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Sample records for antitoxin partner phd

  1. Doc of prophage P1 is inhibited by its antitoxin partner Phd through fold complementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Pino, Abel; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Mikkel; Wyns, Lode

    2008-01-01

    Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin modules are involved in major physiological events set in motion under stress conditions. The toxin Doc (death on curing) from the phd/doc module on phage P1 hosts the C-terminal domain of its antitoxin partner Phd (prevents host death) through fold complementation....... This Phd domain is intrinsically disordered in solution and folds into an alpha-helix upon binding to Doc. The details of the interactions reveal the molecular basis for the inhibitory action of the antitoxin. The complex resembles the Fic (filamentation induced by cAMP) proteins and suggests a possible......-antitoxin locus for its action in vivo....

  2. The Intrinsically Disordered Domain of the Antitoxin Phd Chaperones the Toxin Doc against Irreversible Inactivation and Misfolding*

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gieter, Steven; Konijnenberg, Albert; Talavera, Ariel; Butterer, Annika; Haesaerts, Sarah; De Greve, Henri; Sobott, Frank; Loris, Remy; Garcia-Pino, Abel

    2014-01-01

    The toxin Doc from the phd/doc toxin-antitoxin module targets the cellular translation machinery and is inhibited by its antitoxin partner Phd. Here we show that Phd also functions as a chaperone, keeping Doc in an active, correctly folded conformation. In the absence of Phd, Doc exists in a relatively expanded state that is prone to dimerization through domain swapping with its active site loop acting as hinge region. The domain-swapped dimer is not capable of arresting protein synthesis in vitro, whereas the Doc monomer is. Upon binding to Phd, Doc becomes more compact and is secured in its monomeric state with a neutralized active site. PMID:25326388

  3. Purification and crystallization of Phd, the antitoxin of the phd/doc operon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Pino, Abel; Sterckx, Yann; Vandenbussche, Guy; Loris, Remy

    2010-01-01

    The antitoxin Phd from the phd/doc operon of bacteriophage P1 was crystallized in two distinct crystal forms. The antitoxin Phd from the phd/doc module of bacteriophage P1 was crystallized in two distinct crystal forms. Crystals of His-tagged Phd contain a C-terminally truncated version of the protein and diffract to 2.20 Å resolution. Crystals of untagged Phd purified from the Phd–Doc complex diffract to 2.25 Å resolution. These crystals are partially merohedrally twinned and contain the full-length version of the protein

  4. The intrinsically disordered domain of the antitoxin Phd chaperones the toxin Doc against irreversible inactivation and misfolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gieter, Steven; Konijnenberg, Albert; Talavera, Ariel; Butterer, Annika; Haesaerts, Sarah; De Greve, Henri; Sobott, Frank; Loris, Remy; Garcia-Pino, Abel

    2014-12-05

    The toxin Doc from the phd/doc toxin-antitoxin module targets the cellular translation machinery and is inhibited by its antitoxin partner Phd. Here we show that Phd also functions as a chaperone, keeping Doc in an active, correctly folded conformation. In the absence of Phd, Doc exists in a relatively expanded state that is prone to dimerization through domain swapping with its active site loop acting as hinge region. The domain-swapped dimer is not capable of arresting protein synthesis in vitro, whereas the Doc monomer is. Upon binding to Phd, Doc becomes more compact and is secured in its monomeric state with a neutralized active site. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Crystallization of Doc and the Phd-Doc toxin-antitoxin complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pino, Abel; Dao-Thi, Minh-Hoa; Gazit, Ehud; Magnuson, Roy David; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy

    2008-11-01

    The phd/doc addiction system is responsible for the stable inheritance of lysogenic bacteriophage P1 in its plasmidic form in Escherichia coli and is the archetype of a family of bacterial toxin-antitoxin modules. The His66Tyr mutant of Doc (Doc(H66Y)) was crystallized in space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 53.1, b = 198.0, c = 54.1 A, beta = 93.0 degrees . These crystals diffracted to 2.5 A resolution and probably contained four dimers of Doc in the asymmetric unit. Doc(H66Y) in complex with a 22-amino-acid C-terminal peptide of Phd (Phd(52-73Se)) was crystallized in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 111.1, b = 38.6, c = 63.3 A, beta = 99.3 degrees , and diffracted to 1.9 A resolution. Crystals of the complete wild-type Phd-Doc complex belonged to space group P3(1)21 or P3(2)21, had an elongated unit cell with dimensions a = b = 48.9, c = 354.9 A and diffracted to 2.4 A resolution using synchrotron radiation.

  6. Functional validation of putative toxin-antitoxin genes from the Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae: phd-doc is the fourth bona-fide operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wai Ting; Yeo, Chew Chieng; Sadowy, Ewa; Espinosa, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TAs) loci usually consist of two genes organized as an operon, where their products are bound together and inert under normal conditions. However, under stressful circumstances the antitoxin, which is more labile, will be degraded more rapidly, thereby unleashing its cognate toxin to act on the cell. This, in turn, causes cell stasis or cell death, depending on the type of TAs and/or time of toxin exposure. Previously based on in silico analyses, we proposed that Streptococcus pneumoniae, a pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium, may harbor between 4 and 10 putative TA loci depending on the strains. Here we have chosen the pneumococcal strain Hungary(19A)-6 which contains all possible 10 TA loci. In addition to the three well-characterized operons, namely relBE2, yefM-yoeB, and pezAT, we show here the functionality of a fourth operon that encodes the pneumococcal equivalent of the phd-doc TA. Transcriptional fusions with gene encoding Green Fluorescent Protein showed that the promoter was slightly repressed by the Phd antitoxin, and exhibited almost background values when both Phd-Doc were expressed together. These findings demonstrate that phd-doc shows the negative self-regulatory features typical for an authentic TA. Further, we also show that the previously proposed TAs XreA-Ant and Bro-XreB, although they exhibit a genetic organization resembling those of typical TAs, did not appear to confer a functional behavior corresponding to bona fide TAs. In addition, we have also discovered new interesting bioinformatics results for the known pneumococcal TAs RelBE2 and PezAT. A global analysis of the four identified toxins-antitoxins in the pneumococcal genomes (PezAT, RelBE2, YefM-YoeB, and Phd-Doc) showed that RelBE2 and Phd-Doc are the most conserved ones. Further, there was good correlation among TA types, clonal complexes and sequence types in the 48 pneumococcal strains analyzed.

  7. Toxin-Antitoxin Battle in Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cataudella, Ilaria

    This PhD thesis consists of three research projects revolving around the common thread of investigation of the properties and biological functions of Toxin-Antitoxin loci. Toxin-Antitoxin (TA) loci are transcriptionally regulated via an auto-inhibition mechanism called conditional cooperativity, ...

  8. Keeping the wolves at bay: antitoxins of prokaryotic type II toxin-antitoxin systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Ting eChan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In their initial stages of discovery, prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin (TA systems were confined to bacterial plasmids where they function to mediate the maintenance and stability of usually low- to medium-copy number plasmids through the post-segregational killing of any plasmid-free daughter cells that developed. Their eventual discovery as nearly ubiquitous and repetitive elements in bacterial chromosomes led to a wealth of knowledge and scientific debate as to their diversity and functionality in the prokaryotic lifestyle. Currently categorized into six different types designated types I – VI, type II TA systems are the best characterized. These generally comprised of two genes encoding a proteic toxin and its corresponding proteic antitoxin, respectively. Under normal growth conditions, the stable toxin is prevented from exerting its lethal effect through tight binding with the less stable antitoxin partner, forming a non-lethal TA protein complex. Besides binding with its cognate toxin, the antitoxin also plays a role in regulating the expression of the type II TA operon by binding to the operator site, thereby repressing transcription from the TA promoter. In most cases, full repression is observed in the presence of the TA complex as binding of the toxin enhances the DNA binding capability of the antitoxin. TA systems have been implicated in a gamut of prokaryotic cellular functions such as being mediators of programmed cell death as well as persistence or dormancy, biofilm formation, as defensive weapons against bacteriophage infections and as virulence factors in pathogenic bacteria. It is thus apparent that these antitoxins, as DNA-binding proteins, play an essential role in modulating the prokaryotic lifestyle whilst at the same time preventing the lethal action of the toxins under normal growth conditions, i.e., keeping the proverbial wolves at bay. In this review, we will cover the diversity and characteristics of various type II TA

  9. Radioimmunodiffusion technique for determining diphtheria antitoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniar, A.C.

    1977-01-01

    A radioimmunodiffusion technique for detecting low levels of diphtheria antitoxin was developed. Diphtheria toxoid was labelled with 125 I to facilitate detection of lines of precipitation by the use of X-ray film, the lower limit of detection being 0.001 unit per millilitre of diphtheria antitoxin. (author)

  10. Toxin-antitoxin systems and regulatory mechanisms in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayden, Richard A; Dawson, Clinton C; Cummings, Jason E

    2018-06-01

    There has been a significant reduction in annual tuberculosis incidence since the World Health Organization declared tuberculosis a global health threat. However, treatment of M. tuberculosis infections requires lengthy multidrug therapeutic regimens to achieve a durable cure. The development of new drugs that are active against resistant strains and phenotypically diverse organisms continues to present the greatest challenge in the future. Numerous phylogenomic analyses have revealed that the Mtb genome encodes a significantly expanded repertoire of toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci that makes up the Mtb TA system. A TA loci is a two-gene operon encoding a 'toxin' protein that inhibits bacterial growth and an interacting 'antitoxin' partner that neutralizes the inhibitory activity of the toxin. The presence of multiple chromosomally encoded TA loci in Mtb raises important questions in regard to expansion, regulation and function. Thus, the functional roles of TA loci in Mtb pathogenesis have received considerable attention over the last decade. The cumulative results indicate that they are involved in regulating adaptive responses to stresses associated with the host environment and drug treatment. Here we review the TA families encoded in Mtb, discuss the duplication of TA loci in Mtb, regulatory mechanism of TA loci, and phenotypic heterogeneity and pathogenesis.

  11. 9 CFR 113.451 - Tetanus Antitoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tetanus Antitoxin. 113.451 Section 113.451 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... which conforms to the National Institute of Standards and Technology requirements shall be used. The...

  12. Crystallization of Doc and the Phd–Doc toxin–antitoxin complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Pino, Abel; Dao-Thi, Minh-Hoa; Gazit, Ehud; Magnuson, Roy David; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy

    2008-01-01

    Crystals of bacteriophage P1 Doc were grown in the free state, in complex with a 22-amino-acid C-terminal peptide of Phd and in complex with full-length Phd. The phd/doc addiction system is responsible for the stable inheritance of lysogenic bacteriophage P1 in its plasmidic form in Escherichia coli and is the archetype of a family of bacterial toxin–antitoxin modules. The His66Tyr mutant of Doc (Doc H66Y ) was crystallized in space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 53.1, b = 198.0, c = 54.1 Å, β = 93.0°. These crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution and probably contained four dimers of Doc in the asymmetric unit. Doc H66Y in complex with a 22-amino-acid C-terminal peptide of Phd (Phd 52-73Se ) was crystallized in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 111.1, b = 38.6, c = 63.3 Å, β = 99.3°, and diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution. Crystals of the complete wild-type Phd–Doc complex belonged to space group P3 1 21 or P3 2 21, had an elongated unit cell with dimensions a = b = 48.9, c = 354.9 Å and diffracted to 2.4 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation

  13. Factors influencing Haemagglutination Tests with Tetanus Antitoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulthorpe, A. J.

    1959-01-01

    The agglutinin titres of tetanus antitoxins tested with preserved sheep cells sensitized with tetanus toxoid have been found to be inversely proportional to the cell concentration used. The agglutinin titres per international unit of antitoxin were widely different among various electrophoretically separated globulin fractions of tetanus antitoxin. There were smaller differences between the agglutinating capacity of γ-globulin fractions of sera from different horses. With haemagglutination inhibition tests there was always a relative increase in test dose between the LA and LA/100 level of test. This relative increase was greatest where the sensitivity of the cell suspensions was high. Increased suspension sensitivity may be the result of treatment of cells with greater quantities of sensitizing antigen or of reduction in the concentration of sensitized cells in the suspension. A greater volume of serum was required to give a standard end point, when mixed with a test dose (LA) of toxin, if the mixtures were allowed to stand for increasing periods of time. These observations have been discussed. PMID:13653730

  14. Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems: more than selfish entities?

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Van Melderen; Manuel Saavedra De Bast

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial toxin?antitoxin (TA) systems are diverse and widespread in the prokaryotic kingdom. They are composed of closely linked genes encoding a stable toxin that can harm the host cell and its cognate labile antitoxin, which protects the host from the toxin's deleterious effect. TA systems are thought to invade bacterial genomes through horizontal gene transfer. Some TA systems might behave as selfish elements and favour their own maintenance at the expense of their host. As a consequence,...

  15. Production and Characterization of an Avian Ricin Antitoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-15

    naturally -occurring plant and/or bacterial toxins as biological threat agents, effective antitoxins are needed for either piophylactic or causal...system, an avian antitoxin against the potent phytotoxin , ricin. will be developed and evaluated. The production of therapeutic antibodies in avian...Dynatech). PolyacrylmIde gel electrophoresis (PAGE): Acrylamide gels were prepared according to methods described by Laemmli ( Nature . 227. 1970) and

  16. Intimate Partner Violence, 1993-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015 Special Report NCJ 2392 03 Intimate Partner Violence, 1993–2010 Shannan Catalano, Ph.D., BJS Statistician ... to 2010, the overall rate of intimate partner violence in the United States declined by 64%, from ...

  17. The DinJ/RelE toxin-antitoxin system suppresses virulence in Xylella fastidiosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of a number agriculturally important plant diseases, encodes multiple toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems. TA modules consist of a toxin protein co-expressed with a specific antitoxin, and are often acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Antitoxin molecules (RNA or ...

  18. Relationship Between Tetanus Antitoxin Titration Level and Vaccination History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Işıkgöz Taşbakan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to determine tetanus antitoxin levels and to evaluate their relationship with history of vaccination among patients applying to the outpatient clinics of a University hospital. Methods: A questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and tetanus vaccination status was applied and blood samples taken from 218 subjects between 1 and 30 June 2015. Participants were classified into five groups according to their vaccination timing. Results: The mean age of participants was 46.7±15.4 years and 134 (61.5% were women. Tetanus antitoxin levels were found weak positive in 54 (24.8% patients, positive in 44 (20.2% and strong positive in 120 (55.0%. Tetanus antitoxin level positivity was significantly associated with vaccination timing according to history. Among 105 participants who did not remember being vaccinated or who knew they were vaccinated but did not remember the date, 16 (15.2% remembered the vaccination time when their injury, military service and pregnancy were questioned specifically. Antitoxin levels decreased with increasing age independent of gender (0.9-fold increase/year. Conclusion: We found that the booster dose recommended every 10 years was not applied sufficiently. Tetanus vaccination history must be questioned in more detail among people who do not remember/know their vaccination history, with specific questions regarding pregnancy, military service and injury histories.

  19. Postbooster Antibodies from Humans as Source of Diphtheria Antitoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Martin, Jesús F; Avila-Alonso, Ana; González-Rivera, Milagros; Tamayo, Eduardo; Eiros, Jose María; Almansa, Raquel

    2016-07-01

    Diphtheria antitoxin for therapeutic use is in limited supply. A potential source might be affinity-purified antibodies originally derived from plasma of adults who received a booster dose of a vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid. These antibodies might be useful for treating even severe cases of diphtheria.

  20. 9 CFR 113.455 - Clostridium Perfringens Type D Antitoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Clostridium perfringens Type D. Each serial shall be tested as provided in this section. Any serial found... following words and terms shall mean: (i) International antitoxin unit. (I.U.) That quantity of Epsilon... 0.25 gram of sodium chloride in each 100 ml of distilled water; adjusting the pH to 7.2; autoclaving...

  1. 9 CFR 113.454 - Clostridium Perfringens Type C Antitoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Clostridium perfringens Type C. Each serial shall be tested as provided in this section. Any serial found... following words and terms shall mean: (i) International antitoxin unit. (I.U.) That quantity of Beta... chloride in each 100 ml of distilled water; adjusting the pH to 7.2; autoclaving at 250 °F. for 25 minutes...

  2. Governance mode choice in collaborative Ph.D. projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salimi, N.; Bekkers, R.N.A.; Frenken, K.

    2015-01-01

    Joint Ph.D. projects are a prominent form of research collaboration, connecting universities to firms and public research organizations. When entering into such collaborations, partners need to make choices regarding a project’s governance. This paper investigates how a university and its partners

  3. Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems: more than selfish entities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Melderen, Laurence; Saavedra De Bast, Manuel

    2009-03-01

    Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are diverse and widespread in the prokaryotic kingdom. They are composed of closely linked genes encoding a stable toxin that can harm the host cell and its cognate labile antitoxin, which protects the host from the toxin's deleterious effect. TA systems are thought to invade bacterial genomes through horizontal gene transfer. Some TA systems might behave as selfish elements and favour their own maintenance at the expense of their host. As a consequence, they may contribute to the maintenance of plasmids or genomic islands, such as super-integrons, by post-segregational killing of the cell that loses these genes and so suffers the stable toxin's destructive effect. The function of the chromosomally encoded TA systems is less clear and still open to debate. This Review discusses current hypotheses regarding the biological roles of these evolutionarily successful small operons. We consider the various selective forces that could drive the maintenance of TA systems in bacterial genomes.

  4. Relationship Between Tetanus Antitoxin Titration Level and Vaccination History

    OpenAIRE

    Işıkgöz Taşbakan, Meltem; Durusoy, Raika; Tosun, Selma

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to determine tetanus antitoxin levels and to evaluate their relationship with history of vaccination among patients applying to the outpatient clinics of a University hospital. Methods: A questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and tetanus vaccination status was applied and blood samples taken from 218 subjects between 1 and 30 June 2015. Participants were classified into five groups according to their vaccination timing. Results: The mean age of...

  5. Endoribonuclease type II toxin-antitoxin systems: functional or selfish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramisetty, Bhaskar Chandra Mohan; Santhosh, Ramachandran Sarojini

    2017-07-01

    Most bacterial genomes have multiple type II toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) that encode two proteins which are referred to as a toxin and an antitoxin. Toxins inhibit a cellular process, while the interaction of the antitoxin with the toxin attenuates the toxin's activity. Endoribonuclease-encoding TAs cleave RNA in a sequence-dependent fashion, resulting in translational inhibition. To account for their prevalence and retention by bacterial genomes, TAs are credited with clinically significant phenomena, such as bacterial programmed cell death, persistence, biofilms and anti-addiction to plasmids. However, the programmed cell death and persistence hypotheses have been challenged because of conceptual, methodological and/or strain issues. In an alternative view, chromosomal TAs seem to be retained by virtue of addiction at two levels: via a poison-antidote combination (TA proteins) and via transcriptional reprogramming of the downstream core gene (due to integration). Any perturbation in the chromosomal TA operons could cause fitness loss due to polar effects on the downstream genes and hence be detrimental under natural conditions. The endoribonucleases encoding chromosomal TAs are most likely selfish DNA as they are retained by bacterial genomes, even though TAs do not confer a direct advantage via the TA proteins. TAs are likely used by various replicons as 'genetic arms' that allow the maintenance of themselves and associated genetic elements. TAs seem to be the 'selfish arms' that make the best use of the 'arms race' between bacterial genomes and plasmids.

  6. Radiosensitivity of antibody responses and radioresistant secondary tetanus antitoxin responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, R.; Terres, G.; Cottier, H.; Hess, M.

    1976-01-01

    Primary tetanus antitoxin responses were increasingly repressed in mice when gamma radiation doses of 100 to 400 rads were delivered by whole-body exposure prior to immunization with fluid tetanus toxoid (FTT). Nearly normal secondary antitoxin responses were obtained in mice exposed to 600 rads of gamma radiation 4 days after secondary antigenic stimulation with FTT. A rapid transition from radiosensitivity of the antibody-forming system on days 1 to 3 was followed by relative radioresistance on day 4 after the booster injection of toxoid. Studies on lymphoid cellular kinetics in popliteal lymph nodes after injection of 3 H--thymidine ( 3 H--TdR) and incorporation of 3 H--L-histidine into circulating antitoxin were carried out. Analysis of tritium radioactivity in antigen--antibody precipitates of serums 2 hr after injection of the labeled amino acid revealed maximum incorporation into antibody around day 7 after the booster in nonirradiated controls and about day 12, i.e., 8 days after irradiation, in experimental mice. The shift from radiosensitivity to relative radioresistance was attributed to a marked peak of plasma-cell proliferation in the medulla of lymph nodes on day 3. Many medullary plasma cells survived and continued to proliferate after exposure to radiation. Germinal centers were destroyed by radiation within 1 day. Since antibody formation continued after exposure to radiation and after the loss of germinal centers, this supports the view that germinal-center cells were involved more in the generation of memory cells than in antibody synthesis

  7. A STUDY OF THE COMPETITION OF LECITHIN AND ANTITOXIN FOR CL. WELCHII LECITHINASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamecnik, Paul C.; Lipmann, Fritz

    1947-01-01

    Lecithin has been found to interfere with the combining reaction of Cl. welchii alpha toxin (lecithinase) and its antitoxin. If the lecithinase is first brought into contact with lecithin, and the antitoxin is then added, the antitoxin fails to stop the enzymatic reaction, but gradually decelerates it. If the lecithinase is brought into contact with both lecithin and antitoxin at the same instant, it appears to combine in part with each, and the enzymatic process takes place at a reduced rate, which gradually declines further. If the lecithinase is first brought into contact with antitoxin, before the lecithin is added, the enzymatic reaction is completely inhibited. This ability of lecithin to inhibit the antitoxin-toxin combination cannot be explained adequately as a non-specific coating of the toxin-enzyme by the lecithin. It is rather suggested that lecithin and antitoxin compete specifically for combination with the same regions on the enzyme molecule. Lecithin has similarly been found to interfere with the combination of Crotalus terrificus venom and its antiserum. The above findings provide a partial explanation for the lack of effectiveness of antitoxin when given late in the course of Cl. welchii infection. PMID:19871624

  8. Crystallization of the HigBA2 toxin-antitoxin complex from Vibrio cholerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadǽi, San; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Martinez-Rodriguez, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The genome of Vibrio cholerae encodes two higBA toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules that are activated by amino-acid starvation. Here, the TA complex of the second module, higBA2, as well as the C-terminal domain of the corresponding HigA2 antitoxin, have been purified and crystallized. The HigBA2 compl...

  9. Characterization of the Deep-Sea Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 02999 Derived VapC/VapB Toxin-Antitoxin System in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxue Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Toxin-antitoxin (TA systems are small genetic elements that are ubiquitous in prokaryotes. Most studies on TA systems have focused on commensal and pathogenic bacteria; yet very few studies have focused on TAs in marine bacteria, especially those isolated from a deep sea environment. Here, we characterized a type II VapC/VapB TA system from the deep-sea derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 02999. The VapC (virulence-associated protein protein belongs to the PIN (PilT N-terminal superfamily. Overproduction of VapC strongly inhibited cell growth and resulted in a bleb-containing morphology in E. coli. The toxicity of VapC was neutralized through direct protein–protein interaction by a small protein antitoxin VapB encoded by a neighboring gene. Antitoxin VapB alone or the VapB/VapC complex negatively regulated the vapBC promoter activity. We further revealed that three conserved Asp residues in the PIN domain were essential for the toxic effect of VapC. Additionally, the VapC/VapB TA system stabilized plasmid in E. coli. Furthermore, VapC cross-activated transcription of several TA operons via a partially Lon-dependent mechanism in E. coli, and the activated toxins accumulated more preferentially than their antitoxin partners. Collectively, we identified and characterized a new deep sea TA system in the deep sea Streptomyces sp. and demonstrated that the VapC toxin in this system can cross-activate TA operons in E. coli.

  10. Characterization of the Deep-Sea Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 02999 Derived VapC/VapB Toxin-Antitoxin System in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yunxue; Yao, Jianyun; Sun, Chenglong; Wen, Zhongling; Wang, Xiaoxue

    2016-07-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic elements that are ubiquitous in prokaryotes. Most studies on TA systems have focused on commensal and pathogenic bacteria; yet very few studies have focused on TAs in marine bacteria, especially those isolated from a deep sea environment. Here, we characterized a type II VapC/VapB TA system from the deep-sea derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 02999. The VapC (virulence-associated protein) protein belongs to the PIN (PilT N-terminal) superfamily. Overproduction of VapC strongly inhibited cell growth and resulted in a bleb-containing morphology in E. coli. The toxicity of VapC was neutralized through direct protein-protein interaction by a small protein antitoxin VapB encoded by a neighboring gene. Antitoxin VapB alone or the VapB/VapC complex negatively regulated the vapBC promoter activity. We further revealed that three conserved Asp residues in the PIN domain were essential for the toxic effect of VapC. Additionally, the VapC/VapB TA system stabilized plasmid in E. coli. Furthermore, VapC cross-activated transcription of several TA operons via a partially Lon-dependent mechanism in E. coli, and the activated toxins accumulated more preferentially than their antitoxin partners. Collectively, we identified and characterized a new deep sea TA system in the deep sea Streptomyces sp. and demonstrated that the VapC toxin in this system can cross-activate TA operons in E. coli.

  11. Higher-Order Structure in Bacterial VapBC Toxin-Antitoxin Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Kirstine L; Brodersen, Ditlev E

    2017-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin systems are widespread in the bacterial kingdom, including in pathogenic species, where they allow rapid adaptation to changing environmental conditions through selective inhibition of key cellular processes, such as DNA replication or protein translation. Under normal growth...... that allow auto-regulation of transcription by direct binding to promoter DNA. In this chapter, we review our current understanding of the structural characteristics of type II toxin-antitoxin complexes in bacterial cells, with a special emphasis on the staggering variety of higher-order architecture...... conditions, type II toxins are inhibited through tight protein-protein interaction with a cognate antitoxin protein. This toxin-antitoxin complex associates into a higher-order macromolecular structure, typically heterotetrameric or heterooctameric, exposing two DNA binding domains on the antitoxin...

  12. Governance mode choice in collaborative PhD projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salimi, N.; Bekkers, R.N.A.; Frenken, K.

    2013-01-01

    Joint PhD projects are a promising form of research collaboration, connecting universities to firms and public research organizations. Entering into such collaborations, however, requires decisions in terms of governance. This paper investigates how a university and its partners govern such

  13. Bacterial Toxin–Antitoxin Systems: More Than Selfish Entities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Melderen, Laurence; Saavedra De Bast, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems are diverse and widespread in the prokaryotic kingdom. They are composed of closely linked genes encoding a stable toxin that can harm the host cell and its cognate labile antitoxin, which protects the host from the toxin's deleterious effect. TA systems are thought to invade bacterial genomes through horizontal gene transfer. Some TA systems might behave as selfish elements and favour their own maintenance at the expense of their host. As a consequence, they may contribute to the maintenance of plasmids or genomic islands, such as super-integrons, by post-segregational killing of the cell that loses these genes and so suffers the stable toxin's destructive effect. The function of the chromosomally encoded TA systems is less clear and still open to debate. This Review discusses current hypotheses regarding the biological roles of these evolutionarily successful small operons. We consider the various selective forces that could drive the maintenance of TA systems in bacterial genomes. PMID:19325885

  14. Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems: more than selfish entities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Van Melderen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA systems are diverse and widespread in the prokaryotic kingdom. They are composed of closely linked genes encoding a stable toxin that can harm the host cell and its cognate labile antitoxin, which protects the host from the toxin's deleterious effect. TA systems are thought to invade bacterial genomes through horizontal gene transfer. Some TA systems might behave as selfish elements and favour their own maintenance at the expense of their host. As a consequence, they may contribute to the maintenance of plasmids or genomic islands, such as super-integrons, by post-segregational killing of the cell that loses these genes and so suffers the stable toxin's destructive effect. The function of the chromosomally encoded TA systems is less clear and still open to debate. This Review discusses current hypotheses regarding the biological roles of these evolutionarily successful small operons. We consider the various selective forces that could drive the maintenance of TA systems in bacterial genomes.

  15. PhD Dissertations

    OpenAIRE

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di)

    2010-01-01

    Report of PhD Dissertations.Anna Airò La scrittura delle regole. Politica e istituzioni a Taranto nel Quattrocento, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Firenze, 2005 Pasquale Arfé La Clavis Physicae II (316-529) di Honorius Augustodunensis. Studio ed edizione critica, Tesi di dottorato in Storia della filosofia medievale, Università degli Studi di Napoli "L'Orientale", 2005 Alessandro Azzimonti Scrittura agiografica e strutture di potere nell'Italia c...

  16. Discovery of Functional Toxin/Antitoxin Systems in Bacteria by Shotgun Cloning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sberro, Hila; Leavitt, Azita; Kiro, Ruth; Koh, Eugene; Peleg, Yoav; Qimron, Udi; Sorek, Rotem

    2013-04-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules, composed of a toxic protein and a counteracting antitoxin, play important roles in bacterial physiology. We examined the experimental insertion of 1.5 million genes from 388 microbial genomes into an Escherichia coli host using over 8.5 million random clones. This revealed hundreds of genes (toxins) that could only be cloned when the neighboring gene (antitoxin) was present on the same clone. Clustering of these genes revealed TA families widespread in bacterial genomes, some of which deviate from the classical characteristics previously described for such modules. Introduction of these genes into E. coli validated that the toxin toxicity is mitigated by the antitoxin. Infection experiments with T7 phage showed that two of the new modules can provide resistance against phage. Moreover, our experiments revealed an 'anti-defense' protein in phage T7 that neutralizes phage resistance. Our results expose active fronts in the arms race between bacteria and phage.

  17. A PhD is a PhD is a PhD

    OpenAIRE

    Ostrow, Deborah Anne

    2017-01-01

    A PhD is a PhD is a PhD is a practice-based project that interrogates the process of an artist undertaking PhD research under established criteria. It consists of an exegesis, an original screenplay, and a digital film made for online viewing, with images drawn from a range of documentaries and films found on YouTube. They have been dissected, re-assembled and then re-embedded to YouTube. The source material covers topics such as medicalization of madness, the conspicuous appropriation of uni...

  18. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD Dissertations. Francesco Barone Istituzioni, società ed economia a Catania nel tardo medioevo (XIV-XV secolo, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XVI ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004   Laura Berti Ceroni Il territorio e le strutture di Cesarea e Classe tra tarda antichità e alto medioevo in rapporto con Ravenna, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia e Informatica, Università degli studi di Bologna, 2002-2003.   Marco Bicchierai Poppi dalla signoria dei conti Guidi al vicariato del Casentino (1360-1480, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XIV ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004   Emanuela Garimberti Spatiosa ad habitandum loca. Luoghi e identità nella Historia Langobardorum di Paolo Diacono, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XV ciclo, Università degli Studi di Bologna, 2004   Lorenzo Tanzini Sistemi normativi e pratiche istituzionali a Firenze dalla fine del XIII all’inizio del XV secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale (XVI ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004   Stefania Tarquini Pellegrinaggio e asseto urbano di Roma, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia dei centri, delle vie e della cultura dei pellegrinaggi nel Medioevo euro mediterraneo (XV ciclo, Università degli studi di Lecce, 2003

  19. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD dissertations. Andrea Brugnoli Una storia locale: l’organizzazione del territorio veronese nel medioevo: trasformazioni della realtà e schemi notarili (IX-metà XII secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Scienze Storiche e Antropologiche (XXII ciclo, Università degli Studi di Verona, 2010   Luca Filangieri Famiglie e gruppi dirigenti a Genova (secoli XII-metà XIII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale (XXII ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2010   Jakub Kujawi ski Wernakularna kolekcja historiograficzna z rękopisu francuskiego nr 688 z Biblioteki Narodowej w Paryżu. Studium źródłoznawcze (La raccolta dei volgarizzamenti delle opere storiografiche nel manoscritto francese 688 della Biblioteca Nazionale di Parigi, Tesi di dottorato, Università “Adam Mickiewicz”, Facoltà di Storia, Pozna, a.a. 2009/2010   Marta Longhi I signori “de Radicata”. Strategie di affermazione familiare e patrimoniale nel Piemonte dei secoli XII-XIV, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Istituzioni, Società, Religioni dal Tardo Antico alla fine del Medioevo (XX ciclo, Università di Torino, 2008

  20. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Reporto of PhD Dissertations.   Mario Dalle Carbonare Società, potere e clientele nell’Irlanda altomedievale (secoli V-IX, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia sociale europea, Università "Ca' Foscari" di Venezia, 2003 Vieri Mazzoni La legislazione antighibellina e la politica oligarchica della Parte Guelfa di Firenze nel secondo Trecento (1347-1378, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia Medievale (ciclo XII, Università degli Studi di Firenze   Alma Poloni Pisa dalle origini del movimento popolare alla discesa di Ludovico il Bavaro. I gruppi dirigenti cittadini tra continuità e trasformazione, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia dell'Europa nel medioevo, Università degli studi di Pisa, 2003   Andrea Puglia Potere marchionale, amministrazione del territorio, società locali dalla morte di Ugo di Tuscia a Guelfo VI di Baviera (1001-1160, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Milano, 2003

  1. Effect of biotherapeutics on antitoxin IgG in experimentally induced Clostridium difficile infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Recurrent diarrhoea after successful treatment of primary Clostridium difficile associated disease (CDAD occurs due to bowel flora alterations and failure to mount an effective antibody response. Apart from antibiotics, risk factors include immunosuppressive and acid-suppressive drug administration. Biotherapeutics such as probiotic and epidermal growth factor (EGF may offer potential effective therapy for CDAD. Materials and Methods: The effect of biotherapeutics in mounting an antibody response against C. difficile toxins was studied in BALB/c mice challenged with C. difficile after pre-treatment with ampicillin, lansoprazole or cyclosporin. Sera from sacrificed animals were estimated for antitoxin IgG by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Antitoxin IgG was significantly higher (P0.05 in animals in which C. difficile was given after pre-treatment with cyclosporin compared to those without any pre-treatment, or pre-treatment with antibiotic or lansoprazole. In inter-subgroup comparisons also significant anomaly in production of antitoxin IgG was found. The antitoxin IgG levels were raised in animals administered C. difficile after pre-treatment with ampicillin, but lower in animals administered cyclosporin. High levels of antitoxin IgG were also found in the serum samples of animals receiving lansoprazole and C. difficile. Conclusions: Probiotics showed their beneficial effect by boosting the immune response as seen by production of antitoxin IgG. Oral administration of EGF did not affect the immune response to C. difficile toxins as significant increase was not observed in the serum antitoxin IgG levels in any of the groups investigated.

  2. Plasma as alternatively sample to quantify tetanus antitoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Menéndez-Barrios

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus antitoxin is quantified in Cuba at blood banks, from the serum of immunized donors, to produce aspecific human gamma globulin. A heterogeneous indirect immunoenzymatic assay is used, using the serum as analytical sample. The possible use of plasma obtained from plasmapheresis as alternative sample was evaluated in this research, to minimize the volume of total blood extracted to the donors. One hundred plasma donors who came to donate between October and November 2013 were selected by simple random sampling. Serum sample was obtained for extraction of 5 mL of blood, deposited in dry glass tube. While the other sample took 1.5 mL of plasma in a plastic tube with cover, at the end of the donation directly of the unit of plasma collected. Comparison of the difference between the means of both groups was done using SPSS for Windows. It was found that the values obtained in serum were bigger than those obtained in plasma. Difference between the means of both groups was statistically significant (p 0.00. It is not advisable to use the obtained plasma of the plasmapheresis as analytic sample in this assay.

  3. Access to diphtheria antitoxin for therapy and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, L; White, J; Mandal, S; Efstratiou, A

    2014-06-19

    The most effective treatment for diphtheria is swift administration of diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) with conjunct antibiotic therapy. DAT is an equine immunoglobulin preparation and listed among the World Health Organization Essential Medicines. Essential Medicines should be available in functioning health systems at all times in adequate amounts, in appropriate dosage forms, with assured quality, and at prices individuals and the community can afford. However, DAT is in scarce supply and frequently unavailable to patients because of discontinued production in several countries, low economic viability, and high regulatory requirements for the safe manufacture of blood-derived products. DAT is also a cornerstone of diphtheria diagnostics but several diagnostic reference laboratories across the European Union (EU) and elsewhere routinely face problems in sourcing DAT for toxigenicity testing. Overall, global access to DAT for both therapeutic and diagnostic applications seems inadequate. Therefore--besides efforts to improve the current supply of DAT--accelerated research and development of alternatives including monoclonal antibodies for therapy and molecular-based methods for diagnostics are required. Given the rarity of the disease, it would be useful to organise a small stockpile centrally for all EU countries and to maintain an inventory of DAT availability within and between countries.

  4. Interactions of Kid-Kis toxin-antitoxin complexes with the parD operator-promotor region of plasmid R1 are piloted by the Kis antitoxin and tuned by the stoichiometry of Kid-Kis oligomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monti, M.C.; Hernandez-Arriaga, A.M.; Kamphuis, M.B.; Lopez-Villarejo, J.; Heck, A.J.R.; Boelens, R.; Diaz-Orejas, R.; van den Heuvel, R.H.H.

    2007-01-01

    The parD operon of Escherichia coli plasmid R1 encodes a toxin–antitoxin system, which is involved in plasmid stabilization. The toxin Kid inhibits cell growth by RNA degradation and its action is neutralized by the formation of a tight complex with the antitoxin Kis. A fascinating but poorly

  5. Regulating Toxin-Antitoxin Expression: Controlled Detonation of Intracellular Molecular Timebombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finbarr Hayes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genes for toxin-antitoxin (TA complexes are widely disseminated in bacteria, including in pathogenic and antibiotic resistant species. The toxins are liberated from association with the cognate antitoxins by certain physiological triggers to impair vital cellular functions. TAs also are implicated in antibiotic persistence, biofilm formation, and bacteriophage resistance. Among the ever increasing number of TA modules that have been identified, the most numerous are complexes in which both toxin and antitoxin are proteins. Transcriptional autoregulation of the operons encoding these complexes is key to ensuring balanced TA production and to prevent inadvertent toxin release. Control typically is exerted by binding of the antitoxin to regulatory sequences upstream of the operons. The toxin protein commonly works as a transcriptional corepressor that remodels and stabilizes the antitoxin. However, there are notable exceptions to this paradigm. Moreover, it is becoming clear that TA complexes often form one strand in an interconnected web of stress responses suggesting that their transcriptional regulation may prove to be more intricate than currently understood. Furthermore, interference with TA gene transcriptional autoregulation holds considerable promise as a novel antibacterial strategy: artificial release of the toxin factor using designer drugs is a potential approach to induce bacterial suicide from within.

  6. Industrial PhD report: Sustainable Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    2011-01-01

    Erhvervs PhD rapport udarbejdet i tilknytning til Erhvervs PhD kurset der er obligatorisk for Erhvervs PhD studerende. Rapporten omhandler relationer melllem den akademiske verden og industrien i sammenhæng med PhD projektet, betragtet og analyseret gennem teori om bæredygtig innovation....

  7. Paulette Gray, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulette S. Gray, Ph.D. is the Director for the Division of Extramural Activities (DEA). As the director of the division, she is responsible for the overall scientific, fiscal, and administrative management of the division, including broad strategic planning, development, implementation, and evaluation.

  8. Conditional Cooperativity in Toxin-Antitoxin Regulation Prevents Random Toxin Activation and Promotes Fast Translational Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cataudella, Ilaria; Trusina, Ala; Sneppen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    system, relBE of Escherichia coli. We show that the model with the in vivo and in vitro established parameters reproduces experimentally observed response to nutritional stress. We further demonstrate that conditional cooperativity stabilizes the level of antitoxin in rapidly growing cells...

  9. PhD students and integrative research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fry, G.; Tress, B.; Tress, G.

    2006-01-01

    The training of PhD students is currently very dynamic and varies widely from place to place. We present some examples of this variation and comment on how it may affect the way PhD students cope with integrative studies. Our focus is on the training needs of PhD students studying integrative

  10. The interaction of the antitoxin DM43 with a snake venom metalloproteinase analyzed by mass spectrometry and surface plasmon resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Guilherme D; Salbo, Rune; Jørgensen, Thomas J D

    2012-01-01

    DM43 is a circulating dimeric antitoxin isolated from Didelphis aurita, a South American marsupial naturally immune to snake envenomation. This endogenous inhibitor binds non-covalently to jararhagin, the main hemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, and efficiently...

  11. Pharma partnering: other people's science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Partnering is an ideal field if someone is seeking to move from a scientific to a more business-oriented discipline. Partnering's goal is to identify and acquire external innovation. These discoveries are then included in a company's pipeline and help bring novel treatments to patients. Advanced scientific training is essential in the identification and evaluation of these external assets. Here I describe how partnering works in a pharmaceutical company and offer advice on how to make a successful transition from a PhD program to a business career. © 2017 Hofmann. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  12. Haematopoietic malignancies caused by dysregulation of a chromatin-binding PHD finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang G; Song, Jikui; Wang, Zhanxin; Dormann, Holger L; Casadio, Fabio; Li, Haitao; Luo, Jun-Li; Patel, Dinshaw J; Allis, C David

    2009-06-11

    Histone H3 lysine 4 methylation (H3K4me) has been proposed as a critical component in regulating gene expression, epigenetic states, and cellular identities1. The biological meaning of H3K4me is interpreted by conserved modules including plant homeodomain (PHD) fingers that recognize varied H3K4me states. The dysregulation of PHD fingers has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancers and immune or neurological disorders. Here we report that fusing an H3K4-trimethylation (H3K4me3)-binding PHD finger, such as the carboxy-terminal PHD finger of PHF23 or JARID1A (also known as KDM5A or RBBP2), to a common fusion partner nucleoporin-98 (NUP98) as identified in human leukaemias, generated potent oncoproteins that arrested haematopoietic differentiation and induced acute myeloid leukaemia in murine models. In these processes, a PHD finger that specifically recognizes H3K4me3/2 marks was essential for leukaemogenesis. Mutations in PHD fingers that abrogated H3K4me3 binding also abolished leukaemic transformation. NUP98-PHD fusion prevented the differentiation-associated removal of H3K4me3 at many loci encoding lineage-specific transcription factors (Hox(s), Gata3, Meis1, Eya1 and Pbx1), and enforced their active gene transcription in murine haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Mechanistically, NUP98-PHD fusions act as 'chromatin boundary factors', dominating over polycomb-mediated gene silencing to 'lock' developmentally critical loci into an active chromatin state (H3K4me3 with induced histone acetylation), a state that defined leukaemia stem cells. Collectively, our studies represent, to our knowledge, the first report that deregulation of the PHD finger, an 'effector' of specific histone modification, perturbs the epigenetic dynamics on developmentally critical loci, catastrophizes cellular fate decision-making, and even causes oncogenesis during mammalian development.

  13. [A case of freeze-dried gas gangrene antitoxin for the treatment of Clostridium perfringens sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Juichiro; Nakamura, Hideki; Yamada, Shinya; Sekoguchi, Satoru; Suzuki, Takahiro; Tomatsuri, Naoya; Sato, Hideki; Okuyama, Yusuke; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Norimasa

    2015-02-01

    A 66-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with high fever. We diagnosed a gas-containing liver abscess and performed percutaneous abscess drainage. However, 15 hours after admission, he developed massive intravascular hemolysis and acidosis. Sepsis due to Clostridium perfringens was suspected and we treated the patient intensively with multidisciplinary approaches, including antibiotics, mechanical ventilation, and renal replacement therapy. Furthermore, we administered freeze-dried gas gangrene antitoxin. Despite intensive care, the patient died 43 hours after admission.

  14. Bacterial toxin-antitoxin gene system as containment control in yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, P.; Jensen, G. B.; Gerdes, K.

    2000-01-01

    The potential of a bacterial toxin-antitoxin gene system for use in containment control in eukaryotes was explored. The Escherichia coli relE and relB genes were expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Expression of the relE gene was highly toxic to yeast cells. However, expression...... fermentation processes in which the escape of genetically modified cells would be considered highly risky....

  15. Artificial activation of toxin-antitoxin systems as an antibacterial strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Julia J.; Hergenrother, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are unique modules that effect plasmid stabilization via post-segregational killing of the bacterial host. The genes encoding TA systems also exist on bacterial chromosomes, where they are speculated to be involved in a variety of cellular processes. Interest in TA systems has increased dramatically over the past five years as the ubiquitous nature of TA genes on bacterial genomes has been revealed. The exploitation of TA systems as an antibacterial strategy via a...

  16. BtoxDB: a comprehensive database of protein structural data on toxin-antitoxin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Luiz Carlos Bertucci; Garrido, Saulo Santesso; Marchetto, Reinaldo

    2015-03-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are diverse and abundant genetic modules in prokaryotic cells that are typically formed by two genes encoding a stable toxin and a labile antitoxin. Because TA systems are able to repress growth or kill cells and are considered to be important actors in cell persistence (multidrug resistance without genetic change), these modules are considered potential targets for alternative drug design. In this scenario, structural information for the proteins in these systems is highly valuable. In this report, we describe the development of a web-based system, named BtoxDB, that stores all protein structural data on TA systems. The BtoxDB database was implemented as a MySQL relational database using PHP scripting language. Web interfaces were developed using HTML, CSS and JavaScript. The data were collected from the PDB, UniProt and Entrez databases. These data were appropriately filtered using specialized literature and our previous knowledge about toxin-antitoxin systems. The database provides three modules ("Search", "Browse" and "Statistics") that enable searches, acquisition of contents and access to statistical data. Direct links to matching external databases are also available. The compilation of all protein structural data on TA systems in one platform is highly useful for researchers interested in this content. BtoxDB is publicly available at http://www.gurupi.uft.edu.br/btoxdb. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Heterologous Expression of Toxins from Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Eukaryotic Cells: Strategies and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew Chieng Yeo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxin-antitoxin (TA systems are found in nearly all prokaryotic genomes and usually consist of a pair of co-transcribed genes, one of which encodes a stable toxin and the other, its cognate labile antitoxin. Certain environmental and physiological cues trigger the degradation of the antitoxin, causing activation of the toxin, leading either to the death or stasis of the host cell. TA systems have a variety of functions in the bacterial cell, including acting as mediators of programmed cell death, the induction of a dormant state known as persistence and the stable maintenance of plasmids and other mobile genetic elements. Some bacterial TA systems are functional when expressed in eukaryotic cells and this has led to several innovative applications, which are the subject of this review. Here, we look at how bacterial TA systems have been utilized for the genetic manipulation of yeasts and other eukaryotes, for the containment of genetically modified organisms, and for the engineering of high expression eukaryotic cell lines. We also examine how TA systems have been adopted as an important tool in developmental biology research for the ablation of specific cells and the potential for utility of TA systems in antiviral and anticancer gene therapies.

  18. Heterologous Expression of Toxins from Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Eukaryotic Cells: Strategies and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Chew Chieng; Abu Bakar, Fauziah; Chan, Wai Ting; Espinosa, Manuel; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2016-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are found in nearly all prokaryotic genomes and usually consist of a pair of co-transcribed genes, one of which encodes a stable toxin and the other, its cognate labile antitoxin. Certain environmental and physiological cues trigger the degradation of the antitoxin, causing activation of the toxin, leading either to the death or stasis of the host cell. TA systems have a variety of functions in the bacterial cell, including acting as mediators of programmed cell death, the induction of a dormant state known as persistence and the stable maintenance of plasmids and other mobile genetic elements. Some bacterial TA systems are functional when expressed in eukaryotic cells and this has led to several innovative applications, which are the subject of this review. Here, we look at how bacterial TA systems have been utilized for the genetic manipulation of yeasts and other eukaryotes, for the containment of genetically modified organisms, and for the engineering of high expression eukaryotic cell lines. We also examine how TA systems have been adopted as an important tool in developmental biology research for the ablation of specific cells and the potential for utility of TA systems in antiviral and anticancer gene therapies. PMID:26907343

  19. Social Partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tikkanen, Tarja; Hansen, Leif Emil; Guðmundsson, Bernharður

    2012-01-01

    based on a survey carried out in the Nordic countries in the regie of Nordic Council of Ministries the article deals with the role of social partners in senior and older workers policies and practises......based on a survey carried out in the Nordic countries in the regie of Nordic Council of Ministries the article deals with the role of social partners in senior and older workers policies and practises...

  20. Urbanism PhD Research 2008 - 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.; Van der Hoeven, F.D.; Brand, N.; Van der Burg, L.; Çal??kan, O.; Tan, E.R.; Wang, C.Y.; Zhou, J.

