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Sample records for antisense oligonucleotide targeting

  1. Advances in Antisense Oligonucleotide Development for Target Identification, Validation, and as Novel Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moizza Mansoor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisense oligonucleotides (As-ODNs are single stranded, synthetically prepared strands of deoxynucleotide sequences, usually 18–21 nucleotides in length, complementary to the mRNA sequence of the target gene. As-ODNs are able to selectively bind cognate mRNA sequences by sequence-specific hybridization. This results in cleavage or disablement of the mRNA and, thus, inhibits the expression of the target gene. The specificity of the As approach is based on the probability that, in the human genome, any sequence longer than a minimal number of nucleotides (nt, 13 for RNA and 17 for DNA, normally occurs only once. The potential applications of As-ODNs are numerous because mRNA is ubiquitous and is more accessible to manipulation than DNA. With the publication of the human genome sequence, it has become theoretically possible to inhibit mRNA of almost any gene by As-ODNs, in order to get a better understanding of gene function, investigate its role in disease pathology and to study novel therapeutic targets for the diseases caused by dysregulated gene expression. The conceptual simplicity, the availability of gene sequence information from the human genome, the inexpensive availability of synthetic oligonucleotides and the possibility of rational drug design makes As-ODNs powerful tools for target identification, validation and therapeutic intervention. In this review we discuss the latest developments in antisense oligonucleotide design, delivery, pharmacokinetics and potential side effects, as well as its uses in target identification and validation, and finally focus on the current developments of antisense oligonucleotides in therapeutic intervention in various diseases.

  2. Antisense Oligonucleotides Internally Labeled with Peptides Show Improved Target Recognition and Stability to Enzymatic Degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskova, Maria; Madsen, Charlotte S.; Jensen, Knud J.

    2017-01-01

    Specific target binding and stability in diverse biological media is of crucial importance for applications of synthetic oligonucleotides as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. So far, these issues have been addressed by chemical modification of oligonucleotides and by conjugation with a peptide, m...... and makes internally labeled POCs an exciting object of study, i.e., showing high target specificity and simultaneous stability in biological media.......Specific target binding and stability in diverse biological media is of crucial importance for applications of synthetic oligonucleotides as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. So far, these issues have been addressed by chemical modification of oligonucleotides and by conjugation with a peptide......, most often at the terminal position of the oligonucleotide. Herein, we for the first time systematically investigate the influence of internally attached short peptides on the properties of antisense oligonucleotides. We report the synthesis and internal double labeling of 21-mer oligonucleotides...

  3. Polymerase-endonuclease amplification reaction (PEAR for large-scale enzymatic production of antisense oligonucleotides.

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    Xiaolong Wang

    Full Text Available Antisense oligonucleotides targeting microRNAs or their mRNA targets prove to be powerful tools for molecular biology research and may eventually emerge as new therapeutic agents. Synthetic oligonucleotides are often contaminated with highly homologous failure sequences. Synthesis of a certain oligonucleotide is difficult to scale up because it requires expensive equipment, hazardous chemicals and a tedious purification process. Here we report a novel thermocyclic reaction, polymerase-endonuclease amplification reaction (PEAR, for the amplification of oligonucleotides. A target oligonucleotide and a tandem repeated antisense probe are subjected to repeated cycles of denaturing, annealing, elongation and cleaving, in which thermostable DNA polymerase elongation and strand slipping generate duplex tandem repeats, and thermostable endonuclease (PspGI cleavage releases monomeric duplex oligonucleotides. Each round of PEAR achieves over 100-fold amplification. The product can be used in one more round of PEAR directly, and the process can be further repeated. In addition to avoiding dangerous materials and improved product purity, this reaction is easy to scale up and amenable to full automation. PEAR has the potential to be a useful tool for large-scale production of antisense oligonucleotide drugs.

  4. Photodynamic antisense regulation of mRNA having a point mutation with psoralen-conjugated oligonucleotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Maiko; Yamayoshi, Asako; Kobori, Akio; Murakami, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based drugs, such as antisense oligonucleotide, ribozyme, and small interfering RNA, are specific compounds that inhibit gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. To develop more effective nucleic acid-based drugs, we focused on photo-reactive antisense oligonucleotides. We have optimized the structure of psoralen-conjugated oligonucleotide to improve their sequence selectivity and photo-crosslinking efficiency. Previously, we reported that photo reactive oligonucleotides containing 2'-O-psoralenyl-methoxyethyl adenosine (2'-Ps-eom) showed drastic photo-reactivity with a strictly sequence specific manner in vitro. In this report, we evaluated the binding ability toward intracellular target mRNA. The 2'-Ps-eom selectively photo-cross-linked to the target mRNA extracted from cells. The 2'-Ps-eom also cross-linked to target mRNA in cells. Furthermore, 2'-Ps-eom did not cross-link to mRNA having a mismatch base. These results suggest that 2'-Ps-eom is a powerful antisense molecule to inhibit the expression of mRNA having a point mutation.

  5. Review on investigations of antisense oligonucleotides with the use of mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studzińska, Sylwia

    2018-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides have been investigated as potential drugs for years. They inhibit target gene or protein expression. The present review summarizes their modifications, modes of action, and applications of liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for qualitative and quantitative analysis of these compounds. The most recent reports on a given topic were given prominence, while some early studies were reviewed in order to provide a theoretical background. The present review covers the issues of using ion-exchange chromatography, ion-pair reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and hydrophilic interaction chromatography for the separation of antisense oligonucleotides. The application of mass spectrometry was described with regard to the ionization type used for the determination of these potential therapeutics. Moreover, the current approaches and applications of mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of antisense oligonucleotides and their metabolites as well as their impurities during in vitro and in vivo studies were discussed. Finally, certain conclusions and perspectives on the determination of therapeutic oligonucleotides in various samples were briefly described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Advancements of antisense oligonucleotides in treatment of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGShuan-Ping; SONGSan-Tai; 等

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer is one kind of multi-gene related malignancy.Overexpression of some oncogenes such as HER-2(c-erbB-2,Neu),bcl-2/bcl-xL,protein kinase A(PKA),and transferrin receptor gene(TfR gene),etc significantly affect the prognosis of breast cancer.It was shown that specific suppression of the overexpressed genes above resulted in the improvement of the therapy of breast cancer.Antisense interference.one of useful tools for inhibiting the overexpression of specific oncogenes,was involved in the therapy of breast cancer in recent years. Data indicated that antisense oligonucleotides(ON)could inhibit specially the expression of the target genes on mRNA or protein levels in most of cases;some ON candidates showed encouraging therapeutic effects in vitro and in vivo on breast cancer cell lines or xenografts.Furthermore,the combination use of the antisense ON and normal chemotherapeutic agents indicated synergistic antitumor effects,which was probably the best utilization of antisense ON in the treatment of breast cancer.

  7. Fluorinated Nucleotide Modifications Modulate Allele Selectivity of SNP-Targeting Antisense Oligonucleotides

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    Michael E. Østergaard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs have the potential to discriminate between subtle RNA mismatches such as SNPs. Certain mismatches, however, allow ASOs to bind at physiological conditions and result in RNA cleavage mediated by RNase H. We showed that replacing DNA nucleotides in the gap region of an ASO with other chemical modification can improve allele selectivity. Herein, we systematically substitute every position in the gap region of an ASO targeting huntingtin gene (HTT with fluorinated nucleotides. Potency is determined in cell culture against mutant HTT (mtHTT and wild-type HTT (wtHTT mRNA and RNase H cleavage intensities, and patterns are investigated. This study profiled five different fluorinated nucleotides and showed them to have predictable, site-specific effects on RNase H cleavage, and the cleavage patterns were rationalized from a published X-ray structure of human RNase H1. The results herein can be used as a guide for future projects where ASO discrimination of SNPs is important.

  8. Technetium-99m labeled antisense oligonucleotide-noninvasive tumor imaging in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, G.M.; Zhang, Y.X.; An, R.; Gao, Z.R.; Cao, W.; Cao, G.X.; Hnatowich, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Single-stranded RNA and DNA oligonucleotides may be useful as radiopharmaceuticals for antisense and other in vivo applications if convenient methods for stably attaching radionuclides such as 99m Tc can be developed. The c-myc oncogene works in cooperation with other oncogenes in a variety of malignant tumors. The concentration of c-myc messenger RNA increases rapidly 30 to 50 fold during DNA synthesis, thus making it a suitable target for following the progression of malignancy by noninvasive imaging with radiolabeled antisense oligonucleotide probes. Methods: 1 Oligonucleotide Conjugation: A solution of single stranded amine-derivatized DNA (100-1000μg) was prepared at a concentration of 2 mg/ml in 0.25M sodium bicarbonate, 1 M sodium chloride, 1mM EDTA, pH8.5. 2 Oligonucleotide Labeling: A fresh 50mg/ml solution of sodium tartrate was prepared in sterile 0.5 M ammonium The ability of the labeled DNA to hybridize to its complement was analyzed by Sep-Pak column chromatography before and after the addition of the complementary DNA. 3 Biodistribution and Tumor Imaging Studies: A colony of KM mice (15-20g) were inoculated with 1x10 6 Ehrlich carcinoma tumor cells in the right thigh, and the tumors were allowed to grow for 6-7 days to a size of 1.0-1.5 cm in diameter. Biodistribution studies were performed in 32 KM mice after 50 μCi per mouse of 99m Tc-labeled oncogene probes were injected intravenously. A total of 8 mice were injected intravenously in the tail vein with 1-2 mCi of 99m Tc-labeled sense or antisense probes, immobilized with ketamine hydrochloride and imaged periodically from 0.5hr to 24hr with a gamma camera. Results: Essentially complete conjugation was achieved by reverse-phase Sep-Pak C18 chromatography analysis. The labeled antisense DNA still remained the ability to hybridize with its complementary DNA. The highest accumulation of label was in the liver first, with the kidney and small bowel next. The injected activity localized in the lesion

  9. Respirable antisense oligonucleotides: a new drug class for respiratory disease

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    Tanaka Makoto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Respirable antisense oligonucleotides (RASONs, which attenuate specific disease-associated mRNAs, represent a new class of respiratory therapeutics with considerable potential. RASONs overcome previous obstacles that have impeded the development of antisense therapeutics targeting diseases in other organ systems. RASONs are delivered directly to the target tissue via inhalation; their uptake seems to be enhanced by cationic properties inherent in pulmonary surfactant, and, because of the markedly different target properties of mRNA and proteins, they can have very long durations of effect compared with traditional drugs targeting the protein of the same gene. RASONs contain chemical modifications that decrease their degradation by cellular nucleases. However, total insensitivity to nucleases is probably not an optimal design criterion for RASONs, because moderate nuclease sensitivity can prevent their systemic delivery, decreasing the potential for systemic toxicity. EPI-2010 is a 21-mer phosphorothioate RASON that attenuates bronchoconstriction, inflammation and surfactant depletion in preclinical models of human asthma, has a duration of effect of seven days, and seems to undergo minimal systemic delivery.

  10. Effective intracellular delivery of oligonucleotides in order to make sense of antisense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, FX; Hoekstra, D

    2004-01-01

    For more than two decades, antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs) have been used to modulate gene expression for the purpose of applications in cell biology and for development of novel sophisticated medical therapeutics. Conceptually, the antisense approach represents an elegant strategy, involving the

  11. Factor XI Antisense Oligonucleotide for Prevention of Venous Thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büller, Harry R.; Bethune, Claudette; Bhanot, Sanjay; Gailani, David; Monia, Brett P.; Raskob, Gary E.; Segers, Annelise; Verhamme, Peter; Weitz, Jeffrey I.; Weitz, Jeffrey; Prins, Martin; Beenen, Ludo; Otten, Hans-Martin; Roos, Yvo; Slagboom, Ton; Vandenbriele, Christophe; Vanassche, Thomas; Dani, Vidhi; Schulz, Dan; Shapiro, Cara; Kwoh, Katherine; Jung, Bill; Gawinek-Samelczak, Agata; Kaemmer, Christina; Angelov, S.; Stavrev, V.; Kinov, P.; Dessouki, E.; Abuzgaya, F.; Baurovskis, A.; Peredistijs, A.; Petronis, S.; Danilyak, V.; Driagin, V.; Kuropatkin, G.; Parfeev, S.; Safronov, A.; Ankin, M.; Korzh, M.; Olinichenko, G.; Polivoda, A.; Shevchenko, V.; Sulyma, V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Experimental data indicate that reducing factor XI levels attenuates thrombosis without causing bleeding, but the role of factor XI in the prevention of postoperative venous thrombosis in humans is unknown. FXI-ASO (ISIS 416858) is a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide that

  12. Nucleobase-modified antisense oligonucleotides containing 5-(phenyltriazol)-2′-deoxyuridine nucleotides induce exon-skipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Bao T.; Hornum, Mick; Sharma, Pawan K.

    2017-01-01

    Chemically-modified antisense oligonucleotide-mediated exon-skipping has been validated as a therapeutic strategy for tackling several disease pathologies, particularly duchenne muscular dystrophy. To date, only sugar-modified and internucleotide linkage-modified oligonucleotide chemistries have...

  13. Antisense oligonucleotides targeting translation inhibitory elements in 5' UTRs can selectively increase protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Sun, Hong; Shen, Wen; Wang, Shiyu; Yao, Joyee; Migawa, Michael T; Bui, Huynh-Hoa; Damle, Sagar S; Riney, Stan; Graham, Mark J; Crooke, Rosanne M; Crooke, Stanley T

    2017-09-19

    A variety of diseases are caused by deficiencies in amounts or activity of key proteins. An approach that increases the amount of a specific protein might be of therapeutic benefit. We reasoned that translation could be specifically enhanced using trans-acting agents that counter the function of negative regulatory elements present in the 5' UTRs of some mRNAs. We recently showed that translation can be enhanced by antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) that target upstream open reading frames. Here we report the amount of a protein can also be selectively increased using ASOs designed to hybridize to other translation inhibitory elements in 5' UTRs. Levels of human RNASEH1, LDLR, and ACP1 and of mouse ACP1 and ARF1 were increased up to 2.7-fold in different cell types and species upon treatment with chemically modified ASOs targeting 5' UTR inhibitory regions in the mRNAs encoding these proteins. The activities of ASOs in enhancing translation were sequence and position dependent and required helicase activity. The ASOs appear to improve the recruitment of translation initiation factors to the target mRNA. Importantly, ASOs targeting ACP1 mRNA significantly increased the level of ACP1 protein in mice, suggesting that this approach has therapeutic and research potentials. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Therapeutic Oligonucleotides Targeting Liver Disease: TTR Amyloidosis

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    Christoph Niemietz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The liver has become an increasingly interesting target for oligonucleotide therapy. Mutations of the gene encoding transthyretin (TTR, expressed in vast amounts by the liver, result in a complex degenerative disease, termed familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP. Misfolded variants of TTR are linked to the establishment of extracellular protein deposition in various tissues, including the heart and the peripheral nervous system. Recent progress in the chemistry and formulation of antisense (ASO and small interfering RNA (siRNA designed for a knockdown of TTR mRNA in the liver has allowed to address the issue of gene-specific molecular therapy in a clinical setting of FAP. The two therapeutic oligonucleotides bind to RNA in a sequence specific manner but exploit different mechanisms. Here we describe major developments that have led to the advent of therapeutic oligonucleotides for treatment of TTR-related disease.

  15. Targeting DMPK with Antisense Oligonucleotide Improves Muscle Strength in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 Mice

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    Dominic Jauvin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1, a dominant hereditary muscular dystrophy, is caused by an abnormal expansion of a (CTGn trinucleotide repeat in the 3′ UTR of the human dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK gene. As a consequence, mutant transcripts containing expanded CUG repeats are retained in nuclear foci and alter the function of splicing regulatory factors members of the MBNL and CELF families, resulting in alternative splicing misregulation of specific transcripts in affected DM1 tissues. In the present study, we treated DMSXL mice systemically with a 2′-4′-constrained, ethyl-modified (ISIS 486178 antisense oligonucleotide (ASO targeted to the 3′ UTR of the DMPK gene, which led to a 70% reduction in CUGexp RNA abundance and foci in different skeletal muscles and a 30% reduction in the heart. Furthermore, treatment with ISIS 486178 ASO improved body weight, muscle strength, and muscle histology, whereas no overt toxicity was detected. This is evidence that the reduction of CUGexp RNA improves muscle strength in DM1, suggesting that muscle weakness in DM1 patients may be improved following elimination of toxic RNAs.

  16. Targeting DMPK with Antisense Oligonucleotide Improves Muscle Strength in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauvin, Dominic; Chrétien, Jessina; Pandey, Sanjay K; Martineau, Laurie; Revillod, Lucille; Bassez, Guillaume; Lachon, Aline; MacLeod, A Robert; Gourdon, Geneviève; Wheeler, Thurman M; Thornton, Charles A; Bennett, C Frank; Puymirat, Jack

    2017-06-16

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), a dominant hereditary muscular dystrophy, is caused by an abnormal expansion of a (CTG) n trinucleotide repeat in the 3' UTR of the human dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) gene. As a consequence, mutant transcripts containing expanded CUG repeats are retained in nuclear foci and alter the function of splicing regulatory factors members of the MBNL and CELF families, resulting in alternative splicing misregulation of specific transcripts in affected DM1 tissues. In the present study, we treated DMSXL mice systemically with a 2'-4'-constrained, ethyl-modified (ISIS 486178) antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) targeted to the 3' UTR of the DMPK gene, which led to a 70% reduction in CUG exp RNA abundance and foci in different skeletal muscles and a 30% reduction in the heart. Furthermore, treatment with ISIS 486178 ASO improved body weight, muscle strength, and muscle histology, whereas no overt toxicity was detected. This is evidence that the reduction of CUG exp RNA improves muscle strength in DM1, suggesting that muscle weakness in DM1 patients may be improved following elimination of toxic RNAs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Specific Increase of Protein Levels by Enhancing Translation Using Antisense Oligonucleotides Targeting Upstream Open Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Shen, Wen; Crooke, Stanley T

    2017-01-01

    A number of diseases are caused by low levels of key proteins; therefore, increasing the amount of specific proteins in human bodies is of therapeutic interest. Protein expression is downregulated by some structural or sequence elements present in the 5' UTR of mRNAs, such as upstream open reading frames (uORF). Translation initiation from uORF(s) reduces translation from the downstream primary ORF encoding the main protein product in the same mRNA, leading to a less efficient protein expression. Therefore, it is possible to use antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to specifically inhibit translation of the uORF by base-pairing with the uAUG region of the mRNA, redirecting translation machinery to initiate from the primary AUG site. Here we review the recent findings that translation of specific mRNAs can be enhanced using ASOs targeting uORF regions. Appropriately designed and optimized ASOs are highly specific, and they act in a sequence- and position-dependent manner, with very minor off-target effects. Protein levels can be increased using this approach in different types of human and mouse cells, and, importantly, also in mice. Since uORFs are present in around half of human mRNAs, the uORF-targeting ASOs may thus have valuable potential as research tools and as therapeutics to increase the levels of proteins for a variety of genes.

  18. Targeting TGF-β Signaling by Antisense Oligonucleotide-mediated Knockdown of TGF-β Type I Receptor

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    Dwi U Kemaladewi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is caused by lack of functional dystrophin and results in progressive myofiber damage and degeneration. In addition, impaired muscle regeneration and fibrosis contribute to the progressive pathology of DMD. Importantly, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β is implicated in DMD pathology and is known to stimulate fibrosis and inhibit muscle regeneration. In this study, we present a new strategy to target TGF-β signaling cascades by specifically inhibiting the expression of TGF-β type I receptor TGFBR1 (ALK5. Antisense oligonucleotides (AONs were designed to specifically induce exon skipping of mouse ALK5 transcripts. AON-induced exon skipping of ALK5 resulted in specific downregulation of full-length receptor transcripts in vitro in different cell types, repression of TGF-β activity, and enhanced C2C12 myoblast differentiation. To determine the effect of these AONs in dystrophic muscles, we performed intramuscular injections of ALK5 AONs in mdx mice, which resulted in a decrease in expression of fibrosis-related genes and upregulation of Myog expression compared to control AON-injected muscles. In summary, our study presents a novel method to target TGF-β signaling cascades with potential beneficial effects for DMD.

  19. Dose-Dependent Lowering of Mutant Huntingtin Using Antisense Oligonucleotides in Huntington Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roon-Mom, Willeke M C; Roos, Raymund A C; de Bot, Susanne T

    2018-04-01

    On December 11 of 2017, Ionis Pharmaceuticals published a press release announcing dose-dependent reductions of mutant huntingtin protein in their HTTRx Phase 1/2a study in Huntington disease (HD) patients. The results from this Ionis trial have gained much attention from the patient community and the oligonucleotide therapeutics field, since it is the first trial targeting the cause of HD, namely the mutant huntingtin protein, using antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs). The press release also states that the primary endpoints of the study (safety and tolerability) were met, but does not contain data. This news follows the approval of another therapeutic ASO nusinersen (trade name Spinraza) for a neurological disease, spinal muscular atrophy, by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency, in 2016 and 2017, respectively. Combined, this offers hope for the development of the HTTRx therapy for HD patients.

  20. The Dynamics of Compound, Transcript, and Protein Effects After Treatment With 2OMePS Antisense Oligonucleotides in mdx Mice

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    Ingrid E C Verhaart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisense-mediated exon skipping is currently in clinical development for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD to amend the consequences of the underlying genetic defect and restore dystrophin expression. Due to turnover of compound, transcript, and protein, chronic treatment with effector molecules (antisense oligonucleotides will be required. To investigate the dynamics and persistence of antisense 2′-O-methyl phosphorothioate oligonucleotides, exon skipping, and dystrophin expression after dosing was concluded, mdx mice were treated subcutaneously for 8 weeks with 100 mg/kg oligonucleotides twice weekly. Thereafter, mice were sacrificed at different time points after the final injection (36 hours–24 weeks. Oligonucleotide half-life was longer in heart (~65 days compared with that in skeletal muscle, liver, and kidney (~35 days. Exon skipping half-lives varied between 33 and 53 days, whereas dystrophin protein showed a long half-life (>100 days. Oligonucleotide and exon-skipping levels peaked in the first week and declined thereafter. By contrast, dystrophin expression peaked after 3–8 weeks and then slowly declined, remaining detectable after 24 weeks. Concordance between levels of oligonucleotides, exon skipping, and proteins was observed, except in heart, wherein high oligonucleotide levels but low exon skipping and dystrophin expression were seen. Overall, these results enhance our understanding of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 2′-O-methyl phosphorothioate oligos used for the treatment of DMD.

  1. Inhaled ENaC antisense oligonucleotide ameliorates cystic fibrosis-like lung disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Jeff R; Zhao, Chenguang; Jiang, Chong; Bai, Dong; Katz, Melanie; Greenlee, Sarah; Kawabe, Hiroshi; McCaleb, Michael; Rotin, Daniela; Guo, Shuling; Monia, Brett P

    2017-11-01

    Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC, Scnn1) hyperactivity in the lung leads to airway surface dehydration and mucus accumulation in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and in mice with CF-like lung disease. We identified several potent ENaC specific antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and tested them by inhalation in mouse models of CF-like lung disease. The inhaled ASOs distributed into lung airway epithelial cells and decreased ENaC expression by inducing RNase H1-dependent degradation of the targeted Scnn1a mRNA. Aerosol delivered ENaC ASO down-regulated mucus marker expression and ameliorated goblet cell metaplasia, inflammation, and airway hyper-responsiveness. Lack of systemic activity of ASOs delivered via the aerosol route ensures the safety of this approach. Our results demonstrate that antisense inhibition of ENaC in airway epithelial cells could be an effective and safe approach for the prevention and reversal of lung symptoms in CF and potentially other inflammatory diseases of the lung. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of CD49d-targeted antisense-oligonucleotide on α4 integrin expression and function of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells: Results of in vitro and in vivo studies.

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    Yann Duchartre

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated the effectiveness of blocking CD49d with anti-functional antibodies or small molecule inhibitors as a rational targeted approach to the treatment of acute leukemia in combination with chemotherapy. Antisense oligonucleotide promises to be no less specific than antibodies and inhibitors, but more interesting for pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. We addressed this using the published CD49d antisense drug ATL1102. In vitro, we incubated/nucleofected the ALL cell line Kasumi-2 with ATL1102. In vivo, immunodeficient hosts were engrafted with primary ALL cells and treated with ATL1102. Changes in expression of CD49d mRNA and CD49d protein, and of cooperating gene products, including ß1 integrin and CXCR4, as well as survival in the mouse experiments were quantified. We observed dose-dependent down-regulation of CD49d mRNA and protein levels and its partner integrin ß1 cell surface protein level and, up-regulation of CXCR4 surface expression. The suppression was more pronounced after nucleofection than after incubation, where down-regulation was significant only at the higher doses. In vivo effects of ATL1102 were not sufficient to translate into "clinical" benefit in the leukemia model. In summary, antisense oligonucleotides are successful tools for specifically modulating gene expression but sufficient delivery to down-regulate CD49d in vivo may be difficult to achieve.

  3. Combination of vascular endothelial growth factor antisense oligonucleotide therapy and radiotherapy increases the curative effects against maxillofacial VX2 tumors in rabbits

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    Zheng Linfeng, E-mail: zhenglinfeng04@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China); Li Yujie, E-mail: yujieli01@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China); Wang Han, E-mail: bingowh@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China); Zhao Jinglong, E-mail: jinglongz@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China); Wang Xifu, E-mail: wangxiechen001@163.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China); Hu Yunsheng, E-mail: springmorninghu@163.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China); Zhang Guixiang, E-mail: guixiangzhang@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China)

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: To study the effects of combination of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antisense oligonucleotide therapy and radiotherapy on maxillofacial VX2 tumors in rabbits. Methods: We used 24 New Zealand white rabbits as a model to induce maxillofacial VX2 tumor. The rabbits were randomly divided into the following 4 groups: radiotherapy group (group A), treated with 16 Gy of radiotherapy; VEGF antisense oligonucleotide treatment group (group B), treated with an injection of 150 {mu}g of VEGF antisense oligonucleotide into the local tumor; VEGF antisense oligonucleotide combined with radiotherapy group (group C), treated with an injection of 150 {mu}g of VEGF antisense oligonucleotide into the local tumor immediately after 16 Gy of radiotherapy; and control group (group D), treated with an injection of 300 {mu}l 5% aqueous glucose solution into the local tumor. On days 3 and 14 after treatment, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) was performed to calculate maximal enhancement ratio (MER), slope of enhancement (SLE), and tumor volume change. Rabbits were killed on day 14 to obtain samples for pathological examination and immunohistochemical staining for VEGF. Results: In group C, tumor volume was significantly reduced on day 14 after treatment, and the difference was statistically different as compared to that before treatment, on day 3 after treatment and other groups (P < 0.01). Values of both MER and SLE after treatment were significantly lower than the values before treatment (P < 0.05). Pathological specimen revealed tumor cell edema, bleeding, necrosis, vascular wall thickening and occlusion, and decreased VEGF expression. The immunohistochemical score (IHS) of group C was significantly different from groups A and D respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Injecting the tumor with VEGF antisense oligonucleotide immediately after radiotherapy can enhance the curative effect on rabbit maxillofacial VX2 tumor, and DCE-MRI can serve

  4. PTP1B antisense oligonucleotide lowers PTP1B protein, normalizes blood glucose, and improves insulin sensitivity in diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinker, Bradley A.; Rondinone, Cristina M.; Trevillyan, James M.; Gum, Rebecca J.; Clampit, Jill E.; Waring, Jeffrey F.; Xie, Nancy; Wilcox, Denise; Jacobson, Peer; Frost, Leigh; Kroeger, Paul E.; Reilly, Regina M.; Koterski, Sandra; Opgenorth, Terry J.; Ulrich, Roger G.; Crosby, Seth; Butler, Madeline; Murray, Susan F.; McKay, Robert A.; Bhanot, Sanjay; Monia, Brett P.; Jirousek, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    The role of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) in diabetes was investigated using an antisense oligonucleotide in ob/ob and db/db mice. PTP1B antisense oligonucleotide treatment normalized plasma glucose levels, postprandial glucose excursion, and HbA1C. Hyperinsulinemia was also reduced with improved insulin sensitivity. PTP1B protein and mRNA were reduced in liver and fat with no effect in skeletal muscle. Insulin signaling proteins, insulin receptor substrate 2 and phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase regulatory subunit p50α, were increased and PI3-kinase p85α expression was decreased in liver and fat. These changes in protein expression correlated with increased insulin-stimulated protein kinase B phosphorylation. The expression of liver gluconeogenic enzymes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase was also down-regulated. These findings suggest that PTP1B modulates insulin signaling in liver and fat, and that therapeutic modalities targeting PTP1B inhibition may have clinical benefit in type 2 diabetes. PMID:12169659

  5. Chemosensitization of Human Renal Cell Cancer Using Antisense Oligonucleotides Targeting the Antiapoptotic Gene Clusterin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Zellweger

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Renal cell cancer (RCC is a chemoresistant disease with no active chemotherapeutic agent achieving objective response rates higher than 15%. Clusterin is a cell survival gene that increases in human renal tubular epithelial cells after various states of injury and disease. Downregulation of clusterin, using antisense oligonucleotides (ASO, has recently been shown to increase chemosensitivity in several prostate cancer models. The objectives in this study were to evaluate clusterin expression levels in human RCC and normal kidney tissue, and to test whether clusterin ASO could also enhance chemosensitivity in human RCC Caki-2 cells both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining was used to characterize clusterin expression in 67 RCC and normal kidney tissues obtained from radical nephrectomy specimens. Northern blot analysis was used to assess changes in clusterin mRNA expression after ASO and paclitaxel treatment. The effects of combined clusterin ASO and paclitaxel treatment on Caki-2 cell growth was examined using an MTT assay. Athymic mice bearing Caki-2 tumors were treated with clusterin ASO alone, clusterin ASO plus paclitaxel, and mismatch control oligonucleotides plus paclitaxel, over a period of 28 days with measurement of tumor volumes once weekly over 8 weeks. RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry of normal and malignant kidney tissue sections of 67 patients demonstrated positive clusterin staining for almost all RCC (98% and an overexpression, compared to normal tissue, in a majority of RCC (69%. Clusterin ASO, but not mismatch control oligonucleotides, decreased clusterin mRNA expression in Caki-2 cells in a dosedependent and sequence-specific manner. Pretreatment of Caki-2 cells with clusterin ASO significantly enhanced chemosensitivity to paclitaxel in vitro. Characteristic apoptotic DNA laddering was observed after combined treatment with ASO plus paclitaxel, but not with either agent alone. In vivo

  6. A Kinetic Model Explains Why Shorter and Less Affine Enzyme-recruiting Oligonucleotides Can Be More Potent

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    Lykke Pedersen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisense oligonucleotides complementary to RNA targets promise generality and ease of drug design. The first systemically administered antisense drug was recently approved for treatment and others are in clinical development. Chemical modifications that increase the hybridization affinity of oligonucleotides are reasoned to confer higher potency, i.e., modified oligonucleotides can be dosed at lower concentrations to achieve the same effect. Surprisingly, shorter and less affine oligonucleotides sometimes display increased potency. To explain this apparent contradiction, increased uptake or decreased propensity to form structures have been suggested as possible mechanisms. Here, we provide an alternative explanation that invokes only the kinetics behind oligonucleotide-mediated cleavage of RNA targets. A model based on the law of mass action predicts, and experiments support, the existence of an optimal binding affinity. Exaggerated affinity, and not length per se, is detrimental to potency. This finding clarifies how to optimally apply high-affinity modifications in the discovery of potent antisense oligonucleotide drugs.

  7. Translational inhibition of CTX M extended spectrum β-lactamase in clinical strains of Escherichia coli by synthetic antisense oligonucleotides partially restores sensitivity to cefotaxime.

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    John Benedict Readman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic antisense oligomers are DNA mimics that can specifically inhibit gene expression at the translational level by ribosomal steric hindrance. They bind to their mRNA targets by Watson Crick base pairing and are resistant to degradation by both nucleases and proteases. A 25 mer phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO and a 13 mer polyamide (peptide nucleic acid (PNA were designed to target mRNA (positions -4 to +21, and –17 to –5 respectively close to the translational initiation site of the extended spectrum β lactamase resistance genes of CTX M group 1. These antisense oligonucleotides were found to inhibit β lactamase activity by up to 96% in a cell free translation transcription coupled system using an expression vector carrying a blaCTX-M-15 gene cloned from a clinical isolate. Despite evidence for up regulation of CTX-M gene expression, they were both found to significantly restore sensitivity to cefotaxime in E. coli AS19, an atypical cell wall permeable mutant, in a dose dependant manner (0 - 40 nM. The PMO and PNA were covalently bound to the cell penetrating peptide (KFF3K and both significantly (P<0.05 increased sensitivity to cefotaxime in a dose dependent manner (0 - 40 nM in field isolates harbouring CTX-M group 1 β-lactamases. Antisense oligonucleotides targeted to the translational initiation site and Shine Dalgarno region of blaCTX-M-15 inhibited gene expression, and when conjugated to a cell penetrating delivery vehicle, partially restored antibiotic sensitivity to both field and clinical isolates.

  8. Targeting eukaryotic translation in mesothelioma cells with an eIF4E-specific antisense oligonucleotide.

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    Blake A Jacobson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aberrant cap-dependent translation is implicated in tumorigenesis in multiple tumor types including mesothelioma. In this study, disabling the eIF4F complex by targeting eIF4E with eIF4E-specific antisense oligonucleotide (4EASO is assessed as a therapy for mesothelioma. METHODS: Mesothelioma cells were transfected with 4EASO, designed to target eIF4E mRNA, or mismatch-ASO control. Cell survival was measured in mesothelioma treated with 4EASO alone or combined with either gemcitabine or pemetrexed. Levels of eIF4E, ODC, Bcl-2 and β-actin were assessed following treatment. Binding to a synthetic cap-analogue was used to study the strength of eIF4F complex activation following treatment. RESULTS: eIF4E level and the formation of eIF4F cap-complex decreased in response to 4EASO, but not mismatch control ASO, resulting in cleavage of PARP indicating apoptosis. 4EASO treatment resulted in dose dependent decrease in eIF4E levels, which corresponded to cytotoxicity of mesothelioma cells. 4EASO resulted in decreased levels of eIF4E in non-malignant LP9 cells, but this did not correspond to increased cytotoxicity. Proteins thought to be regulated by cap-dependent translation, Bcl-2 and ODC, were decreased upon treatment with 4EASO. Combination therapy of 4EASO with pemetrexed or gemcitabine further reduced cell number. CONCLUSION: 4EASO is a novel drug that causes apoptosis and selectively reduces eIF4E levels, eIF4F complex formation, and proliferation of mesothelioma cells. eIF4E knockdown results in decreased expression of anti-apoptotic and pro-growth proteins and enhances chemosensitivity.

  9. Study on biodistribution and imaging of radioiodinated antisense oligonucleotides in nude mice bearing human lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R.F.; Shen, J.; Zhang, C.L.; Liu, M.; Guo, F.Q.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of sporadic lymphoma has risen due to an increase in immunosuppressed patients, particularly those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Sometimes suspect lymphoma has an undetectable location and we can not get the pathological specimen. Management of lymphoma is also difficult because the persistence of a significant number of residual tumor cells after intensive treatment. These relative failures can be attributed to make us choose this study for opening a new diagnostic and therapeutic field of lymphoma from molecular level. Immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain framework region (FR) of V1 family have been verified to be a major determinant of malignant phenotype of V1 family B-cell lymphoma. Most of targets for tumor antisense therapy study are protooncogenes, such as c-myc, bc1-2, which are broad -spectrum tumor imaging agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using radioiodine labeled FR antisense oligonucleotides (ASONs) as an imaging agent or antisense therapeutic radiopharmaceutical in lymphoma. A 18-mer partial phosphorothioate oligonucleotide sequence was synthesized and grafted in 5 ' with a tyramine group which was further labeled with 125 I or 131 I using the chloramine T method. Normal CD-1 mice were injected via a tail vein with 148 kBq of 125 I-FR-ASON (2∼3 μ g). Animals were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4 and 24 h and tissue samples were studied. Liposome-mediated 3.33 MBq of 131 I-FR-ASON (7 ∼ 9μ g) was injected intratumorally into tumor-bearing BALB/c mice (6 weeks after inoculation of 10 7 Namalwa cells) meanwhile liposome-mediated 131 I labeled sense oligonucleotides served as controls. Biodistribution was monitored by sequential scintigraphy and organ radioactivity measurement 24 h after injection. The percentage of the injected dose per gram (%ID/g) of tumor and tumor/ non-tumor tissue ratios (T/NT) were calculated for each group of mice and the difference between two groups was assessed. The 5

  10. Recent advances in antisense oligonucleotide therapy in genetic neuromuscular diseases

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    Ashok Verma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic neuromuscular diseases are caused by defective expression of nuclear or mitochondrial genes. Mutant genes may reduce expression of wild-type proteins, and strategies to activate expression of the wild-type proteins might provide therapeutic benefits. Also, a toxic mutant protein may cause cell death, and strategies that reduce mutant gene expression may provide therapeutic benefit. Synthetic antisense oligonucleotide (ASO can recognize cellular RNA and control gene expression. In recent years, advances in ASO chemistry, creation of designer ASO molecules to enhance their safety and target delivery, and scientific controlled clinical trials to ascertain their therapeutic safety and efficacy have led to an era of plausible application of ASO technology to treat currently incurable neuromuscular diseases. Over the past 1 year, for the first time, the United States Food and Drug Administration has approved two ASO therapies in genetic neuromuscular diseases. This overview summarizes the recent advances in ASO technology, evolution and use of synthetic ASOs as a therapeutic platform, and the mechanism of ASO action by exon-skipping in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and exon-inclusion in spinal muscular atrophy, with comments on their advantages and limitations.

  11. Development of Multiexon Skipping Antisense Oligonucleotide Therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

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    Yokota, Toshifumi; Wood, Matthew J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an incurable, X-linked progressive muscle degenerative disorder that results from the absence of dystrophin protein and leads to premature death in affected individuals due to respiratory and/or cardiac failure typically by age of 30. Very recently the exciting prospect of an effective oligonucleotide therapy has emerged which restores dystrophin protein expression to affected tissues in DMD patients with highly promising data from a series of clinical trials. This therapeutic approach is highly mutation specific and thus is personalised. Therefore DMD has emerged as a model genetic disorder for understanding and overcoming of the challenges of developing personalised genetic medicines. One of the greatest weaknesses of the current oligonucleotide approach is that it is a mutation-specific therapy. To address this limitation, we have recently demonstrated that exons 45–55 skipping therapy has the potential to treat clusters of mutations that cause DMD, which could significantly reduce the number of compounds that would need to be developed in order to successfully treat all DMD patients. Here we discuss and review the latest preclinical work in this area as well as a variety of accompanying issues, including efficacy and potential toxicity of antisense oligonucleotides, prior to human clinical trials. PMID:23984357

  12. Modulation of splicing of the preceding intron by antisense oligonucleotide complementary to intra-exon sequence deleted in dystrophin Kobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshima, Y.; Matuso, M.; Sakamoto, H.; Nishio, H. [Kobe Univ. School of Medicine and Science (Japan)

    1994-09-01

    Molecular analysis of dystrophin Kobe showed that exon 19 of the dystrophin gene bearing a 52 bp deletion was skipped during splicing, although the known consensus sequences at the 5{prime} and 3{prime} splice site of exon 19 were maintained. These data suggest that the deleted sequence of exon 19 may function as a cis-acting factor for exact splicing for the upstream intron. To investigate this potential role, an in vitro splicing system using dystrophin precursors was established. A two-exon precursor containing exon 18, truncated intron 18, and exon 19 was accurately spliced. However, splicing of intron 18 was dramatically inhibited when wild exon 19 was replaced with mutated exon 19. Even though the length of exon 19 was restored to normal by replacing the deleted sequence with other sequence, splicing of intron 18 was not fully reactivated. Characteristically, splicing of intron 18 was inactivated more markedly when the replaced sequence contained less polypurine stretches. These data suggested that modification of the exon sequence would result in a splicing abnormality. Antisense 31 mer 2`-O-methyl ribonucleotide was targeted against 5{prime} end of deleted region of exon 19 to modulate splicing of the mRNA precursor. Splicing of intron 18 was inhibited in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This is the first in vitro evidence to show splicing of dystrophin pre-mRNA can be managed by antisense oligonucleotides. These experiments represent an approach in which antisense oligonucleotides are used to restore the function of a defective dystrophin gene in Duchenne muscular dystrophy by inducing skipping of certain exons during splicing.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Survivin Protein Expression and Its Therapeutic Depletion by an Antisense Oligonucleotide in Human Lung Tumors

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    Anna L Olsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA-directed antisense and interference therapeutics are a promising treatment option for cancer. The demonstration of depletion of target proteins within human tumors in vivo using validated methodology will be a key to the application of this technology. Here, we present a flow cytometric-based approach to quantitatively determine protein levels in solid tumor material derived by fiber optic brushing (FOB of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Focusing upon the survivin protein, and its depletion by an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO (LY2181308, we show that we can robustly identify a subpopulation of survivin positive tumor cells in FOB samples, and, moreover, detect survivin depletion in tumor samples from a patient treated with LY2181308. Survivin depletion appears to be a result of treatment with this ASO, because a tumor treated with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy did not exhibit a decreased percentage of survivin positive cells. Our approach is likely to be broadly applicable to, and useful for, the quantification of protein levels in tumor samples obtained as part of clinical trials and studies, facilitating the proof-of-principle testing of novel targeted therapies.

  14. Peripheral administration of antisense oligonucleotides targeting the amyloid-β protein precursor reverses AβPP and LRP-1 overexpression in the aged SAMP8 mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Michelle A; Niehoff, Michael L; Farr, Susan A; Morley, John E; Dillman, Lucy A; Lynch, Kristin M; Banks, William A

    2012-01-01

    The senescence accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) mouse model of Alzheimer's disease has a natural mutation leading to age-related increases in the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) and amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain, memory impairment, and deficits in Aβ removal from the brain. Previous studies show that centrally administered antisense oligonucleotide directed against AβPP can decrease AβPP expression and Aβ production in the brains of aged SAMP8 mice, and improve memory. The same antisense crosses the blood-brain barrier and reverses memory deficits when injected intravenously. Here, we give 6 μg of AβPP or control antisense 3 times over 2 week intervals to 12 month old SAMP8 mice. Object recognition test was done 48 hours later, followed by removal of whole brains for immunoblot analysis of AβPP, low-density lipoprotein-related protein-1 (LRP-1), p-glycoprotein (Pgp), receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE), or ELISA of soluble Aβ(40). Our results show that AβPP antisense completely reverses a 30% age-associated increase in AβPP signal (p < 0.05 versus untreated 4 month old SAMP8). Soluble Aβ(40) increased with age, but was not reversed by antisense. LRP-1 large and small subunits increased significantly with age (147.7%, p < 0.01 and 123.7%, p < 0.05 respectively), and AβPP antisense completely reversed these increases (p < 0.05). Pgp and RAGE were not significantly altered with age or antisense. Antisense also caused improvements in memory (p < 0.001). Together, these data support the therapeutic potential of AβPP antisense and show a unique association between AβPP and LRP-1 expression in the SAMP8 mouse.

  15. Central and peripheral administration of antisense oligonucleotide targeting amyloid-β protein precursor improves learning and memory and reduces neuroinflammatory cytokines in Tg2576 (AβPPswe) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Susan A; Erickson, Michelle A; Niehoff, Michael L; Banks, William A; Morley, John E

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. Currently, there are no therapies to stop or reverse the symptoms of AD. We have developed an antisense oligonucleotide (OL-1) against the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) that can decrease AβPP expression and amyloid-β protein (Aβ) production. This antisense rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier, reverses learning and memory impairments, reduces oxidative stress, and restores brain-to-blood efflux of Aβ in SAMP8 mice. Here, we examined the effects of this AβPP antisense in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. We administered the OL-1 antisense into the lateral ventricle 3 times at 2week intervals. Seventy-two hours after the third injection, we tested learning and memory in T-maze foot shock avoidance. In the second study, we injected the mice with OL-1 antisense 3 times at 2-week intervals via the tail vein. Seventy-two hours later, we tested learning and memory T-maze, novel object recognition, and elevated plus maze. At the end of behavioral testing, brain tissue was collected. OL-1 antisense administered centrally improved acquisition and retention of T-maze foot shock avoidance. OL-1 antisense administered via tail vein improved learning and memory in both T-maze foot shock avoidance and novel object-place recognition. In the elevated plus maze, the mice which received OL-1 antisense spent less time in the open arms and had fewer entries into the open arms indicating reduced disinhibitation. Biochemical analyses reveal significant reduction of AβPP signal and a reduction of measures of neuroinflammation. The current findings support the therapeutic potential of OL-1 AβPP antisense.

  16. THERAPEUTIC ANTISENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES AGAINST CANCER: HURDLING TO THE CLINIC

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    Pedro Miguel Duarte Moreno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Under clinical development since the early 90’s and with two successfully approved drugs (Fomivirsen and Mipomersen, oligonucleotide-based therapeutics have not yet delivered a clinical drug to the market in the cancer field. Whilst many pre-clinical data has been generated, a lack of understanding still exists on how to efficiently tackle all the different challenges presented for cancer targeting in a clinical setting. Namely, effective drug vectorization, careful choice of target gene or synergistic multi-gene targeting are surely decisive, while caution must be exerted to avoid potential toxic, often misleading off-target-effects. Here a brief overview will be given on the nucleic acid chemistry advances that established oligonucleotide technologies as a promising therapeutic alternative and ongoing cancer related clinical trials. Special attention will be given towards a perspective on the hurdles encountered specifically in the cancer field by this class of therapeutic oligonucleotides and a view on possible avenues for success is presented, with particular focus on the contribution from nanotechnology to the field.

  17. Antitumor effects of radioiodinated antisense oligonucleotide mediated by VIP receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xiaohong; Tan Tianzhi; Li Yunchun; Kuang Anren

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: we had constructed a targeting delivery system based on intestinal peptide (VIP) for antisense oligonucleotide (ASON) transfer into VIP receptor-positive cells in previous study. The aims of present studies are to observe the antitumor effect of VIP-131I-ASON in HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma xenografts. Methods: A 15-met phosphorothioate ASON, which was complementary to the translation start region of the C-myc oncogene mRNA, was labeled with 131I and the labelled compound was linked to the VIP bound covalently 'to a polylysine chain so as to deliver oligonucleotide into tumor cells. Distribution experiments for evaluating the radiolabeled antisense complexe uptake in tumor tissue were performed in BALB/c nude mice bearing with HT29 tumor xenografts. Nude mice beating HT29 tumor xenografts were adminstered VIP-131I-ASON (3.7,7.4 MBq) or 131I-ASON (3.7 MBq), 131I labeled control sense and nosense DNA (3.7 MBq), or saline. Antitumor effects were assessed using endpoints of tumor growth delay. C-myc-encoded protein expression of tumor was measured by immunocytohistochemical staining. Results: Distribution experiment performed with athymic mice bearing human colon tumor xenografts revealed maximal accumulation of conjugated ASON in the tumor tissue 2 h after administration and significantly higher than that in nude mice injected unconjngated ASON [(5.89±1.03)%ID/g and(1.56±0.31)%ID/g, respectively; t=7.7954 P<0.001]. The radioratio of tumor to muscle was peaked 4h after administration. VIP-131I-ASON exhibited strong antitumor effects against HT29 xenografts, decreasing their growth rate 7-fold compare with that in saline-treated mice(tumor growth delay, 25.4±0.89 day). The antitumor effects of unconjugated 131I-ASON were much less profound than VIP-131I-ASON (tumor growth delay, 3.2±1.3 and 25.4±0.89 day, respectively; q=51.4126 P<0.01). Sense, nosense control ON with VIP carder caused no therapeutic effect. There was no progressive weight loss or

  18. Identification of sequence motifs significantly associated with antisense activity

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    Peek Andrew S

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting the suppression activity of antisense oligonucleotide sequences is the main goal of the rational design of nucleic acids. To create an effective predictive model, it is important to know what properties of an oligonucleotide sequence associate significantly with antisense activity. Also, for the model to be efficient we must know what properties do not associate significantly and can be omitted from the model. This paper will discuss the results of a randomization procedure to find motifs that associate significantly with either high or low antisense suppression activity, analysis of their properties, as well as the results of support vector machine modelling using these significant motifs as features. Results We discovered 155 motifs that associate significantly with high antisense suppression activity and 202 motifs that associate significantly with low suppression activity. The motifs range in length from 2 to 5 bases, contain several motifs that have been previously discovered as associating highly with antisense activity, and have thermodynamic properties consistent with previous work associating thermodynamic properties of sequences with their antisense activity. Statistical analysis revealed no correlation between a motif's position within an antisense sequence and that sequences antisense activity. Also, many significant motifs existed as subwords of other significant motifs. Support vector regression experiments indicated that the feature set of significant motifs increased correlation compared to all possible motifs as well as several subsets of the significant motifs. Conclusion The thermodynamic properties of the significantly associated motifs support existing data correlating the thermodynamic properties of the antisense oligonucleotide with antisense efficiency, reinforcing our hypothesis that antisense suppression is strongly associated with probe/target thermodynamics, as there are no enzymatic

  19. Feasibility of SPECT-CT imaging to study the pharmacokinetics of antisense oligonucleotides in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, E. van de; Läppchen, T.; Aguilera, B.; Jansen, H.T.; Muilwijk, D.; Vermue, R.; Hoorn, J.W. van der; Donato, K.; Rossin, R.; Visser, P.C. de; Vlaming, M.L.H.

    2017-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) are promising candidates for treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a severe and progressive disease resulting in premature death. However, more knowledge on the pharmacokinetics of new AON drug candidates is desired for effective application in the clinic.

  20. Molecular imaging of atherosclerotic plaques with technetium-99m-labelled antisense oligonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Guangming; Zhang Yongxue; Cao Wei; An Rui; Gao Zairong; Xu Wendai; Zhang Kaijun; Li Guiling; Li Shuren

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to visualise experimental atherosclerotic lesions using radiolabelled antisense oligonucleotides (ASONs). Atherosclerosis was induced in New Zealand White rabbits fed 1% cholesterol for approximately 60 days. In vivo and ex vivo imaging was performed in atherosclerotic rabbits and normal control rabbits after i.v. injection of 92.5±18.5 MBq 99m Tc-labelled ASON or 99m Tc-labelled sense oligonucleotides. Immediately after the in vivo imaging, the animals were sacrificed and ex vivo imaging of the aortic specimens was performed. Biodistribution of radiolabelled c-mycASON was evaluated in vivo in atherosclerotic rabbits. Planar imaging revealed accumulation of 99m Tc-labelled c-mycASON in atherosclerotic lesions along the artery wall. Ex vivo imaging further demonstrated that the area of activity accumulation matched the area of atherosclerotic lesions. In contrast, no atherosclerotic lesions were found in the vessel wall and no positive imaging results were obtained in animals of the control group. This molecular imaging approach has potential for non-invasive imaging of atherosclerotic plaques at an early stage. (orig.)

  1. Targeting antisense mitochondrial ncRNAs inhibits murine melanoma tumor growth and metastasis through reduction in survival and invasion factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos-González, Lorena; Silva, Verónica; Araya, Mariela; Restovic, Franko; Echenique, Javiera; Oliveira-Cruz, Luciana; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Briones, Macarena; Villegas, Jaime; Villota, Claudio; Vidaurre, Soledad; Borgna, Vincenzo; Socias, Miguel; Valenzuela, Sebastián; Lopez, Constanza; Socias, Teresa; Varas, Manuel; Díaz, Jorge; Burzio, Luis O; Burzio, Verónica A

    2016-09-06

    We reported that knockdown of the antisense noncoding mitochondrial RNAs (ASncmtRNAs) induces apoptotic death of several human tumor cell lines, but not normal cells, suggesting this approach for selective therapy against different types of cancer. In order to translate these results to a preclinical scenario, we characterized the murine noncoding mitochondrial RNAs (ncmtRNAs) and performed in vivo knockdown in syngeneic murine melanoma models. Mouse ncmtRNAs display structures similar to the human counterparts, including long double-stranded regions arising from the presence of inverted repeats. Knockdown of ASncmtRNAs with specific antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) reduces murine melanoma B16F10 cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in vitro through downregulation of pro-survival and metastasis markers, particularly survivin. For in vivo studies, subcutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumors in C57BL/6 mice were treated systemically with specific and control antisense oligonucleotides (ASO). For metastasis studies, tumors were resected, followed by systemic administration of ASOs and the presence of metastatic nodules in lungs and liver was assessed. Treatment with specific ASO inhibited tumor growth and metastasis after primary tumor resection. In a metastasis-only assay, mice inoculated intravenously with cells and treated with the same ASO displayed reduced number and size of melanoma nodules in the lungs, compared to controls. Our results suggest that ASncmtRNAs could be potent targets for melanoma therapy. To our knowledge, the ASncmtRNAs are the first potential non-nuclear targets for melanoma therapy.

  2. Efficacy and Safety Profile of Tricyclo-DNA Antisense Oligonucleotides in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Mouse Model

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    Karima Relizani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antisense oligonucleotides (AONs hold promise for therapeutic splice-switching correction in many genetic diseases. However, despite advances in AON chemistry and design, systemic use of AONs is limited due to poor tissue uptake and sufficient therapeutic efficacy is still difficult to achieve. A novel class of AONs made of tricyclo-DNA (tcDNA is considered very promising for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, a neuromuscular disease typically caused by frameshifting deletions or nonsense mutations in the gene-encoding dystrophin and characterized by progressive muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, and respiratory failure in addition to cognitive impairment. Herein, we report the efficacy and toxicology profile of a 13-mer tcDNA in mdx mice. We show that systemic delivery of 13-mer tcDNA allows restoration of dystrophin in skeletal muscles and to a lower extent in the brain, leading to muscle function improvement and correction of behavioral features linked to the emotional/cognitive deficiency. More importantly, tcDNA treatment was generally limited to minimal glomerular changes and few cell necroses in proximal tubules, with only slight variation in serum and urinary kidney toxicity biomarker levels. These results demonstrate an encouraging safety profile for tcDNA, albeit typical of phosphorothiate AONs, and confirm its therapeutic potential for the systemic treatment of DMD patients. Keywords: antisense oligonucleotides, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, preclinical, splice switching, tcDNA-AONs

  3. Mismatched single stranded antisense oligonucleotides can induce efficient dystrophin splice switching

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    Kole Ryszard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antisense oligomer induced exon skipping aims to reduce the severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy by redirecting splicing during pre-RNA processing such that the causative mutation is by-passed and a shorter but partially functional Becker muscular dystrophy-like dystrophin isoform is produced. Normal exons are generally targeted to restore the dystrophin reading frame however, an appreciable subset of dystrophin mutations are intra-exonic and therefore have the potential to compromise oligomer efficiency, necessitating personalised oligomer design for some patients. Although antisense oligomers are easily personalised, it remains unclear whether all patient polymorphisms within antisense oligomer target sequences will require the costly process of producing and validating patient specific compounds. Methods Here we report preclinical testing of a panel of splice switching antisense oligomers, designed to excise exon 25 from the dystrophin transcript, in normal and dystrophic patient cells. These patient cells harbour a single base insertion in exon 25 that lies within the target sequence of an oligomer shown to be effective at removing exon 25. Results It was anticipated that such a mutation would compromise oligomer binding and efficiency. However, we show that, despite the mismatch an oligomer, designed and optimised to excise exon 25 from the normal dystrophin mRNA, removes the mutated exon 25 more efficiently than the mutation-specific oligomer. Conclusion This raises the possibility that mismatched AOs could still be therapeutically applicable in some cases, negating the necessity to produce patient-specific compounds.

  4. Structure Activity Relationships of α-L-LNA Modified Phosphorothioate Gapmer Antisense Oligonucleotides in Animals

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    Punit P Seth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the structure activity relationships of short 14-mer phosphorothioate gapmer antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs modified with α-L-locked nucleic acid (LNA and related modifications targeting phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN messenger RNA in mice. α-L-LNA represents the α-anomer of enantio-LNA and modified oligonucleotides show LNA like binding affinity for complementary RNA. In contrast to sequence matched LNA gapmer ASOs which showed elevations in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels indicative of hepatotoxicity, gapmer ASOs modified with α-L-LNA and related analogs in the flanks showed potent downregulation of PTEN messenger RNA in liver tissue without producing elevations in plasma ALT levels. However, the α-L-LNA ASO showed a moderate dose-dependent increase in liver and spleen weights suggesting a higher propensity for immune stimulation. Interestingly, replacing α-L-LNA nucleotides in the 3′- and 5′-flanks with R-5′-Me-α-L-LNA but not R-6′-Me- or 3′-Me-α-L-LNA nucleotides, reversed the drug induced increase in organ weights. Examination of structural models of dinucleotide units suggested that the 5′-Me group increases steric bulk in close proximity to the phosphorothioate backbone or produces subtle changes in the backbone conformation which could interfere with recognition of the ASO by putative immune receptors. Our data suggests that introducing steric bulk at the 5′-position of the sugar-phosphate backbone could be a general strategy to mitigate the immunostimulatory profile of oligonucleotide drugs. In a clinical setting, proinflammatory effects manifest themselves as injection site reactions and flu-like symptoms. Thus, a mitigation of these effects could increase patient comfort and compliance when treated with ASOs.

  5. The cellular uptake of antisense oligonucleotid of E6 mRNA into cervical cancer cells by DOPE-modified hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

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    Negin Saffarzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Although several chemical and physical methods for gene delivery have been introduced, their cytotoxicity, non-specific immune responses and the lack of biodegradability remain the main issues. In this study, hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (NPs and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanol​amine (DOPE-modified hydroxyapatite NPs was coated with antisense oligonucleotide of E6 mRNA, and their uptakes into the cervical cancer cell line were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Calcium nitrate and diammonium phosphate were used for the synthesis of the hydroxyapatite nanoparticle. Thus, they were coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG, DOPE and antisense oligonucleotide of E6 mRNA using a cross-linker. Then, hydroxyapatite NPs and DOPE-modified hydroxyapatite NPs were incubated 48 hours with cervical cancer cells and their uptakes were evaluated by fluorescent microscopy. Results: The hydroxyapatite NPs had different shapes and some agglomeration with average size of 100 nm. The results showed DOPE-modified hydroxyapatite NPs had higher uptake than hydroxyapatite NPs (P

  6. PLGA-PEG-PLGA microspheres as a delivery vehicle for antisense oligonucleotides to CTGF: Implications on post-surgical peritoneal adhesion prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeke, John Imuetinyan-Jesu, Jr.

    Abdominal adhesions are the aberrant result of peritoneal wound healing commonly associated with surgery and inflammation. A subject of a large number of studies since the first half of the last century, peritoneal adhesion prevention has, for the most part, evaded the scientific community and continues to cost Americans an estimated $2-4 billion annually. It is known that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) plays a key role in the wound healing cascade; however, suppression of this multifunctional growth factor's activity may have more harmful consequences than can be tolerated. As a result, much attention has fallen on connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a downstream mediator of TGF-beta's fibrotic action. It has been demonstrated in several in vitro models, that the suppression of CTGF hinders fibroblast proliferation, a necessary condition for fibrosis. Furthermore, antisense oligonucleotides (antisense oligos, AO) to CTGF have been shown to knock down CTGF mRNA levels by specifically hindering the translation of CTGF protein. Antisense technologies have met with a great deal of excitement as a viable means of preventing diseases such as adhesions by hindering protein translation at the mRNA level. However, the great challenge associated with the use of these drugs lies in the short circulation time when administered "naked". Viral delivery systems, although excellent platforms in metabolic studies, are not ideal for diagnostic use because of the inherent danger associated with viral vectors. Microparticles made of biodegradable polymers have therefore presented themselves as a viable means of delivering these drugs to target cells over extended periods. Herein, we present two in vivo studies confirming the up-regulation of TGF-beta protein and CTGF mRNA following injury to the uterine tissues of female rats. We were able to selectively knockdown post-operative CTGF protein levels following surgery, however, our observations led us to conclude that

  7. A dystrophic Duchenne mouse model for testing human antisense oligonucleotides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Veltrop

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a severe muscle-wasting disease generally caused by reading frame disrupting mutations in the DMD gene resulting in loss of functional dystrophin protein. The reading frame can be restored by antisense oligonucleotide (AON-mediated exon skipping, allowing production of internally deleted, but partially functional dystrophin proteins as found in the less severe Becker muscular dystrophy. Due to genetic variation between species, mouse models with mutations in the murine genes are of limited use to test and further optimize human specific AONs in vivo. To address this we have generated the del52hDMD/mdx mouse. This model carries both murine and human DMD genes. However, mouse dystrophin expression is abolished due to a stop mutation in exon 23, while the expression of human dystrophin is abolished due to a deletion of exon 52. The del52hDMD/mdx model, like mdx, shows signs of muscle dystrophy on a histological level and phenotypically mild functional impairment. Local administration of human specific vivo morpholinos induces exon skipping and dystrophin restoration in these mice. Depending on the number of mismatches, occasional skipping of the murine Dmd gene, albeit at low levels, could be observed. Unlike previous models, the del52hDMD/mdx model enables the in vivo analysis of human specific AONs targeting exon 51 or exon 53 on RNA and protein level and muscle quality and function. Therefore, it will be a valuable tool for optimizing human specific AONs and genome editing approaches for DMD.

  8. Dissecting the hybridization of oligonucleotides to structured complementary sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peracchi, Alessio

    2016-06-01

    When oligonucleotides hybridize to long target molecules, the process is slowed by the secondary structure in the targets. The phenomenon has been analyzed in several previous studies, but many details remain poorly understood. I used a spectrofluorometric strategy, focusing on the formation/breaking of individual base pairs, to study the kinetics of association between a DNA hairpin and >20 complementary oligonucleotides ('antisenses'). Hybridization rates differed by over three orders of magnitude. Association was toehold-mediated, both for antisenses binding to the target's ends and for those designed to interact with the loop. Binding of these latter, besides being consistently slower, was affected to variable, non-uniform extents by the asymmetric loop structure. Divalent metal ions accelerated hybridization, more pronouncedly when nucleation occurred at the loop. Incorporation of locked nucleic acid (LNA) residues in the antisenses substantially improved the kinetics only when LNAs participated to the earliest hybridization steps. The effects of individual LNAs placed along the antisense indicated that the reaction transition state occurred after invading at least the first base pair of the stem. The experimental approach helps dissect hybridization reactions involving structured nucleic acids. Toehold-dependent, nucleation-invasion models appear fully appropriate for describing such reactions. Estimating the stability of nucleation complexes formed at internal toeholds is the major hurdle for the quantitative prediction of hybridization rates. While analyzing the mechanisms of a fundamental biochemical process (hybridization), this work also provides suggestions for the improvement of technologies that rely on such process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Electronic Structures of LNA Phosphorothioate Oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik G.; Shim, Irene; Stein, Cy

    2017-01-01

    Important oligonucleotides in anti-sense research have been investigated in silico and experimentally. This involves quantum mechanical (QM) calculations and chromatography experiments on locked nucleic acid (LNA) phosphorothioate (PS) oligonucleotides. iso-potential electrostatic surfaces...

  10. Scintigraphic imaging of oncogenes with antisense probes: does it make sense?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, J.L.C.; Shore, S.K.; Vekemans, M.C.; Cosenza, S.C.; DeRiel, K.; Patel, G.V.; Charkes, N.D.; Malmud, L.S.; Reddy, E.P.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that cells which are expressing a particular mRNA transcript do preferentially and specifically retain the antisense probe targeting that mRNA. Using a mouse plasmacytoma cell line (MOPC315) which produces high levels of IgA heavy chain mRNA, a control mouse pre B cell line (7OZ/3B), a human mammary cell line (MCF7) which expresses the erbB2 or neu oncogene, MOPC315 cells as neu-negative controls, and antisense DNA oligonucleotides complementary to the 5' region of the mRNAs and the sense sequence, we have shown that there is a preferential, specific retention of the IgA and neu antisense sequence in MOPC315 and MCF7 cells, respectively. We have further demonstrated that this retention is time and concentration dependent with a maximum at 24 h. We conclude that cancer cells which express a particular oncogene are suitable targets for radiolabeled antisense deoxyoligonucleotides directed toward the oncogene transcript. (orig.)

