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons and heights (average: S. vigilans, 24 ± 16.2 cm; D. microcephalus, 22.7 ± 9.5 cm. The potential for space competition is high if perches are limited and food competition is expected to be low.

  20. A new species of Andean frog of the genus Bryophryne from southern Peru Anura: Craugastoridae) and its phylogenetic position, with notes on the diversity of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Juan C; Padial, José M; Gutiérrez, Roberto C; De La Riva, Ignacio

    2015-07-30

    We describe a new species of terrestrial frog of the genus Bryophryne (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the wet puna and elfin forests of the Amazonian versant of the Andes. The new species seems to be restricted to high altitude environments at elevations between 3506-3651 m in the area now protected by Megantoni National Sanctuary and Manu National Park (Distrito de Echarate, Provincia La Convención, Departamento Cusco, Peru). The new species is characterized by lacking vomerine processes of vomers, by having tympanic annulus and tympanic membrane not evident through the skin, smooth dorsal skin with scattered warts, conspicuous dorsolateral, middorsal, and occipital folds, warty flanks, areolate skin on ventral surfaces of the body, and by lacking finger and toe fringes and basal web on feet. In life, specimens have bright and highly variable dorsal coloration that ranges from olive-green to red with variable combinations of red or orange marks (red or orange in the green form and olive-green in the red form). Molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA place the new species within the genus Bryophryne and as sister group of B. cophites. Bryophryne bustamantei, also sequenced for this study, is found as the sister group of the clade formed by B. cophites and the new species. Bryophryne is found as sister group of Psychrophrynella in maximum likelihood analyses and as the sister group of a large clade of holoadenines in parsimony analyses. The genus Bryophryne now contains nine species, all of them distributed along the Cordillera Oriental of the Peruvian Andes, southeast of the Apurimac River valley.

  1. The genotoxic effects of the imidacloprid-based insecticide formulation Glacoxan Imida on Montevideo tree frog Hypsiboas pulchellus tadpoles (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Iglesias, J M; Ruiz de Arcaute, C; Nikoloff, N; Dury, L; Soloneski, S; Natale, G S; Larramendy, M L

    2014-06-01

    The neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) affects the insect central nervous system and is successfully applied to control pests for a variety of agricultural crops. In the current study, acute toxicity and genotoxicity of the IMI-containing commercial formulation insecticide Glacoxan Imida (35 percent IMI) was evaluated on Hypsiboas pulchellus (Anura: Hylidae) tadpoles exposed under laboratory conditions. A lethal effect was evaluated as the end point for lethality, whereas micronucleus (MN) frequency and DNA single-strand breaks evaluated by the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay were employed as end points for genotoxicity. Sublethal end points were assayed within the 12.5-37.5mg/L IMI concentration range. Experiments were performed on tadpoles at stage 36 (range, 35-37) according to the classification proposed by Gosner. Lethality studies revealed an LC50 96h value of 52.622mg/L IMI. Increased frequency of MNs was only observed when 25.0mg/L was assayed for 96h, whereas no other nuclear abnormalities were induced. Increase of the genetic damage index was observed at 48h of treatment within the 12.5-37.5mg/L concentration range, whereas an increased frequency of DNA damage was observed only in tadpoles treated with 37.5mg/L IMI for 96h. This study represents the first evidence of the acute lethal and genotoxic effects exerted by IMI on tadpoles of an amphibian species native to Argentina under laboratory conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Anura: Ranidae: Arthroleptella

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-07-28

    Jul 28, 1994 ... The eggs are laid under moss or leaf litter, in clutches of about 10, and development is direct. We collected specimens from isolated mountain ranges in the south-western Cape as part of a molecular study to cali- brate mtDNA sequence divergence with the geological age of the mountains. As part of this ...

  3. Registro histórico de Gastrotheca ovifera (Anura: Hemiphractidae: evidencias de disminución en selvas nubladas de la Cordillera de la Costa venezolana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Valera-Leal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrotheca ovifera es una rana marsupial que habita en el dosel arbóreo de bosques nublados y ribereños del Tramo Occidental y Ramal Litoral de La Cordillera de la Costa venezolana (CCV entre 820-2 000m de altitud. De acuerdo con la Lista Roja de la UCN se encuentra En Peligro (EN y su evaluación fue realizada de acuerdo a apreciaciones anecdóticas, por lo que su situación de amenaza no ha sido comprobada por muestreos sistemáticos. Con el objetivo de estudiar el estado de las poblaciones de la especie en el Parque Nacional Henri Pittier (PNHP en el Ramal Litoral de la CCV, realizamos una revisión histórica en museos nacionales y extranjeros y encontramos que la especie fue registrada en 1996 por última vez en el PNHP. Acumulamos 646 horas/persona de muestreo sistemático en localidades históricas y adicionales de la especie en el parque durante los años 2006 y 2007 y no obtuvimos registro de la especie. Adicionalmente, realizamos asociaciones entre datos promedios de precipitación anual y el registro histórico de la especie durante el periodo 1941-1997 (r s=- 0.054, p=0.820, n=19. Discutimos sobre su estado de conservación con base a la distribución, fluctuación y cambios poblacionales de la especieHistoric record of Gastrotheca ovifera (Anura: Hemiphractidae: decline evidence in Venezuelan coastal cloud forests. G. ovifera is a marsupial frog of the cloud and riparian forest from Western and Litoral sections of the Venezuelan Cordillera de la Costa (820-2 000m. This amphibian is considered as an endangered species by the IUCN Species Red List, due to its population decline in pristine and well preserved environments. This conservation status is based on anecdotic interpretations. We collected disperse data from museum records (national and international and explored the possible association between collection records and precipitation data available for the Henri Pittier National Park (PNHP. Likewise, we carried out a

  4. Ecología trófica en larvas de Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae en agroecosistemas y sus posibles implicaciones para la conservación Trophic ecology in tadpoles of Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae in agroecosystems and their possible implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa Bionda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento de la agricultura produce perdida del habitat natural, con consecuencias para la biodiversidad de los anfibios. Se analizo la dieta y condición corporal de larvas de anuros de Rhinella arenarum que habitan agroecosistemas. Los muestreos fueron realizados en dos agroecosistemas y en un tercer sitio, no afectado por cultivos. Las larvas capturadas fueron anestesiadas, fijadas y preservadas en formaldehido, se realizaron medidas corporales y se analizo la dieta de las larvas. Se registro diversidad en la oferta alimenticia proporcionada por los distintos ambientes. La dieta tuvo una predominancia de algas Bacillarophyceae, seguidas por Cyanophyceae. Particularmente, los géneros Navicula, Nitzschia, Hantzschia y Gomphonema (clase Bacillarophyceae, fueron importantes en los agroecosistemas. Los géneros Osillatoria, Euglena y Strombomonas (clases Cyanophyceae y Euglenophyceae, predominaron en la dieta de las larvas de anuros en el sitio menos alterado. Las larvas de los sitios más alterados consumen menor cantidad de alimento y registran una menor condición corporal. La presencia de determinadas algas, indicarían un mayor grado de contaminación en los agroecosistemas. La eutrofización de lagunas podría alterar la disponibilidad de alimento para larvas de anuros que podría tener consecuencias poblacionales negativas. Se sugiere el análisis de dietas larvarias como un potencial bioindicador de salubridad ambiental.Trophic ecology in tadpoles of Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae in agroecosystems and their possible implications for conservation. The progress of the agriculture border has led an important loss of natural habitats, with significant consequences for biodiversity. In this sense, the studies in anuran amphibian tadpoles inhabiting these environments are relevant, because the larval stage is a phase of population regulation. The aim of this study was to analyze the body condition and diet in Rhinella arenarum

  5. Hematología y citoquímica de las células sanguíneas de Rhinella fernandezae (Anura: Bufonidae en Espinal y Delta-Islas del río Paraná, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana C Cabagna Zenklusen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La descripción de la hematología de los anfibios anuros es escasa, habiéndose realizado la mayoría de los trabajos en especies de Norteamérica, Asia y Europa. Con el propósito de obtener datos hematológicos para Rhinella fernandezae, fueron estudiados 23 especímenes provenientes de zonas protegidas de las provincias de Santa Fe y Entre Ríos. Se les extrajo sangre por punción cardíaca y se realizaron hemogramas. En los extendidos sanguíneos, se efectuaron la descripción morfológica y citoquímica de las células sanguíneas y búsqueda de parásitos. Se observaron cinco tipos de leucocitos, donde predominaron los linfocitos pequeños. Heterófilos y eosinófilos resultaron positivos para PAS, Sudan B y peroxidasa; contrariamente, los eritrocitos y sus precursores fueron negativos. Los puntajes de las reacciones citoquímicas fueron variables para basófilos, linfocitos, monocitos y trombocitos. Las frecuencias de micronúcleos y de alteraciones nucleares fueron escasas. No se observaron diferencias significativas (p>0.05 entre sexos en el hemograma ni en la morfología sanguínea. Los únicos hemoparásitos encontrados fueron microfilarias (Nematoda: Filaroidea, cuya prevalencia e intensidad de infección fueron bajas. Las características hematológicas estudiadas fueron semejantes a los valores reportados para otros anfibios, pudiendo inferir que los individuos de R. fernandezae estudiados se encuentran en un buen estado nutricional e inmunológico.Hematology and blood cell cytochemistry of Rhinella fernandezae (Amphibia: Anura from Espinal and Delta-Islands of Paraná River, Argentina. The description of amphibian hematology is scarce and most of these studies have been done in species from North America, Asia and Europe. With the purpose to obtain basic hematological information of Rhinella fernandezae, 23 blood samples from Santa Fe and Entre Ríos natural reserves were studied. Blood of each individual was extracted by cardiac

  6. Chromosome evolution in Cophomantini (Amphibia, Anura, Hylinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Juan M; Cardozo, Dario E; Suárez, Pablo; Boeris, Juan M; Blasco-Zúñiga, Ailin; Barbero, Gastón; Gomes, Anderson; Gazoni, Thiago; Costa, William; Nagamachi, Cleusa Y; Rivera, Miryan; Parise-Maltempi, Patricia P; Wiley, John E; Pieczarka, Julio C; Haddad, Celio F B; Faivovich, Julián; Baldo, Diego

    2018-01-01

    The hylid tribe Cophomantini is a diverse clade of Neotropical treefrogs composed of the genera Aplastodiscus, Boana, Bokermannohyla, Hyloscirtus, and Myersiohyla. The phylogenetic relationships of Cophomantini have been comprehensively reviewed in the literature, providing a suitable framework for the study of chromosome evolution. Employing different banding techniques, we studied the chromosomes of 25 species of Boana and 3 of Hyloscirtus; thus providing, for the first time, data for Hyloscirtus and for 15 species of Boana. Most species showed karyotypes with 2n = 2x = 24 chromosomes; some species of the B. albopunctata group have 2n = 2x = 22, and H. alytolylax has 2n = 2x = 20. Karyotypes are all bi-armed in most species presented, with the exception of H. larinopygion (FN = 46) and H. alytolylax (FN = 38), with karyotypes that have a single pair of small telocentric chromosomes. In most species of Boana, NORs are observed in a single pair of chromosomes, mostly in the small chromosomes, although in some species of the B. albopunctata, B. pulchella, and B. semilineata groups, this marker occurs on the larger pairs 8, 1, and 7, respectively. In Hyloscirtus, NOR position differs in the three studied species: H. alytolylax (4p), H. palmeri (4q), and H. larinopygion (1p). Heterochromatin is a variable marker that could provide valuable evidence, but it would be necesserary to understand the molecular composition of the C-bands that are observed in different species in order to test its putative homology. In H. alytolylax, a centromeric DAPI+ band was observed on one homologue of chromosome pair 2. The band was present in males but absent in females, providing evidence for an XX/XY sex determining system in this species. We review and discuss the importance of the different chromosome markers (NOR position, C-bands, and DAPI/CMA3 patterns) for their impact on the taxonomy and karyotype evolution in Cophomantini.

  7. Parental care in Hemisus (Anura: Hemisotidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-12-18

    Dec 18, 1996 ... of the South African frog genus Hemisus and derive their infonnation from what was written by the late Vincent Wager,. An analysis is given of what exactly is known and what has been written, either from original observations or derived from other publications,. Since 1929 discussions of anuran biology, ...

  8. Polystomatidae (Monogenea) of southern African Anura: Polystoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sp. parasitic in two closely related Cacosternum species. ... The prevalence of infection with P. channingi n.sp. was 25% for C. nanum and 40% for C. boettgeri, while the mean intensity of infections in adult frogs was 1.5 for C. boettgeri and 1.0 ...

  9. Chromosome evolution in Cophomantini (Amphibia, Anura, Hylinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Pablo; Boeris, Juan M.; Blasco-Zúñiga, Ailin; Barbero, Gastón; Gomes, Anderson; Gazoni, Thiago; Costa, William; Nagamachi, Cleusa Y.; Rivera, Miryan; Parise-Maltempi, Patricia P.; Wiley, John E.; Pieczarka, Julio C.; Haddad, Celio F. B.; Faivovich, Julián; Baldo, Diego

    2018-01-01

    The hylid tribe Cophomantini is a diverse clade of Neotropical treefrogs composed of the genera Aplastodiscus, Boana, Bokermannohyla, Hyloscirtus, and Myersiohyla. The phylogenetic relationships of Cophomantini have been comprehensively reviewed in the literature, providing a suitable framework for the study of chromosome evolution. Employing different banding techniques, we studied the chromosomes of 25 species of Boana and 3 of Hyloscirtus; thus providing, for the first time, data for Hyloscirtus and for 15 species of Boana. Most species showed karyotypes with 2n = 2x = 24 chromosomes; some species of the B. albopunctata group have 2n = 2x = 22, and H. alytolylax has 2n = 2x = 20. Karyotypes are all bi-armed in most species presented, with the exception of H. larinopygion (FN = 46) and H. alytolylax (FN = 38), with karyotypes that have a single pair of small telocentric chromosomes. In most species of Boana, NORs are observed in a single pair of chromosomes, mostly in the small chromosomes, although in some species of the B. albopunctata, B. pulchella, and B. semilineata groups, this marker occurs on the larger pairs 8, 1, and 7, respectively. In Hyloscirtus, NOR position differs in the three studied species: H. alytolylax (4p), H. palmeri (4q), and H. larinopygion (1p). Heterochromatin is a variable marker that could provide valuable evidence, but it would be necesserary to understand the molecular composition of the C-bands that are observed in different species in order to test its putative homology. In H. alytolylax, a centromeric DAPI+ band was observed on one homologue of chromosome pair 2. The band was present in males but absent in females, providing evidence for an XX/XY sex determining system in this species. We review and discuss the importance of the different chromosome markers (NOR position, C-bands, and DAPI/CMA3 patterns) for their impact on the taxonomy and karyotype evolution in Cophomantini. PMID:29444174

  10. The sperm of Hylodinae species (Anura, Leptodactylidae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    that observed in the dendrobatid species examined so far. Since such a structure has been considered a plesiomorphic trait, it contributes little to our understanding of the relationships between the Hylodinae and Dendrobatidae. The flagellar apparatus of Crossodactylus sp. n. is very similar to that of most leptodactylids.

  11. The sperm of Hylodinae species (Anura, Leptodactylidae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    IBAMA) (20235/98-78 SP). Voucher specimens were deposited in the Museu de História Natural. “Prof. Adão José Cardoso” (ZUEC) of the Universidade. Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, São Paulo,. Brazil. The specimens were ...

  12. The Skull of Phyllomedusa sauvagii (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Monachesi, Mario R; Lavilla, Esteban O; Montero, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    The hylid genus Phyllomedusa comprises charismatic frogs commonly known as monkey, leaf or green frogs, and is the most diverse genus of the subfamily Phyllomedusinae, including about 31 species. Although there is some information about the anatomy of these frogs, little is known about the osteology. Here the adult skull of Phyllomedusa sauvagii, both articulated and disarticulated, is described and the intraspecific variation is reported. Additionally, cartilage associated with the adult skull, such as the nasal capsules, auditory apparatus, and hyobranchial apparatus, are included in the analysis. Further examination of disarticulated bones reveals their remarkable complexity, specifically in the sphenethmoid and of the oocipital region. The description of disarticulated bones is useful for the identification of fossil remains as well as providing morphological characteristics that are phylogenetically informative. When comparing the skull morphology with the available information of other species of the genus, Phyllomesusa sauvagii skull resembles more that of P. vaillantii and P. venusta than P. atelopoides. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A DESCRIPTION OF BUFO PARDALIS TADPOLES (ANURA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadpoles of Bufo parda/is Hewitt from Kei Road, Cape Province, are described. INTRODUCTION. Although tadpoles of B. pardalis have been included in Van Dijk's (1971) key to the genus Bufa, no adequate description of this taxon has yet been published. Further studies on variability depend upon a complete description ...

  14. BUFO PARDALIS (ANURA: BUFONIDAE): MATING CALL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the calls of one of these species, Bufo pardalis. Hewitt, were not analysed by Tandy & Keith. (1972). Furthennore there is some confusion in the literature regarding the mating call of this species. For these reasons this mating call is here clarified. The mating call of B. pardaiis was first described by Ranger (in Hewitt 1935) as ...

  15. Osteological differentiation among Iberian Pelodytes (Anura, Pelodytidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Herráiz, M. J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphological differentiation among Pelodytes species is analysed based on a sample of disarticulated bones from the main osteological regions of the male adult skeleton. A set of 35 interspecifically diagnostic characters, analysed under different outgroup hypotheses, clearly shows that P. ibericus and P. punctatus are a sister-group with respect to P. caucasicus. The Caucasian species retains a very primitive morphology, with only 17-23 % derived character-states, while both living Iberian species reach percentages of derivation over 68 %. There is little difference between P. ibericus and P. punctatus in their relative degree of evolutionary transformation, and when using P. caucasicus as the outgroup the percentage of derived character-states is 45 and 60 % respectively. Differentiation rates are calculated in darwin units for several characters, and we show that the skull components have higher rates than the traits directly related with locomotion. Several adult growth trajectories, different between species, are described and identified as diverse allometric heterochronies. Three factors have been detected that might have grouped several characters as coevolutionary units. These factors are: a an ontogenetic factor, operating through heterochronic processes, expressed as a tendency to reduce ossification; b a functional morphological integration, detected in the elements involved in skull size and proportions; and c an ecomorphological factor, presumably an adaptive response, can be assumed for characters related to limb shape.Se analiza la diferenciación morfológica en Pelodytes mediante el análisis comparado de una muestra de elementos óseos desarticulados procedentes de las principales regiones del esqueleto macho adulto. Un conjunto de 35 rasgos interespecíficamente diferenciales, analizada bajo diversos grupos externos, permite inferir que P. ibericus y P. punctatus forman un grupo hermano frente a P. caucasicus. La especie caucásica mantiene una morfología muy primitiva, con sólo 17-23% de estados derivados, en tanto que las especies ibéricas son ambas muy derivadas, con porcentajes superiores al 68 % de los rasgos. Hay poca diferencia entre P. ibericus y P. punctatus en cuanto a su grado relativo de transformación evolutiva, y utilizando a P. caucasicus como grupo externo presentan porcentajes de estados derivados del 45 y 60 % respectivamente. Se calculan las tasas de diferenciación de varios caracteres en darwines, presentando los componentes craneales tasas más altas que los rasgos directamente relacionados con la locomoción. Se describen e identifican en términos de alometrías heterocrónicas diversas trayectorias de crecimiento adulto, diferenciales entre especies. Se han detectado tres factores que permiten agrupar los caracteres en unidades de evolución conjunta. Estos factores son: a un factor ontogenético producido mediante procesos heterocrónicos, apreciable en una tendencia a la disminución de la osificación; b una integración morfológica funcional, detectable en los elementos implicados en el tamaño y proporciones del cráneo; y c un factor ecomorfológico, presumiblemente una respuesta adaptativa, puede inferirse en rasgos relacionados con la robustez de las extremidades.

  16. Chromosomes of South American Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura Chromosomes of South American Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura

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    Brum Zorrilla N.

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Karyotypes of eight of South American Bufonidae were studied: B.ictericus, B. spinulosus spinulosus, B. arenarum, B. g. fernandezae, B. g. d'orbignyi, B. crucifer, B. paracnemis and B. marinus. In all species 2n = 22 chromosomes were found. Neither heteromorphic pairs of chromosomes nor bivalents with characteristic morphology and behavior of sex chromosomesduring male meiosis were observed in any species.Karyotypes of eight of South American Bufonidae were studied: B.ictericus, B. spinulosus spinulosus, B. arenarum, B. g. fernandezae, B. g. d'orbignyi, B. crucifer, B. paracnemis and B. marinus. In all species 2n = 22 chromosomes were found. Neither heteromorphic pairs of chromosomes nor bivalents with characteristic morphology and behavior of sex chromosomesduring male meiosis were observed in any species.

  17. Evolution of Acoustic Behaviour in African Bufo (Anura: Bufonidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mating calls are known for 29 species of African Bufo belonging to 11 species groups. Twenty-five African species, representing eight species groups (including four groups or complexes having 2N=22) have calls which Martin (1972) termed Type I. This call type is also found in Schismaderma carens, Nectophrynoides ...

  18. Reproductive biology of Pleurodema guayapae (Anura: Leptodactylidae: Leiuperinae

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    Julián Alonso Valetti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pleurodema guayapae is a species that inhabits saline environments and semidesert zones from central Argentina. To date, the knowledge about the reproductive biology of this species is very poor, and our aim is to contribute to its knowledge with the description of some important reproductive aspects. For this, field work was undertaken in an area near to Patquía, La Rioja province. Sampling was undertaken during three summer periods (2006-2007; 2007-2008; 2008-2009 in Chamical-Patquía area, where we could find reproductively active populations. We observed and described breeding sites, type of clutch, process of foam nest construction, clutch and egg number and sizes, and hatching time and stage. Behaviour observations were performed from the time that males began to call until the pairs ended up the foam nests building, and layed the eggs. Additionally, one amplected pair was observed and filmed in the process of foam nest construction, and four amplectant pairs were collected and separatelly placed in plastic containers, for nests observations in the laboratory. Hatching time was based on three different foam nests of known age. We found that P. guayapae populations were acoustically active only after a rainfall. Its breeding sites were represented by ephemeral ponds of fresh water, product of rains. The males emitted their calls inside or outside these ponds. A detailed description of the foam nest construction process by both females and males was made. The clutches were in dome-shaped foam nest type of 6-9cm in diameter and 1-3cm in height, some of which were in communal nests. The nests had an average of 1 137 pigmented eggs. This species showed a short hatching time. Our results allow us to conclude that this species should be considered an extreme explosive breeder. Our results are discussed with others obtained for related species.

  19. Hyperolius argus (Anura) in Natal: taxonomy, biogeography and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African frogs of the genus. Hyperolius in the Museum of Comparative Zoology,. Cambridge, Massachusetts. Ann. Transv. Mus. 20: 283 - 291. PARKER, H.W. 1930. A collection of frogs from Portuguese East. Africa. Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1930: 897 - 905. PASSMORE, N.I. & CARRUTHERS, V.C. 1979. South African.

  20. Description of a tetraploid Tomopterna (Anura: Ranidae) from South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new tetraploid species of sand frog, genus Tomopterna, is described from the eastern Cape. On the basis of mtDNA sequences, allozymes and advertisement calls, it appears to have arisen as a hybrid between the adjacent diploid populations of T. delalandii and T. cryptotis. The hybridization event is estimated to have ...

  1. Description of a tetraploid Tomopterna (Anura: Ranidae) from South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-08-14

    Aug 14, 1995 ... Excluding Xenopus, this is the only allotetraploid member of an advanced frog family that is known. *To whom correspondence should be addressed. The genus Tomopterna consists of six African species, six. Asian species and one species known from Madagascar. (Frost 1985). The African species are all ...

  2. Xenopus iaevis (Anura: Pipidae) Mating systems - A preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4. (SECONDS). Fig.4 Sonogram of release caII given by resisting female X. 1. laevis during amplexus (frequency range 20-2000 Hz, wide band, 300 Hz fIlter). ... FIi.6 Sonogram of the call given by male X. I. laevis during amplexus with passive female (frequency range 40-4000 Hz, wide band, 300 Hz ftlter). FREQUENCY. 4.

  3. The tadpole of Proceratophrys izecksohni (Amphibia: Anura: Odontophrynidae

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    Pedro H. dos Santos Dias

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the external morphology of the tadpole of Proceratophrys izecksohni Dias, Amaro, Carvalho-e-Silva & Rodrigues, 2013, its internal oral features, and chondrocranial anatomy, based on specimens collected at the type locality. The tadpole has short and oval body, spiracle with inner wall fused to the body, and oral formula 2/3(1. The oral cavity of P. izecksohni is typical of stream-dwelling tadpoles, with several papillae and pustulations. The chondrocranium is longer than wide and the suprarostral corpora are free ventromedially. The palatoquadrate has a well developed processus pseudopterygoideus. We also compare the tadpole of P. izecksohni with tadpoles those of other species of the genus, emphasizing the usage of larval morphology to assist in the systematic of the genus.

  4. A new minute Andean Pristimantis (Anura: Strabomantidae from Venezuela

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    César L. Barrio-Amorós

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pristimantis is described from the Venezuelan Andes. The new species is the smallest in its genus known in Venezuela and belongs to the Pristimantis unistrigatus Group. It differs from the rest of Venezuelan Andean congeners in body size (mean male SVL < 21.3 mm, female SVL < 26.3 mm, expanded discs on fingers and toes, absence of dorsolateral folds, and a distinctivecall consisting in 2–5 cricket-like short notes. The new species inhabits the southwestern part of the Cordillera de Mérida in Venezuela and the Venezuelan side of the Cordillera Oriental deColombia, and could be present on the Colombian portion of the cordillera as well.

  5. Diet and trophic niche of Lithobates catesbeianus (Amphibia: Anura

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    Peterson T. Leivas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802 is an invasive anuran introduced in Brazil that is associated with the displacement and the decline of populations of native species worldwide. There is evidence that biological invasions are facilitated by certain attributes of the invading species, for instance niche breath, and that invasive species have a broader ecological niche with respect to native ones. We designed a study to ascertain the temporal, ontogenetic, and sex differences in the niche dynamics of the American bullfrog. We sampled monthly from June 2008 to May 2009 in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. For each individual, we gathered biometric and stomach content data. We then estimated the niche breath of the juveniles and adults, and compared it between the sexes. A total of 104 females and 77 males were sampled. Lithobates catesbeianus has a generalist diet, preying upon invertebrates and vertebrates. Even though the diet of the studied population varied seasonally, it did not differ between the sexes nor did it respond to biometric variables. Niche breadth was more restricted in the winter than in the autumn. The trophic niche of juveniles and adults did not overlap much when compared with the trophic niche overlap between males and females. Adult males and females had a considerable niche overlap, but females had a broader trophic niche than males in the winter and in the spring. These niche characteristics point to an opportunistic predation strategy that may have facilitated the process of invasion and establishment of this species in the study area.

  6. Phylogeny and biogeography of South Chinese brown frogs (Ranidae, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Wang, Sirui; Zhu, Hedan; Li, Pipeng; Yang, Baotian; Ma, Jianzhang

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have explored the role of Cenozoic tectonic evolution in shaping the patterns and processes of extant animal distributions in and around East Asia. In this study, we selected South Chinese brown frogs as a model to examine the phylogenetic and biogeographical consequences of Miocene tectonic events within South China and its margins. We used mitochondrial and nuclear molecular data to reconstruct phylogenetic interrelationships among Chinese brown frogs using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The phylogeny results show that there are four main clades of Chinese brown frogs. Excepting the three commonly known Chinese brown frog species groups, R. maoershanensis forms an independent clade nearest to the R. japonica group. Phylogeny and P-distance analyses confirmed R. maoershanensis as a valid species. Among South Chinese brown frogs, there are four subclades associated with four geographical areas: (I) R. maoershanensis; (II) R. japonica; (III) R. chaochiaoensis; and (IV) other species of the R. longicrus species group. Divergence times, estimated using mitochondrial sequences, place the vicariance events among the four subclades in the middle to late Miocene epoch. Our results suggest that (1) South Chinese brown frogs originated due to a vicariance event separating them from the R. chensinensis species group at the time of the Geological movement (~18 million years ago, Ma) in southern Tibet and the Himalayan region; (2) the separation and speciation of R. maoershanensis from the R. japonica group occurred due to the dry climate at approximately 16 Ma; (3) South Chinese brown frogs migrated from South China to Japan at the time (~10.8 Ma) that the global sea-level fell and the East China Sea Shelf Basin was swamp facies, when a land gallery may have formed across the sea to connect the two areas; and (4) R. chaochiaoensis separated from other species of the R. longicrus species group during the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau at approximately 9.5 Ma.

  7. A new small-sized Theloderma (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivongxay, Niane; Davankham, Monekham; Phimmachak, Somphouthone; Phoumixay, Keochay; Stuart, Bryan L

    2016-08-05

    A new species of the rhacophorid frog genus Theloderma is described from the forested shoreline of the Nam Lik Reservoir, Vientiane Province, Laos. The new species differs from its congeners by having the combination of males with SVL 17.0-20.6; pearly asperities on dorsum; no vomerine teeth; disc diameter of finger III ca. 40% of tympanum diameter; uniformly gray venter; light brown dorsum with darker brown and black markings; and a uniformly bronze iris with small black reticulations. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data infers that the new species is most closely related to T. lateriticum from northern Vietnam. Evidence for the monophyly of Theloderma is reviewed.

  8. Biodiversity Change: Preliminary Monitoring of Anura Species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the four study sites. Habitat destruction and modification are key causes of habitat loss of anuran species observed in this study. Biomonitoring procedures should be applied regularly to detect changes (increase/decrease) in the diversity and abundance of anuran species within a specified study area of interest over time.

  9. Schooling and swimming behaviors of Hyla semilineata tadpoles (Anura, Hylidae

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    Anne d' Heursel

    Full Text Available The schooling behavior of Hyla semilineata Spix, 1824 tadpoles is described. Experiments were carried out both in the natural environment and under controlled conditions to quantify the constant movement of these tadpoles. Bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802, similar in size to the H. semilineata larvae, were used as controls in the experiments. Hyla semilineata tadpoles remained stationary for one sixth of the time that the bullfrog tadpoles did and the number of individuals of H. semilineata moving at any given moment was about seven times greater. The schooling behavior and constant swimming behavior of these tadpoles may enhance the effect of their warning coloration.

  10. Origin and identity of Fejervarya (Anura: Dicroglossidae) on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wostl, Elijah; Smith, Eric N.; Reed, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We used morphological and molecular data to infer the identity and origin of frogs in the genus Fejervarya that have been introduced to the island of Guam. Mensural and meristic data were collected from 96 specimens from throughout their range on the island and a principal component analysis was used to investigate the distribution of these data in morphological space. We also amplified a fragment of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid mitochondrial gene from 27 of these specimens and compared it to 63 published sequences of Fejervarya and the morphologically similar Zakerana. All examined Fejervarya from Guam are morphologically indistinguishable and share an identical haplotype. The molecular data identify them as Fejervarya cancrivora with a haplotype identical to F. cancrivora from Taiwan.

  11. Hyperolius argus (Anura) in Natal: taxonomy, biogeography and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    semidiscus Hewitt in Natal, and the occurrence of semidiscus on the periphery of the argus range is discussed in relation to the 'central-marginal' model of biogeographical patterning. It has not been possible to determine the relative vulnerability to habitat disturbance of argus compared to any other amphibian species, but ...

  12. Hyperolius argus (Anura) in Natal: taxonomy, biogeography and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is some evidence that populations of argus intergrade with semidiscus Hewitt in Natal, and the occurrence of semidiscus on the periphery of the argusrange is discussed in relation to the 'central-marginal' model of biogeographical patterning. It has not been possible to determine the relative vulnerability to habitat ...

  13. A new species of Cacosternum (Amphibia: Anura; Ranidae) from Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-03-29

    Mar 29, 1987 ... KENSLEY, B. 1972. Shrimps and prawns of southern. Africa. Trustees of the S.A. Museum, Cape Town. KENSLEY, B. 1981. On the zoogeography of southern. African decapod Crustacea, with a distributional .... capense Hewitt, 1925; and C. JeJeupi Laurent, 1950. The frog here described undoubtedly ...

  14. A New Species of Euphlyctis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Barisal, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Gopalan, Sujith V.; Meril?, Juha

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the genus Euphlyctis is described from the Barisal district of Bangladesh and compared with its morphologically similar and geographically proximate congeners. The new species is highly divergent in comparison to other congeneric species on basis of sequence divergence in mitochondrial DNA gene sequences (ranging from 5.5% to 17.8% divergence). Euphlyctis kalasgramensis sp. nov. can be readily diagnosed by having the following combination of characters: snout-vent length (SVL...

  15. A new species of Euphlyctis (Anura: Dicroglossidae from Barisal, Bangladesh.

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    Mohammad Sajid Ali Howlader

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Euphlyctis is described from the Barisal district of Bangladesh and compared with its morphologically similar and geographically proximate congeners. The new species is highly divergent in comparison to other congeneric species on basis of sequence divergence in mitochondrial DNA gene sequences (ranging from 5.5% to 17.8% divergence. Euphlyctis kalasgramensis sp. nov. can be readily diagnosed by having the following combination of characters: snout-vent length (SVL 30.44 - 37.88 mm, absence of mid-dorsal line, nostril-snout length 3% of SVL, nostril much closer to snout tip than eye, nostril-snout length 48% of distance from front of eyes to nostril, relative length of fingers (shortest to longest: 1 = 2 < 4 < 3, tibia length 59% of SVL, foot length 55% of SVL.

  16. The advertisement calls of Quasipaa shini (Ahl, 1930) (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Shen Shen; Zheng, Rong Quan; Zhang, Qi Peng

    2016-12-04

    The genus Quasipaa (Family Dicroglossidae) is currently composed of 11 species distributed in China and Southeast Asia: Quasipaa acanthophora (Dubois & Ohler 2009), Q. boulengeri (Günther 1889), Q. courtoisi (Angel 1922), Q. delacouri (Angel 1928), Q. exilispinosa (Liu & Hu, 1975), Q. fasciculispina (Inger 1970), Q. jiulongensis (Huang & Liu, 1985), Q. shini (Ahl 1930), Q. spinosa (David 1875), Q. verrucospinosa (Bourret 1937), Q. yei (Chen, Qu & Jiang 2002) (Frost 2016). These species are morphologically similar, and their taxonomy is subject to controversy (Che et al. 2009). Analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial genes suggest the genus likely encompass additional cryptic species (Ye et al. 2013). Bioacoustics has contributed to studies on the taxonomy of the genus (Ye et al. 2013; Shen et al. 2015), however, to date, only the advertisement calls of Q. spinosa are known (Yu & Zheng 2009; Chen et al. 2012; Shen et al. 2015). Here, we describe the advertisement calls of Q. shini, which inhabits streams in the southern part of central China(Guizhou, Hunan, Guangxi and Jiangxi) and is characterized by the presence of keratinized skin spines on the lateral surfaces of the body.

  17. Amphibia, Anura, Dicroglossidae, Quasipaa fasciculispina (Inger, 1970): distribution extension

    OpenAIRE

    Chuaynkern, Yodchaiy; Duengkae, Prateep; Sribandit, Pongpitak; Bunchornratana, Komsan; Chuaynkern, Chantip; Khewwan, Nont; Tipayanukul, Sawang

    2011-01-01

    The current work presents a new locality for Quasipaa fasciculispina (Inger, 1970) documenting the first provincial record based on voucher specimens for Trat Province (eastern Thailand). Its geographical distribution is reviewed and a recent distribution map in Thailand is presented.

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of Quasipaa boulengeri (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiang; Xia, Yun; Zheng, Yu-Chi; Zou, Fang-Dong; Zeng, Xiao-Mao

    2014-04-01

    Quasipaa boulengeri, an Asian spiny frog that belongs to Neobatrachia, has been reported as a de novo case of chromosomal rearrangements. In this paper, we determined the whole mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Q. boulengeri. The complete mtDNA sequence of Q. boulengeri is 17,741 bp in length, which contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNAs, 23 tRNAs and one control region. The overall nucleotides base composition of the complete mtDNA is A (28.86%), G (14.43%), C (26.09%), T (30.62%), with a much higher A + T content. Compared to other Neobatrachia species, the mtDNA genome of Q. boulengeri shows a novel gene order at WANCY region.

  19. A new species of Limnonectes (Amphibia: Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Cuong The; Le, Minh Duc; Nguyen, Tao Thien; Ziegler, Thomas; Wu, Zheng Jun; Nguyen, Truong Quang

    2017-05-24

    A new species of Limnonectes is described from northeastern Vietnam based on morphological and molecular differences. Morphologically, the new species is distinguishable from its congeners on the basis of a combination of the following diagnostic characters: Large size (SVL 50.1-68.9 in males, 45.5-63.0 mm in females); males with moderately enlarged head (HL/SVL 0.48), head longer than wide; vomerine teeth present; external vocal sacs absent; rostral length short (RL/SVL 0.16 in males, 0.15 in females); tympanum distinct (TD/ED 0.63 in males, 0.60 in females); dorsal surface of head, body and flanks with flattened tubercles; dorsal surface of tibia possessing small tubercles; supratympanic fold present; dorsolateral fold absent; webbing formula I0-0II0-1/3III0-1/3IV1/2-0V; in life, dorsum yellowish brown with a dark brown marking; throat and chest white with dark brown marking; ventral surface of fore and hind limbs as well as belly white. In phylogenetic analyses, the new species is placed as the sister taxon to Limnonectes fujianensis with strong statistical support in all analyses.

  20. A new species of Euphlyctis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Barisal, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Gopalan, Sujith V; Merilä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the genus Euphlyctis is described from the Barisal district of Bangladesh and compared with its morphologically similar and geographically proximate congeners. The new species is highly divergent in comparison to other congeneric species on basis of sequence divergence in mitochondrial DNA gene sequences (ranging from 5.5% to 17.8% divergence). Euphlyctis kalasgramensis sp. nov. can be readily diagnosed by having the following combination of characters: snout-vent length (SVL) 30.44 - 37.88 mm, absence of mid-dorsal line, nostril-snout length 3% of SVL, nostril much closer to snout tip than eye, nostril-snout length 48% of distance from front of eyes to nostril, relative length of fingers (shortest to longest: 1 = 2 < 4 < 3), tibia length 59% of SVL, foot length 55% of SVL.

  1. Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae, Scinax nasicus (Cope, 1862: Distribution extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carezzano, F. J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two adult males Scinax nasicus (Cope, 1862 were collected when calling perched on the vegetation of the banksof a temporary pond near to extended soybean culture, in the surroundings of the town of Ucacha, province of Córdoba,Argentina. This new record confirms the presence of the species in this province, and extends 198 km to SW its range fromthe nearest previously known record.

  2. A new species of Cacosternum (Amphibia: Anura; Ranidae) from Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new species of Cacosternum from Pietermaritzburg, Natal, is described. It is a small, slender, smooth-skinned form, immediately distinguishable from all previously described taxa by the bold brown and yellow reticulations dorsally and ventrally.

  3. Article Syndactyly in Bufo maculatus Hallowell (Amphibia: Anura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syndactyly in five specimens of Bufo maculatus, all from a small area 25 km west of Harare, Zimbabwe, is described. In three cases only one pair of digits was involved (two of the hand, one of the foot); in a fourth, two pairs of digits on one foot were involved; and in the fifth case, all digits of one hand were involved together ...

  4. A new species of Osteocephalus (Anura: Hylidae from Guyana

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    Eric N. Smith

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A new member of the genus Osteocephalus is described from the Pakaraima mountains of western Guyana. This species is the smallest known member of the genus and is probably closely related to O. subtilis. Both share a small size (less than 40 mm snout-vent length, large and bulgy eyes directed somewhat rostrally, green bones, smooth and brownish dorsal skin, relatively short and truncate snout, small tympanum, subgular and laterally expanded vocal sac, poorly developed subarticular and supernumerary tubercles, a supra-anal glandular ridge, and cream-white venter and subocular region. The new species can be distinguished from O. subtilis by the Buff iris (vs black, smaller overall size (32.7 vs 35.8-38.8 mm snout-vent length, relatively larger toe disks, and less developed foot webbing. The cranium of the new species is well ossified, relatively reduced in width between the orbits, without an exposed frontoparietal fontanelle and with the anterior arm of the squamosal extending to about half the distance to the maxillary. The vocal sac is subgularly poorly developed and possess lateral extensions to the area behind the jaw angles. Well developed supraocular and suprasquamosal cartilages give support to the enlarged eyes of this species.Un nuevo miembro del género Osteocephalus se describe de las montañas Pakaraima del oeste de Guyana. Es la especie más pequeña del género y probablemente esté estrechamente relacionada con O. subtilis. Ambas especies comparten un tamaño pequeño (menos de 40 mm SVL, ojos grandes y sobresalientes, dirigidos hacia el rostro, huesos verdes, piel dorsal lisa, de tono castaño, hocico relativamente truncado y corto, tímpano pequeño, saco vocal subgular y expandido lateralmente, tubérculos subarticulares y supernumerarios poco desarrollados, pliegue supra-cloacal glandular, vientre y área subocular de color blanco-crema. La nueva especie se distingue de O. subtilis por su iris castaño-mostaza (negro en O. subtilis, tamaño menor (32.7 contra 35.8-38.8 mm SVL, discos de los dedos del pie relativamente más grandes, y membranas del pie menos desarrolladas. El cráneo de la nueva especie está bién osificado, relativamente reducido en ancho entre las orbitas de los ojos, sin una ventana frontoparietal expuesta, y con el brazo anterior del escuamoso extendiendose hasta cerca de la mitad de la distancia al maxilar. El saco vocal está poco desarrollado en el área subgular, y posee extensiones laterales hacia el área detrás del ángulo mandibular. Cartílagos supraoculares y supraescuamosales dan soporte a los grandes ojos de esta especie.

  5. La identidad de Bufo missionum Berg, 1896 (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faivovich, Julián

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Habiendo individualizado el ejemplar sobre el que Berg realizó la descripción de B. missionum, ahora es posible discutir su identidad. El ejemplar en cuestión está un poco deshidratado y oscurecido, sin embargo, en el mismo son evidentes varias características propias de B. ictericus Spix, 1824 que lo diferencian de B. rufus, como ser la presencia de cresta supratimpanica y la forma de la cabeza, ancha y triangular. Comparado con un lote de jóvenes de B. ictericus, B. missionum resulta muy similar en tamaño, proporciones y disposición de las manchas dorsales. Todas estas observaciones nos llevan a concluir que B. missionum Berg, 1894 es un sinónimo de B. ictericus Spix, 1824.

  6. Ecología reproductiva de Geobatrachus walkeri (Anura: Srabomantidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Pacheco-Florez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Geobatrachus walkeri es una rana que pertenece a un género monotípico y es endémica de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. La especie habita en diferentes microhábitats entre los 2 000 y 3 500m de altitud, incluyendo la hojarasca de una plantación de pinos. Para entender su ecología reproductiva se realizaron ocho muestreos de individuos, que abarcaron las estaciones de lluvias y de sequía y dos tipos de hábitats (bosque secundario y plantación de pino durante 2010-2011. También se incluyeron los datos de cinco muestreos similares obtenidos previamente durante el período 2008-2009. El principal microhábitat donde las ranas se encontraron fue la hoja-rasca de pino, allí escuchamos coros de seis-diez machos durante todos los meses muestreados, y observamos que las ranas tienen actividad diurna y nocturna. Sin importar el año de estudio, la población se compone de neonatos reclutados en varios meses del año, un gran número de juveniles con un amplio rango de tamaños corporales, y un menor número de adultos con un rango más reducido de tamaño corporal. Los análisis histológicos de las gónadas mostraron que el tamaño a la madurez se adquiere cerca de los 18mm LRC para machos y hembras, y que los machos y hembras adultos fueron reproductivos durante todo el muestreo, lo que sugiere un patrón continuo de actividad reproductiva. Sin embargo, durante la estación seca, los túbulos seminíferos presentan un epitelio espermático drásticamente disminuido, aunque contienen abundantes espermatozoides luminales, lo que sugiere una reducción en la producción de espermatozoides en el final de la estación seca. Del mismo modo, las ranas de todas las categorías de edad fueron significativamente más abundantes durante el inicio de la estación seca, mientras que fueron significativamente menos abundantes con el avance de la sequedad, lo que sugiere que una mayor intensidad de la temporada de sequía podría detener temporalmente la actividad y la reproducción en esta población.

  7. Diferenciación sexual de Phyllomedusa boliviana (Anura: Hylidae

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    Rengel, Dora

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Phyllomedusa boliviana (Hylidae es una especie que se distribuye desde el centro de Bolivia y oeste de Brasil hasta el Norte de Argentina, ocupando diversos ambientes en un amplio rango altitudinal (350-2000 m.s.n.m.. La gónada de Phyllomedusa boliviana se diferencia antes de llegar a los procesos de metamorfosis en una estructura orientada a la formación de un testículo o hacia la constitución de un ovario; lo que encuadra a esta especie en el concepto de "raza diferenciada" en el sentido de Witshi (1924 a diferencia de lo reportado en Phyllomedusa sauvagii, que ha sido considerada una "raza indiferenciada de tipo masculino", hecho único entre los anuros conocidos (Rengel y Pisanó, 1981. Phyllomedusa boliviana (Hylidae is a species that distributes from mid Bolivia and west of Brazil to the north of Argentine, occupying different habitats in a wide altitudinous range (350- 2000 m. P. boliviana's gonad is differentiated before metamorphosis in a structure orientated at the formation of the testicle or ovary. For this reason, this species is framed in the concept of "differentiated sexual race" (Wistchi 1924. This observation is different that reported in Phyllomedusa sauvagii, which has been considered an "indifferentiated race of masculine type". This matter is unique in anurans (Rengel y Pisanó, 1981.

  8. Alimentación en Melanophryniscus stelzneri (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Fillipelo, Ana María

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The alimentary categories of a population of Melanophryniscus stelzneri are studied cuantitatively and cualitatively utilizing a sample of 57 specimens obtained from "El Trapiche", province of San Luis, Argentine, in order to know the grade of trophic overlap and predation strategies. The main alimentary categories for males and females are: Formicidae, Collembola, Acari, Coleoptera, Isoptera and larvae. Although the diets of both sexes show a high grade of trophic overlap, males and females differ in the amount of each resource used. Adults and juveniles present a low grade of trophic overlap. The juveniles follow the "widely foraging" strategy and the adults follow an intermidiate one, between "sit and wait" and "widely foraging".

  9. [Meiotic chromosomes of the tree frog Smilisca baudinii (Anura: Hylidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Guzmán, Javier; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber

    2011-03-01

    The Mexican tree frog Smilisca baudinii, is a very common frog in Central America. In spite their importance to keep the ecological equilibrium of the rainforest, its biology and genetics are poorly known. In order to contribute with its biological knowledge, we described the typical meiotic karyotype based in standard cytogenetic protocols to specimens collected in Tabasco, Mexico. The study was centered in the analysis of 131 chromosome spreads at meiotic stage from two adults of the species (one female and one male). The metaphase analysis allowed the establishment of the modal haploid number of 1n = 12 bivalent chromosomes. The chromosomic formulae from the haploid bivalent karyotype was integrated by 12 biarmed chromosomes characterized by twelve pairs of metacentric-submetacentric (msm) chromosomes. The meiotic counting gives the idea that diploid chromosome number is integrated by a complement of 2n = 24 biarmed chromosomes. The presence of sex chromosomes from female and male meiotic spreads was not observed. Current results suggest that S. baudinii chromosome structure is well shared among Hylidae family and "B" chromosomes are particular structures that have very important evolutionary consequences in species diversification.

  10. Chromosome banding of two Litoria species (Anura, Hylidae

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    Wanpen Kakampuy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was the first cytogenetic studies of green-eyed tree frog (Litoria genimaculata and Nyakala frog(L. nyakalensis. The mitotic chromosomes were prepared directly from bone marrow after in vivo colchicine treatment andanalysed following conventional, silver staining and C-banding techniques. These species showed similar karyotypes with2n=26, the fundamental number (NF are 52 chromosomes and Ag-NOR positions located in the short arm near centromeresof chromosome pair 7 in L. genimaculata and in the long arm near telomeres of chromosome pair 9 in L. nyakalensis. TheC-banded karyotypes showed heterochromatin bands at the centromeres and telomeres of all chromosomes. Both specieswere characterized by the number and position of constitutive heterochromatin in the karyotypes. The mitotic karyotypes ofL. genimaculata exhibited greater amounts of C-band positive heterochromatin than L. nyakalensis.

  11. Alsodes pehuenche (Anura: Cycloramphidae: Past, present and future

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    Corbalán, Valeria

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Alsodes pehuenche es una especie endémica del Valle Pehuenche, en los Andes centrales de la Argentina, en el límite con Chile. Su biología es pobremente conocida y, en consecuencia, ha sido incluida en la categoría de Datos Insuficientes por la UICN. En esta contribución se proporcionan nuevos datos para la especie y se describen las amenazas que está sufriendo. La pavimentación de la ruta nacional 145 ha modificado los cursos de agua de los arroyos habitados por A. pehuenche, produciendo una alteración del hábitat y una mortalidad cercana al 25% de la población. Se cita por primera vez a A. pehuenche para Chile, aumentando su distribución geográfica conocida que alcanza los 9 km2. En el futuro, partículas contaminantes provenientes del tránsito vehicular podrían alcanzar los arroyos modificando seriamente la calidad del agua. Tanto la alteración de los cursos de agua como la contaminación, junto a otras amenazas importantes como el ganado doméstico, eventos de crecidas naturales y el cambio climático, podrían afectar severamente la supervivencia de la especie, especialmente si se tienen en cuenta sus hábitos acuáticos y su peculiar ciclo de vida con un período metamórfico que dura varios años. Se están llevando a cabo acciones de conservación, pero el éxito de las mismas aún no está garantizado. El esfuerzo conjunto de investigadores y gobierno es esencial para lograrlo. Consideramos que en la actualidad hay datos suficientes para realizar un cambio de categoría de amenaza, de Datos Insuficientes a especie Críticamente Amenazada. Alsodes pehuenche is an endemic species of the Pehuenche Valley in the Central Andes of Argentina, on the border with Chile. Its biology is poorly known, and in consequence, has been categorized as Data Deficient by IUCN. In this contribution, we give new data on the species, and describe the threats it is facing. The paving of national route 145 modified the courses of the streams inhabited by A. pehuenche, producing habitat alteration and mortality of nearly 25% of the population. For the first time, A. pehuenche is cited for Chile, expanding its known geographical distribution area that reaches 9 km2. In the future, contaminant particles from vehicle traffic could arrive in the streams modifying water quality. Alteration of watercourses and contamination, as well as other important threats like domestic livestock, natural flooding events and climate change, could severely affect survival of the species, especially taking into account their aquatic habits and their peculiar life cycle with a metamorphic period that lasts many years. Conservation actions are in progress, but success is not yet guaranteed. A partnership between researchers and government is essential for success. We believe that information about P. pehuenche is now enough to make a category change from Data Deficient to Critically Endangered.

  12. Preliminary Monitoring of Anura Species in Selected Vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Ijebu Oru (forests/abandoned farmlands) and Ibapon Oyewole (savanna) had a mean number of species and .... The tree frogs were identified courtesy of Dr Arne Schiotz. Identification was also carried out using literature by Schiotz (1963, 1967, 1999) and. Rodel (2000). .... risk increased possibility of extinction in any.

  13. Kin discrimination in tadpoles of Hylarana temporalis (Anura: Ranidae and Sphaerotheca breviceps (Anura: Dicroglossidae hydroperiod and social habits

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    Amrapali P. Rajput

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kin discrimination ability was studied in tadpoles of Hylarana temporalis and Sphaerotheca breviceps, which live in two distinctly different habitats; the former shows social aggregation and the latter live scattered. Early in development, tadpoles of H. temporalis are found in small aggregations in the streams of Western Ghats but in later stages they are generally seen in isolated pools cut off from the main channel following drying up of the stream. Sphaerotheca breviceps breed during south-west monsoons in rain-filled puddles and its tadpoles are always found scattered. We hypothesized that the tadpoles living in aggregation exhibit kin discrimination while those not living in aggregation may not exhibit kin discrimination. Further, tadpoles that face desiccation threat may also not exhibit kin discrimination behavior. Tests were conducted on tadpoles of the above two species at two developmental stages (Gosner Stages 28-30 and 34-36 to reveal their association choice with sibs and non-sibs. Tadpoles of H. temporalis associated with both familiar (reared with sibs and unfamiliar (reared in isolation sibs in early but not in later stages of development. Tadpoles of S. breviceps showed no association preference with sibs (familiar or unfamiliar in both early and later stages. The findings on H. temporalis suggest that kin discrimination between sib from non-sib may be benficial during early stages of development that takes place in flowing streams and it may be less important in later stages of development taking place in pools of water bodies that face desiccation. Absence of kin recognition in S. breviceps is associated with their lack of natural aggregation and perennial desiccation threat of the ephemeral ponds. We suggest that kin discrimination behavior in tadpoles is related to their social habits and hydroperiod of their habitat.

  14. Espermiogênese em Eupemphix nattereri (Anura, Leiuperidae: aspectos ultra-estruturais Spermiogenesis in Eupemphix nattereri (Anura, Leiuperidae: ultrastructural aspects

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    Rodrigo Zieri

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A maturação dos espermatozóides envolve um extenso e complexo processo que começa com a proliferação e diferenciação das espermatogônias, passa pela meiose e finaliza com a espermiogênese. Nessa fase, eventos envolvendo alterações morfológicas e bioquímicas transformam espermátides em espermatozóides. Aspectos ultra-estruturais da espermiogênese e do espermatozóide do anuro Eupemphix nattereri (Steindachner, 1863 foram analisados através de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. A espermiogênese envolve condensação da cromatina e alongamento nuclear, com visível eliminação de citoplasma. Nesse estágio, grande quantidade de microtúbulos e glicogênio podem ser visualizados no citoplasma das células de Sertoli, rodeando cada espermátide. O espermatozóide é fusiforme e o acrossomo forma uma capa na região anterior do núcleo. A bainha mitocondrial é encontrada ao redor da porção proximal da cauda. A cauda apresenta o axonema com o modelo 9+2, uma fibra axonemal, a membrana ondulante e ausência de bastão axial. Esta organização apresenta algumas similaridades com espécies do gênero Physalaemus (Leiuperidae como P. biligonigerus (Cope, 1861, P. gracilis (Boulenger, 1883 e P. fuscomaculatus (Steindachner, 1864.Spermatozoon maturation involves an extense and complex process beginning with proliferation and differentiation of spermatogonia, passing through meiosis, and ending with spermiogenesis. The later event involves morphological and biochemical changes in order to transform spermatids into spermatozoa. Ultrastructural aspects of the spermiogenesis and testicular spermatozoa of the anuran Eupemphix nattereri (Steindachner, 1863 were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Spermiogenesis involves chromatin condensation and nuclear elongation, with visible cytoplasmic elimination. At this stage, a large amount of microtubules and glycogen can also be seen in Sertoli cell cytoplasm, surrounding each spermatid. The spermatozoon is fusiform and the acrossome forms a cap in the anterior region of the nucleus. A mitochondrial sleeve is found around the proximal portion of the tail. The tail presents an axonema with a 9+2 pattern, a justaxonemal fiber, an undulating membrane, and the absence of axial rod. This organization shows some similarities with species of the genus Physalaemus (Leiuperidae such as P. biligonigerus (Cope, 1861, P. gracilis (Boulenger, 1883 and P. fuscomaculatus (Steindachner, 1864.

  15. Redescrição de Ischnocnema holti (Amphibia: Anura: Brachycephalidae Redescription of Ischnocnema holti (Amphibia, Anura

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    Mariane Targino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ischnocnema holti (Cochran, 1948 foi descrito com base em apenas um único indivíduo coletado no início do século XX no alto da Serra do Itatiaia. Neste trabalho é apresentada uma redescrição dessa espécie, baseada em 25 exemplares (18 machos e sete fêmeas, coletados na localidade-tipo. Medições dos exemplares, descrição da coloração em vida e aspectos de sua biologia e reprodução, observados em campo são incluídos. Ischnocnema holti é uma espécie de porte médio (comprimento rostro-anal: 13,5 a 31,7mm, vista dorsal e lateral arredondada e discos adesivos dos dedos bem desenvolvidos, e muita plasticidade em relação a sua morfologia e coloração. Encontra-se no grupo de I. lactea (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923 e é aqui comparada com alguns de seus componentes.Ischnocnema holti (Cochran, 1948 was described based on a single specimen collected in the beginning of 20th century at the Itatiaia mountain range. In this study, we present a redescription of the species based on 25 specimens (18 males and seven females collected at the type locality. Measurements of the specimens, description of its color pattern in life, as well as aspects of its biology and reproduction are presented. Ischnocnema holti is a medium-sized species (snout-vent length from 13.5 to 31.7mm, snout shape rounded in dorsal and lateral views and digital discs well developed. Ischnocnema holti presents considerable plasticity in its morphology and coloration. This study includes I. holti in the I. lactea (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923 group and compares it with some of its components.

  16. Demografía poblacional de Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae y Physalaemus biligonigerus (Anura: Leiuperidae en agroecosistemas de la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina

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    Clarisa Bionda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento de la agricultura produce pérdida del hábitat natural, con consecuencias para la biodiversidad de los anfibios. Se analizó la demografía poblacional de dos especies de anfibios en agroecosistemas de la provincia de Córdoba, Rhinella arenarum y Physalaemus biligonigerus. Los muestreos se realizaron en tres agroecosistemas y en un cuarto sitio, no afectado por cultivos. Los individuos se capturaron utilizando trampas de caída viva y relevamientos visuales. Con los datos de abundancia se estimó la supervivencia para cada clase de edad y con las tasas de supervivencia y fertilidad poblacional, se construyeron matrices de Leslie para obtener una proyección cuantitativa del tamaño poblacional. Las proyecciones poblacionales fueron favorables para el sitio SM2 y desfavorables para los sitios cultivados. Los agroecosistemas son ambientes posiblemente inhóspitos para la reproducción y supervivencia de las especies estudiadas. Particularmente se ven afectados aquellos estadios acuáticos del ciclo de vida de estas especies, debido al deterioro de los cuerpos de agua en estas áreas. Se reconocieron efectos especie-específicos de los ecosistemas agrícolas, ya que P. biligonigerus resultó la especie más afectada. Se sugiere un deterioro ambiental producido por cultivos extensivos de soja, lo que impactaría la demografía de las poblaciones de anuros.

  17. Bioacústica del canto de advertencia de Ceratophrys cranwelli (Anura: Ceratophrydae Bioacoustic of the advertisement call of Ceratophrys cranwelli (Anura: Ceratophryidae

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    Julián Alonso Valetti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El canto de advertencia en anuros es especie-específico, pero como los anfibios son organismos ectotermos, las variables acústicas pueden estar afectadas por la temperatura. Se describe el canto de advertencia de Ceratophrys cranwelli cuantificando el efecto de la temperatura sobre sus componentes. Los cantos se grabaron in situ y se registró la temperatura del sitio de canto. Un total de 54 cantos de 18 individuos fueron digitalizados y analizados. Las variables temporales de cada canto de advertencia fueron medidas a partir de los oscilogramas y sonogramas, mientras que el análisis de frecuencia se realizó a través del espectrograma. Mediante análisis de correlación múltiple se identificaron las variables acústicas temperatura-dependientes y el efecto de la temperatura fue cuantificado mediante los modelos de regresión lineal obtenidos. C. cranwelli posee un canto de advertencia simple pulsado. Las variables Duración del canto, Duración del pulso e Intervalo entre pulso decrecen con la temperatura, en tanto que la Tasa de pulsos está directamente correlacionada con la temperatura. Las variables temperatura-dependientes fueron estandarizadas a 25ºC según el modelo de regresión lineal obtenido para ser comparadas con datos publicados. Se demuestra la importante variabilidad que produce la temperatura en algunas propiedades del canto de C. cranwelli.The advertisement call plays an important role in the life history of anuran amphibians, mainly during the breeding season. Call features represent an important character to discriminate species, and sound emissions are very effective to assure or reinforce genetic incompatibility, especially in the case of sibling species. Since frogs are ectotherms, acoustic properties of their calls will vary with temperature. In this study, we described the advertisement call of C. cranwelli, quantifying the temperature effect on its components. The acoustic emissions were recorded during 2007 using a DAT record Sony™ TCD-100 with stereo microphone ECM-MS907 Sony™ and tape TDK™ DAT-RGX 60. As males emit their calls floating in temporary ponds, water temperatures were registered after recording the advertisement calls with a digital thermometer TES 1 300±0.1°C. Altogether, 54 calls from 18 males were analyzed. The temporal variables of each advertisement call were measured using oscillograms and sonograms and the analyses of dominant frequency were performed using a spectrogram. Multiple correlation analysis was used to identify the temperature-dependent acoustic variables and the temperature effect on these variables was quantified using linear regression models. The advertisement call of C. cranwelli consists of a single pulse group. Call duration, Pulse duration and Pulse interval decreased with the temperature, whereas the Pulse rate increased with temperature. The temperature-dependent variables were standardized at 25°C according to the linear regression model obtained. The acoustic variables that were correlated with the temperature are the variables which emissions depend on laryngeal muscles and the temperature constraints the contractile properties of muscles. Our results indicated that temperature explains an important fraction of the variability in some acoustic variables (79% in the Pulse rate, and demonstrated the importance of considering the effect of temperature in acoustic components. The results suggest that acoustic variables show geographic variation to compare data with previous works.

  18. Locomotion and survival of two sympatric larval anurans, Bufo gargarizans (Anura: Bufonidae and Rana zhenhaiensis (Anura: Ranidae, after partial tail loss

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    Guo-Hua Ding

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tadpoles of two sympatric anurans, Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842 and Rana zhenhaiensis Ye, Fei & Matsui, 1995, were used as model organisms to examine the effects of different levels of tail loss on swimming performance and survival. On average, B. gargarizans tadpoles were shorter and had smaller tails and body mass than R. zhenhaiensis. After 75% tail loss, the survival rate of experimental and control B. gargarizans tadpoles, and of experimental tadpoles of the two species, differed significantly; the number of tadpoles surviving a complete impairment of their swimming ability did not differ between B. gargarizans and R. zhenhaiensis. After 50% tail loss, the swimming performance (swimming speed, maximum distance and number of stops of the two species was significantly affected. However, the adverse influence of tail loss on the swimming speed of B. gargarizans tadpoles was greater compared to R. zhenhaiensis tadpoles. Our data indicates that a 50% tail loss results in swimming costs for B. gargarizans and R. zhenhaiensis tadpoles, and that 75% tail loss decreases the survival rate of B. gargarizans tadpoles. Therefore, we conclude that tadpoles of different species and with the same degree of tail loss use distinctive strategies to improve individual fitness in the face of predator pressure.