    2009-01-01

    To ensure the quality of the Ph.D. research the Department introduced a special procedure for periodic evaluation: after a period of nine months the potential Ph.D. candidates are asked to present their research design, theoretical framework and methodological approach to the members of the

  1. PARTNER Project

    CERN Multimedia

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L

    2011-01-01

    Hadrontherapy uses particle beams to treat tumours located near critical organs and tumours that respond poorly to conventional radiation therapy. It has become evident that there is an emerging need for reinforcing research in hadrontherapy and it is essential to train professionals in this rapidly developing field. PARTNER is a 4-year Marie Curie Training project funded by the European Commission with 5.6 million Euros aimed at the creation of the next generation of experts. Ten academic institutes and research centres and two leading companies are participating in PARTNER, that is coordinated by CERN, forming a unique multidisciplinary and multinational European network. The project offers research and training opportunities to 25 young biologists, engineers, physicians and physicists and is allowing them to actively develop modern techniques for treating cancer in close collaboration with leading European Institutions. For this purpose PARTNER relies on cutting edge research and technology development, ef...

  2. Discovering and Developing Successful Cardiovascular Therapeutics: A Conversation With James N. Topper, MD, PhD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, James N; Rutherford, John D

    2016-11-15

    Dr James (also known as Jamie) N. Topper, MD, PhD, serves as Managing General Partner at Frazier Healthcare Partners, where he leads the Life Science Venture practice. In 2011, and 2016, he was named to the Midas List of leading venture capitalists, and, in 2013, he was recognized by Forbes as one of the top 10 healthcare investors. He has >25 years of experience working with entrepreneurs to found and build successful therapeutics-focused companies. Dr Topper holds a BS from the University of Michigan. He received an MD and PhD (in biophysics) from Stanford University School of Medicine. He completed postgraduate training in internal medicine and cardiovascular disease at the Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston and is board certified in both disciplines. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Structure, Biology, and Therapeutic Application of Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Young; Lee, Bong-Jin

    2016-10-22

    Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems have received increasing attention for their diverse identities, structures, and functional implications in cell cycle arrest and survival against environmental stresses such as nutrient deficiency, antibiotic treatments, and immune system attacks. In this review, we describe the biological functions and the auto-regulatory mechanisms of six different types of TA systems, among which the type II TA system has been most extensively studied. The functions of type II toxins include mRNA/tRNA cleavage, gyrase/ribosome poison, and protein phosphorylation, which can be neutralized by their cognate antitoxins. We mainly explore the similar but divergent structures of type II TA proteins from 12 important pathogenic bacteria, including various aspects of protein-protein interactions. Accumulating knowledge about the structure-function correlation of TA systems from pathogenic bacteria has facilitated a novel strategy to develop antibiotic drugs that target specific pathogens. These molecules could increase the intrinsic activity of the toxin by artificially interfering with the intermolecular network of the TA systems.

  4. A Viral Nanoparticle with Dual Function as an Anthrax Antitoxin and Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manayani, Darly J; Thomas, Diane; Dryden, Kelly A; Reddy, Vijay; Siladi, Marc E; Marlett, John M; Rainey, G. Jonah A; Pique, Michael E; Scobie, Heather M; Yeager, Mark; Young, John A. T; Manchester, Marianne; Schneemann, Anette

    2007-01-01

    The recent use of Bacillus anthracis as a bioweapon has stimulated the search for novel antitoxins and vaccines that act rapidly and with minimal adverse effects. B. anthracis produces an AB-type toxin composed of the receptor-binding moiety protective antigen (PA) and the enzymatic moieties edema factor and lethal factor. PA is a key target for both antitoxin and vaccine development. We used the icosahedral insect virus Flock House virus as a platform to display 180 copies of the high affinity, PA-binding von Willebrand A domain of the ANTXR2 cellular receptor. The chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) correctly displayed the receptor von Willebrand A domain on their surface and inhibited lethal toxin action in in vitro and in vivo models of anthrax intoxication. Moreover, VLPs complexed with PA elicited a potent toxin-neutralizing antibody response that protected rats from anthrax lethal toxin challenge after a single immunization without adjuvant. This recombinant VLP platform represents a novel and highly effective, dually-acting reagent for treatment and protection against anthrax. PMID:17922572

  5. The DinJ/RelE Toxin-Antitoxin System Suppresses Bacterial Proliferation and Virulence of Xylella fastidiosa in Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Lindsey P; Stenger, Drake C

    2017-04-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's disease of grapes, is a slow-growing, xylem-limited, bacterial pathogen. Disease progression is characterized by systemic spread of the bacterium through xylem vessel networks, causing leaf-scorching symptoms, senescence, and vine decline. It appears to be advantageous to this pathogen to avoid excessive blockage of xylem vessels, because living bacterial cells are generally found in plant tissue with low bacterial cell density and minimal scorching symptoms. The DinJ/RelE toxin-antitoxin system is characterized here for a role in controlling bacterial proliferation and population size during plant colonization. The DinJ/RelE locus is transcribed from two separate promoters, allowing for coexpression of antitoxin DinJ with endoribonuclease toxin RelE, in addition to independent expression of RelE. The ratio of antitoxin/toxin expressed is dependent on bacterial growth conditions, with lower amounts of antitoxin present under conditions designed to mimic grapevine xylem sap. A knockout mutant of DinJ/RelE exhibits a hypervirulent phenotype, with higher bacterial populations and increased symptom development and plant decline. It is likely that DinJ/RelE acts to prevent excessive population growth, contributing to the ability of the pathogen to spread systemically without completely blocking the xylem vessels and increasing probability of acquisition by the insect vector.

  6. Interactions between the toxin kid of the bacterial parD system and the antitoxins Kis and MazE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.B.; Monti, M.C.; van den Heuvel, R.H.H.; Santos-Sierra, S.; Folkers, G.E.; Lemonnier, M.; Diaz-Orejas, R.; Heck, A.J.R.; Boelens, R.

    2007-01-01

    The proteins Kid and Kis are the toxin and antitoxin, respectively, encoded by the parD operon of Escherichia coli plasmid R1. Kis prevents the inhibition of E. coli cell growth caused by the RNA cleavage activity of Kid. Overproduction of MazE, the chromosome-encoded homologue of Kis, has been

  7. What is the link between stringent response, endoribonuclease encoding type II toxin-antitoxin systems and persistence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramisetty, B. C. M.; Ghosh, Debabrata; Chowdhury, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Persistence is a transient and non-inheritable tolerance to antibiotics by a small fraction of a bacterial population. One of the proposed determinants of bacterial persistence is toxin-antitoxin systems (TASs) which are also implicated in a wide range of stress-related phenomena. Maisonneuve E, ...

  8. Structural studies of the toxin-antitoxin proteins RelE and RelB from E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Røjkjær; Overgaard, Martin; Gerdes, Kenn

    the special tRNA-mRNA mimic, tmRNA [1]. Questions to be addressed Many questions remain to be answered in the bacterial toxin-antitoxin system. The crystal structure of RelBE from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 was previously solved at 2.3Å [2]. This structure shows the molecule in an inactive state, but OT3......The bacterial toxin-antitoxin system The relBE operon in E. coli encodes two small proteins: A toxin, RelE (12 kDa) and an antitoxin, RelB (9 kDa). RelE is activated under nutritional stress and is able to inhibit protein synthesis by cleaving the mRNA in the ribosomal A-site. This stress response...... serves to down-regulate metabolism in the cell when growth conditions are limited. RelB is expressed in excess over RelE during balanced growth, and inhibits the toxicity of RelE by forming an extremely stable toxin-antitoxin complex. The activation of RelE is induced when the labile RelB protein...

  9. Expression and DNA methylation levels of prolyl hydroxylases PHD1, PHD2, PHD3 and asparaginyl hydroxylase FIH in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawluszko, Agnieszka A; Bujnicka, Katarzyna E; Horbacka, Karolina; Krokowicz, Piotr; Jagodziński, Paweł P

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common and comprehensively studied malignancies. Hypoxic conditions during formation of CRC may support the development of more aggressive cancers. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), a major player in cancerous tissue adaptation to hypoxia, is negatively regulated by the family of prolyl hydroxylase enzymes (PHD1, PHD2, PHD3) and asparaginyl hydroxylase, called factor inhibiting HIF (FIH). PHD1, PHD2, PHD3 and FIH gene expression was evaluated using quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting in primary colonic adenocarcinoma and adjacent histopathologically unchanged colonic mucosa from patients who underwent radical surgical resection of the colon (n = 90), and the same methods were used for assessment of PHD3 gene expression in HCT116 and DLD-1 CRC cell lines. DNA methylation levels of the CpG island in the promoter regulatory region of PHD1, PHD2, PHD3 and FIH were assessed using bisulfite DNA sequencing and high resolution melting analysis (HRM) for patients and HRM analysis for CRC cell lines. We found significantly lower levels of PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3 transcripts (p = 0.00026; p < 0.00001; p < 0.00001) and proteins (p = 0.004164; p = 0.0071; p < 0.00001) in primary cancerous than in histopathologically unchanged tissues. Despite this, we did not observe statistically significant differences in FIH transcript levels between cancerous and histopathologically unchanged colorectal tissue, but we found a significantly increased level of FIH protein in CRC (p = 0.0169). The reduced PHD3 expression was correlated with significantly increased DNA methylation in the CpG island of the PHD3 promoter regulatory region (p < 0.0001). We did not observe DNA methylation in the CpG island of the PHD1, PHD2 or FIH promoter in cancerous and histopathologically unchanged colorectal tissue. We also showed that 5-Aza-2’-deoxycytidine induced DNA demethylation leading to increased PHD3 transcript and protein level in HCT116 cells. We

  10. Social Partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Emil

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present findings from a new Nordic survey on social partners’ policy and practice in regards older workers. The goal of the survey was to find out to what extent the social partners have developed policies and outlined strategies, which explicitly address the demogr...... lifelong learning and career development to their senior members during their last 15-20 years in working life. In this issue the social partners can and should play an active role – indeed, a leading role if needed – among the other key actors in society....... the demographic change and promote opportunities for lifelong learning and career development among their senior members (45+). Workforce in the Nordic countries tend to be highly organised – especially the older workers. The social partners’ involvement in the discussion of sustainable society...... and the contribution of lifelong learning to the needs and potential of older workers is crucial, as the demographic situation already today, and in particular the one to be expected within the next about 40 years, is historically without a precedent. The idea of continuous learning and the need for a meaningful work...

  11. Comprehensive comparative-genomic analysis of Type 2 toxin-antitoxin systems and related mobile stress response systems in prokaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarova Kira S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin systems (TAS, also referred to as TA loci are widespread, mobile two-gene modules that can be viewed as selfish genetic elements because they evolved mechanisms to become addictive for replicons and cells in which they reside, but also possess "normal" cellular functions in various forms of stress response and management of prokaryotic population. Several distinct TAS of type 1, where the toxin is a protein and the antitoxin is an antisense RNA, and numerous, unrelated TAS of type 2, in which both the toxin and the antitoxin are proteins, have been experimentally characterized, and it is suspected that many more remain to be identified. Results We report a comprehensive comparative-genomic analysis of Type 2 toxin-antitoxin systems in prokaryotes. Using sensitive methods for distant sequence similarity search, genome context analysis and a new approach for the identification of mobile two-component systems, we identified numerous, previously unnoticed protein families that are homologous to toxins and antitoxins of known type 2 TAS. In addition, we predict 12 new families of toxins and 13 families of antitoxins, and also, predict a TAS or TAS-like activity for several gene modules that were not previously suspected to function in that capacity. In particular, we present indications that the two-gene module that encodes a minimal nucleotidyl transferase and the accompanying HEPN protein, and is extremely abundant in many archaea and bacteria, especially, thermophiles might comprise a novel TAS. We present a survey of previously known and newly predicted TAS in 750 complete genomes of archaea and bacteria, quantitatively demonstrate the exceptional mobility of the TAS, and explore the network of toxin-antitoxin pairings that combines plasticity with selectivity. Conclusion The defining properties of the TAS, namely, the typically small size of the toxin and antitoxin genes, fast evolution, and

  12. Comprehensive comparative-genomic analysis of type 2 toxin-antitoxin systems and related mobile stress response systems in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2009-06-03

    The prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin systems (TAS, also referred to as TA loci) are widespread, mobile two-gene modules that can be viewed as selfish genetic elements because they evolved mechanisms to become addictive for replicons and cells in which they reside, but also possess "normal" cellular functions in various forms of stress response and management of prokaryotic population. Several distinct TAS of type 1, where the toxin is a protein and the antitoxin is an antisense RNA, and numerous, unrelated TAS of type 2, in which both the toxin and the antitoxin are proteins, have been experimentally characterized, and it is suspected that many more remain to be identified. We report a comprehensive comparative-genomic analysis of Type 2 toxin-antitoxin systems in prokaryotes. Using sensitive methods for distant sequence similarity search, genome context analysis and a new approach for the identification of mobile two-component systems, we identified numerous, previously unnoticed protein families that are homologous to toxins and antitoxins of known type 2 TAS. In addition, we predict 12 new families of toxins and 13 families of antitoxins, and also, predict a TAS or TAS-like activity for several gene modules that were not previously suspected to function in that capacity. In particular, we present indications that the two-gene module that encodes a minimal nucleotidyl transferase and the accompanying HEPN protein, and is extremely abundant in many archaea and bacteria, especially, thermophiles might comprise a novel TAS. We present a survey of previously known and newly predicted TAS in 750 complete genomes of archaea and bacteria, quantitatively demonstrate the exceptional mobility of the TAS, and explore the network of toxin-antitoxin pairings that combines plasticity with selectivity. The defining properties of the TAS, namely, the typically small size of the toxin and antitoxin genes, fast evolution, and extensive horizontal mobility, make the task of

  13. Discovery of Peptide-Based Antitoxins against Neurotoxins from Green and Black Mamba (Dendroaspis Family)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jappe, Emma Christine; Munk, Andreas; Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard

    treatment. Since the introduction of antivenoms in the 1890’s, only modest advances in antivenom technology and production have been made. Current antivenoms are, therefore, still being produced by immunisation of large ruminants, typically horses, with snake venoms and subsequently bleeding them to collect...... blood comprising venom-specific antibodies [4]. The incompatibility of these antivenoms with the human immune system canlead to serious adverse effects. A novel approach is needed in order to introduce safer, cheaper and more efficacious antivenoms that are compatible with the human immune system...... dendrotoxins α-dendrotoxin (α-Dtx, UniProtKBP00980), isolated from Dendroaspisangusticeps (Green mamba), and dendrotoxin I (Dtx I, UniProtKBP00979) from Dendroaspis polylepis (Black mamba) by phage display [5,6].Cross-reactive antitoxins with theability to neutralise several toxins are of interest to antivenom...

  14. Kinetics of epsilon antitoxin antibodies in different strategies for active immunization of lambs against enterotoxaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni F. Costa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia, a common disease that affects domestic small ruminants, is mainly caused by the epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens type D. The present study tested four distinct immunization protocols to evaluate humoral response in lambs, a progeny of non-vaccinated sheep during gestation. Twenty-four lambs were randomly allocated into four groups according to age (7, 15, 30 and 45 days, receiving the first dose of epsilon toxoid commercial vaccine against clostridiosis with booster after 30 days post vaccination. Indirect ELISA was performed after the first vaccine dose and booster to evaluate the immune response of the lambs. Results showed that for the four protocols tested all lambs presented serum title considered protective (≥0.2UI/ml epsilon antitoxin antibodies and also showed that the anticipation of primovaccination of lambs against enterotoxaemia conferred serum title considered protective allowing the optimization of mass vaccination of lambs.

  15. Artificial activation of toxin-antitoxin systems as an antibacterial strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Julia J; Hergenrother, Paul J

    2012-06-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are unique modules that effect plasmid stabilization via post-segregational killing of the bacterial host. The genes encoding TA systems also exist on bacterial chromosomes, and it has been speculated that these are involved in a variety of cellular processes. Interest in TA systems has increased dramatically over the past 5 years as the ubiquitous nature of TA genes on bacterial genomes has been revealed. The exploitation of TA systems as an antibacterial strategy via artificial activation of the toxin has been proposed and has considerable potential; however, efforts in this area remain in the early stages and several major questions remain. This review investigates the tractability of targeting TA systems to kill bacteria, including fundamental requirements for success, recent advances, and challenges associated with artificial toxin activation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Proteomic profiling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis identifies nutrient-starvation-responsive toxin-antitoxin systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Agner, Jeppe; Piersma, Sander R

    2013-01-01

    In order to successfully enter the latent stage, Mycobacterium tuberculosis must adapt to conditions such as nutrient limitation and hypoxia. In vitro models that mimic latent infection are valuable tools for describing the changes in metabolism that occur when the bacterium exists in a non......-growing form. We used two complementary proteomic approaches, label-free LC-MS/MS analysis and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, to determine the proteome profile of extracellular proteins from M. tuberculosis cultured under nutrient starvation. Through the label-free LC-MS/MS analysis......, significant differences in the overall metabolism during nutrient starvation were detected. Notably, members of the toxin-antitoxin systems were present in larger quantities in nutrient-starved cultures, supporting a role for these global modules as M. tuberculosis switches its metabolism into dormancy...

  17. PhD supervisor-student relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FILIPE PRAZERES

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the PhD supervisor and the PhD student is a complex one. When this relationship is neither effective nor efficient, it may yield negative consequences, such as academic failure (1. The intricacy of the supervisor-student relationship may be in part comparable to the one between the physician and his/her patient [see, for example (2]. Both interactions develop over several years and the players involved in each relationship – PhD supervisor-student on the one side and physician-patient on the other side – may at some point of the journey develop different expectations of one another [see, for example (3, 4] and experience emotional distress (5. In both relationships, the perceived satisfaction with the interaction will contribute to the success or failure of the treatment in one case, and in the other, the writing of a thesis. To improve the mentioned satisfaction, not only there is a need to invest time (6, as does the physician to his/ her patients, but also both the supervisor and the PhD student must be willing to negotiate a research path to follow that would be practical and achievable. The communication between the physician and patient is of paramount importance for the provision of health care (7, and so is the communication between the supervisor and PhD student which encourages the progression of both the research and the doctoral study (8. As to a smooth transition to the postgraduate life, supervisors should start thinking about providing the same kind of positive reinforcement that every student is used to experience in the undergraduate course. The recognition for a job well done will mean a lot for a PhD student, as it does for a patient. One good example is the increase in medication compliance by patients with high blood pressure who receive positive reinforcement from their physicians (9. Supervisors can organize regular meetings for (and with PhD students in order to not only discuss their projects

  18. ATLAS PhD Grants 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcelloni De Oliveira, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS PHd Grants - We are excited to announce the creation of a dedicated grant scheme (thanks to a donation from Fabiola Gianotti and Peter Jenni following their award from the Fundamental Physics Prize foundation) to encourage young and high-caliber doctoral students in particle physics research (including computing for physics) and permit them to obtain world class exposure, supervision and training within the ATLAS collaboration. This special PhD Grant is aimed at graduate students preparing a doctoral thesis in particle physics (incl. computing for physics) to spend one year at CERN followed by one year support also at the home Institute.

  19. PhD on Track – designing learning for PhD students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunhild Austrheim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Three years ago we started the project "Information Management for Knowledge Creation". The project was initiated to create online information literacy modules for PhD students. The result of our endeavours, PhD on Track, will be launched in May 2013. The initial stage of the project was mapping out the information behaviour of PhD students, as well as what services they require from the library through a literature review and a focus group study. The findings of these inquiries formed the knowledge base from which we developed our information literacy modules. Our paper will focus on the interaction between content production and user testing when creating PhD on Track. Methods: User testing has been employed throughout the production stage. We have tested navigation and organisation of the web site, content and usability. The project team have conducted expert testing. Analysis: The results from our user testing have played an important part in decisions concerning content production. Our working hypothesis was that the PhD students would want an encyclopaedic website, a place to quickly find answers. However, the user tests revealed that PhD students understood and expected the website to be learning modules. Conclusions: The PhD students in the tests agreed that a site such as this would be useful, especially to new PhD students. They also liked the design, but had some qualms with the level of information. They preferred shorter text, but with more depth. The students would likewise have preferred more practical examples, more illustrations and more discipline specific information. The current content of PhD on Track reflects the feedback from the user testing. We have retained initial ideas such as one section for reviewing and discovering research literature and one section for publishing PhD research work. In addition, we have included more practical examples to indicate efficient workflows or relevant actions in context. Illustrations

  20. Diversity, Prevalence, and Longitudinal Occurrence of Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Systems of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infecting Cystic Fibrosis Lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum Andersen, Sandra; Ghoul, Melanie; Griffin, Ashleigh S.

    2017-01-01

    Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are most commonly composed of two genes encoding a stable toxin, which harms the cell, and an unstable antitoxin that can inactivate it. TA systems were initially characterized as selfish elements, but have recently gained attention for regulating general stress...... responses responsible for pathogen virulence, formation of drug-tolerant persister cells and biofilms—all implicated in causing recalcitrant chronic infections. We use a bioinformatics approach to explore the distribution and evolution of type II TA loci of the opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... in their core genome and a variable number of the remaining 22 on genomic islands; (2) limited mutations in core genome TA loci, suggesting they are not under negative selection; (3) no evidence for horizontal transmission of elements with TA systems between clone types within patients, despite their ability...

  1. The panacea toolbox of a PhD biomedical student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaik, Younis

    2014-01-01

    Doing a PhD (doctor of philosophy) for the sake of contribution to knowledge should give the student an immense enthusiasm through the PhD period. It is the time in one's life that one spends to "hit the nail on the head" in a specific area and topic of interest. A PhD consists mostly of hard work and tenacity; however, luck and genius might also play a little role. You can pass all PhD phases without having both luck and genius. The PhD student should have pre-PhD and PhD toolboxes, which are "sine quibus non" for getting successfully a PhD degree. In this manuscript, the toolboxes of the PhD student are discussed.

  2. Biomedical PhD education - an international perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvany, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The PhD, otherwise known as the doctor of philosophy or Dr. Phil., is an internationally recognized degree, indicating that the PhD graduate has received training in research under supervision. Traditionally, the PhD was the route to an academic career, with most successful PhD graduates receiving...... tenured university positions. However, over the past 20–30 years, and particularly the past 10 years, the situation has changed dramatically. Governments in many countries have invested massively in PhD education, believing that trained researchers will contribute to the ‘knowledge society’, and thus...... increase the competitiveness of their countries in the future economies of the world. Thus, only a small fraction of PhD graduates now end up in academic research. Yet, the PhD remains a research degree, and indeed, institutions have become heavily dependent on PhD students for their research output...

  3. The MazEF Toxin-Antitoxin System Alters the β-Lactam Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F Schuster

    Full Text Available Toxin-antitoxin (TA systems are genetic elements of prokaryotes which encode a stable toxin and an unstable antitoxin that can counteract toxicity. TA systems residing on plasmids are often involved in episomal maintenance whereas those on chromosomes can have multiple functions. The opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus possesses at least four different families of TA systems but their physiological roles are elusive. The chromosomal mazEF system encodes the RNase toxin MazF and the antitoxin MazE. In the light of ambiguity regarding the cleavage activity, we here verify that MazF specifically targets UACAU sequences in S. aureus in vivo. In a native strain background and under non-stress conditions, cleavage was observed in the absence or presence of mazE. Transcripts of spa (staphylococcal protein A and rsbW (anti-σB factor were cut, but translational reporter fusions indicated that protein levels of the encoded products were unaffected. Despite a comparable growth rate as the wild-type, an S. aureus mazEF deletion mutant was more susceptible to β-lactam antibiotics, which suggests that further genes, putatively involved in the antibiotic stress response or cell wall synthesis or turnover, are controlled by this TA system.

  4. PhD competences of food studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelo Gonzalez-Martinez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In European Higher Education, learning outcomes and competences have been used sometimes with different meanings and sometimes with the same meaning. But both terms have been more commonly used to refer to knowledge, understanding and abilities a student must demonstrate at the end of a learning experience.  Their use is a consequence of the paradigm shift of the Bologna Process to a learner centered education environment. The definition of standards of competences (or learning outcomes for the PhD degree is thus a need for the quality assurance of this degree. In this work, subject-specific and generic competences for the PhD in Food Science and Technology and their alignment with the European Qualifications Framework (EQF level descriptors for quality assurance purposes have been identified.

  5. ATLAS PhD Grant Scholarship Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Abha Eli Phoboo

    2014-01-01

    On 11 February, the first recipients of the ATLAS PhD Grant were presented with a certificate by the programme’s selection committee. The three scholars - Lailin Xu of China, Josefina Alconada of Argentina and Gagik Vardanyan of Armenia - were delighted at being able to continue their PhD programmes at CERN.   With certificates, from left: Lailin Xu, Josefina Alconada, and Gagik Vardanyan. The selection committee members, from left: IFAE Barcelona’s Martine Bosman, Fabiola Gianotti, Peter Jenni and from CERN HR James Purvis. (Image: ATLAS/Claudia Marcelloni). Former ATLAS spokespersons Peter Jenni and Fabiola Gianotti started the fund with the Fundamental Physics Prize award money they received last year. Both have used the entirety of their prizes for educational and humanitarian programmes. "We wanted to do something for students who are working on ATLAS, in particular those who otherwise could not come here and actually see the detector they are working on,&am...

  6. PhD students share their work

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    Last week, the second Doctoral Student Assembly gave students in the final stages of their PhD at CERN the chance to meet and present their work.   On 9 May, 24 students who are completing their PhD under the CERN Doctoral Student Programme were joined by their CERN supervisors and some of their university supervisors at an event organised by HR and the Technical Students Committee (TSC). After an address by the Director-General Rolf Heuer and short presentations by Ingrid Haug from HR and TSC Chair Stephan Russenschuck, the students presented their work in a poster session. Held in a packed Council Chamber, the event was a great opportunity for the doctoral students to get to know each other and to share their work in fields as diverse as radiation protection, computing, physics and engineering.

  7. Studies of the distribution of intrathecally injected 125I-tetanus antitoxin-F(ab')2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanauske, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    Overall F(ab') 2 and antitetanus-f(ab') 2 - fragments were labelled with 125 I and injected i.th. into normal juvenile cats and adult rats. One group of rats was normal; in the other, unilateral local tetanus had been induced by injection of tetanus toxin into a M. gastrocnemius. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after the i.th. injection, and tissue samples were taken for histoautoradiography. 125 I-antitetanus-F(ab') 2 permeated into the extracellular space of the spinal cord, roots, and ganglia but not into the neuronal intracellular space. 125 I-overall-F(ab') showed identical permeation behaviour. 125 I-antitetanus-F(ab') 2 reacted with tetanus toxin issuing from the motoneurons after i.th. injection, forming an immunocomplex around the motorneurons. The immunocomplex was not formed around pseudo-unipolar ganglian cells in the spinal ganglia even though some of the ganglian cells contained tetanus toxin, and 125 I-antitetanus-F(ab') 2 was present in the extracellular space. As an explanation, it was suggested that tetanus toxin does not permeate into the extracellular space through the membrane of the pseudo-unipolar ganglian cells so that immune reactions will not occur. These findings help to explain the widely divergent results of tetanus therapy by means of i.th. injection of tetanus antitoxin. Recommendations for future therapy measures are derived from the findings. (orig./MG) [de

  8. The mazEF toxin-antitoxin system as a novel antibacterial target in Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhan Ghafourian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Although analysis of toxin-antitoxin (TA systems can be instructive, to date, there is no information on the prevalence and identity of TA systems based on a large panel of Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates. The aim of the current study was to screen for functional TA systems among clinical isolates of A. baumannii and to identify the systems’ locations. For this purpose, we screened 85 A. baumannii isolates collected from different clinical sources for the presence of the mazEF, relBE and higBA TA genes. The results revealed that the genes coding for the mazEF TA system were commonly present in all clinical isolates of A. baumannii. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that transcripts were produced in the clinical isolates. Our findings showed that TA genes are prevalent, harboured by chromosomes and transcribed within A. baumannii. Hence, activation of the toxin proteins in the mazEF TA system should be investigated further as an effective antibacterial strategy against this bacterium.

  9. The mazEF toxin-antitoxin system as a novel antibacterial target in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafourian, Sobhan; Good, Liam; Sekawi, Zamberi; Hamat, Rukman Awang; Soheili, Sara; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Neela, Vasanthakumari

    2014-07-01

    Although analysis of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems can be instructive, to date, there is no information on the prevalence and identity of TA systems based on a large panel of Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates. The aim of the current study was to screen for functional TA systems among clinical isolates of A. baumannii and to identify the systems' locations. For this purpose, we screened 85 A. baumannii isolates collected from different clinical sources for the presence of the mazEF, relBE and higBA TA genes. The results revealed that the genes coding for the mazEF TA system were commonly present in all clinical isolates of A. baumannii. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that transcripts were produced in the clinical isolates. Our findings showed that TA genes are prevalent, harboured by chromosomes and transcribed within A. baumannii. Hence, activation of the toxin proteins in the mazEF TA system should be investigated further as an effective antibacterial strategy against this bacterium.

  10. Neutralization of Bacterial YoeBSpn Toxicity and Enhanced Plant Growth in Arabidopsis thaliana via Co-Expression of the Toxin-Antitoxin Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Fauziah; Yeo, Chew Chieng; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems have various cellular functions, including as part of the general stress response. The genome of the Gram-positive human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae harbors several putative TA systems, including yefM-yoeBSpn, which is one of four systems that had been demonstrated to be biologically functional. Overexpression of the yoeBSpn toxin gene resulted in cell stasis and eventually cell death in its native host, as well as in Escherichia coli. Our previous work showed that induced expression of a yoeBSpn toxin-Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) fusion gene apparently triggered apoptosis and was lethal in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we investigated the effects of co-expression of the yefMSpn antitoxin and yoeBSpn toxin-GFP fusion in transgenic A. thaliana. When co-expressed in Arabidopsis, the YefMSpn antitoxin was found to neutralize the toxicity of YoeBSpn-GFP. Interestingly, the inducible expression of both yefMSpn antitoxin and yoeBSpn toxin-GFP fusion in transgenic hybrid Arabidopsis resulted in larger rosette leaves and taller plants with a higher number of inflorescence stems and increased silique production. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a prokaryotic antitoxin neutralizing its cognate toxin in plant cells. PMID:27104531

  11. Neutralization of Bacterial YoeBSpn Toxicity and Enhanced Plant Growth in Arabidopsis thaliana via Co-Expression of the Toxin-Antitoxin Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah Abu Bakar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA systems have various cellular functions, including as part of the general stress response. The genome of the Gram-positive human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae harbors several putative TA systems, including yefM-yoeBSpn, which is one of four systems that had been demonstrated to be biologically functional. Overexpression of the yoeBSpn toxin gene resulted in cell stasis and eventually cell death in its native host, as well as in Escherichia coli. Our previous work showed that induced expression of a yoeBSpn toxin-Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP fusion gene apparently triggered apoptosis and was lethal in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we investigated the effects of co-expression of the yefMSpn antitoxin and yoeBSpn toxin-GFP fusion in transgenic A. thaliana. When co-expressed in Arabidopsis, the YefMSpn antitoxin was found to neutralize the toxicity of YoeBSpn-GFP. Interestingly, the inducible expression of both yefMSpn antitoxin and yoeBSpn toxin-GFP fusion in transgenic hybrid Arabidopsis resulted in larger rosette leaves and taller plants with a higher number of inflorescence stems and increased silique production. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a prokaryotic antitoxin neutralizing its cognate toxin in plant cells.

  12. The PhD by Publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Peacock

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop more nuanced understandings of the PhD by publication, particularly raising awareness of the retrospective PhD by publication. The article aims to contribute to contemporary debates about the differing pathways to the attainment of doctoral study completion and the artifacts submitted for that purpose. It also seeks to support prospective graduate students and supervisors who are embarking upon alternative routes to doctoral accreditation. Background: The PhD is considered the pinnacle of academic study – highly cherished, and replete with deeply held beliefs. In response to changes in job markets, developments in the disciplines, and more varied student cohorts, diverse pathways to completion of this award have emerged, such as the PhD by publication (PhDP. A PhDP may either be prospective or retrospective. For the former, publications are planned and created with their contributions to the PhDP in mind. The retrospective PhD is assembled after some, or most, of the publications have been completed. The artifact submitted for examination in this case consists of a series of peer-reviewed academic papers, books, chapters, or equivalents that have been published or accepted for publication, accompanied by an over-arching narrative. The retrospective route is particularly attractive for professionals who are research-active but lack formal academic accreditation at the highest level. Methodology: This article calls upon a literature review pertaining to the award of PhDP combined with the work of authors who offer their personal experiences of the award. The author also refers to her candidature as a Scottish doctoral student whilst studying for the award of PhD by publication. Contribution: This work raises awareness of the PhDP as a credible and comparable pathway for graduate students. The article focuses upon the retrospective PhDP which, as with all routes to doctoral accreditation, has

  13. Determination of low tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin titers in sera by a toxin neutralization assay and a modified toxin-binding inhibition test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Sonobe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for the screening of tetanus and diphtheria antibodies in serum using anatoxin (inactivated toxin instead of toxin was developed as an alternative to the in vivo toxin neutralization assay based on the toxin-binding inhibition test (TOBI test. In this study, the serum titers (values between 1.0 and 19.5 IU measured by a modified TOBI test (Modi-TOBI test and toxin neutralization assays were correlated (P < 0.0001. Titers of tetanus or diphtheria antibodies were evaluated in serum samples from guinea pigs immunized with tetanus toxoid, diphtheria-tetanus or triple vaccine. For the Modi-TOBI test, after blocking the microtiter plates, standard tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin and different concentrations of guinea pig sera were incubated with the respective anatoxin. Twelve hours later, these samples were transferred to a plate previously coated with tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin to bind the remaining anatoxin. The anatoxin was then detected using a peroxidase-labeled tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin. Serum titers were calculated using a linear regression plot of the results for the corresponding standard antitoxin. For the toxin neutralization assay, L+/10/50 doses of either toxin combined with different concentrations of serum samples were inoculated into mice for anti-tetanus detection, or in guinea pigs for anti-diphtheria detection. Both assays were suitable for determining wide ranges of antitoxin levels. The linear regression plots showed high correlation coefficients for tetanus (r² = 0.95, P < 0.0001 and for diphtheria (r² = 0.93, P < 0.0001 between the in vitro and the in vivo assays. The standardized method is appropriate for evaluating titers of neutralizing antibodies, thus permitting the in vitro control of serum antitoxin levels.

  14. Identification of a human monoclonal antibody to replace equine diphtheria antitoxin for treatment of diphtheria intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevigny, Leila M; Booth, Brian J; Rowley, Kirk J; Leav, Brett A; Cheslock, Peter S; Garrity, Kerry A; Sloan, Susan E; Thomas, William; Babcock, Gregory J; Wang, Yang

    2013-11-01

    Diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) has been the cornerstone of the treatment of Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection for more than 100 years. Although the global incidence of diphtheria has declined steadily over the last quarter of the 20th century, the disease remains endemic in many parts of the world, and significant outbreaks still occur. DAT is an equine polyclonal antibody that is not commercially available in the United States and is in short supply globally. A safer, more readily available alternative to DAT would be desirable. In the current study, we obtained human monoclonal antibodies (hMAbs) directly from antibody-secreting cells in the circulation of immunized human volunteers. We isolated a panel of diverse hMAbs that recognized diphtheria toxoid, as well as a variety of recombinant protein fragments of diphtheria toxin. Forty-five unique hMAbs were tested for neutralization of diphtheria toxin in in vitro cytotoxicity assays with a 50% effective concentration of 0.65 ng/ml for the lead candidate hMAb, 315C4. In addition, 25 μg of 315C4 completely protected guinea pigs from intoxication in an in vivo lethality model, yielding an estimated relative potency of 64 IU/mg. In comparison, 1.6 IU of DAT was necessary for full protection from morbidity and mortality in this model. We further established that our lead candidate hMAb binds to the receptor-binding domain of diphtheria toxin and physically blocks the toxin from binding to the putative receptor, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor. The discovery of a specific and potent human neutralizing antibody against diphtheria toxin holds promise as a potential therapeutic.

  15. New Partner Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA presentation provides information on the SmartWay Transport Partnership Program, including key information about EPA, Partners' roles, benefits, tools, partner recognition, awards, and brand value. Transcript available.

  16. Green Power Partner Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  17. Partnering and contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Partnering is often, by economists, and construction managerial literature related to more incomplete contracts. This can be explained by seeing partnering as something that neutralizes opportunism. The aim is to uncover whether partnering neutralizes opportunism when there is an incomp...

  18. Proceedings of the First PhD Symposium on Sustainable Ultrascale Computing Systems (NESUS PhD 2016)

    OpenAIRE

    Carretero Pérez, Jesús; García Blas, Javier; Petcu, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Proceedings of the First PhD Symposium on Sustainable Ultrascale Computing Systems (NESUS PhD 2016) Timisoara, Romania. February 8-11, 2016. The PhD Symposium was a very good opportunity for the young researchers to share information and knowledge, to present their current research, and to discuss topics with other students in order to look for synergies and common research topics. The idea was very successful and the assessment made by the PhD Student was very good. It also helped t...

  19. A toxin antitoxin system promotes the maintenance of the IncA/C-mobilizable Salmonella Genomic Island 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Kevin T; Gonnet, Mathieu; Doublet, Benoît; Cloeckaert, Axel

    2016-08-31

    The multidrug resistance Salmonella Genomic Island 1 (SGI1) is an integrative mobilizable element identified in several enterobacterial pathogens. This chromosomal island requires a conjugative IncA/C plasmid to be excised as a circular extrachromosomal form and conjugally mobilized in trans. Preliminary observations suggest stable maintenance of SGI1 in the host chromosome but paradoxically also incompatibility between SGI1 and IncA/C plasmids. Here, using a Salmonella enterica serovar Agona clonal bacterial population as model, we demonstrate that a Toxin-Antitoxin (TA) system encoded by SGI1 plays a critical role in its stable host maintenance when an IncA/C plasmid is concomitantly present. This system, designated sgiAT for Salmonella genomic island 1 Antitoxin and Toxin respectively, thus seems to play a stabilizing role in a situation where SGI1 is susceptible to be lost through plasmid IncA/C-mediated excision. Moreover and for the first time, the incompatibility between SGI1 and IncA/C plasmids was experimentally confirmed.

  20. Diversity, Prevalence, and Longitudinal Occurrence of Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Systems of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infecting Cystic Fibrosis Lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra B. Andersen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA systems are most commonly composed of two genes encoding a stable toxin, which harms the cell, and an unstable antitoxin that can inactivate it. TA systems were initially characterized as selfish elements, but have recently gained attention for regulating general stress responses responsible for pathogen virulence, formation of drug-tolerant persister cells and biofilms—all implicated in causing recalcitrant chronic infections. We use a bioinformatics approach to explore the distribution and evolution of type II TA loci of the opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, across longitudinally sampled isolates from cystic fibrosis lungs. We identify their location in the genome, mutations, and gain/loss during infection to elucidate their function(s in stabilizing selfish elements and pathogenesis. We found (1 26 distinct TA systems, where all isolates harbor four in their core genome and a variable number of the remaining 22 on genomic islands; (2 limited mutations in core genome TA loci, suggesting they are not under negative selection; (3 no evidence for horizontal transmission of elements with TA systems between clone types within patients, despite their ability to mobilize; (4 no gain and limited loss of TA-bearing genomic islands, and of those elements partially lost, the remnant regions carry the TA systems supporting their role in genomic stabilization; (5 no significant correlation between frequency of TA systems and strain ability to establish as chronic infection, but those with a particular TA, are more successful in establishing a chronic infection.

  1. A Toxin-Antitoxin System VapBC15 from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Shows Distinct Regulatory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Fei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Type II toxin–antitoxin (TA systems play important roles in bacterial stress survival by regulating cell growth or death. They are highly abundant in cyanobacteria yet remain poorly characterized. Here, we report the identification and regulation of a putative type II TA system from Synechocystis PCC6803, VapBC15. The VapBC15 system is encoded by the chromosomal operon vapBC15. Exogenous expression of VapC15 dramatically arrested cell growth of Escherichia coli and reduced the numbers of colony-forming units (CFU. The VapC15 toxicity could be which was counteracted neutralized by simultaneous or delayed production of VapB15. Biochemical analysis demonstrated the formation of VapB15-VapC15 complexes by the physical interaction between VapB15 and VapC15. Notably, the VapB15 antitoxin up-regulated the transcription of the vapBC15 operon by directly binding to the promoter region, and the VapC15 toxin abolished the up-regulatory effect by destabilizing the binding. Moreover, VapB15 can be degraded by the proteases Lons and ClpXP2s from Synechocystis PCC6803, thus activating the latent toxicity of VapBC15. These findings suggest that VapBC15 represents a genuine TA system that utilizes a distinct mechanism to regulate toxin activity.

  2. Young PHD's in Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eleanor

    2002-01-01

    The Cooperating Hampton Roads Organizations for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME) in cooperation with the NASA Office of Space Flight, Human Exploration and Development of Space Enterprise sponsored a summer institute, Young PHD#s (Persons Having Dreams) in Human Space Flight. This 3-day institute used the curriculum of a workshop designed for space professionals, 'Human Space Flight-Analysis and Design: An Integrated, Systematic Approach.' The content was tailored to a high school audience. This institute seeks to stimulate the interest of pre-college students in space flight and motivate them to pursue further experiences in this field. Additionally, this institute will serve as a pilot model for a pre- collegiate training program that can be replicated throughout the country. The institute was complemented with a trip to the Goddard Space Flight Center.

  3. [Stop the compulsive PhD trajectory for junior doctors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevers, J C Hans

    2014-01-01

    It has become the rule rather than the exception that junior doctors in training spend 3-4 years on a research project, culminating in a thesis. Without a PhD, clinical career prospects within and outside academia look rather bleak. Here I argue that PhD degrees should be pursued only by the most talented and motivated young clinicians.

  4. Tracking the PhD Students' Daily Computer Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kwong Nui; van der Meer, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated PhD students' computer activities in their daily research practice. Software that tracks computer usage (Manic Time) was installed on the computers of nine PhD students, who were at their early, mid and final stage in doing their doctoral research in four different discipline areas (Commerce, Humanities, Health Sciences and…

  5. Exploring the intricacies of contemporary Phd research process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The process leading to a PhD degree award has evolved over a period of many years to become what it is today. There are important considerations and emphasis continually being placed by the degree awarding authorities on the PhD research process leading to this award. The authors of this communication wish to ...

  6. The HigB/HigA Toxin/Antitoxin System of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Influences the Virulence Factors Pyochelin, Pyocyanin, and Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-24

    translation- dependent mRNA cleavage at A- rich sites. J. Biol. Chem. 284:18605–18613. Islam, S., M. J. Benedik, and T. K. Wood. 2015. Orphan toxin OrtT...Bacteriol. 192:6191–6199. Norton, J. P., and M. A. Mulvey. 2012. Toxin- antitoxin systems are important for niche - specific colonization and stress

  7. Launching a Geoscience Career: Insights Gained from MS PHD'S Beyond the PhD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, W. I.; Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Jansma, P. E.; Huggans, M. J.; Ricciardi, L.

    2013-05-01

    The Beyond the PhD (B-PhD) Professional Development Program is the newest addition to the Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S®) Professional Development Program in Earth System Science. This exciting new program is designed to facilitate the development of a new community of underrepresented minority (URM) doctoral candidates and recent doctorate degree recipients in Earth system science (ESS)-related fields. Building upon MS PHD'S extensive professional development activities provided to URM undergraduate and graduate students, B-PhD's vision is to encourage and support URM doctoral students and early career PhD's in becoming part of the global workforce. (Since its inception in 2003, MSPHD'S supports 213 participants of which 42 have achieved the doctoral degree and another 71 are enrolled in doctoral programs.) By providing customized support and advocacy for participants, B-PhD facilitates smoother and informed transitions from graduate school to postdoctoral and tenure-track positions, as well as other "first" jobs in academia, government, industry, and non-profit organizations. In 2011, the first conference for 18 doctoral candidate and recent graduates was hosted at the University of Texas at Arlington's (UTA) College of Science. Using a format of guest speakers, brown bag discussions, and interactive breakout sessions, participants engaged in sessions entitled "Toolkits for Success in Academia, Business and Industry, Federal Government and Non-Profits", "Defining Short, Mid and Long Term Career Goals", "Accessing and Refining Skill Sets and Other Door Openers", "International Preparation and Opportunities", "Paying it Forward/Lifting as You Climb", and "Customized Strategies for Next Steps". This presentation will discuss outcomes from this pilot project, the use of social media to track and support ongoing B-PhD activities, and objectives for future B-PhD workshops.

  8. Germ-line PHD1 and PHD2 mutations detected in patients with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma-polycythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunzhang; Zhuang, Zhengping; Fliedner, Stephanie M J; Shankavaram, Uma; Sun, Michael G; Bullova, Petra; Zhu, Roland; Elkahloun, Abdel G; Kourlas, Peter J; Merino, Maria; Kebebew, Electron; Pacak, Karel

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated genetic/pathogenetic factors associated with a new clinical entity in patients presenting with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PHEO/PGL) and polycythemia. Two patients without hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF2A) mutations, who presented with similar clinical manifestations, were analyzed for other gene mutations, including prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) mutations. We have found for the first time a germ-line mutation in PHD1 in one patient and a novel germ-line PHD2 mutation in a second patient. Both mutants exhibited reduced protein stability with substantial quantitative protein loss and thus compromised catalytic activities. Due to the unique association of patients' polycythemia with borderline or mildly elevated erythropoietin (EPO) levels, we also performed an in vitro sensitivity assay of erythroid progenitors to EPO and for EPO receptor (EPOR) expression. The results show inappropriate hypersensitivity of erythroid progenitors to EPO in these patients, indicating increased EPOR expression/activity. In addition, the present study indicates that HIF dysregulation due to PHD mutations plays an important role in the pathogenesis of these tumors and associated polycythemia. The PHD1 mutation appears to be a new member contributing to the genetic landscape of this novel clinical entity. Our results support the existence of a specific PHD1- and PHD2-associated PHEO/PGL-polycythemia disorder. • A novel germ-l i n e PHD1 mutation causing heochromocytoma/paraganglioma and polycythemia. • Increased EPOR activity and inappropriate hypersensitivity of erythroid progenitors to EPO.