  11. Oligonucleotides targeting TCF4 triplet repeat expansion inhibit RNA foci and mis-splicing in Fuchs' dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiaxin; Rong, Ziye; Gong, Xin; Zhou, Zhengyang; Sharma, Vivek K; Xing, Chao; Watts, Jonathan K; Corey, David R; Mootha, V Vinod

    2018-03-15

    Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is the most common repeat expansion disorder. FECD impacts 4% of U.S. population and is the leading indication for corneal transplantation. Most cases are caused by an expanded intronic CUG tract in the TCF4 gene that forms nuclear foci, sequesters splicing factors and impairs splicing. We investigated the sense and antisense RNA landscape at the FECD gene and find that the sense-expanded repeat transcript is the predominant species in patient corneas. In patient tissue, sense foci number were negatively correlated with age and showed no correlation with sex. Each endothelial cell has ∼2 sense foci and each foci is single RNA molecule. We designed antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to target the mutant-repetitive RNA and demonstrated potent inhibition of foci in patient-derived cells. Ex vivo treatment of FECD human corneas effectively inhibits foci and reverses pathological changes in splicing. FECD has the potential to be a model for treating many trinucleotide repeat diseases and targeting the TCF4 expansion with ASOs represents a promising therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat FECD.

  12. Antisense oligonucleotide inhibition of apolipoprotein C-III reduces plasma triglycerides in rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mark J; Lee, Richard G; Bell, Thomas A; Fu, Wuxia; Mullick, Adam E; Alexander, Veronica J; Singleton, Walter; Viney, Nick; Geary, Richard; Su, John; Baker, Brenda F; Burkey, Jennifer; Crooke, Stanley T; Crooke, Rosanne M

    2013-05-24

    Elevated plasma triglyceride levels have been recognized as a risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease. Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) represents both an independent risk factor and a key regulatory factor of plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, elevated apoC-III levels have been associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. To date, no selective apoC-III therapeutic agent has been evaluated in the clinic. To test the hypothesis that selective inhibition of apoC-III with antisense drugs in preclinical models and in healthy volunteers would reduce plasma apoC-III and triglyceride levels. Rodent- and human-specific second-generation antisense oligonucleotides were identified and evaluated in preclinical models, including rats, mice, human apoC-III transgenic mice, and nonhuman primates. We demonstrated the selective reduction of both apoC-III and triglyceride in all preclinical pharmacological evaluations. We also showed that inhibition of apoC-III was well tolerated and not associated with increased liver triglyceride deposition or hepatotoxicity. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase I clinical study was performed in healthy subjects. Administration of the human apoC-III antisense drug resulted in dose-dependent reductions in plasma apoC-III, concomitant lowering of triglyceride levels, and produced no clinically meaningful signals in the safety evaluations. Antisense inhibition of apoC-III in preclinical models and in a phase I clinical trial with healthy subjects produced potent, selective reductions in plasma apoC-III and triglyceride, 2 known risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This compelling pharmacological profile supports further clinical investigations in hypertriglyceridemic subjects.

  13. Modulation of lipoprotein metabolism by antisense technology: preclinical drug discovery methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooke, Rosanne M; Graham, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are a new class of specific therapeutic agents that alter the intermediary metabolism of mRNA, resulting in the suppression of disease-associated gene products. ASOs exert their pharmacological effects after hybridizing, via Watson-Crick base pairing, to a specific target RNA. If appropriately designed, this event results in the recruitment of RNase H, the degradation of targeted mRNA or pre-mRNA, and subsequent inhibition of the synthesis of a specific protein. A key advantage of the technology is the ability to selectively inhibit targets that cannot be modulated by traditional therapeutics such as structural proteins, transcription factors, and, of topical interest, lipoproteins. In this chapter, we will first provide an overview of antisense technology, then more specifically describe the status of lipoprotein-related genes that have been studied using the antisense platform, and finally, outline the general methodology required to design and evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of those drugs.

  14. The cellular uptake of antisense oligonucleotid of E6 mRNA into cervical cancer cells by DOPE-modified hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Negin Saffarzadeh; Seyed Mehdi Kalantar; Ali Jebali; Seyed Hossein Hekmatimoghaddam; Mohammad Hassan Sheikhha; Ehsan Farashahi

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Although several chemical and physical methods for gene delivery have been introduced, their cytotoxicity, non-specific immune responses and the lack of biodegradability remain the main issues. In this study, hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (NPs) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanol​amine (DOPE)-modified hydroxyapatite NPs was coated with antisense oligonucleotide of E6 mRNA, and their uptakes into the cervical cancer cell line were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Calcium...

  15. Mongersen, an oral SMAD7 antisense oligonucleotide, and Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Giovanni; Neurath, Markus F; Ardizzone, Sandro; Di Sabatino, Antonio; Fantini, Massimo C; Castiglione, Fabiana; Scribano, Maria L; Armuzzi, Alessandro; Caprioli, Flavio; Sturniolo, Giacomo C; Rogai, Francesca; Vecchi, Maurizio; Atreya, Raja; Bossa, Fabrizio; Onali, Sara; Fichera, Maria; Corazza, Gino R; Biancone, Livia; Savarino, Vincenzo; Pica, Roberta; Orlando, Ambrogio; Pallone, Francesco

    2015-03-19

    Crohn's disease-related inflammation is characterized by reduced activity of the immunosuppressive cytokine transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) due to high levels of SMAD7, an inhibitor of TGF-β1 signaling. Preclinical studies and a phase 1 study have shown that an oral SMAD7 antisense oligonucleotide, mongersen, targets ileal and colonic SMAD7. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial, we evaluated the efficacy of mongersen for the treatment of persons with active Crohn's disease. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 10, 40, or 160 mg of mongersen or placebo per day for 2 weeks. The primary outcomes were clinical remission at day 15, defined as a Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) score of less than 150, with maintenance of remission for at least 2 weeks, and the safety of mongersen treatment. A secondary outcome was clinical response (defined as a reduction of 100 points or more in the CDAI score) at day 28. The proportions of patients who reached the primary end point were 55% and 65% for the 40-mg and 160-mg mongersen groups, respectively, as compared with 10% for the placebo group (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the percentage of participants reaching clinical remission between the 10-mg group (12%) and the placebo group. The rate of clinical response was significantly greater among patients receiving 10 mg (37%), 40 mg (58%), or 160 mg (72%) of mongersen than among those receiving placebo (17%) (P=0.04, P<0.001, and P<0.001, respectively). Most adverse events were related to complications and symptoms of Crohn's disease. We found that study participants with Crohn's disease who received mongersen had significantly higher rates of remission and clinical response than those who received placebo. (Funded by Giuliani; EudraCT number, 2011-002640-27.).

  16. Peripheral reduction of FGFR4 with antisense oligonucleotides increases metabolic rate and lowers adiposity in diet-induced obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Xian Yu

    Full Text Available Obesity is a primary risk factor for multiple metabolic disorders. Many drugs for the treatment of obesity, which mainly act through CNS as appetite suppressants, have failed during development or been removed from the market due to unacceptable adverse effects. Thus, there are very few efficacious drugs available and remains a great unmet medical need for anti-obesity drugs that increase energy expenditure by acting on peripheral tissues without severe side effects. Here, we report a novel approach involving antisense inhibition of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4 in peripheral tissues. Treatment of diet-induce obese (DIO mice with FGFR4 antisense oligonucleotides (ASO specifically reduced liver FGFR4 expression that not only resulted in decrease in body weight (BW and adiposity in free-feeding conditions, but also lowered BW and adiposity under caloric restriction. In addition, combination treatment with FGFR4 ASO and rimonabant showed additive reduction in BW and adiposity. FGFR4 ASO treatment increased basal metabolic rate during free-feeding conditions and, more importantly, prevented adaptive decreases of metabolic rate induced by caloric restriction. The treatment increased fatty acid oxidation while decreased lipogenesis in both liver and fat. Mechanistic studies indicated that anti-obesity effect of FGFR4 ASO was mediated at least in part through an induction of plasma FGF15 level resulted from reduction of hepatic FGFR4 expression. The anti-obesity effect was accompanied by improvement in plasma glycemia, whole body insulin sensitivity, plasma lipid levels and liver steatosis. Therefore, FGFR4 could be a potential novel target and antisense reduction of hepatic FGFR4 expression could be an efficacious therapy as an adjunct to diet restriction or to an appetite suppressant for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.

  17. Peripheral reduction of FGFR4 with antisense oligonucleotides increases metabolic rate and lowers adiposity in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xing Xian; Watts, Lynnetta M; Manchem, Vara Prasad; Chakravarty, Kaushik; Monia, Brett P; McCaleb, Michael L; Bhanot, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a primary risk factor for multiple metabolic disorders. Many drugs for the treatment of obesity, which mainly act through CNS as appetite suppressants, have failed during development or been removed from the market due to unacceptable adverse effects. Thus, there are very few efficacious drugs available and remains a great unmet medical need for anti-obesity drugs that increase energy expenditure by acting on peripheral tissues without severe side effects. Here, we report a novel approach involving antisense inhibition of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) in peripheral tissues. Treatment of diet-induce obese (DIO) mice with FGFR4 antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) specifically reduced liver FGFR4 expression that not only resulted in decrease in body weight (BW) and adiposity in free-feeding conditions, but also lowered BW and adiposity under caloric restriction. In addition, combination treatment with FGFR4 ASO and rimonabant showed additive reduction in BW and adiposity. FGFR4 ASO treatment increased basal metabolic rate during free-feeding conditions and, more importantly, prevented adaptive decreases of metabolic rate induced by caloric restriction. The treatment increased fatty acid oxidation while decreased lipogenesis in both liver and fat. Mechanistic studies indicated that anti-obesity effect of FGFR4 ASO was mediated at least in part through an induction of plasma FGF15 level resulted from reduction of hepatic FGFR4 expression. The anti-obesity effect was accompanied by improvement in plasma glycemia, whole body insulin sensitivity, plasma lipid levels and liver steatosis. Therefore, FGFR4 could be a potential novel target and antisense reduction of hepatic FGFR4 expression could be an efficacious therapy as an adjunct to diet restriction or to an appetite suppressant for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.

  18. Down-regulation of Survivin by Antisense Oligonucleotides Increases Apoptosis, Inhibits Cytokinesis and Anchorage-Independent Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP family, is detected in most common human cancers but not in adjacent normal cells. Previous studies suggest that survivin associates with the mitotic spindle and directly inhibits caspase activity. To further investigate the function of survivin, we used a survivin antisense (AS oligonucleotide to downregulate survivin expression in normal and cancer cells. We found that inhibition of survivin expression increased apoptosis and polyploidy while decreasing colony formation in soft agar. Immunohistochemistry showed that cells without survivin can initiate the cleavage furrow and contractile ring, but cannot complete cytokinesis, thus resulting in multinucleated cells. These findings indicate that survivin plays important roles in a late stage of cytokinesis, as well as in apoptosis.

  19. Antisense Oligonucleotide-based Splice Correction for USH2A-associated Retinal Degeneration Caused by a Frequent Deep-intronic Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulfus WN Slijkerman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Usher syndrome (USH is the most common cause of combined deaf-blindness in man. The hearing loss can be partly compensated by providing patients with hearing aids or cochlear implants, but the loss of vision is currently untreatable. In general, mutations in the USH2A gene are the most frequent cause of USH explaining up to 50% of all patients worldwide. The first deep-intronic mutation in the USH2A gene (c.7595-2144A>G was reported in 2012, leading to the insertion of a pseudoexon (PE40 into the mature USH2A transcript. When translated, this PE40-containing transcript is predicted to result in a truncated non-functional USH2A protein. In this study, we explored the potential of antisense oligonucleotides (AONs to prevent aberrant splicing of USH2A pre-mRNA as a consequence of the c.7595-2144A>G mutation. Engineered 2'-O-methylphosphorothioate AONs targeting the PE40 splice acceptor site and/or exonic splice enhancer regions displayed significant splice correction potential in both patient derived fibroblasts and a minigene splice assay for USH2A c.7595-2144A>G, whereas a non-binding sense oligonucleotide had no effect on splicing. Altogether, AON-based splice correction could be a promising approach for the development of a future treatment for USH2A-associated retinitis pigmentosa caused by the deep-intronic c.7595-2144A>G mutation.

  20. Oligonucleotide Therapy for Obstructive and Restrictive Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wupeng Liao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhaled oligonucleotide is an emerging therapeutic modality for various common respiratory diseases, including obstructive airway diseases like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and restrictive airway diseases like idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. The advantage of direct accessibility for oligonucleotide molecules to the lung target sites, bypassing systemic administration, makes this therapeutic approach promising with minimized potential systemic side effects. Asthma, COPD, and IPF are common chronic respiratory diseases, characterized by persistent airway inflammation and dysregulated tissue repair and remodeling, although each individual disease has its unique etiology. Corticosteroids have been widely prescribed for the treatment of asthma, COPD, and IPF. However, the effectiveness of corticosteroids as an anti-inflammatory drug is limited by steroid resistance in severe asthma, the majority of COPD cases, and pulmonary fibrosis. There is an urgent medical need to develop target-specific drugs for the treatment of these respiratory conditions. Oligonucleotide therapies, including antisense oligonucleotide (ASO, small interfering RNA (siRNA, and microRNA (miRNA are now being evaluated both pre-clinically and clinically as potential therapeutics. The mechanisms of action of ASO and siRNA are highly target mRNA specific, ultimately leading to target protein knockdown. miRNA has both biomarker and therapeutic values, and its knockdown by a miRNA antagonist (antagomir has a broader but potentially more non-specific biological outcome. This review will compile the current findings of oligonucleotide therapeutic targets, verified in various respiratory disease models and in clinical trials, and evaluate different chemical modification approaches to improve the stability and potency of oligonucleotides for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

  1. Formulation and drug-content assay of microencapsulated antisense oligonucleotide to NF-κB using ATR-FTIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwale, Rodney; Meadows, Fred; Mody, Vicky V; Shah, Samit

    2013-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotide to NF-κB sequence: 5′-GGA AAC ACA TCC TCC ATG-3′, was microencapsulated in an albumin matrix by the method of spray drying TM . Spectral analysis was performed on varying drug loading formulations of both drugs by mid-IR attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). An out of plane O–H bending vibration at 948 cm −1 , unique to both the native and microencapsulated drugs was identified. The calculated peak areas corresponded to the drug loadings in the microsphere formulations. A standard curve could then be used to determine the drug content of an unknown microsphere formulation. Accuracy and precision were determined to be comparable to other analytical techniques such as HPLC. (paper)

  2. Dynamics of co-transcriptional pre-mRNA folding influences the induction of dystrophin exon skipping by antisense oligonucleotides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keng Boon Wee

    Full Text Available Antisense oligonucleotides (AONs mediated exon skipping offers potential therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. However, the identification of effective AON target sites remains unsatisfactory for lack of a precise method to predict their binding accessibility. This study demonstrates the importance of co-transcriptional pre-mRNA folding in determining the accessibility of AON target sites for AON induction of selective exon skipping in DMD. Because transcription and splicing occur in tandem, AONs must bind to their target sites before splicing factors. Furthermore, co-transcriptional pre-mRNA folding forms transient secondary structures, which redistributes accessible binding sites. In our analysis, to approximate transcription elongation, a "window of analysis" that included the entire targeted exon was shifted one nucleotide at a time along the pre-mRNA. Possible co-transcriptional secondary structures were predicted using the sequence in each step of transcriptional analysis. A nucleotide was considered "engaged" if it formed a complementary base pairing in all predicted secondary structures of a particular step. Correlation of frequency and localisation of engaged nucleotides in AON target sites accounted for the performance (efficacy and efficiency of 94% of 176 previously reported AONs. Four novel insights are inferred: (1 the lowest frequencies of engaged nucleotides are associated with the most efficient AONs; (2 engaged nucleotides at 3' or 5' ends of the target site attenuate AON performance more than at other sites; (3 the performance of longer AONs is less attenuated by engaged nucleotides at 3' or 5' ends of the target site compared to shorter AONs; (4 engaged nucleotides at 3' end of a short target site attenuates AON efficiency more than at 5' end.

  3. Effects of Antisense Oligonucleotides against C-Reactive Protein on the Development of Atherosclerosis in WHHL Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP are closely associated with cardiovascular diseases, but whether CRP is directly involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is still under debate. Many controversial and contradictory results using transgenic mice and rabbits have been published but it is also unclear whether CRP lowering can be used for the treatment of atherosclerosis. In the current study, we examined the effects of the rabbit CRP antisense oligonucleotides (ASO on the development of atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits. CRP ASO treatment led to a significant reduction of plasma CRP levels; however, both aortic and coronary atherosclerotic lesions were not significantly changed compared to those of control WHHL rabbits. These results suggest that inhibition of plasma CRP does not affect the development of atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits.

  4. Distribution of C-myc Antisense Oligonucleotides in Rabbits after Local Delivery by Implanted Gelatin Coated Piatinium -iridium Stent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新霞; 庞志功; 崔长琮; 许香广; 胡雪松; 方卫华

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To assess the feasibility, efficiency and tissue distribution of localdelivered c - myc antisense oligonucleotides (ASODN)by implanted gelatin coated Platinium- Iridium (Pt-Ir) stent. Methods Gelatin coated Pt- Ir stentwhich absorbed carboxyfluorescein - 5 - succimidylester (FAM) labeled c -myc ASODN were implantedin the right carotid arteries of 6 rabbits under vision.Blood samples were collected at the indicated times.The target artery、 left carotid artery、 heart、 liver andkidney obtained at 45 minutes、 2 hours and 6hours. The concentration of c - myc ASODN in plasmaand tissues were determined by Thin Layer Fluorome-try. Tissue distribution of c- myc ASODN were as-sessed by fluorescence microscopy. Results At 45min, 2 h, 6 h, the concentration of FAM labeled c -myc ASODN in target artery was 244.39, 194.44,126.94(μg/g tissues) respectively, and the deliveryefficiency were 44.4% 、 35.4% and 23.1% respec-tively. At the same indicated time point, the plasmaconcentration was 8.41, 5. 83, 14.75 (μg/ml) respec-tively. Therefore c -myc ASODN concentrations in thetarget vessel were 29、 33 and 9 -fold higher than thatin the plasma. There was circumferential distribution oflabeled c -myc in the area of highest fluorescein co-inciding with the site of medial dissecting from stent-ing, and the label was most intense in target vesselmedia harvested at 45 min time point and then dis-persed to adventitia. Conclusions Gelatin coated Pt- Ir stent mediated local delivery of c - myc ASODN isfeasible and efficient. The localization of ASODN ismainly in target vessel wall.

  5. LNA-modified oligonucleotides mediate specific inhibition of microRNA function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørom, Ulf Andersson; Kauppinen, Sakari; Lund, Anders H

    2006-01-01

    microRNAs are short, endogenous non-coding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional modulators of gene expression. Important functions for microRNAs have been found in the regulation of development, cellular proliferation and differentiation, while perturbed miRNA expression patterns have been...... observed in many human cancers. Here we present a method for specific inhibition of miRNA function through interaction with LNA-modified antisense oligonucleotides and report the specificity of this application. We show that LNA-modified oligonucleotides can inhibit exogenously introduced miRNAs with high...... specificity using a heterologous reporter assay, and furthermore demonstrate their ability to inhibit an endogenous miRNA in Drosophila melanogaster cells, leading to up-regulation of the cognate target protein. The method shows stoichiometric and reliable inhibition of the targeted miRNA and can thus...

  6. Long-term Exon Skipping Studies With 2′-O-Methyl Phosphorothioate Antisense Oligonucleotides in Dystrophic Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa L Tanganyika-de Winter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisense-mediated exon skipping for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is currently tested in phase 3 clinical trials. The aim of this approach is to modulate splicing by skipping a specific exon to reframe disrupted dystrophin transcripts, allowing the synthesis of a partly functional dystrophin protein. Studies in animal models allow detailed analysis of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of antisense oligonucleotides (AONs. Here, we tested the safety and efficacy of subcutaneously administered 2′-O-methyl phosphorothioate AON at 200 mg/kg/week for up to 6 months in mouse models with varying levels of disease severity: mdx mice (mild phenotype and mdx mice with one utrophin allele (mdx/utrn+/−; more severe phenotype. Long-term treatment was well tolerated and exon skipping and dystrophin restoration confirmed for all animals. Notably, in the more severely affected mdx/utrn+/− mice the therapeutic effect was larger: creatine kinase (CK levels were more decreased and rotarod running time was more increased. This suggests that the mdx/utrn+/− model may be a more suitable model to test potential therapies than the regular mdx mouse. Our results also indicate that long-term subcutaneous treatment in dystrophic mouse models with these AONs is safe and beneficial.

  7. Inhibition of B cell proliferation by antisense DNA to both alpha and beta forms of Fc epsilon R II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, L; Behle, K; Stevens, R H

    1992-10-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection activates B lymphocyte proliferation through partially understood mechanisms, resulting in phenotypic changes, including the appearance of new antigens. One such antigen is Fc epsilon R II/CD-23 which may be relevant for B cell proliferation. We have used anti-sense oligonucleotides to study the importance of the two forms of this molecule for proliferation in the EBV-transformed, Fc epsilon R II +ve lymphoblastoid B cell line, RPMI 8866. Anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotides were generated to the two forms of Fc epsilon R II; Fc epsilon R IIa (alpha) and IIb (beta) which differ only in their intracytoplasmic domains. Addition of increasing concentrations of anti-sense oligonucleotides, ranging from 1 to 30 microM, significantly decreased cellular proliferation as measured by the incorporation of [3H]thymidine (inhibition range 8-88%). Optimum inhibition of cellular proliferation was apparent at 15 microM concentration of both anti-sense Fc epsilon R IIa and IIb (Fc epsilon R IIa, mean +/- SE = 75 +/- 7% inhibition, p less than 0.001; Fc epsilon R IIb, mean +/- SE = 71 +/- 7% inhibition, p less than 0.001). Anti-sense oligonucleotides complementary to the common part of Fc epsilon R II resulted in a similar inhibition of proliferation. Sense oligonucleotides did not induce significant inhibition. Preincubation of sense and anti-sense oligonucleotides resulted in an abrogation of proliferation inhibition. Moreover, none of these oligonucleotides had any effect on a Fc epsilon R II -ve cell line. Incubation with both anti-sense IIa and IIb resulted in additive, but not synergistic inhibition of proliferation. Addition of soluble Fc epsilon R II did not reverse inhibition of proliferation, suggesting that membrane-bound or intracellular rather than soluble Fc epsilon R II was important for the induced proliferation. Analysis of cell surface expression for Fc epsilon II indicated that while there was a pronounced effect on cell number

  8. Improved cellular uptake of antisense Peptide nucleic acids by conjugation to a cell-penetrating Peptide and a lipid domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Nielsen, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    based on a splicing correction of a mutated luciferase gene in HeLa pLuc705 cells by targeting antisense oligonucleotides to a cryptic splice site. Further improvement in the delivery of CatLip-PNA conjugates is achieved by using auxiliary agents/treatments (e.g., chloroquine, calcium ions......Unaided cellular uptake of RNA interference agents such as antisense oligonucleotides and siRNA is extremely poor, and in vivo bioavailability is also limited. Thus, effective delivery strategies for such potential drugs are in high demand. Recently, a novel approach using a class of short cationic....... We have found, however, that this low -bioavailability can be significantly improved by chemical conjugation to a lipid domain ("Lip," such as a fatty acid), thereby creating "CatLip"-conjugates. The cellular uptake of these conjugates is conveniently evaluated using a sensitive cellular assay system...

  9. Rescue of peripheral vestibular function in Usher syndrome mice using a splice-switching antisense oligonucleotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Sarath; Depreux, Frederic F; Jodelka, Francine M; Lentz, Jennifer J; Rigo, Frank; Jones, Timothy A; Hastings, Michelle L

    2017-09-15

    Usher syndrome type 1C (USH1C/harmonin) is associated with profound retinal, auditory and vestibular dysfunction. We have previously reported on an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO-29) that dramatically improves auditory function and balance behavior in mice homozygous for the harmonin mutation Ush1c c.216G > A following a single systemic administration. The findings were suggestive of improved vestibular function; however, no direct vestibular assessment was made. Here, we measured vestibular sensory evoked potentials (VsEPs) to directly assess vestibular function in Usher mice. We report that VsEPs are absent or abnormal in Usher mice, indicating profound loss of vestibular function. Strikingly, Usher mice receiving ASO-29 treatment have normal or elevated vestibular response thresholds when treated during a critical period between postnatal day 1 and 5, respectively. In contrast, treatment of mice with ASO-29 treatment at P15 was minimally effective at rescuing vestibular function. Interestingly, ASO-29 treatment at P1, P5 or P15 resulted in sufficient vestibular recovery to support normal balance behaviors, suggesting a therapeutic benefit to balance with ASO-29 treatment at P15 despite the profound vestibular functional deficits that persist with treatment at this later time. These findings provide the first direct evidence of an effective treatment of peripheral vestibular function in a mouse model of USH1C and reveal the potential for using antisense technology to treat vestibular dysfunction. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Dopamine-induced apoptosis in human neuronal cells: inhibition by nucleic acides antisense to the dopamine transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porat, S.; Gabbay, M.; Tauber, M.; Ratovitski, T.; Blinder, E.; Simantov, R.

    1996-01-01

    Human neuroblastoma NMB cells take up [ 3 H]dopamine in a selective manner indicating that dopamine transporters are responsible for this uptake. These cells were therefore used as a model to study dopamine neurotoxicity, and to elucidate the role of dopamine transporters in controlling cell death. Treatment with 0.05-0.4 mM dopamine changed cells' morphology within 4 h, accompanied by retraction of processes, shrinkage, apoptosis-like atrophy, accumulation of apoptotic particles, DNA fragmentation and cell death. Cycloheximide inhibited dopamine's effect, suggesting that induction of apoptosis by dopamine was dependent upon protein synthesis. Dopamine cytotoxicity, monitored morphologically by flow cytometric analysis, and by lactate dehydrogenase released, was blocked by cocaine but not by the noradrenaline and serotonin uptake blockers desimipramine and imipramine, respectively. Attempting to inhibit dopamine transport and toxicity in a drug-free and highly selective way, three 18-mer dopamine transporter antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides (numbers 1, 2 and 3) and a new plasmid vector expressing the entire rat dopamine transporter complementary DNA in the antisense orientation were prepared and tested. Antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide 3 inhibited [ 3 H]dopamine uptake in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Likewise, transient transfection of NMB cells with the plasmid expressing dopamine transporter complementary DNA in the antisense orientation partially blocked [ 3 H]dopamine uptake. Antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide 3 also decreased, dose-dependently, the toxic effect of dopamine and 6-hydroxydopamine. Western blot analysis with newly prepared anti-human dopamine transporter antibodies showed that antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide 3 decreased the transporter protein level. These studies contribute to better understand the mechanism of dopamine-induced apoptosis and neurotoxicity. (Copyright (c) 1996 Elsevier Science B

  11. Profiled support vector machines for antisense oligonucleotide efficacy prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Guerrero José D

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents the use of Support Vector Machines (SVMs for prediction and analysis of antisense oligonucleotide (AO efficacy. The collected database comprises 315 AO molecules including 68 features each, inducing a problem well-suited to SVMs. The task of feature selection is crucial given the presence of noisy or redundant features, and the well-known problem of the curse of dimensionality. We propose a two-stage strategy to develop an optimal model: (1 feature selection using correlation analysis, mutual information, and SVM-based recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE, and (2 AO prediction using standard and profiled SVM formulations. A profiled SVM gives different weights to different parts of the training data to focus the training on the most important regions. Results In the first stage, the SVM-RFE technique was most efficient and robust in the presence of low number of samples and high input space dimension. This method yielded an optimal subset of 14 representative features, which were all related to energy and sequence motifs. The second stage evaluated the performance of the predictors (overall correlation coefficient between observed and predicted efficacy, r; mean error, ME; and root-mean-square-error, RMSE using 8-fold and minus-one-RNA cross-validation methods. The profiled SVM produced the best results (r = 0.44, ME = 0.022, and RMSE= 0.278 and predicted high (>75% inhibition of gene expression and low efficacy (http://aosvm.cgb.ki.se/. Conclusions The SVM approach is well suited to the AO prediction problem, and yields a prediction accuracy superior to previous methods. The profiled SVM was found to perform better than the standard SVM, suggesting that it could lead to improvements in other prediction problems as well.

  12. Antisense Oligonucleotide (AON-based Therapy for Leber Congenital Amaurosis Caused by a Frequent Mutation in CEP290

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    Rob WJ Collin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA is the most severe form of inherited retinal degeneration, with an onset in the first year of life. The most frequent mutation that causes LCA, present in at least 10% of individuals with LCA from North-American and Northern-European descent, is an intronic mutation in CEP290 that results in the inclusion of an aberrant exon in the CEP290 mRNA. Here, we describe a genetic therapy approach that is based on antisense oligonucleotides (AONs, small RNA molecules that are able to redirect normal splicing of aberrantly processed pre-mRNA. Immortalized lymphoblastoid cells of individuals with LCA homozygously carrying the intronic CEP290 mutation were transfected with several AONs that target the aberrant exon that is incorporated in the mutant CEP290 mRNA. Subsequent RNA isolation and reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that a number of AONs were capable of almost fully redirecting normal CEP290 splicing, in a dose-dependent manner. Other AONs however, displayed no effect on CEP290 splicing at all, indicating that the rescue of aberrant CEP290 splicing shows a high degree of sequence specificity. Together, our data show that AON-based therapy is a promising therapeutic approach for CEP290-associated LCA that warrants future research in animal models to develop a cure for this blinding disease.

  13. Preclinical Studies on Intestinal Administration of Antisense Oligonucleotides as a Model for Oral Delivery for Treatment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike van Putten

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisense oligonucleotides (AONs used to reframe dystrophin mRNA transcripts for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD patients are tested in clinical trials. Here, AONs are administered subcutaneously and intravenously, while the less invasive oral route would be preferred. Oral delivery of encapsulated AONs supplemented with a permeation enhancer, sodium caprate, has been successfully used to target tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α expression in liver. To test the feasibility of orally delivered AONs for DMD, we applied 2′-O-methyl phosphorothioate AONs (with or without sodium caprate supplementation directly to the intestine of mdx mice and compared pharmacokinetics and -dynamics with intravenous, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous delivery. Intestinally infused AONs were taken up, but resulted in lower plasma levels compared to other delivery routes, although bioavailability could be largely improved by supplementation of sodium caprate. After intestinal infusion, AON levels in all tissues were lower than for other administration routes, as were the ratios of target versus nontarget organ levels, except for diaphragm and heart where comparable levels and ratios were observed. For each administration route, low levels of exon skipping in triceps was observed 3 hours post-AON administration. These data suggest that oral administration of naked 2′-O-methyl phosphorothioate AONs may be feasible, but only when high AON concentrations are used in combination with sodium caprate.

  14. Antisense targeting of 3' end elements involved in DUX4 mRNA processing is an efficient therapeutic strategy for facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: a new gene-silencing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsollier, Anne-Charlotte; Ciszewski, Lukasz; Mariot, Virginie; Popplewell, Linda; Voit, Thomas; Dickson, George; Dumonceaux, Julie

    2016-04-15

    Defects in mRNA 3'end formation have been described to alter transcription termination, transport of the mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, stability of the mRNA and translation efficiency. Therefore, inhibition of polyadenylation may lead to gene silencing. Here, we choose facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) as a model to determine whether or not targeting key 3' end elements involved in mRNA processing using antisense oligonucleotide drugs can be used as a strategy for gene silencing within a potentially therapeutic context. FSHD is a gain-of-function disease characterized by the aberrant expression of the Double homeobox 4 (DUX4) transcription factor leading to altered pathogenic deregulation of multiple genes in muscles. Here, we demonstrate that targeting either the mRNA polyadenylation signal and/or cleavage site is an efficient strategy to down-regulate DUX4 expression and to decrease the abnormally high-pathological expression of genes downstream of DUX4. We conclude that targeting key functional 3' end elements involved in pre-mRNA to mRNA maturation with antisense drugs can lead to efficient gene silencing and is thus a potentially effective therapeutic strategy for at least FSHD. Moreover, polyadenylation is a crucial step in the maturation of almost all eukaryotic mRNAs, and thus all mRNAs are virtually eligible for this antisense-mediated knockdown strategy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Template-Directed Ligation of Peptides to Oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruick, Richard K.; Dawson, Philip E.; Kent, Stephen BH; Usman, Nassim; Joyce, Gerald F.

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic oligonucleotides and peptides have enjoyed a wide range of applications in both biology and chemistry. As a consequence, oligonucleotide-peptide conjugates have received considerable attention, most notably in the development of antisense constructs with improved pharmacological properties. In addition, oligonucleotide-peptide conjugates have been used as molecular tags, in the assembly of supramolecular arrays and in the construction of encoded combinatorial libraries. To make these chimeric molecules more accessible for a broad range of investigations, we sought to develop a facile method for joining fully deprotected oligonucleotides and peptides through a stable amide bond linkage. Furthermore, we wished to make this ligation reaction addressable, enabling one to direct the ligation of specific oligonucleotide and peptide components.To confer specificity and accelerate the rate of the reaction, the ligation process was designed to be dependent on the presence of a complementary oligonucleotide template.

  16. Challenges to oligonucleotides-based therapeutics for Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyenvalle Aurélie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Antisense oligonucleotides are short nucleic acids designed to bind to specific messenger RNAs in order to modulate splicing patterns or inhibit protein translation. As such, they represent promising therapeutic tools for many disorders and have been actively developed for more than 20 years as a form of molecular medicine. Although significant progress has been made in developing these agents as drugs, they are yet not recognized as effective therapeutics and several hurdles remain to be overcome. Within the last few years, however, the prospect of successful oligonucleotides-based therapies has moved a step closer, in particular for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Clinical trials have recently been conducted for this myopathy, where exon skipping is being used to achieve therapeutic outcomes. In this review, the recent developments and clinical trials using antisense oligonucleotides for Duchenne muscular dystrophy are discussed, with emphasis on the challenges ahead for this type of therapy, especially with regards to delivery and regulatory issues.

  17. Intravenous administration of stabilized antisense lipid particles (SALP) leads to activation and expansion of liver natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramson, J L; Bodner, C A; Johnson, J; Semple, S; Hope, M J

    2000-06-01

    Stabilized antisense lipid particles (SALP) have been developed for the systemic delivery of oligonucleotides. The impact of intravenous SALP administration was measured with respect to activation of natural killer (NK) and NK1.1+ T (NKT) cells in the livers of immunocompetent mice. Treatment with a SALP containing a highly mitogenic oligonucleotide (INX-6295) generated an increase in NK cytolytic activity and cell number within the liver but did not appear to affect the number of hepatic NKT cells or their cytolytic activity. The same results were observed after intravenous administration of the mitogenic oligonucleotide alone. Interestingly, treatment with a SALP containing a weakly mitogenic oligonucleotide (INX-6300) also activated the liver NK cells, whereas the oligonucleotide alone was unable to elicit these effects. The NK stimulatory activity of a SALP containing INX-6300 required both lipid and oligonucleotide components. These results demonstrate that in addition to modifying the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of intravenously administered oligonucleotides, SALP possess immunostimulatory activity independent of oligonucleotide mitogenicity, which can serve as an adjuvant to antisense therapies for cancer.

  18. Oligonucleotide Aptamers: New Tools for Targeted Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are a class of small nucleic acid ligands that are composed of RNA or single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides and have high specificity and affinity for their targets. Similar to antibodies, aptamers interact with their targets by recognizing a specific three-dimensional structure and are thus termed “chemical antibodies.” In contrast to protein antibodies, aptamers offer unique chemical and biological characteristics based on their oligonucleotide properties. Hence, they are more suitable for the development of novel clinical applications. Aptamer technology has been widely investigated in various biomedical fields for biomarker discovery, in vitro diagnosis, in vivo imaging, and targeted therapy. This review will discuss the potential applications of aptamer technology as a new tool for targeted cancer therapy with emphasis on the development of aptamers that are able to specifically target cell surface biomarkers. Additionally, we will describe several approaches for the use of aptamers in targeted therapeutics, including aptamer-drug conjugation, aptamer-nanoparticle conjugation, aptamer-mediated targeted gene therapy, aptamer-mediated immunotherapy, and aptamer-mediated biotherapy.

  19. A facile one-step fluorescence method for the quantitation of low-content single base deamination impurity in synthetic oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoye; Liang, Ruiting; Stolee, Jessica A

    2018-06-05

    Oligonucleotides are being researched and developed as potential drug candidates for the treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases. The characterization of antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) impurities caused by base mutations (e.g. deamination) which are closely related to the target ASO is a significant analytical challenge. Herein, we describe a novel one-step method, utilizing a strategy that combines fluorescence-ON detection with competitive hybridization, to achieve single base mutation quantitation in extensively modified synthetic ASOs. Given that this method is highly specific and sensitive (LoQ = 4 nM), we envision that it will find utility for screening other impurities as well as sequencing modified oligonucleotides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Antisense Oligonucleotide-mediated Exon Skipping as a Systemic Therapeutic Approach for Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Jeroen; Bornert, Olivier; Nyström, Alexander; Gostynski, Antoni; Jonkman, Marcel F; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; van den Akker, Peter C; Pasmooij, Anna Mg

    2016-10-18

    The "generalized severe" form of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB-gen sev) is caused by bi-allelic null mutations in COL7A1, encoding type VII collagen. The absence of type VII collagen leads to blistering of the skin and mucous membranes upon the slightest trauma. Because most patients carry exonic point mutations or small insertions/deletions, most exons of COL7A1 are in-frame, and low levels of type VII collagen already drastically improve the disease phenotype, this gene seems a perfect candidate for antisense oligonucleotide (AON)-mediated exon skipping. In this study, we examined the feasibility of AON-mediated exon skipping in vitro in primary cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts, and systemically in vivo using a human skin-graft mouse model. We show that treatment with AONs designed against exon 105 leads to in-frame exon 105 skipping at the RNA level and restores type VII collagen protein production in vitro. Moreover, we demonstrate that systemic delivery in vivo induces de novo expression of type VII collagen in skin grafts generated from patient cells. Our data demonstrate strong proof-of-concept for AON-mediated exon skipping as a systemic therapeutic strategy for RDEB.

  1. Sphingosine kinase 1 is a relevant molecular target in gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuereder, Thorsten; Hoeflmayer, Doris; Jaeger-Lansky, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1), a lipid kinase implicated in cell transformation and tumor growth, is overexpressed in gastric cancer and is linked with a poor prognosis. The biological relevance of Sphk1 expression in gastric cancer is unclear. Here, we studied the functional significance of Sphk1...... as a novel molecular target for gastric cancer by using an antisense oligonucleotide approach in vitro and in vivo. Gastric cancer cell lines (MKN28 and N87) were treated with Sphk1 with locked nucleic acid-antisense oligonucleotides (LNA-ASO). Sphk1 target regulation, cell growth, and apoptosis were...... assessed for single-agent Sphk1 LNA-ASO and for combinations with doxorubicin. Athymic nude mice xenografted with gastric cancer cells were treated with Sphk1 LNA and assessed for tumor growth and Sphk1 target regulation, in vivo. In vitro, nanomolar concentrations of Sphk1 LNA-ASO induced an approximately...

  2. Stereospecificity of oligonucleotide interactions revisited: no evidence for heterochiral hybridization and ribozyme/DNAzyme activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Hoehlig

    Full Text Available A major challenge for the application of RNA- or DNA-oligonucleotides in biotechnology and molecular medicine is their susceptibility to abundant nucleases. One intriguing possibility to tackle this problem is the use of mirror-image (l-oligonucleotides. For aptamers, this concept has successfully been applied to even develop therapeutic agents, so-called Spiegelmers. However, for technologies depending on RNA/RNA or RNA/DNA hybridization, like antisense or RNA interference, it has not been possible to use mirror-image oligonucleotides because Watson-Crick base pairing of complementary strands is (thought to be stereospecific. Many scientists consider this a general principle if not a dogma. A recent publication proposing heterochiral Watson-Crick base pairing and sequence-specific hydrolysis of natural RNA by mirror-image ribozymes or DNAzymes (and vice versa prompted us to systematically revisit the stereospecificity of oligonucleotides hybridization and catalytic activity. Using hyperchromicity measurements we demonstrate that hybridization only occurs among homochiral anti-parallel complementary oligonucleotide strands. As expected, achiral PNA hybridizes to RNA and DNA irrespective of their chirality. In functional assays we could not confirm an alleged heterochiral hydrolytic activity of ribozymes or DNAzymes. Our results confirm a strict stereospecificity of oligonucleotide hybridization and clearly argue against the possibility to use mirror-image oligonucleotides for gene silencing or antisense applications.

  3. Synthesis, Improved Antisense Activity and Structural Rationale for the Divergent RNA Affinities of 3;#8242;-Fluoro Hexitol Nucleic Acid (FHNA and Ara-FHNA) Modified Oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egli, Martin; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Allerson, Charles R.; Prakash, Thazha P.; Berdeja, Andres; Yu, Jinghua; Lee, Sam; Watt, Andrew; Gaus, Hans; Bhat, Balkrishen; Swayze, Eric E.; Seth, Punit P. (Isis Pharm.); (Vanderbilt)

    2012-03-16

    The synthesis, biophysical, structural, and biological properties of both isomers of 3'-fluoro hexitol nucleic acid (FHNA and Ara-FHNA) modified oligonucleotides are reported. Synthesis of the FHNA and Ara-FHNA thymine phosphoramidites was efficiently accomplished starting from known sugar precursors. Optimal RNA affinities were observed with a 3'-fluorine atom and nucleobase in a trans-diaxial orientation. The Ara-FHNA analog with an equatorial fluorine was found to be destabilizing. However, the magnitude of destabilization was sequence-dependent. Thus, the loss of stability is sharply reduced when Ara-FHNA residues were inserted at pyrimidine-purine (Py-Pu) steps compared to placement within a stretch of pyrimidines (Py-Py). Crystal structures of A-type DNA duplexes modified with either monomer provide a rationalization for the opposing stability effects and point to a steric origin of the destabilization caused by the Ara-FHNA analog. The sequence dependent effect can be explained by the formation of an internucleotide C-F {hor_ellipsis} H-C pseudo hydrogen bond between F3' of Ara-FHNA and C8-H of the nucleobase from the 3'-adjacent adenosine that is absent at Py-Py steps. In animal experiments, FHNA-modified antisense oligonucleotides formulated in saline showed a potent downregulation of gene expression in liver tissue without producing hepatotoxicity. Our data establish FHNA as a useful modification for antisense therapeutics and also confirm the stabilizing influence of F(Py) {hor_ellipsis} H-C(Pu) pseudo hydrogen bonds in nucleic acid structures.

  4. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee Points-to-consider Paper*: Drug-induced Vascular Injury Associated with Nonsmall Molecule Therapeutics in Preclinical Development: Part 2. Antisense Oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Jeffery A; Fant, Pierluigi; Guionaud, Silvia; Henry, Scott P; Leach, Michael W; Louden, Calvert; Scicchitano, Marshall S; Weaver, James L; Zabka, Tanja S; Frazier, Kendall S

    2015-10-01

    Drug-induced vascular injury (DIVI) is a recurrent challenge in the development of novel pharmaceutical agents. In recent years, DIVI has been occasionally observed in nonhuman primates given RNA-targeting therapeutics such as antisense oligonucleotide therapies (ASOs) during chronic toxicity studies. While DIVI in laboratory animal species has been well characterized for vasoactive small molecules, and immune-mediated responses against large molecule biotherapeutics have been well described, there is little published information regarding DIVI induced by ASOs to date. Preclinical DIVI findings in monkeys have caused considerable delays in development of promising new ASO therapies, because of the uncertainty about whether DIVI in preclinical studies is predictive of effects in humans, and the lack of robust biomarkers of DIVI. This review of DIVI discusses clinical and microscopic features of vasculitis in monkeys, their pathogenic mechanisms, and points to consider for the toxicologist and pathologist when confronted with ASO-related DIVI. Relevant examples of regulatory feedback are included to provide insight into risk assessment of ASO therapies. © 2015 by The Author(s).

  5. Antisense PMO found in dystrophic dog model was effective in cells from exon 7-deleted DMD patient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Saito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antisense oligonucleotide-induced exon skipping is a promising approach for treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. We have systemically administered an antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO targeting dystrophin exons 6 and 8 to a dog with canine X-linked muscular dystrophy in Japan (CXMD(J lacking exon 7 and achieved recovery of dystrophin in skeletal muscle. To date, however, antisense chemical compounds used in DMD animal models have not been directly applied to a DMD patient having the same type of exon deletion. We recently identified a DMD patient with an exon 7 deletion and tried direct translation of the antisense PMO used in dog models to the DMD patient's cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We converted fibroblasts of CXMD(J and the DMD patient to myotubes by FACS-aided MyoD transduction. Antisense PMOs targeting identical regions of dog and human dystrophin exons 6 and 8 were designed. These antisense PMOs were mixed and administered as a cocktail to either dog or human cells in vitro. In the CXMD(J and human DMD cells, we observed a similar efficacy of skipping of exons 6 and 8 and a similar extent of dystrophin protein recovery. The accompanying skipping of exon 9, which did not alter the reading frame, was different between cells of these two species. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Antisense PMOs, the effectiveness of which has been demonstrated in a dog model, achieved multi-exon skipping of dystrophin gene on the FACS-aided MyoD-transduced fibroblasts from an exon 7-deleted DMD patient, suggesting the feasibility of systemic multi-exon skipping in humans.

  6. Antisense mediated exon skipping therapy for duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolin, Camilla; Shiraishi, Takehiko

    2011-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene (DMD) that result in the absence of essential muscle protein dystrophin. Among many different approaches for DMD treatment, exon skipping, mediated by antisense oligonucleotides, is one of the most...

  7. Degradation product characterization of therapeutic oligonucleotides using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzahar, N M; Magdy, N; El-Kosasy, Amira M; Bartlett, Michael G

    2018-05-01

    Synthetic antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides (PS) have undergone rapid development as novel therapeutic agents. The increasing significance of this class of drugs requires significant investment in the development of quality control methods. The determination of the many degradation pathways of such complex molecules presents a significant challenge. However, an understanding of the potential impurities that may arise is necessary to continue to advance these powerful new therapeutics. In this study, four different antisense oligonucleotides representing several generations of oligonucleotide therapeutic agents were evaluated under various stress conditions (pH, thermal, and oxidative stress) using ion-pairing reversed-phase liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (IP-RPLC-MS/MS) to provide in-depth characterization and identification of the degradation products. The oligonucleotide samples were stressed under different pH values at 45 and 90 °C. The main degradation products were observed to be losses of nucleotide moieties from the 3'- and 5'-terminus, depurination, formation of terminal phosphorothioates, and production of ribose, ribophosphorothioates (Rp), and phosphoribophosphorothioates (pRp). Moreover, the effects of different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide were studied resulting in primarily extensive desulfurization and subsequent oxidation of the phosphorothioate linkage to produce the corresponding phosphodiester. The reaction kinetics for the degradation of the oligonucleotides under the different stress conditions were studied and were found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics. Differences in rates exist even for oligonucleotides of similar length but consisting of different sequences. Graphical abstract Identification of degradation products across several generations of oligonucleotide therapeutics using LC-MS.

  8. Oligonucleotide-based pharmaceuticals: Non-clinical and clinical safety signals and non-clinical testing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Enni-Kaisa; Palomäki, Tiina; Pasanen, Markku

    2017-11-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides, short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and aptamers are oligonucleotide-based pharmaceuticals with a promising role in targeted therapies. Currently, five oligonucleotide-based pharmaceuticals have achieved marketing authorization in Europe or USA and many more are undergoing clinical testing. However, several safety concerns have been raised in non-clinical and clinical studies. Oligonucleotides share properties with both chemical and biological pharmaceuticals and therefore they pose challenges also from the regulatory point of view. We have analyzed the safety data of oligonucleotides and evaluated the applicability of current non-clinical toxicological guidelines for assessing the safety of oligonucleotide-based pharmaceuticals. Oligonucleotide-based pharmaceuticals display a similar toxicological profile, exerting adverse effects on liver and kidney, evoking hematological alterations, as well as causing immunostimulation and prolonging the coagulation time. It is possible to extrapolate some of these effects from non-clinical studies to humans. However, evaluation strategies for genotoxicity testing of "non-natural" oligonucleotides should be revised. Additionally, the selective use of surrogates and prediction of clinical endpoints for non-clinically observed immunostimulation is complicated by its multiple potential manifestations, demanding improvements in the testing strategies. Utilizing more relevant and mechanistic-based approaches and taking better account of species differences, could possibly improve the prediction of relevant immunological/proinflammatory effects in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biodegradable polymer nanocarriers for therapeutic antisense microRNA delivery in living animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Sekar, Narayana M.; Sekar, Thillai V.

    2012-03-01

    MicroRNAs are endogenous regulators of gene expression, deregulated in several cellular diseases including cancer. Altering the cellular microenvironment by modulating the microRNAs functions can regulate different genes involved in major cellular processes, and this approach is now being investigated as a promising new generation of molecularly targeted anti-cancer therapies. AntagomiRs (Antisense-miRNAs) are a novel class of chemically modified stable oligonucleotides used for blocking the functions of endogenous microRNAs, which are overexpressed. A key challenge in achieving effective microRNAbased therapeutics lies in the development of an efficient delivery system capable of specifically delivering antisense oligonucleotides and target cancer cells in living animals. We are now developing an effective delivery system designed to selectively deliver antagomiR- 21 and antagomiR-10b to triple negative breast cancer cells, and to revert tumor cell metastasis and invasiveness. The FDA-approved biodegradable PLGA-nanoparticles were selected as a carrier for antagomiRs delivery. Chemically modified antagomiRs (antagomiR-21 and antagomiR-10b) were co-encapsulated in PEGylated-PLGA-nanoparticles by using the double-emulsification (W/O/W) solvent evaporation method, and the resulting average particle size of 150-200nm was used for different in vitro and in vivo experiments. The antagomiR encapsulated PLGA-nanoparticles were evaluated for their in vitro antagomiRs delivery, intracellular release profile, and antagomiRs functional effects, by measuring the endogenous cellular targets, and the cell growth and metastasis. The xenografts of tumor cells in living mice were used for evaluating the anti-metastatic and anti-invasive properties of cells. The results showed that the use of PLGA for antagomiR delivery is not only efficient in crossing cell membrane, but can also maintain functional intracellular antagomiRs level for a extended period of time and achieve

  10. Hydrogel-Assisted Antisense LNA Gapmer Delivery for In Situ Gene Silencing in Spinal Cord Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno, Pedro M.D.; Ferreira, Ana R.; Salvador, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    )-modified AON gapmers in combination with a fibrin hydrogel bridging material to induce gene silencing in situ at a SCI lesion site. LNA gapmers were effectively developed against two promising gene targets aiming at enhancing axonal regeneration—RhoA and GSK3β. The fibrin-matrix-assisted AON delivery system......After spinal cord injury (SCI), nerve regeneration is severely hampered due to the establishment of a highly inhibitory microenvironment at the injury site, through the contribution of multiple factors. The potential of antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) to modify gene expression at different levels...

  11. Identification of a Peptide for Systemic Brain Delivery of a Morpholino Oligonucleotide in Mouse Models of Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanpoor, Fazel; Hammond, Suzan M; Abendroth, Frank; Hazell, Gareth; Wood, Matthew J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides are emerging treatments for neuromuscular diseases, with several splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs) currently undergoing clinical trials such as for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). However, the development of systemically delivered antisense therapeutics has been hampered by poor tissue penetration and cellular uptake, including crossing of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) to reach targets in the central nervous system (CNS). For SMA application, we have investigated the ability of various BBB-crossing peptides for CNS delivery of a splice-switching phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotide (PMO) targeting survival motor neuron 2 (SMN2) exon 7 inclusion. We identified a branched derivative of the well-known ApoE (141–150) peptide, which as a PMO conjugate was capable of exon inclusion in the CNS following systemic administration, leading to an increase in the level of full-length SMN2 transcript. Treatment of newborn SMA mice with this peptide-PMO (P-PMO) conjugate resulted in a significant increase in the average lifespan and gains in weight, muscle strength, and righting reflexes. Systemic treatment of adult SMA mice with this newly identified P-PMO also resulted in small but significant increases in the levels of SMN2 pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) exon inclusion in the CNS and peripheral tissues. This work provides proof of principle for the ability to select new peptide paradigms to enhance CNS delivery and activity of a PMO SSO through use of a peptide-based delivery platform for the treatment of SMA potentially extending to other neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:28118087

  12. Presymptomatic Treatment with Acetylcholinesterase Antisense Oligonucleotides Prolongs Survival in ALS (G93A-SOD1 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotkine Marc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Previous research suggests that acetylcholinesterase (AChE may be involved in ALS pathogenesis. AChE enzyme inhibitors can upregulate AChE transcription which in certain contexts can have deleterious (noncatalytic effects, making them theoretically harmful in ALS, whilst AChE antisense-oligonucleotides (mEN101, which downregulate AChE may be beneficial. Our aim was to investigate whether downregulation of AChE using mEN101 is beneficial in an ALS mouse model. Methods. ALS (G93A-SOD1 mice received saline, mEN101, inverse-EN101, or neostigmine. Treatments were administered from 5 weeks. Disease-onset and survival were recorded. Additional mice were sacrificed for pathological analysis at 15 weeks of age. In a follow-up experiment treatment was started at the symptomatic stage at a higher dose. Results. mEN101 given at the presymptomatic (but not symptomatic stage prolonged survival and attenuated motor-neuron loss in ALS mice. In contrast, neostigmine exacerbated the clinical parameters. Conclusions. These results suggest that AChE may be involved in ALS pathogenesis. The accelerated disease course with neostigmine suggests that any beneficial effects of mEN101 occur through a non-catalytic rather than cholinergic mechanism.

  13. An evaluation of oligonucleotide-based therapeutic strategies for polyQ diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiszer Agnieszka

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi and antisense strategies provide experimental therapeutic agents for numerous diseases, including polyglutamine (polyQ disorders caused by CAG repeat expansion. We compared the potential of different oligonucleotide-based strategies for silencing the genes responsible for several polyQ diseases, including Huntington's disease and two spinocerebellar ataxias, type 1 and type 3. The strategies included nonallele-selective gene silencing, gene replacement, allele-selective SNP targeting and CAG repeat targeting. Results Using the patient-derived cell culture models of polyQ diseases, we tested various siRNAs, and antisense reagents and assessed their silencing efficiency and allele selectivity. We showed considerable allele discrimination by several SNP targeting siRNAs based on a weak G-G or G-U pairing with normal allele and strong G-C pairing with mutant allele at the site of RISC-induced cleavage. Among the CAG repeat targeting reagents the strongest allele discrimination is achieved by miRNA-like functioning reagents that bind to their targets and inhibit their translation without substantial target cleavage. Also, morpholino analog performs well in mutant and normal allele discrimination but its efficient delivery to cells at low effective concentration still remains a challenge. Conclusions Using three cellular models of polyQ diseases and the same experimental setup we directly compared the performance of different oligonucleotide-based treatment strategies that are currently under development. Based on the results obtained by us and others we discussed the advantages and drawbacks of these strategies considering them from several different perspectives. The strategy aimed at nonallele-selective inhibiting of causative gene expression by targeting specific sequence of the implicated gene is the easiest to implement but relevant benefits are still uncertain. The gene replacement strategy that

  14. Pretreatment of Mice with Oligonucleotide prop5 Protects Them from Influenza Virus Infections

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    Kang Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus is a successful parasite and requires host factors to complete its life cycle. Prop5 is an antisense oligonucleotide, targeting programmed cell death protein 5 (PDCD5. In this study, we tested the antiviral activity of prop5 against mouse-adapted A/FM/1/47 strain of influenza A virus in a mouse model. Prop5 intranasally administered the mice at dosages of 10 and 20 mg/kg/d at 24 h and 30 min before infection, provided 80% and 100% survival rates and prolonged mean survival days in comparison with influenza virus-infected mice (both p < 0.01. Moreover, viral titres in mice pretreated with prop5, at dose of 10 and 20 mg/kg/d, had declined significantly on day two, four, and six post-infection compared with the yields in infected mice (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01; lung index in mice pretreated with prop5 (20 mg/kg/d had been inhibited on day six post-infection (p < 0.05. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry showed that prop5 could down-regulate the PDCD5 protein expression levels in lung tissues of infected mice. These data indicate that antisense oligonucleotide prop5 is a promising drug for prophylaxis and control influenza virus infections and provides an insight into the host-pathogen interaction.

  15. Thermo-Responsive Complexes of c-Myc Antisense Oligonucleotide with Block Copolymer of Poly(OEGMA) and Quaternized Poly(4-Vinylpyridine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuzogullari, Murat; Elalmis, Yeliz Basaran; Isoglu, Sevil Dincer

    2017-04-01

    Solution behavior of thermo-responsive polymers and their complexes with biological macromolecules may be affected by environmental conditions, such as the concentration of macromolecular components, pH, ion concentration, etc. Therefore, a thermo-responsive polymer and its complexes should be characterized in detail to observe their responses against possible environments under physiological conditions before biological applications. To briefly indicate this important issue, thermo-responsive block copolymer of quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine) and poly(oligoethyleneglycol methyl ether methacrylate) as a potential nonviral vector has been synthesized. Polyelectrolyte complexes of this copolymer with the antisense oligonucleotide of c-Myc oncogene are also thermo-responsive but, have lower LCST (lower critical solution temperature) values compared to individual copolymer. LCST values of complexes decrease with molar ratio of macromolecular components and presence of salt. Dilution of solutions also affects solution behavior of complexes and causes a significant decrease in size and an increase in LCST, which indicates possible effects of severe dilutions in the blood stream. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Electronic Structures of LNA Phosphorothioate Oligonucleotides

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    Henrik G. Bohr

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Important oligonucleotides in anti-sense research have been investigated in silico and experimentally. This involves quantum mechanical (QM calculations and chromatography experiments on locked nucleic acid (LNA phosphorothioate (PS oligonucleotides. iso-potential electrostatic surfaces are essential in this study and have been calculated from the wave functions derived from the QM calculations that provide binding information and other properties of these molecules. The QM calculations give details of the electronic structures in terms of e.g., energy and bonding, which make them distinguish or differentiate between the individual PS diastereoisomers determined by the position of sulfur atoms. Rules are derived from the electronic calculations of these molecules and include the effects of the phosphorothioate chirality and formation of electrostatic potential surfaces. Physical and electrochemical descriptors of the PS oligonucleotides are compared to the experiments in which chiral states on these molecules can be distinguished. The calculations demonstrate that electronic structure, electrostatic potential, and topology are highly sensitive to single PS configuration changes and can give a lead to understanding the activity of the molecules. Keywords: LNA phosphorothioate, DNA/LNA oligonucleotide, diastereoisomers, Hartree-Fock calculations, iso-potential surface, anion chromatograms

  17. Antisense oligonucleotides and all-trans retinoic acid have a synergistic anti-tumor effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Qin; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Wantao

    2008-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides against hTR (As-ODN-hTR) have shown promising results as treatment strategies for various human malignancies. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a signalling molecule with important roles in differentiation and apoptosis. Biological responses to ATRA are currently used therapeutically in various human cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of As-ODN-hTR combined with ATRA in vivo. In situ human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) models were established by subcutaneous injection of Tca8113 cells. Mice were treated with sense oligonucleotides against hTR(S-ODN-hTR) alone, As-ODN-hTR alone, ATRA alone, As-ODN-hTR plus ATRA, or S-ODN-hTR plus ATRA. Tumor size and weight were assessed in the mice. Telomerase activity was detected by a TRAP assay, apoptotic cells were evaluated with a Tunel assay, the expression of apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2 and Bax) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural morphological changes in the tumor specimen were examined. Both As-ODN-hTR and ATRA can significantly inhibit tumor growth in this OSCC xenograft solid-tumor model, and the combination of the two agents had a synergistic anti-tumorogenic effect. We also demonstrated that this anti-tumor effect correlated with inhibition of telomerase activity. Furthermore, significant increases in the number of apoptotic cells, typical apoptotic morphology and a downregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein, bcl-2 were observed in the treated tissues. The combination of As-ODN-hTR and ATRA has a synergistic anti-tumor effect. This anti-tumor effect can be mainly attributed to apoptosis induced by a decrease in telomerase activity. Bcl-2 plays an important role in this process. Therefore, combining As-ODN-hTR and ATRA may be an approach for the treatment of human oral squamous cell carcinoma

  18. Anti-Urokinase Receptor Antisense Oligonucleotide (uPAR-aODN) to Prevent and Cure Long-Term Space Exploration-Related Retinal Pathological Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarano, Stefano; Lulli, Matteo; Fibbi, Gabriella; Margheri, Francesca; Papucci, Laura; Serrati, Simona; Witort, Ewa; Chilla, Anastasia; Lapucci, Andrea; Donnini, Martino; Quaglierini, Paolo; Romiti, Alice; Specogna, Rebecca; Del Rosso, Mario; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2008-06-01

    Angiogenesis underlies a variety of physiological processes and its possible deregulation during long term space exploration needs to be investigated. Angiogenesis is a multistep process of new blood capillary formation, where degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by proteolytic enzymes, including uPA (urokinase plasminogen activator) and opening the way to migration of endothelial cells (EC), is critical. Plasminogen activation system regulates angiogenesis by both uPA-driven ECM degradation and uPA receptor (uPAR). Microgravity and low dose irradiations promote tissue neoangiogeenesis and neovascularization is often common occurence in ophthalmologic pathologies. We have designed and patented the uPAR antisense oligonucleotide (aODN) and evaluated its antiangiogenetic activity by EC cellular migration and capillary morphogenesis assays. The uPAR aODN treatment caused a 75% inhibition of human microvascular EC migration and a complete inhibition of capillary morphogenesis, suggesting its therapeutic application to prevent neoangiogenesis-related ophthalmologic pathologies during space exploration.

  19. Identifying members of the domain Archaea with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggraf, S; Mayer, T; Amann, R; Schadhauser, S; Woese, C R; Stetter, K O

    1994-09-01

    Two 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were designed for the archaeal kingdoms Euryachaeota and Crenarchaeota. Probe specificities were evaluated by nonradioactive dot blot hybridization against selected reference organisms. The successful application of fluorescent-probe derivatives for whole-cell hybridization required organism-specific optimizations of fixation and hybridization conditions to assure probe penetration and morphological integrity of the cells. The probes allowed preliminary grouping of three new hyperthermophilic isolates. Together with other group-specific rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes, these probes will facilitate rapid in situ monitoring of the populations present in hydrothermal systems and support cultivation attempts.

  20. A locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotide (LNA silences PCSK9 and enhances LDLR expression in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Gupta

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 is an important factor in the etiology of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH and is also an attractive therapeutic target to reduce low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol. PCSK9 accelerates the degradation of hepatic low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR and low levels of hepatic PCSK9 activity are associated with reduced levels of circulating LDL-cholesterol.The present study presents the first evidence for the efficacy of a locked nucleic acid (LNA antisense oligonucleotide (LNA ASO that targets both human and mouse PCSK9. We employed human hepatocytes derived cell lines HepG2 and HuH7 and a pancreatic mouse beta-TC3 cell line known to express high endogenous levels of PCSK9. LNA ASO efficiently reduced the mRNA and protein levels of PCSK9 with a concomitant increase in LDLR protein levels after transfection in these cells. In vivo efficacy of LNA ASO was further investigated in mice by tail vein intravenous administration of LNA ASO in saline solution. The level of PCSK9 mRNA was reduced by approximately 60%, an effect lasting more than 16 days. Hepatic LDLR protein levels were significantly up-regulated by 2.5-3 folds for at least 8 days and approximately 2 fold for 16 days. Finally, measurement of liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels revealed that long term LNA ASO treatment (7 weeks does not cause hepatotoxicity.LNA-mediated PCSK9 mRNA inhibition displayed potent reduction of PCSK9 in cell lines and mouse liver. Our data clearly revealed the efficacy and safety of LNA ASO in reducing PCSK9 levels, an approach that is now ready for testing in primates. The major significance and take home message of this work is the development of a novel and promising approach for human therapeutic intervention of the PCSK9 pathway and hence for reducing some of the cardiovascular risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome.

  1. Evaluation of fluorine-18-labeled alkylating agents as potential synthons for the labeling of oligonucleotides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, EFJ; Vroegh, J; Elsinga, PH; Vaalburg, W

    Six fluorine-18-labeled alkylating agents were selected as potentially suitable synthons for the labeling of antisense oligonucleotides. The selected synthons were evaluated in a model reaction with the monomer adenosine 5'-O-thiomonophosphate. Of these synthons,

  2. Modulation of 5' splice site selection using tailed oligonucleotides carrying splicing signals

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    Elela Sherif

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously described the use of tailed oligonucleotides as a means of reprogramming alternative pre-mRNA splicing in vitro and in vivo. The tailed oligonucleotides that were used interfere with splicing because they contain a portion complementary to sequences immediately upstream of the target 5' splice site combined with a non-hybridizing 5' tail carrying binding sites for the hnRNP A1/A2 proteins. In the present study, we have tested the inhibitory activity of RNA oligonucleotides carrying different tail structures. Results We show that an oligonucleotide with a 5' tail containing the human β-globin branch site sequence inhibits the use of the 5' splice site of Bcl-xL, albeit less efficiently than a tail containing binding sites for the hnRNP A1/A2 proteins. A branch site-containing tail positioned at the 3' end of the oligonucleotide also elicited splicing inhibition but not as efficiently as a 5' tail. The interfering activity of a 3' tail was improved by adding a 5' splice site sequence next to the branch site sequence. A 3' tail carrying a Y-shaped branch structure promoted similar splicing interference. The inclusion of branch site or 5' splice site sequences in the Y-shaped 3' tail further improved splicing inhibition. Conclusion Our in vitro results indicate that a variety of tail architectures can be used to elicit splicing interference at low nanomolar concentrations, thereby broadening the scope and the potential impact of this antisense technology.