  19. Helmintos parásitos de Telmatobius jelskii (Peters (Anura, Leptodactylidae de Lima, Perú Helminth parasites of Telmatobius jelskii (Peters (Anura, Leptodactylidae from Lima, Peru

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    José Iannacone

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative research of parasites of 67 endemic frog Telmatobius jelskii (Peters, 1863 collected from Laguna Tucto (76°46'11"W, 10°39'11"S where Pativilca River is originated was conducted, and was located in the Province of Oyon, high Andean area from the Department of Lima, Peru during September-October 2000. Of the frogs collected, 23 were females and 44 males. Male showed a length between 5.2 ± 0.5 cm (range = 4.0-6.4 cm and female between 5.5 ± 1 cm (range = 3.9-7.6 cm and were not found differences between both sexes. 86 specimens of parasite and three species in total during all the survey were collected. 28 hosts were infected (41.8%. twenty-five hosts (37.3% showed infection with one parasite species, and three (4.5% had two parasite species. Three parasite species were found: Gorgoderina parvicava Travassos, 1922 (Digenea: Gorgoderidae (Prevalence = 40.3%; mean Intensity = 3.1; mean abundance = 1.2, Cylindrotaenia americana Jewell, 1916 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae (Prevalence = 3%; mean Intensity = 1; mean abundance = 0.02 and Aplectana hylambatis (Baylis, 1927 (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae (Prevalence = 3%; mean Intensity = 1; mean abundance = 0.02. G. parvicava had an overdispersed distribution and was the dominant species. An effect of sex and length with prevalence and mean abundance of infection of G. parvicava was not found. The relationship of helminthes parasites with T. jelskii is discussed. G. parvicava and C. americana are new records for T. jelskii.

  20. Morfometria testicular durante o ciclo reprodutivo de Dendropsophus minutus (Peters (Anura, Hylidae Testicular morphometry during the reproductive cycle of Dendropsophus minutus (Peters (Anura, Hylidae

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    Lia R. de S. Santos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreve o ciclo reprodutivo de machos de Dendropsophus minutus (Peters, 1872 com base na análise da morfometria testicular e a correlação com parâmetros climáticos. Cinqüenta indivíduos foram coletados em São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo. Após as análises macroscópicas, os testículos foram encaminhados à rotina histológica, fixados com Bouin e incluídos em historesina. Cortes de 2 µm foram corados com azul de toluidina 1% e observados ao microscópio. Testículos de D. minutus são órgãos pequenos (comprimento 1,90 ± 0,13 mm, esbranquiçados, com forma oval e encontrados na cavidade abdominal. Estão localizados na extremidade cranial dos rins e apresentam assimetria quanto a sua posição. Estatisticamente não há variação intra-individual no comprimento e no peso dos testículos, bem como na área e diâmetro dos lóculos seminíferos. Quanto à histologia testicular, foi possível identificar ao longo do ano nos lóculos seminíferos, todos os tipos celulares da linhagem espermatogênica, caracterizando uma gametogênese contínua, corroborada por fatores ecológicos e comportamentais. Informações sobre a morfometria testicular e ciclo reprodutivo tem importante valor biológico para anuros de regiões neotropicais.This study describes the male reproductive cycle of Dendropsophus minutus (Peters, 1872 based on testicular morphometric analysis, related to climatic conditions. Fifty individuals where collected in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo. After macroscopic analysis, the testes were submitted to histological routine, fixed with Bouin, embedded in historesin. Sections of 2 µm were stained with 1% toluidine blue and observed to the microscope. The testes of D. minutus are small organs (length 1.90 ± 0.13 mm, whitish, oviform and found in the abdominal cavity. They are located in the cranial extremity of the kidneys and present asymmetry as far as position. According to statistical analyses, there is no intra-individual variation in length and weight of the testes, as well as in the area and diameter of the seminiferous locules. Concerning the testicular histology, it was possible to identify, throughout the year, in seminiferous locules, all the cellular types from the spermatogenic lineage, characterizing a continuous gametogenesis, corroborated by ecological and behavioral factors. Information about testicular morphometry and reproductive cycle has important biological value for anurans in the neotropics.

  1. Descrição do girino de Physalaemus cicada (Anura, Leiuperidae Description of the tadpole of Physalaemus cicada (Anura, Leiuperidae

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    Washington L. da S. Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O girino de Physalaemus cicada Bokermann, 1966 é descrito com base em exemplares obtidos a partir de uma desova coletada em uma poça temporária na Fazenda Olho D’água localizada no município de São João do Cariri, Estado da Paraíba. No estágio 37, o girino possui comprimento total de 17,5mm, corpo correspondendo a 42% do comprimento total, oval em vista dorsal, levemente deprimido em vista lateral e fórmula das fileiras de dentes labiais 2(2/3(1. A presença de um disco oral com o lábio posterior estreito presente no girino de P. cicada possibilita diferencia-lo dos demais girinos das outras espécies pertencentes ao gênero Physalaemus.The tadpole of Physalaemus cicada Bokermann, 1966 is described with base in specimens obtained through a spawning collected in a temporary pond in Fazenda Olho D’água, municipality of São João do Cariri, state of Paraiba, Brazil. In the stage 37, the tadpole attains a total length of 17,5 mm, body corresponding to 42% of the total length, oval in dorsal view, slightly depressed in lateral view and tooth row formula 2(2/3(1. The presence of an oral disc with a narrow posterior labium makes possible differentiates the tadpole of P. cicada from other species of Physalaemus.

  2. Dieta y parasitismo de Leptodactylus diptyx (Anura: Leptodactylidae del nordeste argentino Diet and parasitism of Leptodactylus diptyx (Anura: Leptodactylidae from Northeastern Argentina

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    Víctor Hugo Zaracho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversos aspectos de la historia natural de especies del grupo Leptodactylus marmoratus son escasamente conocidos y la poca información existente aborda principalmente los de la biología reproductiva. El objetivo de este trabajo es aportar información acerca de la dieta y del parasitismo de poblaciones de Leptodactylus diptyx del nordeste argentino. Para el estudio trófico, se analizó el contenido estomacal e intestinal de 22 individuos adultos, mientras que para el estudio parasitario, se examinó el tubo digestivo de 40 individuos. Se registró un total de 91 presas, clasificadas en 17 categorías, entre los cuales los himenópteros formícidos fueron los más numerosos (45% y frecuentes (55%. Otras presas importantes fueron colémbolos, coleópteros y arañas. Los valores de diversidad de presas (índice de Shannon y amplitud del nicho (índice de Levins fueron 2.06 y 4.29, respectivamente. El 57.5% de los individuos examinados resultó positivo al examen de endoparásitos, entre los que se incluyen nematodos y acantocefalos. Leptodactylus diptyx representa un nuevo hospedador para los nematodos Cosmocerca sp. y Aplectana sp.The natural history of the Leptodactylus marmoratus species group is poorly known, and there is scarce available information mainly referred to aspects of the reproductive biology. The objective of this study was to contribute to the knowledge of the trophic biology and of the parasitism of Leptodactylus diptyx populations from Northeastern Argentina. The stomach and intestine contents of 22 adult individuals were analyzed for the trophic study, while the alimentary canal and body cavity of 40 individuals were examined for parasites. The diet consisted of 17 different prey items, including mainly Formicidae hymenopterans, collembolans, coleopterans, and spiders. The values of prey diversity calculated by Shannon's index (H' and niche amplitude by Levins's index were 2.06 and 4.29, respectively. The 57.5% of the examined individuals were parasitized by nematodes and acanthocephalans. Leptodactylus diptyx is a new host for Cosmocerca sp. and Aplectana sp. nematodes.

  3. [Population demography in Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae) and Physalaemus biligonigerus (Anura: Leiuperidae) in agroecosystems in the province of Córdoba, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bionda, Clarisa; Lajmanovich, Rafael; Salas, Nancy; Martino, Adolfo; di Tada, Ismael

    2013-09-01

    The advancing agricultural frontier has led to an important loss of natural habitats, with significant consequences for biodiversity. The demography for two species of anurans, Physalaemus biligonigerus and Rhinella arenarum, both associated with agricultural systems in the central region of the C6rdoba Province, were analyzed and compared in this study. Four sites were sampled: three agroecosystems with different alteration degrees (C1, C2 and SM1) and a fourth site not cultivated (SM2). The sampling was conducted during two reproductive periods, from September 2008 to April 2009 and September 2009 to April 2010. Individuals were captured using live pitfall traps for the metamorphic, juveniles and adults; and visual encounter survey, for the capture of eggs and larvae. With the abundance data, the survival for each age class was estimated using the KNM method (Kiritani Nakasuki Manly). With survival rates and fertility population, Leslie matrices were elaborated to obtain a quantitative projection of the population size. Altered environments showed lower eggs and larvae survival. Population projections were favorable in the site SM2 and were less favorable and a tendency to extinction, in sites dominated by crops. This study showed that the agroecosystems of this region are possibly inhospitable environments for reproduction and survival of the species studied. The aquatic stages in the life cycle of both species would be the more affected, since water bodies deterioration is present or may occur in those areas. We can recognize species-specific effects of agricultural ecosystems; P. biligonigerus was the most affected species, possibly because of their life histories and habitat requirements. We suggested that environmental degradation caused by the cropland in the central region of Argentina would impact on the demographics of the anuran populations in the area.

  4. Status Sistematico del Género Geobatrachus Ruthven 1915 (amphibia: Anura Status Sistematico del Género Geobatrachus Ruthven 1915 (amphibia: Anura

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    Ardila Robayo María Cristina

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Se recopilan las diferentes asignaciones en cuanto a familia que han sido formuladas hasta la fecha para el género Geobatrachus. Mediante la recolección de una serie de topótipos virtuales de este género monotípico, endémico del sector noroeste del macizo de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Departamento del Magdalena, Colombia, se elaboró una descripción detallada y se procedió a un análisis de 67 características morfológicas, a las cuales se adicionó el numero cromosómico (2n = 20, seleccionadas conforme a las utilizadas por LYNCH y HEYER en sus estudios sobre clasificación y filogenia de los Leptodactylidae, las cuales, después de un examen inicial, se consideraron significativas, a fin de precisar las afinidades de este género, Simultáneamente con la recolección del material se adelantaron observaciones ecológicas que permitieron establecer que su distribución se opera en el área de bosques húmedos, frecuentemente nublados entre los 1.750 y 3.000 metros, y que la especie tolera situaciones paraclimácicas (plantaciones artificiales de Cupressus sp., Pinus sp. y piso cubierto de Pennisetum clandestinum y que sus hábitos son netamente terrestres y semifosoriales. De los caracteres externos cabe destacar una gran variabilidad cromática individual; el integumento desprovisto de adaptaciones xeromorfas y de complejos glandulares especializados, indica una adaptación hacia un hábitat higrófilo, añadidos a la extremada reducción del primer dedo pedial. Las características esqueléticas determinadas mediante disección y tinción diferencial, muestran un tipo generalizado sin reducción pronunciada de elementos craneales, con presencia de dientes no pedicelados en la arcada maxilar, sin evidencias de adaptaciones fragmóticas ni fosoriales ni ornamentación epicraneal o exóstosis, aparato hioideo generalizado, 8 vértebras presacras sin fusión ni imbricación y con procesos transversos especializados, sacro con diapófisis no dilatadas, astrágalo y calcáneo fusionados, tarsales reducidos a dos.  Es llamativa la presencia de falanges terminales en forma de T, lo cual podría sugerir una pre adaptación hacia un régimen arborícola (o bien la derivación a partir de un antecesor arborícola, Una condición firmisternal plena de la cintura escapular y la notable reducción de la clavícula insinuarían una aparente relación con los Microhylidae.  La musculatura muestra un M. intermandibularis con rafé medial, la inserción del M. adductor mandibularis subexternus de tipo "S", el tendón distal del M. semitendinosus con recorrido ventral a los Mm. graciles; el M. adductor longus con inserción en la rodilla, y la ausencia de una cabeza accesoria o tendón del M. glutaeus magnus (carácter único dentro de los Neobatrachia, pero verosímilmente debido a pérdida secundaria. Una de las características más llamativas (en contra de registros previos de renacuajos atribuidos tentativamente a esta especie es la confirmación de un desarrollo directo que a priori podría suponerse dada la reducida postura de huevos megalecitales en lugares protegidos y que corresponde a una adaptación hacia ambientes de montaña con escasa oportunidad para un desarrollo larvario acuático.  Los 68 caracteres utilizados fueron codificados numéricamente según sus condiciones primitivas o derivadas, según criterios aceptados en la literatura reciente, tanto para facilitar las comparaciones como para intentar reconstruir la filogenia según principios de taxonomía numérica.  Fácilmente por exclusión se descartó la posibilidad de que Geobatrachus representase conforme a la firmisternia un elemento de los Microhyloidea, y la ausencia de elementos esqueléticos interfalangeales, excluyen cualquier posible afinidad con los Centrolenidae, Hylidae y Pseudidae, aun cuando ninguna característica, salvo la ausencia del tendón accesorio del M. glutaeus magnus (interpretada como pérdida secundaria excluye la asignación de Geobatrachus a los Bufonoidea. Ninguna característica en particular permite referir el genero a los Myobatrachidae ni a los Heleophrynidae, la ausencia de órgano de Bidder (única característica diagnóstica entre Leptodactylidae y Bufonidae elimina, aparte de la afinidad mostrada por cladogramas experimentales, la familia Bufonidae de toda su consideración adicional. En cuanto a los Brachycephalidae (sensu McDIARMID 1969, si bien aparentemente derivados de los Leptodactylidae, diferencias tales como la estructura de la cintura escapular  y el desarrollo de osteodermos dorsales los excluyen de consideración.  El análisis combinatorial realizado mediante cladogramas confirma que los Phyllobatinae (= Dendrobatidae son derivados de los Elosiini, y que los acreditan mejor en el rango de subfamilia dentro de los Leptodactylidae que como familia separada. Aun cuando la firmisternia en particular puede sugerir afinidades con Geobatrachus, ciertamente este género al igual que Rhinoderma no pueden ser asignados a los Phyllobatinae. El análisis de los caracteres de Rhinoderma indica que este género se derivó del antecesor inmediato de los Leptodactylinae o de elementos antiguos de este grupo y que, al igual que en el caso de los Phyllobatinae, bien pueden involucrarse dentro de los Leptodactylidae como una sub familia, a menos que se recurra a dividir dicha familia en varios grupos de jerarquía familiar. No obstante Geobatrachus difiere ampliamente de los Rhinodermatinae y, como lo indican los cladogramas elaborados, muestra su máxima afinidad con los Eleutherodactylini, si bien representa un género bien diferenciado dentro de la tribu quizás como resultado de la evolución in situ de un "stock" antiguo de aislamiento desde el Terciario, que ha sobrevivido en condiciones favorecidas por la ecuabilidad climática, Hipótesis basadas en las evidencias paleogeográficas y paleoclimáticas  disponibles, así como con forme a la posible dicotomía fundamental de los llamados grupos ,.Alpha" y “Beta" de los Eleutherodactylus son discutidas.  Con exclusión de Euparkerella y Holoaden los Eleutherodactylini (cuya diferenciación inicial quizás tuvo lugar en el S. E. de Brasil, los restantes géneros del grupo se hallan estrechamente relacionados entre sí, aun cuando una revisión exhaustiva de Eleutherodactylus que eventualmente puede llegar a subdividir este género, puede llevar a conclusiones que si bien no se aparten substancialmente de las interpretaciones aquí ofrecidas, si conduzcan a una interpretación mejor fundada de la que las hipótesis planteadas o incluso a una reducción del número de géneros actualmente reconocidos.  Tanto la firmisternia como la pérdida del tendón accesorio del M. glutaeus magnus y el número comparativamente reducido de cromosomas con ausencia de acrocéntricos, sugieren que Geobatrachus represente una línea extrema de especialización dentro de los Eleutherodactylini.  La evidencia aportada por el análisis cladístico no favorece considerar a los Eleutherodactylinae como derivados de Adenomera o de un antecesor inmediato común con este género y, por tanto, la adquisición del desarrollo directo dentro de los Leptodactylidae parece haber ocurrido independientemente al menos en dos líneas filéticas. The different familial assignations proposed until now for Geobatracbus are compiled. Through the collection of a virtual topotypical series of this monotypic genus, which is endemic of the NW section of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Massif (Departamento del Magdalena, Colombia, a detailed description was made.  67 morphological characters were selected according to the criteria used by Lynch and Heyer in their studies on the philogeny and classification of the leptodactylid frogs, and such characters, compled with the chromosome number (2n =20 were analysed, after initial examination of their meaning in order to ascertain the affinities of the genus. Field work carried on in the region showed that its distribution cover the area of humid forest, with frequent mists, at. 1.750-3.000 m., and pointed also that the species tolerates paraclimacic situations (in plantations of Cupressus sp., and Pinus sp. , and their habits are exclusively terrestrial and semifossorial.  Among the external characters it can be emphasized the high degree of chromatic individual variation, the absence of xeromorphic adaptations and specialized glandular complexes in the skin, which point towards an adaptation towards a hygrophilic habitat, added to the extreme reduction of the first pedial digit. The skeleton characters, studied through dissection and differential staining, show a generalized type without pronounced reduction in the cranial elements, the occurrence of non-pedicellated teeth in the maxillary arch, the absence of either phragmotic or fossorial adaptations, or epicraneal ornamentation exostosis; a generalized hyoid apparatus; 8 presacral vertebrae without fusion or imbrication, and with specialized transverse processes; no expanded sacral diapophyses, fused talus and calcaneus and only two tarsalia. The T-shaped terminal phalanges might suggest a preadaptation towards an arboreal way of life (or, conversely, an arboreal ancestor; also the full firmisternal condition of the pectoral girdle and the striking clavicular reduction which would show an apparent relationship with the Microhylids. The following muscular characters are noteworthy: M. intermandibularis with medial raphe, the type "s" insertion of the M. adductor mandibularis subexternus, the distal tendon of M. semitendinosus passing ventral to the Mm. graciles, the insertion over the knee of the M. adductor longus, and the absence of an accessory head (or tendon in the M. glutaeus magnus (an unique condition among the Neobatrachia, presumably due to secondary loss.  In contrast with previous wrong assertions, a direct development (without free larval stages was confirmed, a condition expected a priori since the eggs are megalecythal and laid in reduced numbers in protected places, in accordance with the scare opportunities for aquatic larval development in mountain environments.  Each of the 68 used characters were codified according to their primitive or derived represented stages, following criteria adopted in the recent literature, with the aim of using principles of numeric taxonomy to at temp the reconstruction of the phylogeny. The possibility that Geobatrachus could belong to the Microhyloidea due to its firmisternal condition, was easily discarded, and the absence of intercalary skeletal pieces in the digits, prevent also any possible close relationship with the Centrolenidae, Hylidae and Pseudidae, although there are no characters (except for the absence of an accessory tendon in the M. glutaeus magnus, regarded as a secondary loss that might exclude the inclusion of Geobatrachus in the Bufonoidea. No particular characters allow the inclusion of the genus either in the Myobatrachidae or the Heleophrynidae.  The absence of Bidder's organ (which is the only diagnostic difference between the Leptodactylidae and the Bufonidae eliminate the family Bufonidae from any further consideration, a conclusion that is supported also by experimental cladograms. Distinctive features such as the morphology of the pectoral girdle and the presence of dorsal osteoderms, characteristic of the Brachycephalidae (sensu McDIARMID, 1969 also exclude this family from consideration.   The combinational analysis made through cladograms confirms the presumptive derivation of the Phyllobatinae (= Dendrobatidae from the Elosiini, and leads to the conclusion that this group might be better regarded as a subfamily of the Leptodactylidae than as a family of their own. Although, in particular the firmisternal condition might suggest affinities of Geobatrachus with the Phyllobatinae, neither this genus or Rhinoderma can be referred to this subfamily. The analysis of the characters of Rhinoderma shows rather conclusively that this genus was derived from the immediate anc estor of the Leptodactylinae or from early members of this group, and under such circumstances Rhinoderma can equally be included in the Leptodactylidae as a representative of a monotypic subfamily. Otherwise, the Leptodactylidae should be divided in several groups of familial hierarchy. However, Geobatrachus widely differs from the Rhinodermatinae, and, as its clearly shown by the cladograms, shows its greater affinity with the Eleutherodactylini, although Geobatrachus is rather outstandingly different from the other genera of this tribe. This condition might be due to the in situ evolution of an early stock, isolated since the Tertiary, that has survived in favored conditions due to climatic equability. Several hypothesis based on the available paleogeographic and paleoclimatic evidence are discussed, in conjunction with the possible fundamental dichotomy of the" Alpha" and" Beta" groups of the genus Eleutberodactylus. With the noticeable exceptions of the genera Euparkerella and Holoaden, the Eleutherodactylini (perhaps originally issued in S. E. Brazil represent a group of closely related genera, although an exhaustive review of Eleutherodactylus might eventually lead to the splitting of this genus, and to conclusions that agreeing essentially with the conclusions here offered, could otherwise provide basis for a better interpretation of the facts here presented, or even to a reduction of the currently recognized genera for this tribe.  Both, the firmisterny, the loss of the accessory tendon of the M. glutaeus magnus, and the caryotipe (with comparatively reduced number of chromosomes and the lack of acrocentrics, suggest that Geobatrachus represents an extreme line of specialization among the Eleutherodactylini. The evidence afforded by the cladistic analysis gives no support to regard the Eleutherodactylini are derived from Adenomera or an immediate common ancestor with this genus, and so the acquisition of the direct development among the Leptodactylidae seens to have occurred independently at least in two phyletic lines.

  5. Niche overlap and resource partitioning among five sympatric bufonids (Anura, Bufonidae from northeastern Argentina

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    Marta I. Duré

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The niche overlap and resource partitioning were analyzed for five sympatric bufonids from Northeastern Argentina: Rhinella schneideri, R. bergi, R. fernandezae, R. granulosa, and Melanophryniscus cupreuscapularis. The primary objectives were to analyze the diet and pattern of coexistence relative to the microhabitats among species. The bufonids, which are primarily terrestrial, exhibited a preference for small, hard prey such as formicids or coleopterans. The smallest species preferably consumed ants, while R. schneideri preferred beetles. Significant differences were detected for the diets of these five species. In addition, significant overlap in the trophic niche was noted for all species except between R. granulosa and R. schneideri. Studying the diet behaviors and trophic parameters of sympatric species provides important data for understandingthe community and for the development of conservation guidelines.

  6. Eye ontogeny in Pleurodema bufoninum: A comparison with Pleurodema somuncurense (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volonteri, Clara; Barrasso, Diego A; Cotichelli, Leonardo; Basso, Néstor G; Hermida, Gladys N

    2017-07-01

    Vision is one of the main sensory systems in amphibians, and the eye structure is highly associated with habitat conditions. The ontogeny, as well as the adult structure, of the eye has been studied in only a few species. The life change after metamorphosis is accompanied by changes in the visual environment. The aim of this work is to describe the eye ontogeny of Pleurodema bufoninum and to compare it with that of Pleurodema somuncurense. Specimens of both Pleurodema species were processed for histology analysis at different stages of development, including the tadpole, postmetamorphic, and adult forms. Eyes in both Pleurodema species are composed of the 3 tunics, tunica fibrosa, tunica vasculosa, and tunica interna, and the lens. Additionally, in both, the iris presents a projection on its dorsal and ventral free ends that screens the cornea. This structure has been reported in the eye of several anuran species and is called the umbraculum, meniscus or pupillary nodule. Our results show that the structures related to light capture (retina and lens) appear early in larval life, while the components of the terrestrial-life eye (scleral cartilage, specialized cornea, eyelids, nictitating membrane, and Harderian's gland) do not develop until the metamorphic climax, when the tadpole leaves the water. The adult eyes of P. bufoninum and P. somuncurense are very similar in structure and development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A new species of Scinax from the Purus-Madeira interfluve, Brazilian Amazonia (Anura, Hylidae)

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    Ferrão, Miquéias; Moravec, Jiří; de Fraga, Rafael; de Almeida, Alexandre Pinheiro; Kaefer, Igor Luis; Lima, Albertina Pimentel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new tree frog species of the genus Scinax from the interfluve between the Purus and Madeira rivers, Brazilian Amazonia, is described and illustrated. The new species is diagnosed by medium body size, snout truncate in dorsal view, ulnar and tarsal tubercles absent, nuptial pads poorly developed, skin on dorsum shagreen, dorsum light brown with dark brown spots and markings, white groin with black spots, anterior and posterior surfaces of thighs black, and iris bright orange. The advertisement call consists of a single short note, with 16−18 pulses and dominant frequency at 1572−1594 Hz. Tadpoles are characterized by body ovoid in dorsal view and triangular in lateral view, tail higher than body, oral disc located anteroventrally and laterally emarginated, dorsum of body uniformly grey-brown with dark brown eye-snout stripe in preservative, fins translucent with small to large irregular diffuse dark brown spots. PMID:29118625

  8. Nest site selection by Hypsiboas faber(Anura, Hylidae in Southern Brazil

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    André L. Luza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Male gladiator frogs of Hypsiboas Wagler, 1830 build nests on available substrate surrounding ponds and streams where female spawn eggs during the breeding period. Although gladiator frogs seem to show plasticity in the way they construct their nests, there is no study reporting if these species present preferences about microhabitat conditions for nest-building (mainly under subtropical climate. Predation pressure and environmental conditions have been considered major processes shaping the great diversity of reproductive strategies performed by amphibians, but microhabitat conditions should explain where to build a nest as well as how nest looks. This study aimed to test nest site selection for nest-building by Hypsiboas faber(Wied-Neuwied, 1821, determining which factors are related to nest site selection and nest features. The survey was conducted at margins of two permanent ponds in Southern Brazil. Habitat factors were evaluated in 18 plots with nest and 18 plots in the surrounding without nest (control, describing vegetation structure and heterogeneity, and substrate characteristics. Water temperature was measured inside the nest and in its adjacency. Nest features assessed were area, depth and temperature. Habitat characteristics differed between plots with and without nest. Microhabitat selected for nest-building was characterized by great vegetation cover and height, as well as shallower water and lower cover of organic matter in suspension than in plots without nest. Differences between temperature inside nest and in its adjacency were not observed. No relationship between nest features and habitat descriptors was evidenced. Results revealed that Hypsiboas faber does not build nests anywhere. Males seem to prefer more protected habitats, probably avoiding predation, invasion of conspecific males and inclement weather. Lack of differences between temperature inside- and outside-nest suggest that nest do not improve this condition for eggs and tadpole development. Nest architecture was not related to habitat characteristics, which may be determined by other factors, as nest checking by females before amplexus. Nest site selection should increase offspring survival as well the breeding success of Hypsiboas faber.

  9. La posición de Pleurodema borellii en las razas sexuales (Anura: Leptodactylidae

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    Rengel, Dora

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex differentiation was studied in tadpoles of Pleurodema borellii which lives in different geographic area of Argentina, fixed at various stages of metamorphosis. Gonads are sexually undifferentiated till the larva reach about 20 mm body length stage. Nevertheless sex differentiations occurs before metamorphosis take place, at about 30 mm. body length stage; gonads show macroscopic and microscopic difference at this time. Therefore P. borellii seems to belong to a "differentiated race".

  10. Antibacterial, modulatory activity of antibiotics and toxicity from Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002) (Anura: Bufonidae) glandular secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Débora Lima; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana Bezerra; Santos, Antonia Thassya Lucas Dos; Machado, Antonio Judson Targino; Araujo Filho, João Antonio de; Dias, Diógenes de Queiroz; Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra da; Saraiva, Rogério de Aquino; Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar de; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Costa, José Galberto Martins; Ferreira, Felipe Silva; Alves, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega; Almeida, Waltécio de Oliveira

    2017-08-01

    The increase in microorganisms with resistance to medications has caused a strong preoccupation within the medical and scientific community. Animal toxins studies, such as parotoid glandular secretions from amphibians, possesses a great potential in the development of drugs, such as antimicrobials, as these possess bioactive compounds. It was evaluated Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002) glandular secretions against standard and multi-resistant bacterial strains; the effect of secretions combined with drugs; and determined the toxicity using two biologic in vivo models, and a in vitro model with mice livers. Standard strains were used for the determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), while for the modulatory activity of antibiotics, the clinical isolates Escherichia coli 06, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 03 and Staphylococcus aureus 10 were used. Modulatory activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution method with aminoglycosides and β-lactams as target antibiotics. The secretions in association with the antibiotics have a significant reduction in MIC, both the aminoglycosides and β-lactams. The toxicity and cytotoxicity results were lower than the values used in the modulation. R. jimi glandular secretions demonstrated clinically relevant results regarding the modulation of the tested antimicrobials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. A new species of Melanophryniscus (Anura, Bufonidae from the Campos Gerais region of Southern Brazil

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    Giovanna C. Steinbach-Padilha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Melanophryniscus is described from the Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, municipality of Ponta Grossa, Paraná State,Southern Brazil. The Parque Estadual de Vila Velha is located in the Campos Gerais region, an environment dominated by natural grasslands with patches of Araucaria Forest. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its small size (12.8-14.0 mm snout-vent length in adult males and unique color pattern of copper brown dorsum covered with small spinulose black warts; ventral surface black finely spotted with white, posterior abdomen and ventral surfaces of the forearm, hand and foot with red stains. The new species is nocturnal and breeds in the water accumulated in the leaf-axils of phytotelmata.

  12. The first report of Cosmocerca parva (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae from Colostethus fraterdanieli (Anura: Dendrobatidae in Colombia

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    Sandra M. Sánchez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We discovered the nematode parasite, Cosmocerca parva, in C. fraterdanieli; this is the first record of this nematode species inColombia and C. fraterdanieli is a novel host of C. parva.

  13. Validity of photo-identification technique to analyze natural markings in Melanophryniscus montevidensis (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Ernesto Elgue

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Individual identification is useful for answering a variety of biological questions about animal life histories. Most of the techniques used to mark amphibians are invasive and can cause negative effects, compromising individual survivorship and biasing studies. Photo-identification consists in the identification of specimens based on photographic records of unique color-design patterns. This technique has been used with success in several amphibian species. Melanophryniscus montevidensis is an endangered anuran species inhabiting the Uruguayan Atlantic coast. The general pattern of coloration is black with red and yellow blotches on the belly. In this study, we validated the technique of photo-identification assisted by software for individual recognition in M. montevidensis using natural markings. Field trips were performed over 16 months during which, the ventral color pattern of specimens was photographed. The photos were edited and analyzed with the Wild-ID 1.0 software for photographic reconnaissance. An efficiency of 100% was obtained in the visual recognition and 90% in the detection of recaptures using the software. The use of photo-identification using natural marks is an effective technique in this species, because the color pattern of the belly was highly variable among individuals and remained unchanged in individuals over the 16 month period. In this evaluation the use of software for photo-identification was necessary for the treatment of large databases.

  14. Scanning electron microscopy of the oral apparatus and buccopharyngeal cavity of Atelognathus salai larvae (Anura, Neobatrachia

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    Dinorah D. Echeverría

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe the horny structures of the buccal apparatus and buccopharyngeal cavity of A. salai by means ofscanning electron microscopy (SEM, and to compare them to those of the other known species of Atelognathus and related genera.

  15. Observations on the ecology of Pseudis bolbodactyla (Anura, Pseudidae in central Brazil.

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    Reuber A. Brandão

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on diet, activity, habitat use, and anti-predator behavior are presented for a population of Pseudis bolbodactyla in central Brazil. The most common diet items were diurnal plant-associated insects. Pseudis bolbodactyla shows both diurnal and nocturnal activity and uses mainly areas with aquatic vegetation (submerged and emergent. Individuals detect predators Visually and through vibrations in the water.

  16. An elusive new species of Marsupial Frog (Anura: Hemiphractidae: Gastrotheca from the Andes of northern Peru

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    William E. Duellman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of marsupial frog, genus Gastrotheca, is described from high-elevation grasslands in the Andes in Región Amazonas in northernPeru, where even calling males are well hidden in deep moss. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its unique color pattern that includes a narrow, blackbordered, yellow middorsal stripe. The species apparently belongs to the Gastrotheca plumbea Group, which ranges in the Andes from northern Colombia to northern Peru.

  17. Visual communication, reproductive behavior, and home range of Hylodes dactylocinus (Anura, Leptodactylidae

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    Patrícia Narvaes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the signaling, reproductive and courtship behaviors of the diurnal stream-dwelling frog Hylodes dactylocinus. The repertoire of visual signals of H. dactylocinus includes foot-flagging, leg-stretching, body movements, and toe-wiggling. The visual signals are performed only by males and are used to defend territories against intruders and to attract females. Home rangesize varied from 0.12 to 13.12 m2 for males (N = 44, and from 0.45 to 7.98 m2 for females (N = 24; residency time varied from one to 12 months for males, and from two to 10 months for females. During the courtship of H. dactylocinus the male gives an encounter call towards an approaching female, touches her snout, and guides her to a previously dug nest. After oviposition, the female leaves the nest and returns to her own home range; the male remains calling after concealing the nest entrance.

  18. A reappraisal of the geographic distribution of Bokkermannohyla sazimai (Anura: Hylidae through morphological and bioacoustic approaches.

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    Thiago Ribeiro de Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The type locality of Bokermannohyla sazimai is in the municipality of São Roque de Minas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In this paper, we reassess the geographic distribution of B. sazimai and provide additional information on variation of several other non-topotypic populations in comparisons of topotypic populations (São Roque de Minas and Vargem Bonita, on the basis of three lines of evidence (color-pattern, morphometry and vocalizations. Differences obtained among all populations with respect to color pattern, morphometry and advertisement calls were attributed to interpopulational variation, so that this variation was not enough to recognize any population as a distinctive lineage in comparison with the topotypic information available on B. sazimai.

  19. Exceptional diversity of Stefania (Anura, Cryptobatrachidae II: Six species from Mount Wokomung, Guyana

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    Ross D. MacCulloch

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Six species of Stefania were collected on Mount Wokomung, a tepui in the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana. This unusually high diversity of Stefania is similar to that found on a neighbouring tepui, Mt. Ayanganna. The two tepuis support slightly different habitats. Conspecific Stefania from the two mountains differ somewhat in body size, toe disc size and colouration. Specimens from Mt. Wokomung are used to expand descriptions and distributions of some species.

  20. Description of a new Allobates (Anura, Dendrobatidae from the eastern Andean piedmont, Venezuela

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    César Luis Barrio-Amorós

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new nurse frog in the genus Allobates (Dendrobatidae from Río Negro, Municipio Córdoba, Estado Táchira, in western Venezuela. This species is a leaflitter inhabitant of primary and secondary lowland rainforest at altitudes from 400 to 1000 m. The new species is similar to the species in the Allobates marchesianus group and is restricted to the slopes of the western Venezuelan Andes. It differs from its congeners by having an irregularly spotted dorsalpattern, diffuse oblique lateral stripe, ventrolateral stripe and yellowish belly on males.

  1. Flesh fly myiasis (Diptera, Sarcophagidae in Peruvian poison frogs genus Epipedobates (Anura, Dendrobatidae

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    Mattias Hagman

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this note we review records of myiasis in poison frogs collected in various locations in Peru during 1982-2005 and present evidence that larger and medium-sized poison frogs (Epipedobates are infected with sarcophagid fly larvae.

  2. Oviposition and development in the glass frog Hyalinobatrachium orientale (Anura: Centrolenidae

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    Mohsen Nokhbatolfoghahai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition and external embryonic developmental features are described in the Tobago glass frog, Hyalinobatrachium orientale. Egg clutches are nearly always laid on the undersides of leaves (one exception; usually leaves of Heliconia sp. are used, but Philodendron and palms may be used in the absence of Heliconia. Clutches contain 28.0 ± 5.3 eggs (mean ± SD and eggs are 1.86 ± 0.11 mm in diameter. The behavior of one amplectant pair was followed for more than five hours; the pair rotated several times around a small area of the leaf depositing eggs in a tight spiral formation. External embryonic features were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Surface ciliation is extensive up to the time of hatching when it is lost; external gills are short and a cement gland is absent. Hatching gland cells were detectable on the anterodorsal surface of the head from Day 4 after deposition and persisted until at least Day 10, and hatching occurred between Days 9 and 16. During this period, progressive development in tail length, surface pigmentation, intestinal coiling, and oral disc features was observed. Post-hatching larvae reared for six weeks grew 37% in length and tripled in weight, but remained at Gosner Stage 25.

  3. Two new species of Amazophrynella (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) from Loreto, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Rommel R; Carvalho, Vinícius Tadeu De; Ávila, Robson W; Farias, Izeni Pires; Gordo, Marcelo; Hrbek, Tomas

    2015-04-08

    Amazophrynella is a taxonomically poorly known bufonid genus with a pan-Amazonian distribution. A large part of this ambiguity comes from taxonomic uncertainties regarding the type species A. minuta. In this study we compare morphological and molecular data of topotypic specimens of A. minuta with all other nomical congeneric species. Based on these comparisons, we describe two new species. The first species, A. amazonicola sp. nov., differs from other recognized congeners by having a tip of snout with a small triangular protrusion (in dorsal and lateral view), spiculated body and basal webbing on fingers I and II. The second species, A. matses sp. nov., differs from congeners by the smallest snout to vent length of the genus, edges of nasal protrusion dilated and elliptical shape palmar tubercles. The two species are allopatric, where the first species is known to be associated with white sand forests (=campinaranas), while the second inhabits upland (=terra firme) forests. Both species are diagnosable by a series of substitutions in the 16S rDNA, and both species are highly divergent from their sister taxa (p-distances range from 7-14%).

  4. A new species of Noblella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the humid montane forests of Cusco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenazzi, Alessandro; Uscapi, Vanessa; von May, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Noblella is described from the humid montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Specimens were collected at 2330-2370 m elevation in Madre Selva, near Santa Ana, in the province of La Convención. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Noblella by having a broad, irregularly shaped, white mark on black background on chest and belly. The new species further differs from known Peruvian species of Noblella by the combination of the following characters: tympanic membrane absent, small tubercles on the upper eyelid and on dorsum, tarsal tubercles or folds absent, tips of digits not expanded, no circumferential grooves on digits, dark brown facial mask and lateral band extending from the tip of the snout to the inguinal region. The new species has a snout-to-vent length of 15.6 mm in one adult male and 17.6 mm in one adult female. Like other recently described species in the genus, this new Noblella inhabits high-elevation forests in the Andes and likely has a restricted geographic distribution.

  5. A new species of Noblella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae from the humid montane forests of Cusco, Peru

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    Alessandro Catenazzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Noblella is described from the humid montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Specimens were collected at 2330–2370 m elevation in Madre Selva, near Santa Ana, in the province of La Convención. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Noblella by having a broad, irregularly shaped, white mark on black background on chest and belly. The new species further differs from known Peruvian species of Noblella by the combination of the following characters: tympanic membrane absent, small tubercles on the upper eyelid and on dorsum, tarsal tubercles or folds absent, tips of digits not expanded, no circumferential grooves on digits, dark brown facial mask and lateral band extending from the tip of the snout to the inguinal region. The new species has a snout-to-vent length of 15.6 mm in one adult male and 17.6 mm in one adult female. Like other recently described species in the genus, this new Noblella inhabits high-elevation forests in the Andes and likely has a restricted geographic distribution.

  6. A new species of Thaumastosaurus (Amphibia : Anura) from the Eocene of Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rage, J. C.; Roček, Zbyněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2007), s. 329-336 ISSN 0272-4634 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Lower Tertiary * South-America * genus * affinities * Paleogene * England * Quercy * basin * fauna Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.376, year: 2007

  7. Bioacústica del canto de advertencia de Ceratophrys cranwelli (Anura: Ceratophrydae

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    Julián Alonso Valetti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El canto de advertencia en anuros es especie-específico, pero como los anfibios son organismos ectotermos, las variables acústicas pueden estar afectadas por la temperatura. Se describe el canto de advertencia de Ceratophrys cranwelli cuantificando el efecto de la temperatura sobre sus componentes. Los cantos se grabaron in situ y se registró la temperatura del sitio de canto. Un total de 54 cantos de 18 individuos fueron digitalizados y analizados. Las variables temporales de cada canto de advertencia fueron medidas a partir de los oscilogramas y sonogramas, mientras que el análisis de frecuencia se realizó a través del espectrograma. Mediante análisis de correlación múltiple se identificaron las variables acústicas temperatura-dependientes y el efecto de la temperatura fue cuantificado mediante los modelos de regresión lineal obtenidos. C. cranwelli posee un canto de advertencia simple pulsado. Las variables Duración del canto, Duración del pulso e Intervalo entre pulso decrecen con la temperatura, en tanto que la Tasa de pulsos está directamente correlacionada con la temperatura. Las variables temperatura-dependientes fueron estandarizadas a 25ºC según el modelo de regresión lineal obtenido para ser comparadas con datos publicados. Se demuestra la importante variabilidad que produce la temperatura en algunas propiedades del canto de C. cranwelli.

  8. Distribución geográfica de Scinax nasica (Cope, 1862 (Anura: Hylidae

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    Rozzi Giménez, Cristina

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available República Argentina, Provincia de Córdoba, Dpto. Unión, Alto Alegre (32º 22' S- 62º 53' W, 14 ejemplares colectados por Cristina Rozzi Giménez y Fernando Gallego entre abril de 1998 y abril de 2000. Depositados en la Colección de Zoología de Vertebrados, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Río Cuarto, Argentina, números ZVUNRC: 4353, 4354, 4356, 4390, 4411, 4655, 4756, 5123, 6136, 6216, 6217, 6466, 6762, 7118. Dpto. General San Martín, Villa María (32º 25' S y 63º 15' W, un ejemplar, número ZVUNRC: 4329 de la misma especie.

  9. Color polymorphism in Leptodactylus fuscus (Anura, Leptodactylidae): A defensive strategy against predators?

    OpenAIRE

    Kakazu, Sérgio [UNESP; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Haddad, Célio F.B. [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    Color patterns are strongly related to defensive strategies in anurans. Some anurans present more than one morphotype. Leptodactylus fuscus, for example, present two morphotypes (with and without vertebral white line). The proportion of each pattern in nature is different, whereby there are always more individuals without stripes. Therefore, we speculated if this difference in the observed color pattern is due to unequal predation pressures (i.e. stronger over the striped morphotype), and/or ...

  10. [Historic record of Gastrotheca ovifera (Anura: Hemiphractidae): decline evidence in Venezuelan coastal cloud forests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera-Leal, Javier; Acevedo, Aldemar; Pérez-Sánchez, Antonio; Vega, Jorge; Manzanilla, Jesús

    2011-03-01

    G. ovifera is a marsupial frog of the cloud and riparian forest from Western and Litoral sections of the Venezuelan Cordillera de la Costa (820-2 000m). This amphibian is considered as an endangered species by the IUCN Species Red List, due to its population decline in pristine and well preserved environments. This conservation status is based on anecdotic interpretations. We collected disperse data from museum records (national and international) and explored the possible association between collection records and precipitation data available for the Henri Pittier National Park (PNHP). Likewise, we carried out a systematic population monitoring of G. ovifera in historic and additional localities among the cloud forest of Rancho Grande, PNHP. We found 106 individuals in 11 zoological collections deposited during 1929-2007. After an effort of 646 hours/person we did not detect G. ovifera individuals in the evaluated localities; as well as no statistical significant associations between the annual precipitation average and the historic records of the species during 1941-1997 period (r = -0.054, p = 0.820, n = 19). We discussed the distribution, fluctuation and population changes of this species, analyzing it conservation status.

  11. Thermal parameters changes in males of Rhinella arenarum (Anura:Bufonidae related to reproductive periods

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    Eduardo Alfredo Sanabria

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of body temperature in ectotherms has a major impact in their physiological and behavioral processes. Observing changes in thermal parameters related with reproduction allows us to better understand how Rhinella arenarum optimizes a thermal resource. The aim of this study was to compare the thermal parameters of this species between breeding and non-breeding periods. In the field, we recorded the body temperature from captured animals, the air temperature, and the temperature of the substrate. In the laboratory, we measured the temperature R. arenarum selected on a thermal gradient and the critical extreme temperatures. The results of our study show variations in thermal parameters between the two situations studied. This species makes efficient use of thermal resources during the breeding period by basking to significantly increase body temperature. Because calling is energetically costly for males, this behavior results in increased efficiency to callers during the breeding period. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 347-353. Epub 2011 March 01.La regulación de la temperatura en ectotérmos tiene gran importancia en los procesos fisiológicos y comportamentales. Los cambios en los parámetros térmicos relacionados con la reproducción nos permiten entender de qué manera Rhinella arenarum optimiza el recurso térmico. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue comparar los parámetros térmicos de la especie entre el periodo reproductivo y no reproductivo. En el campo se registraron la temperatura corporal de los animales capturados, la temperatura del aire y del sustrato. Además, en laboratorio se registro la temperatura selecta en un gradiente térmico. Como así también las temperaturas criticas máxima y mínima. Los resultados de nuestro estudio muestran variaciones de los parámetros térmicos entre ambas situaciones estudiadas. Aparentemente esta especie hace un uso eficiente del recurso térmico durante el periodo reproductivo ya que el basking le permite aumentar considerablemente la temperatura corporal, probablemente este comportamiento esté relacionado con el aumento de la eficacia para emitir el canto durante el periodo de reproducción ya que el mismo es energéticamente costoso para los machos.

  12. The first species of Aplastodiscus endemic to the Brazilian Cerrado (Anura, Hylidae

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    Bianca V.M. Berneck

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Aplastodiscus includes 14 nominal species in four monophyletic groups with occurrence in the Atlantic Forest and Brazilian Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna of South America. A recent study reviewed the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the genus and suggested a third species for the A. perviridis Group. Herein, on the basis of morphology and advertisement call, we describe this species and test its monophyly. The new species is the only Aplastodiscus with endemic occurrence in the Cerrado Biome. In addition, its geographical distribution and conservation status are discussed.

  13. REINFORCEMENT AND REPRODUCTIVE CHARACTER DISPLACEMENT IN GASTROPHRYNE CAROLINENSIS AND G. OLIVACEA (ANURA: MICROHYLIDAE): A REEXAMINATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus-Hills, Jasper J; Littlejohn, Murray J

    1992-08-01

    Tape-recorded advertisement calls of Gastrophryne carolinensis and G. olivacea, obtained in Texas and southern Louisiana, were analyzed by means of an analogue audiospectrograph. Samples were grouped into four areas: allopatric and sympatric for G. carolinensis, and combined adjacent allopatric/shallow sympatric, and sympatric for G. olivacea. Three attributes of the advertisement call (call duration, pulse rate, and dominant frequency) were investigated, with water temperature at the calling site as the independent variable. Values for dominant frequency do not overlap between species, across the full range of recording temperatures, and those of sympatric G. carolinensis are displaced away from those of both groups of G. olivacea (which are very similar)-thus indicating a pattern of geographic variation consistent with reproductive character displacement. There is considerable overlap in the values for duration and for pulse rate of each species when considered alone, but there is only slight overlap of the scatters of points for the pairs of values. For both species, no consistent patterns of correlation were detected between the three attributes of the call and the snout-vent length of the emitter, thus reducing the likelihood that the divergence in calls is due to pleiotropic effects of body size. © 1992 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Reproductive effort and the egg number vs. size trade-off in Physalaemus frogs (Anura: Leiuperidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Arley; Sarroca, Macarena; Maneyro, Raúl

    2008-09-01

    Patterns of reproductive allocation are expected to differ between species according to temporally and spatially variable costs of reproduction. Even when reproductive allocation patterns are the same, species can also differ in how the reproductive effort is allocated between offspring number and size. In this study, we compared the reproductive allocation patterns and the offspring number vs. size trade-off in two frog species, Physalaemus biligonigerus and P. gracilis, using bivariate (standardized major axis) and multiple linear regressions. Both species showed a common slope between body size and reproductive effort and thus a similar allocation pattern although P. biligonigerus has a larger body size (shift along common slope) and makes a lower reproductive effort (shift in intercept) than P. gracilis. We suggest that similar allocation patterns may be related to the shared phenologies of these frogs and that the differences in reproductive effort could represent either an adaptive shift (e.g., change in body space for the clutch) or a historical constraint. There was a negative correlation between fecundity and egg size in P. biligonigerus but not in P. gracilis as predicted by the acquisition-allocation model (Y-model). This study constitutes the first valid test of the Y-model based on recent predictions derived for the trade-off between offspring size vs. number. We conclude that future studies should compare reproductive allocation patterns between species using tests of allometric slopes with appropriate phylogenetic control to detect both adaptive shifts in allocation strategies and correlations with other life-history traits.

  15. Influence of rainfall and temperature on the spermatogenesis of Leptodactylus macrosternum (Anura: Leptodactylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves,Marcio Frazão; Moura,Geraldo Jorge Barbosa de; Tenório,Fernanda das C.M.A.; da Silva Baptista,Josemberg; Lapa Neto,Clovis J.C.; Texeira,Valeria W.; Texeira,Álvaro A.C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the semi-arid environment, the reproductive success of anurans depends on adaptations in their life cycle, which synchronizes with ideal environmental conditions to maximize the number of offspring. In this study changes in the histological and morphometric aspects of the testes of Leptodactylus macrosternum Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926 are characterized, to evaluate the influence of rainfall and temperature on them. Specimens were collected at Horto Florestal Olho d’Água da Bica - HFOB ...

  16. Molecular cloning and expression patterns of the Vasa gene from Rana nigromaculata (Amphibia: Anura

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    Rui Jia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Vasa protein is a member of the DEAD (Asp-Glu-Alu-Asp box family of ATP-dependent RNA helicases. The Vasa gene is specifically expressed in germ-line cells of many metazoans and is known to play a critical role in gametogenesis and reproductive regulation. In this paper, we isolate the full length cDNA sequence of the Vasa gene from the frog Rana nigromaculata Hallowell, 1861. The open reading frame (ORF encoding 398 amino acid residues has nine conserved motifs. According to the similarities at the amino acid sequenceythe phylogenetic analysis of Vasa gene was consistent with the evolution relationships from chordates to mammals. Furthermore, the expression pattern analysis of RnVasa mRNA, using the technique of Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR, showed a high level of transcripts in testis, ovary and kidney, whereas little to no signal was detected in other tissues, which suggests that it may play a role during gametogenesis.

  17. Schellackia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae of the brazilian tree-frog, Phrynohyas venulosa (Amphibia: Anura from Amazonian Brazil

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    I. Paperna

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous stages of a Schellackia species are described in histological sections of the intestine of the tree-frog, Phrynohyas venulosa, from North Brazil. Most oocysts sporulate within the epithelial cells of the gut, but a few were detected in the lamina propria.

  18. Description of a new moss frog from the south-western Cape (Anura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new species of moss frog, genus Arthroleptella, is described from the Kleinrivier mountains of the south-western Cape. It is morphologically indistinguishable from the other three species in the area. The four Cape species are allopatric, each has a unique male advertisement call, and preliminary molecular data shows ...

  19. Leech presence on Iberian Brown Frog, Rana iberica, (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae from north-western Spain

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    César Ayres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of parasitism on Rana iberica by two species of leeches, Batracobdella sp. and Hirudo medicinalis, in a mountainous area of north-western Spain. Conservation implications of high parasite load on small and isolated populations are discussed.

  20. The advertisement call, color patterns and distribution of Ischnocnema izecksohni (Caramaschi and Kisteumacher, 1989 (Anura, Brachycephalidae

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    Pedro P. G. Taucce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischnocnema izecksohni inhabits the gallery forests from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Southern Espinhaço range, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, and it is considered endemic to this region. Its closest related species is I. nasuta according to the original description. We describe the advertisement call of I. izecksohni based on specimens recorded and collected at the municipality of Nova Lima, state of Minas Gerais, distant about 10 km straight line from its type locality. The advertisement call consists of a group of notes emitted sporadically without a regular interval between the calls. Call duration (n = 36 calls in four individuals ranged from 1.03 to 1.85 s (= 1.52 ± 0.21 s and the call rise time from 0.66 to 1.52 s (= 1.16 ± 0.25 s, with 34-57 notes per call (= 47.42 ± 6.03. Peak frequency ranged from 2250 to 2625 Hz, the dominant frequency from 1317.8 to 3128.0 Hz and interval between notes from 22.00 to 41.00 ms (= 28.63 ± 0.03 ms. From the examination of herpetological collections, morphological and bioacoustical data we extended the species known distribution ca. 200 km eastward, to ten new localities, all of them outside the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, at the Mantiqueira mountain range. We analyzed color patterns and we find some dorsal patterns not described at the original description of I. izecksohni. We also make some comments concerning the taxonomic status of I. izecksohni and I. nasuta.

  1. Additional record of Resplendent Bush Frog Raorchestes resplendent (Anura: Rhacophoridae from the Western Ghats, India

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    J. Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Raorchestes resplendens, a Critically Endangered rhacophorid frog until now is known only from the type locality, the Anamudi summit in Eravikulam National Park, southern Western Ghats, Kerala. This species has been sighted from a hitherto unknown location, but within the Eravikulam National Park. The current sighting location of the species is about 20km north-east to the type locality. This report increased the range of R. resplendens and also emphasis the cryptic behavior and microclimate requirement of this species. This sighting once again signifies the importance for the conservation of the high-altitude grasslands of Western Ghats.

  2. Platyhelminthes, Trematoda, Digenea Carus, 1863: Distribution extension in Argentina and new Anura and Ophidia hosts

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    Lunaschi, L. I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to increase the knowledge on the diversity of digenean parasites in ophidians andanurans from northeastern Argentina. Specimens of the snakes Eunectes notaeus, Hydrodynastes gigas, Micrurus corallinus,Philodryas sp. and Sibynomorphus sp., and the anurans Rhinella schneideri, Phyllomedusa azurea and Leptodactylus latranswere examined. Twelve digenean species were identified: Catadiscus corderoi Mañé-Garzón, 1958, Catadiscus dolichocotyle(Cohn, 1903, Catadiscus uruguayensis Freitas & Lent, 1939, Choledocystus elegans (Travassos, 1926, Gorgoderina parvicavaTravassos, 1922, Haplometroides buccicola Odhner, 1911, Heterodiplostomum lanceolatum Dubois, 1936, Infidum similisTravassos, 1916, Mesocoelium monas (Rudolphi, 1819, Plagiorchis luehei (Travassos, 1927, Telorchis clava (Diesing, 1850and Travtrema stenocotyle (Cohn, 1902. New host species and/or new locality records from Argentina are presented.

  3. Three new species of the microhylid frog genus Choerophryne (Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae from Papua New Guinea

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    Rainer Günther

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe three new species of the microhylid frog genus Choerophryne from the mountains and foothills of southern and northeastern Papua New Guinea. All three species lack elongated snouts and all are arboreal calling from elevated perch sites between ~1 and 10 m above the forest floor. Advertisement calls and habitat preferences are described for each species. Descriptions of these three frogs brings the total number of Choerophryne recognized to 34 but numerous additional species undoubtedly remain to be discovered in poorly-surveyed mountainous regions of New Guinea.

  4. A new species of tree frog genus Rhacophorus from Sumatra, Indonesia Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidy, Amir; Kurniati, Hellen

    2015-04-14

    A small-sized tree frog of the genus Rhacophorus is described on the basis of 18 specimens collected from three different localities on Sumatra Island, Indonesia. Rhacophorus indonesiensis sp. nov. is divergent from all other Rhacophorus species genetically and morphologically. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of: the presence of black spots on the ventral surfaces of the hand and foot webbing, an absence of vomerine teeth, a venter with a white kite-shaped marking, raised white spots on the dorsum or on the head, and a reddish brown dorsum with irregular dark brown blotches and distinct black dots. With the addition of this new species, fifteen species of Rhacophorus are now known from Sumatra, the highest number of species of this genus in the Sundaland region. However, with the increasing conversion of forest to oil palm cultivation or mining, the possibility of the extinction of newly described or as yet undiscovered species is of great concern.

  5. A New Species of Frog (Anura: Dicroglossidae Discovered from the Mega City of Dhaka.

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    Mohammad Sajid Ali Howlader

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of frog of the genus Zakerana discovered from the urban core of Dhaka, Bangladesh, one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Although the new species is morphologically similar to the geographically proximate congeners in the Bangladeshi cricket frog group, we show that it can be distinguished from all congeners on the basis of morphological characters, advertisement calls and variation in two mitochondrial DNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA. Apart from several diagnostic differences in body proportions, the new species differs from other Zakerana species in having a flattened snout (from ventral view projecting over the lower jaw, and diagnostic trapezoid-shaped red markings on the vocal sac in males. Molecular genetic analyses show that the new species is highly divergent (3.1-20.1% sequence divergence from all congeneric species, and forms a well-supported clade with its sister species, Zakerana asmati. The discovery of a new amphibian species from the urban core of Dhaka together with several recent descriptions of new amphibian species from Bangladesh may indicate that more amphibian species remain to be discovered from this country.

  6. Kin discrimination in cannibalistic tadpoles of the Green Poison Frog, Dendrobates auratus (Anura, Dendrobatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Heather M. Gray; Kyle Summers; Roberto Ibáñez D.

    2009-01-01

    Cannibalizing a related individual can reduce the inclusive fitness of the cannibal. Hence, mechanisms that allow a tadpole to recognize and modify its behavior toward kin may reduce the inclusive fitness costs of cannibalism. Alternatively, ecological factors may cause preferential treatment of kin to be too costly to be favored by selection. We tested these two predictions in the Green Poison Frog, Dendrobates auratus. The effect of kinship on larval cannibalism was examined through a serie...

  7. Kin discrimination in cannibalistic tadpoles of the Green Poison Frog, Dendrobates auratus (Anura, Dendrobatidae

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    Heather M. Gray

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Cannibalizing a related individual can reduce the inclusive fitness of the cannibal. Hence, mechanisms that allow a tadpole to recognize and modify its behavior toward kin may reduce the inclusive fitness costs of cannibalism. Alternatively, ecological factors may cause preferential treatment of kin to be too costly to be favored by selection. We tested these two predictions in the Green Poison Frog, Dendrobates auratus. The effect of kinship on larval cannibalism was examined through a series of kin-discrimination trials. The behavior of large tadpoles was observed when presented with two small, tethered tadpoles, one a clutchmate and one an unrelated tadpole. In these simultaneous presentation tests, tadpoles displayed a significant preference for attacking kin. In a series of timed trials, pairs of unequally sized tadpoles were placed together in containers. The majority (70% of large tadpoles took less than24 hr to consume the small tadpole. Kinship did not affect the survival time of the small tadpole. Our results are consistent with observations that D. auratus is an indiscriminate predator. As conspecifics may be serious competitors, their swift elimination would be an advantage, particularly in the small, nutrient-poor poolsused by this species.

  8. Chromosome analysis of five Brazilian species of poison frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paula Camargo; Aguiar, Odair; Serpieri, Flávia; Lima, Albertina Pimentel; Uetanebaro, Masao; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2011-04-01

    Dendrobatid frogs have undergone an extensive systematic reorganization based on recent molecular findings. The present work describes karyotypes of the Brazilian species Adelphobates castaneoticus, A. quinquevittatus, Ameerega picta, A. galactonotus and Dendrobates tinctorius which were compared to each other and with previously described related species. All karyotypes consisted of 2n = 18 chromosomes, except for A. picta which had 2n = 24. The karyotypes of the Adelphobates and D. tinctorius species were highly similar to each other and to the other 2n = 18 previously studied species, revealing conserved karyotypic characteristics in both genera. In recent phylogenetic studies, all Adelphobates species were grouped in a clade separated from the Dendrobates species. Thus, we hypothesized that their common karyotypic traits may have a distinct origin by chromosome rearrangements and mutations. In A. picta, with 2n = 24, chromosome features of pairs from 1 to 8 are shared with other previously karyotyped species within this genus. Hence, the A. picta data reinforced that the C-banding pattern and the NOR location are species-specific traits in the genus Ameerega. Moreover, the Ameerega monophyletism proposed by previous phylogenetic studies indicates that the karyotypic differences among species in this genus result from a long divergence time.

  9. Blood and urine physiological values in farm-cultured Rana catesbeiana (Anura: Ranidae in Argentina

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    José A Coppo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 302 samples of healthy farm-cultured Rana catesbeiana specimens (9-21 months-old, 50- 350 g liveweight, 50% each sex from the north-east of Argentina, were analyzed through spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, densitometry, refractometry and microscopy in order to obtain blood and urine normal values. Confidence intervals (pCon el propósito de obtener valores normales sanguíneos y urinarios, 302 muestras de ejemplares sanos de Rana catesbeiana del nordeste argentino (9-21 meses de edad, 50-350 g de peso vivo, 50% de cada sexo, fueron analizados por espectrofotometría, electroforesis, densitometría, refractometría y microscopía. Fueron obtenidos intervalos de confianza (p<0.05 para hematocrito (28.6-31.6%, eritrocitos (0.40-0.44 T/L, VCM (686-732 fL, hemoglobina (6.41-7.20 g/dL, HCM (151-164 pg, CHCM (22.6-24.0%, leucocitos (18.7-22.3 G/L, neutrófilos (58.4-63.4%, linfocitos (23.9-29.8%, monocitos (2.1-3.8%, eosinófilos (4.6-7.0%, basófilos (2.9-4.1%, tiempo de sangría (289-393s, tiempo de coagulación (452- 696s, tiempo de protrombina (76-128s, densidad urinaria (1.0061-1.0089 g/mL, pH urinario (6.38-6.96, fibrinógeno (0.59-0.99 g/dL, proteínas totales (4.19-4.49 g/dL, albúmina (1.49-1.67 g/dL, alfa-1 globulina (0.20-0.24 g/dL, alfa-2 globulina (0.48-0.54 g/dL, beta globulina (0.68-0.77 g/dL, gamma globulina (1.28-1.42 g/dL, relación albúmina/globulinas (0.50-0.58, creatinina (4.09-5.56 mg/L, urea (76.1-92.4 mg/L, ácido úrico (11.5-15.4 mg/L, triglicéridos (0.34-0.52 g/L, colesterol total (0.56-0.67 g/L, C-HDL (0.03-0.05 g/L, C-LDL (0.34-0.44 g/L, alfa lipoproteína (6.01-8.67%, beta lipoproteína (91.3-93.9%, glucosa (0.45-0.54 g/L, Na (116-121 meq/L, K (3.42- 3.81 meq/L, Cl (100-116 meq/L, Ca (7.98-8.61 mg/dL, P (8.31-9.36 mg/dL, Mg (2.26-2.55 mg/dL, Fe (105-178 ug/dL, ALP (144-170 IU/L, ALT (10.0-14.8 IU/L, AST (42.8-53.4 IU/L, GGT (7.8-10.6 IU/L, LDH (99-135 IU/L, CHE (151-185 IU/L y CPK (365-500 IU/L. Algunos intervalos fueron semejantes a los obtenidos en anfibios, aves o mamíferos, pero otros resultaron muy diferentes. Estos parámetros son útiles para evaluar estados sanitario, metabólico y nutricional de la rana toro en cautiverio.

  10. B-chromosomes in two Brazilian populations of Dendropsophus nanus (Anura, Hylidae

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    Lilian R. Medeiros

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the presence of B-chromosomes in two populations of Dendropsophus nanus (= Hyla nana Boulenger, 1889 from São Paulo State, Brazil. Such chromosomes were observed in 4 out of 43 specimens (9.3% and in 9 out of 15 specimens (60% from the municipalities of Nova Aliança and Botucatu, respectively. The karyotype 2n = 30 + 1B found in D. nanus was similar to that of other species with 2n = 30 chromosomes, except for the presence of an additional small telocentric chromosome. In one specimen from Botucatu, cells with one to three extra chromosomes were observed. These B-chromosomes appeared as univalent in meiosis I and did not bear a nucleolar organizer region or exhibit constitutive heterochromatin.

  11. New Osornophryne (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) from the Atlantic Versant of the Andes in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Two species of the little known genus Osornophryne are described from the Atlantic (Amazonian) versant of the Andes in Ecuador. O. guacamayo spec. nov. occurs at 2100 m, has well developed cranial ridges, rather peculiar feet with toes IV and V of about equal length and much longer than the others.