  9. A bacterial toxin-antitoxin module is the origin of inter-bacterial and inter-kingdom effectors of Bartonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Alexander; Liesch, Marius; Körner, Jonas; Québatte, Maxime; Engel, Philipp; Dehio, Christoph

    2017-10-01

    Host-targeting type IV secretion systems (T4SS) evolved from conjugative T4SS machineries that mediate interbacterial plasmid transfer. However, the origins of effectors secreted by these virulence devices have remained largely elusive. Previous work showed that some effectors exhibit homology to toxins of bacterial toxin-antitoxin modules, but the evolutionary trajectories underlying these ties had not been resolved. We previously reported that FicT toxins of FicTA toxin-antitoxin modules disrupt cellular DNA topology via their enzymatic FIC (filamentation induced by cAMP) domain. Intriguingly, the FIC domain of the FicT toxin VbhT of Bartonella schoenbuchensis is fused to a type IV secretion signal-the BID (Bep intracellular delivery) domain-similar to the Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) that are secreted into eukaryotic host cells via the host-targeting VirB T4SS. In this study, we show that the VbhT toxin is an interbacterial effector protein secreted via the conjugative Vbh T4SS that is closely related to the VirB T4SS and encoded by plasmid pVbh of B. schoenbuchensis. We therefore propose that the Vbh T4SS together with its effector VbhT represent an evolutionary missing link on a path that leads from a regular conjugation system and FicTA toxin-antitoxin modules to the VirB T4SS and the Beps. Intriguingly, phylogenetic analyses revealed that the fusion of FIC and BID domains has probably occurred independently in VbhT and the common ancestor of the Beps, suggesting parallel evolutionary paths. Moreover, several other examples of TA module toxins that are bona fide substrates of conjugative T4SS indicate that their recruitment as interbacterial effectors is prevalent and serves yet unknown biological functions in the context of bacterial conjugation. We propose that the adaptation for interbacterial transfer favors the exaptation of FicT and other TA module toxins as inter-kingdom effectors and may thus constitute an important stepping stone in the

  10. A bacterial toxin-antitoxin module is the origin of inter-bacterial and inter-kingdom effectors of Bartonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Harms

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Host-targeting type IV secretion systems (T4SS evolved from conjugative T4SS machineries that mediate interbacterial plasmid transfer. However, the origins of effectors secreted by these virulence devices have remained largely elusive. Previous work showed that some effectors exhibit homology to toxins of bacterial toxin-antitoxin modules, but the evolutionary trajectories underlying these ties had not been resolved. We previously reported that FicT toxins of FicTA toxin-antitoxin modules disrupt cellular DNA topology via their enzymatic FIC (filamentation induced by cAMP domain. Intriguingly, the FIC domain of the FicT toxin VbhT of Bartonella schoenbuchensis is fused to a type IV secretion signal-the BID (Bep intracellular delivery domain-similar to the Bartonella effector proteins (Beps that are secreted into eukaryotic host cells via the host-targeting VirB T4SS. In this study, we show that the VbhT toxin is an interbacterial effector protein secreted via the conjugative Vbh T4SS that is closely related to the VirB T4SS and encoded by plasmid pVbh of B. schoenbuchensis. We therefore propose that the Vbh T4SS together with its effector VbhT represent an evolutionary missing link on a path that leads from a regular conjugation system and FicTA toxin-antitoxin modules to the VirB T4SS and the Beps. Intriguingly, phylogenetic analyses revealed that the fusion of FIC and BID domains has probably occurred independently in VbhT and the common ancestor of the Beps, suggesting parallel evolutionary paths. Moreover, several other examples of TA module toxins that are bona fide substrates of conjugative T4SS indicate that their recruitment as interbacterial effectors is prevalent and serves yet unknown biological functions in the context of bacterial conjugation. We propose that the adaptation for interbacterial transfer favors the exaptation of FicT and other TA module toxins as inter-kingdom effectors and may thus constitute an important stepping

  11. Seven steps towards a PhD in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Ruiz, Rosa María

    2016-12-01

    The present review aims to describe the main steps for completing a psychiatric PhD thesis with success. A selective review of the literature and the author's experience as a psychiatrist completing a PhD. Deciding upon a topic, choosing a mentor, organising your time, persevering and remaining motivated are the key elements. Preparedness and diligence lead the way towards a PhD. This advice is also relevant for those undertaking research at any stage of their career. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  12. Is the mazEF toxin-antitoxin system responsible for vancomycin resistance in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Soheili, Sara; Sekawi, Zamberi; Ghafourian, Sobhan

    2014-01-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the relationship between vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) and the presence of mazEF toxin-antitoxin (TA) system, which may be useful as target for novel antimicrobial therapy concepts. The susceptibility of E. faecalis was determined by MIC, and the presence of the mazEF TA system was evaluated by PCR. Among 200 E. faecalis isolates 39.5% showed resistance to vancomycin (VRE), while 60.5% were susceptible strains (VSE). The mazEF TA system was positive in all VRE isolates (100%), but less prevalent (38/121, 31.4%) among the 121 VSE strains. In conclusion, our study demonstrated a positive relationship between the presence of vancomycin resistance and mazEF TA system. This observation may introduce therapeutic options against a novel antimicrobial target in enterococci.

  13. Is the mazEF toxin-antitoxin system responsible for vancomycin resistance in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available [english] The current study was conducted to investigate the relationship between vancomycin-resistant (VRE and the presence of toxin-antitoxin (TA system, which may be useful as target for novel antimicrobial therapy concepts. The susceptibility of was determined by MIC, and the presence of the TA system was evaluated by PCR. Among 200 isolates 39.5% showed resistance to vancomycin (VRE, while 60.5% were susceptible strains (VSE. The TA system was positive in all VRE isolates (100%, but less prevalent (38/121, 31.4% among the 121 VSE strains. In conclusion, our study demonstrated a positive relationship between the presence of vancomycin resistance and TA system. This observation may introduce therapeutic options against a novel antimicrobial target in enterococci.

  14. The Influence of the Toxin/Antitoxin mazEF on Growth and Survival of Listeria monocytogenes under Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Thomas; Takeuchi, Ippei; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    A major factor in the resilience of Listeria monocytogenes is the alternative sigma factor B (σB). Type II Toxin/Antitoxin (TA) systems are also known to have a role in the bacterial stress response upon activation via the ClpP or Lon proteases. Directly upstream of the σB operon in L....... monocytogenes is the TA system mazEF, which can cleave mRNA at UACMU sites. In this study, we showed that the mazEF TA locus does not affect the level of persister formation during treatment with antibiotics in lethal doses, but exerts different effects according to the sub-inhibitory stress added. Growth...... it is not analogous to the system of S. aureus, suggesting a novel mode of action for MazEF in L. monocytogenes....

  15. Antiradiation Antitoxin IgG : Immunological neutralization of Radiation Toxins at Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    radiation toxins to induce hyperimmune serum: Group A -Toxoid form of CV ARS toxins ( SRD-1); Group B-Toxoid form of CR ARS (SRD-2)toxins ; Group C -Toxoid form of GI ARS (SRD-3); Group D -Toxoid form of HP ARS (SRD-4). After the hyperimmune serum was pooled from several animals, purified, and concentrated, the IgG fraction was separated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the hyper-immune serum had revealed high titers of IgG with specific binding to radi-ation toxins. The antiradiation IgG preparation was injected into laboratory animals one hour before and three hours after irradiation, and was evaluated for its ability to protect inoculated animals against the development of acute radiation syndromes. Results: Animals that were inoculated with specific antiradiation antibodies before and after receiving lethal irradiation at LD 100/30 exhibited 60-75% survival rate within 30 days. Also, these animals inoculated with the Antiradiation Antitoxin had exhibited markedly reduced clinical symptoms of the ARS, even those ones that did not survive irradiation. Discussion: The results of our experiments have demonstrated that the rabbit hyperimmune IgG preparations directed against SRD toxins provide a significant protection against high doses of radiation. In comparison, the mortality rate of irradiated control animals was 100% in the same time period. The mortality rates of animals treated by the hyperimmune IgG antidote have varied in the different groups of ani-mals and different forms of the ARS. However, significant radioprotection was observed in each group treated with the IgGs. The specific antiradiation antidote IGg isolated from hyperim-mune serum of immunized horses is under study. The specific antiradiation antidote contains antibodies to neurotoxins -SAAN IgG includes 50% IgG to Cv ARS, 25% IgG to Cr ARS and 25 % IgG to Gi ARS. The other type of the Specific antiradiation antidote containes antibodies to hematotoxins -SAAH IgG -100%. A combined variant is under

  16. Wound Botulism in Injection Drug Users: Time to Antitoxin Correlates with Intensive Care Unit Length of Stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Offerman, Steven R

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to identify factors associated with need for mechanical ventilation (MV, length of intensive care unit (ICU stay, length of hospital stay, and poor outcome in injection drug users (IDUs with wound botulism (WB.Methods: This is a retrospective review of WB patients admitted between 1991-2005. IDUs were included if they had symptoms of WB and diagnostic confirmation. Primary outcome variables were the need for MV, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, hospital-related complications, and death.Results: Twenty-nine patients met inclusion criteria. Twenty-two (76% admitted to heroin use only and seven (24% admitted to heroin and methamphetamine use. Chief complaints on initial presentation included visual changes, 13 (45%; weakness, nine (31%; and difficulty swallowing, seven (24%. Skin wounds were documented in 22 (76%. Twenty-one (72% patients underwent mechanical ventilation (MV. Antitoxin (AT was administered to 26 (90% patients but only two received antitoxin in the emergency department (ED. The time from ED presentation to AT administration was associated with increased length of ICU stay (Regression coefficient = 2.5; 95% CI 0.45, 4.5. The time from ED presentation to wound drainage was also associated with increased length of ICU stay (Regression coefficient = 13.7; 95% CI = 2.3, 25.2. There was no relationship between time to antibiotic administration and length of ICU stay.Conclusion: MV and prolonged ICU stays are common in patients identified with WB. Early AT administration and wound drainage are recommended as these measures may decrease ICU length of stay.[West J Emerg Med. 2009;10(4:251-256.

  17. Comprehensive functional analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis toxin-antitoxin systems: implications for pathogenesis, stress responses, and evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly R Ramage

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxin-antitoxin (TA systems, stress-responsive genetic elements ubiquitous in microbial genomes, are unusually abundant in the major human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Why M. tuberculosis has so many TA systems and what role they play in the unique biology of the pathogen is unknown. To address these questions, we have taken a comprehensive approach to identify and functionally characterize all the TA systems encoded in the M. tuberculosis genome. Here we show that 88 putative TA system candidates are present in M. tuberculosis, considerably more than previously thought. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the vast majority of these systems are conserved in the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC, but largely absent from other mycobacteria, including close relatives of M. tuberculosis. We found that many of the M. tuberculosis TA systems are located within discernable genomic islands and were thus likely acquired recently via horizontal gene transfer. We discovered a novel TA system located in the core genome that is conserved across the genus, suggesting that it may fulfill a role common to all mycobacteria. By expressing each of the putative TA systems in M. smegmatis, we demonstrate that 30 encode a functional toxin and its cognate antitoxin. We show that the toxins of the largest family of TA systems, VapBC, act by inhibiting translation via mRNA cleavage. Expression profiling demonstrated that four systems are specifically activated during stresses likely encountered in vivo, including hypoxia and phagocytosis by macrophages. The expansion and maintenance of TA genes in the MTBC, coupled with the finding that a subset is transcriptionally activated by stress, suggests that TA systems are important for M. tuberculosis pathogenesis.

  18. Toxin-antitoxin systems are important for niche-specific colonization and stress resistance of uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Paul Norton

    Full Text Available Toxin-antitoxin (TA systems are prevalent in many bacterial genomes and have been implicated in biofilm and persister cell formation, but the contribution of individual chromosomally encoded TA systems during bacterial pathogenesis is not well understood. Of the known TA systems encoded by Escherichia coli, only a subset is associated with strains of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC. These pathogens colonize diverse niches and are a major cause of sepsis, meningitis, and urinary tract infections. Using a murine infection model, we show that two TA systems (YefM-YoeB and YbaJ-Hha independently promote colonization of the bladder by the reference uropathogenic ExPEC isolate CFT073, while a third TA system comprised of the toxin PasT and the antitoxin PasI is critical to ExPEC survival within the kidneys. The PasTI TA system also enhances ExPEC persister cell formation in the presence of antibiotics and markedly increases pathogen resistance to nutrient limitation as well as oxidative and nitrosative stresses. On its own, low-level expression of PasT protects ExPEC from these stresses, whereas overexpression of PasT is toxic and causes bacterial stasis. PasT-induced stasis can be rescued by overexpression of PasI, indicating that PasTI is a bona fide TA system. By mutagenesis, we find that the stress resistance and toxic effects of PasT can be uncoupled and mapped to distinct domains. Toxicity was specifically linked to sequences within the N-terminus of PasT, a region that also promotes the development of persister cells. These results indicate discrete, multipurpose functions for a TA-associated toxin and demonstrate that individual TA systems can provide bacteria with pronounced fitness advantages dependent on toxin expression levels and the specific environmental niche occupied.

  19. Identifying most important skills for PhD students in Food Science and Technology: a comparison between industry and academic stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelo González-Martínez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is an increasing need of new skills for PhD students to face the future labour market prospects. PhD graduates must have qualities attractive not only in academia but also outside, in both manufacture and service-oriented enterprises, in small innovative companies, and in the civil services and public administration, among others. To know what the needs of these future employees are, is of great importance to be able to improve their personal and academic formation. The aim of this work was, in the framework of the EC-funded ISEKI_Food 4 network, to evaluate the most desirable specific and soft skills that PhD students should acquire by the end of their doctoral studies. To this aim, several surveys were conducted and sent to the different stakeholders (academia and food industry partners in order to collect the information needed. Results showed that competences related to research skills and techniques, research management, personal effectiveness and communication skills were considered to be the most valuable skills to be acquired by our PhD students to meet the future needs of the labour market.  The importance of these skills was appreciated differently, depending on the stakeholder. To sum up, some recommendations to integrate such valuable skills into the curricula of the PhD student are given.

  20. Meet EPA Natural Resource Economist Marisa Mazzotta, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisa Mazzotta, Ph.D. currently works as an Economist at EPA's Atlantic Ecology Division. Her research focuses on the public's valuation and prioritization of natural resources, and the relationship between ecological changes and economic benefits.

  1. Meet EPA Scientist Jordan West, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan West, Ph.D. is an aquatic ecologist at EPA. Her areas of expertise include freshwater & marine ecology, climate change impacts and adaptation, resilience and threshold theory, environmental risk assessment, expert elicitation & stakeholder processes

  2. Meet EPA Scientist Susan Yee, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Yee, Ph.D., is an ecologist at EPA's Gulf Ecology Division. She is working on the Puerto Rico Sustainable Communities program, developing decision support tools to evaluate how alternative decisions impact coastal ecosystem goods and services

  3. Meet EPA Engineer Shawn Ryan, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn Ryan, Ph.D. is a chemical engineer at EPA's National Homeland Security Research Center. He has worked at EPA for 12 years, nine of which have been devoted to leading research to support decontamination and consequence management.

  4. Meet EPA Chemist Quincy Teng, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA research chemist Quincy Teng, Ph.D., focuses on the application of metabolomics—a relatively new, specialized field of biochemistry focused on studying small molecules known as metabolites—on environmental and life sciences.

  5. Meet EPA Scientist Jody Shoemaker, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA research chemist Jody Shoemaker, Ph.D., works to support Agency efforts to protect drinking water. She helps develop methods for analyzing organic chemicals on the Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL).

  6. Meet EPA Environmental Engineer Terra Haxton, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Environmental Engineer Terra Haxton, Ph.D., uses computer simulation models to protect drinking water. She investigates approaches to help water utilities be better prepared to respond to contamination incidents in their distribution systems.

  7. Meet EPA Scientist Jeff Szabo, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA scientist Jeff Szabo, Ph.D., has worked for the EPA’s National Homeland Security Research Center since 2005. He conducts and manages water security research projects at EPA’s Test and Evaluation facility.

  8. Meet EPA Scientist Tim Shafer, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim Shafer earned his bachelor’s degree in biology and chemistry from Hope College in Holland, MI, in 1986 and his Ph.D. in pharmacology and environmental toxicology from Michigan State University in 1991.

  9. Meet EPA Ecologist Paul Mayer, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA ecologist Paul Mayer, Ph.D. works in EPA's Groundwater and Ecosystem Restoration division where he studies riparian zones (the area along rivers and streams where the habitats are influenced by both the land and water) and stream restoration

  10. ebibliographical compilation of phd theses produced at the faculty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... comprehensive list of Ph.D theses produced by the following ... Science: Applied and Plant Biology, Micro-Biology, ... Communities. ... Water Purification Potentials and in-vivo ... Cultivation at Small-Hoiders Level in Semi.

  11. The PhD Conundrum in South African Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breier, Mignonne; Herman, Chaya

    2017-01-01

    South African universities need more academics with PhDs, from historically disadvantaged population groups in particular, but they face a conundrum. In order to have more staff with PhDs, they need to produce more PhD graduates. But in order to produce more PhD graduates, they need more staff with PhDs to supervise. This article explores this…

  12. Collateral Intimate Partner Homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Collateral intimate partner homicide (CIPH is an underinvestigated genre of intimate partner violence (IPV where an individual(s connected to the IPV victim is murdered. We conducted a content analysis of a statewide database of CIPH newspaper articles (1990-2007. Out of 111 collateral murder victims, there were 84 IPV female focal victims and 84 male perpetrators. The most frequently reported CIPH decedent was the focal victim’s new partner (30%; 45% of focal victims were themselves killed. News reports framed CIPH as the unexpected result of interpersonal conflict, despite evidence of a systematic pattern of coercion and violence that capitulated in murder.

  13. A Virtual Research Partner

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cowie, Jim; Guerrero, Felicia

    2006-01-01

    .... The goal was to investigate the feasibility of creating a software agent that would be able to interact with researchers and provide them with support at a level equivalent to a human research partner...

  14. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  15. CHP Partnership Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partners of EPA's Combined Heat and Power Partnership include federal, state, and local government agencies and private organizations such as energy users, energy service companies, CHP project developers and consultants, and equipment manufacturers.

  16. Multiple sex partner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    intercourse, about 60% reported having a single sexual partner and 40% reported having multiple ... masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married people and/or .... sex were considered unacceptable by 89 vs.

  17. The lonely female partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Poul; Pedersen, Birthe D; Osther, Palle J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of female partners to men with prostate cancer. The women found the capacity to manage their lives through mutual love in the family and through their faith.......The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of female partners to men with prostate cancer. The women found the capacity to manage their lives through mutual love in the family and through their faith....

  18. Intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronholm, Peter F; Fogarty, Colleen T; Ambuel, Bruce; Harrison, Suzanne Leonard

    2011-05-15

    Intimate partner violence is a common source of physical, psychological, and emotional morbidity. In the United States, approximately 1.5 million women and 834,700 men annually are raped and/or physically assaulted by an intimate partner. Women are more likely than men to be injured, sexually assaulted, or murdered by an intimate partner. Studies suggest that one in four women is at lifetime risk. Physicians can use therapeutic relationships with patients to identify intimate partner violence, make brief office interventions, offer continuity of care, and refer them for subspecialty and community-based evaluation, treatment, and advocacy. Primary care physicians are ideally positioned to work from a preventive framework and address at-risk behaviors. Strategies for identifying intimate partner violence include asking relevant questions in patient histories, screening during periodic health examinations, and case finding in patients with suggestive signs or symptoms. Discussion needs to occur confidentially. Physicians should be aware of increased child abuse risk and negative effects on children's health observed in families with intimate partner violence. Physicians also should be familiar with local and national resources available to these patients.

  19. Divergently overlapping cis-encoded antisense RNA regulating toxin-antitoxin systems from E. coli: hok/sok, ldr/rdl, symE/symR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Mitsuoki

    2012-12-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are categorized into three classes based on the type of antitoxin. In type I TA systems, the antitoxin is a small antisense RNA that inhibits translation of small toxic proteins by binding to the corresponding mRNAs. Those type I TA systems were originally identified as plasmid stabilization modules rendering a post-segregational killing (PSK) effect on the host cells. The type I TA loci also exist on the Escherichia coli chromosome but their biological functions are less clear. Genetic organization and regulatory elements of hok/sok and ldr/rdl families are very similar and the toxins are predicted to contain a transmembrane domain, but otherwise share no detectable sequence similarity. This review will give an overview of the type I TA modules of E. coli K-12, especially hok/sok, ldr/rdl and SOS-inducible symE/symR systems, which are regulated by divergently overlapping cis-encoded antisense RNAs.

  20. PhD students: making research and publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sporea, MD, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available PhD student time is very interesting in the life of researchers. Many of them are young graduates, without or with very few experience in the field of scientific research. During four years, they must become experts in a narrow field (virtually, the subject of their PhD thesis, but at the same time they have to be trained for research and for publishing. Is it possible? It is mandatory! PhD students start with a one year training in the basic field of research during which they attend different courses regarding how to search the literature, how to perform research, how to perform statistical analysis, how to prepare a paper, where and how to publish and so on. Following this training year, together with their mentor (the coordinator of the PhD thesis, the PhD student starts working on the thesis. And this means reading as much as possible significant published data regarding his/her subject, proper research (basic, experimental, or clinical, and finally preparing papers for publication (in the beginning as abstracts for different meetings and later as original articles in dedicated journals.Participation of PhD students to different meetings is important to improve the quality of their research as an exercise for oral presentations. On the other hand, oral presentation is useful because the paper is open for discussion and corrections can be made during and after the oral presentation. During last ten years, there were organized conferences for PhD students and young doctors, particularly in Târgu Mureș and Timișoara. It was a good opportunity to show results, to discuss and to cooperate.This is why in December 2016, the Doctoral School of Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy decided to organize a scientific competition between PhD students, in an interesting scientific session. The top 10 PhD students (according to the cumulative Impact Factor of their first author publications were invited to present their scientific research

  1. The Production Rate and Employment of Ph.D. Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Travis S.

    2008-02-01

    In an effort to encourage self-regulation of the astronomy job market, I examine the supply of, and demand for, astronomers over time. On the supply side, I document the production rate of Ph.D. astronomers from 1970 to 2006 using the UMI Dissertation Abstracts database, along with data from other independent sources. I compare the long-term trends in Ph.D. production with federal astronomy research funding over the same time period, and I demonstrate that additional funding is correlated with higher subsequent Ph.D. production. On the demand side, I monitor the changing patterns of employment using statistics about the number and types of jobs advertised in the AAS Job Register from 1984 to 2006. Finally, I assess the sustainability of the job market by normalizing this demand by the annual Ph.D. production. The most recent data suggest that there are now annual advertisements for about one postdoctoral job, half a faculty job, and half a research/support position for every new domestic Ph.D. recipient in astronomy and astrophysics. The average new astronomer might expect to hold up to 3 jobs before finding a steady position.

  2. Concurrent sexual partners-A predictor of Chlamydia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Olesen, Frede; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2013-01-01

    , but the significance of this compared with other well-known predictors has only been briefly described. Aim: The aim is to examine if concurrent partners isan independent predictor for C. trachomatis infection in young Danes aged 15-29 years. Methods: Detailed sexual behavior data were collected via a web......:These preliminary results suggest that concurrent sexual partners is an important predictor for C.trachomatis infections among young Danes aged 15-29. A more concise conclusion will be presented at the Ph.D day......Background:Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection among young Danes and the spread is highly dependent on the population’s sexual behavior. Previous studies have found concurrent partnerships to be a possible predictor for C. trachomatis...

  3. PhD Dissertations Tesi di dottorato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD Dissertations.Guido Antonioli Conservator pacis et iustitie. La signoria di Taddeo Pepoli a Bologna (1337-1347, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Filologia romanza e cultura medievale (XIII ciclo, Università degli Studi di Bologna, 2001   Elisabetta Filippini «In vassallatico episcopi permanere debent». Rapporti vassallatici e concessioni beneficiali dei vescovi di Cremona fra X e XIII secolo, Tesi di dottorato di Ricerca in Storia Medievale (XV ciclo, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano, 2003   Marco Meschini, Innocenzo III e il "negotium pacis et fidei" in Linguadoca tra il 1198 e il 1215, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 2003   Fabrizio Ricciardelli The Politics of Exclusion in Florence (1215-1434, thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in History, University of Warwick, Department of History, April 2003 Renata Salvarani Baptizare pueros et decimas dare. Cura delle anime, strutturazione ecclesiastica e organizzazione delle campagne in area gardesana fra VIII e XIII secolo (diocesi di Brescia, Verona, Mantova e Trento, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XV ciclo, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano, 2002-2003   Vito Sibilio Le parole della prima crociata, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia dei centri delle vie e della cultura dei pellegrinaggi nel medioevo euromediterraneo, Università degli studi di Lecce, 2003Segnalazione di tesi di dottorato. Guido Antonioli Conservator pacis et iustitie. La signoria di Taddeo Pepoli a Bologna (1337-1347, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Filologia romanza e cultura medievale (XIII ciclo, Università degli Studi di Bologna, 2001   Elisabetta Filippini «In vassallatico episcopi permanere debent». Rapporti vassallatici e concessioni beneficiali dei vescovi di Cremona fra X e XIII secolo, Tesi di dottorato di Ricerca in Storia Medievale (XV

  4. The Training and Work of Ph.D. Physical Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. J.; Schweitzer, A. E.

    2003-05-01

    Doctoral education has often been viewed as the pinnacle of the formal education system. How useful is doctoral training in one's later career? In an NSF-funded project, we set out to perform a study of the training, careers, and work activities of Ph.D. physical scientists. The study included both in-depth interviews and a survey sent out to a sample of Ph.D. holders 4-8 years after graduation. Come and find out the results of this study: What skills are most Ph.D. physical scientists using? What should graduate programs be teaching? Are Ph.D.'s who are working in their specific field of training happier than their counterparts working different jobs? What skills and preparation lead to future job satisfaction, perhaps the most important indicator of the "success" of graduate education? A preprint and further details can be found at the project web site at: spot.colorado.edu/ phdcarer.

  5. Dido3 PHD Modulates Cell Differentiation and Division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovylyn Gatchalian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Death Inducer Obliterator 3 (Dido3 is implicated in the maintenance of stem cell genomic stability and tumorigenesis. Here, we show that Dido3 regulates the expression of stemness genes in embryonic stem cells through its plant homeodomain (PHD finger. Binding of Dido3 PHD to histone H3K4me3 is disrupted by threonine phosphorylation that triggers Dido3 translocation from chromatin to the mitotic spindle. The crystal structure of Dido3 PHD in complex with H3K4me3 reveals an atypical aromatic-cage-like binding site that contains a histidine residue. Biochemical, structural, and mutational analyses of the binding mechanism identified the determinants of specificity and affinity and explained the inability of homologous PHF3 to bind H3K4me3. Together, our findings reveal a link between the transcriptional control in embryonic development and regulation of cell division.

  6. Proceedings of the ICTSS 2012 PhD Workshop - Preface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Brian; Weise, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    and their thesis work and receive constructive feedback from experts in the field as well as from peers. Also it is an opportunity for researchers to get an insight into new research topics in the field. Ph.D. students at any stage of their doctoral studies may participate. Seven abstracts were submitted......This technical report contains the proceedings of the Ph.D. Workshop held in conjunction with the The 24th IFIP Int. Conference on Testing Software and Systems (ICTSS'12) in Aalborg, Denmark, November 19, 2012. The well‐established ICTSS series of international conferences addresses the conceptual......, theoretic, and practical challenges of testing software systems, including communication protocols, services, distributed platforms, middleware, embedded systems, and security infrastructures. The aims of the ICTSS Doctoral Workshop is to provide a forum for PhD students to present preliminary results...

  7. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of Genes Encoding PHD-Finger Protein in Tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, S.; Cheng, Z.; Chen, X.

    2016-01-01

    The PHD-finger proteins are conserved in eukaryotic organisms and are involved in a variety of important functions in different biological processes in plants. However, the function of PHD fingers are poorly known in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). In current study, we identified 45 putative genes coding Phd finger protein in tomato distributed on 11 chromosomes except for chromosome 8. Some of the genes encode other conserved key domains besides Phd-finger. Phylogenetic analysis of these 45 proteins resulted in seven clusters. Most Phd finger proteins were predicted to PML body location. These PHD-finger genes displayed differential expression either in various organs, at different development stages and under stresses in tomato. Our study provides the first systematic analysis of PHD-finger genes and proteins in tomato. This preliminary study provides a very useful reference information for Phd-finger proteins in tomato. They will be helpful for cloning and functional study of tomato PHD-finger genes. (author)

  8. Researcher Profile: An Interview with Sarah Asebedo, Ph.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martie Gillen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Asebedo, Ph.D., CFP®, is an Assistant Professor of Personal Financial Planning with Texas Tech University. With extensive financial planning practitioner experience, her goal is to connect research and financial planning practice with a focus on the relationship between psychological attributes, financial conflicts, and financial behavior. Her work has been published in the Journal of Financial Planning, Journal of Financial Therapy, Journal of Financial Counseling and Planning, and Financial Planning Review. Asebedo currently serves as President-Elect for the Financial Therapy Association. She earned her Ph.D. in Personal Financial Planning from Kansas State University.

  9. Identification of novel mazEF/pemIK family toxin-antitoxin loci and their distribution in the Staphylococcus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Michal; Hyz, Karolina; Janczak, Monika; Hydzik, Marcin; Dubin, Grzegorz; Wladyka, Benedykt

    2017-10-18

    The versatile roles of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems in bacterial physiology and pathogenesis have been investigated for more than three decades. Diverse TA loci in Bacteria and Archaea have been identified in genome-wide studies. The advent of massive parallel sequencing has substantially expanded the number of known bacterial genomic sequences over the last 5 years. In staphylococci, this has translated into an impressive increase from a few tens to a several thousands of available genomes, which has allowed us for the re-evalution of prior conclusions. In this study, we analysed the distribution of mazEF/pemIK family TA system operons in available staphylococcal genomes and their prevalence in mobile genetic elements. 10 novel m azEF/pemIK homologues were identified, each with a corresponding toxin that plays a potentially different and undetermined physiological role. A detailed characterisation of these TA systems would be exceptionally useful. Of particular interest are those associated with an SCCmec mobile genetic element (responsible for multidrug resistance transmission) or representing the joint horizontal transfer of TA systems and determinants of vancomycin resistance from enterococci. The involvement of TA systems in maintaining mobile genetic elements and the associations between novel mazEF/pemIK loci and those which carry drug resistance genes highlight their potential medical importance.

  10. Plasmid Vectors for Xylella fastidiosa Utilizing a Toxin-Antitoxin System for Stability in the Absence of Antibiotic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Lindsey P; Stenger, Drake C

    2016-08-01

    The phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa causes disease in a variety of important crop and landscape plants. Functional genetic studies have led to a broader understanding of virulence mechanisms used by this pathogen in the grapevine host. Plasmid shuttle vectors are important tools in studies of bacterial genetics but there are only a limited number of plasmid vectors available that replicate in X. fastidiosa, and even fewer that are retained without antibiotic selection. Two plasmids are described here that show stable replication in X. fastidiosa and are effective for gene complementation both in vitro and in planta. Plasmid maintenance is facilitated by incorporation of the PemI/PemK plasmid addiction system, consisting of PemK, an endoribonuclease toxin, and its cognate antitoxin, PemI. Vector pXf20pemIK utilizes a native X. fastidiosa replication origin as well as a high-copy-number pUC origin for propagation in Escherichia coli cloning strains. Broad-host-range vector pBBR5pemIK is a medium- to low-copy-number plasmid based on the pBBR1 backbone. Both plasmids are maintained for extended periods of time in the absence of antibiotic selection, as well as up to 14 weeks in grapevine, without affecting bacterial fitness. These plasmids present an alternative to traditional complementation and expression vectors which rely on antibiotic selection for plasmid retention.

  11. Expression of the toxin-antitoxin genes yefM(Lrh), yoeB(Lrh) in human Lactobacillus rhamnosus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krügel, Hans; Klimina, Ksenia M; Mrotzek, Grit; Tretyakov, Alexander; Schöfl, Gerhard; Saluz, Hans-Peter; Brantl, Sabine; Poluektova, Elena U; Danilenko, Valery N

    2015-08-01

    Lactobacilli are important microorganisms in various activities, for example, diary products, meat ripening, bread and pickles, but, moreover, are associated directly with human skin and cavities (e.g., mouth, gut, or vagina). Some of them are used as probiotics. Therefore, the molecular biological investigation of these bacteria is important. Earlier we described several toxin antitoxin systems (type II) in lactobacilli. Here, we describe the structure and transcriptional regulation of genes, encoding TA system YefM-YoeB(Lrh) in three strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus comparing stationary and exponential growth phases, the influence of stress factors and mRNA stability. The same TA system is responding to physiological and stress conditions differently in related strains. Using primer extension and RLM-RACE methods we determined three transcription start sites of RNAs in the operon. The promoter region of the operon is preceded by a conserved BOX element occurring at multiple positions in the genomes of L. rhamnosus strains. Downstream of and partially overlapping with the 3' end of the yoeB(Lrh) toxin gene, a divergently transcribed unexpected RNA was detected. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The Influence of the Toxin/Antitoxin mazEF on Growth and Survival of Listeria monocytogenes under Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Thomas D; Takeuchi, Ippei; Gram, Lone; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2017-01-13

    A major factor in the resilience of Listeria monocytogenes is the alternative sigma factor B (σ B ). Type II Toxin/Antitoxin (TA) systems are also known to have a role in the bacterial stress response upon activation via the ClpP or Lon proteases. Directly upstream of the σ B operon in L. monocytogenes is the TA system mazEF , which can cleave mRNA at UACMU sites. In this study, we showed that the mazEF TA locus does not affect the level of persister formation during treatment with antibiotics in lethal doses, but exerts different effects according to the sub-inhibitory stress added. Growth of a Δ mazEF mutant was enhanced relative to the wildtype in the presence of sub-inhibitory norfloxacin and at 42 °C, but was decreased when challenged with ampicillin and gentamicin. In contrast to studies in Staphylococcus aureus , we found that the mazEF locus did not affect transcription of genes within the σ B operon, but MazEF effected the expression of the σ B -dependent genes opuCA and lmo0880 , with a 0.22 and 0.05 fold change, respectively, compared to the wildtype under sub-inhibitory norfloxacin conditions. How exactly this system operates remains an open question, however, our data indicates it is not analogous to the system of S. aureus , suggesting a novel mode of action for MazEF in L. monocytogenes.

  13. Autoselection of cytoplasmic yeast virus like elements encoding toxin/antitoxin systems involves a nuclear barrier for immunity gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Alene; Voges, Raphael; Schroth, Michael; Schaffrath, Raffael; Klassen, Roland; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2015-05-01

    Cytoplasmic virus like elements (VLEs) from Kluyveromyces lactis (Kl), Pichia acaciae (Pa) and Debaryomyces robertsiae (Dr) are extremely A/T-rich (>75%) and encode toxic anticodon nucleases (ACNases) along with specific immunity proteins. Here we show that nuclear, not cytoplasmic expression of either immunity gene (PaORF4, KlORF3 or DrORF5) results in transcript fragmentation and is insufficient to establish immunity to the cognate ACNase. Since rapid amplification of 3' ends (RACE) as well as linker ligation of immunity transcripts expressed in the nucleus revealed polyadenylation to occur along with fragmentation, ORF-internal poly(A) site cleavage due to the high A/T content is likely to prevent functional expression of the immunity genes. Consistently, lowering the A/T content of PaORF4 to 55% and KlORF3 to 46% by gene synthesis entirely prevented transcript cleavage and permitted functional nuclear expression leading to full immunity against the respective ACNase toxin. Consistent with a specific adaptation of the immunity proteins to the cognate ACNases, cross-immunity to non-cognate ACNases is neither conferred by PaOrf4 nor KlOrf3. Thus, the high A/T content of cytoplasmic VLEs minimizes the potential of functional nuclear recruitment of VLE encoded genes, in particular those involved in autoselection of the VLEs via a toxin/antitoxin principle.

  14. Autoselection of cytoplasmic yeast virus like elements encoding toxin/antitoxin systems involves a nuclear barrier for immunity gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alene Kast

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic virus like elements (VLEs from Kluyveromyces lactis (Kl, Pichia acaciae (Pa and Debaryomyces robertsiae (Dr are extremely A/T-rich (>75% and encode toxic anticodon nucleases (ACNases along with specific immunity proteins. Here we show that nuclear, not cytoplasmic expression of either immunity gene (PaORF4, KlORF3 or DrORF5 results in transcript fragmentation and is insufficient to establish immunity to the cognate ACNase. Since rapid amplification of 3' ends (RACE as well as linker ligation of immunity transcripts expressed in the nucleus revealed polyadenylation to occur along with fragmentation, ORF-internal poly(A site cleavage due to the high A/T content is likely to prevent functional expression of the immunity genes. Consistently, lowering the A/T content of PaORF4 to 55% and KlORF3 to 46% by gene synthesis entirely prevented transcript cleavage and permitted functional nuclear expression leading to full immunity against the respective ACNase toxin. Consistent with a specific adaptation of the immunity proteins to the cognate ACNases, cross-immunity to non-cognate ACNases is neither conferred by PaOrf4 nor KlOrf3. Thus, the high A/T content of cytoplasmic VLEs minimizes the potential of functional nuclear recruitment of VLE encoded genes, in particular those involved in autoselection of the VLEs via a toxin/antitoxin principle.

  15. Survey on the Labour Market Position of PhD Graduates: Competence comparison and relation between PhD and current employment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuritsch, J.; Waaijer, C.J.F.; Van der Weijden, I.C.M.

    2016-07-01

    We compared the skills PhD graduates acquired during their PhDs to the ones they need in their current job. We also studied the relation between PhD topic and content of the current job of recent PhD graduates. Data was collected in a survey of 1,133 respondents with a PhD from five Dutch universities between early 2008 and mid-2012. We show that scientific skills and independence are developed sufficiently during the PhD education, whereas PhDs are lacking in management and communication skills. These competence discrepancies were compared to the educational level required for the PhD holder’s current job and the relatedness of the current job to the PhD topic. (Author)

  16. PhD Dissertations Tesi di dottorato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Report of PhD Dissertations.

    Francesco Barone

    Istituzioni, società ed economia a Catania nel tardo medioevo (XIV-XV secolo, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XVI ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004

     

    Laura Berti Ceroni

    Il territorio e le strutture di Cesarea e Classe tra tarda antichità e alto medioevo in rapporto con Ravenna, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia e Informatica, Università degli studi di Bologna, 2002-2003.

     

    Marco Bicchierai

    Poppi dalla signoria dei conti Guidi al vicariato del Casentino (1360-1480, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XIV ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004

     

    Emanuela Garimberti

    Spatiosa ad habitandum loca. Luoghi e identità nella Historia Langobardorum di Paolo Diacono, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XV ciclo, Università degli Studi di Bologna, 2004

     

    Lorenzo Tanzini

    Sistemi normativi e pratiche istituzionali a Firenze dalla fine del XIII all’inizio del XV secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale (XVI ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004

     

    Stefania Tarquini

    Pellegrinaggio e asseto urbano di Roma, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia dei centri, delle vie e della cultura dei pellegrinaggi nel Medioevo euro mediterraneo (XV ciclo, Università degli studi di Lecce, 2003

    Segnalazione di tesi di dottorato.

    Francesco Barone

    Istituzioni, società ed economia a Catania nel tardo medioevo (XIV-XV secolo, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XVI ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004

     

    Laura Berti Ceroni

  17. Pennsylvania's partnering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Pennsylvania is committed to finding a site for a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility through an innovative voluntary process. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) and Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. (CNSI) developed the Community Partnering Plan with extensive public participation. The Community Partnering Plan outlines a voluntary process that empowers municipalities to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of hosting the facility. DEP and CNSI began developing the Community Partnering Plan in July 1995. Before then, CNSI was using a screening process prescribed by state law and regulations to find a location for the facility. So far, approximately 78 percent of the Commonwealth has been identified as disqualified as a site for the LLRW disposal facility. The siting effort will now focus on identifying volunteer host municipalities in the remaining 22 percent of the state. This combination of technical screening and voluntary consideration makes Pennsylvania's process unique. A volunteered site will have to meet the same tough requirements for protecting people and the environment as a site chosen through the screening process. Protection of public health and safety continues to be the foundation of the state's siting efforts. The Community Partnering Plan offers a window of opportunity. If Pennsylvania does not find volunteer municipalities with suitable sites by the end of 1997, it probably will return to a technical screening process

  18. Intimate partner violence (IPV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Van, Toan Ngo; Nguyen, Hanh Thi Thuy

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global problem that affects one-third of all women. The present study aims to develop and determine the validity of a screening instrument for the detection of IPV in pregnant women in Tanzania and Vietnam and to determine the minimum number...

  19. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  20. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Takaguchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song et al., Science 327, 1018 (2010SCIEAS0036-8075] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  1. PhD Dissertations Tesi di dottorato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD Dissertations.Anna Airò La scrittura delle regole. Politica e istituzioni a Taranto nel Quattrocento, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Firenze, 2005 Pasquale Arfé La Clavis Physicae II (316-529 di Honorius Augustodunensis. Studio ed edizione critica, Tesi di dottorato in Storia della filosofia medievale, Università degli Studi di Napoli "L'Orientale", 2005 Alessandro Azzimonti Scrittura agiografica e strutture di potere nell'Italia centro-settentrionale (X-XII secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Forme del sapere storico dal medioevo alla contemporaneità, Università degli Studi di Trieste, 2004 Domenico Cerami Il "Confine conteso". Uomini, istituzioni, culture a Monteveglio tra VIII-XII secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia Medievale, Università degli studi di Bologna, 2005 Federica Chilà Ostaggi. Uno strumento di pacificazione e governo tra i secoli VIII e XII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Istituzioni, società, religioni dal Tardo Antico alla fine del Medioevo, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2004 Enrico Faini Firenze nei secoli X-XIII: economia e società, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Firenze, 2005Alessio FioreStrutture e pratiche del potere signorile in area umbro-marchigiana (secoli XI-XIII, Tesi di dottorato ricerca in Storia, Università degli studi di Pisa, 2004Giampaolo FrancesconiTra Riforma, vescovo e clientes. Camaldoli e le società locali (secoli XI-XIII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Firenze, 2005 [09/05] Giuseppe Gardoni "Episcopus et potestas". Vescovi e società a Mantova nella prima metà del Duecento, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia del Cristianesimo e delle Chiese (antichità, medioevo, età moderna, Università degli Studi di Padova, 2005 Nicola Mancassola La gestione delle campagne tra Langobardia e Romània in età carolingia e post

  2. Peer Mentorship and Transformational Learning: PhD Student Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jane P.; Ogenchuk, Marcella J.; Nsiah, Joseph K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to describe our peer mentorship experiences and explain how these experiences fostered transformational learning during our PhD graduate program in educational administration. As a literature backdrop, we discuss characteristics of traditional forms of mentorship and depict how our experiences of peer mentorship was…

  3. Ph.D Afhandling: Restaurering verus instaurering og transstaurering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Grith

    2012-01-01

    Ph.d. afhandlingen udforsker holdningen som arkitektfagligt instrument. Fagudøverens "holdning" til værdisætning af arkitektoniske kulturarvsobjekter og til arkitektonisk intervention heri fungerer aktuelt som et anerkendt og konstituerende beslutningsinstrument i praksisnære processer og sammenh...

  4. PhD by Publication: A Student's Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kanowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first author's experiences as an Australian doctoral student undertaking a PhD by publication in the arena of the social sciences. She published nine articles in refereed journals and a peer-reviewed book chapter during the course of her PhD. We situate this experience in the context of current discussion about doctoral publication practices, in order to inform both postgraduate students and academics in general. The article discusses recent thinking about PhD by publication and identifies the factors that students should consider prior to adopting this approach, in terms of university requirements, supervisors' attitudes, the research subject matter, intellectual property, capacity and working style, and issues of co-authorship. It then outlines our perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of undertaking a PhD by publication. We suggest that, in general, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. We conclude by reflecting on how the first author's experiences relate to current discussions about fostering publications by doctoral students.

  5. Consistency and Inconsistency in PhD Thesis Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Allyson; Bourke, Sid; Lovat, Terry; Fairbairn, Hedy

    2008-01-01

    This is a mixed methods investigation of consistency in PhD examination. At its core is the quantification of the content and conceptual analysis of examiner reports for 804 Australian theses. First, the level of consistency between what examiners say in their reports and the recommendation they provide for a thesis is explored, followed by an…

  6. Enhancing the skills of PhD supervisors facing internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgelund, Pia

    2013-01-01

    interview study within the faculty, and an inquiry into the field of cross-cultural supervision with the purpose of enhancing the skills of PhD supervisors. As is often the case with cross-cultural exchange and inquiry, the study ended up by being just as informative on the supervision cultures and settings...

  7. Measures for Ph.D. Evaluation: The Recruitment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Antonella; Fruzzetti, Stefania; Ghellini, Giulio; Neri, Laura

    2011-01-01

    In the last years the quality of Higher Education (HE) system and its evaluation have been key issues of the political and scientific debate on education policies all over Europe. In the wide landscape that involves the entire HE system we draw attention on the third level of its organization, i.e. the Ph.D. In particular, this paper discusses the…

  8. Supervising the PhD: A Guide to Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamont, Sara; Atkinson, Paul; Parry, Odette

    This handbook is a practical guide for the novice and experienced supervisor of Ph.D. students focusing on the British system. The book is organized to follow the progress of a student from starting out to a career after the viva voce examination. The chapters are: (1) "A Most Persuasive Piece of Argument"; (2) "Caught and Held by a…

  9. Ph.d. report nº1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Lorenzo Banos

    The following report serves as an introduction to the Ph.d subject "Control system Modeling of the Wave Star Energy's Power Take-O". The device studied belongs to the Wave Energy field, which forms part of the renewable hydro Power generation sector. In Denmark, following the succesful course...

  10. PhD thesis: The relationship between expertise and creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Mikkel Snorre Wilms

    2015-01-01

    I Ph.d. projektet undersøges sammenhænge mellem ekspertise og kreativitet via et eksperiment, hvor eksperter og novicer laver musik ved computer. Musikken vurderes efterfølgende af en række fokusgrupper. Studiet peger overraskende på, at novicer på linje med eksperter er i stand til at skabe musi...

  11. PhD Students, Interculturality, Reflexivity, Community and Internationalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Interviews with a small group of doctoral students at a British university indicate that the students feel that the programme provides an environment within which they develop interculturality through reflexive engagement with the PhD community and in some cases with the participants in their research. Significant here is that they are…

  12. PHD-2 Suppression in Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Enhances Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Sae Hee; Nauta, Allison C; Morrison, Shane D; Hu, Michael S; Zimmermann, Andrew S; Chung, Michael T; Glotzbach, Jason P; Wong, Victor W; Walmsley, Graham G; Peter Lorenz, H; Chan, Denise A; Gurtner, Geoffrey C; Giaccia, Amato J; Longaker, Michael T

    2018-01-01

    Cell therapy with mesenchymal stromal cells is a promising strategy for tissue repair. Restoration of blood flow to ischemic tissues is a key step in wound repair, and mesenchymal stromal cells have been shown to be proangiogenic. Angiogenesis is critically regulated by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) superfamily, consisting of transcription factors targeted for degradation by prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD)-2. The aim of this study was to enhance the proangiogenic capability of mesenchymal stromal cells and to use these modified cells to promote wound healing. Mesenchymal stromal cells harvested from mouse bone marrow were transduced with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against PHD-2; control cells were transduced with scrambled shRNA (shScramble) construct. Gene expression quantification, human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube formation assays, and wound healing assays were used to assess the effect of PHD knockdown mesenchymal stromal cells on wound healing dynamics. PHD-2 knockdown mesenchymal stromal cells overexpressed HIF-1α and multiple angiogenic factors compared to control (p cells treated with conditioned medium from PHD-2 knockdown mesenchymal stromal cells exhibited increased formation of capillary-like structures and enhanced migration compared with human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with conditioned medium from shScramble-transduced mesenchymal stromal cells (p cells healed at a significantly accelerated rate compared with wounds treated with shScramble mesenchymal stromal cells (p cells (p cells augments their proangiogenic potential in wound healing therapy. This effect appears to be mediated by overexpression of HIF family transcription factors and up-regulation of multiple downstream angiogenic factors.

  13. Pacific Partners Wargame Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    such as medical qualifications and malpractice considerations, can be explored as part of interoperability. Partner nations are motivated to...prefers a medical research focus. Subsuming medical under HA/DR attempts to minimize those differences. There were dissenting views on the proposed...positive view of USARPAC engagement activities, they were still able to develop ideas for ways to improve engagement activities by modifying or

  14. VapC from the leptospiral VapBC toxin-antitoxin module displays ribonuclease activity on the initiator tRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre P Y Lopes

    Full Text Available The prokaryotic ubiquitous Toxin-Antitoxin (TA operons encode a stable toxin and an unstable antitoxin. The most accepted hypothesis of the physiological function of the TA system is the reversible cessation of cellular growth under stress conditions. The major TA family, VapBC is present in the spirochaete Leptospira interrogans. VapBC modules are classified based on the presence of a predicted ribonucleasic PIN domain in the VapC toxin. The expression of the leptospiral VapC in E. coli promotes a strong bacterial growth arrestment, making it difficult to express the recombinant protein. Nevertheless, we showed that long term induction of expression in E. coli enabled the recovery of VapC in inclusion bodies. The recombinant protein was successfully refolded by high hydrostatic pressure, providing a new method to obtain the toxin in a soluble and active form. The structural integrity of the recombinant VapB and VapC proteins was assessed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Physical interaction between the VapC toxin and the VapB antitoxin was demonstrated in vivo and in vitro by pull down and ligand affinity blotting assays, respectively, thereby indicating the ultimate mechanism by which the activity of the toxin is regulated in bacteria. The predicted model of the leptospiral VapC structure closely matches the Shigella's VapC X-ray structure. In agreement, the ribonuclease activity of the leptospiral VapC was similar to the activity described for Shigella's VapC, as demonstrated by the cleavage of tRNAfMet and by the absence of unspecific activity towards E. coli rRNA. This finding suggests that the cleavage of the initiator transfer RNA may represent a common mechanism to a larger group of bacteria and potentially configures a mechanism of post-transcriptional regulation leading to the inhibition of global translation.