  3. Ultramild protein-mediated click chemistry creates efficient oligonucleotide probes for targeting and detecting nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nåbo, Lina J.; Madsen, Charlotte S.; Jensen, Knud J.

    2015-01-01

    Functionalized synthetic oligonucleotides are finding growing applications in research, clinical studies, and therapy. However, it is not easy to prepare them in a biocompatible and highly efficient manner. We report a new strategy to synthesize oligonucleotides with promising nucleic acid...... targeting and detection properties. We focus in particular on the pH sensitivity of these new probes and their high target specificity. For the first time, human copper(I)-binding chaperon Cox17 was applied to effectively catalyze click labeling of oligonucleotides. This was performed under ultramild...... conditions with fluorophore, peptide, and carbohydrate azide derivatives. In thermal denaturation studies, the modified probes showed specific binding to complementary DNA and RNA targets. Finally, we demonstrated the pH sensitivity of the new rhodamine-based fluorescent probes in vitro and rationalize our...

  4. Antisense-induced exon skipping for duplications in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

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    van Ommen Gert-Jan B

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antisense-mediated exon skipping is currently one of the most promising therapeutic approaches for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. Using antisense oligonucleotides (AONs targeting specific exons the DMD reading frame is restored and partially functional dystrophins are produced. Following proof of concept in cultured muscle cells from patients with various deletions and point mutations, we now focus on single and multiple exon duplications. These mutations are in principle ideal targets for this approach since the specific skipping of duplicated exons would generate original, full-length transcripts. Methods Cultured muscle cells from DMD patients carrying duplications were transfected with AONs targeting the duplicated exons, and the dystrophin RNA and protein were analyzed. Results For two brothers with an exon 44 duplication, skipping was, even at suboptimal transfection conditions, so efficient that both exons 44 were skipped, thus generating, once more, an out-of-frame transcript. In such cases, one may resort to multi-exon skipping to restore the reading frame, as is shown here by inducing skipping of exon 43 and both exons 44. By contrast, in cells from a patient with an exon 45 duplication we were able to induce single exon 45 skipping, which allowed restoration of wild type dystrophin. The correction of a larger duplication (involving exons 52 to 62, by combinations of AONs targeting the outer exons, appeared problematic due to inefficient skipping and mistargeting of original instead of duplicated exons. Conclusion The correction of DMD duplications by exon skipping depends on the specific exons targeted. Its options vary from the ideal one, restoring for the first time the true, wild type dystrophin, to requiring more 'classical' skipping strategies, while the correction of multi-exon deletions may need the design of tailored approaches.

  5. Optimization of Peptide Nucleic Acid Antisense Oligonucleotides for Local and Systemic Dystrophin Splice Correction in the mdx Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, HaiFang; Betts, Corinne; Saleh, Amer F; Ivanova, Gabriela D; Lee, Hyunil; Seow, Yiqi; Kim, Dalsoo; Gait, Michael J; Wood, Matthew JA

    2010-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) have the capacity to alter the processing of pre-mRNA transcripts in order to correct the function of aberrant disease-related genes. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal X-linked muscle degenerative disease that arises from mutations in the DMD gene leading to an absence of dystrophin protein. AOs have been shown to restore the expression of functional dystrophin via splice correction by intramuscular and systemic delivery in animal models of DMD and in DMD patients via intramuscular administration. Major challenges in developing this splice correction therapy are to optimize AO chemistry and to develop more effective systemic AO delivery. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) AOs are an alternative AO chemistry with favorable in vivo biochemical properties and splice correcting abilities. Here, we show long-term splice correction of the DMD gene in mdx mice following intramuscular PNA delivery and effective splice correction in aged mdx mice. Further, we report detailed optimization of systemic PNA delivery dose regimens and PNA AO lengths to yield splice correction, with 25-mer PNA AOs providing the greatest splice correcting efficacy, restoring dystrophin protein in multiple peripheral muscle groups. PNA AOs therefore provide an attractive candidate AO chemistry for DMD exon skipping therapy. PMID:20068555

  6. Evaluation of 2’-Deoxy-2’-fluoro Antisense Oligonucleotides for Exon Skipping in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana M G Jirka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a severe muscle wasting disorder typically caused by frame-shifting mutations in the DMD gene. Restoration of the reading frame would allow the production of a shorter but partly functional dystrophin protein as seen in Becker muscular dystrophy patients. This can be achieved with antisense oligonucleotides (AONs that induce skipping of specific exons during pre-mRNA splicing. Different chemical modifications have been developed to improve AON properties. The 2’-deoxy-2’-fluoro (2F RNA modification is attractive for exon skipping due to its ability to recruit ILF2/3 proteins to the 2F/pre-mRNA duplex, which resulted in enhanced exon skipping in spinal muscular atrophy models. In this study, we examined the effect of two different 2’-substituted AONs (2’-F phosphorothioate (2FPS and 2’-O-Me phosphorothioate (2OMePS on exon skipping in DMD cell and animal models. In human cell cultures, 2FPS AONs showed higher exon skipping levels than their isosequential 2OMePS counterparts. Interestingly, in the mdx mouse model, 2FPS was less efficient than 2OMePS and suggested safety issues as evidenced by increased spleen size and weight loss. Our results do not support a clinical application for 2FPS AON.

  7. Characterization of peptide-oligonucleotide heteroconjugates by mass spectrometry.

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, O N; Kulkarni, S; Aldrich, J V; Barofsky, D F

    1996-01-01

    Two peptide-oligothymidylic acids, prepared by joining an 11 residue synthetic peptide containing one internal carboxyl group (Asp side chain) to amino-linker-5'pdT6 and amino-linker-5'pdT10 oligonucleotides, were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) on a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer and by electrospray ionization (ESI) on a triple-quadrupole system. These synthetic compounds model peptide-nucleic acid heteroconjugates encountered in antisense research an...

  8. Design and analysis of effects of triplet repeat oligonucleotides in cell models for myotonic dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Barriga, A.; Mulders, S.A.M.; Giessen, J. van der; Hooijer, J.D.; Bijl, S.; Kessel, I.D.G. van; Beers, J. van; Deutekom, J.C. van; Fransen, J.A.M.; Wieringa, B.; Wansink, D.G.

    2013-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by DM protein kinase (DMPK) transcripts containing an expanded (CUG)n repeat. Antisense oligonucleotide (AON)-mediated suppression of these mutant RNAs is considered a promising therapeutic strategy for this severe disorder. Earlier, we identified a

  9. Evaluation of the electron transfer flavoprotein as an antibacterial target in Burkholderia cenocepacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stietz, Maria S; Lopez, Christina; Osifo, Osasumwen; Tolmasky, Marcelo E; Cardona, Silvia T

    2017-10-01

    There are hundreds of essential genes in multidrug-resistant bacterial genomes, but only a few of their products are exploited as antibacterial targets. An example is the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF), which is required for growth and viability in Burkholderia cenocepacia. Here, we evaluated ETF as an antibiotic target for Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). Depletion of the bacterial ETF during infection of Caenorhabditis elegans significantly extended survival of the nematodes, proving that ETF is essential for survival of B. cenocepacia in this host model. In spite of the arrest in respiration in ETF mutants, the inhibition of etf expression did not increase the formation of persister cells, when treated with high doses of ciprofloxacin or meropenem. To test if etf translation could be inhibited by RNA interference, antisense oligonucleotides that target the etfBA operon were synthesized. One antisense oligonucleotide was effective in inhibiting etfB translation in vitro but not in vivo, highlighting the challenge of reduced membrane permeability for the design of drugs against B. cenocepacia. This work contributes to the validation of ETF of B. cenocepacia as a target for antibacterial therapy and demonstrates the utility of a C. elegans liquid killing assay to validate gene essentiality in an in vivo infection model.

  10. Direct Mutagenesis of Thousands of Genomic Targets using Microarray-derived Oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Mads; Kosuri, Sriram; Genee, Hans Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Multiplex Automated Genome Engineering (MAGE) allows simultaneous mutagenesis of multiple target sites in bacterial genomes using short oligonucleotides. However, large-scale mutagenesis requires hundreds to thousands of unique oligos, which are costly to synthesize and impossible to scale-up by ...

  11. Assessing Specific Oligonucleotides and Small Molecule Antibiotics for the Ability to Inhibit the CRD-BP-CD44 RNA Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Dana; Lee, Chow H.

    2014-01-01

    Studies on Coding Region Determinant-Binding Protein (CRD-BP) and its orthologs have confirmed their functional role in mRNA stability and localization. CRD-BP is present in extremely low levels in normal adult tissues, but it is over-expressed in many types of aggressive human cancers and in neonatal tissues. Although the exact role of CRD-BP in tumour progression is unclear, cumulative evidence suggests that its ability to physically associate with target mRNAs is an important criterion for its oncogenic role. CRD-BP has high affinity for the 3′UTR of the oncogenic CD44 mRNA and depletion of CRD-BP in cells led to destabilization of CD44 mRNA, decreased CD44 expression, reduced adhesion and disruption of invadopodia formation. Here, we further characterize the CRD-BP-CD44 RNA interaction and assess specific antisense oligonucleotides and small molecule antibiotics for their ability to inhibit the CRD-BP-CD44 RNA interaction. CRD-BP has a high affinity for binding to CD44 RNA nts 2862–3055 with a Kd of 645 nM. Out of ten antisense oligonucleotides spanning nts 2862–3055, only three antisense oligonucleotides (DD4, DD7 and DD10) were effective in competing with CRD-BP for binding to 32P-labeled CD44 RNA. The potency of DD4, DD7 and DD10 in inhibiting the CRD-BP-CD44 RNA interaction in vitro correlated with their ability to specifically reduce the steady-state level of CD44 mRNA in cells. The aminoglycoside antibiotics neomycin, paramomycin, kanamycin and streptomycin effectively inhibited the CRD-BP-CD44 RNA interaction in vitro. Assessing the potential inhibitory effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics including neomycin on the CRD-BP-CD44 mRNA interaction in cells proved difficult, likely due to their propensity to non-specifically bind nucleic acids. Our results have important implications for future studies in finding small molecules and nucleic acid-based inhibitors that interfere with protein-RNA interactions. PMID:24622399

  12. Antisense Oligonucleotides Promote Exon Inclusion and Correct the Common c.-32-13T>G GAA Splicing Variant in Pompe Disease

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    Erik van der Wal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The most common variant causing Pompe disease is c.-32-13T>G (IVS1 in the acid α-glucosidase (GAA gene, which weakens the splice acceptor of GAA exon 2 and induces partial and complete exon 2 skipping. It also allows a low level of leaky wild-type splicing, leading to a childhood/adult phenotype. We hypothesized that cis-acting splicing motifs may exist that could be blocked using antisense oligonucleotides (AONs to promote exon inclusion. To test this, a screen was performed in patient-derived primary fibroblasts using a tiling array of U7 small nuclear RNA (snRNA-based AONs. This resulted in the identification of a splicing regulatory element in GAA intron 1. We designed phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer-based AONs to this element, and these promoted exon 2 inclusion and enhanced GAA enzyme activity to levels above the disease threshold. These results indicate that the common IVS1 GAA splicing variant in Pompe disease is subject to negative regulation, and inhibition of a splicing regulatory element using AONs is able to restore canonical GAA splicing and endogenous GAA enzyme activity.

  13. Co-delivery of pemetrexed and miR-21 antisense oligonucleotide by lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles and effects on glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçüktürkmen, Berrin; Devrim, Burcu; Saka, Ongun M; Yilmaz, Şükran; Arsoy, Taibe; Bozkir, Asuman

    2017-01-01

    Combination therapy using anticancer drugs and nucleic acid is a more promising strategy to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer and to enhance apoptosis. In this study, lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs), which contain both pemetrexed and miR-21 antisense oligonucleotide (anti-miR-21), have been developed for treatment of glioblastoma, the most aggressive type of brain tumor. Prepared LPNs have been well characterized by particle size distribution and zeta potential measurements, determination of encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro release experiments. Morphology of LPNs was determined by transmission electron microscopy. LPNs had a hydrodynamic size below 100 nm and exhibited sustained release of pemetrexed up to 10 h. Encapsulation of pemetrexed in LPNs increased cellular uptake from 6% to 78%. Results of confocal microscopy analysis have shown that co-delivery of anti-miR-21 significantly improved accumulation of LPNs in the nucleus of U87MG cells. Nevertheless, more effective cytotoxicity results could not be obtained due to low concentration of anti-miR-21, loaded in LPNs. We expect that the effective drug delivery systems can be obtained with higher concentration of anti-miR-21 for the treatment of glioblastoma.

  14. Improving the Delivery of SOD1 Antisense Oligonucleotides to Motor Neurons Using Calcium Phosphate-Lipid Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyu Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting the upper and lower motor neurons in the motor cortex and spinal cord. Abnormal accumulation of mutant superoxide dismutase I (SOD1 in motor neurons is a pathological hallmark of some forms of the disease. We have shown that the orderly progression of the disease may be explained by misfolded SOD1 cell-to-cell propagation, which is reliant upon its active endogenous synthesis. Reducing the levels of SOD1 is therefore a promising therapeutic approach. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs can efficiently silence proteins with gain-of-function mutations. However, naked ASOs have a short circulation half-life and are unable to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB warranting the use of a drug carrier for effective delivery. In this study, calcium phosphate lipid coated nanoparticles (CaP-lipid NPs were developed for delivery of SOD1 ASO to motor neurons. The most promising nanoparticle formulation (Ca/P ratio of 100:1, had a uniform spherical core–shell morphology with an average size of 30 nm, and surface charge (ζ-potential of −4.86 mV. The encapsulation efficiency of ASO was 48% and stability studies found the particle to be stable over a period of 20 days. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the negatively charged ASO-loaded CaP-lipid NPs could effectively deliver SOD1-targeted ASO into a mouse motor neuron-like cell line (NSC-34 through endocytosis and significantly down-regulated SOD1 expression in HEK293 cells. The CaP-lipid NPs exhibited a pH-dependant dissociation, suggesting that that the acidification of lysosomes is the likely mechanism responsible for facilitating intracellular ASO release. To demonstrate tissue specific delivery and localization of these NPs we performed in vivo microinjections into zebrafish. Successful delivery of these NPs was confirmed for the zebrafish brain, the blood stream, and the spinal cord. These results suggest that Ca

  15. Specific regulation of point-mutated K-ras-immortalized cell proliferation by a photodynamic antisense strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Maiko; Yamayoshi, Asako; Kato, Kiyoko; Kobori, Akio; Wake, Norio; Murakami, Akira

    2010-02-01

    It has been reported that point mutations in genes are responsible for various cancers, and the selective regulation of gene expression is an important factor in developing new types of anticancer drugs. To develop effective drugs for the regulation of point-mutated genes, we focused on photoreactive antisense oligonucleotides. Previously, we reported that photoreactive oligonucleotides containing 2'-O-psoralenylmethoxyethyl adenosine (2'-Ps-eom) showed drastic photoreactivity in a strictly sequence-specific manner. Here, we demonstrated the specific gene regulatory effects of 2'-Ps-eom on [(12)Val]K-ras mutant (GGT --> GTT). Photo-cross-linking between target mRNAs and 2'-Ps-eom was sequence-specific, and the effect was UVA irradiation-dependent. Furthermore, 2'-Ps-eom was able to inhibit K-ras-immortalized cell proliferation (K12V) but not Vco cells that have the wild-type K-ras gene. These results suggest that the 2'-Ps-eom will be a powerful nucleic acid drug to inhibit the expression of disease-causing point mutation genes, and has great therapeutic potential in the treatment of cancer.

  16. Histopathological Defects in Intestine in Severe Spinal Muscular Atrophy Mice Are Improved by Systemic Antisense Oligonucleotide Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palittiya Sintusek

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI defects, including gastroesophageal reflux, constipation and delayed gastric emptying, are common in patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA. Similar GI dysmotility has been identified in mouse models with survival of motor neuron (SMN protein deficiency. We previously described vascular defects in skeletal muscle and spinal cord of SMA mice and we hypothesized that similar defects could be involved in the GI pathology observed in these mice. We therefore investigated the gross anatomical structure, enteric vasculature and neurons in the small intestine in a severe mouse model of SMA. We also assessed the therapeutic response of GI histopathology to systemic administration of morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (AON designed to increase SMN protein expression. Significant anatomical and histopathological abnormalities, with striking reduction of vascular density, overabundance of enteric neurons and increased macrophage infiltration, were detected in the small intestine in SMA mice. After systemic AON treatment in neonatal mice, all the abnormalities observed were significantly restored to near-normal levels. We conclude that the observed GI histopathological phenotypes and functional defects observed in these SMA mice are strongly linked to SMN deficiency which can be rescued by systemic administration of AON. This study on the histopathological changes in the gastrointestinal system in severe SMA mice provides further indication of the complex role that SMN plays in multiple tissues and suggests that at least in SMA mice restoration of SMN production in peripheral tissues is essential for optimal outcome.

  17. Histopathological Defects in Intestine in Severe Spinal Muscular Atrophy Mice Are Improved by Systemic Antisense Oligonucleotide Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintusek, Palittiya; Catapano, Francesco; Angkathunkayul, Napat; Marrosu, Elena; Parson, Simon H.; Morgan, Jennifer E.; Muntoni, Francesco; Zhou, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) defects, including gastroesophageal reflux, constipation and delayed gastric emptying, are common in patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Similar GI dysmotility has been identified in mouse models with survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein deficiency. We previously described vascular defects in skeletal muscle and spinal cord of SMA mice and we hypothesized that similar defects could be involved in the GI pathology observed in these mice. We therefore investigated the gross anatomical structure, enteric vasculature and neurons in the small intestine in a severe mouse model of SMA. We also assessed the therapeutic response of GI histopathology to systemic administration of morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (AON) designed to increase SMN protein expression. Significant anatomical and histopathological abnormalities, with striking reduction of vascular density, overabundance of enteric neurons and increased macrophage infiltration, were detected in the small intestine in SMA mice. After systemic AON treatment in neonatal mice, all the abnormalities observed were significantly restored to near-normal levels. We conclude that the observed GI histopathological phenotypes and functional defects observed in these SMA mice are strongly linked to SMN deficiency which can be rescued by systemic administration of AON. This study on the histopathological changes in the gastrointestinal system in severe SMA mice provides further indication of the complex role that SMN plays in multiple tissues and suggests that at least in SMA mice restoration of SMN production in peripheral tissues is essential for optimal outcome. PMID:27163330

  18. Rescue of Outer Hair Cells with Antisense Oligonucleotides in Usher Mice Is Dependent on Age of Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnath, Abhilash; Depreux, Frederic F; Jodelka, Francine M; Rigo, Frank; Farris, Hamilton E; Hastings, Michelle L; Lentz, Jennifer J

    2018-02-01

    The absence of functional outer hair cells is a component of several forms of hereditary hearing impairment, including Usher syndrome, the most common cause of concurrent hearing and vision loss. Antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) treatment of mice with the human Usher mutation, Ush1c c.216G>A, corrects gene expression and significantly improves hearing, as measured by auditory-evoked brainstem responses (ABRs), as well as inner and outer hair cell (IHC and OHC) bundle morphology. However, it is not clear whether the improvement in hearing achieved by ASO treatment involves the functional rescue of outer hair cells. Here, we show that Ush1c c.216AA mice lack OHC function as evidenced by the absence of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in response to low-, mid-, and high-frequency tone pairs. This OHC deficit is rescued by treatment with an ASO that corrects expression of Ush1c c.216G>A. Interestingly, although rescue of inner hairs cells, as measured by ABR, is achieved by ASO treatment as late as 7 days after birth, rescue of outer hair cells, measured by DPOAE, requires treatment before post-natal day 5. These results suggest that ASO-mediated rescue of both IHC and OHC function is age dependent and that the treatment window is different for the different cell types. The timing of treatment for congenital hearing disorders is of critical importance for the development of drugs such ASO-29 for hearing rescue.

  19. Targeting MED1 LxxLL Motifs for Tissue-Selective Treatment of Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    microRNA, antisense oligonucleotides, and RNA aptamers, has long been extensively studied (Guo 2010; Keefe et al. 2010; Levy-Nissenbaum et al. 2008; Que...targeted drug delivery when compared with DNA aptamers, protein aptamers, and antibodies (Guo 2010; Keefe et al. 2010; Que-Gewirth and Sullenger...or even organisms (Dua et al. 2011; Keefe et al. 2010; Levy-Nissenbaum et al. 2008; Thiel and Giangrande 2010). Those that do not bind to the target

  20. Antisense RNA Controls LRP1 Sense Transcript Expression through Interaction with a Chromatin-Associated Protein, HMGB2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunari Yamanaka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, including natural antisense transcripts (NATs, are expressed more extensively than previously anticipated and have widespread roles in regulating gene expression. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms of action of the majority of NATs remain largely unknown. Here, we identify a NAT of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (Lrp1, referred to as Lrp1-AS, that negatively regulates Lrp1 expression. We show that Lrp1-AS directly binds to high-mobility group box 2 (Hmgb2 and inhibits the activity of Hmgb2 to enhance Srebp1a-dependent transcription of Lrp1. Short oligonucleotides targeting Lrp1-AS inhibit the interaction of antisense transcript and Hmgb2 protein and increase Lrp1 expression by enhancing Hmgb2 activity. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of brain tissue samples from Alzheimer’s disease patients and aged-matched controls revealed upregulation of LRP1-AS and downregulation of LRP1. Our data suggest a regulatory mechanism whereby a NAT interacts with a ubiquitous chromatin-associated protein to modulate its activity in a locus-specific fashion.

  1. Antiproliferation effects of an androgen receptor triple-helix forming oligonucleotide on prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Chen Weizhen; Xie Yao; Gao Jinhui

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To provide experimental basis for antigene radiation therapy through exploring the effects of antigene strategy on androgen receptor (AR) expression and proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Methods: The triple-helix forming oligonucleotide (TFO) targeting 2447-2461nt of AR cDNA was designed and transfected LNCaP prostate cancer cells with liposome. 24-72 h after transfection, the cellular proliferation was detected by 3 H-thymidine (TdR) incorporation test, the expression of AR gene was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and expression of AR protein was performed by radioligand binding assay. The results of TFO were compared with antisense oligonucleotide (ASON). Results: At all time points, the AR expression levels in TFO group were markedly lower than that of ASON group (P<0.05). The inhibitory rate of TFO for cellular proliferation was significantly higher than that of ASON (P<0.05). Conclusion: The TFO was a potent inhibitor for AR expression and cell proliferation of LNCaP cells , and could be used in antigene radiotherapy. (authors)

  2. Inhibition of iridovirus protein synthesis and virus replication by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides targeted to the major capsid protein, the 18 kDa immediate-early protein, and a viral homolog of RNA polymerase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sample, Robert; Bryan, Locke; Long, Scott; Majji, Sai; Hoskins, Glenn; Sinning, Allan; Olivier, Jake; Chinchar, V. Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Frog virus 3 (FV3) is a large DNA virus that encodes ∼ 100 proteins. Although the general features of FV3 replication are known, the specific roles that most viral proteins play in the virus life cycle have not yet been elucidated. To address the question of viral gene function, antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (asMOs) were used to transiently knock-down expression of specific viral genes and thus infer their role in virus replication. We designed asMOs directed against the major capsid protein (MCP), an 18 kDa immediate-early protein (18K) that was thought to be a viral regulatory protein, and the viral homologue of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (vPol-IIα). All three asMOs successfully inhibited translation of the targeted protein, and two of the three asMOs resulted in marked phenotypic changes. Knock-down of the MCP resulted in a marked reduction in viral titer without a corresponding drop in the synthesis of other late viral proteins. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that in cells treated with the anti-MCP MO assembly sites were devoid of viral particles and contained numerous aberrant structures. In contrast, inhibition of 18K synthesis did not block virion formation, suggesting that the 18K protein was not essential for replication of FV3 in fathead minnow (FHM) cells. Finally, consistent with the view that late viral gene expression is catalyzed by a virus-encoded or virus-modified Pol-II-like protein, knock-down of vPol-IIα triggered a global decline in late gene expression and virus yields without affecting the synthesis of early viral genes. Collectively, these results demonstrate the utility of using asMOs to elucidate the function of FV3 proteins

  3. Peroxide-mediated desulfurization of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotz, Achim H; Mehta, Rahul C; Hardee, Gregory E

    2005-02-01

    Desulfurization at the internucleotide phosphorothioate linkage of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) in dermatological formulations has been investigated using strong ion exchange chromatography and mass spectroscopy. The formation of phosphate diester linkages appeared to arise from a reaction between the phosphorothioate oligonucleotide and a potent oxidizing agent. Screening of excipients used in the formulation indicated that the cause of desulfurization was related to the presence of polyethylene glycol-derived nonionic surfactants MYRJ 52 or BRIJ 58. Autoxidation of the polyethylene glycol chain is suggested as the probable origin for the observed incompatibility. The ability of various antioxidants to prevent oxidative degradation of ASO-1 in simple test systems and in oil-in-water emulsions is described. It is found that in test systems both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants are effective. However, in cream formulation (oil-in-water emulsions) of ASO-1 the addition of hydrophilic antioxidants L-cysteine or DL-alpha-lipoic acid has been shown to be superior in protecting the oligonucleotide from desulfurization upon storage. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Nano and Microtechnologies for the Delivery of Oligonucleotides with Gene Silencing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe De Rosa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Oligonucleotides (ONs are synthetic fragments of nucleic acid designed to modulate the expression of target proteins. DNA-based ONs (antisense, antigene, aptamer or decoy and more recently a new class of RNA-based ONs, the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs, have gained great attention for the treatment of different disease states, such as viral infections, inflammation, diabetes, and cancer. However, the development of therapeutic strategies based on ONs is hampered by their low bioavailability, poor intracellular uptake and rapid degradation in biological fluids. The use of a non-viral carrier can be a powerful tool to overcome these drawbacks. Lipid or polymer-based nanotechnologies can improve biological stability and cellular uptake of ONs, with possibility of tissue and/or cellular targeting. The use of polymeric devices can also produce a prolonged release of the ON, thus reducing the need of frequent administrations. This review summarizes advantages and issues related to the main non-viral vectors used for ON delivery.

  5. Comparison of three techniques for generation of tolerogenic dendritic cells: siRNA, oligonucleotide antisense, and antibody blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad Hossein; Ebadi, Padideh; Pourfathollah, Ali Akbar; Moazzeni, Mohammad; Soheili, Zahra Soheila; Samiee, Shahram

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, a new view of dendritic cells (DCs) as a main regulator of immunity to induce and maintain tolerance has been established. In vitro manipulation of their development and maturation is a topic of DC therapeutic application, which utilizes their inherent tolerogenicity. In this field, the therapeutic potential of antisense, siRNA, and blocking antibody are an interesting goal. In the present study, the efficiency of these three methods--siRNA, antisense, and blocking antibody--against CD40 molecule and its function in DCs and BCL1 cell line are compared. DCs were separated from mouse spleen and then cultured in vitro using Lipofectamine 2000 to deliver both silencers; the efficacy of transfection was estimated by flow cytometry. mRNA expression and protein synthesis were assessed by real time-PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. By Annexin V and propidium iodine staining, we could evaluate the viability of transfected cells. Knocking down the CD40 gene into separate groups of DCs by siRNA, antisense, and blocking antibody treated DCs can cause an increase in IL-4, decrease in IL-12, IFN-γ production, and allostimulation activity. Our results indicated that, in comparison to antisense and blocking antibody, siRNAs appear to be quantitatively more efficient in CD40 downregulation and their differences are significant.

  6. CTG repeat-targeting oligonucleotides for down-regulating Huntingtin expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaghloul, Eman M; Gissberg, Olof; Moreno, Pedro M D

    2017-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal, neurodegenerative disorder in which patients suffer from mobility, psychological and cognitive impairments. Existing therapeutics are only symptomatic and do not significantly alter the disease progression or increase life expectancy. HD is caused by expansion....... Thus, reduction of both muHTT mRNA and protein levels would ideally be the most useful therapeutic option. We herein present a novel strategy for HD treatment using oligonucleotides (ONs) directly targeting the HTT trinucleotide repeat DNA. A partial, but significant and potentially long-term, HTT...

  7. Elucidation of the Biotransformation Pathways of a Galnac3-conjugated Antisense Oligonucleotide in Rats and Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colby S Shemesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Triantennary N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc3 is a high-affinity ligand for hepatocyte-specific asialoglycoprotein receptors. Conjugation with GalNAc3 via a trishexylamino (THA-C6 cluster significantly enhances antisense oligonucleotide (ASO potency. Herein, the biotransformation, disposition, and elimination of the THA cluster of ION-681257, a GalNAc3-conjugated ASO currently in clinical development, are investigated in rats and monkey. Rats were administered a single subcutaneous dose of 3H-radiolabeled (3H placed in THA or nonradiolabeled ION-681257. Mass balance included radiometric profiling and metabolite fractionation with characterization by mass spectrometry. GalNAc3-conjugated ASOs were extensively distributed into liver. The THA-C6 triantenerrary GalNAc3 conjugate at the 5′-end of the ASO was rapidly metabolized and excreted with 25.67 ± 1.635% and 71.66 ± 4.17% of radioactivity recovered in urine and feces within 48 hours postdose. Unchanged drug, short-mer ASOs, and linker metabolites were detected in urine. Collectively, 14 novel linker associated metabolites were discovered including oxidation at each branching arm, initially by monooxidation at the β-position followed by dioxidation at the α-arm, and lastly, tri and tetra oxidations on the two remaining β-arms. Metabolites in bile and feces were identical to urine except for oxidized linear and cyclic linker metabolites. Enzymatic reaction phenotyping confirmed involvement of N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, deoxyribonuclease II, alkaline phosphatase, and alcohol + aldehyde dehydrogenases on the complex metabolism pathway for THA supplementing in vivo findings. Lastly, excreta from monkeys treated with ION-681257 revealed the identical series as observed in rat. In summary, our findings provide an improved understanding of GalNAc3-conjugated-ASO metabolism pathways which facilitate similar development programs.

  8. Single-Labeled Oligonucleotides Showing Fluorescence Changes upon Hybridization with Target Nucleic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Tae Hwang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequence-specific detection of nucleic acids has been intensively studied in the field of molecular diagnostics. In particular, the detection and analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs is crucial for the identification of disease-causing genes and diagnosis of diseases. Sequence-specific hybridization probes, such as molecular beacons bearing the fluorophore and quencher at both ends of the stem, have been developed to enable DNA mutation detection. Interestingly, DNA mutations can be detected using fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes with only one fluorophore. This review summarizes recent research on single-labeled oligonucleotide probes that exhibit fluorescence changes after encountering target nucleic acids, such as guanine-quenching probes, cyanine-containing probes, probes containing a fluorophore-labeled base, and microenvironment-sensitive probes.

  9. Antisense oligonucleotide therapy rescues disruptions in organization of exploratory movements associated with Usher syndrome type 1C in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Tia N; Jennings, Kelsey T; Cherep, Lucia A; McNeela, Adam M; Depreux, Frederic F; Jodelka, Francine M; Hastings, Michelle L; Wallace, Douglas G

    2018-02-15

    Usher syndrome, Type 1C (USH1C) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder in which a mutation in the gene encoding harmonin is associated with multi-sensory deficits (i.e., auditory, vestibular, and visual). USH1C (Usher) mice, engineered with a human USH1C mutation, exhibit these multi-sensory deficits by circling behavior and lack of response to sound. Administration of an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) therapeutic that corrects expression of the mutated USH1C gene, has been shown to increase harmonin levels, reduce circling behavior, and improve vestibular and auditory function. The current study evaluates the organization of exploratory movements to assess spatial organization in Usher mice and determine the efficacy of ASO therapy in attenuating any such deficits. Usher and heterozygous mice received the therapeutic ASO, ASO-29, or a control, non-specific ASO treatment at postnatal day five. Organization of exploratory movements was assessed under dark and light conditions at two and six-months of age. Disruptions in exploratory movement organization observed in control-treated Usher mice were consistent with impaired use of self-movement and environmental cues. In general, ASO-29 treatment rescued organization of exploratory movements at two and six-month testing points. These observations are consistent with ASO-29 rescuing processing of multiple sources of information and demonstrate the potential of ASO therapies to ameliorate topographical disorientation associated with other genetic disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Inheritable phenotypic normalization of rodent cells transformed by simian adenovirus SA7 E1 oncogenes by singled-stranded oligonucleotides complementary to a long region of integrated oncogenes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grineva, N I; Borovkova, T V; Sats, N V; Kurabekova, R M; Rozhitskaia, O S; Solov'ev, G Ia; Pantin, V I

    1995-08-01

    G11 mouse cells and SH2 rat cells transformed with simian adenovirus SA7 DNA showed inheritable oncogen-specific phenotypic normalization when treated with sense and antisense oligonucleotides complementary to long RNA sequences, plus or minus strands of the integrated adenovirus oncogenes E1A and E1B. Transitory treatment of the cells with the oligonucleotides in the absence of serum was shown to cause the appearance of normalized cell lines with fibroblastlike morphology, slower cell proliferation, and lack of ability to form colonies in soft agar. Proliferative activity and adhesion of the normalized cells that established cell lines were found to depend on the concentration of growth factors in the cultural medium. In some of the cell lines, an inhibition of transcription of the E1 oncogenes was observed. The normalization also produced cells that divided 2 - 5 times and died and cells that reverted to a transformed phenotype in 2 - 10 days. The latter appeared predominantly upon the action of the antisense oligonucleotides.

  11. Quantitative Antisense Screening and Optimization for Exon 51 Skipping in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echigoya, Yusuke; Lim, Kenji Rowel Q; Trieu, Nhu; Bao, Bo; Miskew Nichols, Bailey; Vila, Maria Candida; Novak, James S; Hara, Yuko; Lee, Joshua; Touznik, Aleksander; Mamchaoui, Kamel; Aoki, Yoshitsugu; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Mouly, Vincent; Maruyama, Rika; Duddy, William; Yokota, Toshifumi

    2017-11-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most common lethal genetic disorder, is caused by mutations in the dystrophin (DMD) gene. Exon skipping is a therapeutic approach that uses antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) to modulate splicing and restore the reading frame, leading to truncated, yet functional protein expression. In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conditionally approved the first phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (morpholino)-based AO drug, eteplirsen, developed for DMD exon 51 skipping. Eteplirsen remains controversial with insufficient evidence of its therapeutic effect in patients. We recently developed an in silico tool to design antisense morpholino sequences for exon skipping. Here, we designed morpholino AOs targeting DMD exon 51 using the in silico tool and quantitatively evaluated the effects in immortalized DMD muscle cells in vitro. To our surprise, most of the newly designed morpholinos induced exon 51 skipping more efficiently compared with the eteplirsen sequence. The efficacy of exon 51 skipping and rescue of dystrophin protein expression were increased by up to more than 12-fold and 7-fold, respectively, compared with the eteplirsen sequence. Significant in vivo efficacy of the most effective morpholino, determined in vitro, was confirmed in mice carrying the human DMD gene. These findings underscore the importance of AO sequence optimization for exon skipping. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) antisense effects in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Good, L; Nielsen, P E

    1999-01-01

    Antisense peptide nucleic acid (PNA) can be used to control cell growth, gene expression and growth phenotypes in the bacteria Escherichia coli. PNAs targeted to the RNA components of the ribosome can inhibit translation and cell growth, and PNAs targeted to mRNA can limit gene expression with gene...... and sequence specificity. In an E. coli cell extract, efficient inhibition is observed when using PNA concentrations in the nanomolar range, whereas micromolar concentrations are required for inhibition in growing cells. A mutant strain of E. coli that is more permeable to antibiotics also is more susceptible...... to antisense PNAs than the wild type. This chapter details methods for testing the antisense activities of PNA in E. coli. As an example of the specific antisense inhibition possible, we show the effects of an anti-beta-galactosidase PNA in comparison to control PNAs. With improvements in cell uptake...

  13. TIA-1 RRM23 binding and recognition of target oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waris, Saboora; García-Mauriño, Sofía M; Sivakumaran, Andrew; Beckham, Simone A; Loughlin, Fionna E; Gorospe, Myriam; Díaz-Moreno, Irene; Wilce, Matthew C J; Wilce, Jacqueline A

    2017-05-05

    TIA-1 (T-cell restricted intracellular antigen-1) is an RNA-binding protein involved in splicing and translational repression. It mainly interacts with RNA via its second and third RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), with specificity for U-rich sequences directed by RRM2. It has recently been shown that RRM3 also contributes to binding, with preferential binding for C-rich sequences. Here we designed UC-rich and CU-rich 10-nt sequences for engagement of both RRM2 and RRM3 and demonstrated that the TIA-1 RRM23 construct preferentially binds the UC-rich RNA ligand (5΄-UUUUUACUCC-3΄). Interestingly, this binding depends on the presence of Lys274 that is C-terminal to RRM3 and binding to equivalent DNA sequences occurs with similar affinity. Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to demonstrate that, upon complex formation with target RNA or DNA, TIA-1 RRM23 adopts a compact structure, showing that both RRMs engage with the target 10-nt sequences to form the complex. We also report the crystal structure of TIA-1 RRM2 in complex with DNA to 2.3 Å resolution providing the first atomic resolution structure of any TIA protein RRM in complex with oligonucleotide. Together our data support a specific mode of TIA-1 RRM23 interaction with target oligonucleotides consistent with the role of TIA-1 in binding RNA to regulate gene expression. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. SINEUPs are modular antisense long-non coding RNAs that increase synthesis of target proteins in cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eZucchelli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent efforts in discovering novel long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs and unveiling their functions in a wide range of biological processes their applications as biotechnological or therapeutic tools are still at their infancy. We have recently shown that AS Uchl1, a natural lncRNA antisense to the Parkinson’s disease-associated gene Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase L1 (Uchl1, is able to increase UchL1 protein synthesis at post-transcriptional level. Its activity requires two RNA elements: an embedded inverted SINEB2 sequence to increase translation and the overlapping region to target its sense mRNA. This functional organization is shared with several mouse lncRNAs antisense to protein coding genes. The potential use of AS Uchl1-derived lncRNAs as enhancers of target mRNA translation remains unexplored. Here we define AS Uchl1 as the representative member of a new functional class of natural and synthetic antisense lncRNAs that activate translation. We named this class of RNAs SINEUPs for their requirement of the inverted SINEB2 sequence to UP-regulate translation in a gene-specific manner. The overlapping region is indicated as the Binding Doman (BD while the embedded inverted SINEB2 element is the Effector Domain (ED. By swapping BD, synthetic SINEUPs are designed targeting mRNAs of interest. SINEUPs function in an array of cell lines and can be efficiently directed towards N-terminally tagged proteins. Their biological activity is retained in a miniaturized version within the range of small RNAs length. Its modular structure was exploited to successfully design synthetic SINEUPs targeting endogenous Parkinson’s disease-associated DJ-1 and proved to be active in different neuronal cell lines.In summary, SINEUPs represent the first scalable tool to increase synthesis of proteins of interest. We propose SINEUPs as reagents for molecular biology experiments, in protein manufacturing as well as in therapy of haploinsufficiencies.

  15. Antisense oligonucleotides suppress cell-volume-induced activation of chloride channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwentner, M; Nagl, U O; Wöll, E; Schmarda, A; Ritter, M; Paulmichl, M

    1995-08-01

    Cell volume regulation is an essential feature of most cells. After swelling in hypotonic media, the simultaneous activation of potassium and chloride channels is believed to be the initial, time-determining step in cell volume regulation. The activation of both pathways is functionally linked and enables the cells to lose ions and water, subsequently leading to cell shrinkage and readjustment of the initial volume. NIH 3T3 fibroblasts efficiently regulate their volume after swelling and bear chloride channels that are activated by decreasing extracellular osmolarity. The chloride current elicited in these cells after swelling is reminiscent of the current found in oocytes expressing an outwardly rectifying chloride current termed ICln. Introduction of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides complementary to the first 30 nucleotides of the coding region of the ICln channel into NIH 3T3 fibroblasts suppresses the activation of the swelling-induced chloride current. The experiments directly demonstrate an unambiguous link between a volume-activated chloride current and a cloned protein involved in chloride transport.

  16. Summarization on the synthesis and radionuclide-labeling of peptide nucleic acid for an oligonucleotide analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hongtao; Zhang, Huaming; Gao, Hui

    2009-04-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA), which is one kind of antisense nucleic acid compounds and an oligonucleotide analogue that binds strongly to DNA and RNA in a sequence specific manner, has its unique advantages in the field of molecular diagnostics and treatment of diseases. Now, people gradually attach more importance to PNA. To optimize the application of PNA in genetic re- search and therapy, a great number of backbone modifications on the newly- type structures of PNA were synthesized to improve its physicochemical proper- ties, such as hybridization speciality, solubility in biofluid, or cell permeability. The modified PNA labeled with radionuclides, which can obtain the aim at specific target and minimal non-target trauma, has important role in research and application of tumorous genitherapy. Here a review on the basic synthesis idea and several primary synthetic methods of PNA analogs was given, and also correlative studies and expectation on the compounds belonging to PNA series labeled with radionuclides were included. (authors)

  17. Antiviral effects of herpes simplex virus specific anti-sense nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantin, E M; Podsakoff, G; Willey, D E; Openshaw, H

    1992-01-01

    We have targeted mRNA sequences encompassing the translation initiation codon of the essential herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) IE3 gene with three kinds of anti-sense molecule. Addition of a 15mer oligodeoxyribonucleoside methylphosphonate to tissue culture cells resulted in suppression of viral replication. HSV-1 replication was also inhibited in cultured cells containing anti-sense vectors expressing transcripts complementary to the IE3 mRNA. We have also constructed a ribozyme which upon base pairing with the target IE3 mRNA induces cleavage at the predicted GUC site. A major obstacle to anti-sense studies in animals is drug delivery of preformed antisense molecules to ganglionic neurons, the site of HSV latency and reactivation. We speculate as to how this may be accomplished through carrier compounds which are taken up by nerve terminals and transported by retrograde axoplasmic flow. By the same route, HSV itself may be used as an anti-sense vector.

  18. Reliable Assessment and Quantification of the Fluorescence-Labeled Antisense Oligonucleotides In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Munisso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of fluorescent dyes and the advances in the optical systems for in vivo imaging have stimulated an increasing interest in developing new methodologies to study and quantify the biodistribution of labeled agents. However, despite these great achievements, we are facing significant challenges in determining if the observed fluorescence does correspond to the quantity of the dye in the tissues. In fact, although the far-red and near-infrared lights can propagate through several centimetres of tissue, they diffuse within a few millimetres as consequence of the elastic scattering of photons. In addition, when dye-labeled oligonucleotides form stable complex with cationic carriers, a large change in the fluorescence intensity of the dye is observed. Therefore, the measured fluorescence intensity is altered by the tissue heterogeneity and by the fluctuation of dye intensity. Hence, in this study a quantification strategy for fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotides was developed to solve these disadvantageous effects. Our results proved that upon efficient homogenization and dilution with chaotropic agents, such as guanidinium thiocyanate, it is possible to achieve a complete fluorescence intensity recovery. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this method has the advantage of good sensitivity and reproducibility, as well as easy handling of the tissue samples.

  19. Identifying members of the domain Archaea with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes.

    OpenAIRE

    Burggraf, S; Mayer, T; Amann, R; Schadhauser, S; Woese, C R; Stetter, K O

    1994-01-01

    Two 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were designed for the archaeal kingdoms Euryachaeota and Crenarchaeota. Probe specificities were evaluated by nonradioactive dot blot hybridization against selected reference organisms. The successful application of fluorescent-probe derivatives for whole-cell hybridization required organism-specific optimizations of fixation and hybridization conditions to assure probe penetration and morphological integrity of the cells. The probes allowed prelim...

  20. Nanoparticle for delivery of antisense γPNA oligomers targeting CCR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahal, Raman; McNeer, Nicole Ali; Ly, Danith H; Saltzman, W Mark; Glazer, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    The development of a new class of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), i.e., gamma PNAs (γPNAs), creates the need for a general and effective method for its delivery into cells for regulating gene expression in mammalian cells. Here we report the antisense activity of a recently developed hydrophilic and biocompatible diethylene glycol (miniPEG)-based gamma peptide nucleic acid called MPγPNAs via its delivery by poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based nanoparticle system. We show that MPγPNA oligomers designed to bind to the selective region of chemokine receptor 5 (CC R5) transcript, induce potent and sequence-specific antisense effects as compared with regular PNA oligomers. In addition, PLGA nanoparticle delivery of MPγPNAs is not toxic to the cells. The findings reported in this study provide a combination of γPNA technology and PLGA-based nanoparticle delivery method for regulating gene expression in live cells via the antisense mechanism.

  1. Physicochemical and biological properties of self-assembled antisense/poly(amidoamine dendrimer nanoparticles: the effect of dendrimer generation and charge ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Nomani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Alireza Nomani1,6, Ismaeil Haririan1,5, Ramin Rahimnia2,4, Shamileh Fouladdel2, Tarane Gazori1, Rassoul Dinarvand1, Yadollah Omidi3, Ebrahim Azizi2,41Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Molecular Research Lab, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 4Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 5Biomaterials Research Center (BRC Tehran, Iran; 6Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, IranAbstract: To gain a deeper understanding of the physicochemical phenomenon of self-assembled nanoparticles of different generations and ratios of poly (amidoamine dendrimer (PAMAM dendrimer and a short-stranded DNA (antisense oligonucleotide, multiple methods were used to characterize these nanoparticles including photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS; zeta potential measurement; and atomic force microscopy (AFM. PCS and AFM results revealed that, in contrast to larger molecules of DNA, smaller molecules produce more heterodisperse and large nanoparticles when they are condensed with a cationic dendrimer. AFM images also showed that such nanoparticles were spherical. The stability of the antisense content of the nanoparticles was investigated over different charge ratios using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It was clear from such analyses that much more than charge neutrality point was required to obtain stable nanoparticles. For cell uptake, self-assembled nanoparticles were prepared with PAMAM G5 and 5’-FITC labeled antisense and the uptake experiment was carried out in T47D cell culture. This investigation also shows that the cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles was

  2. Specific RNP capture with antisense LNA/DNA mixmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogell, Birgit; Fischer, Bernd; Rettel, Mandy; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Castello, Alfredo; Hentze, Matthias W

    2017-08-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play essential roles in RNA biology, responding to cellular and environmental stimuli to regulate gene expression. Important advances have helped to determine the (near) complete repertoires of cellular RBPs. However, identification of RBPs associated with specific transcripts remains a challenge. Here, we describe "specific ribonucleoprotein (RNP) capture," a versatile method for the determination of the proteins bound to specific transcripts in vitro and in cellular systems. Specific RNP capture uses UV irradiation to covalently stabilize protein-RNA interactions taking place at "zero distance." Proteins bound to the target RNA are captured by hybridization with antisense locked nucleic acid (LNA)/DNA oligonucleotides covalently coupled to a magnetic resin. After stringent washing, interacting proteins are identified by quantitative mass spectrometry. Applied to in vitro extracts, specific RNP capture identifies the RBPs bound to a reporter mRNA containing the Sex-lethal (Sxl) binding motifs, revealing that the Sxl homolog sister of Sex lethal (Ssx) displays similar binding preferences. This method also revealed the repertoire of RBPs binding to 18S or 28S rRNAs in HeLa cells, including previously unknown rRNA-binding proteins. © 2017 Rogell et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  3. Antisense locked nucleic acids targeting agrA inhibit quorum sensing and pathogenesis of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, F; Yao, L; Su, Z; Hou, Z; Li, Z; Xue, X; Meng, J; Luo, X

    2017-01-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is commonly associated with nonnosocomial skin and soft tissue infections due to its virulence, which is mainly controlled by the accessory gene regulator (agr) quorum sensing (QS) system. In this study (KFF) 3 K peptide-conjugated locked nucleic acids (PLNAs) targeting agrA mRNA were developed to inhibit agr activity and arrest the pathogenicity of CA-MRSA. Two PLNAs were designed, and synthesized, after predicting the secondary structure of agrA mRNA. The influence on bacterial growth was tested using a growth curve assay. RT-qPCR, haemolysis assay, lactate dehydrogenase release assay and chemotaxis assay were used to evaluate the effects of the PLNAs on inhibiting agr QS. A mouse skin infection model was employed to test the protective effect of the PLNAs in vivo. None of the PLNAs were found to be bacteriostatic or bactericidal in vitro. However, one PLNA, PLNA34, showed strong ability to suppress expression of agrA and the effector molecule RNAIII in USA300 LAC strain. Furthermore, PLNA34 inhibited the expression of virulence genes that are upregulated by agr, including hla, psmα, psmβ and pvl. The haemolytic activity of the supernatants from PLNA34-treated bacteria was also dramatically reduced, as well as the capacity to lyse and recruit neutrophils. Moreover, PLNA34 showed high levels of protection in the CA-MRSA mouse skin infection model. The anti-agrA PLNA34 can effectively inhibit the agr QS and suppress CA-MRSA pathogenicity. agrA is a promising target for the development of antisense oligonucleotides to block agr QS. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Gene therapy and radionuclides targeting therapy in mammary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Jinhua

    2003-01-01

    Breast carcinoma's gene therapy is a hotspot in study of the tumor's therapy in the recent years. Currently the major therapy methods that in the experimentative and primary clinical application phases include immunological gene therapy, multidrug resistance gene therapy, antisense oligonucleotide therapy and suicide gene therapy. The gene targeting brachytherapy, which is combined with gene therapy and radiotherapy has enhanced the killer effects of the suicide gene and nuclide in tumor cells. That has break a new path in tumor's gene therapy. The further study in this field will step up it's space to the clinical application

  5. Physicochemical and biological properties of self-assembled antisense/poly(amidoamine) dendrimer nanoparticles: the effect of dendrimer generation and charge ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Nomani, Alireza; Haririan, Ismaeil; Rahimnia, Ramin; Fouladdel, Shamileh; Gazori, Tarane; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Omidi, Yadollah; Azizi, Ebrahim

    2010-01-01

    To gain a deeper understanding of the physicochemical phenomenon of self-assembled nanoparticles of different generations and ratios of poly (amidoamine) dendrimer (PAMAM) dendrimer and a short-stranded DNA (antisense oligonucleotide), multiple methods were used to characterize these nanoparticles including photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS); zeta potential measurement; and atomic force microscopy (AFM). PCS and AFM results revealed that, in contrast to larger molecules of DNA, smaller mol...

  6. Thiolated chitosan nanoparticles as a delivery system for antisense therapy: evaluation against EGFR in T47D breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaei F

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Fatemeh Talaei1, Ebrahim Azizi2, Rassoul Dinarvand3, Fatemeh Atyabi31Novel Drug Delivery Systems Lab, 2Molecular Research Lab, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 3Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranAbstract: Thiolated chitosan has high transfection and mucoadhesive properties. We investigated the potential of two recently synthesized polymers: NAC-C (N-acetyl cysteine-chitosan and NAP-C (N-acetyl penicillamine-chitosan in anticancer drug delivery targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. Doxorubicin (DOX and antisense oligonucleotide (ASOND-loaded polymer nanoparticles were prepared in water by a gelation process. Particle characterization, drug loading, and drug release were evaluated. To verify drug delivery efficiency in vitro experiments on a breast cancer cell line (T47D were performed. EGFR gene and protein expression was analyzed by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. A loading percentage of 63% ± 5% for ASOND and 70% ± 5% for DOX was achieved. Drug release data after 15 hours showed that ASOND and DOX were completely released from chitosan-based particles while a lower and more sustained release of only 22% ± 8% was measured for thiolated particles. In a cytosol simulated release medium/reducing environment, such as found intracellularly, polymer-based nanoparticles dissociated, liberating approximately 50% of both active substances within 7 hours. ASOND-loaded polymer nanoparticles had higher stability and high mucoadhesive properties. The ASOND-loaded thiolated particles significantly suppressed EGFR gene expression in T47D cells compared with ASOND-loaded chitosan particles and downregulated EGFR protein expression in cells. This study could facilitate future investigations into the functionality of NAP-C and NAC-C polymers as an efficient ASOND delivery system in vitro and in vivo

  7. Novel targeted therapies for inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet; Vermeire, Severine; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2017-01-01

    emerging novel and easily administered therapeutics that may be viable candidates for the management of IBD, such as antibodies against interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-12/23, small molecules including Janus kinase inhibitors, antisense oligonucleotide against SMAD7 mRNA, and inhibitors of leukocyte trafficking...

  8. Reversing multidrug resistance in Caco-2 by silencing MDR1, MRP1, MRP2, and BCL-2/BCL-xL using liposomal antisense oligonucleotides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Li Lo

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR is a major impediment to chemotherapy. In the present study, we designed antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs against MDR1, MDR-associated protein (MRP1, MRP2, and/or BCL-2/BCL-xL to reverse MDR transporters and induce apoptosis, respectively. The cationic liposomes (100 nm composed of N-[1-(2,3-dioleyloxypropyl]-n,n,n-trimethylammonium chloride and dioleoyl phosphotidylethanolamine core surrounded by a polyethylene glycol (PEG shell were prepared to carry ASOs and/or epirubicin, an antineoplastic agent. We aimed to simultaneously suppress efflux pumps, provoke apoptosis, and enhance the chemosensitivity of human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells to epirubicin. We evaluated encapsulation efficiency, particle size, cytotoxicity, intracellular accumulation, mRNA levels, cell cycle distribution, and caspase activity of these formulations. We found that PEGylated liposomal ASOs significantly reduced Caco-2 cell viability and thus intensified epirubicin-mediated apoptosis. These formulations also decreased the MDR1 promoter activity levels and enhanced the intracellular retention of epirubicin in Caco-2 cells. Epirubicin and ASOs in PEGylated liposomes remarkably decreased mRNA expression levels of human MDR1, MRP1, MRP2, and BCL-2. The combined treatments all significantly increased the mRNA expressions of p53 and BAX, and activity levels of caspase-3, -8, and -9. The formulation of epirubicin and ASOs targeting both pump resistance of MDR1, MRP1, and MRP2 and nonpump resistance of BCL-2/BCL-xL demonstrated more superior effect to all the other formulations used in this study. Our results provide a novel insight into the mechanisms by which PEGylated liposomal ASOs against both resistance types act as activators to epirubicin-induced apoptosis through suppressing MDR1, MRP1, and MRP2, as well as triggering intrinsic mitochondrial and extrinsic death receptor pathways. The complicated regulation of MDR highlights the necessity

  9. Short locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotides potently reduce apolipoprotein B mRNA and serum cholesterol in mice and non-human primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straarup, Ellen Marie; Fisker, Niels; Hedtjärn, Maj

    2010-01-01

    -life as longer oligonucleotides. Pharmacology studies in both mice and non-human primates were conducted with a 13-mer LNA oligonucleotide against apoB, and the data showed that repeated dosing of the 13-mer at 1-2 mg/kg/week was sufficient to provide a significant and long lasting lowering of non...... using the LNA chemistry. Conclusively, we present a 13-mer LNA oligonucleotide with therapeutic potential that produce beneficial cholesterol lowering effect in non-human primates....

  10. First-in-human phase I study of ISTH0036, an antisense oligonucleotide selectively targeting transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2, in subjects with open-angle glaucoma undergoing glaucoma filtration surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Pfeiffer

    Full Text Available To evaluate the safety and tolerability of intravitreal ISTH0036, an antisense oligonucleotide selectively targeting transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2, in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG undergoing trabeculectomy (TE; glaucoma filtration surgery.In this prospective phase I trial glaucoma patients scheduled for TE with mitomycin C (MMC received a single intravitreal injection of ISTH0036 at the end of surgery in escalating total doses of 6.75 μg, 22.5 μg, 67.5 μg or 225 μg, resulting in calculated intraocular ISTH0036 concentrations in the vitreous humor of approximately 0.3 μM, 1 μM, 3 μM or 10 μM after injection, respectively. Outcomes assessed included: type and frequency of adverse events (AEs, intraocular pressure (IOP, numbers of interventions post trabeculectomy, bleb survival, visual acuity, visual field, electroretinogram (ERG, slit lamp biomicroscopy and optic disc assessment.In total, 12 patients were treated in the 4 dose groups. Main ocular AEs observed were corneal erosion, corneal epithelium defect, or too high or too low IOP, among others. No AE was reported to be related to ISTH0036. All other safety-related analyses did not reveal any toxicities of concern, either. The mean medicated preoperative IOP at decision time-point for surgery was 27.3 mmHg +/- 12.6 mmHg (SD. Mean IOP (±SD for dose levels 1, 2, 3, and 4 were at Day 43 9.8 mmHg ± 1.0 mmHg, 11.3 mmHg ± 6.7 mmHg, 5.5 mmHg ± 3.0 mmHg and 7.5 mmHg ± 2.3 mmHg SD; and at Day 85 9.7 mmHg ± 3.3 mmHg, 14.2 mmHg ± 6.5 mmHg, 5.8 mmHg ± 1.8 mmHg and 7.8 mmHg ± 0.6 mmHg, respectively. In contrast to IOP values for dose levels 1 and 2, IOP values for dose levels 3 and 4 persistently remained below 10 mmHg throughout the observation period.This first-in-human trial demonstrates that intravitreal injection of ISTH0036 at the end of TE is safe. Regarding IOP control, single-dose ISTH0036 administration of 67.5 μg or 225 μg at the time of TE

  11. Peptide-LNA oligonucleotide conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astakhova, I Kira; Hansen, Lykke Haastrup; Vester, Birte

    2013-01-01

    properties, peptides were introduced into oligonucleotides via a 2'-alkyne-2'-amino-LNA scaffold. Derivatives of methionine- and leucine-enkephalins were chosen as model peptides of mixed amino acid content, which were singly and doubly incorporated into LNA/DNA strands using highly efficient copper......(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) "click" chemistry. DNA/RNA target binding affinity and selectivity of the resulting POCs were improved in comparison to LNA/DNA mixmers and unmodified DNA controls. This clearly demonstrates that internal attachment of peptides to oligonucleotides can significantly...

  12. Efficient encapsulation of antisense oligonucleotides in lipid vesicles using ionizable aminolipids: formation of novel small multilamellar vesicle structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, S C; Klimuk, S K; Harasym, T O; Dos Santos, N; Ansell, S M; Wong, K F; Maurer, N; Stark, H; Cullis, P R; Hope, M J; Scherrer, P

    2001-02-09

    Typical methods used for encapsulating antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) and plasmid DNA in lipid vesicles result in very low encapsulation efficiencies or employ cationic lipids that exhibit unfavorable pharmacokinetic and toxicity characteristics when administered intravenously. In this study, we describe and characterize a novel formulation process that utilizes an ionizable aminolipid (1,2-dioleoyl-3-dimethylammonium propane, DODAP) and an ethanol-containing buffer system for encapsulating large quantities (0.15--0.25 g ODN/g lipid) of polyanionic ODN in lipid vesicles. This process requires the presence of up to 40% ethanol (v/v) and initial formulation at acidic pH values where the DODAP is positively charged. In addition, the presence of a poly(ethylene glycol)-lipid was required during the formulation process to prevent aggregation. The 'stabilized antisense-lipid particles' (SALP) formed are stable on adjustment of the external pH to neutral pH values and the formulation process allows encapsulation efficiencies of up to 70%. ODN encapsulation was confirmed by nuclease protection assays and (31)P NMR measurements. Cryo-electron microscopy indicated that the final particles consisted of a mixed population of unilamellar and small multilamellar vesicles (80--140 nm diameter), the relative proportion of which was dependent on the initial ODN to lipid ratio. Finally, SALP exhibited significantly enhanced circulation lifetimes in mice relative to free antisense ODN, cationic lipid/ODN complexes and SALP prepared with quaternary aminolipids. Given the small particle sizes and improved encapsulation efficiency, ODN to lipid ratios, and circulation times of this formulation compared to others, we believe SALP represent a viable candidate for systemic applications involving nucleic acid therapeutics.

  13. Inhibiting the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in vitro with antisense peptide nucleic acid conjugates targeting the ftsZ gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumei Liang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the potent effects of PNAs on bacterial growth and cell viability were mediated by the down-regulation or even knock-out of ftsZ gene expression. This highlights the utility of ftsZ as a promising target for the development of new antisense antibacterial agents to treat MRSA infections.

  14. Oligonucleotide-based theranostic nanoparticles in cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Reza; Ozpolat, Bulent; Ulubayram, Kezban

    2016-01-01

    Theranostic approaches, combining the functionality of both therapy and imaging, have shown potential in cancer nanomedicine. Oligonucleotides such as small interfering RNA and microRNA, which are powerful therapeutic agents, have been effectively employed in theranostic systems against various cancers. Nanoparticles are used to deliver oligonucleotides into tumors by passive or active targeting while protecting the oligonucleotides from nucleases in the extracellular environment. The use of quantum dots, iron oxide nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles and tagging with contrast agents, like fluorescent dyes, optical or magnetic agents and various radioisotopes, has facilitated early detection of tumors and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy. In this article, we review the advantages of theranostic applications in cancer therapy and imaging, with special attention to oligonucleotide-based therapeutics. PMID:27102380

  15. Re-sensitizing drug-resistant bacteria to antibiotics by designing Antisense Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Colleen; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2014-03-01

    ``Super-bugs'' or ``multi-drug resistant organisms'' are a serious international health problem, with devastating consequences to patient health care. The Center for Disease Control has identified antibiotic resistance as one of the world's most pressing public health problems as a significant fraction of bacterial infections contracted are drug resistant. Typically, antibiotic resistance is encoded by ``resistance-genes'' which express proteins that carryout the resistance causing functions inside the bacterium. We present a RNA based therapeutic strategy for designing antimicrobials capable of re-sensitizing resistant bacteria to antibiotics by targeting labile regions of messenger RNAs encoding for resistance-causing proteins. We perform in silico RNA secondary structure modeling to identify labile target regions in an mRNA of interest. A synthetic biology approach is then used to administer antisense nucleic acids to our model system of ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli. Our results show a prolonged lag phase and decrease in viability of drug-resistant E. colitreated with antisense molecules. The antisense strategy can be applied to alter expression of other genes in antibiotic resistance pathways or other pathways of interest.

  16. Evaluation of fluorine-18-labeled alkylating agents as potential synthons for the labeling of oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, E.F.J. de E-mail: e.f.j.de.vries@pet.azg.nl; Vroegh, Joke; Elsinga, P.H.; Vaalburg, Willem

    2003-04-01

    Six fluorine-18-labeled alkylating agents were selected as potentially suitable synthons for the labeling of antisense oligonucleotides. The selected synthons were evaluated in a model reaction with the monomer adenosine 5'-O-thiomonophosphate. Of these synthons, {alpha}-bromo-{alpha}'-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-m-xylene and N-(4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzyl)-2-bromoacetamide were found to be the most promising. Labeling with the former synthon was less complicated and time consuming and gave higher uncorrected overall yields. The latter synthon required smaller amounts of the costly precursor to achieve acceptable labeling yields.

  17. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) cell penetrating peptide (CPP) conjugates as carriers for cellular delivery of antisense oligomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Nielsen, Peter E

    2012-01-01

    We have explored the merits of a novel delivery strategy for the antisense oligomers based on cell penetrating peptide (CPP) conjugated to a carrier PNA with sequence complementary to part of the antisense oligomer. The effect of these carrier CPP-PNAs was evaluated by using antisense PNA targeting......-PNA (cPNA1(7)-(D-Arg)8) and hexamer carrier decanoyl-CPP-PNA (Deca-cPNA1(6)-(D-Arg)8), respectively, without showing significant additional cellular toxicity. Most interestingly, the activity reached the same level obtained by enhancement with endosomolytic chloroquine (CQ) treatment, suggesting...... that the carrier might facilitate endosomal escape. Furthermore, 50% downregulation of luciferase expression at 60 nM siRNA was obtained using this carrier CPP-PNA delivery strategy (with CQ co-treatment) for a single stranded antisense RNA targeting normal luciferase mRNA. These results indicated that CPP...

  18. Bcl-2 antisense therapy in B-cell malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanan-Khan, Asher

    2005-07-01

    Bcl-2 is an apoptosis regulating protein, overexpression of which is associated with chemotherapy resistant disease, aggressive clinical course, and poor survival in patients with B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Overexpression of Bcl-2 protein results in an aberrant intrinsic apoptotic pathway that confers a protective effect on malignant cells against a death signal (e.g., chemotherapy or radiotherapy). Downregulation of this oncoprotein, thus, represents a possible new way to target clinically aggressive disease. Preclinical studies have shown that this oncoprotein can be effectively decreased by Bcl-2 antisense in malignant lymphoid cells and can reverse chemotherapy resistance, as well as enhance the anti-apoptotic potential of both chemotherapeutic and biologic agents. Ongoing clinical trials are exploring the role of Bcl-2 downregulation with oblimersen (Bcl-2 antisense) in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma. Early results from these studies are promising and support the proof of the principle. As these studies are completed and mature data emerges, the role of Bcl-2 antisense therapy in the treatment of B-cell malignancies will become clearer.