  12. A new species of Scinax from the Purus-Madeira interfluve, Brazilian Amazonia (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrão, Miquéias; Moravec, Jiří; de Fraga, Rafael; de Almeida, Alexandre Pinheiro; Kaefer, Igor Luis; Lima, Albertina Pimentel

    2017-01-01

    A new tree frog species of the genus Scinax from the interfluve between the Purus and Madeira rivers, Brazilian Amazonia, is described and illustrated. The new species is diagnosed by medium body size, snout truncate in dorsal view, ulnar and tarsal tubercles absent, nuptial pads poorly developed, skin on dorsum shagreen, dorsum light brown with dark brown spots and markings, white groin with black spots, anterior and posterior surfaces of thighs black, and iris bright orange. The advertisement call consists of a single short note, with 16-18 pulses and dominant frequency at 1572-1594 Hz. Tadpoles are characterized by body ovoid in dorsal view and triangular in lateral view, tail higher than body, oral disc located anteroventrally and laterally emarginated, dorsum of body uniformly grey-brown with dark brown eye-snout stripe in preservative, fins translucent with small to large irregular diffuse dark brown spots.

  13. The choice of bromeliads as a microhabitat by Scinax argyreornatus (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederassi, J; Lima, M S C S; Peixoto, O L; Souza, C A S

    2012-05-01

    The association of anurans to bromeliads presents different degrees of interaction such as: eventual, obligatory and bromeligen. The frog species Scinax argyreornatus shows a regular association with these plants. The goal of this study is to characterise the degree of association between the frog S. argyreornatus to different species of bromeliads. We identified which species of bromeliad is regularly associated with S. argyreornatus and recognised which factors interfere with this association preference. We analysed the Concentration of Relative Dominance of frogs per bromeliad species. As possible criteria for frog association preference to different bromeliads species we established the analysis of leaves number, length and width, number of leaf axils, stored water in the axils, pH and relative humidity, among other organographic components. Our observations were analyzed by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test. We also evaluated the preference for association by the constancy of Bodenheimer. The correlation matrix indicated that the relative humidity is the factor responsible for the frog-bromeliads association, except for Aechmea sp.. However Aechmea sp. was the species with greater constancy of occupation followed by Quesnelia arvensis and Neoregelia johannis. According to our statistical results, Aechmea sp. and Q. arvensis are not different regarding organographic parameters, but differ from N. johannis. Our observations suggest that the bromeliads organographic structure and the relative humidity are key conditions which influence the preferences of S. argyreornatus to bromeliad species, while the other features showed no correlation.

  14. Systematics of the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex (Anura, Hylidae) from Ecuador and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Santiago R.; Venegas, Pablo J.; Toral, Eduardo; Morley Read; Diego A. Ortiz; Manzano, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We present a new phylogeny, based on DNA sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, for frogs of the genus Osteocephalus with emphasis in the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex. Genetic, morphologic, and advertisement call data are combined to define species boundaries and describe new species. The phylogeny shows strong support for: (1) a basal position of Osteocephalus taurinus + Osteocephalus oophagus, (2) a clade containing phytotelmata breeding species, and (3) a clade that corresponds to the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex. Our results document a large proportion of hidden diversity within a set of populations that were previously treated as a single, widely distributed species, Osteocephalus buckleyi. Individuals assignable to Osteocephalus buckleyi formed a paraphyletic group relative to Osteocephalus verruciger and Osteocephalus cabrerai and contained four species, one of which is Osteocephalus buckleyi sensu stricto and three are new. Two of the new species are shared between Ecuador and Peru (Osteocephalus vilmae sp. n. and Osteocephalus cannatellai sp. n.) and one is distributed in the Amazon region of southern Peru (Osteocephalus germani sp. n.) We discuss the difficulties of using morphological characters to define species boundaries and propose a hypothesis to explain them. PMID:23166473

  15. Taxonomic revision and phylogenetic position of Osteocephalus festae (Anura, Hylidae) with description of its larva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Santiago R.; Toral, Eduardo; Venegas, Pablo J.; Barnes, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Osteocephalus festae is an Amazonian species recently resurrected from a synonymy with Osteocephalus buckleyi. Because few specimens are known, its morphological variation, diagnostic characters, and distribution are poorly understood. Herein we determine its phylogenetic relationships and provide a complete taxonomic account based on recently collected specimens (adults and larvae) from nine localities in Ecuador and Peru. Osteocephalus festae is most similar to Osteocephalus verruciger from which it differs in having less tuberculate dorsal skin on males, smaller tympanum, and more tooth rows in the oral disk of larvae. A phylogeny based on mitochondrial DNA sequences, genes 12S and ND1, shows that Osteocephalus festae is closely related to Osteocephalus buckleyi, Osteocephalus mutabor and Osteocephalus verruciger. A clade consisting of Osteocephalus festae, Osteocephalus verruciger, and Osteocephalus buckleyi is characterized by stream dwelling tadpoles. Surprisingly, we found paraphyly among Ecuadorian populations of Osteocephalus buckleyi and Osteocephalus verruciger. The causes for paraphyly are unknown but in Osteocephalus buckleyi may result from the existence of cryptic species. PMID:21594044

  16. Terrestrialization, miniaturization and rates of diversification in African frogs (Anura: Phrynobatrachidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrestrialization, the evolution of non-aquatic oviposition, and miniaturization, the evolution of tiny adult body size, have been identified as a key features in the evolution of modern amphibians. This study examines anuran terrestrialization and miniaturization in a phylogenetic context to deter...

  17. Unusually high genetic diversity in the Bornean Limnonectes kuhlii-like fanged frogs (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Masafumi; Kuraishi, Norihiro; Eto, Koshiro; Hamidy, Amir; Nishikawa, Kanto; Shimada, Tomohiko; Yambun, Paul; Vairappan, Charles Santhanaraju; Hossman, Mohamad Yazid Bin

    2016-09-01

    A fanged frog Limnonectes kuhlii was once thought to be wide-ranging in Southeast Asia, but is now confined to its type locality Java through recent phylogenetic studies, which clarified heterospecific status of non-Javanese populations, and monophyly of Bornean populations. However, large genetic differences among Bornean populations suggest occurrence of cryptic species, which we test using dense geographic sampling. We estimated the phylogenetic relationships among samples of Bornean populations together with their putative relatives from the continental Southeast Asia, using 2517bp sequences of the 12S rRNA, tRNA(val), and 16S rRNA of mitochondrial DNA, and 2367bp sequences of the NCX1, POMC, and RAG1 of nuclear genes. In the mtDNA trees, Bornean L. kuhlii-like frogs formed a monophyletic group split into 18 species lineages including L. hikidai, with the deepest phylogenetic split separating L. cintalubang from the remaining species. Almost all of these lineages co-occur geographically, and two to three lineages were found syntopically in each locality. Co-occurrence of more than one lineage may be maintained by differential morphology and microhabitat selection. These syntopic lineages should be regarded as distinct species. Our results clearly indicate that taxonomic revision is urgent to clarify many evolutionary problems of Bornean L. kuhlii-like frogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Visual and acoustic signaling in three species of Brazilian nocturnal tree frogs (Anura, Hylidae

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    Luís Felipe Toledo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual communication seems to be widespread among nocturnal anurans, however, reports of these behaviors in many Neotropical species are lacking. Therefore, we gathered information collected during several sporadic field expeditions in central and southern Brazil with three nocturnal tree frogs: Aplastodiscus perviridis, Hypsiboas albopunctatus and H. bischoffi. These species displayed various aggressive behaviors, both visual and acoustic, towards other males. For A. perviridis we described arm lifting and leg kicking; for H. albopunctatus we described the advertisement and territorial calls, visual signalizations, including a previously unreported behavior (short leg kicking, and male-male combat; and for H. bischoffiwe described the advertisement and fighting calls, toes and fingers trembling, leg lifting, and leg kicking. We speculate about the evolution of some behaviors and concluded that the use of visual signals among Neotropical anurans may be much more common than suggested by the current knowledge.

  19. Temporal and spatial changes in the diet of Hyla pulchella (Anura, Hylidae in southern Uruguay

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    Inés da Rosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we report the diet of a population of the hylid frogHyla pulchella from southeastern Uruguay. We collected the specimens in ponds, where we identified microenvironments defined by the invertebrate assemblage, during one year divided into two seasons (warm and cold. We taxonomically determined 10365 invertebrates belonging to 21 categories in the digestive tracts of frogs. Weestimated the diversity of the diet and alimentary preference according to microenvironments and seasons. We estimated the expected richness of both diet and prey availability using a null model based on the hypergeometric distribution. We performed Discriminant Analyses and Kruskal-Wallis tests to detect changes in prey availability among microenvironments and between seasons. The overall diet in terms of frequencies was composed primarily of arthropods (mainly Araneae, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Coleoptera and in terms of volume, by larvae. The most relevantitems to study the microenvironmental and seasonal variation in the available preys were Araneae, Collembola, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Dictioptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and larvae. Based on the null model curves and preference indexes we inferred positive selection by larvae, Isopoda, Dictioptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera, and negative selection by Collembola and Hymenoptera. The diversityof diet and the null model curves indicated that the diet changes among microenvironments and seasons. This frog may be considered as a middle generalist predator, with some selective behavior and a combined search strategy (active and sit-and-wait. We conclude that the knowledge about the availability of preys is a relevant tool for trophic studies.

  20. Diversity and phylogeography of Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bao-Tian; Zhou, Yu; Min, Mi-Sook; Matsui, Masafumi; Dong, Bing-Jun; Li, Pi-Peng; Fong, Jonathan J

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the species diversity and phylogeography of the Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (the R. dybowskii species complex: R. dybowskii, R. pirica, and R. uenoi) using four mitochondrial and three nuclear loci. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of three distinct species in this complex; using extensive molecular data, we confirm the validity of Rana uenoi recognized as a distinct species, and infer R. dybowskii and R. pirica to be sister species. Also, we included populations from previously unsampled regions in Northeast China, and identified them to be R. dybowskii. While many species in Northeast Asia diverged due to Pleistocene glaciation, divergence-dating analyses inferred older, Miocene speciation in the R. dybowskii species complex. Ancestral area reconstruction identified the orogenic movement of the Changbai Mountain Range and the opening of the Sea of Japan/East Sea being major events influencing allopatric speciation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular and Morphological Study of Leaping Frogs (Anura, Ranixalidae) with Description of Two New Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sonali; Biju, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    The monotypic anuran family Ranixalidae is endemic to India, with a predominant distribution in the Western Ghats, a region that is home to several unique amphibian lineages. It is also one of the three ancient anuran families that diversified on the Indian landmass long before several larger radiations of extant frogs in this region. In recent years, ranixalids have been subjected to DNA barcoding and systematic studies. Nearly half of the presently recognized species in this family have been described over the last three years, along with recognition of a new genus to accommodate three previously known members. Our surveys in the Western Ghats further suggest the presence of undescribed diversity in this group, thereby increasing former diversity estimates. Based on rapid genetic identification using a mitochondrial gene, followed by phylogenetic analyses with an additional nuclear gene and detailed morphological studies including examination of museum specimens, new collections, and available literature, here we describe two new species belonging to the genus Indirana from the Western Ghats states of Karnataka and Kerala. We also provide new genetic and morphological data along with confirmed distribution records for all the species known prior to this study. This updated systematic revision of family Ranixalidae will facilitate future studies and provide vital information for conservation assessment of these relic frogs. PMID:27851823

  2. Toxicity of cypermethrin and deltamethrin insecticides on embryos and larvae of Physalaemus gracilis (Anura: Leptodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macagnan, Natani; Rutkoski, Camila F; Kolcenti, Cassiane; Vanzetto, Guilherme V; Macagnan, Luan P; Sturza, Paola F; Hartmann, Paulo A; Hartmann, Marilia T

    2017-09-01

    It is important to establish the toxicity pesticides against non-target species, especially those pesticides used in commercial formulations. Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used in agriculture despite their toxicity to aquatic animals. In this study, we determine the toxicity of commercial formulation of two pyrethroid insecticides, cypermethrin and deltamethrin, in two life stages of Physalaemus gracilis, a frog that breeds in agricultural ecosystems and has potential contact with pyrethroid pesticides. The acute toxicity test (96 h) was carried out with embryos of stage 17:18 and larvae of stages 24:25. Embryos were more resistant to both pesticides than larvae. In embryo mobility assays, we found that both pesticides caused spasmodic contractions, suggestive of neurological effects. In acute toxicity assays, we found that P. gracilis is more resistant to these insecticides than other studied species.

  3. A new Philautus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from northern Laos allied to P. abditus Inger, Orlov & Darevsky, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Bryan L; Phimmachak, Somphouthone; Seateun, Sengvilay; Sheridan, Jennifer A

    2013-12-03

    The small rhacophorid frog Philautus abditus is geographically restricted to central Vietnam and adjacent Cambodia. Our fieldwork in northern Laos resulted in the discovery of a Philautus species that very closely resembles P. abditus, but is at least 330 km from the nearest known locality of that species. The Laos population differs from P. abditus in mitochondrial DNA and coloration, and is described here as a new species. Philautus nianeae sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by having the combination of a hidden tympanum; no nuptial pads; smooth skin; large black spots on the hidden surfaces of the hind limbs; light venter with dark spotting; and a bronze iris. A second species of Philautus from northern Laos, P. petilus, is transferred on the basis of morphology to the genus Theloderma. 

  4. Agalychnis spurrelli Boulenger (Anura, Hylidae: variación, distribución y sinonimia

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    H. Mauricio Ortega-Andrade

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Agalychnis spurrelli Boulenger, 1913 es el nombre válido más reciente para una especie hylida de rana Phyllomedusina que habita los bosques tropicales de tierras bajas y premontanos del Pacífico, desde el sur de Costa Rica hasta el centro-occidente de Ecuador. Presento datos que apoyan la ubicación de Agalychnis litodryas Duellman & Trueb, 1967 como un sinónimo junior de A. spurrelli. Agalychnis spurrelli es una rana medianamente grande con extensas membranas interdigitales que se distingue de otras especies del género Agalychnis por tener los flancos y extremidades uniformemente amarillo, anaranjado, rosado pálido o morado pálido, sin barras oscuras. Su dorso es verde, comúnmente con verrugas pustulares bordeadas de negro.Agalychnis spurrelli Boulenger, 1913 is the earliest available name for a hylid species of Phyllomedusin frogs that inhabit the lowland and pre-montane tropical forests on the Pacific coast, from southern Costa Rica to central-western Ecuador. I present data that support the placement of Agalychnis litodryas Duellman & Trueb, 1967 as a junior synonym of A. spurrelli. Agalychnis spurrelli is a medium-large sized frog with extensive interdigital membrane that is distinguished from other species of the genus Agalychnis by having the flanks and limbs uniformly yellow, orange, pale rose or pale purple, without dark stripes. The dorsum is green, usually with black-bordered pustular white warts.

  5. Diversity and biogeography of frogs in the genus Amnirana (Anura: Ranidae) across sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsma, Gregory F M; Barej, Michael F; Barratt, Christopher D; Burger, Marius; Conradie, Werner; Ernst, Raffael; Greenbaum, Eli; Hirschfeld, Mareike; Leaché, Adam D; Penner, Johannes; Portik, Daniel M; Zassi-Boulou, Ange-Ghislain; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Blackburn, David C

    2018-03-01

    Frogs in the genus Amnirana (family Ranidae) are widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa and present a model system for exploring the relationship between diversification and geography across the continent. Using multiple loci from the mitochondrial (16S) and nuclear genomes (DISP2, FICD, KIAA2013, REV3L), we generated a strongly supported species-level phylogeny that provides insights into the continental biogeography of African species of Amnirana, which form a monophyletic group within the genus. Species delimitation analyses suggest that there may be as many as seven additional species of Amnirana in Africa. The biogeographic history of Amnirana is marked by several dispersal and vicariance events, including dispersal from the Lower Guinean Forest into the Congo Basin. In addition, phylogeographic patterns within two widespread species, A. albolabris and A. galamensis, reveal undescribed cryptic diversity. Populations assigned to A. albolabris in western Africa are more closely related to A. fonensis and require recognition as a distinct species. Our analyses reveal that the Lower and Upper Guinean Forest regions served as important centers of interspecific and intraspecific diversifications for Amnirana. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stage-dependent toxicity of bisphenol a on Rhinella arenarum (anura, bufonidae) embryos and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkowicz, Ianina R Hutler; Herkovits, Jorge; Pérez Coll, Cristina S

    2014-02-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA) was evaluated on the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum embryos and larvae by means of continuous and pulse exposure treatments. Embryos were treated continuously from early blastula (S.4) up to complete operculum (S.25), during early larval stages and by means of 24 h pulse exposures of BPA in concentrations ranging between 1.25 and 40 mg L(-1) , in order to evaluate the susceptibility to this compound in different developmental stages. For lethal effects, S.25 was the most sensitive and gastrula was the most resistant to BPA. The Teratogenic Index for neurula, the most sensitive embryonic stage for sublethal effects was 4.7. The main morphological alterations during early stages were: delayed or arrested development, reduced body size, persistent yolk plug, microcephaly, axial/tail flexures, edemas, blisters, waving fin, underdeveloped gills, mouth malformations, and cellular dissociation. BPA caused a remarkable narcotic effect from gill circulation stage (S.20) onwards in all the organisms exposed after 3 h of treatment with 10 mg L(-1) BPA. After recovering, the embryos exhibited scarce response to stimuli, erratic or circular swimming, and spasmodic contractions from 5 mg L(-1) onwards. Our results highlight the lethal and sublethal effectsof BPA on R. arenarum embryos and larvae, in the last case both at structural and functional levels. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  7. Description of the previously unknown tadpole of Hyalinobatrachium pulveratum (Anura: Centrolenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Hoffmann

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Egg clutches of the centrolenid Hyalinobatrachium pulveratum were sampled in four lowland locations of Costa Rica. The ontogenesis of the tadpoles of this species is documented by periodical descriptions of the larval stages. Larvae of H. pulveratum change their shape during development because of the non-equal growth of some body parts. Due to these changes the larvae in early stages of development differ considerably to those from later stages. Young larvae have a nearly circular cross-section, whereas later larval stages change to a typical flat shape. Some further morphological characteristics like width of the interorbital distance and the oral disk width change but not proportional to larvae length. Numerous measurements on different larval sizes help to recognize the larvae of H. pulveratum in all stages. The striking bright red hyobranchial sinus is the conspicuous characteristic feature ventrally of the hyobranchial apparatus. The use of allometric values for taxonomic and ontogenetic studies is discussedMasas de huevos de la rana centrolénida Hyalinobatrachium pulveratum fueron recolectados en cuatro localidades de las tierras bajas de Costa Rica. La ontogénesis de los renacuajos de esta especie está documentada por descripciones periódicas de los estadios larvales. La larva de H. pulveratum cambia sus proporciones anatómicas durante el desarrollo debido al crecimiento desigual de algunas partes del cuerpo. Debido a estos cambios las larvas en los estadios tempranos del desarrollo difieren considerablemente de aquellos de los estadios tardíos. Las larvas jóvenes tienen un corte transversal casi circular, mientras que las larvas mayores cambian a la forma plana típica. Algunas otras características morfológicas como el ancho de la distancia interorbital y el ancho del disco oral cambian pero no proporcionalmente con la longitud de la larva. Mediciones numerosas de los diferentes tamaños larvales ayudan a reconocer las larvas de H. pulveratum en todos los estadíos. La característica ventral más conspicua es el sino hiobranquial rojo y brillante que cubre ventralmente el aparato hiobranquial. Se discute el uso de valores alométricos y de los estudios ontogénicos

  8. New material of Beelzebufo, a hyperossified frog (Amphibia: Anura from the late cretaceous of Madagascar.

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    Susan E Evans

    Full Text Available The extant anuran fauna of Madagascar is exceptionally rich and almost completely endemic. In recent years, many new species have been described and understanding of the history and relationships of this fauna has been greatly advanced by molecular studies, but very little is known of the fossil history of frogs on the island. Beelzebufo ampinga, the first named pre-Holocene frog from Madagascar, was described in 2008 on the basis of numerous disarticulated cranial and postcranial elements from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian Maevarano Formation of Madagascar. These specimens documented the presence of a hyperossified taxon that differed strikingly from extant Malagasy frogs in its large size and heavy coarse cranial exostosis. Here we describe and analyse new, articulated, and more complete material of the skull, vertebral column, and hind limb, as well as additional isolated elements discovered since 2008. μCT scans allow a detailed understanding of both internal and external morphology and permit a more accurate reconstruction. The new material shows Beelzebufo to have been even more bizarre than originally interpreted, with large posterolateral skull flanges and sculptured vertebral spine tables. The apparent absence of a tympanic membrane, the strong cranial exostosis, and vertebral morphology suggest it may have burrowed during seasonally arid conditions, which have been interpreted for the Maevarano Formation from independent sedimentological and taphonomic evidence. New phylogenetic analyses, incorporating both morphological and molecular data, continue to place Beelzebufo with hyloid rather than ranoid frogs. Within Hyloidea, Beelzebufo still groups with the South American Ceratophryidae thus continuing to pose difficulties with both biogeographic interpretations and prior molecular divergence dates.

  9. Il rospo smeraldino Bufo viridis in Val d’Ossola (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae

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    Franco Zanghellini

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Vengono riportate le osservazioni di rospo smeraldino (Bufo viridis compiute tra il 1998 e il 2004 in Val d’Ossola (provincia del Verbano Cusio Ossola, un’area nella quale questa specie non era stata mai precedentemente segnalata.

  10. Karyological and flow cytometric evidence of triploid specimens in Bufo viridis (Amphibia Anura

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    D Cavallo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyological and flow cytometric (FCM analyses were performed on a group of 14 green toads of the Bufo viridis species from seven Eurasian populations. Both approaches gave concordant results concerning the DNA ploidy level. All the populations examined were represented exclusively by diploid or tetraploid specimens, except one, where triploids were found. Results evidenced an interpopulation variability in DNA content against the same ploidy level, as well as an unusually high number of triploids in a particular reproductive place. The origin of polyploidy and the presence and persistence of a high number of triploids in a particular population are discussed.

  11. Morphological and genetic differentiation of Bufo toads: two cryptic species in Western Europe (Anura, Bufonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, J.W.; McAtear, J.; Recuero, E.; Ziermann, J.M.; Ohler, A.; Alphen, van J.; Martínez-Solano, I.

    2013-01-01

    The Common toad Bufo bufo sensu lato is a widespread, morphologically conserved taxon. Recent studies have uncovered deep genetic differentiation between population groups, highlighting the need to revise the current taxonomy of the group and recognize additional species. Here we investigate

  12. Blood and urine physiological values in farm-cultured Rana catesbeiana (Anura: Ranidae) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppo, José A; Mussart, Norma B; Fioranelli, Santiago A

    2005-01-01

    A total of 302 samples of healthy farm-cultured Rana catesbeiana specimens (9-21 months-old, 50-350 g liveweight, 50% each sex) from the north-east of Argentina, were analyzed through spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, densitometry, refractometry and microscopy in order to obtain blood and urine normal values. Confidence intervals (p<0.05) for PCV (28.6-31.6%), RBC (0.40-0.44 T/L), MCV (686-732 fL), hemoglobin (6.41-7.20 g/dL), MCH (151-164 pg), MCHC (22.6-24.0%), WBC (18.7-22.3 G/L), neutrophils (58.4-63.4%), lymphocytes (23.9-29.8%), monocytes (2.1-3.8%), eosinophils (4.6-7.0%), basophils (2.9-4.1%), bleeding time (289-393s), coagulation time (452-696s), prothrombin time (76-128s), urinary density (1.0061-1.0089 g/mL), urinary pH (6,38-6.96)., fibrinogen (0.59-0.99 g/dL), total protein (4.19-4.49 g/dL), albumin (1.49-1.67 g/dL), alpha-1 globulin (0.20-0.24 g/dL), alpha-2 globulin (0.48-0.54 g/dL), beta globulin (0.68-0.77 g/dL), gamma globulin (1.28-1.42 g/dL), albumin/globulin ratio (0.50-0.58), creatinine (4.09-5.56 mg/L). urea (76.1-92.4 mg/L), uric acid (11.5-15.4 mg/L), triglycerides (0.34-0.52 g/L), total cholesterol (0.56-0.67 g/L), HDL-C (0.03-0.05 g/L), LDL-C (0.34-0.44 g/L), alpha lipoprotein (6.01-8.67%). beta lipoprotein (91.3-93.9%), glucose (0.45-0.54 g/L), Na (116-121 meq/L), K (3.42-3.81 meq/L), Cl (100-116 meq/L), Ca (7.98-8.61 mg/dL). P (8.319.36 mg/dL), Mg (2.26-2.55 mg/dL), Fe (105-178 ug/dL), ALP (144-170 [U/L), ALT (10.0-14.8 IU/L), AST (42.8-53.4 IU/L), GGT (7.8-10.6 IU/L), LDH (99-135 IU/L), CHE (151-185 lU/L) and CPK (365-500 IU/L), were obtained. Some parameter ranges were similar to those obtained in amphibians, birds or mammals; others were very different. These parameters are useful to evaluate sanitary, metabolic and nutritional state on captive bullfrogs.

  13. Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae, Leptodactylus cupreus Caramaschi, Feio and Sao-Pedro, 2008: Distribution extension

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    Peres, J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide the first record of Leptodactylus cupreus out of its type locality, as well the first record of this speciesin the State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. The record of Leptodactylus cupreus from municipality Santa Teresaextends in approximately 220 km to the northeastern of its geographic distribution and establishes the inferior limit of 800m in its altitudinal distribution in the Serra da Mantiqueira.

  14. The island rule in the Brazilian frog Phyllodytes luteolus (Anura: Hylidae: incipient gigantism?

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    Marcio Mageski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The island rule suggests that, when mainland animals are isolated on islands, large animals tend to become smaller, while small animals tend to become larger. A small frog in eastern Brazil, Phyllodytes luteolus (Wied-Neuwied, 1824, is widely distributed in association with bromeliads. At the end of the last glaciation, parts of the mainland became islands due to rising sea levels, thereby isolating frog populations on these islands. If the island rule holds, we predicted that frogs on islands would tend to be larger than frogs on the mainland. We compared sizes (weight and length of 30 randomly selected male frogs from the mainland with 30 from an island in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. We also sampled population density on the island and mainland because concurrent with changing sizes, depending on the causal relationship, density may also change. As predicted, island frogs tended to be larger (both in snout-vent length and weight and were much more abundant. While not specifically addressed in this study, the absence of predators and interspecific competitors may explain both of these trends.

  15. Rediscovery of Atelopus subornatus Werner, 1899 (Anura: Bufonidae), with a redescription of the tadpole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso-Calle, Maria Paula; Viuche-Lozano, Andres; Anganoy-Criollo, Marvin; Bernal, Manuel Hernando

    2017-11-06

    The Neotropical toads of the genus Atelopus are among the most imperiled of all amphibians (La Marca et al. 2005; Gonzalez-Maya et al. 2013; McCaffery et al. 2015). Nowadays, at least 90% of the 93 listed species are threatened and more than 77% are Critically Endangered (McCaffery et al. 2015; IUCN 2016). Colombia has 44 described species of Atelopus (Frost 2017), two of these are categorized as extinct (EX) by the IUCN (2016): A. ignescens and A. longirostris, although they were recently re-discovered in Ecuador (Tapia et al. 2017), 34 as critical endangered (CR), four as endangered (EN), two as vulnerable (VU), one species has data deficient (DD) and another one has not been evaluated. Atelopus subornatus Werner, 1899, is an endemic Colombian harlequin toad described from 2300 to 2800 m.a.s.l in the municipalities of Sibaté (Alto de Sibaté and Agua Bonita) and Fusagasuga (above Fusagasuga and Tierra Negra), in Cundinamarca (Fig. 1A), on the western flank from Cordillera Oriental of Colombia (Werner 1899; Lynch 1986; Lötters 1989, 1992). The last record of this species was in 1993 (Lötters 2005), and it currently is listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN (2016). Herein, we report the rediscovery of A. subornatus at a new locality from Tolima, Colombia (Fig. 1A), and redescribe its tadpole. The determination of the species was based on comparisons with material deposited in the amphibian collection of the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia (ICN-UNAL) for all species of Atelopus reported from the same general area in Cundinamarca and relatively similar to A. subornatus. The specimens are housed in the Herpetological collection of the Tolima University (CZUT-A) and amphibian collection of ICN-UNAL.

  16. Molecular cloning and analysis of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 from Bufo gargarizans (Amphibia: Anura

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    Ning Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The protein of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 has been reported to repress the transcriptional activity of the proto-oncogene c-Myc in humans. Moreover, it was shown to be the subunit 5 of human prefoldin (PFD. So far, this gene and its homologs have been isolated and sequenced in many organisms, such as mammals and fish, but has not been sequenced for any amphibian or reptile. In order to better understand the function and evolution of Mm-1, we isolated a full-length Mm-1 cDNA (BgMm-1, GenBank accession no. EF211947 from Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842 using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Mm-1 in B. gargarizans is 755 bp long, comprising an open reading frame (ORF of 459 bp encoding 152 amino acids. The amino acid sequence had a prefoldin α-like domain, partially including a typical putative leucine zipper motif. BgMm-1 showed high similarity to its homolog of Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 (82% and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 MM-1 isoform a (81% at the amino acid level. The protein secondary structure modeled with the SWISS MODEL server revealed that there were two α-helices and four b-strands in BgMm-1 as its human orthologue, and both proteins belonged to the a class of PFD family. The phylogenetic relationships of Mm-1s from lower archaea to high mammals was consistent with the evolution of species, meanwhile the cluster result was consistent with the multiple alignment and the sequence identity analysis. RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that BgMm-1 expressed widely in ten tissues of adult toad. These results can be helpful for the further investigation on the evolution of Mm-1.

  17. Molecular phylogeny of microhylid frogs (Anura: Microhylidae) with emphasis on relationships among New World genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last ten years we have seen great efforts focused on revising amphibian systematics. Phylogenetic reconstructions derived from DNA sequence data have played a central role in these revisionary studies but have typically under-sampled the diverse frog family Microhylidae. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic study focused on expanding previous hypotheses of relationships within this cosmopolitan family. Specifically, we placed an emphasis on assessing relationships among New World genera and those taxa with uncertain phylogenetic affinities (i.e., incertae sedis). Results One mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (about 2.8 kb) were sequenced to assess phylogenetic relationships. We utilized an unprecedented sampling of 200 microhylid taxa representing 91% of currently recognized subfamilies and 95% of New World genera. Our analyses do not fully resolve relationships among subfamilies supporting previous studies that have suggested a rapid early diversification of this clade. We observed a close relationship between Synapturanus and Otophryne of the subfamily Otophryninae. Within the subfamily Gastrophryninae relationships between genera were well resolved. Conclusion Otophryninae is distantly related to all other New World microhylids that were recovered as a monophyletic group, Gastrophryninae. Within Gastrophryninae, five genera were recovered as non-monophyletic; we propose taxonomic re-arrangements to render all genera monophyletic. This hypothesis of relationships and updated classification for New World microhylids may serve as a guide to better understand the evolutionary history of this group that is apparently subject to convergent morphological evolution and chromosome reduction. Based on a divergence analysis calibrated with hypotheses from previous studies and fossil data, it appears that microhylid genera inhabiting the New World originated during a period of gradual cooling from the late Oligocene to mid Miocene. PMID:23228209

  18. Molecular phylogeny of microhylid frogs (Anura: Microhylidae with emphasis on relationships among New World genera

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    de Sá Rafael O

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last ten years we have seen great efforts focused on revising amphibian systematics. Phylogenetic reconstructions derived from DNA sequence data have played a central role in these revisionary studies but have typically under-sampled the diverse frog family Microhylidae. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic study focused on expanding previous hypotheses of relationships within this cosmopolitan family. Specifically, we placed an emphasis on assessing relationships among New World genera and those taxa with uncertain phylogenetic affinities (i.e., incertae sedis. Results One mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (about 2.8 kb were sequenced to assess phylogenetic relationships. We utilized an unprecedented sampling of 200 microhylid taxa representing 91% of currently recognized subfamilies and 95% of New World genera. Our analyses do not fully resolve relationships among subfamilies supporting previous studies that have suggested a rapid early diversification of this clade. We observed a close relationship between Synapturanus and Otophryne of the subfamily Otophryninae. Within the subfamily Gastrophryninae relationships between genera were well resolved. Conclusion Otophryninae is distantly related to all other New World microhylids that were recovered as a monophyletic group, Gastrophryninae. Within Gastrophryninae, five genera were recovered as non-monophyletic; we propose taxonomic re-arrangements to render all genera monophyletic. This hypothesis of relationships and updated classification for New World microhylids may serve as a guide to better understand the evolutionary history of this group that is apparently subject to convergent morphological evolution and chromosome reduction. Based on a divergence analysis calibrated with hypotheses from previous studies and fossil data, it appears that microhylid genera inhabiting the New World originated during a period of gradual cooling from the late Oligocene to mid Miocene.

  19. Molecular phylogeny of microhylid frogs (Anura: Microhylidae) with emphasis on relationships among New World genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Rafael O; Streicher, Jeffrey W; Sekonyela, Relebohile; Forlani, Mauricio C; Loader, Simon P; Greenbaum, Eli; Richards, Stephen; Haddad, Célio F B

    2012-12-10

    Over the last ten years we have seen great efforts focused on revising amphibian systematics. Phylogenetic reconstructions derived from DNA sequence data have played a central role in these revisionary studies but have typically under-sampled the diverse frog family Microhylidae. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic study focused on expanding previous hypotheses of relationships within this cosmopolitan family. Specifically, we placed an emphasis on assessing relationships among New World genera and those taxa with uncertain phylogenetic affinities (i.e., incertae sedis). One mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (about 2.8 kb) were sequenced to assess phylogenetic relationships. We utilized an unprecedented sampling of 200 microhylid taxa representing 91% of currently recognized subfamilies and 95% of New World genera. Our analyses do not fully resolve relationships among subfamilies supporting previous studies that have suggested a rapid early diversification of this clade. We observed a close relationship between Synapturanus and Otophryne of the subfamily Otophryninae. Within the subfamily Gastrophryninae relationships between genera were well resolved. Otophryninae is distantly related to all other New World microhylids that were recovered as a monophyletic group, Gastrophryninae. Within Gastrophryninae, five genera were recovered as non-monophyletic; we propose taxonomic re-arrangements to render all genera monophyletic. This hypothesis of relationships and updated classification for New World microhylids may serve as a guide to better understand the evolutionary history of this group that is apparently subject to convergent morphological evolution and chromosome reduction. Based on a divergence analysis calibrated with hypotheses from previous studies and fossil data, it appears that microhylid genera inhabiting the New World originated during a period of gradual cooling from the late Oligocene to mid Miocene.

  20. Molecular phylogeny of microhylid frogs (Anura: Microhylidae) with emphasis on relationships among New World genera

    OpenAIRE

    de S?, Rafael O; Streicher, Jeffrey W; Sekonyela, Relebohile; Forlani, Mauricio C; Loader, Simon P; Greenbaum, Eli; Richards, Stephen; Haddad, C?lio F B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Over the last ten years we have seen great efforts focused on revising amphibian systematics. Phylogenetic reconstructions derived from DNA sequence data have played a central role in these revisionary studies but have typically under-sampled the diverse frog family Microhylidae. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic study focused on expanding previous hypotheses of relationships within this cosmopolitan family. Specifically, we placed an emphasis on assessing relations...

  1. Molecular phylogeny of microhylid frogs (Anura: Microhylidae) with emphasis on relationships among New World genera

    OpenAIRE

    de Sá R. O Streicher J. W. Sekonyela R. Forlani M. C. Loader S. P. Greenbaum E. Richards

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Over the last ten years we have seen great efforts focused on revising amphibian systematics. Phylogenetic reconstructions derived from DNA sequence data have played a central role in these revisionary studies but have typically under sampled the diverse frog family Microhylidae. Here we present a detailed phylogenetic study focused on expanding previous hypotheses of relationships within this cosmopolitan family. Specifically we placed an emphasis on assessing relationshi...

  2. Morfohistología testicular de Ceratophrys ornata (Bell (Amphibia, Anura, Ceratophryidae

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    Fernando Carezzano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se describen las características morfohistológicas del testículo de individuos adultos (n=5 de Ceratophrys ornata (Bell, 1843 provenientes de humedales del centro de Argentina. Los mismos se procesaron mediante técnicas histológicas de rutina, se cortaron a 8 µm y las láminas obtenidas se tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina y tricrómico de Masson. Las gónadas son órganos pares, amarillentos, alargados y contorneados de 18,58 ± 0,23 mm de largo por 1,51 ± 0,13 mm de ancho. Histológicamente se observa una delgada túnica albugínea (6,29 ± 0,83 µm rodeando a los testículos. En su interior se hallan lóculos seminíferos que miden 240,64 ± 38,52 µm de diámetro, en ellos se distinguen cistos con células espermatogénicas en distintas etapas de desarrollo. El tejido intersticial es escaso y en él se destacan las células de Leydig y vasos sanguíneos. Las espermatogonias I son las células más grandes de la serie germinal (20,03 ± 2,27 µm; poseen la cromatina granular y de aspecto multilobular, hallándose comúnmente una por cisto, estas originan a las espermatogonias II, más pequeñas (12,06 ± 1,14 µm. Los espermatocitos I presentan la cromatina levemente condensada y son un poco más chicos que sus precedentes (11,64 ± 0,36 µm. Los espermatocitos II miden 8,85 ± 0,54 µm. Las espermátidas I son esféricas, miden 5,95 ± 0,42 µm y se agrupan en cistos redondeados. Las espermátidas II, en cambio son alargadas y no se hallan dentro de cistos, pero siguen organizadas en paquetes asociadas a células de Sertoli. Los espermatozoides son células libres hacia el centro del lóculo, alargadas, flageladas y con una notable compactación nuclear. La morfohistología de los testículos analizados muestran características macroscópicas e histológicas similares a las observadas en otras especies de anfibios anuros neotropicales, presentando todas las células del linaje espermatogénico en un mismo lóculo, lo que indicaría que presentan ciclos espermatogénicos continuos.

  3. Abundance, Disposal Hypsiboas Espaciale lanciformis Natural History (Anura: Hylidae) southwest of the Venezuelan Andes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar Rodriguez, William; Chacon Ortiz, Andres; Duran, Rosa de Jesus

    2009-01-01

    Hypsiboas lanciformis is a tree frog belonging to the albopunctatus group. Its distribution ranges from Bolivia, Brazil, Peru to Colombia and Venezuela. We studied the status of a population inhabiting the realms property of Complejo Uribante-Caparo, CORPOELEC, in Tachira state (southwestern Andean Venezuela), by monitoring their call and visual detection across transects, gathering information on their abundance; available space, and other natural history accounts. The abundance decreases as the dry season progresses, while individuals show an aggregate spatial arrangement. Individuals were vocalizing at the edges of secondary forest adjacent to disturbed areas. This species is sympatric with the hylids Hypsiboas pugnax and Scinax manriquei. Some individuals revealed the presence of ectoparasites and endoparasites that might be affecting the species survivalship.

  4. Experimental test of intraspecific competition mechanisms among tadpoles of Leptodactylus ocellatus (Anura: Leptodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Gabriel; Maneyro, Raúl

    2008-03-01

    Intraspecific competition is predicted to strongly influence species abundance and dynamics through two main mechanisms: consumption and interference of resources. Tadpoles were used in experiments in which we tried to elucidate the relative importance of each mechanism. Our goal was to apply this experimental procedure to Leptodactylus ocellatus, a common South American anuran, a species whose larvae exhibit aggregative behavior and receive parental care. Previous work suggests that tadpole schools should present lower levels of intraspecific competition. Tadpoles from a single nest were reared in the laboratory in three densities (1, 2, and 4 individuals/container) and three food levels (1, 2, and 4 ration multiples) in a randomized three-block design for a factorial analysis of variance, up to day eight. Contrary to previous work with other species, our results show both the absence of interference competition effects, and that larval growth depends only on per capita food availability. The differences between species in intraspecific competition mechanisms are probably related to strong differences in ecology and life history. Leptodactylus ocellatus tadpoles could be directing interference competition away from their kin, reducing schooling costs. Further studies (including kinship as a factor) would give more information about these larvae, allowing a better understanding of the evolutionary and ecological mechanisms behind the biological patterns observed in Leptodactylus species.

  5. The vocal sac of Hylodidae (Amphibia, Anura): Phylogenetic and functional implications of a unique morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias-Costa, Agustin J; Montesinos, Rachel; Grant, Taran; Faivovich, Julián

    2017-11-01

    Anuran vocal sacs are elastic chambers that recycle exhaled air during vocalizations and are present in males of most species of frogs. Most knowledge of the diversity of vocal sacs relates to external morphology; detailed information on internal anatomy is available for few groups of frogs. Frogs of the family Hylodidae, which is endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil and adjacent Argentina and Paraguay, have three patterns of vocal sac morphology-that is, single, subgular; paired, lateral; and absent. The submandibular musculature and structure of the vocal sac mucosa (the internal wall of the vocal sac) of exemplar species of this family and relatives were studied. In contrast to previous accounts, we found that all species of Crossodactylus and Hylodes possess paired, lateral vocal sacs, with the internal mucosa of each sac being separate from the contralateral one. Unlike all other frogs for which data are available, the mucosa of the vocal sacs in these genera is not supported externally by the mm. intermandibularis and interhyoideus. Rather, the vocal sac mucosa projects through the musculature and is free in the submandibular lymphatic sac. The presence of paired, lateral vocal sacs, the internal separation of the sac mucosae, and their projection through the m. interhyoideus are synapomorphies of the family. Furthermore, the specific configuration of the m. interhyoideus allows asymmetric inflation of paired vocal sacs, a feature only reported in species of these diurnal, stream-dwelling frogs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Systematics of the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex (Anura, Hylidae from Ecuador and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ron

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new phylogeny, based on DNA sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, for frogs of the genus Osteocephalus with emphasis in the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex. Genetic, morphologic, and advertisement call data are combined to define species boundaries and describe new species. The phylogeny shows strong support for: (1 a basal position of O. taurinus + O. oophagus, (2 a clade containing phytotelmata breeding species, and (3 a clade that corresponds to the O. buckleyi species complex. Our results document a large proportion of hidden diversity within a set of populations that were previously treated as a single, widely distributed species, O. buckleyi. Individuals assignable to O. buckleyi formed a paraphyletic group relative to O. verruciger and O. cabrerai and contained four species, one of which is O. buckleyi sensu stricto and three are new. Two of the new species are shared between Ecuador and Peru (O. vilmae sp. n. and O. cannatellai sp. n. and one is distributed in the Amazon region of southern Peru (O. germani sp. n.. We discuss the difficulties of using morphological characters to define species boundaries and propose a hypothesis to explain them.

  7. Two new species of fanged frogs from Peninsular Malaysia (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Masafumi; Belabut, Daicus M; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2014-11-03

    Taxonomic status of fanged frogs from the Peninsular Malaysia, previously assigned to Limnonectes kuhlii, is assessed using genetic and morphological approaches. Phylogenetic relationships inferred from sequences of the mitochondrial and nuclear genes revealed that the fanged frogs from the Peninsula form a monophyletic group and are clearly divergent from other species previously, or even now, assigned to L. kuhlii from Mainland Southeast Asia. In both mtDNA and nuDNA phylogeny, the Malay Peninsula clade diverges into two lineages, one from north (Larut Hill, Perak, and Hulu Terengganu, Terengganu) and another from south (Genting Highlands, Pahang, and Gombak, Selangor). These lineages are separated by large genetic distances, comparable with those observed between some other species of L. kuhlii-like frogs. Although the two lineages are very similar morphologically, they are distinguishable in several morphological traits and are considered heterospecific. We therefore describe them as L. utara sp. nov. and L. selatan sp. nov. These new species differ from all other species of kuhlii-like frogs from Mainland Southeast Asia by the surface of tibia, which is densely covered by large warts. 

  8. Keanekaragaman dan Kemerataan Spesies Anggota Ordo Anura di Lereng Selatan Gunung Merapi Tahun 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donan Satria Yudha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Merapi volcano as one of national park is an ecotourism site which is very potential to visit. Information about species diversity for a national park is very important especially if its area fluctuated susceptibly. Two years after 2010 Merapi eruption, there are no research about species diversity and evenness of Anuran in that place. The research is carried out during June-November 2012 which is dry season. The objective of this research is to study the species diversity and evenness of Anuran in southern slope of Mount Merapi. The research is carried out in 6 locations; those are Kali Kuning, Telogo Muncar, Telogo Nirmolo, Petak Pitu, Bukit Turgo, and Bukit Plawangan. We used Visual Encounter Survey (VES method combined with transect in Kali Kuning, Telogo Muncar, and Petak Pitu. VES method combined with time search in Telogo Nirmolo and Bukit Turgo. VES method combined with track exploration in Bukit Plawangan. Species diversity is analyzed with Shanon-Wiener diversity index. Species evenness is analyzed with Pielou evenness index. Total individuals each species is counted to know species abundance. Species diversity of anuran in southern slope of Mount Merapi is consisted of 12 species’ which is distributed in 6 locations. The highest diversity and evenness of anuran is at Bukit Turgo (H’=1.31; E=0.94. The lowest diversity and evenness of anuran is at Petak Pitu (H’=0.49; E=0.3. Species diversity of anuran in southern slope of Mount Merapi is low (Bukit Turgo and Kali Kuning and very low (Bukit Plawangan, Telogo Muncar, Telogo Nirmolo, and Petak Pitu. Species evenness of anuran in southern slope of Mount Merapi is stable (Telogo Nirmolo and Bukit Turgo, still labil (Bukit Plawangan, Kali Kuning, and Telogo Muncar, and oppressed (Petak Pitu.

  9. Comparative cytogenetics of Physalaemus albifrons and Physalaemus cuvieri species groups (Anura, Leptodactylidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Quinderé*, Yeda Rumi Serra Douglas; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria; Tomatis, Cristian; Baldo, Diego; Lima, Janaina Reis Ferreira; Ferro, Juan Martín; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Recently, Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) was relocated from the Physalaemus cuvieri group to the same group as Physalaemus biligonigerus (Cope, 1861), Physalaemus marmoratus (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862) and Physalaemus santafecinus Barrio, 1965. To contribute to the analysis of this proposition, we studied the karyotypes of Physalaemus albifrons, Physalaemus santafecinus and three species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus was found to be very similar to those of Physalaemus biligonigerus and Physalaemus marmoratus, which were previously described. A remarkable characteristic that these three species share is a conspicuous C-band that extends from the pericentromeric region almost to the telomere in the short arm of chromosome 3. This characteristic is not present in the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype and could be a synapomorphy of Physalaemus biligonigerus, Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus santafecinus. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus is also similar to those of Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus biligonigerus owing to the presence of several terminal C-bands and the distal localization of the NOR in a small metacentric chromosome. In contrast, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has no terminal C-bands and its NOR is located interstitially in the long arm of submetacentric chromosome 8. The NOR-bearing chromosome of Physalaemus albifrons very closely resembles those found in Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864), Physalaemus cuqui Lobo, 1993 and some populations of Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826. Additionally, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has an interstitial C-band in chromosome 5 that has been exclusively observed in species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. Therefore, we were not able to identify any chromosomal feature that supports the reallocation of Physalaemus albifrons. PMID:25147623

  10. Flutamide effects on morphology of reproductive organs and liver of Neotropical Anura, Rhinella schneideri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gregorio, Lara S; Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Gomes, Fernando R; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-07-01

    Water contamination is one of the factors influencing the decline of amphibians. Flutamide is an antiandrogenic medicine that occurs as water contaminant. This compound especially affects the reproductive organs, but it can also show hepatotoxic effects. The Bufonidae family has a peculiar organ named Bidder's organ, considered by some authors as a rudimentary ovary, but capable to respond to some external stimuli. This study investigated flutamide effects on testes and Bidder's organ germ cells, liver pigmentation, and sexual hormones levels in Rhinella schneideri males. We randomly divided 15 males in three groups (N=5): two groups were injected with flutamide, at 1 and 5mg/kg, while the control group received only mineral oil, for 7days. After euthanasia, blood samples were collected and the organs were sent to histological routine. In the testes, both treatments caused an increase in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, and a decrease in spermatozoa and locular area. In the Bidder's organ, the final diplotene oocytes increased, but the initial diplotene, degrading and atresic oocytes reduced in both treatments. The lipofuscin in the Bidder's organ was not affected. In the liver, melanin and lipofuscin increased only for the 1mg/kg flutamide treatment. The 5mg/kg treatment did not affect the liver. Serum testosterone and estradiol levels did not vary compared with the control group. This compound has antiandrogenic activity, which can affect the spermatogenetic process. The decrease in degrading and atresic Bidderian oocytes indicated that flutamide could stimulate the organ, retarding the degradation processes. The increase in liver melanin, which has protective role, and lipofuscin, a sign of degradation, indicates that flutamide cause hepatotoxic effects. So we conclude that flutamide negatively affects the testes, especially by reducing the sperm area, and the liver, inducing cell degradation and producing protective responses. Furthermore, the compound encourages lower degradation rates of the Bidder's organ germ cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hábitos alimentarios de infantiles de Pleurodema nebulosum (Anura: Leptodactylidae, en Matagusanos, San Juan, Argentina

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    Eduardo Sanabria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Los hábitos alimentarios de Pleurodema nebulosum en el oeste de Argentina son desconocidos. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la dieta de una población de infantiles de P. nebulosum. Se analizaron 34 estómagos, se clasificaron taxonómicamente sus presas y se midieron (ancho y largo, se calculó su volumen con la fórmula de la esfera elipsoide, se estimó además la frecuencia de ocurrencia y abundancia. Los IRI más importantes fueron: Hemiptera (1867, Hymenoptera (hormigas (1431, Coleoptera (127, entre otros. Las presas que presentaron mayor porcentaje de frecuencia fueron los Hymenoptera (48,5%, Hemiptera (26,9% y Coleoptera (10,8%. El valor de diversidad media fue de 0.19 (SD=0,2 y la amplitud del nicho trófico fue de 3,17. Este valor indicaría una posible especialización y considerando la baja diversidad encontrada, podría estar reflejando la escasa disponibilidad de presas en ese momento.

  12. Hematology of Wild Caught Dubois’s Tree Frog Polypedates teraiensis, Dubois, 1986 (Anura: Rhacophoridae

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    Madhusmita Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood was analyzed from eighty (forty males and forty females adult individuals of Polypedates teraiensis to establish reference ranges for its hematological and serum biochemical parameters. The peripheral blood cells were differentiated as erythrocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, and thrombocytes, with similar morphology to other anurans. Morphology of blood cells did not vary according to sex. The hematological investigations included morphology and morphometry of erythrocytes, morphometry of leucocytes, packed cell volume (PCV, hemoglobin content (Hb, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, erythrocyte or red blood cell (RBC count, leukocyte or white blood cell (WBC count, differential leukocyte count, and neutrophil to lymphocyte (N/L ratio. Besides, protein, cholesterol, glucose, urea, uric acid, and creatinine content of blood serum were assayed. Hematological parameters that differed significantly between sexes were RBC count, length and breadth of RBC, neutrophil %, N/L ratio, area occupied by basophils, and diameter of large lymphocyte and eosinophils. The level of glucose, urea, and creatinine in blood serum also significantly differed between sexes.

  13. Histological characterization of cellular types during Scinax fuscovarius oogenesis (Lutz (Anura, Hylidae

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    Classius de Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes morphological characteristics of the ovarian germinative cells of the Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925. The ovary is organized in primordial germinative cells (oogonia and follicular structures (ovarian follicle - oocytes surrounded by follicular cells. Oogonia: their nests are peripherically localized, containing cells with large and oval nucleus. Oocytes I: basophilic cytoplasm; the spherical nucleus presents few nucleoli, one or two; the follicular cells (one tenuous layer surround these previtellogenic cells. Oocytes II: the cell is larger and the cytoplasm becomes more basophilic; the nucleus presents few nucleoli and contains many chromosomes in the periphery (beginning the perinucleolar stage. Oocytes III: the cytoplasm acquires an intense acidophilia; the peripherical region of cytoplasm is filled with yolk and the internal region has no yolk at all; pigment synthesis begins; the follicular envelope presents three tenuous layers: an inner acellular (vitelline envelope and two cellular layers (follicle cells. Oocytes IV: a characteristic of this stage is the differentiation between the animal and the vegetal poles; the nucleus in the animal hemisphere and the pigments give the oocyte a color dark brown; the vitellogenesis is intense and the yolk occupies the whole cytoplasm.O estudo apresenta algumas características histológicas das células germinativas ovarianas de Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925 após análise com colorações pelo H/E e Tricrômico de Mallory. O ovário apresenta as células germinativas primordiais, as ovogônias, as quais passam por uma citodiferenciação e, juntamente com células somáticas associadas, constitui estruturas foliculares, os folículos ovarianos, que são os ovócitos envolvidos por células foliculares. Ovogônias: formam ninhos perifericamente localizados, contendo células com núcleo grande e oval associadas com uma única célula folicular. Ovócitos I: o citoplasma é discretamente basófilo; seu núcleo é esférico e apresenta poucos nucléolos, geralmente se observa um ou dois; as células foliculares se apresentam em uma camada (epitélio pavimentoso simples que circunda a célula germinativa em estado pré-vitelogênico. Ovócitos II: a célula é maior que a anterior e o citoplasma torna-se mais basófilo; o núcleo apresenta raros nucléolos na periferia e muitos cromossomos constituindo arranjos irregulares, é quando se inicia o estádio perinucleolar. Ovócitos III: o citoplasma adquire intensa acidofilia; a região periférica do citoplasma é preenchida por inclusões vitelínicas que ainda não ocorrem na região interna; inicia-se a síntese de pigmentos; o envoltório folicular apresenta três camadas: uma interna acelular (envoltório vitelínico e duas camadas de células foliculares. Ovócitos IV: uma característica deste estádio é a diferenciação entre o pólo animal e o vegetal; o núcleo ou vesícula germinativa se desloca para o hemisfério animal e os pigmentos conferem uma cor marrom escura; a vitelogênese é intensa e o vitelo ocupa todo o citoplasma.

  14. Osteology of Physalaemus nattereri (Anura: Leptodactylidae) with comments on intraspecific variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratani, Jéssica; Woitovicz-Cardoso, Manoela; Lourenço, Ana Carolina Calijorne

    2017-02-02

    The cranium, postcranium, and osteological variation of Physalaemus nattereri (Steindachner) are described. The main sources of variation involve the degree of mineralization of the nasal capsule and the lengths of dermal skull bones (e.g., vomer, sphenethmoid, and neopalatine). Osteologically, P. nattereri differs from its congeners by the anterior placement of the jaw articulation (which lies anterior to the intersection between the alae and cultriform process of parasphenoid), and by the separation of the frontoparietals from the anterior margins of exoccipitals. Descriptions of the nasal capsule, the auditory apparatus, and the iliosacral articulation are presented for the first time for this species. One putative morphological synapomorphy is presented for the P. signifer Clade.

  15. A new species of Scinax Wagler, 1830 (Anura: Hylidae from the middle Amazon river basin, Brazil

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    Marcelo José Sturaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the hylid genus Scinax is described and illustrated. The new taxon was found in the Amazonian rainforest of northern Brazil, municipalities of Maués and Careiro da Várzea, state of Amazonas. The new species is characterized by its moderate size (male mean snout-vent length 36.3mm; body robust; large, orange, black-bordered axillary and inguinal spots; and bilobate vocal sac. This new species was found in primary and secondary forest on branches of shrubs or trees in, or next to, permanent ponds and flooded areas.

  16. ESTRUCTURA Y ULTRAESTRUCTURA DE LA GÓNADA DE LOS MACHOS DE Bufo fustiger (ANURA: BUFONIDAE

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    Ana Sanz-Ochotorena

    2008-01-01

    espermátidas en diferenciación y espermatozoides están dispuestas en cistos de forma similar a otros anuros lo cual indica una conservación de esta característica dentro de los anfibios y los anamniotas. Se observan espermátidas al MET en el proceso de espermiogénesis con la presencia de mitocondrias y la formación del acrosoma. El espermatozoide es delgado, con la cabeza cónica. La cola tiene un axonema con el patrón microtubular 9 + 2 y se observaron espermatozoides con dos colas. No se detectó la presencia de membrana ondulante. Esto resultados pudieran contribuir a esclarecer la sistemática del grupo.

  17. The first species ofAplastodiscusendemic to the Brazilian Cerrado (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berneck, Bianca V M; Giaretta, Ariovaldo A; Brandão, Reuber A; Cruz, Carlos A G; Haddad, Célio F B

    2017-01-01

    The genus Aplastodiscus includes 14 nominal species in four monophyletic groups with occurrence in the Atlantic Forest and Brazilian Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) of South America. A recent study reviewed the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the genus and suggested a third species for the Aplastodiscus perviridis Group. Herein, on the basis of morphology and advertisement call, we describe this species and test its monophyly. The new species is the only Aplastodiscus with endemic occurrence in the Cerrado Biome. In addition, its geographical distribution and conservation status are discussed.

  18. Natural history and distribution of Agalychnis craspedopus (Funkhouser, 1957) (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Cadle, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Aspects of reproductive behaviour, calls, clutch sizes, and larval morphology are described for Agalychnis craspedopus (Funkhouser, 1957). New distributional records extend the range of this species to southern Amazonian Peru. In most respects reproductive behaviour of A. craspedopus is similar to

  19. Comparative Analysis of Karyotypes of Two Cryptic Species of Pelobatid Frogs (Amphibia, Anura of Ukraine

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    Suryadnaya N. N

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Впервые детально описан ка- риотип Pelobates vespertinus (Pallas, 1771 в сравнении с кариотипом Pelobates fuscus (Laurenti, 1768. Сравнительный морфологический анализ хромосом показал, что эти два криптические вида имеют симметричный кариотип, состоящий из двуплечих хромосом. Установлено, что их хромосомные наборы состоят из 7 пар крупных и 6 пар мелких хромосом. Отличаются виды по положению центромеры в хромосомах 10-й и 11-й пар. У P. fuscus 10-я пара метацентрик, 11-я - субметацентрик; у P. vespertinus 10-я - субметацентрик, 11-я - метацентрик. На коротких плечах 7-й пары хромосом расположены вторичные перетяжки. Хромосомная формула для обо- их видов - 4 мета-(m + 7 субмета-(sm + 2 субтелоцентрика (st, 2n = 26, N.F. = 52. Абсолютная длина всех хромосом в кариотипе несколько больше у P. fuscus, чем у P. vespertinus. Параметры относительной длины хромосом в среднем равнозначные, но отличаются по отдельным парам хромосом. На фоне установленных хромосомных отличий между криптическими видами на- дёжных диагностических признаков не выявлено.

  20. Antipredator Behaviour of Limnonectes blythii (Boulenger, 1920) (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Shahriza Shahrudin

    2016-01-01

    The frog Limnonectes blythii was collected at different locations in Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia, three from Sungai Sedim Recreational Forest, two from Bukit Hijau Recreational Forest, and two from Ulu Paip Recreational Forest. Nine antipredator mechanisms were displayed by this species, including fleeing, hiding among leaf litter, diving into water, bladder discharge, defensive call, feigning death, crouching, inflating the body, and body-raising. The two latter actions were accompanied by a ...

  1. Toxicity of endosulfan to tadpoles of Fejervarya spp. (Anura: Dicroglossidae): mortality and morphological deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Ngangom Nganbi; Gupta, Abhik

    2013-11-01

    The acute toxicity of endosulfan to the tadpoles of three coexisting species of the anuran genus Fejervarya revealed 96 h LC50 values of 46.715, 6.596, and 3.015 μg l(-1) for Fejervarya sp.1, F. teraiensis and Fejervarya sp.2, respectively. Toxicity of endosulfan was also tested at the sublethal concentrations of 5 and 0.5, and 0.3 and 0.03 μg l(-1) (c 10 and 1% of their respective 96 h LC50 values) in Fejervarya sp.1 and Fejervarya sp.2, and 0.35 and 0.18 μg l(-1) (c 5 and 2.5% of 96 h LC50) in F. teraiensis. Endosulfan was observed to cause mortality at concentrations as low as c 1, 2.5 and 10% of their respective 96 h LC50 values in Fejervarya sp.2, F. teraiensis, and Fejervarya sp.1. Such vulnerabilities are likely to have implications for the survival of natural populations of these co-existing species as well as other anurans present in the study area where pesticide use is relatively high in the tea plantations. Morphological deformities caused by endosulfan comprised failure to develop one or both forelimb in Fejervarya sp.1 and F. teraiensis, stunted hindlimb growth in Fejervarya sp.1, and axial malformation in Fejervarya sp.1 and Fejervarya sp.2. Fore- and hind-limb deformities were likely to have occurred due to the impairment of thyroid metabolism by endosulfan. These effects illustrate the threat that continued endosulfan use poses to natural populations of anuran amphibians.

  2. A new species of genusFejervarya(Anura: Dicroglossidae) from northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Yuan, Zhi-Yong; A Poyarkov, Nikolay; Yan, Fang; Kamtaeja, Somboon; W Murphy, Robert; Che, Jing

    2016-11-18

    We describe a new species of frog in the dicroglossid genus Fejervarya from Ban Monjong, Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. Analysis of DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial gene 16S, advertisement calls, and morphological distinctiveness support recognition of the new species. Matrilineal genealogy suggests that the new population from Chiang Mai is a sister taxon to the South Asian clade that includes F. syhadrensis , F. granosa , and F. pierrei . The new species, Fejervarya chiangmaiensis sp. nov ., differs morphologically from its congeners by its relatively small body size and proportions and the presence of dorsal warts and dermal ridges. Discovery of this new species indicates that the biodiversity of amphibians in this region remains underestimated.

  3. Of Least Concern? Systematics of a cryptic species complex: Limnonectes kuhlii (Amphibia: Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, David S

    2010-09-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated that a tremendous amount of biological diversity can be masked by phenotypic similarity in a cryptic species complex. It has been speculated that the widely distributed and relatively common Southeast Asian frog Limnonectes kuhlii represents a complex of multiple species. The phylogeny within the L. kuhlii Complex is estimated in this study based on approximately 2400bp of mtDNA data (tRNA(Phe), 12S, tRNA(Val), and 16S genes) from 244 individuals representing multiple populations from throughout the known distribution of this anuran. Analyses are conducted using parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. The results suggest that what has been recognized historically as a single species is a complex of more than 22 distinct evolutionary lineages, 16 of which are currently subsumed under the nominal L. kuhlii. Several cases of sympatric lineages were detected, and in all cases co-occurring lineages were not each other's closest relatives. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Field Observation of Egglaying Behavior of a Puddle Frog Occidozyga sumatrana from Bali, Indonesia (Anura: Dicroglossidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Eto, Koshiro; Matsui, Masafumi

    2012-01-01

    Occidozyga sumatrana is not uncommon in some parts of Southeast Asia but its reproduction in nature is poorly known. We observed egg-laying behavior of this species in Bali, Indonesia. The amplectic position was inguinal and the oviposition site was out of the water in O. sumatrana, both of which are unique given its phylogenetic position and the mainly aquatic habits of adults.

  5. Three new species of Digenea (Batrachotrematidae) in Nanorana minica (Anura, Dicroglossidae) from Uttarakhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Anjum N; Bursey, Charles R; Bhutia, Pasang T

    2012-06-01

    Three new species of batrachotrematid trematodes from the small paa frog, Nanorana minica, collected in Uttarakhand, India are described and illustrated: Batrachotrema korbaensis sp. nov., Opisthioparorchis dehradunensis sp. nov. and Opisthioparorchis nanoranae sp. nov. The new species are assigned to genera based on presence or absence of cuticular spines; absent in Batrachotrema, present in Opisthioparorchis. Five species are assigned to Batrachotrema, which are separated by position of genital pore, location of testes and host; B. korbaensis differs from previously described species in that it is the only species from an anuran host with testes in the 4th quarter of the body. Ten species are assigned to Opisthioparorchis, which are separated by testes position, extent of vitellaria, and oral sucker-acetabulum ratio. O. nanoranae sp. nov. is the only species possessing tandem testes. Two species, O. dehradunensis sp. nov. and O. yaanensis, possess oblique testes, the remaining 7 species have symmetrical testes. Opisthioparorchis dehradunensis sp. nov. is distinguished from O. nanoranae sp. nov. by testes orientation; oblique in O. dehradunensis sp. nov., tandem in O. nanoranae sp. nov.