  15. Potency of a human monoclonal antibody to diphtheria toxin relative to equine diphtheria anti-toxin in a guinea pig intoxication model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heidi L; Cheslock, Peter; Leney, Mark; Barton, Bruce; Molrine, Deborah C

    2016-08-17

    Prompt administration of anti-toxin reduces mortality following Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection. Current treatment relies upon equine diphtheria anti-toxin (DAT), with a 10% risk of serum sickness and rarely anaphylaxis. The global DAT supply is extremely limited; most manufacturers have ceased production. S315 is a neutralizing human IgG1 monoclonal antibody to diphtheria toxin that may provide a safe and effective alternative to equine DAT and address critical supply issues. To guide dose selection for IND-enabling pharmacology and toxicology studies, we dose-ranged S315 and DAT in a guinea pig model of diphtheria intoxication based on the NIH Minimum Requirements potency assay. Animals received a single injection of antibody premixed with toxin, were monitored for 30 days, and assigned a numeric score for clinical signs of disease. Animals receiving ≥ 27.5 µg of S315 or ≥ 1.75 IU of DAT survived whereas animals receiving ≤ 22.5 µg of S315 or ≤ 1.25 IU of DAT died, yielding a potency estimate of 17 µg S315/IU DAT (95% CI 16-21) for an endpoint of survival. Because some surviving animals exhibited transient limb weakness, likely a systemic sign of toxicity, DAT and S315 doses required to prevent hind limb paralysis were also determined, yielding a relative potency of 48 µg/IU (95% CI 38-59) for this alternate endpoint. To support advancement of S315 into clinical trials, potency estimates will be used to evaluate the efficacy of S315 versus DAT in an animal model with antibody administration after toxin exposure, more closely modeling anti-toxin therapy in humans.

  16. Interaction Quality during Partner Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Bradley, Barbara A.; Stahl, Steven A.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of social relationships, positive interdependence, and teacher structure on the quality of partner reading interactions was examined. Partner reading, a scripted cooperative learning strategy, is often used in classrooms to promote the development of fluent and automatic reading skills. Forty-three pairs of second grade children were observed during partner reading sessions taking place in 12 classrooms. The degree to which the partners displayed social cooperation (instrumental...

  17. Structural and thermodynamic characterization of the Escherichia coli RelBE toxin-antitoxin system: indication for a functional role of differential stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherny, Izhack; Overgaard, Martin; Borch, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    on the folding and stability of the protein pair in solution. Here we structurally and thermodynamically characterize the RelBE system components from E. coli in solution, both separately and in their complexed state. The RelB antitoxin, an alpha-helical protein according to circular dichroism and infrared.......5 degrees C, and exhibits exceptional sensitivity to heat. Complex formation, accompanied by a structural transition, leads to a 12 degrees C increase in the TM and substantial heat resistance. Moreover, in vivo interaction and protein footprint experiments indicate that the C-terminal part of Rel...

  18. The toxin-antitoxin εζ system: Role of ζ toxin in regulating ATP, GTP, (p)ppGpp and uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine pool to cope with stress

    OpenAIRE

    Tabone, Mariangela

    2015-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biología Molecular. Fecha de lectura: 27-10-2015 The toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are compact modules, usually comprising a pair of genes coding for a toxin and its cognate antitoxin. These systems are present in the chromosomes of Bacteria, Archaea, in phages and in the large majority of low copy number plasmids. Basically, toxins are proteins whose activity usually leads to t...

  19. A model perception on the independence of PhD students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rwandan Journal of Education ... As results, we suggest that a well-trained independent PhD student from UR should be able to think critically, to initiate, to innovate and to enhance the research capabilities. Therefore ... Keywords: PhD supervision, independent researcher, PhD student, research capability, critical thinking ...

  20. How Prepared Are MSW Graduates for Doctoral Research? Views of PhD Research Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drisko, James W.; Evans, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    This national survey of PhD faculty assessed the research preparation of entering doctoral social work students on a wide range of research knowledge and related skills. The prior literature shows that PhD programs repeat much BSW and MSW research course content. This study shows that the trend continues and has perhaps widened. PhD research…

  1. Partner personality in distressed relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the personality characteristics of partners receiving marital therapy. On the basis of previous research, we expected partners in distressed relationships to be more neurotic and more introverted and to have lower self-esteem than partners in non-distressed relationships.

  2. Care partner: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul N; Wang, Wei; Moore, Mel; Nagle, Cate

    The use of the term care partner has increased, particularly in the chronic disease literature; however, the concept has not been well defined. The purpose of this concept analysis was to define and assist nurses to better understand the concept of care partner. The method by Walker and Avant was used for this literature-based concept analysis. Care partnering includes providing assistance to an individual with a health condition to meet their self-care deficits, the commitment to a care partner relationship, and the recognition that people with self-care deficits are care partners contributing to their own care. Emphasizing the care partner dyad in nursing may contribute to improved patient care outcomes both in the acute and chronic settings. It is recommended that nurses view the person with the condition as a contributor and partner in their own care in the context of a larger care partnership. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. New partner - Forestland

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      New partner   Do you need a moment of relaxation and adventure?  Come to Divonne-les-bains and benefit of an immediate discount of 20% on all ropes courses of Forestland http://www.forestland.fr/ upon presentation of your Staff Association membership card. The park is open from 10h00 to 19h00 on Wednesday, Saturday, Sunday during the school period and public holidays (France and Switzerland) or every day during school holidays (France and Switzerland). Different levels of difficulty are available: children, juniors, adults, athletes.

  4. Benefiting through partnering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    As a consequence of dramatic changes in the world market in nuclear services over the last decade, BNFL has embarked on a comprehensive strategic review of its business. Central to this review has been the need for the company to achieve cost reduction and improved efficiency in all aspects of its business. An area where substantial benefits can be gained is in improved efficiency in the discharge of the capital expenditure programme. This paper focuses on the opportunity of profiting through partnering in capital project delivery. (author)

  5. Qualitative methods in PhD theses from general practice in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Hamberg, Katarina; Reventlow, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    . Qualitative studies are often included in Ph.D. theses from general practice in Scandinavia. Still, the Ph.D. programs across nations and institutions offer only limited training in qualitative methods. In this opinion article, we draw upon our observations and experiences, unpacking and reflecting upon...... values and challenges at stake when qualitative studies are included in Ph.D. theses. Hypotheses to explain these observations are presented, followed by suggestions for standards of evaluation and improvement of Ph.D. programs. The authors conclude that multimethod Ph.D. theses should be encouraged...

  6. Postgraduate research training: the PhD and MD thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, I; Corner, J

    1996-04-01

    Higher research degrees, such as the PhD, MPhil and MD, have existed within universities for 80 years or more, although the differences between the MD and PhD remain confused. A higher research degree training provides individuals with greater research knowledge and skills, and benefits the specialty. Concern exists about the levels of supervision sometimes provided, failure to complete degrees, and the variable levels of research knowledge and skills attained. We propose that higher research degrees in palliative care have four functions: extending personal scholarship, generating knowledge, training for the individual and contributing to the growth of the specialty. Such an approach may include: a formalised first year with taught components such as in research MSc programmes, formal supervision and progress assessment. In palliative care, clinical and academic approaches need greater integration. Multiprofessional learning is essential. To allow individuals to undertake higher research degree programmes, fellowships or specific funding are needed.

  7. Biomedical PhD education - an international perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvany, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    tenured university positions. However, over the past 20–30 years, and particularly the past 10 years, the situation has changed dramatically. Governments in many countries have invested massively in PhD education, believing that trained researchers will contribute to the ‘knowledge society’, and thus...... during their PhD studies. The purpose of this article is to explore how this seeming paradox is being addressed in biomedicine and to show that far from being inconsistent that the two aspects are in fact complementary. The article is based on the author’s experience as Head of Aarhus Graduate School...... of Health Sciences 2002–2011 and his work with graduate schools across Europe and internationally through the organization ORPHEUS....

  8. Iterative Mixture Component Pruning Algorithm for Gaussian Mixture PHD Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As far as the increasing number of mixture components in the Gaussian mixture PHD filter is concerned, an iterative mixture component pruning algorithm is proposed. The pruning algorithm is based on maximizing the posterior probability density of the mixture weights. The entropy distribution of the mixture weights is adopted as the prior distribution of mixture component parameters. The iterative update formulations of the mixture weights are derived by Lagrange multiplier and Lambert W function. Mixture components, whose weights become negative during iterative procedure, are pruned by setting corresponding mixture weights to zeros. In addition, multiple mixture components with similar parameters describing the same PHD peak can be merged into one mixture component in the algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed iterative mixture component pruning algorithm is superior to the typical pruning algorithm based on thresholds.

  9. Academic PHD School at Faculty of Agriculture in Tirana, Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijo, B; Hoda, A; Thamaj, F

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural University of Tirana (AUT) is one of 12 public Universities in Albania. There are five Faculties within AUT. The study courses in AUT except of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, are organized in three levels. Courses of the first level offer the fundamental knowledge. The students at the end of this cycle own 180 credits and obtain a first level diploma. In the second level study courses, the students get deeper theoretical and practical knowledge and modules are spread across 120 credits. At the end of this level the students obtain a second level diploma, according to the study course. In FVM, the study courses are organized as integrated program of second level that is spread across 300 credits. The students, who have finished the first level course, may go further in "Master of First level" for a professional training, where they do obtain 60 credits. The program of third cycle includes the courses of "Master of Second level" and the programs of PhD. The course of "Master of second level" is offered to the students who have achieved a Diploma of Second Level, and the students get deeper knowledge of scientific and professional character and do obtain at least 60 credits. PhD programs have totally an academic character. The principal aspect is the research and independent scientific activity. This program can be followed by the students who have a diploma of second level, or a diploma of "Master of Second level". The PhD program is organized in four years. The first year, consists of theoretical knowledge of the students. The second year is mainly research. The third year is research, data manipulation, publications, oral presentations and the last year is compilation of PhD thesis, its presentation and defense. Here is presented newly established doctoral school at Faculty of Agriculture and Environment.

  10. Lynn Sorbara, PhD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Lynn Sorbara earned her PhD from Albert Einstein College of Medicine in 1986. Her thesis research was in the areas of the mechanism of action of the drug, Taxol, and of multidrug resistance. After postdoctoral fellowships at the Rockefeller University and the Mount Sinai College of Medicine in Manhattan, she came to the NIH as a Senior Staff Fellow in the Diabetes Branch

  11. The PhD track: who succeeds, who drops out?

    OpenAIRE

    Groenvynck, Hans; Vandevelde, Karen; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2013-01-01

    Doctoral completion rates are an indicator of successful doctoral programmes and of a region's potential of highly skilled workforce. The Human Resources in Research - Flanders (HRRF) database contains data of all academic staff appointments, doctoral student registrations, and doctoral degrees of all Flemish universities from 1990 onwards. Previous research has identified the following factors as affecting successfully completing the PhD: cohort, scientific discipline, type of scholarship or...

  12. Researcher Profile: An Interview with Sarah Asebedo, Ph.D.

    OpenAIRE

    Martie Gillen

    2016-01-01

    Sarah Asebedo, Ph.D., CFP®, is an Assistant Professor of Personal Financial Planning with Texas Tech University. With extensive financial planning practitioner experience, her goal is to connect research and financial planning practice with a focus on the relationship between psychological attributes, financial conflicts, and financial behavior. Her work has been published in the Journal of Financial Planning, Journal of Financial Therapy, Journal of Financial Counselin...

  13. The MqsRA Toxin-Antitoxin System from Xylella fastidiosa Plays a Key Role in Bacterial Fitness, Pathogenicity, and Persister Cell Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merfa, Marcus V.; Niza, Bárbara; Takita, Marco A.; De Souza, Alessandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Through the formation of persister cells, bacteria exhibit tolerance to multidrug and other environmental stresses without undergoing genetic changes. The toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are involved in the formation of persister cells because they are able to induce cell dormancy. Among the TA systems, the MqsRA system has been observed to be highly induced in persister cells of Xylella fastidiosa (causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis—CVC) activated by copper stress, and has been described in Escherichia coli as related to the formation of persister cells and biofilms. Thus, we evaluated the role of this TA system in X. fastidiosa by overexpressing the MqsR toxin, and verified that the toxin positively regulated biofilm formation and negatively cell movement, resulting in reduced pathogenicity in citrus plants. The overexpression of MqsR also increased the formation of persister cells under copper stress. Analysis of the gene and protein expression showed that this system likely has an autoregulation mechanism to express the toxin and antitoxin in the most beneficial ratio for the cell to oppose stress. Our results suggest that this TA system plays a key role in the adaptation and survival of X. fastidiosa and reveal new insights into the physiology of phytopathogen-host interactions. PMID:27375608

  14. Construction of a novel, stable, food-grade expression system by engineering the endogenous toxin-antitoxin system in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sen; Kang, Zhen; Cao, Wenlong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-02-10

    Bacillus subtilis as an important workhorse that has been widely used to produce enzymes and metabolites. To broaden its applications, especially in the food and feed industry, we constructed a novel, stable, food-grade expression system by engineering its type II toxin-antitoxin system. The expression of the toxin EndoA, encoded by the chromosomal ydcE gene, was regulated by an endogenous, xylose-inducible promoter, while the ydcD gene, which encodes the unstable antitoxin EndoB, was inserted into a food-grade vector backbone, where its expression was driven by the native, constitutive promoter PylxM. By maintaining the xylose concentration above 2.0 g L(-1), this auto-regulated expression system was absolutely stable after 100 generations. Compared with traditional antibiotic-dependent expression systems, this novel expression system resulted in greater biomass and higher titers of desired products (enzymes or metabolites). Our results demonstrate that this stable, food-grade expression system is suitable for enzyme production and pathway engineering, especially for the production of food-grade enzymes and metabolites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The mazEF toxin-antitoxin system as an attractive target in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Sara; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Sekawi, Zamberi; Neela, Vasantha Kumari; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Taherikalani, Morovat; Khosravi, Afra; Ramli, Ramliza; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2015-01-01

    The toxin-antitoxin (TA) system is a regulatory system where two sets of genes encode the toxin and its corresponding antitoxin. In this study, the prevalence of TA systems in independently isolated clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis was determined, the dominant TA system was identified, different virulence genes in E. faecium and E. faecalis were surveyed, the level of expression of the virulence and TA genes in normal and stress conditions was determined, and finally their associations with the TA genes were defined. Remarkably, the analysis demonstrated higBA and mazEF in all clinical isolates, and their locations were on chromosomes and plasmids, respectively. On the other hand, a quantitative analysis of TA and virulence genes revealed that the expression level in both genes is different under normal and stress conditions. The results obtained by anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids demonstrated that the expression level of virulence genes had decreased. These findings demonstrate an association between TA systems and virulence factors. The mazEF on the plasmids and the higBA TA genes on the chromosomes of all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains were dominant. Additionally, there was a decrease in the expression of virulence genes in the presence of anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids. Therefore, it is suggested that mazEF TA systems are potent and sensitive targets in all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains.

  16. The mazEF toxin–antitoxin system as an attractive target in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Sara; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Sekawi, Zamberi; Neela, Vasantha Kumari; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Taherikalani, Morovat; Khosravi, Afra; Ramli, Ramliza; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2015-01-01

    The toxin–antitoxin (TA) system is a regulatory system where two sets of genes encode the toxin and its corresponding antitoxin. In this study, the prevalence of TA systems in independently isolated clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis was determined, the dominant TA system was identified, different virulence genes in E. faecium and E. faecalis were surveyed, the level of expression of the virulence and TA genes in normal and stress conditions was determined, and finally their associations with the TA genes were defined. Remarkably, the analysis demonstrated higBA and mazEF in all clinical isolates, and their locations were on chromosomes and plasmids, respectively. On the other hand, a quantitative analysis of TA and virulence genes revealed that the expression level in both genes is different under normal and stress conditions. The results obtained by anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids demonstrated that the expression level of virulence genes had decreased. These findings demonstrate an association between TA systems and virulence factors. The mazEF on the plasmids and the higBA TA genes on the chromosomes of all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains were dominant. Additionally, there was a decrease in the expression of virulence genes in the presence of anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids. Therefore, it is suggested that mazEF TA systems are potent and sensitive targets in all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains. PMID:26005332

  17. The monoclonal antitoxin antibodies (actoxumab-bezlotoxumab treatment facilitates normalization of the gut microbiota of mice with Clostridium difficile infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Džunková

    2016-10-01

    detected by the end of the experiments. In conclusion, MK-3415A (actoxumab-bezlotoxumab treatment facilitates normalization of the gut microbiota in CDI mice. It remains to be examined whether or not the prevention of recurrent CDI by the antitoxin antibodies observed in clinical trials occurs through modulation of microbiota.

  18. Mixed Partnering and Parenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    relationship is formed across two socially significant groups: ethnic, religious, region/caste, thus the present study has broad relevance. This proposal delineates the demographic details, intervention process of two ethnically mixed- marriage cases. Cases’ analyses are combined with relevant results from...... an empirical study (Singla, 2015) about intermarried couples to present lessons for counselling and psychotherapy good practices. The couples in the two cases and ten in-depth interviews based empirical study are formed across ethnic/religious borders - one partner is native Danish and the other originates...... from South Asia (India, Pakistan). Cultural historical psychology forms the background of the theoretical framework of the study, while a combination of intersectionality (Moodley, 2011), everyday life perspective and transnationalism forms the foreground. The lessons learnt for counselling...

  19. KNOWLEDGE SHARING IN PARTNERING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    . The diversity and disjunct feature of the practices is a condition of possibility of knowledge handling as it is a prerequisite for the synthesis of various forms of knowledge in the building construct. Here an orchestrated combination of relationbased interaction with boundary objects and brokers, requisite......This paper adopts practicebased theory for understanding interorganisational knowledge work and extents it with a discussion of the role of redundancy. The paper presents a case study of a project partnership in construction using the partnering concept. The project group responsible...... for the building design counts members from different companies like architects, engineers, and contractors. The paper discusses three central mechanisms for coordinating knowledge in a complex construction project, redundancy, relations, and governance. The knowledge relations is conceptualised through focusing...

  20. The SXT conjugative element and linear prophage N15 encode toxin-antitoxin-stabilizing systems homologous to the tad-ata module of the Paracoccus aminophilus plasmid pAMI2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewit, Lukasz; Jazurek, Magdalena; Drewniak, Lukasz; Baj, Jadwiga; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2007-03-01

    A group of proteic toxin-antitoxin (TA) cassettes whose representatives are widely distributed among bacterial genomes has been identified. These cassettes occur in chromosomes, plasmids, bacteriophages, and noncomposite transposons, as well as in the SXT conjugative element of Vibrio cholerae. The following four homologous loci were subjected to detailed comparative studies: (i) tad-ata from plasmid pAMI2 of Paracoccus aminophilus (the prototype of this group), (ii) gp49-gp48 from the linear bacteriophage N15 of Escherichia coli, (iii) s045-s044 from SXT, and (iv) Z3230-Z3231 from the genomic island of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933. Functional analysis revealed that all but one of these loci (Z3230-Z3231) are able to stabilize heterologous replicons, although the host ranges varied. The TA cassettes analyzed have the following common features: (i) the toxins are encoded by the first gene of each operon; (ii) the antitoxins contain a predicted helix-turn-helix motif of the XRE family; and (iii) the cassettes have two promoters that are different strengths, one which is located upstream of the toxin gene and one which is located upstream of the antitoxin gene. All four toxins tested are functional in E. coli; overexpression of the toxins (in the absence of antitoxin) results in a bacteriostatic effect manifested by elongation of bacterial cells and growth arrest. The toxins have various effects on cell viability, which suggests that they may recognize different intracellular targets. Preliminary data suggest that different cellular proteases are involved in degradation of antitoxins encoded by the loci analyzed.

  1. Leonard F. Peltier, MD, PhD, 1920-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckling, Frederick W; Lo Vecchio, Janolyn G; Reckling, JoAnn B

    2004-05-01

    Leonard F. Peltier, MD, PhD, was an orthopaedic surgeon, academician, administrator, laboratory investigator, historian, and mentor. His career spanned nearly six decades, beginning with graduate education at the University of Minnesota (UM) under the auspices of Owen H. Wangensteen, MD, PhD. In addition to obtaining a PhD in physiology in the UM Graduate School, he completed general and orthopaedic surgery residencies and attained board certification in each specialty. He served in the US Army Occupation Force Medical Corps in Germany just after World War II. In 1957, at 37 years old, he assumed the chairmanship of the orthopaedic training program at the University of Kansas. In 1971, he couldn't resist the opportunity to become one of the founding members of the "start-up" University of Arizona College of Medicine, accepting an appointment as chair of the new orthopaedic training program, where he remained until his retirement in 1990. He took clinical problems to the laboratory, and made important scientific contributions, particularly in the area of fat embolism and in using calcium sulfate (plaster of Paris) to fill bone defects. He served on governing boards of national professional organizations and presided over the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma from 1980-1981. Throughout his career, he was fascinated by, and published extensively in, the history of medicine arena. Known fondly as "the professor" to many of his residents and colleagues, he had a pragmatic, honest, upbeat, and often humorous approach to life's challenges, valuing personal integrity above other virtues. He explored various eclectic interests far beyond his professional contributions while maintaining his family as a central priority. With his exemplary productivity and interests in the surgical and laboratory sciences, history of medicine, appreciation of fine arts, and perceptive and effective interactions with family, friends, patients, and colleagues, the memory of Leonard

  2. MS PHD'S Professional Development Program: A Scientific Renaissance in Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. M.; Williamson, V. A.; Griess, C. A.; Pyrtle, A. J.

    2004-12-01

    This study is a component of a four-year investigation of MS PHD'S Professional Development Program's virtual community through the lenses of underrepresented minority students in Earth system science and engineering fields. In this presentation, the development, assessment and projected utilization of the ongoing study will be discussed. The overall goal of this study is to examine the effectiveness of virtual team building methods and understand how the development of a communal cyberinfrastructure acts as an integral part of the emergence of a Scientific Renaissance. The exemplar, Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD'S), provides professional development experiences to facilitate the advancement of students of color achieving outstanding Earth system careers. Undergraduate and graduate students are supported through access to scientific conferences, mentorship and virtual community building. Framed by critical theory, this ethnographic exploration uses a mixed methods research design to record, observe, and analyze both the processes and products of the website, listserv and synchronous web-based dialogue. First, key findings of the formative evaluation and annual reports of the successfully implemented 2003 MS PHD'S Pilot Project are presented. These findings inform future evaluations of the use of technological resources and illustrate how this public space provides peer support and enriched research opportunities. Quantitative methods such as statistical analysis, academic and professional tracking and evaluative tools for scientific content and competency are complimented by qualitative methods that include observations, heuristic case studies and focus group interviews. The findings of this ongoing investigation will provide insight on how national organizations, higher education practitioners, community-based support systems and underrepresented minorities in the sciences promote diversity by developing

  3. The mazEF toxin–antitoxin system as an attractive target in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheili S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sara Soheili,1 Sobhan Ghafourian,2 Zamberi Sekawi,1 Vasantha Kumari Neela,1 Nourkhoda Sadeghifard,2 Morovat Taherikalani,2 Afra Khosravi,2 Ramliza Ramli,3 Rukman Awang Hamat11Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 2Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran; 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaakob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: The toxin–antitoxin (TA system is a regulatory system where two sets of genes encode the toxin and its corresponding antitoxin. In this study, the prevalence of TA systems in independently isolated clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis was determined, the dominant TA system was identified, different virulence genes in E. faecium and E. faecalis were surveyed, the level of expression of the virulence and TA genes in normal and stress conditions was determined, and finally their associations with the TA genes were defined. Remarkably, the analysis demonstrated higBA and mazEF in all clinical isolates, and their locations were on chromosomes and plasmids, respectively. On the other hand, a quantitative analysis of TA and virulence genes revealed that the expression level in both genes is different under normal and stress conditions. The results obtained by anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids demonstrated that the expression level of virulence genes had decreased. These findings demonstrate an association between TA systems and virulence factors. The mazEF on the plasmids and the higBA TA genes on the chromosomes of all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains were dominant. Additionally, there was a decrease in the expression of virulence genes in the presence of anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids. Therefore, it is suggested that mazEF TA systems

  4. Financial Law (By: Lecturer PhD Cosmin Flavius Costas)

    OpenAIRE

    Bostan, Ionel

    2018-01-01

    Through these lines we will stop on a specialty written by a young university student, an exponent of the Superior Law School in Cluj-Napoca. This is the book entitled Drept Financiar [Financial Law], published by Lecturer PhD Cosmin Flavius Costas. On the volume entitled Financial Law, which was published at the end of the year 2016 (ISBN:978-606-673-816-3, Pages: 396) we mention here a radiography "made from four perspectives - national finances, local finance, social security finances and ...

  5. Mladen Zrinjski, PhD in Technical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Bašić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mladen Zrinjski defended his PhD thesis Defining the Calibration Baseline Scale of the Faculty of Geodesy by Applying Precise Electro-Optical Distance Meter and GPS at the Faculty of Geodesy of the University of Zagreb on April 8, 2010. The Defence Committee included Prof. Dr. Vedran Mudronja from the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture of the University of Zagreb, Prof. Dr. Tomislav Bašić (mentor 1 and Prof. Emeritus Nikola Solarić (mentor 2.

  6. Hrvoje Tomić, PhD in Technical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Mastelić Ivić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hrvoje Tomić defended his PhD thesis Geospatial Data Analysis for the Purpose of Real Estate Valuation in Urban Areas at the Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, on November 15, 2010. His mentor was Prof. Dr. Siniša Mastelić Ivić, and the other two members of the Grading and Defence Committee were Assist. Prof. Dr. Vlado Cetl and Prof. Dr. Goran Poljanec from the Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb.

  7. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  8. Partnering with the NCPV (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    Brochure that explains the basic partnering opportunities that exist within the National Center for Photovoltaics for industry and university groups: non-proprietary partnering opportunities, competitive solicitations, Technology Partnership Agreements, seed fund to develop Technology Partnership Agreements, Hands-On PV Experience Workshop, and NCPV Fellowship Program.

  9. Partner selection and Hollywood Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh; Kramer, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Based on cognitive, neurological and evolutionary based film theory the article describes the representation of partner selection in Hollywood films. It analyses paradigm scenarios of partner selection and love, It further describes some of those mechanisms that regulate the relation between...

  10. Breaking the Mold: Partnering with the National Institutes of Health Intramural Research Program to Accelerate PhD Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucy, Katie; Fairhurst, Rick M; Lynn, Geoffrey M; Fomalont, Kevin; Wynn, Thomas A; Siegel, Richard M

    2016-12-01

    Immunology is an increasingly interdisciplinary field. Here we describe a new model for interinstitutional graduate training as partnerships between complementary laboratories. This collaborative model reduces time to graduation without compromising productivity or alumni outcomes. We offer our experience with one such program and thoughts on the ingredients for their success. Despite tremendous recent advances in technology, communications, and the translation of basic scientific discoveries into new diagnostics and therapies for human diseases, graduate training in immunology and other areas of biomedical research in the United States has remained remarkably unchanged since the early 20th century, with coursework and laboratory rotations taking up much of the first 2 years, and a single mentor shepherding the student through a research project over 3 or more subsequent years. The time to graduation still averages more than 6 years in the biomedical sciences field (http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2016/nsf16300/), with uncertain benefit of this extended time to research productivity and career advancement. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Patient preferences for partner notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apoola, A; Radcliffe, K W; Das, S; Robshaw, V; Gilleran, G; Kumari, B S; Boothby, M; Rajakumar, R

    2006-08-01

    To identify patient preferences for notification of sexual contacts when a sexually transmitted infection (STI) is diagnosed. A questionnaire survey of 2544 patients attending three large genitourinary clinics at Derby, Birmingham, and Coventry in the United Kingdom. The median age of the respondents was 24 with 1474 (57.9%) women, 1835 (72.1%) white, 1826 (71.8%) single. The most favoured method of partner notification was patient referral, which was rated a "good" method by 65.8% when they had to be contacted because a sexual partner has an STI. Notifying contacts by letter as a method of provider partner notification is more acceptable than phoning, text messaging, or email. Respondents with access to mobile telephones, private emails, and private letters were more likely to rate a method of partner notification using that mode of communication as "good" compared to those without. With provider referral methods of partner notification respondents preferred to receive a letter, email, or text message asking them to contact the clinic rather than a letter, email or text message informing them that they may have an STI. Most respondents think that being informed directly by a partner is the best method of being notified of the risk of an STI. Some of the newer methods may not be acceptable to all but a significant minority of respondents prefer these methods of partner notification. The wording of letters, emails, or text messages when used for partner notification has an influence on the acceptability of the method and may influence success of the partner notification method. Services should be flexible enough to utilise the patients' preferred method of partner notification.

  12. Communication and information-seeking behavior of PhD students in physicists and astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Jamali, Hamid R.

    2006-01-01

    As a part of a wider doctoral research, this paper deals with the communication and information-seeking behavior of research (PhD) students in physics and astronomy. Based on a qualitative case study of PhD students in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at University College London, this study seeks to derive behavioral patterns in information-seeking activities of PhD students. The study aims to investigate the intradisciplinary differences in information-seeking activities of physicist...

  13. Exploring PHD fingers and H3K4me0 interactions with molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energy calculations: AIRE-PHD1, a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Spiliotopoulos

    Full Text Available PHD fingers represent one of the largest families of epigenetic readers capable of decoding post-translationally modified or unmodified histone H3 tails. Because of their direct involvement in human pathologies they are increasingly considered as a potential therapeutic target. Several PHD/histone-peptide structures have been determined, however relatively little information is available on their dynamics. Studies aiming to characterize the dynamic and energetic determinants driving histone peptide recognition by epigenetic readers would strongly benefit from computational studies. Herein we focus on the dynamic and energetic characterization of the PHD finger subclass specialized in the recognition of histone H3 peptides unmodified in position K4 (H3K4me0. As a case study we focused on the first PHD finger of autoimmune regulator protein (AIRE-PHD1 in complex with H3K4me0. PCA analysis of the covariance matrix of free AIRE-PHD1 highlights the presence of a "flapping" movement, which is blocked in an open conformation upon binding to H3K4me0. Moreover, binding free energy calculations obtained through Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM/PBSA methodology are in good qualitative agreement with experiments and allow dissection of the energetic terms associated with native and alanine mutants of AIRE-PHD1/H3K4me0 complexes. MM/PBSA calculations have also been applied to the energetic analysis of other PHD fingers recognizing H3K4me0. In this case we observe excellent correlation between computed and experimental binding free energies. Overall calculations show that H3K4me0 recognition by PHD fingers relies on compensation of the electrostatic and polar solvation energy terms and is stabilized by non-polar interactions.

  14. Toxin-antitoxin loci as stress-response-elements: ChpAK/MazF and ChpBK cleave translated RNAs and are counteracted by tmRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S.K.; Pedersen, K.; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2003-01-01

    Prokaryotic chromosomes encode toxin-antitoxin loci, often in multiple copies. In most cases, the function of these genes is not known. The chpA (mazEF) locus of Escherichia coli has been described as a cell killing module that induces bacterial apoptosis during nutritional stress. However, we...... found recently that ChpAK (MazF) does not confer cell killing but rather, induces a bacteriostatic condition from which the cells could be resuscitated. Results presented here yield a mechanistic explanation for the detrimental effect on cell growth exerted by ChpAK and the homologous ChpBK protein of E......AK cleaved tmRNA in its coding region. Thus, ChpAK and ChpBK inhibit translation by a mechanism very similar to that of E. coli RelE. On the basis of these results, we propose a model that integrates TA loci into general prokaryotic stress physiology....

  15. Genomes of the most dangerous epidemic bacteria have a virulence repertoire characterized by fewer genes but more toxin-antitoxin modules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi Georgiades

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a comparative genomic study based on a neutral approach to identify genome specificities associated with the virulence capacity of pathogenic bacteria. We also determined whether virulence is dictated by rules, or if it is the result of individual evolutionary histories. We systematically compared the genomes of the 12 most dangerous pandemic bacteria for humans ("bad bugs" to their closest non-epidemic related species ("controls".We found several significantly different features in the "bad bugs", one of which was a smaller genome that likely resulted from a degraded recombination and repair system. The 10 Cluster of Orthologous Group (COG functional categories revealed a significantly smaller number of genes in the "bad bugs", which lacked mostly transcription, signal transduction mechanisms, cell motility, energy production and conversion, and metabolic and regulatory functions. A few genes were identified as virulence factors, including secretion system proteins. Five "bad bugs" showed a greater number of poly (A tails compared to the controls, whereas an elevated number of poly (A tails was found to be strongly correlated to a low GC% content. The "bad bugs" had fewer tandem repeat sequences compared to controls. Moreover, the results obtained from a principal component analysis (PCA showed that the "bad bugs" had surprisingly more toxin-antitoxin modules than did the controls.We conclude that pathogenic capacity is not the result of "virulence factors" but is the outcome of a virulent gene repertoire resulting from reduced genome repertoires. Toxin-antitoxin systems could participate in the virulence repertoire, but they may have developed independently of selfish evolution.

  16. Environmental T4-Family Bacteriophages Evolve to Escape Abortive Infection via Multiple Routes in a Bacterial Host Employing "Altruistic Suicide" through Type III Toxin-Antitoxin Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bihe; Akusobi, Chidiebere; Fang, Xinzhe; Salmond, George P C

    2017-01-01

    Abortive infection is an anti-phage mechanism employed by a bacterium to initiate its own death upon phage infection. This reduces, or eliminates, production of viral progeny and protects clonal siblings in the bacterial population by an act akin to an "altruistic suicide." Abortive infection can be mediated by a Type III toxin-antitoxin system called ToxIN Pa consisting of an endoribonuclease toxin and RNA antitoxin. ToxIN Pa is a heterohexameric quaternary complex in which pseudoknotted RNA inhibits the toxicity of the toxin until infection by certain phages causes destabilization of ToxIN Pa , leading to bacteriostasis and, eventually, lethality. However, it is still unknown why only certain phages are able to activate ToxIN Pa . To try to address this issue we first introduced ToxIN Pa into the Gram-negative enterobacterium, Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 ( S 39006) and then isolated new environmental S 39006 phages that were scored for activation of ToxIN Pa and abortive infection capacity. We isolated three T4-like phages from a sewage treatment outflow point into the River Cam, each phage being isolated at least a year apart. These phages were susceptible to ToxIN Pa -mediated abortive infection but produced spontaneous "escape" mutants that were insensitive to ToxIN Pa . Analysis of these resistant mutants revealed three different routes of escaping ToxIN Pa , namely by mutating asiA (the product of which is a phage transcriptional co-activator); by mutating a conserved, yet functionally unknown, orf84 ; or by deleting a 6.5-10 kb region of the phage genome. Analysis of these evolved escape mutants may help uncover the nature of the corresponding phage product(s) involved in activation of ToxIN Pa .

  17. Structure-function analyses reveal the molecular architecture and neutralization mechanism of a bacterial HEPN-MNT toxin-antitoxin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xuanyan; Yao, Jianyun; Gao, Zengqiang; Liu, Guangfeng; Dong, Yu-Hui; Wang, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Heng

    2018-05-04

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci in bacteria are small genetic modules that regulate various cellular activities, including cell growth and death. The two-gene module encoding a HEPN (higher eukaryotes and prokaryotes nucleotide-binding) domain and a cognate MNT (minimal nucleotidyltransferase) domain have been predicted to represent a novel type II TA system prevalent in archaea and bacteria. However, the neutralization mechanism and cellular targets of the TA family remain unclear. The toxin SO_3166 having a HEPN domain and its cognate antitoxin SO_3165 with an MNT domain constitute a typical type II TA system that regulates cell motility and confers plasmid stability in the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis Here, we report the crystal structure and solution conformation of the SO_3166-SO_3165 pair, representing the first complex structures in this TA family. The structures revealed that SO_3165 and SO_3166 form a tight heterooctamer (at a 2:6 ratio), an organization that is very rare in other TA systems. We also observed that SO_3166 dimerization enables the formation of a deep cleft at the HEPN-domain interface harboring a composite R X 4-6H active site that functions as an RNA-cleaving RNase. SO_3165 bound SO_3166 mainly through its two α-helices (α2 and α4), functioning as molecular recognition elements. Moreover, their insertion into the SO_3166 cleft sterically blocked the R X 4-6H site or narrowed the cleft to inhibit RNA substrate binding. Structure-based mutagenesis confirmed the important roles of these α-helices in SO_3166 binding and inhibition. Our structure-function analysis provides first insights into the neutralization mechanism of the HEPN-MNT TA family. © 2018 Jia et al.

  18. Partnering for Success (OIT Customer Day Partner Recognition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-04-01

    Office of Industrial Technologies document produced for 2002 Customer Day event, which features industry partners who have worked with OIT to achieve outstanding energy efficiency achievements from January 2001 to the present.

  19. Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD'S) Beyond the PhD Professional Development Program: A Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A.; Jearld, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Huggans, M.; Ricciardi, L.; Thomas, S. H.; Jansma, P. E.

    2012-12-01

    In 2011 the Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD'S)® initiative launched its newest activity entitled the MS PHD'S "Beyond the PhD (B-PhD) Professional Development Program." This exciting new program was designed to facilitate the development of a new community of underrepresented minority (URM) doctoral candidates and recent doctorate degree recipients in Earth system science (ESS)-related fields. The MS PHD'S B-PhD provides customized support and advocacy for MS PHD'S B-PhD participants in order to facilitate smoother and informed transitions from graduate school, to postdoctoral and tenure-track positions, as well as other "first" jobs in government, industry, and non-profit organizations. In November 2011 the first cohort of MS PHD'S B-PhD participants engaged in intensive sessions on the following topics: "Toolkits for Success for Academia, Business/Industry, Federal Government and Non-Profits", "Defining Short, Mid and Long Term Career Goals", "Accessing and Refining Skill Sets and Other Door Openers", "International Preparation and Opportunities", "Paying it Forward/Lifting as You Climb", and "Customized Strategies for Next Steps". This pilot event, which was hosted by the University of Texas at Arlington's (UTA) College of Science, also provided opportunities for participants to serve as guest lecturers in the UTA's Colleges of Science and Engineering and included one-on-one discussions with MS PHD'S B-PhD mentors and guest speakers who are well established within their individual ESS fields. Insights regarding opportunities, challenges and obstacles commonly faced by URMs within the ESS fields, as well as strategies for success were shared by MS PHD'S B-PhD mentors and guest speakers. Survey results indicate that MS PHD'S B-PhD participants appreciated not only the material covered during this pilot activity, but also appreciated the opportunity to become part of a community of young URM ESS

  20. Managing Your China JV Partner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2008-01-01

    Having critical management tools gives foreign investors the chance to maximize their investment, minimize their risk and develop a mutually profitable business with a Chinese partner. This concludes our series on this topic.

  1. Partners Against Crime (PAC) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Partners Against Crime (PAC) program promotes collaboration among police officers, Durham residents, and city and county government officials to find...

  2. Mentored peer reviewing for PhD faculty and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiayun; Kim, Kyounghae; Kurtz, Melissa; Nolan, Marie T

    2016-02-01

    There is a need for scholars to be prepared as peer reviewers in order to ensure the continual publication of quality science. However, developing the skills to craft a constructive critique can be difficult. In this commentary, we discuss the use of a group peer review mentoring model for PhD students to gain experience in peer review from a faculty member who is experienced in peer review. Central to this model, was the opportunity for each student and faculty mentor to openly discuss their critique of the manuscript. Through this enriching experience, novice researchers were able to learn the elements of a good peer review, better determine a manuscript's substantive contribution to science, and advance the quality of their own manuscript writing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. PhD Thesis: Functional Textiles in Hospital Interiors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jeppe Emil

    The PhD thesis explores the possibilities and design qualities of using functional textiles in the interior of hospital environments, and is the result of a three-year collaboration between Aalborg University, Department of Civil Engineering, and VIA University College, VIA Design. The thesis...... years, knowledge on the use of interior materials and textiles are still rather limited. Contemporary hospital design has been widely criticised of being too institutional and clinical, and one of the main reasons for this experience may be related to the use of ‘cold’, hard-surfaced materials...... of plastic, vinyl and steel. These materials also dominate the new hospitals, designed and constructed these years, and despite the increased focus on the design concept healing architecture, the rational requirements of ef cient cleaning and maintenance still seems to direct the interior design of hospital...

  4. Denis Radoš, PhD in Technical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Magaš

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Denis Radoš, MSc in Geography, and assistant and junior researcher at the Chair for Cartography and Geographic Information Systems (GIS at the Department of Geography of the University of Zadar, has successfully defended his PhD thesis entitled Topography Analysis in the Wind Estimation Process within the doctoral studies in The Adriatic – A Link Between Continents organized by the Department of History and the Department of Geography of the University of Zadar. The thesis was defended in the Rectorate of the University of Zadar before a commission comprising Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sanja Lozić, chairperson, Full Professor with tenure Dr. Damir Magaš, mentor, and Assist. Prof. Dr. Mladen Pahernik.

  5. Researcher Profile: An Interview with Jodi Letkiewicz, Ph.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Letkiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jodi Letkiewicz, Ph.D., is an assistant professor of finance at York University in Toronto, Ontario. She teaches in the Certified Financial Planner® Core Curriculum program preparing undergraduate students for the Canadian CFP® certification and conducts research in several areas of personal finance and consumer decision-making, including behavioral aspects influencing the decision to seek financial help, how personality traits affect financial decision-making, and the financial state of young adults, including the impact student loans have on overall well-being and financial milestones early in their adult life. Dr. Letkiewicz’s goal is to increase financial well-being in the general public, which she hopes to accomplish through teaching, research, and community outreach.

  6. Attitude of PhD Students Towards Academic Dishonesty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilija Grincevičienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the problem of academic dishonesty. Looking over the results of research done in foreign countries (the USA, Romania, Poland, it is possible to assert that the ethics of a scientist is a topical problem nowadays not only in Lithuania but also all over the world. The results of pilot research show that although in all curricula, textbooks and other sources it is declared that each researcher or a team must keep to certain ethics rules, not everything goes well. Respondents were first year PhD students of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (N=51. Taking into account the results, more attention should be paid to the analysis and correction of the situation.

  7. Earth and Space Science PhD Employment Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesler, J. L.

    2001-05-01

    A recent report by the American Geophysical Union and the American Geological Institute, "Earth and Space Science PhDs, Class of 1999" looked at employment trends of recent graduates. Demographically, our graduates are, as a population, older than those who graduated in any other physical science. While almost one-third of graduates are employed in a different subfield than that of their degree, more than 80% of Earth and space science PhDs secure initial employment in the geosciences. Graduates are finding employment in less than 6 months and the unemployment rate has dropped significantly below that of two years ago. The PhD classes of 1996, 1997, and 1998 had ~ 50% of their graduates taking postdoctoral appointments. In 1999, this declined to only 38% postdocs with an increase in permanent employment in both the education and government sectors. Perception of the job market is improving as well. Respondents are considerably happier than they were in 1996.

  8. Analysis list: ph-d [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ph-d Cell line,Embryo + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/p...h-d.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/ph-d.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp.../kyushu-u/dm3/target/ph-d.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/ph-d.Cell_line.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/ph-d.Embryo.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Cell_line.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Embryo.gml ...

  9. Learning from a Lived Experience of a PhD: A Reflexive Ethnography of Two Journeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziato, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nurses globally have strived to obtain a Doctor of Philosophy Degree (PhD) especially those in academia. Few publications have focused on lived experiences of nurses especially those reporting failed attempts. Thus, this paper presents how lessons learnt from a failed attempt of a PhD in Nursing was used to achieve an outstanding…

  10. Pipelines or pipe dreams? PhD production and other matters in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This retrospective study documents the Masters and PhD training of 131 Dental Research Institute (DRI) postgraduates (1954-2006) to establish demographics, throughput and research outcomes for future PhD pipeline strategies using the DRI database. Descriptive statistics show four degree-based groups of ...

  11. A networked pathway to the PhD: The African-Norwegian case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How do PhD students become socialised into the professional world of academic work? This article pays attention to a 'networked' support pathway towards a PhD. The network constitutes an international research collaboration through a programme called Productive Learning Cultures (PLC) (2002-2011) between Norway ...

  12. Searching for "A Third Space": A Creative Pathway towards International PhD Students' Academic Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Dely Lazarte; Baumfield, Vivienne; Reid, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Undertaking a PhD is a challenging endeavour. Pursuing a doctoral education in a "foreign" context tends to increase the demands of this intellectual venture. The nature of research-based PhD programmes, often characterised by a lack of formal curricula where academic supervision lasts several years, may add another layer of complexity.…

  13. A model perception on the independence of PhD students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amy Stambach

    A model perception on the independence of PhD students in promoting the ... At school of postgraduate studies, all academic documents related to PhD ..... Workshop series sponsored by the counseling center at the University of Illinois in ...

  14. A fast ellipse extended target PHD filter using box-particle implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongquan; Ji, Hongbing; Hu, Qi

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a box-particle implementation of the ellipse extended target probability hypothesis density (ET-PHD) filter, called the ellipse extended target box particle PHD (EET-BP-PHD) filter, where the extended targets are described as a Poisson model developed by Gilholm et al. and the term "box" is here equivalent to the term "interval" used in interval analysis. The proposed EET-BP-PHD filter is capable of dynamically tracking multiple ellipse extended targets and estimating the target states and the number of targets, in the presence of clutter measurements, false alarms and missed detections. To derive the PHD recursion of the EET-BP-PHD filter, a suitable measurement likelihood is defined for a given partitioning cell, and the main implementation steps are presented along with the necessary box approximations and manipulations. The limitations and capabilities of the proposed EET-BP-PHD filter are illustrated by simulation examples. The simulation results show that a box-particle implementation of the ET-PHD filter can avoid the high number of particles and reduce computational burden, compared to a particle implementation of that for extended target tracking.

  15. NASA Graduate Student Researchers Program Ronald E. McNair PhD Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Sunnie

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Ronald E. McNair PHD Program was funded in September 1995. Implementation began during the spring of 1996. The deferment of the actual program initial semester enabled the program to continue support through the fall semester of 1998. This was accomplished by a no-cost extension from August 15, 1998 through December 31, 1998. There were 12 fellows supported by the program in 1996, 15 fellows in 1997, and 15 fellows 1998. Current program capacity is 15 fellows per funding support. Support for the academic outreach component began in spring 1998. The program was named the "Good Enough" Crew Activity (GECA) in honor of Dr. McNair's philosophy of everyone being good enough to achieve anything they want bad enough. The program currently enrolls 65 students from the third through the eight grades. The program is held 12 Saturdays per semester. The time is 9:00 AM to 12:30 PM each Saturday Morning. Program direction and facilitation is jointly administered with the PHD fellows and the Saturday Academy staff. Dr. John Kelly, REM-PHD Principal Investigator serves in a program oversight and leadership capacity. Ms. Sunnie Howard, The NASA REM-PHD Administrative Coordinator serves in an administrative and logistical capacity. Mr. Aaron Hatch, the NASA-AMES Liaison Officer, serve@'in a consultative and curriculum review capacity. The first recognition activity will be held on December 12, 1998, with the students, parents, faculty, PHD fellows, and other local student support services persons. Program outreach efforts are jointly supported by the NASA REM-PHD Program and the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program. The Ph.D. program reached its first milestone in May 1998. North Carolina A&T State University graduated the first Ph.D. fellows. The first three Ph.D. Alumni were Ronald E. McNair PHD Program Fellows. It is hoped that this is just the beginning of a highly acclaimed doctoral program. The ultimate program success will be recognized when the

  16. Qualitative methods in PhD theses from general practice in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Hamberg, Katarina; Reventlow, Susanne

    2017-12-01

    Qualitative methodology is gaining increasing attention and esteem in medical research, with general practice research taking a lead. With these methods, human and social interaction and meaning can be explored and shared by systematic interpretation of text from talk, observation or video. Qualitative studies are often included in Ph.D. theses from general practice in Scandinavia. Still, the Ph.D. programs across nations and institutions offer only limited training in qualitative methods. In this opinion article, we draw upon our observations and experiences, unpacking and reflecting upon values and challenges at stake when qualitative studies are included in Ph.D. theses. Hypotheses to explain these observations are presented, followed by suggestions for standards of evaluation and improvement of Ph.D. programs. The authors conclude that multimethod Ph.D. theses should be encouraged in general practice research, in order to offer future researchers an appropriate toolbox.