  19. Analysis of antisense expression by whole genome tiling microarrays and siRNAs suggests mis-annotation of Arabidopsis orphan protein-coding genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey R Richardson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs and trans-acting small-interfering RNAs (tasi-RNAs are small (20-22 nt long RNAs (smRNAs generated from hairpin secondary structures or antisense transcripts, respectively, that regulate gene expression by Watson-Crick pairing to a target mRNA and altering expression by mechanisms related to RNA interference. The high sequence homology of plant miRNAs to their targets has been the mainstay of miRNA prediction algorithms, which are limited in their predictive power for other kingdoms because miRNA complementarity is less conserved yet transitive processes (production of antisense smRNAs are active in eukaryotes. We hypothesize that antisense transcription and associated smRNAs are biomarkers which can be computationally modeled for gene discovery.We explored rice (Oryza sativa sense and antisense gene expression in publicly available whole genome tiling array transcriptome data and sequenced smRNA libraries (as well as C. elegans and found evidence of transitivity of MIRNA genes similar to that found in Arabidopsis. Statistical analysis of antisense transcript abundances, presence of antisense ESTs, and association with smRNAs suggests several hundred Arabidopsis 'orphan' hypothetical genes are non-coding RNAs. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found novel Arabidopsis homologues of some MIRNA genes on the antisense strand of previously annotated protein-coding genes. A Support Vector Machine (SVM was applied using thermodynamic energy of binding plus novel expression features of sense/antisense transcription topology and siRNA abundances to build a prediction model of miRNA targets. The SVM when trained on targets could predict the "ancient" (deeply conserved class of validated Arabidopsis MIRNA genes with an accuracy of 84%, and 76% for "new" rapidly-evolving MIRNA genes.Antisense and smRNA expression features and computational methods may identify novel MIRNA genes and other non-coding RNAs in plants and potentially other

  20. A Simple Three-Step Method for Design and Affinity Testing of New Antisense Peptides: An Example of Erythropoietin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Štambuk

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Antisense peptide technology is a valuable tool for deriving new biologically active molecules and performing peptide–receptor modulation. It is based on the fact that peptides specified by the complementary (antisense nucleotide sequences often bind to each other with a higher specificity and efficacy. We tested the validity of this concept on the example of human erythropoietin, a well-characterized and pharmacologically relevant hematopoietic growth factor. The purpose of the work was to present and test simple and efficient three-step procedure for the design of an antisense peptide targeting receptor-binding site of human erythropoietin. Firstly, we selected the carboxyl-terminal receptor binding region of the molecule (epitope as a template for the antisense peptide modeling; Secondly, we designed an antisense peptide using mRNA transcription of the epitope sequence in the 3'→5' direction and computational screening of potential paratope structures with BLAST; Thirdly, we evaluated sense–antisense (epitope–paratope peptide binding and affinity by means of fluorescence spectroscopy and microscale thermophoresis. Both methods showed similar Kd values of 850 and 816 µM, respectively. The advantages of the methods were: fast screening with a small quantity of the sample needed, and measurements done within the range of physicochemical parameters resembling physiological conditions. Antisense peptides targeting specific erythropoietin region(s could be used for the development of new immunochemical methods. Selected antisense peptides with optimal affinity are potential lead compounds for the development of novel diagnostic substances, biopharmaceuticals and vaccines.

  1. Glycogen Reduction in Myotubes of Late-Onset Pompe Disease Patients Using Antisense Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goina, Elisa; Peruzzo, Paolo; Bembi, Bruno; Dardis, Andrea; Buratti, Emanuele

    2017-09-06

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII) is a lysosomal disorder caused by the deficient activity of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) enzyme, leading to the accumulation of glycogen within the lysosomes. The disease has been classified in infantile and late-onset forms. Most late-onset patients share a splicing mutation c.-32-13T > G in intron 1 of the GAA gene that prevents efficient recognition of exon 2 by the spliceosome. In this study, we have mapped the splicing silencers of GAA exon 2 and developed antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (AMOs) to inhibit those regions and rescue normal splicing in the presence of the c.-32-13T > G mutation. Using a minigene approach and patient fibroblasts, we successfully increased inclusion of exon 2 in the mRNA and GAA enzyme production by targeting a specific silencer with a combination of AMOs. Most importantly, the use of these AMOs in patient myotubes results in a decreased accumulation of glycogen. To our knowledge, this is the only therapeutic approach resulting in a decrease of glycogen accumulation in patient tissues beside enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and TFEB overexpression. As a result, it may represent a highly novel and promising therapeutic line for GSDII. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Targeting the Notch-regulated non-coding RNA TUG1 for glioma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsushima, Keisuke; Natsume, Atsushi; Ohka, Fumiharu; Shinjo, Keiko; Hatanaka, Akira; Ichimura, Norihisa; Sato, Shinya; Takahashi, Satoru; Kimura, Hiroshi; Totoki, Yasushi; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Naito, Mitsuru; Kim, Hyun Jin; Miyata, Kanjiro; Kataoka, Kazunori; Kondo, Yutaka

    2016-12-06

    Targeting self-renewal is an important goal in cancer therapy and recent studies have focused on Notch signalling in the maintenance of stemness of glioma stem cells (GSCs). Understanding cancer-specific Notch regulation would improve specificity of targeting this pathway. In this study, we find that Notch1 activation in GSCs specifically induces expression of the lncRNA, TUG1. TUG1 coordinately promotes self-renewal by sponging miR-145 in the cytoplasm and recruiting polycomb to repress differentiation genes by locus-specific methylation of histone H3K27 via YY1-binding activity in the nucleus. Furthermore, intravenous treatment with antisense oligonucleotides targeting TUG1 coupled with a drug delivery system induces GSC differentiation and efficiently represses GSC growth in vivo. Our results highlight the importance of the Notch-lncRNA axis in regulating self-renewal of glioma cells and provide a strong rationale for targeting TUG1 as a specific and potent therapeutic approach to eliminate the GSC population.

  3. Structured oligonucleotides for target indexing to allow single-vessel PCR amplification and solid support microarray hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Laurie D; Boissinot, Karel; Peytavi, Régis; Boissinot, Maurice; Bergeron, Michel G

    2015-02-07

    The combination of molecular diagnostic technologies is increasingly used to overcome limitations on sensitivity, specificity or multiplexing capabilities, and provide efficient lab-on-chip devices. Two such techniques, PCR amplification and microarray hybridization are used serially to take advantage of the high sensitivity and specificity of the former combined with high multiplexing capacities of the latter. These methods are usually performed in different buffers and reaction chambers. However, these elaborate methods have high complexity and cost related to reagent requirements, liquid storage and the number of reaction chambers to integrate into automated devices. Furthermore, microarray hybridizations have a sequence dependent efficiency not always predictable. In this work, we have developed the concept of a structured oligonucleotide probe which is activated by cleavage from polymerase exonuclease activity. This technology is called SCISSOHR for Structured Cleavage Induced Single-Stranded Oligonucleotide Hybridization Reaction. The SCISSOHR probes enable indexing the target sequence to a tag sequence. The SCISSOHR technology also allows the combination of nucleic acid amplification and microarray hybridization in a single vessel in presence of the PCR buffer only. The SCISSOHR technology uses an amplification probe that is irreversibly modified in presence of the target, releasing a single-stranded DNA tag for microarray hybridization. Each tag is composed of a 3-nucleotide sequence-dependent segment and a unique "target sequence-independent" 14-nucleotide segment allowing for optimal hybridization with minimal cross-hybridization. We evaluated the performance of five (5) PCR buffers to support microarray hybridization, compared to a conventional hybridization buffer. Finally, as a proof of concept, we developed a multiplexed assay for the amplification, detection, and identification of three (3) DNA targets. This new technology will facilitate the design

  4. Recommendations of the Oligonucleotide Safety Working Group's Formulated Oligonucleotide Subcommittee for the Safety Assessment of Formulated Oligonucleotide-Based Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Jennifer L; Akopian, Violetta; Karmali, Priya; Kornbrust, Douglas; Lockridge, Jennifer; Semple, Sean

    2017-08-01

    The use of lipid formulations has greatly improved the ability to effectively deliver oligonucleotides and has been instrumental in the rapid expansion of therapeutic development programs using oligonucleotide drugs. However, the development of such complex multicomponent therapeutics requires the implementation of unique, scientifically sound approaches to the nonclinical development of these drugs, based upon a hybrid of knowledge and experiences drawn from small molecule, protein, and oligonucleotide therapeutic drug development. The relative paucity of directly applicable regulatory guidance documents for oligonucleotide therapeutics in general has resulted in the generation of multiple white papers from oligonucleotide drug development experts and members of the Oligonucleotide Safety Working Group (OSWG). The members of the Formulated Oligonucleotide Subcommittee of the OSWG have utilized their collective experience working with a variety of formulations and their associated oligonucleotide payloads, as well as their insights into regulatory considerations and expectations, to generate a series of consensus recommendations for the pharmacokinetic characterization and nonclinical safety assessment of this unique class of therapeutics. It should be noted that the focus of Subcommittee discussions was on lipid nanoparticle and other types of particulate formulations of therapeutic oligonucleotides and not on conjugates or other types of modifications of oligonucleotide structure intended to facilitate delivery.

  5. Family- and genus-level 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes for ecological studies of methanotrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, J; Ahmad, A; Steudler, P A; Pomerantz, W J; Cavanaugh, C M

    2001-10-01

    Methanotrophic bacteria play a major role in the global carbon cycle, degrade xenobiotic pollutants, and have the potential for a variety of biotechnological applications. To facilitate ecological studies of these important organisms, we developed a suite of oligonucleotide probes for quantitative analysis of methanotroph-specific 16S rRNA from environmental samples. Two probes target methanotrophs in the family Methylocystaceae (type II methanotrophs) as a group. No oligonucleotide signatures that distinguish between the two genera in this family, Methylocystis and Methylosinus, were identified. Two other probes target, as a single group, a majority of the known methanotrophs belonging to the family Methylococcaceae (type I/X methanotrophs). The remaining probes target members of individual genera of the Methylococcaceae, including Methylobacter, Methylomonas, Methylomicrobium, Methylococcus, and Methylocaldum. One of the family-level probes also covers all methanotrophic endosymbionts of marine mollusks for which 16S rRNA sequences have been published. The two known species of the newly described genus Methylosarcina gen. nov. are covered by a probe that otherwise targets only members of the closely related genus Methylomicrobium. None of the probes covers strains of the newly proposed genera Methylocella and "Methylothermus," which are polyphyletic with respect to the recognized methanotrophic families. Empirically determined midpoint dissociation temperatures were 49 to 57 degrees C for all probes. In dot blot screening against RNA from positive- and negative-control strains, the probes were specific to their intended targets. The broad coverage and high degree of specificity of this new suite of probes will provide more detailed, quantitative information about the community structure of methanotrophs in environmental samples than was previously available.

  6. Beneficial metabolic effects of CB1R anti-sense oligonucleotide treatment in diet-induced obese AKR/J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Tang

    Full Text Available An increasing amount of evidence supports pleiotropic metabolic roles of the cannibinoid-1 receptor (CB1R in peripheral tissues such as adipose, liver, skeletal muscle and pancreas. To further understand the metabolic consequences of specific blockade of CB1R function in peripheral tissues, we performed a 10-week-study with an anti-sense oligonucleotide directed against the CB1R in diet-induced obese (DIO AKR/J mice. DIO AKR/J mice were treated with CB1R ASO Isis-414930 (6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg/week or control ASO Isis-141923 (25 mg/kg/week via intraperitoneal injection for 10 weeks. At the end of the treatment, CB1R mRNA from the 25 mg/kg/week CB1R ASO group in the epididymal fat and kidney was decreased by 81% and 63%, respectively. Body weight gain was decreased in a dose-dependent fashion, significantly different in the 25 mg/kg/week CB1R ASO group (46.1±1.0 g vs veh, 51.2±0.9 g, p<0.05. Body fat mass was reduced in parallel with attenuated body weight gain. CB1R ASO treatment led to decreased fed glucose level (at week 8, 25 mg/kg/week group, 145±4 mg/dL vs veh, 195±10 mg/dL, p<0.05. Moreover, CB1R ASO treatment dose-dependently improved glucose excursion during an oral glucose tolerance test, whereas control ASO exerted no effect. Liver steatosis was also decreased upon CB1R ASO treatment. At the end of the study, plasma insulin and leptin levels were significantly reduced by 25 mg/kg/week CB1R ASO treatment. SREBP1 mRNA expression was decreased in both epididymal fat and liver. G6PC and fatty acid translocase/CD36 mRNA levels were also reduced in the liver. In summary, CB1R ASO treatment in DIO AKR/J mice led to improved insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. The beneficial effects of CB1R ASO treatment strongly support the notion that selective inhibition of the peripheral CB1R, without blockade of central CB1R, may serve as an effective approach for treating type II diabetes, obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

  7. Identification of novel non-coding RNAs as potential antisense regulators in the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    tang, T. H.; Polacek, N.; Zywicki, M.

    2005-01-01

    By generating a specialized cDNA library from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, we have identified 57 novel small non-coding RNA (ncRNA) candidates and confirmed their expression by Northern blot analysis. The majority was found to belong to one of two classes, either antisense or antisense...... elements by inhibiting expression of the transposase mRNA. Surprisingly, the class of antisense RNAs also contained RNAs complementary to tRNAs or sRNAs (small-nucleolar-like RNAs). For the antisense-box ncRNAs, the majority could be assigned to the class of C/D sRNAs, which specify 2'-O-methylation sites...... on rRNAs or tRNAs. Five C/D sRNAs of this group are predicted to target methylation at six sites in 13 different tRNAs, thus pointing to the widespread role of these sRNA species in tRNA modification in Archaea. Another group of antisense-box RNAs, lacking typical C/D sRNA motifs, was predicted...

  8. Bcl-2 antisense therapy in B-cell malignant proliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanan-Khan, Asher; Czuczman, Myron S

    2004-08-01

    Overexpression of Bcl-2 oncogene has been clinically associated with an aggressive clinical course, chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance, and poor survival in patients with malignant B-cell disorders. Patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma have limited therapeutic options. Preclinical and early clinical data have shown that Bcl-2 oncoprotein can be decreased by Bcl-2 antisense therapy. Also, downregulation of Bcl-2 protein can result in reversal of chemotherapy resistance and improved antitumor activity of biologic agents. Various clinical trials are evaluating the role of targeting Bcl-2 as a mechanism to enhance the antitumor potential of chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Early results from these clinical studies are encouraging and confirm the proof of principle for antisense therapy. As current data mature, these trials will hopefully validate preliminary results and establish Bcl-2 antisense as an important addition to the current armamentarium used in the treatment of patients with B-cell neoplasms.

  9. Short (16-mer locked nucleic acid splice-switching oligonucleotides restore dystrophin production in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy myotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Borges Pires

    Full Text Available Splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides (SSOs offer great potential for RNA-targeting therapies, and two SSO drugs have been recently approved for treating Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD and Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA. Despite promising results, new developments are still needed for more efficient chemistries and delivery systems. Locked nucleic acid (LNA is a chemically modified nucleic acid that presents several attractive properties, such as high melting temperature when bound to RNA, potent biological activity, high stability and low toxicity in vivo. Here, we designed a series of LNA-based SSOs complementary to two sequences of the human dystrophin exon 51 that are most evolutionary conserved and evaluated their ability to induce exon skipping upon transfection into myoblasts derived from a DMD patient. We show that 16-mers with 60% of LNA modification efficiently induce exon skipping and restore synthesis of a truncated dystrophin isoform that localizes to the plasma membrane of patient-derived myotubes differentiated in culture. In sum, this study underscores the value of short LNA-modified SSOs for therapeutic applications.

  10. In vitro transcription and translation inhibition via DNA functionalized gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, J; Baptista, P V [Centro de Investigacao em Genetica Molecular Humana (CIGMH), Departamento de Ciencias da Vida, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); De la Fuente, J M, E-mail: pmvb@fct.unl.pt [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-12-17

    The use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been gaining momentum as vectors for gene silencing strategies, combining the AuNPs' ease of functionalization with DNA and/or siRNA, high loading capacity and fast uptake by target cells. Here, we used AuNP functionalized with thiolated oligonucleotides to specifically inhibit transcription in vitro, demonstrating the synergetic effect between AuNPs and a specific antisense sequence that blocks the T7 promoter region. Also, AuNPs efficiently protect the antisense oligonucleotide against nuclease degradation, which can thus retain its inhibitory potential. In addition, we demonstrate that AuNPs functionalized with a thiolated oligonucleotide complementary to the ribosome binding site and the start codon, effectively shut down in vitro translation. Together, these two approaches can provide for a simple yet robust experimental set up to test for efficient gene silencing of AuNP-DNA conjugates. What is more, these results show that appropriate functionalization of AuNPs can be used as a dual targeting approach to an enhanced control of gene expression-inhibition of both transcription and translation.

  11. In vitro transcription and translation inhibition via DNA functionalized gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, J; Baptista, P V; De la Fuente, J M

    2010-01-01

    The use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been gaining momentum as vectors for gene silencing strategies, combining the AuNPs' ease of functionalization with DNA and/or siRNA, high loading capacity and fast uptake by target cells. Here, we used AuNP functionalized with thiolated oligonucleotides to specifically inhibit transcription in vitro, demonstrating the synergetic effect between AuNPs and a specific antisense sequence that blocks the T7 promoter region. Also, AuNPs efficiently protect the antisense oligonucleotide against nuclease degradation, which can thus retain its inhibitory potential. In addition, we demonstrate that AuNPs functionalized with a thiolated oligonucleotide complementary to the ribosome binding site and the start codon, effectively shut down in vitro translation. Together, these two approaches can provide for a simple yet robust experimental set up to test for efficient gene silencing of AuNP-DNA conjugates. What is more, these results show that appropriate functionalization of AuNPs can be used as a dual targeting approach to an enhanced control of gene expression-inhibition of both transcription and translation.

  12. Altered Metabolism of LDL in the Arterial Wall Precedes Atherosclerosis Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Emil D.; Christoffersen, Christina; Lindholm, Marie W.

    2015-01-01

    and degradation of LDL particles in atherosclerotic aortas of mice by measuring the accumulation of iodinated LDL particles in the arterial wall. Methods and Results: Cholesterol-fed, LDL receptor–deficient mice were treated with either an anti-Apob antisense oligonucleotide or a mismatch control antisense...... oligonucleotide once a week for 1 or 4 weeks before injection with preparations of iodinated LDL particles. The anti-Apob antisense oligonucleotide reduced plasma cholesterol by ≈90%. The aortic LDL permeability and degradation rates of newly entered LDL particles were reduced by ≈50% and ≈85% already after 1...... week of treatment despite an unchanged pool size of aortic iodinated LDL particles. In contrast, the size, foam cell content, and aortic pool size of iodinated LDL particles of aortic atherosclerotic plaques were not reduced until after 4 weeks of treatment with the anti-Apob antisense oligonucleotide...

  13. Transfection of mouse cytotoxic T lymphocyte with an antisense granzyme A vector reduces lytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talento, A; Nguyen, M; Law, S; Wu, J K; Poe, M; Blake, J T; Patel, M; Wu, T J; Manyak, C L; Silberklang, M

    1992-12-15

    Murine CTL have seven serine proteases, known as granzymes, in their lytic granules. Despite considerable effort, convincing evidence that these enzymes play an obligatory role in the lytic process has not been presented. To investigate the function of one of these proteases, granzyme A (GA), we utilized an antisense expression vector to lower the level of the enzyme in the cells. An expression vector containing antisense cDNA for GA and the gene for hygromycin B resistance was constructed and electroporated into the murine CTL line, AR1. Transfectants were selected based on resistance to hygromycin B, and a number of stable lines were developed. One of the antisense lines had greatly reduced levels of GA mRNA, when compared to the parental cells or to control lines transfected with the vector lacking the antisense DNA. The message levels for two other CTL granule proteins, granzyme B and perforin, were unaffected by the antisense vector. The amount of GA, as measured by enzymatic activity, was 3- to 10-fold lower in the transfectant. Most significantly, this line also consistently showed 50 to 70% lower ability to lyse nucleated target cells and to degrade their DNA. Furthermore, it exhibited 90 to 95% lower lytic activity to anti-CD3-coated SRBC. Conjugate formation with target cells, however, was normal. These data provide strong evidence that GA plays an important role in the cytolytic cycle, and that the quantity of enzyme is a limiting factor in these cytolytic cells.

  14. Regulation of Peripheral Myelination through Transcriptional Buffering of Egr2 by an Antisense Long Non-coding RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Martinez-Moreno

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Precise regulation of Egr2 transcription is fundamentally important to the control of peripheral myelination. Here, we describe a long non-coding RNA antisense to the promoter of Egr2 (Egr2-AS-RNA. During peripheral nerve injury, the expression of Egr2-AS-RNA is increased and correlates with decreased Egr2 transcript and protein levels. Ectopic expression of Egr2-AS-RNA in dorsal root ganglion (DRG cultures inhibits the expression of Egr2 mRNA and induces demyelination. In vivo inhibition of Egr2-AS-RNA using oligonucleotide GapMers released from a biodegradable hydrogel following sciatic nerve injury reverts the EGR2-mediated gene expression profile and significantly delays demyelination. Egr2-AS-RNA gradually recruits H3K27ME3, AGO1, AGO2, and EZH2 on the Egr2 promoter following sciatic nerve injury. Furthermore, expression of Egr2-AS-RNA is regulated through ERK1/2 signaling to YY1, while loss of Ser184 of YY1 regulates binding to Egr2-AS-RNA. In conclusion, we describe functional exploration of an antisense long non-coding RNA in peripheral nervous system (PNS biology.

  15. Sense-antisense (complementary) peptide interactions and the proteomic code; potential opportunities in biology and pharmaceutical science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew D

    2015-02-01

    A sense peptide can be defined as a peptide whose sequence is coded by the nucleotide sequence (read 5' → 3') of the sense (positive) strand of DNA. Conversely, an antisense (complementary) peptide is coded by the corresponding nucleotide sequence (read 5' → 3') of the antisense (negative) strand of DNA. Research has been accumulating steadily to suggest that sense peptides are capable of specific interactions with their corresponding antisense peptides. Unfortunately, although more and more examples of specific sense-antisense peptide interactions are emerging, the very idea of such interactions does not conform to standard biology dogma and so there remains a sizeable challenge to lift this concept from being perceived as a peripheral phenomenon if not worse, into becoming part of the scientific mainstream. Specific interactions have now been exploited for the inhibition of number of widely different protein-protein and protein-receptor interactions in vitro and in vivo. Further, antisense peptides have also been used to induce the production of antibodies targeted to specific receptors or else the production of anti-idiotypic antibodies targeted against auto-antibodies. Such illustrations of utility would seem to suggest that observed sense-antisense peptide interactions are not just the consequence of a sequence of coincidental 'lucky-hits'. Indeed, at the very least, one might conclude that sense-antisense peptide interactions represent a potentially new and different source of leads for drug discovery. But could there be more to come from studies in this area? Studies on the potential mechanism of sense-antisense peptide interactions suggest that interactions may be driven by amino acid residue interactions specified from the genetic code. If so, such specified amino acid residue interactions could form the basis for an even wider amino acid residue interaction code (proteomic code) that links gene sequences to actual protein structure and function, even

  16. MicroRNA-221 and -222 Regulate Radiation Sensitivity by Targeting the PTEN Pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunzhi; Kang Chunsheng; Wang Ping; Cao Yongzhen; Lv Zhonghong; Yu Shizhu; Wang Guangxiu; Zhang Anling; Jia Zhifan; Han Lei; Yang Chunying; Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Teh, Bin S.; Xu Bo; Pu Peiyu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs inhibiting expression of numerous target genes by posttranscriptional regulation. miRNA-221 and miRNA-222 (miRNA-221/-222) expression is elevated in radioresistant tumor cell lines; however, it is not known whether and how miRNAs control cellular responses to ionizing irradiation. Methods and Materials: We used bioinformatic analyses, luciferase reporter assay, and genetic knockdown and biochemical assays to characterize the regulation pathways of miRNA-221/-222 in response to radiation treatment. Results: We identified the PTEN gene as a target of miRNA-221/-222. Furthermore, we found that knocking down miRNA-221/-222 by antisense oligonucleotides upregulated PTEN expression. Upregulated PTEN expression suppressed AKT activity and increased radiation-induced apoptosis, resulting in enhancement of radiosensitivity in tumor cells. Conclusions: miRNA-221/-222 control radiation sensitivity by regulating the PTEN/AKT pathway and can be explored as novel targets for radiosensitization.

  17. Oxacillin sensitization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius by antisense peptide nucleic acids in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Shan; Loeffler, Anette; Lloyd, David H; Nair, Sean P; Good, Liam

    2015-11-11

    Antibiotic resistance genes can be targeted by antisense agents, which can reduce their expression and thus restore cellular susceptibility to existing antibiotics. Antisense inhibitors can be gene and pathogen specific, or designed to inhibit a group of bacteria having conserved sequences within resistance genes. Here, we aimed to develop antisense peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) that could be used to effectively restore susceptibility to β-lactams in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). Antisense PNAs specific for conserved regions of the mobilisable gene mecA, and the growth essential gene, ftsZ, were designed. Clinical MRSA and MRSP strains of high oxacillin resistance were treated with PNAs and assayed for reduction in colony forming units on oxacillin plates, reduction in target gene mRNA levels, and cell size. Anti-mecA PNA at 7.5 and 2.5 μM reduced mecA mRNA in MRSA and MRSP (p resistance in staphylococci. Further studies are warranted as clinical treatment alternatives are needed.

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13782-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 344A08.... 38 0.065 2 ( EA354773 ) Sequence 153 from patent US 7307069. 48 0.43 1 ( DJ338669 ) Antisense Oligonucleotide Modulation... of STAT3 Exp... 48 0.43 1 ( DI114419 ) Antisense Oligonucleotide Modulation of STAT3

  19. In vitro detection of mdr1 mRNA in murine leukemia cells with 111In-labeled oligonucleotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Jingming; Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Kinuya, Seigo; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Tonami, Norihisa; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Matsushita, Ryo; Nomura, Masaaki

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of intracellular mdr1 mRNA expression detection with radiolabeled antisense oligonucleotide (ODN) was investigated in the murine leukemia cell line, P388/S, and its subclonal, adriamycin-resistant cell line, P388/R. The expression level of mdr1 mRNA was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Existence of the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon was assessed via cellular uptake of 99m Tc-sestamibi (MIBI), a known substrate for P-glycoprotein. A 15-mer phosphorothioate antisense ODN complementary to the sequences located at -1 to 14 of mdr1 mRNA and its corresponding sense ODN were conjugated with the cyclic anhydride of diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (cDTPA) via an amino group linked to the terminal phosphate at the 5' end at pH 8-9. The DTPA-ODN complexes at concentrations of 0.1-17.4 μMwere reacted with 111 InCl 3 at pH 5 for 1 h. The hybridization affinity of labeled ODN was evaluated with size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography following incubation with the complementary sequence. Cellular uptake of labeled ODN was examined in vitro. Furthermore, enhancing effects of synthetic lipid carriers (Transfast) on transmembrane delivery of ODN were assessed. P388/R cells displayed intense mdr1 mRNA expression in comparison with P388/S cells. 99m Tc-MIBI uptake in P388/S cells was higher than that in P388/R cells. Specific radioactivity up to 1,634 MBq/nmol was achieved via elevation of added radioactivity relative to ODN molar amount. The hybridization affinity of antisense 111 In-ODN was preserved at approximately 85% irrespective of specific activity. Cellular uptake of antisense 111 In-ODN did not differ from that of sense 111 In-ODN in either P388/S cells or P388/R cells. However, lipid carrier incorporation significantly increased transmembrane delivery of 111 In-ODN; moreover, specific uptake of antisense 111 In-ODN was demonstrated in P388/R cells. Radiolabeling of ODN at high specific

  20. Nanoparticle for delivery of antisense γPNA oligomers targeting CCR5

    OpenAIRE

    Bahal, Raman; McNeer, Nicole Ali; Ly, Danith H.; Saltzman, W. Mark; Glazer, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    The development of a new class of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), i.e., gamma PNAs (γPNAs), creates the need for a general and effective method for its delivery into cells for regulating gene expression in mammalian cells. Here we report the antisense activity of a recently developed hydrophilic and biocompatible diethylene glycol (miniPEG)-based gamma peptide nucleic acid called MPγPNAs via its delivery by poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based nanoparticle system. We show that MPγPNA oligome...

  1. Development of Novel Antisense Oligonucleotides for the Functional Regulation of RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) by Promoting the Release of microRNA from RISC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyoshi, Jumpei; Momokawa, Daiki; Eimori, Nao; Kobori, Akio; Murakami, Akira; Yamayoshi, Asako

    2015-12-16

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to be important post-transcription regulators of gene expression. Aberrant miRNA expression is associated with pathological disease processes, including carcinogenesis. Therefore, miRNAs are considered significant therapeutic targets for cancer therapy. MiRNAs do not act alone, but exhibit their functions by forming RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Thus, the regulation of RISC activity is a promising approach for cancer therapy. MiRNA is a core component of RISC and is an essential to RISC for recognizing target mRNA. Thereby, it is expected that development of the method to promote the release of miRNA from RISC would be an effective approach for inhibition of RISC activity. In this study, we synthesized novel peptide-conjugated oligonucleotides (RINDA-as) to promote the release of miRNA from RISC. RINDA-as showed a high rate of miRNA release from RISC and high level of inhibitory effect on RISC activity.

  2. In vivo knockdown of antisense non-coding mitochondrial RNAs by a lentiviral-encoded shRNA inhibits melanoma tumor growth and lung colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Lladser, Alvaro; Farfan, Nicole; Villota, Claudio; Villegas, Jaime; Tapia, Julio C; Burzio, Luis O; Burzio, Veronica A; Valenzuela, Pablo D T

    2018-01-01

    The family of non-coding mitochondrial RNAs (ncmtRNA) is differentially expressed according to proliferative status. Normal proliferating cells express sense (SncmtRNA) and antisense ncmtRNAs (ASncmtRNAs), whereas tumor cells express SncmtRNA and downregulate ASncmtRNAs. Knockdown of ASncmtRNAs with oligonucleotides induces apoptotic cell death of tumor cells, leaving normal cells unaffected, suggesting a potential application for developing a novel cancer therapy. In this study, we knocked down the ASncmtRNAs in melanoma cell lines with a lentiviral-encoded shRNA approach. Transduction with lentiviral constructs targeted to the ASncmtRNAs induced apoptosis in murine B16F10 and human A375 melanoma cells in vitro and significantly retarded B16F10 primary tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, the treatment drastically reduced the number of lung metastatic foci in a tail vein injection assay, compared to controls. These results provide additional proof of concept to the knockdown of ncmtRNAs for cancer therapy and validate lentiviral-shRNA vectors for gene therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Small RNAs and the regulation of cis-natural antisense transcripts in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonardi Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of large intergenic spaces in plant and animal genomes, 7% to 30% of genes in the genomes encode overlapping cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs. The widespread occurrence of cis-NATs suggests an evolutionary advantage for this type of genomic arrangement. Experimental evidence for the regulation of two cis-NAT gene pairs by natural antisense transcripts-generated small interfering RNAs (nat-siRNAs via the RNA interference (RNAi pathway has been reported in Arabidopsis. However, the extent of siRNA-mediated regulation of cis-NAT genes is still unclear in any genome. Results The hallmarks of RNAi regulation of NATs are 1 inverse regulation of two genes in a cis-NAT pair by environmental and developmental cues and 2 generation of siRNAs by cis-NAT genes. We examined Arabidopsis transcript profiling data from public microarray databases to identify cis-NAT pairs whose sense and antisense transcripts show opposite expression changes. A subset of the cis-NAT genes displayed negatively correlated expression profiles as well as inverse differential expression changes under at least one of the examined developmental stages or treatment conditions. By searching the Arabidopsis Small RNA Project (ASRP and Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS small RNA databases as well as our stress-treated small RNA dataset, we found small RNAs that matched at least one gene in 646 pairs out of 1008 (64% protein-coding cis-NAT pairs, which suggests that siRNAs may regulate the expression of many cis-NAT genes. 209 putative siRNAs have the potential to target more than one gene and half of these small RNAs could target multiple members of a gene family. Furthermore, the majority of the putative siRNAs within the overlapping regions tend to target only one transcript of a given NAT pair, which is consistent with our previous finding on salt- and bacteria-induced nat-siRNAs. In addition, we found that genes encoding plastid- or

  4. Influence of different chelators (HYNIC, MAG3 and DTPA) on tumor cell accumulation and mouse biodistribution of technetium-99m labeled to antisense DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.M.; Liu, N.; Zhu, Z.-H.; Rusckowski, M.; Hnatowich, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    We have shown recently that cell accumulation in culture of antisense DNA is strongly influenced by the presence of a 99m Tc-MAG 3 group for radiolabeling. We have now compared the in vitro and mouse in vivo behavior of 99m Tc when radiolabeled to one antisense phosphorothioate DNA by three different methods. The 18-mer antisense DNA against the RIα subunit of PKA was conjugated via a primary amine on the 5'-end with the NHS esters of HYNIC and MAG 3 and by the cyclic anhydride of DTPA. Surface plasmon resonance measurements revealed that the association rate constant for hybridization was unchanged for all three chelators as compared with that of the native DNA. Size exclusion HPLC showed rapid and quantitative protein binding for all three chelators upon incubation of labeled DNAs in 37 C serum and cell culture medium. However, in each case, radiolabeled and intact oligonucleotide was still detectable after 24 h. Cellular uptake was tested in an RIα mRNA-positive cancer cell line. The order of cellular accumulation of 99m Tc was DTPA>HYNIC(tricine)>MAG 3 , with the differences increasing with time between 4 and 24 h. The rate of 99m Tc egress from cells was found to be MAG 3 >HYNIC>DTPA, which may explain the order of cellular accumulation. The biodistribution in normal mice was heavily influenced by the labeling method and followed a pattern similar to that seen previously by us for peptides labeled with the same chelators. In conclusion, although these studies concerned only one antisense DNA in one cell line, the results suggest that the success of antisense imaging may depend, in part, on the method of radiolabeling. (orig.)

  5. Technetium-99m labeled antisense probes uptake in vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.X.; Qin, G.M.; An, R.; Cao, G.X.; Cao, W.; Gao, Z.R.

    2002-01-01

    In the arterial wall, smooth muscle cells (SMC) normally exist in a quiescent, differentiated state, representing the contractile phenotype. During the development of atherosclerosis SMC change towards the synthetic phenotype going along with proliferation, chemotactic response and increased monocyte binding. The Fas/Fas ligand/caspase death-signaling pathway, Bcl-2 protein family/mitochondria, the tumor suppressive gene p53, and the proto-oncogene c-myc may be activated in atherosclerotic lesions, and mediates vascular apoptosis during the development of atherosclerosis. The atherosclerotic plaques contained 3-4 fold more c-myc mRNA than those in the normal aortic arteries, while increased Bax and Bak coupled with lack/paucity of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL are associated with SMC apoptosis in advanced lesions. Methods: 1 Oligonucleotide Conjugation: A solution of single stranded amine-derivatized DNA (100-1000μg) was prepared at a concentration of 2 mg/ml in 0.25M sodium bicarbonate, 1 M sodium chloride, 1mM EDTA, pH8.5. Cell uptake studies: 99m Tc- MAG 3 -DNA radioactivity incorporation into porcine coronary smooth muscle cells in the log and plateau phases, respectively, was determined after different times of incubation at 37. The influence of extracellular 99m Tc- MAG 3 -DNA concentration on SMC uptake was also analyzed. [Results] Essentially complete conjugation was achieved by reverse-phase Sep-Pak C18 chromatography analysis. The MAG 3 -DNA was labeled with 99m Tc at room temperature and neutral pH, with a mean labeling efficiency of 80.11%(s.d=2.96%,n=4). The labeled antisense DNA still remained the ability to hybridize with its complementary DNA. After labeling, the stability of the DNA in saline or serum was retained as determined by reverse-phase Sep-Pak C18 chromatography analysis, except a shift at 30 min in serum incubation that suggesting a short time serum protein binding. 99m Tc-MAG 3 -c-myc uptake plateaued at 60 min and was directly proportional to the

  6. Oligonucleotide-based biosensors for in vitro diagnostics and environmental hazard detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Il Young; Lee, Eun Hee; Suh, Ah Young; Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Hyukjin

    2016-04-01

    Oligonucleotide-based biosensors have drawn much attention because of their broad applications in in vitro diagnostics and environmental hazard detection. They are particularly of interest to many researchers because of their high specificity as well as excellent sensitivity. Recently, oligonucleotide-based biosensors have been used to achieve not only genetic detection of targets but also the detection of small molecules, peptides, and proteins. This has further broadened the applications of these sensors in the medical and health care industry. In this review, we highlight various examples of oligonucleotide-based biosensors for the detection of diseases, drugs, and environmentally hazardous chemicals. Each example is provided with detailed schematics of the detection mechanism in addition to the supporting experimental results. Furthermore, future perspectives and new challenges in oligonucleotide-based biosensors are discussed.

  7. Inhibition of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) expression decreases the survival and myogenic differentiation of human rhabdomyosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croci, Stefania; Landuzzi, Lorena; Astolfi, Annalisa; Nicoletti, Giordano; Rosolen, Angelo; Sartori, Francesca; Follo, Matilde Y; Oliver, Noelynn; De Giovanni, Carla; Nanni, Patrizia; Lollini, Pier-Luigi

    2004-03-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), a cysteine-rich protein of the CCN (Cyr61, CTGF, Nov) family of genes, emerged from a microarray screen of genes expressed by human rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Rhabdomyosarcoma is a soft tissue sarcoma of childhood deriving from skeletal muscle cells. In this study, we investigated the role of CTGF in rhabdomyosarcoma. Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells of the embryonal (RD/12, RD/18, CCA) and the alveolar histotype (RMZ-RC2, SJ-RH4, SJ-RH30), rhabdomyosarcoma tumor specimens, and normal skeletal muscle cells expressed CTGF. To determine the function of CTGF, we treated rhabdomyosarcoma cells with a CTGF antisense oligonucleotide or with a CTGF small interfering RNA (siRNA). Both treatments inhibited rhabdomyosarcoma cell growth, suggesting the existence of a new autocrine loop based on CTGF. CTGF antisense oligonucleotide-mediated growth inhibition was specifically due to a significant increase in apoptosis, whereas cell proliferation was unchanged. CTGF antisense oligonucleotide induced a strong decrease in the level of myogenic differentiation of rhabdomyosarcoma cells, whereas the addition of recombinant CTGF significantly increased the proportion of myosin-positive cells. CTGF emerges as a survival and differentiation factor and could be a new therapeutic target in human rhabdomyosarcoma.

  8. Quantification of Different Eubacterium spp. in Human Fecal Samples with Species-Specific 16S rRNA-Targeted Oligonucleotide Probes

    OpenAIRE

    Schwiertz, Andreas; Le Blay, Gwenaelle; Blaut, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Species-specific 16S rRNA-targeted, Cy3 (indocarbocyanine)-labeled oligonucleotide probes were designed and validated to quantify different Eubacterium species in human fecal samples. Probes were directed at Eubacterium barkeri, E. biforme, E. contortum, E. cylindroides (two probes), E. dolichum, E. hadrum, E. lentum, E. limosum, E. moniliforme, and E. ventriosum. The specificity of the probes was tested with the type strains and a range of common intestinal bacteria. With one exception, none...

  9. As Technologies for Nucleotide Therapeutics Mature, Products Emerge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beierlein, Jennifer M; McNamee, Laura M; Ledley, Fred D

    2017-12-15

    The long path from initial research on oligonucleotide therapies to approval of antisense products is not unfamiliar. This lag resembles those encountered with monoclonal antibodies, gene therapies, and many biological targets and is consistent with studies of innovation showing that technology maturation is a critical determinant of product success. We previously described an analytical model for the maturation of biomedical research, demonstrating that the efficiency of targeted and biological development is connected to metrics of technology growth. The present work applies this model to characterize the advance of oligonucleotide therapeutics. We show that recent oligonucleotide product approvals incorporate technologies and targets that are past the established point of technology growth, as do most of the oligonucleotide products currently in phase 3. Less mature oligonucleotide technologies, such as miRNAs and some novel gene targets, have not passed the established point and have not yielded products. This analysis shows that oligonucleotide product development has followed largely predictable patterns of innovation. While technology maturation alone does not ensure success, these data show that many oligonucleotide technologies are sufficiently mature to be considered part of the arsenal for therapeutic development. These results demonstrate the importance of technology assessment in strategic management of biomedical technologies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Different effects of antisense RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50 oligonucleotides on the nuclear factor-κB mediated expression of ICAM-1 in human coronary endothelial and smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Both Anton

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB is one of the key events in early atherosclerosis and restenosis. We hypothesized that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α induced and NF-κB mediated expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 can be inhibited by antisense RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50 oligonucleotides (RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50. Results Smooth muscle cells (SMC from human coronary plaque material (HCPSMC, plaque material of 52 patients, SMC from the human coronary media (HCMSMC, human endothelial cells (EC from umbilical veins (HUVEC, and human coronary EC (HCAEC were successfully isolated (HCPSMC, HUVEC, identified and cultured (HCPSMC, HCMSMC, HUVEC, HCAEC. 12 hrs prior to TNF-α stimulus (20 ng/mL, 6 hrs RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50 (1, 2, 4, 10, 20, and 30 μM and controls were added for a period of 18 hrs. In HUVEC and HCAEC there was a dose dependent inhibition of ICAM-1 expression after adding of both RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50. No inhibitory effect was seen after incubation of HCMSMC with RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50. A moderate inhibition of ICAM-1 expression was found after simultaneous addition of RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50 to HCPSMC, no inhibitory effect was detected after individual addition of RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50. Conclusions The data point out that differences exist in the NF-κB mediated expression of ICAM-1 between EC and SMC. Experimental antisense strategies directed against RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50 in early atherosclerosis and restenosis are promising in HCAEC but will be confronted with redundant pathways in HCMSMC and HCPSMC.

  11. Large-scale analysis of antisense transcription in wheat using the Affymetrix GeneChip Wheat Genome Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Settles Matthew L

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural antisense transcripts (NATs are transcripts of the opposite DNA strand to the sense-strand either at the same locus (cis-encoded or a different locus (trans-encoded. They can affect gene expression at multiple stages including transcription, RNA processing and transport, and translation. NATs give rise to sense-antisense transcript pairs and the number of these identified has escalated greatly with the availability of DNA sequencing resources and public databases. Traditionally, NATs were identified by the alignment of full-length cDNAs or expressed sequence tags to genome sequences, but an alternative method for large-scale detection of sense-antisense transcript pairs involves the use of microarrays. In this study we developed a novel protocol to assay sense- and antisense-strand transcription on the 55 K Affymetrix GeneChip Wheat Genome Array, which is a 3' in vitro transcription (3'IVT expression array. We selected five different tissue types for assay to enable maximum discovery, and used the 'Chinese Spring' wheat genotype because most of the wheat GeneChip probe sequences were based on its genomic sequence. This study is the first report of using a 3'IVT expression array to discover the expression of natural sense-antisense transcript pairs, and may be considered as proof-of-concept. Results By using alternative target preparation schemes, both the sense- and antisense-strand derived transcripts were labeled and hybridized to the Wheat GeneChip. Quality assurance verified that successful hybridization did occur in the antisense-strand assay. A stringent threshold for positive hybridization was applied, which resulted in the identification of 110 sense-antisense transcript pairs, as well as 80 potentially antisense-specific transcripts. Strand-specific RT-PCR validated the microarray observations, and showed that antisense transcription is likely to be tissue specific. For the annotated sense-antisense

  12. Tumor delivery of antisense oligomer using trastuzumab within a streptavidin nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi [University of Massachusetts Medical School, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Worcester, MA (United States); Yale University, Yale PET Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, New Haven, CT (United States); Liu, Xinrong; Chen, Ling; Cheng, Dengfeng; Rusckowski, Mary [University of Massachusetts Medical School, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Worcester, MA (United States); Hnatowich, Donald J. [University of Massachusetts Medical School, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Worcester, MA (United States); Umass Medical School, Department of Radiology, Worcester, MA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Trastuzumab (Herceptin trademark) is often internalized following binding to Her2+ tumor cells. The objective of this study was to investigate whether trastuzumab can be used as a specific carrier to deliver antisense oligomers into Her2+ tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. A biotinylated MORF oligomer antisense to RhoC mRNA and its biotinylated sense control were labeled with either lissamine for fluorescence detection or {sup 99m}Tc for radioactivity detection and were linked to biotinylated trastuzumab via streptavidin. The nanoparticles were studied in SUM190 (RhoC+, Her2+) study and SUM149 (RhoC+, Her2-) control cells in culture and as xenografts in mice. As evidence of unimpaired Her2+ binding of trastuzumab within the nanoparticle, accumulations were clearly higher in SUM190 compared to SUM149 cells and, by whole-body imaging, targeting of SUM190 tumor was similar to that expected for a radiolabeled trastuzumab. As evidence of internalization, fluorescence microscopy images of cells grown in culture and obtained from xenografts showed uniform cytoplasm distribution of the lissamine-MORF. An invasion assay showed decreased RhoC expression in SUM190 cells when incubated with the antisense MORF nanoparticles at only 100 nM. Both in cell culture and in animals, the nanoparticle with trastuzumab as specific carrier greatly improved tumor delivery of the antisense oligomer against RhoC mRNA into tumor cells overexpressing Her2 and may be of general utility. (orig.)

  13. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Type 1 LTR DNA contains an intrinsic gene producing antisense RNA and protein products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao Chiu-Bin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While viruses have long been shown to capitalize on their limited genomic size by utilizing both strands of DNA or complementary DNA/RNA intermediates to code for viral proteins, it has been assumed that human retroviruses have all their major proteins translated only from the plus or sense strand of RNA, despite their requirement for a dsDNA proviral intermediate. Several studies, however, have suggested the presence of antisense transcription for both HIV-1 and HTLV-1. More recently an antisense transcript responsible for the HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ protein has been described. In this study we investigated the possibility of an antisense gene contained within the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR. Results Inspection of published sequences revealed a potential transcription initiator element (INR situated downstream of, and in reverse orientation to, the usual HIV-1 promoter and transcription start site. This antisense initiator (HIVaINR suggested the possibility of an antisense gene responsible for RNA and protein production. We show that antisense transcripts are generated, in vitro and in vivo, originating from the TAR DNA of the HIV-1 LTR. To test the possibility that protein(s could be translated from this novel HIV-1 antisense RNA, recombinant HIV antisense gene-FLAG vectors were designed. Recombinant protein(s were produced and isolated utilizing carboxy-terminal FLAG epitope (DYKDDDDK sequences. In addition, affinity-purified antisera to an internal peptide derived from the HIV antisense protein (HAP sequences identified HAPs from HIV+ human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Conclusion HIV-1 contains an antisense gene in the U3-R regions of the LTR responsible for both an antisense RNA transcript and proteins. This antisense transcript has tremendous potential for intrinsic RNA regulation because of its overlap with the beginning of all HIV-1 sense RNA transcripts by 25 nucleotides. The

  14. De-repressing LncRNA-Targeted Genes to Upregulate Gene Expression: Focus on Small Molecule Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Pedram Fatemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-protein coding RNAs (ncRNAs make up the overwhelming majority of transcripts in the genome and have recently gained attention for their complex regulatory role in cells, including the regulation of protein-coding genes. Furthermore, ncRNAs play an important role in normal development and their expression levels are dysregulated in several diseases. Recently, several long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs have been shown to alter the epigenetic status of genomic loci and suppress the expression of target genes. This review will present examples of such a mechanism and focus on the potential to target lncRNAs for achieving therapeutic gene upregulation by de-repressing genes that are epigenetically silenced in various diseases. Finally, the potential to target lncRNAs, through their interactions with epigenetic enzymes, using various tools, such as small molecules, viral vectors and antisense oligonucleotides, will be discussed. We suggest that small molecule modulators of a novel class of drug targets, lncRNA-protein interactions, have great potential to treat some cancers, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders.

  15. U1 Adaptor Oligonucleotides Targeting BCL2 and GRM1 Suppress Growth of Human Melanoma Xenografts In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Goraczniak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available U1 Adaptor is a recently discovered oligonucleotide-based gene-silencing technology with a unique mechanism of action that targets nuclear pre-mRNA processing. U1 Adaptors have two distinct functional domains, both of which must be present on the same oligonucleotide to exert their gene-silencing function. Here, we present the first in vivo use of U1 Adaptors by targeting two different human genes implicated in melanomagenesis, B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2 and metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (GRM1, in a human melanoma cell xenograft mouse model system. Using a newly developed dendrimer delivery system, anti-BCL2 U1 Adaptors were very potent and suppressed tumor growth at doses as low as 34 µg/kg with twice weekly intravenous (iv administration. Anti-GRM1 U1 Adaptors suppressed tumor xenograft growth with similar potency. Mechanism of action was demonstrated by showing target gene suppression in tumors and by observing that negative control U1 Adaptors with just one functional domain show no tumor suppression activity. The anti-BCL2 and anti-GRM1 treatments were equally effective against cell lines harboring either wild-type or a mutant V600E B-RAF allele, the most common mutation in melanoma. Treatment of normal immune-competent mice (C57BL6 indicated no organ toxicity or immune stimulation. These proof-of-concept studies represent an in-depth (over 800 mice in ~108 treatment groups validation that U1 Adaptors are a highly potent gene-silencing therapeutic and open the way for their further development to treat other human diseases.

  16. Rapid and accurate synthesis of TALE genes from synthetic oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenghua; Zhang, Hefei; Gao, Jingxia; Chen, Fengjiao; Chen, Sijie; Zhang, Cuizhen; Peng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Custom synthesis of transcription activator-like effector (TALE) genes has relied upon plasmid libraries of pre-fabricated TALE-repeat monomers or oligomers. Here we describe a novel synthesis method that directly incorporates annealed synthetic oligonucleotides into the TALE-repeat units. Our approach utilizes iterative sets of oligonucleotides and a translational frame check strategy to ensure the high efficiency and accuracy of TALE-gene synthesis. TALE arrays of more than 20 repeats can be constructed, and the majority of the synthesized constructs have perfect sequences. In addition, this novel oligonucleotide-based method can readily accommodate design changes to the TALE repeats. We demonstrated an increased gene targeting efficiency against a genomic site containing a potentially methylated cytosine by incorporating non-conventional repeat variable di-residue (RVD) sequences.

  17. Oligonucleotide aptamers against tyrosine kinase receptors: Prospect for anticancer applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camorani, Simona; Crescenzi, Elvira; Fedele, Monica; Cerchia, Laura

    2018-04-01

    Transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play crucial roles in cancer cell proliferation, survival, migration and differentiation. Area of intense research is searching for effective anticancer therapies targeting these receptors and, to date, several monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors have entered the clinic. However, some of these drugs show limited efficacy and give rise to acquired resistance. Emerging highly selective compounds for anticancer therapy are oligonucleotide aptamers that interact with their targets by recognizing a specific three-dimensional structure. Because of their nucleic acid nature, the rational design of advanced strategies to manipulate aptamers for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications is greatly simplified over antibodies. In this manuscript, we will provide a comprehensive overview of oligonucleotide aptamers as next generation strategies to efficiently target RTKs in human cancers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Poly(ester amine Composed of Polyethylenimine and Pluronic Enhance Delivery of Antisense Oligonucleotides In Vitro and in Dystrophic mdx Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of poly(esteramines (PEAs constructed from low molecular weight polyethyleneimine (LPEI and Pluronic were evaluated for the delivery of antisense oligonuclotides (AOs, 2′-O-methyl phosphorothioate RNA (2′-OMePS and phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO in cell culture and dystrophic mdx mice. Improved exon-skipping efficiency of both 2′-OMePS and PMO was observed in the C2C12E50 cell line with all PEA polymers compared with PEI 25k or LF-2k. The degree of efficiency was found in the order of PEA 01, PEA 04 > PEA 05 > others. The in vivo study in mdx mice demonstrated enhanced exon-skipping of 2′-OMePS with the order of PEA 06 > PEA 04, PEA 07 > PEA 03 > PEA 01 > others, and much higher than PEI 25k formulated 2′-OMePS. Exon-skipping efficiency of PMO in formulation with the PEAs were significantly enhanced in the order of PEA 02 > PEA 10 > PEA 01, PEA 03 > PEA 05, PEA 07, PEA 08 > others, with PEA 02 reaching fourfold of Endo-porter formulated PMO. PEAs improve PMO delivery more effectively than 2′-OMePS delivery in vivo, and the systemic delivery evaluation further highlight the efficiency of PEA for PMO delivery in all skeletal muscle. The results suggest that the flexibility of PEA polymers could be explored for delivery of different AO chemistries, especially for antisense therapy.

  19. Inefficient cationic lipid-mediated siRNA and antisense oligonucleotide transfer to airway epithelial cells in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jim

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cationic lipid Genzyme lipid (GL 67 is the current "gold-standard" for in vivo lung gene transfer. Here, we assessed, if GL67 mediated uptake of siRNAs and asODNs into airway epithelium in vivo. Methods Anti-lacZ and ENaC (epithelial sodium channel siRNA and asODN were complexed to GL67 and administered to the mouse airway epithelium in vivo Transfection efficiency and efficacy were assessed using real-time RT-PCR as well as through protein expression and functional studies. In parallel in vitro experiments were carried out to select the most efficient oligonucleotides. Results In vitro, GL67 efficiently complexed asODNs and siRNAs, and both were stable in exhaled breath condensate. Importantly, during in vitro selection of functional siRNA and asODN we noted that asODNs accumulated rapidly in the nuclei of transfected cells, whereas siRNAs remained in the cytoplasm, a pattern consistent with their presumed site of action. Following in vivo lung transfection siRNAs were only visible in alveolar macrophages, whereas asODN also transfected alveolar epithelial cells, but no significant uptake into conducting airway epithelial cells was seen. SiRNAs and asODNs targeted to β-galactosidase reduced βgal mRNA levels in the airway epithelium of K18-lacZ mice by 30% and 60%, respectively. However, this was insufficient to reduce protein expression. In an attempt to increase transfection efficiency of the airway epithelium, we increased contact time of siRNA and asODN using the in vivo mouse nose model. Although highly variable and inefficient, transfection of airway epithelium with asODN, but not siRNA, was now seen. As asODNs more effectively transfected nasal airway epithelial cells, we assessed the effect of asODN against ENaC, a potential therapeutic target in cystic fibrosis; no decrease in ENaC mRNA levels or function was detected. Conclusion This study suggests that although siRNAs and asODNs can be developed to inhibit

  20. Improved cellular activity of antisense peptide nucleic acids by conjugation to a cationic peptide-lipid (CatLip) domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppelhus, Uffe; Shiraishi, Takehiko; Zachar, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Conjugation to cationic cell penetrating peptides (such as Tat, Penetratin, or oligo arginines) efficiently improves the cellular uptake of large hydrophilic molecules such as oligonucleotides and peptide nucleic acids, but the cellular uptake is predominantly via an unproductive endosomal pathway...... for future in vivo applications. We find that simply conjugating a lipid domain (fatty acid) to the cationic peptide (a CatLip conjugate) increases the biological effect of the corresponding PNA (CatLip) conjugates in a luciferase cellular antisense assay up to 2 orders of magnitude. The effect increases...... with increasing length of the fatty acid (C8-C16) but in parallel also results in increased cellular toxicity, with decanoic acid being optimal. Furthermore, the relative enhancement is significantly higher for Tat peptide compared to oligoarginine. Confocal microscopy and chloroquine enhancement indicates...

  1. Cellular Internalization of Therapeutic Oligonucleotides by Peptide Amphiphile Nanofibers and Nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumcuoglu, Didem; Sardan Ekiz, Melis; Gunay, Gokhan; Tekinay, Turgay; Tekinay, Ayse B; Guler, Mustafa O

    2016-05-11

    Oligonucleotides are promising drug candidates due to the exceptionally high specificity they exhibit toward their target DNA and RNA sequences. However, their poor pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, in conjunction with problems associated with their internalization by cells, necessitates their delivery through specialized carrier systems for efficient therapy. Here, we investigate the effects of carrier morphology on the cellular internalization mechanisms of oligonucleotides by using self-assembled fibrous or spherical peptide nanostructures. Size and geometry were both found to be important parameters for the oligonucleotide internalization process; direct penetration was determined to be the major mechanism for the internalization of nanosphere carriers, whereas nanofibers were internalized by clathrin- and dynamin-dependent endocytosis pathways. We further showed that glucose conjugation to carrier nanosystems improved cellular internalization in cancer cells due to the enhanced glucose metabolism associated with oncogenesis, and the internalization of the glucose-conjugated peptide/oligonucleotide complexes was found to be dependent on glucose transporters present on the surface of the cell membrane.

  2. Intracerebroventricular Delivery in Mice for Motor Neuron Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizzardo, M; Rizzuti, M

    2017-01-01

    The use of antisense oligonucleotides to target specific mRNA sequences represents a promising therapeutic strategy for neurological disorders. Recent advances in antisense technology enclose the development of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (MO), which is one of the best candidates for molecular therapies due to MO's excellent pharmacological profile.Nevertheless, the route of administration of antisense compounds represents a critical issue in the neurological field. Particularly, as regards motor neuron diseases, intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection is undoubtedly the most efficient procedure to directly deliver therapeutic molecules in the central nervous system (CNS). Indeed, we recently demonstrated the outstanding efficacy of the MO antisense approach by its direct administration to CNS of the transgenic mouse models of Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).Here, we describe methods to perform the ICV delivery of MO in neonatal SMA mice and in adult ALS mice.

  3. Attenuation of alpha2A-adrenergic receptor expression in neonatal rat brain by RNA interference or antisense oligonucleotide reduced anxiety in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkina, G T; Kalinina, T S; Dygalo, N N

    2004-01-01

    Brain alpha2-adrenergic receptors (alpha2-ARs) have been implicated in the regulation of anxiety, which is associated with stress. Environmental treatments during neonatal development could modulate the level of brain alpha2-AR expression and alter anxiety in adults, suggesting possible involvement of these receptors in early-life programming of anxiety state. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the reduction of the expression of A subtype of these receptors most abundant in the neonatal brain affects anxiety-related behavior in adulthood. We attenuated the expression of alpha2A-ARs during neonatal life by two different sequence specific approaches, antisense technology and RNA interference. Treatment of rats with the antisense oligodeoxynucleotide or short interfering RNA (siRNA) against alpha2A-ARs on the days 2-4 of their life, produced a marked acute decrease in the levels of both alpha2A-AR mRNA and [3H]RX821002 binding sites in the brainstem into which drugs were injected. The decrease of alpha2A-AR expression in the neonatal brainstem influenced the development of this receptor system in the brain regions as evidenced by the increased number of [3H]RX821002 binding sites in the hypothalamus of adult animals with both neonatal alpha2A-AR knockdown treatments; also in the frontal cortex of antisense-treated, and in the hippocampus of siRNA-treated adult rats. These adult animals also demonstrated a decreased anxiety in the elevated plus-maze as evidenced by an increased number of the open arm entries, greater proportion of time spent in the open arms, and more than a two-fold increase in the number of exploratory head dips. The results provide the first evidence that the reduction in the brain expression of a gene encoding for alpha2A-AR during neonatal life led to the long-term neurochemical and behavioral alterations. The data suggests that alterations in the expression of the receptor-specific gene during critical periods of brain

  4. Antisense RNA: a genetic approach to cell resistance against Parvovirus; RNA antisentido: una aproximacion de resistencia genetica a Parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Martinez, J.C.

    1992-12-31

    The Minute Virus of Mice (MVMp), an autonomous Parvovirus that replicates cytolytically in the A9 mouse fibroblast cell line, was interfered by constitutive expression of an antisense RNA targeted against the major non-structural NS-1 protein. Permanently transfected A9 clones expressing NS-1 antisense, showed increased proliferative capacity upon virus infection, and likewise cultures infected at low multiplicity by MVMp reached confluence overcoming virus growth. Correspondingly, an inhibition in virus multiplication was demonstrated by a significant lower virus production and plaque forming ability in clones expressing antisense RNa. At the molecular level, several fold reduction in viral DNA, RNA and proteins was quantitated by respective analysis of Southern, RNase protection and bidimensional gels. Remarkably, the accumulation of all three viral messengers(R1,R2,R3) was decreased both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus, suggesting that antisense-mediated inhibition is primarily exerted at the level of viral transcription or nuclear post-transcriptional events. Thus, this system illustrates the possibility to create an antisense-mediated protective stage to highly cytotoxic viruses in permissive cells, by down-modulation the expression of a transactivator of virus genes. (author)180 refs., 25 figs.

  5. Antisense RNA: a genetic approach to cell resistance against Parvovirus. RNA antisentido: una aproximacion de resistencia genetica a Parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Martinez, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Minute Virus of Mice (MVMp), an autonomous Parvovirus that replicates cytolytically in the A9 mouse fibroblast cell line, was interfered by constitutive expression of an antisense RNA targeted against the major non-structural NS-1 protein. Permanently transfected A9 clones expressing NS-1 antisense, showed increased proliferative capacity upon virus infection, and likewise cultures infected at low multiplicity by MVMp reached confluence overcoming virus growth. Correspondingly, an inhibition in virus multiplication was demonstrated by a significant lower virus production and plaque forming ability in clones expressing antisense RNa. At the molecular level, several fold reduction in viral DNA, RNA and proteins was quantitated by respective analysis of Southern, RNase protection and bidimensional gels. Remarkably, the accumulation of all three viral messengers(R1,R2,R3) was decreased both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus, suggesting that antisense-mediated inhibition is primarily exerted at the level of viral transcription or nuclear post-transcriptional events. Thus, this system illustrates the possibility to create an antisense-mediated protective stage to highly cytotoxic viruses in permissive cells, by down-modulation the expression of a transactivator of virus genes. (author)180 refs., 25 figs.

  6. Covalent Strategies for Targeting Messenger and Non-Coding RNAs: An Updated Review on siRNA, miRNA and antimiR Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Grijalvo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Oligonucleotide-based therapy has become an alternative to classical approaches in the search of novel therapeutics involving gene-related diseases. Several mechanisms have been described in which demonstrate the pivotal role of oligonucleotide for modulating gene expression. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs and more recently siRNAs and miRNAs have made important contributions either in reducing aberrant protein levels by sequence-specific targeting messenger RNAs (mRNAs or restoring the anomalous levels of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs that are involved in a good number of diseases including cancer. In addition to formulation approaches which have contributed to accelerate the presence of ASOs, siRNAs and miRNAs in clinical trials; the covalent linkage between non-viral vectors and nucleic acids has also added value and opened new perspectives to the development of promising nucleic acid-based therapeutics. This review article is mainly focused on the strategies carried out for covalently modifying siRNA and miRNA molecules. Examples involving cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs, carbohydrates, polymers, lipids and aptamers are discussed for the synthesis of siRNA conjugates whereas in the case of miRNA-based drugs, this review article makes special emphasis in using antagomiRs, locked nucleic acids (LNAs, peptide nucleic acids (PNAs as well as nanoparticles. The biomedical applications of siRNA and miRNA conjugates are also discussed.

  7. Intrinsically Labeled Fluorescent Oligonucleotide Probes on Quantum Dots for Transduction of Nucleic Acid Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmuradyan, Anna; Krull, Ulrich J

    2016-03-15

    Quantum dots (QDs) have been widely used in chemical and biosensing due to their unique photoelectrical properties and are well suited as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Selective hybridization interactions of oligonucleotides on QDs have been determined by FRET. Typically, the QD-FRET constructs have made use of labeled targets or have implemented labeled sandwich format assays to introduce dyes in proximity to the QDs for the FRET process. The intention of this new work is to explore a method to incorporate the acceptor dye into the probe molecule. Thiazole orange (TO) derivatives are fluorescent intercalating dyes that have been used for detection of double-stranded nucleic acids. One such dye system has been reported in which single-stranded oligonucleotide probes were doubly labeled with adjacent thiazole orange derivatives. In the absence of the fully complementary (FC) oligonucleotide target, the dyes form an H-aggregate, which results in quenching of fluorescence emission due to excitonic interactions between the dyes. The hybridization of the FC target to the probe provides for dissociation of the aggregate as the dyes intercalate into the double stranded duplex, resulting in increased fluorescence. This work reports investigation of the dependence of the ratiometric signal on the type of linkage used to conjugate the dyes to the probe, the location of the dye along the length of the probe, and the distance between adjacent dye molecules. The limit of detection for 34mer and 90mer targets was found to be identical and was 10 nM (2 pmol), similar to analogous QD-FRET using labeled oligonucleotide target. The detection system could discriminate a one base pair mismatch (1BPM) target and was functional without substantial compromise of the signal in 75% serum. The 1BPM was found to reduce background signal, indicating that the structure of the mismatch affected the environment of the intercalating dyes.