  6. A new species of the Fejervarya limnocharis complex from Japan (Anura, Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djong, Hon Tjong; Matsui, Masafumi; Kuramoto, Mitsuru; Nishioka, Midori; Sumida, Masayuki

    2011-12-01

    We describe a new species of dicroglossid frog of the Fejervarya limnocharis complex from western Honshu, Japan Mainland. The new species, Fejervarya kawamurai, is genetically closer to F. sakishimensis than to F. limnocharis. It differs from F. sakishimensis by smaller tympanum, head, forelimb, hindlimb, foot, and tibia lengths, all relative to snout-vent length, and from F. multistriata by relatively shorter forelimb, hindlimb, foot, and tibia. From F. limnocharis and F. iskandari, it is differentiated by relatively smaller forelimb, hindlimb, foot, and tibia lengths. Taxonomic problems of Fejervarya populations occurring in Central Ryukyus, continental China, and Taiwan are discussed.

  7. The breeding behaviour, advertisement call and tadpole of Limnonectes dabanus (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Le, Duong Thi Thuy; Hoang, Huy Duc; Altig, Ronald

    2014-11-04

    Fanged frogs (Limnonectes) are a group of dicroglossid frogs from Asia that often have reversed sexual dimorphism with larger males. Limnonectes dabanus is a poorly known species of fanged frog from forested habitats in southern Vietnam and eastern Cambodia. Adult males exhibit an extreme degree of megacephaly and possess bizarre head ornamentation. L. dabanus breeds in shallow, non-flowing or very slow-flowing pools, puddles, and drainage ditches. Eggs are laid as a widely spaced array, and the larvae have a morphology typical of pond-dwelling tadpoles. Although males of the species lack vocal sacs, they produce a low-pitched (0.4-0.6 kHz), single-note advertisement call that sounds like a drop of water falling into water. Given the spacing of calling males, presence of multiple females near breeding sites, and reversed sexual dimorphism, the mating system of L. dabanus may be an example of resource-defense polygyny, and the massive head of the male is likely used in male combat.

  8. Antipredator Behaviour of Limnonectes blythii (Boulenger, 1920 (Anura: Dicroglossidae from Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia

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    Shahriza Shahrudin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The frog Limnonectes blythii was collected at different locations in Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia, three from Sungai Sedim Recreational Forest, two from Bukit Hijau Recreational Forest, and two from Ulu Paip Recreational Forest. Nine antipredator mechanisms were displayed by this species, including fleeing, hiding among leaf litter, diving into water, bladder discharge, defensive call, feigning death, crouching, inflating the body, and body-raising. The two latter actions were accompanied by a defensive call. These observations document for the first time antipredator behaviour in L. blythii.

  9. Molecular phylogeny of the diversified frogs of genus Fejervarya (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaki, Manabu; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Matsui, Masafumi; Kuramoto, Mitsuru; Djong, Tjong Hon; Sumida, Masayuki

    2010-05-01

    Consensus on the taxonomic system and phylogenetic relationships for the anuran genus Fejervarya has yet to be established. Morphological characters in this genus are generally unsuitable for species identification. To carry out molecular species identification and solve phylogenetic problems, we collected 67 Fejervarya specimens from 12 Asian countries and sequenced part of the mitochondrial (mt) Cytb gene. We also sequenced the mt 12S and 16S rRNA genes and seven nuclear genes (BDNF, CXCR4, NCX1, RAG-1, RAG-2, Rhod, and Tyr) for 25 Fejervarya taxa. These molecular markers appear to be adequate for the identification of species. We subjected the molecular data molecular to phylogenetic analyses. In the resulting trees, topotypic F. limnocharis and "F. multistriata" (from China) formed a clade. On the other hand, neither "F. limnocharis" from the Japan mainland nor "F. limnocharis" from eastern Taiwan formed a clade with the real F. limnocharis, and the genetic divergences were larger than the species threshold for frog taxa proposed in previous studies (> 3% for 16S). These results may suggest that "F. multistriata" is a junior synonym of F. limnocharis, or that only some of the populations now recognized as "F. multistriata" correspond to F. limnocharis. Our results also suggest that several cryptic species may be included among the widely distributed Fejervarya species. Finally, our datasets support paraphyly for the genus Fejervarya, although alternative phylogenetic topologies, including Fejervarya monophyly, were not rejected by KH and SH tests.

  10. A de novo case of floating chromosomal polymorphisms by translocation in Quasipaa boulengeri (Anura, Dicroglossidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Qing

    Full Text Available Very few natural polymorphisms involving interchromosomal reciprocal translocations are known in amphibians even in vertebrates. In this study, thirty three populations, including 471 individuals of the spiny frog Quasipaa boulengeri, were karyotypically examined using Giemsa stain or FISH. Five different karyomorphs were observed. The observed heteromorphism was autosomal but not sex-related, as the same heteromorphic chromosomes were found both in males and females. Our results indicated that the variant karyotypes resulted from a mutual interchange occurring between chromosomes 1 and 6. The occurrence of a nearly whole-arm translocation between chromosome no. 1 and no. 6 gave rise to a high frequency of alternate segregation and probably resulted in the maintenance of the translocation polymorphisms in a few populations. The translocation polymorphism is explained by different frequencies of segregation modes of the translocation heterozygote during meiosis. Theoretically, nine karyomorphs should be investigated, however, four expected karyotypes were not found. The absent karyomorphs may result from recessive lethal mutations, position effects, duplications and deficiencies. The phylogenetic inference proved that all populations of Q. boulengeri grouped into a monophyletic clade. The mutual translocation likely evolved just once in this species and the dispersal of the one karyomorph (type IV can explain the chromosomal variations among populations.

  11. Integrative taxonomy helps to reveal the mask of the genus Gynandropaa (Amphibia: Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Hu, Junhua; Wang, Bin; Song, Zhaobin; Zhou, Caiquan; Jiang, Jianping

    2016-03-01

    Species of the genus Gynandropaa within the family Dicroglossidae are typical spiny frogs whose taxonomic status has long been in doubt. We used integrative methods, involving morphological and molecular analyses, to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships, and to determine identities and the geographic distribution of each valid species. We obtained DNA sequence data of 5 species of Gynandropaa (complete sequences of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [ND2] gene, and 890 bp of 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA partial sequences) from 37 localities (including the topotypes of 5 described species) and constructed Bayesian and maximum-likelihood trees to examine the patterns of phylogeography. A total of 28 morphological variables were taken on 624 specimens. Three clades with clear geographic patterns were recognized: clade C (from south-western Sichuan Province and central Yunnan Province), clade E (western Guizhou Province and eastern to central Yunnan Province) and clade W (western to southern Yunnan Province). Integrating morphological characteristics and distribution information, the clades W, E and C represent Gynandropaa yunnanensis, G. phrynoides and G. sichuanensis, respectively. We draw the following conclusions: (i) the taxon G. phrynoides, formerly evaluated as a junior synonym of G. yunnanensis, is revalidated herein at the rank of species; (ii) G. liui is a junior synonym of G. sichuanensis; and (iii) G. yunnanensis is a valid species while G. bourreti is probably a subspecies of G. yunnanensis, with the distribution range from Vietnam to southern Yunnan Province. This study clears up the taxonomic status of Gynandropaa and provides important information for understanding the evolution and conservation of these spiny frogs. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Sichuan digging frog Kaloula rugifera (Anura: Microhylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lichun; Zhao, Li; Shuai, Xiaoling; Ren, Zhilin; Shen, Han; Liu, Fuchun; Ruan, Qiping; Chen, Wei

    2017-03-01

    The Sichuan Digging Frog (Kaloula rugifera) belongs to the family Dicroglossidae, which is endemic to northeastern Sichuan and southernmost Gansu provinces, in southwestern China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of K. rugifera was sequenced. The mitogenome was 17 074 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and a non-coding control region. As in other vertebrates, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes which are encoded on the light strand. The overall base composition of the K. rugifera is 29.7% A, 30.3% T, 25.8% C, and 14.2% G. The alignment of the Kaloula species control regions exhibited high genetic variability and rich A + T content. Phylogenetic tree demonstrated that K. rugifera was clustered together with K. borealis and K. verrucosa and they had a close relationship with each other. The complete mitogenome of K. rugifera can provide an important data for the studies on phylogenetic relationship to further explore the taxonomic status of Kaloula species.

  13. A de novo case of floating chromosomal polymorphisms by translocation in Quasipaa boulengeri (Anura, Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Liyan; Xia, Yun; Zheng, Yuchi; Zeng, Xiaomao

    2012-01-01

    Very few natural polymorphisms involving interchromosomal reciprocal translocations are known in amphibians even in vertebrates. In this study, thirty three populations, including 471 individuals of the spiny frog Quasipaa boulengeri, were karyotypically examined using Giemsa stain or FISH. Five different karyomorphs were observed. The observed heteromorphism was autosomal but not sex-related, as the same heteromorphic chromosomes were found both in males and females. Our results indicated that the variant karyotypes resulted from a mutual interchange occurring between chromosomes 1 and 6. The occurrence of a nearly whole-arm translocation between chromosome no. 1 and no. 6 gave rise to a high frequency of alternate segregation and probably resulted in the maintenance of the translocation polymorphisms in a few populations. The translocation polymorphism is explained by different frequencies of segregation modes of the translocation heterozygote during meiosis. Theoretically, nine karyomorphs should be investigated, however, four expected karyotypes were not found. The absent karyomorphs may result from recessive lethal mutations, position effects, duplications and deficiencies. The phylogenetic inference proved that all populations of Q. boulengeri grouped into a monophyletic clade. The mutual translocation likely evolved just once in this species and the dispersal of the one karyomorph (type IV) can explain the chromosomal variations among populations.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Xizang Plateau frog, Nanorana parkeri (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lichun; Ruan, Qiping; Chen, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The Xizang Plateau frog (Nanorana parkeri) belongs to the family Dicroglossidae, which distributes in southern and eastern Xizang, southern-most Qinghai in China, high elevations of north-central Nepal, Himalayan Bhutan, northeastern Kashmir and India. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of N. parkeri was sequenced. The mitogenome was 17,837 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding control region (CR). As in other vertebrates, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. The overall base composition of the N. parkeri is A: 27.7 % A, T: 30.1 % T, C: 26.6% and G: 15.6%. The alignment of the Nanorana species CRs exhibited high genetic variability and rich A + T content. In comparison with the mtDNA sequences typical of vertebrates, a tandem duplication of the tRNA(Met) gene and a rearrangement of the tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Leu) (CUN) genes were found. The complete mitogenome of N. parkeri can provided an important data for the studies on phylogenetic relationship and population genetics to further explore the taxonomic status of this species.

  15. A New Species of Frog (Anura: Dicroglossidae) Discovered from the Mega City of Dhaka

    OpenAIRE

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Merilä, Juha

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of frog of the genus Zakerana discovered from the urban core of Dhaka, Bangladesh, one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Although the new species is morphologically similar to the geographically proximate congeners in the Bangladeshi cricket frog group, we show that it can be distinguished from all congeners on the basis of morphological characters, advertisement calls and variation in two mitochondrial DNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). Apart from s...

  16. A De Novo Case of Floating Chromosomal Polymorphisms by Translocation in Quasipaa boulengeri (Anura, Dicroglossidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Qing, Liyan; Xia, Yun; Zheng, Yuchi; Zeng, Xiaomao

    2012-01-01

    Very few natural polymorphisms involving interchromosomal reciprocal translocations are known in amphibians even in vertebrates. In this study, thirty three populations, including 471 individuals of the spiny frog Quasipaa boulengeri, were karyotypically examined using Giemsa stain or FISH. Five different karyomorphs were observed. The observed heteromorphism was autosomal but not sex-related, as the same heteromorphic chromosomes were found both in males and females. Our results indicated th...

  17. A new caruncle-bearing Limnonectes (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aowphol, Anchalee; Rujirawan, Attapol; Taksintum, Wut; Chuaynkern, Yodchaiy; Stuart, Bryan L

    2015-05-08

    A new species of the dicroglossid frog genus Limnonectes is described from Ubon Ratchathani Province, northeastern Thailand. Limnonectes lauhachindai sp. nov. differs from its congeners by having males with a low-profiled, U-shaped caruncle with free posterior margin that completely occupies, but does not extend beyond, the interobital region. The new species is most closely related to L. gyldenstolpei and L. dabanus. Its description brings the total number of caruncle-bearing species of Limnonectes to five.

  18. A New Species of the Fejervarya limnocharis Complex from Japan (Anura, Dicroglossidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Djong, Hon Tjong; Matsui, Masafumi; Kuramoto, Mitsuru; Nishioka, Midori; Sumida, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new species of dicroglossid frog of the Fejervarya limnocharis complex from western Honshu, Japan Mainland. The new species, Fejervarya kawamurai, is genetically closer to F. sakishimensis than to F. limnocharis. It differs from F. sakishimensis by smaller tympanum, head, forelimb, hindlimb, foot, and tibia lengths, all relative to snout-vent length, and from F. multistriata by relatively shorter forelimb, hindlimb, foot, and tibia. From F. limnocharis and F. iskandari, it is di...

  19. An Examination of Morphometric Variations in a Neotropical Toad Population (Proceratophrys cristiceps, Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Kleber S.; Arzabe, Cristina; Hernández, Malva I. M.; Vieira, Washington L. S.

    2008-01-01

    The species Proceratophrys cristiceps belongs to the genus Proceratophrys within the family Cycloramphidae. These amphibians are found exclusively in South America in the morphoclimatic domain of the semi-arid depression zones in northeastern Brazil known as the Caatinga. We examined intrapopulational variation using univariate and multivariate statistics with traditional and geometric morphometrics, which supported the existence of two morphotypes of this species. Our results indicated significant degrees of variation in skeletal characteristics between some natural populations of this species. Careful analyses of variability levels are fundamental to avoid taxonomic errors, principally in populations that demonstrate characteristics intimately associated with their area of occurrence, as is the case of Proceratophrys cristiceps. PMID:19088855

  20. Comparative cytogenetic studies of Bufo ictericus, B. paracnemis (Amphibia, Anura and an intermediate form in sympatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo MFC

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and a third type, considered an intermediate subgroup between these species, were cytogenetically studied by conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding and staining of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR. The nuclear DNA content and seroproteins were also analyzed to characterize these species, and verify the possibility of hybridization between them. Karyotypes and cytogenetic markers were essentially equal on the basis of the methods used. The DNA nuclear content found was 6.25 ± 0.30 pg/DNA in Bufo ictericus; 7.57 ± 0.40 pg/DNA in Bufo paracnemis and 7.04 ± 0.29 pg/DNA in the intermediate subgroup. Eletrophoresis of total blood serum in Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and the intermediate specimens revealed a remarkable difference in the patterns of the protein bands whose molecular weight corresponded to that of albumin. While the parental species presented two different bands, the intermediate form presented 4. However, only three of these bands were seen in each specimen. The results obtained pointed to a high probability for natural hybridization between Bufo ictericus and Bufo paracnemis in the site and specimens studied.

  1. Characterization and seasonal changes in LHβ and FSHβ mRNA of Rhinella arenarum (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volonteri, M Clara; Regueira, Eleonora; Scaia, M Florencia; Ceballos, Nora R

    2013-06-15

    In anurans, two types of gonadotropins were described in several species of Ranidae and Pipidae families but only in one of the Bufonidae family. Rhinella arenarum is a bufonid that have the lowest concentration of plasma androgens during the breeding. The objective of this paper was to characterize the cDNA sequence of β subunit of LH and FSH from toad pituitary and study seasonal variation in gonadotropins mRNA using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The LHβ cDNA is a 636 bp sequence containing an open reading frame (ORF), 45 bp of 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and 174 bp of 3'-UTR. The ORF encodes for a signal peptide of 26 amino acids and a mature protein of 113 amino acids with one N-glycosylation site at the 34th position. The FSHβ cDNA sequence is a 535 bp fragment containing an ORF, 8 bp of 5'-UTR and 152 bp of 3'-UTR. The ORF encodes for a signal peptide of 20 amino acids and a mature protein of 104 amino acids with two N-glycosylation sites at 25th and 42nd positions. Multiple alignments of aminoacid deduced sequences of LHβ and FSHβ (teleosts, amphibians, birds, mammals) showed that all the tetrapods studied conserve 12 cysteins and one (LH) or two (FSH) N-Glycosylation sites. LHβ is closer to teleosts than to mammals and birds while FSHβ is closer to mammals. The analysis of seasonal changes in LHβ and FSHβ mRNA indicates that transcript levels have seasonal variations and that the profile of androgens is opposite to that of the gonadotropins mRNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Amphibia, Anura, Leiuperidae, Physalaemus soaresi Izecksohn, 1965: New record, distribution extension and geographic distribution map

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    Pontes, J. A. L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a female Physalaemus soaresi Izecksohn, 1965 collected at the Atlantic rainforest of Serra doMendanha, municipality of Rio de Janeiro, state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Known only from two localities (andprobably extinct in one, P. soaresi is considered a threatened species in Brazil and presumably threatened in the state ofRio de Janeiro. Despite the new record, P. soaresi still fits into the status of endangered and requires the full protection of allareas where it occurs.

  3. Toxins and pharmacologically active compounds from species of the family Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Candelario; Rollins-Smith, Louise; Ibáñez, Roberto; Durant-Archibold, Armando A; Gutiérrez, Marcelino

    2017-02-23

    Among amphibians, 15 of the 47 species reported to be used in traditional medicines belong to the family Bufonidae, which demonstrates their potential in pharmacological and natural products research. For example, Asian and American tribes use the skin and the parotoid gland secretions of some common toads in the treatment of hemorrhages, bites and stings from venomous animals, skin and stomach disorders, as well as several types of cancers. In addition to reviewing the occurrence of chemical constituents present in the family Bufonidae, the cytotoxic and biomedical potential of the active compounds produced by different taxa are presented. Available information on bioactive compounds isolated from species of the family Bufonidae was obtained from ACS Publications, Google, Google Scholar, Pubmed, Sciendirect and Springer. Papers written in Chinese, English, German and Spanish were considered. Recent reports show more than 30% of amphibians are in decline and some of bufonid species are considered to be extinct. For centuries, bufonids have been used as traditional folk remedies to treat allergies, inflammation, cancer, infections and other ailments, highlighting their importance as a prolific source for novel drugs and therapies. Toxins and bioactive chemical constituents from skin and parotid gland secretions of bufonid species can be grouped in five families, the guanidine alkaloids isolated and characterized from Atelopus, the lipophilic alkaloids isolated from Melanophryniscus, the indole alkaloids and bufadienolides known to be synthesized by species of bufonids, and peptides and proteins isolated from the skin and gastrointestinal extracts of some common toads. Overall, the bioactive secretions of this family of anurans may have antimicrobial, protease inhibitor and anticancer properties, as well as being active at the neuromuscular level. In this article, the traditional uses, toxicity and pharmacological potential of chemical compounds from bufonids have been summarized. In spite of being reported to be used to treat several diseases, neither extracts nor metabolites from bufonids have been tested in such illness like acne, osteoporosis, arthritis and other illnesses. However, the cytotoxicity of these metabolites needs to be evaluated on adequate animal models due to the limited conditions of in vitro assays. Novel qualitative and quantitative tools based on MS spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy is now available to study the complex secretions of bufonids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Atividade reprodutiva de Physalaemus signifer (Anura, Leptodactylidae em ambiente temporário

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    Wogel Henrique

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The breeding activity of Physalaemus signifer (Girard, 1853 was monitored from July 1999 to July 2000 in a temporary pond in Palmital, Municipality of Saquarema, State of Rio de Janeiro, Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil. Males were sexually actives only in four nights, arriving at the pond on the early rainy season. Males in amplexus were larger and spent more nights in the reproductive aggregation than solitary ones. The number of nights was correlated with the mass of the males. Males adopted satellite behavior as alternative tactic for mate acquisition. Changes between calling and satellite tactics were observed in different nights. Calling males were not larger and heavier than satellite ones. Satellite behavior seemed to be related with the order of arrival on the pond. Size and mass of males did not influence the results of fights. Resident males won the majority of agonistics combats. Three types of vocalizations are described: advertisement, territorial, and encounter calls.

  5. The identity of the South African toad Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia, Anura

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    Annemarie Ohler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The toad species Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 was erected for a single specimen from South Africa which has never been properly studied and allocated to a known species. A morphometrical and morphological analysis of this specimen and its comparison with 75 toad specimens referred to five South African toad species allowed to allocate this specimen to the species currently known as Amietophrynus rangeri. In consequence, the nomen Sclerophrys must replace Amietophrynus as the valid nomen of the genus, and capensis as the valid nomen of the species. This work stresses the usefulness of natural history collections for solving taxonomic and nomenclatural problems.

  6. Descriptions and biological notes on three unusual mantellid tadpoles (Amphibia: Anura: Mantellidae) from southeastern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altig, R.; McDiarmid, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    The morphologies of three unusual tadpoles from slow-flowing, sandy-bottomed, rain forest streams in southeastern Madagascar are described. The large oral apparatus of the tadpole of Boophis picturatus Glaw, Vences, Andreone, and Vallan, 2001 lacks all keratinized structures and has an elaborately-folded lower labium with five, radially oriented, flattopped ridges. The tadpole of Mantidactylus guttulatus (Boulenger, 1881) lacks all keratinized mouthparts and has three immense papillae where the upper jaw normally occurs. The tadpole of Mantidactylus lugubris (Dumeril, 1853) has an ornate oral apparatus involving greatly hypertrophied derivatives of jaw serrations and unique structures on the lower labium that resemble labial teeth.

  7. Distribution of the burrows of Bufo fernandezae (Anura, Bufonidae outside of the breeding season

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    Sergio Daniel Rosset

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the spatial distribution of a population of adult Bufo fernandezae based on the spatial arrangement of their burrows. The study was carried out in a suburban area near La Plata, Argentina. Two sampling methods were used: counts of burrows on areas of known size (quadrat sampling and distance measures (plotless sampling. Data obtained using both methods indicate that the spatial distribution in the analyzed population is at random. In agreement with one of the assumptions of random distributions, burrow density was not significantly correlatedwith distance to water bodies, soil hardness and vegetation cover at the studied spatial scale. Respect to the other assumption of random distributions, we did not obtain data to assess it independently. Positive interactions such as aggregations to avoid water loss described for others species of Bufo do not occur in B. fernandezae because toads of this species solve this problem living in individual burrows. Negative interactions such as territoriality were not evident herein probably because at the population densityfound (1 individual by 83 m2 competition by resources decreases. We emphasize the utility of the methods used here to apply in future works that need to obtain data about the response of B. fernandezae’s populations exposed to different environmental conditions.

  8. An examination of morphometric variations in a neotropical toad population (Proceratophrys cristiceps, Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber S Vieira

    Full Text Available The species Proceratophrys cristiceps belongs to the genus Proceratophrys within the family Cycloramphidae. These amphibians are found exclusively in South America in the morphoclimatic domain of the semi-arid depression zones in northeastern Brazil known as the Caatinga. We examined intrapopulational variation using univariate and multivariate statistics with traditional and geometric morphometrics, which supported the existence of two morphotypes of this species. Our results indicated significant degrees of variation in skeletal characteristics between some natural populations of this species. Careful analyses of variability levels are fundamental to avoid taxonomic errors, principally in populations that demonstrate characteristics intimately associated with their area of occurrence, as is the case of Proceratophrys cristiceps.

  9. First report of satellite males during breeding in Leptodactylus latrans (Amphibia, Anura

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    Gabriel Laufer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of satellite males is a common behaviour across anuran taxa. Satellite males take peripheral positions to calling males and adopt tactics in an attempt to intercept females that are attracted to calling males to increase their own mating success. Satellite males could have an inexpensive form of mate-locating, avoiding predators, and saving energy. Furthermore, this strategy could play an important role in the genetic structure of populations. The genus Leptodactylus consists of approximately 70 described species that are widely distributed in South America. The literature on the biology of this genus is extensive; however, we found only two reports on the existence of multi-male mating behavior in the genus (L. chaquensis and L. podicipinus. Herein, we report intrasexual competition in the form of satellite behavior in Leptodactylus latrans, where multiple satellite males were observed in close vicinity to a calling male.

  10. The agricultural impact of pesticides on Physalaemus cuvieri tadpoles (Amphibia: Anura ascertained by comet assay

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    Macks W. Gonçalves

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Amphibians inhabiting agricultural areas are constantly exposed to large amounts of chemicals, which reach the aquatic environment during the rainy season through runoff, drainage, and leaching. We performed a comet assay on the erythrocytes of tadpoles found in the surroundings of agricultural fields (soybean and corn crops, where there is an intense release of several kinds of pesticides in different quantities. We aimed to detect differences in the genotoxic parameters between populations collected from soybeans and cornfields, and between them and tadpoles sampled from non-agricultural areas (control group. Tadpoles collected from ponds located at soybean fields had significantly more DNA damage, followed by tadpoles collected from cornfields. In contrast, animals sampled from non-agricultural areas had the lowest incidence of DNA damage. In addition, we found a negative correlation between the parameters of the comet assay and the area of the ponds surrounding soybean. This correlation indicates a possible dilution effect in the concentration of pesticides. Finally, Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826 seems to be a good bioindicator for detecting the genotoxic effects of field agricultural insecticides; therefore, we suggest that this species should be used in environmental biomonitoring studies, since it is common and abundant where it occurs.

  11. Hallazgo de Elachistocleis bicolor (Valenciennes, 1838 (Anura: Microhylidae en la prov. del Espinal

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    Gallego, Fernando L.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available República Argentina, Prov. de Córdoba, Dpto. Gral. San Martín, Villa María (32°25'S 63°15'W, 3 ejemplares colectados por F. Gallego y C. Giménez, el 21 de febrero de 1998. Depositados en la colección de Zoología de Vertebrados, UNRC, (5800 Río Cuarto, Argentina, números ZVUNRC: 4253; 4254; 4255.

  12. Rhinella scitula (Caramaschi & Niemeyer, 2003) (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae): New distribution records

    OpenAIRE

    Sugai, José; Souza, Franco; Filho, Paulo; Sczesny-Moraes, Eurico

    2014-01-01

    Rhinella scitula is a small frog belonging to the R. margaritifera group that is found in southwestern and central Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and in the provinces of Amambay and Concepcion in Paraguay. We extend the distribution of the species across the north and the southeast prior distribution limit, and provide an updated map. The distribution of R. scitula encompasses mainly areas with seasonal forests and mountainous landscape in central-western Brazil and northeastern Paraguay.

  13. Intraspecific variation in erythrocyte sizes among populations of Hypsiboas cordobas (Anura: Hylidae

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    Mariana Baraquet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the morphology and size of erythrocytes of H. cordobae, and analysed the geographic variation of this character along the distribution of the species, in relation to the latitudinal and altitudinal distances. Erythrocyte shape of the H. cordobae is ellipsoidal and the nuclei are also ellipsoidal and centrally oriented. Erythrocyte and nuclear size showed significant differences among populations, with the highest mean size corresponding to the population of Achiras (low altitude site and the lowest mean size to Los Linderos (high altitude site. There was no significant relationship between the latitude of each population and the both erythrocyte and nuclear size. The altitudinal variation in erythrocyte cell size may be attributable to the surface available for gas exchange; a small erythrocyte offers a possibility of greater rate of exchange than a larger one. Our results are consistent with studies of other amphibians, where intraspecific comparisons of populations at different altitudes show that individuals at higher altitudes are characterized by smaller erythrocytes.

  14. Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae, Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946: Distribution extension, state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, Pierre-Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    At the present work, the poorly known cycloramphid frog Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946 is registered in a large Atlantic forest fragment at the state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The new record extends the geographical distribution of M. alipioi in approximately 100 km to the northeast.

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of diurnal, phytotelm-breeding Melanophryniscus (Anura: Bufonidae) based on mitogenomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pie, Marcio R; Ströher, Patrícia R; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Bornschein, Marcos R; Ribeiro, Luiz F; Faircloth, Brant C; McCormack, John E

    2017-09-10

    Melanophryniscus is a bufonid frog genus with a broad geographic distribution over southeastern South America. In recent years, several new species of Melanophryniscus have been discovered in southern Brazil showing a distinctive life-history strategy for the genus - breeding in phytotelmata - as well as a strong association with high-altitude regions. In this study, we use mitogenomic data to infer the phylogenetic relationships among diurnal, phytotelm-breeding Melanophryniscus and to determine the timing of their divergence. We obtained the mitochondrial genomes (not including the control region) for eight individuals of Melanophryniscus representing all three described species (M. alipioi, M. milanoi, and M. xanthostomus), as well as some recently-discovered and potentially new species. Gene order was conserved in all species and corresponded to the general order found in bufonids. Although the phylogenetic relationships among the studied species was poorly supported, dating confirmed that they diverged during the Pleistocene, suggesting that phytotelm breeding could have arisen during drier periods in the glacial/interglacial cycles due to a decrease in the availability of permanent streams or ephemeral/temporary streams or ponds in which Melanophryniscus species commonly breed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae, Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946: Distribution extension, state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil

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    Bourgeois, P.-A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present work, the poorly known cycloramphid frog Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946 is registeredin a large Atlantic forest fragment at the state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The new record extends the geographicaldistribution of M. alipioi in approximately 100 km to the northeast.

  17. A new species of Phrynobatrachus (Amphibia: Anura: Phrynobatrachidae) from north-western Guinea, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillers, A.; Zimkus, B.; Rödel, M.-O.

    2008-01-01

    A new small Phrynobatrachus species from a gallery forest in north-western Guinea is described. Phrynobatrachus pintoi sp. nov. exhibits a combination of unique morphological characters and a distinctive color pattern, including: compact, oval body, short snout, warty dorsum and eyelid (although no

  18. A new arboreal frog of the genus Guibemantis from the southeast of Madagascar (Anura: Mantellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vences, Miguel; Jovanovic, Olga; Safarek, Goran; Glaw, Frank; Köhler, Jörn

    2015-12-23

    We describe a new species of arboreal frog of the genus Guibemantis, subgenus Guibemantis, from low altitude rainforest in Manombo Special Reserve, south-eastern Madagascar. Previously published phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences have placed Guibemantis diphonus sp. nov. sister to G. timidus. The new species is distinguished from G. timidus and all other species in the subgenus by a substantial genetic differentiation (≥ 4.4% uncorrected p-distance in the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene), strongly divergent advertisement call, and some limited morphological differences. It is the smallest known species in the subgenus, with 34-36 mm snout-vent length in adult males. Its advertisement call is unique among other species in the subgenus in being composed of two distinctly different note types (only one note type in the other species).

  19. A new species of leopard frog (Anura: Ranidae) from the urban northeastern US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Catherine E; Feinberg, Jeremy A; Rissler, Leslie J; Burger, Joanna; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2012-05-01

    Past confusion about leopard frog (genus Rana) species composition in the Tri-State area of the US that includes New York (NY), New Jersey (NJ), and Connecticut (CT) has hindered conservation and management efforts, especially where populations are declining or imperiled. We use nuclear and mitochondrial genetic data to clarify the identification and distribution of leopard frog species in this region. We focus on four problematic frog populations of uncertain species affiliation in northern NJ, southeastern mainland NY, and Staten Island to test the following hypotheses: (1) they are conspecific with Rana sphenocephala or R. pipiens, (2) they are hybrids between R. sphenocephala and R. pipiens, or (3) they represent one or more previously undescribed cryptic taxa. Bayesian phylogenetic and cluster analyses revealed that the four unknown populations collectively form a novel genetic lineage, which represents a previously undescribed cryptic leopard frog species, Rana sp. nov. Statistical support for R. sp. nov. was strong in both the Bayesian (pp=1.0) and maximum-likelihood (bootstrap=99) phylogenetic analyses as well as the Structure cluster analyses. While our data support recognition of R. sp. nov. as a novel species, we recommend further study including fine-scaled sampling and ecological, behavioral, call, and morphological analyses before it is formally described. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A New Species of Frog (Anura: Dicroglossidae) Discovered from the Mega City of Dhaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Merilä, Juha

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of frog of the genus Zakerana discovered from the urban core of Dhaka, Bangladesh, one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Although the new species is morphologically similar to the geographically proximate congeners in the Bangladeshi cricket frog group, we show that it can be distinguished from all congeners on the basis of morphological characters, advertisement calls and variation in two mitochondrial DNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). Apart from several diagnostic differences in body proportions, the new species differs from other Zakerana species in having a flattened snout (from ventral view) projecting over the lower jaw, and diagnostic trapezoid-shaped red markings on the vocal sac in males. Molecular genetic analyses show that the new species is highly divergent (3.1-20.1% sequence divergence) from all congeneric species, and forms a well-supported clade with its sister species, Zakerana asmati. The discovery of a new amphibian species from the urban core of Dhaka together with several recent descriptions of new amphibian species from Bangladesh may indicate that more amphibian species remain to be discovered from this country.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of a brown frog, Rana kunyuensis (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiao; Yin, Wei; Xia, Rong; Lei, Guangchun; Fu, Cuizhang

    2016-01-01

    The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Rana sensu stricto (sensu Frost, 2013) was determined using Rana kunyuensis as a representative species. The mitogenome was 22,255 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and duplicated control regions. The mitogenome of R. kunyuensis showed novel gene order arrangement with a translocation of tRNA(Leu)((CUN)) and ND5 in comparison with published anuran mitogenomes to date. This mitogenome should contribute to understand the evolution of anuran mitochondrial gene order arrangements.

  2. Carbaryl-induced histopathologic alterations on testes of levantine frog, Pelophylax bedriagae (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakıcı, Özlem

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate for the first time histopathologic effects of carbaryl on the testes of adult frog, Pelophylax bedriagae. Frogs were exposed to carbaryl once by oral gavage in concentrations of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/g. After 96 h, frogs were euthanized and dissected. Histopathological changes were more prominent in medium- (0.1 mg/g) and high-dose (0.2 mg/g) groups than in the low-dose (0.05 mg/g) group. In the low-dose group, shrinkage of some seminiferous tubules was observed. In the medium-dose group, an enlargement of interstitial spaces and germ cell necrosis were detected. In the high-dose group, prominent tubule deformation was determined. Germ cell necrosis in seminiferous tubules was frequently seen. In addition, congestion, hemorrhage, cellular infiltration and fibrosis were detected. According to these findings, it is clear that carbaryl affects male fertility in P. bedriagae.

  3. Description of a new brown frog from Tsushima Island, Japan (Anura: Ranidae: Rana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Masafumi

    2014-09-01

    Because all available evidence from allozymes, mtDNA sequences, and artificial hybridization suggests presence of high genetic differentiation between populations of East Asian brown frogs currently assigned to Rana dybowskii Günther, 1876, I compared morphological characters between specimens from Tsushima Island of Japan and Maritime territory of Russia. The population from Tsushima is slightly, but significantly different from R. dybowskii from Russia, including the holotype. I therefore consider the Tsushima population to be specifically distinct, and describe it as a new species R. uenoi. The new species also occurs in the Korean Peninsula and adjacent islands, but the distributional relationships with R. dybowskii are unclear, as detailed distribution in northern Korea is lacking.

  4. Three novel antimicrobial peptides from the skin of the Indian bronzed frog Hylarana temporalis (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshmy, V; Preeji, V; Parvin, A; Santhoshkumar, K; George, S

    2011-05-01

    Amphibian skin secretion is considered as a rich source of bioactive peptides. The present work describes the successful identification of three novel peptides named brevinin-1TEa, brevinin-2TEa and brevinin-2TEb present in the skin secretion of Indian bronzed frog Hylarana temporalis. The deduced open reading frame encoding the biosynthetic precursor of brevinin-1TEa consisted of 70 amino acid residues and brevinin-2TEa and brevinin-2TEb consisted of 71 and 72 amino acids, respectively. All the three peptides showed higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative than against Gram-positive bacteria. On the basis of the antibacterial and haemolytic activity, brevinin-2TEb is the most potent peptide reported in the present study. Further research on these peptides may provide potential clue towards newer drug development to combat various microbial diseases. Copyright © 2011 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Age, Size, and Growth of the Turkish Endemic Frog Pelophylax Caralitanus (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erismis, Ugur Cengiz

    2017-12-20

    Pelophylax caralitanus is a medium-sized frog that is endemic to the upland Lake District of south-central Turkey and currently identified as a threatened species as a result of overharvesting and habitat modification. In this report, demographic data are provided for four major lakeside populations of this species based on a skeletochronological analysis of bone growth in large samples of frogs that were captured and released during 2011 and 2013. Adult males (aged 2-9 years) and females (aged 2-10 years) ranged in size from 66 to 105 mm snout-vent length (SVL) and 65 to 110 mm SVL, respectively, and typically attained sexual maturity in their second (low-elevation sites) or third (high-elevation sites) summer of growth following metamorphosis. The four populations exhibited differences in growth rate and age at sexual maturity, which appeared to reflect differences in the average monthly temperature and length of the growth season rather than elevation per se, that is, warmer temperatures and longer growth seasons resulted in smaller adults. All populations had a similar overall age structure, with approximately equal frequencies of individuals in the five age and size classes following maturity. Anat Rec, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A new genus and species of treefrog from Medog, southeastern Tibet, China (Anura, Rhacophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ke; Yan, Fang; Wang, Kai; Zou, Da-Hu; Li, Cheng; Che, Jing

    2016-01-18

    A new genus and species of threefrog is described from Medog, southeastern Tibet, China based on morphological and phylogenetic data. The new genus can be distinguished from other treefrog genera by the following combination of characters: (1) body size moderate, 45.0 mm in male; (2) snout rounded; (3) canthus rostralis obtuse and raised prominently, forming a ridge from nostril to anterior corner of eyes; (4) web rudimentary on fingers; (5) web moderately developed on toes; (6) phalange "Y" shaped, visible from dorsal side of fingers and toes; (7) skin of dorsal surfaces relatively smooth, scatted with small tubercles; (8) iris with a pale yellow, "X" shaped pattern of pigmentation.

  7. A new species of the genus Scutiger (Anura: Megophryidae) from Medog of southeastern Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ke; Wang, Kai; Zou, Da-Hu; Yan, Fang; Li, Pi-Peng; Che, Jing

    2016-01-18

    A new species of Scutiger Theobald, 1868 is described from Medog, southeastern Tibet, China, based on morphological and molecular data. The new species was previously identified as Scutiger nyingchiensis, but it can be differentiated from the latter and all other congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) medium adult body size, SVL 50.5-55.6 mm in males and 53.8-57.2 mm in females; (2) maxillary teeth absent; (3) web rudimentary between toes; (4) prominent, conical-shaped tubercles on dorsal and lateral surfaces of body and limbs; (5) tubercles covered by black spines in both sexes in breeding condition; (6) a pair of pectoral glands and a pair of axillary glands present and covered by black spines in males in breeding condition, width of axillary gland less than 50% of pectoral gland; (7) nuptial spines present on dorsal surface of first and second fingers, and inner side of third finger in males in breeding condition; (8) spines absent on the abdominal region; (9) vocal sac absent. In addition, the distribution and conservation status of the new species are also discussed.

  8. Two new endangered species of Anomaloglossus (Anura: Aromobatidae) from Roraima State, northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Souza, Sergio Marques; Nunes, Pedro M Sales; Kok, Philippe J R; Curcio, Felipe Franco; De Carvalho, Celso Morato; Grant, Taran; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2015-03-05

    We describe two new species of Anomaloglossus from Roraima State, Brazil, that are likely endemic to single mountains currently isolated among lowland forest and savanna ecosystems. The first species, Anomaloglossus tepequem sp. nov. was collected in 1986 and 1992 along a single stream at >500 m elevation on a tepui-like mountain named Tepequém, but was not detected during recent investigations. It is mainly diagnosed from other Anomaloglossus species by its well developed foot webbing, immaculate cream abdomen colouration and small body size (males: 18.2-20.1 mm, females: 21.7-24.5). The second species, Anomaloglossus apiau sp. nov. was found along several streams between 500 and 1400 m elevation on Serra do Apiaú, and is mainly diagnosed from congeners by its weakly webbed feet, males with swollen third finger and ventrolateral stripe formed by white dots, and its advertisement call; a long trill (up to almost 40 s) consisting of pairs of very short pulses. The discovery of these two apparently microendemic species suggests that additional Anomaloglossus species remain to be described in the Guiana Shield. Both species should be considered critically endangered given their seemingly reduced range size, association with highland habitat, and the anthropogenic pressure they currently face.

  9. Metamorfosis del aparato digestivo de larvas carnívoras de Ceratophrys cranwelli (Anura: Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulloa Kreisel, Zandra E.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Las larvas carnívoras de Ceratophrys cranwelli presentan un tubo digestivo más corto que la mayoría de las larvas de anuros, tiene 6 veces la longitud del cuerpo del renacuajo y se caracteriza también por tener un estómago larval. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo el determinar el grado de transformaciones en la cavidad bucofaríngea y tubo digestivo en larvas de esta especie durante la metamorfosis y comparar las estructuras digestivas estudiadas en otras especies de Leptodactylidae de la subfamilia Ceratophryinae y especies con otros hábitos alimenticios. Carnivorous larvae from Ceratophrys cranwelli present a digestive tube shorter than most of the anuran larvae, have 6 times a tadpole’s body length and they are also characterized by the presence of a larval stomach. The aim of this work is determine the grade of transformations in the buccopharyngeal cavity and digestive tube during the metamorphosis in larvae of this species and compare the digestive structures studied in other species of Leptodactylidae of the subfamily Ceratophryinae and another species with different diets.

  10. Alimentación y fecundidad de Bufo variegatus (Anura: Bufonidae en Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rappi, Guillermina E.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la alimentación de una población de Bufo variegatus procedente de la región de Lago del Desierto, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. De los 11 ítems presa identificados, los más consumidos por los adultos (tanto machos como hembras fueron los coleópteros. En los machos la segunda categoría presa mas importante en la contribución a la dieta fueron los ácaros, mientras que en las hembras las hormigas y las larvas de insectos siguieron en importancia al consumo de coleópteros. En los especímenes juveniles, los ácaros fueron las presas más consumidas, quedando los coleópteros en segundo lugar en importancia relativa. Se demuestra la existencia de una correlación positiva significativa entre el volumen de las presas y el tamaño del depredador. Se aportan datos referentes a la fecundidad de B. variegatus y se comprueba la ausencia de correlación entre el tamaño de las hembras grávidas y el número de óvulos maduros. The diet of a population of Bufo variegatus from the region of Lago del Desierto, Santa Cruz province, Argentina, is described. Of the 11 prey items identified, Coleoptera was the most consumed prey both for males and females. In males, the second most important prey was Acarii, while in females they were the ants and insect larvae. Acarii was the most consumed prey for juveniles, followed by Coleoptera. A significant positive correlation was found between prey volume and predator body size. Fecundity information for B. variegwus is given, and a lack of correlation between snout-vent length of mature females and ovarian egg complement is demonstrated.

  11. THE TADPOLE OF THE MEXICAN TREE FROG CHARADRAHYLA TAENIOPUS (ANURA: HYLIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    MOISES KAPLAN; PETER HEIMES

    2015-01-01

    The tadpole of Charadrahyla taeniopus is described. This tadpole is a typical stream-dweller with a long depressed body, oral disc completely surrounded by marginal papillae with numerous small submarginal papillae lateral to the mouth, and several rows of teeth on the posterior labium (6-7).

  12. The Green Clade grows: A phylogenetic analysis of Aplastodiscus (Anura; Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berneck, Bianca V M; Haddad, Célio F B; Lyra, Mariana L; Cruz, Carlos A G; Faivovich, Julián

    2016-04-01

    Green tree frogs of the genus Aplastodiscus occur in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes of South America. The genus comprises 15 medium-sized species placed in three species groups diagnosed mainly by cloacal morphology. A phylogenetic analysis was conducted to: (1) test the monophyly of these species groups; (2) explore the phylogenetic relationships among putative species; and (3) investigate species boundaries. The dataset included eight mitochondrial and nuclear gene fragments for up to 6642 bp per specimen. The results strongly support the monophyly of Aplastodiscus and of the A. albofrenatus and A. perviridis groups. Aplastodiscus sibilatus is the sister taxon of all other species of Aplastodiscus, making the A. albosignatus Group non-monophyletic as currently defined. At least six unnamed species are recognized for Aplastodiscus, increasing the diversity of the genus by 40%. A fourth species group, the A. sibilatus Group is recognized. Aplastodiscus musicus is transferred from the A. albofrenatus Group to the A. albosignatus Group, and A. callipygius is considered a junior synonym of A. albosignatus. Characters related to external cloacal morphology reveal an interesting evolutionary pattern of parallelisms and reversions, suggesting an undocumented level of complexity. We analyze, in light of our phylogenetic results, the evolution of reproductive biology and chromosome morphology in Aplastodiscus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative cytogenetic analysis on four tree frog species (Anura, Hylidae, Hylinae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, S; Zampieri Silva, A P; Gruber, S L; Haddad, C F B

    2003-01-01

    A comparative cytogenetic analysis was carried out on four Hylinae tree frogs from Brazil ((Aparasphenodon brunoi, Corythomantis greeningi, Osteocephalus langsdorffii, and Scinax fuscovarius) using Giemsa staining, BrdU replication banding, Ag-NOR staining, C-banding, DAPI and CMA(3) fluorochrome staining, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with an rDNA probe. All the species share closely similar 2n = 24 karyotypes, almost indistinguishable by standard staining. The technique of BrdU incorporation allowed the identification of each pair of homologs and the establishment of extensive homeology for the great majority of the chromosomes, mainly of A. brunoi, C. greeningi, and O. langsdorffii. Despite highly conserved replication banding patterns, the use of the other banding techniques disclosed some minor differences, which reinforces the importance of extensive cytogenetic analyses for the karyotypic characterization of Anuran species. The present cytogenetic data confirm the closer proximity of A. brunoi, C. greeningi, and O. langsdorffii, whereas S. fuscovarius is phylogenetically more distant. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Trypanosome transmission by Corethrella wirthi (Diptera: Chaoboridae) to the green treefrog, Hyla cinerea (Anura: Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R N; Young, D G; Butler, J F

    1993-09-01

    Seventy-two percent of 215 male green tree frog, Hyla cinerea (Schneider), captured in Alachua and Levy counties, FL, between April and mid-September 1978 and 1979 were infected with an undescribed Trypanosoma sp. None of the 31 female frogs captured concurrently was infected. Periodic sampling of the peripheral blood from the infected male frogs showed that the trypanosomes were present in high numbers only at night. Conspecific trypanosomes also were found in the mid and hind guts of female Corethrella wirthi Stone flies collected on or near male frogs in the field. Transmission of the parasite to uninfected frogs was demonstrated by exposure of male and female frogs to naturally infected flies and to parasites injected subdermally. This is the first report of parasite transmission by a species of Corethrella.

  15. Microhabitat use and spatial distribution in Picado’s Bromeliad Treefrog, Isthmohyla picadoi (Anura, Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. M. Stuckert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Isthmohyla picadoi is a Neotropical hylid frog found in upper humid montane forests of Costa Rica and Panama. The species is of particular interest because it continues to persist in an area in which the amphibian community has otherwise been decimated by the pathogenic fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Ground search, ladder climbing, and tree climbing techniques were used to locate 32 individuals; including adult males and females, juveniles, andmetamorphosing frogs. The majority of frogs were found in bromeliads, although some individuals were found on plants of the Euphorbiaceae, Musaceae, and Heliconiaceae families. Most frogs were found in larger bromeliads (45 cm or wider. There was a positive correlation between SUL and bromeliad width within the population but not within maturity classes (adult males, adult females, all adults, nonmetamorphosingjuveniles, suggesting that juvenile and adult frogs differ in bromeliad usage. Ranges of SUL and body weight in this particular population are much greater than those reported in previous species accounts.

  16. Nest structure, incubation and and hatching in the trinidadian leaf-frog Phyllomedusa trinitatis (Anura: Hylidae

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    J. Roger Downie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available New findings on nesting and hatching are reported for the leaf-nesting tree frog Phyllomedusa trinitatis. Nest height and leaf cover(one or many leaves, well or poorly covered were very variable. Contrary to a previous report, egless jelly capsules we scattered amongst the eggs, with substancial jelly plugs located above and below the egg clutch. Plugs were composed of capsules embedded in a matrix of somewhat different composition. The upper plug acted as a barrier to water entry. Contrary to previous reports, isolated eggs could develop in aquatic media, the later stage on entry the better: Aeration and salt composition of the water influences this ability. Egg clutches developes equally well whether the covering leaves were alive or dead. Single eggs incubated in water hatched prematurely; when placed in water, eggs near hatching stage hatched within a short time; such eggs on a dry or damp substrate did not hatch till much later. The hatching of any embryo in a group appeared to act as a stimulus to neighbours to hatch. Observations ons nests with the covering leaves replaced by clingfilm showed that emergence is preceded by a lenghty period of hatching behavior, with individuals hatchins, wriggling and stimulating larger and larger groups to hatch, and releasing a frothy fluid wich leads to the dissolution of the lower jelly plug and emergence of the hatchlings. Contrary to a previous report, hatching gland cells were observable on the laterodorsal surface of the head. When hatchings emerged from the nest, they were mostly at Gosner stage 25 with gills fully resorbed. When earlier embryos were induced to hatch, they rapidly shortened their external gills. These findings are discussed in comparison with observations on the related genus Agalychnis.

  17. THE TADPOLE OF THE MEXICAN TREE FROG CHARADRAHYLA TAENIOPUS (ANURA: HYLIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOISES KAPLAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The tadpole of Charadrahyla taeniopus is described. This tadpole is a typical stream-dweller with a long depressed body, oral disc completely surrounded by marginal papillae with numerous small submarginal papillae lateral to the mouth, and several rows of teeth on the posterior labium (6-7.

  18. Cytogenetic comparison of tree frogs of the genus Aplastodiscus and the Hypsiboas faber group (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, K A; Garcia, P C A; Recco-Pimentel, S M

    2009-12-18

    Four species of Aplastodiscus and two species of Hypsiboas were cytogenetically compared. Aplastodiscus perviridis, A. cochranae, H. albomarginaus, and H. faber had 2n = 24 chromosomes, while A. albosignatus and A. leucopygius had 2n = 20 and 2n = 18 chromosomes, respectively. Aplastodiscus perviridis and A. cochranae had identical karyotypes, as indicated by their chromosomal morphology, the location of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) on chromosome pair 12, and the heterochromatin pattern. The NOR-bearing chromosomes of A. albosignatus and A. leucopygius (pair 9) were very similar in size and morphology (metacentric) when compared to A. perviridis and A. cochranae (pair 12) and to H. faber (pair 11); the NOR of these chromosomes also occurred in the same region, suggesting that these chromosomes are homologous. Although H. albomarginatus differs from the other species with regard to the location of its NOR on pair 2, this species had the same diploid number and a chromosomal morphology similar to that of A. perviridis and A. cochranae. Chromosomal differentiation among the species appears to have occurred by reduction in chromosome number.

  19. Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae, Trachycephalus atlas Bokermann, 1966: distribution extension and geographic distribution map

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto, Igor; Ribeiro, Samuel; Bezerra, Lucas; Carneiro, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The casqued-headed tree frog Trachycephalus atlas Bokermann, 1966 is recorded for the first time in the municipality of Jati, southern region of Ceará state, northeastern Brazil, extending in 72 km east the previous known geographic distribution of this species. An updated geographic distribution map of T. atlas is provided.

  20. A new species of Scinax from the Purus-Madeira interfluve, Brazilian Amazonia (Anura, Hylidae

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    Miquéias Ferrão

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new tree frog species of the genus Scinax from the interfluve between the Purus and Madeira rivers, Brazilian Amazonia, is described and illustrated. The new species is diagnosed by medium body size, snout truncate in dorsal view, ulnar and tarsal tubercles absent, nuptial pads poorly developed, skin on dorsum shagreen, dorsum light brown with dark brown spots and markings, white groin with black spots, anterior and posterior surfaces of thighs black, and iris bright orange. The advertisement call consists of a single short note, with 16−18 pulses and dominant frequency at 1572−1594 Hz. Tadpoles are characterized by body ovoid in dorsal view and triangular in lateral view, tail higher than body, oral disc located anteroventrally and laterally emarginated, dorsum of body uniformly grey-brown with dark brown eye-snout stripe in preservative, fins translucent with small to large irregular diffuse dark brown spots.

  1. Structure of the mating calls and relationships of the European tree frogs (Hylidae, anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Hans

    1974-03-01

    As an extension of earlier investigations, the mating calls ofHyla arborea kretensis, Hyla a. molleri, andHyla a. sarda were studied, and variations in the calls with air temperature were determined. The mating calls of these species exhibit the typical structure, made up of short pulses of varying amplitude. The call duration and the inter-call interval decrease linearly with increasing temperature (over the range in which calls can occur), whereas the number of pulses per call does not change. Comparisons of the structure of the mating calls make it possible to assess the relationships among the European tree frogs, which so far have been regarded as subspecies of just one species.Hyla meridionalis represents a valid species; this is certainly also true ofHyla a. savignyi of the Middle East.Hyla arborea arborea andHyla a. sarda can be considered as subspecies, whereasHyla a. kretensis andHyla a. molleri cannot.

  2. Energy substrate utilization during nightly vocal activity in three species of Scinax (Anura/Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, José Eduardo; Gomes, Fernando Ribeiro; Navas, Carlos Arturo

    2008-05-01

    Anuran amphibians exhibit different patterns of energy substrate utilization that correlate with the intensity of vocal and locomotor activities. Given the remarkable differences among species in breeding and feeding strategies, and the different ways energy is used in the whole animal, the suggested correlations between calling and locomotor behavior and the level of energy substrates in the muscles responsible for such activities are more complex than previously reported. We explored the relationships between calling and locomotor behavior and energy supply to trunk and hindlimb muscles, respectively, within the ecologically diverse tree-frog genus Scinax. Specifically, we measured the relative amount of carbohydrates and lipids in these two groups of muscles, and in the liver of three species of Scinax that differ in vocal and locomotor performance, and compared our results with those of two other species for which comparable data are available. We also compared the contents of lipids and carbohydrates of conspecific males collected at the beginning and after 4 h of calling activity. The stomach content to potential feeding opportunities across species was also assessed in both groups of males. Scinax hiemalis and S. rizibilis exhibit comparatively low and episodic calling during long periods of activity whereas S. crospedospilus calls at higher rates over shorter periods. Male S. hiemalis had highest levels of trunk muscle glycogen followed by those of S. rizilbilis and S. crospedospilus, respectively. There was no correlation between total lipid content in trunk muscle and calling rate among different species, suggesting that other metabolic aspects may be responsible for the energetic support for vocal activity. The levels of lipids and carbohydrates in trunk and hindlimb muscles and liver of males collected at the beginning and 4 h into the calling period were similar across species, so the extent of energetic reserves does not appear to constrain vocal or locomotor activity. Finally, we found exceptionally high levels of carbohydrates and lipids in the liver of S. rizibilis, a trait perhaps related to a long and demanding breeding period.

  3. Light shines through the spindrift – Phylogeny of African torrent frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Petropedetidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barej, M. F.; Rödel, M.-O.; Loader, S. P.; Menegon, M.; Gonwouo, N.L.; Penner, J.; Gvoždík, Václav; Günther, R.; Bell, R. C.; Nagel, B.; Schmitz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2014), s. 261-273 ISSN 1055-7903 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Africa * Amphibians * Taxonomy * Arthroleptides * Petropedetes * Odontobatrachus gen. nov Sub ject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.916, year: 2014

  4. Aspects of gene regulation in the diploid and tetraploid Odontophrynus americanus (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianciarullo Aurora M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietic and hemoglobin DNA transcriptional activities were analyzed in the diploid and the tetraploid Odontophrynus americanus. Flow cytometric analyses of DNA, RNA and mitochondrial contents showed increased genic activity in both diploid and tetraploid animals during erythropoiesis in vivo elicited by pretreatment phenylhydrazine. Generally, higher values were seen in immature tetraploid erythroid cells. On the 10th day of recovery from anemia, large amounts of messenger RNA were found in both specimens. Based on the mitochondrial content, the tetraploid cells had more intense energy metabolism than the diploid cells. Diploid O. americanus had about three times more erythroid cells than tetraploid specimens, indicating that there were differences in the regulatory mechanisms of erythroid cells. Hematological parameters showed that tetraploid cells had 30% more hemoglobin than the diploid, suggesting a regulatory mechanism of hemoglobin synthesis at the transcriptional level. Cytoplasmic inclusions resembling Heinz bodies were found in both types of cells. In the tetraploid cells they were previously found associated with RNA or RNP, suggesting that other regulatory system which controls the accumulation of nontranslated RNA transcribed in excess must be present. These differences at the physiological and molecular levels during erythropoiesis reinforce the hypothesis that speciation is occurring between diploid and tetraploid O. americanus.

  5. Assessment of uniqueness of bufoviridis (Amphibia: Anura populations in terms of rational ecological ethics

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    M. O. Kravchenko

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Substantive provisions of rational environmental ethics are stated. This concept presumes to compare a level of uniqueness of different objects, which forms the establishment for giving the ethical value. The developed approach is used for comparison of 26 populations of Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768 from Left-bank forest-steppe of Ukraine.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Dark-spotted frog Pelophylax nigromaculatus (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lichun; Zhao, Li; Liu, Yabin; Leng, Zheng; Zhao, Liping; Ruan, Qiping

    2017-03-01

    The dark-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculatus) belongs to Ranidae. This species is known from the Russian Far East, central, northern and north-eastern China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Republic of Korea, and Japan. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of P. nigromaculatus was sequenced. The mitogenome was 17 567 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and a non-coding control region. As in other vertebrates, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes which are encoded on the light strand. The overall base composition of the P. nigromaculatus is 29.2% A, 27.4% T, 28.4% C, and 15.0% G. Phylogenetic analysis showed P. nigromaculatus was closely related to P. plancyi and P. chosenicus. The complete mitogenome of P. nigromaculatus can provide important data for the studies on phylogenetic relationship and population genetics to further explore the taxonomic status of this species.

  7. Toxic effects of carbaryl on the histology of testes of Bufotes variabilis (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Ozlem Cakici

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate histopathologic effects of carbaryl on the testes of adult toad, Bufotes variabilis. To that end, animals were exposed to carbaryl once by oral gavage (low dose: 50 µg/g, medium dose: 100 µg/g and high dose: 200 µg/g. After 96 h, toads were euthanized. In low-dose group, some seminiferous tubules lost their regular shape. Also, the enlargement of interstitial spaces among tubules and germ cell necrosis were determined. A weak hemorrhage was observed among some tubules. In medium-dose group, germ cell necrosis was detected in many seminiferous tubules. This time, a weak hemorrhage was detected within tubules. In the high dose group, an increase in the number of disorganized tubules were observed. Vacuolization and necrosis in germ cells of seminiferous tubules were frequently seen. According to these findings, carbaryl caused dose-related histopathological damage in testis of B. variabilis. Based on these findings, this study clearly shows that carbaryl affects male fertility in B. variabilis.

  8. Sobre la oviposición de Chiasmocleis leucosticta (Boulenger, 1888 (Anura: Microhylidae

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    Segalla, Magno V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Haddad & Hödl (1997 concluyeron que Chiasmocleis leucosticta posee un modo reproductivo único entre los anuros por incluir en su oviposición burbujas de aire generadas por la respiración de la pareja en amplexo. Estos autores compararon este modo de oviposición con otros géneros de microhylidos. La presente nota tiene como cometido compararla con las de otras especies del género a la luz de las observaciones llevadas a cabo por los autores.

  9. Dos nuevas especies de Phrynopus(Anura: Leptodactylidae de los bosques nublados de Bolivia

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    Cidar Rodrigo Aguayo Vedia

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe dos nuevas especies de Phrynopus de la Ceja de monte Yungueña de Cochabamba, Bolivia, P. adenopleurus y P. iatamasi. Ambas especies son asignables al grupo peruanus y se diferencian de las otras cuatro especies que existen en el país por presentar el primer dedo más corto que el segundo, tener membrana basal y por sus colores y diseños dorsales y ventrales. La musculatura ha sido pocas veces descrita para especies de Phrynopus. Phrynopus adenopleurus, especie nueva, posee una inusual musculatura mandibular y del muslo, muy poco parecida a lo descrito para otras especies del género.We describe two new species of Phrynopus from cloud forests in Cochabamba, Bolivia. The new species are assigned to the P. peruanus group and are characterized by the presence of basal webbing, distinctive coloration, and by having the first finger shorter than the second. The first of these new species was collected near Montepunko in Parque Nacional Carrasco and is known from eight males and six females. Among its distinctive characteristics are round cream-colored glands on its flanks. A second species is known from one male and one female collected near "Zona de Aguirre" near the northwest border of the park. V and X-shaped blotches and a dorsum that is smooth except for dorsolateral and scapular folds characterize this species. Musculature has rarely been described for species of Phrynopus. The species from Montepunko has unusual gular and thigh musculature that is quite unlike other species of the genus.

  10. Estradiol and reproduction in the South American toad Rhinella arenarum (Amphibian, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaia, María Florencia; Volonteri, María Clara; Czuchlej, Silvia Cristina; Ceballos, Nora Raquel

    2018-03-16

    Rhinella arenarum is a South American toad with wide geographic distribution. Testes of this toad produce high amount of androgens during the non reproductive season and shift steroid synthesis from androgens to 5α-pregnanedione during the breeding. In addition, plasma estradiol (E 2 ) in males of this species shows seasonal variations but, since testes of R. arenarum do not express aromatase, the source of plasma E 2 remained unknown for several years. However, the Bidder's organ (BO), a structure located at one pole of each testis, is proposed to be the main source of E 2 in male's toads since it expresses several steroidogenic enzymes and is able to produce E 2 from endogenous substrates throughout the year. In addition, there were significant correlations between plasma E 2 and total activity of BO aromatase, and between plasma E 2 and the amount of hormone produced by the BO in vitro. In the toad, apoptosis induced by in vitro treatment with E 2 was mostly detected in spermatocytes during the breeding and in spermatids during the post-reproductive season, suggesting that this steroid has an important role in controlling spermatogenesis. However, in vitro treatment with E 2 had no effect on proliferation. This evidence suggests that the mechanism of action of E 2 on amphibian spermatogenesis is complex and more studies are necessary to fully understand the role of estrogens regulating the balance between cellular proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, in R. arenarum in vitro studies suggested that E 2 has no effect on CypP450c17 protein levels or enzymatic activity, while it reduces 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase (3β-HSD/I) activity during the post reproductive season. As well, E 2 regulates FSHβ mRNA expression all over the year suggesting a down regulation process carried out by this steroid. The effect on LHβ mRNA is dual, since during the reproductive season estradiol increases the expression of LHβ mRNA while in the non-reproductive season it has no effect. In conclusion, the effect of E 2 on gonadotropins and testicular function is complex, not clearly understood and probably varies depending on the species. The aim of the current article is to review evidence on reproductive endocrinology and on the role of estradiol regulating reproduction in amphibians, with emphasis on the South American species Rhinella arenarum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. First report of nematode parasites of Physalaemus santafecinus (Anura: Leiuperidae from Corrientes, Argentina Primer registro de nematodos parásitos de Physalaemus santafecinus (Anura: Leiuperidae de Corrientes, Argentina

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    Cynthya Elizabeth González

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty-three nematodes were recovered from 81 adults of leiuperid Physalaemus santafecinus examined from Corrientes, Argentina captured between January 2002 and December 2003. A total of 3 adults nematode species (Cosmocerca podicipinus, Cosmocerca parva, Aplectana hylambatis and 1 larval species (Physaloptera sp. were obtained. We present morphological characters, metric information and range for these nematode species and compared these with other specimens collected from different hosts of the Neotropical Realm. This is the first report of nematode parasites of P. santafecinus from Argentina.Ciento ochenta y tres nematodos fueron recolectados de 81 adultos del leiupérido Physalaemus santafecinus examinados en Corrientes, Argentina y capturados entre enero del 2002 y diciembre del 2003. Estos nematodos pertenecen a un total de 4 especies, 3 en estado adulto: Cosmocerca podicipinus, Cosmocerca parva, Aplectana hylambatis, y 1 especie en estado larval, Physaloptera sp. Se presentan características morfológicas, información métrica e intervalos de medidas de estas especies de nematodos, comparándolas con ejemplares recolectados de diferentes hospederos de la región neotropical. Éste es el primer registro de nematodos parásitos para P. santafecinus de Argentina.