  17. Workgroup Report by the Joint Task Force Involving American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI); Food Allergy, Anaphylaxis, Dermatology and Drug Allergy (FADDA) (Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee and Adverse Reactions to Drugs, Biologicals, and Latex Committee); and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Botulism Clinical Treatment Guidelines Workgroup-Allergic Reactions to Botulinum Antitoxin: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schussler, Edith; Sobel, Jeremy; Hsu, Joy; Yu, Patricia; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Grammer, Leslie C; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2017-12-27

    Naturally occurring botulism is rare, but a large number of cases could result from unintentional or intentional contamination of a commercial food. Despeciated, equine-derived, heptavalent botulinum antitoxin (HBAT) is licensed in the United States. Timely treatment reduces morbidity and mortality, but concerns that botulinum antitoxin can induce anaphylaxis exist. We sought to quantify the allergy risk of botulinum antitoxin treatment and the usefulness of skin testing to assess this risk. We conducted a systematic review of (1) allergic reactions to botulinum antitoxin and (2) the predictive value of skin testing (ST) before botulinum antitoxin administration. We searched 5 scientific literature databases, reviewed articles' references, and obtained data from the HBAT manufacturer and from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Anaphylaxis incidence was determined for HBAT and previously employed botulinum antitoxins. We calculated the positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of ST for anaphylaxis related to HBAT and other botulinum antitoxins. Seven articles were included. Anaphylaxis incidence was 1.64% (5/305 patients) for HBAT and 1.16% (8/687 patients) for all other botulinum antitoxins (relative risk, 1.41 [95% confidence interval, .47-4.27]; P = .5). Observed values for both PPV and NPV for HBAT-ST (33 patients) were 100%. Observed PPVs and NPVs of ST for other botulinum antitoxins (302 patients) were 0-56% and 50%-100%, respectively. There were no reports of fatal anaphylaxis. Considering the <2 % rate of anaphylaxis, fatal outcomes, modest predictive value of ST, resource requirements for ST, and the benefits of early treatment, data do not support delaying HBAT administration to perform ST in a mass botulinum toxin exposure. Anaphylactic reactions may occur among 1%-2% of botulinum antitoxin recipients and will require epinephrine and antihistamine treatment and, possibly, intensive care. Published by Oxford

  18. MATLAB simulation software used for the PhD thesis "Acquisition of Multi-Band Signals via Compressed Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    MATLAB simulation software used for the PhD thesis "Acquisition of Multi-Band Signals via Compressed Sensing......MATLAB simulation software used for the PhD thesis "Acquisition of Multi-Band Signals via Compressed Sensing...

  19. Intimate Partner Violence May Be One Mechanism by Which Male Partner Socioeconomic Status and Substance Use Affect Female Partner Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although male partners' socioeconomic status (SES and substance use is associated with worse health of female partners, the mechanism behind this link is still unknown.Objectives: To investigate whether intimate partner violence (IPV is a mechanism by which male partners' SES and substance use influence female partners' self-rated health (SRH as victims and survivors of IPV.Materials and Methods: Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS is an ongoing population-based cohort. Male and female partners' SES, anxiety, depression, and substance use, and their relationship status were measured at baseline. IPV victimization was also asked among female partners' at baseline. Female partners' subjective health was measured 3 times (baseline−1998, 3 years later−2001, and 5 years later−2003. Using AMOS, we fitted two structural equation models (SEM for data analysis. In Model 1 we tested direct paths from male partners' SES and mental health to female partners' SRH, in the absence of IPV. In the Model 2 we conceptualized female partners' IPV victimization between male partners' SES and mental health and female partners' SRH. In both models we controlled for the effect of female partners' SES and mental health.Results: In Model 1, male partners' poor SES and substance use were associated with worse trajectory of SRH of female partner. In Model 2, male to female IPV was the mechanism by which male partners' SES and substance use were associated with female partners' SRH.Conclusions: IPV is one of the mechanisms by which male partners' SES and substance use can influence female partners' health. That is, IPV may operate as a vehicle by which male partners' social and psychological risk factors impact female partners' health. Thus, this study demonstrates how male partners' socio-ecological risk factors such as low SES and substance use impact female partners' health. Therefore, there is a need for broader socio-ecological approach

  20. Partnering models in Nordic construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    of local research and industry partners including major building clients. Data were collected by means of national reviews of partnering policies and practices, thematic analyses, and case studies. The concept partnering was introduced in a Nordic context in the 1990s and has since then been implemented...... in a large number of projects. Clients sought to establish a culture of openness and trust within the project and tried promoting this with various kinds of incentives. In some countries the move towards voluntary collaboration was, paradoxically, strongly advocated by public authorities. Generally, however......Traditionally, procurement and contractual policies adopted by building and construction clients produce a system in which clients procure design services separately from construction services, while operation and maintenance have been subject to further, separate procurement actions...

  1. Partnering and integrated supply management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnø, Ole-Christian; Olsen, Anders; Thyssen, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    for strategic management of collaborative relationships on a line with the purchasing perspectives offered by Supply Chain Management. Based on a study of the literature and an in-depth case study carried out within a large Scandinavian contractor, this article gives a proposal for how Partnering can...... be supported by strategic purchasing, with the aim of achieving strategic Partnering. The contribution of this article is thus the development of a new purchasing perspective within Construction Supply Chain Management.......Developments in the construction industry, with a lack of productivity increases compared to manufacturing industry in general, have amongst other things led to the use of Partnering, which is a form of collaboration which attempts to counteract the distrust and the sub-optimisation which...

  2. VapC toxins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis are ribonucleases that differentially inhibit growth and are neutralized by cognate VapB antitoxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bintou Ahmadou Ahidjo

    Full Text Available The chromosome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb encodes forty seven toxin-antitoxin modules belonging to the VapBC family. The role of these modules in the physiology of Mtb and the function(s served by their expansion are unknown. We investigated ten vapBC modules from Mtb and the single vapBC from M. smegmatis. Of the Mtb vapCs assessed, only Rv0549c, Rv0595c, Rv2549c and Rv2829c were toxic when expressed from a tetracycline-regulated promoter in M. smegmatis. The same genes displayed toxicity when conditionally expressed in Mtb. Toxicity of Rv2549c in M. smegmatis correlated with the level of protein expressed, suggesting that the VapC level must exceed a threshold for toxicity to be observed. In addition, the level of Rv2456 protein induced in M. smegmatis was markedly lower than Rv2549c, which may account for the lack of toxicity of this and other VapCs scored as 'non-toxic'. The growth inhibitory effects of toxic VapCs were neutralized by expression of the cognate VapB as part of a vapBC operon or from a different chromosomal locus, while that of non-cognate antitoxins did not. These results demonstrated a specificity of interaction between VapCs and their cognate VapBs, a finding corroborated by yeast two-hybrid analyses. Deletion of selected vapC or vapBC genes did not affect mycobacterial growth in vitro, but rendered the organisms more susceptible to growth inhibition following toxic VapC expression. However, toxicity of 'non-toxic' VapCs was not unveiled in deletion mutant strains, even when the mutation eliminated the corresponding cognate VapB, presumably due to insufficient levels of VapC protein. Together with the ribonuclease (RNase activity demonstrated for Rv0065 and Rv0617--VapC proteins with similarity to Rv0549c and Rv3320c, respectively--these results suggest that the VapBC family potentially provides an abundant source of RNase activity in Mtb, which may profoundly impact the physiology of the organism.

  3. Integrative research on environmental and landscape change: PhD students' motivations and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tress, Bärbel; Tress, Gunther; Fry, Gary

    2009-07-01

    The growing demand for integrative (interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary) approaches in the field of environmental and landscape change has increased the number of PhD students working in this area. Yet, the motivations to join integrative projects and the challenges for PhD students have so far not been investigated. The aims of this paper were to identify the understanding of PhD students with regard to integrative research, their motivations to join integrative projects, their expectations in terms of integration and results, and to reveal the challenges they face in integrative projects. We collected data by a questionnaire survey of 104 PhD students attending five PhD Master Classes held from 2003 to 2006. We used manual content analysis to analyse the free-text answers. The results revealed that students lack a differentiated understanding of integrative approaches. The main motivations to join integrative projects were the dissertation subject, the practical relevance of the project, the intellectual stimulation of working with different disciplines, and the belief that integrative research is more innovative. Expectations in terms of integration were high. Core challenges for integration included intellectual and external challenges such as lack of knowledge of other disciplines, knowledge transfer, reaching depth, supervision, lack of exchange with other students and time demands. To improve the situation for PhD students, we suggest improving knowledge on integrative approaches, balancing practical applicability with theoretical advancement, providing formal introductions to other fields of research, and enhancing institutional support for integrative PhD projects.

  4. Partnership for development: A peer mentorship model for PhD students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinski, Allison A; Mann, Tara; Flores, Dalmacio; Vance, Ashlee; Bettger, Janet Prvu; Hirschey, Rachel

    Formal mentoring relationships socialize Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) students to their current and future roles as nursing scholars. Despite formal mentoring, some students may desire or benefit from additional mentoring in an informal setting. Informal mentoring complements the one-to-one relationship students develop with a primary faculty mentor or dissertation chair. This manuscript describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a student-driven, peer mentorship model, titled Partnership for Development. This small group, peer mentorship model was implemented in a PhD program at a School of Nursing during an academic year. Five student peer facilitators organized a total of 32 PhD students, 2 post-doctoral associates, and invited 5 faculty to participate. Data includes pre- and post-implementation surveys completed by the students and peer facilitator field notes. Student reported post-participation benefits included: getting to know faculty in an informal setting (n=6), socializing with students from other cohorts (n=6), and obtaining a sense of camaraderie with other PhD students (n=5). We recommend peer mentorship for other PhD programs as a way to socialize PhD students into the role of nurse scientist and assist students during their tenure as a PhD student. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Partnering for Canada's nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenderman, P.P.

    1997-01-01

    ''Partnering'' is an evolving relationship that could lead to a partnership or joint ownership. Babcock and Wilcox (BW) has used a variety of forms of contracting and partnering to develop global strategy for the supply of its products, both fossil and nuclear steam generating equipment. A strategic mix of consortia, strategic alliances and joint ventures has provided the impetus for BW to lead in worldwide market share in many categories, including the supply of nuclear replacement steam generators to the USA since 1992. The implication is that continuing cooperation with BW will benefit the Canadian nuclear industry. 6 refs., 12 figs

  6. Strategy formulation for the Phd Health Market (Pty) Ltd franchise group / Henk Heath

    OpenAIRE

    Heath, Henk

    2007-01-01

    Phd Health Market (Pty) Ltd was born from the vision of Anton Dupper and Advocate Jan Grobler, to turn a health store in Welkom, South Africa, into a national health franchise in the health & fitness industry. Phd Health Market has a vision to radically change society as a whole by changing nutritional eating and instilling a healthy lifestyle as a whole, which could be easily adapted by all. Phd Health Market is a small developing franchise group, requiring a much needed strategic plan in or...

  7. Personal profile: interview with Bill Andrews, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Bill

    2011-08-01

    Dr. William H. Andrews has worked in the biotech industry for 31 years, focusing the last 19 years on finding ways to extend human life span through the intervention of telomere shortening in human cells. Dr. Andrews earned his Ph.D. in Molecular and Population Genetics at the University of Georgia. He was a Senior Scientist at Armos Corporation and Codon Corporation, Director of Molecular Biology at Codon and at Geron Corporation, and Director of Technology Development at EOS Biosciences. He is presently the founder, President, and CEO of Sierra Sciences, a biotechnology company focused exclusively on finding drugs that will transiently induce the expression of endogenous telomerase in human cells. Sierra Sciences has already identified more than 30 such drugs and is presently characterizing their mechanism of action. While Director of Molecular Biology at Geron Corporation, Dr. Andrews was one of the principal discoverers of both the RNA and protein components of human telomerase and was awarded second place as "National Inventor of the Year" in 1997 for this work. He is presently a named inventor on 43 U.S- issued telomerase patents.

  8. OLC Partners with the People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, Laura M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses ways in which Oglala Lakota College (South Dakota) helps to strengthen the cultural fabric of the Lakota community and how it has partnered with other institutions of higher learning throughout the state. Reports that the college has a number of community-based initiatives that emphasize the relationship between academics and ancestral…

  9. Partnering in the Construction Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev Bohnstedt, Kristian; Bejder, Erik; Haugbølle, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Huge efforts have been made in order to stimulate thorough improvements in the construction industry in terms of value for money, feasibility and consistency when facilitating a partnering approach. Despite this attention there is limited documentation on the development of research trends, thus...

  10. Beijing 2008 Olympic Games Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ At Olympic times, many business giants try to expand their influence by sponsoring the Games. The Games is an opportunity for them to turn from a national to an international brand. Here are brief introductions to some of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games partners.

  11. Immuno-detection of cleaved SNAP-25 from differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells provides a sensitive assay for determination of botulinum A toxin and antitoxin potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadirgi, G; Stickings, P; Rajagopal, S; Liu, Y; Sesardic, D

    2017-12-01

    Botulinum toxin type A is a causative agent of human botulism. Due to high toxicity and ease of production it is classified by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention as a category A bioterrorism agent. The same serotype, BoNT/A, is also the most widely used in pharmaceutical preparations for treatment of a diverse range of neuromuscular disorders. Traditionally, animals are used to confirm the presence and activity of toxin and to establish neutralizing capabilities of countermeasures in toxin neutralization tests. Cell based assays for BoNT/A have been reported as the most viable alternative to animal models, since they are capable of reflecting all key steps (binding, translocation, internalization and cleavage of intracellular substrate) involved in toxin activity. In this paper we report preliminary development of a simple immunochemical method for specifically detecting BoNT/A cleaved intracellular substrate, SNAP-25, in cell lysates of neurons derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. The assay offers sensitivity of better than 0.1LD50/ml (3fM) which is not matched by other functional assays, including the mouse bioassay, and provides serotype specificity for quantitative detection of BoNT/A and anti-BoNT/A antitoxin. Subject to formal validation, the method described here could potentially be used as a substitute for the mouse bioassay to measure potency and consistency of therapeutic products. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. UK to train 100 PhD students in data science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael

    2017-12-01

    A new PhD programme to develop techniques to handle the vast amounts of data being generated by experiments and facilities has been launched by the UK's Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC).

  13. Targeting Ligandable Pockets on Plant Homeodomain (PHD) Zinc Finger Domains by a Fragment-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Anastasia; Lucas, Xavier; Bortoluzzi, Alessio; Wright, David; Ciulli, Alessio

    2018-04-20

    Plant homeodomain (PHD) zinc fingers are histone reader domains that are often associated with human diseases. Despite this, they constitute a poorly targeted class of readers, suggesting low ligandability. Here, we describe a successful fragment-based campaign targeting PHD fingers from the proteins BAZ2A and BAZ2B as model systems. We validated a pool of in silico fragments both biophysically and structurally and solved the first crystal structures of PHD zinc fingers in complex with fragments bound to an anchoring pocket at the histone binding site. The best-validated hits were found to displace a histone H3 tail peptide in competition assays. This work identifies new chemical scaffolds that provide suitable starting points for future ligand optimization using structure-guided approaches. The demonstrated ligandability of the PHD reader domains could pave the way for the development of chemical probes to drug this family of epigenetic readers.

  14. Trends in landscape research and landscape planning : implications for PhD students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tress, G.; Tress, B.; Fry, G.; Antrop, M.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter introduces the contents of the book through an analysis of current trends in landscape research and landscape planning and a discussion of the consequences of these trends for PhD students.

  15. WHAT ARE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS PH.D. STUDENTS LEARNING ABOUT AGRIBUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS AND SUBJECT AREAS?

    OpenAIRE

    House, Lisa; Sterns, James A.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the PowerPoint presentation given by the authors at the 2002 WCC-72 meetings, regarding what agricultural economics Ph.D students are learning about agribusiness research methods and subject areas.

  16. Announcing the 2016 Toxins Travel Awards for Post-Doctoral Fellows and Ph.D. Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tesh, Vernon L.

    2016-01-01

    With the goal of promoting the development of early career investigators in the field of toxinology, Toxins welcomed applications for the 2016 Toxins Travel Awards for post-doctoral fellows and Ph.D. students. [...

  17. Announcing the 2016 Toxins Travel Awards for Post-Doctoral Fellows and Ph.D. Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon L. Tesh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With the goal of promoting the development of early career investigators in the field of toxinology, Toxins welcomed applications for the 2016 Toxins Travel Awards for post-doctoral fellows and Ph.D. students. [...

  18. Craig Reynolds, Ph.D., to Retire as NCI Associate Director for Frederick | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    On December 2, Craig Reynolds, Ph.D., director, Office of Scientific Operations, and NCI associate director for Frederick, will put the finishing touches on a 37-year career with the National Cancer Institute.

  19. Actualization of the PhD Students' Intercultural Research Competencies in Global Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Dailidiene

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available globalization is changing the qualitative characteristics of society, affecting both the life and mentality of people. In relevance to globalization, higher education is gaining new dimensions as well. Bologna and Lisbon documents guide and obligate each country to create integrated and harmonious international space of higher education in Europe. phd studies are considered as integral in the higher education structure; therefore, internationalization is a significant imperative for phd studies development. In the process of internationalization, the need for students’ intercultural competencies is widely recognized. Firstly, we suppose that the impact of globalization on internationalization still remains underestimated. Globalization makes internationalization not only more intense, but also qualitatively different. Secondly, there is a lack of systemic analysis on the development of intercultural research competencies in phd studies. We relate the need for intercultural research competencies to the following critical and rhetorical question: ‘Are today’s phd students ready to solve tomorrow’s global problems?’

  20. Ph.D. Post-Doctoral Training Program in Breast Cancer Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Dean

    2002-01-01

    .... The curriculum of the Breast Cancer Training Program extends beyond that of the normal Ph.D. requirements to include didactic classroom teaching, journal clubs, seminars, workshops and mini-symposiums on relevant topics in breast cancer...

  1. Ph.D. Post-Doctoral Training Program in Breast Cancer Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Dean

    2001-01-01

    .... The curriculum of the Breast Cancer Training Program extends beyond that of the normal Ph.D. requirements to include didactic classroom teaching, journal clubs, seminars, workshops and mini-symposiums on relevant topics in breast cancer...

  2. Ph.D. Post-Doctoral Training Program in Breast Cancer Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Dean

    2004-01-01

    .... The curriculum of the Breast Cancer Training Program extends beyond that of the normal Ph.D. requirements to include didactic classroom teaching, journal clubs, seminars, workshops and mini-symposiums on relevant topics in breast cancer...

  3. CPT Special Report: Survey of Ph.D. Programs in Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents preliminary results from a survey taken by the American Chemical Society (ACS) Committee on Professional Training (CPT) to determine the current practices among 155 Ph.D. programs in chemistry. (DKM)

  4. Articulating Expectations for PhD Candidature upon Commencement: Ensuring Supervisor/Student "Best Fit"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxham, Lorna; Dwyer, Trudy; Reid-Searl, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    The journey towards completion of a PhD is a bumpy one for many. One of the major factors that influence successful and on-time thesis completion is the relationship that the PhD candidate has with her or his supervisor. This paper presents results from research undertaken using a 12-item survey to collect data from a purposive sample: PhD…

  5. Social Policy in Social Work PhD Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Elizabeth; Gal, John; Weiss-Gal, Idit

    2018-01-01

    While there has been a long-standing concern about the role of policy within social work education and social work practice, most of the emphasis has been on social work education at the BSW and MSW levels. This article examines policy education at the PhD level. It first explores how policy is taught in social work PhD programs in the United…

  6. MS PHD'S: Effective Strategies for the Retention and Advancement of URM Students in ESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, J.; Burgess, A. K.; Pace, L.; Scott, O.; Strickland, J.; Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ithier-Guzman, W.

    2012-12-01

    The Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) Professional Development Program in Earth system science (ESS) is a model initiative for improving the retention of underrepresented minority (URM) students in STEM fields. Entering its ninth cohort, MS PHD'S remains committed to helping URM undergraduate and graduate students achieve outstanding careers in ESS. MS PHD'S facilitates URM student achievement through a three-phase program designed to increase student exposure to the ESS community. By engaging in a series of professional development and skill building exercises, peer-to-peer community building activities, participation in scientific society conferences and workshops, mentoring by URM and other scientists, and a virtual community, URM students gain the confidence and support necessary to achieve their academic goals and enter the ESS workforce. Since its inception, MS PHD'S continues to support 189 participants. Of these 189 participants, 35 have advanced from undergraduate and graduate academic pathways to completion of their PhD and another 60 are currently enrolled in doctoral programs. MS PHD'S maintains close ties with program alumni to further support retention, inclusivity, and broadening participation of URM students and graduates in STEM activities. Its model is built on reengaging alumni to become mentors and leaders for each new cohort as well as facilitating valuable opportunities for alumni to advance in their ESS related academic and professional career pathways.

  7. Skill development in collaborative research projects: A comparison between PhD students in multi-actor research programs and in traditional trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, T.; Belder, R.; de Goede, M.E.E; Horlings, E.; van den Besselaar, P.

    2014-01-01

    The growing number of PhD students has spurred debates about the societal relevance of PhD training trajectories. The academic labour market does not provide enough jobs and many PhD graduates will have a career outside academia. It has been questioned whether current PhD training trajectories are

  8. Genital Herpes in Marital Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jacob

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1983-86, 225 patients were clinically diagnosed to have genital herpes (GH at our clinic. Of these, 90 men and 55 women were currently married. All the spouses were screened clinically and through standardized techniques for isolation and typing of herpes simplex virus, serological testing and Papanicolaou smear. There were 90 couples in whom at least one spouse had GH and in 38 (42% couples both partners had GH. Clinically, 49% of wives and 75% of husbands of GH patients were diagnosed to have the disease. The spouses of recurrent GH patients had a higher frequency of the disease than spouses of primary GH patients. Among spouses who were clinically asymptomatic, 40% had high serological titres suggestive of GH. Wives generally experienced more severe symptoms, especially pain in the lesions. Majority of lesions in both the partners were vesicles and ulcers. Prodromata were more among recurrent GH patients in both the partners. The frequency of recurrences wasalso similar in spouses. Seventy percent of wives and 40% of husbands could not identify any precipitating factor. Intercourse, physical stress and rich food were cited as possible factors in the remaining. All the wives had acquired the diseases through their husbands who were promiscuous. Fifty percent of husbands had been infected before marriage. Given the fact that asymptomatic carriers exist, it is better to consider all marital partners of GH as infected. Repeated and long-term follow, - up examination, particularly of wives of GH patients is therefore essential as an important socio-preventive aspect of this disease.

  9. Tips for Postpartum Dads and Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blues: Partners Interview with Wade Bowen Coping with Suicide & Loss Tips for Postpartum Dads and Partners Pregnancy and postpartum mood and anxiety disorders affect the whole family. Here are some tips ...

  10. Preparing for Graduate-Level Training in Professional Psychology: Comparisons across Clinical PhD, Counseling PhD, and Clinical PsyD Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karazsia, Bryan T.; Smith, Lena

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, faculty who teach in clinical and counseling doctor of philosophy (PhD) or doctor of psychology (PsyD) programs completed surveys regarding preferences for prospective student preparations to graduate programs. Faculty expectations of minimum and ideal undergraduate training were highest for scientific methods, though…

  11. Barriers to Screening for Intimate Partner Violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprague, Sheila; Madden, Kim; Simunovic, Nicole; Godin, Katelyn; Pham, Ngan K.; Bhandari, Mohit; Goslings, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Health care providers play a vital role in the detection of intimate partner violence among their patients. Despite the recommendations for routine intimate partner violence screening in various medical settings, health care providers do not routinely screen for intimate partner

  12. Positive illusions about one's partner's physical attractiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.

    This study examined couples' ratings of self and partner physical attractiveness. On the basis of the theory of positive illusions, it was expected that individuals would rate their partners as more attractive than their partners would rate themselves. Both members of 93 heterosexual couples, with a

  13. The relBE2Spn toxin-antitoxin system of Streptococcus pneumoniae: role in antibiotic tolerance and functional conservation in clinical isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concha Nieto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Type II (proteic chromosomal toxin-antitoxin systems (TAS are widespread in Bacteria and Archaea but their precise function is known only for a limited number of them. Out of the many TAS described, the relBE family is one of the most abundant, being present in the three first sequenced strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae (D39, TIGR4 and R6. To address the function of the pneumococcal relBE2Spn TAS in the bacterial physiology, we have compared the response of the R6-relBE2Spn wild type strain with that of an isogenic derivative, Delta relB2Spn under different stress conditions such as carbon and amino acid starvation and antibiotic exposure. Differences on viability between the wild type and mutant strains were found only when treatment directly impaired protein synthesis. As a criterion for the permanence of this locus in a variety of clinical strains, we checked whether the relBE2Spn locus was conserved in around 100 pneumococcal strains, including clinical isolates and strains with known genomes. All strains, although having various types of polymorphisms at the vicinity of the TA region, contained a functional relBE2Spn locus and the type of its structure correlated with the multilocus sequence type. Functionality of this TAS was maintained even in cases where severe rearrangements around the relBE2Spn region were found. We conclude that even though the relBE2Spn TAS is not essential for pneumococcus, it may provide additional advantages to the bacteria for colonization and/or infection.

  14. Positive illusions about one's partner's physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P H

    2008-03-01

    This study examined couples' ratings of self and partner physical attractiveness. On the basis of the theory of positive illusions, it was expected that individuals would rate their partners as more attractive than their partners would rate themselves. Both members of 93 heterosexual couples, with a mean relationship length of about 14 years, provided ratings of both their own and their partner's physical attractiveness. Results support the theory that individuals hold positive illusions about their partner's physical attractiveness. Implications of these results in terms of relationship-enhancing biases are discussed.

  15. Maternal Re-Partnering and New-Partner Fertility: Associations with Nonresident Father Investments in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that paternal re-partnering and new-partner fertility are associated with decreased nonresident father investments in children. Few studies, however, have examined the influence of maternal re-partnering and new-partner births on nonresident father investments. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine associations of maternal re-partnering (through cohabitation or marriage with a new partner) and new-partner births with nonresident father visitation and child support payments. Results suggest that maternal re-partnering is associated with a decrease in both yearly father-child contact and child support received by the mother. New-partner fertility for mothers who are co-residing with a partner is associated with an additional decrease in monthly father-child contact, but does not have an additional influence on yearly father-child contact or child support receipt. PMID:22581998

  16. DELETION OR INHIBITION OF THE OXYGEN SENSOR PHD1 PROTECTS AGAINST ISCHEMIC STROKE VIA REPROGRAMMING OF NEURONAL METABOLISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaegebeur, Annelies; Segura, Inmaculada; Schmieder, Roberta; Verdegem, Dries; Decimo, Ilaria; Bifari, Francesco; Dresselaers, Tom; Eelen, Guy; Ghosh, Debapriva; Schoors, Sandra; Janaki Raman, Sudha Rani; Cruys, Bert; Govaerts, Kristof; De Legher, Carla; Bouché, Ann; Schoonjans, Luc; Ramer, Matt S.; Hung, Gene; Bossaert, Goele; Cleveland, Don W.; Himmelreich, Uwe; Voets, Thomas; Lemmens, Robin; Bennett, C. Frank; Robberecht, Wim; De Bock, Katrien; Dewerchin, Mieke; Fendt, Sarah-Maria; Ghesquière, Bart; Carmeliet, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Summary The oxygen-sensing prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs) regulate cellular metabolism, but their role in neuronal metabolism during stroke is unknown. Here we report that PHD1 deficiency provides neuroprotection in a murine model of permanent brain ischemia. This was not due to an increased collateral vessel network, nor to enhanced neurotrophin expression. Instead, PHD1−/− neurons were protected against oxygen-nutrient deprivation by reprogramming glucose metabolism. Indeed, PHD1−/− neurons enhanced glucose flux through the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway by diverting glucose from glycolysis. As a result, PHD1−/− neurons increased their redox buffering capacity to scavenge oxygen radicals in ischemia. Intracerebroventricular injection of PHD1-antisense oligonucleotides reduced the cerebral infarct size and neurological deficits following stroke. These data identify PHD1 as a novel regulator of neuronal metabolism and a potential therapeutic target in ischemic stroke. PMID:26774962

  17. Deletion or Inhibition of the Oxygen Sensor PHD1 Protects against Ischemic Stroke via Reprogramming of Neuronal Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaegebeur, Annelies; Segura, Inmaculada; Schmieder, Roberta; Verdegem, Dries; Decimo, Ilaria; Bifari, Francesco; Dresselaers, Tom; Eelen, Guy; Ghosh, Debapriva; Davidson, Shawn M; Schoors, Sandra; Broekaert, Dorien; Cruys, Bert; Govaerts, Kristof; De Legher, Carla; Bouché, Ann; Schoonjans, Luc; Ramer, Matt S; Hung, Gene; Bossaert, Goele; Cleveland, Don W; Himmelreich, Uwe; Voets, Thomas; Lemmens, Robin; Bennett, C Frank; Robberecht, Wim; De Bock, Katrien; Dewerchin, Mieke; Ghesquière, Bart; Fendt, Sarah-Maria; Carmeliet, Peter

    2016-02-09

    The oxygen-sensing prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs) regulate cellular metabolism, but their role in neuronal metabolism during stroke is unknown. Here we report that PHD1 deficiency provides neuroprotection in a murine model of permanent brain ischemia. This was not due to an increased collateral vessel network. Instead, PHD1(-/-) neurons were protected against oxygen-nutrient deprivation by reprogramming glucose metabolism. Indeed, PHD1(-/-) neurons enhanced glucose flux through the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway by diverting glucose away from glycolysis. As a result, PHD1(-/-) neurons increased their redox buffering capacity to scavenge oxygen radicals in ischemia. Intracerebroventricular injection of PHD1-antisense oligonucleotides reduced the cerebral infarct size and neurological deficits following stroke. These data identify PHD1 as a regulator of neuronal metabolism and a potential therapeutic target in ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Employability of genetic counselors with a PhD in genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jody P; Myers, Melanie F; Huether, Carl A; Bedard, Angela C; Warren, Nancy Steinberg

    2008-06-01

    The development of a PhD in genetic counseling has been discussed for more than 20 years, yet the perspectives of employers have not been assessed. The goal of this qualitative study was to gain an understanding of the employability of genetic counselors with a PhD in genetic counseling by conducting interviews with United States employers of genetic counselors. Study participants were categorized according to one of the following practice areas: academic, clinical, government, industry, laboratory, or research. All participants were responsible for hiring genetic counselors in their institutions. Of the 30 employers interviewed, 23 envisioned opportunities for individuals with a PhD degree in genetic counseling, particularly in academic and research settings. Performing research and having the ability to be a principal investigator on a grant was the primary role envisioned for these individuals by 22/30 participants. Employers expect individuals with a PhD in genetic counseling to perform different roles than MS genetic counselors with a master's degree. This study suggests there is an employment niche for individuals who have a PhD in genetic counseling that complements, and does not compete with, master's prepared genetic counselors.

  19. Interoperability in digital electrocardiography: harmonization of ISO/IEEE x73-PHD and SCP-ECG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Jesús D; Chiarugi, Franco; Alesanco, Alvaro; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Serrano, Luis; Chronaki, Catherine E; Escayola, Javier; Martínez, Ignacio; García, José

    2010-11-01

    The ISO/IEEE 11073 (x73) family of standards is a reference frame for medical device interoperability. A draft for an ECG device specialization (ISO/IEEE 11073-10406-d02) has already been presented to the Personal Health Device (PHD) Working Group, and the Standard Communications Protocol for Computer-Assisted ElectroCardioGraphy (SCP-ECG) Standard for short-term diagnostic ECGs (EN1064:2005+A1:2007) has recently been approved as part of the x73 family (ISO 11073-91064:2009). These factors suggest the coordinated use of these two standards in foreseeable telecardiology environments, and hence the need to harmonize them. Such harmonization is the subject of this paper. Thus, a mapping of the mandatory attributes defined in the second draft of the ISO/IEEE 11073-10406-d02 and the minimum SCP-ECG fields is presented, and various other capabilities of the SCP-ECG Standard (such as the messaging part) are also analyzed from an x73-PHD point of view. As a result, this paper addresses and analyzes the implications of some inconsistencies in the coordinated use of these two standards. Finally, a proof-of-concept implementation of the draft x73-PHD ECG device specialization is presented, along with the conversion from x73-PHD to SCP-ECG. This paper, therefore, provides recommendations for future implementations of telecardiology systems that are compliant with both x73-PHD and SCP-ECG.

  20. [MD PhD programs: Providing basic science education for ophthalmologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaniol, K; Geerling, G

    2015-06-01

    Enrollment in MD PhD programs offers the opportunity of a basic science education for medical students and doctors. These programs originated in the USA where structured programs have been offered for many years, but now German universities also run MD PhD programs. The MD PhD programs provided by German universities were investigated regarding entrance requirements, structure and financing modalities. An internet and telephone-based search was carried out. Out of 34 German universities 22 offered MD PhD programs. At 15 of the 22 universities a successfully completed course of studies in medicine was required for enrollment, 7 programs admitted medical students in training and 7 programs required a medical doctoral thesis, which had to be completed with at least a grade of magna cum laude in 3 cases. Financing required scholarships in many cases. Several German universities currently offer MD PhD programs; however, these differ considerably regarding entrance requirements, structure and financing. A detailed analysis investigating the success rates of these programs (e.g. successful completion and career paths of graduates) would be of benefit.

  1. Cellular Oxygen Sensing: Crystal Structure of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase (PHD2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonough,M.; Li, V.; Flashman, E.; Chowdhury, R.; Mohr, C.; Lienard, B.; Zondlo, J.; Oldham, N.; Clifton, I.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Cellular and physiological responses to changes in dioxygen levels in metazoans are mediated via the posttranslational oxidation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF). Hydroxylation of conserved prolyl residues in the HIF-{alpha} subunit, catalyzed by HIF prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs), signals for its proteasomal degradation. The requirement of the PHDs for dioxygen links changes in dioxygen levels with the transcriptional regulation of the gene array that enables the cellular response to chronic hypoxia; the PHDs thus act as an oxygen-sensing component of the HIF system, and their inhibition mimics the hypoxic response. We describe crystal structures of the catalytic domain of human PHD2, an important prolyl-4-hydroxylase in the human hypoxic response in normal cells, in complex with Fe(II) and an inhibitor to 1.7 Angstroms resolution. PHD2 crystallizes as a homotrimer and contains a double-stranded {beta}-helix core fold common to the Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependant dioxygenase family, the residues of which are well conserved in the three human PHD enzymes (PHD 1-3). The structure provides insights into the hypoxic response, helps to rationalize a clinically observed mutation leading to familial erythrocytosis, and will aid in the design of PHD selective inhibitors for the treatment of anemia and ischemic disease.

  2. PhD students’ expectations from their supervisors: A qualitative content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Rimaz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of research in PhD programs increases if supervisors become aware of students' expectations from them. This qualitative study aimed to explore expectations of PhD students from their supervisors was done.   Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was conducted on 22 graduated PhD students of Iran University of Medical Sciences, in 2014. The samples were purposefully selected and interviewed. All interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim.   Results: After analyzing and coding data, it was found that PhD students have four main expectations from their supervisors. These expectations consist of scientific support including help with selection of subject, preparation and registration of proposal, data collection and support for writing and examination of the thesis. Developing scientific skills and help with preparing manuscripts were other expectations. Emotional-social support with five categories including relationship between supervisor-student, general expectations of supervisor, supervisor personality characteristics, needed emotional skills and social activities related to thesis and finally providing adequate resources including financial support and access to facilities inside and outside the university were among the other expectations.   Conclusion: PhD students need to scientific, emotional, social and material supports from their supervisors in the process of performing thesis. These expectations should be told to supervisors.

  3. Strategic innovation between PhD and DNP programs: Collaboration, collegiality, and shared resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joellen; Rayman, Kathleen; Diffenderfer, Sandra; Stidham, April

    2016-01-01

    At least 111 schools and colleges of nursing across the nation provide both PhD and DNP programs (AACN, 2014a). Collaboration between nurses with doctoral preparation as researchers (PhD) and practitioners (DNP) has been recommended as essential to further the profession; that collaboration can begin during the educational process. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and implementation of successful DNP and PhD program collaboration, and to share the results of that collaboration in an educational setting. Faculty set strategic goals to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of both new DNP and existing PhD programs. The goals were to promote collaboration and complementarity between the programs through careful capstone and dissertation differentiation, complementary residency activities, joint courses and inter-professional experiences; promote collegiality in a blended on-line learning environment through shared orientation and intensive on-campus sessions; and maximize resources in program delivery through a supportive organizational structure, equal access to technology support, and shared faculty responsibilities as appropriate to terminal degrees. Successes such as student and faculty accomplishments, and challenges such as managing class size and workload, are described. Collaboration, collegiality and the sharing of resources have strengthened and enriched both programs and contributed to the success of students, faculty. These innovative program strategies can provide a solid foundation for DNP and PhD collaboration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Predicting the "graduate on time (GOT)" of PhD students using binary logistics regression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, S. Sarifah Radiah; Rodzi, Nur Atiqah Mohd; Rahman, Kahartini Abdul; Zahari, Siti Meriam; Deni, Sayang Mohd

    2016-10-01

    Malaysian government has recently set a new goal to produce 60,000 Malaysian PhD holders by the year 2023. As a Malaysia's largest institution of higher learning in terms of size and population which offers more than 500 academic programmes in a conducive and vibrant environment, UiTM has taken several initiatives to fill up the gap. Strategies to increase the numbers of graduates with PhD are a process that is challenging. In many occasions, many have already identified that the struggle to get into the target set is even more daunting, and that implementation is far too ideal. This has further being progressing slowly as the attrition rate increases. This study aims to apply the proposed models that incorporates several factors in predicting the number PhD students that will complete their PhD studies on time. Binary Logistic Regression model is proposed and used on the set of data to determine the number. The results show that only 6.8% of the 2014 PhD students are predicted to graduate on time and the results are compared wih the actual number for validation purpose.

  5. Collaborative vaccine development: partnering pays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Rangappa

    2008-01-01

    Vaccine development, supported by infusions of public and private venture capital, is re-entering a golden age as one of the fastest growing sectors in the life-sciences industry. Demand is driven by great unmet need in underdeveloped countries, increased resistance to current treatments, bioterrorism, and for prevention indications in travelers, pediatric, and adult diseases. Production systems are becoming less reliant on processes such as egg-based manufacturing, while new processes can help to optimize vaccines. Expeditious development hinges on efficient study conduct, which is greatly enhanced through research partnerships with specialized contract research organizations (CROs) that are licensed and knowledgeable in the intricacies of immunology and with the technologic and scientific foundation to support changing timelines and strategies inherent to vaccine development. The CRO often brings a more objective assessment for probability of success and may offer alternative development pathways. Vaccine developers are afforded more flexibility and are free to focus on innovation and internal core competencies. Functions readily outsourced to a competent partner include animal model development, safety and efficacy studies, immunotoxicity and immunogenicity, dose response studies, and stability and potency testing. These functions capitalize on the CRO partner's regulatory and scientific talent and expertise, and reduce infrastructure expenses for the vaccine developer. Successful partnerships result in development efficiencies, elimination or reduced redundancies, and improved time to market. Keys to success include honest communications, transparency, and flexibility.

  6. The PH-D proposal - A manned mission to PHOBOS and Deimos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, S. F.

    The rationale for a manned mission to the satellites of Mars is discussed. The view has been expressed that NASA must define a major program to follow the Shuttle and to utilize it. However, such a program could not be initiated and proceed without public support, and to obtain this support, public interest would have to be excited. It is shown that, of a number of possible targets for manned exploration in the solar system, Mars appears to be the only possible candidate. Attention is given to a comparison of three Mars missions, a Mars 1984 mission, a manned landing on Mars surface, a manned landing on Phobos and Deimos (Ph-D project), putting men in Mars orbit, the capabilities of the Ph-D mission, a description of the spacecraft, a Ph-D project operations plan, and aspects of timing, technology, and costs.

  7. GM-PHD Filter Combined with Track-Estimate Association and Numerical Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinguang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the standard Gaussian mixture probability hypothesis density (GM-PHD filter, the number of targets can be overestimated if the clutter rate is too high or underestimated if the detection rate is too low. These problems seriously affect the accuracy of multitarget tracking for the number and the value of measurements and clutters cannot be distinguished and recognized. Therefore, we proposed an improved GM-PHD filter to tackle these problems. Firstly, a track-estimate association was implemented in the filtering process to detect and remove false-alarm targets. Secondly, a numerical interpolation technique was used to compensate the missing targets caused by low detection rate. At the end of this paper, simulation results were presented to demonstrate the proposed GM-PHD algorithm is more effective in estimating the number and state of targets than the previous ones.

  8. Cooperative Localization for Multi-AUVs Based on GM-PHD Filters and Information Entropy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichuan Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative localization (CL is considered a promising method for underwater localization with respect to multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (multi-AUVs. In this paper, we proposed a CL algorithm based on information entropy theory and the probability hypothesis density (PHD filter, aiming to enhance the global localization accuracy of the follower. In the proposed framework, the follower carries lower cost navigation systems, whereas the leaders carry better ones. Meanwhile, the leaders acquire the followers’ observations, including both measurements and clutter. Then, the PHD filters are utilized on the leaders and the results are communicated to the followers. The followers then perform weighted summation based on all received messages and obtain a final positioning result. Based on the information entropy theory and the PHD filter, the follower is able to acquire a precise knowledge of its position.

  9. Science PhD career preferences: levels, changes, and advisor encouragement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Sauermann

    Full Text Available Even though academic research is often viewed as the preferred career path for PhD trained scientists, most U.S. graduates enter careers in industry, government, or "alternative careers." There has been a growing concern that these career patterns reflect fundamental imbalances between the supply of scientists seeking academic positions and the availability of such positions. However, while government statistics provide insights into realized career transitions, there is little systematic data on scientists' career preferences and thus on the degree to which there is a mismatch between observed career paths and scientists' preferences. Moreover, we lack systematic evidence whether career preferences adjust over the course of the PhD training and to what extent advisors exacerbate imbalances by encouraging their students to pursue academic positions. Based on a national survey of PhD students at tier-one U.S. institutions, we provide insights into the career preferences of junior scientists across the life sciences, physics, and chemistry. We also show that the attractiveness of academic careers decreases significantly over the course of the PhD program, despite the fact that advisors strongly encourage academic careers over non-academic careers. Our data provide an empirical basis for common concerns regarding labor market imbalances. Our results also suggest the need for mechanisms that provide PhD applicants with information that allows them to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of pursuing a PhD, as well as for mechanisms that complement the job market advice advisors give to their current students.

  10. Science PhD career preferences: levels, changes, and advisor encouragement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauermann, Henry; Roach, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Even though academic research is often viewed as the preferred career path for PhD trained scientists, most U.S. graduates enter careers in industry, government, or "alternative careers." There has been a growing concern that these career patterns reflect fundamental imbalances between the supply of scientists seeking academic positions and the availability of such positions. However, while government statistics provide insights into realized career transitions, there is little systematic data on scientists' career preferences and thus on the degree to which there is a mismatch between observed career paths and scientists' preferences. Moreover, we lack systematic evidence whether career preferences adjust over the course of the PhD training and to what extent advisors exacerbate imbalances by encouraging their students to pursue academic positions. Based on a national survey of PhD students at tier-one U.S. institutions, we provide insights into the career preferences of junior scientists across the life sciences, physics, and chemistry. We also show that the attractiveness of academic careers decreases significantly over the course of the PhD program, despite the fact that advisors strongly encourage academic careers over non-academic careers. Our data provide an empirical basis for common concerns regarding labor market imbalances. Our results also suggest the need for mechanisms that provide PhD applicants with information that allows them to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of pursuing a PhD, as well as for mechanisms that complement the job market advice advisors give to their current students.

  11. Women as Partners of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeesh Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing Partnership with the stakeholders and giving space for planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating the project for their own development is an ideal situation of participatory development. It is the popular as well as effective way of development and leads to sustainable progress. When this partnership involves strong participation from the part of women folk, the dynamism of the developmental changes takes in a drastic form. SPED III (sustainability through participation, empowerment and decentralization is a five-year project funded by CIDA and implemented by Save A Family Plan Trust India through their 28 partner NGOs and in 520 villages across India. The methodology of the SPED III is based on the decentralized planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. In this process, women are taking important stand and new partnership brings about fundamental changes when it is analyzed from the point of view of stakeholders. The researcher analyses and seeks to find out the comprehensive, multilevel process by which the stakeholders or partners in the development especially women develop, leverage and manage the partnership. The researcher has taken five cases of exemplary changes occurred as part of a participatory development programme. Descriptive design using case study method is applied to do in depth analysis of the cases. The primary data has collected through interview schedule and FGD with shortlisted cases and secondary through sources such as case studies and annual and bi-annual reports of the CIDA programme. The researcher observed the development of perceived need into felt need where the people especially women get involved into the village issue and the spirit that takes them into transformative leadership and partners in development. It was also observed that the when women gets resources to overcome the binding chains, they came out of the culture of silence and they move far ahead in achieving the hierarchy

  12. Education of MSc and PhD Students in Fluid Power and Mechatronics at DTU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with education of MSc and PhD students in engineering areas fluid power and mechatronics at the Technical Univ of Denmark, DTU, Lyngby. The new education structure and programs for MSc and PhD students adapted to the change and development of technologies. Focus is on two of twenty...... engineering profilies:(1) Engineeing Design and Product Development and (2)Control Engineering which give possibilitie for specialisation in fluid power and mechatronics design and productdevelopment. Synthesis, design and self-learning competency have a high priority taking the importance of training...

  13. The 7th Workshop for PhD Students in Object-Oriented Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    the communication and cooperation between them. In a year of the PhDOOS network the workshop is the main event where we meet face-to-face. Between workshops we stay in touch through our mailing list. More information on the PhDOOS network can be found at http://purl.org/net/PhDOOS.......It is a tradition at ECOOP conferences to have a workshop for PhD students, conducted by the network of PhD Students in Object-Oriented Systems (PhDOOS). The purpose of this network is to help leveraging the collective resources of young researchers in the object community by improving...

  14. An interview with James Wilbur, Ph.D. General Manager, Life Sciences, Meso Scale Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, James

    2004-06-01

    James L. Wilbur, Ph.D. received a Bachelor's degree from the University of California, San Diego and a Ph.D. in Chemistry from Stanford University. After completing an NIH Postdoctoral Fellowship with Professor George M. Whitesides in the Department of Chemistry at Harvard University, he joined IGEN International, Inc., where he held a variety of positions in Research and Development. During that time, he was part of the team that developed the core technology and products for Meso Scale Discovery. He assumed his current position in 2001 when Meso Scale Discovery launched the products discussed here.