  8. High-frequency genome editing using ssDNA oligonucleotides with zinc-finger nucleases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fuqiang; Pruett-Miller, Shondra M; Huang, Yuping

    2011-01-01

    Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) have enabled highly efficient gene targeting in multiple cell types and organisms. Here we describe methods for using simple ssDNA oligonucleotides in tandem with ZFNs to efficiently produce human cell lines with three distinct genetic outcomes: (i) targeted point...

  9. Antisense to the glucocorticoid receptor in hippocampal dentate gyrus reduces immobility in forced swim test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, S.M.; de Kloet, E.R.; Buwalda, B; Bouman, S.D.; Bohus, B

    1996-01-01

    Immobility time of rats in the forced swim test was reduced after bilateral infusion of an 18-mer antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide targeted to the glucocorticoid receptor mRNA into the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Vehicle-, sense- and scrambled sequence-treated animals spent

  10. Lipid-modified G4-decoy oligonucleotide anchored to nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cogoi, S; Jakobsen, U; Pedersen, E B

    2016-01-01

    KRAS is mutated in >90% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. As its inactivation leads to tumour regression, mutant KRAS is considered an attractive target for anticancer drugs. In this study we report a new delivery strategy for a G4-decoy oligonucleotide that sequesters MAZ, a transcription fa...

  11. G3139, a Bcl-2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide, induces clinical responses in VAD refractory myeloma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Donk, N. W. C. J.; de Weerdt, O.; Veth, G.; Eurelings, M.; van Stralen, E.; Frankel, S. R.; Hagenbeek, A.; Bloem, A. C.; Lokhorst, H. M.

    2004-01-01

    Expression of Bcl-2 in multiple myeloma is associated with resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. Conversely, suppression of Bcl-2 enhanced the chemosensitivity of myeloma cells in vitro. G3139 is an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide targeted to the first six codons of the Bcl-2 mRNA open reading frame.

  12. Antisense pre-treatment increases gene therapy efficacy in dystrophic muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccate, Cécile; Mollard, Amédée; Le Hir, Maëva; Julien, Laura; McClorey, Graham; Jarmin, Susan; Le Heron, Anita; Dickson, George; Benkhelifa-Ziyyat, Sofia; Piétri-Rouxel, France; Wood, Matthew J; Voit, Thomas; Lorain, Stéphanie

    2016-08-15

    In preclinical models for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, dystrophin restoration during adeno-associated virus (AAV)-U7-mediated exon-skipping therapy was shown to decrease drastically after six months in treated muscles. This decline in efficacy is strongly correlated with the loss of the therapeutic AAV genomes, probably due to alterations of the dystrophic myofiber membranes. To improve the membrane integrity of the dystrophic myofibers at the time of AAV-U7 injection, mdx muscles were pre-treated with a single dose of the peptide-phosphorodiamidate morpholino (PPMO) antisense oligonucleotides that induced temporary dystrophin expression at the sarcolemma. The PPMO pre-treatment allowed efficient maintenance of AAV genomes in mdx muscles and enhanced the AAV-U7 therapy effect with a ten-fold increase of the protein level after 6 months. PPMO pre-treatment was also beneficial to AAV-mediated gene therapy with transfer of micro-dystrophin cDNA into muscles. Therefore, avoiding vector genome loss after AAV injection by PPMO pre-treatment would allow efficient long-term restoration of dystrophin and the use of lower and thus safer vector doses for Duchenne patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. G-Quadruplex Forming Oligonucleotides as Anti-HIV Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Domenica; Riccardi, Claudia; Montesarchio, Daniela

    2015-09-22

    Though a variety of different non-canonical nucleic acids conformations have been recognized, G-quadruplex structures are probably the structural motifs most commonly found within known oligonucleotide-based aptamers. This could be ascribed to several factors, as their large conformational diversity, marked responsiveness of their folding/unfolding processes to external stimuli, high structural compactness and chemo-enzymatic and thermodynamic stability. A number of G-quadruplex-forming oligonucleotides having relevant in vitro anti-HIV activity have been discovered in the last two decades through either SELEX or rational design approaches. Improved aptamers have been obtained by chemical modifications of natural oligonucleotides, as terminal conjugations with large hydrophobic groups, replacement of phosphodiester linkages with phosphorothioate bonds or other surrogates, insertion of base-modified monomers, etc. In turn, detailed structural studies have elucidated the peculiar architectures adopted by many G-quadruplex-based aptamers and provided insight into their mechanism of action. An overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge of the relevance of putative G-quadruplex forming sequences within the viral genome and of the most studied G-quadruplex-forming aptamers, selectively targeting HIV proteins, is here presented.

  14. Antisense downregulation of mutant huntingtin in a cell model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, L.; Abell, K.; Norremolle, A.

    2003-01-01

    or by addition to the culture medium. Results Expression of the fusion protein containing the mutant huntingtin fragment resulted in diffuse green fluorescence in the cytoplasm and formation of aggregates in some of the NT2 cells and NT2-N neurons. We obtained antisense sequence-specific inhibition of expression...... of the fusion protein and/or suppression of the aggregate formation in both cell types. In the NT2 cells the antisense effect was dependent on the way of administration of the oligo. Conclusions The PS-antisense oligo is effective in downregulation of mutant huntingtin, and the reduction of aggregate formation...... is a sensitive biological marker. The findings suggest that antisense knockdown of huntingtin could be a useful strategy for treatment of HD, and could also be suitable for studies of the normal and pathological function of huntingtin in different cellular model systems....

  15. The Medicinal Chemistry of Therapeutic Oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, W Brad; Seth, Punit P

    2016-11-10

    Oligonucleotide-based therapeutics have made rapid progress in the clinic for treatment of a variety of disease indications. Unmodified oligonucleotides are polyanionic macromolecules with poor drug-like properties. Over the past two decades, medicinal chemists have identified a number of chemical modification and conjugation strategies which can improve the nuclease stability, RNA-binding affinity, and pharmacokinetic properties of oligonucleotides for therapeutic applications. In this perspective, we present a summary of the most commonly used nucleobase, sugar and backbone modification, and conjugation strategies used in oligonucleotide medicinal chemistry.

  16. Safety and Pharmacokinetics of the Antisense Oligonucleotide (ASO) LY2181308 as a Single-Agent or in Combination with Idarubicin and Cytarabine in Patients with Refractory or Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erba, Harry P.; Sayar, Hamid; Juckett, Mark; Lahn, Michael; Andre, Valerie; Callies, Sophie; Schmidt, Shelly; Kadam, Sunil; Brandt, John T.; Van Bockstaele, Dirk; Andreeff, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Summary Survivin is expressed in tumor cells, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), regulates mitosis, and prevents tumor cell death. The antisense oligonucleotide sodium LY2181308 (LY2181308) inhibits survivin expression and may cause cell cycle arrest and restore apoptosis in AML. Methods In this study, the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics/efficacy of LY2181308 was examined in AML patients, first in a cohort with monotherapy (n=8) and then post-amendment in a cohort with the combination of cytarabine and idarubicin treatment (n=16). LY2181308 was administered with a loading dosage of 3 consecutive daily infusions of 750 mg followed by weekly intravenous (IV) maintenance doses of 750 mg. Cytarabine 1.5 g/m2 was administered as a 4-hour IV infusion on Days 3, 4, and 5 of Cycle 1, and idarubicin 12 mg/m2 was administered as a 30-minute IV infusion on Days 3, 4, and 5 of Cycle 1. Cytarabine and idarubicin were administered on Days 1, 2, and 3 of each subsequent 28-day cycle. Reduction of survivin was evaluated in peripheral blasts and bone marrow. Results Single-agent LY2181308 was well tolerated and survivin was reduced only in patients with a high survivin expression. In combination with chemotherapy, 4/16 patients had complete responses, 1/16 patients had incomplete responses, and 4/16 patients had cytoreduction. Nine patients died on study: 6 (monotherapy), 3 (combination). Conclusions LY2181308 alone is well tolerated in patients with AML. In combination with cytarabine and idarubicin, LY2181308 does not appear to cause additional toxicity, and has shown some clinical benefit needing confirmation in future clinical trials. PMID:23397500

  17. The illusion of specific capture: surface and solution studies of suboptimal oligonucleotide hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Hybridization based assays and capture systems depend on the specificity of hybridization between a probe and its intended target. A common guideline in the construction of DNA microarrays, for instance, is that avoiding complementary stretches of more than 15 nucleic acids in a 50 or 60-mer probe will eliminate sequence specific cross-hybridization reactions. Here we present a study of the behavior of partially matched oligonucleotide pairs with complementary stretches starting well below this threshold complementarity length – in silico, in solution, and at the microarray surface. The modeled behavior of pairs of oligonucleotide probes and their targets suggests that even a complementary stretch of sequence 12 nt in length would give rise to specific cross-hybridization. We designed a set of binding partners to a 50-mer oligonucleotide containing complementary stretches from 6 nt to 21 nt in length. Results Solution melting experiments demonstrate that stable partial duplexes can form when only 12 bp of complementary sequence are present; surface hybridization experiments confirm that a signal close in magnitude to full-strength signal can be obtained from hybridization of a 12 bp duplex within a 50mer oligonucleotide. Conclusions Microarray and other molecular capture strategies that rely on a 15 nt lower complementarity bound for eliminating specific cross-hybridization may not be sufficiently conservative. PMID:23445545

  18. Biominetic High Density Lipoproteins for the Delivery of Therapeutic Oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Sushant

    Advances in nanotechnology have brought about novel inorganic and hybrid nanoparticles with unique physico-chemical properties that make them suitable for a broad range of applications---from nano-circuitry to drug delivery. A significant part of those advancements have led to ground-breaking discoveries that have changed the approaches to formulation of therapeutics against diseases, such as cancer. Now-a-days the focus does not lie solely on finding a candidate small-molecule therapeutic with minimal adverse effects, but researchers are looking up to nanoparticles to improve biodistribution and biocompatibility profile of clinically proven therapeutics. The plethora of conjugation chemistries offered by currently extant inorganic nanoparticles have, in recent years, led to great leaps in the field of biomimicry---a modality that promises high biocompatibility. Further, in the pursuit of highly specific therapeutic molecules, researchers have turned to silencing oligonucleotides and some have already brought together the strengths of nanoparticles and silencing oligonucleotides in search of an efficacious therapy for cancer with minimal adverse effects. This dissertation work focuses on such a biomimetic platform---a gold nanoparticle based high density lipoprotein biomimetic (HDL NP), for the delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides. The first chapter of this body of work introduces the molecular target of the silencing oligonucleotides---VEGFR2, and its role in the progression of solid tumor cancers. The background information also covers important aspects of natural high density lipoproteins (HDL), especially their innate capacity to bind and deliver exogenous and endogenous silencing oligonucleotides to tissues that express their high affinity receptor SRB1. We subsequently describe the synthesis of the biomimetic HDL NP and its oligonucleotide conjugates, and establish their biocompatibility. Further on, experimental data demonstrate the efficacy of silencing

  19. In vitro and in vivo inhibition of proangiogenic retinal phenotype by an antisense oligonucleotide downregulating uPAR expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulli, Matteo; Cammalleri, Maurizio; Granucci, Irene; Witort, Ewa; Bono, Silvia; Di Gesualdo, Federico; Lupia, Antonella; Loffredo, Rosa; Casini, Giovanni; Dal Monte, Massimo; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2017-08-26

    Neoangiogenesis is the main pathogenic event involved in a variety of retinal diseases. It has been recently demonstrated that inhibiting the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) results in reduced angiogenesis in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), establishing uPAR as a therapeutic target in proliferative retinopathies. Here, we evaluated in cultured human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) and in OIR mice the potential of a specific antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide (ASO) in blocking the synthesis of uPAR and in providing antiangiogenic effects. uPAR expression in HRECs was inhibited by lipofection with the phosphorotioated 5'-CGGCGGGTGACCCATGTG-3' ASO-uPAR, complementary to the initial translation site of uPAR mRNA. Inhibition of uPAR expression via ASO-uPAR was evaluated in HRECs by analyzing VEGF-induced tube formation and migration. In addition, the well-established and reproducible murine OIR model was used to induce retinal neovascularization in vivo. OIR mice were injected intraperitoneally with ASO-uPAR and retinopathy was evaluated considering the extent of the avascular area in the central retina and neovascular tuft formation. The ASO-uPAR specifically decreased uPAR mRNA and protein levels in HRECs and mitigated VEGF-induced tube formation and cell migration. Noteworthy, in OIR mice ASO-uPAR administration reduced both the avascular area and the formation of neovascular tufts. In conclusion, although the extrapolation of these experimental findings to the clinic is not straightforward, ASO-uPAR may be considered a potential therapeutic tool for treatment of proliferative retinal diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Downstream Antisense Transcription Predicts Genomic Features That Define the Specific Chromatin Environment at Mammalian Promoters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Lavender

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Antisense transcription is a prevalent feature at mammalian promoters. Previous studies have primarily focused on antisense transcription initiating upstream of genes. Here, we characterize promoter-proximal antisense transcription downstream of gene transcription starts sites in human breast cancer cells, investigating the genomic context of downstream antisense transcription. We find extensive correlations between antisense transcription and features associated with the chromatin environment at gene promoters. Antisense transcription downstream of promoters is widespread, with antisense transcription initiation observed within 2 kb of 28% of gene transcription start sites. Antisense transcription initiates between nucleosomes regularly positioned downstream of these promoters. The nucleosomes between gene and downstream antisense transcription start sites carry histone modifications associated with active promoters, such as H3K4me3 and H3K27ac. This region is bound by chromatin remodeling and histone modifying complexes including SWI/SNF subunits and HDACs, suggesting that antisense transcription or resulting RNA transcripts contribute to the creation and maintenance of a promoter-associated chromatin environment. Downstream antisense transcription overlays additional regulatory features, such as transcription factor binding, DNA accessibility, and the downstream edge of promoter-associated CpG islands. These features suggest an important role for antisense transcription in the regulation of gene expression and the maintenance of a promoter-associated chromatin environment.

  1. MicroRNA silencing in primates: towards development of novel therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Andreas; Lindow, Morten; Kauppinen, Sakari

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) comprise an abundant class of small noncoding RNAs that act as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. Accumulating evidence showing that aberrantly expressed miRNAs play important roles in human cancers underscores them as potential targets for therapeutic ...... intervention. Recent reports on efficient miRNA silencing in rodents and nonhuman primates using high-affinity targeting by chemically modified antisense oligonucleotides highlight the utility of such compounds in the development of miRNA-based cancer therapeutics....

  2. Spatially Defined Oligonucleotide Arrays. Technical Report for Phase II; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    ,4,1 2). The hybridization pattern of a fluorescently labeled nucleic acid target is used to gain primary structure information of the target. This format can be applied to a broad range of nucleic acid sequence analysis problems including pathogen identification, polymorphism detection, human identification, mRNA expression monitoring and de novo sequencing. In this review, we briefly describe the method of light-directed chemid synthesis to create high-density arrays of oligonucleotide probes, the method of fluorescently labeling target nucleic acids for hybridization to the probe arrays, the detection of hybridized targets by epi-fluorescence confocal scanning and the data analysis procedures used to interpret the hybridization signals. To illustrate the use of specific high-density oligonucleotide probe arrays, we describe their application to screening the reverse transcriptase (rt) and protease (pro) genes of HIV-I for polymorphisms and drug-resistance conferring mutations

  3. From boron analogues of amino acids to boronated DNA: potential new pharmaceuticals and neutron capture agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielvogel, B.F.; Sood, Anup; Duke Univ., Durham, NC; Shaw, B.R.; Hall, I.H.

    1991-01-01

    Isoelectronic and isostructural boron analogues of the α-amino acids ranging from simple glycine analogues such as H 3 NBH 2 COOH and Me 2 NHBH 2 COOH to alanine analogues have been synthesised. A diverse variety of analogues, including precursors and derivatives (such as peptides) have potent pharmacological activity, including anticancer, antiinflammatory, analgesic, and hypolipidemic activity in animal model studies and in vitro cell cultures. Boronated nucleosides and (oligo)nucleotides, synthetic oligonucleotide analogues of ''antisense'' agents interact with a complementary nucleic acid sequence blocking the biological effect of the target sequence. Nucleosides boronated on the pyrimidine and purine bases have been prepared. It has been established that an entirely new class of nucleic acid derivatives is feasible in which one of the non-bridging oxygens in the internucleotide phosphodiester linkage can be replaced by an isoelectronic analogue, the borane group, (BH 3 ). The boronated oligonucleotides can be viewed as hybrids of the normal oxygen oligonucleotides and the methylphosphonate oligonucleotides. (author)

  4. BC047440 antisense eukaryotic expression vectors inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation and suppressed xenograft tumorigenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zheng; Ping, Liang; JianBo, Zhou; XiaoBing, Huang; Yu, Wen; Zheng, Wang; Jing, Li

    2012-01-01

    The biological functions of the BC047440 gene highly expressed by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are unknown. The objective of this study was to reconstruct antisense eukaryotic expression vectors of the gene for inhibiting HepG 2 cell proliferation and suppressing their xenograft tumorigenicity. The full-length BC047440 cDNA was cloned from human primary HCC by RT-PCR. BC047440 gene fragments were ligated with pMD18-T simple vectors and subsequent pcDNA3.1(+) plasmids to construct the recombinant antisense eukaryotic vector pcDNA3.1(+)BC047440AS. The endogenous BC047440 mRNA abundance in target gene-transfected, vector-transfected and naive HepG 2 cells was semiquantitatively analyzed by RT-PCR and cell proliferation was measured by the MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were profiled by flow cytometry. The in vivo xenograft experiment was performed on nude mice to examine the effects of antisense vector on tumorigenicity. BC047440 cDNA fragments were reversely inserted into pcDNA3.1(+) plasmids. The antisense vector significantly reduced the endogenous BC047440 mRNA abundance by 41% in HepG 2 cells and inhibited their proliferation in vitro (P < 0.01). More cells were arrested by the antisense vector at the G 1 phase in an apoptosis-independent manner (P = 0.014). Additionally, transfection with pcDNA3.1(+) BC047440AS significantly reduced the xenograft tumorigenicity in nude mice. As a novel cell cycle regulator associated with HCC, the BC047440 gene was involved in cell proliferation in vitro and xenograft tumorigenicity in vivo through apoptosis-independent mechanisms

  5. Differential detection of type II methanotrophic bacteria in acidic peatlands using newly developed 16S rRNA-targeted fluorescent oligonucleotide probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedysh, Svetlana N; Dunfield, Peter F; Derakshani, Manigee; Stubner, Stephan; Heyer, Jürgen; Liesack, Werner

    2003-04-01

    Abstract Based on an extensive 16S rRNA sequence database for type II methanotrophic bacteria, a set of 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes was developed for differential detection of specific phylogenetic groups of these bacteria by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). This set of oligonucleotides included a genus-specific probe for Methylocystis (Mcyst-1432) and three species-specific probes for Methylosinus sporium (Msins-647), Methylosinus trichosporium (Msint-1268) and the recently described acidophilic methanotroph Methylocapsa acidiphila (Mcaps-1032). These novel probes were applied to further characterise the type II methanotroph community that was detected in an acidic Sphagnum peat from West Siberia in a previous study (Dedysh et al. (2001) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67, 4850-4857). The largest detectable population of indigenous methanotrophs simultaneously hybridised with a group-specific probe targeting all currently known Methylosinus/Methylocystis spp. (M-450), with a genus-specific probe for Methylocystis spp. (Mcyst-1432), and with an additional probe (Mcyst-1261) that had been designed to target a defined phylogenetic subgroup of Methylocystis spp. The same subgroup of Methylocystis was also detected in acidic peat sampled from Sphagnum-dominated wetland in northern Germany. The population size of this peat-inhabiting Methylocystis subgroup was 2.0+/-0.1x10(6) cells g(-1) (wet weight) of peat from Siberia and 5.5+/-0.5x10(6) cells g(-1) of peat from northern Germany. This represented 60 and 95%, respectively, of the total number of methanotroph cells detected by FISH in these two wetland sites. Other major methanotroph populations were M. acidiphila and Methylocella palustris. Type I methanotrophs accounted for not more than 1% of total methanotroph cells. Neither M. trichosporium nor M. sporium were detected in acidic Sphagnum peat.

  6. Splice-correcting oligonucleotides restore BTK function in X-linked agammaglobulinemia model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bestas, Burcu; Moreno, Pedro M D; Blomberg, K Emelie M

    2014-01-01

    , splice-correcting oligonucleotides (SCOs) targeting mutated BTK transcripts for treating XLA. Both the SCO structural design and chemical properties were optimized using 2'-O-methyl, locked nucleic acid, or phosphorodiamidate morpholino backbones. In order to have access to an animal model of XLA, we...

  7. The human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34 controls cellular proliferation through regulation of p27Kip1 protein levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, Nicole; Ruetz, Stephan; Natt, Francois; Hall, Jonathan; Weiler, Jan; Mestan, Juergen; Ducarre, Monique; Grossenbacher, Rita; Hauser, Patrick; Kempf, Dominique; Hofmann, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    Ubiquitin-mediated degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 Kip1 was shown to be required for the activation of key cyclin-dependent kinases, thereby triggering the onset of DNA replication and cell cycle progression. Although the SCF Skp2 ubiquitin ligase has been reported to mediate p27 Kip1 degradation, the nature of the human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme involved in this process has not yet been determined at the cellular level. Here, we show that antisense oligonucleotides targeting the human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34 downregulate its expression, inhibit the degradation of p27 Kip1 , and prevent cellular proliferation. Elevation of p27 Kip1 protein level is found to be the sole requirement for the inhibition of cellular proliferation induced upon downregulation of Cdc34. Indeed, reducing the expression of p27 Kip1 with a specific antisense oligonucleotide is sufficient to reverse the anti-proliferative phenotype elicited by the Cdc34 antisense. Furthermore, downregulation of Cdc34 is found to specifically increase the abundance of the SCF Skp2 ubiquitin ligase substrate p27 Kip1 , but has no concomitant effect on the level of IkBα and β-catenin, which are known substrates of a closely related SCF ligase

  8. Antisense Treatments for Biothreat Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warfield, Kelly L; Panchal, Rekha G; Aman, M J; Bavari, Sina

    2006-01-01

    ... a variety of pathogens in cell culture studies and nonhuman primate models of infection. For these reasons, antisense technologies are being pursued as treatments against biothreat agents such as Ebola virus, dengue virus and Bacillus anthracis...

  9. Enzymatic production of 'monoclonal stoichiometric' single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducani, Cosimo; Kaul, Corinna; Moche, Martin; Shih, William M; Högberg, Björn

    2013-07-01

    Single-stranded oligonucleotides are important as research tools, as diagnostic probes, in gene therapy and in DNA nanotechnology. Oligonucleotides are typically produced via solid-phase synthesis, using polymer chemistries that are limited relative to what biological systems produce. The number of errors in synthetic DNA increases with oligonucleotide length, and the resulting diversity of sequences can be a problem. Here we present the 'monoclonal stoichiometric' (MOSIC) method for enzyme-mediated production of DNA oligonucleotides. We amplified oligonucleotides from clonal templates derived from single bacterial colonies and then digested cutter hairpins in the products, which released pools of oligonucleotides with precisely controlled relative stoichiometric ratios. We prepared 14-378-nucleotide MOSIC oligonucleotides either by in vitro rolling-circle amplification or by amplification of phagemid DNA in Escherichia coli. Analyses of the formation of a DNA crystal and folding of DNA nanostructures confirmed the scalability, purity and stoichiometry of the produced oligonucleotides.

  10. Locked vs. unlocked nucleic acids (LNA vs. UNA): contrasting structures work towards common therapeutic goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Meghan A; Wengel, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Oligonucleotide chemistry has been developed greatly over the past three decades, with many advances in increasing nuclease resistance, enhancing duplex stability and assisting with cellular uptake. Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a structurally rigid modification that increases the binding affinity...... of a modified-oligonucleotide. In contrast, unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) is a highly flexible modification, which can be used to modulate duplex characteristics. In this tutorial review, we will compare the synthetic routes to both of these modifications, contrast the structural features, examine...... the hybridization properties of LNA and UNA modified duplexes, and discuss how they have been applied within biotechnology and drug research. LNA has found widespread use in antisense oligonucleotide technology, where it can stabilize interactions with target RNA and protect from cellular nucleases. The newly...

  11. Disposition and Pharmacology of a GalNAc3-conjugated ASO Targeting Human Lipoprotein (a in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosie Z Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Triantennary N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc3-conjugated antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs have greatly improved potency via receptor-mediated uptake. In the present study, the in vivo pharmacology of a 2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl-modified ASO conjugated with GalNAc3 (ISIS 681257 together with its unmodified congener (ISIS 494372 targeting human apolipoprotein (a (apo(a, were studied in human LPA transgenic mice. Further, the disposition kinetics of ISIS 681257 was studied in CD-1 mice. ISIS 681257 demonstrated over 20-fold improvement in potency over ISIS 494372 as measured by liver apo(a mRNA and plasma apo(a protein levels. Following subcutaneous (SC dosing, ISIS 681257 cleared rapidly from plasma and distributed to tissues. Intact ISIS 681257 was the major full-length oligonucleotide species in plasma. In tissues, however, GalNAc sugar moiety was rapidly metabolized and unconjugated ISIS 681257 accounted > 97% of the total exposure, which was then cleared slowly from tissues with a half-life of 7–8 days, similar to the half-life in plasma. ISIS 681257 is highly bound to plasma proteins (> 94% bound, which limited its urinary excretion. This study confirmed dose-dependent exposure to the parent drug ISIS 681257 in plasma and rapid conversion to unconjugated ASO in tissues. Safety data and the extended half-life support its further development and weekly dosing in phase 1 clinical studies.

  12. Enzymatic Production of Monoclonal Stoichiometric Single-Stranded DNA Oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducani, Cosimo; Kaul, Corinna; Moche, Martin; Shih, William M.; Högberg, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Single-stranded oligonucleotides are important as research tools as probes for diagnostics and gene therapy. Today, production of oligonucleotides is done via solid-phase synthesis. However, the capabilities of current polymer chemistry are limited in comparison to what can be produced in biological systems. The errors in synthetic DNA increases with oligonucleotide length, and sequence diversity can often be a problem. Here, we present the Monoclonal Stoichiometric (MOSIC) method for enzymatic DNA oligonucleotide production. Using this method, we amplify oligonucleotides from clonal templates followed by digestion of a cutter-hairpin, resulting in pools of monoclonal oligonucleotides with precisely controlled relative stoichiometric ratios. We present data where MOSIC oligonucleotides, 14–378 nt long, were prepared either by in vitro rolling-circle amplification, or by amplification in Escherichia coli in the form of phagemid DNA. The formation of a DNA crystal and folding of DNA nanostructures confirmed the scalability, purity and stoichiometry of the produced oligonucleotides. PMID:23727986

  13. Methods for the preparation of large quantities of complex single-stranded oligonucleotide libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgha, Yusuf E; Rouillard, Jean-Marie; Gulari, Erdogan

    2014-01-01

    Custom-defined oligonucleotide collections have a broad range of applications in fields of synthetic biology, targeted sequencing, and cytogenetics. Also, they are used to encode information for technologies like RNA interference, protein engineering and DNA-encoded libraries. High-throughput parallel DNA synthesis technologies developed for the manufacture of DNA microarrays can produce libraries of large numbers of different oligonucleotides, but in very limited amounts. Here, we compare three approaches to prepare large quantities of single-stranded oligonucleotide libraries derived from microarray synthesized collections. The first approach, alkaline melting of double-stranded PCR amplified libraries with a biotinylated strand captured on streptavidin coated magnetic beads results in little or no non-biotinylated ssDNA. The second method wherein the phosphorylated strand of PCR amplified libraries is nucleolyticaly hydrolyzed is recommended when small amounts of libraries are needed. The third method combining in vitro transcription of PCR amplified libraries to reverse transcription of the RNA product into single-stranded cDNA is our recommended method to produce large amounts of oligonucleotide libraries. Finally, we propose a method to remove any primer binding sequences introduced during library amplification.

  14. Streptavidin-coated gold nanoparticles: critical role of oligonucleotides on stability and fractal aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta D'Agata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs exhibit unique properties that can be modulated through a tailored surface functionalization, enabling their targeted use in biochemical sensing and medical diagnostics. In particular, streptavidin-modified AuNPs are increasingly used for biosensing purposes. We report here a study of AuNPs surface-functionalized with streptavidin-biotinylated oligonucleotide, focussing on the role played by the oligonucleotide probes in the stabilization/destabilization of the functionalized nanoparticle dispersion. The behaviour of the modified AuNP dispersion as a consequence of the competitive displacement of the biotinylated oligonucleotide has been investigated and the critical role of displaced oligonucletides in triggering the quasi one-dimensional aggregation of nanoparticles is demonstrated for the first time. The thorough understanding of the fundamental properties of bioconjugated AuNPs is of great importance for the design of highly sensitive and reliable functionalized AuNP-based assays.

  15. Antisense Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers as Novel Antiviral Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen Nan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMO are short single-stranded DNA analogs that are built upon a backbone of morpholine rings connected by phosphorodiamidate linkages. As uncharged nucleic acid analogs, PMO bind to complementary sequences of target mRNA by Watson–Crick base pairing to block protein translation through steric blockade. PMO interference of viral protein translation operates independently of RNase H. Meanwhile, PMO are resistant to a variety of enzymes present in biologic fluids, a characteristic that makes them highly suitable for in vivo applications. Notably, PMO-based therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration which is now a hallmark for PMO-based antisense therapy. In this review, the development history of PMO, delivery methods for improving cellular uptake of neutrally charged PMO molecules, past studies of PMO antagonism against RNA and DNA viruses, PMO target selection, and remaining questions of PMO antiviral strategies are discussed in detail and new insights are provided.

  16. Down-regulation of the Antisense Mitochondrial Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) Is a Unique Vulnerability of Cancer Cells and a Potential Target for Cancer Therapy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaurre, Soledad; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Burzio, Verónica A.; Briones, Macarena; Villota, Claudio; Villegas, Jaime; Echenique, Javiera; Oliveira-Cruz, Luciana; Araya, Mariela; Borgna, Vincenzo; Socías, Teresa; Lopez, Constanza; Avila, Rodolfo; Burzio, Luis O.

    2014-01-01

    Hallmarks of cancer are fundamental principles involved in cancer progression. We propose an additional generalized hallmark of malignant transformation corresponding to the differential expression of a family of mitochondrial ncRNAs (ncmtRNAs) that comprises sense and antisense members, all of which contain stem-loop structures. Normal proliferating cells express sense (SncmtRNA) and antisense (ASncmtRNA) transcripts. In contrast, the ASncmtRNAs are down-regulated in tumor cells regardless of tissue of origin. Here we show that knockdown of the low copy number of the ASncmtRNAs in several tumor cell lines induces cell death by apoptosis without affecting the viability of normal cells. In addition, knockdown of ASncmtRNAs potentiates apoptotic cell death by inhibiting survivin expression, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family. Down-regulation of survivin is at the translational level and is probably mediated by microRNAs generated by dicing of the double-stranded stem of the ASncmtRNAs, as suggested by evidence presented here, in which the ASncmtRNAs are bound to Dicer and knockdown of the ASncmtRNAs reduces reporter luciferase activity in a vector carrying the 3′-UTR of survivin mRNA. Taken together, down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs constitutes a vulnerability or Achilles' heel of cancer cells, suggesting that the ASncmtRNAs are promising targets for cancer therapy. PMID:25100722

  17. Bcl-2 inhibitors potentiate the cytotoxic effects of radiation in Bcl-2 overexpressing radioresistant tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Takamitsu; Omura-Minamisawa, Motoko; Chao Cheng; Nakagami, Yoshihiro; Ito, Megumi; Inoue, Tomio

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Bcl-2, an inhibitor of apoptosis frequently shows elevated expression in human tumors, thus resulting in resistance to radiation therapy. Therefore, inhibiting Bcl-2 function may enhance the radiosensitivity of tumor cells. Tetrocarcin A (TC-A) and bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides exhibit antitumor activity by inhibiting Bcl-2 function and transcription, respectively. We investigated whether these antitumor agents would enhance the cytotoxic effects of radiation in tumor cells overexpressing Bcl-2. Methods and materials: We used HeLa/bcl-2 cells, a stable Bcl-2-expressing cell line derived from wild-type HeLa (HeLa/wt) cells. Cells were incubated with TC-A and bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides for 24 h after irradiation, and cell viability was then determined. Apoptotic cells were quantified by flow cytometric assay. Results: The HeLa/bcl-2 cells were more resistant to radiation than HeLa/wt cells. At concentrations that are not inherently cytotoxic, both TC-A and bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides increased the cytotoxic effects of radiation in HeLa/bcl-2 cells, but not in HeLa/wt cells. However, in HeLa/bcl-2 cells, additional treatment with TC-A in combination with radiation did not significantly increase apoptosis. Conclusions: The present results suggest that TC-A and bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides reduce radioresistance of tumor cells overexpressing Bcl-2. Therefore, a combination of radiotherapy and Bcl-2 inhibitors may prove to be a useful therapeutic approach for treating tumors that overexpress Bcl-2

  18. Dyslipidemia, sense, antisense or nonsense?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Maartje Visser onderzocht het remmen van de synthese van apoB met behulp van antisense - een nieuwe farmacologische techniek. Dit blijkt het slechte LDL-cholesterol op een effectieve manier te verlagen. Bij sommige proefpersonen resulteerde dit in leververvetting. Of dit op de lange termijn

  19. Radio-marking and in vivo imagery of oligonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehnast, Bertrand

    2000-01-01

    This research thesis is part of activities aimed at the development of new molecules like oligonucleotides. Its first objective was the development and validation of a marking method with fluorine-18 of oligonucleotides for their in-vivo pharmacological assessment with positron emission tomography (PET). Further investigations addressed the use of iodine-125 for oligonucleotide marking purpose. This radio-marking, and in vivo and ex vivo imagery techniques are described, and their potential is highlighted for the pharmacological assessment of different oligonucleotides

  20. Thiolated chitosan nanoparticles as a delivery system for antisense therapy: evaluation against EGFR in T47D breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei, Fatemeh; Azizi, Ebrahim; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Atyabi, Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    Thiolated chitosan has high transfection and mucoadhesive properties. We investigated the potential of two recently synthesized polymers: NAC-C (N-acetyl cysteine-chitosan) and NAP-C (N-acetyl penicillamine-chitosan) in anticancer drug delivery targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Doxorubicin (DOX) and antisense oligonucleotide (ASOND)-loaded polymer nanoparticles were prepared in water by a gelation process. Particle characterization, drug loading, and drug release were evaluated. To verify drug delivery efficiency in vitro experiments on a breast cancer cell line (T47D) were performed. EGFR gene and protein expression was analyzed by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. A loading percentage of 63% ± 5% for ASOND and 70% ± 5% for DOX was achieved. Drug release data after 15 hours showed that ASOND and DOX were completely released from chitosan-based particles while a lower and more sustained release of only 22% ± 8% was measured for thiolated particles. In a cytosol simulated release medium/reducing environment, such as found intracellularly, polymer-based nanoparticles dissociated, liberating approximately 50% of both active substances within 7 hours. ASOND-loaded polymer nanoparticles had higher stability and high mucoadhesive properties. The ASOND-loaded thiolated particles significantly suppressed EGFR gene expression in T47D cells compared with ASOND-loaded chitosan particles and downregulated EGFR protein expression in cells. This study could facilitate future investigations into the functionality of NAP-C and NAC-C polymers as an efficient ASOND delivery system in vitro and in vivo.

  1. Antisense-mediated isoform switching of steroid receptor coactivator-1 in the central nucleus of the amygdala of the mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalachoras Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antisense oligonucleotide (AON-mediated exon skipping is a powerful tool to manipulate gene expression. In the present study we investigated the potential of exon skipping by local injection in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA of the mouse brain. As proof of principle we targeted the splicing of steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1, a protein involved in nuclear receptor function. This nuclear receptor coregulator exists in two splice variants (SRC-1a and SRC-1e which display differential distribution and opposing activities in the brain, and whose mRNAs differ in a single SRC-1e specific exon. Methods For proof of principle of feasibility, we used immunofluorescent stainings to study uptake by different cell types, translocation to the nucleus and potential immunostimulatory effects at different time points after a local injection in the CeA of the mouse brain of a control AON targeting human dystrophin with no targets in the murine brain. To evaluate efficacy we designed an AON targeting the SRC-1e-specific exon and with qPCR analysis we measured the expression ratio of the two splice variants. Results We found that AONs were taken up by corticotropin releasing hormone expressing neurons and other cells in the CeA, and translocated into the cell nucleus. Immune responses after AON injection were comparable to those after sterile saline injection. A successful shift of the naturally occurring SRC-1a:SRC-1e expression ratio in favor of SRC-1a was observed, without changes in total SRC-1 expression. Conclusions We provide a proof of concept for local neuropharmacological use of exon skipping by manipulating the expression ratio of the two splice variants of SRC-1, which may be used to study nuclear receptor function in specific brain circuits. We established that exon skipping after local injection in the brain is a versatile and useful tool for the manipulation of splice variants for numerous genes that are relevant

  2. Identification of antisense long noncoding RNAs that function as SINEUPs in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Aleks; Zucchelli, Silvia; Kauppinen, Sakari; Gustincich, Stefano; Carninci, Piero

    2016-09-20

    Mammalian genomes encode numerous natural antisense long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that regulate gene expression. Recently, an antisense lncRNA to mouse Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (Uchl1) was reported to increase UCHL1 protein synthesis, representing a new functional class of lncRNAs, designated as SINEUPs, for SINE element-containing translation UP-regulators. Here, we show that an antisense lncRNA to the human protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12A (PPP1R12A), named as R12A-AS1, which overlaps with the 5' UTR and first coding exon of the PPP1R12A mRNA, functions as a SINEUP, increasing PPP1R12A protein translation in human cells. The SINEUP activity depends on the aforementioned sense-antisense interaction and a free right Alu monomer repeat element at the 3' end of R12A-AS1. In addition, we identify another human antisense lncRNA with SINEUP activity. Our results demonstrate for the first time that human natural antisense lncRNAs can up-regulate protein translation, suggesting that endogenous SINEUPs may be widespread and present in many mammalian species.

  3. Subnanomolar antisense activity of phosphonate-peptide nucleic acid (PNA) conjugates delivered by cationic lipids to HeLa cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Hamzavi, Ramin; Nielsen, Peter E

    2008-01-01

    oligomer. This modification of the PNA does not interfere with the nucleic acid target binding affinity based on thermal stability of the PNA/RNA duplexes. When delivered to cultured HeLa pLuc705 cells by Lipofectamine, the PNAs showed dose-dependent nuclear antisense activity in the nanomolar range...

  4. Delivery of gene biotechnologies to plants: Pathogen and pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment of oligonucleotides to plants for host delivered suppression of microbes and insect pests of citrus was successful. FANA_ASO, (2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-D- arabinonucleic acid)_( antisense oligonucleotides- AUM LifeTech) designed to: Asian citrus psyllid; Citrus plant bacterial pathogen of citru...

  5. Preparation and quality test of superparamagnetic iron oxide labeled antisense oligodeoxynucleotide probe: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; Li, Bibo; Ouyang, Yu; Luo, Yi; Li, Shaolin

    2009-06-01

    transfected SK-Br-3 oncocytes by antisense probe had the lowest signal of all. The SPIO-labeled ASODN probe shows unique features including well-distributed spherical morphology, high conjugating rate and loading efficiency, and the signal intensity of SPIO-labeled ASODN-transfected SK-Br-3 oncocytes is reduced in MR imaging. These results indicate that the SPIO-labeled ASODN probe is potentially useful as a MR targeting contrast enhancing agent to specifically diagnose tumors which had over-expression of the c-erbB2 oncogene at an early stage.

  6. Development of cancer immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Yeon Sook; Chung, H. Y.; Yi, S. Y.; Kim, K. W.; Kim, B. K.; Chung, I. S.; Park, J. Y.

    1999-04-01

    To increase the curative rate of cancer patients, we developed ideal biological response modifier from medicinal plants: Ginsan, KC68IId-8, KC-8Ala, KG-30. Ginsan activated natural killer cell activity of spleen cells more than 5.4 times than lentinan, 1.4 times than picibanil. Radioprotective activity of Ginsan is stronger than WR2721, glucan, and selenium. The immunogenicity of MOPC tumor cells was augmented by treatment with IL-10 antisense oligonucleotide and by transfection with VEGF sense-, antisense gene. The immunogenicity of MOPC tumor cells was augmented by treatment with IL-10 antisense oligonucleotide and by transfection with VEGF sense-, antisense gene. The immunogenicity of A20 tumor cells was also augmented by transfection with B7.1 gene. The immunosuppression of gamma-irradiation was due to the reduction of Th1 sytokine gene expression through STAT pathway. These research will devote to develop new cancer immunotherapy and to reduce side effect of cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy

  7. Development of cancer immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Yeon Sook; Chung, H. Y.; Yi, S. Y.; Kim, K. W.; Kim, B. K.; Chung, I. S.; Park, J. Y

    1999-04-01

    To increase the curative rate of cancer patients, we developed ideal biological response modifier from medicinal plants: Ginsan, KC68IId-8, KC-8Ala, KG-30. Ginsan activated natural killer cell activity of spleen cells more than 5.4 times than lentinan, 1.4 times than picibanil. Radioprotective activity of Ginsan is stronger than WR2721, glucan, and selenium. The immunogenicity of MOPC tumor cells was augmented by treatment with IL-10 antisense oligonucleotide and by transfection with VEGF sense-, antisense gene. The immunogenicity of MOPC tumor cells was augmented by treatment with IL-10 antisense oligonucleotide and by transfection with VEGF sense-, antisense gene. The immunogenicity of A20 tumor cells was also augmented by transfection with B7.1 gene. The immunosuppression of gamma-irradiation was due to the reduction of Th1 sytokine gene expression through STAT pathway. These research will devote to develop new cancer immunotherapy and to reduce side effect of cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

  8. Developmental transitions in Arabidopsis are regulated by antisense RNAs resulting from bidirectionally transcribed genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyczmonik, Katarzyna; Wroblewska-Swiniarska, Agata; Swiezewski, Szymon

    2017-07-03

    Transcription terminators are DNA elements located at the 3' end of genes that ensure efficient cleavage of nascent RNA generating the 3' end of mRNA, as well as facilitating disengagement of elongating DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II. Surprisingly, terminators are also a potent source of antisense transcription. We have recently described an Arabidopsis antisense transcript originating from the 3' end of a master regulator of Arabidopsis thaliana seed dormancy DOG1. In this review, we discuss the broader implications of our discovery in light of recent developments in yeast and Arabidopsis. We show that, surprisingly, the key features of terminators that give rise to antisense transcription are preserved between Arabidopsis and yeast, suggesting a conserved mechanism. We also compare our discovery to known antisense-based regulatory mechanisms, highlighting the link between antisense-based gene expression regulation and major developmental transitions in plants.

  9. Novel interactions between the HTLV antisense proteins HBZ and APH-2 and the NFAR protein family: Implications for the HTLV lifecycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Jane; Hall, William W. [Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Ratner, Lee [Department of Medicine, Division of Molecular Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States of America (United States); Sheehy, Noreen [Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2016-07-15

    The human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 and type 2 (HTLV-1/HTLV-2) antisense proteins HBZ and APH-2 play key roles in the HTLV lifecycles and persistence in the host. Nuclear Factors Associated with double-stranded RNA (NFAR) proteins NF90/110 function in the lifecycles of several viruses and participate in host innate immunity against infection and oncogenesis. Using GST pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation assays we demonstrate specific novel interactions between HBZ/APH-2 and NF90/110 and characterised the protein domains involved. Moreover we show that NF90/110 significantly enhance Tax mediated LTR activation, an effect that was abolished by HBZ but enhanced by APH-2. Additionally we found that HBZ and APH-2 modulate the promoter activity of survivin and are capable of antagonising NF110-mediated survivin activation. Thus interactions between HTLV antisense proteins and the NFAR protein family have an overall positive impact on HTLV infection. Hence NFARs may represent potential therapeutic targets in HTLV infected cells. - Highlights: • This study demonstrates for the first time interactions between NF90/110 and the HTLV antisense proteins HBZ and APH-2. • We show that NF90/110 significantly enhance LTR activation by the HTLV Tax protein, an effect that is abolished by HBZ but enhanced by APH-2. • The study shows that even though the HTLV antisense proteins activate survivin expression they antagonize the ability of NF90/110 to do so. • Overall we found that NF90/110 positively regulate HTLV infection and as such might represent a therapeutic target in infected cells.

  10. Novel interactions between the HTLV antisense proteins HBZ and APH-2 and the NFAR protein family: Implications for the HTLV lifecycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Jane; Hall, William W.; Ratner, Lee; Sheehy, Noreen

    2016-01-01

    The human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 and type 2 (HTLV-1/HTLV-2) antisense proteins HBZ and APH-2 play key roles in the HTLV lifecycles and persistence in the host. Nuclear Factors Associated with double-stranded RNA (NFAR) proteins NF90/110 function in the lifecycles of several viruses and participate in host innate immunity against infection and oncogenesis. Using GST pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation assays we demonstrate specific novel interactions between HBZ/APH-2 and NF90/110 and characterised the protein domains involved. Moreover we show that NF90/110 significantly enhance Tax mediated LTR activation, an effect that was abolished by HBZ but enhanced by APH-2. Additionally we found that HBZ and APH-2 modulate the promoter activity of survivin and are capable of antagonising NF110-mediated survivin activation. Thus interactions between HTLV antisense proteins and the NFAR protein family have an overall positive impact on HTLV infection. Hence NFARs may represent potential therapeutic targets in HTLV infected cells. - Highlights: • This study demonstrates for the first time interactions between NF90/110 and the HTLV antisense proteins HBZ and APH-2. • We show that NF90/110 significantly enhance LTR activation by the HTLV Tax protein, an effect that is abolished by HBZ but enhanced by APH-2. • The study shows that even though the HTLV antisense proteins activate survivin expression they antagonize the ability of NF90/110 to do so. • Overall we found that NF90/110 positively regulate HTLV infection and as such might represent a therapeutic target in infected cells.

  11. Down-regulation of the antisense mitochondrial non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) is a unique vulnerability of cancer cells and a potential target for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaurre, Soledad; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Burzio, Verónica A; Briones, Macarena; Villota, Claudio; Villegas, Jaime; Echenique, Javiera; Oliveira-Cruz, Luciana; Araya, Mariela; Borgna, Vincenzo; Socías, Teresa; Lopez, Constanza; Avila, Rodolfo; Burzio, Luis O

    2014-09-26

    Hallmarks of cancer are fundamental principles involved in cancer progression. We propose an additional generalized hallmark of malignant transformation corresponding to the differential expression of a family of mitochondrial ncRNAs (ncmtRNAs) that comprises sense and antisense members, all of which contain stem-loop structures. Normal proliferating cells express sense (SncmtRNA) and antisense (ASncmtRNA) transcripts. In contrast, the ASncmtRNAs are down-regulated in tumor cells regardless of tissue of origin. Here we show that knockdown of the low copy number of the ASncmtRNAs in several tumor cell lines induces cell death by apoptosis without affecting the viability of normal cells. In addition, knockdown of ASncmtRNAs potentiates apoptotic cell death by inhibiting survivin expression, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family. Down-regulation of survivin is at the translational level and is probably mediated by microRNAs generated by dicing of the double-stranded stem of the ASncmtRNAs, as suggested by evidence presented here, in which the ASncmtRNAs are bound to Dicer and knockdown of the ASncmtRNAs reduces reporter luciferase activity in a vector carrying the 3'-UTR of survivin mRNA. Taken together, down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs constitutes a vulnerability or Achilles' heel of cancer cells, suggesting that the ASncmtRNAs are promising targets for cancer therapy. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Regulation of Gene Expression with Double-Stranded Phosphorothioate Oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielinska, Anna; Shivdasani, Ramesh A.; Zhang, Liquan; Nabel, Gary J.

    1990-11-01

    Alteration of gene transcription by inhibition of specific transcriptional regulatory proteins is necessary for determining how these factors participate in cellular differentiation. The functions of these proteins can be antagonized by several methods, each with specific limitations. Inhibition of sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins was achieved with double-stranded (ds) phosphorothioate oligonucleotides that contained octamer or kappaB consensus sequences. The phosphorothioate oligonucleotides specifically bound either octamer transcription factor or nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB. The modified oligonucleotides accumulated in cells more effectively than standard ds oligonucleotides and modulated gene expression in a specific manner. Octamer-dependent activation of a reporter plasmid or NF-kappaB-dependent activation of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enhancer was inhibited when the appropriate phosphorothioate oligonucleotide was added to a transiently transfected B cell line. Addition of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides that contained the octamer consensus to Jurkat T leukemia cells inhibited interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion to a degree similar to that observed with a mutated octamer site in the IL-2 enhancer. The ds phosphorothioate oligonucleotides probably compete for binding of specific transcription factors and may provide anti-viral, immunosuppressive, or other therapeutic effects.

  13. A novel setup for the determination of absolute cross sections for low-energy electron induced strand breaks in oligonucleotides - The effect of the radiosensitizer 5-fluorouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rackwitz, J.; Rankovic, M.L.; Milosavljevic, A.R.; Bald, I.

    2017-01-01

    Low-energy electrons (LEEs) play an important role in DNA radiation damage. Here we present a method to quantify LEE induced strand breakage in well-defined oligonucleotide single strands in terms of absolute cross sections. An LEE irradiation setup covering electron energies <500 eV is constructed and optimized to irradiate DNA origami triangles carrying well-defined oligonucleotide target strands. Measurements are presented for 10.0 and 5.5 eV for different oligonucleotide targets. The determination of absolute strand break cross sections is performed by atomic force microscopy analysis. An accurate fluence determination ensures small margins of error of the determined absolute single strand break cross sections σ SSB . In this way, the influence of sequence modification with the radiosensitive 5-Fluorouracil ( 5F U) is studied using an absolute and relative data analysis. We demonstrate an increase in the strand break yields of 5F U containing oligonucleotides by a factor of 1.5 to 1.6 compared with non-modified oligonucleotide sequences when irradiated with 10 eV electrons. (authors)

  14. Estradiol-Induced Transcriptional Regulation of Long Non-Coding RNA, HOTAIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhan, Arunoday; Mandal, Subhrangsu S

    2016-01-01

    HOTAIR (HOX antisense intergenic RNA) is a 2.2 kb long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), transcribed from the antisense strand of homeobox C (HOXC) gene locus in chromosome 12. HOTAIR acts as a scaffolding lncRNA. It interacts and guides various chromatin-modifying complexes such as PRC2 (polycomb-repressive complex 2) and LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1) to the target gene promoters leading to their gene silencing. Various studies have demonstrated that HOTAIR overexpression is associated with breast cancer. Recent studies from our laboratory demonstrate that HOTAIR is required for viability of breast cancer cells and is transcriptionally regulated by estradiol (E2) in vitro and in vivo. This chapter describes protocols for analysis of the HOTAIR promoter, cloning, transfection and dual luciferase assays, knockdown of protein synthesis by antisense oligonucleotides, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. These protocols are useful for studying the estrogen-mediated transcriptional regulation of lncRNA HOTAIR, as well as other protein coding genes and non-coding RNAs.

  15. [Oligonucleotide derivatives in the nucleic acid hybridization analysis. I. Covalent immobilization of oligonucleotide probes onto the nylon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, E V; Pyshnaia, I A; Pyshnyĭ, D V

    2010-01-01

    The features of UV-induced immobilization of oligonucleotides on a nylon membranes and the effectiveness of enzymatic labeling of immobilized probes at heterophase detection of nucleic acids are studied. Short terminal oligothymidilate (up to 10 nt) sequences are suggested to attach to the probe via a flexible ethylene glycol based linker. The presence of such fragment enhances the intensity of immobilization and reduces UV-dependent degradation of the targeted (sequence-specific) part of the probe by reducing the dose needed for the immobilization of DNA. The optimum dose of UV-irradiation is determined to be ~0.4 J/cm(2) at the wavelength 254 nm. This dose provides high level of hybridization signal for immobilized probes with various nucleotide composition of the sequence specific moiety. The amide groups of the polyamide are shown to play the key role in the photoinduced immobilization of nucleic acids, whereas the primary amino groups in the structure of PA is not the center responsible for the covalent binding of DNA by UV-irradiation, as previously believed. Various additives in the soaking solution during the membrane of UV-dependent immobilization of probes are shown to influence its effectiveness. The use of alternative to UV-irradiation system of radical generation are shown to provide the immobilization of oligonucleotides onto the nylon membrane.

  16. Fluorescent oligonucleotides containing a novel perylene 2′-amino-α-L-LNA monomer: Synthesis and analytical potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astakhova, Irina; Kumar, Santhosh T.; Wengel, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    efficiency of the resulting perylene-2'-amino-alpha-L-LNA monomer (T*) into synthetic oligonucleotides was significantly improved by replacement of the typically used 1H-tetrazole activator with pyridine hydrochloride. Generally, oligonucleotides containing monomer T* showed high binding affinity towards...... incorporations of monomers T* was quenched (quantum yield Phi(F) = 0.21) relative to duplexes of this probe with complementary DNA and RNA (Phi(F) = 0.42 and 0.35, respectively). On the contrary, a strong fluorescence quenching upon target binding was demonstrated by two short oligonucleotides of analogues...... sequences containing monomers T* at 5'- and 3'-terminal positions. We explain the hybridization-induced light-up effect observed for double-labeled probe by a reduction of fluorescence quenching due to precise positioning of the fluorophores within the double-stranded complexes. Furthermore, we propose...

  17. Negative regulation of TLR4 via targeting of the proinflammatory tumor suppressor PDCD4 by the microRNA miR-21.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheedy, FJ

    2009-11-29

    The tumor suppressor PDCD4 is a proinflammatory protein that promotes activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and suppresses interleukin 10 (IL-10). Here we found that mice deficient in PDCD4 were protected from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced death. The induction of NF-kappaB and IL-6 by LPS required PDCD4, whereas LPS enhanced IL-10 induction in cells lacking PDCD4. Treatment of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with LPS resulted in lower PDCD4 expression, which was due to induction of the microRNA miR-21 via the adaptor MyD88 and NF-kappaB. Transfection of cells with a miR-21 precursor blocked NF-kappaB activity and promoted IL-10 production in response to LPS, whereas transfection with antisense oligonucleotides to miR-21 or targeted protection of the miR-21 site in Pdcd4 mRNA had the opposite effect. Thus, miR-21 regulates PDCD4 expression after LPS stimulation.

  18. Sequence-dependent theory of oligonucleotide hybridization kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marimuthu, Karthikeyan; Chakrabarti, Raj

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical approach to the prediction of the sequence and temperature-dependent rate constants for oligonucleotide hybridization reactions has been developed based on the theory of relaxation kinetics. One-sided and two-sided melting reaction mechanisms for oligonucleotide hybridization reactions have been considered, analyzed, modified, and compared to select a physically consistent as well as robust model for prediction of the relaxation times of DNA hybridization reactions that agrees with the experimental evidence. The temperature- and sequence-dependent parameters of the proposed model have been estimated using available experimental data. The relaxation time model that we developed has been combined with the nearest neighbor model of hybridization thermodynamics to estimate the temperature- and sequence-dependent rate constants of an oligonucleotide hybridization reaction. The model-predicted rate constants are compared to experimentally determined rate constants for the same oligonucleotide hybridization reactions. Finally, we consider a few important applications of kinetically controlled DNA hybridization reactions

  19. Reversible antisense inhibition of Shaker-like Kv1.1 potassium channel expression impairs associative memory in mouse and rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiri, Noam; Ghelardini, Carla; Tesco, Giuseppina; Galeotti, Nicoletta; Dahl, Dennis; Tomsic, Daniel; Cavallaro, Sebastiano; Quattrone, Alessandro; Capaccioli, Sergio; Bartolini, Alessandro; Alkon, Daniel L.

    1997-01-01

    Long-term memory is thought to be subserved by functional remodeling of neuronal circuits. Changes in the weights of existing synapses in networks might depend on voltage-gated potassium currents. We therefore studied the physiological role of potassium channels in memory, concentrating on the Shaker-like Kv1.1, a late rectifying potassium channel that is highly localized within dendrites of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal and dentate gyrus granular cells. Repeated intracerebroventricular injection of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide to Kv1.1 reduces expression of its particular intracellular mRNA target, decreases late rectifying K+ current(s) in dentate granule cells, and impairs memory but not other motor or sensory behaviors, in two different learning paradigms, mouse passive avoidance and rat spatial memory. The latter, hippocampal-dependent memory loss occurred in the absence of long-term potentiation changes recorded both from the dentate gyrus or CA1. The specificity of the reversible antisense targeting of mRNA in adult animal brains may avoid irreversible developmental and genetic background effects that accompany transgenic “knockouts”. PMID:9114006

  20. Reversible antisense inhibition of Shaker-like Kv1.1 potassium channel expression impairs associative memory in mouse and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiri, N; Ghelardini, C; Tesco, G; Galeotti, N; Dahl, D; Tomsic, D; Cavallaro, S; Quattrone, A; Capaccioli, S; Bartolini, A; Alkon, D L

    1997-04-29

    Long-term memory is thought to be subserved by functional remodeling of neuronal circuits. Changes in the weights of existing synapses in networks might depend on voltage-gated potassium currents. We therefore studied the physiological role of potassium channels in memory, concentrating on the Shaker-like Kv1.1, a late rectifying potassium channel that is highly localized within dendrites of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal and dentate gyrus granular cells. Repeated intracerebroventricular injection of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide to Kv1.1 reduces expression of its particular intracellular mRNA target, decreases late rectifying K+ current(s) in dentate granule cells, and impairs memory but not other motor or sensory behaviors, in two different learning paradigms, mouse passive avoidance and rat spatial memory. The latter, hippocampal-dependent memory loss occurred in the absence of long-term potentiation changes recorded both from the dentate gyrus or CA1. The specificity of the reversible antisense targeting of mRNA in adult animal brains may avoid irreversible developmental and genetic background effects that accompany transgenic "knockouts".

  1. Directional gene expression and antisense transcripts in sexual and asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Barragán María J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that nearly a quarter of the initial predicted gene models in the Plasmodium falciparum genome contain errors. Although there have been efforts to obtain complete cDNA sequences to correct the errors, the coverage of cDNA sequences on the predicted genes is still incomplete, and many gene models for those expressed in sexual or mosquito stages have not been validated. Antisense transcripts have widely been reported in P. falciparum; however, the extent and pattern of antisense transcripts in different developmental stages remain largely unknown. Results We have sequenced seven bidirectional libraries from ring, early and late trophozoite, schizont, gametocyte II, gametocyte V, and ookinete, and four strand-specific libraries from late trophozoite, schizont, gametocyte II, and gametocyte V of the 3D7 parasites. Alignment of the cDNA sequences to the 3D7 reference genome revealed stage-specific antisense transcripts and novel intron-exon splicing junctions. Sequencing of strand-specific cDNA libraries suggested that more genes are expressed in one direction in gametocyte than in schizont. Alternatively spliced genes, antisense transcripts, and stage-specific expressed genes were also characterized. Conclusions It is necessary to continue to sequence cDNA from different developmental stages, particularly those of non-erythrocytic stages. The presence of antisense transcripts in some gametocyte and ookinete genes suggests that these antisense RNA may play an important role in gene expression regulation and parasite development. Future gene expression studies should make use of directional cDNA libraries. Antisense transcripts may partly explain the observed discrepancy between levels of mRNA and protein expression.

  2. Antisense inhibition of hyaluronan synthase-2 in human osteosarcoma cells inhibits hyaluronan retention and tumorigenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Yoshihiro; Knudson, Warren; Knudson, Cheryl B.; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common malignant bone tumor associated with childhood and adolescence. The results of numerous studies have suggested that hyaluronan plays an important role in regulating the aggressive behavior of various types of cancer cells. However, no studies have addressed hyaluronan with respect to osteosarcomas. In this investigation, the mRNA expression copy number of three mammalian hyaluronan synthases (HAS) was determined using competitive RT-PCR in the osteoblastic osteosarcoma cell line, MG-63. MG-63 are highly malignant osteosarcoma cells with an abundant hyaluronan-rich matrix. The results demonstrated that HAS-2 is the predominant HAS in MG-63. Accumulation of intracellular hyaluronan increased in association with the proliferative phase of these cells. The selective inhibition of HAS-2 mRNA in MG-63 cells by antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides resulted in reduced hyaluronan accumulation by these cells. As expected, the reduction in hyaluronan disrupted the assembly of cell-associated matrices. However, of most interest, coincident with the reduction in hyaluronan, there was a substantial decrease in cell proliferation, a decrease in cell motility and a decrease in cell invasiveness. These data suggest that hyaluronan synthesized by HAS-2 in MG-63 plays a crucial role in osteosarcoma cell proliferation, motility, and invasion

  3. Detection of tmRNA molecules on microarrays at low temperatures using helper oligonucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palta Priit

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hybridization of synthetic Streptococcus pneumoniae tmRNA on a detection microarray is slow at 34°C resulting in low signal intensities. Results We demonstrate that adding specific DNA helper oligonucleotides (chaperones to the hybridization buffer increases the signal strength at a given temperature and thus makes the specific detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae tmRNA more sensitive. No loss of specificity was observed at low temperatures compared to hybridization at 46°C. The effect of the chaperones can be explained by disruption of the strong secondary and tertiary structure of the target RNA by the selective hybridization of helper molecules. The amplification of the hybridization signal strength by chaperones is not necessarily local; we observed increased signal intensities in both local and distant regions of the target molecule. Conclusions The sensitivity of the detection of tmRNA at low temperature can be increased by chaperone oligonucleotides. Due to the complexity of RNA secondary and tertiary structures the effect of any individual chaperone is currently not predictable.

  4. Label-Free Electrochemical Detection of the Specific Oligonucleotide Sequence of Dengue Virus Type 1 on Pencil Graphite Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Elaine; Nascimento, Gustavo; Santana, Nataly; Ferreira, Danielly; Lima, Manoel; Natividade, Edna; Martins, Danyelly; Lima-Filho, José

    2011-01-01

    A biosensor that relies on the adsorption immobilization of the 18-mer single-stranded nucleic acid related to dengue virus gene 1 on activated pencil graphite was developed. Hybridization between the probe and its complementary oligonucleotides (the target) was investigated by monitoring guanine oxidation by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The pencil graphite electrode was made of ordinary pencil lead (type 4B). The polished surface of the working electrode was activated by applying a potential of 1.8 V for 5 min. Afterward, the dengue oligonucleotides probe was immobilized on the activated electrode by applying 0.5 V to the electrode in 0.5 M acetate buffer (pH 5.0) for 5 min. The hybridization process was carried out by incubating at the annealing temperature of the oligonucleotides. A time of five minutes and concentration of 1 μM were found to be the optimal conditions for probe immobilization. The electrochemical detection of annealing between the DNA probe (TS-1P) immobilized on the modified electrode, and the target (TS-1T) was achieved. The target could be quantified in a range from 1 to 40 nM with good linearity and a detection limit of 0.92 nM. The specificity of the electrochemical biosensor was tested using non-complementary sequences of dengue virus 2 and 3. PMID:22163916

  5. Silver and Cyanine Staining of Oligonucleotides in Polyacrylamide Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weizhong; Zhou, Huafu; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    To explore why some oligonucleotides in denaturing polyacrylamide gel could not be silver-stained, 134 different oligonucleotides were analyzed using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis stained with silver and asymmetric cyanine. As a result, we found that the sensitivity of oligos (dA), (dC), (dG) and (dT) to silver staining could be ranged as (dA) > (dG) > (dC) > (dT) from high to low. It was unexpected that oligo (dT) was hard to be silver-stained. Moreover, the silver staining of an oligonucleotide containing base T could be partially or completely inhibited by base T. The inhibition of silver staining by base T was a competitive inhibition which could be affected by the amounts of the argyrophil nucleobase and base T, the cis-distance between the argyrophil nucleobase and base T, and the gel concentration. The changes of the intensity of an oligonucleotide band caused by the changes of DNA base composition were diverse and interesting. The intensity of some oligonucleotide bands would significantly change when the changes of DNA base composition accumulated to a certain extent (usually ≥ 4 nt). The sensitivity of cyanine staining of ≤ 11-nt long oligonucleotides could be enhanced about 250-fold by fixing the gels with methanol fixing solution.