  12. First report of nematode parasites of Physalaemus santafecinus (Anura: Leiuperidae) from Corrientes, Argentina Primer registro de nematodos parásitos de Physalaemus santafecinus (Anura: Leiuperidae) de Corrientes, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthya Elizabeth González; Monika Inés Hamann

    2010-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-three nematodes were recovered from 81 adults of leiuperid Physalaemus santafecinus examined from Corrientes, Argentina captured between January 2002 and December 2003. A total of 3 adults nematode species (Cosmocerca podicipinus, Cosmocerca parva, Aplectana hylambatis) and 1 larval species (Physaloptera sp.) were obtained. We present morphological characters, metric information and range for these nematode species and compared these with other specimens collected from ...

  13. Comparación ontogénica de la frecuencia de muda en Rhinella marina (Anura, Bufonidae Ontogenetic comparison of the molting frequency in Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Teófila M. Triana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La muda es un proceso de renovación de la capa externa de la epidermis (estrato corneo de los anfibios, la cual suministra protección contra daños, patógenos y pérdida de agua. Este trabajo evalúa la frecuencia de muda entre juveniles y adultos de Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758 y la tasa de ocurrencia entre el día y la noche. Para esto, se realizaron dos observaciones diarias (7 am y 7 pm, entre Octubre de 2011 y Marzo de 2012, a tres grupos de individuos clasificados según su tamaño longitud rostro-cloaca, como adultos (promedio=80 mm, juveniles medianos (promedio=19 mm y juveniles pequeños (promedio=13 mm. Estos animales fueron colocados en terrarios en el laboratorio y marcados en el dorso a través de un punto hecho con un corrector de tinta. La muda se determinó por la pérdida total de la marca y una coloración brillante en el dorso. Se encontró una diferencia significativa (Kruskal-Wallis, H=19.84, pMolting is a process of constant renewal of the outer layer of epidermis (stratum corneum in amphibians, which provides a barrier against injury, pathogens and evaporative water loss. This paper evaluates the molting frequency between juveniles and adults of Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758 and between the night and day time. Two daily observations, at 7 am and 7 pm, were made between October 2011 and March 2012 to three groups of individuals, classified by their size, snout vent length, as adults (mean=80 mm, medium juveniles (mean=19 mm and small juveniles (mean=13 mm. The animals were placed in terrariums in the laboratory and marked on their back with a spot of correction fluid. The molting was determined by the total loss of the mark and a bright color on the dorsal skin. We found a significant difference (Kruskal-Wallis, H=19.84, p<0.0001 in the molting frequency among the three groups: adults=7.5 days, medium juveniles=5.4 days, and small juveniles=5.3 days. Also, between the number of molting frogs during the night and day hours (Chi-square, χ2=7.891, p=0.019, particularly in the two groups of juveniles, who moulted mostly at night, as adults did not show any clear difference. It is possible that the highest molting frequency in juveniles may be related to their ontogenetic status, with a smaller size and higher metabolic and developmental rate.

  14. Metacercariae of Renifer heterocoelium (Trematoda: Reniferidae in tadpoles of Rhinella schneideri (Anura: Bufonidae in Brazil Metacercarias de Renifer heterocoelium (Trematoda: Reniferidae en renacuajos de Rhinella schneideri (Anura: Bufonidae en Brasil

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    Hudson Alves Pinto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Renifer heterocoelium is a parasite of the oral cavity of Neotropical snakes for which larval stages and the life cycle are still unknown. During studies of parasites of Rhinella schneideri, tadpoles collected in a lake from the municipality of Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, yielded specimens with metacercariae adhered to the external intestinal wall. After morphological characterization, the metacercariae were identified as R. heterocoelium. This is the first record and morphological characterization of metacercariae of R. heterocoelium for Brazil.Renifer heterocoelium es un parásito de la cavidad bucal de las serpientes neotropicales cuyas formas larvales y ciclo de vida son todavía desconocidos. En un estudio de los parásitos de renacuajos de Rhinella schneideri recogidos en un estanque ubicado en el municipio de Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais, Brasil, se encontraron ejemplares con metacercarias en la pared intestinal. Después de caracterizarlos morfológicamente, los quistes fueron identificados como R. heterocoelium. Este es el primer registro y caracterización morfológica de las metacercarias de esta especie en Brasil.

  15. Description of the tadpoles of two endemic frogs: the Phu Luang cascade frog Odorrana aureola (Anura: Ranidae) and the Isan big-headed frog Limnonectes isanensis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampai, Natee; Rujirawan, Attapol; Arkajag, Jirachai; Mcleod, David S; Aowphol, Anchalee

    2015-07-07

    We describe the external morphology of the tadpoles of two frogs endemic to Thailand: the Phu Luang cascade frog    (Odorrana aureola) and the Isan big-headed frog (Limnonectes isanensis) from the type localities in the Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary, Loei Province, northeastern Thailand. Morphological and genetic characters (16S rRNA) were used to identify specimen and match tadpoles to the adults. Detailed descriptions of external morphology and coloration in life are provided for both species. We provide a brief discussion of the ecology of these tadpoles and a comparison to previously published data from tadpoles of closely related taxa. Additionally, we provide evidence for the utility of larval morphology in resolving the taxonomic puzzles presented by cryptic species complexes.

  16. Nova espécie de Hyla da Serra da Mantiqueira, Itatiaia, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae New species of Hyla from the "Serra da Mantiqueira, Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro" State - (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae

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    Oswaldo Luiz Peixoto

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyla gouveai n. sp. is described and illustrated and it is closest to the bigger individuals of the species in the group "circumdata", not presenting, however, the characteristic pattern of dark transversal bands on the posterior inner coxal surface.

  17. Una nueva especie de Atelopus (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae del Páramo de Tama, Estado Apure, Venezuela Una nueva especie de Atelopus (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae del Páramo de Tama, Estado Apure, Venezuela

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    La Marca Enrique

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una especie nueva de rana, Atelopus tamaense, del páramo el Tama, en el Estado Apure, Venezuela. El taxon se distingue de todos los demás miembros del género por la combinación de extensivo ''webbing" y coloración distintiva. Se suministran datos sobre su morfología externa, piel, coloración, variación intraespecífica, dimorfismo sexual y ecología. Se incluye una clave para la identificación de las especies venezolanas de Atelopus y se hacen algunas comparaciones para diferenciar la especie nueva de las especies de Atelopus colombianas y venezolanas del grupo de A. ignescens al cual pertenece A. tamaense. A new species of frog, Atelopus tamaense, is described from Páramo El Tamá, Estado Apure, Venezuela. The taxon is distinguished from all other members of the genus by the combination of extensive webbing and distinctive coloration. Data are provided for external morphology, skin, coloration, intraspecific variation, sexual dimorphism, and ecology. A key is included to identify Venezuelan Atelopus and some comparisons are given to distinguish the new species from Colombian and Venezuelan species of Atelopus of the A. ignescens group, to which A. tamaense belongs.

  18. Rhinella fernandezae (Anura, Bufonidae a paratenic host of Centrorhynchus sp. (Acanthocephala, Centrorhynchidae in Brazil Rhinella fernandezae (Anura, Bufonidae, hospedero paraténico de Centrorhynchus sp. (Acanthocephala, Centrorhynchidae en Brasil

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    Viviane Gularte Tavares dos Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cystacanths of Centrorhynchus sp., were found in the coelomic cavity of anurans Rhinella fernandezae (Gallardo, 1957, collected in the municipality of Imbé, on the northern coast of Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil. In a sample totaling 90 anurans, the prevalence of cystacanths was 84%, and the mean intensity of infection was 4.79 helminths/host. This is the first record of Centrorhynchus sp. cystacanths in anurans from Southern Brazil and from the State of Rio Grande do Sul.Se encontrararon cistacantos de Centrorhynchus sp. en la cavidad celómica del anuro Rhinella fernandezae (Gallardo, 1957, recolectado en el municipio de Imbé, en la costa norte de Rio Grande do Sul en el sur de Brasil. En una muestra de 90 anuros, la prevalencia de cistacantos fue del 84%, y la intensidad media de infección fue del 4.79 helmintos/hospedero. Este es el primer registro de cistacantos de Centrorhynchus sp., en anuros en el sur de Brasil y en el estado de Rio Grande do Sul.

  19. Modificaciones tegumentarias de larvas y adultos durante el cuidado parental en Minyobates virolinensis (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae Modificaciones tegumentarias de larvas y adultos durante el cuidado parental en Minyobates virolinensis (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae

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    Pérez Gloria R. de

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the histology and cytology of the adult and tadpole skin during the transport of tadpoles by adult males of Minyobates virolinensis.  Integumentary modifications associated with this transport are seen in cells of the ventral larval epithelium. Of the four cellular types observed in the outer layer of the larval epidermis, two are associated with the attachment to the adult: type I cells have a complex of long microvilli anchored in an intertegumentary matrix, and type II cells have several secretory granules at the apical cellular surface and their secretion contributes to form this matrix. The other two types are found throughout the surface of the larval epidermis. The intertegumentary matrix (acid glycoproteins attach the tadpole to the nurse frog's back. The epidermis of the nurse frog is similar to that of adult males and females without tadpoles on the back; however, several corneal layers are accumulated on the skin surface of nurse frogs and two types of mucous glands secrete acid glycoproteins to the matrix. The intertegumentary matrix may originate from the tegument of both tadpole and adult. Se realiza el estudio histológico y citológico del tegumento de la larva y del adulto durante el transporte del renacuajo por el macho de Minyobates virolinensis. Se observan modificaciones tegumentarias asociadas a este transporte en células del epitelio ventral del renacuajo. Se describen cuatro tipos celulares en la capa más externa de la epidermis de la larva; dos de éstos están asociados con la adhesión al adulto: el tipo celular I tiene un complejo de microvellosidades largas ancladas en la matriz intertegumentaria, el tipo II contiene gránulos de secreción en la superficie apical de las células y su secreción contribuye a formar esta matriz. Los otros dos tipos celulares son comunes en toda la superficie de la epidermis larval. La matriz intertegumentaria (glicoproteínas ácidas prende al renacuajo sobre el dorso de la rana-nodriza. La epidermis de la rana-nodriza es similar a la de machos y hembras adultos sin renacuajos en el dorso; sin embargo, sobre la superficie de  la piel de la rana-nodriza se acumulan varias capas córneas y dos tipos de glándulas mucosas secretan glicoproteínas ácidas a la matriz. Así, la matriz intertegumentaria posiblemente se origina tanto en el tegumento de la larva como en el del adulto.

  20. Características histológicas de la tumefacción frontal de Melanophryniscus (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae Histological features of the frontal tumefaction in Melanophryniscus (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae

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    DANIEL E. NAYA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la histología tegumentaria de la región cefálica en seis especies del género Melanophryniscus, pertenecientes a los grupos stelzneri (4 y tumifrons (2, con el objetivo de esclarecer la estructura de la tumefacción frontal y su posible función. Las características generales de la histología del grupo stelzneri, coincidieron con las descripciones tegumentarias existentes para el género. Sin embargo, la región cefálica frontal en las dos especies del grupo tumifrons muestran cambios histológicos correlacionados a la tumefacción frontal. Esta estructura presenta una organización similar a otras macroglándulas presentes en la dermis de anuros (e.g., parotoides, paracnémicas, y por tanto se propone el nombre de macroglándula frontal para la misma. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren un rol defensivo para esta macroglándulaWe analyzed the histology of skin from the head region of six species of Melanophryniscus, belonging to the stelzneri (4 and tumifrons (2 groups, to understand the frontal tumefaction structure and function. The histological features of the skin in the stelzneri group are in agreement with the current description for the genus Melanophryniscus. However, the features of the skin on the anterior head region of M. tumifrons shows several changes associated with the frontal tumefaction. This structure consists of a macrogland of similar organization to that of other dermic glands (e.g., parotoid, paracnemid of amphibians. We propose the name frontal macrogland for this structure. Our results suggest a possible defense role for this macrogland

  1. Reproductive biology of Leptodactylus fuscus (Anura, Leptodactylidae in the subtropical climate, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Biologia reprodutiva de Leptodactylus fuscus (Anura, Leptodactylidae em clima subtropical, Rio Grande de Sul

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    Franciéle P. Maragno

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize, for the central region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, the reproductive biology of Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799, based on the analysis of gonadal development of males and females, reproductive effort, size-fecundity relationships, and occurrence of sexual dimorphism in body size. Mature individuals were found from October 1996 to February 1997 and from October 1997 to December 1997. The highest input of juveniles in the population was recorded in March 1997. There was a positive and significant correlation between the number of mature individuals and the mean monthly temperature. The population did not present sexual dimorphism in size. Males presented significant correlation only between snout-vent length and testes length. All females had oocytes at four different maturation stages and there were no significant correlations regarding size-fecundity variables. The correlation between ovarian size factor and females snout-vent length was not significant either. The main difference between this population and those that inhabit tropical climate was that temperature was responsible for stimulating the reproduction activity, instead of rainfall.O objetivo do estudo foi caracterizar, para a região central do Rio Grande do Sul, a biologia reprodutiva de Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 a partir da análise do desenvolvimento gonadal de machos e fêmeas, esforço reprodutivo, relações de tamanho-fecundidade e existência de dimorfismo sexual em relação ao tamanho corporal. Indivíduos maduros foram encontrados de outubro/1996 a fevereiro/1997 e outubro/1997 a dezembro/1997. Em março de 1997, houve o maior acréscimo de indivíduos jovens na população. Houve correlação positiva e significativa entre o número de indivíduos maduros coletados e a temperatura média mensal. A população não apresentou dimorfismo sexual. Para os machos, houve correlação significativa apenas entre comprimento corporal e comprimento dos testículos. Todas as fêmeas possuíam ovócitos em quatro diferentes estágios de maturação e não foi observada nenhuma correlação significativa entre as variáveis de tamanho-fecundidade. A correlação entre fator tamanho do ovário e comprimento corporal também não foi significativa. A principal diferença entre esta população e as que habitam clima tropical foi o efeito da temperatura como estímulo da atividade reprodutiva, ao invés de chuva.

  2. Morphological and genetic differentiation among Chilean populations of Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae Diferenciación morfológica y genética entre poblaciones chilenas de Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Marco A. Méndez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Bufo spinulosus has a wide and fragmented range distribution in Chile (18° to 33° S along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients. Genetic variation was estimated using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers in 10 populations from northern and central Chile. Morphometric and genetic information was analyzed as a function of geographical origin. The correlation between genetic and morphometric differentiation was analyzed by the Mantel test. An increase in body size as a function of latitude was observed. Specimens from El Tatio had the smallest body size and the greatest morphometric divergence. The AMOVA applied to genetic data indicated that 57.85 % of the variance is explained by interregional differences and that 30.12 % of the variance is found within populations. Low levels of within-regions genetic differentiation was observed in northern populations while higher levels of genetic differentiation was found in populations from central Chile. Mantel tests revealed a significant, positive correlation between genetic variation and geographic distance. When we excluded El Tatio population, Mantel test analyses showed significant correlations between morphological distance and genetic and geographic distances. We discuss whether water temperature could explain the morphological divergence observed in individuals from El TatioBufo spinulosus presenta una amplia y fragmentada distribución en Chile (18º a 33º S a lo largo de gradientes altitudinales y latitudinales. La variación genética fue estimada utilizando marcadores RAPD ("Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA" en diez poblaciones del norte y centro de Chile. La información morfométrica y genética fue analizada en función de la procedencia geográfica. La correlación entre diferenciación genética y morfométrica fue analizada utilizando la prueba de Mantel. Se observó un incremento en el tamaño corporal en función de la latitud. Los individuos de El Tatio mostraron el tamaño corporal más pequeño y la mayor divergencia morfométrica. El AMOVA aplicado a los datos genéticos indicó que el 57.85 % de la varianza es explicada por diferencias entre regiones y que el 30.12 % de la varianza se encuentra dentro de las poblaciones. Bajos niveles de diferenciación genética intraregional fueron observados en las poblaciones del norte de Chile, mientras que las poblaciones de Chile central mostraron niveles más altos de diferenciación genética. Las pruebas de Mantel revelaron una correlación significativa y positiva entre la variación genética y la distancia geográfica. Cuando excluimos la población de El Tatio, las pruebas de Mantel mostraron correlaciones positivas y significativas entre las distancias morfológicas, genéticas y geográficas. Se discute si la temperatura del agua podría explicar la divergencia morfológica observada en los individuos de El Tatio

  3. Diet of Rhinella scitula (Anura, Bufonidae in the Cerrado, Brazil: the importance of seasons and body size Dieta de Rhinella scitula (Anura, Bufonidae: la importancia de la variación estacional y la talla corporal

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    Franciéle P. Maragno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to analyze the diet of Rhinella scitula in different seasons (dry and rainy, and (2 to examine resource partitioning among sexes and body-size categories. Individuals were collected during active searches along a riverbank in the Serra da Bodoquena National Park, Brazil. Formicidae, followed by Coleoptera and Isoptera, had the highest importance index values for males, females, and all individuals combined. Diet composition was similar between males and females. Larger individuals consumed larger prey, although they fed on small prey as well. Similar-sized individuals had high dietary overlap. Smaller individuals had a diet as broad as larger individuals, although composed of different items. Formicidae was the most common prey item for animals collected in both the dry and rainy seasons, but was more important in the rainy season. During the dry season, R. scitula remained closer to the edge of the water bodies and showed the widest dietary niche, represented by similar importance index values.Los objetivos de este estudio fueron (1, analizar la dieta de Rhinella scitula en 2 estaciones del año y (2, examinar el reparto de recursos entre sexos y entre diferentes categorías de tamaño corporal. Los ejemplares fueron capturados mediante búsqueda visual a lo largo de las orillas de un riachuelo del Parque Nacional da Serra da Bodoquena. Los individuos pertenecientes a los grupos Formicidae, seguidos por Coleoptera e Isoptera fueron las presas con mayores valores de importancia para machos, hembras y para todos los individuos de ambos sexos combinados. No se registraron diferencias entre sexos en la composición de la dieta. Los individuos de mayor tamaño, consumieron presas de mayor volumen, si bien no dejaron de consumir presas pequeñas. La superposición de dieta fue mayor entre individuos pertenecientes a clases de talla próximas. Los sapos de menor tamaño presentaron una dieta tan amplia como los más grandes, si bien su dieta estaba compuesta por ítems diferentes. Aunque predominaron ejemplares del grupo Formicidae en los contenidos estomacales de organismos capturados tanto en el período seco como en el lluvioso, su importancia fue mayor en este último. Durante la estación seca, R. scitula permaneció más próximo al agua y presentó un nicho trófico más amplio.

  4. Helminth fauna of Lithobates brownorum (Anura: Ranidae at three localities in the state of Yucatán, Mexico Helmintofauna de Lithobates brownorum (Anura: Ranidae en tres localidades del estado de Yucatán, México

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    Carlos A. Yáñez-Arenas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Between July 2004 and June 2005, 84 specimens of Lithobates brownorum (Sanders, 1973 were collected and examined for helminths. Hosts came from 3 localities in the state of Yucatán, Mexico: Celestún (n= 35, Lagunas de Yalahau (n= 33, and Ría Lagartos (n= 16. Twelve helminth taxa were found: 7 nematodes, 4 digeneans, and 1 acanthocephalan. With the exception of Haematoloechus floedae and Megalodiscus temperatus, all helminth taxa found have a Neotropical distribution. Our results differ from those obtained in previous studies dealing with amphibians in Mexico because we found higher richness and abundance of nematodes than digenean species. The relatively low mean intensity and mean abundance values reached by digenean species in this study may be related to the generalist host diet and with the vagility of frogs (from the aquatic to the terrestrial environment or vice versa.Entre julio del 2004 y junio del 2005, se recolectaron y examinaron 84 ejemplares de Lithobates brownorum (Sanders, 1973 en busca de helmintos en 3 localidades del estado de Yucatán: Celestún (n= 35, Lagunas de Yalahau (n= 33 y Ría Lagartos (n= 16. Los ejemplares estuvieron parasitados por 12 taxa de helmintos, 7 de nematodos, 4 digéneos y 1 acantocefalo. Con excepción de Haematoloechus floedae y Megalodiscus temperatus, todos los taxa presentan distribución neotropical. Nuestros resultados difieren de los obtenidos por otros autores que han reportado más especies de digéneos que de nematodos en este grupo de hospederos. Los bajos valores de intensidad y abundancia media de los digéneos encontrados en este estudio pueden estar relacionados con la amplia dieta del hospedero y la vagilidad que éste presenta entre el medio acuático y el terrestre.

  5. Differential jumping performance in newly metamorphosed Blanchard's cricket frogs, Acris blanchardi (Anura: Hylidae), from fish- and invertebrate-dominated ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor L. Hall; Daniel Saenz; Matthew A. Kwiatkowski

    2013-01-01

    Organisms that adopt phenotypically plastic anti-predator strategies during larval stages may incur fitness costs later in development. These costs are typically difficult to define in many species. The difficulty identifying ecological trade-offs may result from experimental comparisons that do not adequately mirror naturally occurring predator-prey relationships. To...

  6. Diversification in a biodiversity hotspot--the evolution of Southeast Asian rhacophorid tree frogs on Borneo (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, Stefan T; Schweizer, Manuel; Das, Indraneil; Haas, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    The tree-frog family Rhacophoridae is a major group contributing to the high pecies richness and reproductive diversity among vertebrates of Sundaland. Nonetheless, rhacophorid evolution, specially on Borneo, has not been studied within a phylogenetic context. In this study, we examine the phylogenetic relationships of 38 (out of 41) Bornean species of Rhacophoridae, in combination with data from previous phylogenetic studies. In the final super matrix of 91 species, we analyse sequence data from two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes. The resulting trees show the genus Rhacophorus as a paraphyletic assemblage. As a consequence, we transfer Rhacophorus appendiculatus and R. kajau to two other genera and propose the new phylogeny-based combinations--Kurixalus appendiculatus and Feihyla kajau, respectively. Furthermore, we use our phylogenetic hypotheses to reconstruct the evolution of reproductive modes in rhacophorid tree frogs. Direct development to the exclusion of a free larval stage evolved twice independently, once in an ancestor of the Pseudophilautus+Raorchestes clade in India and Sri Lanka, and once within Philautus in Southeast Asia. The deposition of egg clutches covered by a layer of jelly in Feihyla is also present in F. kajau and thus confirms our generic reassignment. The remarkably high diversity of rhacophorid tree frogs on Borneo is the outcome of a complex pattern of repeated vicariance and dispersal events caused by past changes in the climatic and geological history of the Sunda shelf. We identified geographic clades of closely related endemic species within Rhacophorus and Philautus, which result from local island radiations on Borneo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Feeding pattern and use of reproductive habitat of the Striped toad Rhinella crucifer (Anura: Bufonidae from Southeastern Brazil

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    Rodrigo B. Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Diet composition, foraging mode, and using of reproductive habitat of Rhinella crucifer was studied in an artificial pond in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The favored substrate was leaf litter, followed by Cyperaceae/Poaceae. Calling sites, preferred for 23.3 % (n = 7 of the observed toads, were within the water, with only the head not submerged. We analyzed a total of 61 specimens, mainly males (98.5% male and 1.5% female. Seven categories of prey were found in the stomach contents: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera (Formicidae, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Gastropoda (Mollusca, Opilionida (Arachnida. Our studies indicate that the diet of Rhinella crucifer consists mainly of terrestrial colonial arthropods. Formicidae was the predominant food item in frequency of occurrence, number of prey and weight. Isoptera and Coleoptera were also relevant in terms of weight. Neither large ontogenetic dietary nor seasonal shifts were observed in the population studied. Our results suggest that no intraspecific food resource partitioning occurs in adult or juveniles. Rhinella crucifer adults avoid competition inhabiting different home range habitats and seem to be ant-specialist with a wide foraging mode.

  8. Nematodes parásitos de Chaunus granulosus major (Müller & Hellmich, 1936 (Anura: Bufonidae en Corrientes, Argentina

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    González, Cynthia Elizabeth

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available En nuestro país, estudios previos referidos a la nematofauna de Chaunus granulosus major (Müller y Hellmich, 1936 han sido realizados en la provincia de Corrientes por Mordeglia y Digiani (1998 quienes han reportado la especie Cosmocerca parva Travassos, 1925. Con el presente estudio se incorporan tres nuevos registros de nematodes a la fauna parasitaria de Ch. g. major de la Argentina.

  9. Localidades de ocorrência de Phyllomedusa tetraploidea Pombal & Haddad, 1992 (Anura: Hylidae e novo registro para Santa Catarina, Brasil

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    Fabiane Fisch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Phyllomedusa é composto por 30 espécies, com representantes distribuídos em diversos países da América do Sul, a leste dos Andes. No Brasil, ocorre em todas as regiões do país. Phyllomedusa tetraploidea é uma espécie do grupo P. burmeisteri e tem como localidade-tipo Holambra II, município de Paranapanema, estado de São Paulo, apresentando tamanho mediano e porte robusto, discos adesivos desenvolvidos, faces laterais da coxa com riscos azuis escuros sobre fundo laranja. Os machos vocalizam na vegetação junto a brejos ou poças, sendo a desova depositada em folhas pendentes sobre a água. O presente trabalho apresenta os registros de P. tetraploidea obtidos em incursões de campo trimestrais realizadas entre Out/2009 e Set/2010, no município de Xaxim (Santa Catarina, Brasil, além de um mapa das localidades de ocorrência da mesma, a partir da revisão dos registros de trabalhos já publicados.

  10. Karyotypes of eight species of Leptodactylus (Anura, Leptodactylidae with a description of a new karyotype for the genus

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    Renata Cecília Amaro-Ghilardi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight species of the Neotropical genus Leptodactylus were karyologically studied: seven of them (L. gracilis, L. mystacinus,L. petersii, L. pustulatus, L. macrosternum, L. ocellatus, L. labyrinthicus presented 2n=22 and L. silvanimbus showed a distinctive karyotype with 2n=24. Nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs were detected in two different pairs of chromosomes: pair 4 at the proximal region of the long arm of one individual of L. mystacinus from São Paulo state and of L. petersii; and pair 8 of all other species (located terminally at the short arm of L. silvanimbus, L. ocellatus, L. macrosternum, L. pustulatus, and L. labyrinthicus; interstitially at the short arm in L. gracilis; and at the long arm in L. mystacinus from Mato Grosso state. The diploid number reported here for L. silvanimbus shared with Scythrophrys and Paratelmatobius could represent the ancestral chromosome number for Leptodactylus (sensu Frost et al. 2006; in this case the 2n=22 karyotypes would then represent the derivative condition for the genus. Nevertheless, the distinctive karyotype of L. silvanimbus lead us to preclude a final decision on its relationships. Additional studies including morphological and molecular approaches are needed in order to clarify the phylogenetic position of L. silvanimbus.

  11. Osteology and chondrocranial morphology of Gastrophryne carolinensis (Anura: Microhylidae, with a review of the osteological diversity of New World microhylids

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    Linda Trueb

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Microhylidae is a large, cosmopolitan anuran family. Recent molecular analyses have demonstrated the monophyly of the family—a conclusion that is supported by the larval morphology, coupled with the unique mode of tongue protrusion in adults, and a suite of osteological and myological characters seemingly associated with this innovation in feeding. Despite this functional constraint, osteological diversity probably exceeds that of any other anuran family, and this diversity is especially evident in the New Worldmicrohylids that comprise two clades, Gastrophryninae and Otophryninae. To facilitate comparisons among these clades, we describe the larval chondrocranium, skeletal development, and adult osteology of Gastrophryne carolinensis. We provide a phylogeneticcontext for these comparisons through a novel phylogenetic analysis of 45 microhylid genera based on data for one mitochondrial and three nuclear loci from previously published studies. Nearly all relationships within the monophyletic Gastrophryninae are resolvedwith robust support. Based on these results, we found that the larval chondrocrania of gastrophrynines share morphological features that distinguish them from Otophryne and other anurans. Among the adults, all gastrophrynines show evidence of an anterior shift ofthe jaws that is correlated with specializations in the otic region, and with the alignment of the planum antorbitale, the cartilage wall separating the nasal capsule from the orbits. The larval infrarostral and the adult mandibles lack a typical anuran mandibular symphysis, and the mentomeckelian bone of the adult is modified with a special process. The most variable part of the skull is the palate in which a neopalatine usually is absent and the vomer may be single or divided. The posteromedial processes of the hyoids of gastrophynines tend to be elaborated, and some taxa bear a peculiar transverse slit in the posterior part of the hyoid corpus. The anterior zonal elements of the pectoral girdle are reduced or absent, and the posterior parts enlarged and shifted posteriorly. Most taxa have eight presacral vertebrae; depending on the taxon the last presacral is amphicoelous or procoelous.

  12. An addition to the diversity of dendrobatid frogs in Venezuela: description of three new collared frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae: Mannophryne

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    César Luis Barrio-Amorós

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of collared frogs of the genus Mannophryne are described from Venezuela. Two are newly discovered taxa from the Venezuelan Andes, whereas the third species, previously confused with M. trinitatis, is from the Caracas area in the Cordillera de la Costa. The call of the three new species and that of Mannophryne collaris are described. Taxonomic, zoogeographic, and conservation issues are discussed.

  13. Description of the tadpole of Cochranella resplendens and redescription of the tadpole of Hyalinobatrachium aureoguttatum (Anura, Centrolenidae

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    Andrea Terán-Valdez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The tadpole of Cochranella resplendens is described and that of Hyalinobatrachium aureoguttatum is redescribed; information on their ontogenetic variation also is included. Cochranella resplendens is characterized by having a non-emarginated oral apparatus and an upperjaw sheath nearly straight with a smooth arch in the middle. Hyalinobatrachium aureoguttatum has an emarginated oral apparatus with a characteristic M-shaped upper jaw sheath and bears few (1–5 submarginal papillae on the upper labium. Although the two species show few changes in the oral apparatus during their development(except for changes in Gosner Stages 24 and 42 in C. resplendens and 23–24 in H. aureoguttatum, there are major ontogenetic changes in size and coloration.

  14. Morphological variation of Telmatobius atahualpai (Anura: Telmatobiidae with comments on its phylogenetic relationships and synapomorphies for the genus

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    César Aguilar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Telmatobius atahualpai was described on the basis of a subadult female and three juveniles. A new diagnosis and a description of the adult skeleton of specimens from two localities are provided. We also comment on synapomorphies of the genus and on possible phylogenetic relationships of T. atahualpai with other members of the genus.

  15. Reproductive ecology and behavior of Eleutherodactylus aureolineatus (Anura, Brachycephalidae in the canopy of the Upper Amazon Basin, Ecuador

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    Shawn F. McCracken

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Exploration and investigation of the anuran fauna in the canopies of the Upper Amazon Basin has led to the recent discoveries of new species of the genus Eleutherodactylus utilizing the microhabitat within bromeliads. Detailed information on the ecology and natural history of these communities are scarce due, in part, to the difficulty of accessing their habitat. New sampling methods for rainforest canopies have allowed for the collection and observation of the herpetofauna utilizing this habitat. Sexual size dimorphism in Eleutherodactylus aureolineatus, confirms placement in the E. unistrigatus species group and E. lacrimosus assemblage. The described microhabitat, vocalization characteristics, reproductive behavior and egg deposition of E. aureolineatus provides significant ecological background on this poorly documented group of frogs and their important “wetlands in the sky”. The data and observationsherein contribute to the overall understanding of the characters and ecological factors which define the E. lacrimosus assemblage.

  16. Population estimates of Dendrobates tinctorius (Anura: Dendrobatidae at three sites in French Guiana and first record of chytrid infection

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    Elodie A. Courtois

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropics shelter the highest number of frog species on Earth and is also one of the regions where anurans are most threatened. Nonetheless, few data are available to assess the population status of Neotropical anurans. We studied three populations (Tresor, Favard, and Nouragues of the poison frog, Dendrobates tinctorius, in French Guiana and used Capture-Mark-Recapture (CMR to make robust estimations of the species’ density at these three sites. In addition, we assessed the prevalence of the pathogen fungal Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd in two populations (Favard and Nouragues. Based on the CMR protocol, the densities of frogs was 8.43 individuals/100 m² at Favard, 4.28 individuals/100 m² at Nouragues and from 2.30 to 4.67 individuals/100 m² at Tresor (depending on the CMR model used; these data provide a baseline for population densities of D. tinctorius in French Guiana, against which future population estimates can be compared. We found that 25 encounter events may be sufficient for stable population estimates, if the captures are concentrated in time. Bd was detected at both sites (Favard 7/152; Nouragues 3/18.

  17. A new species of Phrynopus (Anura, Strabomantidae from Peru, with comments on the osteology of the genus

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    Linda Trueb

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A new, small species of Phrynopus is described from the eastern slopes of the Cordillera Oriental just north of the Río Huallaga in central Peru. The species resembles P. montium, but is distinguished from it and other congeners by its spatulate snout. The anterior end of the maxillary arcade is broadly rounded in dorsal view, and composed of wide premaxillae that bear extraordinarily large alary processes that are deflected posteriorly at an acute angle. The configuration of the premaxillae accounts for the wide, depressed snout in this species, which in other osteological features resembles P. montium. The osteology of Phrynopus montium is described in some detail in comparison to the new species, with theintention of establishing a baseline for future morphological studies and taxonomic descriptions of strabomantine anurans of this and related genera.

  18. Descriptions of the tadpoles of two poison frogs, Ameerega parvula and Ameerega bilinguis (Anura: Dendrobatidae) from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, E.H.; Verkade, J.C.; Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Félix-Novoa, C.

    2010-01-01

    Tadpoles of two sister species of Ameerega are described. Tadpoles of Ameerega parvula can be distinguished from those of A. bilinguis based on slight differences in their oral disc structure and configuration of the tail fin. Both tadpoles have a tooth row formula 2/3 that is typical for many

  19. Phyllomedusa: Posição taxonômica, hábitos e biologia (Amphibia, anura, hylidae

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    Ulisses Caramaschi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis for the Hylidae family of tree-frogs, and diagnosis and included genera for the four subfamilies currently in this family, Hemiphractinae, Hylinae, Pelodryadinae, and Phyllomedusinae, are provided. The genera of the Phyllomedusinae subfamily, Agalychnis, Hylomantis, Pachymedusa, Phasmahyla, Phrynomedusa, and Phyllomedusa are diagnosed and the species included and their geographical distribution are referred. Notes on the habits and biology of members of the genus Phyllomedusa are presented.

  20. Aplectana dubrajpuri sp. nov. (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) in Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Dubrajpur, Birbhum, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sou, Sujan K; Nandi, Anadi P

    2015-09-01

    Aplectana dubrajpuri sp. nov., recovered from the rectum of Indian bull frog, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, collected from Dubrajpur in the Birbhum district of West Bengal, India, is described and illustrated. This species is characterised by absence of gubernaculum and differs from other species of Aplectana which lack a gubernaculum (viz. A. akhrami, A. artigasi, A. chilensis, A. crossodactyli, A. crucifer, A. delirae, A. meridionalis, A. papillifera, A. praeputialis, A. tarija and A. vercammeni) by smaller size of males and females, absence of somatic papillae in females and number and distribution of caudal papillae in males which include 3 pairs precloacal, 1 pair adcloacal, 14 pairs postcloacal and a single unpaired small papilla on the upper lip of cloaca. Aplectana dubrajpuri sp. nov. represents 51st species assigned to the genus and 3rd from India.

  1. A new species of Pristimantis (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the foothills of the Andes in Manu National Park, southeastern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepack, Alexander; von May, Rudolf; Ttito, Alex; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of Pristimantis from the humid sub-montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. was collected in the Kosñipata and Entoro valleys at elevations from 740 to 1110 m a.s.l., near the borders of Manu National Park and within the Huachiperi Haramba Queros Conservation Concession. The new species can be distinguished from other members of the genus Pristimantis by its rostral tubercle, smooth dorsal skin, and by its advertisement call. Pristimantis lacrimosus and Pristimantis waoranii superficially most resemble the new species, but Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. differs from both species by having a rostral tubercle (absent in Pristimantis waoranii and variable in Pristimantis lacrimosus) and larger size, from Pristimantis lacrimosus by its call emitted at a lower frequency, and from Pristimantis waoranii for its dorsal coloration with dark markings. Two other species have partially overlapping distributions and resemble the new species, Pristimantis mendax and Pristimantis olivaceus, but they produce advertisement calls with much higher dominant frequencies than the advertisement call of the new species. Furthermore, Pristimantis mendax differs from the new species by lacking a rostral tubercle and by having a sigmoid inner tarsal fold, whereas Pristimantis olivaceus differs by being smaller and by having dorsal skin shagreen with scattered tubercles. The new species has snout-vent length of 21.8–26.9 mm in males (n = 12) and 28.8 mm in a single female. PMID:27408563

  2. A new species of semiarboreal toad of the Rhinella festae group (Anura, Bufonidae from the Cordillera Azul National Park, Peru

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    Juan C. Cusi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A new semiarboreal species of the Rhinella festae group is described from montane forests of the Cordillera Azul National Park between 1245 and 1280 m a.s.l. in the Cordillera Oriental, San Martín region, northern Peru. The new species is morphologically and genetically compared with members of the Rhinella acrolopha group (former genus Rhamphophryne and members of the R. festae group. The new species is characterized by its large size (female SVL 47.1–58.3 mm, n = 4, eight presacral vertebrae, fusion of the sacrum and coccyx, long protuberant snout, snout directed slightly anteroventral in lateral view, cranial crests moderately developed, absence of occipital crest, presence of tympanic membrane, dorsolateral rows of small conical tubercles extending from parotoid gland to groin, hands and feet with long digits, fingers basally webbed and toes moderately webbed. Phylogenetically it is a member of the R. festae group which is most closely related to R. chavin and R. yanachaga from Peru. Morphologically the new species shares similarities with R. tenrec and R. truebae, members of the R. acrolopha group from Colombia.

  3. A new morphologically cryptic species of Phyllomedusa (Anura: Phyllomedusidae) from Amazonian forests of northern Peru revealed by DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Köhler, Jörn; Riva, Ignacio DE LA; Padial, José M

    2017-05-22

    We describe and name Phyllomedusa chaparroi sp. nov., a medium-sized species (snout-vent length in adult males 67.9-77.5 mm) of monkey frog from Amazonian rainforests of northern Peru. Although morphologically most similar to P. boliviana and P. camba (indistinguishable from the latter in external qualitative and quantitative traits), phylogenetic analysis of combined mitochondrial and nuclear markers place the new species sister to a clade containing P. neildi, P. tarsius, and P. trinitatis. Phyllomedusa chaparroi can be readily differentiated from these species by having a dark reddish-brown iris with indistinct tiny orange spots versus an orange iris with marked dark reticulation found in P. neildi, P. tarsius, and P. trinitatis. Furthermore, genetic distances for a 532 bp sequence of the 16S gene between the new species and its sister species are 2.8-4.1 %, whereas distances are 4.5-5.5 % to the morphologically cryptic P. camba. We briefly discuss the importance of DNA sequences in revealing morphologically cryptic species and modify the content of the P. tarsius species group based on phylogenetic analyses and observations on iris coloration.

  4. Three new species of Pristimantis (Lissamphibia, Anura from montane forests of the Cordillera Yanachaga in Central Peru

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    William E. Duellman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe three additional new species of Pristimantis from the Cordillera Yanachaga, a part of the Andes in central Peru. Analyses of DNA sequences of the mitochondrial rRNA genes show that onespecies is a close relative of P. bipunctatus (P. conspicillatus Group, another is a close relative of P. stictogaster (P. peruvianus Group, and the third is related to several species in the P. unistrigatus Group. The first two species are morphologically similar to their closest relatives but occur at lower elevations. Twenty-nine species of Pristimantis and Phrynopus are known from the vicinity of the Cordillera Yanachaga. The number of species, especially of Pristimantis, is high in the humid montane forestin comparison with other sites in humid montane forests in Peru, but the number is lower than on the western slopes of the Andes in Ecuador.

  5. The Euro-American genus Eopelobates, and a re-definition of the family Pelobatidae (Amphibia, Anura)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk; Wuttke, M.; Gardner, J. D.; Bhullar, B.-A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 4 (2014), s. 529-567 ISSN 1867-1594 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Eopelobates * fossoriality * Green River * formation * palaeobiogeography * Pelobates * Pelobatidae Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  6. Distribución y comentarios sobre la dieta de Rhinella azarai (Anura, Bufonidae en Corrientes, Argentina

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    Etchepare, Eduardo G.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En esta contribución se dan a conocer nuevas poblaciones de R. azarai para la provincia de Corrientes (Argentina, y se brinda información sobre la composición de la dieta de una de ellas.

  7. Ecological aspects of the casque-headed frog Aparasphenodon brunoi (Anura, Hylidae in a Restinga habitat in southeastern Brazil

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    Daniel Oliveira Mesquita

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe some aspects of the ecology of Aparasphenodon brunoi, a species associated with bromeliads. We comment on the relationships of this species with bromeliad size, microhabitat use, diet and sexual dimorphism. This study was conducted on a Restinga habitat near Presidente Kennedy, state of Espírito Santo, southeastern coast of Brazil. When the animals were found inside the bromeliads, we measure bromeliad and head size of frogs. We analyzed stomach contents and determined the sex and reproductive condition. We found 17 individuals (58.6% in bromeliad leafs, six (20.7% in Cactaceae, three (10.3% in liana and three (10.3% on trunks. The correlation between head measurements and bromeliad size were high, indicating that animals apparently use bromeliads based on their size, which could be related to the minimization of water loss. The most common prey items were beetles, ants, and insect larvae, suggesting that the species is relatively generalist in prey consumption. Aparasphenodon brunoi showed significant sexual size and shape dimorphism with females having larger bodies than males (size and females having tibia, eye diameter and SVL larger than males (shape, but larger sample size and more detailed ecological and life history data are needed to elucidate the factors that have led to sexual size dimorphism.

  8. Evaluation of the taxonomic status of Allobates talamancae (Anura: Aromobatidae) and its interpopulation variation in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar Zuniga, Jose Andres

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomic status of the species Allobates talamancae is reevaluated. The morphology, morphometry and characteristics of the singing are compared between specimens from the type locality with other populations of the Caribe and Pacifico of Costa Rica. The species Allobates talamancae is redescribed using songs and specimens from the type locality. Possible variations in the spectral and temporal characteristics of the singing of notice of the males Allobates talamancae are examined between the type locality and other locations populations of the Caribe and Pacifico of Costa Rica. The temporal spectrum analysis of the characteristics of the singing is realized through the program Raven 1.2.1. Spectrograms were produced with a Fast Fourier transform using a window type Hann with a frequency resolution of 124 Hz and a temporal of 11,6 ms and an overlap of 50%. The degree of morphological and morphometric variation are determined among individuals of Allobates talamancae from the type locality with other populations of the Caribe and Pacifico of Costa Rica. The measurements to determine the morphometric analysis of each specimen collected is realized through digital photographs on a base of white background with a scale in millimeters. The morphological analysis is defined by the revision of 47 characteristics suggested in the literature [es

  9. Comparación ontogénica de la frecuencia de muda en Rhinella marina (Anura, Bufonidae

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    Teófila M. Triana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La muda es un proceso de renovación de la capa externa de la epidermis (estrato corneo de los anfibios, la cual suministra protección contra daños, patógenos y pérdida de agua. Este trabajo evalúa la frecuencia de muda entre juveniles y adultos de Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758 y la tasa de ocurrencia entre el día y la noche. Para esto, se realizaron dos observaciones diarias (7 am y 7 pm, entre Octubre de 2011 y Marzo de 2012, a tres grupos de individuos clasificados según su tamaño longitud rostro-cloaca, como adultos (promedio=80 mm, juveniles medianos (promedio=19 mm y juveniles pequeños (promedio=13 mm. Estos animales fueron colocados en terrarios en el laboratorio y marcados en el dorso a través de un punto hecho con un corrector de tinta. La muda se determinó por la pérdida total de la marca y una coloración brillante en el dorso. Se encontró una diferencia significativa (Kruskal-Wallis, H=19.84, p<0.0001 en el periodo de muda entre los tres grupos de estudio: adultos=7.5 días, juveniles medianos=5.4 días, juveniles pequeños=5.3 días. También, en la frecuencia de animales que mudaron en el día y la noche (Ji-cuadrado, χ2=7.891, p=0.019, particularmente en los dos grupos de juveniles, quienes lo hicieron en la noche, ya que en los adultos no hubo una diferencia clara. Posiblemente, la mayor frecuencia de la muda en los juveniles puede relacionarse con su condición ontogénica, de un menor tamaño corporal, alta tasa metabólica y mayor tasa de desarrollo.

  10. Feeding habits of the leaf litter frog Haddadus binotatus (Anura, Craugastoridae from two Atlantic Forest areas in southeastern Brazil

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    LÍVIA COCO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Haddadus binotatus is an endemic anuran of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and currently, there is no information about the diet of this species. We analyzed the diet of two populations of this anuran in two states in southeast Brazil. Samplings were carried out in 2004 in the state of Rio de Janeiro and in 2009 and 2010 in the state of Espírito Santo. Haddadus binotatus presented a rich diet composition, preying 19 prey types. Orthoptera, Coleoptera, and Blattodea were the most important preys in the Rio de Janeiro population, and Orthoptera, Araneae and Hemiptera were the most important in the Espírito Santo population. The diet composition differed numerically between the two localities, but not in terms of volume, which can reflect local differences in the prey availability in the two habitats. The jaw width limited the size of prey, which is expected for predators who swallow the preys without chewing. The proportion of individuals with empty stomachs was higher in the Rio de Janeiro population (39.2% than in the Espírito Santo population (17.9%, suggesting that the former could be in a lower energy balance. The females of the species were larger than the males, which may result from the production of larger eggs.

  11. Phenotypic and molecular variation in the green and black poison-dart frog Dendrobates auratus (Anura: Dendrobatidae from Costa Rica

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    Lisa D Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The green and black poison-dart frog Dendrobates auratus exhibits high intraspecific variation in hue color and pattern throughout its range, making it a very popular species in the pet trade. We analyzed the correspondence between color variation and molecular variation of D. auratus from Costa Rica using RAPD analysis. Twenty-six random primers were analyzed for variation in 99 individuals from seven populations. Color pattern was scored from digital images of the dorsal and ventral views. In general, frogs from the Caribbean coast had significantly more light coloration than black color but cannot be grouped by population based only on hue pattern. Only 3 RAPD primers were found to be polymorphic, representing a total of 16 loci. Most of the molecular variation encountered here occurs within populations, thus making unclear the degree of population structure and differentiation. Further examination of COI mtDNA sequences from our samples also supports these results. Partial Mantel correlations suggested that the pattern of molecular variation is not congruent with the variation in color pattern in this species, an outcome that is discussed in terms of phenotypic evolution. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 313-321. Epub 2009 November 30.

  12. Primer registro de Elachistocleis skotogaster Lavilla, Vaira & Ferrari, 2003 (Anura: Microhylidae para la provincia de Formosa, Argentina

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    Kehr, Arturo Ignacio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Entre el 4 de marzo y el 25 de abril de 2011, en 6 sistemas de trampas instalados en la Provinciade Formosa, Ciudad de Las Lomitas, Departamento Patiño, Ruta Nacional N° 81, Establecimiento Sumayen 2000 (24°39'49,4" S; 60°38'29,9" O; 137 m.s.n.m.; datum WGS84, fueron colectados 32 microhílidos con vientre gris manchado de blanco, y características franjas y manchas de color naranja endiferentes partes de las patas, axilas e ingle. Dichos ejemplares, correspondientes al género Elachistocleis se encuentran depositados en la colección herpetológica del Laboratorio de Herpetología del Centro de Ecología Aplicada del Litoral. Luego de analizar los ejemplares colectados (fijados y preservados en formol al 10% consideramos que se trata de E. skotogaster por presentarlas siguientes características morfológicas externas especificadas por Lavilla et al. (2003.

  13. A redescription of Anomaloglossus praderioi (La Marca, 1998 (Anura: Aromobatidae: Anomaloglossinae, with description of its tadpole and call

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    Philippe J.R. Kok

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anomaloglossus praderioi was originally described as Colostethus praderioi by E. La Marca in 1998 on the basis of two male specimens. The present paper provides a redescription of the species on the basis of new material from Maringma Tepui in Guyana and an additional specimen from Sierra de Lema in Venezuela. The redescription includes descriptions of the tadpole and vocalisation. Anomaloglossus praderioi is a medium-sized species mainly distinguished from its known congeners in having Fingers I, II and IV equal in length, the tip of Finger IV barely reaching the base of the distal subarticular tubercle on Finger III when fingers are adpressed, Fingers II and III with preaxial keel-like lateral folds, toes basally webbed with folded flaplike fringing except on Toes IV-V, symmetrical cloacal tubercles present, thin pale dorsolateral stripe present from tip of snout to tip of urostyle, ventrolateral stripe inconspicuous, never straight, oblique lateral stripe absent, throat in male grey to very dark grey, almost solid black, with black blotches, throat in female bright orange, almost immaculate. The tadpole is dark brown to black, exotrophic, benthic, LTRF 2(2/3. The advertisement call consists of long trains of a single note repeated at a rate of 61-76 notes/min with a dominant frequency ranging from 3,562 to 3,856 Hz. The species is reported from eastern Venezuela and western Guyana and inhabits montane medium-canopy forest at elevations between 1,310-1,950 m above sea level.Anomaloglossus praderioi fue originalmente descrito como Colostethus praderioi por E. La Marca en 1998 con dos ejemplares machos. El presente artículo ofrece una redescripción detallada de la especie basada en nuevos ejemplares de Maringma Tepui, en Guyana y ejemplares adicionales de la Sierra de Lema, en Venezuela. La redescripción incluye la vocalización y descripción del renacuajo. Anomaloglossus praderioi es de tamaño mediano y se distingue principalmente de sus congéneres por los siguientes caracteres: los dedos I, II y IV con igual longitud; punta del dedo IV apenas llega a la base del tubérculo subarticular distal del dedo III, cuando estos son colocados juntos; dedos II y III con la quilla preaxial y pliegues laterales; dedos de los pies palmeados basalmente, excepto en los dedos IV-V; simétricos tubérculos cloacales presentes; franja delgada dorsolateral de color pálido, la cual va desde la punta del hocico hasta la punta de urostilo; banda ventrolateral inconspicua, nunca recta; banda lateral oblicua ausente. Macho con garganta de color gris a gris muy oscuro, casi negro uniforme. En hembras la garganta es de color naranja brillante, casi inmaculada. La larva es castaño oscuro a negro, de hábitos exotróficos y bentónicos, LTRF 2 (2/3. La llamada de advertencia consiste de largas series de una nota sencilla repetida a un ritmo de 61-76 notes/min con una frecuencia dominante que va desde 3,562 a 3,856 Hz. La especie queda registrada para el sureste de Venezuela y oeste de Guyana, habitando bosques montanos con cobertura media en elevaciones entre los 1,310-1,950 m s.n.m.

  14. Diet and nematode infection in Proceratoprhys boiei (Anura: Cycloramphidae from two Atlantic rainforest remnants in Southeastern Brazil

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    Thaís Klaion

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Proceratophrys boiei is an endemic cycloramphid anuran inhabiting the leaf litter of Atlantic rainforests in Southeastern Brazil. We analyzed the whole digestive tract of 38 individuals of Proceratophrys boiei collected in two Atlantic Rainforest areas in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to study the diet composition and the helminth fauna associated with this species. The main food items in P. boiei's diet were Coleoptera, Orthoptera and Blattaria. Five nematode species were found: Aplectana delirae, Cosmocerca parva, Oxyascaris oxyascaris, Physaloptera sp. (larval stage only and an unidentified nematode. Overall prevalence was 71% and mean infection intensity was 7.3 ± 5.8 neatodes per individual.Proceratophrys boiei é um anuro da familia Cycloramphidae que vive no folhico e é endêmico de areas de floresta na Mata Atlantica do Sudeste do Brasil. Nós analisamos o trato digestivo de 38 indivíduos de Proceratophrys boiei provenientes de duas áreas de Mata Atlântica no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, para estudar a composição da dieta e a fauna helmíntica associada a esta espécie. s principais itens alientares na dieta de P. boiei fora Coleoptera, rthoptera e Blattaria. Cinco espécies de nematóides foram encontradas: Aplectana delirae, Cosmocerca parva, Oxyascaris oxyascaris, Physaloptera sp. (apenas larvas e uma espécie de nematóide não identificada. A prevalência total foi de 71% e a intensidade media de infecção foi de 7,3 ± 5,8 nematóides por indivíduo.

  15. The occurrence of amphibians in bromeliads from a Southeastern Brazilian restinga habitat, with special reference to Aparasphenodon brunoi (Anura, Hylidae

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    TEIXEIRA R. L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of anuran amphibians, all belonging to the family Hylidae, were collected at Praia das Neves, municipality of Presidente Kennedy, southeastern Brazil,. The species were represented by four genera: Scinax, Hyla, Aparasphenodon, and Trachycephalus. Four species (A. brunoi, Hyla albomarginata, Scinax altera, and S. cuspidatus were found during the dry season (August 1999, and two (A. brunoi and Trachycephalus nigromaculatus in the rainy season (February 2000. Aparasphenodon brunoi was the most abundant species in Praia das Neves. Some reproductive aspects and feeding habits of this hylid were investigated. Aparasphenodon brunoi was found mainly inside the bromeliad Aechmea lingulata, the largest plant analyzed. Fifteen specimens were collected during the dry season (August 1999 (11 males and 4 females. During the rainy season (February 2000, we collected 14 specimens (3 males, 10 females, and 1 juvenile. Sex-ratio was 1:1. Frogs ranged in snout-vent length from 31.2 to 69.3 mm. Females were larger than males. One female had 1,451 fully developed oocytes in her ovaries. The major groups of prey found in the stomachs were: Insecta, Myriapoda, and Arachnida. Blattodea, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera (only ants were the main food types in frequency, number, and weight. Aparasphenodon brunoi is a threatened species in many habitats of southeastern Brazil. Only natural vegetation protection may guarantee its survival during the immediate future.

  16. Rediscovery of the Endangered frog Phrynopus montium (Shreve, 1938) Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) in the cloud forest of central Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Rudolf VON

    2017-10-24

    Phrynopus montium (Shreve, 1938) was described from Cascas, Junín Department, Peru, at an undetermined elevation between 3000 and 4000 m a.s.l. in the Cordillera Central. With the exception of the type specimens used in the original description, no additional sightings of P. montium had been reported for 76 years. Additionally, its coloration in life, microhabitat use, and precise elevational distribution remained unknown. During a field expedition conducted in 2014, two individuals of P. montium were found at an upper cloud forest site in central Peru, 8.7 km south from Hacienda Cascas. Here, I describe the coloration in life, microhabitat use, and elevation of these individuals.

  17. A New Locality for Rana ridibunda caralitana Arıkan, 1988 (Anura: Ranidae in the Central Anatolia.

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    Dinçer Ayaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orta Anadolu’da Rana ridibunda caralitana Arıkan, 1988 için yeni bir lokalite. Bu çalışmada, Bor (Niğde’dan toplanan 18 (10 ♂♂, 8 ♀♀ ergin ova kurbağası örneği, başta renk-desen olmak üzere yapılan morfolojik analiz sonucunda incelenmiştir. İncelenen örneklerin caralitana formuna ait olduğu anlaşılmıştır. Böylece caralitana’nın dağılış areali genişletilmiştir

  18. Phenotypic and molecular variation in the green and black poison-dart frog Dendrobates auratus (Anura: Dendrobatidae) from Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa D Patrick; Mahmood Sasa

    2009-01-01

    The green and black poison-dart frog Dendrobates auratus exhibits high intraspecific variation in hue color and pattern throughout its range, making it a very popular species in the pet trade. We analyzed the correspondence between color variation and molecular variation of D. auratus from Costa Rica using RAPD analysis. Twenty-six random primers were analyzed for variation in 99 individuals from seven populations. Color pattern was scored from digital images of the dorsal and ventral views. ...

  19. Ultrastructural patterns of secretory activity in poison cutaneous glands of larval and juvenile Dendrobates auratus (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, R; Delfino, G; Parra, G J

    2003-01-01

    A transmission electron-microscope study has been performed on larval and juvenile skin of the Central American arrow-frog Dendrobates auratus to investigate early secretory processes and maturational changes in the serous (poison) glands. Poison biosynthesis involves the endoplasmic reticulum (both smooth and rough types), as well as Golgi stacks which release early serous product as secretory vesicles (or pre-granules). These vesicles contain fine-grained material, along with single electron-opaque bodies, spheroidal in shape, that accompany the grained product throughout its post-Gogian, maturational change. The first steps of this process involve condensation and lead to the formation of secretory granules with a glomerular-like substructure, resulting from a thick, random aggregation of rods (secretory granule subunits). Advanced maturational activity causes the loss of peculiar granule substructure: the dense bodies split into fragments, whereas the thick glomerular arrangement becomes looser, until the secretory product changes into a dispersed material. This ultrastructural study revealed biosynthesis and maturation processes in close sequence, suggesting the poison of D. auratus contains proteins and/or peptides as well as lipophilic compounds. Molecules of both these classes are known to perform several roles relevant to survival strategies in extant anurans. Furthermore, the ephemeral granules with a glomerular-like substructure detected in tadpoles and froglets exhibit the complex patterns of mature poisons in adult specimens of other anurans: Hylidae and related families. This agrees with current trends in the taxonomy of these advanced frogs and underlines the pertinence of an ontogenetic approach in investigating anuran phylogenesis.

  20. Inventory of color polymorphism in populations of Dendrobates galactonotus (Anura: Dendrobatidae, a poison frog endemic to Brazil

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    Marinus S. Hoogmoed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the various color morphs of Dendrobates galactonotus that occur in its range between the Amazon and Tapajós rivers, in the Brazilian states of Pará, Maranhão, northern Mato Grosso, and northern Tocantins. Dorsal coloration ranges from black to light blue and from red via orange to yellow, cream and white, with or without black spots or vermiculations. Most specimens are uniformly black below, but in some populations the color of the back has invaded the ventral surface and the black has been reduced to small areas on the seat patch and under the thighs. We could not locate any completely white populations, a color variant present in captivity and known as “Moonshine.” No regularity in the distribution of color pattern could be distinguished; the majority of localities has orange colored populations, but other color morphs are sprinkled between them. Populations are uniform, only showing onecolor, although the amount of black elements on the back may vary. Threats to this species are deforestation, fragmentation of habitat, hydroelectric projects (already functioning, under construction, or projected, gold mining, and possibly illegal international trade. Although this species is widely distributed in terrariums in Europe, the United States, and Japan, all these specimens stem from illegal exports. Genetic research to try to establish a connection between color pattern and genetic make-up of populations is in progress.

  1. Preparation and ultrastructure of spermatozoa from green poison frogs, Dendrobates auratus, following hormonal induced spermiation (Amphibia, Anura, Dendrobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipke, Christian; Meinecke-Tillmann, Sabine; Meyer, Wilfried; Meinecke, Burkhard

    2009-07-01

    Few ultrastructural studies have been performed on members of the Dendrobatidae, although such investigations can be useful for the understanding of reproductive patterns, as a diagnostic method for males in breeding programs for endangered amphibians and for phylogenetic analysis. The sperm ultrastructure of the Green Poison Frog, Dendrobates auratus, from Panama is described following induced spermiation in living animals. To date only testicular spermatozoa in other dendrobatid frogs have been analysed. Moreover, an electron microscopic preparation method (transmission and scanning electron microscopy) for dendrobatid sperm cells in low concentration is presented. Sperm cells from stimulated frogs (100 IU human chorionic gonadotropin, hCG, twice at an interval of 1h) were recovered via cloaca lavage using 600 microl isotonic phosphate-free amphibian saline (IPS). Centrifuged flushings (5 min, 173 x g) were deposited on microscopic slides. Adherent spermatozoa were treated with Karnovsky fixative (overnight, 4 degrees C). After postfixation (2h, 1% osmium tetroxide), samples were dehydrated in series of ascending acetones (30-100%). For transmission electron microscopy sperm cells were encapsulated using Epon and 1.5% 2,4,6-tris(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol (DMP 30). Ultrathin sections (70 nm) were cut and stained with uranyl acetate (30 min) and lead citrate (5 min). Sperm cells are filiform with a 21.1+/-2.7 microm long and arcuated head and a single tail (35.0+/-4.2 microm length). Their acrosomal complex is located at the anterior portion of the head and consists of the acrosomal vesicle which has low electron density, and the subjacent electron-dense subacrosomal cone. In transverse section, the nucleus is circular (1.9+/-0.2 microm diameter) and conical in longitudinal section. It is surrounded by several groups of mitochondria. The chromatin is highly condensed and electron-dense but shows numerous electron-lucent inclusions. A short midpiece has a mitochondrial collar with a proximal and a distal centriole. The latter gives rise to the axoneme which alone forms the flagellum. The sperm ultrastructure of D. auratus differs from that of other Dendrobatidae because of the absence of a nuclear space and the absence of the undulating membrane associated with an axial fibre. This tail conformation is found in the Ranoidea but not in the Bufonoidea. These results show that the spermatozoa of D. auratus are the first within the Dendrobatidae without accessory tail structures. Methods of using sperm samples from hormonal treated frogs for ultrastructural studies is not only reasonable to examine e.g. amphibian phylogeny without killing frogs threatened with extinction but allows investigations in the field of assisted reproduction and male fertility for example in conservation programs for endangered amphibians.

  2. Dry-season retreat and dietary shift of the dart-poison frog Dendrobates tinctorius (Anura: Dendrobatidae

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    Marga Born

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal rainfall affects tropical forest dynamics and behaviorof species that are part of these ecosystems. The positive correlation between amphibian activity patterns and rainfall has been demonstrated repeatedly. Members of Dendrobatidae, a clade of Neotropical dart-poison frogs, are well known for their habitat use and behavior during the rainy season, but their behavior during the dry season has received little attention. We studied habitat use and diet of the dendrobatid frog Dendrobates tinctorius in French Guiana during the rainy and dry seasons. Unlike many other dendrobatid frogs, D. tinctorius does not maintain territories for the entire rainy season. Both sexes colonize recently formed canopy-gaps and stay in these forest patches for only a few weeks. The frogs inthese patches consume a great diversity of prey, consisting of ants, beetles, wasps, insect larvae, and mites. During the dry season, frogs move to retreat sites in mature forest, such as palm bracts and tree holes. The frogs are less active and consume fewer prey items in the dry season, and they consume fewer wasps and insect larvae, but more termites. Ants are the most common prey items during both the wet and dry seasons. We discuss the effects of shifts in seasonal habitat use on the territorial behavior of dendrobatid frogs.