  15. A Content Analysis on the Subjects of Hospitality PhD Dissertations in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim GİRİTLİOĞLU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review the evaluation of hospitality dissertations as their subjects and their completed years. To perform on this aim, completed PhD dissertations were reached on National Dissertation Centre website at Turkish Higher Education Institute (YOK. According to study’s results, hospitality marketing strategies and organizational behavior in hospitality industry were the most popular research subjects on the dissertations in Turkey. However, the most completed PhD dissertations at the hospitality area was the year of 2011

  16. Deconstructing doctoral dissertations: how many papers does it take to make a PhD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Nils T

    2010-11-01

    A collection of coauthored papers is the new norm for doctoral dissertations in the natural and biomedical sciences, yet there is no consensus on how to partition authorship credit between PhD candidates and their coauthors. Guidelines for PhD programs vary but tend to specify only a suggested range for the number of papers to be submitted for evaluation, sometimes supplemented with a requirement for the PhD candidate to be the principal author on the majority of submitted papers. Here I use harmonic counting to quantify the actual amount of authorship credit attributable to individual PhD graduates from two Scandinavian universities in 2008. Harmonic counting corrects for the inherent inflationary and equalizing biases of routine counting methods, thereby allowing the bibliometrically identifiable amount of authorship credit in approved dissertations to be analyzed with unprecedented accuracy. Unbiased partitioning of authorship credit between graduates and their coauthors provides a post hoc bibliometric measure of current PhD requirements, and sets a de facto baseline for the requisite scientific productivity of these contemporary PhD's at a median value of approximately 1.6 undivided papers per dissertation. Comparison with previous census data suggests that the baseline has shifted over the past two decades as a result of a decrease in the number of submitted papers per candidate and an increase in the number of coauthors per paper. A simple solution to this shifting baseline syndrome would be to benchmark the amount of unbiased authorship credit deemed necessary for successful completion of a specific PhD program, and then monitor for departures from this level over time. Harmonic partitioning of authorship credit also facilitates cross-disciplinary and inter-institutional analysis of the scientific output from different PhD programs. Juxtaposing bibliometric benchmarks with current baselines may thus assist the development of harmonized guidelines and

  17. Top tips for PhD thesis examination: nurse clinicians, researchers and novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; Hunt, Glenn E

    2012-01-01

    Interestingly, there are very few guidelines in the literature to assist novice nurse PhD examiners. In this paper, we aim to provide information to nurses, researchers or early career academics who have little experience in assessing a university thesis. The article provides background information about recent changes in the university sector; overviews some research on experienced examiners views; presents factors that differentiate between high and low quality PhD theses; and outlines some pointers that may be useful when marking at the doctoral level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of PHD2 mutations in the pathogenesis of erythrocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardie B

    2014-07-01

    of EPO transcription. The α subunits of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor are hydroxylated by three prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD enzymes, which belong to the iron and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase superfamily. Sequence analysis of the genes encoding the PHDs in patients with erythrocytosis has revealed heterozygous germline mutations only occurring in Egl nine homolog 1 (EGLN1, also known as PHD2, the gene that encodes PHD2. To date, 24 different EGLN1 mutations comprising missense, frameshift, and nonsense mutations have been described. The phenotypes associated with the patients carrying these mutations are fairly homogeneous and typically limited to erythrocytosis with normal to elevated EPO. However, exceptions exist; for example, there is one case with development of concurrent paraganglioma (PHD2-H374R. Analysis of the erythrocytosis-associated PHD2 missense mutations has shown heterogeneous results. Structural studies reveal that mutations can affect different domains of PHD2. Some are close to the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor α/2-oxoglutarate or the iron binding sites for PHD2. In silico studies demonstrate that the mutations do not always affect fully conserved residues. In vitro and in cellulo studies showed varying effects of the mutations, ranging from mild effects to severe loss of function. The exact mechanism of a potential tumor-suppressor role for PHD2 still needs to be elucidated. A knockin mouse model expressing the first reported PHD2-P317R mutation recapitulates the phenotype observed in humans (erythrocytosis with inappropriately normal serum EPO levels and demonstrates that haploinsufficiency and partial deregulation of PHD2 is sufficient to cause erythrocytosis. Keywords: PHD2, EGLN1, HIF, hypoxia, erythropoietin, erythrocytosis

  19. ChpK and MazF of the toxin-antitoxin modules are involved in the virulence of Leptospira interrogans during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komi, Komi Koukoura; Ge, Yu-Mei; Xin, Xiao-Yang; Ojcius, David M; Sun, Dexter; Hu, Wei-Lin; Zhao, Xin; Lin, Xu'ai; Yan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira species are the causative agents of leptospirosis, a global zoonotic infectious disease. Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules have been confirmed as stress-response elements that induce prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell-growth arrest or death, but their role in the virulence of Leptospira has not been reported. Here, we confirmed that all the tested leptospiral strains had the chpIK and mazEF TA modules with highly-conserved sequences. The transcription and expression of the chpI, chpK, mazE, and mazF genes of Leptospira interrogans strain Lai were significantly increased during infection of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced human THP-1 macrophages. The toxic ChpK and MazF but not the antitoxic ChpI and MazE proteins were detectable in the cytoplasmic fraction of leptospire-infected THP-1 cells, indicating the external secretion of ChpK and MazF during infection. Transfection of the chpK or mazF gene caused decreased viability and necrosis in THP-1 cells, whereas the chpI or mazE gene transfection did not affect the viability of THP-1 cells but blocked the ChpK or MazF-induced toxicity. Deletion of the chpK or mazF gene also decreased the late-apoptotic and/or necrotic ratios of THP-1 cells at the late stages of infection. The recombinant protein MazF (rMazF) cleaved the RNAs but not the DNAs from Leptospira and THP-1 cells, and this RNA cleavage was blocked by rMazE. However, the rChpK had no RNA or DNA-degrading activity. All these findings indicate that the ChpK and MazF proteins in TA modules are involved in the virulence of L. interrogans during infection. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. PhD Crisis Discourse: A Critical Approach to the Framing of the Problem and Some Australian "Solutions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Denise; Molla, Tebeje

    2015-01-01

    A feature of HE reform discourse is the tendency to construct the rationale for reform in terms of averting calamity and risk. We refer to this risk talk as "crisis discourse." This study examines the formulation of PhD crisis discourse internationally and in Australia. We find that a key feature of PhD crisis discourse is that…

  1. PhD by Publication as an Argument for Innovation and Technology Transfer: With Emphasis on Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asongu, Simplice A.; Nwachukwu, Jacinta C.

    2018-01-01

    The contribution of African researchers to knowledge by means of scientific publications is low compared to other regions of the world. This paper presents an argument in favour of PhD by publication as a tool for innovation and technology transfer. The conception of PhD by publication used in this study is more suited for doctorates in science…

  2. Challenges of PhD Graduated Nurses for Role Acceptance as a Clinical Educator: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi Moghadam, Yousef; Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, Foroozan; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Feizi, Aram

    2017-06-01

    Introduction: Clinical education is the core component of nursing education. PhD graduated nurses who are faculty members can play a main role in clinical instruction. However, there is not clear understanding about the challenges which they may encounter for accepting their role as clinical educator. The aim of this study was to explore the challenges of role acceptance by PhD aduated nurses who are faculty members. Methods: In this qualitative exploratory study a total of 13 participants (8 PhD graduated in nursing, 3 head of departments of nursing, one educational vice chancellor of nursing school, and one nurse) were selected by purposive sampling method. Data were collected by semi-structured, face to face interview and analyzed by conventional content analysis approach developed by Graneheim and Lundman. Results: The main theme emerged from data analysis was "identity threat". This theme had five categories including expectations beyond ability, lack of staff's rely on the performance of PhD graduated nurses, poor clinical competencies, doubtfulness, and obligation. Conclusion: PhD graduated nurses experienced some worries about their role as clinical educators and argued that they have not been prepared for their role. Therefore, policy makers and authorities of nursing schools should support PhD graduated nurses for accepting their new roles as clinical educators. Moreover, some changes in nursing PhD curriculum is needed to improve the clinical competencies of PhD graduated and prepare them for their role as a clinical educator.

  3. Using a nursing theory or a model in nursing PhD dissertations: a qualitative study from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mete, Samiye; Gokçe İsbir, Gozde

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal experiences of nursing students and their advisors using theories and models in their PhD dissertations. The study adopted a descriptive qualitative approach. This study was performed with 10 PhD candidates and their five advisors from nursing faculty. The results of the study were categorized into four. These are reasons for using a theory/model in a PhD dissertation, reasons for preferring a given model, causes of difficulties in using models in PhD dissertations, and facilitating factors of using theories and models in PhD of dissertations. It was also reported to contribute to the methodology of research and professional development of the students and advisors. © 2014 NANDA International, Inc.

  4. Self-reported needs for improving the supervision competence of PhD supervisors from the medical sciences in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffing, Rie; Jensen, Thor Bern; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Quality of supervision is a major predictor for successful PhD projects. A survey showed that almost all PhD students in the Health Sciences in Denmark indicated that good supervision was important for the completion of their PhD study. Interestingly, approximately half of the students...... and wishes regarding the content of a new program in supervision, with a special focus on the supervision of PhD students in medical fields. Methods: A semi-structured interview guide was developed, and 20 PhD supervisors from the Graduate School of Health and Medical Sciences at the Faculty of Health...... and Medical Sciences at the University of Copenhagen were interviewed. Empirical data were analysed using qualitative methods of analysis. Results: Overall, the results indicated a general interest in improved competence and development of a new supervision programme. Those who were not interested argued that...

  5. Three new students selected for the ATLAS PhD Grant Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Initiated in 2013, the ATLAS PhD Grant Scheme aims to enable young, talented and motivated students to work on part of their PhD thesis at CERN. The collaboration has just selected the three students who will start their theses in 2016.   The three students who received the ATLAS grant, which will cover part of their PhD studies. From left to right: Ruth Jacobs (Germany), Artem Basalaev (Russia), Nedaa B I Asbah (Palestine). The ATLAS PhD Grant Scheme was made possible thanks to a large donation by former ATLAS spokespersons Fabiola Gianotti and Peter Jenni, who started the fund with money from the Fundamental Physics Prize they received in 2013. Applications are handled by CERN HR, via this link. The aim of the initiative is to offer a unique educational opportunity to students within the ATLAS collaboration and to give them the possibility to continue their career in particle physics. Selected candidates receive a stipend allowing them to spend one year at CERN, followed by one year at their h...

  6. Regulating Emotions and Aiming for a Ph.D.: Excerpts from "Anthropology Matters"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Ingie

    2012-01-01

    In this article I will present a range of experiences of graduate socialisation that have been discussed in past articles in the journal "Anthropology Matters". These are the experiences of social anthropology Ph.D. students in the United Kingdom. The overarching theme for the article is "regulating emotions", and the excerpts…

  7. International Students' Motivation to Pursue and Complete a Ph.D. in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji

    2015-01-01

    This study explores what motivates 19 international students to pursue a Ph.D. at a public research university in the U.S. and, more importantly, what motivates them to persist despite unsatisfying socialization. Based on value-expectancy achievement motivation theory, four motivations emerged: intrinsic interest in research, intrinsic interest in…

  8. Temporary Contracts: Effect on Job Satisfaction and Personal Lives of Recent Phd Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaijer, Cathelijn J. F.; Belder, Rosalie; Sonneveld, Hans; van Bochove, Cornelis A.; van der Weijden, Inge C. M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we assess the effects of temporary employment on job satisfaction and the personal lives of recent PhD graduates. Temporary employment is becoming increasingly prevalent in many sectors, but has been relatively common in academia, especially for early career scientists. Labor market theory shows temporary employment to have a…

  9. Temporary contracts : Effect on job satisfaction and personal lives of recent PhD graduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaijer, C.J.F.; Belder, R.; Sonneveld, H.; Van, Bochove C.A.; Van, der Weijden I.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we assess the effects of temporary employment on job satisfaction and the personal lives of recent PhD graduates. Temporary employment is becoming increasingly prevalent in many sectors, but has been relatively common in academia, especially for early career scientists. Labor market

  10. Women Ph.D. Students in Engineering and a Nuanced Terrain: Avoiding and Revealing Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Shelley K.

    2012-01-01

    Tensions regarding gender emerged from interviews conducted with 20 women Ph.D. students. This article does not focus explicitly on the reasons for women's continued underrepresentation in engineering. Rather the students' explanations for underrepresentation serve as a case study with which to analyze their gendered experiences. They avoid freely…

  11. The Impact of Institutional Student Support on Graduation Rates in US Ph.D. Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolli, Thomas; Agasisti, Tommaso; Johnes, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    Using National Research Council data, we investigate the determinants of graduation rates in US Ph.D. programmes. We emphasise the impact that support and facilities offered to doctoral students have on completion rates. Significant, strong and positive effects are found for the provision of on-site graduate conferences and dedicated workspace,…

  12. The first recipients of the ATLAS PhD Grant Scholarship Programme 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcelloni, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    First recipients of the ATLAS PhD Grant Scholarship 2014 : With certificates, Lailin Xu, Josefina Alconada, and Gagik Vardanyan. The selection committee members, IFAE Barcelona’s Martine Bosman, Fabiola Gianotti, Peter Jenni and from CERN HR James PurvisProgramme: Lailin Xu, Josefina Alconada, and Gagik Vardanyan

  13. Low immediate scientific yield of the PhD among medical doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbol, Emil L.; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Rerup, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    . Scientific activity over time was assessed independently of author-rank and inactivity was measured relative to the date of graduation. Factors associated with inactivity were identified using multivariable logistic regression. 88.6 % of the PhD theses were conducted in internal medicine vs. 11...

  14. Improving completion rates of students in biomedical PhD programs: an interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viđak, Marin; Tokalić, Ružica; Marušić, Matko; Puljak, Livia; Sapunar, Damir

    2017-08-25

    Analysis of graduation success at the University of Split School of Medicine PhD programs conducted in 2011 revealed that only 11% of students who enrolled and completed their graduate coursework between 1999 and 2011 earned a doctoral degree. In this prospective cohort study we evaluated and compared three PhD programs within the same medical school, where the newest program, called Translational Research in Biomedicine (TRIBE), established in the academic year 2010/11, aimed to increase the graduation rate through an innovative approach. The intervention in the new program was related to three domains: redefined recruitment strategy, strict study regulations, and changes to the curriculum. We compared performance of PhD students between the new and existing programs and analyzed their current status, time to obtain a degree (from enrolment to doctorate), age at doctorate, number of publications on which the thesis was based and the impact factor of journals in which these were published. These improvement strategies were associated with higher thesis completion rate and reduced time to degree for students enrolled in the TRIBE program. There was no change in the impact factor or number of publications that were the basis for the doctoral theses. Our study describes good practices which proved useful in the design or reform of the PhD training program.

  15. Gender and Doctoral Studies: The Perceptions of Ph.D. Students in an American University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Helmke, Laura Andrews; Ulku-Steiner, Beril

    2006-01-01

    Twenty students enrolled in Ph.D. programmes were interviewed to examine the role of gender in their academic experiences. Gender was examined in three ways: gender of the student, gender of the student's faculty supervisor and gender make-up of the faculty within the student's department or academic unit. All students reported the importance of…

  16. Learning Opportunities in PhD Supervisory Talks: A Social Constructionist Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wenwen; Singhasiri, Wareesiri

    2016-01-01

    Although PhD supervision has been recognised as an educative process and a complex pedagogy for decades, there is little research into on-site pedagogic processes. Informed by social constructionism and a Foucauldian approach, this qualitative case study explores how learning opportunities were created by analysing both a supervisor's verbal…

  17. Originality and the PhD: what is it and how can it be demonstrated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Dolan, Gina

    2015-07-01

    To explore the concept of originality in doctoral research and outline ways in which doctoral candidates can begin to identify, formulate and articulate their individual contributions to knowledge. Originality is a major feature of doctoral research but considerable confusion exists regarding what can and cannot constitute originality in the PhD and how the contribution to knowledge can be demonstrated clearly. This is a discussion paper. A review of relevant, published literature relating to originality in the PhD. Many doctoral candidates merely outline why they believe their work to be original, instead of demonstrating critically how and in what way their research makes a meaningful contribution to the body of knowledge. The concept of originality in the PhD is complex and multi-faceted. Identifying and conveying originality in doctoral research takes considerable time, contemplation and effort. This process is, however, integral to the PhD itself, and the skills acquired are essential for post-doctoral development. A good doctoral thesis should clearly outline the different ways in which the work is original. A succinct, focused, critical appraisal of the specific contribution to knowledge is preferable to an exhaustive list.

  18. An Analysis of Written Feedback on a PhD Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Stracke, Elke

    2007-01-01

    This paper offers an interim analysis of written feedback on a first draft of a PhD thesis. It first looks at two sources of data: in-text feedback and overall feedback. Looking at how language is used in its situational context, we then coded the feedback and developed a model for analysis based on three fundamental functions of speech:…

  19. Classifying Australian PhD Theses: Linking Research and Library Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Peter; Evans, Terry; Pearson, Margot

    2010-01-01

    This article draws on the findings from, and the methods and approach used in the provision of a database of Australian PhD thesis records for the period 1987 to 2006, coded by Research Fields, Courses and Disciplines (RFCD) fields of study. Importantly, the project was not merely the creation of yet another database but something that constitutes…

  20. Three graduate students receive Virginia Tech's first AdvanceVT Ph.D. fellowships

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Clara B.

    2004-01-01

    AdvanceVT, a comprehensive program that promotes and enhances the careers of women in science and engineering, has awarded its first three Ph.D. fellowships as part of an ongoing effort to increase the number of women electing to pursue academic careers.

  1. Identification and characterization of small molecule inhibitors of a PHD finger§

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Elise K.; Nath, Nidhi; Flemming, Rod; Feltenberger, John B.; Denu, John M.

    2012-01-01

    A number of histone-binding domains are implicated in cancer through improper binding of chromatin. In a clinically reported case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a genetic fusion protein between nucleoporin 98 and the third plant homeodomain (PHD) finger of JARID1A drives an oncogenic transcriptional program that is dependent on histone binding by the PHD finger. By exploiting the requirement for chromatin binding in oncogenesis, therapeutics targeting histone readers may represent a new paradigm in drug development. In this study, we developed a novel small molecule screening strategy that utilizes HaloTag technology to identify several small molecules that disrupt binding of the JARID1A PHD finger to histone peptides. Small molecule inhibitors were validated biochemically through affinity pull downs, fluorescence polarization, and histone reader specificity studies. One compound was modified through medicinal chemistry to improve its potency while retaining histone reader selectivity. Molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis of JARID1A PHD3 provided insights into the biochemical basis of competitive inhibition. PMID:22994852

  2. Measuring efficiency of university-industry Ph.D. projects using best worst method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salimi, N.; Rezaei, J.

    2016-01-01

    A collaborative Ph.D. project, carried out by a doctoral candidate, is a type of collaboration between university and industry. Due to the importance of such projects, researchers have considered different ways to evaluate the success, with a focus on the outputs of these projects. However, what

  3. Measuring efficiency of university-industry Ph.D. projects using best worst method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Negin; Rezaei, Jafar

    A collaborative Ph.D. project, carried out by a doctoral candidate, is a type of collaboration between university and industry. Due to the importance of such projects, researchers have considered different ways to evaluate the success, with a focus on the outputs of these projects. However, what has been neglected is the other side of the coin-the inputs. The main aim of this study is to incorporate both the inputs and outputs of these projects into a more meaningful measure called efficiency. A ratio of the weighted sum of outputs over the weighted sum of inputs identifies the efficiency of a Ph.D. The weights of the inputs and outputs can be identified using a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method. Data on inputs and outputs are collected from 51 Ph.D. candidates who graduated from Eindhoven University of Technology. The weights are identified using a new MCDM method called Best Worst Method (BWM). Because there may be differences in the opinion of Ph.D. candidates and supervisors on weighing the inputs and outputs, data for BWM are collected from both groups. It is interesting to see that there are differences in the level of efficiency from the two perspectives, because of the weight differences. Moreover, a comparison between the efficiency scores of these projects and their success scores reveals differences that may have significant implications. A sensitivity analysis divulges the most contributing inputs and outputs.

  4. Rethinking the Ph.D. in English. Carnegie Essays on the Doctorate: English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, Andrea Abernethy

    The Carnegie Foundation commissioned a series of essays as part of the Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate (CID). The essays and essayists represent six disciplines that are part of the CID: chemistry, education, English, history, mathematics, and neuroscience. The essay explores the Ph.D. in English and suggests changes the author would make in…

  5. Winning the PhD Game: Evocative Playing of Snakes and Ladders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a qualitative approach to developing an understanding of the lived experiences of PhD students. Rather than relying on textbook reports and theories about studying a higher degree by research, by allowing the students' voices to be heard, explicit and conscious research can be used to generate appropriate…

  6. Liberal Arts Colleges and the Production of PhD Economists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Philip N.; Magenheim, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Data from the National Science Foundation (2014) indicate that at least one PhD in economics was awarded to a Swarthmore College graduate in every year since 1966. The authors' purpose in this article is to consider factors that may have contributed to the high number of PhDs in economics awarded to Swarthmore College graduates. While there is…

  7. As others see us: what PhD students say about supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarwood-Ross, Lee; Haigh, Carol

    2014-09-01

    To explore the attitudes that doctoral students share with each other in an online postgraduate discussion forum. The supervisory role is pivotal to the successful completion of a PhD. Student satisfaction surveys are implemented by some universities, but there is currently no research that has investigated PhD students' experiences of supervision in the less formal environment of an online postgraduate discussion forum. Data were collected between September and December 2012 from the Postgraduate Forum, which receives posts from the global student community. The keywords used in the search were 'supervisor(s)' and 'supervision'. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. All relevant titles and posts from between January 2002 and the end of December 2012 were searched. The authors discovered five major themes: communication difficulties, control and engagement, academic bullying, lack of trust, and desertion. The relationship between students and supervisors is vital to successful PhD completion, and this study has provided some of the experiences students share with each other in an online postgraduate discussion forum. The online discussion forum provided an insight into students' perspectives of supervision but as it is asynchronous, there is limited analysis. Further research incorporating synchronous data collection methods would be helpful to examine students' experiences in greater detail. This study shows how an online postgraduate forum can be used as a source of data to gain an insight into PhD students' perspectives of supervision.

  8. Peer and Faculty Mentoring for Students Pursuing a PhD in Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Alicia K.; Wangmo, Tenzin; Ewen, Heidi H.; Teaster, Pamela B.; Hatch, Laurie R.

    2009-01-01

    The Graduate Center for Gerontology at the University of Kentucky incorporates three levels of mentoring in its PhD program. This project assessed satisfaction with peer and faculty mentoring and explored their perceived benefits and purposes. Core and affiliate faculty and current and graduated students were surveyed. Participants seemed…

  9. What We Know about the Dramatic Increase in PhD Degrees and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reforms in doctoral education are being shaped by the changing needs of society, of research modes, and of a changed labor markets for PhD holders. ... systems, such as the introduction of postgraduate schools that help implement and initiate innovations in doctoral education on a campus with an eye to high quality.

  10. Analysis of Citations to Books in Chemistry PhD Dissertations in an Era of Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaxbart, David

    2018-01-01

    A citation analysis of chemistry PhD dissertations at the University of Texas at Austin yielded data on how often graduate students cite books in their bibliographies, and on the characteristics of the books cited, in terms of age and local ownership. The analysis examined samples of dissertations selected from five discrete years--1988, 2006,…

  11. Work organization and mental health problems in PhD students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levecque, K.; Anseel, F.; Beuckelaer, A. de; Van Der Heyden, J.; Gisle, L.

    2017-01-01

    Research policy observers are increasingly concerned about the potential impact of current academic working conditions on mental health, particularly in PhD students. The aim of the current study is threefold. First, we assess the prevalence of mental health problems in a representative sample of

  12. Is a PhD a necessary requirement for lecturers in a`Medical School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2005-04-01

    Apr 1, 2005 ... universities did not require a PhD or equivalent qualifications as a minimum requirement for appointment to the ... report of 2002, Common-wealth year books. 1997/8 and 2002, ..... threatens to erode teaching standards and.

  13. ChemSession'08 - 5. Warsaw Seminar of the PhD Students in Chemistry - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madura, I.

    2008-01-01

    Book of Abstracts consists of short descriptions of presentations: 5 lectures and 127 posters presented during ChemSession'08 - 5 th Warsaw Seminar of the PhD Students in Chemistry. Several posters were devoted to the radiochemistry, radiochemical analysis, radiation chemistry and radiobiology. Some posters on the material science dealing with materials important to nuclear sciences can be also found

  14. UK PhD Assessment in Accounting and Finance: Social Capital in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sarah Jane; Urquhart, Vivien

    2018-01-01

    Assessment lies at the centre of PhD degree quality standards, with quality assurance relying on independent external examiners. This study investigates the role of the viva and the selection of external examiners from within the accounting and finance discipline across UK institutions. A questionnaire survey and follow-up interviews with…

  15. ChemSession'09 - 6. Warsaw Seminar of the PhD Students in Chemistry - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Book of Abstracts contains short descriptions of presentations 3 lectures and 105 posters presented during ChemSession'09 - 6 th Warsaw Seminar of the PhD Students in Chemistry. Several posters were devoted to the radiochemistry, radiochemical analysis, radiation chemistry and radiobiology. Some posters on the material science dealing with materials important to nuclear sciences can be also found

  16. Determinants of PhD Completion Time at the University of Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from conducting an extensive exploratory analysis on PhD production in the university, a binary logistic regression model was also fitted. The dichotomous responses were: completion on time and completion over time. The fitted logistic regression shows that only 10% of PhDs have predicted probability of completion ...

  17. Completing a PhD by Publication: A Review of Australian Policy and Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Denise

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing impetus for higher-degree-by-research students to publish during candidature. Research performance, including higher degree completions and publication output, commonly determines university funding, and doctorates with publishing experience are better positioned for a career in softening academic labour markets. The PhD by…

  18. Adaptive Evolution of Signaling Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano, Daisuke; Dong, Taoran; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Jones, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Proteins that interact coevolve their structures. When mutation disrupts the interaction, compensation by the partner occurs to restore interaction otherwise counterselection occurs. We show in this study how a destabilizing mutation in one protein is compensated by a stabilizing mutation in its protein partner and their coevolving path. The pathway in this case and likely a general principle of coevolution is that the compensatory change must tolerate both the original and derived structures with equivalence in function and activity. Evolution of the structure of signaling elements in a network is constrained by specific protein pair interactions, by requisite conformational changes, and by catalytic activity. The heterotrimeric G protein-coupled signaling is a paragon of this protein interaction/function complexity and our deep understanding of this pathway in diverse organisms lends itself to evolutionary study. Regulators of G protein Signaling (RGS) proteins accelerate the intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rate of the Gα subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein complex. An important RGS-contact site is a hydroxyl-bearing residue on the switch I region of Gα subunits in animals and most plants, such as Arabidopsis. The exception is the grasses (e.g., rice, maize, sugarcane, millets); these plants have Gα subunits that replaced the critical hydroxyl-bearing threonine with a destabilizing asparagine shown to disrupt interaction between Arabidopsis RGS protein (AtRGS1) and the grass Gα subunit. With one known exception (Setaria italica), grasses do not encode RGS genes. One parsimonious deduction is that the RGS gene was lost in the ancestor to the grasses and then recently acquired horizontally in the lineage S. italica from a nongrass monocot. Like all investigated grasses, S. italica has the Gα subunit with the destabilizing asparagine residue in the protein interface but, unlike other known grass genomes, still encodes an expressed RGS gene, SiRGS1. SiRGS1

  19. 76 FR 66012 - Partner's Distributive Share

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ...-level tax. To achieve this goal of a flexible economic arrangement, partners are generally permitted to... has substantial economic effect involves a two-part analysis that is made as of the end of the... be consistent with the underlying economic arrangement of the partners. This means that, in the event...

  20. The partner selection process : Steps, effectiveness, governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duisters, D.; Duijsters, G.M.; de Man, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the right partner is important for creating value in alliances. Even though prior research suggests that a structured partner selection process increases alliance success, empirical research remains scarce. This paper presents an explorative empirical study that shows that some steps in

  1. The partner selection process : steps, effectiveness, governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duisters, D.; Duysters, G.M.; Man, de A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the right partner is important for creating value in alliances. Even though prior research suggests that a structured partner selection process increases alliance success, empirical research remains scarce. This paper presents an explorative empirical study that shows that some steps in

  2. Partner selection in the mycorrhizal mutualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, G.D.A.; Kiers, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    Partner selection in the mycorrhizal symbiosis is thought to be a key factor stabilising the mutualism. Both plant hosts and mycorrhizal fungi have been shown to preferentially allocate resources to higher quality partners. This can help maintain underground cooperation, although it is likely that

  3. Teleportation with Multiple Accelerated Partners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagheer, A.; Hamdoun, H.; Metwally, N.

    2015-01-01

    As the current revolution in communication is underway, quantum teleportation can increase the level of security in quantum communication applications. In this paper, we present a quantum teleportation procedure that capable to teleport either accelerated or non-accelerated information through different quantum channels. These quantum channels are based on accelerated multi-qubit states, where each qubit of each of these channels represents a partner. Namely, these states are the W state, Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) state, and the GHZ-like state. Here, we show that the fidelity of teleporting accelerated information is higher than the fidelity of teleporting non-accelerated information, both through a quantum channel that is based on accelerated state. Also, the comparison among the performance of these three channels shows that the degree of fidelity depends on type of the used channel, type of the measurement, and value of the acceleration. The result of comparison concludes that teleporting information through channel that is based on the GHZ state is more robust than teleporting information through channels that are based on the other two states. For future work, the proposed procedure can be generalized later to achieve communication through a wider quantum network. (paper)

  4. Exploring challenges of the reproductive health PhD curriculum: A qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Kohan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Enhancing the quality and dynamicity of higher education programs requires continuous evaluation of curriculums. Reproductive health PhD program was established in 2006 in Iran while recommending that its curriculum be evaluated by assessing graduates’ performance in workplace and surveying students, faculty members and managers. This study aimed to explore challenges of the curriculum of reproductive health PhD program. Methods: Employing a qualitative content analysis approach and using purposive and sometimes opportunistic sampling, experiences and viewpoints of 33 graduates and students of reproductive health PhD program, educational managers and reproductive health board members about the curriculum of reproductive health PhD program were collected through individual interviews and notes in 2014-15. Data were transcribed and important expressions were coded. Classification of similar codes led to preliminary categories. Five main categories were extracted by further classifications. Results: The five main categories included inadequacy of course topics and contents, challenges of student education, failure in realizing curriculum goals, long research period, and ambiguity in graduates’ professional status were appeared; each of these included various subcategories. Conclusion: Results showed that the curriculum of reproductive health PhD program required revisions to meet the program’s mission and designing courses such as sexual health and reinforcing the clinical nature of the program were necessary. Moreover, the results emphasized that the establishment of an independent educational department of reproductive health for managing higher education affairs and greater supervision of the reproductive health board on educational affairs was necessary. Furthermore, reproductive health specialists should be employed in different positions to meet society’s reproductive health needs.

  5. Advice from working women with retired partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Eileen L; Adorno, Gail

    2016-01-01

    in the 21st century, as more women are employed full-time and couples increasingly share egalitarian values, more women continue employment after their partners have voluntarily retired. However, we know very little about the experiences of this growing population of women. We asked working women with retired partners to share their advice for other women who may face this developmental transition. Open-ended responses from 97 women were analyzed to identify pertinent issues and themes. Four primary content areas were identified: time management, division of household labor, financial planning, and communication. Communication between partners was both a topic of concern as well as the solution suggested to resolve conflicts or differences that may arise when women live with a retired partner. It is expected that future changes in the workforce and improvements in the gender balance within relationships will continue to impact experiences for working women with retired partners.

  6. Sex Differences in Attitudes toward Partner Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Tagler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and women do not differ in their reactions to partner infidelity. As evidenced by recent rival meta-analytic reports, these diverging perspectives remain largely unresolved and contentious. The present study was designed to take a new approach by measuring attitudes toward partner infidelity. Results were consistent with the evolutionary perspective: Men, to a significantly larger degree than women, evaluated partner sexual infidelity more negatively than emotional infidelity.

  7. Sex differences in attitudes toward partner infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagler, Michael J; Jeffers, Heather M

    2013-08-06

    Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and women do not differ in their reactions to partner infidelity. As evidenced by recent rival meta-analytic reports, these diverging perspectives remain largely unresolved and contentious. The present study was designed to take a new approach by measuring attitudes toward partner infidelity. Results were consistent with the evolutionary perspective: Men, to a significantly larger degree than women, evaluated partner sexual infidelity more negatively than emotional infidelity.

  8. Partners in health? Exploring resemblance in health between partners in married and cohabiting couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monden, Christiaan

    2007-04-01

    Sociological theories on family formation and families and health suggest that married and cohabiting partners will resemble each other in health status, positively or negatively. The family is often seen as a health-enhancing agent for individuals. However, there are large health differences among families. This study aims to answer the question whether it is the case that the healthy live with the healthy and individuals with poor health have partners who are also in poor health. Moreover, it examines whether resemblance in health is a consequence of partner choice--educational homogamy in particular--behaviour or shared circumstances. Younger and older couples are compared to investigate whether health resemblance increases over the lifecourse. Analyses of a nationally representative sample of almost 12,000 Dutch couples show that partners are indeed significantly alike with regard to several health indicators. Respondents whose partner reports poor health are almost three times more likely to report poor health than respondents whose partner is in good health. There is a strong accumulation of health problems within households. Partner selection with regard to education causes part of the partner resemblance in health. Less support is found for the hypotheses that risk behaviour, mutual influence or the effects of shared circumstances cause similarity between partners' health status. Surprisingly, partners in older couples, who have been together for a longer time, do not resemble each other significantly more than partners in younger couples. The implications of these findings for sociological theory and social inequalities in health are discussed.

  9. Witnessing Partner Violence: Exploring the Role of Partner Preferences on Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mendez, Rosaura; Yanes, José M; Ramírez-Santana, Gustavo

    2015-06-02

    Research has shown that witnessing partner violence (WPV) increases the likelihood of experiencing or perpetrating violence in later romantic relationships, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this process. This study examines the relationships between preference for unsuitable partners and teen dating violence (TDV) among adolescents who have witnessed parental violence or not. Attachment was also considered. Participants were 356 adolescents, both witnesses and non-witnesses of partner violence. Results showed no difference in preferences (for good, risky, or loving partners) between the two groups. However, preference for unsuitable partners did significantly predict TDV perpetration and victimization, but only among witnesses. Also, loving-partner preference moderates the relationship between WPV and TDV perpetration among highly avoidant witnesses. Findings indicate a new avenue for prevention through targeting partner preferences. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Male partner selectivity, romantic confidence, and media depictions of partner scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laramie D

    2013-01-18

    An experiment was conducted to explore the effects of exposure to partner scarcity or abundance messages on men's partner selectivity, romantic confidence, and self-assessed attractiveness. Undergraduate male participants watched a soap opera narrative featuring either two men competing over one potential female partner (partner scarcity) or two women competing over one potential male partner (partner abundance). Relative to control subjects, watching either narrative reduced romantic confidence. Experimental condition also affected partner selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness, though both effects were moderated by endorsement of traditional masculine ideology. Viewing the abundance narrative resulted in greater selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness for men high in endorsement of traditional masculinity but diminished selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness for men low in endorsement of traditional masculine identity.

  11. Male Partner Selectivity, Romantic Confidence, and Media Depictions of Partner Scarcity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laramie D. Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to explore the effects of exposure to partner scarcity or abundance messages on men's partner selectivity, romantic confidence, and self-assessed attractiveness. Undergraduate male participants watched a soap opera narrative featuring either two men competing over one potential female partner (partner scarcity or two women competing over one potential male partner (partner abundance. Relative to control subjects, watching either narrative reduced romantic confidence. Experimental condition also affected partner selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness, though both effects were moderated by endorsement of traditional masculine ideology. Viewing the abundance narrative resulted in greater selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness for men high in endorsement of traditional masculinity but diminished selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness for men low in endorsement of traditional masculine identity.

  12. Reciprocity in group-living animals: partner control versus partner choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schino, Gabriele; Aureli, Filippo

    2017-05-01

    Reciprocity is probably the most debated of the evolutionary explanations for cooperation. Part of the confusion surrounding this debate stems from a failure to note that two different processes can result in reciprocity: partner control and partner choice. We suggest that the common observation that group-living animals direct their cooperative behaviours preferentially to those individuals from which they receive most cooperation is to be interpreted as the result of the sum of the two separate processes of partner control and partner choice. We review evidence that partner choice is the prevalent process in primates and propose explanations for this pattern. We make predictions that highlight the need for studies that separate the effects of partner control and partner choice in a broader variety of group-living taxa. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  13. Does working with industry come at a price? A study of doctoral candidates’ performance in collaborative vs. non-collaborative Ph.D. projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salimi, Negin; Bekkers, Rudi; Frenken, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative Ph.D. projects between university and industry constitute an important aspect of university–industry collaboration, yet has remained under-researched thus far. The specific question this paper asks is how collaborative Ph.D. projects perform compared to non-collaborative Ph.D.

  14. The status of PhD education in economic, social, and administrative sciences between 2005 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Joel F; Wang, Chi-Chuan; Blalock, Susan J

    2010-09-10

    To describe the funding, education, enrollment, and graduation patterns from economic, social, and administrative sciences PhD programs in colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States. Economic, social, and administrative sciences PhD programs were identified from the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Web site. A 41-item online survey instrument was sent to the director of graduate studies of each identified program. Only programs offering a PhD degree were included in the study. Of the 26 programs surveyed, 20 (77%) provided useable responses to the survey instrument. Approximately 91% of PhD programs guarantee funding to incoming students with an average commitment of 2.9 years. On average, students were paid a stipend of $18,000 per year for commitments to research and teaching assistantships, each averaging approximately 2 years in length. Programs admitted an average of 3.5 students per year and graduated approximately 85% of entering students. The majority of students are non-US citizens and accept positions in either academic or industrial positions after graduation. Most economic, social, and administrative sciences PhD programs guarantee funding to incoming PhD candidates. Programs offering funding packages significantly below the average may be at a competitive disadvantage. It is unclear whether the number of students graduating from PhD programs is adequate to fulfill academic and industrial needs.

  15. Career intentions of PhD students in nursing: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, XiaoLing; Luo, ZhongChen; Lou, Ting; Pang, Jin; Tang, SiYuan

    2018-05-01

    Despite the rapid growth of Chinese nursing PhD programs, little is known about the career intentions of students in this field. To investigate the career intentions of nursing PhD students. Online cross-sectional survey. Nursing PhD students at Chinese universities. An online questionnaire was designed and the data were analyzed using SPSS. The mean age of the participants was 31.53 ± 4.92 years, and most were female (89.9%), married (74.2%), and had been employed previously (69.7%). Most intended to work in the city where their family lived (34.8%) or near their previous workplace (32.6%). Most (60.7%) desired to work in an educational institution (e.g., a university or college). The most common expected salary was 8000-11,999 RMB/month. The work benefits perceived as indispensable were "Five Insurances and One Fund" (77.5%), good educational resources for children (59.6%), financial allowances for PhD graduates (52.8%), staff dormitories/housing subsidies (50.6%), and tenure (50.6%). Nursing education (75.3%) and research (70.8%) were the most favored fields. The key job characteristics were the opportunity to put strengths to fullest use (79.8%), time to conduct research (60.7%), and work-life balance (51.7%). The key research conditions included a good research incentive mechanism (77.5%), a Basic Scientific Research Foundation (68.5%), opportunity to apply to conduct research projects (66.3%), and the nursing team's atmosphere regarding research (64.0%), and 91.0% were eager to study abroad (e.g., as part of an international exchange). Nursing PhD students would like to work in their hometown or near their previous workplace. Most preferred working in an educational institution, and the most popular fields were nursing education and research (rather than clinical care), despite the high demand of hospital management for nursing PhD graduates. Flexible work, high-quality research conditions, a certain salary, work benefits, and training were key

  16. Self-reported needs for improving the supervision competence of PhD supervisors from the medical sciences in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Raffing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of supervision is a major predictor for successful PhD projects. A survey showed that almost all PhD students in the Health Sciences in Denmark indicated that good supervision was important for the completion of their PhD study. Interestingly, approximately half of the students who withdrew from their program had experienced insufficient supervision. This led the Research Education Committee at the University of Copenhagen to recommend that supervisors further develop their supervision competence. The aim of this study was to explore PhD supervisors’ self-reported needs and wishes regarding the content of a new program in supervision, with a special focus on the supervision of PhD students in medical fields. Methods A semi-structured interview guide was developed, and 20 PhD supervisors from the Graduate School of Health and Medical Sciences at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences at the University of Copenhagen were interviewed. Empirical data were analysed using qualitative methods of analysis. Results Overall, the results indicated a general interest in improved competence and development of a new supervision programme. Those who were not interested argued that, due to their extensive experience with supervision, they had no need to participate in such a programme. The analysis revealed seven overall themes to be included in the course. The clinical context offers PhD supervisors additional challenges that include the following sub-themes: patient recruitment, writing the first article, agreements and scheduled appointments and two main groups of students, in addition to the main themes. Conclusions The PhD supervisors reported the clear need and desire for a competence enhancement programme targeting the supervision of PhD students at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences. Supervision in the clinical context appeared to require additional competence. Trial registration The Scientific Ethical Committee

  17. Self-reported needs for improving the supervision competence of PhD supervisors from the medical sciences in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffing, Rie; Jensen, Thor Bern; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2017-10-23

    Quality of supervision is a major predictor for successful PhD projects. A survey showed that almost all PhD students in the Health Sciences in Denmark indicated that good supervision was important for the completion of their PhD study. Interestingly, approximately half of the students who withdrew from their program had experienced insufficient supervision. This led the Research Education Committee at the University of Copenhagen to recommend that supervisors further develop their supervision competence. The aim of this study was to explore PhD supervisors' self-reported needs and wishes regarding the content of a new program in supervision, with a special focus on the supervision of PhD students in medical fields. A semi-structured interview guide was developed, and 20 PhD supervisors from the Graduate School of Health and Medical Sciences at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences at the University of Copenhagen were interviewed. Empirical data were analysed using qualitative methods of analysis. Overall, the results indicated a general interest in improved competence and development of a new supervision programme. Those who were not interested argued that, due to their extensive experience with supervision, they had no need to participate in such a programme. The analysis revealed seven overall themes to be included in the course. The clinical context offers PhD supervisors additional challenges that include the following sub-themes: patient recruitment, writing the first article, agreements and scheduled appointments and two main groups of students, in addition to the main themes. The PhD supervisors reported the clear need and desire for a competence enhancement programme targeting the supervision of PhD students at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences. Supervision in the clinical context appeared to require additional competence. The Scientific Ethical Committee for the Capital Region of Denmark. Number: H-3-2010-101, date: 2010.09.29.

  18. Partners in Leadership for Pearl River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Members of the 2007 class of Partners in Leadership toured NASA Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., on Jan. 11. They visited the center's B Test Stand, part of the center's rocket engine test complex. The Partners in Leadership training program is designed to teach Pearl River County leaders about their county's government, economic development, health and human services, history and arts, environment and education during a 10-month period. The program, sponsored by the Partners for Pearl River County, helps fulfill the mission of the economic and community development agency.

  19. Novel Clostridium difficile Anti-Toxin (TcdA and TcdB Humanized Monoclonal Antibodies Demonstrate In Vitro Neutralization across a Broad Spectrum of Clinical Strains and In Vivo Potency in a Hamster Spore Challenge Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Qiu

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile (C. difficile infection (CDI is the main cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated colitis and increased incidence of community-associated diarrhea in industrialized countries. At present, the primary treatment of CDI is antibiotic administration, which is effective but often associated with recurrence, especially in the elderly. Pathogenic strains produce enterotoxin, toxin A (TcdA, and cytotoxin, toxin B (TcdB, which are necessary for C. difficile induced diarrhea and gut pathological changes. Administration of anti-toxin antibodies provides an alternative approach to treat CDI, and has shown promising results in preclinical and clinical studies. In the current study, several humanized anti-TcdA and anti-TcdB monoclonal antibodies were generated and their protective potency was characterized in a hamster infection model. The humanized anti-TcdA (CANmAbA4 and anti-TcdB (CANmAbB4 and CANmAbB1 antibodies showed broad spectrum in vitro neutralization of toxins from clinical strains and neutralization in a mouse toxin challenge model. Moreover, co-administration of humanized antibodies (CANmAbA4 and CANmAbB4 cocktail provided a high level of protection in a dose dependent manner (85% versus 57% survival at day 22 for 50 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg doses, respectively in a hamster gastrointestinal infection (GI model. This study describes the protective effects conferred by novel neutralizing anti-toxin monoclonal antibodies against C. difficile toxins and their potential as therapeutic agents in treating CDI.

  20. Condom Use and Number of Sexual Partners among Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sexual partners without using condoms are at risk of HIV transmission. ... Key words: Cameroon, condom use, HIV/AIDS, multiple sexual partners, secondary school female students .... The number of sexual partners is an important indicator of.

  1. Pesticide Advisory Committees and Regulatory Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site will provide all stakeholders, including the general public, with access to information about meetings of advisory committees, and how we work with state, territory, and tribal government partners.

  2. Featured Partner: Saddle Creek Logistics Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA fact sheet spotlights Saddle Creek Logistics as a SmartWay partner committed to sustainability in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by freight transportation, partly by growing its compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles for

  3. Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Associated Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Abstract. The study aimed at investigating the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its ... in Chile 31% of women and 21 % of men reported ... Protective factors may include lack of ... developed in English, then translated and back-.

  4. Climate Ready Estuaries Partner Projects Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRE partners with the National Estuary Program to develop climate change projects in coastal U.S. areas, such as bays and harbors; to develop adaptation action plans, identify climate impacts and indicators, and more. This map shows project locations.

  5. Be a Partner in Clinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015 Print this issue Be a Partner in Clinical Research Help Others, Help Yourself En español Send us ... Did you know that you can participate in clinical research? Whether you’re healthy or sick, young or ...

  6. Gender symmetry, sexism, and intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher T; Swan, Suzanne C; Raghavan, Chitra

    2009-11-01

    This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in their relationships with intimate partners, the path models suggest that women's violence tends to be in reaction to male violence, whereas men tend to initiate violence and then their partners respond with violence. Benevolent sexism was shown to have a protective effect against men's violence toward partners. Findings highlight the importance of studying women's violence not only in the context of men's violence but also within a broader sociocultural context.

  7. Associations between Intimate Partner Violence, Depression, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intimate partner violence, depression, and suicidal behavior among women attending ... sample of women attending antenatal care or general outpatient hospital services in. Thailand. .... participant was referred to the nurse counsellor from.

  8. Indoor Air Quality Tribal Partners Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    IAQ Tribal Partners Program. Empowering champions of healthy IAQ in tribal communities with tools for networking, sharing innovative and promising programs and practices and a reservoir of the best available tribal-specific IAQ information and materials.

  9. SmartWay Featured Partner: Walmart

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA fact sheet spotlights Walmart as a SmartWay partner and their commitment to increase its’ transportation efficiency and safety; thereby reducing fuel and emissions, minimizing its environmental impact. (EPA publication # EPA-420-F-16-042)

  10. Partners and initiatives | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 1 - 10 of 20 ... A longstanding partner, Global Affairs Canada collaborates with us on maternal and ... Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia ... These investments in scientific breakthroughs will improve the health.

  11. The training, careers, and work of Ph.D. physical scientists: Not simply academic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven J.; Pedersen-Gallegos, Liane; Riegle-Crumb, Catherine

    2002-11-01

    We present an in-depth portrait of the training, careers, and work of recent Ph.D. physical scientists. Use of specialized training varies widely, with about half often using knowledge of their Ph.D. specialty area in their jobs. The use of specialized training does not, however, correlate with job satisfaction. In this and other important measures, there are relatively few differences between "academics" and "nonacademics." Important job skills for all employment sectors include writing, oral presentation, management, data analysis, designing projects, critical thinking, and working in an interdisciplinary context. Rankings given by respondents of graduate training in some of these skill areas were significantly lower than the importance of these skills in the workplace. We also found that the rated quality of graduate training varies relatively little by department or advisor. Finally, although nonacademic aspirations among graduate students are fairly common, these do not appear to be well supported while in graduate school.

  12. Publication ethics from the perspective of PhD students of health sciences: a limited experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arda, Berna

    2012-06-01

    Publication ethics, an important subtopic of science ethics, deals with determination of the misconducts of science in performing research or in the dissemination of ideas, data and products. Science, the main features of which are secure, reliable and ethically obtained data, plays a major role in shaping the society. As long as science maintains its quality by being based on reliable and ethically obtained data, it will be possible to maintain its role in shaping the society. This article is devoted to the presentation of opinions of PhD candidate students in health sciences in Ankara concerning publication ethics. The data obtained from 143 PhD students from the fields of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and veterinary reveal limited but unique experiences. It also shows that plagiarism is one of the worst issues in the publication ethics from the perspective of these young academics.

  13. Examining the British PhD viva: opening new doors or scarring for life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Bernie; Whittaker, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The PhD viva -- regardless of its format -- has the potential to be a significant rite of passage for the student. It is an experience that can resonate for months or years afterwards. Part of the challenge is that for everyone involved -- student, supervisory team and examiners -- a degree of end-point uncertainty exists. These ambiguities and tensions are perhaps an inherent part of any examination but are particularly characteristic of the examination of the individual and unique body of work that constitutes the doctoral thesis. In recent years, increased attention has been placed on the processes that surround the examination, aiming to increase transparency, consistency and fairness. However, the process of examining a student and their thesis remains challenging and is surrounded by different agendas, ideologies and practices. This paper examines some of the issues surrounding the PhD viva, primarily focusing on the British viva whilst weaving in commentary about the Australian system.