  6. A comparative analysis of measles virus RNA by oligonucleotide fingerprinting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, J.R.; Meulen, V. ter

    1982-01-01

    Isolates from two cases of acute measles, one case of acute measles encephalitis and three patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were compared. This comparison was based upon the electrophoretic analysis of T 1 oligonucleotides from single-stranded, full-length RNA isolated from cytoplasmic nucleocapsids. Although all viruses have oligonucleotides in common, each isolate generated a unique pattern of oligonucleotides. However, no group of oligonucleotides was observed which would allow differentiation between viruses isolated from acute infections and those isolated from CNS diseases; indicating that probably all measles viruses differ in their nucleotide sequence, regardless of origin. (Author)

  7. Targeted nanoparticle delivery of therapeutic antisense microRNAs presensitizes glioblastoma cells to lower effective doses of temozolomide in vitro and in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Meenakshi; Sekar, Thillai Veerapazham; Ananta, Jeyarama S; Devulapally, Rammohan; Afjei, Rayhaneh; Babikir, Husam A; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Massoud, Tarik F

    2018-04-20

    Temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy for glioblastoma (GBM) is generally well tolerated at standard doses but it can cause side effects. GBMs overexpress microRNA-21 and microRNA-10b, two known oncomiRs that promote cancer development, progression and resistance to drug treatment. We hypothesized that systemic injection of antisense microRNAs (antagomiR-21 and antagomiR-10b) encapsulated in cRGD-tagged PEG-PLGA nanoparticles would result in high cellular delivery of intact functional antagomiRs, with consequent efficient therapeutic response and increased sensitivity of GBM cells to lower doses of TMZ. We synthesized both targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles, and characterized them for size, surface charge and encapsulation efficiency of antagomiRs. When using targeted nanoparticles in U87MG and Ln229 GBM cells, we showed higher uptake-associated improvement in sensitivity of these cells to lower concentrations of TMZ in medium. Co-inhibition of microRNA-21 and microRNA-10b reduced the number of viable cells and increased cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase upon TMZ treatment. We found a significant increase in expression of key target genes for microRNA-21 and microRNA-10b upon using targeted versus non-targeted nanoparticles. There was also significant reduction in tumor volume when using TMZ after pre-treatment with loaded nanoparticles in human GBM cell xenografts in mice. In vivo targeted nanoparticles plus different doses of TMZ showed a significant therapeutic response even at the lowest dose of TMZ, indicating that preloading cells with antagomiR-21 and antagomiR-10b increases cellular chemosensitivity towards lower TMZ doses. Future clinical applications of this combination therapy may result in improved GBM response by using lower doses of TMZ and reducing nonspecific treatment side effects.

  8. Correlating In Vitro Splice Switching Activity With Systemic In Vivo Delivery Using Novel ZEN-modified Oligonucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan M Hammond

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Splice switching oligonucleotides (SSOs induce alternative splicing of pre-mRNA and typically employ chemical modifications to increase nuclease resistance and binding affinity to target pre-mRNA. Here we describe a new SSO non-base modifier (a naphthyl-azo group, “ZEN™” to direct exon exclusion in mutant dystrophin pre-mRNA to generate functional dystrophin protein. The ZEN modifier is placed near the ends of a 2′-O-methyl (2′OMe oligonucleotide, increasing melting temperature and potency over unmodified 2′OMe oligonucleotides. In cultured H2K cells, a ZEN-modified 2′OMe phosphorothioate (PS oligonucleotide delivered by lipid transfection greatly enhanced dystrophin exon skipping over the same 2′OMePS SSO lacking ZEN. However, when tested using free gymnotic uptake in vitro and following systemic delivery in vivo in dystrophin deficient mdx mice, the same ZEN-modified SSO failed to enhance potency. Importantly, we show for the first time that in vivo activity of anionic SSOs is modelled in vitro only when using gymnotic delivery. ZEN is thus a novel modifier that enhances activity of SSOs in vitro but will require improved delivery methods before its in vivo clinical potential can be realized.

  9. Detection and identification of intestinal pathogenic bacteria by hybridization to oligonucleotide microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lian-Qun; Li, Jun-Wen; Wang, Sheng-Qi; Chao, Fu-Huan; Wang, Xin-Wei; Yuan, Zheng-Quan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To detect the common intestinal pathogenic bacteria quickly and accurately. METHODS: A rapid (<3 h) experimental procedure was set up based upon the gene chip technology. Target genes were amplified and hybridized by oligonucleotide microarrays. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy strains of bacteria in pure culture belonging to 11 genera were successfully discriminated under comparatively same conditions, and a series of specific hybridization maps corresponding to each kind of bacteria were obtained. When this method was applied to 26 divided cultures, 25 (96.2%) were identified. CONCLUSION: Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli, Shigella sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus sp., Bacillus cereus, Vibrio cholerae, Enterococcus faecalis, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Campylobacter jejuni can be detected and identified by our microarrays. The accuracy, range, and discrimination power of this assay can be continually improved by adding further oligonucleotides to the arrays without any significant increase of complexity or cost. PMID:16437687

  10. OligoRAP - an Oligo Re-Annotation Pipeline to improve annotation and estimate target specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, P.B.T.; Rauwerda, H.; Nie, H.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Breit, T.M.; Leunissen, J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: High throughput gene expression studies using oligonucleotide microarrays depend on the specificity of each oligonucleotide (oligo or probe) for its target gene. However, target specific probes can only be designed when a reference genome of the species at hand were completely sequenced,

  11. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibition as a potent diagnostic tool for gene function in plant biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Christer; Sun, Chuanxin; Ghebramedhin, Haile; Hoglund, Anna-Stina; Jansson, Christer

    2008-01-15

    Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) inhibition emerges as an effective means for probing gene function in plant cells. Employing this method we have established the importance of the SUSIBA2 transcription factor for regulation of starch synthesis in barley endosperm, and arrived at a model for the role of the SUSIBAs in sugar signaling and source-sink commutation during cereal endosperm development. In this addendum we provide additional data demonstrating the suitability of the antisense ODN technology in studies on starch branching enzyme activities in barley leaves. We also comment on the mechanism for ODN uptake in plant cells. Antisense ODNs are short (12-25 nt-long) stretches of single-stranded ODNs that hybridize to the cognate mRNA in a sequence-specific manner, thereby inhibiting gene expression. They are naturally occurring in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes where they partake in gene regulation and defense against viral infection. The mechanisms for antisense ODN inhibition are not fully understood but it is generally considered that the ODN either sterically interferes with translation or promotes transcript degradation by RNase H activation. The earliest indication of the usefulness of antisense ODN technology for the purposes of molecular biology and medical therapy was the demonstration in 1978 that synthetic ODNs complementary to Raos sarcoma virus could inhibit virus replication in tissue cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts. Since then the antisense ODN technology has been widely used in animal sciences and as an important emerging therapeutic approach in clinical medicine. However, antisense ODN inhibition has been an under-exploited strategy for plant tissues, although the prospects for plant cells in suspension cultures to take up single-stranded ODNs was reported over a decade ago. In 2001, two reports from Malho and coworker demonstrated the use of cationic-complexed antisense ODNs to suppress expression of genes encoding pollen

  12. A Conserved Target Site in HIV-1 Gag RNA is Accessible to Inhibition by Both an HDV Ribozyme and a Short Hairpin RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Scarborough

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisense-based molecules targeting HIV-1 RNA have the potential to be used as part of gene or drug therapy to treat HIV-1 infection. In this study, HIV-1 RNA was screened to identify more conserved and accessible target sites for ribozymes based on the hepatitis delta virus motif. Using a quantitative screen for effects on HIV-1 production, we identified a ribozyme targeting a highly conserved site in the Gag coding sequence with improved inhibitory potential compared to our previously described candidates targeting the overlapping Tat/Rev coding sequence. We also demonstrate that this target site is highly accessible to short hairpin directed RNA interference, suggesting that it may be available for the binding of antisense RNAs with different modes of action. We provide evidence that this target site is structurally conserved in diverse viral strains and that it is sufficiently different from the human transcriptome to limit off-target effects from antisense therapies. We also show that the modified hepatitis delta virus ribozyme is more sensitive to a mismatch in its target site compared to the short hairpin RNA. Overall, our results validate the potential of a new target site in HIV-1 RNA to be used for the development of antisense therapies.

  13. Repression of Meiotic Genes by Antisense Transcription and by Fkh2 Transcription Factor in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Huei-Mei; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Khan, Sohail R.; Futcher, Bruce; Leatherwood, Janet K.

    2012-01-01

    In S. pombe, about 5% of genes are meiosis-specific and accumulate little or no mRNA during vegetative growth. Here we use Affymetrix tiling arrays to characterize transcripts in vegetative and meiotic cells. In vegetative cells, many meiotic genes, especially those induced in mid-meiosis, have abundant antisense transcripts. Disruption of the antisense transcription of three of these mid-meiotic genes allowed vegetative sense transcription. These results suggest that antisense transcription ...

  14. Pharmacokinetics on a microscale: visualizing Cy5-labeled oligonucleotide release from poly(n-butylcyanoacrylate nanocapsules in cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomcin S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie Tomcin,1 Grit Baier,1 Katharina Landfester,1 Volker Mailänder1,21Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, 2University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, III Medical Clinic, Mainz, GermanyAbstract: For successful design of a nanoparticulate drug delivery system, the fate of the carrier and cargo need to be followed. In this work, we fluorescently labeled poly(n-butylcyanoacrylate (PBCA nanocapsules as a shell and separately an oligonucleotide (20 mer as a payload. The nanocapsules were formed by interfacial anionic polymerization on aqueous droplets generated by an inverse miniemulsion process. After uptake, the PBCA capsules were shown to be round-shaped, endosomal structures and the payload was successfully released. Cy5-labeled oligonucleotides accumulated at the mitochondrial membrane due to a combination of the high mitochondrial membrane potential and the specific molecular structure of Cy5. The specificity of this accumulation at the mitochondria was shown as the uncoupler dinitrophenol rapidly diminished the accumulation of the Cy5-labeled oligonucleotide. Importantly, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer investigation showed that the dye-labeled cargo (Cy3/Cy5-labeled oligonucleotides reached its target site without degradation during escape from an endosomal compartment to the cytoplasm. The time course of accumulation of fluorescent signals at the mitochondria was determined by evaluating the colocalization of Cy5-labeled oligonucleotides and mitochondrial markers for up to 48 hours. As oligonucleotides are an ideal model system for small interfering RNA PBCA nanocapsules demonstrate to be a versatile delivery platform for small interfering RNA to treat a variety of diseases.Keywords: drug delivery, mitochondria, miniemulsion, colocalization

  15. Phage annealing proteins promote oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis in Escherichia coli and mouse ES cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyrers Joep PP

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phage protein pairs, RecE/RecT from Rac or Redα/Redβ from λ, initiate efficient double strand break repair (DSBR in Escherichia coli that has proven very useful for DNA engineering. These phage pairs initiate DSBR either by annealing or by another mechanism that is not defined. Results Here we report that these proteins also mediate single strand oligonucleotide repair (ssOR at high efficiencies. The ssOR activity, unlike DSBR, does not require a phage exonuclease (RecE or Redα but only requires a phage annealing protein (RecT or Redβ. Notably, the P22 phage annealing protein Erf, which does not mediate the same DSBR reactions, also delivers ssOR activity. By altering aspects of the oligonucleotides, we document length and design parameters that affect ssOR efficiency to show a simple relationship to homologies either side of the repair site. Notably, ssOR shows strand bias. Oligonucleotides that can prime lagging strand replication deliver more ssOR than their leading complements. This suggests a model in which the annealing proteins hybridize the oligonucleotides to single stranded regions near the replication fork. We also show that ssOR is a highly efficient way to engineer BACs and can be detected in a eukaryotic cell upon expression of a phage annealing protein. Conclusion Phage annealing proteins can initiate the recombination of single stranded oligonucleotides into endogenous targets in Escherichia coli at very high efficiencies. This expands the repertoire of useful DNA engineering strategies, shows promise for applications in eukaryotic cells, and has implications for the unanswered questions regarding DSBR mediated by RecE/RecT and Redα/Redβ.

  16. Functional comparison of antisense proteins of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 in viral pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit eBarbeau

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The production of antisense transcripts from the 3’ long terminal repeat (LTR in human T-lymphotropic retroviruses has now been clearly demonstrated. After the identification of the antisense strand-encoded HTLV-1 bZIP (HBZ factor, we reported that HBZ could interact with CREB transcription factors and consequently turn off the important activating potential of the viral Tax protein on HTLV-1 5’ LTR promoter activity. We have recently accumulated new results demonstrating that antisense transcripts also exist in HTLV-2, -3 and -4. Furthermore, our data have confirmed the existence of encoded proteins from these antisense transcripts (termed antisense proteins of HTLVs or APHs. APHs are also involved in the down-regulation of Tax-dependent viral transcription. In this review, we will focus on the different molecular mechanisms used by HBZ and APH-2 to control viral expression. While HBZ interacts with CREB through its basic zipper domain, APH-2 binds to this cellular factor through a five amino acid motif localized in its carboxyl terminus. Moreover, unlike APH-2, HBZ possesses an N-terminal activation domain that also contributes to the inhibition of the viral transcription by interacting with the KIX domain of p300/CBP. On the other hand, HBZ was found to induce T-cell proliferation while APH-2 was unable to promote such proliferation. Interestingly, HTLV-2 has not been causally linked to human T-cell leukemia, while HTLV-1 is responsible for the development of the Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL. We will further discuss the possible role played by antisense proteins in the establishment of pathologies induced by viral infection.

  17. Os DNA sintéticos anti-sentido Antisense Synthtetic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Cravador

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available One old dream of the chemist in the field of the drug research is to create molecules capable of reaching their target with the precision of a missile. To accomplish it these molecules must have the propriety of distinguishing qualitative differences between healthy and diseased cells. A therapy based on this principle, able of eradicating specifically defective cells, or cells affected by a pathogen has an enormous advantage with the regard to the classical approach in which the cytotoxic drugs merely exploit quantitative biochemical and kinetic differences between abnormal and normal cells. We present in this article a review on the chemical synthesis of analogues of desoxyribonucleotides and on results obtained on the specific and irreversible inhibition of undesired genetic expression using the antisense principle.

  18. Development of specific oligonucleotide probes for the identification and in situ detection of hydrocarbon-degrading Alcanivorax strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syutsubo, K; Kishira, H; Harayama, S

    2001-06-01

    The genus Alcanivorax comprises diverse hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacteria. Novel 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide DNA probes (ALV735 and ALV735-b) were developed to quantify two subgroups of the Alcanivorax/Fundibacter group by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and the conditions for the single-mismatch discrimination of the probes were optimized. The specificity of the probes was improved further using a singly mismatched oligonucleotide as a competitor. The growth of Alcanivorax cells in crude oil-contaminated sea water under the biostimulation condition was investigated by FISH with the probe ALV735, which targeted the main cluster of the Alcanivorax/Fundibacter group. The size of the Alcanivorax population increased with increasing incubation time and accounted for 91% of the 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) count after incubation for 2 weeks. The probes developed in this study are useful for detecting Alcanivorax populations in petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading microbial consortia.

  19. OligoRAP – an Oligo Re-Annotation Pipeline to improve annotation and estimate target specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, P.; Rauwerda, H.; Nie, H.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Breit, T.M.; Leunissen, J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background - High throughput gene expression studies using oligonucleotide microarrays depend on the specificity of each oligonucleotide (oligo or probe) for its target gene. However, target specific probes can only be designed when a reference genome of the species at hand were completely

  20. Repression of meiotic genes by antisense transcription and by Fkh2 transcription factor in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huei-Mei; Rosebrock, Adam P; Khan, Sohail R; Futcher, Bruce; Leatherwood, Janet K

    2012-01-01

    In S. pombe, about 5% of genes are meiosis-specific and accumulate little or no mRNA during vegetative growth. Here we use Affymetrix tiling arrays to characterize transcripts in vegetative and meiotic cells. In vegetative cells, many meiotic genes, especially those induced in mid-meiosis, have abundant antisense transcripts. Disruption of the antisense transcription of three of these mid-meiotic genes allowed vegetative sense transcription. These results suggest that antisense transcription represses sense transcription of meiotic genes in vegetative cells. Although the mechanism(s) of antisense mediated transcription repression need to be further explored, our data indicates that RNAi machinery is not required for repression. Previously, we and others used non-strand specific methods to study splicing regulation of meiotic genes and concluded that 28 mid-meiotic genes are spliced only in meiosis. We now demonstrate that the "unspliced" signal in vegetative cells comes from the antisense RNA, not from unspliced sense RNA, and we argue against the idea that splicing regulates these mid-meiotic genes. Most of these mid-meiotic genes are induced in mid-meiosis by the forkhead transcription factor Mei4. Interestingly, deletion of a different forkhead transcription factor, Fkh2, allows low levels of sense expression of some mid-meiotic genes in vegetative cells. We propose that vegetative expression of mid-meiotic genes is repressed at least two independent ways: antisense transcription and Fkh2 repression.

  1. Use of 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes to investigate the distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria in estuarine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, K J.; Nedwell, D B.; Embley, T M.; Takii, S

    2001-07-01

    The distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) in three anaerobic sediments, one predominantly freshwater and low sulphate and two predominantly marine and high sulphate, on the River Tama, Tokyo, Japan, was investigated using 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Hybridisation results and sulphate reduction measurements indicated that SRBs are a minor part of the bacterial population in the freshwater sediments. Only Desulfobulbus and Desulfobacterium were detected, representing 1.6% of the general bacterial probe signal. In contrast, the SRB community detected at the two marine-dominated sites was larger and more diverse, representing 10-11.4% of the bacterial signal and with Desulfobacter, Desulfovibrio, Desulfobulbus and Desulfobacterium detected. In contrast to previous reports our results suggest that Desulfovibrio may not always be the most abundant SRB in anaerobic sediments. Acetate-utilising Desulfobacter were the dominant SRB in the marine-dominated sediments, and Desulfobulbus and Desulfobacterium were active in low-sulphate sediments, where they may utilise electron acceptors other than sulphate.

  2. Mass spectrometric detection of siRNA in plasma samples for doping control purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Maxie; Thomas, Andreas; Walpurgis, Katja; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) molecules can effect the expression of any gene by inducing the degradation of mRNA. Therefore, these molecules can be of interest for illicit performance enhancement in sports by affecting different metabolic pathways. An example of an efficient performance-enhancing gene knockdown is the myostatin gene that regulates muscle growth. This study was carried out to provide a tool for the mass spectrometric detection of modified and unmodified siRNA from plasma samples. The oligonucleotides are purified by centrifugal filtration and the use of an miRNA purification kit, followed by flow-injection analysis using an Exactive mass spectrometer to yield the accurate masses of the sense and antisense strands. Although chromatography and sensitive mass spectrometric analysis of oligonucleotides are still challenging, a method was developed and validated that has adequate sensitivity (limit of detection 0.25-1 nmol mL(-1)) and performance (precision 11-21%, recovery 23-67%) for typical antisense oligonucleotides currently used in clinical studies.

  3. Direct microcontact printing of oligonucleotides for biochip applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trévisiol E

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A critical step in the fabrication of biochips is the controlled placement of probes molecules on solid surfaces. This is currently performed by sequential deposition of probes on a target surface with split or solid pins. In this article, we present a cost-effective procedure namely microcontact printing using stamps, for a parallel deposition of probes applicable for manufacturing biochips. Results Contrary to a previous work, we showed that the stamps tailored with an elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane material did not require any surface modification to be able to adsorb oligonucleotides or PCR products. The adsorbed DNA molecules are subsequently printed efficiently on a target surface with high sub-micron resolution. Secondly, we showed that successive stamping is characterized by an exponential decay of the amount of transferred DNA molecules to the surface up the 4th print, then followed by a second regime of transfer that was dependent on the contact time and which resulted in reduced quality of the features. Thus, while consecutive stamping was possible, this procedure turned out to be less reproducible and more time consuming than simply re-inking the stamps between each print. Thirdly, we showed that the hybridization signals on arrays made by microcontact printing were 5 to 10-times higher than those made by conventional spotting methods. Finally, we demonstrated the validity of this microcontact printing method in manufacturing oligonucleotides arrays for mutations recognition in a yeast gene. Conclusion The microcontact printing can be considered as a new potential technology platform to pattern DNA microarrays that may have significant advantages over the conventional spotting technologies as it is easy to implement, it uses low cost material to make the stamp, and the arrays made by this technology are 10-times more sensitive in term of hybridization signals than those manufactured by conventional spotting

  4. Modern methods for the synthesis of peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubin, Evgenii M; Oretskaya, Tat'yana S; Romanova, Elena A

    2002-01-01

    The published data on the methods of chemical solution and solid-phase synthesis of peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates are reviewed. The known methods are systematised and their advantages and disadvantages are considered. The approaches to the solution synthesis of peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates are systematised according to the type of chemical bonds between the fragments, whereas those to the solid-phase synthesis are classified according to the procedure used for the preparation of conjugates, viz., stepwise elongation of oligonucleotide and peptide chains on the same polymeric support or solid-phase condensation of two presynthesised fragments. The bibliography includes 141 references.

  5. Assisted delivery of antisense therapeutics in animal models of heritable neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bent, M Leontien; Paulino da Silva Filho, Omar; van Luijk, Judith; Brock, Roland; Wansink, Derick G

    2018-03-08

    Antisense oligonucleotide (AON)-based therapies hold promise for a range of neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases and have shown benefit in animal models and patients. Success in the clinic is nevertheless still limited, due to unfavourable biodistribution and poor cellular uptake of AONs. Extensive research is currently being conducted into the formulation of AONs to improve delivery, but thus far there is no consensus on which of those strategies will be the most effective. This systematic review was designed to answer in an unbiased manner which delivery strategies most strongly enhance the efficacy of AONs in animal models of heritable neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases. In total, 95 primary studies met the predefined inclusion criteria. Study characteristics and data on biodistribution and toxicity were extracted and reporting quality and risk of bias were assessed. Twenty studies were eligible for meta-analysis. We found that even though the use of delivery systems provides an advantage over naked AONs, it is not yet possible to select the most promising strategies. Importantly, standardisation of experimental procedures is warranted in order to reach conclusions about the most efficient delivery strategies. Our best practice guidelines for future experiments serve as a step in that direction.

  6. Alkali reversal of psoralen cross-link for the targeted delivery of psoralen monoadduct lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, A.T.; Dinehart, W.J.; Jones, B.K.

    1988-01-01

    Psoralen intercalates into double-stranded DNA and photoreacts mainly with thymines to form monoadducts and interstrand cross-links. The authors used an oligonucleotide model to demonstrate a novel mechanism: the reversal of psoralen cross-links by base-catalyzed rearrangement at 90 0 C (BCR). The BCR reaction is more efficient than the photoreversal reaction. They show that the BCR occurs predominantly on the furan side of a psoralen cross-link. The cleavage does not result in the breaking of the DNA backbone, and the thymine based freed from the cross-link by the cleavage reaction appears to be unmodified. Similarly, BCR of the furan-side monoadduct of psoralen removed the psoralen molecule and regenerated the unaltered native oligonucleotide. The pyrone-side psoralen monoadduct is relatively resistant to BCR. One can use BCR to perform efficient oligonucleotide-directed, site-specific delivery of a psoralen monoadduct. As a demonstration of this approach, they have hybridized a 19 base long oligonucleotide vehicle containing a furan-side psoralen monoadduct to a 56 base long complementary oligonucleotide target strand and formed a specific cross-link at the target site with 365-nm UV. Subsequent BCR released the oligonucleotide vehicle and deposited the psoralen at the target site

  7. Repression of Meiotic Genes by Antisense Transcription and by Fkh2 Transcription Factor in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huei-Mei; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Khan, Sohail R.; Futcher, Bruce; Leatherwood, Janet K.

    2012-01-01

    In S. pombe, about 5% of genes are meiosis-specific and accumulate little or no mRNA during vegetative growth. Here we use Affymetrix tiling arrays to characterize transcripts in vegetative and meiotic cells. In vegetative cells, many meiotic genes, especially those induced in mid-meiosis, have abundant antisense transcripts. Disruption of the antisense transcription of three of these mid-meiotic genes allowed vegetative sense transcription. These results suggest that antisense transcription represses sense transcription of meiotic genes in vegetative cells. Although the mechanism(s) of antisense mediated transcription repression need to be further explored, our data indicates that RNAi machinery is not required for repression. Previously, we and others used non-strand specific methods to study splicing regulation of meiotic genes and concluded that 28 mid-meiotic genes are spliced only in meiosis. We now demonstrate that the “unspliced” signal in vegetative cells comes from the antisense RNA, not from unspliced sense RNA, and we argue against the idea that splicing regulates these mid-meiotic genes. Most of these mid-meiotic genes are induced in mid-meiosis by the forkhead transcription factor Mei4. Interestingly, deletion of a different forkhead transcription factor, Fkh2, allows low levels of sense expression of some mid-meiotic genes in vegetative cells. We propose that vegetative expression of mid-meiotic genes is repressed at least two independent ways: antisense transcription and Fkh2 repression. PMID:22238674

  8. Repression of meiotic genes by antisense transcription and by Fkh2 transcription factor in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Mei Chen

    Full Text Available In S. pombe, about 5% of genes are meiosis-specific and accumulate little or no mRNA during vegetative growth. Here we use Affymetrix tiling arrays to characterize transcripts in vegetative and meiotic cells. In vegetative cells, many meiotic genes, especially those induced in mid-meiosis, have abundant antisense transcripts. Disruption of the antisense transcription of three of these mid-meiotic genes allowed vegetative sense transcription. These results suggest that antisense transcription represses sense transcription of meiotic genes in vegetative cells. Although the mechanism(s of antisense mediated transcription repression need to be further explored, our data indicates that RNAi machinery is not required for repression. Previously, we and others used non-strand specific methods to study splicing regulation of meiotic genes and concluded that 28 mid-meiotic genes are spliced only in meiosis. We now demonstrate that the "unspliced" signal in vegetative cells comes from the antisense RNA, not from unspliced sense RNA, and we argue against the idea that splicing regulates these mid-meiotic genes. Most of these mid-meiotic genes are induced in mid-meiosis by the forkhead transcription factor Mei4. Interestingly, deletion of a different forkhead transcription factor, Fkh2, allows low levels of sense expression of some mid-meiotic genes in vegetative cells. We propose that vegetative expression of mid-meiotic genes is repressed at least two independent ways: antisense transcription and Fkh2 repression.

  9. Quantification of different Eubacterium spp. in human fecal samples with species-specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiertz, A; Le Blay, G; Blaut, M

    2000-01-01

    Species-specific 16S rRNA-targeted, Cy3 (indocarbocyanine)-labeled oligonucleotide probes were designed and validated to quantify different Eubacterium species in human fecal samples. Probes were directed at Eubacterium barkeri, E. biforme, E. contortum, E. cylindroides (two probes), E. dolichum, E. hadrum, E. lentum, E. limosum, E. moniliforme, and E. ventriosum. The specificity of the probes was tested with the type strains and a range of common intestinal bacteria. With one exception, none of the probes showed cross-hybridization under stringent conditions. The species-specific probes were applied to fecal samples obtained from 12 healthy volunteers. E. biforme, E. cylindroides, E. hadrum, E. lentum, and E. ventriosum could be determined. All other Eubacterium species for which probes had been designed were under the detection limit of 10(7) cells g (dry weight) of feces(-1). The cell counts obtained are essentially in accordance with the literature data, which are based on colony counts. This shows that whole-cell in situ hybridization with species-specific probes is a valuable tool for the enumeration of Eubacterium species in feces.

  10. Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A

    2015-01-01

    The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition, with ...

  11. Ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor based on the oligonucleotide self-assembled monolayer-mediated immunosensing interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dengyou; Luo, Qimei [Science College of Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Deng, Fawen [The Fourth Hospital of Chansha, Changsha 410006 (China); Li, Zhen [Science College of Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Li, Benxiang, E-mail: 172170960@qq.com [Science College of Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Shen, Zhifa, E-mail: shenzhifa@wmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medicine, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, College of Laboratory Medicine and Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2017-06-08

    Highly sensitive and selective quantitation of a variety of proteins over a wide concentration range is highly desirable for increased accuracy of biomarker detection or for multidisease diagnostics. In the present contribution, using human immunoglobulin G (HIgG) as the model target protein, an electrochemical ultrasensitive immunosensing platform was developed based on the oligonucleotide self-assembled monolayer-mediated (OSAM) sensing interface. For this immunosensor, the “signal-on” signaling mechanism and enzymatic signal amplification effect were integrated into one sensing architecture. Moreover, the thiolated flexible single-stranded DNAs immobilized onto gold electrode surface not only performs the wobbling motion to facilitate the electron transfer between the electrode surface and biosensing layer but also fundamentally prohibiting the direct interaction of proteins with gold substrate. Thus, the electrochemical signal could be efficiently enhanced and the unspecific adsorption or cross-reaction might be eliminated. As a result, utilizing the newly-proposed immunosensor, the HIgG can be detected down to 0.5 ng/mL, and the high detection specificity is offered. The successful design of OSAM and the highly desirable detection capability of new immunosensor are expected to provide a perspective for fabricating new robust immunosensing platform and for promising potential of oligonucleotide probe in biological research and biomedical diagnosis. - Highlights: • An electrochemical ultrasensitive immunosensing platform was developed based on the oligonucleotide self-assembled monolayer (OASM). • OASM severs as a flexible monolayer to promote electron transfer and prohibits the direct interaction of proteins with gold substrate. • The electrochemical signal is efficiently enhanced and the unspecific adsorption or cross-reaction is eliminated. • Target protein can be detected down to 0.5 ng/mL, and the high detection specificity can be obtained.

  12. Tye7 regulates yeast Ty1 retrotransposon sense and antisense transcription in response to adenylic nucleotides stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Géraldine; Pinson, Benoit; Tchalikian-Cosson, Aurélie; Coulpier, Fanny; Lemoine, Sophie; Pennetier, Carole; Bridier-Nahmias, Antoine; Todeschini, Anne Laure; Fayol, Hélène; Daignan-Fornier, Bertrand; Lesage, Pascale

    2012-07-01

    Transposable elements play a fundamental role in genome evolution. It is proposed that their mobility, activated under stress, induces mutations that could confer advantages to the host organism. Transcription of the Ty1 LTR-retrotransposon of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is activated in response to a severe deficiency in adenylic nucleotides. Here, we show that Ty2 and Ty3 are also stimulated under these stress conditions, revealing the simultaneous activation of three active Ty retrotransposon families. We demonstrate that Ty1 activation in response to adenylic nucleotide depletion requires the DNA-binding transcription factor Tye7. Ty1 is transcribed in both sense and antisense directions. We identify three Tye7 potential binding sites in the region of Ty1 DNA sequence where antisense transcription starts. We show that Tye7 binds to Ty1 DNA and regulates Ty1 antisense transcription. Altogether, our data suggest that, in response to adenylic nucleotide reduction, TYE7 is induced and activates Ty1 mRNA transcription, possibly by controlling Ty1 antisense transcription. We also provide the first evidence that Ty1 antisense transcription can be regulated by environmental stress conditions, pointing to a new level of control of Ty1 activity by stress, as Ty1 antisense RNAs play an important role in regulating Ty1 mobility at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional stages.

  13. MicroRNA-21 directly targets MARCKS and promotes apoptosis resistance and invasion in prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tao; Li, Dong; Sha, Jianjun; Sun, Peng; Huang, Yiran

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant cancers in men. Recent studies have shown that microRNA-21 (miR-21) is overexpressed in various types of cancers including prostate cancer. Studies on glioma, colon cancer cells, hepatocellular cancer cells and breast cancer cells have indicated that miR-21 is involved in tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. However, the roles of miR-21 in prostate cancer are poorly understood. In this study, the effects of miR-21 on prostate cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion were examined. In addition, the targets of miR-21 were identified by a reported RISC-coimmunoprecipitation-based biochemical method. Inactivation of miR-21 by antisense oligonucleotides in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and PC-3 resulted in sensitivity to apoptosis and inhibition of cell motility and invasion, whereas cell proliferation were not affected. We identified myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase c substrate (MARCKS), which plays key roles in cell motility, as a new target in prostate cancer cells. Our data suggested that miR-21 could promote apoptosis resistance, motility, and invasion in prostate cancer cells and these effects of miR-21 may be partly due to its regulation of PDCD4, TPM1, and MARCKS. Gene therapy using miR-21 inhibition strategy may therefore be useful as a prostate cancer therapy.

  14. Delivery of a survivin promoter-driven antisense survivin-expressing plasmid DNA as a cancer therapeutic: a proof-of-concept study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin KY

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kun-Yuan Lin,1 Siao Muk Cheng,2 Shing-Ling Tsai,2 Ju-Ya Tsai,1 Chun-Hui Lin,1 Chun Hei Antonio Cheung1,2 1Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC; 2Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC Abstract: Survivin is a member of the inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins family. It is overexpressed in many different cancer types but not in the differentiated normal tissue. In addition, overexpression of survivin promotes cancer cell survival and induces chemotherapeutic drug resistance, making it an attractive target for new anticancer interventions. Despite survivin being a promising molecular target for anticancer treatment, it is widely accepted that survivin is only a “semi-druggable” target. Therefore, it is important to develop a new strategy to target survivin for anticancer treatment. In this study, we constructed a novel survivin promoter-driven full-length antisense survivin (pSur/AS-Sur expression plasmid DNA. Promoter activity assay revealed that the activity of the survivin promoter of pSur/AS-Sur correlated with the endogenous expression of survivin at the transcriptional level in the transfected A549, MDA-MB-231, and PANC-1 cancer cells. Western blot analysis showed that liposomal delivery of pSur/AS-Sur successfully downregulated the expression of survivin in A549, MBA-MB-231, and PANC-1 cells in vitro. In addition, delivery of pSur/AS-Sur induced autophagy, caspase-dependent apoptosis, and caspase-independent apoptosis as indicated by the increased LC3B-II conversion, autophagosome formation, caspase-9/-3 and poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 cleavage, and apoptosis-inducing factor nuclear translocation in A549, MBA-MB-231, and PANC-1 cells. Importantly, liposomal delivery of pSur/AS-Sur was also capable of decreasing the proliferation of the survivin/MDR1 coexpressing multidrug-resistant KB-TAX50 cancer cells and

  15. Optical Characterization of Oligonucleotide DNA Influenced by Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Maryam Banihashemian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available UV-VIS spectroscopic analysis of oligonucleotide DNA exposed to different magnetic fields was performed in order to investigate the relationship between DNA extinction coefficients and optical parameters according to magnetic-field strength. The results with the oligonucleotides adenine-thymine 100 mer (AT-100 DNA and cytosine-guanine 100 mer (CG-100 DNA indicate that the magnetic field influences DNA molar extinction coefficients and refractive indexes. The imaginary parts of the refractive index and molar extinction coefficients of the AT-100 and CG-100 DNA decreased after exposure to a magnetic field of 750 mT due to cleavage of the DNA oligonucleotides into smaller segments.

  16. Ultrasensitive Detection of Ebola Virus Oligonucleotide Based on Upconversion Nanoprobe/Nanoporous Membrane System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Ming-Kiu; Ye, WeiWei; Wang, Guojing; Li, Jingming; Yang, Mo; Hao, Jianhua

    2016-01-26

    Ebola outbreaks are currently of great concern, and therefore, development of effective diagnosis methods is urgently needed. The key for lethal virus detection is high sensitivity, since early-stage detection of virus may increase the probability of survival. Here, we propose a luminescence scheme of assay consisting of BaGdF5:Yb/Er upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) conjugated with oligonucleotide probe and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) linked with target Ebola virus oligonucleotide. As a proof of concept, a homogeneous assay was fabricated and tested, yielding a detection limit at picomolar level. The luminescence resonance energy transfer is ascribed to the spectral overlapping of upconversion luminescence and the absorption characteristics of AuNPs. Moreover, we anchored the UCNPs and AuNPs on a nanoporous alumina (NAAO) membrane to form a heterogeneous assay. Importantly, the detection limit was greatly improved, exhibiting a remarkable value at the femtomolar level. The enhancement is attributed to the increased light-matter interaction throughout the nanopore walls of the NAAO membrane. The specificity test suggested that the nanoprobes were specific to Ebola virus oligonucleotides. The strategy combining UCNPs, AuNPs, and NAAO membrane provides new insight into low-cost, rapid, and ultrasensitive detection of different diseases. Furthermore, we explored the feasibility of clinical application by using inactivated Ebola virus samples. The detection results showed great potential of our heterogeneous design for practical application.

  17. Fully automated parallel oligonucleotide synthesizer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebl, M.; Burger, Ch.; Ellman, B.; Heiner, D.; Ibrahim, G.; Jones, A.; Nibbe, M.; Thompson, J.; Mudra, Petr; Pokorný, Vít; Poncar, Pavel; Ženíšek, Karel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 8 (2001), s. 1299-1314 ISSN 0010-0765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : automated oligonucleotide synthesizer Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.778, year: 2001

  18. Synthesis, hybridization characteristics, and fluorescence properties of oligonucleotides modified with nucleobase-functionalized locked nucleic acid adenosine and cytidine monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaura, Mamta; Kumar, Pawan; Hrdlicka, Patrick J

    2014-07-03

    Conformationally restricted nucleotides such as locked nucleic acid (LNA) are very popular as affinity-, specificity-, and stability-enhancing modifications in oligonucleotide chemistry to produce probes for nucleic acid targeting applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, and medicinal chemistry. Considerable efforts have been devoted in recent years to optimize the biophysical properties of LNA through additional modification of the sugar skeleton. We recently introduced C5-functionalization of LNA uridines as an alternative and synthetically more straightforward approach to improve the biophysical properties of LNA. In the present work, we set out to test the generality of this concept by studying the characteristics of oligonucleotides modified with four different C5-functionalized LNA cytidine and C8-functionalized LNA adenosine monomers. The results strongly suggest that C5-functionalization of LNA pyrimidines is indeed a viable approach for improving the binding affinity, target specificity, and/or enzymatic stability of LNA-modified ONs, whereas C8-functionalization of LNA adenosines is detrimental to binding affinity and specificity. These insights will impact the future design of conformationally restricted nucleotides for nucleic acid targeting applications.

  19. Synthesis of 3'-, or 5'-, or internal methacrylamido-modified oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golova, Julia B.; Chernov, Boris K.

    2010-04-27

    New modifiers were synthesized for incorporation of a methacrylic function in 3'-, 5'- and internal positions of oligonucleotides during solid phase synthesis. A modifier was used for synthesis of 5'-methacrylated oligonucleotides for preparation of microarrays by a co-polymerization method.

  20. RNA interference-based therapeutics: new strategies to fight infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fraga, M; Wright, N; Jiménez, A

    2008-12-01

    For many years, there has been an ongoing search for new compounds that can selectively alter gene expression as a new way to treat human disease by addressing targets that are otherwise "undruggable" with traditional pharmaceutical approaches involving small molecules or proteins. RNA interference (RNAi) strategies have raised a lot of attention and several compounds are currently being tested in clinical trials. Viruses are the obvious target for RNAi-therapy, as most are difficult to treat with conventional drugs, they become rapidly resistant to drug treatment and their genes differ substantially from human genes, minimizing side effects. Antisense strategy offers very high target specificity, i.e., any viral sequence could potentially be targeted using the complementary oligonucleotide sequence. Consequently, new antisense-based therapeutics have the potential to lead a revolution in the anti-infective drug development field. Additionally, the relatively short turnaround for efficacy testing of potential RNAi molecules and that any pathogen is theoretically amenable to rapid targeting, make them invaluable tools for treating a wide range of diseases. This review will focus on some of the current efforts to treat infectious disease with RNAi-based therapies and some of the obstacles that have appeared on the road to successful clinical intervention.

  1. Effects of Atelocollagen Formulation Containing Oligonucleotide on Endothelial Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Hanai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atelocollagen is a major animal protein that is used as a highly biocompatible biomaterial. To date, atelocollagen has been used as an effective drug delivery technology to sustain the release of antitumor proteins and to enhance the antitumor activity of oligonucleotides in in vivo models. However, the biological effects of this technology are not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of atelocollagen on endothelial paracellular barrier function. An atelocollagen formulation containing oligonucleotides specifically increased the permeability of two types of endothelial cells, and the change was dependent on the molecular size, structure of the oligonucleotides used and the concentrations of the oligonucleotide and atelocollagen in the formulation. An immunohistochemical examination revealed that the formulation had effects on the cellular skeleton and intercellular structure although it did not affect the expression of adherens junction or tight junction proteins. These changes were induced through p38 MAP kinase signaling. It is important to elucidate the biological functions of atelocollagen in order to be able to exploit its drug delivery properties.

  2. Upregulation of Haploinsufficient Gene Expression in the Brain by Targeting a Long Non-coding RNA Improves Seizure Phenotype in a Model of Dravet Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, J; Yuan, T Y; Tsai, M S; Lu, C Y; Lin, Y C; Lee, M L; Lin, S W; Chang, F C; Liu Pimentel, H; Olive, C; Coito, C; Shen, G; Young, M; Thorne, T; Lawrence, M; Magistri, M; Faghihi, M A; Khorkova, O; Wahlestedt, C

    2016-07-01

    Dravet syndrome is a devastating genetic brain disorder caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene SCN1A. There are currently no treatments, but the upregulation of SCN1A healthy allele represents an appealing therapeutic strategy. In this study we identified a novel, evolutionary conserved mechanism controlling the expression of SCN1A that is mediated by an antisense non-coding RNA (SCN1ANAT). Using oligonucleotide-based compounds (AntagoNATs) targeting SCN1ANAT we were able to induce specific upregulation of SCN1A both in vitro and in vivo, in the brain of Dravet knock-in mouse model and a non-human primate. AntagoNAT-mediated upregulation of Scn1a in postnatal Dravet mice led to significant improvements in seizure phenotype and excitability of hippocampal interneurons. These results further elucidate the pathophysiology of Dravet syndrome and outline a possible new approach for the treatment of this and other genetic disorders with similar etiology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Upregulation of Haploinsufficient Gene Expression in the Brain by Targeting a Long Non-coding RNA Improves Seizure Phenotype in a Model of Dravet Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hsiao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dravet syndrome is a devastating genetic brain disorder caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene SCN1A. There are currently no treatments, but the upregulation of SCN1A healthy allele represents an appealing therapeutic strategy. In this study we identified a novel, evolutionary conserved mechanism controlling the expression of SCN1A that is mediated by an antisense non-coding RNA (SCN1ANAT. Using oligonucleotide-based compounds (AntagoNATs targeting SCN1ANAT we were able to induce specific upregulation of SCN1A both in vitro and in vivo, in the brain of Dravet knock-in mouse model and a non-human primate. AntagoNAT-mediated upregulation of Scn1a in postnatal Dravet mice led to significant improvements in seizure phenotype and excitability of hippocampal interneurons. These results further elucidate the pathophysiology of Dravet syndrome and outline a possible new approach for the treatment of this and other genetic disorders with similar etiology.

  4. Modulation of the TGFβ/Smad signaling pathway in mesangial cells by CTGF/CCN2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Wahab, Nadia; Weston, Benjamin S.; Mason, Roger M.

    2005-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) drives fibrosis in diseases such as diabetic nephropathy (DN). Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; CCN2) has also been implicated in this, but the molecular mechanism is unknown. We show that CTGF enhances the TGFβ/Smad signaling pathway by transcriptional suppression of Smad 7 following rapid and sustained induction of the transcription factor TIEG-1. Smad 7 is a known antagonist of TGFβ signaling and TIEG-1 is a known repressor of Smad 7 transcription. CTGF enhanced TGFβ-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Smad 2 and Smad 3 in mesangial cells. Antisense oligonucleotides directed against TIEG-1 prevented CTGF-induced downregulation of Smad 7. CTGF enhanced TGFβ-stimulated transcription of the SBE4-Luc reporter gene and this was markedly reduced by TIEG-1 antisense oligonucleotides. Expression of the TGFβ-responsive genes PAI-1 and Col III over 48 h was maximally stimulated by TGFβ + CTGF compared to TGFβ alone, while CTGF alone had no significant effect. TGFβ-stimulated expression of these genes was markedly reduced by both CTGF and TIEG-1 antisense oligonucleotides, consistent with the endogenous induction of CTGF by TGFβ. We propose that under pathological conditions, where CTGF expression is elevated, CTGF blocks the negative feedback loop provided by Smad 7, allowing continued activation of the TGFβ signaling pathway

  5. An antisense oligodeoxynucleotide targeted against the type IIβ regulatory subunit mRNA of protein kinase inhibits cAMP-induced differentiation in HL-60 leukemia cells without affecting phorbol ester effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortora, G.; Clair, T.; Cho-Chung, Y.S.

    1990-01-01

    The type II β regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (RII β ) has been hypothesized to play an important role in the growth inhibition and differentiation induced by site-selective cAMP analogs in human cancer cells, but direct proof of this function has been lacking. To address this tissue, HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells were exposed to RII β antisense synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide, and the effects on cAMP-induced growth regulation were examined. Exposure of these cells to RII β antisense oligodeoxynucleotide resulted in a decrease in cAMP analog-induced growth inhibition and differentiation without apparent effect on differentiation induced by phorbol esters. This loss in cAMP growth regulatory function correlated with a decrease in basal and induced levels of RII β protein. Exposure to RII β sense, RI α and RII α antisense, or irrelevant oligodeoxynucleotides had no such effect. These results show that the RII β regulatory subunit of protein kinase plays a critical role in the cAMP-induced growth regulation of HL-60 leukemia cells

  6. Targeting hepatic heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) induces anti-hyperlipidemia leading to reduction of angiotensin II-induced aneurysm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonwook; Yang, Lihua; Kim, Seongu; Lee, Richard G; Graham, Mark J; Berliner, Judith A; Lusis, Aldons J; Cai, Lei; Temel, Ryan E; Rateri, Debra L; Lee, Sangderk

    2017-01-01

    The upregulated expression of heparin binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in the vessel and circulation is associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we tested the effects of HB-EGF targeting using HB-EGF-specific antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) on the development of aortic aneurysm in a mouse aneurysm model. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) deficient mice (male, 16 weeks of age) were injected with control and HB-EGF ASOs for 10 weeks. To induce aneurysm, the mice were fed a high fat diet (22% fat, 0.2% cholesterol; w/w) at 5 week point of ASO administration and infused with angiotensin II (AngII, 1,000ng/kg/min) for the last 4 weeks of ASO administration. We confirmed that the HB-EGF ASO administration significantly downregulated HB-EGF expression in multiple tissues including the liver. Importantly, the HB-EGF ASO administration significantly suppressed development of aortic aneurysms including thoracic and abdominal types. Interestingly, the HB-EGF ASO administration induced a remarkable anti-hyperlipidemic effect by suppressing very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) level in the blood. Mechanistically, the HB-EGF targeting suppressed hepatic VLDL secretion rate without changing heparin-releasable plasma triglyceride (TG) hydrolytic activity or fecal neutral cholesterol excretion rate. This result suggested that the HB-EGF targeting induced protection against aneurysm development through anti-hyperlipidemic effects. Suppression of hepatic VLDL production process appears to be a key mechanism for the anti-hyperlipidemic effects by the HB-EGF targeting.

  7. Insights into oxazaphosphorine resistance and possible approaches to its circumvention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Quan; Chan, Sui Yung; Duan, Wei; Zhou, Shufeng

    2005-10-01

    The oxazaphosphorines cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and trofosfamide remain a clinically useful class of anticancer drugs with substantial antitumour activity against a variety of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. A major limitation to their use is tumour resistance, which is due to multiple mechanisms that include increased DNA repair, increased cellular thiol levels, glutathione S-transferase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities, and altered cell-death response to DNA damage. These mechanisms have been recently re-examined with the aid of sensitive analytical techniques, high-throughput proteomic and genomic approaches, and powerful pharmacogenetic tools. Oxazaphosphorine resistance, together with dose-limiting toxicity (mainly neutropenia and neurotoxicity), significantly hinders chemotherapy in patients, and hence, there is compelling need to find ways to overcome it. Four major approaches are currently being explored in preclinical models, some also in patients: combination with agents that modulate cellular response and disposition of oxazaphosphorines; antisense oligonucleotides directed against specific target genes; introduction of an activating gene (CYP3A4) into tumor tissue; and modification of dosing regimens. Of these approaches, antisense oligonucleotides and gene therapy are perhaps more speculative, requiring detailed safety and efficacy studies in preclinical models and in patients. A fifth approach is the design of novel oxazaphosphorines that have favourable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and are less vulnerable to resistance. Oxazaphosphorines not requiring hepatic CYP-mediated activation (for example, NSC 613060 and mafosfamide) or having additional targets (for example, glufosfamide that also targets glucose transport) have been synthesized and are being evaluated for safety and efficacy. Characterization of the molecular targets associated with oxazaphosphorine resistance may lead to a deeper understanding of the

  8. Inhibition of PaCaMKII-E isoform in the dorsal unpaired median neurosecretory cells of cockroach reduces nicotine- and clothianidin-induced currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Olivier; Calas-List, Delphine; Taillebois, Emiliane; Juchaux, Marjorie; Heuland, Emilie; Thany, Steeve H

    2014-08-01

    Cellular responses to Ca(2+) require intermediary proteins such as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), which transduces the signal into downstream effects. We recently demonstrated that the cockroach genome encodes five different CaMKII isoforms, and only PaCaMKII-E isoform is specifically expressed in the dorsal unpaired median neurosecretory cells. In the present study, using antisense oligonucleotides, we demonstrated that PaCaMKII-E isoform inhibition reduced nicotine-induced currents through α-bungarotoxin-sensitive and -insensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. Specifically, PaCaMKII-E isoform is sufficient to repress nicotinic current amplitudes as a result of its depression by antisense oligonucleotides. Similar results were found using the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin, which acted as a full agonist of dorsal unpaired median neuron nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Clothianidin current amplitudes are strongly reduced under bath application of PaCaMKII-E antisense oligonucleotides but no significant results are found with α-bungarotoxin co-applied, demonstrating that CaMKII-E isoform affects nicotine currents through α-bungarotoxin-sensitive and -insensitive receptor subtypes whereas clothianidin currents are reduced via α-bungarotoxin-insensitive receptors. In addition, we found that intracellular calcium increase induced by nicotine and clothianidin were reduced by PaCaMKII-E antisense oligonucleotides, demonstrating that intracellular calcium increase induced by nicotine and clothianidin are affected by PaCaMKII-E inhibition. Cellular responses to Ca(2+) require intermediary proteins such as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). We recently demonstrated that the cockroach genome encodes five different CaMKII isoforms and only PaCaMKII-E isoform was specifically expressed in the dorsal unpaired median neurosecretory cells. Here we show that specific inhibition of PaCaMKII-E isoform is

  9. Functionalization of PVC membrane with ss oligonucleotides for a potentiometric biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkanova, T V; Volf, R; Krondak, M; Král, V

    2007-05-15

    A novel application of a single stranded (ss) oligonucleotide as an active component of polymeric membrane in an ion-selective electrode (ISE) is described. The original oligonucleotides, oligo(dA)(15), modified by cholesterol, triphenylmethyl and hexadecyl derivatives, were immobilized into poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane using extraction protocol. In parallel, the adsorption protocol was used to immobilize unmodified oligo(dA)(15) on the PVC membrane based on tridodecylmethyammonium chloride (TDDMA(+)Cl(-)). Immobilization of ss oligonucleotide probe through spacer was more effective for the potentiometric detection of the hybridization between complementary oligonucleotides. It was found that cholesterol-oligo(dA)(15) modified membranes were sensitive toward complementary oligo(dT)(15) in the concentration range 2-80 nM at pH 7. An explanation for the detection mechanism is proposed.

  10. Synthetic Method for Oligonucleotide Block by Using Alkyl-Chain-Soluble Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Yuki; Shoji, Takao; Kim, Shokaku; Chiba, Kazuhiro

    2016-02-19

    A straightforward method for the synthesis of oligonucleotide blocks using a Cbz-type alkyl-chain-soluble support (Z-ACSS) attached to the 3'-OH group of 3'-terminal nucleosides was developed. The Z-ACSS allowed for the preparation of fully protected deoxyribo- and ribo-oligonucleotides without chromatographic purification and released dimer- to tetramer-size oligonucleotide blocks via hydrogenation using a Pd/C catalyst without significant loss or migration of protective groups such as 5'-end 4,4'-dimethoxtrityl, 2-cyanoethyl on internucleotide bonds, or 2'-TBS.

  11. Suppression of cell division by pKi-67 antisense-RNA and recombinant protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchrow, M; Schmidt, M H; Zingler, M; Anemüller, S; Bruch, H P; Broll, R

    2001-01-01

    The human antigen defined by the monoclonal antibody Ki-67 (pKi-67) is a human nuclear protein strongly associated with cell proliferation and found in all tissues studied. It is widely used as a marker of proliferating cells, yet its function is unknown. To investigate its function we suppressed pKi-67 expression by antisense RNA and overexpressed a partial structure of pKi-67 in HeLa cells. A BrdU-incorporation assay showed a significant decrease in DNA synthesis after antisense inhibition. Cell cycle analysis indicated a higher proportion of cells in G1 phase and a lower proportion of cells in S phase while the number of G(2)/M phase cells remained constant. Overexpression of a recombinant protein encoding three of the repetitive elements from exon 13 of pKi-67 had a similar effect to that obtained by antisense inhibition. The similarity of the effect of expressing 'Ki-67 repeats' and pKi-67 antisense RNA could be explained by a negative effect on the folding of the endogenous protein in the endoplasmatic reticulum. Furthermore excessive self-association of pKi-67 via the repeat structure could inhibit its nuclear transport, preventing it from getting to its presumptive site of action. We conclude that the Ki-67 protein has an important role in the regulation of the cell cycle, which is mediated in part by its repetitive elements. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Design of oligonucleotides for microarrays and perspectives for design of multi-transcriptome arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Wernersson, Rasmus; Knudsen, Steen

    2003-01-01

    with an overview of these parameters. We present here a flexible tool named OligoWiz for designing oligonucleotides for multiple purposes. OligoWiz presents a set of parameter scores in a graphical interface to facilitate an overview for the user. Additional custom parameter scores can easily be added......Optimal design of oligonucleotides for microarrays involves tedious and laborious work evaluating potential oligonucleotides relative to a series of parameters. The currently available tools for this purpose are limited in their flexibility and do not present the oligonucleotide designer...... to the program to extend the default parameters: homology, DeltaTm, low-complexity, position and GATC-only. Furthermore we present an analysis of the limitations in designing oligonucleotide sets that can detect transcripts from multiple organisms. OligoWiz is available at www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/OligoWiz/....

  13. Regulation of the Apolipoprotein Gene Cluster by a Long Noncoding RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Halley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1 is the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL in plasma. We have identified an endogenously expressed long noncoding natural antisense transcript, APOA1-AS, which acts as a negative transcriptional regulator of APOA1 both in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of APOA1-AS in cultured cells resulted in the increased expression of APOA1 and two neighboring genes in the APO cluster. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analyses of a ∼50 kb chromatin region flanking the APOA1 gene demonstrated that APOA1-AS can modulate distinct histone methylation patterns that mark active and/or inactive gene expression through the recruitment of histone-modifying enzymes. Targeting APOA1-AS with short antisense oligonucleotides also enhanced APOA1 expression in both human and monkey liver cells and induced an increase in hepatic RNA and protein expression in African green monkeys. Furthermore, the results presented here highlight the significant local modulatory effects of long noncoding antisense RNAs and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of manipulating the expression of these transcripts both in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Thermodynamics of Oligonucleotide Duplex Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Gosche, Sherrie; Edwards, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Melting temperatures of oligonucleotides are useful for a number of molecular biology applications, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although melting temperatures are often calculated with simplistic empirical equations, application of thermodynamics provides more accurate melting temperatures and an opportunity for students to apply…

  15. Static magnetic field reduced exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by spermatozoa using magnetic nanoparticle gene delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katebi, Samira; Esmaeili, Abolghasem; Ghaedi, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Spermatozoa could introduce exogenous oligonucleotides of interest to the oocyte. The most important reason of low efficiency of sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is low uptake of exogenous DNA by spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of static magnetic field on exogenous oligonucleotide uptake of spermatozoa using magnetofection method. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) associated with the labeled oligonucleotides were used to increase the efficiency of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa. We used high-field/high-gradient magnet (NdFeB) to enhance and accelerate exogenous DNA sedimentation at the spermatozoa surface. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to measure viability and percentage of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by sperm. Flow cytometry analysis showed a significant increase in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa (P<0.001) when spermatozoa were incubated in exogenous oligonucleotide solution and MNPs. However, by applying static magnetic field during magnetofection method, a significant decrease in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake was observed (P<0.05). Findings of this study showed that MNPs were effective to increase exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa; however unlike others studies, static magnetic field, was not only ineffective to enhance exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa but also led to reduction in efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles in gene transfer. - Highlights: • Core/shell type Iron oxide nanoparticles were used as a novel and efficient method. • This method increases exogenous DNA uptake by rooster spermatozoa. • Static magnetic field decreased DNA uptake by rooster spermatozoa.

  16. Static magnetic field reduced exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by spermatozoa using magnetic nanoparticle gene delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katebi, Samira; Esmaeili, Abolghasem, E-mail: aesmaeili@sci.ui.ac.ir; Ghaedi, Kamran

    2016-03-15

    Spermatozoa could introduce exogenous oligonucleotides of interest to the oocyte. The most important reason of low efficiency of sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is low uptake of exogenous DNA by spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of static magnetic field on exogenous oligonucleotide uptake of spermatozoa using magnetofection method. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) associated with the labeled oligonucleotides were used to increase the efficiency of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa. We used high-field/high-gradient magnet (NdFeB) to enhance and accelerate exogenous DNA sedimentation at the spermatozoa surface. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to measure viability and percentage of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by sperm. Flow cytometry analysis showed a significant increase in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa (P<0.001) when spermatozoa were incubated in exogenous oligonucleotide solution and MNPs. However, by applying static magnetic field during magnetofection method, a significant decrease in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake was observed (P<0.05). Findings of this study showed that MNPs were effective to increase exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa; however unlike others studies, static magnetic field, was not only ineffective to enhance exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa but also led to reduction in efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles in gene transfer. - Highlights: • Core/shell type Iron oxide nanoparticles were used as a novel and efficient method. • This method increases exogenous DNA uptake by rooster spermatozoa. • Static magnetic field decreased DNA uptake by rooster spermatozoa.

  17. Interaction of the E. coli DNA G:T-mismatch endonuclease (vsr protein) with oligonucleotides containing its target sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D P; Connolly, B A

    2000-12-15

    The Escherichia coli vsr endonuclease recognises G:T base-pair mismatches in double-stranded DNA and initiates a repair pathway by hydrolysing the phosphate group 5' to the incorrectly paired T. The enzyme shows a preference for G:T mismatches within a particular sequence context, derived from the recognition site of the E. coli dcm DNA-methyltransferase (CC[A/T]GG). Thus, the preferred substrate for the vsr protein is (CT[A/T]GG), where the underlined T is opposed by a dG base. This paper provides quantitative data for the interaction of the vsr protein with a number of oligonucleotides containing G:T mismatches. Evaluation of specificity constant (k(st)/K(D); k(st)=rate constant for single turnover, K(D)=equilibrium dissociation constant) confirms vsr's preference for a G:T mismatch within a hemi-methylated dcm sequence, i.e. the best substrate is a duplex (both strands written in the 5'-3' orientation) composed of CT[A/T]GG and C(5Me)C[T/A]GG. Conversion of the mispaired T (underlined) to dU or the d(5Me)C to dC gave poorer substrates. No interaction was observed with oligonucleotides that lacked a G:T mismatch or did not possess a dcm sequence. An analysis of the fraction of active protein, by "reverse-titration" (i.e. adding increasing amounts of DNA to a fixed amount of protein followed by gel-mobility shift analysis) showed that less than 1% of the vsr endonuclease was able to bind to the substrate. This was confirmed using "competitive titrations" (where competitor oligonucleotides are used to displace a (32)P-labelled nucleic acid from the vsr protein) and burst kinetic analysis. This result is discussed in the light of previous in vitro and in vivo data which indicate that the MutL protein may be needed for full vsr activity. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  18. Antisense long noncoding RNAs regulate var gene activation in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit-Avraham, Inbar; Pozner, Guy; Eshar, Shiri; Fastman, Yair; Kolevzon, Netanel; Yavin, Eylon; Dzikowski, Ron

    2015-03-03

    The virulence of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of human malaria, is attributed to its ability to evade human immunity through antigenic variation. These parasites alternate between expression of variable antigens, encoded by members of a multicopy gene family named var. Immune evasion through antigenic variation depends on tight regulation of var gene expression, ensuring that only a single var gene is expressed at a time while the rest of the family is maintained transcriptionally silent. Understanding how a single gene is chosen for activation is critical for understanding mutually exclusive expression but remains a mystery. Here, we show that antisense long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) initiating from var introns are associated with the single active var gene at the time in the cell cycle when the single var upstream promoter is active. We demonstrate that these antisense transcripts are incorporated into chromatin, and that expression of these antisense lncRNAs in trans triggers activation of a silent var gene in a sequence- and dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, interference with these lncRNAs using complement peptide nucleic acid molecules down-regulated the active var gene, erased the epigenetic memory, and induced expression switching. Altogether, our data provide evidence that these antisense lncRNAs play a key role in regulating var gene activation and mutually exclusive expression.

  19. Static magnetic field reduced exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by spermatozoa using magnetic nanoparticle gene delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katebi, Samira; Esmaeili, Abolghasem; Ghaedi, Kamran

    2016-03-01

    Spermatozoa could introduce exogenous oligonucleotides of interest to the oocyte. The most important reason of low efficiency of sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is low uptake of exogenous DNA by spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of static magnetic field on exogenous oligonucleotide uptake of spermatozoa using magnetofection method. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) associated with the labeled oligonucleotides were used to increase the efficiency of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa. We used high-field/high-gradient magnet (NdFeB) to enhance and accelerate exogenous DNA sedimentation at the spermatozoa surface. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to measure viability and percentage of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by sperm. Flow cytometry analysis showed a significant increase in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa (Prooster spermatozoa; however unlike others studies, static magnetic field, was not only ineffective to enhance exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa but also led to reduction in efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles in gene transfer.

  20. Quantitation of ultraviolet-induced single-strand breaks using oligonucleotide chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Sukdeb; Kim, Min Jung; Choo, Jaebum; Kang, Seong Ho; Lee, Kyeong-Hee; Song, Joon Myong

    2008-01-01

    A simple, accurate and robust methodology was established for the direct quantification of ultraviolet (UV)-induced single-strand break (SSB) using oligonucleotide chip. Oligonucleotide chips were fabricated by covalently anchoring the fluorescent-labeled ssDNAs onto silicon dioxide chip surfaces. Assuming that the possibility of more than one UV-induced SSB to be generated in a small oligonucleotide is extremely low, SSB formation was investigated quantifying the endpoint probe density by fluorescence measurement upon UV irradiation. The SSB yields obtained based on the highly sensitive laser-induced fluorometric determination of fluorophore-labeled oligonucleotides were found to coincide well with that predicted from a theoretical extrapolation of the results obtained for plasmid DNAs using conventional agarose gel electrophoresis. The developed method has the potential to serve as a high throughput, sample-thrifty, and time saving tool to realize more realistic, and direct quantification of radiation and chemical-induced strand breaks. It will be especially useful for determining the frequency of SSBs or lesions convertible to SSBs by specific cleaving reagents or enzymes

  1. Alteration of rice growth and development via antisense expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    OsGA20ox2 in regulating plant growth and development, we used reverse genomic approach to ... pathways. Similarly, Carmen et al. (2007) suggested that. Carrizo citrange plants have produced antisense ... universal SP6 and T7 primers to conform their reality (Sangon, ..... Optimising the tissue culture conditions for.

  2. Cellular delivery and antisense effects of peptide nucleic acid conjugated to polyethyleneimine via disulfide linkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthold, Peter R; Shiraishi, Takehiko; Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is potentially an attractive antisense and antigene agent for which more efficient cellular delivery systems are still warranted. The cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI) is commonly used for cellular transfection of DNA and RNA complexes, but is not readily applicable...... moiety) and further reacted this with a cysteine PNA. The level of modification was determined spectrophotometrically with high accuracy, and the PNA transfection efficiency of the conjugates was evaluated in an antisense luciferase splice-correction assay using HeLa pLuc705 cells. We find that PEI...... is an efficient vector for PNA delivery yielding significantly higher (up to 10-fold) antisense activity than an analogous PNA-octaarginine conjugate, even in the presence of chloroquine, which only slightly enhances the PEI-PNA activity. The PEI-PEG conjugates are preferred due to lower acute cellular toxicity...

  3. Folding Topology of a Short Coiled-Coil Peptide Structure Templated by an Oligonucleotide Triplex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Chenguang; Christensen, Niels Johan; Martos Maldonado, Manuel Cristo

    2017-01-01

    by oligonucleotide duplex and triplex formation. POC synthesis was achieved by copper-free alkyne-azide cycloaddition between three oligonucleotides and a 23-mer peptide, which by itself exhibited multiple oligomeric states in solution. The oligonucleotide domain was designed to furnish a stable parallel triplex......, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and molecular modeling. Stabilizing cooperativity was observed between the trimeric peptide and the oligonucleotide triplex domains, and the overall molecular size (ca. 12nm) in solution was revealed to be independent of concentration. The topological folding...