  3. Population estimates of Dendrobates tinctorius (Anura: Dendrobatidae) at three sites in French Guiana and first record of chytrid infection

    OpenAIRE

    Elodie A. Courtois; Kevin Pineau; Benoit Villette; Dirk S. Schmeller; Philippe Gaucher

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropics shelter the highest number of frog species on Earth and is also one of the regions where anurans are most threatened. Nonetheless, few data are available to assess the population status of Neotropical anurans. We studied three populations (Tresor, Favard, and Nouragues) of the poison frog, Dendrobates tinctorius, in French Guiana and used Capture-Mark-Recapture (CMR) to make robust estimations of the species’ density at these three sites. In addition, we assessed the prevalence...

  4. Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in aqueous suspension on the South American common frog Leptodactylus latrans (Anura: Leptodactylidae) tadpoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajmanovich, Rafael C., E-mail: lajmanovich@hotmail.com [National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Faculty of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences (FBCB-UNL), Ciudad Universitaria Paraje el Pozo s/n, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Junges, Celina M. [National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Faculty of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences (FBCB-UNL), Ciudad Universitaria Paraje el Pozo s/n, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Cabagna-Zenklusen, Mariana C. [Faculty of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences (FBCB-UNL), Ciudad Universitaria Paraje el Pozo s/n, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Attademo, Andrés M.; Peltzer, Paola M. [National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Faculty of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences (FBCB-UNL), Ciudad Universitaria Paraje el Pozo s/n, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Maglianese, Mariana; Márquez, Vanina E.; Beccaria, Alejandro J. [Faculty of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences (FBCB-UNL), Ciudad Universitaria Paraje el Pozo s/n, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2015-01-15

    The effects of commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensisvar.israelensis (Bti) on non-target organisms are still a matter of debate; in amphibians, the risks of Bti are little known. To evaluate the toxicity of a commercial liquid (aqueous suspension, AS) formulation of Bti (Introban{sup ®}) on Leptodactylus latrans tadpoles, including median lethal concentration (LC{sub 50}) and no-and lowest–observed-effect concentrations (NOEC and LOEC, respectively), as well as the possible effects of Bti on oxidative responses, erythrocytes genotoxicity, and histology of the intestines. In the laboratory, tadpoles were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/L of formulated Bti-AS. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as formation of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENAs), and histological effect were measured in tadpoles displaying survival rates >85%. L. latrans tadpoles were sensitive to exposure to Bti-AS, reaching 100% mortality after 48 h of exposure at the highest concentration. Bti-AS induced GST and CAT enzymes and genotoxicity (erythrocyte's nuclear abnormalities), and caused intestine's histopathology. Our results demonstrate that toxicity of Bti-AS is dose-dependent for L. latrans tadpoles and that sublethal exposure alters enzymes of oxidative stress, induces genotoxicity, and causes intestine damage. Further research is needed to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk of the massive use of Bti formulations on amphibian populations that commonly used suburban wastewater or urban waterbodies to reproduce and where this biopesticide is frequently applied. - Highlights: • An ecotoxicological evaluation of a Bti formulation on amphibian was conducted. • Toxicity of Bti-AS was dose-dependent for Leptodactylus latrans tadpoles. • Sublethal exposure altered the enzymes of oxidative stress (GST and CAT). • Bti-AS was genotoxic because increased MN frequencies (CO: 0.82–2.74‰). • Bti-AS caused the inflammatory infiltration in the lamina propria of intestine.

  5. Out of Amazonia: the unexpected trans-Andean distribution of Cochranella resplendens (Lynch and Duellman, 1978) (Anura: Centrolenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Zuluaga, Claudia; Cano, Estefany; Restrepo, Adriana; Rada, Marco; Daza, Juan M

    2017-03-02

    The glassfrog genus Cochranella, with nine recognized species, is distributed in the lowlands and mid elevation of the Neotropical forests, from Nicaragua to Bolivia (Guayasamin et al. 2009; Twomey et al. 2014). Four species are trans-Andean-C. granulosa (Taylor 1949) occurs in the lowlands and mountains, at mid elevation, of Central America, C. litoralis (Ruiz-Carranza & Lynch 1996) and C. mache Guayasamin & Bonaccorso 2004 occur in the Pacific lowlands and the western cloud forests of Colombia and Ecuador, and C. euknemos (Savage & Starrett 1967) occurs both in Central America and South America (northwestern Colombia).-The other five species have cis-Andean distributions in the Amazonian slopes and lowlands, from Colombia to Bolivia: C. nola Harvey 1996, C. guayasamini Twomey, Delia & Castroviejo-Fisher 2014, C. resplendens (Lynch & Duellman 1973), C. erminea Torres-Gastello, Suárez-Segovia & Cisneros-Heredia 2007, and C. phryxa Aguayo-Vedia & Harvey 2006. In Colombia, C. resplendens is known from the foothills of the Amazon versant in Caquetá (Malambo et al. 2013) and Putumayo (Lynch & Duellman 1973; Ruiz-Carranza et al. 1996). The species is also known from Ecuador (Lynch & Duellman 1973) and Peru (Twomey et al. 2014). Here, we report two new records of Cochranella resplendens, extending the species distribution beyond the Amazonian lowlands into the northern Cordillera Central in Colombia.

  6. Three New Species of Phytotelm-Breeding Melanophryniscus from the Atlantic Rainforest of Southern Brazil (Anura: Bufonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornschein, Marcos R.; Firkowski, Carina R.; Baldo, Diego; Ribeiro, Luiz F.; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Corrêa, Leandro; Morato, Sérgio A. A.; Pie, Marcio R.

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of Melanophryniscus are described from the Serra do Mar mountain range of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. All species are found at intermediate to high altitudes and share phytotelm-breeding as their reproductive strategy. The new species are distinguished from other phytotelm-breeding Melanophryniscus based on different combinations of the following traits: snout-vent length, presence of white and/or yellow spots on forearms, mouth, belly and cloaca, pattern and arrangement of warts, and presence and number of corneous spines. The discovery of these species in a rather restricted geographical area suggests that the diversity of phytotelm-breeding species of Melanophryniscus might be severely underestimated. The conservation status of these species is of particular concern, given that one of them is at risk of extinction not only due to its restricted habitat, but also because of anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:26630281

  7. Aspectos ecológicos da helintofauna de anfíbios Leptodactylidae (ANURA) no Estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Drausio Honorio [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    Nos necropsiamos 668 espécimes de 21 espécies de rãs da família Leptodactylidae colecionadas entre os anos de 1987 e 2010, provenientes de 36 municípios, distribuídos por quatro regiões: Amazônia, Cerrado, Pantanal e áreas de transição de Cerrado e Amazônia no Estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil. 535 anfíbios estavam parasitados e destes, recuperamos 31.580 helmintos representados por 38 espécies, distribuídos em Nemátoda, Tremátodas (Digenéticos e Monogenéticos), Cestoda e Acantocephala. Os padrõe...

  8. Reproductive parameters of Hypsiboas punctatus(Schneider 1799 (Anura: Hylidae in the south limit of its distribution area

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    Carolina E. Antoniazzi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypsiboas punctatus(Schneider 1799 has a wide distribution in South America, throughout a latitudinal and environmental gradient (tropical/temperate, thus, supporting significantly different pressures among populations. Until now, only tropical populations’ reproductive parameters have been recorded. Then, our goal was to study reproductive parameters on a population inhabiting a temperate climate region to evaluate differences with those inhabiting tropical regions. Studied frogs were smaller than those from tropical regions. There was no correlation between weight and size of males and their testicles volume. Conversely, females’ weight and size was positively correlated to their fertility. Fat bodies were developed in males but absent in females. When compared with other studies, our results showed the variability in reproductive parameters of H. punctatusbetween tropical and temperate regions. This variability could be the result of phenotypic plasticity and/or genetic differentiation between distant populations. This variability may be one of the keys that allow H. punctatusto thrive in diverse ecosystems with different characteristics and environmental pressures.

  9. Feeding habits, microhabitat use, and daily activity of Cycloramphus brasiliensis (Anura: Cycloramphidae from the Atlantic Rainforest, Brazil

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    Thiago Maia-Carneiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the feeding habits, microhabitat use, and daily activity period of the anuran species Cycloramphus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1864, endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome. The only previous studies on this species focused on the systematics and new altitudinal records. This study was conducted in a large forest remnant located in the municipalities of Guapimirim and Cachoeiras de Macacu. We captured frogs through visual encounter surveys and recorded the frequency of microhabitat types used by them, and the time of capture. Diet was analyzed in terms of number, volume and frequency of occurrence of items. Individuals of C. brasiliensis occurred in association with fast-moving rocky portions of clear freshwater rivers, indicating a rheophilic habit, and were active mainly at night. Such as most anuran species, the diet of Cycloramphus brasiliensis was mainly based on arthropods, and included Blattodea, Formicidae, and Coleoptera as most important prey items.

  10. Ultrastructure variation in the spermatozoa of Pseudopaludicola frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae), with brief comments on its phylogenetic relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Julio Sérgio; Introíni, Gisele Orlandi; Veiga-Menoncello, Ana Cristina Prado; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2015-12-01

    The taxonomic history of the small frogs of the genus Pseudopaludicola from South America has been controversial. Phylogenetic inferences based on molecular data have identified four Pseudopaludicola clades, correlating with the known variation in karyotypes (2n = 22, 20, 18, and 16). In this study, the ultrastructure of the spermatozoa was analyzed in 12 species of the Pseudopaludicola, with the aim of describing their morphology and identifying characters that may contribute to a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships. The spermatozoa presented marked differences in tail structures. The tails of the spermatozoa of the species with 2n = 22 chromosomes (Pseudopaludicola sp. 1 [P. pusilla group], Pseudopaludicola falcipes, P. mineira, and Pseudopaludicola saltica), as well as Pseudopaludicola ameghini and Pseudopaludicola ternetzi (2n=20), have juxta-axonemal fibers, undulating membranes and axial fibers. In contrast, in the species with 2n = 18 (P. facureae, P. giarettai, Pseudopaludicola canga, P. atragula, and Pseudopaludicola sp. 2) and 2n = 16 (Pseudopaludicola mystacalis), there are no evident axial or juxta-axonemal fibers, but a paraxonemal rod with a thick undulating membrane, which is shorter than that found among Pseudopaludicola species. The ultrastructural morphological differences observed in the spermatozoa of these species may be phylogenetically informative, given that they coincide with the consensus phylogeny of the group and appear to represent a progressive simplification of the spermatozoon. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Mitochondrial genomes of Japanese Babina frogs (Ranidae, Anura): unique gene arrangements and the phylogenetic position of genus Babina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehashi, Ryosuke; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Oumi, Shohei; Katsuren, Seiki; Hoso, Masaki; Sumida, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Genus Babina is a member of Ranidae, a large family of frogs, currently comprising 10 species. Three of them are listed as endangered species. To identify mitochondrial (mt) genes suitable for future population genetic analyses for endangered species, we determined the complete nucleotide sequences of the mt genomes of 3 endangered Japanese Babina frogs, B. holsti, B. okinavana, and B. subaspera and 1 ranid frog Lithobates catesbeianus. The genes of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nad5) and the control region (CR) were found to have high sequence divergences and to be usable for population genetics studies. At present, no consensus on the phylogenetic position of genus Babina has been reached. To resolve this problem, we performed molecular phylogenetic analyses with the largest dataset used to date (11,345 bp from 2 ribosomal RNA- and 13 protein-encoding genes) in studies dealing with Babina phylogeny. These analyses revealed monophyly of Babina and Odorrana. It is well known that mt gene rearrangements of animals can provide usable phylogenetic information. Thus, we also compared the mt gene arrangements among Babina species and other related genera. Of the surveyed species, only L. catesbeianus manifested typical neobatrachian-type mt gene organization. In the B. okinavana, an additional pseudogene of tRNA-His (trnH) was observed in the CR downstream region. Furthermore, in the B. holsti and B. subaspera, the trnH/nad5 block was translocated from its typical position to the CR downstream region, and the translocated trnH became a pseudogene. The position of the trnH pseudogene is consistent with the translocated trnH position reported in Odorrana. Consequently, the trnH rearrangement seems to be a common ancestry characteristic (synapomorphy) of Babina and Odorrana. Based on the "duplication and deletion" gene rearrangement model, a single genomic duplication event can explain the order of derived mt genes found in Babina and Odorrana.

  12. Una nueva especie de Tepuihyla (Anura: Hylidae del noroeste de Venezuela, con comentarios sobre su biogeografía

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    Abraham Mijares-Urrutia

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie de rana arborícola, Tepuihyla celsae (Hylidae, proveniente del bosque nublado (1250 m de la Sierra de San Luis, Estado Falcón, noroeste de Venezuela. Esta nueva especie se distingue de sus congéneres principalmente por el color dorsal castaño oscuro con unas pocas manchas blancas pequeñas y dispersas, labio superior blanco inmaculado, piel dorsal densamente tuberculosa en ambos sexos, distancia ojo-narina más corta que la longitud horizontal del ojo, dedos de la mano sin membrana, membrana axilar ausente. Esta nueva Tepuihyla representa el registro más septentrional del género, aportando evidencias para establecer una afinidad biogeográfica del conjunto Sierra de San Luís y Cordillera de la Costa con la región guyano-amazónica.A new species of treefrog, Tepuihyla celsae (Hylidae, is described based on 11 specimens from cloud-forests (1250 m of the Sierra de San Luis, state of Falcón, northwestern Venezuela. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by dorsal pattern dark-brown with some few, small and scattered white spots, upper lip immaculate white, dorsum strongly tuberculated in both sexes, dorsal spicules absent, eye-naris distance longer than horizontal length of eye, fingers lacking webbing, axillary membrane absent. This new Tepuihyla extend the known range of the genus more than 500 km northwesterward, and is the first report of the genus outside the Guyanan masif, adding new evidence to support a close biogeographic affinity among the Sierra de San Luís and the Cordillera de la Costa with the highlands of the Guyanan región.

  13. New species of Hyla from the "Serra da Mantiqueira, Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro" State - (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Peixoto, Oswaldo Luiz; Cruz, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves da

    1992-01-01

    Hyla gouveai n. sp. is described and illustrated and it is closest to the bigger individuals of the species in the group "circumdata", not presenting, however, the characteristic pattern of dark transversal bands on the posterior inner coxal surface.

  14. ADAPTACIÓN LOCAL A LA TEMPERATURA: DIVERGENCIA TRANSCRIPTÓMICA EN TRES POBLACIONES ANDINAS DE Rhinella spinulosa (ANURA, BUFONIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    PASTENES OPAZO, LUIS EDUARDO

    2013-01-01

    En vertebrados ectotermos, la temperatura ha sido descrita como un factor determinante asociado con adaptación local. Si bien, en anfibios existe evidencia de variación geográfica en caracteres morfológicos, conductuales y de historia de vida, los estudios que han indagado en los genes involucrados en adaptación local son escasos. El objetivo de esta tesis fue examinar, en el anfibio Rhinella spinulosa, los genes diferencialmente expresados (DE) asociados a la adaptación local ...

  15. Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan

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    Davit Vasilyan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The present-day amphibian and reptile fauna of Western Siberia are the least diverse of the Palaearctic Realm, as a consequence of the unfavourable climatic conditions that predominate in this region. The origin and emergence of these herpetofaunal groups are poorly understood. Aside from the better-explored European Neogene localities yielding amphibian and reptile fossil remains, the Neogene herpetofauna of Western Asia is understudied. The few available data need critical reviews and new interpretations, taking into account the more recent records of the European herpetofauna. The comparison of this previous data with that of European fossil records would provide data on palaeobiogeographic affiliations of the region as well as on the origin and emergence of the present-day fauna of Western Siberia. An overview of the earliest occurrences of certain amphibian lineages is still needed. In addition, studies that address such knowledge gaps can be useful for molecular biologists in their calibration of molecular clocks. Methods and Results In this study, we considered critically reviewed available data from amphibian and reptile fauna from over 40 Western Siberian, Russian and Northeastern Kazakhstan localities, ranging from the Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene. Herein, we provided new interpretations that arose from our assessment of the previously published and new data. More than 50 amphibians and reptile taxa were identified belonging to families Hynobiidae, Cryptobranchidae, Salamandridae, Palaeobatrachidae, Bombinatoridae, Pelobatidae, Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, and Emydidae. Palaeobiogeographic analyses were performed for these groups and palaeoprecipitation values were estimated for 12 localities, using the bioclimatic analysis of herpetofaunal assemblages. Conclusion The Neogene assemblage of Western Siberia was found to be dominated by groups of European affinities, such as Palaeobatrachidae, Bombina, Hyla, Bufo bufo, and a small part of this assemblage included Eastern Palaearctic taxa (e.g. Salamandrella, Tylototriton, Bufotes viridis. For several taxa (e.g. Mioproteus, Hyla, Bombina, Rana temporaria, the Western Siberian occurrences represented their most eastern Eurasian records. The most diverse collection of fossil remains was found in the Middle Miocene. Less diversity has been registered towards the Early Pleistocene, potentially due to the progressive cooling of the climate in the Northern Hemisphere. The results of our study showed higher-amplitude changes of precipitation development in Western Siberia from the Early Miocene to the Pliocene, than previously assumed.

  16. Phylogeography of Pseudacris regilla (Anura: Hylidae) in western North America, with a proposal for a new taxonomic rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recuero, Ernesto; Martínez-Solano, Iñigo; Parra-Olea, Gabriela; García-París, Mario

    2006-05-01

    The Baja California populations of Pseudacris regilla, a widespread species in Western North America ranging from British Columbia to southern Baja California, are characterized by extensive geographic fragmentation. We performed phylogeographic and historical demographic analyses on 609 bp of the cytochrome b mitochondrial gene of 110 individuals representing 28 populations to determine the relative influences of current and historical processes in shaping the present distribution of genetic diversity on the Baja California Peninsula. Haplotypes from this area were nested in a clade with three well-differentiated groups. Two of these groups are from Baja California Sur and another is from California and Baja California. The estimated date for the split of these groups, between 0.9-1 Ma, fits with previously proposed hypotheses of vicariance due to different transpeninsular seaways, although successive population fragmentation and expansion due to climatic oscillations during Pleistocene glaciations cannot be discarded. Historical demographic analyses detected signs of past population expansions, especially in the southernmost group. With respect to populations north of this region, two older clades were identified, one with haplotypes mainly distributed in central California, and the other corresponding to the northern half of the species range, in what apparently is a recurrent pattern in the Pacific coast of North America. Based on the concordance between mt-DNA and available allozyme data indicating that these species have a long independent evolutionary history, we propose to consider the three major clades as distinct species: P. regilla, P. pacifica, and P. hypochondriaca.

  17. The occurrence of amphibians in bromeliads from a southeastern Brazilian restinga habitat, with special reference to Aparasphenodon brunoi (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, R L; Schineider, J A P; Almeida, G I

    2002-05-01

    Five species of anuran amphibians, all belonging to the family Hylidae, were collected at Praia das Neves, municipality of President Kennedy, southeastern Brazil. The species were represented by four genera: Scinax, Hyla, Aparasphenodon, and Trachycephalus. Four species (A. brunoi, Hyla albomarginata, Scinax altera, and S. cuspidatus) were found during the dry season (August 1999), and two (A. brunoi and Trachycephalus nigromaculatus) in the rainy season (February 2000). Aparasphenodon brunoi was the most abundant species in Praia das Neves. Some reproductive aspects and feeding habits of this hylid were investigated. Aparasphenodon brunoi was found mainly inside the bromeliad Aechmea lingulata, the largest plant analyzed. Fifteen specimens were collected during the dry season (August 1999) (11 males and 4 females). During the rainy season (February 2000), we collected 14 specimens (3 males, 10 females, and 1 juvenile). Sex-ratio was 1:1. Frogs ranged in snout-vent length from 31.2 to 69.3 mm. Females were larger than males. One female had 1,451 fully developed oocytes in her ovaries. The major groups of prey found in the stomachs were: Insecta, Myriapoda, and Arachnida. Blattodea, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera (only ants) were the main food types in frequency, number, and weight. Aparasphenodon brunoi is a threatened species in many habitats of southeastern Brazil. Only natural vegetation protection may guarantee its survival during the immediate future.

  18. Raorchestes ghatei, a new species of shrub frog (Anura: Rhacophoridae from the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India

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    A.D. Padhye

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of shrub frog Raorchestes ghatei is described from the Western Ghats of Maharashtra. The species differs from its congeners based on a combination of characters including small to medium-sized adult males, snout mucronate in dorsal view, canthus rostralis angular and sharp, snout slightly projecting beyond mouth ventrally, tympanum indistinct and one third of the eye diameter, tongue without papilla but with a lingual pit, nuptial pad rudimentary to absent, a bony tubercle on humerus at the end of deltoid ridge present in males and absent in females, skin finely granulated or smooth dorsally, lateral side marbled with white blotches on brown to black background. Molecular phylogeny based on 16S rRNA gene sequence suggests that the new species is genetically distinct and forms a monophyletic clade within Raorchestes. The species exhibits sexual dimorphism with males having single sub-gular vocal sac and a tubercle on the humerus while females lack them. The species shows direct development. The species is widely distributed in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra.

  19. Reproducción y desarrollo larval del sapo enano Melanophryniscus stelzneri stelzneri (Weyemberg, 1875 (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Bustos Singer, Rodrigo

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron varios aspectos de la reproducción y desarrollo larval de Melanophryniscus stelzneri stelzneri: condiciones ambientales en las que ocurre la reproducción, conductas pre y postreproductivas de los adultos, puesta, desarrollo embrionario, comportamiento larval, y metamorfosis. Se realizó también una descripción anatómica de la larva. La mayor parte de las conductas observadas son corrientes en anuros argentinos. La larva es típicamente pequeña y de tipo léntico-bentónica. Su fórmula dentaria mas común es 2 / 3. El tiempo de metamorfosis está afectada por la disponibilidad de agua, un paulatino descenso en el nivel de agua la acelera. Many aspects about the reproduction of Melanophryniscus stelzneri stelzneri were estudied: environmental conditions in which reproduction occurs, pre and postreproductive adult behaviour, oviposition, larval developement, tadpole habits and metamorphosis. An anatomic description of the larva was also realized. Most of the observed behaviours are usual in argentinian anurans. The tadpole is tiny and typically lentic- bentonic. The most conmon queratodontic formula is 2 / 3. The time of metamorphosis is affected by water availability. A decreasing level of water accelerates the development.

  20. [A new species of frog of the genus Hyalinobatrachium (Anura: Centrolenidae) of the Delta of the Orinoco River, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celsa Señaris, J; Ayarzagüena, J

    2001-01-01

    A new species of Hyalinobatrachium of the fleischmanni group, H. mondolfii, is described from the Orinoco delta floodplains in Venezuela. This new species can be distinguished from other congeners by the following combination of characters: parietal peritoneum clear, pericardium white, visceral and hepatic peritoneum white, color in life pale green with diminute yellow spots and, in preservative, cream with small dark melanophores (visible only under magnification), bones white in life, extense webbing, snout round in dorsal view and inclinate in lateral view, dorsal skin granulate and a advertisement call with a fundamental frequency greater than 5000 Hz.

  1. Pseudophilautus dilmah, a new species of shrub frog (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae from a threatened habitat Loolkandura in Sri Lanka

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    L.J. Mendis Wickramasinghe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species of shrub frog Pseudophilautus dilmah is described from the Central Hills of Sri Lanka.  This unique species is distinguished from all the other congeners from a combination of characters; snout rounded in lateral aspect, bluntly pointed in dorsal and ventral aspect, canthus rostralis rounded, vomerine teeth, lingual papilla and nuptial pads absent, dermal fringe distinct on inside of fingers III and IV, small blunt tubercles on metacarpal and ulnar folds, toes basally webbed, interorbital area smooth, upper eyelid prominent tubercles present, anterior and posterior dorsum without horny spinules but tubercles present, upper part of flank weakly granular, supratympanic fold distinct, prominent small calcar present at the distal end of the tibia, throat granular, chest and belly coarsely granular.  Based on comparison of 16s rRNA gene we also show that the species is genetically distinct from other members of Pseudophilautus for which gene sequences are available.  The high rate of deforestation and anthropogenic activities threaten this population in its natural habitat. 

  2. Biometría de Bufo marinus (Anura: Bufonidae del refugio nacional de vida silvestre Golfito, Costa Rica (ING

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    Jorge Cabrera Peña

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometrical analysis of Bufo marinus was carried out in the Golfito National Wildlife Refuge, Golfito, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, between May 1986 and June 1987. Statistical analysis of biometrical parameters indicated that this species has sexual dimorphism and females had greater size and weight.

  3. Biometría de Bufo marinus (Anura: Bufonidae) del refugio nacional de vida silvestre Golfito, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Peña, Jorge; Solano López, Yanaide; Barrantes Barrantes, Rosibel; Rodriguez Ugalde, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    No determinado Biometrical analysis of Bufo marinus was carried out in the Golfito National Wildlife Refuge, Golfito, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, between May 1986 and June 1987. Statistical analysis of biometrical parameters indicated that this species has sexual dimorphism and females had greater size and weight.

  4. Biometría de Bufo marinus (Anura: Bufonidae) del refugio nacional de vida silvestre Golfito, Costa Rica (ING)

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Cabrera Peña; Yanaide Solano López; Rosibel Barrantes Barrantes; Daniel Rodriguez Ugalde

    2016-01-01

    Biometrical analysis of Bufo marinus was carried out in the Golfito National Wildlife Refuge, Golfito, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, between May 1986 and June 1987. Statistical analysis of biometrical parameters indicated that this species has sexual dimorphism and females had greater size and weight.

  5. A striking new genus and species of cave-dwelling frog (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae: Asterophryinae) from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Sumontha, Montri; Tunprasert, Jitthep; Ruangsuwan, Thiti; Pawangkhanant, Parinya; Korost, Dmitriy V; Poyarkov, Nikolay A

    2018-01-01

    We report on a discovery of Siamophryne troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov., a new troglophilous genus and species of microhylid frog from a limestone cave in the tropical forests of western Thailand. To assess its phylogenetic relationships we studied the 12S rRNA-16S rRNA mtDNA fragment with final alignment comprising up to 2,591 bp for 56 microhylid species. Morphological characterization of the new genus is based on examination of external morphology and analysis of osteological characteristics using microCT-scanning. Phylogenetic analyses place the new genus into the mainly Australasian subfamily Asterophryinae as a sister taxon to the genus Gastrophrynoides , the only member of the subfamily known from Sundaland. The new genus markedly differs from all other Asterophryinae members by a number of diagnostic morphological characters and demonstrates significant mtDNA sequence divergence. We provide a preliminary description of a tadpole of the new genus. Thus, it represents the only asterophryine taxon with documented free-living larval stage and troglophilous life style. Our work demonstrates that S. troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov. represents an old lineage of the initial radiation of Asterophryinae which took place in the mainland Southeast Asia. Our results strongly support the "out of Indo-Eurasia" biogeographic scenario for this group of frogs. To date, the new frog is only known from a single limestone cave system in Sai Yok District of Kanchanaburi Province of Thailand; its habitat is affected by illegal bat guano mining and other human activities. As such, S. troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov. is likely to be at high risk of habitat loss. Considering high ecological specialization and a small known range of the new taxon, we propose a IUCN Red List status of endangered for it.

  6. No ecological opportunity signal on a continental scale? Diversification and life-history evolution of African true toads (Anura: Bufonidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liedtke, H. C.; Müller, H.; Rödel, M.-O.; Menegon, M.; Gonwouo, L. N.; Barej, M. F.; Gvoždík, Václav; Schmitz, A.; Channing, A.; Nagel, P.; Loader, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 8 (2016), s. 1717-1733 ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-13415Y Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Amphibia * BAMM * bGMYC * disparity * evolutionary rate dynamics * molecular phylogeny Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.201, year: 2016

  7. Is the red spotted green frog Hypsiboas punctatus (Anura: Hylidae) selecting its preys? The importance of prey availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier A; Scarabotti, Pablo A; Medrano, María C; Ghirardi, Romina

    2009-09-01

    The study of the feeding ecology of amphibians is an old issue in herpetology. Notwithstanding, the lack of food resources data in many studies of amphibians feeding has lead to partial understanding of frog feeding strategies. In this study we evaluate the trophic selectivity of a red spotted green frog (Hypsiboas punctatus) population from a Middle Paraná River floodplain pond in Argentina, and discuss the importance of prey availability data when interpreting results from diet analysis. We analyzed the gut contents of 47 H. punctatus adults and compared frog's diet with the environmental food resources. Prey availability was estimated by systematically seep-netting the microhabitat where anurans were localized foraging. We identified 33 taxonomic categories from gastrointestinal contents. Numerically, the most important prey categories were dipterans, followed by hemipterans, homopterans and coleopterans. The diet similarity between males and females was high and no statistical differences in diet composition were found. The most abundant food resources in the environment were dipterans, coleopterans, homopterans and collembolans. In order to assess whether frogs were selecting their preys, we calculated Pianka's niche overlap index and Jacobs' electivity index comparing gut contents to prey availability data. Trophic niche overlap was medium but significantly higher than expected by chance. The electivity index indicated that H. punctatus foraged dipterans slightly above their environmental abundance. Among the secondary preys, hemipterans were foraged selectively, homopterans were consumed in the same proportion to their occurrence in the environment, coleopterans were foraged quite under their availability and collembolans were practically ignored by frogs. Without food resources data, H. punctatus could be classified as a specialist feeder, but dipterans also were quite abundant in the environment. Our results show that H. punctatus fit better as a generalist feeder, foraging on their main food item and some secondary preys in similar proportion to their environmental availability; even though other secondary preys are being selectively preferred or ignored by frogs. Our data illustrate the importance of including the resource availability data on diet studies to improve the understanding of amphibian feeding ecology.

  8. Effect of mercuric chloride on fertilization and larval development in the River Frog, Rana heckscheri (Wright) (Anura: Ranidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punzo, F. (Univ. of Tampa, FL (United States))

    1993-10-01

    Previous investigations have indicated that heavy metals such as copper, cadmium, lead and mercury can act as systemic toxicants in many species of wildlife. Although numerous studies have emphasized the effects of metals and pesticides on metabolism, growth, survivorship, neural processes and reproduction in a number of taxa, little information is available on the effects of sublethal concentrations of metals on the reproductive physiology of amphibians. Industrial processes and mining activities can release substantial concentrations of heavy metals such as mercury into aquatic habitats. Since most amphibians have obligate aquatic larval stages, they are exposed to pollutants discharged into the aquatic environment. Amphibians can act as accumulators of heavy metals and their larval stages are useful indicators of pollution levels in the field. What little data are available, indicate that metals can significantly reduce viability in amphibians through their actions on metabolism, development and gametogenesis. The recent concerns over worldwide declines in amphibian populations and the susceptibility of amphibian populations to environmental toxicants, led me to assess the effect of mercuric chloride, one of the most common and persistent toxicants in aquatic environments, on fertilization and larval development in the river frog, Rana heckscheri (Wright). Although there is some information on fish, very little data are available on the effects of mercury on fertilization in amphibians generally, and no published data exist for R. heckscheri. This species is a conspicuous component of the aquatic fauna of parts of the southeastern United States where mercury levels have increased significantly over the last two decades. 22 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines) from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilyan​, Davit; Zazhigin, Vladimir S.; Böhme, Madelaine

    2017-01-01

    The present-day amphibian and reptile fauna of Western Siberia are the least diverse of the Palaearctic Realm, as a consequence of the unfavourable climatic conditions that predominate in this region. The origin and emergence of these herpetofaunal groups are poorly understood. Aside from the better-explored European Neogene localities yielding amphibian and reptile fossil remains, the Neogene herpetofauna of Western Asia is understudied. The few available data need critical reviews and ...

  10. Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines) from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazhigin, Vladimir S.

    2017-01-01

    Background The present-day amphibian and reptile fauna of Western Siberia are the least diverse of the Palaearctic Realm, as a consequence of the unfavourable climatic conditions that predominate in this region. The origin and emergence of these herpetofaunal groups are poorly understood. Aside from the better-explored European Neogene localities yielding amphibian and reptile fossil remains, the Neogene herpetofauna of Western Asia is understudied. The few available data need critical reviews and new interpretations, taking into account the more recent records of the European herpetofauna. The comparison of this previous data with that of European fossil records would provide data on palaeobiogeographic affiliations of the region as well as on the origin and emergence of the present-day fauna of Western Siberia. An overview of the earliest occurrences of certain amphibian lineages is still needed. In addition, studies that address such knowledge gaps can be useful for molecular biologists in their calibration of molecular clocks. Methods and Results In this study, we considered critically reviewed available data from amphibian and reptile fauna from over 40 Western Siberian, Russian and Northeastern Kazakhstan localities, ranging from the Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene. Herein, we provided new interpretations that arose from our assessment of the previously published and new data. More than 50 amphibians and reptile taxa were identified belonging to families Hynobiidae, Cryptobranchidae, Salamandridae, Palaeobatrachidae, Bombinatoridae, Pelobatidae, Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, and Emydidae. Palaeobiogeographic analyses were performed for these groups and palaeoprecipitation values were estimated for 12 localities, using the bioclimatic analysis of herpetofaunal assemblages. Conclusion The Neogene assemblage of Western Siberia was found to be dominated by groups of European affinities, such as Palaeobatrachidae, Bombina, Hyla, Bufo bufo, and a small part of this assemblage included Eastern Palaearctic taxa (e.g. Salamandrella, Tylototriton, Bufotes viridis). For several taxa (e.g. Mioproteus, Hyla, Bombina, Rana temporaria), the Western Siberian occurrences represented their most eastern Eurasian records. The most diverse collection of fossil remains was found in the Middle Miocene. Less diversity has been registered towards the Early Pleistocene, potentially due to the progressive cooling of the climate in the Northern Hemisphere. The results of our study showed higher-amplitude changes of precipitation development in Western Siberia from the Early Miocene to the Pliocene, than previously assumed. PMID:28348925

  11. Tadpole morphology of Leptodactylus plaumanni (Anura: Leptodactylidae, with comments on the phylogenetic significance of larval characters in Leptodactylus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena R. Grosso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I summarize the morphology of the Leptodactylus plaumanni tadpoles, describing the external morphology, buccal cavity, and cranial skeleton and associated muscles. A distinctive combination of traits include the truncated snout in dorsal view, dorsal fin originated anterior to the body-tail junction, submarginal papillae present in some specimens, two slight indentations in the lower lip, ceratobranchial III free from the hypobranchial plate, small ventrolateral projections of the corpus of the suprarostral cartilage, m. subarcualis rectus I with three heads, and m. subarcualis rectus II-IV inserting in ceratobranchial I and connective tissue between branchial processes II and III. The buccal cavity shares the typical features in species of the group, namely four lingual papillae, two pairs of infralabial papillae, two postnarial papillae, and one pair of not branched lateral ridge papillae. Attending to the increasing role of larval characters in phylogenetic analyses, further research is needed to understand the evolution of tadpole morphology in this genus.

  12. Advertisement call of Scinax littoralis and S. angrensis (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae, with notes on the reproductive activity of S. littoralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel V. Garey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Scinax littoralis and S. angrensis are poorly known Atlantic forest endemic species from the Scinax catharinae group, which is known from southern and southeastern Brazil. Herein, we describe the advertisement calls of these two species and compare them to other species within the S. catharinae group. Additionally, we provide information on breeding sites, and calling activity in S. littoralis. Advertisement calls of S. angrensis and S. littoralis are composed of multi-pulsed notes with multiple frequency bands and frequency modulation. Scinax littoralis has a higher minimum and maximum frequency, and lower dominant frequency than S. angrensis, while Scinax littoralis has a longer call. Scinax littoralis appears to be a habitat generalist, occurring from secondary to mature forests, and breeding both in temporary and in permanent ponds. Male S. littoralis were usually observed calling perched on shrub stems, and displayed satellite behavior when the male density was high.

  13. Insights from Integrative Systematics Reveal Cryptic Diversity in Pristimantis Frogs (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the Upper Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Andrade, H. Mauricio; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R.; Valencia, Jorge H.; Espinosa de los Monteros, Alejandro; Morrone, Juan J.; Ron, Santiago R.; Cannatella, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Pluralistic approaches to taxonomy facilitate a more complete appraisal of biodiversity, especially the diversification of cryptic species. Although species delimitation has traditionally been based primarily on morphological differences, the integration of new methods allows diverse lines of evidence to solve the problem. Robber frogs (Pristimantis) are exemplary, as many of the species show high morphological variation within populations, but few traits that are diagnostic of species. We used a combination of DNA sequences from three mitochondrial genes, morphometric data, and comparisons of ecological niche models (ENMs) to infer a phylogenetic hypothesis for the Pristimantis acuminatus complex. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a close relationship between three new species—Pristimantis enigmaticus sp. nov., P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov.—originally confused with Pristimantis acuminatus. In combination with morphometric data and geographic distributions, several morphological characters such as degree of tympanum exposure, skin texture, ulnar/tarsal tubercles and sexual secondary characters (vocal slits and nuptial pads in males) were found to be useful for diagnosing species in the complex. Multivariate discriminant analyses provided a successful classification rate for 83–100% of specimens. Discriminant analysis of localities in environmental niche space showed a successful classification rate of 75–98%. Identity tests of ENMs rejected hypotheses of niche equivalency, although not strongly because the high values on niche overlap. Pristimantis acuminatus and P. enigmaticus sp. nov. are distributed along the lowlands of central–southern Ecuador and northern Peru, in contrast with P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov., which are found in northern Ecuador and southern Colombia, up to 1200 m in the upper Amazon Basin. The methods used herein provide an integrated framework for inventorying the greatly underestimated biodiversity in Amazonia. PMID:26600198

  14. Esterase inhibition in tadpoles of Scinax fuscovarius (Anura, Hylidae) as a biomarker for exposure to organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Patricia Zazeri; Margarido, Tatiana Cristina Stefani; de Lima, Daína; Rossa-Feres, Denise de Cerqueira; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves

    2010-09-01

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are among the most used insecticides in agriculture, causing the inhibition of esterases like acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE). Pesticides can reach the aquatic environment, posing risks to non-target organisms, including tadpoles. In this work, we characterized the activities of AChE, BChE and CbE in tadpoles of the snouted treefrog Scinax fuscovarius, and verified their in vitro sensibility to different inhibitors [phenylmethane sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), tetra-isopropylpyrophosphamide (iso-OMPA) and the OP diazinon]. In vivo effects of diazinon and esterase recovery after 2-pyridine-aldoxime (2-PAM) treatment of the protein extract were also studied in tadpoles with distinct stages of development exposed to 1 and 3 mg/l for 2 and 7 days. Optimal conditions were established for AChE and CbE; BChE activity was negligible. PMSF affected esterase activities and is not recommended for homogenization buffers. Iso-OMPA treatment caused no changes in AChE and CbE activities, but diazinon inhibited these enzymes in a dose-responsive manner. In vivo, CbE activity was insensitive to diazinon in younger tadpoles, but inhibited after 2 days of exposure in more developed tadpoles. AChE activity was inhibited after 2 and 7 days of exposure, in a dose-responsive manner. Esterase reactivation by 2-PAM was obtained both in vitro and in vivo. (1) Tadpoles can be adequate sentinel organisms in biomonitoring studies of OP contamination; (2) AChE was more sensitive than CbE to diazinon; (3) tadpoles from earlier developmental stages seems to be less responsive to OPs; (4) AChE activity was sensitive to diazinon in both development stages, being a better OP biomarker.

  15. Falcaustra lowei n. sp. and other helminths from the Tarahumara frog, Rana tarahumarae (Anura: Ranidae), from Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, C R; Goldberg, S R

    2001-04-01

    Seventy-four specimens of Falcaustra lowei n. sp. were recovered from the intestines of 9 of 42 (21%) Tarahumara frogs. Rana tarahumarae, from Sonora, Mexico. F. lowei is the 14th Nearctic species to be described and belongs to that group of species possessing a pseudosucker, namely F. catesbeianae, F. chabaudi, F. chelydrae, F. mexicana, and F. wardi. The new species can be readily differentiated from these by the arrangement of caudal papillae and length of spicules. Priority description of F. affinis is established and F. concinnae is removed from synonymy with F. affinis. In addition to F. lowei, 3 species of Digenea, Glypthelmins quieta, Haematoloechus breviplexus, Langeronia macrocirra; 1 species of Eucestoda, Ophiotaenia magna; 7 species of Nematoda, F. inglisi, Foleyellides striatus, Oswaldocruzia pipiens, Rhabdias ranae, Subulascaris falcaustriformis, Physaloptera sp. (larvae): and 1 species of Acanthocephala, an unidentified oligacanthorhynchid cystacanth, were found.

  16. Insights from Integrative Systematics Reveal Cryptic Diversity in Pristimantis Frogs (Anura: Craugastoridae from the Upper Amazon Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mauricio Ortega-Andrade

    Full Text Available Pluralistic approaches to taxonomy facilitate a more complete appraisal of biodiversity, especially the diversification of cryptic species. Although species delimitation has traditionally been based primarily on morphological differences, the integration of new methods allows diverse lines of evidence to solve the problem. Robber frogs (Pristimantis are exemplary, as many of the species show high morphological variation within populations, but few traits that are diagnostic of species. We used a combination of DNA sequences from three mitochondrial genes, morphometric data, and comparisons of ecological niche models (ENMs to infer a phylogenetic hypothesis for the Pristimantis acuminatus complex. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a close relationship between three new species-Pristimantis enigmaticus sp. nov., P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov.-originally confused with Pristimantis acuminatus. In combination with morphometric data and geographic distributions, several morphological characters such as degree of tympanum exposure, skin texture, ulnar/tarsal tubercles and sexual secondary characters (vocal slits and nuptial pads in males were found to be useful for diagnosing species in the complex. Multivariate discriminant analyses provided a successful classification rate for 83-100% of specimens. Discriminant analysis of localities in environmental niche space showed a successful classification rate of 75-98%. Identity tests of ENMs rejected hypotheses of niche equivalency, although not strongly because the high values on niche overlap. Pristimantis acuminatus and P. enigmaticus sp. nov. are distributed along the lowlands of central-southern Ecuador and northern Peru, in contrast with P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov., which are found in northern Ecuador and southern Colombia, up to 1200 m in the upper Amazon Basin. The methods used herein provide an integrated framework for inventorying the greatly underestimated biodiversity in Amazonia.

  17. Osteology and postmetamorphic development of Telmatobius oxycephalus (Anura: Telmatobiidae) with an analysis of skeletal variation in the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrionuevo, J Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    The osteological diversity among species of Telmatobius has been considered conservative. Nonetheless, the degree of ossification of several features varies both intraspecifically and interspecifically. Herein, intraspecific osteological variation and postmetamorphic ontogenetic changes in osteological features are described in Telmatobius oxycephalus. These data are compared with published descriptions of congeners. There is a considerable intraspecific osteological variation in T. oxycephalus, with cranial characters varying polymorphically, and the hyoid and postcranial characters being sexually dimorphic. This intraspecific variation is expressed by subtle differences in the degree of ossification or mineralization. Interspecific variation also can be described in terms of differential development of osteological features; these differences are more obvious than intraspecifically variable characters. The adult skeletons of several species of Telmatobius resemble the morphology observed in early stages of postmetamorphic development of T. oxycephalus. This is especially evident in the neopalatines, parasphenoid, sphenethmoid, exoccipitals, prootics, vomers, nasals, and plectra. These results suggest that within the conservative osteological architecture of Telmatobius, the variation observed is the result of heterochronic changes during the ossification process. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Hyla inermis (Peters), a species hitherto erroneously referred to the Leptodactylid genus Cyclorana (Anura, Hylidae/Leptodactylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straughan, I.R.

    1969-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Extensive collections of frogs from Queensland (reported in detail, Straughan, 1966) failed to include the species Cyclorana inermis (Peters), although Slevin (1955) recorded it as abundant in central Queensland. However a widely ranging species of ground Hyla (undescribed in that

  19. Osteological Observations on the Alytid Anura Latonia nigriventer with Comments on Functional Morphology, Biogeography, and Evolutionary History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biton, Rebecca; Boistel, Renaud; Rabinovich, Rivka; Gafny, Sarig; Brumfeld, Vlad; Bailon, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    The Hula Painted Frog (Latonia nigriventer) is a rare frog species endemic to the Hula Valley, Israel. The species is the sole relict of a clade that was widespread mainly in Europe from the Oligocene until the beginning of the Pleistocene. The osteological characteristics of L. nigriventer are described based on X-ray microtomography scans of extant specimens and Pleistocene bones from the Hula Valley, to elucidate the evolutionary history of Alytidae and more specifically of Latonia. Based on the osteological description of L. nigriventer, we now better understand the differences, between Latonia and its sister taxon Discoglossus. They differ mainly in their cranial structure with the reinforced skull of Latonia having powerful jaws. Latonia nigriventer can achieve great force while closing its jaws, due to increased adductor muscle insertion surfaces as expressed by the presence of an additional paracoronoid process and an enlarged upper margin of the postero-lateral wall of the lower jaw. In addition, a wider pterygoid fossa and higher canthus postero-lateralis of the frontoparietal, compared to that of Discoglossus, also suggest the presence of well-developed adductor muscles. Furthermore, L. nigriventer have particularly strong skulls as expressed by: long articulations between different skull elements, interdigitation in the contact area between the nasals and between nasals and the frontoparietals, and fused frontoparietals. Both males and females L. nigriventer have very robust forelimbs, as indicated by well-developed medial crests of the humerus. Based on limited eastern Mediterranean paleontological data, we can only suspect that the dispersal of Latonia into the Levant from Asia Minor occurred at some point during the Miocene or later. The first appearance of L. nigriventer in the Hula Valley, its current habitat, dates to approximately 780 thousand years ago at the archaeological site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov. J. Morphol. 277:1131-1145, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A striking new genus and species of cave-dwelling frog (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae: Asterophryinae from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatmongkon Suwannapoom

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on a discovery of Siamophryne troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov., a new troglophilous genus and species of microhylid frog from a limestone cave in the tropical forests of western Thailand. To assess its phylogenetic relationships we studied the 12S rRNA–16S rRNA mtDNA fragment with final alignment comprising up to 2,591 bp for 56 microhylid species. Morphological characterization of the new genus is based on examination of external morphology and analysis of osteological characteristics using microCT-scanning. Phylogenetic analyses place the new genus into the mainly Australasian subfamily Asterophryinae as a sister taxon to the genus Gastrophrynoides, the only member of the subfamily known from Sundaland. The new genus markedly differs from all other Asterophryinae members by a number of diagnostic morphological characters and demonstrates significant mtDNA sequence divergence. We provide a preliminary description of a tadpole of the new genus. Thus, it represents the only asterophryine taxon with documented free-living larval stage and troglophilous life style. Our work demonstrates that S. troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov. represents an old lineage of the initial radiation of Asterophryinae which took place in the mainland Southeast Asia. Our results strongly support the “out of Indo-Eurasia” biogeographic scenario for this group of frogs. To date, the new frog is only known from a single limestone cave system in Sai Yok District of Kanchanaburi Province of Thailand; its habitat is affected by illegal bat guano mining and other human activities. As such, S. troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov. is likely to be at high risk of habitat loss. Considering high ecological specialization and a small known range of the new taxon, we propose a IUCN Red List status of endangered for it.

  1. Unrevealing the leaf frogs Cerrado diversity: A new species of Pithecopus (Anura, Arboranae, Phyllomedusidae) from the Mato Grosso state, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, Daniel Pacheco; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria; Giaretta, Ariovaldo Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The Neotropical frog genus Pithecopus comprises currently 10 species. A recent molecular phylogeny suggested the existence of two subclades within it, one of them including P. palliatus, P. azureus, P. hypochondrialis, and P. nordestinus (lowland species). Herein we describe a new species of this subclade from Pontal do Araguaia, in the Brazilian Cerrado in the Mato Grosso state. Recognition of the new species is supported by adult morphology, advertisement call and molecular data. The new species differs from Pithecopus highland species by its smaller head width and lack of the reticulate pattern on flanks. From lowland species, the new form differs by being significantly smaller in snout vent-length, advertisement call with the greatest number of pulses, and high genetic distance. Interestingly, we also report on occurrence of P. hypochondrialis (its sister species) at an adjacent site (about 3km). Also, we report on the occurrence of the new species in the Chapada dos Guimarães and Santa Terezinha, both also in the Mato Grosso state. PMID:28953911

  2. Microsatellites mapping for non-model species with chromosomal rearrangement: a case study in the frog Quasipaa boulengeri (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiuyun; Yuan, Siqi; Liu, Ya; Xia, Yun; Zeng, Xiaomao

    2017-08-01

    Gene mapping is an important resource for understanding the evolution of genes and cytogenetics. Model species with a known genetic map or genome sequence allow for the selection of genetic markers on a desired chromosome, while it is hard to locate these markers on chromosomes of non-model species without such references. A frog species, Quasipaa boulengeri, shows chromosomal rearrangement polymorphisms, making itself a fascinating model for chromosomal speciation mediated by suppressed recombination. However, no markers have been located on its rearranged chromosomes. We present a complete protocol to map microsatellites based on mechanical microdissection and chromosome amplification techniques. Following this protocol, we mapped 71 microsatellites of Q. boulengeri at the chromosome level. In total, eight loci were assigned to rearranged chromosomes, and the other 63 loci might attach to other chromosomes. These microsatellites could be used to compare the gene flow and verify the chromosomal suppressed recombination hypothesis in Q. boulengeri. This integrated protocol could be effectively used to map genes to chromosomes for non-model species.

  3. Geological events play a larger role than Pleistocene climatic fluctuations in driving the genetic structure of Quasipaa boulengeri (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Zhou, Weiwei; Zhao, Haitao; Yuan, Zhiyong; Wang, Yunyu; Jiang, Ke; Jin, Jieqiong; Murphy, Robert W; Che, Jing; Zhang, Yaping

    2013-02-01

    Paleoclimatic and paleogeological events have been identified as being the two main drivers of genetic structuring in extant organisms. We used a montane stream-dwelling frog, Quasipaa boulengeri, to explore the relative roles played by these drivers on species in southern China, a region needing thorough studies. We detected four major matrilines, and no broadly distributed haplotypes occurred. The complex orogenesis of south-western China drove matrilineal divergence in Q. boulengeri into highly structured geographical units. These matrilines subsequently persisted in situ with stable populations rather than undergoing expansions during glacial cycling. The unification of the upper and middle Yangtze River in the Three Gorges mountain region mediated downstream colonization of this frog. Analyses identified geological events as playing a larger role than climatic fluctuations in driving the population history of Q. boulengeri. Nuclear allele analyses indicated gene flow; this maintained genetic cohesion of the species. South-eastern Sichuan Basin was identified as the area of secondary contact for several matrilines, and this area deserves further study and special protection. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. More of the same: a diminutive new species of the Limnonectes kuhlii complex from northern Vietnam (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, David S; Kurlbaum, Scuyler; Hoang, Ngoc Van

    2015-04-15

    A new species in the dicroglossid genus Limnonectes known only from Ha Giang province, Vietnam is described. Analysis of DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial 12S and 16S gene regions places the species within the Limnonectes kuhlii Complex and demonstrates it to be the sister taxon to an Indochinese clade containing L. isanensis, L. jarujini, L. megastomias, and L. taylori. The new species occurs in syntopy with L. bannaensis. Both molecular and morphological data support the recognition of this lineage as a new species. Notably, the relatively diminutive size of this species distinguishes Limnonectes nguyenorum sp. nov. from all other members of the L. kuhlii Complex.

  5. The type localities of Anolis aequatorialis Werner, 1894 (Sauria: Iguania: Dactyloidae) and Pristimantis appendiculatus (Werner, 1894) (Amphibia: Anura: Craugastoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F

    2017-01-04

    The eminent Austrian zoologist Franz Werner described several new species of amphibians and reptiles from America, including Anolis aequatorialis Werner, 1894 and Hylodes appendiculatus Werner, 1894. Both species were described based on single specimens, with no more specific type localities than "Ecuador" (Werner 1894a,b). After its description, A. aequatorialis remained unreported until Peters (1967) and Fitch et al. (1976) published information on its distribution and natural history. Anolis aequatorialis is currently known to inhabit low montane and cloud forest on the western slopes of the Andes from extreme southern Colombia to central Ecuador, between 1300 and 2300 m elevation (Ayala-Varela & Velasco 2010; Ayala-Varela et al. 2014; Lynch et al. 2014; D.F. Cisneros-Heredia pers. obs.). Likewise, Hylodes appendiculatus (now Pristimantis appendiculatus) remained only known from its type description until Lynch (1971) and Miyata (1980) provided certain localities and information on its natural history. Pristimantis appendiculatus is currently known to occur in low montane, cloud, and high montane forests on the western slopes of the Andes from extreme southern Colombia to northern Ecuador between 1460 and 2800 m elevation (Lynch 1971; Miyata 1980; Lynch & Burrowes 1990; Lynch & Duellman 1997; Frost 2016). To this date, the type localities of both species remain obscure. The purpose of this paper is to restrict the type localities of Hylodes appendiculatus Werner, 1894 and Anolis aequatorialis Werner, 1894 based on analyses of the travel journals of their original collector.

  6. Distribution and morphological variation of Eleutherodactylus mercedesae Lynch & McDiarmid, 1987 (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae) with first record for Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padial, J.M.; McDiarmid, R.; De la Riva, I.

    2006-01-01

    We report new distributional information for Eleutherodactylus mercedesae in Bolivia, and provide the first record for Peru based on an adult female. This species, previously endemic to Bolivia, now ranges across about 1000 km in cloud forests on the Amazonian slopes of the Andes from southern Peru to central Bolivia. We provide the first morphological description of females based on two specimens, compare them with the male type and paratype, add some observations to the original description, and comment on variation in the species.

  7. Morphology, Molecular Genetics, and Bioacoustics Support Two New Sympatric Xenophrys Toads (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae) in Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingyong; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Jianhuan; Zhou, Zhixin; Chen, Guoling; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Given their recent worldwide declines and extinctions, characterization of species-level diversity is of critical importance for large-scale biodiversity assessments and conservation of amphibians. This task is made difficult by the existence of cryptic species complexes, species groups comprising closely related and morphologically analogous species. The combination of morphology, genetic, and bioacoustic analyses permits robust and accurate species identification. Using these methods, we discovered two undescribed Xenophrys species, namely Xenophrys lini sp. nov. and Xenophrys cheni sp. nov. from the middle range of Luoxiao Mountains, southeast China. These two new species can be reliably distinguished from other known congeners by morphological and morphometric differences, distinctness in male advertisement calls, and substantial genetic distances (>3.6%) based on the mitochondrial 16s and 12s rRNA genes. The two new species, together with X. jinggangensis, are sympatric in the middle range of Luoxiao Mountains but may be isolated altitudinally and ecologically. Our study provides a first step to help resolve previously unrecognized cryptic biodiversity and provides insights into the understanding of Xenophrys diversification in the mountain complexes of southeast China. PMID:24714161

  8. Apoptosis, proliferation and presence of estradiol receptors in the testes and Bidder's organ of the toad Rhinella arenarum (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaia, María Florencia; Czuchlej, Silvia Cristina; Cervino, Nadia; Ceballos, Nora Raquel

    2016-04-01

    The dynamic equilibrium between spermatogonial proliferation and testicular apoptosis determines the progression of spermatogenesis in amphibians. Estrogens and their receptors play a central role in regulating spermatogenesis in vertebrates, and in some species of anurans, estradiol (E2 ) is involved in the regulation of spermatogonial proliferation and apoptosis of germ cells. Bidder's organ (BO) is a structure characteristic of Bufonidae that has historically been compared to an undeveloped ovary. In adult Rhinella arenarum males, BO is one of the main sources of plasma E2 . The aim of this study was 1) to describe the seasonal variations in testicular apoptosis, spermatogonial proliferation, and cellular proliferation in BO; and 2) to analyze the presence and localization of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) in the testes and BO of R. arenarum. Testicular fragments and BOs from animals collected during the year were labeled with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and BrdU incorporation was determined using immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis in testicular sections was detected using the TUNEL method, and ERβ localization was assessed using immunohistochemistry in testes and BOs. The results indicate that spermatogonial proliferation is highest during the reproductive season and that cysts of spermatocytes and spermatids undergo apoptosis during the postreproductive season. Furthermore, the proliferation of follicular cells is highest during the reproductive and postreproductive seasons. ERβ was primarily detected by immunolocalization in Sertoli cells, follicular cells, and oocytes. Taken together, these results suggest that cysts that do not form spermatozoa are removed from testes by apoptosis and that estrogens regulate both spermatogenesis and oogenesis in adult males of R. arenarum. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cd, Cu, Zn, Se, and metallothioneins in two amphibians, Necturus maculosus (Amphibia, Caudata) and Bufo bufo (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovoljc, Katarina; Falnoga, Ingrid; Žnidarič, Magda Tušek; Mazej, Darja; Ščančar, Janez; Bulog, Boris

    2012-12-01

    The accumulation of cadmium, its affinity for metallothioneins (MTs), and its relation to copper, zinc, and selenium were investigated in the experimental mudpuppy Necturus maculosus and the common toad Bufo bufo captured in nature. Specimens of N. maculosus were exposed to waterborne Cd (85 μg/L) for up to 40 days. Exposure resulted in tissue-dependent accumulation of Cd in the order kidney, gills > intestine, liver, brain > pancreas, skin, spleen, and gonads. During the 40-day exposure, concentrations increased close to 1 μg/g in kidneys and gills (0.64-0.95 and 0.52-0.76; n = 4), whereas the levels stayed below 0.5 in liver (0.14-0.29; n = 4) and other organs. Cd exposure was accompanied by an increase of Zn and Cu in kidneys and Zn in skin, while a decrease of Cu was observed in muscles and skin. Cytosol metallothioneins (MTs) were detected as Cu,Zn-thioneins in liver and Zn,Cu-thioneins in gills and kidney, with the presence of Se in all cases. After exposure, Cd binding to MTs was clearly observed in cytosol of gills as Zn,Cu,Cd-thionein and in pellet extract of kidneys as Zn,Cu,Cd-thioneins. The results indicate low Cd storage in liver with almost undetectable Cd in liver MT fractions. In field trapped Bufo bufo (spring and autumn animals), Cd levels were followed in four organs and found to be in the order kidney > liver (0.56-5.0 μg/g >0.03-0.72 μg/g; n = 11, spring and autumn animals), with no detectable Cd in muscle and skin. At the tissue level, high positive correlations between Cd, Cu, and Se were found in liver (all r > 0.80; α = 0.05, n = 5), and between Cd and Se in kidney (r = 0.76; n = 5) of autumn animals, possibly connected with the storage of excess elements in biologically inert forms. In the liver of spring animals, having higher tissue level of Cd than autumn ones, part of the Cd was identified as Cu,Zn,Cd-thioneins with traces of Se. As both species are special in having liver Cu levels higher than Zn, the observed highly preferential Cd load in kidney seems reasonable. The relatively low Cd found in liver can be attributed to its excretion through bile and its inability to displace Cu from MTs. The associations of selenium observed with Cd and/or Cu (on the tissue and cell level) point to selenium involvement in the detoxification of excessive cadmium and copper through immobilization.

  10. Padrão reprodutivo de Elachistocleis bicolor (Anura, Microhylidae na Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

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    Rodrigues Domingos de Jesus

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive pattern of Elachistocleis bicolor (Guérin Méneville, 1838 was studied at Serra da Bodoquena, from October 2000 to September 2001. Reproduction occurred in the wet season (October to April and was correlated to high continuous pluviometric precipitation. The species presents sexual size dimorphism, with females larger than males. The number of mature eggs per ovary was 620 ± 251 (n=39 and mature eggs measured 1.15 ± 0.30 mm (n=40. Elachistocleis bicolor presented significant relations between snout-vent length and number of mature eggs (n=39; r²=0.25; p=0.001, individual weight and number of mature eggs (n=41, r²=0.30; p=0.002, snout-vent length and ovarian weight (n=35; r²=0.47; p<0.01, and individual weight and ovarian weight (n=36; r²=0.55; p<0.01. Weight and volume are better to study size-fecundity relationships than snout-vent length. The females invested 22.7 ± 6.3 % (n=35 of their weights in reproduction and the variance associated to this variable was high, related to the reproductive mode of the species.

  11. Infestación por esparganos en ranas del genero Pristimantis (Anura, Strabomantidae del Perú

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    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio, reportamos el parasitismo por esparganos del cestode Spirometra sp. en los anfibios: Pristimantis nephophilus y Pristimantis rhodostichus, provenientes del departamento de San Martin, Perú. Tres estructuras filiformes localizadas a nivel subcutáneo, fueron colectadas e identificadas como esparganos. El hallazgo de este metacestode constituye el primer registro en anfibios del Perú y demuestra que las ranas P. nephophilus y P. rhodostichus son nuevos hospederos intermediarios para Spirometra sp.

  12. Multilocus Phylogeography of the Treefrog Scinax eurydice (Anura, Hylidae) Reveals a Plio-Pleistocene Diversification in the Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Lucas; Canedo, Clarissa; Batalha-Filho, Henrique; Garda, Adrian Antonio; Gehara, Marcelo; Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras

    2016-01-01

    We aim to evaluate the genetic structure of an Atlantic Forest amphibian species, Scinax eurydice, testing the congruence among patterns identified and proposed by the literature for Pleistocene refugia, microrefugia, and geographic barriers to gene flow such as major rivers. Furthermore, we aim to evaluate predictions of such barriers and refugia on the genetic structure of the species, such as presence/absence of dispersal, timing since separation, and population expansions/contractions. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers on 94 tissue samples from 41 localities. We inferred a gene tree and estimated genetic distances using mtDNA sequences. We then ran population clustering and assignment methods, AMOVA, and estimated migration rates among populations identified through mtDNA and nDNA analyses. We used a dated species tree, skyline plots, and summary statistics to evaluate concordance between population’s distributions and geographic barriers and Pleistocene refugia. Scinax eurydice showed high mtDNA divergences and four clearly distinct mtDNA lineages. Species tree and population assignment tests supported the existence of two major clades corresponding to northeastern and southeastern Atlantic Forest in Brazil, each one composed of two other clades. Lineage splitting events occurred from late Pliocene to Pleistocene. We identified demographic expansions in two clades, and inexistent to low levels of migrations among different populations. Genetic patterns and demographic data support the existence of two northern Refuge and corroborate microrefugia south of the Doce/Jequitinhonha Rivers biogeographic divide. The results agree with a scenario of recent demographic expansion of lowland taxa. Scinax eurydice comprises a species complex, harboring undescribed taxa consistent with Pleistocene refugia. Two rivers lie at the boundaries among populations and endorse their role as secondary barriers to gene flow. PMID:27248688

  13. Descripción del canto de anuncio de una población de Oreobates discoidalis (Anura: Strambomantidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari, Liliana

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, analizamos y describimos la estructura del canto de anuncio de ejemplares de una población de Oreobates discoidalis proveniente de una región de selva de montaña del Noroeste de Argentina (Ecorregión de las Yungas Andinas del Sur, según Dinerstein et al., 1995 y efectuamos una comparación con los parámetros espectrales y temporales del canto de anuncio descriptos para la especie en una población de Campos de Pinos en Bolivia por Padial et al. (2008.

  14. Hyperossification in miniaturized toadlets of the genus Brachycephalus (Amphibia: Anura: Brachycephalidae): Microscopic structure and macroscopic patterns of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Carvalho, Rute B G; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Jared, Carlos; Haddad, Célio F B; Alves, Ana C R; Rocha, Henrique S; Pereira, Gabriela R; Oliveira, Davi F; Lopes, Ricardo T; Dos Reis, Sergio F

    2009-11-01

    Species of the genus Brachycephalus, have a snout-vent length of less than 18 mm and are believed to have evolved through miniaturization. Brachycephalus ephippium, is particularly interesting; because its entire skull is hyperossified, and the presacral vertebrae and transverse processes are covered by a dorsal shield. We demonstrate in this paper that, at the macroscopic level, a completely hyperossified skull and dorsal shield occur only in B. ephippium, but not in B. ferruginus, B. izechsohni, B. pernix, B. pombali, B. brunneus, B. didactylus, and B. hermogenesi. An intermediate condition, in which the skull is hyperossified but a dorsal shield is absent, occurs in B. vertebralis, B. nodoterga, B. pitanga, and B. alipioi. The microscopic structure of hyperossification was examined in skulls of B. ephippium and B. pitanga, revealing a complex organization involving the presence of Sharpey fibers, which in humans are characteristic of periodontal connections.