  14. Interview with Xiaoli Wang PhD winner of CACA 2016 Young Investigator Award

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoli Wang is currently an R&D Senior Scientist in Agilent’s HPLC instrument R&D group at Agilent Technologies, Waldbronn, Germany. Prior to this, he was an R&D manager in Agilent’s CrossLab Group in the US focusing on development of novel chromatographic columns. He has a B.S. degree in Chemistry from Peking University, Beijing China and a PhD. degree in Analytical Chemistry from the University of Minnesota in 2006. He started his industrial career in the pharmaceutical industry at AstraZeneca for four years before joining Agilent Technologies in 2010. Recently, he won the prestigious 2016 Young Investigator Award from Chinese American Chromatography Association (CACA. This interview was conducted by Roland J.W. Meesters PhD, Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Applied Bioanalysis.

  15. Exploring the impact of endometriosis on partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameratunga, Devini; Flemming, Tina; Angstetra, Donald; Ng, Shu-Kay; Sneddon, Anne

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to determine how endometriosis affects the quality of life of partners of women who suffer from this disease and how it impacts their relationships, finances, mental states, and daily living. This was a questionnaire-based cohort study that took place at a large tertiary hospital gynecology unit, which covered two sites. Fifty-one partners of women who had surgically diagnosed endometriosis agreed to participate in the study and returned completed surveys. Ninety-two percent (n = 46) of partners reported negative feelings about the diagnosis of endometriosis. Seventy percent (n = 35) reported that endometriosis affected their day-to-day life either moderately or severely. Over half (52%) also felt that their finances were affected. Only 34% (n = 17) of partners felt that health professionals had engaged them in decision-making processes and had been supportive of them. Eighty percent (n = 40) of partners reported that they had received no information about the impact of endometriosis on couples. Partners reported a significant affect on their sex life (74%) and their relationship as a whole (56%). Participants whose relationships had been affected by endometriosis had also more likely had their day-to-day life (P = 0.027), sex life (P = 0.001), and finances (P = 0.002) affected. Overall, our findings suggest that endometriosis can have a significant impact on partners with respect to day-to-day living, finances, sex lives, and relationships. Improvements can be made to engage partners in the treatment process, and to provide better education, support, and holistic management to women and families who suffer with endometriosis. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Defining the private partners in PPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Vleuten-Balkema, F.; Stam, N.

    2004-01-01

    Now that the public private partnerships are seen to be the way forward in solar electrification in developing countries, it is important to question who will be the private partner in the partnership? For decentralized energy technologies such as solar home systems, that are being disseminated to vast numbers of highly dispersed end-users, the private partners of today are the hundreds or thousands of often non specialized local entrepreneurs. The public private partnerships of tomorrow should be reoriented accordingly. (authors)

  17. Sex Differences in Attitudes toward Partner Infidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Tagler; Heather M. Jeffers

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and wom...

  18. Partner Choice in Raven (Corvus corax) Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa-Haas, Kenji; Schiestl, Martina; Bugnyar, Thomas; Massen, Jorg J M

    2016-01-01

    Although social animals frequently make decisions about when or with whom to cooperate, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of partner choice. Most previous studies compared different dyads' performances, though did not allow an actual choice among partners. We tested eleven ravens, Corvus corax, in triads, giving them first the choice to cooperate with either a highly familiar or a rather unfamiliar partner and, second, with either a friend or a non-friend using a cooperative string-pulling task. In either test, the ravens had a second choice and could cooperate with the other partner, given that this one had not pulled the string in the meantime. We show that during the experiments, these partner ravens indeed learn to wait and inhibit pulling, respectively. Moreover, the results of these two experiments show that ravens' preferences for a specific cooperation partner are not based on familiarity. In contrast, the ravens did show a preference based on relationship quality, as they did choose to cooperate significantly more with friends than with non-friends and they were also more proficient when cooperating with a friend. In order to further identify the proximate mechanism of this preference, we designed an open-choice experiment for the whole group where all birds were free to cooperate on two separate apparatuses. This set-up allowed us to distinguish between preferences for close proximity and preferences to cooperate. The results revealed that friends preferred staying close to each other, but did not necessarily cooperate with one another, suggesting that tolerance of proximity and not relationship quality as a whole may be the driving force behind partner choice in raven cooperation. Consequently, we stress the importance of experiments that allow such titrations and, suggest that these results have important implications for the interpretations of cooperation studies that did not include open partner choice.

  19. Whom to Choose as License Partner?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Reichstein, Toke; Trombini, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    benefits and obviate issues related to technology transfer and knowledge recombination. At the same time, firms wish to select a partner operating in a different product market to minimize competitive downside issues and to access other product markets, skills and resources. We contend interdependence...... between technology and market forces: if partners are market distant, the likelihood of technology license contractual partnership decreases with partners’ technological distance. Using data on the formation of license partnerships in the global biopharmaceutical industry over the period 1994...

  20. Earth and Space Science Ph.D. Class of 2003 Report released

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelor, Brad

    AGU and the American Geological Institute (AGI) released on 26 July an employment study of 180 Earth and space science Ph.D. recipients who received degrees from U.S. universities in 2003. The AGU/AGI survey asked graduates about their education and employment, efforts to find their first job after graduation, and experiences in graduate school. Key results from the study include: The vast majority (87%) of 2003 graduates found work in the Earth and space sciences, earning salaries commensurate with or slightly higher than 2001 and 2002 salary averages. Most (64%) graduates were employed within academia (including postdoctoral appointments), with the remainder in government (19%), industry (10%), and other (7%) sectors. Most graduates were positive about their employment situation and found that their work was challenging, relevant, and appropriate for someone with a Ph.D. The percentage of Ph.D. recipients accepting postdoctoral positions (58%) increased slightly from 2002. In contrast, the fields of physics and chemistry showed significant increases in postdoctoral appointments for Ph.D.s during the same time period. As in previous years, recipients of Ph.D.s in the Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences (median age of 32.7 years) are slightly older than Ph.D. recipients in most other natural sciences (except computer sciences), which is attributed to time taken off between undergraduate and graduate studies. Women in the Earth, atmospheric,and ocean sciences earned 33% of Ph.D.s in the class of 2003, surpassing the percentage of Ph.D.s earned by women in chemistry (32%) and well ahead of the percentage in computer sciences (20%), physics (19%), and engineering (17%). Participation of other underrepresented groups in the Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences remained extremely low.

  1. ChemSession'10: 7. Warsaw Seminar of the PhD Students in Chemistry. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madura, I.

    2010-01-01

    Book of Abstracts contains short descriptions of presentations 4 lectures and 151 posters presented during ChemSession'10 - 7 th Warsaw Seminar of the PhD Students in Chemistry (Warsaw, 14.05.2010). Several posters were devoted to the radiochemistry, radiochemical analysis, radiation chemistry, application of the radionuclides and radiobiology. Some posters on the material science dealing with materials important to nuclear sciences can be also mentioned.

  2. Pathways to the PhD in Nursing: An Analysis of Similarities and Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Nadine; Barber, Gale; Rice, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    New educational pathways are needed to increase the number of doctor of philosophy (PhD)-prepared nurses. To address this need, an early-entry PhD option designed to engage students in PhD coursework and research during the undergraduate nursing major was developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. An evaluation comparing the early-entry option with two more conventional entry points was conducted. Three groups (N = 84) comprised the sample: (a) early-entry students admitted as undergraduates or immediately upon graduation (N = 29), (b) mid-entry students with baccalaureate degrees and at least 1 year of work experience (N = 27), and (c) delayed-entry students with master's degrees and 1 or more years of work experience (N = 28). Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the 3 groups of students who were admitted from 2002 to 2011. The sources of data were transcriptions of individual interviews and reviews of existing data. Seventy-seven percent of the sample participated in the individual interviews. The database review included all students who matriculated into the PhD program. Common themes among the 3 groups included a need for educational funding, the importance of a faculty mentor, and concern about preparation for the teaching role and the academic work environment. The groups were also comparable in terms of research productivity during doctoral study and postgraduation employment. Differences were found on measures of diversity, program progression, and perceptions of clinical competence. The findings provide needed data for the development and expansion of educational pathways to the PhD in nursing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dražen Tutić, PhD in Technical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Lapaine

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dražen Tutić defended his PhD thesis Stereographic and Other Conformal Map Projections  for Croatia at the Faculty of Geodesy of the University of Zagreb on August 4, 2009. The thesis was evaluated by the Committee: Prof. Emeritus Nedjeljko Frančula, Prof. Dr. Miljenko Lapaine (mentor and Prof. Dr. Dušan Petrovič from the Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering of the University of Ljubljana.

  4. ChemSession'06 - 3rd Seminary of Warsaw PhD Students in Chemistry. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachara, J.; Lulinski, S.; Dobrowolski, J.C.; Raczynska, E.D.; Fuks, L.; Cyranski, M.K.; Stepien, B.T.; Sawicki, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    3 rd Annual Seminary of Warsaw PhD Students in Chemistry presented the latest achievements in chemistry, obtained in all Warsaw universities and scientific institutes. In 2006 participants presented 4 plenary lectures, and 109 posters. Among others, posters covered four disciplines related to the nuclear sciences: (a) radiobiology and radiotherapy, (b) radiation chemistry and photochemistry, (c) isotopic effects in chemistry, and (d) chemical technology

  5. Bucharest PhD Training School : Modern Aspects of Quantum Field Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Bucharest 2015 – Modern Aspects of Quantum Field Theory is part of the CERN – SEENET-MTP PhD Training Program, which consists of a number of seminars in theoretical high energy Physics. This is the second seminar organized by this Program. Here are some photos from this event held in Bucharest between 8-14 November 2015. The previous seminar was organized in Belgrade, under the name Belgrade 2015 - Supergravity.

  6. PHD fingers in human diseases: disorders arising from misinterpreting epigenetic marks

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Lindsey A.; Allis, C. David; Wang, Gang G.

    2008-01-01

    Histone covalent modifications regulate many, if not all, DNA-templated processes, including gene expression and DNA damage response. The biological consequences of histone modifications are mediated partially by evolutionarily conserved “reader/effector” modules that bind to histone marks in a modification- and context-specific fashion and subsequently enact chromatin changes or recruit other proteins to do so. Recently, the Plant Homeodomain (PHD) finger has emerged as a class of specialize...

  7. PHD fingers in human diseases: Disorders arising from misinterpreting epigenetic marks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Lindsey A. [Rockefeller University, Laboratory of Chromatin Biology and Epigenetics, 1230 York Avenue, Box 78, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Allis, C. David [Rockefeller University, Laboratory of Chromatin Biology and Epigenetics, 1230 York Avenue, Box 78, New York, NY 10065 (United States)], E-mail: alliscd@rockefeller.edu; Wang, Gang G. [Rockefeller University, Laboratory of Chromatin Biology and Epigenetics, 1230 York Avenue, Box 78, New York, NY 10065 (United States)], E-mail: gwang@rockefeller.edu

    2008-12-01

    Histone covalent modifications regulate many, if not all, DNA-templated processes, including gene expression and DNA damage response. The biological consequences of histone modifications are mediated partially by evolutionarily conserved 'reader/effector' modules that bind to histone marks in a modification- and context-specific fashion and subsequently enact chromatin changes or recruit other proteins to do so. Recently, the Plant Homeodomain (PHD) finger has emerged as a class of specialized 'reader' modules that, in some instances, recognize the methylation status of histone lysine residues, such as histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4). While mutations in catalytic enzymes that mediate the addition or removal of histone modifications (i.e., 'writers' and 'erasers') are already known to be involved in various human diseases, mutations in the modification-specific 'reader' proteins are only beginning to be recognized as contributing to human diseases. For instance, point mutations, deletions or chromosomal translocations that target PHD fingers encoded by many genes (such as recombination activating gene 2 (RAG2), Inhibitor of Growth (ING), nuclear receptor-binding SET domain-containing 1 (NSD1) and Alpha Thalassaemia and Mental Retardation Syndrome, X-linked (ATRX)) have been associated with a wide range of human pathologies including immunological disorders, cancers, and neurological diseases. In this review, we will discuss the structural features of PHD fingers as well as the diseases for which direct mutation or dysregulation of the PHD finger has been reported. We propose that misinterpretation of the epigenetic marks may serve as a general mechanism for human diseases of this category. Determining the regulatory roles of histone covalent modifications in the context of human disease will allow for a more thorough understanding of normal and pathological development, and may provide innovative therapeutic strategies

  8. PHD fingers in human diseases: Disorders arising from misinterpreting epigenetic marks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Lindsey A.; Allis, C. David; Wang, Gang G.

    2008-01-01

    Histone covalent modifications regulate many, if not all, DNA-templated processes, including gene expression and DNA damage response. The biological consequences of histone modifications are mediated partially by evolutionarily conserved 'reader/effector' modules that bind to histone marks in a modification- and context-specific fashion and subsequently enact chromatin changes or recruit other proteins to do so. Recently, the Plant Homeodomain (PHD) finger has emerged as a class of specialized 'reader' modules that, in some instances, recognize the methylation status of histone lysine residues, such as histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4). While mutations in catalytic enzymes that mediate the addition or removal of histone modifications (i.e., 'writers' and 'erasers') are already known to be involved in various human diseases, mutations in the modification-specific 'reader' proteins are only beginning to be recognized as contributing to human diseases. For instance, point mutations, deletions or chromosomal translocations that target PHD fingers encoded by many genes (such as recombination activating gene 2 (RAG2), Inhibitor of Growth (ING), nuclear receptor-binding SET domain-containing 1 (NSD1) and Alpha Thalassaemia and Mental Retardation Syndrome, X-linked (ATRX)) have been associated with a wide range of human pathologies including immunological disorders, cancers, and neurological diseases. In this review, we will discuss the structural features of PHD fingers as well as the diseases for which direct mutation or dysregulation of the PHD finger has been reported. We propose that misinterpretation of the epigenetic marks may serve as a general mechanism for human diseases of this category. Determining the regulatory roles of histone covalent modifications in the context of human disease will allow for a more thorough understanding of normal and pathological development, and may provide innovative therapeutic strategies wherein 'chromatin readers' stand as potential drug

  9. ChemSession'11 - 8. Warsaw Seminar of the PhD Students in Chemistry - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madura, I.

    2011-01-01

    Book of Abstracts contains short descriptions of presentations: 4 lectures, 1 communication and 149 posters presented during ChemSession'11 - 8 th Warsaw Seminar of the PhD Students in Chemistry (Warsaw, 13.05.2011). Several posters were devoted to the radiochemistry, radiochemical analysis, radiation chemistry, application of the radionuclides and radiobiology. Some posters on the material science dealing with materials important to nuclear sciences can be also mentioned.

  10. ChemSession'07 - 4th Seminary of Warsaw PhD Students in Chemistry. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrowolski, J.C.; Ostrowski, S.; Madura, I.; Sporzynski, A.; Szatylowicz, H.; Zubrowska, A.

    2007-01-01

    4 th Annual Seminary of Warsaw PhD Students in Chemistry presented the latest achievements in chemistry, obtained in all Warsaw universities and scientific institutes. In 2007 participants presented 4 plenary lectures, and 101 posters. Among others, posters covered four disciplines related to the nuclear sciences: (a) radiobiology and radiotherapy, (b) radiation chemistry and photochemistry, (c) isotopic effects in chemistry, and (d) chemical technology

  11. Partner choice creates fairness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debove, Stéphane; André, Jean-Baptiste; Baumard, Nicolas

    2015-06-07

    Many studies demonstrate that partner choice has played an important role in the evolution of human cooperation, but little work has tested its impact on the evolution of human fairness. In experiments involving divisions of money, people become either over-generous or over-selfish when they are in competition to be chosen as cooperative partners. Hence, it is difficult to see how partner choice could result in the evolution of fair, equal divisions. Here, we show that this puzzle can be solved if we consider the outside options on which partner choice operates. We conduct a behavioural experiment, run agent-based simulations and analyse a game-theoretic model to understand how outside options affect partner choice and fairness. All support the conclusion that partner choice leads to fairness only when individuals have equal outside options. We discuss how this condition has been met in our evolutionary history, and the implications of these findings for our understanding of other aspects of fairness less specific than preferences for equal divisions of resources. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Perceptions of the physical attractiveness of the self, current romantic partners, and former partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Allum, Lucy

    2012-02-01

    This study examined ratings of physical attractiveness of the self and former and current partners. A total of 304 participants completed measures of attractiveness, relationship satisfaction, love dimensions, self-esteem and sociosexual orientation. Consistent with previous work, results showed that participants rated their current partners as more attractive than themselves and their former partners. However, results also showed that former partners were rated as more attractive than the self on a number of bodily characteristics. Finally, results showed that ratings of former partner physical attractiveness were associated with passion for the former partner, self-esteem, sociosexual orientation, and attributions of relationship termination. These results are discussed in relation to the available literature on positive illusions in intimate relationships. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  13. Partner verification: restoring shattered images of our intimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Ronde, C; Swann, W B

    1998-08-01

    When spouses received feedback that disconfirmed their impressions of their partners, they attempted to undermine that feedback during subsequent interactions with these partners. Such partner verification activities occurred whether partners construed the feedback as overly favorable or overly unfavorable. Furthermore, because spouses tended to see their partners as their partners saw themselves, their efforts to restore their impressions of partners often worked hand-in-hand with partners' efforts to verify their own views. Finally, support for self-verification theory emerged in that participants were more intimate with spouses who verified their self-views, whether their self-views happened to be positive or negative.

  14. Management of Stress and Anxiety Among PhD Students During Thesis Writing: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafkan, Leila; Shokrpour, Nasrin; Yousefi, Alireza; Yamani, Nikoo

    2016-01-01

    Today, postgraduate students experience a variety of stresses and anxiety in different situations of academic cycle. Stress and anxiety have been defined as a syndrome shown by emotional exhaustion and reduced personal goal achievement. This article addresses the causes and different strategies of coping with this phenomena by PhD students at Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences. The study was conducted by a qualitative method using conventional content analysis approach. Through purposive sampling, 16 postgraduate medical sciences PhD students were selected on the basis of theoretical sampling. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews and field observations. Six hundred fifty-four initial codes were summarized and classified into 4 main categories and 11 subcategories on the thematic coding stage dependent on conceptual similarities and differences. The obtained codes were categorized under 4 themes including "thesis as a major source of stress," "supervisor relationship," "socioeconomic problem," and "coping with stress and anxiety." It was concluded that PhD students experience stress and anxiety from a variety of sources and apply different methods of coping in effective and ineffective ways. Purposeful supervision and guidance can reduce the cause of stress and anxiety; in addition, coping strategy must be in a thoughtful approach, as recommended in this study.

  15. "PhD Comics" author Jorge Cham on the power of procrastination

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    From Tuesday, 22 to Friday, 25 September, Jorge Cham visited CERN. The PHD Movie 2 was screened in the Main Auditorium  and the cartoonist also took part in one of the Researchers' Night events.    Jorge Cham in the CERN Control Centre. On the first day, the author of the comic strip Piled Higher and Deeper (PhD Comics) visited the CERN Control Centre, the Synchrocyclotron, the CMS Service Cavern and the ATLAS control room. On Thursday, he had a busy afternoon, starting with signing copies of his books and then giving a talk entitled “The Power of Procrastination” in a packed Main Auditorium. He made the audience laugh by narrating his experience as a graduate student in robotics at Stanford University, recounting how he started drawing PhD Comics and how it rapidly became popular in universities all over the world. He then analysed the frustrations and anxieties commonly experienced by any graduate student, causing...

  16. Using Simulation in Nursing PhD Education: Facilitating Application of Responsible Conduct of Research Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Margaret F; Supiano, Katherine; Wilson, Rebecca; Lassche, Madeline; Latendresse, Gwen

    Simulation is a standard clinical nursing educational approach; however, simulation is rarely used in nonclinical nursing education. In doctor of philosophy (PhD) programs, ethical content about responsible conduct of research (RCR) is traditionally didactic, presented early in the program of study. Ethics content merits review before students begin the dissertation phase; thus, the purpose of this project was to design and implement simulated scenarios to help students apply RCR principles prior to beginning independent research. Two scenarios were developed: (a) a potential protocol change discussed in a research team meeting and (b) an in-home data collection experience with an elderly participant and her daughter. Actors were trained faculty volunteers, playing roles outside their usual academic positions. Faculty facilitated scenarios by posing questions as cues related to desired learning outcomes as scenarios unfolded. Eleven nursing PhD students and 6 faculty participated. Debriefing facilitated discussion of RCR principles, common research quandaries, and suggested scenario revisions. Faculty, expert observation, and video-review showed that younger and less experienced students tried to give the "right" answer rather than implement RCR appropriate solutions. Students with more clinical experience had difficulty adopting the less familiar researcher role. Overall, simulation is a novel and useful way to enhance RCR content in PhD programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Forensic odontology education:from undergraduate to PhD - a Brazilian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrichkeit Pereira, J G; Frontanilla Recalde, T S; Barreto Costa, P; Jacometti, V; Vigorito Magalhães, L; Alves Da Silva, R H

    2017-12-01

    Forensic Odontology is a topic present in the majority of Dental Schools in Brazil, and due to this reality, some universities develop activities related to undergraduate and graduate students, from the Dentistry course until the Ph.D. degree. To present the education experience related to Forensic Odontology at School of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto (USP - University of São Paulo), showing the strategies and activities in the different degrees (Dental course, Forensic Odontology Specialization Program, Specific Professional Training, Master, and Ph.D.). To the undergraduate students, many activities are developed in order to demonstrate all the possibilities that Forensic Dentistry allow, including theoretical and practical activities; in the Forensic Odontology Specialization Program, the dentists are trained to act as Forensic Odontologists in all its amplitude; in the Specific Professional Training, some courses are available, related to specific topics as DVI, Forensic Facial Reconstruction, Auditor in Dental Care Insurance and others; and in the Master and Ph.D. Programs, the professionals receive training in skills like teaching, research, student's guidance and others. In Brazil, Forensic Odontology is a well-known field in Dentistry and universities develop an important role in training a qualified workforce.

  18. Substrate-Trapped Interactors of PHD3 and FIH Cluster in Distinct Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodriguez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Amino acid hydroxylation is a post-translational modification that regulates intra- and inter-molecular protein-protein interactions. The modifications are regulated by a family of 2-oxoglutarate- (2OG dependent enzymes and, although the biochemistry is well understood, until now only a few substrates have been described for these enzymes. Using quantitative interaction proteomics, we screened for substrates of the proline hydroxylase PHD3 and the asparagine hydroxylase FIH, which regulate the HIF-mediated hypoxic response. We were able to identify hundreds of potential substrates. Enrichment analysis revealed that the potential substrates of both hydroxylases cluster in the same pathways but frequently modify different nodes of signaling networks. We confirm that two proteins identified in our screen, MAPK6 (Erk3 and RIPK4, are indeed hydroxylated in a FIH- or PHD3-dependent mechanism. We further determined that FIH-dependent hydroxylation regulates RIPK4-dependent Wnt signaling, and that PHD3-dependent hydroxylation of MAPK6 protects the protein from proteasomal degradation.

  19. Pioneering women in American mathematics the pre-1940 PhD's

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Judy

    2008-01-01

    More than 14 percent of the PhD's awarded in the United States during the first four decades of the twentieth century went to women, a proportion not achieved again until the 1980s. This book is the result of a study in which the authors identified all of the American women who earned PhD's in mathematics before 1940, and collected extensive biographical and bibliographical information about each of them. By reconstructing as complete a picture as possible of this group of women, Green and LaDuke reveal insights into the larger scientific and cultural communities in which they lived and worked. The book contains an extended introductory essay, as well as biographical entries for each of the 228 women in the study. The authors examine family backgrounds, education, careers, and other professional activities. They show that there were many more women earning PhD's in mathematics before 1940 than is commonly thought. Extended biographies and bibliographical information are available from the companion website fo...

  20. Adding intrapreneurial role in HR business partner model: (an extension in the HR business partner model)

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, Jibran; Afzal, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The Purpose of this paper is to introduce a concept, whereby extending the Dave Ulrich’s HR business partner model by adding fifth Role – The HR Intrapreneur Role – in the existing model. This will be done by combining two separate concepts “Four Roles HR Business Partner Model” and “Intrapreneurial HR”, resulting in a five roles HR Business Partner Model. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is introducing a new concept through theoretical research. Findings: H...

  1. Hypoxia and loss of PHD2 inactivate stromal fibroblasts to decrease tumour stiffness and metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Chris D; Pedersen, Jesper Thorhauge; Venning, Freja A

    2015-01-01

    , which can be prevented by simultaneous depletion of HIF-1α. Treatment with the PHD inhibitor DMOG in an orthotopic breast cancer model significantly decreases spontaneous metastases to the lungs and liver, associated with decreased tumour stiffness and fibroblast activation. PHD2 depletion in CAFs co......-injected with tumour cells similarly prevents CAF-induced metastasis to lungs and liver. Our data argue that reversion of CAFs towards a less active state is possible and could have important clinical implications....

  2. Biomedical Science Ph.D. Career Interest Patterns by Race/Ethnicity and Gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth D Gibbs

    Full Text Available Increasing biomedical workforce diversity remains a persistent challenge. Recent reports have shown that biomedical sciences (BMS graduate students become less interested in faculty careers as training progresses; however, it is unclear whether or how the career preferences of women and underrepresented minority (URM scientists change in manners distinct from their better-represented peers. We report results from a survey of 1500 recent American BMS Ph.D. graduates (including 276 URMs that examined career preferences over the course of their graduate training experiences. On average, scientists from all social backgrounds showed significantly decreased interest in faculty careers at research universities, and significantly increased interest in non-research careers at Ph.D. completion relative to entry. However, group differences emerged in overall levels of interest (at Ph.D. entry and completion, and the magnitude of change in interest in these careers. Multiple logistic regression showed that when controlling for career pathway interest at Ph.D. entry, first-author publication rate, faculty support, research self-efficacy, and graduate training experiences, differences in career pathway interest between social identity groups persisted. All groups were less likely than men from well-represented (WR racial/ethnic backgrounds to report high interest in faculty careers at research-intensive universities (URM men: OR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.36-0.98, p = 0.04; WR women: OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.47-0.89, p = 0.008; URM women: OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.30-0.71, p<0.001, and URM women were more likely than all other groups to report high interest in non-research careers (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.28-2.90, p = 0.002. The persistence of disparities in the career interests of Ph.D. recipients suggests that a supply-side (or "pipeline" framing of biomedical workforce diversity challenges may limit the effectiveness of efforts to attract and retain the best and most

  3. Increasing PhD students’ employability by focusing on the academic entrepreneurship. The analysis of the entrepreneurial competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Hodzic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the perspective for entrepreneurship among PhD students coming from variety of disciplines. More precisely, to identify the most important entrepreneurial competences for succeeding in the entrepreneurial venture, to explore whether these competences are being developed during the 3rd cycle studies, and to explore the entrepreneurial intentions of the future doctors. In order to choose the most important entrepreneurial competences, individual semi-structured interviews with ten entrepreneurs from different fields were conducted. In addition, the importance of each competence was evaluated in form of the questionnaire, by seventeen entrepreneurs. After the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the interviews and the questionnaire, 20 competences were selected as the most important entrepreneurial competences. These 20 competences were then evaluated by 50 PhD students from different fields of study. They evaluated the importance of each entrepreneurial competence, the level of its development during their PhD studies, and indicated their entrepreneurial intentions after finishing the PhD. The most important and the most developed competences are presented in the results. In addition, the results showed relatively high entrepreneurial intentions in case of not finding a job after the PhD and in general. These results imply the need for incorporating some sort of entrepreneurial training and the development of entrepreneurial competences adapted to each subject area during the PhD studies.

  4. Partners' Overestimation of Patients' Pain Severity: Relationships with Partners' Interpersonal Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghaenel, Doerte U; Schneider, Stefan; Broderick, Joan E

    2017-09-26

    The present study examined whether concordance between patients' and their partners' reports of patient pain severity relates to partners' social support and behavioral responses in couples coping with chronic pain. Fifty-two couples completed questionnaires about the patient's pain severity. Both dyad members also rated the partner's social support and negative, solicitous, and distracting responses toward the patient when in pain. Bivariate correlations showed moderate correspondence between patient and partner ratings of pain severity (r = 0.55) and negative (r = 0.46), solicitous (r = 0.47), and distracting responses (r = 0.53), but lower correspondence for social support (r = 0.28). Twenty-eight couples (54%) were concordant in their perceptions of patient pain; partners overestimated pain in 14 couples (27%), and partners underestimated pain in 10 couples (19%). Couple concordance in pain perceptions was not related to patients' reports; however, it significantly predicted partners' reports: Partners who overestimated pain reported giving more social support (β = 0.383, P = 0.016), fewer negative responses (β = -0.332, P = 0.029), and more solicitous responses (β = 0.438, P = 0.016) than partners who were in agreement or who underestimated pain. Partner overestimation of pain severity is associated with partner-reported but not with patient-reported support-related responses. This finding has important clinical implications for couple interventions in chronic pain. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Partners' controlling behaviors and intimate partner sexual violence among married women in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandera, Stephen Ojiambo; Kwagala, Betty; Ndugga, Patricia; Kabagenyi, Allen

    2015-03-04

    Studies on the association between partners' controlling behaviors and intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) in Uganda are limited. The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between IPSV and partners' controlling behaviors among married women in Uganda. We used the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) data, and selected a weighted sample of 1,307 women who were in a union, out of those considered for the domestic violence module. We used chi-squared tests and multivariable logistic regressions to investigate the factors associated with IPSV, including partners' controlling behaviors. More than a quarter (27%) of women who were in a union in Uganda reported IPSV. The odds of reporting IPSV were higher among women whose partners were jealous if they talked with other men (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.22-2.68), if their partners accused them of unfaithfulness (OR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.03-2.19) and if their partners did not permit them to meet with female friends (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.11-2.39). The odds of IPSV were also higher among women whose partners tried to limit contact with their family (OR = 1.73; 95% CI: 1.11-2.67) and often got drunk (OR = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.15-2.81). Finally, women who were sometimes or often afraid of their partners (OR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.21-2.60 and OR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.04-2.40 respectively) were more likely to report IPSV. In Uganda, women's socio-economic and demographic background and empowerment had no mitigating effect on IPSV in the face of their partners' dysfunctional behaviors. Interventions addressing IPSV should place more emphasis on reducing partners' controlling behaviors and the prevention of problem drinking.

  6. Partner preferences among survivors of betrayal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Robyn L

    2012-01-01

    Betrayal trauma theory suggests that social and cognitive development may be affected by early trauma such that individuals develop survival strategies, particularly dissociation and lack of betrayal awareness, that may place them at risk for further victimization. Several experiences of victimization in the context of relationships predicated on trust and dependence may contribute to the development of relational schema whereby abuse is perceived as normal. The current exploratory study investigates interpersonal trauma as an early experience that might impact the traits that are desired in potential romantic partners. Participants in the current study were asked to rate the desirability of several characteristics in potential romantic partners. Although loyalty was desirable to most participants regardless of their trauma history, those who reported experiences of high betrayal trauma rated loyalty less desirable than those who reported experiences of traumas that were low and medium in betrayal. Participants who reported experiences of revictimization (defined as the experience of trauma perpetrated by a close other during 2 different developmental periods) differed from participants who only reported 1 experience of high betrayal trauma in their self-reported desire for a romantic partner who possessed the traits of sincerity and trustworthiness. Preference for a partner who uses the tactic of verbal aggression was also associated with revictimization status. These preliminary findings suggest that victimization perpetrated by close others may affect partner preferences.

  7. Partner Market Opportunities and Relationship Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Rapp

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although partner market opportunities are generally considered to be important for relationship stability, they have never been measured accurately. In order to be able to test the anticipated effects of partner market opportunities, this study conceptualises them as individual opportunities for contact and interaction in concrete social contexts, like the neighbourhood, the workplace, leisure activities, etc. Using data from the German Marriage Market Survey, we first examine the impact of individual partner market opportunities on the risk of separation. Second, we examine to what extend the most frequently studied determinants of divorce and separation depend on partner market opportunities. Our results show that the number of opposite sex contacts increases the probability of separation. Sharing the same contacts with one’s partner decreases the risk of separation. Our results indicate further that reducing opposite sex contacts in the course of the relationship is partly responsible for the higher stability of longer-lasting relationships. Having a migration background is associated with fewer opposite sex contacts. This means that having a migration background would be more destabilising if these individuals did not have less opposite sex contacts than individuals without a migration background. In contrast, joint home ownership, church attendance, higher education and residing in western Germany would generally be more stabilising if these factors were not connected with more opposite sex contacts.

  8. Teenage Mothers' Anger over Twelve Years: Partner Conflict, Partner Transitions and Children's Anger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Sorenson, Ann M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study examined the effects of maternal anger, partner transitions and partner conflict on later oppositional and angry behavior of the children of teenage mothers. Methods: One hundred and twenty-one teenage women were interviewed prior to the birth of the baby and at 3 points subsequently, when children were newborn, 7 years old…

  9. Partner Killing by Men in Cohabiting and Marital Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Todd K.; Mouzos, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    Using a national-level U.S. database, T. K. Shackelford (2001) calculated rates of uxoricide (the murder of a woman by her romantic partner) by relationship type (cohabiting or marital), by ages of the partners, and by the age difference between partners. Women in cohabiting relationships were 9 times more likely to be killed by their partner than…

  10. prevalence of serostatus disclosure to sexual partners among hiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-03

    Mar 3, 2011 ... reported no intention of disclosing to the partners highlighting various fears. This was found to be premised on negative ... months after diagnosis and 76% had no intention of doing so. Low literacy level and lack of employment ... A sexual partner was defined as the present female's male partner(s) whether.

  11. Factors that facilitate or inhibit interest of domestic students in the engineering PhD: A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell Smith, Michelle C.

    Given the increasing complexity of technology in our society, the United States has a growing demand for a more highly educated technical workforce. Unfortunately, the proportion of United States citizens earning a PhD in engineering has been declining and there is concern about meeting the economic, national security and quality of life needs of our country. This mixed methods sequential exploratory instrument design study identified factors that facilitate or inhibit interest in engineering PhD programs among domestic engineering undergraduate students in the United States. This study developed a testable theory for how domestic students become interested in engineering PhD programs and a measure of that process, the Exploring Engineering Interest Inventory (EEII). The study was conducted in four phases. The first phase of the study was a qualitative grounded theory exploration of interest in the engineering PhD. Qualitative data were collected from domestic engineering students, engineering faculty and industry professional who had earned a PhD in engineering. The second phase, instrument development, developed the Exploring Engineering Interest Inventory (EEII), a measurement instrument designed with good psychometric properties to test a series of preliminary hypotheses related to the theory generated in the qualitative phase. In the third phase of the study, the EEII was used to collect data from a larger sample of junior and senior engineering majors. The fourth phase integrated the findings from the qualitative and quantitative phases. Four factors were identified as being significant influences of interest in the engineering PhD: Personal characteristics, educational environment, misperceptions of the economic and personal costs, and misperceptions of engineering work. Recommendations include increasing faculty encouragement of students to pursue an engineering PhD and programming to correct the misperceptions of the costs of the engineering PhD and the

  12. Publishing scientific papers based on Master's and Ph.D. theses from a small scientific community: case study of Croatian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frković, Vedran; Skender, Tomislav; Dojćinović, Bojan; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija

    2003-02-01

    To evaluate publishing activity of medical doctors after they have obtained Master's or Ph.D. degree at the Rijeka and Zagreb University Schools of Medicine in Croatia, and establish the number of journal articles based on these theses. Data on Master's and Ph.D. theses defended at the Rijeka and Zagreb University Schools of Medicine in the 1990-1999 period were collected by hand-search of the archive. MEDLINE and Current Contents databases were searched for journal articles resulting from the theses. During the 10-year period, 1,535 Master's and 634 Ph.D. theses were defended at the Rijeka and Zagreb University Schools of Medicine (253 Master's and 138 Ph.D. theses from Rijeka and 1,282 Master's and 496 Ph.D. theses from Zagreb). There were 201 (14%) Master's and 218 (34%) Ph.D. theses that resulted in articles published in journals indexed in MEDLINE (13% of Master's and 11% of Ph.D. theses from Rijeka, and 14% of Master's and 41% of Ph.D. theses from Zagreb). Also, 97 (6%) Master's and 129 (20%) Ph.D. theses that resulted in articles published in Current Contents journals (8% of Master's and 6% of Ph.D. theses from Rijeka, and 6% of Master's and 24% of Ph.D. theses from Zagreb). There was no significant difference between the two Universities with respect to published articles based on Master's theses, but there were significantly more articles from Ph.D. theses in Zagreb (ptheses resulted in a single publication (95%), 19 (5%) in 2, and 2 in 3 publications. Out of all 453 journal articles, 31% were published in Croatian and 69% in international journals. Most Croatian Master's and Ph.D. theses are not made available to the scientific community. There should be more institutional effort directed at the stimulation of postgraduate students to publish their scientific work.

  13. [Typology of incarcerated intimate partner aggressors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loinaz, Ismael; Echeburúa, Enrique; Torrubia, Rafael

    2010-02-01

    Typology of incarcerated intimate partner aggressors. People who engage in intimate partner violence do not constitute a homogeneous group. Many studies in the Anglo-Saxon countries back the possibility of differentiating several subtypes of aggressors, but there are differences among them. One of the main applications of these typologies is the adaptation of the treatments to the subjects' characteristics. The aim of the present pilot study was to empirically establish a typology of batterers in Spain. The sample of 50 convicted violent intimate partner offenders was obtained from the Brians-2 penitentiary (Barcelona). Self-esteem, anger, cognitive distortions, and personality disorders were evaluated, as well as the frequency and type of violence. The results suggest the existence of two subtypes, distinguishable on the basis of the predictive dimensions, and so, partially confirm the typological proposals.

  14. Evaluating self and partner physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Georgiades, Chrissa; Pang, Lily

    2007-03-01

    This study used a novel questionnaire to examine ratings of self and partner physical attractiveness. Seventy-two men and 83 women estimated their own and their opposite-sex partner's overall physical attractiveness and the attractiveness of various body parts and measures. They also answered six simple questions concerning physical attractiveness. Results showed significant gender differences in self-estimates of overall facial attractiveness and upper body features. In general, and regardless of gender, participants rated their opposite-sex partners as being significantly more attractive than themselves. In addition, the results showed that body weight and facial attractiveness were the best predictors of overall physical attractiveness. Implications of these results in terms of social biases are considered.

  15. Consequences of Partner Incarceration for Women's Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Angela

    2017-10-01

    Research has documented the limited opportunities men have to earn income while in prison and the barriers to securing employment and decent wages upon release. However, little research has considered the relationship between men's incarceration and the employment of the women in their lives. Economic theory suggests that family members of incarcerated individuals may attempt to smooth income fluctuation resulting from incarceration by increasing their labor supply. This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study ( N = 3,780) to investigate how men's incarceration is associated with the number of hours their female partners work as well as variation in this association. Results showed that, on average, women's hours of work were not significantly impacted by the incarceration of their partners. However, there was a positive relationship between partner incarceration and employment among more advantaged groups of women (e.g., married women, white women).

  16. Welcoming spouses and partners to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The questions related to Diversity were examined in the framework of the Five-yearly Review, which was approved in December 2015. The first themes implemented this year concern helping spouses or partners integrate into the working world, and improving the balance between professional and private life.   To this end, the Social Affairs Service and the CERN Diversity Office organised together on Tuesday, 15 November, a “Welcome Drink” for the spouses and partners of employed members of the personnel of CERN who have recently arrived in the region. This event was an occasion for the spouses and partners to meet and greet with various internal services at CERN, including the Staff Association, as well as local networks that can provide assistance in integrating into the region, in terms of job search for instance. Therefore, several service providers were present, including: the Geneva Welcome Center (CAGI), a welcoming network for newly arrived employees of international organi...

  17. Partners in policymaking: the first five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirpoli, T J; Wieck, C; Hancox, D; Skarnulis, E R

    1994-12-01

    Many individuals with disabilities and their families are becoming empowered by learning effective self-advocacy strategies. In this article one enpowerment and self-advocacy training program, Partners in Policymaking, for parents of young children and adults with disabilities was described. Initially developed in Minnesota, the Partners program has completed its fifth year, has 163 graduates, and is being replicated in several other states. Follow-up data, qualitative and quantitative, were collected from program graduates. Results indicated both satisfaction with the program and the presence of many active citizen-advocates in the community.

  18. Whom to Choose as License Partner?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Reichstein, Toke; Trombini, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    between technology and market forces: if partners are market distant, the likelihood of technology license contractual partnership decreases with partners’ technological distance. Using data on the formation of license partnerships in the global biopharmaceutical industry over the period 1994......This paper investigates the matching of firms on the market for technology. The paper forwards two dimensions along which license formation occurs: technology and product-market. Both sides of the market search for a partner representing potential for high technology synergies to maximize licensing...

  19. An interdepartmental Ph.D. program in computational biology and bioinformatics: the Yale perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Mark; Greenbaum, Dov; Cheung, Kei; Miller, Perry L

    2007-02-01

    Computational biology and bioinformatics (CBB), the terms often used interchangeably, represent a rapidly evolving biological discipline. With the clear potential for discovery and innovation, and the need to deal with the deluge of biological data, many academic institutions are committing significant resources to develop CBB research and training programs. Yale formally established an interdepartmental Ph.D. program in CBB in May 2003. This paper describes Yale's program, discussing the scope of the field, the program's goals and curriculum, as well as a number of issues that arose in implementing the program. (Further updated information is available from the program's website, www.cbb.yale.edu.)

  20. Phd study of reliability and validity: One step closer to a standardized music therapy assessment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl

    The paper will present a phd study concerning reliability and validity of music therapy assessment model “Assessment of Parenting Competences” (APC) in the area of families with emotionally neglected children. This study had a multiple strategy design with a philosophical base of critical realism...... and pragmatism. The fixed design for this study was a between and within groups design in testing the APCs reliability and validity. The two different groups were parents with neglected children and parents with non-neglected children. The flexible design had a multiple case study strategy specifically...

  1. Synthesis of the PhD thesis "Anti-money laundering and counter terrorism financing management"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Popa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As a whole, this PhD thesis follows three research lines, namely: (1 the conceptual line - concerns the definition of the money laundering and terrorism financing phenomenon, the processes, mechanisms, stages and instruments of the laundering of illegally obtained fund; (2 the estimative line aimed at measuring the size of money laundering phenomenon, the economic, social and security effects and consequences; (3 the line of an awareness of the need to prevent and fight against the effects arising from money laundering processes, the national and international efforts taken until present nation- and worldwide and the future measures required to diminish the consequences of this scourge.

  2. The first Italian doctorate (PhD Course) in Physics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Marisa; Santi, Lorenzo

    2008-05-01

    The first PhD Italian course in Physics Education Research in Udine aims to qualify young researchers and teachers coming from all the Italian groups of research in the field. It becomes a context for developing research projects carried out following parallel research lines on: Teaching/Learning paths for didactic innovation, cognitive research, ICT for strategies to overcome conceptual knots in physics; E-learning for personalization; d) Computer on-line experiments and modelling; e) Teacher formation and training; f) Informal learning in science.

  3. Brochure: Partnering by design | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-22

    Dec 22, 2010 ... Partnerships are key to IDRC's business model. Other organizations are increasingly recognizing the importance of research and turn to IDRC. IDRC partners with donors and international organizations to: Promote greater collaboration among research funders and enhance effectiveness in development ...

  4. Prevalence & Correlates of Intimate Partner physical violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the reproductive, physical and mental well-being of women. In Ethiopia however, knowledge of the prevalence and characteristics of intimate partner violence against women is ... socio-economic, relationship and behavioral factors increase women's risk of being victimized. Thus .... exchange are the main types of marriage.

  5. Intimate Partner Violence within Law Enforcement Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…

  6. Determinants of communication between partners about STD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partner referrals have been found to be seriously compromised by patients' causal explanations for STDs, as well as by the unequal power of the genders in sexual relationships, which impacts on the patients' ability to communicate about sexual matters. Patients often lack an understanding of the importance of referring ...

  7. Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillito, Carrie LeFevre

    2012-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…

  8. Assessing Children's Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, John F.; Lawrence, Erika; Taber, Sarah M.; Bank, Lew; DeGarmo, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Child exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) is widely acknowledged as a threat to the psycho-social and academic well-being of children. Unfortunately, as reflected in the literature, the specific link between such exposure and childhood outcomes is ambiguous. Based on a review of the literature, this article suggests that this state of…

  9. Intimate partner violence at a tertiary institution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) may experience num ... Women who refuse to have sex without a condom have an increased likelihood of becoming ... of these students study towards careers in which they will need to .... different types of abuse. ... insulting things or threatens them, is disagreeable, or may try to hurt.

  10. Strategy Guideline: Partnering for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, D.

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. In an environment where the builder is the only source of communication between trades and consultants and where relationships are, in general, adversarial as opposed to cooperative, the chances of any one building system to fail are greater. Furthermore, it is much harder for the builder to identify and capitalize on synergistic opportunities. Partnering can help bridge the cross-functional aspects of the systems approach and achieve performance-based criteria. Critical success factors for partnering include support from top management, mutual trust, effective and open communication, effective coordination around common goals, team building, appropriate use of an outside facilitator, a partnering charter progress toward common goals, an effective problem-solving process, long-term commitment, continuous improvement, and a positive experience for all involved.

  11. Intimate partner violence in orthopaedic trauma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprague, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) or domestic violence is a common and serious public health problem around the globe. Victims of IPV frequently present to health care practitioners including orthopaedic surgeons. Substantial research has been conducted on IPV over the past few decades, but very

  12. Monotop signature from a fermionic top partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Dorival; Kong, Kyoungchul; Sakurai, Kazuki; Takeuchi, Michihisa

    2018-01-01

    We investigate monotop signatures arising from phenomenological models of fermionic top partners, which are degenerate in mass and decay into a bosonic dark matter candidate, either spin 0 or spin 1. Such a model provides a monotop signature as a smoking gun, while conventional searches with t t ¯ + missing transverse momentum are limited. Two such scenarios, (i) a phenomenological third generation extradimensional model with excited top and electroweak sectors, and (ii) a model where only a top partner and a dark matter particle are added to the standard model, are studied in the degenerate mass regime. We find that in the case of extra dimension a number of different processes give rise to effectively the same monotop final state, and a great gain can be obtained in the sensitivity for this channel. We show that the monotop search can explore top-partner masses up to 630 and 300 GeV for the third generation extradimensional model and the minimal fermionic top-partner model, respectively, at the high luminosity LHC.

  13. Partnering, poverty reduction and rural enterprise advancement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given this scenario, the University of Fort Hare (UFH) has, through its establishment of the Rural Enterprise Advancement Programme (REAP) and its implementation through the Nguni Cattle Project and the Agri-Park Business Training Programme, restructured its agricultural research, training and community partnering ...

  14. Correcting abnormal speaking through communication partners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The listed characteristics are called speech disorders. Abnormal speaking attracts some penalties to the speaker. The penalties are usually very disturbing to the speaker that undertaking some therapeutic measures becomes inevitable. Communication partners strategy is a speech correction approach which makes use of ...

  15. 77 FR 76380 - Partner's Distributive Share

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... this commenter, these presumptions should be limited to situations in which the partnership does not... are allocated pro rata based on the partners' relative contributions; all partnership liabilities are... (net of partnership liabilities) or tax basis of partnership property is $5 million or less at all...

  16. Alcohol Misuse and Multiple Sexual Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, PhD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We examine the association between self-reported alcohol misuse and alcohol usewithin 2 hours of having sex and the number of sexual partners among a sample of African-Americanand Latino emergency department (ED patients.Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected prospectively from a randomized sample of all EDpatients during a 5-week period. In face-to-face interviews, subjects were asked to report their alcoholuse and number of sexual partners in the past 12 months. Data were analyzed using multiple variablenegative binomial regression models, and effect modification was assessed through inclusion ofinteraction terms.Results: The 395 study participants reported an average of 1.4 (standard error¼0.11 sexual partnersin the past 12 months, 23% reported misusing alcohol, and 28% reported consuming alcohol beforesex. There was no statistically significant association between alcohol misuse and the number ofsexual partners; however, alcohol before sex was associated with a larger number of sexual partners inthe past year. Moreover, among those who misused alcohol, participants who reported alcohol beforesex were 3 times more likely to report a higher number of sexual partners (risk ratio¼3.2; confidenceinterval [CI]¼1.9–5.6. The association between alcohol use before sex and number of sexual partnersis dependent upon whether a person has attributes of harmful drinking over the past 12 months.Overall, alcohol use before sex increases the number of sexual partners, but the magnitude of thiseffect is significantly increased among alcohol misusers.Conclusion: Alcohol misusers and those who reported having more than 1 sexual partner were morelikely to cluster in the same group, ie, those who used alcohol before sex. Efforts to reduce the burdenof sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and other consequences ofrisky sexual behavior in the ED population should be cognizant of the interplay of alcohol and

  17. The bachelor's to Ph.D. STEM pipeline no longer leaks more women than men: a 30-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David I; Wai, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    For decades, research and public discourse about gender and science have often assumed that women are more likely than men to "leak" from the science pipeline at multiple points after entering college. We used retrospective longitudinal methods to investigate how accurately this "leaky pipeline" metaphor has described the bachelor's to Ph.D. transition in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields in the U.S. since the 1970s. Among STEM bachelor's degree earners in the 1970s and 1980s, women were less likely than men to later earn a STEM Ph.D. However, this gender difference closed in the 1990s. Qualitatively similar trends were found across STEM disciplines. The leaky pipeline metaphor therefore partially explains historical gender differences in the U.S., but no longer describes current gender differences in the bachelor's to Ph.D. transition in STEM. The results help constrain theories about women's underrepresentation in STEM. Overall, these results point to the need to understand gender differences at the bachelor's level and below to understand women's representation in STEM at the Ph.D. level and above. Consistent with trends at the bachelor's level, women's representation at the Ph.D. level has been recently declining for the first time in over 40 years.