  4. Functionalized bioengineered spider silk spheres improve nuclease resistance and activity of oligonucleotide therapeutics providing a strategy for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Anna Karolina; Florczak, Anna; Smialek, Maciej; Dondajewska, Ewelina; Mackiewicz, Andrzej; Kortylewski, Marcin; Dams-Kozlowska, Hanna

    2017-09-01

    Cell-selective delivery and sensitivity to serum nucleases remain major hurdles to the clinical application of RNA-based oligonucleotide therapeutics, such as siRNA. Spider silk shows great potential as a biomaterial due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. Self-assembling properties of silk proteins allow for processing into several different morphologies such as fibers, scaffolds, films, hydrogels, capsules and spheres. Moreover, bioengineering of spider silk protein sequences can functionalize silk by adding peptide moieties with specific features including binding or cell recognition domains. We demonstrated that modification of silk protein by adding the nucleic acid binding domain enabled the development of a novel oligonucleotide delivery system that can be utilized to improve pharmacokinetics of RNA-based therapeutics, such as CpG-siRNA. The MS2 bioengineered silk was functionalized with poly-lysine domain (KN) to generate hybrid silk MS2KN. CpG-siRNA efficiently bound to MS2KN in contrary to control MS2. Both MS2KN complexes and spheres protected CpG-siRNA from degradation by serum nucleases. CpG-siRNA molecules encapsulated into MS2KN spheres were efficiently internalized and processed by TLR9-positive macrophages. Importantly, CpG-STAT3siRNA loaded in silk spheres showed delayed and extended target gene silencing compared to naked oligonucleotides. The prolonged Stat3 silencing resulted in the more pronounced downregulation of interleukin 6 (IL-6), a proinflammatory cytokine and upstream activator of STAT3, which limits the efficacy of TLR9 immunostimulation. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using spider silk spheres as a carrier of therapeutic nucleic acids. Moreover, the modified kinetic and activity of the CpG-STAT3siRNA embedded into silk spheres is likely to improve immunotherapeutic effects in vivo. We demonstrated that modification of silk protein by adding the nucleic acid binding domain enabled the development of a novel

  5. Cocaine alters Homer1 natural antisense transcript in the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Gregory C; Powell, Samuel K; Velmeshev, Dmitry; Lin, David Y; Magistri, Marco; Wiedner, Hannah J; Malvezzi, Andrea M; Andrade, Nadja S; Faghihi, Mohammad A; Wahlestedt, Claes

    2017-12-01

    Natural antisense transcripts (NATs) are an abundant class of long noncoding RNAs that have recently been shown to be key regulators of chromatin dynamics and gene expression in nervous system development and neurological disorders. However, it is currently unclear if NAT-based mechanisms also play a role in drug-induced neuroadaptations. Aberrant regulation of gene expression is one critical factor underlying the long-lasting behavioral abnormalities that characterize substance use disorder, and it is possible that some drug-induced transcriptional responses are mediated, in part, by perturbations in NAT activity. To test this hypothesis, we used an automated algorithm that mines the NCBI AceView transcriptomics database to identify NAT overlapping genes linked to addiction. We found that 22% of the genes examined contain NATs and that expression of Homer1 natural antisense transcript (Homer1-AS) was altered in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice 2h and 10days following repeated cocaine administration. In in vitro studies, depletion of Homer1-AS lead to an increase in the corresponding sense gene expression, indicating a potential regulatory mechanisms of Homer1 expression by its corresponding antisense transcript. Future in vivo studies are needed to definitely determine a role for Homer1-AS in cocaine-induced behavioral and molecular adaptations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of natural antisense transcripts pertaining to tumor suppressor genes in human carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelicci, G.; Pierotti, M.

    2009-01-01

    Overlapping transcripts in opposite orientations can potentially form perfect sense-antisense duplex RNA. Recently, several studies have revealed the extent of natural antisense transcripts (NATs) and their role in important biological phenomena also in higher organisms. In order to test the hypothesis that the function of NATs in man might represent an essential element in the regulation of gene expression, especially at transcriptional level, in this study we planned to look for, systematically examine, and characterize NATs belonging in the human genome to the tumour suppressor class of genes, so to identify physiological (and potentially pathological) modulators in this gene class

  7. Encapsulation of c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides in lipid particles improves antitumoral efficacy in vivo in a human melanoma line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, C; Biroccio, A; Benassi, B; Stringaro, A; Stoppacciaro, A; Semple, S C; Zupi, G

    2001-06-01

    Phosphorothioate c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides [S]ODNs (free INX-6295) were encapsulated in a new liposome formulation and the antitumor activity was compared to the unencapsulated antisense in a human melanoma xenograft. The systemic administration of INX-6295 encapsulated in stabilized antisense lipid particles (SALP INX-6295) improved plasma AUC (area under the plasma concentration-time curve) and initial half-life of free INX-6295, resulting in a significant enhancement in tumor accumulation and improvement in tumor distribution of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. Animals treated with SALP INX-6295 exhibited a prolonged reduction of c-myc expression, reduced tumor growth and increased mice survival. When administered in combination with cisplatin (DDP), SALP INX-6295 produced a complete tumor regression in approximately 30% of treated mice, which persisted for at least 60 days following the first cycle of treatment. Finally, the median survival of mice treated with DDP/SALP INX-6295 increased by 105% compared to 84% for animals treated with the combination DDP/free INX-6295. These data indicate that the biological activity and the therapeutic efficacy of c-myc antisense therapy may be improved when these agents are administered in lipid-based delivery systems.

  8. Thermal Stability of Modified i-Motif Oligonucleotides with Naphthalimide Intercalating Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Sayed, Ahmed Ali; Pedersen, Erik B.; Khaireldin, Nahid Y.

    2016-01-01

    In continuation of our investigation of characteristics and thermodynamic properties of the i-motif 5′-d[(CCCTAA)3CCCT)] upon insertion of intercalating nucleotides into the cytosine-rich oligonucleotide, this article evaluates the stabilities of i-motif oligonucleotides upon insertion of naphtha......In continuation of our investigation of characteristics and thermodynamic properties of the i-motif 5′-d[(CCCTAA)3CCCT)] upon insertion of intercalating nucleotides into the cytosine-rich oligonucleotide, this article evaluates the stabilities of i-motif oligonucleotides upon insertion...... of naphthalimide (1H-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3(2H)-dione) as the intercalating nucleic acid. The stabilities of i-motif structures with inserted naphthalimide intercalating nucleotides were studied using UV melting temperatures (Tm) and circular dichroism spectra at different pH values and conditions (crowding...

  9. The MCT4 Gene: A Novel, Potential Target for Therapy of Advanced Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Stephen Yiu Chuen; Xue, Hui; Wu, Rebecca; Fazli, Ladan; Lin, Dong; Collins, Colin C; Gleave, Martin E; Gout, Peter W; Wang, Yuzhuo

    2016-06-01

    The management of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a major challenge in the clinic. Androgen receptor signaling-directed strategies are not curative in CRPC therapy, and new strategies targeting alternative, key cancer properties are needed. Using reprogrammed glucose metabolism (aerobic glycolysis), cancer cells typically secrete excessive amounts of lactic acid into their microenvironment, promoting cancer development, survival, and progression. Cellular lactic acid secretion is thought to be predominantly mediated by MCT4, a plasma membrane transporter protein. As such, the MCT4 gene provides a unique, potential therapeutic target for cancer. A tissue microarray of various Gleason grade human prostate cancers was stained for MCT4 protein. Specific, MCT4-targeting antisense oligonucleotides (MCT4 ASO) were designed and candidate MCT4 ASOs checked for effects on (i) MCT4 expression, lactic acid secretion/content, glucose consumption, glycolytic gene expression, and proliferation of human CRPC cells and (ii) growth of PC-3 tumors in nude mice. Elevated MCT4 expression was associated with human CRPC and an earlier time to relapse. The treatment of PC-3, DU145, and C4-2 CRPC cultures with candidate MCT4 ASOs led to marked inhibition of MCT4 expression, lactic acid secretion, to increased intracellular lactic acid levels, and markedly reduced aerobic glycolysis and cell proliferation. Treatment of PC-3 tumor-bearing nude mice with the MCT4 ASOs markedly inhibited tumor growth without inducing major host toxicity. MCT4-targeting ASOs that inhibit lactic acid secretion may be useful for therapy of CRPC and other cancers, as they can interfere with reprogrammed energy metabolism of cancers, an emerging hallmark of cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 22(11); 2721-33. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Oligonucleotide assisted light-emitting Alq3 microrods: energy transfer effect with fluorescent dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chunzhi; Park, Dong Hyuk; Kim, Jeongyong; Joo, Jinsoo; Ahn, Dong June

    2013-06-14

    Oligonucleotide assisted tri(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) microrods were prepared for the first time. When hybridized with oligonucleotide labeled by Cy3 fluorescent dye, a significant photoluminescence variation of the Alq3 microrods was observed due to Förster resonance energy transfer, unlike when Cy5-oligonucleotide was used. Versatile nucleotide manipulation would open up wider applications of Alq3-based materials, based on this fundamental observation.

  11. A small molecule for a big transformation: Topical application of a 20-nucleotide-long antisense fragment of the DIAP-2 gene inhibits the development of Drosophila melanogaster female imagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyadar Palmah M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several genes have been identified to play important roles associated with sex selection in Drosophila melanogaster. An essential part is attributed to the sex-lethal gene that depends on the expression of the X:A (number of chromosomes to autosomes ratio signal controlling both sex selection and dosage compensation processes in D. melanogaster. Interestingly, for sex selection in D. melanogaster there are no documented data addressing the role of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP genes and their signaling influence on this biological process. In this study, we found that topical application of a 20-nucleotide-long antisense DNA fragment (oligoDIAP-2 from the death-associated inhibitor of apoptosis (DIAP-2 gene interferes with D. melanogaster development and significantly decreases the number of female imagos and their biomass. We show that the applied antisense oligoDIAP-2 fragment downregulates the target DIAP-2 gene whose normal concentration is necessary for the development of female D. melanogaster. These data correspond to the results on downregulation of the target host IAP-Z gene of Lymantria dispar L. female imagos after topical treatment with an 18-nucleotide-long antisense DNA fragment from the L. dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus IAP-3 gene at the larval stage. The observed novel phenomenon linking the downregulation of insect IAP genes and the low rate of female imago development could have practical application, especially in insect pest control and molecular pathology.

  12. Dielectric properties of DNA oligonucleotides on the surface of silicon nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagraev, N. T., E-mail: bagraev@mail.ioffe.ru [St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Chernev, A. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University—Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation); Klyachkin, L. E. [St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Malyarenko, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Emel’yanov, A. K.; Dubina, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University—Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    Planar silicon nanostructures that are formed as a very narrow silicon quantum well confined by δ barriers heavily doped with boron are used to study the dielectric properties of DNA oligonucleotides deposited onto the surface of the nanostructures. The capacitance characteristics of the silicon nanostructures with oligonucleotides deposited onto their surface are determined by recording the local tunneling current–voltage characteristics by means of scanning tunneling microscopy. The results show the possibility of identifying the local dielectric properties of DNA oligonucleotide segments consisting of repeating G–C pairs. These properties apparently give grounds to correlate the segments with polymer molecules exhibiting the properties of multiferroics.

  13. mathFISH, a web tool that uses thermodynamics-based mathematical models for in silico evaluation of oligonucleotide probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, L Safak; Parnerkar, Shreyas; Noguera, Daniel R

    2011-02-01

    Mathematical models of RNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for perfectly matched and mismatched probe/target pairs are organized and automated in web-based mathFISH (http://mathfish.cee.wisc.edu). Offering the users up-to-date knowledge of hybridization thermodynamics within a theoretical framework, mathFISH is expected to maximize the probability of success during oligonucleotide probe design.

  14. Antisense silencing of the creA gene in Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bautista, L. F.; Aleksenko, Alexei Y.; Hentzer, Morten

    2000-01-01

    Antisense expression of a portion of the gene encoding the major carbon catabolite repressor CREA in Aspergillus nidulans resulted in a substantial increase in the levels of glucose-repressible enzymes, both endogenous and heterologous, in the presence of glucose. The derepression effect was appr...

  15. New concepts of fluorescent probes for specific detection of DNA sequences: bis-modified oligonucleotides in excimer and exciplex detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbaj, A; Bichenkova, Ev; Walsh, L; Savage, He; Sardarian, Ar; Etchells, Ll; Gulati, A; Hawisa, S; Douglas, Kt

    2009-12-01

    The detection of single base mismatches in DNA is important for diagnostics, treatment of genetic diseases, and identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Highly sensitive, specific assays are needed to investigate genetic samples from patients. The use of a simple fluorescent nucleoside analogue in detection of DNA sequence and point mutations by hybridisation in solution is described in this study. The 5'-bispyrene and 3'-naphthalene oligonucleotide probes form an exciplex on hybridisation to target in water and the 5'-bispyrene oligonucleotide alone is an adequate probe to determine concentration of target present. It was also indicated that this system has a potential to identify mismatches and insertions. The aim of this work was to investigate experimental structures and conditions that permit strong exciplex emission for nucleic acid detectors, and show how such exciplexes can register the presence of mismatches as required in SNP analysis. This study revealed that the hybridisation of 5'-bispyrenyl fluorophore to a DNA target results in formation of a fluorescent probe with high signal intensity change and specificity for detecting a complementary target in a homogeneous system. Detection of SNP mutations using this split-probe system is a highly specific, simple, and accessible method to meet the rigorous requirements of pharmacogenomic studies. Thus, it is possible for the system to act as SNP detectors and it shows promise for future applications in genetic testing.

  16. Spherical Nucleic Acids as Intracellular Agents for Nucleic Acid Based Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Liangliang

    Recent functional discoveries on the noncoding sequences of human genome and transcriptome could lead to revolutionary treatment modalities because the noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) can be applied as therapeutic agents to manipulate disease-causing genes. To date few nucleic acid-based therapeutics have been translated into the clinic due to challenges in the delivery of the oligonucleotide agents in an effective, cell specific, and non-toxic fashion. Unmodified oligonucleotide agents are destroyed rapidly in biological fluids by enzymatic degradation and have difficulty crossing the plasma membrane without the aid of transfection reagents, which often cause inflammatory, cytotoxic, or immunogenic side effects. Spherical nucleic acids (SNAs), nanoparticles consisting of densely organized and highly oriented oligonucleotides, pose one possible solution to circumventing these problems in both the antisense and RNA interference (RNAi) pathways. The unique three dimensional architecture of SNAs protects the bioactive oligonucleotides from unspecific degradation during delivery and supports their targeting of class A scavenger receptors and endocytosis via a lipid-raft-dependent, caveolae-mediated pathway. Owing to their unique structure, SNAs are able to cross cell membranes and regulate target genes expression as a single entity, without triggering the cellular innate immune response. Herein, my thesis has focused on understanding the interactions between SNAs and cellular components and developing SNA-based nanostructures to improve therapeutic capabilities. Specifically, I developed a novel SNA-based, nanoscale agent for delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides to manipulate microRNAs (miRNAs), the endogenous post-transcriptional gene regulators. I investigated the role of SNAs involving miRNAs in anti-cancer or anti-inflammation responses in cells and in in vivo murine disease models via systemic injection. Furthermore, I explored using different strategies to construct

  17. Protective effect of c-fos antisense oligonucleotides on brain damage induced by glutamate%c-fos反义寡核苷酸对谷氨酸神经毒性鼠脑损伤的防护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳少杰; 陶永光; 罗自强; 冯德云; 伍赶球

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relation between glutamate neurotoxicity and c-fos gene expression. Methods c-fos antisense oligonucleotides (AS ODN) was injected into the right lateral ventricles of 9 SD rats to block the c-fos gene expression in brain tissue. c-fos sense oligonucleotides (S ODN)was used a control. The numbers and morphology of neurons in both cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 were detected by MIAS-300 image analysing instrument. c-fos gene expression in brain was observed by immunohistochemical method. The content of water and electrolytes in the brain tissue and Ca2+ in the synapse were measured. Results The c-fos AS ODN blocked the c-fos gene expression and reduced the content of both water and sodium in brain tissue and Ca2+ in symptosome, thus alleviating the morphological damage in neuron. S ODN did not have such effect. Conclusion c-fos gene expression plays an important role in mediating the effect of glutamate neurotoxicity. Blocking the c-fos gene expression could antagonize glutamate neurotoxicity.%目的 探讨c-fos基因的表达在谷氨酸神经毒性中的作用。方法 在9只SD大鼠侧脑室注射c-fos反义寡核苷酸以阻断脑组织c-fos基因的表达,并用c-fos正义寡核苷酸为对照。观察脑组织中水、电解质含量和突触体内Ca2+浓度的变化,并采用细胞形态计量分析及免疫组织化学方法,观察大脑皮质、海马CA1区神经细胞数目、形态的变化及c-fos基因的表达。结果 c-fos反义寡核苷酸可有效地阻断脑组织c-fos基因的表达,降低脑组织c-fos阳性细胞率(9.4%±2.8%和74%±3%,P<0.01),抑制谷氨酸神经毒性所致的脑组织含水量(79.9%±0.4%和82.3%±0.8%,P<0.01)、钠(5.05 mg/g干重±0.39 mg/g干重和5.98 mg/g干重±0.50 mg/g干重,P<0.01)及细胞内Ca2+(176 nmol/L±35 nmol/L和344.12±50.13,P<0.01)含量的增加,抑制谷氨酸所致大脑皮质(157±10和145±7,P<0

  18. Electroporation increases antitumoral efficacy of the bcl-2 antisense G3139 and chemotherapy in a human melanoma xenograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldi Alfonso

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nucleic acids designed to modulate the expression of target proteins remain a promising therapeutic strategy in several diseases, including cancer. However, clinical success is limited by the lack of efficient intracellular delivery. In this study we evaluated whether electroporation could increase the delivery of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides against bcl-2 (G3139 as well as the efficacy of combination chemotherapy in human melanoma xenografts. Methods Melanoma-bearing nude mice were treated i.v. with G3139 and/or cisplatin (DDP followed by the application of trains of electric pulses to tumors. Western blot, immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were performed to analyze protein and mRNA expression. The effect of electroporation on muscles was determined by histology, while tumor apoptosis and the proliferation index were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides tumor accumulation was measured by FACS and confocal microscopy. Results The G3139/Electroporation combined therapy produced a significant inhibition of tumor growth (TWI, more than 50% accompanied by a marked tumor re-growth delay (TRD, about 20 days. The efficacy of this treatment was due to the higher G3139 uptake in tumor cells which led to a marked down-regulation of bcl-2 protein expression. Moreover, the G3139/EP combination treatment resulted in an enhanced apoptotic index and a decreased proliferation rate of tumors. Finally, an increased tumor response was observed after treatment with the triple combination G3139/DDP/EP, showing a TWI of about 75% and TRD of 30 days. Conclusions These results demonstrate that electroporation is an effective strategy to improve the delivery of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides within tumor cells in vivo and it may be instrumental in optimizing the response of melanoma to chemotherapy. The high response rate observed in this study suggest to apply this strategy for the treatment of melanoma patients.

  19. Effect of injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides of GAD isozymes into rat ventromedial hypothalamus on food intake and locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, M; Ichikawa, M; Nishihara, M; Takahashi, M

    1998-02-16

    In the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays a role in regulating feeding and running behaviors. The GABA synthetic enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), consists of two isozymes, GAD65 and GAD67. In the present study, the phosphorothioated antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) of each GAD isozyme were injected bilaterally into the VMH of male rats, and food intake, body weight and locomotor activity were monitored. ODNs were incorporated in the water-absorbent polymer (WAP, 0.2 nmol/microliter) so that ODNs were retained at the injection site. Each antisense ODN of GAD65 or GAD67 tended to reduce food intake on day 1 (day of injection=day 0) though not significantly. An injection combining both antisense ODNs significantly decreased food intake only on day 1, but body weight remained significantly lower than the control for 5 days. This suppression of body weight gain could be attributed to a significant increase in locomotor activity between days 3 and 5. Individual treatment with either ODNs did not change locomotor activity. The increase in daily locomotor activity in the group receiving the combined antisense ODNs occurred mainly during the light phase. Neither vehicle (WAP) nor control ODN affected food intake, body weight and locomotor activity. Histological studies indicated that antisense ODN distributed within 800 micron from the edge of the area where WAP was located 24 h after the injection gradually disappeared within days, but still remained within 300 micron m distance even 7 days after the injection. Antisense ODN was effectively incorporated by all the cell types examined, i.e., neurons, astrocytes and microglias. Further, HPLC analysis revealed that antisense ODNs of GAD isozymes, either alone or combined, decreased the content of GABA by 50% in VMH 24 h after the injection. These results indicate that suppression of GABA synthesis by either of the GAD isozymes is synergistically involved in suppressing food

  20. The human PINK1 locus is regulated in vivo by a non-coding natural antisense RNA during modulation of mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahlestedt Claes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1 are implicated in early-onset Parkinson's disease. PINK1 is expressed abundantly in mitochondria rich tissues, such as skeletal muscle, where it plays a critical role determining mitochondrial structural integrity in Drosophila. Results Herein we characterize a novel splice variant of PINK1 (svPINK1 that is homologous to the C-terminus regulatory domain of the protein kinase. Naturally occurring non-coding antisense provides sophisticated mechanisms for diversifying genomes and we describe a human specific non-coding antisense expressed at the PINK1 locus (naPINK1. We further demonstrate that PINK1 varies in vivo when human skeletal muscle mitochondrial content is enhanced, supporting the idea that PINK1 has a physiological role in mitochondrion. The observation of concordant regulation of svPINK1 and naPINK1 during in vivo mitochondrial biogenesis was confirmed using RNAi, where selective targeting of naPINK1 results in loss of the PINK1 splice variant in neuronal cell lines. Conclusion Our data presents the first direct observation that a mammalian non-coding antisense molecule can positively influence the abundance of a cis-transcribed mRNA under physiological abundance conditions. While our analysis implies a possible human specific and dsRNA-mediated mechanism for stabilizing the expression of svPINK1, it also points to a broader genomic strategy for regulating a human disease locus and increases the complexity through which alterations in the regulation of the PINK1 locus could occur.

  1. mathFISH, a Web Tool That Uses Thermodynamics-Based Mathematical Models for In Silico Evaluation of Oligonucleotide Probes for Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, L. Safak; Parnerkar, Shreyas; Noguera, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical models of RNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for perfectly matched and mismatched probe/target pairs are organized and automated in web-based mathFISH (http://mathfish.cee.wisc.edu). Offering the users up-to-date knowledge of hybridization thermodynamics within a theoretical framework, mathFISH is expected to maximize the probability of success during oligonucleotide probe design.

  2. [Oligonucleotide derivatives in the nucleic acid hybridization analysis. III. Synthesis and investigation of properties of oligonucleotides, bearing bifunctional non-nucleotide insert].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriushkin, M S; Pyshnyĭ, D V

    2012-01-01

    Non-nucleotide phosporamidites were synthetized, having branched backbone with different position of functional groups. Obtained phosphoramidite monomers contain intercalator moiety--6-chloro-2-methoxyacridine, and additional hydroxyl residue protected with dimethoxytrityl group or with tert-butyldimethylsilyl group for post-synthetic modification. Synthesized oligothymidilates contain one or more modified units in different positions of sequence. Melting temperature and thermodynamic parameters of formation of complementary duplexes formed by modified oligonucleotides was defined (change in enthalpy and entropy). The introduction of intercalating residue causes a significant stabilization of DNA duplexes. It is shown that the efficiency of the fluorescence of acridine residue in the oligonucleotide conjugate significantly changes upon hybridization with DNA.

  3. PNA-COMBO-FISH: From combinatorial probe design in silico to vitality compatible, specific labelling of gene targets in cell nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Patrick; Rößler, Jens; Schwarz-Finsterle, Jutta [University of Heidelberg, Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, Im Neuenheimer Feld 227, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schmitt, Eberhard, E-mail: eschmitt@kip.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, Im Neuenheimer Feld 227, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); University of Göttingen, Institute for Numerical and Applied Mathematics, Lotzestraße 16-18, D-37083 Göttingen (Germany); Hausmann, Michael, E-mail: hausmann@kip.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, Im Neuenheimer Feld 227, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Recently, advantages concerning targeting specificity of PCR constructed oligonucleotide FISH probes in contrast to established FISH probes, e.g. BAC clones, have been demonstrated. These techniques, however, are still using labelling protocols with DNA denaturing steps applying harsh heat treatment with or without further denaturing chemical agents. COMBO-FISH (COMBinatorial Oligonucleotide FISH) allows the design of specific oligonucleotide probe combinations in silico. Thus, being independent from primer libraries or PCR laboratory conditions, the probe sequences extracted by computer sequence data base search can also be synthesized as single stranded PNA-probes (Peptide Nucleic Acid probes). Gene targets can be specifically labelled with at least about 20 PNA-probes obtaining visibly background free specimens. By using appropriately designed triplex forming oligonucleotides, the denaturing procedures can completely be omitted. These results reveal a significant step towards oligonucleotide-FISH maintaining the 3D-nanostructure and even the viability of the cell target. The method is demonstrated with the detection of Her2/neu and GRB7 genes, which are indicators in breast cancer diagnosis and therapy. - Highlights: • Denaturation free protocols preserve 3D architecture of chromosomes and nuclei. • Labelling sets are determined in silico for duplex and triplex binding. • Probes are produced chemically with freely chosen backbones and base variants. • Peptide nucleic acid backbones reduce hindering charge interactions. • Intercalating side chains stabilize binding of short oligonucleotides.

  4. PNA-COMBO-FISH: From combinatorial probe design in silico to vitality compatible, specific labelling of gene targets in cell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Patrick; Rößler, Jens; Schwarz-Finsterle, Jutta; Schmitt, Eberhard; Hausmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Recently, advantages concerning targeting specificity of PCR constructed oligonucleotide FISH probes in contrast to established FISH probes, e.g. BAC clones, have been demonstrated. These techniques, however, are still using labelling protocols with DNA denaturing steps applying harsh heat treatment with or without further denaturing chemical agents. COMBO-FISH (COMBinatorial Oligonucleotide FISH) allows the design of specific oligonucleotide probe combinations in silico. Thus, being independent from primer libraries or PCR laboratory conditions, the probe sequences extracted by computer sequence data base search can also be synthesized as single stranded PNA-probes (Peptide Nucleic Acid probes). Gene targets can be specifically labelled with at least about 20 PNA-probes obtaining visibly background free specimens. By using appropriately designed triplex forming oligonucleotides, the denaturing procedures can completely be omitted. These results reveal a significant step towards oligonucleotide-FISH maintaining the 3D-nanostructure and even the viability of the cell target. The method is demonstrated with the detection of Her2/neu and GRB7 genes, which are indicators in breast cancer diagnosis and therapy. - Highlights: • Denaturation free protocols preserve 3D architecture of chromosomes and nuclei. • Labelling sets are determined in silico for duplex and triplex binding. • Probes are produced chemically with freely chosen backbones and base variants. • Peptide nucleic acid backbones reduce hindering charge interactions. • Intercalating side chains stabilize binding of short oligonucleotides.

  5. Triplex-forming ability of modified oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højland, Torben; Babu, Bolle Ravindra; Bryld, Torsten

    2007-01-01

    We present our studies on the ability of several different nucleotide analogs as triplex-forming oligonucleotides. The modifications tested include 4'-C-hydroxymethyl, LNA, 2'-amino-LNA and N2'-functionalized 2'-amino-LNA. Triplexes containing monomers of N2'-glycyl-functionalized 2'-amino-LNA ar...

  6. Imidazoline NNC77-0074 stimulates Ca2+-evoked exocytosis in INS-1E cells by a phospholipase A2-dependent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Hervør L; Nørby, Peder L; Høy, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the novel imidazoline compound (+)-2-(2-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-thiopene-2-yl-ethyl)-pyridine (NNC77-0074) increases insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells by stimulation of Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis. Using capacitance measurements, we now show...... that NNC77-0074 stimulates exocytosis in clonal INS-1E cells. NNC77-0074-stimulated exocytosis was antagonised by the cytoplasmic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) inhibitors ACA and AACOCF(3) and in cells treated with antisense oligonucleotide against cPLA(2)alpha. NNC77-0074-evoked insulin secretion...... was likewise inhibited by ACA, AACOCF(3), and cPLA(2)alpha antisense oligonucleotide treatment. In pancreatic islets NNC77-0074 stimulated PLA(2) activity. We propose that cPLA(2)alpha plays an important role in the regulation of NNC77-0074-evoked exocytosis in insulin secreting beta-cells....

  7. Systematic validation and atomic force microscopy of non-covalent short oligonucleotide barcode microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Cook

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular barcode arrays provide a powerful means to analyze cellular phenotypes in parallel through detection of short (20-60 base unique sequence tags, or "barcodes", associated with each strain or clone in a collection. However, costs of current methods for microarray construction, whether by in situ oligonucleotide synthesis or ex situ coupling of modified oligonucleotides to the slide surface are often prohibitive to large-scale analyses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that unmodified 20mer oligonucleotide probes printed on conventional surfaces show comparable hybridization signals to covalently linked 5'-amino-modified probes. As a test case, we undertook systematic cell size analysis of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome-wide deletion collection by size separation of the deletion pool followed by determination of strain abundance in size fractions by barcode arrays. We demonstrate that the properties of a 13K unique feature spotted 20 mer oligonucleotide barcode microarray compare favorably with an analogous covalently-linked oligonucleotide array. Further, cell size profiles obtained with the size selection/barcode array approach recapitulate previous cell size measurements of individual deletion strains. Finally, through atomic force microscopy (AFM, we characterize the mechanism of hybridization to unmodified barcode probes on the slide surface. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies push the lower limit of probe size in genome-scale unmodified oligonucleotide microarray construction and demonstrate a versatile, cost-effective and reliable method for molecular barcode analysis.

  8. Binding of Dumbbell Oligonucleotides to MoMuLV Reverse Transcriptase: Inhibitory Properties of RNase H Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dumbbell oligonucleotides with loops of various chemistry were synthesized. Incubation of dumbbell oligonucleotides containing phosphorothioate bonds or trimethylene phosphate linkages in loops with S1 nuclease did not result in significant cleavage under conditions which led to the degradation of dumbbell oligonucleotide containing phophodiester bonds in the loops. The binding of reverse transcriptase of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MoMuLV was evaluated with all the five oligonucleotides. The protein binds to all the dumbbell oligonucleotides with similar affinity. The dissociation constants evaluated using PAGE band mobility shift assays were of the order of 10-7. The inhibitory properties of the retroviral RNase H activity was evaluated using 3H –UTP-labeled RNA:RNA-DNA hybrid. It was found that the best dumbbell oligonucleotide, inhibitor contained phosphorothioate residues in both the loops. Our value studies demonstrated that this particularly designed oligonucleotide displays an IC50 of 18 nM in its inhibition on the reverse transcriptase RNase H activity, a magnitude lower than that of first nucleotide reverse transcriptase of HIV-1, tenofovir, introduced by Gilead Science in the market.

  9. Associating Oligonucleotides with Positively Charged Liposomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurkiewicz, P.; Okruszek, A.; Hof, Martin; Langner, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2003), s. 77-84 ISSN 1425-8153 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : oligonucleotides * fluorescence correlation spectroscopy * DOTAP Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.455, year: 2003

  10. New Concepts of Fluorescent Probes for Specific Detection of DNA Sequences: Bis-Modified Oligonucleotides in Excimer and Exciplex Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbaj A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of single base mismatches in DNA is important for diagnostics, treatment of genetic diseases, and identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Highly sensitive, specific assays are needed to investigate genetic samples from patients. The use of a simple fluorescent nucleoside analogue in detection of DNA sequence and point mutations by hybridisation in solution is described in this study. The 5’-bispyrene and 3’-naphthalene oligonucleotide probes form an exciplex on hybridisation to target in water and the 5’-bispyrene oligonucleotide alone is an adequate probe to determine concentration of target present. It was also indicated that this system has a potential to identify mismatches and insertions. The aim of this work was to investigate experimental structures and conditions that permit strong exciplex emission for nucleic acid detectors, and show how such exciplexes can register the presence of mismatches as required in SNP analysis. This study revealed that the hybridisation of 5'-bispyrenyl fluorophore to a DNA target results in formation of a fluorescent probe with high signal intensity change and specificity for detecting a complementary target in a homogeneous system. Detection of SNP mutations using this split-probe system is a highly specific, simple, and accessible method to meet the rigorous requirements of pharmacogenomic studies. Thus, it is possible for the system to act as SNP detectors and it shows promise for future applications in genetic testing.

  11. Silencing neuronal mutant androgen receptor in a mouse model of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahashi, Kentaro; Katsuno, Masahisa; Hung, Gene; Adachi, Hiroaki; Kondo, Naohide; Nakatsuji, Hideaki; Tohnai, Genki; Iida, Madoka; Bennett, C Frank; Sobue, Gen

    2015-11-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease that affects males, results from a CAG triplet repeat/polyglutamine expansions in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. Patients develop progressive muscular weakness and atrophy, and no effective therapy is currently available. The tissue-specific pathogenesis, especially relative pathological contributions between degenerative motor neurons and muscles, remains inconclusive. Though peripheral pathology in skeletal muscle caused by toxic AR protein has been recently reported to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of SBMA using mouse models, the role of motor neuron degeneration in SBMA has not been rigorously investigated. Here, we exploited synthetic antisense oligonucleotides to inhibit the RNA levels of mutant AR in the central nervous system (CNS) and explore its therapeutic effects in our SBMA mouse model that harbors a mutant AR gene with 97 CAG expansions and characteristic SBMA-like neurogenic phenotypes. A single intracerebroventricular administration of the antisense oligonucleotides in the presymptomatic phase efficiently suppressed the mutant gene expression in the CNS, and delayed the onset and progression of motor dysfunction, improved body weight gain and survival with the amelioration of neuronal histopathology in motor units such as spinal motor neurons, neuromuscular junctions and skeletal muscle. These findings highlight the importance of the neurotoxicity of mutant AR protein in motor neurons as a therapeutic target. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Novel (Phenylethynyl)pyrene-LNA Constructs for Fluorescence SNP Sensing in Polymorphic Nucleic Acid Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astakhova, Irina Kira; Samokhina, Evgeniya; Babu, B Ravindra

    2012-01-01

    We describe fluorescent oligonucleotide probes labeled with novel (phenylethynyl)pyrene dyes attached to locked nucleic acids. Furthermore, we prove the utility of these probes for the effective detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in natural nucleic acids. High-affinity hybridization......DNA and RNA gene fragments. Target sequences were obtained by analysis of 200 clinical samples from patients currently receiving anti-HIV/AIDS combination therapy at the Russian Federal AIDS Center. Using these fluorescent oligonucleotides, we were able to detect the target mutation despite all the challenges...

  13. Identification of clinically relevant viridans streptococci by an oligonucleotide array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao Chien; Teng, Lee Jene; Kaiung, Seng; Chang, Tsung Chain

    2005-04-01

    Viridans streptococci (VS) are common etiologic agents of subacute infective endocarditis and are capable of causing a variety of pyogenic infections. Many species of VS are difficult to differentiate by phenotypic traits. An oligonucleotide array based on 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences was developed to identify 11 clinically relevant VS. These 11 species were Streptococcus anginosus, S. constellatus, S. gordonii, S. intermedius, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. parasanguinis, S. salivarius, S. sanguinis, and S. uberis. The method consisted of PCR amplification of the ITS regions by using a pair of universal primers, followed by hybridization of the digoxigenin-labeled PCR products to a panel of species-specific oligonucleotides immobilized on a nylon membrane. After 120 strains of the 11 species of VG and 91 strains of other bacteria were tested, the sensitivity and specificity of the oligonucleotide array were found to be 100% (120 of 120 strains) and 95.6% (87 of 91 strains), respectively. S. pneumoniae cross-hybridized to the probes used for the identification of S. mitis, and simple biochemical tests such as optochin susceptibility or bile solubility should be used to differentiate S. pneumoniae from S. mitis. In conclusion, identification of species of VS by use of the present oligonucleotide array is accurate and could be used as an alternative reliable method for species identification of strains of VS.

  14. Mechanisms for c-myc Induced Mouse Mammary Gland Carcinogenesis and for the Synergistic Role of TGF(alpha) in the Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    1242 11-28. anti-tumor effects with microencapsulated c-myc antisense Panico L, D’Antonio A, Salvatore G, Mezza E, Tortora G, De oligonucleotide... enzymatic conversion of androgens to estrogens, since an estrogen receptor antagonist cannot block the lobular- alveolar induction by T, DHT

  15. Contribution of the first K-homology domain of poly(C)-binding protein 1 to its affinity and specificity for C-rich oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoga, Yano M K; Traore, Daouda A K; Sidiqi, Mahjooba; Szeto, Chris; Pendini, Nicole R; Barker, Andrew; Leedman, Peter J; Wilce, Jacqueline A; Wilce, Matthew C J

    2012-06-01

    Poly-C-binding proteins are triple KH (hnRNP K homology) domain proteins with specificity for single stranded C-rich RNA and DNA. They play diverse roles in the regulation of protein expression at both transcriptional and translational levels. Here, we analyse the contributions of individual αCP1 KH domains to binding C-rich oligonucleotides using biophysical and structural methods. Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), we demonstrate that KH1 makes the most stable interactions with both RNA and DNA, KH3 binds with intermediate affinity and KH2 only interacts detectibly with DNA. The crystal structure of KH1 bound to a 5'-CCCTCCCT-3' DNA sequence shows a 2:1 protein:DNA stoichiometry and demonstrates a molecular arrangement of KH domains bound to immediately adjacent oligonucleotide target sites. SPR experiments, with a series of poly-C-sequences reveals that cytosine is preferred at all four positions in the oligonucleotide binding cleft and that a C-tetrad binds KH1 with 10 times higher affinity than a C-triplet. The basis for this high affinity interaction is finally detailed with the structure determination of a KH1.W.C54S mutant bound to 5'-ACCCCA-3' DNA sequence. Together, these data establish the lead role of KH1 in oligonucleotide binding by αCP1 and reveal the molecular basis of its specificity for a C-rich tetrad.

  16. Versatile functionalization of nanoelectrodes by oligonucleotides via pyrrole electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Emeline; Nguyen, Khoa; Bouchain-Gautier, Christelle; Filoramo, Arianna; Goux-Capes, Laurence; Goffman, Marcello; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Mailley, Pascal; Livache, Thierry

    2010-11-15

    Surface modification at the nanometer scale is a challenge for the future of molecular electronics. In particular, the precise anchoring and electrical addressing of biological scaffolds such as complex DNA nanonetworks is of importance for generating bio-directed assemblies of nano-objects for nanocircuit purposes. Herein, we consider the individual modification of nanoelectrodes with different oligonucleotide sequences by an electrochemically driven co-polymerization process of pyrrole and modified oligonucleotide sequences bearing pyrrole monomers. We demonstrate that this one-step technique presents the advantages of simplicity, localization of surface modification, mechanical, biological and chemical stability of the coatings, and high lateral resolution.

  17. LNA-antisense rivals siRNA for gene silencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Wengel, Jesper; Stenvang, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing unprecedented binding affinity toward complementary DNA and RNA while obeying the Watson-Crick base-pairing rules. For efficient gene silencing in vitro and in vivo, fully modified or chimeric LNA oligonucleotides have been a...

  18. Correction of Spatial Bias in Oligonucleotide Array Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Background. Oligonucleotide microarrays allow for high-throughput gene expression profiling assays. The technology relies on the fundamental assumption that observed hybridization signal intensities (HSIs) for each intended target, on average, correlate with their target's true concentration in the sample. However, systematic, nonbiological variation from several sources undermines this hypothesis. Background hybridization signal has been previously identified as one such important source, one manifestation of which appears in the form of spatial autocorrelation. Results. We propose an algorithm, pyn, for the elimination of spatial autocorrelation in HSIs, exploiting the duality of desirable mutual information shared by probes in a common probe set and undesirable mutual information shared by spatially proximate probes. We show that this correction procedure reduces spatial autocorrelation in HSIs; increases HSI reproducibility across replicate arrays; increases differentially expressed gene detection power; and performs better than previously published methods. Conclusions. The proposed algorithm increases both precision and accuracy, while requiring virtually no changes to users' current analysis pipelines: the correction consists merely of a transformation of raw HSIs (e.g., CEL files for Affymetrix arrays). A free, open-source implementation is provided as an R package, compatible with standard Bioconductor tools. The approach may also be tailored to other platform types and other sources of bias. PMID:23573083

  19. Detection of DNA oligonucleotides with base mutations by terahertz spectroscopy and microstructures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjie Tang

    Full Text Available DNA oligonucleotides with a 5-base mutation at the 3'-terminus were investigated by terahertz (THz spectroscopy in a marker-free manner. The four single-stranded oligonucleotides with 17nt have been detected with specificity on a microfluidic chip, and corroborated by spectral measurements with split-ring resonators. The number of hydrogen bonds formed between the oligonucleotide and its surrounding water molecules, deemed a key contribution to the THz absorption of biological solutions, was explored by molecular dynamics simulations to explain the experimental findings. Our work underlies the feasibility of THz spectroscopy combined with microstructures for marker-free detection of DNA, which may form the basis of a prospective diagnostic tool for studying genic mutation.

  20. Stability of non-Watson-Crick G-A/A-G base pair in synthetic DNA and RNA oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuko; Sone, Yumiko; Mizutani, Takaharu

    2004-03-01

    A non-Watson-Crick G-A/A-G base pair is found in SECIS (selenocysteine-insertion sequence) element in the 3'-untranslated region of Se-protein mRNAs and in the functional site of the hammerhead ribozyme. We studied the stability of G-A/A-G base pair (bold) in 17mer GT(U)GACGGAAACCGGAAC synthetic DNA and RNA oligonucleotides by thermal melting experiments and gel electrophoresis. The measured Tm value of DNA oligonucleotide having G-A/A-G pair showed an intermediate value (58 degrees C) between that of Watson-Crick G-C/C-G base pair (75 degrees C) and that of G-G/A-A of non-base-pair (40 degrees C). Similar thermal melting patterns were obtained with RNA oligonucleotides. This result indicates that the secondary structure of oligonucleotide having G-A/A-G base pair is looser than that of the G-C type Watson-Crick base pair. In the comparison between RNA and DNA having G-A/A-G base pair, the Tm value of the RNA oligonucleotide was 11 degrees C lower than that of DNA, indicating that DNA has a more rigid structure than RNA. The stained pattern of oligonucleotide on polyacrylamide gel clarified that the mobility of the DNA oligonucleotide G-A/A-G base pair changed according to the urea concentration from the rigid state (near the mobility of G-C/C-G oligonucleotide) in the absence of urea to the random state (near the mobility of G-G/A-A oligonucleotide) in 7 M urea. However, the RNA oligonucleotide with G-A/A-G pair moved at an intermediate mobility between that of oligonucleotide with G-C/C-G and of the oligonucleotide with G-G/A-A, and the mobility pattern did not depend on urea concentration. Thus, DNA and RNA oligonucleotides with the G-A/A-G base pair showed a pattern indicating an intermediate structure between the rigid Watson-Crick base pair and the random structure of non-base pair. RNA with G-A/A-G base pair has the intermediate structure not influenced by urea concentration. Finally, this study indicated that the intermediate rigidity imparted by Non

  1. Optimizations of siRNA design for the activation of gene transcription by targeting the TATA-box motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Fan

    Full Text Available Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs are widely used to repress gene expression by targeting mRNAs. Some reports reveal that siRNAs can also activate or inhibit gene expression through targeting the gene promoters. Our group has found that microRNAs (miRNAs could activate gene transcription via interaction with the TATA-box motif in gene promoters. To investigate whether siRNA targeting the same region could upregulate the promoter activity, we test the activating efficiency of siRNAs targeting the TATA-box motif of 16 genes and perform a systematic analysis to identify the common features of the functional siRNAs for effective activation of gene promoters. Further, we try various modifications to improve the activating efficiency of siRNAs and find that it is quite useful to design the promoter-targeting activating siRNA by following several rules such as (a complementary to the TATA-box-centered region; (b UA usage at the first two bases of the antisense strand; (c twenty-three nucleotides (nts in length; (d 2'-O-Methyl (2'-OMe modification at the 3' terminus of the antisense strand; (e avoiding mismatches at the 3' end of the antisense strand. The optimized activating siRNAs potently enhance the expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2 gene in human and mouse primary CD4+ T cells with a long-time effect. Taken together, our study provides a guideline for rational design the promoter-targeting siRNA to sequence-specifically enhance gene expression.

  2. Dual-Specificity Anti-HER-2/neu Antisense DNA Agents for Breast Cancer Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stein, Stanley

    2001-01-01

    .... To achieve high avidity and specificity, we designed chimeric antisense molecules consisting of a short active DNA fused to a short "anchor" 2'-0-methyl RNA complementary to non-contiguous single...

  3. NAA-modified DNA oligonucleotides with zwitterionic backbones: stereoselective synthesis of A-T phosphoramidite building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtgall, Boris; Höbartner, Claudia; Ducho, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Modifications of the nucleic acid backbone are essential for the development of oligonucleotide-derived bioactive agents. The NAA-modification represents a novel artificial internucleotide linkage which enables the site-specific introduction of positive charges into the otherwise polyanionic backbone of DNA oligonucleotides. Following initial studies with the introduction of the NAA-linkage at T-T sites, it is now envisioned to prepare NAA-modified oligonucleotides bearing the modification at X-T motifs (X = A, C, G). We have therefore developed the efficient and stereoselective synthesis of NAA-linked 'dimeric' A-T phosphoramidite building blocks for automated DNA synthesis. Both the (S)- and the (R)-configured NAA-motifs were constructed with high diastereoselectivities to furnish two different phosphoramidite reagents, which were employed for the solid phase-supported automated synthesis of two NAA-modified DNA oligonucleotides. This represents a significant step to further establish the NAA-linkage as a useful addition to the existing 'toolbox' of backbone modifications for the design of bioactive oligonucleotide analogues.

  4. Targeted delivery of chemically modified anti-miR-221 to hepatocellular carcinoma with negatively charged liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang W

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wendian Zhang,1 Fangqi Peng,1 Taotao Zhou,1 Yifei Huang,2 Li Zhang,3 Peng Ye,4 Miao Lu,1 Guang Yang,5 Yongkang Gai,1 Tan Yang,1 Xiang Ma,1 Guangya Xiang1 1School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, 2Department of Pharmacy, 3Department of Ultrasound, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 4Department of Pharmacy, Wuhan University, Renmin Hospital, 5School of Medicine, Jianghan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Gene therapy was established as a new strategy for treating HCC. To explore the potential delivery system to support the gene therapy of HCC, negatively charged liposomal delivery system was used to deliver miR-221 antisense oligonucleotide (anti-miR-221 to the transferrin (Tf receptor over expressed HepG2 cells. The liposome exhibited a mean particle size of 122.5 nm, zeta potential of -15.74 mV, anti-miR-221 encapsulation efficiency of 70%, and excellent colloidal stability at 4°C. Anti-miR-221-encapsulated Tf-targeted liposome demonstrated a 15-fold higher delivery efficiency compared to nontargeted liposome in HepG2 cells in vitro. Anti-miR-221 Tf-targeted liposome effectively delivered anti-miR-221 to HepG2 cells, upregulated miR-221 target genes PTEN, P27kip1, and TIMP3, and exhibited greater silencing efficiency over nontargeted anti-miR-221 liposome. After intravenous injection into HepG2 tumor-bearing xenografted mice with Cy3-labeled anti-miR-221 Tf-targeted liposome, Cy3-anti-miR-221 was successfully delivered to the tumor site and increased the expressions of PTEN, P27kip1, and TIMP3. Our results demonstrate that the Tf-targeted negatively charged liposome could be a potential therapeutic modality in the gene therapy of human HCC. Keywords: transferrin, gene, HCC, target delivery system, anionic liposome 

  5. Locked nucleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Sørensen, Mads D; Wengel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing very high affinity and excellent specificity toward complementary DNA and RNA, and LNA oligonucleotides have been applied as antisense molecules both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we briefly describe the basic...

  6. Syntheses of prodrug-type phosphotriester oligonucleotides responsive to intracellular reducing environment for improvement of cell membrane permeability and nuclease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Junsuke; Samezawa, Yusuke; Ochi, Yosuke; Wada, Shun-Ichi; Urata, Hidehito

    2017-07-15

    We synthesized prodrug-type phosphotriester (PTE) oligonucleotides containing the six-membered cyclic disulfide moiety by using phosphoramidite chemistry. Prodrug-type oligonucleotides named "Reducing-Environment-Dependent Uncatalyzed Chemical Transforming (REDUCT) PTE oligonucleotides" were converted into natural oligonucleotides under cytosol-mimetic reductive condition. Furthermore, the REDUCT PTE oligonucleotides were robust to nuclease digestion and exhibited good cell membrane permeability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Targeted Exon Skipping to Address “Leaky” Mutations in the Dystrophin Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Fletcher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein-truncating mutations in the dystrophin gene lead to the progressive muscle wasting disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy, whereas in-frame deletions typically manifest as the milder allelic condition, Becker muscular dystrophy. Antisense oligomer-induced exon skipping can modify dystrophin gene expression so that a disease-associated dystrophin pre-mRNA is processed into a Becker muscular dystrophy-like mature transcript. Despite genomic deletions that may encompass hundreds of kilobases of the gene, some dystrophin mutations appear “leaky”, and low levels of high molecular weight, and presumably semi-functional, dystrophin are produced. A likely causative mechanism is endogenous exon skipping, and Duchenne individuals with higher baseline levels of dystrophin may respond more efficiently to the administration of splice-switching antisense oligomers. We optimized excision of exons 8 and 9 in normal human myoblasts, and evaluated several oligomers in cells from eight Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients with deletions in a known “leaky” region of the dystrophin gene. Inter-patient variation in response to antisense oligomer induced skipping in vitro appeared minimal. We describe oligomers targeting exon 8, that unequivocally increase dystrophin above baseline in vitro, and propose that patients with leaky mutations are ideally suited for participation in antisense oligomer mediated splice-switching clinical studies.

  8. RNA interference for performance enhancement and detection in doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Maxie; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2011-10-01

    RNA interference represents a comparably new route of regulating and manipulating specific gene expression. Promising results were obtained in experimental therapies aim at the treatment of different kinds of diseases including cancer, diabetes mellitus or Dychenne muscular dystrophy. While studies on down-regulation efficiency are often performed by analyzing the regulated protein, the direct detection of small, interfering RNA molecules and antisense oligonucleotides is of great interest for the investigation of the metabolism and degradation and also for the detection of a putative misuse of these molecules in sports. Myostatin down-regulation was shown to result in increased performance and muscle growth and the regulation of several other proteins could be relevant for performance enhancement. This mini-review summarizes current approaches for the mass spectrometric analysis of siRNA and antisense oligonucleotides from biological matrices and the available data on biodistribution, metabolism, and half-life of relevant substances are discussed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Functional regulation of RNA-induced silencing complex by photoreactive oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Yohei; Yamayoshi, Asako; Kobori, Akio; Murakami, Akira

    2014-02-01

    We developed a novel method for regulation of RISC function by photoreactive oligonucleotides (Ps-Oligo) containing 2'-O-psoralenylmethoxyethyl adenosine (Aps). We observed that inhibitory effects of Ps-Oligos on RISC function were enhanced by UV-irradiation compared with 2'-O-methyl-oligonucleotide without Aps. These results suggest Ps-Oligo inhibited RISC function by cross-linking effect, and we propose that the concept described in this report may be promising and applicable one to regulate the small RNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Calcium ions effectively enhance the effect of antisense peptide nucleic acids conjugated to cationic tat and oligoarginine peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Pankratova, Stanislava; Nielsen, Peter E

    2005-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides have been widely used to improve cellular delivery of a variety of proteins and antisense agents. However, recent studies indicate that such cationic peptides are predominantly entering cells via an endosomal pathway. We now show that the nuclear antisense effect in He......La cells of a variety of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) peptide conjugates is significantly enhanced by addition of 6 mM Ca(2+) (as well as by the lysosomotrophic agent chloroquine). In particular, the antisense activities of Tat(48-60) and heptaarginine-conjugated PNAs were increased 44-fold and 8.5-fold......, respectively. Evidence is presented that the mechanism involves endosomal release. The present results show that Ca(2+) can be used as an effective enhancer for in vitro cellular delivery of cationic peptide-conjugated PNA oligomers, and also emphasize the significance of the endosomal escape route...

  11. Antisense expression of a gene encoding a calcium-binding protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    using the transgenic approach. The transformation of ... methods using EhCaBP or AtCaM3 gene-specific primers in ... acetone) was added, mixed and incubated for 15–18 h in the dark at .... as expected from the design of the AtCaM3 antisense construct .... Thus, there seems to be a positive qualitative correlation between ...

  12. A Simple Three-Step Method for Design and Affinity Testing of New Antisense Peptides: An Example of Erythropoietin

    OpenAIRE

    Štambuk, Nikola; Manojlović, Zoran; Turčić, Petra; Martinić, Roko; Konjevoda, Paško; Weitner, Tin; Wardega, Piotr; Gabričević, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Antisense peptide technology is a valuable tool for deriving new biologically active molecules and performing peptide–receptor modulation. It is based on the fact that peptides specified by the complementary (antisense) nucleotide sequences often bind to each other with a higher specificity and efficacy. We tested the validity of this concept on the example of human erythropoietin, a well-characterized and pharmacologically relevant hematopoietic growth factor. The purpose of the work was to ...

  13. Targeted sequencing of large genomic regions with CATCH-Seq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Day

    Full Text Available Current target enrichment systems for large-scale next-generation sequencing typically require synthetic oligonucleotides used as capture reagents to isolate sequences of interest. The majority of target enrichment reagents are focused on gene coding regions or promoters en masse. Here we introduce development of a customizable targeted capture system using biotinylated RNA probe baits transcribed from sheared bacterial artificial chromosome clone templates that enables capture of large, contiguous blocks of the genome for sequencing applications. This clone adapted template capture hybridization sequencing (CATCH-Seq procedure can be used to capture both coding and non-coding regions of a gene, and resolve the boundaries of copy number variations within a genomic target site. Furthermore, libraries constructed with methylated adapters prior to solution hybridization also enable targeted bisulfite sequencing. We applied CATCH-Seq to diverse targets ranging in size from 125 kb to 3.5 Mb. Our approach provides a simple and cost effective alternative to other capture platforms because of template-based, enzymatic probe synthesis and the lack of oligonucleotide design costs. Given its similarity in procedure, CATCH-Seq can also be performed in parallel with commercial systems.

  14. Antisense repression of sucrose phosphate synthase in transgenic muskmelon alters plant growth and fruit development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Hongmei; Ma, Leyuan; Zhao, Cong; Hao, Hui; Gong, Biao; Yu, Xiyan; Wang, Xiufeng

    2010-01-01

    To unravel the roles of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), we reduced its activity in transgenic muskmelon plants by an antisense approach. For this purpose, an 830 bp cDNA fragment of muskmelon sucrose phosphate synthase was expressed in antisense orientation behind the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus. The phenotype of the antisense plants clearly differed from that of control plants. The transgenic plant leaves were markedly smaller, and the plant height and stem diameter were obviously shorter and thinner. Transmission electron microscope observation revealed that the membrane degradation of chloroplast happened in transgenic leaves and the numbers of grana and grana lamella in the chloroplast were significantly less, suggesting that the slow growth and weaker phenotype of transgenic plants may be due to the damage of the chloroplast ultrastructure, which in turn results in the decrease of the net photosynthetic rate. The sucrose concentration and levels of sucrose phosphate synthase decreased in transgenic mature fruit, and the fruit size was smaller than the control fruit. Together, our results suggest that sucrose phosphate synthase may play an important role in regulating the muskmelon plant growth and fruit development.

  15. Antisense repression of sucrose phosphate synthase in transgenic muskmelon alters plant growth and fruit development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hongmei; Ma, Leyuan; Zhao, Cong; Hao, Hui; Gong, Biao [College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an, Shandong 271018 (China); Yu, Xiyan, E-mail: yuxiyan@sdau.edu.cn [College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an, Shandong 271018 (China); Wang, Xiufeng, E-mail: xfwang@sdau.edu.cn [College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an, Shandong 271018 (China)

    2010-03-12

    To unravel the roles of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), we reduced its activity in transgenic muskmelon plants by an antisense approach. For this purpose, an 830 bp cDNA fragment of muskmelon sucrose phosphate synthase was expressed in antisense orientation behind the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus. The phenotype of the antisense plants clearly differed from that of control plants. The transgenic plant leaves were markedly smaller, and the plant height and stem diameter were obviously shorter and thinner. Transmission electron microscope observation revealed that the membrane degradation of chloroplast happened in transgenic leaves and the numbers of grana and grana lamella in the chloroplast were significantly less, suggesting that the slow growth and weaker phenotype of transgenic plants may be due to the damage of the chloroplast ultrastructure, which in turn results in the decrease of the net photosynthetic rate. The sucrose concentration and levels of sucrose phosphate synthase decreased in transgenic mature fruit, and the fruit size was smaller than the control fruit. Together, our results suggest that sucrose phosphate synthase may play an important role in regulating the muskmelon plant growth and fruit development.

  16. Merlin: Computer-Aided Oligonucleotide Design for Large Scale Genome Engineering with MAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintin, Michael; Ma, Natalie J; Ahmed, Samir; Bhatia, Swapnil; Lewis, Aaron; Isaacs, Farren J; Densmore, Douglas

    2016-06-17

    Genome engineering technologies now enable precise manipulation of organism genotype, but can be limited in scalability by their design requirements. Here we describe Merlin ( http://merlincad.org ), an open-source web-based tool to assist biologists in designing experiments using multiplex automated genome engineering (MAGE). Merlin provides methods to generate pools of single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides (oligos) for MAGE experiments by performing free energy calculation and BLAST scoring on a sliding window spanning the targeted site. These oligos are designed not only to improve recombination efficiency, but also to minimize off-target interactions. The application further assists experiment planning by reporting predicted allelic replacement rates after multiple MAGE cycles, and enables rapid result validation by generating primer sequences for multiplexed allele-specific colony PCR. Here we describe the Merlin oligo and primer design procedures and validate their functionality compared to OptMAGE by eliminating seven AvrII restriction sites from the Escherichia coli genome.

  17. Short G-rich oligonucleotides as a potential therapeutic for Huntington's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parekh-Olmedo Hetal

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's Disease (HD is an inherited autosomal dominant genetic disorder in which neuronal tissue degenerates. The pathogenesis of the disease appears to center on the development of protein aggregates that arise initially from the misfolding of the mutant HD protein. Mutant huntingtin (Htt is produced by HD genes that contain an increased number of glutamine codons within the first exon and this expansion leads to the production of a protein that misfolds. Recent studies suggest that mutant Htt can nucleate protein aggregation and interfere with a multitude of normal cellular functions. Results As such, efforts to find a therapy for HD have focused on agents that disrupt or block the mutant Htt aggregation pathway. Here, we report that short guanosine monotonic oligonucleotides capable of adopting a G-quartet structure, are effective inhibitors of aggregation. By utilizing a biochemical/immunoblotting assay as an initial screen, we identified a 20-mer, all G-oligonucleotide (HDG as an active molecule. Subsequent testing in a cell-based assay revealed that HDG was an effective inhibitor of aggregation of a fusion protein, comprised of a mutant Htt fragment and green fluorescent protein (eGFP. Taken together, our results suggest that a monotonic G-oligonucleotide, capable of adopting a G-quartet conformation is an effective inhibitor of aggregation. This oligonucleotide can also enable cell survival in PC12 cells overexpressing a mutant Htt fragment fusion gene. Conclusion Single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides capable of forming stable G-quartets can inhibit aggregation of the mutant Htt fragment protein. This activity maybe an important part of the pathogenecity of Huntington's Disease. Our results reveal a new class of agents that could be developed as a therapeutic approach for Huntington's Disease.

  18. Measuring DNA hybridization using fluorescent DNA-stabilized silver clusters to investigate mismatch effects on therapeutic oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Donny; Bossert, Nelli; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2018-04-06

    Short nucleic acid oligomers have found a wide range of applications in experimental physics, biology and medicine, and show potential for the treatment of acquired and genetic diseases. These applications rely heavily on the predictability of hybridization through Watson-Crick base pairing to allow positioning on a nanometer scale, as well as binding to the target transcripts, but also off-target binding to transcripts with partial homology. These effects are of particular importance in the development of therapeutic oligonucleotides, where off-target effects caused by the binding of mismatched sequences need to be avoided. We employ a novel method of probing DNA hybridization using optically active DNA-stabilized silver clusters (Ag-DNA) to measure binding efficiencies through a change in fluorescence intensity. In this way we can determine their location-specific sensitivity to individual mismatches in the sequence. The results reveal a strong dependence of the hybridization on the location of the mismatch, whereby mismatches close to the edges and center show a relatively minor impact. In parallel, we propose a simple model for calculating the annealing ratios of mismatched DNA sequences, which supports our experimental results. The primary result shown in this work is a demonstration of a novel technique to measure DNA hybridization using fluorescent Ag-DNA. With this technique, we investigated the effect of mismatches on the hybridization efficiency, and found a significant dependence on the location of individual mismatches. These effects are strongly influenced by the length of the used oligonucleotides. The novel probe method based on fluorescent Ag-DNA functions as a reliable tool in measuring this behavior. As a secondary result, we formulated a simple model that is consistent with the experimental data.

  19. Differential distribution of calcineurin Aα isoenzyme mRNA's in rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttini, M.; Limonta, S.; Luyten, M.; Boddeke, H.

    1993-01-01

    Specific antisense oligonucleotide probes for the α isoforms of the catalytic subunit (A-subunit) of calcineurin were prepared and the distribution of Aα1 and Aα2 mRNA's has been studied in rat brain using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Clear regional differences have been observed for the

  20. Cell membrane integrity in myotonic dystrophy type 1: implications for therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, A.M.M.; Kranzen, J.; Croes, H.J.E.; Bijl, S.; Broek, W.J.A.A. van den; Kessel, I.D.G. van; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Deutekom, J.C. van; Wieringa, B.; Mulders, S.A.; Wansink, D.G.

    2015-01-01

    Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disease caused by toxic RNA from a DMPK gene carrying an expanded (CTG*CAG)n repeat. Promising strategies for treatment of DM1 patients are currently being tested. These include antisense oligonucleotides and drugs for elimination of expanded RNA or

  1. Selective Detection of Peptide-Oligonucleotide Heteroconjugates Utilizing Capillary HPLC-ICPMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catron, Brittany; Caruso, Joseph A.; Limbach, Patrick A.

    2012-06-01

    A method for the selective detection and quantification of peptide:oligonucleotide heteroconjugates, such as those generated by protein:nucleic acid cross-links, using capillary reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (cap-RPHPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection (ICPMS) is described. The selective detection of phosphorus as 31P+, the only natural isotope, in peptide-oligonucleotide heteroconjugates is enabled by the elemental detection capabilities of the ICPMS. Mobile phase conditions that allow separation of heteroconjugates while maintaining ICPMS compatibility were investigated. We found that trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) mobile phases, used in conventional peptide separations, and hexafluoroisopropanol/triethylamine (HFIP/TEA) mobile phases, used in conventional oligonucleotide separations, both are compatible with ICPMS and enable heteroconjugate separation. The TFA-based separations yielded limits of detection (LOD) of ~40 ppb phosphorus, which is nearly seven times lower than the LOD for HFIP/TEA-based separations. Using the TFA mobile phase, 1-2 pmol of a model heteroconjugate were routinely separated and detected by this optimized capLC-ICPMS method.

  2. i-Genome: A database to summarize oligonucleotide data in genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Yu-Chung

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the occurrence of sequence features in genomes is crucial to comparative genomics, evolutionary analysis, the analyses of regulatory sequences and the quantitative evaluation of sequences. Computing the frequencies and the occurrences of a pattern in complete genomes is time-consuming. Results The proposed database provides information about sequence features generated by exhaustively computing the sequences of the complete genome. The repetitive elements in the eukaryotic genomes, such as LINEs, SINEs, Alu and LTR, are obtained from Repbase. The database supports various complete genomes including human, yeast, worm, and 128 microbial genomes. Conclusions This investigation presents and implements an efficiently computational approach to accumulate the occurrences of the oligonucleotides or patterns in complete genomes. A database is established to maintain the information of the sequence features, including the distributions of oligonucleotide, the gene distribution, the distribution of repetitive elements in genomes and the occurrences of the oligonucleotides. The database can provide more effective and efficient way to access the repetitive features in genomes.