  15. Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae, Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946: Distribution extension, state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, P.-A.

    2010-01-01

    At the present work, the poorly known cycloramphid frog Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946 is registeredin a large Atlantic forest fragment at the state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The new record extends the geographicaldistribution of M. alipioi in approximately 100 km to the northeast.

  16. Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in aqueous suspension on the South American common frog Leptodactylus latrans (Anura: Leptodactylidae) tadpoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajmanovich, Rafael C.; Junges, Celina M.; Cabagna-Zenklusen, Mariana C.; Attademo, Andrés M.; Peltzer, Paola M.; Maglianese, Mariana; Márquez, Vanina E.; Beccaria, Alejandro J.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensisvar.israelensis (Bti) on non-target organisms are still a matter of debate; in amphibians, the risks of Bti are little known. To evaluate the toxicity of a commercial liquid (aqueous suspension, AS) formulation of Bti (Introban ® ) on Leptodactylus latrans tadpoles, including median lethal concentration (LC 50 ) and no-and lowest–observed-effect concentrations (NOEC and LOEC, respectively), as well as the possible effects of Bti on oxidative responses, erythrocytes genotoxicity, and histology of the intestines. In the laboratory, tadpoles were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/L of formulated Bti-AS. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as formation of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENAs), and histological effect were measured in tadpoles displaying survival rates >85%. L. latrans tadpoles were sensitive to exposure to Bti-AS, reaching 100% mortality after 48 h of exposure at the highest concentration. Bti-AS induced GST and CAT enzymes and genotoxicity (erythrocyte's nuclear abnormalities), and caused intestine's histopathology. Our results demonstrate that toxicity of Bti-AS is dose-dependent for L. latrans tadpoles and that sublethal exposure alters enzymes of oxidative stress, induces genotoxicity, and causes intestine damage. Further research is needed to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk of the massive use of Bti formulations on amphibian populations that commonly used suburban wastewater or urban waterbodies to reproduce and where this biopesticide is frequently applied. - Highlights: • An ecotoxicological evaluation of a Bti formulation on amphibian was conducted. • Toxicity of Bti-AS was dose-dependent for Leptodactylus latrans tadpoles. • Sublethal exposure altered the enzymes of oxidative stress (GST and CAT). • Bti-AS was genotoxic because increased MN frequencies (CO: 0.82–2.74‰). • Bti-AS caused the inflammatory infiltration in the lamina propria of intestine

  17. Body size, reproduction and feeding ecology of Pleurodema diplolister (Amphibia: Anura: Leiuperidae from Caatinga, Pernambuco state, Northeastern Brazil

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    José Guilherme G. Sousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present data about body size, sexual dimorphism, reproductive traits and diet ecology of Pleurodoma diplolister. This species is sexually dimorphic with females larger than males, corroborating others Leiuperidae species. The number of eggs varied from 62 to 1241 and we found a positive relationship between SVL of females and number of mature ovarian eggs but there is no relationship between SVL and volume of eggs. The diet of P. diplolister was composed by 11 categories of which Formicidae, Coleoptera and Orthopterans were the most important items and showed generalist and oportunistic predator habits. Data presented here should be considered in the development of future conservation strategies of anurans from Caatinga biome and other semiarid/arid environments.

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Sichuan Digging Frog, Kaloula rugifera (Anura: Microhylidae) and its phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lichun; Zhao, Li; Cheng, Dongmei; Zhu, Lilan; Zhang, Min; Ruan, Qiping; Chen, Wei

    2017-08-30

    The Sichuan Digging Frog (Kaloula rugifera) belongs to the family Dicroglossidae, which is endemic to northeastern Sichuan and southernmost Gansu provinces, in southwestern China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of K. rugifera was sequenced. The mitogenome was 17,074bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and a non-coding control region. As in other vertebrates, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes which are encoded on the light strand. The overall base composition of the K. rugifera is 30.32% A, 25.76% C, 29.72% T, and 14.20% G, which is consistent with the lowest frequency for G content in typical amphibian animals' mitochondrial genomes. The alignment of the Kaloula species control regions exhibited high genetic variability and rich A+T content. Besides, 3 types of tandem repeat units were also identified in the control region. Phylogenetic tree demonstrated that K. rugifera was clustered together with K. borealis and K. verrucosa and they had a close relationship with each other. The complete mitogenome of K. rugifera can provide an important data for the studies on phylogenetic relationship to further explore the taxonomic status of Kaloula species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbaryl-induced histopathologic alterations in the digestive tract of the Levantine frog, Pelophylax bedriagae (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakici, Özlem

    2014-08-01

    In this study, histopathologic changes following carbaryl exposure for 96 hr were investigated in the digestive tract of Levantine frog, Pelophylax bedriagae. Adult frogs were exposed to carbaryl once by oral gavage in concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/g. Histopathological changes were more prominent in medium- (0.1 mg/g) and high-dose (0.2 mg/g) groups than in the low-dose (0.05 mg/g) group. Esophageal cells showed vacuolization, cellular swelling, nuclear pyknosis, karyolysis, and necrosis. Additionally, esophageal glandular atrophy and infiltration of inflammatory cells around esophageal glands were observed at medium and high doses. In the stomach, there were prominent histopathologic defects such as cellular swelling and necrosis in gastric glands, necrotic cells within the interstitial spaces, separation of epithelial cell layer, congested vessels, and hemorrhage at medium and high doses. In the intestine, detachment of epithelial layer, epithelial cell disorganization, inflammation, and necrosis were detected at medium and high doses. The results of this study showed that carbaryl caused adverse effects on the digestive tract of the Levantine frog, P. bedriagae. © 2013 by The Author(s).

  20. The novel antimicrobial peptides from skin of Chinese broad-folded frog, Hylarana latouchii (Anura:Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Xiuqing; Hu, Yuhong; Yu, Haining; Liu, Jingze; Sun, Junshe

    2009-02-01

    Broad-folded frogs (Hylarana latouchii), one member of 12 species of the genus Hylarana in the Chinese frog fauna, are widely distributed in the South of China. In this study, we purified and characterized three antimicrobial peptides from the skin secretion of H. latouchii. Five different cDNA fragments encoding the precursors of these antimicrobial peptides were cloned, and five mature antimicrobial peptides belonging to two different families were deduced from the five cDNAs. Structural characterization of the mature peptides had identified them as members of the brevinin-1 and temporin families. They were named brevinin-1LTa (FFGTALKIAANVLPTAICKILKKC), brevinin-1LTb (FFGTALKIAANILPTAICKILKKC), temporin-LTa (FFPLVLGALGSILPKIF-NH(2)), temporin-LTb (FIITGLVRGLTKLF-NH(2)) and temorin-LTc (SLSRFLSFLKIVYPPAF-NH(2)). Brevinin-1LTa, temporin-LTa, temporin-LTb and temporin-LTc with different antimicrobial activities induced significant morphological alterations of the tested microbial surfaces as shown by scanning electron microscopy, which indicated strong membrane disruption.

  1. Ornithodoros faccinii n. sp. (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae) parasitizing the frog Thoropa miliaris (Amphibia: Anura: Cycloramphidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Landulfo, Gabriel Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Marcili, Arlei; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2015-05-13

    Most argasid ticks from the Neotropical region are parasites of mammals and birds, with a few records from reptiles. Many species of the genus Ornithodoros are known only through larval descriptions, and their chaetotaxy and morphological characteristics have been used to separate the taxa. In the present study, we describe the larva and the nymph of first instar of a new species of the genus Ornithodoros that was collected from frogs of the species Thoropa miliaris. Larvae of Ornithodoros were collected from frogs of the species T. miliaris at waterfalls in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. The larval and nymphal description was based on optical and scanning electron microscopy. Molecular analysis using the argasid 16S rRNA sequences available in GenBank was also conducted. Ornithodoros faccinii sp. n. is closely related to Ornithodoros clarki Jones & Clifford, Ornithodoros marinkellei Kohls, Clifford & Jones, Ornithodoros capensis Neumann and Ornithodoros sawaii Kitaoka & Susuki. However, the larval morphology of the new species is unique. The mitochondrial 16S rDNA partial sequence of O. faccinii generated in the present study was deposited in GenBank under the number KP861242. The larvae collected from Thoropa miliaris are a new species, Ornithodoros faccinii n. sp. This is the first report of argasid ticks on frogs in Brazil, the second on frogs and the third on Amphibia in the Neotropical region.

  2. Blood cell profiles of the tadpoles of the Dubois's tree frog, Polypedates teraiensis Dubois, 1986 (Anura: Rhacophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Madhusmita; Mahapatra, Pravati Kumari

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes a sequential study of the leukocyte profiles and the changes in morphometry and morphology of erythrocytes in the tadpoles of Polypedates teraiensis during their development and metamorphosis, that is, transfer from an aquatic mode to a terrestrial mode of life. Blood smears of 21 different stages (Gosner stage 26 to 46) of tadpoles were investigated. Population of erythrocytes was heterogeneous in population represented by various forms (oval, elliptical or rounded cells, comma shaped, teardrop shaped, schistocytes, senile erythrocytes, crenulated RBCs). Correlation between various morphometric values of erythrocytes was determined with different developing stages of tadpoles. Amongst the leucocytes, the lymphocytes were the most abundant cells followed by neutrophils. Neutrophils and monocytes showed varied morphologic forms. The percentage of lymphocytes and neutrophils showed a negative whereas percentage of eosinophil, basophil, and monocytes showed a positive correlation with the developmental stages of tadpoles. Blood platelets were also observed, which were rounded in shape and found in aggregates.

  3. Heavy metal mediated immunomodulation of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Anura:Ranidae) in urban wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshani, S; Madhushani, W A N; Jayawardena, U A; Wickramasinghe, D D; Udagama, P V

    2015-06-01

    Impacts of heavy metal toxicity on the immune system of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus, in Bellanwila Attidiya, an urban wetland polluted with high levels of heavy metals, compared to the reference site in Bolgoda, in Sri Lanka was investigated. Significantly higher accumulation of selected heavy metals, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) were detected by AAS in frog liver and gastrocnemius muscle, in the polluted site than in the reference site. Non-functional immunotoxicity tests; total WBC, splenocyte and bone marrow cell counts, spleen weight/body weight ratio, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and basal immunoglobulin levels, and phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophages (immune functional test) were carried out using standard methodology. Test parameters recorded significantly lower values for frogs of the polluted site compared with their reference site counterparts, indicative of lowered immune response of frogs in the former site. In vitro phagocytic assay based on NBT dye reduction, measured the stimulation index (SI) of E. hexadactylus blood leukocytes, splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages, where SIs of frogs in the polluted site were significantly lower. Also, in vitro exposure of frog phagocytes to Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd at 10(-2)-10(-10)M, showed immunomodulation i.e. low concentrations stimulated phagocytosis while increased concentrations showed a trend towards immunosuppression. IC50 values indicated Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb as the decreasing order of the potential of phagocytosis inhibition. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrated immunomodulation of E. hexadactylus, stimulated by heavy metals. In-vitro studies evidently suggested the use of phagocytosis as a biomarker in Ecoimmunotoxicology to detect aquatic heavy metal pollution. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Phylogeography of the rice frog, Fejervarya multistriata (Anura: Ranidae), from China based on mtDNA D-loop sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jing; Liu, Zhong-Quan; Wang, Yi-Quan

    2008-08-01

    The rice frog, Fejervarya multistriata, is an amphibian widely distributed in China. In this study, we sampled the species across its distributional area in China and sequenced the mtDNA D-loop to investigate the genetic diversity and geographical pattern of the frog population. The results revealed 38 haplotypes in the population, with K2P values varying from 0.19% to 4.22%. Both a phylogenetic analysis and a nested clade analysis (NCA) detected two geographically isolated lineages respectively distributed around the Yangtze drainage (Yangtze lineage) and the south of China (southern lineage). NCA inferred a contiguous range expansion within the Yangtze lineage and allopatric fragmentation within the southern lineage, which might be partly due to the limited samples from this lineage. Accordingly, Fu's Fs test also indicated a population expansion after glacial movement. Therefore, we assumed that the species history responding to glacial events shaped the present population pattern of F. multistriata on the Chinese mainland.

  5. Larval morphology and complex vocal repertoire of Rhacophorus helenae (Anura: Rhacophoridae), a rare flying frog from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilieva, Anna B; Gogoleva, Svetlana S; Poyarkov, Nikolay A Jr

    2016-06-24

    We present new data on the distribution, reproduction, larval morphology and vocalization of Rhacophorus helenae (Rhacophoridae), a narrowly distributed frog from southern Vietnam. Two new populations of R. helenae were discovered during field surveys in the lowland monsoon forests in Dong Nai and Ba Ria-Vung Tau provinces in 2010-2013. Spawning was observed in May 2013. Egg clutches containing small (2.3±0.1 mm) unpigmented eggs were embedded in a foam nest and suspended high on trees above temporary ponds. The tadpoles of R. helenae have a morphology typical of pond-dwelling Rhacophorus larvae with a moderate tail length and a labial tooth row formula of 5(2-5)/3. Postmetamorphic juveniles differed from adult frogs in the features of their coloration and less developed webbing. The complex vocal repertoire of R. helenae included five types of tonal, wideband and pulsed calls and several transitional signal types differentiated by frequency and amplitude parameters. Calls were uttered as singular signals (pulsed calls) or within non-stereotyped series of variable duration (other call types). The complex structure of the advertisement call markedly distinguishes R. helenae from other members of the Rhacophorus reinwardtii species complex.

  6. The taxonomic status of two Telmatobius frog species (Anura: Telmatobiidae) from the western Andean slopes of northernmost Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibla, Pablo; Sáez, Paola A; Salinas, Hugo; Araya, Carolina; Sallaberry, Michel; Méndez, Marco A

    2017-04-06

    On the basis of molecular and morphological evidence, we evaluated the taxonomic identity of two species of Andean frogs of the genus Telmatobius: Telmatobius pefauri and T. zapahuirensis, present in the western Andean slopes at the northern extreme of Chile. We also investigated the taxonomic assignment of five populations of Telmatobius recently discovered around the type localities of these two species. The results indicate that T. pefauri inhabits, not only Murmuntani its type locality, but also the montane localities of Belén, Copaquilla, Lupica, Saxamar and Socoroma. Our study also shows that T. pefauri and T. zapahuirensis are the same taxon. Therefore, Telmatobius zapahuirensis Veloso, Sallaberry, Navarro, Iturra, Valencia, Penna & Díaz, 1982 would be a subjective junior synonym of Telmatobius pefauri Veloso & Trueb, 1976.

  7. Systematics and biogeography of the Hylarana frog (Anura: Ranidae) radiation across tropical Australasia, Southeast Asia, and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Lauren A; Prendini, Elizabeth; Kraus, Fred; Raxworthy, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    We present an inclusive molecular phylogeny for Hylarana across its global distribution, utilizing two mitochondrial and four nuclear gene regions for 69 of the 97 currently described species. We use phylogenetic methods to test monophyly of Hylarana, determine relationships among ten putative subgenera, identify major clades, reconstruct biogeographic history, and estimate continental dispersal dates. Results support Hylarana as a monophyletic group originating approximately 26.9MYA and comprising eight clades that partly correspond to currently described subgenera plus two new groups. The African and Australasian species each form clades embedded within a paraphyletic Southeast Asian group. We estimate that Africa and Australasia were colonized by Hylarana s.l. from SE Asia approximately 18.7 and 10.8MYA, respectively. Biogeographic reconstructions also support three separate colonization events in India from Southeast Asia. Examination of museum specimens identified morphological characters useful for delineating subgenera and species. We herein elevate all supported subgenera to genus rank and formally describe two new genera to produce a revised taxonomy congruent with our new phylogenetic and biogeographic findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A new small frog species of the genus Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the northern paramos of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Durán, Gustavo A

    2016-01-18

    I describe a new species of a small-sized frog of the genus Pristimantis found in the paramo ecosystem (3700 masl) on the northern slope of Los Nevados National Park, Cordillera Central, department of Caldas, Colombia. This new species is assigned to the Pristimantis leptolophus species-group, given that Toe V is much longer than Toe III and extends to the distal edge of the distal subarticular tubercle on Toe IV. The new species differs from other taxa by its dorsal golden or yellowish color patterns, the absence of nuptial pads, lateral fringes on its fingers and toes, and the absence of vomerine odontophores. Discriminant analyses of morphometric characters of females of P. leptolophus, P. uranobates, and the new species separate the new species by snout-vent length, tibia length, eye diameter, eye-to-nostril distance, tympanum diameter, and length of toe III. Vomer terms frequently used to describe species are reviewed, such as the oblique keels of the vomer and the different forms of the dentigerous process. Species belonging to the high Andean Pristimantis leptolophus species-group are allopatric, suggesting vicariant speciation in different areas of the paramos.

  9. Highly complex mitochondrial DNA genealogy in an endemic Japanese subterranean breeding brown frog Rana tagoi (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Koshiro; Matsui, Masafumi; Sugahara, Takahiro; Tanaka-Ueno, Tomoko

    2012-10-01

    The endemic Japanese frog Rana tagoi is unique among Holarctic brown frogs in that it breeds in small subterranean streams. Using mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes, we investigated genealogical relationships among geographic samples of this species together with its relative R. sakuraii, which is also a unique stream breeder. These two species together form a monophyletic group, within which both are reciprocally paraphyletic. Rana tagoi is divided into two major clades (Clade A and B) that are composed of 14 genetic groups. Rana sakuraii is included in Clade A and split into two genetic groups, one of which forms a clade (Subclade A-2) with sympatric R. tagoi. This species-level paraphyly appears to be caused by incomplete taxonomy, in addition to introgressive hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting. Rana tagoi strongly differs from other Japanese anurans in its geographic pattern of genetic differentiation, most probably in relation to its unique reproductive habits. Taxonomically, R. tagoi surely includes many cryptic species.

  10. Integrative Taxonomic Approach for Describing a New Cryptic Species of Bush Frog (Raorchestes: Anura: Rhacophoridae) from the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priti, H; Roshmi, Rekha Sarma; Ramya, Badrinath; Sudhira, H S; Ravikanth, G; Aravind, Neelavara Anantharam; Gururaja, Kotambylu Vasudeva

    2016-01-01

    A new cryptic species of bush frog Raorchestes honnametti sp. nov. is described from the south-eastern part of the Western Ghats, India. This newly described species belongs to the Charius clade and is morphologically similar to other clade members--R. charius and R. griet. Therefore, an integrative taxonomic approach based on molecular and bioacoustic analysis along with morphology was used to delimit the new species. Raorchestes honnametti sp. nov., is currently known only from Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, a part of Biligiri Rangaswamy horst mountain range (a mountain formed due movement of two faults) formed during the Late Quaternary period (1.8-2.58 Ma). Discovery of cryptic species from a highly speciose and well-studied genus Raorchestes hints at the possible existence of several more cryptic species in this genus. We discuss the possible reasons for crypsis and emphasize the need for continued systematic surveys of amphibians across the Western Ghats.

  11. Helminth infracommunity structure of Leptodactylus melanonotus (Anura) in Tres Palos, Guerrero, and other records for this host species in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-López, Rosario; León-Règagnon, Virginia; García-Prieto, Luis

    2013-06-01

    The amphibian genus Leptodactylus includes around 50 species, of which only 2 are distributed in Mexico; the helminth fauna of these 2 species is poorly known. As part of a research program on amphibian parasites in Mexico from 1997 to 2005, 281 sabinal frogs Leptodactylus melanonotus from 42 localities in 11 Mexican states were examined from a helminthological perspective. A total of 20 taxa of helminths-7 digeneans (5 adults, 2 larvae) and 13 nematodes (8 adults, 5 larvae)-was found to infect this amphibian host species. These data represent 105 new locality records, and 11 taxa are recorded in L. melanonotus for the first time. Infracommunity analyses of the sabinal frogs from Tres Palos indicated that these hosts are depauperate. The helminth community is dominated by specialist species, with Cosmocerca podicipinus the most common in almost 50% of the infracommunities. Percutaneous infection and predator-prey interactions were the 2 most common infection routes by helminths in frogs from Tres Palos, with 79% of the parasites recruited via skin penetration. Finally, our results show that the helminth fauna parasitizing L. melanonotus throughout Mexico has low similarity with the helminth fauna of leptodactylids studied comprehensively in South America, with only 2 digeneans and 3 nematodes being shared by hosts from both regions. As a result of our survey, the number of helminth species parasitizing L. melanonotus increased to 34. Considering its native distribution range, this number is now 36 with the inclusion of the nematodes Oswaldocruzia costaricensis and Cruzia empera in Costa Rica.

  12. Ecological and reproductive aspects of Aparasphenodon brunoi (Anura: Hylidae in an ombrophilous forest area of the Atlantic Rainforest Biome, Brazil

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    Laura Gomez-Mesa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Presented is the first information on the ecological and reproductive aspects of the treefrog, Aparasphenodon brunoi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920, living in ombrophilous forest areas of the Atlantic Rainforest, Brazil. We recorded the species’ daily activity and over the course of a year, population density during the year, microhabitat usage, diet, and some reproductive features (quantity, diameter and mean mass of oocytes, mean reproductive effort of female. Field sampling was conducted monthly from June 2015 to July 2016. Searches for treefrogs were systematic, using visual encounter surveys along 14 plots RAPELD long term research modules established in the forest. For each captured individual, we recorded the hour, microhabitat used, and perch height. The diet of the population was ascertained based on 15 individuals collected outside the study plot areas. Treefrogs used seven different types of microhabitats in the forest but the preferred microhabitats were tree-trunks and lianas. The amount of accumulated rainfall and air temperature interacted to explain the number of A. brunoi individuals active throughout the year. The reproductive strategy for females of this comparatively large arboreal frog in the ombrophilous forest is to produce clutches with a large number (900.8 ± 358.1 of relatively small-sized eggs. We conclude that in the ombrophious forest of the Vale Natural Reserve, A. brunoi is a nocturnal arboreal treefrog active throughout the year but activity increases during the wet season as a result of increased precipitation. In the forest, treefrogs tend to perch mainly on tree-trunks and lianas about 1 m above ground, where it feeds preferably on relatively large bodied arthropod prey. When living in the ombrophilous forest of the Atlantic rainforest, A. brunoi may change some features of its ecology (e.g. marked difference in the use of bromeliads compared to when living in restinga habitats.

  13. Redescription of the Advertisement Call of Five Species of Thoropa (Anura, Cycloramphidae, Including Recordings of Rare and Endangered Species.

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    Carlos H L Nunes-de-Almeida

    Full Text Available Frogs of the genus Thoropa comprise six endemic Brazilian species on the Eastern side of the country. Little is known about their natural history, especially about their acoustic communication. Therefore, aiming to provide an overview of their vocalizations, we analyzed and redescribed male advertisement calls of three living and two possibly extinct species. The smaller species, T. petropolitana and T. lutzi, produce simple calls (one single note with a higher frequency range than the remaining larger ones. On the other hand, the larger species present complex calls, with more than one note: T. megatympanum calls have three notes, T. taophora calls have four notes, and T. miliaris calls varies from three to six notes. Population snout-vent length negatively correlated with peak of dominant frequency as expected. However, highlighted differences between two populations of T. lutzi, which could indicate need of further taxonomic evaluation of those lineages. Peculiar morphology, such as the absence of vocal sacs and slits, may have contributed to their call variation and highly banded frequency structure. If the observed population differences reflect species-level differences, T. lutzi may be classified as a critically endangered species, as T. petropolitana. Furthermore, we provided a suggestion to an unusual behavior in frogs: calling with the mouth open in the smaller species of the genus.

  14. Redescription of the Advertisement Call of Five Species of Thoropa (Anura, Cycloramphidae), Including Recordings of Rare and Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes-de-Almeida, Carlos H L; Assis, Clodoaldo L; Feio, Renato N; Toledo, Luís Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Frogs of the genus Thoropa comprise six endemic Brazilian species on the Eastern side of the country. Little is known about their natural history, especially about their acoustic communication. Therefore, aiming to provide an overview of their vocalizations, we analyzed and redescribed male advertisement calls of three living and two possibly extinct species. The smaller species, T. petropolitana and T. lutzi, produce simple calls (one single note) with a higher frequency range than the remaining larger ones. On the other hand, the larger species present complex calls, with more than one note: T. megatympanum calls have three notes, T. taophora calls have four notes, and T. miliaris calls varies from three to six notes. Population snout-vent length negatively correlated with peak of dominant frequency as expected. However, highlighted differences between two populations of T. lutzi, which could indicate need of further taxonomic evaluation of those lineages. Peculiar morphology, such as the absence of vocal sacs and slits, may have contributed to their call variation and highly banded frequency structure. If the observed population differences reflect species-level differences, T. lutzi may be classified as a critically endangered species, as T. petropolitana. Furthermore, we provided a suggestion to an unusual behavior in frogs: calling with the mouth open in the smaller species of the genus.

  15. Climate change and the distribution of neotropical red-bellied toads (Melanophryniscus, Anura, Amphibia): how to prioritize species and populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, Caroline; Becker, Fernando Gertum; Abadie, Michelle; Baldo, Diego; Maneyro, Raúl; Borges-Martins, Márcio

    2014-01-01

    We used species distribution modeling to investigate the potential effects of climate change on 24 species of Neotropical anurans of the genus Melanophryniscus. These toads are small, have limited mobility, and a high percentage are endangered or present restricted geographical distributions. We looked at the changes in the size of suitable climatic regions and in the numbers of known occurrence sites within the distribution limits of all species. We used the MaxEnt algorithm to project current and future suitable climatic areas (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a and B2a for 2020 and 2080) for each species. 40% of the species may lose over 50% of their potential distribution area by 2080, whereas 28% of species may lose less than 10%. Four species had over 40% of the currently known occurrence sites outside the predicted 2080 areas. The effect of climate change (decrease in climatic suitable areas) did not differ according to the present distribution area, major habitat type or phylogenetic group of the studied species. We used the estimated decrease in specific suitable climatic range to set a conservation priority rank for Melanophryniscus species. Four species were set to high conservation priority: M. montevidensis, (100% of its original suitable range and all known occurrence points potentially lost by 2080), M. sp.2, M. cambaraensis, and M. tumifrons. Three species (M. spectabilis, M. stelzneri, and M. sp.3) were set between high to intermediate priority (more than 60% decrease in area predicted by 2080); nine species were ranked as intermediate priority, while eight species were ranked as low conservation priority. We suggest that monitoring and conservation actions should be focused primarily on those species and populations that are likely to lose the largest area of suitable climate and the largest number of known populations in the short-term.

  16. Climate change and the distribution of neotropical red-bellied toads (Melanophryniscus, Anura, Amphibia: how to prioritize species and populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Zank

    Full Text Available We used species distribution modeling to investigate the potential effects of climate change on 24 species of Neotropical anurans of the genus Melanophryniscus. These toads are small, have limited mobility, and a high percentage are endangered or present restricted geographical distributions. We looked at the changes in the size of suitable climatic regions and in the numbers of known occurrence sites within the distribution limits of all species. We used the MaxEnt algorithm to project current and future suitable climatic areas (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a and B2a for 2020 and 2080 for each species. 40% of the species may lose over 50% of their potential distribution area by 2080, whereas 28% of species may lose less than 10%. Four species had over 40% of the currently known occurrence sites outside the predicted 2080 areas. The effect of climate change (decrease in climatic suitable areas did not differ according to the present distribution area, major habitat type or phylogenetic group of the studied species. We used the estimated decrease in specific suitable climatic range to set a conservation priority rank for Melanophryniscus species. Four species were set to high conservation priority: M. montevidensis, (100% of its original suitable range and all known occurrence points potentially lost by 2080, M. sp.2, M. cambaraensis, and M. tumifrons. Three species (M. spectabilis, M. stelzneri, and M. sp.3 were set between high to intermediate priority (more than 60% decrease in area predicted by 2080; nine species were ranked as intermediate priority, while eight species were ranked as low conservation priority. We suggest that monitoring and conservation actions should be focused primarily on those species and populations that are likely to lose the largest area of suitable climate and the largest number of known populations in the short-term.

  17. Evaporative water loss and oxygen uptake in two casque-headed tree frogs, Aparasphenodon brunoi and Corythomantis greeningi (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, D V; Abe, A S

    1997-11-01

    Evaporative water loss (EWL) and oxygen uptake (Vo2) was measured in two species of tree frogs with cranial co-ossification, Aparasphenodon brunoi and Corythomantis greeningi. Both species use their head to seal the entrance of bromeliads, tree holes or rocky crevices used as shelters. EWL was significantly reduced in sheltered individuals of both species as compared with those exposed nude to desiccation. EWL per unit area through the head surface was significantly lower than the body skin for A. brunoi but not for C. greeningi, EWL per unit surface area through C. greeningi body skin was about 50% that of A. brunoi, indicating a less permeable skin in the former species. The relationship between cranial coossification and EWL is discussed. Vo2 in A. brunoi was comparable with other anurans of similar size, whereas in C. greeningi, it was lower than predicted from body mass. Moreover, Vo2 in C. greeningi showed less sensitivity to temperature increase than in A. brunoi. C. greeningi occurs in a drier environment than A. brunoi, and this appears to be reflected in their EWL and Vo2 characteristics.

  18. New records of Aparasphenodon bokermanni (Pombal, 1993) from Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, and extension of genus range (Anura: Hylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zanette-Silva, Larissa; Farias, Douglas; Ghizoni-Jr, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Aparasphenodon bokermanni is a poorly known casque-headed tree frog found in São Paulo and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Here we provide two new records, one from Joinville, northeastern Santa Catarina, and the first record from Santa Catarina Island, Brazil, which extends to the south the range of the genus by approximately 150 km.

  19. A new species of small tree frog, genus Dendropsophus (Anura: Hylidae) from the eastern Amazon lowlands of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Andrade, H Mauricio; Ron, Santiago R

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new species of the hylid frog genus Dendropsophus from Amazonian Ecuador. The new species, Dendropsophus shiwiarum sp. nov., appears to be part of the D. microcephalus species group. Dendropsophus shiwiarum differs from its congeners by a combination of: (1) tympanic membrane non-differentiated and annulus evident only ventrally, (2) disc of Finger III and Toe IV with pointed tip, (3) dorsal surfaces of digital discs with a conical tubercle as result of projection of distal phalanx, and (4) small size (SVL < 19 mm). The new species is morphologically most similar to Dendropsophus riveroi. Examination of the type material of the latter suggests that some Ecuadorian populations reported as D. riveroi were misidentified and in fact belong to D. shiwiarum sp. nov.

  20. Comparative analysis of the integument of different tree frog species from Ololygon and Scinax genera (Anura: Hylidae

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    Henrique Alencar Meira da Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The integuments of ten treefrog species of two genera from Scinaxnae - O. angrensis (Lutz, 1973, O. flavoguttata (Lutz & Lutz, 1939, O. humilis (Lutz & Lutz, 1954, O. perpusilla (Lutz & Lutz, 1939, O. v-signata (Lutz, 1968, Scinax hayii (Barbour, 1909, S. similis (Cochran, 1952, O. trapicheroi (Lutz & Lutz, 1954 and S. x-signatus (Spix, 1824 - were investigated using conventional and histochemical techniques of light microscopy, and polarized light microscopy. All integuments showed the basic structure of the anuran integument. Moreover, the secretory portions of exocrine glands, such as serous merocrine and apocrine glands, were found to be restricted to the spongious dermis. Lipid content occurred together with the heterogeneous secretory material of the glands with an apocrine secretion mechanism. In addition, clusters of these apocrine glands were present in the ventrolateral integument of some species. Melanophores were also visualized in all examined hylids. However, the occurrence of iridophores, detected through polarized light microscopy, varied according to the species. The Eberth-Katschenko layer occurred in the dorsal integument from both genera, but it was only present in the ventral integument of O. albicans, O. angrensis, O. flavoguttata, O. perpusilla and O. v-signata. Although the integument of all treefrogs showed the same basic structure, some characteristics were genus-specific; however, these features alone may not be used to distinguish both genera.

  1. Comparative analysis of the integument of different tree frog species from Ololygon and Scinax genera (Anura: Hylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Alencar Meira da Silva; Thiago Silva-Soares; Lycia de Brito-Gitirana

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The integuments of ten treefrog species of two genera from Scinaxnae - O. angrensis (Lutz, 1973), O. flavoguttata (Lutz & Lutz, 1939), O. humilis (Lutz & Lutz, 1954), O. perpusilla (Lutz & Lutz, 1939), O. v-signata (Lutz, 1968), Scinax hayii (Barbour, 1909), S. similis (Cochran, 1952), O. trapicheroi (Lutz & Lutz, 1954) and S. x-signatus (Spix, 1824) - were investigated using conventional and histochemical techniques of light microscopy, and polarized light microscopy. All integument...

  2. A new Dendropsophus Fitzinger, 1843 (Anura: Hylidae) of the parviceps group from the lowlands of the Guiana Shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Orrico, Victor Goyannes Dill; Ernst, Raffael; Blanc, Michel; Martinez, Quentin; Vacher, Jean-Pierre; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Ouboter, Paul; Jairam, Rawien; Ron, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    Many Amazonian frog species that are considered widely distributed may actually represent polyspecific complexes.. A minute tree frog from the Guiana Shield originally assigned to the allegedly widely distributed Dendropsophus brevifrons proved to be a yet undescribed species within the D. parviceps group. We herein describe this new species and present a phylogeny for the D. parviceps group. The new species is diagnosed from other Dendropsophus of the parviceps group by its small body size (19.6-21.7 mm in males, 22.1-24.5 mm in females), thighs dorsally dark grey with cream blotches without bright yellow patch, absence of dorsolateral and canthal stripe, and an advertisement call comprising trills (length 0.30-0.35 s) composed of notes emitted at a rate of 131-144 notes/s, generally followed by click series of 2-3 notes. Its tadpole is also singular by having fused lateral marginal papillae and absence of both labial teeth and submarginal papillae. Genetic distances (p-distance) are >5.3% on the 12S and >9.3% on the 16S from D. brevifrons, its closest relative. This species occurs from the Brazilian state of Amapá, across French Guiana and Suriname to central Guyana and is likely to also occur in adjacent Brazilian states and eastern Venezuela. This species is not rare but is difficult to collect because of its arboreal habits and seasonal activity peaks.

  3. Helminth parasites of Hypsiboas prasinus (Anura: Hylidae) from two Atlantic forest fragments, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madelaire, Carla Bonetti; Gomes, Fernando Ribeiro; da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2012-06-01

    Seventy-seven males of Hypsiboas prasinus from 2 Atlantic forest fragments in the municipalities of Botucatu and Jundiaí, São Paulo State, Brazil, were examined for endoparasites. The frogs were captured in summer (January until March) and winter (July/August) of 2008 and 2009. Thirty-three males (75%) from Botucatu were infected with Rhabdias cf. fuelleborni , cosmocerciid nematodes, and Cylindrotaenia americana . Twenty-five tree frogs (78.5%) from Jundiaí were infected by Rhabdias cf. fuelleborni , Physaloptera sp., and cosmocerciid nematodes. Only cosmocerciid nematodes presented a statistically significance difference in prevalence (z  =  4.345; P Hylidae. This study presents 4 new records of nematodes in H. prasinus .

  4. First record of myiasis in Aplastodiscus arildae (Anura: Hylidae) by Notochaeta bufonivora (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) in the Neotropical area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizemberg, Roberto; Sabagh, Leandro Talione; Mello, Renata da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Myiasis in anurans is usually caused by diptera from the Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Chloropidae, and Muscidae families. In this study, one case of cloacal myiasis and one of oral myiasis were registered in Aplastodiscus arildae, caused by Notochaeta bufonivora in Teresópolis, RJ, Brazil. With this report, a new host is listed for N. bufonivora, the first case of tree-frog myiasis caused by sarcophagid flies and the first occurrence of hylid myiasis in the Neotropical area.

  5. Advertisement and release calls of Phyllomedusa ayeaye (Anura: Hylidae with comments on the social context of emission

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    Renato C. Nali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Male calls play different roles in anuran social organization, such as spacing, territoriality and female attraction. However, calls and associated behaviors remain poorly described for many anuran species. Here we describe the advertisement and release calls of the tree frog Phyllomedusa ayeaye (Lutz, 1966 and report on the social context of emissions and a physical combat. Approximately 35 minutes of digital recordings were obtained from 34 hours of observations at one breeding site in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Bioacoustic analysis showed that males emitted two types of advertisement calls: 1 simple call (a sequence of short pulsed notes and 2 composite call (a sequence of short pulsed notes followed by a long pulsed note. Composite calls were emitted more frequently during more intense chorus activity, with various active males at the breeding site. The release call was also composed by short pulsed notes, with a wider spectrum of frequencies and emitted more rapidly than the advertisement calls. Our results suggest that the composite call of P. ayeaye may represent a mixed advertisement call. Long notes might be the aggressive part directed to males, whereas short notes directed to females. Our description of call types, their functions, and male physical interactions will be useful for studies investigating the systematics and behavior of Phyllomedusa species.

  6. A new species of semiarboreal toad of the Rhinella festae group (Anura, Bufonidae) from the Cordillera Azul National Park, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusi, Juan C.; Moravec, Jiří; Lehr, Edgar; Gvoždík, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new semiarboreal species of the Rhinella festae group is described from montane forests of the Cordillera Azul National Park between 1245 and 1280 m a.s.l. in the Cordillera Oriental, San Martín region, northern Peru. The new species is morphologically and genetically compared with members of the Rhinella acrolopha group (former genus Rhamphophryne) and members of the R. festae group. The new species is characterized by its large size (female SVL 47.1–58.3 mm, n = 4), eight presacral vertebrae, fusion of the sacrum and coccyx, long protuberant snout, snout directed slightly anteroventral in lateral view, cranial crests moderately developed, absence of occipital crest, presence of tympanic membrane, dorsolateral rows of small conical tubercles extending from parotoid gland to groin, hands and feet with long digits, fingers basally webbed and toes moderately webbed. Phylogenetically it is a member of the R. festae group which is most closely related to R. chavin and R. yanachaga from Peru. Morphologically the new species shares similarities with R. tenrec and R. truebae, members of the R. acrolopha group from Colombia. PMID:28769671

  7. Avaliação de risco e plasticidade comportamental limitada em girinos de Rhinella ornata (Anura, Bufonidae

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    Renan N. Costa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Os girinos de anuros são elementos importantes das redes tróficas de ambientes aquáticos, sendo recurso alimentar de diversos tipos de predadores. Desta maneira, os girinos apresentam uma grande variedade de mecanismos de defesa que podem ser morfológicos, comportamentais e/ou fisiológicos. A impalatabilidade, produzida pelo acúmulo de substâncias tóxicas na pele, é um mecanismo comum em muitas linhagens de anfíbios. No entanto, alguns predadores não são afetados por estas substâncias tóxicas, o que pode favorecer o desenvolvimento de mecanismos alternativos de defesa contra predação. Neste contexto, nosso objetivo foi avaliar se girinos impalatáveis de Rhinella ornata (Spix, 1824, podem apresentar mecanismos comportamentais de defesa contra predação na presença de predadores que não são afetados pelas substâncias tóxicas em sua pele. Para testar nossa hipótese, utilizamos dois tipos de predadores aquáticos: um heteróptero aquático do gênero Belostoma e uma larva de libélula do gênero Aeshna. Os girinos foram colocados em aquários com pistas visuais e químicas dos predadores (experimento de risco direto, somente pistas químicas (experimento de risco indireto e ausência completa de sinais de predadores (controle. Em ambos os casos, o comportamento de natação foi observado durante 5 minutos. Durante os experimentos não houve alteração no comportamento de natação dos girinos.

  8. Cryptic within cryptic: genetics, morphometrics, and bioacoustics delimitate a new species of Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) from Eastern Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Ariel; Dugo-Cota, Álvaro; Montero-Mendieta, Santiago; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Bosch, Roberto Alonso; Vences, Miguel; Vilà, Carles

    2017-01-20

    We studied the variation in genetics, bioacustics, and morphology in Eleutherodactylus glamyrus, a regionally endemic frog species restricted to high elevations in the Sierra Maestra Massif, Western Cuba that was originally described as a cryptic species hidden under the name E. auriculatus. Genetic analysis of mtDNA sequences of the 16S and cob genes identify two allopatric and strongly supported mitochondrial clades (phylogroups) which also showed no haplotype sharing in the nuclear Rag-1 gene. Bioacustic, and morphological comparisons concordantly identify these two phylogroups as independent evolutionary lineages. Therefore, we herein restrict the name Eleutherodactylus glamyrus Estrada and Hedges to populations represented in our analyses as the western phylogroup (Cordillera del Turquino to Pico La Bayamesa) and consider specimens from the eastern phylogroup (Sierra del Cobre) to represent a new species described and named as Eleutherodactylus cattus. Our results add to the growing list of Eleutherodactylus species endemic to Cuba and highlight the importance of combining different sources of evidence for obtaining robust assessments of species limits in amphibians.

  9. Discovery of another new species of Charadrahyla (Anura, Hylidae) from the cloud forest of northern Oaxaca, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canseco-Márquez, Luis; Ramírez-González, Cynthia Grisell; González-Bernal, Edna

    2017-10-03

    Charadrahyla esperancensis, a new species of tree frog, is described from the cloud forest of Sierra d Juárez on the northern slopes of Oaxaca. This species is sympatric with C. nephila and is distinguished by the presence of a protuding snout with a distinctive downward slope posterior to the nostril in lateral view, with an evident rostral keel, and the flanks and anterior and posterior surfaces of limbs with yellow spots. With the discovery of this new species, the species number of the genus increases to seven and adds another species of Charadrahyla for the assemblage of anurans from northern Oaxaca. This is the first instance of sympatry of species in the genus Charadrahyla. Additionally, we provide a key to the species of the genus.

  10. Predation of Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766 (Chiroptera: Molossidae by Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002 (Anura: Bufonidae in the Caatinga, Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Luiz Augustinho Menezes da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This communication is to report, through a fortuitous event, the predation of the bat Molossus molossus by the toad Rhinella jimi, on 29 May 2003 in the Caatinga, municipality of Orocó, state of Pernambuco, northeast Brazil.

  11. Transformations of Aortic Arches During Metamorphosis of the Spade-Foot Toad, Pelobates fuscus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majorová, H.; Roček, Zbyněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 260, č. 3 (2004), s. 309 ISSN 0362-2525. [International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology /7./. 27.07.2004-01.08.2004, Boca Raton] Keywords : Anura * Circulatory System * Metamorphosis Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  12. Do all frogs swim alike? The effect of ecological specialization on swimming kinematics in frogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Robovská-Havelková, P.; Aerts, P.; Roček, Zbyněk; Přikryl, Tomáš; Fabre, A.-C.; Herrel, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 217, č. 20 (2014), s. 3637-3644 ISSN 0022-0949 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Anura * kinematics * locomotion * swimming Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.897, year: 2014

  13. Ontogeny in Tertiary Frogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 260, č. 3 (2004), s. 322-323 ISSN 0362-2525. [International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology /7./. 27.07.2004-01.08.2004, Boca Raton] Keywords : Anura * Tertiary * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  14. Helminth parasite communities of two Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826 (Anura: Leiuperidae populations under different conditions of habitat integrity in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Brazil

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    A. Aguiar

    Full Text Available Abstract Adults of Physalaemus cuvieri were collected and necropsied between November 2009 and January 2010. This was carried out in order to report and compare the helminth fauna associated with two populations of this anuran species from the Brazilian Atlantic rain forest under different conditions of habitat integrity. The hosts from the disturbed area were parasitized with five helminth taxa: Cosmocerca parva, Aplectana sp., Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., Oswaldocruzia subauricularis (Nematoda and Polystoma cuvieri (Monogenea while those from the preserved area had four helminth taxa: C. parva, Aplectana sp., Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., and Acanthocephalus saopaulensis (Acanthocephala. Prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance, mean richness, importance index and dominance frequency of helminth component communities were similar in both areas. The helminth community associated with anurans from the disturbed area had higher diversity than that from the preserved area. This study is the first to report on the acanthocephalan parasites of Ph. cuvieri, and the similarity between helminth fauna composition of two host populations under different selective pressures.

  15. Helminth parasite communities of two Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826 (Anura: Leiuperidae) populations under different conditions of habitat integrity in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, A; Toledo, G M; Anjos, L A; Silva, R J

    2015-11-01

    Adults of Physalaemus cuvieri were collected and necropsied between November 2009 and January 2010. This was carried out in order to report and compare the helminth fauna associated with two populations of this anuran species from the Brazilian Atlantic rain forest under different conditions of habitat integrity. The hosts from the disturbed area were parasitized with five helminth taxa: Cosmocerca parva, Aplectana sp., Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., Oswaldocruzia subauricularis (Nematoda) and Polystoma cuvieri (Monogenea) while those from the preserved area had four helminth taxa: C. parva, Aplectana sp., Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., and Acanthocephalus saopaulensis (Acanthocephala). Prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance, mean richness, importance index and dominance frequency of helminth component communities were similar in both areas. The helminth community associated with anurans from the disturbed area had higher diversity than that from the preserved area. This study is the first to report on the acanthocephalan parasites of Ph. cuvieri, and the similarity between helminth fauna composition of two host populations under different selective pressures.

  16. EXTINCTION RISK OR LACK OF SAMPLING IN A THREATENED SPECIES: GENETIC STRUCTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUITABILITY OF THE NEOTROPICAL FROG PRISTIMANTIS PENELOPUS (ANURA: CRAUGASTORIDAE

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    ADRIANA RESTREPO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT IUCN Red Lists have been a valuable tool to prioritize conservation plans in endemic neotropical frogs. However, many areas in this region are poorly known in terms of their diversity and endemism. Based on examined museum specimens of the threatened species Pristimantis penelopus we revised its geographic distribution and determined the habitat suitability using niche modeling techniques. Using a mitochondrial fragment of COI gene, we determine the phylogenetic position and the extent of the genetic variation across its distribution in Colombia. We present the first records of P. penelopus for the Cordillera Oriental, the western versant of Cordillera Occidental and the northern portion of the Cauca river basin. Based on the molecular phylogenetic analysis, Pristimantis penelopus belongs to the P. ridens series sensu (Padial et al., 2014. The mean of intraspecific genetic variation is 2.1% and the variation among population ranges between 2.3 and 3.5%. The genetic distance between the western populations and the Magdalena Valley populations suggests a potential phylogeographic break in northwestern Antioquia. We expand the realized distribution by 258 kilometers north, 200 km east and 223 km northwest. Based on our results and according to the IUCN criteria we propose a new category for the species and highlight the need to increase the surveys in poorly known regions to better understand the geographic distribution and conservation status of listed species.

  17. EXTINCTION RISK OR LACK OF SAMPLING IN A THREATENED SPECIES: GENETIC STRUCTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUITABILITY OF THE NEOTROPICAL FROG PRISTIMANTIS PENELOPUS (ANURA: CRAUGASTORIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    RESTREPO, ADRIANA; VELASCO, JULIAN A.; DAZA, JUAN M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT IUCN Red Lists have been a valuable tool to prioritize conservation plans in endemic neotropical frogs. However, many areas in this region are poorly known in terms of their diversity and endemism. Based on examined museum specimens of the threatened species Pristimantis penelopus we revised its geographic distribution and determined the habitat suitability using niche modeling techniques. Using a mitochondrial fragment of COI gene, we determine the phylogenetic position and the exte...

  18. Living within fallen palm leaves: the discovery of an unknown Blommersia (Mantellidae: Anura) reveals a new reproductive strategy in the amphibians of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreone, Franco; Rosa, Gonçalo M; Noël, Jean; Crottini, Angelica; Vences, Miguel; Raxworthy, Christopher J

    2010-06-01

    We describe a new mantelline frog of the genus Blommersia found in rainforest in North East Madagascar, from the protected areas of Ambatovaky, Betampona, Masoala, and Zahamena. Blommersia angolafa n.sp. is a small frog, with a body size of 17-21 mm, expanded finger and toe tips, and colouration ranging from yellow to dark brown, with pale-bluish spots on the flanks and light tips of fingers and toes. A peculiar aspect characterising this new species is its novel life history and reproductive mode. Both sexes live and breed in a phytotelmic habitat of water accumulated within fallen prophylls and fallen leaf sheaths of at least three species of Dypsis palms. Within these phytotelmata, egg laying and complete larval development occur. Thus, B. angolafa n.sp. represents a new evolutionary lineage of Malagasy frogs in which phytotelmy is known. Up to now, reproduction in phytotelmata in Malagasy frogs has been reported for many cophyline microhylids, most species of Guibemantis, Mantella laevigata, and possibly in a still-undescribed species belonging to the genus Spinomantis. We consider the reproductive mode of B. angolafa as a derived character, having evolved from the more typical reproduction in lentic water bodies. The general scarcity of lentic habitats in Malagasy rainforests may have provided the conditions that favoured the evolution of this phytotelmic breeding strategy. The new species, being specialised to a habitat represented by a few selected Dypsis species, potentially suffers the selective exploitation of these palms.

  19. The Great American Biotic Interchange in frogs: multiple and early colonization of Central America by the South American genus Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Sánchez, Nelsy Rocío; Ibáñez, Roberto; Madriñán, Santiago; Sanjur, Oris I; Bermingham, Eldredge; Crawford, Andrew J

    2012-03-01

    The completion of the land bridge between North and South America approximately 3.5-3.1 million years ago (Ma) initiated a tremendous biogeographic event called the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI), described principally from the mammalian fossil record. The history of biotic interchange between continents for taxonomic groups with poor fossil records, however, is not well understood. Molecular and fossil data suggest that a number of plant and animal lineages crossed the Isthmus of Panama well before 3.5 Ma, leading biologists to speculate about trans-oceanic dispersal mechanisms. Here we present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the frog genus Pristimantis based on 189 individuals of 137 species, including 71 individuals of 31 species from Panama and Colombia. DNA sequence data were obtained from three mitochondrial (COI, 12S, 16S) and two nuclear (RAG-1 and Tyr) genes, for a total of 4074 base pairs. The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis showed statistically significant conflict with most recognized taxonomic groups within Pristimantis, supporting only the rubicundus Species Series, and the Pristimantis myersi and Pristimantis pardalis Species Groups as monophyletic. Inference of ancestral areas based on a likelihood model of geographic range evolution via dispersal, local extinction, and cladogenesis (DEC) suggested that the colonization of Central America by South American Pristimantis involved at least 11 independent events. Relaxed-clock analyses of divergence times suggested that at least eight of these invasions into Central America took place prior to 4 Ma, mainly in the Miocene. These findings contribute to a growing list of molecular-based biogeographic studies presenting apparent temporal conflicts with the traditional GABI model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Five new species of Pristimantis (Anura: Strabomantidae from the coastal cloud forest of the Península de Paria, Venezuela

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    Hinrich Kaiser

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fieldwork in the cloud forest of Venezuela’s remote Península de Paria in 2001 resulted in the collection of several specimens that could unquestionably be classified as members of the genus Pristimantis.  Subsequent analysis of comparative material in museum collections brought the total number of specimens to 44, and these collectively represent five new species. Two of these species, P. geminus sp. nov. and P. nubisilva sp. nov., have phenotypes remarkably similar to the Trinidadian P. urichi, supporting a prediction that Pristimantis from easternmost Venezuela may have given rise to Trinidadian forms. Pristimantis hoogmoedi sp. nov. is easily identified by its large size and red eyes. Two of the species, P. longicorpus sp. nov. and P. pariagnomus sp. nov., are very distinct morphologically but are known only from the holotypes. The former is characterized by an elongate body form supported by relatively short limbs, whereas the latter has very distinctive hand morphology and is likely the smallest Venezuelan frog. Chromosome banding studies of P. nubisilva sp. nov. and P. hoogmoedi sp. nov. revealed chromosome numbers of 2n = 36 and 2n = 26, respectively, with an unusual submetacentric fusion chromosome 11;18 in some males of the former and a unique meiotic pairing of chromosomes in males of the latter.  All five species can be readily distinguished by their osteology, such as by the extent of the sphenethmoid and features on the roof of the mouth, as well as by the shape and rearrangement of mesopodial elements.  The unexpectedly high diversity of Pristimantis in this region, along with high endemism of amphibians and reptiles in general, underscores the position of the Península de Paria as a center for frog biodiversity in Venezuela.  The similarity of these Paria species to Pristimantis from Trinidad, Tobago and the central Cordillera de la Costa represents a tangible piece of evidence for the close biogeographic link of the anuran fauna of these landmasses.

  1. Assessment of laryngeal muscle and testicular cell types in Xenopus laevis (Anura Pipidae) inhabiting maize and non-maize growing areas of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E.E.; Du Preez, L.H.; Gentles, A.; Solomon, K.R.; Tandler, B.; Carr, J.A.; Van Der Kraak, G. L.; Kendall, R.J.; Giesy, J.P.; Gross, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that adult African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) inhabiting water bodies in maize-growing areas (MGA) of South Africa would exhibit differences in testicular structure compared to frogs from water bodies in non-maize-growing areas (NMGA) in the same locale. Adults of both sexes were collected during the autumn of 2002 in South Africa, and stereological analytical techniques were used to quantify the distribution of testicular cell types. In addition, total laryngeal mass was used as a gauge of secondary sex differences in animals from MGA and NMGA study sites. Evaluation of the total laryngeal mass revealed that there were no statistically significant differences between X. laevis of the same sex from the NMGA and MGA sites. Mean percent fractional-volume values for seminiferous tubule distribution of testicular cell types of mature X. laevis, ranged from 3-4% for spermatogonia, 26-28% for spermatocytes, 54-57% for spermatozoa, and 14-15% for other cells types. The mean percent volume for blood vessels ranged from 0.3-0.4%. These values did not differ significantly between frogs from NMGA and MGA areas. Collectively, these data demonstrated no differences in gonadal and laryngeal development in X. laevis collected in South Africa from MGA and NMGA areas and that there is little evidence for an effect of agricultural chemicals used in maize production functioning as endocrine disrupters in this species. Screening of X. laevis testes revealed a small incidence of Stage 1 testicular oocytes in adult male frogs collected from the NMGA (3%) and MGA (2%).

  2. A new species of Colostethus (Anura, Dendrobatidae from French Guiana with a redescription of Colostethus beebei (Noble, 1923 from its type locality

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    Philippe J. R. Kok

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Colostethus, long mistaken for Colostethus beebei, is described from French Guiana. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by absence of median lingual process, first finger longer than second, third finger not distinctly swollen in males, differences in tadpole morphology, coloration and pattern (e.g. absence of dorsolateral stripe, bioacoustics, and reproductive behavior. A complete redescription of Colostethus beebei plus description of its tadpole and call is provided on the basis of recently collected topotypic specimens. The range of C. beebei is restricted to the Kaieteur plateau, Pakaraima Mountains, Guyana.

  3. The tadpole of Chiasmocleis carvalhoi and the advertisement calls of three species of Chiasmocleis (Anura, Microhylidae from the Atlantic rainforest of southeastern Brazil

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    Henrique Wogel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The tadpole of Chiasmocleis carvalhoi is figured and described for the first time from individuals collected in the State of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. The advertisement calls of C. atlantica, C. capixaba, and C. carvalhoi also are described and compared with the advertisement calls of others Chiasmocleis species restricted to Atlantic Rainforest. The advertisement calls of C. atlantica, C. capixaba, and C. carvalhoi are similar, consisting of one pulsed note of harmonic structure emitted repetitively. Our study corroborates the monophyly of the genus Chiasmocleis based on similarities in advertisement calls. Calls of syntopic species (C. atlantica with C. carvalhoi and C. capixaba with C. schubarti were less similar than those of closely related allopatric species.

  4. Feeding habits of the frog Pleurodema diplolistris (Anura, Leptodactylidae in Quaternary sand dunes of the Middle Rio São Francisco, Bahia, Brazil

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    José Wellington Alves dos Santos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate the feeding habits of Pleurodema diplolistris, the most abundant anuran species of the São Francisco sand dunes, during a period of slightly over one year. The fieldwork was undertaken during four excursions to a sand dune in the semiarid Caatinga, Brazil, and the analyses were based on stomach contents. Pleurodema diplolistris were not active during the dry season. The important food categories in diet were Isoptera (winged forms, Coleoptera, and Formicidae. Small and large animals had different food comsumption patterns: small frogs showed positive electivity for termites and large frogs, for ants. The pattern was strongly influenced by large male food electivity. High levels of termite comsumption ocurred during the days of greater capture success. The pattern of high comsumption of termites detected here is different from that described in another study on lizards from the same locality and sampled in the same periods. We discuss alternative hypotheses that could explain the observed patterns.

  5. [Relative abundance and microhabitat use by the frog Geobatrachus walkeri (Anura: Strabomantidae) in two habitats of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Baños, Vera; Pacheco Florez, Vanesa; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha P

    2011-06-01

    Geobatrachus walkeri belongs to a monotypic frog genus endemic to the San Lorenzo area, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. This species has been categorized as endangered because of its small distribution area and the decline in the extent and quality of its habitat. It inhabits two forest types with different composition and structure, the native secondary forest and a pine plantation (dominated by Pinus patula). To compare the relative abundance and microhabitat use of this species in these habitat types, 30 quadrants/environment were distributed randomly. The individual number, microhabitat use and other aspects of its natural history were registered using visual encounter surveys in both sites, including non-sampled areas in the quadrants. The relative abundance of frogs was significantly different between habitats and among seasons. The highest abundance of G. walkeri relative to the total area was found in the pine plantation, being 2.3 times higher than in the natural forest. More frogs were significantly found during the rainy season; nevertheless, active individuals were also found during the dry season. Significant differences were found in the microhabitat use with respect to the forest type and season. The most frequently microhabitat used in the two forest types was the pine leaf-litter; besides, in the native forest, the microhabitat occupied more frequently presented medium and large size stones. Geobatrachus walkeri is a successful species in pine plantations, associated permanently to its leaf-litter environment where it seems to develop its entire life cycle. The clear modifications in the soils and water, derived from the introduction of the pine plantation in this area, seem not to have negatively affected the conservation and successful maintenance of this species.

  6. Psychrophrynella glauca sp. n., a new species of terrestrial-breeding frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Strabomantidae from the montane forests of the Amazonian Andes of Puno, Peru

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    Alessandro Catenazzi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of small strabomantid frog (genus Psychrophrynella from a humid montane forest in the Peruvian Department of Puno. Specimens were collected at 2,225 m a.s.l. in the leaf litter of primary montane forest near Thiuni, along the Macusani–San Gabán road, in the province of Carabaya. The new species is assigned to Psychrophrynella on the basis of morphological similarity, including presence of a tubercle on the inner edge of the tarsus, and call composed of multiple notes. We also include genetic distances for 16S rRNA partial sequences between the new species and other strabomantid frogs. The species with lowest genetic distances are Psychrophrynella chirihampatu and Psychrophrynella usurpator. Psychrophrynella glauca sp. n. is readily distinguished from the three other species of Psychrophrynella (Psychrophrynella bagrecito, P. chirihampatu, and P. usurpator by its small size, and by having belly and ventral surfaces of legs reddish-brown or red, and chest and throat brown to dark brown with a profusion of bluish-gray flecks. The new species is only known from its type locality. With the discovery of P. glauca, the geographic distribution of Psychrophrynella is extended to the Department of Puno, where it was no longer represented after the description of the genus Microkayla. Furthermore, the Cordillera de Carabaya is the only mountain range known to be home to four of the seven genera of Holoadeninae (Bryophryne, Microkayla, Noblella, and Psychrophrynella, suggesting an intriguing evolutionary history for this group in southern Peru.

  7. A new species of frog of the genus Pristimantis from Tingo María National Park, Huánuco Department, central Peru (Anura, Craugastoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Germán; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Craugastoridae frog encountered from 1000-1700 m in elevation in the premontane forests of the Peruvian central Andes is described. The new species is similar in appearance to many other species of Pristimantis, but is easily distinguishable from these species by having bright red coloration on the groin, posterior surface of thighs, and shanks. The new species is only known for two localities 27 km apart in the Huánuco Region.

  8. A new species ofPhrynopus(Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands of the Pui Pui Protected Forest in central Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Edgar; von May, Rudolf; Moravec, Jiří; Cusi, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new species of Phrynopus from the upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands (puna) of the Pui Pui Protected Forest and its close surroundings (Región Junín, central Peru) and compare it morphologically and genetically with other species of Phrynopus . Phrynopus inti sp. n. is known from four localities outside and two localities inside the Pui Pui Protected Forest between 3350 and 3890 m a.s.l. Studied specimens of the new species are characterized by a snout-vent length of 27.2-35.2 mm in males (n = 6), and 40.4 mm in a single female, by having the skin on dorsum and flanks smooth with scattered tubercles, venter smooth, by lacking a tympanum, and males without vocal slits and nuptial pads. In life, the dorsum is pale grayish brown with or without dark brown blotches, or dorsum blackish brown with small yellow flecks, throat, chest and venter are pale grayish brown with salmon mottling, groin is pale grayish brown with salmon colored flecks, and the iris is golden orange with fine dark brown reticulations. The new species is morphologically most similar to Phrynopus kauneorum and P. juninensis . For the latter we describe the coloration in life for a specimen obtained at the type locality. A molecular phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences inferred that the new species is most closely related to Phrynopus kauneorum , P. miroslawae , P. tautzorum , and an undescribed species distributed at high elevation in Región Pasco, central Peru.

  9. A new species of Psychrophrynella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the humid montane forests of Cusco, eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenazzi, Alessandro; Ttito, Alex

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Psychrophrynella from the humid montane forest of the Department Cusco in Peru. Specimens were collected at 2,670-3,165 m elevation in the Área de Conservación Privada Ukumari Llakta, Japumayo valley, near Comunidad Campesina de Japu, in the province of Paucartambo. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Psychrophrynella but P. bagrecito and P. usurpator by possessing a tubercle on the inner edge of the tarsus, and from these two species by its yellow ventral coloration on abdomen and limbs. Furthermore, the new species is like P. bagrecito and P. usurpator in having an advertisement call composed of multiple notes, whereas other species of Psychrophrynella whose calls are known have a pulsed call (P. teqta) or a short, tonal call composed of a single note. The new species has a snout-vent length of 16.1-24.1 mm in males and 23.3-27.7 mm in females. Like other recently described species in the genus, this new Psychrophrynella inhabits high-elevation forests in the tropical Andes and likely has a restricted geographic distribution.

  10. Variación estacional en la proporción relativa de los estadios de la oogénesis en Bufo arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Echeverría, Dinorah D.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The Anova repeated measure design was used to compare the percentage of oocytes in female toads (Bufo arenarum at stages 1 to 5 and at different physiological ovary periods (or phases: production, before ovulation, after ovulation. Individual comparisons among stages and between phases have been made with the minimum significant difference method at 0.05 probability level. The statistical analysis at percentage of oocytes showed that: a Stages 1 and 2 have few variation. They are the permanent oocytes group. b Stage 3 (late vitelogenesis oocytes are absent previous to the breeding season. Their rate increases in summer and decreases in autumn. The development of oocytes 3 take place afterwards the ovulation. c Stage 4 increases in autumn and disappears in late winter. d Stage 5 sets up as the 18% of the ovulated oocytes. e. Stages 3, 4 and 5 are renewed every year; they are temporary ovarian oocytes.