  18. Postpartum depression and the male partner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna de Magistris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous studies have shown that postpartum depression is a phenomenon that develops in a family, social and economic context capable of influencing its course. A predominant role in the onset of the pathology is played by the relationship of the couple, but up to now few studies have been carried out on the role of the partner of the depressed mother and on the interactions between the two partners, that is, on how maternal depression influences the behaviour of the male partner and is in turn influenced, and how the depression of both parents, and not only that of the mother, influences the neuropsychic development of the child and the interactions between the child and the outside world. Objectives: The objectives are to examine the literature to arrive at an understanding of how the father figure develops during the pregnancy and how postpartum depression impacts on the couple’s relationship and the care of the children by both partners. Materials and methods: This article presents a review of recent literature on the subject through a search for articles in Pubmed and Sciencedirect (keywords: men, postpartum depression, fathers, couple, prediction, detection, and by referring to classic texts in the fields of psychiatry and psychotherapy on the development of the parental figures. Conclusions: Although up to now the literature on the consequences of postpartum depression on the couple is scanty, the data collected allow us to affirm that it is not a problem that concerns only the mother, but one that has an impact on the entire family, on the child and the partner, triggering a chain reaction of maladjustment and distress that may lead to separation and destruction of the family unit with important repercussions on society as a whole.

  19. Partner's influences and other correlates of prenatal alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wulp, Nickie Y; Hoving, Ciska; de Vries, Hein

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the influence of partners on alcohol consumption in pregnant women within the context of other factors. A Dutch nationwide online cross-sectional study among 158 pregnant women and their partners was conducted. To identify correlates of prenatal alcohol use, including perceived and reported partner norm (i.e. partner's belief regarding acceptability of prenatal alcohol use), partner modeling (i.e. partner's alcohol use during the woman's pregnancy) and partner support (i.e. partner's help in abstaining from alcohol during pregnancy), independent sample T-tests and Chi square tests were conducted. Correlation analyses tested the relationship between perceived and reported partner influence. Multivariate logistic hierarchical regression analyses tested the independent impact of partner's perceived and reported influence next to other correlates from the I-Change Model. Pregnant women who consumed alcohol perceived a weaker partner norm (p alcohol use and a weaker partner norm were more likely to use alcohol (R(2) = 0.42). This study demonstrated that perceived partner norm was the most critical of the constructs of perceived and reported partner influences in explaining prenatal alcohol use.

  20. Willingness to express emotion depends upon perceiving partner care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Culin, Katherine R; Hirsch, Jennifer L; Clark, Margaret S

    2017-06-01

    Two studies document that people are more willing to express emotions that reveal vulnerabilities to partners when they perceive those partners to be more communally responsive to them. In Study 1, participants rated the communal strength they thought various partners felt toward them and their own willingness to express happiness, sadness and anxiety to each partner. Individuals who generally perceive high communal strength from their partners were also generally most willing to express emotion to partners. Independently, participants were more willing to express emotion to particular partners whom they perceived felt more communal strength toward them. In Study 2, members of romantic couples independently reported their own felt communal strength toward one another, perceptions of their partners' felt communal strength toward them, and willingness to express emotions (happiness, sadness, anxiety, disgust, anger, hurt and guilt) to each other. The communal strength partners reported feeling toward the participants predicted the participants' willingness to express emotion to those partners. This link was mediated by participants' perceptions of the partner's communal strength toward them which, itself, was a joint function of accurate perceptions of the communal strength partners had reported feeling toward them and projections of their own felt communal strength for their partners onto those partners.

  1. Perceived neighborhood partner availability, partner selection, and risk for sexually transmitted infections within a cohort of adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Pamela A; Chung, Shang-En; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2014-07-01

    This research examined the association between a novel measure of perceived partner availability and discordance between ideal and actual partner characteristics as well as trajectories of ideal partner preferences and perceptions of partner availability over time. A clinic-recruited cohort of adolescent females (N = 92), aged 1619 years, were interviewed quarterly for 12 months using audio computer-assisted self-interview. Participants ranked the importance of characteristics for their ideal main sex partner and then reported on these characteristics for their current main partner. Participants reported on perceptions of availability of ideal sex partners in their neighborhood. Paired t-tests examined discordance between ideal and actual partner characteristics. Random-intercept regression models examined repeated measures. Actual partner ratings were lower than ideal partner preferences for fidelity, equaled ideal preferences for emotional support and exceeded ideal preferences for social/economic status and physical attractiveness. Discordance on emotional support and social/economic status was associated with sex partner concurrency. Participants perceived low availability of ideal sex partners. Those who perceived more availability were less likely to be ideal/actual discordant on fidelity [OR = .88, 95% CI: .78, 1.0]. Neither ideal partner preferences nor perceptions of partner availability changed over 12 months. Current main sex partners met or exceeded ideal partner preferences in all domains except fidelity. If emotional needs are met, adolescents may tolerate partner concurrency in areas of limited partner pools. Urban adolescent females who perceive low availability may be at increased risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI) because they may be more likely to have nonmonogamous partners. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Systematic analysis and comparison of the PHD-Finger gene family in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) and its role in fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yunpeng; Han, Yahui; Meng, Dandan; Abdullah, Muhammad; Li, Dahui; Jin, Qing; Lin, Yi; Cai, Yongping

    2018-04-20

    PHD-finger proteins, which belongs to the type of zinc finger family, and that play an important role in the regulation of both transcription and the chromatin state in eukaryotes. Currently, PHD-finger proteins have been well studied in animals, while few studies have been carried out on their function in plants. In the present study, 129 non-redundant PHD-finger genes were identified from 5 Rosaceae species (pear, apple, strawberry, mei, and peach); among them, 31 genes were identified in pear. Subsequently, we carried out a bioinformatics analysis of the PHD-finger genes. Thirty-one PbPHD genes were divided into 7 subfamilies based on the phylogenetic analysis, which are consistent with the intron-exon and conserved motif analyses. In addition, we identified five segmental duplication events, implying that the segmental duplications might be a crucial role in the expansion of the PHD-finger gene family in pear. The microsynteny analysis of five Rosaceae species showed that there were independent duplication events in addition to the genome-wide duplication of the pear genome. Subsequently, ten expressed PHD-finger genes of pear fruit were identified using qRT-PCR, and one of these genes, PbPHD10, was identified as an important candidate gene for the regulation of lignin synthesis. Our research provides useful information for the further analysis of the function of PHD-finger gene family in pear.

  3. An Analysis of Gender Differences in Recent Earth and Space Science PhD Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesler, J.

    2001-12-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU) and the American Geological Institute (AGI) have been collecting data on recent PhDs in the geosciences for 5 years (1996-2000). The 1999-2000 PhD classes were combined for an increased sample size and analyzed for gender differences. Other than salary, place of employment, and job search methodology no differences were found. Females had salaries that were slightly lower than those of their male counterparts. This might be due to the fact that there are a greater number of female postdoctoral candidates 47% compared to males 40%. Place of employment tended to be similar with fewer women in industry and a higher number of recent female PhD graduates in the academic sector. Interestingly, men and women differed in the ways in which they found their first job. A higher percent of men reported they felt their advisor was helpful in their job search (52% for men and 50% for women). Women used electronic resources at a higher rate (17.3%) than men (12.1%) and 33.6% of the women felt their scientific society was helpful in their job search, compared to only 24.1% of the men.

  4. Pharmacoeconomics and outcomes research degree-granting PhD programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slejko, Julia F; Libby, Anne M; Nair, Kavita V; Valuck, Robert J; Campbell, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    Evidence is missing on showcasing current practices of degree programs specific to the field of pharmaceutical outcomes research. To measure current practices of pharmacoeconomics and outcomes research PhD programs in the United States and synthesize recommendations for improving the success of programs and prospective students. A 23-question online survey instrument was created and distributed to 32 program directors identified in the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research educational directory. Descriptive statistics summarized both the program characteristics (including observed and desired number of faculty and students) and training recommendations (traits of program and student success). Of 30 eligible programs that conferred a PhD in pharmacoeconomics, pharmaceutical outcomes research, or a related field, 16 respondents (53%) completed the survey. Seventy-five percent of respondents were located in a school of pharmacy. The average observed number of faculty (7.5) and students (11.5) was lower than the average desired numbers (8.1) and (14.7), respectively. Reputation of faculty research and a collaborative environment with other disciplines were rated highest for a program's success. Faculty's mentoring experience and reputation and student funding opportunities were rated highest for prospective students' success. Existing and emerging programs as well as prospective students can use these findings to further their chances of success. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [PhD theses on gerontological topics in Russia 1995-2012: scientometric analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smol'kin, A A; Makarova, E A

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a scientometric analysis of PhD theses on gerontological topics in Russian humanities (excluding economics) for the period from 1995 to 2012. During this period, 253 PhD theses (238 of "candidate dissertations," and 15 of "doctoral dissertations") were defended in Russia. Almost half of them were defended during the boom years (2005-2006; 2009-2010). The number of theses defended in the 2000-s has increased significantly compared to the second half of 1990-s. However for gerontological PhD-s overall as a percentage of all theses defended in Russian humanities, the number hardly changed and remained small (less than 0.3%). The leading discipline in the study of aging (within the humanities) is sociology accounting for more than a third of all defended theses. Though the theses were defended in 48 cities, more than half of them were defended in 3 cities, which are Moscow, St. Petersburg and Saratov. Thematic analysis showed that the leading position was occupied by two topics: "the elderly and the state" (42%) and "(re)socialization/adaptation of the elderly" (25%). 14% of the works are devoted to intergenerational relations and social status of the elderly. Other topics (old man/woman's personality, self-perceptions of aging, violence and crime against the elderly, loneliness, discrimination, etc.) are presented by very few studies.

  6. Next gen PhD a guide to career paths in science

    CERN Document Server

    Sinche, Melanie V

    2016-01-01

    For decades, top scientists in colleges and universities pursued a clear path to success: enroll in a prestigious graduate program, conduct research, publish papers, complete the PhD, pursue postdoctoral work. With perseverance and a bit of luck, a tenure-track professorship awaited at the end. In today s academic job market, this scenario represents the exception. As the number of newly conferred science PhDs keeps rising, the number of tenured professorships remains stubbornly stagnant. Only 14 percent of those with PhDs in science occupy tenure-track positions five years after completing their degree. Next Gen PhD provides a frank and up-to-date assessment of the current career landscape facing science PhDs. Nonfaculty careers once considered Plan B are now preferred by the majority of degree holders, says Melanie Sinche. An upper-level science degree is a prized asset in the eyes of many employers, and a majority of science PhDs build rewarding careers both inside and outside the university. A certified ...

  7. First ‘Gentner Doktor’ finishes PhD at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Jordan Juras

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the CERN Doctoral Student Programme saw the addition of the Gentner Doctoral Student Programme, named in honour of the celebrated nuclear physicist, Wolfgang Gentner. Four years later, on 22 June 2011, Marcel Schuh finished his PhD with a thesis in the field of accelerator technology and became the very first ‘Gentner Doktor’.   Marcel Schuh, first 'Gentner Doktor', celebrates completing his PhD. (Photo by Carsten P. Welsch) Marcel Schuh became a Gentner student in April 2008, after completing a physics degree in 2007 at the University of Heidelberg. His thesis allowed him to gain exposure to CERN and the LHC, as he worked on monitoring and control systems for trigger and readout electronics on the ALICE detector at the LHC. With the support of university supervisor, Carsten P. Welsch, Schuh applied for a Gentner Doctoral Studentship on the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) project. “My task was to evaluate whether dedicated higher order mode (HOM) coupler...

  8. Empirical Essays on the Labor Market Outcomes of PhD Graduates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Heidi Skovgaard

    that PhDs accelerate growth. A major objective has been to direct more PhDs to the industry to use their skills to monetize knowledge. However, we have limited evidence on how PhDs are absorbed into the labor market, how the market values PhD labor, and how PhDs value the possibility to work......During the past decade, policy makers have accentuated the need for more PhDs to drive innovation and use their research skills to push the technological frontier. The public sector in Denmark has financially supported a doubling of the number of enrolled PhD students based on a strong belief...... in the private sector. The dissertation investigates determinants of labor market decisions among recent cohorts of PhDs in Denmark to assess how the increasing number of PhDs is absorbed into the economy. Based on econometric models, it examines what factors trigger individual career decisions and supply...

  9. Internationalization Impact on PhD Training Policy in Russia: Insights from The Comparative Document Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Chigisheva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study is due to the need for an objective picture of the Russian third level tertiary education transformation driven by internationalization issues and global trends in education. The article provides an analytical comparative review of the official documents related to the main phases of education reform in Russia and focuses on the system of PhD training which has undergone significant reorganization in recent years. A series of alterations introduced into the theory and practice of postgraduate education in Russia are traced in regulatory documents and interpreted in terms of growing internationalization demand. Possible implications for further development of the research human potential in Russia are being discussed. The method of comparative document analysis produces the best possible insight into the subject. The findings of the study contribute to the understanding of current challenges facing the system of doctoral studies in Russia and lead to certain conclusions on the transformation of educational policy in relation to PhD training under the influence of internationalization agenda.

  10. Partner notification of sexually transmitted diseases: practices and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursahaney, Priya R; Jeong, Kwonho; Dixon, Bruce W; Wiesenfeld, Harold C

    2011-09-01

    Timely notification and treatment of sex partners exposed to a sexually transmitted disease (STD) is essential to reduce reinfection and transmission. Our objectives were to determine factors associated with patient-initiated notification of sex partners and preferences regarding standard partner referral versus expedited partner therapy (EPT). Participants diagnosed with gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, or nongonococcal urethritis within the previous year were administered a baseline survey asking about demographics, sexual history, and partner treatment preferences (standard partner referral vs. EPT). They identified up to 4 sex partners within the past 2 months, and answered questions on relationship characteristics, quality, and notification self-efficacy. At follow-up, participants with a current STD were asked whether they notified their partners. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the associations between predictor variables and partner notification. Of the 201 subjects enrolled, 157 had a current STD diagnosis, and 289 sex partners were identified. The rate of successful partner notification was 77.3% (157/203 sex partners). Partner notification was increased if the subject had a long-term relationship with a sex partner (odds ratio: 3.07; 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 6.58), considered the partner to be a main partner (odds ratio: 2.53; 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 6.58), or had increased notification self-efficacy. Overall, participants did not prefer EPT over standard referral; however, females, those with higher education levels, and those with a prior STD preferred EPT. Patient-initiated partner referral is more successful in patients with increased self-efficacy who have stronger interpersonal relationships with their sex partners.

  11. Partner dependency and intimate partner abuse: A sociocultural grounding of spousal abuse in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2015-01-01

    While sociocultural scholarship has attempted an ecological explanation of intimate partner violence, it has largely been criticized for ignoring dispositional factors of both perpetrators and victims. Dependent personality and attachment-related emotional problems have been implicated in the ext......While sociocultural scholarship has attempted an ecological explanation of intimate partner violence, it has largely been criticized for ignoring dispositional factors of both perpetrators and victims. Dependent personality and attachment-related emotional problems have been implicated...... of dependency and attachment-related spousal violence as a form of a psychopathology. This article discusses partner dependency and jealousy-motivated spousal violence as socioculturally situated, dependent on contextual and relational conditions of meaning embedded in the communal society of Ghana....... It highlights Ghanaian communal personality, gendered socialization and meaning systems of marriage as salient sociocultural features for conceptualizing partner dependency and emotional-related spousal violence....

  12. Ants use partner specific odors to learn to recognize a mutualistic partner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru K Hojo

    Full Text Available Regulation via interspecific communication is an important for the maintenance of many mutualisms. However, mechanisms underlying the evolution of partner communication are poorly understood for many mutualisms. Here we show, in an ant-lycaenid butterfly mutualism, that attendant ants selectively learn to recognize and interact cooperatively with a partner. Workers of the ant Pristomyrmex punctatus learn to associate cuticular hydrocarbons of mutualistic Narathura japonica caterpillars with food rewards and, as a result, are more likely to tend the caterpillars. However, the workers do not learn to associate the cuticular hydrocarbons of caterpillars of a non-ant-associated lycaenid, Lycaena phlaeas, with artificial food rewards. Chemical analysis revealed cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of the mutualistic caterpillars were complex compared with those of non-ant-associated caterpillars. Our results suggest that partner-recognition based on partner-specific chemical signals and cognitive abilities of workers are important mechanisms underlying the evolution and maintenance of mutualism with ants.

  13. Number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness predict sexual victimization: do more partners equal more risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Dave P; Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies, number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness were examined as independent risk factors for sexual victimization among college women. Using a sample of 335 college women, this study examined the interaction of number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness on verbal sexual coercion and rape. Approximately 32% of the sample reported unwanted sexual intercourse, 6.9% (n = 23) experienced verbal sexual coercion, 17.9% (n = 60) experienced rape, and 7.2% (n = 24) experienced both. As number of sexual partners increased, instances of verbal sexual coercion increased for women low in relational sexual assertiveness but not for women high in relational sexual assertiveness. A similar relationship was not found for rape. Among women who experienced both verbal sexual coercion and rape, increases in number of partners in the context of low refusal and relational assertiveness were associated with increases in verbal sexual coercion and rape. Findings suggest sexual assertiveness is related to fewer experiences of sexual coercion.

  14. Discrepant Alcohol Use, Intimate Partner Violence, and Relationship Adjustment among Lesbian Women and their Relationship Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Lewis, Robin J; Mason, Tyler B

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the association between relationship adjustment and discrepant alcohol use among lesbian women and their same-sex intimate partners after controlling for verbal and physical aggression. Lesbian women ( N = 819) who were members of online marketing research panels completed an online survey in which they reported both their own and same-sex intimate partner's alcohol use, their relationship adjustment, and their own and their partner's physical aggression and psychological aggression (i.e., verbal aggression and dominance/isolation). Partners' alcohol use was moderately correlated. Discrepancy in alcohol use was associated with poorer relationship adjustment after controlling for psychological aggression and physical aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the similarity and differences with previous literature primarily focused on heterosexual couples.

  15. Designing Comprehensive Partnering Agreements : An Introduction to the Partnering Agreement Scorecard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Pfisterer (Stella); N. Payandeh (Nasim); S. Reid

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAgreements are a key mechanism of partnerships because their role is to govern interactions. They help partnerships become more effective by allowing partners to cope with relational, performance and situational risks that characterise inter-organisational relationships. The

  16. Children's Exposure to Partner Violence in Homes Where Men Seek Help for Partner Violence Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Emily M; Hines, Denise A

    2016-05-01

    In the last several decades, the field of family violence has paid increasing attention to children's exposure to partner violence (CEPV). Most of this research has focused on the children of women seeking help for partner violence (PV) victimization. In this paper we examine exposure to PV among children of men who sought help for PV victimization ( n =408), as compared with children of men in a population-based sample ( n =666). We examined children's exposure to psychological, physical, and sexual PV and also examined CEPV that is perpetrated by women, men, or both partners. The results show that CEPV is higher among children of helpseeking men than among children of men from the population-based sample, and that most of that PV is perpetrated by the female partner. We did not find differences in CEPV based in child age or gender. We discuss implications for the field of family violence professionals.

  17. Partner dependence and sexual risk behavior among STI clinic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P; Vanable, Peter A; Coury-Doniger, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relation between partner dependence and sexual risk behavior in the context of the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model. STI clinic patients (n = 1432) completed a computerized interview assessing partner dependence, condom use, and IMB variables. Men had higher partner-dependence scores than women did. Patients reporting greater dependence reported less condom use. Gender did not moderate the partner dependence-condom-use relationship. Partner dependence did not moderate the relation between IMB constructs and condom use. Further research is needed to determine how partner dependence can be incorporated into conceptual models of safer sex behaviors.

  18. COMPARISON OF RESEARCH ENGAGEMENT OF PHD STUDENTS AT VARIOUS STUDY PROGRAMS AT CULS PRAGUE: AN INTRODUCTORY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÉGL, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to improve the quality of doctoral studies and the satisfaction of PhD students at the Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS Prague the authors disseminated online questionnaire among all PhD students in May and June 2014. The questionnaire covered areas related to doctoral study, PhD supervisors, doctoral scholarship, research publications, and last but not least, to satisfaction with the doctoral study. In this article responses related to research, such as allocation of time to doctoral studies, allocation of time to research, involvement in research projects and satisfaction with research outputs. The authors provide comparison of all above mentioned domains according to faculties as well as form of doctoral studies at CULS Prague.

  19. Short Hairpin RNA Silencing of PHD-2 Improves Neovascularization and Functional Outcomes in Diabetic Wounds and Ischemic Limbs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Paik

    Full Text Available The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α is responsible for the downstream expression of over 60 genes that regulate cell survival and metabolism in hypoxic conditions as well as those that enhance angiogenesis to alleviate hypoxia. However, under normoxic conditions, HIF-1α is hydroxylated by prolyl hydroxylase 2, and subsequently degraded, with a biological half-life of less than five minutes. Here we investigated the therapeutic potential of inhibiting HIF-1α degradation through short hairpin RNA silencing of PHD-2 in the setting of diabetic wounds and limb ischemia. Treatment of diabetic mouse fibroblasts with shPHD-2 in vitro resulted in decreased levels of PHD-2 transcript demonstrated by qRT-PCR, higher levels of HIF-1α as measured by western blot, and higher expression of the downstream angiogenic genes SDF-1 and VEGFα, as measured by qRT-PCR. In vivo, shPHD-2 accelerated healing of full thickness excisional wounds in diabetic mice compared to shScr control, (14.33 ± 0.45 days vs. 19 ± 0.33 days and was associated with an increased vascular density. Delivery of shPHD-2 also resulted in improved perfusion of ischemic hind limbs compared to shScr, prevention of distal digit tip necrosis, and increased survival of muscle tissue. Knockdown of PHD-2 through shRNA treatment has the potential to stimulate angiogenesis through overexpression of HIF-1α and upregulation of pro-angiogenic genes downstream of HIF-1α, and may represent a viable, non-viral approach to gene therapy for ischemia related applications.

  20. The Road to Become a Legitimate Scholar: A Case Study of International PhD Students in Science and Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Bøgelund

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the doctoral education process is to create and legitimize scholarly researchers. This transformation, from student to scholar, is widely discussed in the literature. However, recent rapid changes in university culture have resulted in less time for supervision, stricter completion deadlines, and a greater focus on efficiency and productivity. This has had an impact on this transition process, and this impact has not been widely studied. The aim of this article is to understand the consequences of the current trends for PhD students and the education of PhD students in general. The article is based on interviews with 14 international students from two different research programs at the Faculty of Engineering and Science at Aalborg University in Denmark. The case of international PhD students in a western setting is singled out as a challenging case for becoming a legitimate scholar, since they face the additional challenge of becoming socialised into their new foreign setting. Overall, the study concludes that the transition process of doctoral students is affected by the way different supervisors deal with current university trends and how PhD students fit or do not fit into their knowledge production practices. The study identifies matches or mismatches in a knowledge production perspective, quality of contact, and degree of independence of the PhD student as factors that influence whether a transition process can be marked as sound, troublesome, or lacking. Finally, the study identifies an overall risk of neglecting the more interdependent types of international PhD students. Suggestions are given as how to address this risk.

  1. Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy and Postpartum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This longitudinal investigation examined potential risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women during pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. Methods A sample of 180 pregnant women was collected in order to investigate 1) whether associations between partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, partner suspicion of infidelity, and stress were associated with IPV victimization, 2) the indirect effects of alcohol misuse on these relationships, and 3) factors related to changes in IPV victimization over time. Results At baseline, partner alcohol misuse was associated with each type of IPV victimization and the combination of partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, and partner suspicion of infidelity was most strongly associated with severe physical victimization. Partner alcohol misuse mediated the relationship between partner jealousy and psychological and severe physical victimization. At follow-up, partner jealousy and stress were related to women’s psychological victimization and partner alcohol misuse was related to women’s severe physical victimization. Conclusions Findings suggest that partner alcohol misuse is a risk factor for women’s IPV victimization during pregnancy and jealousy and stress may increase risk for some types of IPV. Findings also suggest that intervention should target parents early in pregnancy in order to reduce the risk for future IPV. PMID:23053216

  2. Risk factors for intimate partner violence during pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmuth, Julianne C; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Stuart, Gregory L; Moore, Todd M

    2013-02-01

    This longitudinal investigation examined potential risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women during pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. A sample of 180 pregnant women was collected in order to investigate (1) whether associations between partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, partner suspicion of infidelity, and stress were associated with IPV victimization; (2) the indirect effects of alcohol misuse on these relationships; and (3) factors related to changes in IPV victimization over time. At baseline, partner alcohol misuse was associated with each type of IPV victimization and the combination of partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, and partner suspicion of infidelity was most strongly associated with severe physical victimization. Partner alcohol misuse mediated the relationship between partner jealousy and psychological and severe physical victimization. At follow-up, partner jealousy and stress were related to women's psychological victimization and partner alcohol misuse was related to women's severe physical victimization. Findings suggest that partner alcohol misuse is a risk factor for women's IPV victimization during pregnancy and jealousy and that stress may increase risk for some types of IPV. Findings also suggest that intervention should target parents early in pregnancy in order to reduce the risk for future IPV.

  3. Emerging areas of nursing science and PhD education for the 21(st) century: response to commentaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henly, Susan J; McCarthy, Donna O; Wyman, Jean F; Alt-White, Anna C; Stone, Patricia W; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Redeker, Nancy S; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Titler, Marita G; Conley, Yvette P; Heitkemper, Margaret M; Moore, Shirley M

    2015-01-01

    We respond to commentaries from the American Academy of Nursing, the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, and the National Institute of Nursing Research on our thoughts about integrating emerging areas of science into nursing PhD programs. We identify areas of agreement and focus our response on cross-cutting issues arising from cautions about the unique focus of nursing science and how best to proceed with incorporation of emerging areas of science into nursing PhD programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Customizing Process to Align with Purpose and Program: The 2003 MS PHD'S in Ocean Sciences Program Evaluative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, V. A.; Pyrtle, A. J.

    2004-12-01

    How did the 2003 Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) in Ocean Sciences Program customize evaluative methodology and instruments to align with program goals and processes? How is data captured to document cognitive and affective impact? How are words and numbers utilized to accurately illustrate programmatic outcomes? How is compliance with implicit and explicit funding regulations demonstrated? The 2003 MS PHD'S in Ocean Sciences Program case study provides insightful responses to each of these questions. MS PHD'S was developed by and for underrepresented minorities to facilitate increased and sustained participation in Earth system science. Key components of this initiative include development of a community of scholars sustained by face-to-face and virtual mentoring partnerships; establishment of networking activities between and among undergraduate, graduate, postgraduate students, scientists, faculty, professional organization representatives, and federal program officers; and provision of forums to address real world issues as identified by each constituent group. The evaluative case study of the 2003 MS PHD'S in Ocean Sciences Program consists of an analysis of four data sets. Each data set was aligned to document progress in the achievement of the following program goals: Goal 1: The MS PHD'S Ocean Sciences Program will successfully market, recruit, select, and engage underrepresented student and non-student participants with interest/ involvement in Ocean Sciences; Goal 2: The MS PHD'S Ocean Sciences Program will provide meaningful engagement for participants as determined by quantitative analysis of user-feedback; Goal 3: The MS PHD'S Ocean Sciences Program will provide meaningful engagement for participants as determined by qualitative analysis of user-feedback, and; Goal 4: The MS PHD'S Ocean Sciences Program will develop a constituent base adequate to demonstrate evidence of interest, value, need and sustainability in

  5. The Market for Ph.D. Holders in Greece: Probit and Multinomial Logit Analysis of their Employment Status

    OpenAIRE

    Joan Daouli; Eirini Konstantina Nikolatou

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the factors influencing the probability that a Ph.D. holder in Greece will work in the academic sector, as well as the probability of his or her choosing employment in various sectors of industry and occupational categories. Probit/multinomial logit models are employed using the 2001 Census data. The empirical results indicate that being young, married, having a Ph.D. in Natural Sciences and/or in Engineering, granted by a Greek university, increa...

  6. Mrica Hydroelectric Project: a study in partnering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loraine, R.K.; Bannmark, O.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the contractual and financial aspects of the Mrica Project. Of particular interest is the high degree of cooperation that developed between the various parties, and the effect this had on the progress and completion of the project. This relationship had its origin in the need to make the best use of the relatively scarce funds available. It was vitally important that problems were solved jointly and that costs did not escalate as a result of confrontation between the parties. In this respect, the project was an early manifestation of the contractual relationship now called partnering, and the procedures adopted at Mrica are very similar to those now widely used in partnering contracts. The paper is therefore structured to identify and analyse the key elements of co-operation, and their impact on both the negotiation of the contracts and the completion of the works. (Author)

  7. Are human resource professionals strategic business partners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiu, Randy; Selmer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical speculations and prescriptive discussions abound in the literature regarding the strategic importance of human resource management. However, evidence based on rigorous empirical studies that the transformation from an administrative service function to strategic partnership has taken...... place has been less pervasive. Based on a sample of CEOs, line managers and HR executives, this study applies both a quantitative and a qualitative approach to examine the research question whether HR professionals are strategic business partners. Although the overall quantitative results provided...... a weak support for an affirmative answer to the research question, quantitative analyses and the qualitative findings revealed that while HR executives regarded themselves as strategic business partners, CEOs and line managers were not sure that they played this strategic business role. Plausible...

  8. Windpump commercialisation: assistance to existing partners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    This project provided support and assistance to small and medium-sized enterprise collaborators in developing countries to progress the manufacture of a new wind pump design from a prototype to a commercially viable unit, through testing and assessment and market development issues. The project has:-produced a complete wind pump design package, including additional components and an investigation into alternative pump suppliers; undertaken local market study/assessments; produced a preliminary publicity brochure; gained operational experience in partner countries. (author)

  9. Unperceived intimate partner violence and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonego, Michela; Gandarillas, Ana; Zorrilla, Belén; Lasheras, Luisa; Pires, Marisa; Anes, Ana; Ordobás, María

    2013-01-01

    Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) often do not perceive themselves as abused. This study sought to estimate the health effects of unperceived IPV (uIPV), taking violence-free women as the reference, and to compare the effects of uIPV with those of perceived IPV (pIPV). We performed a cross-sectional population study through telephone interviews of 2835 women aged 18 to 70 years living in the region of Madrid and having an ongoing intimate partner relationship or contact with a former partner in the preceding year. Based on 26 questions from the Conflict Tactics Scale-1 and the Enquête Nacional sur les Violences envers les Femmes en France and the question "Do you feel abused by your partner?" a variable was constructed in three categories, namely, the absence of IPV, uIPV and pIPV. Using logistic regression, we analyzed the association between health problems, medication use, health-service utilization and IPV (perceived and unperceived) vis-à-vis the absence of IPV. There were 247 cases of uIPV and 96 of pIPV (prevalences of 8.8% and 3.4%, respectively). The multivariate analysis showed that a substantial number of the outcomes explored were associated with uIPV, pIPV, or both. The highest odds ratios (ORs) were obtained for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9≥10) (uIPV: OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.4-3.8; and pIPV: 4.1, 95%CI 2.5-6.8). In most problems, the ORs did not significantly differ between the two types of IPV. uIPV is 2.6 times more frequent than pIPV and is associated with at least as many health problems as pIPV. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. [Partner violence: women trust health professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burquier, Raphaelle; Hofner, Marie-Claude; Cepedes, Mia; Adjaho, Maria-Théresa; Hohlfeld, Patrick; Renteria, Saira-Christine

    2010-03-10

    In 2008, the department of gynaecology and obstetrics of a university hospital centre implemented a program addressing interpersonal partner violence (screening, prevention and care of the patient victims). A qualitative survey was conducted to identify the needs and feelings of patients. The results show that patients are in favour of being actively and directly questioned about violence during the consultation and that they trust medical doctors and nurses to help and support them.

  11. [Intimate partner violence: study with female nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Borrego, María Aurora; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel; Bertagnolli, Liana; Muñoz-Gomariz, Elisa; Redondo-Pedraza, Rosa; Muñoz-Alonso, Adoración

    2011-08-01

    Describe gender-based violence by intimate partners against female nurses in a sample of nurses in Andalucia, Spain. Descriptive transversal study. Hospitals and primary health care districts in Andalucia. Six hundred and twenty-two female nurses that work as nurses in the eight provinces in Andalucia (Spain). Social-demographic characteristics and presence of abuse (psychological, physical and sexual). 78.5% of the nurses were married or with a regular partner and had the economic income based on both salaries; 71.1% had a child or an elderly dependent person. It was proved that there can be a statistical association between abuse and: marital status; life together; familiar economic support and children and/or dependent elderly person. The average age was 42.5±8.1 years old (22-62 years) and presented statistical age differences comparing both groups: abused (average 44 years) and non-abused (average 41.8 years). Between the married couples studied, 21.7% of them belong to the social class I and 16.9% to the social class II. Between all studied nurses, 33.0% suffered abuse, among which 75.1% were psychologically abused. Of all the abuse cases 60% were less severe and 40% more serious. It was confirmed the presence of intimate partner violence (IPV) against nurses, which was predominantly psychological abuse, but others classes of abuse were present too. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevc, Christine A; Retrum, Jessica H; Varda, Danielle M

    2015-10-05

    Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162), to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG) models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships.

  13. PCNA Structure and Interactions with Partner Proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Oke, Muse; Zaher, Manal S.; Hamdan, Samir

    2018-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) consists of three identical monomers that topologically encircle double-stranded DNA. PCNA stimulates the processivity of DNA polymerase δ and, to a less extent, the intrinsically highly processive DNA polymerase ε. It also functions as a platform that recruits and coordinates the activities of a large number of DNA processing proteins. Emerging structural and biochemical studies suggest that the nature of PCNA-partner proteins interactions is complex. A hydrophobic groove at the front side of PCNA serves as a primary docking site for the consensus PIP box motifs present in many PCNA-binding partners. Sequences that immediately flank the PIP box motif or regions that are distant from it could also interact with the hydrophobic groove and other regions of PCNA. Posttranslational modifications on the backside of PCNA could add another dimension to its interaction with partner proteins. An encounter of PCNA with different DNA structures might also be involved in coordinating its interactions. Finally, the ability of PCNA to bind up to three proteins while topologically linked to DNA suggests that it would be a versatile toolbox in many different DNA processing reactions.

  14. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Bevc

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162, to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships.

  15. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevc, Christine A.; Retrum, Jessica H.; Varda, Danielle M.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162), to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG) models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships. PMID:26445053

  16. PCNA Structure and Interactions with Partner Proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Oke, Muse

    2018-01-29

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) consists of three identical monomers that topologically encircle double-stranded DNA. PCNA stimulates the processivity of DNA polymerase δ and, to a less extent, the intrinsically highly processive DNA polymerase ε. It also functions as a platform that recruits and coordinates the activities of a large number of DNA processing proteins. Emerging structural and biochemical studies suggest that the nature of PCNA-partner proteins interactions is complex. A hydrophobic groove at the front side of PCNA serves as a primary docking site for the consensus PIP box motifs present in many PCNA-binding partners. Sequences that immediately flank the PIP box motif or regions that are distant from it could also interact with the hydrophobic groove and other regions of PCNA. Posttranslational modifications on the backside of PCNA could add another dimension to its interaction with partner proteins. An encounter of PCNA with different DNA structures might also be involved in coordinating its interactions. Finally, the ability of PCNA to bind up to three proteins while topologically linked to DNA suggests that it would be a versatile toolbox in many different DNA processing reactions.

  17. Neutrino Masses from Neutral Top Partners

    CERN Document Server

    Batell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We present theories of `Natural Neutrinos' in which neutral fermionic top partner fields are simultaneously the right-handed neutrinos (RHN), linking seemingly disparate aspects of the Standard Model structure: a) The RHN top partners are responsible for the observed small neutrino masses, b) They help ameliorate the tuning in the weak scale and address the little hierarchy problem, and c) The factor of $3$ arising from $N_c$ in the top-loop Higgs mass corrections is countered by a factor $3$ from the number of vector-like generations of RHN. The RHN top partners may arise in pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone-Boson (pNGB) Higgs models such as the Twin Higgs, as well as more general Composite, Little, and Orbifold Higgs scenarios, and three simple example models are presented. This framework firmly predicts a TeV-scale seesaw, as the RHN masses are bounded to be below the TeV scale by naturalness. The generation of light neutrino masses relies on a collective breaking of lepton number, allowing for comparatively large ne...

  18. On the Interpretation of Top Partners Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Matsedonskyi, Oleksii; Wulzer, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Relatively light Top Partners are unmistakable signatures of reasonably Natural Composite Higgs models and as such they are worth searching for at the LHC. Their phenomenology is characterized by a certain amount of model-dependence, which makes the interpretation of Top Partner experimental searches not completely straightforward especially if one is willing to take also single production into account. We describe a model-independent strategy by which the interpretation is provided on the parameter space of a Simplified Model that captures the relevant features of all the explicit constructions. The Simplified Model limits are easy to interpret within explicit models, in a way that requires no recasting and no knowledge of the experimental details of the analyses. We illustrate the method by concrete examples, among which the searches for a charge 5/3 Partner in same-sign dileptons and the searches for a charge 2/3 singlet. In each case we perform a theory recasting of the available 8 TeV Run-1 results and a...

  19. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey CDC’s National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally-representative telephone survey that collects detailed ...

  20. Knowledge, Perception and Level of Male Partner Involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    establishing the level of male partner involvement and influence of couple knowledge and perception on male involvement in choice of ... access to care and provision of emotional and ..... although the male partners are key decision makers.

  1. Validating the Outcome of Partnering on Major Capital Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-27

    Research on the mechanics of successful collaborative partnering in roadway construction is relatively scarce; however, there is general agreement that successful partnering can result in better budget and schedule control as well as increase safety ...

  2. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally representative survey to assess experiences of intimate partner violence,...

  3. Mannheim Partner D-Curves in the Euclidean 3-space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kazaz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the idea of Mannheim partner curves for curves lying on surfaces. By considering the Darboux frames of surface curves, we define Mannheim partner D-curves and give the characterizations for these curves. We also find the relations between geodesic curvatures, normal curvatures and geodesic torsions of these associated curves. Furthermore, we show that definition and characterizations of Mannheim partner D-curves include those of Mannheim partner curves in some special cases.

  4. Partner Selection Optimization Model of Agricultural Enterprises in Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Feipeng Guo; Qibei Lu

    2013-01-01

    With more and more importance of correctly selecting partners in supply chain of agricultural enterprises, a large number of partner evaluation techniques are widely used in the field of agricultural science research. This study established a partner selection model to optimize the issue of agricultural supply chain partner selection. Firstly, it constructed a comprehensive evaluation index system after analyzing the real characteristics of agricultural supply chain. Secondly, a heuristic met...

  5. Intimate Partner Violence in Nigeria Implications for Counselling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intimate partner violence is a social problem which continues to plague the nation. In the past, in many cultures, intimate partner violence was not viewed a serious problem. However, in recent years, it has begun to be viewed as a criminal problem. This paper explains the concepts of intimate partner violence. It discusses ...

  6. Effect of male partner's support on spousal modern contraception in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Male partner hindrances and costs of contraceptive or transportation to clinic are important in noncompliance. Male partner education, subsidized/free contraceptives and mobile/community services will improve compliance. Keywords: Female contraception; Male partner support; Spousal contraception ...

  7. 45 CFR 162.915 - Trading partner agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trading partner agreements. 162.915 Section 162... REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS General Provisions for Transactions § 162.915 Trading partner agreements. A covered entity must not enter into a trading partner agreement that would do any of the...

  8. Positive illusions about a partner's physical attractiveness and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, Dick P. H.; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    The present research examined the existence of positive illusions about a partner's physical attractiveness and its relations to relationship quality. Positive illusions were assumed to exist when individuals rated their partner as more attractive than their partner rated him or herself. In two

  9. Gathering and Using Information for the Selection of Trading Partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, E.J.; Douglas, S.P.; Calis, G.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the nature of the search process used by international firms in identifying trading partners in emerging markets, and to what extent systematic information collection on potential partners is likely to enhance the choice of satisfactory partners. The results, based on 46 Dutch companies,

  10. Researcher Profile: An Interview with John E. Grable, Ph.D., CFP(R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Grable

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available John E. Grable, Ph.D., CFP(R teaches and conducts research in the Certified Financial Planner(TM Board of Standards undergraduate and graduate programs at the University of Georgia. Prior to entering the academic profession, he worked as a pension/benefits administrator and later as a Registered Investment Advisor in an asset management firm. He served as the founding editor for the Journal of Personal Finance and as the co-founding editor of the Journal of Financial Therapy. His research interests include financial risk-tolerance assessment, psychophysiological economics, and financial planning help-seeking behavior. Dr. Grable has published nearly 100 peer-reviewed papers, co-authored two financial planning textbooks, and co-edited a financial planning and counseling scales book. He currently writes a quarterly column for the Journal of Financial Service Professionals, serves as academic consultant to the Journal of Financial Planning, and chair the CFP Board Council on Education.

  11. Sample Size and Saturation in PhD Studies Using Qualitative Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Mason

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues can affect sample size in qualitative research; however, the guiding principle should be the concept of saturation. This has been explored in detail by a number of authors but is still hotly debated, and some say little understood. A sample of PhD studies using qualitative approaches, and qualitative interviews as the method of data collection was taken from theses.com and contents analysed for their sample sizes. Five hundred and sixty studies were identified that fitted the inclusion criteria. Results showed that the mean sample size was 31; however, the distribution was non-random, with a statistically significant proportion of studies, presenting sample sizes that were multiples of ten. These results are discussed in relation to saturation. They suggest a pre-meditated approach that is not wholly congruent with the principles of qualitative research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100387

  12. Researcher Profile: An Interview with Virginia Solis Zuiker, Ph.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Solis Zuiker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Virginia Solis Zuiker is an Associate Professor in the Department of Family Social Science at the University of Minnesota. She teaches courses on personal and family finance, family financial counseling, family resource management, economic perspectives of families, and family decision-making. Her scholarly research focus is in the area of economic well-being of families with particular interest in self-employment and family-owned businesses. Her research focuses on the Hispanic family life and she is the author of “Hispanic Self-Employment in the Southwest: Rising Above the Threshold of Poverty,” (Garland Publishing, 1997. She received her B.S. from the University of North Texas, an M.S. from Texas Tech University, and a Ph.D. from The Ohio State University. She served three years on the Board of Directors for the Association of Financial Counseling and Planning Education.

  13. Researcher Profile: An Interview with Sonya Britt, Ph.D., CFP, AFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Britt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sonya Britt, Ph.D., CFP, AFC graduated from Texas Tech University in 2010 with a doctorate in Personal Financial Planning. Her first two degrees are from Kansas State University in Personal Financial Planning (B.S. and Marriage and Family Therapy (M.S.. and she was the founding president of the Financial Therapy Association and recently retired from the board as past-president. She currently serves on the board of the American Council on Consumer Interests association. Sonya is an associate editor for the Journal of Family and Economic Issues and on the editorial board of the Journal of Financial Therapy and on the international scientific board of the Italian Journal of Sociology of Education.

  14. Investigator profile. An interview with Salvador Contreras Balderas, Ph.D. Interview by Vicki Glaser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Balderas, Salvador

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Contreras Balderas is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Biology at Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Monterrey, Mexico). He received a Master's degree and Ph.D. in Biological Sciences from Tulane University (New Orleans, LA) and wrote his dissertation on Ichthyology. He was awarded the President's Excellence Award of the American Fisheries Society. Dr. Contreras Balderas is Founder, President, and Honorary Member of the Mexican Society of Zoology, the Ichthyological Society of Mexico, and the Desert Fishes Council, is an ex-officio member of the Coalition for the Sustainable Development of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, U.S. & Mexico, and is a member of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife's Rio Grande Fishes Recovery Team. Dr. Contreras Balderas's areas of expertise include fish faunas, fishes at risk, exotic species, aquatic restoration, environmental impacts as detected by fishes, integral conservation, integral basin/ecosystem management, and ecological evaluation of integrity in basins.

  15. Instructors of psychotherapy in M.A. and Ph.D. clinical programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, H B

    1996-08-01

    The present study investigated the characteristics and orientations of the instructors of the initial psychotherapy course of the 44 members and affiliates of the Council of Applied Master's Programs in Psychology. Also examined were the focus of instruction in the course and the teachers' style of instruction. Responses for 26 completed surveys (58%) were compared with responses from instructors of initial psychotherapy courses in 69 of the 170 APA accredited doctoral programs. Five general theoretical orientations were represented by the M.A. instructors with 28% self-identifying as humanistic, 24% as dynamic, 20% as cognitive behavioral, 16% as interpersonal, and 12% as behavioral. No significant differences were found on demographic characteristics, theoretical orientation, focus of instruction, or method of instruction between instructors in M.A. and those in Ph.D. programs.

  16. Do PhD supervisors play a role in bridging academic cultures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliot, Dely; Kobayashi, Sofie

    Our study reports a phenomenological investigation of ten international PhD students’ and nine supervisors’ first-hand experience of being in doctoral supervisory relationships in a Danish setting. In-depth qualitative data were gathered through face-to-face individual interviews, which explored...... differences and challenges experienced as a result of diversity with respect to their educational background and practices, particularly the pedagogic variation. In the same way that the literature suggests that educators play a crucial role in mediating such diversity in the teaching and learning contexts...... relationship (that crosses over academic and non-academic concerns) and the distinct role it plays deserves further attention. Cotterall, S. (2013). More than just a brain: emotions and the doctoral experience. Higher Education Research & Development, 1-14. Wright, T. (2003). Postgraduate research students...

  17. Are MS in Economics Programs in Departments That Also Have a PhD Program in Economics Different from Their Counterparts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkman, Martin I.; Marjadi, Riza; McCoy, James P.

    2016-01-01

    This is the first article that compares terminal master's degree programs in economics from universities that have a PhD program in economics with those that do not offer PhD programs in economics. The authors compare these differences based on surveys in 2002 and 2012. They examine differences in general program characteristics, department…

  18. Determinants of the Job Satisfaction of PhD Holders: An Analysis by Gender, Employment Sector, and Type of Satisfaction in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escardíbul, Josep-Oriol; Afcha, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the determinants of job satisfaction of PhD holders in Spain. Specifically, we consider overall job satisfaction as well as basic and motivational satisfaction, following Herzberg's typology (based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs). Using representative data for Spain's PhD population--collected from the Spanish Survey on Human Resources…

  19. Serving Many Masters: The PhD on the Labour Market, the Everlasting Need of Inequality, and the Premature Death of Humboldt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Jurgen

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed German doctoral degree holders to examine the processes and outcomes of doctoral training and their impact on subsequent careers and work affiliations. Found a positive outcome of the Ph.D. on the labor market, and that selection for doctoral training is biased by social origin while later career attainment among Ph.D. holders is not. (EV)

  20. What Matters for Excellence in PhD Programs? Latent Constructs of Doctoral Program Quality Used by Early Career Social Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Emory; Rudd, Elizabeth; Zumeta, William; Nerad, Maresi

    2011-01-01

    This paper unpacks how social science doctorate-holders come to evaluate overall excellence in their PhD training programs based on their domain-specific assessments of aspects of their programs. Latent class analysis reveals that social scientists 6-10 years beyond their PhD evaluate the quality of their doctoral program with one of two…