  11. Seasonal trophic activity of the aquatic morphotype of Atelognathus patagonicus (Anura, Neobatrachia and prey availability in the littoral benthos of a permanent pond in Argentinean Patagonia

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    María Elena Cuello

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet of the aquatic morphotype of Atelognathus patagonicus was studied in frogs collected from the Laguna Verde pond (Laguna Blanca National Park, Neuquén, Argentina. The content of 35 gastrointestinal tracts of post-metamorphic specimens from November 2003 to April 2006 was related to the composition of the benthos in their microhabitat. Number, size, occurrence and relative importance of preys, diversity of the diet, trophic niche breadth and electivitywere estimated for each season of the year. The diet consisted of aquatic arthropods. The composition of both the benthos and the food (number and occurrence of organisms in the diet were dominated by the amphipod Hyalella sp. The relative importance (IRI of Hyalella sp. in the diet was over 99% in summer and autumn, and 100% in winter and spring. Diptera and Copepoda in summer, and Dytiscidae and Ostracoda in autumn, had seasonal IRI values ≤ 0.2%. Trophic niche breadth was very low in summer and autumn, and null (= 0 in winter and spring. The mean number of preys per individual was highest in spring (19 preys/frog and lowest in winter (4 preys/frog. Frogs continued with their trophic activity in winter, even when the surface of the pond was frozen. There is a correspondence between the frogs’ main food item and its presence in the benthos.

  12. Molecular phylogenetics of the glass frog Hyalinobatrachium orientale (Anura: Centrolenidae): evidence for Pliocene connections between mainland Venezuela and the island of Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowers, Michael J; Lehtinen, Richard M; Downie, Roger J; Georgiadis, Andrew P; Murphy, John C

    2015-08-01

    The presence of Hyalinobatrachium orientale in Tobago and in northeastern Venezuela is puzzling as this species is unknown from the island of Trinidad, an island often hypothesized to be a stepping-stone for the mainland fauna to colonize Tobago. A period of extended isolation on Tobago could result in the Hyalinobatrachium population becoming distinct from the mainland H. orientale. Here, we use 12S and 16S rDNA gene fragments from nine H. orientale specimens from Tobago and the mainland to assess their relationship and taxonomy, as well as the tempo and mode of speciation. The results suggest H. orientale from Venezuela and Tobago are monophyletic and the two populations diverged about 3 million years ago. This estimate corresponds with the drier climate and lower sea levels of the Pliocene glaciation periods. We hypothesize that lower sea levels resulted in land-bridge formations connecting the mainland and Tobago, with a corridor of habitat allowing H. orientale to colonize Tobago to the west of Trinidad.

  13. Ampliación de la distribución de Physalaemus biligonigerus (Cope, 1860 (Anura: Leiuperidae en la provincia de San Luis, Argentina

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    Moreno, Liliana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available República Argentina, San Luis, Departamento Gral. Pedernera, Villa Mercedes (33º42'18,71" S 66º26'27,98" W. Fecha de colección: 29/XII/ 2006. Col: R. Gutierrez y L. Moreno. Los ejemplares están depositados en la Colección Herpetológica de la Universidad Nacional de San Luis (CH-UNSL 0389 – CH-UNSL 0390.

  14. Acerca de la localidad tipo y la distribución geográfica de Melanophryniscus klappenbachi Prigione & Langone, 2000 (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Baldo, Diego

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Dada la distribución geográfica de esta especie en Argentina, Prigioni y Langone (op. cit. sugieren que las citas de M. stelzneri fulvoguttatus para las provincias de Santa Fe (Baldo y Arzamendia, 1997 y Santiago del Estero (Basso y Williams, 1996 y para la localidad formoseña de Bartolomé de las Casas (Gallardo, 1961; 1966 debían ser reexaminadas. Del examen del material en el que se basaron dichas citas, concluyo que pertenecen a M. klappenbachi.

  15. Eupsophus calcaratus (Anura, Leptodactilydae: ampliación de su distribución geográfica y hábitats en Argentina

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    Úbeda, Carmen A.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Argentina, Provincia de Chubut, Departamento de Futaleufú: 1 Parque Nacional Los Alerces, margen NE del Lago Menéndez, proximidad desembocadura Arroyo Zanjón Hondo, (42°42' S, 71°41' O, 520 m snm, 14/febrero/1997. Un ejemplar macho adulto, colector: Carmen A. MACN 37034. 2 Parque Nacional Los Alerces, Arroyo Torrecillas, Lago Menéndez, 18/enero/1972. Colector: Monaglio. MACN 29946. 3 Parque Nacional Los Alerces, Lago Futalaufquen, 25/abril/1969. Colector: Foerster. CENAI 7163. 4 Parque Nacional Los Alerces, margen norte del Lago 1 [actualmente parte del Lago Amutui Quimei], (43°01' S, 71°46' O, 1-2/1971. Colectores: Monadio, Garrido y Bianchini. MACN 29723/28.

  16. Estado sistemático y distribución geográfica de Argenteohyla siemersi (Mertens, 1937 en la República Argentina (Anura: Hylidae

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    Williams, Jorge Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Argenteohyla siemersi pederseni n. subsp. is described from the province of Corrientes, Argentina. The new subspecies is differentiated from Argenteohyla siemersi siemersi by the coloration pattern and the presence of two longitudinal black lines in the dorsum. Comments on the habitat and biogeography are added.

  17. Revisión sobre la distribución geográfica de Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824 (Anura: Leptodactylidae

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    Langone, José A.

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Existen con frecuencia en la literatura neotropical, confusiones respecto a la distribución geográfica de las especies de anuros. En el caso de las confusiones del género Physalaemus fueron y son debidas a identificaciones erradas, producto de descripciones originales vagas y del difícil acceso o inexistencia de material tipo. La presente nota trata sobre una de estas confusiones.

  18. Cytogenetic analyses of eight species in the genus Leptodactylus Fitzinger, 1843 (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae), including a new diploid number and a karyotype with multiple translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The karyotypes of Leptodactylus species usually consist of 22 bi-armed chromosomes, but morphological variations in some chromosomes and even differences in the 2n have been reported. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for these differences, eight species were analysed using classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques, including replication banding with BrdU incorporation. Results Distinct chromosome numbers were found: 2n = 22 in Leptodactylus chaquensis, L. labyrinthicus, L. pentadactylus, L. petersii, L. podicipinus, and L. rhodomystax; 2n = 20 in Leptodactylus sp. (aff. podicipinus); and 2n = 24 in L. marmoratus. Among the species with 2n = 22, only three had the same basic karyotype. Leptodactylus pentadactylus presented multiple translocations, L. petersii displayed chromosome morphological discrepancy, and L. podicipinus had four pairs of telocentric chromosomes. Replication banding was crucial for characterising this variability and for explaining the reduced 2n in Leptodactylus sp. (aff. podicipinus). Leptodactylus marmoratus had few chromosomes with a similar banding patterns to the 2n = 22 karyotypes. The majority of the species presented a single NOR-bearing pair, which was confirmed using Ag-impregnation and FISH with an rDNA probe. In general, the NOR-bearing chromosomes corresponded to chromosome 8, but NORs were found on chromosome 3 or 4 in some species. Leptodactylus marmoratus had NORs on chromosome pairs 6 and 8. The data from C-banding, fluorochrome staining, and FISH using the telomeric probe helped in characterising the repetitive sequences. Even though hybridisation did occur on the chromosome ends, telomere-like repetitive sequences outside of the telomere region were identified. Metaphase I cells from L. pentadactylus confirmed its complex karyotype constitution because 12 chromosomes appeared as ring-shaped chain in addition to five bivalents. Conclusions Species of Leptodactylus exhibited both major and minor karyotypic differences which were identified by classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Replication banding, which is a unique procedure that has been used to obtain longitudinal multiple band patterns in amphibian chromosomes, allowed us to outline the general mechanisms responsible for these karyotype differences. The findings also suggested that L. marmoratus, which was formerly included in the genus Adenomera, may have undergone great chromosomal repatterning. PMID:23268622

  19. New host and distribution records for Aplectana hamatospicula (Ascaridida: Cosmocercidae) in Gastrophryne olivacea (Anura: Microhylidae) from the Great Plains U.S.A.

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    Vhora, M Suhail; Bolek, Matthew G

    2013-06-01

    Aplectana hamatospicula is a nematode that parasitizes the large intestine of anurans, and has been reported from bufonids, eleutherodactylids, hylids, microhylids, and ranids from North and Central America. Aplectana hamatospicula was first described, over 70 yr ago, from Hyla eximia and Bufo peltocephalus from Mexico and Cuba, respectively, and reported from Gastrophryne carolinensis from Florida. Since then there have been no reports of this nematode in North America north of Mexico. The life cycle of A. hamatospicula is not known, and there is limited information on Aplectana spp. from North America. During 2010-2011, we collected 351 anurans of 8 species from 4 locations in Stillwater, Payne County, Oklahoma, U.S.A., and examined them for the presence of Aplectana spp. Of the 8 species of anurans surveyed, A. hamatospicula infected only the Great Plains narrowmouth toad (Gastrophryne olivacea). The prevalence of A. hamatospicula was 85.7% (12/14) with a mean abundance of 28.4 + 24.0 and a mean intensity of 33.1 + 22.8 worms per infected toad. We provide new morphological measurements for male and female A. hamatospicula along with new locality records for this nematode in North America.

  20. Potenciais efeitos das mudanças climáticas futuras sobre a distribuiçãode um anuro da Caatinga Rhinella granulosa (Anura, Bufonidae

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    Hauanny Rodrigues Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, usamos dois tipos de modelagem de distribuição de espécies (correlativo e mecanístico, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito das mudanças climáticas sob a distribuição geográfica de Rhinella granulosa (Spix, 1824, espécie inserida principalmente no bioma Caatinga. Avaliamos a predição, levantada por outros autores, de que espécies de anfíbios distribuídos em climas quentes terão suas distribuições espaciais restringidas por aumento da temperatura considerando cenários futuros. Na abordagem correlativa, os resultados mostraram que as distribuições espaciais geradas pelo modelo de distância Euclidiana foram mais conservativas, ou seja, as áreas que apresentaram menor distância do nicho ótimo se restringiram às áreas de distribuição real da espécie (Caatinga e às pequenas regiões que abrangem o bioma Cerrado. A abordagem mecanística apresentou resultados menos conservativos, onde o habitat indicado como adequado para R. granulosa está contido em grande parte da América do Sul, formando uma extensa área contínua. No geral, verificou-se que R. granulosa não sofrerá forte influência climática sobre sua distribuição geográfica no futuro, pelo menos até 2080, provavelmente por apresentar uma fisiologia extremamente tolerante às altas temperaturas e por possuir adaptações para suportar clima quente e seco.

  1. Parasitism of Hylodes phyllodes (Anura: Cycloramphidae by Hannemania sp. (Acari: Trombiculidae in an area of Atlantic Forest, Ilha Grande, Southeastern Brazil

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    Hatano F.H.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied some parameters of the parasitism by the mite Hannemania sp. on the endemic frog Hylodes phyllodes in the Atlantic Forest of Ilha Grande (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Prevalence, mean abundance, mean intensity and total intensity of infestation, body regions infected, and host sexual differences in parasitism rate of the larvae of Hannemania sp. on individuals of H. phyllodes were assessed. Prevalence was 86.5% (N = 37; total of 1,745 larvae of Hannemania sp for male hosts and 91.7% (N =12; total of 330 larvae for female hosts, with no significant difference between the sexes. Overall prevalence of Hannemania sp. on H. phyllodes was 87.7%. Mean intensity of infestation in males (54.5 ± 42.5; range 1-173 larvae was higher than in females (29.9 ± 47.6; range 1-166. We conclude that the rates of intensity, abundance, and prevalence of Hannemania larvae parasitizing Hylodes phyllodes at Ilha Grande were considerably high, suggesting that this species of anuran constitutes a relevant host for this mite species to complete its lifecycle in the area. Differences between males and females in infestation rates probably reflect their differential use of space in the forest.

  2. The tadpole of Amazophrynella manaos Rojas, Carvalho, Gordo, Ávila, Farias and Hrbek, 2014 (Anura, Bufonidae) from the type locality and adjacent regions at Central Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menin, Marcelo; Pegorini, Reysi Jhayne; De Carvalho, Vinicius Tadeu; Rojas, Rommel Roberto; Gordo, Marcelo

    2014-06-30

    The genus Amazophrynella, as currently recognized (Fouquet et al. 2012a, b), is represented by four nominal species (Frost 2014; Rojas et al. 2014) but the tadpoles of only one species, Amazophrynella minuta (Melin) from Ecuador, have been described (Duellman & Lynch 1969; Duellman 1978). Amazophrynella manaos Rojas, Carvalho, Gordo, Ávila, Farias and Hrbek, 2014 occurs in the leaf litter of terra firme forest in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Guiana region (Rojas et al. 2014). The tadpole of this species was briefly described in diagrammatic drawings by Hero (1990) as Dendrophryniscus minutus. Herein, we provide a detailed description of this tadpole based on individuals at 12 stages of development collected in five different sites, including the type locality, at Central Amazonia, Brazil.

  3. Ochoterenella esslingeri n. sp. (Nematoda: Onchocercidae: Waltonellinae) from Bokermannohyla luctuosa (Anura: Hylidae) in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with notes on Paraochoterenella Purnomo & Bangs, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Lima, S.; Marun, B.; Alves, P.V.; Bain, O.

    2012-01-01

    The waltonelline Ochoterenella esslingeri n. sp., a filarial parasite of the anuran Bokermannohyla luctuosa in Minas Gerais, Brazil is described. Several characters distinguish this new species from the 15 species presently included in the genus: the cuticular ornamentation of the female that is restricted to the posterior region of the body, the irregular arrangement of the small, rounded bosses, the postoesophageal vulva, the short glandular oesophagus, the size and shape of the microfilariae, the long left spicule and high spicular ratio. Irregularly arranged, tiny, rounded bosses are common in the monotypic genus Paraochoterenella from an Indonesian ranid, which is not well defined but likely valid. In the Neotropical Realm, the type hosts of the species of Ochoterenella are Hylidae (O. esslingeri n. sp.), Leptodactylidae (two species) and the remaining 13 species were described from the giant toad Rhinella marina (Bufonidae). PMID:23193518

  4. Dero (Allodero lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925 (Anura: Hylidae from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil

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    FH. Oda

    Full Text Available Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A. lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A. lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species.

  5. Ecology of Ischnocnema parva (Anura: Brachycephalidae at the Atlantic Rainforest of Serra da Concórdia, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Ana Cristina J. S. Martins

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ischnocnema (Brachycephalidae includes many species that are important members of the leaf litter frog communities in the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil. Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853 is endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome and is restricted to the forests of southeastern Brazil. Currently, the available information about the ecology of I. parva is scarce. We studied the diet, the habitat use, reproduction and density of I. parva in an area of Atlantic Rainforest at the Concórdia mountain range, Rio de Janeiro. Individuals of I. parva were captured in April 2005 using different sampling methods: time constrained search (transects, plots of 5 x 5 m (25 m² on the litter, and pitfall traps with drift fences. We found 240 frogs; 35 females and 205 males. Females (mean SVL = 19.1 mm were significantly larger (F1,238 = 143.016, R² = 0.375, p < 0.001 than males (13.2 mm. The species preyed mainly on arthropods, with ants and isopods being the most important items, both showing high values of importance index (Ix = 50.0 and 26.7, respectively. Ischnocnema parva is a terrestrial species whose preferential microhabitat at the Serra da Concórdia was the litter of the forest floor (78.7%. The activity was predominantly crepuscular-nocturnal and the estimated density of I. parva was 24.9 ind/100 m². For the eight ovigerous females captured, the mean number of mature oocytes per female was 25 (range: 22-30 and the oocyte mean diameter was 1.11 mm (N = 40 oocytes. Oocyte number increased with female body size (R² = 0.504, F1,6 = 6.107, p < 0.05, N = 8, indicating that as females increase in size they produce larger clutches. Some ecological aspects such as diet and microhabitat use were similar to that observed for an insular population of I. parva, whereas reproductive traits differed. Thus, long term studies are necessary to understand the extent to which these differences are explained by environmental factors.

  6. Adaptations of the reed frog Hyperolius viridiflavus (Amphibia: Anura: Hyperoliidae) to its arid environment. VI. The iridophores in the skin as radiation reflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobelt, F; Linsenmair, K E

    1992-01-01

    Hyperolius viridiflavus possesses one complete layer of iridophores in the stratum spongiosum of its skin at about 8 days after metamorphosis. The high reflectance of this thin layer is almost certainly the result of multilayer interference reflection. In order to reflect a mean of about 35% of the incident radiation across a spectrum of 300-2900 nm only 30 layers of well-arranged crystals are required, resulting in a layer 10.5 microns thick. These theoretical values are in good agreement with the actual mean diameter of single iridophores (15.0 +/- 3.0 microns), the number of stacked platelets (40-100) and the measured reflectance of one complete layer of these cells (32.2 +/- 2.3%). Iridescence colours typical of multilayer interference reflectors were seen after severe dehydration. The skin colour turned from white (0-10% weight loss) through a copper-like iridescence (10-25% weight loss) to green iridescence (25-42%). In dry season state, H. viridiflavus needs a much higher reflectance to cope with the problems of high solar radiation load during long periods with severe dehydration stress. Dry-adapted skin contains about 4-6 layers of iridophores. The measured reflectance (up to 60% across the solar spectrum) of this thick layer (over 60 microns) is not in keeping with the results obtained by applying the multilayer interference theory. Light, scattered independently of wavelength from disordered crystals, superimposes on the multilayer-induced spectral reflectance. The initial parallel shift of the multilayer curves with increasing thickness and the almost constant ("white") reflectance of layers exceeding 60 microns clearly point to a changing physical basis with increasing layer thickness.

  7. Intra-generic and interspecific karyotype patterns of Leptodactylus and Adenomera (Anura, Leptodactylidae) with inclusion of five species from Central Amazonia.

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    Coelho, Ana Carolina; de Mattos, Thais Lemos; Viana, Patrik; Terencio, Maria Leandra; Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Menin, Marcelo; Gross, Maria Claudia

    2016-02-01

    The genera Leptodactylus and Adenomera comprise 92 species distributed throughout the Neotropical region. These species have a modal diploid chromosome number 2n = 22. However, chromosome rearrangements are evident in the differentiation of five intra-generic groups in the genus Leptodactylus (L. fuscus, L. latrans, L. marmoratus (formally composed by the species of the genus Adenomera), L. melanonotus, L. pentadactylus), yet it is not clear if there is a karyotype pattern for each group. Aiming to understand the intra-generic and interspecific karyotype patterns of Leptodactylus and Adenomera, cytogenetic analyses were performed in A. andreae, L. macrosternum, L. pentadactylus, L. petersii, and L. riveroi using conventional staining, C-banding, nucleolus organizer region (NOR) and hybridization in situ fluorescent (FISH). The karyotype of Leptodactylus riveroi was described for the first time. Adenomera andreae had 2n = 26, while the remaining species 2n = 22. The NOR was found on pair No. 8 of A. andreae, L. macrosternum, L. pentadactylus, and L. riveroi, whereas L. petersii had it on pairs Nos. 6 and 10. These locations were confirmed by the FISH with 18S rDNA probe, except for pair No. 10 of L. petersii. The C-banding pattern was evident at the centromeres of chromosomes of all species and some interspecific variations were also observed. 2n = 22 was observed in the species of the L. latrans group, as well as in the intra-generic groups L. fuscus and L. pentadactylus; in the L. melanonotus group there were three diploid chromosome numbers 2n = 20, 22 and 24; and a larger variation in 2n was also evident in the L. marmoratus group.

  8. Advertisement call of Scinax camposseabrai (Bokermann, 1968) (Anura: Hylidae), with comments on the call of three species of the Scinax ruber clade.

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    Novaes, Gabriel; Zina, Juliana

    2016-02-25

    Scinax camposseabrai was allocated into the Scinax ruber clade by Caramaschi & Cardoso (2006) by overall similarities as snout not pointed, breeding in open areas, and an advertisement calls with multipulsed notes. This assumption about the call was based solely on an onomatopoeia provided by Bokermann (1968). Herein we provide a formal description of the advertisement call of S. camposseabrai and compare it with described calls of other S. ruber clade species. Additionally, we provide descriptions of the advertisement calls of three sympatric species of the S. ruber clade: S. eurydice (Bokermann), S. pachycrus (Miranda-Ribeiro) and S. cf. x-signatus.

  9. Assessment of water pollution in the Brazilian Pampa biome by means of stress biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii (Anura: Hylidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, TG; Melo, R; Costa-Silva, DG; Nunes, MEM; Rodrigues, NR

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Pampa biome is currently under constant threat due to increase of agriculture and improper management of urban effluents. Studies with a focus on the assessment of impacts caused by human activities in this biome are scarce. In the present study, we measured stress-related biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii, an endemic species to the Pampa biome, and tested its suitability as a bioindicator for the assessment of potential aquatic contamination in selected ponds (S1 and S2) nearby agricultural areas in comparison to a reference site. A significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. The levels of total-hydroperoxides were increased in S2 site. In parallel, increased activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase were observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. Further studies are necessary in order to correlate the changes observed here with different chemical stressors in water, as well as to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity induced by pesticides in amphibian species endemic to the Pampa biome. Nevertheless, our study validates Phyllomedusa iheringii as a valuable bioindicator in environmental studies. PMID:26056614

  10. Two new species of frogs of the genus Pristimantis from Llanganates National Park in Ecuador with comments on the regional diversity of Ecuadorian Pristimantis (Anura, Craugastoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, María J.; Venegas, Pablo J.; Ron, Santiago R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe two new species of frogs of the genus Pristimantis from the eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, at Parque Nacional Llanganates. The new species are characterized by the spiny appearance typical of several species inhabiting montane forests. Pristimantis yanezi sp. n. is most similar to Pristimantis colonensis and Pristimantis incanus but differs from both in groin coloration and by having smaller tubercles on the upper eyelids, heels, and tarsus. Pristimantis llanganati sp. n. is most similar to Pristimantis eriphus and Pristimantis chloronotus. It can be distinguished from Pristimantis eriphus by the color pattern on the scapular region and by having smaller conical tubercles on the dorsum. Pristimantis chloronotus differs from Pristimantis llanganati sp. n. in having a pair of sinuous paravertebral folds. Both new species occur in a region with few amphibian collections and nothing is known about their abundance and ecology. Therefore, it is recommended to assign them to the Data Deficient Red List category. Updated figures of species richness of Pristimantis among biogeographic regions in Ecuador are also presented. Pristimantis reach their highest diversity in Montane Forests of the eastern versant of the Andes. Its species richness across regions cannot be explained by regional area, elevation, temperature, or precipitation. Political endemism in Pristimantis is higher than that of other terrestrial vertebrates. PMID:27408555

  11. Helminths of the two mountain frogs, banded frog, Rana camerani Boulenger, 1886 and Uludağ frog Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 (Anura: Ranidae), collected from the Antalya province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düşen, Serdar

    2007-01-01

    In this study, two mountain frogs (Rana camerani and Rana macrocnemis) were collected in the Antalya Province in south-western Turkey during 2001 and 2002 and were examined for helminths. Out of 15 Rana camerani, 10 (66.7%) were infected with 1 or more helminths and out of 20 Rana macrocnemis, 17 (85%) were infected with 1 or more helminths. The helminth fauna of Rana camerani included 4 species of which were 3 trematode species (Haplometra cylindracea, Pleurogenoides medians, Opisthioglyphe rastellus), and 1 nematode species (Cosmocerca ornata). The helminth fauna of Rana macrocnemis included 3 species with 1 trematode species (H. cylindracea), 1 nematode species (C. ornata), and 1 acanthocephalan species (Acanthocephalus ranae). H. cylindracea and C. ornata were observed in both of the mountain frogs.

  12. Systematics of treefrogs of the Hypsiboas calcaratus and Hypsiboas fasciatus species complex (Anura, Hylidae with the description of four new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Caminer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the systematics of the Hypsiboas calcaratus species complex, a group of widely distributed Amazonian hylid frogs. A comprehensive analysis of genetic, morphological, and bioacoustic datasets uncovered the existence of eleven candidate species, six of which are confirmed. Two of them correspond to Hypsiboas fasciatus and Hypsiboas calcaratus and the remaining four are new species that we describe here. Hypsiboas fasciatus sensu stricto has a geographic range restricted to the eastern Andean foothills of southern Ecuador while Hypsiboas calcaratus sensu stricto has a wide distribution in the Amazon basin. Hypsiboas almendarizae sp. n. occurs at elevations between 500 and 1950 m in central and northern Ecuador; the other new species (H. maculateralis sp. n., H. alfaroi sp. n., and H. tetete sp. n. occur at elevations below 500 m in Amazonian Ecuador and Peru. The new species differ from H. calcaratus and H. fasciatus in morphology, advertisement calls, and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Five candidate species from the Guianan region, Peru, and Bolivia are left as unconfirmed. Examination of the type material of Hyla steinbachi, from Bolivia, shows that it is not conspecific with H. fasciatus and thus is removed from its synonymy.

  13. The first taxonomic revaluation of the Iranian water frogs of the genus Pelophylax (Anura: Ranidae) using sequences of the mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesarakloo, Alireza; Rastegar-Pouyani, Eskandar; Rastegar-Pouyani, Nasrollah; Kami, Hajigholi; Najibzadeh, Masoumeh; Khosravani, Azar; Oraie, Hamzeh

    2017-05-01

    The Eurasian water frog species and their geographic ranges have undergone considerable changes in the last four decades, but the Iranian populations have largely remained unknown. All the Iranian populations of water frogs, despite their vast distribution range have attributed to a single species: Rana ridibunda. In order to understand the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic status of water frogs of Iran, we collected samples from many populations across the country and used the mitochondrial DNA sequence variation. A data set with a final sequence length of 616 nucleotides was generated for Cyt b from 70 individuals of Pelophylax in which there are 422 invariable sites, 174 variable sites of which 123 were parsimony informative. In total, 43 haplotypes were found (Hd: 0.9752). The result demonstrated that, two major clades with strong support can be identified within the Iranian water frogs. One of these clades that include north western and southwestern populations forms a monophyletic group along with P. bedriagae samples from Turkey. The second clade consists of water frog populations of north and northeastern parts of Iran which in turn is subdivided into two subclades. Inclusion of water frog samples from adjacent areas showed that the second clade of our study is, most likely, a distinct taxonomic entity at species rank with its two subclades indicating two diagnosable subspecies for the clade. In conclusion, we suggest that two distinct species, P. bedriagae and Pelophylax sp., with its two subspecies, should be identified as water frogs of Iran. In Addition, another traditionally reported water frog of Iran, P.ridibundus, most likely should be excluded from the Iranian water frog's checklist.

  14. Molecular phylogeny and genetic identification of populations of two species of Feirana frogs (Amphibia: Anura, Ranidae, Dicroglossinae, Paini) endemic to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Jiang, Jianping; Xie, Feng; Chen, Xiaohong; Dubois, Alain; Liang, Gang; Wagner, Steven

    2009-07-01

    Using mitochondrial 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and ND2 sequences, we investigated phylogenetic relationships among populations of two frog species endemic to China, both referred to the genus Feirana. A sister-group relationship between the two species was supported moderately in a maximum likelihood analysis and significantly in a Bayesian analysis, but not in a maximum parsimony analysis, of combined data for the three genes. Pending resolution of this incongruence, we provisionally maintain these species in the genus Feirana. Two major clades with a deep divergence are concordant with the species F. quadranus and "F." taihangnica. In the present work, some populations from the Qinling Mountains and all those from the Funiu and the Zhongtiao-southern Taihang Mountains are referred to "F." taihangnica rather than F. quadranus, whereas others are referred to F. quadranus. Consequently, the main body of the Qinling Mountains was identified as a large contact zone between these two species. On the basis of phylogenetic relationships and the distribution pattern of populations, we propose a hypothesis for the divergence of "F." taihangnica: the ancestral species might have inhabited the westernmost Qinling Mountains and dispersed to the main Qinling Mountains, and then to the Zhongtiao-southern Taihang and Funiu Mountains. In contrast, two alternative hypotheses are suggested for F. quadranus: if the two species are confirmed as sister groups, F. quadranus might have dispersed from the westernmost Qinling to the Longmen, Qinling, Daba, and northern Wuling Mountains; alternatively, F. quadranus might have come from the northern Wuling Mountains and then dispersed to the Daba, Qinling, and Longmen mountains.

  15. The taxonomic status of two West African Leptopelis species: L. macrotis Schiøtz, 1967 and L. spiritusnoctis Rödel, 2007 (Amphibia: Anura: Arthroleptidae

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    Mark-Oliver Roedel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We herein examine the taxonomic status of two West African forest-dwelling Leptopelis species. The small L. spiritusnoctis, described from the Upper Guinean forests of West Africa, was recently synonymized with L. aubryi, described from Gabon. The large L. macrotis, known from Ghana to Sierra Leone, was downgraded to a subspecies of L. millsoni, ranging from the Niger Delta to eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. These taxonomic decisions are in contrast to the general biogeographic pattern of African forest anurans and we consequently tested if the morphologically similar taxon pairs are indeed conspecifics by applying acoustic and molecular techniques. Both techniques confirmed that populations from West Africa differ significantly from their Central African morphological equivalents. Consequently, we herein resurrect L. spiritusnoctis as a valid species. The acoustic data indicate that L. aubryi may comprise a complex of cryptic species. We further advocate using the name L. macrotis for West African and L. millsoni for Central African populations of these larger arboreal frogs. However, we had neither genetic nor acoustic data from the type locality of L. millsoni available and could not clarify if these frogs belong to the more western or eastern taxon or even represent a Nigerian endemic. Thus, it is possible that West African populations need to be termed L. millsoni in the future. For populations east of the Cross River, Nigeria, the name L. guineensis would be available.

  16. Registro histórico de Gastrotheca ovifera (Anura: Hemiphractidae: evidencias de disminución en selvas nubladas de la Cordillera de la Costa venezolana

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    Javier Valera-Leal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrotheca ovifera es una rana marsupial que habita en el dosel arbóreo de bosques nublados y ribereños del Tramo Occidental y Ramal Litoral de La Cordillera de la Costa venezolana (CCV entre 820-2 000m de altitud. De acuerdo con la Lista Roja de la UCN se encuentra En Peligro (EN y su evaluación fue realizada de acuerdo a apreciaciones anecdóticas, por lo que su situación de amenaza no ha sido comprobada por muestreos sistemáticos. Con el objetivo de estudiar el estado de las poblaciones de la especie en el Parque Nacional Henri Pittier (PNHP en el Ramal Litoral de la CCV, realizamos una revisión histórica en museos nacionales y extranjeros y encontramos que la especie fue registrada en 1996 por última vez en el PNHP. Acumulamos 646 horas/persona de muestreo sistemático en localidades históricas y adicionales de la especie en el parque durante los años 2006 y 2007 y no obtuvimos registro de la especie. Adicionalmente, realizamos asociaciones entre datos promedios de precipitación anual y el registro histórico de la especie durante el periodo 1941-1997 (r s=- 0.054, p=0.820, n=19. Discutimos sobre su estado de conservación con base a la distribución, fluctuación y cambios poblacionales de la especie

  17. Novel data on the ecology of Cochranella mache (Anura: Centrolenidae) and the importance of protected areas for this critically endangered glassfrog in the neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Andrade, H Mauricio; Rojas-Soto, Octavio; Paucar, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We studied a population of the endangered glassfrog, Cochranella mache, at Bilsa Biological Station, northwestern Ecuador, from 2008 and 2009. We present information on annual abundance patterns, behavioral ecology, habitat use and a species distribution model performed with MaxEnt. We evaluate the importance of the National System of Protected Areas (SNAP) in Colombia and Ecuador, under scenarios of climate change and habitat loss. We predicted a restricted environmental suitability area from 48,509 Km(2) to 65,147 Km(2) along western Ecuador and adjacent Colombia; ∼ 8% of the potential distribution occurs within SNAP. We examined four aspects of C. mache ecology: (1) ecological data suggests a strong correlation between relative abundance and rainfall, with a high probability to observe frogs through rainy months (February-May); (2) habitat use and the species distribution model suggest that this canopy dweller is restricted to small streams and rivulets in primary and old secondary forest in evergreen lowland and piedmont forest of western Ecuador, with predictions of suitability areas in adjacent southern Colombia; (3) the SNAP of Colombia and Ecuador harbor a minimum portion of the predicted model of distribution (climate change reduces in about 95% the suitability areas for this endangered frog along its distributional range in Protected Areas. The resulting model allows the recognition of areas to undertake conservation efforts and plan future field surveys, as well as forecasting regions with high probability of C. mache occurrence in western Ecuador and southern Colombia. Further research is required to assess population tendencies, habitat fragmentation and target survey zones to accelerate the discovery of unknown populations in unexplored areas with high probability of suitability. We recommend that Cochranella mache must be re-categorized as "Critically Endangered" species in national and global status, according with criteria and sub-criteria A4, B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv),E.

  18. A new account for the endangered Cerrado Rocket Frog Allobates goings (Bokermann, 1975 (Anura: Aromobatidae, with comments on taxonomy and conservation

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    Thiago Ribeiro de Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a new distributional record of Allobates goianus in Niquelândia (Goiás State, Central Brazil, and its rediscovery in Minaçu since the creation of the Serra da Mesa dam lake in 1997. Moreover, we describe the species advertisement call from Niquelândia, reporting on a new calling emission pattern for the species, plus we provide the first comprehensive definition, diagnosis, and interspecific comparisons of A. goianus based on our two newly collected additional specimens since its original description in the mid-1970s. Allobates goianus is compared with the 22 Allobates species known to occur in Brazil due to geographic proximity. Morphological, color, and acoustic traits diagnose A. goianus from all analyzed congeners, except A. brunneus and A. olfersioides. Our study draws attention to the importance of rediscovering A. goianus at the type locality (Chapada dos Veadeiros aiming to properly address the species limits of the three Brazilian Allobates species (A. brunneus, A. goianus, and A. olfersioides that are indistinguishable with regard to phenotypic traits. The conservation status of A. goianus, endemic to the Cerrado of Central Brazil, is discussed as its natural habitats are under increased pressure due to habitat fragmentation in the Cerrado.

  19. Evolutionary dynamics of an expressed MHC class IIβ locus in the Ranidae (Anura) uncovered by genome walking and high-throughput amplicon sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Kevin P.; Cortazar-Chinarro, Maria; Harris, D. James; Crottini, Angelica; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Fleischer, Robert C.; Savage, Anna E.

    2017-01-01

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a genomic region encoding immune loci that are important and frequently used markers in studies of adaptive genetic variation and disease resistance. Given the primary role of infectious diseases in contributing to global amphibian declines, we characterized the hypervariable exon 2 and flanking introns of the MHC Class IIβ chain for 17 species of frogs in the Ranidae, a speciose and cosmopolitan family facing widespread pathogen infections and declines. We find high levels of genetic variation concentrated in the Peptide Binding Region (PBR) of the exon. Ten codons are under positive selection, nine of which are located in the mammal-defined PBR. We hypothesize that the tenth codon (residue 21) is an amphibian-specific PBR site that may be important in disease resistance. Trans-species and trans-generic polymorphisms are evident from exon-based genealogies, and co-phylogenetic analyses between intron, exon and mitochondrial based reconstructions reveal incongruent topologies, likely due to different locus histories. We developed two sets of barcoded adapters that reliably amplify a single and likely functional locus in all screened species using both 454 and Illumina based sequencing methods. These primers provide a resource for multiplexing and directly sequencing hundreds of samples in a single sequencing run, avoiding the labour and chimeric sequences associated with cloning, and enabling MHC population genetic analyses. Although the primers are currently limited to the 17 species we tested, these sequences and protocols provide a useful genetic resource and can serve as a starting point for future disease, adaptation and conservation studies across a range of anuran taxa.

  20. Correlations of condition factor and gonadosomatic, hepatosomatic and lipo-somatic relations of Leptodactylus macrosternum (ANURA: Leptodactylidae in the Brazilian Semi-arid

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    MARCIO F. CHAVES

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess variations of the condition factor (K1 in relation to the gonadosomatic- RGS and energy reserves (hepatosomatic - RWL and liposomatic - RFB relations of Leptodactylus macrosternum and their relationship to climate variation in the Northeast of Brazil, Caatinga area, state of Paraiba. The animals were captured fortnightly through active collecting, between January and December 2013. Significant differences were observed in the monthly variations of K1, RGS and RFB indices in male and female L. macrosternum over the months of collection. In males, K1 showed no significant relationship with the other variables. In females, RGS values only show notable correlations with RWF and K1 values. K1 values showed significant correlations with all other weight and length ratios. Climate change in the HFOB region showed significant relationships with the variation of the indexes evaluated, with the exception of RWF. The variation of K1, RGS, RWL and RFB values over the months of collection as well as their relation with the local climatic variation, showed a brief reproductive activity for the species.

  1. Diversity of the strongly rheophilous tadpoles of Malagasy tree frogs, genus Boophis (Anura, Mantellidae), and identification of new candidate species via larval DNA sequence and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianiaina, Roger Daniel; Strauß, Axel; Glos, Julian; Vences, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study provides detailed morphological descriptions of previously unknown tadpoles of the treefrog genus Boophis Tschudi and analyses of habitat preferences of several of these tadpoles in Ranomafana National Park. A total of twenty-two tadpoles determined via DNA barcoding are characterized morphologically herein, fourteen of them for the first time. Twelve of these tadpoles belong to taxonomically undescribed candidate species which in several cases are so far only known from their larval stages. Our data show that the larvae of some of these candidate species occur syntopically yet maintaining a clearly correlated genetic and morphological identity, suggesting that they indeed are true biological and evolutionary species. Tadpoles considered to belong to the “adherent” ecomorphological guild inhabit fast-running waters and their oral disc is commonly to continuously attached to the rocky substrate, supposedly to keep their position in the water current. Some of these species are characterized by the presence of a dorsal gap of papillae and the absence of an upper jaw sheath. This guild includes the tadpoles of the Boophis albipuncatus group (Boophis ankaratra, Boophis schuboeae, Boophis albipunctatus, Boophis sibilans, Boophis luciae), and of the Boophis mandraka group (Boophis sambirano and six candidate species related to this species and to Boophis mandraka). Tadpoles considered belonging to the “suctorial” guild inhabit fast-running waters where they use frequently their oral disc to attach to the substrate. They have an enlarged oral disc without any dorsal gap, including two nominal species (Boophis marojezensis, Boophis vittatus), and five candidate species related to Boophis marojezensis. An ecological analysis of the tadpoles of Boophis luciae, Boophis schuboeae and Boophis marojezensis [Ca51 JQ518198] from Ranomafana National Park did not provide evidence for a clear preference of these tadpoles to the fast flowing microhabitat sections of the stream, although the tadpoles discussed in this study are typically caught in this habitat. PMID:22539880

  2. Assessment of water pollution in the Brazilian Pampa biome by means of stress biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii (Anura: Hylidae

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    TG Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Pampa biome is currently under constant threat due to increase of agriculture and improper management of urban effluents. Studies with a focus on the assessment of impacts caused by human activities in this biome are scarce. In the present study, we measured stress-related biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii, an endemic species to the Pampa biome, and tested its suitability as a bioindicator for the assessment of potential aquatic contamination in selected ponds (S1 and S2 nearby agricultural areas in comparison to a reference site. A significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. The levels of total-hydroperoxides were increased in S2 site. In parallel, increased activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase were observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. Further studies are necessary in order to correlate the changes observed here with different chemical stressors in water, as well as to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity induced by pesticides in amphibian species endemic to the Pampa biome. Nevertheless, our study validates Phyllomedusa iheringii as a valuable bioindicator in environmental studies.

  3. Assessment of water pollution in the Brazilian Pampa biome by means of stress biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii (Anura: Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, T G; Melo, R; Costa-Silva, D G; Nunes, Mem; Rodrigues, N R; Franco, J L

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Pampa biome is currently under constant threat due to increase of agriculture and improper management of urban effluents. Studies with a focus on the assessment of impacts caused by human activities in this biome are scarce. In the present study, we measured stress-related biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii, an endemic species to the Pampa biome, and tested its suitability as a bioindicator for the assessment of potential aquatic contamination in selected ponds (S1 and S2) nearby agricultural areas in comparison to a reference site. A significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. The levels of total-hydroperoxides were increased in S2 site. In parallel, increased activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase were observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. Further studies are necessary in order to correlate the changes observed here with different chemical stressors in water, as well as to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity induced by pesticides in amphibian species endemic to the Pampa biome. Nevertheless, our study validates Phyllomedusa iheringii as a valuable bioindicator in environmental studies.

  4. Una nueva especie de rana de cristal del género Hyalinobatrachium (Anura: Centrolenidae del Delta del Río Orinoco, Venezuela

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    J. Celsa Señaris

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie de Hyalinobatrachium del grupo fleischmanni, H. mondolfii, de las planicies inundables del delta del río Orinoco, Venezuela. Hyalinobatrachium mondolfii se distingue del resto de las especies del grupo por la siguiente combinación de caracteres: peritoneo parietal translúcido, pericardio y peritoneos visceral y hepático blancos, coloración dorsal en vida verde claro con diminutos puntos amarillos y en preservativo crema uniforme con diminutos melanóforos oscuros (visibles solo bajo magnificación, huesos blancos en vida, palmeadura de manos y pies extensa, cabeza redondeada en vista dorsal e inclinada en vista lateral, piel dorsal granular y un canto con frecuencia fundamental superior a los 5 000 HzA new species of Hyalinobatrachium of the fleischmanni group, H. mondolfii, is described from the Orinoco delta floodplains in Venezuela. This new species can be distinguished from other congeners by the following combination of characters: parietal peritoneum clear, pericardium white, visceral and hepatic peritoneum white, color in life pale green with diminute yellow spots and, in preservative, cream with small dark melanophores (visible only under magnification, bones white in life, extense webbing, snout round in dorsal view and inclinate in lateral view, dorsal skin granulate and a advertisement call with a fundamental frequency greater than 5000 Hz

  5. Another puzzle piece: new record of the Fringed Leaf Frog, Cruziohyla craspedopus (Funkhouser, 1957) (Anura: Phyllomedusidae), in the eastern Amazon Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes, Leandro; Pavan, Dante

    2017-01-01

    We report new occurrence of Cruziohyla craspedopus (Funkhouser, 1957) in the eastern Amazon Rainforest. This is only the second record from the state of Pará, Brazil and represents the easternmost known point of this species' range.

  6. Extra-intestinal localization of Goussia sp (Apicomplexa) oocysts in Rana dalmatina (Anura: Ranidae), and the fate of infection after metamorphosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, M.; Modrý, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2006), s. 237-241 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1544; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Goussia * Rana * Coccidia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.509, year: 2006

  7. A new species of Hatchet-faced Treefrog Sphaenorhynchus Tschudi (Anura: Hylidae) from Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo-Vieira, Katyuscia; Lacerda, João Victor A; Pezzuti, Tiago L; Leite, Felipe Sá Fortes; De Assis, Clodoaldo Lopes; Cruz, Carlos Alberto G

    2015-12-21

    A new species of Sphaenorhynchus is described from the Municipality of Mariana, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is characterized by the vocal sac moderately developed, single, subgular, with longitudinal folds; white canthal and dorsolateral lines delimited below by a dorsolateral black line from the tip of snout extending beyond the eye to gradually disappearing up to the flanks; and premaxilla and maxilla almost completely edentulous, each bearing 1-5 extremely small teeth. It is most similar with Sphaenorhynchus orophilus, from which it can be distinguished by having a less robust forearm in males; glandular subcloacal dermal fold; premaxilla and maxilla almost completely edentulous; and larvae with large marginal papillae in the oral disc. The new species occurs in natural ponds over ironstone outcrops (known as canga) on flat terrain, where males call from the floating vegetation.

  8. A new species of Psychrophrynella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae from the humid montane forests of Cusco, eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes

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    Alessandro Catenazzi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Psychrophrynella from the humid montane forest of the Department Cusco in Peru. Specimens were collected at 2,670–3,165 m elevation in the Área de Conservación Privada Ukumari Llakta, Japumayo valley, near Comunidad Campesina de Japu, in the province of Paucartambo. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Psychrophrynella but P. bagrecito and P. usurpator by possessing a tubercle on the inner edge of the tarsus, and from these two species by its yellow ventral coloration on abdomen and limbs. Furthermore, the new species is like P. bagrecito and P. usurpator in having an advertisement call composed of multiple notes, whereas other species of Psychrophrynella whose calls are known have a pulsed call (P. teqta or a short, tonal call composed of a single note. The new species has a snout-vent length of 16.1–24.1 mm in males and 23.3–27.7 mm in females. Like other recently described species in the genus, this new Psychrophrynella inhabits high-elevation forests in the tropical Andes and likely has a restricted geographic distribution.

  9. Descripción de las larvas de dos centrolénidos (Anura: Centrolenidae del noroccidente de la Cordillera Oriental, Colombia

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    Marco Rada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las larvas de dos especies de la familia Centrolenidae (Hyalinobatrachium ibama y Cochranella daidalea procedentes del flanco occidental de la cordillera Oriental en el departamento de Norte de Santander, Colombia. En la descripción de las larvas, además de las características morfológicas tradicionales, se incorporaron nuevos elementos de juicio como la longitud del tubo cloacal, la forma del rostro, el patrón de color y la posición del espiráculo, los cuales resultaron ser informativos y muy útiles en la diferenciación de las especies. Se proporciona una discusión acerca de la validez taxonómica de algunos de los caracteres morfológicos empleados usualmente en las descripciones y comparaciones de los renacuajos de la familia Centrolenidae.We describe herein the larvae of two species of the family Centrolenidae (Hyalinobatrachium ibama and Cochranella daidalea from the Department of Norte de Santander on the western flank of the Cordillera Oriental, Colombia. In order to provide an adequate description, we incorporate new elements such as: vent-tube length, snout shape, color pattern and spiracle position. A discussion about the taxonomic validity of some tadpole morphological characteristics traditionally used in descriptions and comparisons of the family Centrolenidae is provided.

  10. Ecología trófica en larvas de Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae en agroecosistemas y sus posibles implicaciones para la conservación

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    Clarisa Bionda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento de la agricultura produce perdida del habitat natural, con consecuencias para la biodiversidad de los anfibios. Se analizo la dieta y condición corporal de larvas de anuros de Rhinella arenarum que habitan agroecosistemas. Los muestreos fueron realizados en dos agroecosistemas y en un tercer sitio, no afectado por cultivos. Las larvas capturadas fueron anestesiadas, fijadas y preservadas en formaldehido, se realizaron medidas corporales y se analizo la dieta de las larvas. Se registro diversidad en la oferta alimenticia proporcionada por los distintos ambientes. La dieta tuvo una predominancia de algas Bacillarophyceae, seguidas por Cyanophyceae. Particularmente, los géneros Navicula, Nitzschia, Hantzschia y Gomphonema (clase Bacillarophyceae, fueron importantes en los agroecosistemas. Los géneros Osillatoria, Euglena y Strombomonas (clases Cyanophyceae y Euglenophyceae, predominaron en la dieta de las larvas de anuros en el sitio menos alterado. Las larvas de los sitios más alterados consumen menor cantidad de alimento y registran una menor condición corporal. La presencia de determinadas algas, indicarían un mayor grado de contaminación en los agroecosistemas. La eutrofización de lagunas podría alterar la disponibilidad de alimento para larvas de anuros que podría tener consecuencias poblacionales negativas. Se sugiere el análisis de dietas larvarias como un potencial bioindicador de salubridad ambiental.

  11. Molecular, morphological and acoustic assessment of the genus Ophryophryne (Anura, Megophryidae) from Langbian Plateau, southern Vietnam, with description of a new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jr., Nikolay A. Poyarkov; Duong, Tang Van; Orlov, Nikolai L.; Gogoleva, Svetlana S.; Vassilieva, Anna B.; Nguyen, Luan Thanh; Nguyen, Vu Dang Hoang; Nguyen, Sang Ngoc; Che, Jing; Mahony, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Asian Mountain Toads (Ophryophryne) are a poorly known genus of mostly small-sized anurans from southeastern China and Indochina. To shed light on the systematics within this group, the most comprehensive mitochondrial DNA phylogeny for the genus to date is presented, and the taxonomy and biogeography of this group is discussed. Complimented with extensive morphological data (including associated statistical analyses), molecular data indicates that the Langbian Plateau, in the southern Annamite Mountains, Vietnam, is one of the diversity centres of this genus where three often sympatric species of Ophryophryne are found, O. gerti, O. synoria and an undescribed species. To help resolve outstanding taxonomic confusion evident in literature (reviewed herein), an expanded redescription of O. gerti is provided based on the examination of type material, and the distributions of both O. gerti and O. synoria are considerably revised based on new locality records. We provide the first descriptions of male mating calls for all three species, permitting a detailed bioacoustics comparison of the species. We describe the new species from highlands of the northern and eastern Langbian Plateau, and distinguish it from its congeners by a combination of morphological, molecular and acoustic characters. The new species represents one of the smallest known members of the genus Ophryophryne. At present, the new species is known from montane evergreen forest between 700–2200 m a.s.l. We suggest the species should be considered Data Deficient following IUCN’s Red List categories. PMID:28769667

  12. Large-scale phylogenetic analyses provide insights into unrecognized diversity and historical biogeography of Asian leaf-litter frogs, genus Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Min; Poyarkov, Nikolay A; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Lathrop, Amy; Wu, Yun-He; Zhou, Wei-Wei; Yuan, Zhi-Yong; Jin, Jie-Qiong; Chen, Hong-Man; Liu, He-Qun; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Nguyen, Sang Ngoc; Duong, Tang Van; Eto, Koshiro; Nishikawa, Kanto; Matsui, Masafumi; Orlov, Nikolai L; Stuart, Bryan L; Brown, Rafe M; Rowley, Jodi J L; Murphy, Robert W; Wang, Ying-Yong; Che, Jing

    2018-07-01

    Southeast Asia and southern China (SEA-SC) harbor a highly diverse and endemic flora and fauna that is under increasing threat. An understanding of the biogeographical history and drivers of this diversity is lacking, especially in some of the most diverse and threatened groups. The Asian leaf-litter frog genus Leptolalax Dubois 1980 is a forest-dependent genus distributed throughout SEA-SC, making it an ideal study group to examine specific biogeographic hypotheses. In addition, the diversity of this genus remains poorly understood, and the phylogenetic relationships among species of Leptolalax and closely related Leptobrachella Smith 1928 remain unclear. Herein, we evaluate species-level diversity based on 48 of the 53 described species from throughout the distribution of Leptolalax. Molecular analyses reveal many undescribed species, mostly in southern China and Indochina. Our well-resolved phylogeny based on multiple nuclear DNA markers shows that Leptolalax is not monophyletic with respect to Leptobrachella and, thus, we assign the former to being a junior synonym of the latter. Similarly, analyses reject monophyly of the two subgenera of Leptolalax. The diversification pattern of the group is complex, involving a high degree of sympatry and prevalence of microendemic species. Northern Sundaland (Borneo) and eastern Indochina (Vietnam) appear to have played pivotal roles as geographical centers of diversification, and paleoclimatic changes and tectonic movements seem to have driven the major divergence of clades. Analyses fail to reject an "upstream" colonization hypothesis, and, thus, the genus appears to have originated in Sundaland and then colonized mainland Asia. Our results reveal that both vicariance and dispersal are responsible for current distribution patterns in the genus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Paracosmocercella rosettae n. gen. et n. sp. (Nematoda: Cosmocercoidea: Cosmocercidae) collected from the Japanese tree frog, Hyla japonica (Anura: Hylidae), in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Ikeda, Yatsukaho

    2007-08-01

    A new genus, Paracosmocercella (Nematoda: Cosmocercoidea: Cosmocercidae), is proposed with monotypic Paracosmocercella rosettae n. sp. from the Japanese tree frog, Hyla japonica Günther, 1859, in Oita, Kyushu Island, Japan. Paracosmocercella resembles Cosmocercella and Cosmocercoides by having 2 rows of rosette papillae without plectanes ventrally in preanal region of male, but it is readily distinguished from Cosmocercella by lacking clear vesicle supporting rosette papillae and from Cosmocercoides by lacking rosette papillae in perianal region and having large-sized eggs, which hatch in uterus.

  14. Heavy metal mediated innate immune responses of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Anura: Ranidae): Cellular profiles and associated Th1 skewed cytokine response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayawardena, Uthpala A.; Ratnasooriya, Wanigasekara D.; Wickramasinghe, Deepthi D.; Udagama, Preethi V., E-mail: dappvr@yahoo.com

    2016-10-01

    Immune cell and cytokine profiles in relation to metal exposure though much studied in mammals has not been adequately investigated in amphibians, due mainly to lack of suitable reagents for cytokine profiling in non-model species. However, interspecies cross reactivity of cytokines permitted us to assay levels of IFNγ, TNFα, IL6 and IL10in a common anuran, the Indian green frog (Euphlyctis hexadactylus), exposed to heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb, at ~ 5 ppm each) under field and laboratory settings in Sri Lanka. Enumeration of immune cells in blood and melanomacrophages in the liver, assay of serum and hepatic cytokines, and Th1/Th2 cytokine polarisation were investigated. Immune cell counts indicated overall immunosuppression with decreasing total WBC and splenocyte counts while neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased with metal exposure, indicating metal mediated stress. Serum IL6 levels of metal exposed frogs reported the highest (~ 9360 pg/mL) of all cytokines tested. Significantly elevated IFNγ production (P < 0.05) was evident in heavy metal exposed frogs. Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio in both serum and liver tissue homogenates was Th1 skewed due to significantly higher production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IFNγ in serum and TNFα in the liver (P < 0.01).Metal mediated aggregations of melanomacrophages in the liver were positively and significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with the hepatic expression of TNFα, IL6 and IL10 activity. Overall, Th1 skewed response may well be due to oxidative stress mediated nuclear factor κ-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) which enhances the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Xenobiotic stress has recently imposed an unprecedented level of threat to wildlife, particularly to sensitive species such as amphibians. Therefore, understanding the interactions between physiological stress and related immune responses is fundamental to conserve these environmental sentinels in the face of emerging eco-challenges. - Highlights: • Heavy metal pollution in wetland ecosystem is a serious ecotoxicological issue of global dimension • Immune cells and cytokine profile alternations were detected in heavy metal exposed Euphylictis hexadactylus under field and laboratory conditions • Th1 immune response showed significant positive correlation with neutrophil counts explaining the role of neutrophil function under heavy metal burden. • Heavy metal mediated inflammatory response in the liver elevated TNFα, IL6 and IL10 production, positively correlated with melanomacrophage aggregates • Th1 skewed immune response may be attributed to oxidative stress mediated NFκB activation.

  15. Heavy metal mediated innate immune responses of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Anura: Ranidae): Cellular profiles and associated Th1 skewed cytokine response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayawardena, Uthpala A.; Ratnasooriya, Wanigasekara D.; Wickramasinghe, Deepthi D.; Udagama, Preethi V.

    2016-01-01

    Immune cell and cytokine profiles in relation to metal exposure though much studied in mammals has not been adequately investigated in amphibians, due mainly to lack of suitable reagents for cytokine profiling in non-model species. However, interspecies cross reactivity of cytokines permitted us to assay levels of IFNγ, TNFα, IL6 and IL10in a common anuran, the Indian green frog (Euphlyctis hexadactylus), exposed to heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb, at ~ 5 ppm each) under field and laboratory settings in Sri Lanka. Enumeration of immune cells in blood and melanomacrophages in the liver, assay of serum and hepatic cytokines, and Th1/Th2 cytokine polarisation were investigated. Immune cell counts indicated overall immunosuppression with decreasing total WBC and splenocyte counts while neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased with metal exposure, indicating metal mediated stress. Serum IL6 levels of metal exposed frogs reported the highest (~ 9360 pg/mL) of all cytokines tested. Significantly elevated IFNγ production (P < 0.05) was evident in heavy metal exposed frogs. Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio in both serum and liver tissue homogenates was Th1 skewed due to significantly higher production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IFNγ in serum and TNFα in the liver (P < 0.01).Metal mediated aggregations of melanomacrophages in the liver were positively and significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with the hepatic expression of TNFα, IL6 and IL10 activity. Overall, Th1 skewed response may well be due to oxidative stress mediated nuclear factor κ-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) which enhances the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Xenobiotic stress has recently imposed an unprecedented level of threat to wildlife, particularly to sensitive species such as amphibians. Therefore, understanding the interactions between physiological stress and related immune responses is fundamental to conserve these environmental sentinels in the face of emerging eco-challenges. - Highlights: • Heavy metal pollution in wetland ecosystem is a serious ecotoxicological issue of global dimension • Immune cells and cytokine profile alternations were detected in heavy metal exposed Euphylictis hexadactylus under field and laboratory conditions • Th1 immune response showed significant positive correlation with neutrophil counts explaining the role of neutrophil function under heavy metal burden. • Heavy metal mediated inflammatory response in the liver elevated TNFα, IL6 and IL10 production, positively correlated with melanomacrophage aggregates • Th1 skewed immune response may be attributed to oxidative stress mediated NFκB activation

  16. A new species of limestone karst inhabiting forest frog, genus Platymantis (Amphibia: Anura: Ceratobatrachidae: subgenus Lupacolus) from southern Luzon Island, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; De Layola, Louise Abigail; Lorenzo, Antonio; Diesmos, Mae Lowe L; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2015-11-25

    We describe a new species of limestone karst dwelling forest frog of the genus Platymantis from the Quezon Protected Landscape in southeastern Luzon Island, Philippines. We assign Platymantis quezoni, sp. nov., to the diverse assemblage of terrestrial species in the Platymantis dorsalis Group, subgenus Lupacolus on the basis of its body size and proportions, only slightly expanded terminal discs of the fingers and toes, and its terrestrial microhabitat. The new species is distinguished from these and all other Philippine congeners by features of its external morphology, its restriction to a distinctive limestone karst microhabitat, and its advertisement call, which is unique among frogs of the family Ceratobatrachidae. Several distinguishing morphological characters include its moderate body size (22.1-33.9 mm SVL for 16 adult males and 32.4-39.7 mm SVL for five adult females), slightly expanded terminal discs of the fingers and toes, smooth skin with limited dermal tuberculation, and a dorsal color pattern of mottled tan to dark brown with black blotches. The new species is the sixth Philippine Platymantis known to occur exclusively on limestone karst substrates (previously known karst-obligate species include: P. bayani, P. biak, P. insulatus, P. paengi, and P. speleaus). Recently accelerated discovery of limestone karst anurans across the Philippines suggests that numerous additional species may await discovery on the hundreds of scattered karst formations throughout the archipelago. This possibility suggests that a major conservation priority in coming years will be to study, characterize, describe, and preserve the endemic species supported by this patchy, unique and imperiled type of forest ecosystem in the Philippines.

  17. Prueba de la hipótesis de monofilia del grupo Rostratus de scinax (Anura: Hylidae con base en caracteres larvales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela M. Suárez-Mayorga

    2004-07-01

    m. obliquus externus en adultos de Sphaenorhynchus– mostró que no hay una sinapomorfia inobjetable para Scinax como género (por lo tanto, Scarthyla podría ser parte de Scinax y tampoco existe un grupo x-signatus de Scinax soportado filogenéticamente.

  18. Novel Data on the Ecology of Cochranella mache (Anura: Centrolenidae) and the Importance of Protected Areas for This Critically Endangered Glassfrog in the Neotropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Andrade, H. Mauricio; Rojas-Soto, Octavio; Paucar, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We studied a population of the endangered glassfrog, Cochranella mache, at Bilsa Biological Station, northwestern Ecuador, from 2008 and 2009. We present information on annual abundance patterns, behavioral ecology, habitat use and a species distribution model performed with MaxEnt. We evaluate the importance of the National System of Protected Areas (SNAP) in Colombia and Ecuador, under scenarios of climate change and habitat loss. We predicted a restricted environmental suitability area from 48,509 Km2 to 65,147 Km2 along western Ecuador and adjacent Colombia; ∼8% of the potential distribution occurs within SNAP. We examined four aspects of C. mache ecology: (1) ecological data suggests a strong correlation between relative abundance and rainfall, with a high probability to observe frogs through rainy months (February–May); (2) habitat use and the species distribution model suggest that this canopy dweller is restricted to small streams and rivulets in primary and old secondary forest in evergreen lowland and piedmont forest of western Ecuador, with predictions of suitability areas in adjacent southern Colombia; (3) the SNAP of Colombia and Ecuador harbor a minimum portion of the predicted model of distribution (<10%); and (4) synergetic effects of habitat loss and climate change reduces in about 95% the suitability areas for this endangered frog along its distributional range in Protected Areas. The resulting model allows the recognition of areas to undertake conservation efforts and plan future field surveys, as well as forecasting regions with high probability of C. mache occurrence in western Ecuador and southern Colombia. Further research is required to assess population tendencies, habitat fragmentation and target survey zones to accelerate the discovery of unknown populations in unexplored areas with high probability of suitability. We recommend that Cochranella mache must be re-categorized as “Critically Endangered” species in national and global status, according with criteria and sub-criteria A4, B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv),E. PMID:24339973

  19. Effects of glyphosate and its commercial formulation, Roundup® Ultramax, on liver histology of tadpoles of the neotropical frog, Leptodactylus latrans (amphibia: Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Nadia C; Marino, Damián J G; Natale, Guillermo S; Somoza, Gustavo M

    2018-03-17

    In the last years, the agricultural expansion has led to an increased use of pesticides, with glyphosate as the most widely used worldwide. This is also the situation in Argentina, where glyphosate formulations are the most commercialized herbicides. It is known that glyphosate formulations are much more toxic than the active ingredient, and this difference in toxicity can be attributed to the adjuvants present in the formula. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare sub-lethal histological effects of the glyphosate formulation Roundup Ultramax and glyphosate active ingredient on Leptodactylus latrans tadpoles at Gosner-stage 36. Semi-static bioassays were performed using 96 h of exposure with Roundup Ultramax formulation (RU; 0.37-5.25 mg a.e./L), glyphosate (GLY; 3-300 mg/L), and a control group. RU exposure showed an increment in the melanomacrophagic cells (MMc) and melanomacrophagic centers (MMCs) from 0.37 mg a.e./L. GLY exposure showed a significant increment in the number of MMc from 15 mg/L, and of MMCs from 3 mg/L. Also, histopathological lesions were observed in the liver of tadpoles exposed to both, GLY and RU. These lesions included: lipidosis and hepatic congestion, but only RU showed significant differences respect to control, with a LOEC value of 2.22 mg a.e./L for both effects. In sum, this study represents the first evidence of adverse effects of glyphosate and RU formulation on the liver of anuran larvae at concentrations frequently found in the environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nuevos registros para la herpetofauna del departamento de Lima, descripción del renacuajo de Telmatobius rimac Schmidt, 1954 (Anura: Ceratophrydae y una clave de los anfibios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Aguilar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo la larva de Telmatobius rimac es descrita y ocho nuevos registros de anfibios y reptiles para el departamento de Lima son dados a conocer. Los nuevos registros de anfibios para Lima son Gastrotheca peruana y Pleurodema marmorata. Los nuevos registros de reptiles son las lagartijas Phyllodactylus gerrhopygus y Ameiva edracantha, y las serpientes Leptotyphlops tricolor, Philodryas tachymenoides, Sibynomorphus vagus y Tantilla capistrata. Con este estudio la herpetofauna presente en el departamento de Lima queda compuesta de 7 anfibios y 33 reptiles. Se proporciona una clave de identificación para los anfibios y una lista actualizada de la herpetofauna del departamento de Lima.