  3. In vitro transcription in the presence of DNA oligonucleotides can generate strong anomalous initiation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, C W; Clark, M P; Rinaldo, J E; Chalkley, R

    1996-03-01

    In the present study, we have explored an unexpected observation in transcription initiation that is mediated by single-stranded oligonucleotides. Initially, our goal was to understand the function of different upstream regulatory elements/initiation sites in the rat xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (XDH/XO) promoter. We performed in vitro transcription with HeLa nuclear extracts in the presence of different double-stranded oligonucleotides against upstream elements as competitors. A new and unusual transcription initiation site was detected by primer extension. This new initiation site maps to the downstream region of the corresponding competitor. Subsequent analyses have indicated that the induction of a new transcription initiation site is anomalous which is due to the presence of a small amount of single-stranded oligonucleotide in the competitor. We found that this anomalous initiation site is insensitive to the orientation of the promoter and requires only a small amount of single-stranded oligonucleotide (< 2-fold molar excess relative to template). We surmise that a complementary interaction between the single-stranded oligonucleotide and transiently denatured promoter template may be responsible for this sequence-specific transcription initiation artifact. To study the regulation of transcription initiation by in vitro transcription approaches, we propose that one should probe the effect of removing transacting factors by adding an excess of a cognate oligonucleotide which does not bear exact sequence identity to the template.

  4. Time-dependent, bidirectional, anti- and pro-spinal hyper-reflexia and muscle spasticity effect after chronic spinal glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2) oligonucleotide-induced downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamizato, Kota; Marsala, Silvia; Navarro, Michael; Kakinohana, Manabu; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Yoshizumi, Tetsuya; Lukacova, Nadezda; Wancewicz, Ed; Powers, Berit; Mazur, Curt; Marsala, Martin

    2018-07-01

    The loss of local spinal glycine-ergic tone has been postulated as one of the mechanisms contributing to the development of spinal injury-induced spasticity. In our present study using a model of spinal transection-induced muscle spasticity, we characterize the effect of spinally-targeted GlyT2 downregulation once initiated at chronic stages after induction of spasticity in rats. In animals with identified hyper-reflexia, the anti-spasticity effect was studied after intrathecal treatment with: i) glycine, ii) GlyT2 inhibitor (ALX 1393), and iii) GlyT2 antisense oligonucleotide (GlyT2-ASO). Administration of glycine and GlyT2 inhibitor led to significant suppression of spasticity lasting for a minimum of 45-60 min. Treatment with GlyT2-ASO led to progressive suppression of muscle spasticity seen at 2-3 weeks after treatment. Over the subsequent 4-12 weeks, however, the gradual appearance of profound spinal hyper-reflexia was seen. This was presented as spontaneous or slight-tactile stimulus-evoked muscle oscillations in the hind limbs (but not in upper limbs) with individual hyper-reflexive episodes lasting between 3 and 5 min. Chronic hyper-reflexia induced by GlyT2-ASO treatment was effectively blocked by intrathecal glycine. Immunofluorescence staining and Q-PCR analysis of the lumbar spinal cord region showed a significant (>90%) decrease in GlyT2 mRNA and GlyT2 protein. These data demonstrate that spinal GlyT2 downregulation provides only a time-limited therapeutic benefit and that subsequent loss of glycine vesicular synthesis resulting from chronic GlyT2 downregulation near completely eliminates the tonic glycine-ergic activity and is functionally expressed as profound spinal hyper-reflexia. These characteristics also suggest that chronic spinal GlyT2 silencing may be associated with pro-nociceptive activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Extensive polycistronism and antisense transcription in the mammalian Hox clusters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëll Mainguy

    Full Text Available The Hox clusters play a crucial role in body patterning during animal development. They encode both Hox transcription factor and micro-RNA genes that are activated in a precise temporal and spatial sequence that follows their chromosomal order. These remarkable collinear properties confer functional unit status for Hox clusters. We developed the TranscriptView platform to establish high resolution transcriptional profiling and report here that transcription in the Hox clusters is far more complex than previously described in both human and mouse. Unannotated transcripts can represent up to 60% of the total transcriptional output of a cluster. In particular, we identified 14 non-coding Transcriptional Units antisense to Hox genes, 10 of which (70% have a detectable mouse homolog. Most of these Transcriptional Units in both human and mouse present conserved sizeable sequences (>40 bp overlapping Hox transcripts, suggesting that these Hox antisense transcripts are functional. Hox clusters also display at least seven polycistronic clusters, i.e., different genes being co-transcribed on long isoforms (up to 30 kb. This work provides a reevaluated framework for understanding Hox gene function and dys-function. Such extensive transcriptions may provide a structural explanation for Hox clustering.

  6. Data in support of transcriptional regulation and function of Fas-antisense long noncoding RNA during human erythropoiesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Villamizar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes data related to a research article titled, “Fas-antisense long noncoding RNA is differentially expressed during maturation of human erythrocytes and confers resistance to Fas-mediated cell death” [1]. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are increasingly appreciated for their capacity to regulate many steps of gene expression. While recent studies suggest that many lncRNAs are functional, the scope of their actions throughout human biology is largely undefined including human red blood cell development (erythropoiesis. Here we include expression data for 82 lncRNAs during early, intermediate and late stages of human erythropoiesis using a commercial qPCR Array. From these data, we identified lncRNA Fas-antisense 1 (Fas-AS1 or Saf described in the research article. Also included are 5′ untranslated sequences (UTR for lncRNA Saf with transcription factor target sequences identified. Quantitative RT-PCR data demonstrate relative levels of critical erythroid transcription factors, GATA-1 and KLF1, in K562 human erythroleukemia cells and maturing erythroblasts derived from human CD34+ cells. End point and quantitative RT-PCR data for cDNA prepared using random hexamers versus oligo(dT18 revealed that lncRNA Saf is not effectively polyadenylated. Finally, we include flow cytometry histograms demonstrating Fas levels on maturing erythroblasts derived from human CD34+ cells transduced using mock conditions or with lentivirus particles encoding for Saf.

  7. Antisense imaging of epidermal growth factor-induced p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1} gene expression in MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Judy; Chen, Paul; Mrkobrada, Marko [Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 19 Russell Street, M5S 2S2, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hu, Meiduo [Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 19 Russell Street, M5S 2S2, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Vallis, Katherine A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Reilly, Raymond M. [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-09-01

    accumulation of {sup 111}In-labeled antisense ODNs in the presence of EGF induction of the p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1} gene (0.32%{+-}0.06% injected dose/g) compared with normal saline-treated control mice (0.11%{+-}0.07% injected dose/g). The tumor/blood ratio for antisense ODNs in the presence of EGF induction of the p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1} gene (4.87{+-}0.87) was also significantly higher than for control random sequence ODNs (2.14{+-}0.69) or for mice receiving antisense ODNs but not treated with EGF (2.07{+-}0.37). We conclude that antisense imaging of upregulated p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1} gene expression is feasible and could represent a promising new molecular imaging strategy for monitoring tumor response in cancer patients. To our knowledge, this study also describes the first report of molecular imaging of the upregulated expression of a downstream gene target of the EGFR, a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor. (orig.)

  8. Unlocked nucleic acids with a pyrene-modified uracil: Synthesis, hybridization studies, fluorescent properties and i-motif stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perlíková, P.; Karlsen, K.K.; Pedersen, E.B.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of two new phosphoramidite building blocks for the incorporation of 5-(pyren-1-yl)uracilyl unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) monomers into oligonucleotides has been developed. Monomers containing a pyrene-modified nucleobase component were found to destabilize an i-motif structure at pH 5...... intensities upon hybridization to DNA or RNA. Efficient quenching of fluorescence of pyrene-modified UNA monomers was observed after formation of i-motif structures at pH 5.2. The stabilizing/destabilizing effect of pyrene-modified nucleic acids might be useful for designing antisense oligonucleotides...

  9. Solid-phase synthesis of 2{sup '}-O-methoxyethyl oligonucleotides using dimeric phosphoramidate blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Gi Weon; Kang, Yong Han [Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Hanyang University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    This research focused on the method of using dimeric phosphoramidite blocks to synthesize oligonucleotides for development as oligonucleotide drugs. A 16-mer oligonucleotide with the randomly selected sequence of C*C*T*C*G*C *T*C*T*C*G*C*C* C*G*C was synthesized using CC, GC, and TC dimers, a combination of monomers and dimers, or only monomers as building blocks. Using dimer blocks in this synthetic method provided a significant decrease in critical impurities that had similar properties to the main product, which was confirmed by LC-MS and HPLC analysis.

  10. 77 FR 62521 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: The Development of Therapeutic Agents for the Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... interleukin-10 (IL-10) inhibitor as a dual-biologic therapy to treat metastatic breast cancer, or ii) incorporating a p53 isoform antisense oligonucleotide as a single biologic therapy to treat T- cell lymphoma... Exclusive License: The Development of Therapeutic Agents for the Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer and T...

  11. Potent Antibacterial Antisense Peptide-Peptide Nucleic Acid Conjugates Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghosal, Anubrata; Nielsen, Peter E

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen causing severe infections in hospital settings, especially with immune compromised patients, and the increasing prevalence of multidrug resistant strains urges search for new drugs with novel mechanisms of action. In this study we introduce...... significantly reduced bacterial survival. These results open the possibility of development of antisense antibacterials for treatment of Pseudomonas infections....

  12. Unravelling the Secrets of Mycobacterial Cidality through the Lens of Antisense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvinder Kaur

    Full Text Available One of the major impediments in anti-tubercular drug discovery is the lack of a robust grammar that governs the in-vitro to the in-vivo translation of efficacy. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb is capable of growing both extracellular as well as intracellular; encountering various hostile conditions like acidic milieu, free radicals, starvation, oxygen deprivation, and immune effector mechanisms. Unique survival strategies of Mtb have prompted researchers to develop in-vitro equivalents to simulate in-vivo physiologies and exploited to find efficacious inhibitors against various phenotypes. Conventionally, the inhibitors are screened on Mtb under the conditions that are unrelated to the in-vivo disease environments. The present study was aimed to (1. Investigate cidality of Mtb targets using a non-chemical inhibitor antisense-RNA (AS-RNA under in-vivo simulated in-vitro conditions.(2. Confirm the cidality of the targets under in-vivo in experimental tuberculosis. (3. Correlate in-vitro vs. in-vivo cidality data to identify the in-vitro condition that best predicts in-vivo cidality potential of the targets. Using cidality as a metric for efficacy, and AS-RNA as a target-specific inhibitor, we delineated the cidality potential of five target genes under six different physiological conditions (replicating, hypoxia, low pH, nutrient starvation, nitrogen depletion, and nitric oxide.In-vitro cidality confirmed in experimental tuberculosis in BALB/c mice using the AS-RNA allowed us to identify cidal targets in the rank order of rpoB>aroK>ppk>rpoC>ilvB. RpoB was used as the cidality control. In-vitro and in-vivo studies feature aroK (encoding shikimate kinase as an in-vivo mycobactericidal target suitable for anti-TB drug discovery. In-vitro to in-vivo cidality correlations suggested the low pH (R = 0.9856 in-vitro model as best predictor of in-vivo cidality; however, similar correlation studies in pathologically relevant (Kramnik mice are warranted. In

  13. A new oligonucleotide microarray for detection of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Legionella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyang Cao

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila has been recognized as the major cause of legionellosis since the discovery of the deadly disease. Legionella spp. other than L. pneumophila were later found to be responsible to many non-pneumophila infections. The non-L. pneumophila infections are likely under-detected because of a lack of effective diagnosis. In this report, we have sequenced the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS of 10 Legionella species and subspecies, including L. anisa, L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L. fairfieldensis, L. gormanii, L. jordanis, L. maceachernii, L. micdadei, L. pneumophila subspp. fraseri and L. pneumophila subspp. pasculleii, and developed a rapid oligonucleotide microarray detection technique accordingly to identify 12 most common Legionella spp., which consist of 11 pathogenic species of L. anisa, L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L. gormanii, L. jordanis, L. longbeachae, L. maceachernii, L. micdadei, and L. pneumophila (including subspp. pneumophila, subspp. fraseri, and subspp. pasculleii and one non-pathogenic species, L. fairfieldensis. Twenty-nine probes that reproducibly detected multiple Legionella species with high specificity were included in the array. A total of 52 strains, including 30 target pathogens and 22 non-target bacteria, were used to verify the oligonucleotide microarray assay. The sensitivity of the detection was at 1.0 ng with genomic DNA or 13 CFU/100 mL with Legionella cultures. The microarray detected seven samples of air conditioner-condensed water with 100% accuracy, validating the technique as a promising method for applications in basic microbiology, clinical diagnosis, food safety, and epidemiological surveillance. The phylogenetic study based on the ITS has also revealed that the non-pathogenic L. fairfieldensis is the closest to L. pneumophila than the nine other pathogenic Legionella spp.

  14. A New Oligonucleotide Microarray for Detection of Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Legionella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Boyang; Liu, Xiangqian; Yu, Xiang; Chen, Min; Feng, Lu; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila has been recognized as the major cause of legionellosis since the discovery of the deadly disease. Legionella spp. other than L. pneumophila were later found to be responsible to many non-pneumophila infections. The non-L. pneumophila infections are likely under-detected because of a lack of effective diagnosis. In this report, we have sequenced the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of 10 Legionella species and subspecies, including L. anisa, L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L. fairfieldensis, L. gormanii, L. jordanis, L. maceachernii, L. micdadei, L. pneumophila subspp. fraseri and L. pneumophila subspp. pasculleii, and developed a rapid oligonucleotide microarray detection technique accordingly to identify 12 most common Legionella spp., which consist of 11 pathogenic species of L. anisa, L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L. gormanii, L. jordanis, L. longbeachae, L. maceachernii, L. micdadei, and L. pneumophila (including subspp. pneumophila, subspp. fraseri, and subspp. pasculleii) and one non-pathogenic species, L. fairfieldensis. Twenty-nine probes that reproducibly detected multiple Legionella species with high specificity were included in the array. A total of 52 strains, including 30 target pathogens and 22 non-target bacteria, were used to verify the oligonucleotide microarray assay. The sensitivity of the detection was at 1.0 ng with genomic DNA or 13 CFU/100 mL with Legionella cultures. The microarray detected seven samples of air conditioner-condensed water with 100% accuracy, validating the technique as a promising method for applications in basic microbiology, clinical diagnosis, food safety, and epidemiological surveillance. The phylogenetic study based on the ITS has also revealed that the non-pathogenic L. fairfieldensis is the closest to L. pneumophila than the nine other pathogenic Legionella spp. PMID:25469776

  15. Sequence-Specific Targeting of Bacterial Resistance Genes Increases Antibiotic Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael; Daly, Seth M.; Greenberg, David E.; Toprak, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    The lack of effective and well-tolerated therapies against antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a global public health problem leading to prolonged treatment and increased mortality. To improve the efficacy of existing antibiotic compounds, we introduce a new method for strategically inducing antibiotic hypersensitivity in pathogenic bacteria. Following the systematic verification that the AcrAB-TolC efflux system is one of the major determinants of the intrinsic antibiotic resistance levels in Escherichia coli, we have developed a short antisense oligomer designed to inhibit the expression of acrA and increase antibiotic susceptibility in E. coli. By employing this strategy, we can inhibit E. coli growth using 2- to 40-fold lower antibiotic doses, depending on the antibiotic compound utilized. The sensitizing effect of the antisense oligomer is highly specific to the targeted gene’s sequence, which is conserved in several bacterial genera, and the oligomer does not have any detectable toxicity against human cells. Finally, we demonstrate that antisense oligomers improve the efficacy of antibiotic combinations, allowing the combined use of even antagonistic antibiotic pairs that are typically not favored due to their reduced activities. PMID:27631336

  16. Triple helix-forming oligonucleotide corresponding to the polypyrimidine sequence in the rat alpha 1(I) collagen promoter specifically inhibits factor binding and transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, A; Kandala, J C; Weber, K T; Guntaka, R V

    1996-01-19

    Type I and III fibrillar collagens are the major structural proteins of the extracellular matrix found in various organs including the myocardium. Abnormal and progressive accumulation of fibrillar type I collagen in the interstitial spaces compromises organ function and therefore, the study of transcriptional regulation of this gene and specific targeting of its expression is of major interest. Transient transfection of adult cardiac fibroblasts indicate that the polypurine-polypyrimidine sequence of alpha 1(I) collagen promoter between nucleotides - 200 and -140 represents an overall positive regulatory element. DNase I footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays suggest that multiple factors bind to different elements of this promoter region. We further demonstrate that the unique polypyrimidine sequence between -172 and -138 of the promoter represents a suitable target for a single-stranded polypurine oligonucleotide (TFO) to form a triple helix DNA structure. Modified electrophoretic mobility shift assays show that this TFO specifically inhibits the protein-DNA interaction within the target region. In vitro transcription assays and transient transfection experiments demonstrate that the transcriptional activity of the promoter is inhibited by this oligonucleotide. We propose that TFOs represent a therapeutic potential to specifically influence the expression of alpha 1(I) collagen gene in various disease states where abnormal type I collagen accumulation is known to occur.

  17. Structural Determinants of Photoreactivity of Triplex Forming Oligonucleotides Conjugated to Psoralens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Rajagopal; Oh, Dennis H.

    2010-01-01

    Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) with both DNA and 2′-O-methyl RNA backbones can direct psoralen photoadducts to specific DNA sequences. However, the functional consequences of these differing structures on psoralen photoreactivity are unknown. We designed TFO sequences with DNA and 2′-O-methyl RNA backbones conjugated to psoralen by 2-carbon linkers and examined their ability to bind and target damage to model DNA duplexes corresponding to sequences within the human HPRT gene. While TFO binding affinity was not dramatically affected by the type of backbone, psoralen photoreactivity was completely abrogated by the 2′-O-methyl RNA backbone. Photoreactivity was restored when the psoralen was conjugated to the RNA TFO via a 6-carbon linker. In contrast to the B-form DNA of triplexes formed by DNA TFOs, the CD spectra of triplexes formed with 2′-O-methyl RNA TFOs exhibited features of A-form DNA. These results indicate that 2′-O-methyl RNA TFOs induce a partial B-to-A transition in their target DNA sequences which may impair the photoreactivity of a conjugated psoralen and suggest that optimal design of TFOs to target DNA damage may require a balance between binding ability and drug reactivity. PMID:20725628

  18. Antisense-mediated suppression of C-hordein biosynthesis in the barley grain results in correlated changes in the transcriptome, protein profile, and amino acid composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Lange, Marianne; Friis, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Antisense- or RNAi-mediated suppression of the biosynthesis of nutritionally inferior storage proteins is a promising strategy for improving the amino acid profile of seeds. However, the potential pleiotropic effects of this on interconnected pathways and the agronomic quality traits need...... to be addressed. In the current study, a transcriptomic analysis of an antisense C-hordein line of barley was performed, using a grain-specific cDNA array. The C-hordein antisense line is characterized by marked changes in storage protein and amino acid profiles, while the seed weight is within the normal range...... and no external morphological irregularities were observed. The results of the transcriptome analysis showed excellent correlation with data on changes in the relative proportions of storage proteins and amino acid composition. The antisense line had a lower C-hordein level and down-regulated transcript encoding...

  19. TP53 suppression promotes erythropoiesis in del(5q) MDS, suggesting a targeted therapeutic strategy in lenalidomide-resistant patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Gisela; McGraw, Kathy; Yip, Bon Ham; Pellagatti, Andrea; Johnson, Joseph; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Kenian; Zhang, Lan Min; Fulp, William J.; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Al Ali, Najla H.; Basiorka, Ashley; Smith, Larry J.; Daugherty, F. Joseph; Littleton, Neil; Wells, Richard A.; Sokol, Lubomir; Wei, Sheng; Komrokji, Rami S.; Boultwood, Jacqueline; List, Alan F.

    2013-01-01

    Stabilization of p53 in erythroid precursors in response to nucleosomal stress underlies the hypoplastic anemia in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with chromosome 5q deletion [del(5q)]. We investigated whether cenersen, a clinically active 20-mer antisense oligonucleotide complementary to TP53 exon10, could suppress p53 expression and restore erythropoiesis in del(5q) MDS. Cenersen treatment of ribosomal protein S-14-deficient erythroblasts significantly reduced cellular p53 and p53-up-regulated modulator of apoptosis expression compared with controls, accompanied by a significant reduction in apoptosis and increased cell proliferation. In a two-stage erythroid differentiation assay, cenersen significantly suppressed nuclear p53 in bone marrow CD34+ cells isolated from patients with del(5q) MDS, whereas erythroid burst recovery increased proportionally to the magnitude of p53 suppression without evidence of del(5q) clonal suppression (r = −0.6; P = 0.005). To explore the effect of p53 suppression on erythropoiesis in vivo, dexamethasone, a glucocorticoid receptor-dependent p53 antagonist, was added to lenalidomide treatment in eight lower-risk, transfusion-dependent, del(5q) MDS patients with acquired drug resistance. Transfusion independence was restored in five patients accompanied by expansion of erythroid precursors and decreased cellular p53 expression. We conclude that targeted suppression of p53 could support effective erythropoiesis in lenalidomide-resistant del(5q) MDS. PMID:24043769

  20. Surface modification of plasmonic nanostructured materials with thiolated oligonucleotides in 10 seconds using selective microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, B.; Aslan, K.

    2012-01-01

    This study demonstrates the proof-of-principle of rapid surface modification of plasmonic nanostructured materials with oligonucleotides using low power microwave heating. Due to their interesting optical and electronic properties, silver nanoparticle films (SNFs, 2 nm thick) deposited onto glass slides were used as the model plasmonic nanostructured materials. Rapid surface modification of SNFs with oligonucleotides was carried out using two strategies (1) Strategy 1: for ss-oligonucleotides, surface hybridization and (2) Strategy 2: for ds-oligonucleotides, solution hybridization, where the samples were exposed to 10, 15, 30 and 60 seconds microwave heating. To assess the efficacy of our new rapid surface modification technique, identical experiments carried out without the microwave heating (i.e., conventional method), which requires 24 hours for the completion of the identical steps. It was found that SNFs can be modified with ss- and ds-oligonucleotides in 10 seconds, which typically requires several hours of incubation time for the chemisorption of thiol groups on to the planar metal surface using conventional techniques. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Pharmacokinetic Profiling of Conjugated Therapeutic Oligonucleotides: A High-Throughput Method Based Upon Serial Blood Microsampling Coupled to Peptide Nucleic Acid Hybridization Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Bruno M D C; Gilbert, James W; Haraszti, Reka A; Coles, Andrew H; Biscans, Annabelle; Roux, Loic; Nikan, Mehran; Echeverria, Dimas; Hassler, Matthew; Khvorova, Anastasia

    2017-12-01

    Therapeutic oligonucleotides, such as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), hold great promise for the treatment of incurable genetically defined disorders by targeting cognate toxic gene products for degradation. To achieve meaningful tissue distribution and efficacy in vivo, siRNAs must be conjugated or formulated. Clear understanding of the pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic behavior of these compounds is necessary to optimize and characterize the performance of therapeutic oligonucleotides in vivo. In this study, we describe a simple and reproducible methodology for the evaluation of in vivo blood/plasma PK profiles and tissue distribution of oligonucleotides. The method is based on serial blood microsampling from the saphenous vein, coupled to peptide nucleic acid hybridization assay for quantification of guide strands. Performed with minimal number of animals, this method allowed unequivocal detection and sensitive quantification without the need for amplification, or further modification of the oligonucleotides. Using this methodology, we compared plasma clearances and tissue distribution profiles of two different hydrophobically modified siRNAs (hsiRNAs). Notably, cholesterol-hsiRNA presented slow plasma clearances and mainly accumulated in the liver, whereas, phosphocholine-docosahexaenoic acid-hsiRNA was rapidly cleared from the plasma and preferably accumulated in the kidney. These data suggest that the PK/biodistribution profiles of modified hsiRNAs are determined by the chemical nature of the conjugate. Importantly, the method described in this study constitutes a simple platform to conduct pilot assessments of the basic clearance and tissue distribution profiles, which can be broadly applied for evaluation of new chemical variants of siRNAs and micro-RNAs.

  2. Functionalization of silicon oxide using supercritical fluid deposition of 3,4-epoxybutyltrimethoxysilane for the immobilization of amino-modified oligonucleotide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rull, Jordi [Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble F38000 (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, Grenoble Cedex 9 F38054 (France); CEA, iRTSV, LCBM, Grenoble 38054 (France); CNRS, UMR 5249, Grenoble (France); Nonglaton, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.nonglaton@cea.fr [Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble F38000 (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, Grenoble Cedex 9 F38054 (France); Costa, Guillaume; Fontelaye, Caroline [Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble F38000 (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, Grenoble Cedex 9 F38054 (France); Marchi-Delapierre, Caroline; Ménage, Stéphane [Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble F38000 (France); CEA, iRTSV, LCBM, Grenoble 38054 (France); CNRS, UMR 5249, Grenoble (France); Marchand, Gilles [Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble F38000 (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, Grenoble Cedex 9 F38054 (France)

    2015-11-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • First example of grafting of 3,4-epoxybutyltrimethoxysilane (EBTMOS) onto silicon oxide by supercritical fluid deposition. • Extraordinary efficiency of the supercritical fluid deposition for the grafting of the EBTMOS compared with the conventional solution or vapor phase methodologies. • Demonstration of the efficiency of this functionalization process for the immobilization of amino-modified oligonucleotides. - Abstract: The functionalization of silicon oxide based substrates using silanes is generally performed through liquid phase methodologies. These processes involve a huge quantity of potentially toxic solvents and present some important disadvantages for the functionalization of microdevices or porous materials, for example the low diffusion. To overcome this drawback, solvent-free methodologies like molecular vapor deposition (MVD) or supercritical fluid deposition (SFD) have been developed. In this paper, the deposition process of 3,4-epoxybutyltrimethoxysilane (EBTMOS) on silicon oxide using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}) as a solvent is studied for the first time. The oxirane ring of epoxy silanes readily reacts with amine group and is of particular interest for the grafting of amino-modified oligonucleotides or antibodies for diagnostic application. Then the ability of this specific EBTMOS layer to react with amine functions has been evaluated using the immobilization of amino-modified oligonucleotide probes. The presence of the probes is revealed by fluorescence using hybridization with a fluorescent target oligonucleotide. The performances of SFD of EBTMOS have been optimized and then compared with the dip coating and molecular vapor deposition methods, evidencing a better grafting efficiency and homogeneity, a lower reaction time in addition to the eco-friendly properties of the supercritical carbon dioxide. The epoxysilane layers have been characterized by surface enhanced ellipsometric

  3. Immunogenicity of Bcl-2 in patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald; Svane, Inge Marie; Kvistborg, Pia

    2005-01-01

    patients suffering from unrelated tumor types (ie, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, acute myeloid leukemia [AML], and chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL]). Additionally, we show that these Bcl-2-reactive T cells are indeed peptide-specific, cytotoxic effector cells. Thus, Bcl-2 may serve as an important......B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) is a pivotal regulator of apoptotic cell death and it is overexpressed in many cancers. Consequently, the Bcl-2 protein is an attractive target for drug design, and Bcl-2-specific antisense oligonucleotides or small-molecule Bcl-2 inhibitors have shown broad anticancer......-2 in cancer and the fact that immune escape by down-regulation or loss of expression of this protein would impair sustained tumor growth makes Bcl-2 a very attractive target for anticancer immunotherapy. Herein, we describe spontaneous T-cell reactivity against Bcl-2 in peripheral blood from...

  4. Immunogenicity of Bcl-2 in patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald; Svane, Inge Marie; Kvistborg, Pia

    2005-01-01

    activities in preclinical models and are currently in several clinical trials. The clinical application of immunotherapy against cancer is rapidly moving forward in multiple areas, including the adoptive transfer of anti-tumor-reactive T cells and the use of "therapeutic" vaccines. The overexpression of Bcl......-2 in cancer and the fact that immune escape by down-regulation or loss of expression of this protein would impair sustained tumor growth makes Bcl-2 a very attractive target for anticancer immunotherapy. Herein, we describe spontaneous T-cell reactivity against Bcl-2 in peripheral blood from......B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) is a pivotal regulator of apoptotic cell death and it is overexpressed in many cancers. Consequently, the Bcl-2 protein is an attractive target for drug design, and Bcl-2-specific antisense oligonucleotides or small-molecule Bcl-2 inhibitors have shown broad anticancer...

  5. ADAM12 and alpha9beta1 integrin are instrumental in human myogenic cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafuste, Peggy; Sonnet, Corinne; Chazaud, Bénédicte

    2005-01-01

    of alpha9 parallels that of ADAM12 and culminates at time of fusion. alpha9 and ADAM12 coimmunoprecipitate and participate to mpc adhesion. Inhibition of ADAM12/alpha9beta1 integrin interplay, by either ADAM12 antisense oligonucleotides or blocking antibody to alpha9beta1, inhibited overall mpc fusion...

  6. Method for widespread microRNA-155 inhibition prolongs survival in ALS-model mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Erica D.; Shaner, Carey; Zhang, Peter; du Maine, Xavier; Fischer, Kimberlee; Tay, Jia; Chau, B. Nelson; Wu, Gregory F.; Miller, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are dysregulated in a variety of disease states, suggesting that this newly discovered class of gene expression repressors may be viable therapeutic targets. A microarray of miRNA changes in ALS-model superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1)G93A rodents identified 12 miRNAs as significantly changed. Six miRNAs tested in human ALS tissues were confirmed increased. Specifically, miR-155 was increased 5-fold in mice and 2-fold in human spinal cords. To test miRNA inhibition in the central nervous system (CNS) as a potential novel therapeutic, we developed oligonucleotide-based miRNA inhibitors (anti-miRs) that could inhibit miRNAs throughout the CNS and in the periphery. Anti-miR-155 caused global derepression of targets in peritoneal macrophages and, following intraventricular delivery, demonstrated widespread functional distribution in the brain and spinal cord. After treating SOD1G93A mice with anti-miR-155, we significantly extended survival by 10 days and disease duration by 15 days (38%) while a scrambled control anti-miR did not significantly improve survival or disease duration. Therefore, antisense oligonucleotides may be used to successfully inhibit miRNAs throughout the brain and spinal cord, and miR-155 is a promising new therapeutic target for human ALS. PMID:23740943

  7. 18F-labelling of oligonucleotides using succinimido 4-[18F]fluorobenzoat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, Elisabeth; Laangstroem, Bengt

    1998-01-01

    A general method for the labelling of oligodeoxynucleotide and oligonucleoside phosphorothioates in the 5'-position with the positron-emitting radionuclide 18 F (t 1/2 = 110 min) is described. The label was incorporated by the reaction of succinimido 4 -[ 18 F]fluorobenzoate 4 with oligonucleotides (18- and 20-mers) modified in the 5'-position with a hexylamine linker. Oligodeoxynucleotides 5'-GCT,AAG,CGA,TGC,CTC,CGT-3' (MTCa) and 5'-GAA,CCT,CTG,AGA,GTT,CAT,CT-3' (CROa) were labelled in 20±3 % (MTCa) and 13±3 % (CROa) radiochemical yields (non-isolated, decay-corrected and based on 4). Oligonucleoside phosphorotioates MTCa (S-MTCa) and CROa (S-CROa) were labelled in 9 and 7% isolated radiochemical yield, respectively (decay-corrected and based on 4). Labelled oligonucleotides and phosphorothioate analogues were separated from their unlabelled counterparts using reversed-phase perfusion chromatography. The molecular mass of a labelled oligonucleotide CROa was determined by ESI-MS after a mixed 18 F/ 19 F fluorobenzoate labelling experiment and corresponded with the expected structure. (au)

  8. Cell number and transfection volume dependent peptide nucleic acid antisense activity by cationic delivery methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llovera Nadal, Laia; Berthold, Peter; Nielsen, Peter E

    2012-01-01

    have now quantitatively compared the cellular activity (in the pLuc705 HeLa cell splice correction system) of PNA antisense oligomers using lipoplex delivery of cholesterol- and bisphosphonate-PNA conjugates, polyplex delivery via a PNA-polyethyleneimine conjugate and CPP delivery via a PNA......Efficient intracellular delivery is essential for high activity of nucleic acids based therapeutics, including antisense agents. Several strategies have been developed and practically all rely on auxiliary transfection reagents such as cationic lipids, cationic polymers and cell penetrating...... peptides as complexing agents and carriers of the nucleic acids. However, uptake mechanisms remain rather poorly understood, and protocols always require optimization of transfection parameters. Considering that cationic transfection complexes bind to and thus may up-concentrate on the cell surface, we...

  9. Thiolated carboxymethyl dextran as a nanocarrier for colon delivery of hSET1 antisense: In vitro stability and efficiency study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani, Melika, E-mail: Melika.kiani@gmail.com [Department of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6451, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzazadeh Tekie, Farnaz Sadat, E-mail: mirzazadehf@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6451, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dinarvand, Meshkat, E-mail: mdinarvand@hotmail.com [Department of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6451, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soleimani, Masoud, E-mail: soleim_m@modares.ac.ir [Stem Cell Technology Research Centre, P.O. Box 14155-3174, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Hematology, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dinarvand, Rassoul, E-mail: dinarvand@tums.ac.ir [Department of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6451, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Atyabi, Fatemeh, E-mail: atyabifa@tums.ac.ir [Department of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6451, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-01

    Gene therapy is an optimistic approach in cancer treatment. However, for efficient delivery of gene materials, designing an appropriate vector is necessary. Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) of chitosan and dextran could be considered a proper nanoparticulate carrier for sensitive biomaterials. In this study, PECs of chitosan and thiolated dextran were used as either an injectable or oral gene delivery system. hSET1 antisense was loaded into the PECs to suppress proliferation of colon cancer cell line. The prepared nanoparticles have ~ 115 nm diameter size and positive zeta potential with high mucoadhesion properties. They are able to protect antisense from degradation in serum and biorelevant fluids (FaSSIF and FaSSGF). Furthermore, prepared nanoparticles demonstrated superior cellular penetration and inhibitory effect on SW480 colon cancer cell proliferation. All nanoparticles significantly down regulated hSET1 in comparison with naked antisense. It can be concluded that thiolated PECs have potential use for injectable or oral delivery of nucleic acids such as antisense. - Highlights: • Formation of stable nanoparticle with dextran and chitosan derivatives for oral and intravenous gene delivery. • Satifactory cellular uptake of nanoparticles and approximately complete suppression of hSET1 expression in SW480 cell lines • Prolonged stability of nanoparticles against biorelevent media with desirable release rate.

  10. Thiolated carboxymethyl dextran as a nanocarrier for colon delivery of hSET1 antisense: In vitro stability and efficiency study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiani, Melika; Mirzazadeh Tekie, Farnaz Sadat; Dinarvand, Meshkat; Soleimani, Masoud; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Atyabi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy is an optimistic approach in cancer treatment. However, for efficient delivery of gene materials, designing an appropriate vector is necessary. Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) of chitosan and dextran could be considered a proper nanoparticulate carrier for sensitive biomaterials. In this study, PECs of chitosan and thiolated dextran were used as either an injectable or oral gene delivery system. hSET1 antisense was loaded into the PECs to suppress proliferation of colon cancer cell line. The prepared nanoparticles have ~ 115 nm diameter size and positive zeta potential with high mucoadhesion properties. They are able to protect antisense from degradation in serum and biorelevant fluids (FaSSIF and FaSSGF). Furthermore, prepared nanoparticles demonstrated superior cellular penetration and inhibitory effect on SW480 colon cancer cell proliferation. All nanoparticles significantly down regulated hSET1 in comparison with naked antisense. It can be concluded that thiolated PECs have potential use for injectable or oral delivery of nucleic acids such as antisense. - Highlights: • Formation of stable nanoparticle with dextran and chitosan derivatives for oral and intravenous gene delivery. • Satifactory cellular uptake of nanoparticles and approximately complete suppression of hSET1 expression in SW480 cell lines • Prolonged stability of nanoparticles against biorelevent media with desirable release rate.

  11. Antimicrobial Nanoplexes meet Model Bacterial Membranes: the key role of Cardiolipin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Menéndez, Alejandro; Montis, Costanza; Díaz-Calvo, Teresa; Carta, Davide; Hatzixanthis, Kostas; Morris, Christopher J.; McArthur, Michael; Berti, Debora

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance to traditional antibiotics is a crucial challenge of medical research. Oligonucleotide therapeutics, such as antisense or Transcription Factor Decoys (TFDs), have the potential to circumvent current resistance mechanisms by acting on novel targets. However, their full translation into clinical application requires efficient delivery strategies and fundamental comprehension of their interaction with target bacterial cells. To address these points, we employed a novel cationic bolaamphiphile that binds TFDs with high affinity to form self-assembled complexes (nanoplexes). Confocal microscopy revealed that nanoplexes efficiently transfect bacterial cells, consistently with biological efficacy on animal models. To understand the factors affecting the delivery process, liposomes with varying compositions, taken as model synthetic bilayers, were challenged with nanoplexes and investigated with Scattering and Fluorescence techniques. Thanks to the combination of results on bacteria and synthetic membrane models we demonstrate for the first time that the prokaryotic-enriched anionic lipid Cardiolipin (CL) plays a key-role in the TFDs delivery to bacteria. Moreover, we can hypothesize an overall TFD delivery mechanism, where bacterial membrane reorganization with permeability increase and release of the TFD from the nanoplexes are the main factors. These results will be of great benefit to boost the development of oligonucleotides-based antimicrobials of superior efficacy.

  12. Hammerhead ribozyme activity and oligonucleotide duplex stability in mixed solutions of water and organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-ichi Nakano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acids are useful for biomedical targeting and sensing applications in which the molecular environment is different from that of a dilute aqueous solution. In this study, the influence of various types of mixed solutions of water and water-soluble organic compounds on RNA was investigated by measuring the catalytic activity of the hammerhead ribozyme and the thermodynamic stability of an oligonucleotide duplex. The compounds with a net neutral charge, such as poly(ethylene glycol, small primary alcohols, amide compounds, and aprotic solvent molecules, added at high concentrations changed the ribozyme-catalyzed RNA cleavage rate, with the magnitude of the effect dependent on the NaCl concentration. These compounds also changed the thermodynamic stability of RNA base pairs of an oligonucleotide duplex and its dependence on the NaCl concentration. Specific interactions with RNA molecules and reduced water activity could account for the inhibiting effects on the ribozyme catalysis and destabilizing effects on the duplex stability. The salt concentration dependence data correlated with the dielectric constant, but not with water activity, viscosity, and the size of organic compounds. This observation suggests the significance of the dielectric constant effects on the RNA reactions under molecular crowding conditions created by organic compounds.

  13. Whole-cell hybridization of Methanosarcina cells with two new oligonucleotide probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A.H.; Torsvik, V.L.; Torsvik, T.

    1997-01-01

    Two new oligonucleotide probes targeting the 16S rRNA of the methanogenic genus Methanosarcina were developed. The probes have the following sequences (Escherichia coli numbering): probe SARCI551, 5'-GAC CCAATAATCACGATCAC-3', and probe SARCI645, 5'-TCCCGGTTCCAAGTCTGGC-3'. In situ hybridization...... with the fluorescently labelled probes required several modifications of standard procedures. Cells of Methanosarcina mazeii S-6 were found to lyse during the hybridization step if fixed in 3% formaldehyde and stored in 50% ethanol. Lysis was, however, not observed with cells fixed and stored in 1.6% formaldehyde-0.......85% NaCl. Extensive autofluorescence of the cells was found upon hybridization in the presence of 5 mM EDTA, but successful hybridization could be obtained without addition of this compound. The mounting agent Citifluor AF1, often used in conjugation with the fluorochrome fluorescein, was found to wash...

  14. Molecular characterization of a stable antisense chalcone synthase phenotype in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunkenbein, S.; Coiner, H.; Vos, de C.H.; Schaart, J.G.; Boone, M.J.; Krens, F.A.; Schwab, W.; Salentijn, E.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    An octaploid (Fragaria × ananassa cv. Calypso) genotype of strawberry was transformed with an antisense chalcone synthase (CHS) gene construct using a ripening related CHS cDNA from Fragaria × ananassa cv. Elsanta under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter via Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

  15. Functional Analysis of Polyphenol Oxidases by Antisense/Sense Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutharat Attajarusit

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs catalyze the oxidation of phenolics to quinones, the secondary reactions of which lead to oxidative browning and postharvest losses of many fruits and vegetables. PPOs are ubiquitous in angiosperms, are inducible by both biotic and abiotic stresses, and have been implicated in several physiological processes including plant defense against pathogens and insects, the Mehler reaction, photoreduction of molecular oxygen by PSI, regulation of plastidic oxygen levels, aurone biosynthesis and the phenylpropanoid pathway. Here we review experiments in which the roles of PPO in disease and insect resistance as well as in the Mehler reaction were investigated using transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum plants with modified PPO expression levels (suppressed PPO and overexpressing PPO. These transgenic plants showed normal growth, development and reproduction under laboratory, growth chamber and greenhouse conditions. Antisense PPO expression dramatically increased susceptibility while PPO overexpression increased resistance of tomato plants to Pseudomonas syringae. Similarly, PPO-overexpressing transgenic plants showed an increase in resistance to various insects, including common cutworm (Spodoptera litura (F., cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner and beet army worm (Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, whereas larvae feeding on plants with suppressed PPO activity had higher larval growth rates and consumed more foliage. Similar increases in weight gain, foliage consumption, and survival were also observed with Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say feeding on antisense PPO transgenic tomatoes. The putative defensive mechanisms conferred by PPO and its interaction with other defense proteins are discussed. In addition, transgenic plants with suppressed PPO exhibited more favorable water relations and decreased photoinhibition compared to nontransformed controls and transgenic plants

  16. A duchenne muscular dystrophy gene hot spot mutation in dystrophin-deficient cavalier king charles spaniels is amenable to exon 51 skipping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma L Walmsley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, which afflicts 1 in 3500 boys, is one of the most common genetic disorders of children. This fatal degenerative condition is caused by an absence or deficiency of dystrophin in striated muscle. Most affected patients have inherited or spontaneous deletions in the dystrophin gene that disrupt the reading frame resulting in unstable truncated products. For these patients, restoration of the reading frame via antisense oligonucleotide-mediated exon skipping is a promising therapeutic approach. The major DMD deletion "hot spot" is found between exons 45 and 53, and skipping exon 51 in particular is predicted to ameliorate the dystrophic phenotype in the greatest number of patients. Currently the mdx mouse is the most widely used animal model of DMD, although its mild phenotype limits its suitability in clinical trials. The Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD model has a severe phenotype, but due to its large size, is expensive to use. Both these models have mutations in regions of the dystrophin gene distant from the commonly mutated DMD "hot spot".Here we describe the severe phenotype, histopathological findings, and molecular analysis of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy (CKCS-MD. The dogs harbour a missense mutation in the 5' donor splice site of exon 50 that results in deletion of exon 50 in mRNA transcripts and a predicted premature truncation of the translated protein. Antisense oligonucleotide-mediated skipping of exon 51 in cultured myoblasts from an affected dog restored the reading frame and protein expression.Given the small size of the breed, the amiable temperament and the nature of the mutation, we propose that CKCS-MD is a valuable new model for clinical trials of antisense oligonucleotide-induced exon skipping and other therapeutic approaches for DMD.

  17. Lnc-ing inflammation to disease

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Magagula, L

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available by RNAi more than by antisense oligonucleotides. Nucleic Acids Res. 44, 863–877 doi:10.1093/nar/gkv1206 75 Zhen, S., Hua, L., Liu, Y.-H., Sun, X.-M., Jiang, M.-M., Chen, W. et al. (2017) Inhibition of long non-coding RNA UCA1 by CRISPR/Cas9 attenuated...

  18. Antimicrobial Peptide-PNA Conjugates Selectively Targeting Bacterial Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    antibacterial therapy. Initial publications suggest that conjugates of cell penetrating peptides and PNA’s can overcome the barrier in transporting ...Zhou, Y., Hou, Z., Meng, J., and Luo, X. Targeting RNA polymerase primary σ70 as a therapeutic strategy against methicillin - resistant ... Staphylococcus aureus by antisense peptide nucleic acid. PLoS One. 2012; 7(1):e29886. 2. Good, L., Sandberg, R., Larsson, O., Nielsen, P.E., and Wahlestedt, C

  19. A non-covalent peptide-based strategy for ex vivo and in vivo oligonucleotide delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombez, Laurence; Morris, May C; Heitz, Frederic; Divita, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    The dramatic acceleration in identification of new nucleic acid-based therapeutic molecules such as short interfering RNA (siRNA) and peptide-nucleic acid (PNA) analogues has provided new perspectives for therapeutic targeting of specific genes responsible for pathological disorders. However, the poor cellular uptake of nucleic acids together with the low permeability of the cell membrane to negatively charged molecules remain major obstacles to their clinical development. Several non-viral strategies have been proposed to improve the delivery of synthetic short oligonucleotides both in cultured cells and in vivo. Cell-penetrating peptides constitute very promising tools for non-invasive cellular import of oligonucleotides and analogs. We recently described a non-covalent strategy based on short amphiphatic peptides (MPG8/PEP3) that have been successfully applied ex vivo and in vivo for the delivery of therapeutic siRNA and PNA molecules. PEP3 and MPG8 form stable nanoparticles with PNA analogues and siRNA, respectively, and promote their efficient cellular uptake, independently of the endosomal pathway, into a wide variety of cell lines, including primary and suspension lines, without any associated cytotoxicity. This chapter describes easy-to-handle protocols for the use of MPG-8 or PEP-3-nanoparticle technologies for PNA and siRNA delivery into adherent and suspension cell lines as well as in vivo into cancer mouse models.

  20. Synthesis and Biophysical Investigations of Oligonucleotides Containing Galactose-Modified DNA, LNA and 2'-Amino-LNA Monomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ries, Annika; Kumar, Rajesh; Lou, Chenguang

    2016-01-01

    Galactose-modified thymidine, LNA-T and 2'-amino-LNA-T nucleosides were synthesized, converted into the corresponding phosphoramidite derivatives and introduced into short oligonucleotides. Compared to the unmodified control strands, the galactose-modified oligonucleotides in general, and the N2'...

  1. Multilevel Regulation of Bacterial Gene Expression with the Combined STAR and Antisense RNA System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Je; Kim, Soo-Jung; Moon, Tae Seok

    2018-03-16

    Synthetic small RNA regulators have emerged as a versatile tool to predictably control bacterial gene expression. Owing to their simple design principles, small size, and highly orthogonal behavior, these engineered genetic parts have been incorporated into genetic circuits. However, efforts to achieve more sophisticated cellular functions using RNA regulators have been hindered by our limited ability to integrate different RNA regulators into complex circuits. Here, we present a combined RNA regulatory system in Escherichia coli that uses small transcription activating RNA (STAR) and antisense RNA (asRNA) to activate or deactivate target gene expression in a programmable manner. Specifically, we demonstrated that the activated target output by the STAR system can be deactivated by expressing two different types of asRNAs: one binds to and sequesters the STAR regulator, affecting the transcription process, while the other binds to the target mRNA, affecting the translation process. We improved deactivation efficiencies (up to 96%) by optimizing each type of asRNA and then integrating the two optimized asRNAs into a single circuit. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the combined STAR and asRNA system can control gene expression in a reversible way and can regulate expression of a gene in the genome. Lastly, we constructed and simultaneously tested two A AND NOT B logic gates in the same cell to show sophisticated multigene regulation by the combined system. Our approach establishes a methodology for integrating multiple RNA regulators to rationally control multiple genes.

  2. Vasotocin neurons and septal V1a-like receptors potently modulate songbird flocking and responses to novelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Aubrey M; Kingsbury, Marcy A; Hoffbuhr, Kristin; Schrock, Sara E; Waxman, Brandon; Kabelik, David; Thompson, Richmond R; Goodson, James L

    2011-06-01

    Previous comparisons of territorial and gregarious finches (family Estrildidae) suggest the hypothesis that arginine vasotocin (VT) neurons in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm) and V(1a)-like receptors in the lateral septum (LS) promote flocking behavior. Consistent with this hypothesis, we now show that intraseptal infusions of a V(1a) antagonist in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) reduce gregariousness (preference for a group of 10 versus 2 conspecific males), but have no effect on the amount of time that subjects spend in close proximity to other birds ("contact time"). The antagonist also produces a profound increase in anxiety-like behavior, as exhibited by an increased latency to feed in a novelty-suppressed feeding test. Bilateral knockdown of VT production in the BSTm using LNA-modified antisense oligonucleotides likewise produces increases in anxiety-like behavior and a potent reduction in gregariousness, relative to subjects receiving scrambled oligonucleotides. The antisense oligonucleotides also produced a modest increase in contact time, irrespective of group size. Together, these combined experiments provide clear evidence that endogenous VT promotes preferences for larger flock sizes, and does so in a manner that is coupled to general anxiolysis. Given that homologous peptide circuitry of the BSTm-LS is found across all tetrapod vertebrate classes, these findings may be predictive for other highly gregarious species. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The detection of platelet derived growth factor using decoupling of quencher-oligonucleotide from aptamer/quantum dot bioconjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gang-Il; Sung, Yun-Mo; Kim, Kyung-Woo; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2009-01-01

    High-sensitivity, high-specificity detection of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB was realized using the change in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) occurring between quantum dot (QD) donors and black hole quencher (BHQ) acceptors. CdSe/ZnS QD/mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)/PDGF aptamer bioconjugates were successfully synthesized using ligand exchange. Black hole quencher (BHQ)-bearing oligonucleotide molecules showing partial sequence matching to PDGF aptamer were attached to PDGF aptamers and photoluminescence (PL) quenching was obtained through FRET. By adding target PDGF-BB to the bioconjugates containing BHQs, PL recovery was detected due to detachment of BHQ-bearing oligonucleotide from the PDGF aptamer as a result of the difference in affinity to the PDGF aptamer. The detection limit of the sensor was ∼0.4 nM and the linearity was maintained up to 1.6 nM in the PL intensity versus concentration curve. Measurement of PL recovery was suggested as a strong tool for high-sensitivity detection of PDGF-BB. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), the negative control molecule, did not contribute to PL recovery due to lack of binding affinity to the PDGF aptamers, which demonstrates the selectivity of the biosensor.

  4. Sense and antisense transcripts of the developmentally regulated murine hsp70.2 gene are expressed in distinct and only partially overlapping areas in the adult brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashov, A. K.; Wolgemuth, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the spatial pattern of expression of a member of the hsp70 gene family, hsp70.2, in the mouse central nervous system. Surprisingly, RNA blot analysis and in situ hybridization revealed abundant expression of an 'antisense' hsp70.2 transcript in several areas of adult mouse brain. Two different transcripts recognized by sense and antisense riboprobes for the hsp70.2 gene were expressed in distinct and only partially overlapping neuronal populations. RNA blot analysis revealed low levels of the 2.7 kb transcript of hsp70.2 in several areas of the brain, with highest signal in the hippocampus. Abundant expression of a slightly larger (approximately 2.8 kb) 'antisense' transcript was detected in several brain regions, notably in the brainstem, cerebellum, mesencephalic tectum, thalamus, cortex, and hippocampus. In situ hybridization revealed that the sense and antisense transcripts were both predominantly neuronal and localized to the same cell types in the granular layer of the cerebellum, trapezoid nucleus of the superior olivary complex, locus coeruleus and hippocampus. The hsp70.2 antisense transcripts were particularly abundant in the frontal cortex, dentate gyrus, subthalamic nucleus, zona incerta, superior and inferior colliculi, central gray, brainstem, and cerebellar Purkinje cells. Our findings have revealed a distinct cellular and spatial localization of both sense and antisense transcripts, demonstrating a new level of complexity in the function of the heat shock genes.

  5. Anti-sense suppression of epidermal growth factor receptor expression alters cellular proliferation, cell-adhesion and tumorigenicity in ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, O; De Santis, M L; Stromberg, K; Hacker, N F; Cho-Chung, Y S; Salomon, D S

    2000-11-15

    Over-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in ovarian cancer has been well documented. Human NIH:OVCAR-8 ovarian carcinoma cells were transfected with an expression vector containing the anti-sense orientation of truncated human EGFR cDNA. EGFR anti-sense over-expression resulted in decreased EGFR protein and mRNA expression, cell proliferation and tumor formation in nude mice. In accordance with the reduced levels of EGFR in EGFR anti-sense-expressing cells, tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR was decreased compared to untransfected parental cells treated with EGF. In EGFR anti-sense-transfected cells, expression of erbB-3, but not erbB-2, was increased. In addition, basal and heregulin-beta 1-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of erbB-3 was higher in EGFR anti-sense vector-transfected cells. A morphological alteration in EGFR anti-sense gene-expressing cells was correlated with a decrease in the expression of E-cadherin, alpha-catenin and, to a lesser extent, beta-catenin. Changes in the expression of these proteins were associated with a reduction in complex formation among E-cadherin, beta-catenin and alpha-catenin and between beta-catenin and EGFR in EGFR anti-sense-expressing cells compared to sense-transfected control cells. These results demonstrate that EGFR expression in ovarian carcinoma cells regulates expression of cell adhesion proteins that may enhance cell growth and invasiveness. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Preliminary studies on gene therapy with TGF β1 antisense gene/liposome complexes and adenovirus transfer vector in RPF rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunjie; Wang Dewen; Zhang Zhaoshan; Gao Yabing; Xiong Chengqi; Long Jianyin; Wang Huixin; Peng Ruiyun; Cui Xuemei

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observed the efficiency of gene therapy with TGF β1 antisense gene/liposome complexes and adenovirus transfer vector in RPF rats. Methods: TGFβ1 sense and antisense gene expression vectors and adenovirus transfer vector were introduced into rat bronchus by way of intratracheal instillation. Results: At day 1.5 after TGFβ1 sense and antisense gene transfer, PCR amplification using neo gene-specific primer from lung tissue DNA was all positive. After day 5.5, 67% (2/3) of lung tissue DNA was positive. RNA dot blot hybridization indicated that TGFβ1 mRNA content of lung tissue transfected with pMAMneo-antiTGFβ1 gene decreased. Detection of lung hydroxyproline (Hyp) content after day 35 of gene transfer showed that even in lung of rats received pMAMneo-AntiTGFβ1 lipid complexes it raised remarkably (P 9 pfu/ml were instilled into bronchus at 0.5 ml per rat. After day 2 day 6, the lung tissues of all six rats (three per each group )expressed the transfected luciferase gene by luminometer. Conclusion: Cationic lipid-mediated TGFβ1 antisense gene therapy was a simple and easy method. It can slow down the course of pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. Replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus-mediated gene therapy of lung diseases is a good and efficient method

  7. Single-fluorophore monitoring of DNA hybridization for investigating the effect of secondary structure on the nucleation step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Joon-Jung; Kim, Min-Ji; Son, Jung-Tae; Kim, Jandi; Shin, Jong-Shik

    2009-07-17

    Nucleic acid hybridization is one of the essential biological processes involved in storage and transmission of genetic information. Here we quantitatively determined the effect of secondary structure on the hybridization activation energy using structurally defined oligonucleotides. It turned out that activation energy is linearly proportional to the length of a single-stranded region flanking a nucleation site, generating a 0.18 kcal/mol energy barrier per nucleotide. Based on this result, we propose that the presence of single-stranded segments available for non-productive base pairing with a nucleation counterpart extends the searching process for nucleation sites to find a perfect match. This result may provide insights into rational selection of a target mRNA site for siRNA and antisense gene silencing.

  8. Upregulation of PEDF expression by PARP inhibition contributes to the decrease in hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis in HUVECs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haibing; Jia Weiping; Xu Xun; Fan Ying; Zhu Dongqing; Wu Haixiang; Xie Zhenggao; Zheng Zhi

    2008-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) inhibitors decrease angiogenesis through reducing vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) induced proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In contrast to VEGF, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has been demonstrated to act as a strong endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis. Here, we show that PARP inhibition with a specific inhibitor PJ-34 or specific PARP antisense oligonucleotide upregulates hyperglycemia-induced PEDF expression in HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. This results in the retard of activation of p38 MAP kinase and the concomitant decrease in cell apoptosis. These results give the first direct demonstration that PEDF might represent a target for PARP inhibition treatment and the effects of PEDF on endothelial cells growth are context dependent

  9. MicroRNA, miR-374b, directly targets Myf6 and negatively regulates C2C12 myoblasts differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiyuan; Sun, Xiaorui; Xu, Dequan; Xiong, Yuanzhu; Zuo, Bo, E-mail: zuobo@mail.hzau.edu.cn

    2015-11-27

    Myogenesis is a complex process including myoblast proliferation, differentiation and myotube formation and is controlled by myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), MyoD, MyoG, Myf5 and Myf6 (also known as MRF4). MicroRNA is a kind of ∼22 nt-long non-coding small RNAs, and act as key transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Identification of miRNAs involved in the regulation of muscle genes could improve our understanding of myogenesis process. In this study, we investigated the regulation of Myf6 gene by miRNAs. We showed that miR-374b specifically bound to the 3'untranslated region (UTR) of Myf6 and down-regulated the expression of Myf6 gene at both mRNA and protein level. Furthermore, miR-374b is ubiquitously expressed in the tissues of adult C57BL6 mouse, and the mRNA abundance increases first and then decreases during C2C12 myoblasts differentiation. Over-expression of miR-374b impaired C2C12 cell differentiation, while inhibiting miR-374b expression by 2′-O-methyl antisense oligonucleotides promoted C2C12 cell differentiation. Taken together, our findings identified miR-374b directly targets Myf6 and negatively regulates myogenesis. - Highlights: • MiR-374b directly targets 3′UTR of Myf6. • MiR-374b negatively regulates Myf6 in C2C12 cells. • MiR-374b abundance significiently changes during C2C12 cells differentiation. • MiR-374b negatively regulates C2C12 cells differentiation.

  10. Detection and genotyping of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum by oligonucleotide microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Vora, Gary J; Stenger, David A

    2004-07-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are the most frequently identified protozoan parasites causing waterborne disease outbreaks. The morbidity and mortality associated with these intestinal parasitic infections warrant the development of rapid and accurate detection and genotyping methods to aid public health efforts aimed at preventing and controlling outbreaks. In this study, we describe the development of an oligonucleotide microarray capable of detecting and discriminating between E. histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, G. lamblia assemblages A and B, and C. parvum types 1 and 2 in a single assay. Unique hybridization patterns for each selected protozoan were generated by amplifying six to eight diagnostic sequences/organism by multiplex PCR; fluorescent labeling of the amplicons via primer extension; and subsequent hybridization to a set of genus-, species-, and subtype-specific covalently immobilized oligonucleotide probes. The profile-based specificity of this methodology not only permitted for the unequivocal identification of the six targeted species and subtypes, but also demonstrated its potential in identifying related species such as Cryptosporidium meleagridis and Cryptosporidium muris. In addition, sensitivity assays demonstrated lower detection limits of five trophozoites of G. lamblia. Taken together, the specificity and sensitivity of the microarray-based approach suggest that this methodology may provide a promising tool to detect and genotype protozoa from clinical and environmental samples.

  11. Metabolite profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) plants transformed with an antisense chalcone synthase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Gall, G.; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Pedersen, Jan W.

    2005-01-01

    A metabolite profiling study has been carried out on Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ecotype Wassilewskija and a series of transgenic lines of the ecotype transformed with a CHS (chalcone synthase) antisense construct. Compound identifications by LC/MS and H-1 NMR are discussed. The glucosinolate...

  12. DETECTING LOW-LEVEL SYNTHESIS IMPURITIES IN MODIFIED PHOSPHOROTHIOATE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY – HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikcevic, Irena; Wyrzykiewicz, Tadeusz K.; Limbach, Patrick A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary An LC-MS method based on the use of high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTIRCMS) for profiling oligonucleotides synthesis impurities is described. Oligonucleotide phosphorothioatediesters (phosphorothioate oligonucleotides), in which one of the non-bridging oxygen atoms at each phosphorus center is replaced by a sulfur atom, are now one of the most popular oligonucleotide modifications due to their ease of chemical synthesis and advantageous pharmacokinetic properties. Despite significant progress in the solid-phase oligomerization chemistry used in the manufacturing of these oligonucleotides, multiple classes of low-level impurities always accompany synthetic oligonucleotides. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry has emerged as a powerful technique for the identification of these synthesis impurities. However, impurity profiling, where the entire complement of low-level synthetic impurities is identified in a single analysis, is more challenging. Here we present an LC-MS method based the use of high resolution-mass spectrometry, specifically Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTIRCMS or FTMS). The optimal LC-FTMS conditions, including the stationary phase and mobile phases for the separation and identification of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides, were found. The characteristics of FTMS enable charge state determination from single m/z values of low-level impurities. Charge state information then enables more accurate modeling of the detected isotopic distribution for identification of the chemical composition of the detected impurity. Using this approach, a number of phosphorothioate impurities can be detected by LC-FTMS including failure sequences carrying 3′-terminal phosphate monoester and 3′-terminal phosphorothioate monoester, incomplete backbone sulfurization and desulfurization products, high molecular weight impurities, and chloral, isobutyryl, and N3 (2-cyanoethyl) adducts

  13. Structural properties of oligonucleotide monolayers on gold surfaces probed by fluorescence investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rant, Ulrich; Arinaga, Kenji; Fujita, Shozo; Yokoyama, Naoki; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Tornow, Marc

    2004-11-09

    We present optical investigations on the conformation of oligonucleotide layers on Au surfaces. Our studies concentrate on the effect of varying surface coverage densities on the structural properties of layers of 12- and 24mer single-stranded DNA, tethered to the Au surface at one end while being labeled with a fluorescent marker at the opposing end. The distance-dependent energy transfer from the marker dye to the metal surface, which causes quenching of the observed fluorescence, is used to provide information on the orientation of the DNA strands relative to the surface. Variations in the oligonucleotide coverage density, as determined from electrochemical quantification, over 2 orders of magnitude are achieved by employing different preparation conditions. The observed enhancement in fluorescence intensity with increasing DNA coverage can be related to a model involving mutual steric interactions of oligonucleotides on the surface, as well as fluorescence quenching theory. Finally, the applicability of the presented concepts for investigations of heterogeneous monolayers is demonstrated by means of studying the coadsorption of mercaptohexanol onto DNA-modified Au surfaces.

  14. IL-4 Receptor Alpha Signaling through Macrophages Differentially Regulates Liver Fibrosis Progression and Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yen Weng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis leads to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is a major cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Macrophages play a key role in fibrosis progression and reversal. However, the signals that determine fibrogenic vs fibrolytic macrophage function remain ill defined. We studied the role of interleukin-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα, a potential central switch of macrophage polarization, in liver fibrosis progression and reversal. We demonstrate that inflammatory monocyte infiltration and liver fibrogenesis were suppressed in general IL-4Rα−/− as well as in macrophage-specific IL-4Rα−/− (IL-4RαΔLysM mice. However, with deletion of IL-4RαΔLysM spontaneous fibrosis reversal was retarded. Results were replicated by pharmacological intervention using IL-4Rα-specific antisense oligonucleotides. Retarded resolution was linked to the loss of M2-type resident macrophages, which secreted MMP-12 through IL-4 and IL-13-mediated phospho-STAT6 activation. We conclude that IL-4Rα signaling regulates macrophage functional polarization in a context-dependent manner. Pharmacological targeting of macrophage polarization therefore requires disease stage-specific treatment strategies. Research in Context: Alternative (M2-type macrophage activation through IL-4Rα promotes liver inflammation and fibrosis progression but speeds up fibrosis reversal. This demonstrates context dependent, opposing roles of M2-type macrophages. During reversal IL-4Rα induces fibrolytic MMPs, especially MMP-12, through STAT6. Liver-specific antisense oligonucleotides efficiently block IL-4Rα expression and attenuate fibrosis progression. Keywords: Fibrosis, IL-4 receptor alpha, Liver, Macrophage, MMP12, Progression, Reversal

  15. Reliability and applications of statistical methods based on oligonucleotide frequencies in bacterial and archaeal genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohlin, J; Skjerve, E; Ussery, David

    2008-01-01

    with here are mainly used to examine similarities between archaeal and bacterial DNA from different genomes. These methods compare observed genomic frequencies of fixed-sized oligonucleotides with expected values, which can be determined by genomic nucleotide content, smaller oligonucleotide frequencies......, or be based on specific statistical distributions. Advantages with these statistical methods include measurements of phylogenetic relationship with relatively small pieces of DNA sampled from almost anywhere within genomes, detection of foreign/conserved DNA, and homology searches. Our aim was to explore...... the reliability and best suited applications for some popular methods, which include relative oligonucleotide frequencies (ROF), di- to hexanucleotide zero'th order Markov methods (ZOM) and 2.order Markov chain Method (MCM). Tests were performed on distant homology searches with large DNA sequences, detection...

  16. Characterization of rat brain NCAM mRNA using DNA oligonucleotide probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Gaardsvoll, H; Giladi, E

    1990-01-01

    A number of different isoforms of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) have been identified. The difference between these is due to alternative splicing of a single NCAM gene. In rat brain NCAM mRNAs with sizes of 7.4, 6.7, 5.2, 4.3 and 2.9 kb have been reported. We have synthesized six DNA...... oligonucleotides, that hybridize to different exons in the NCAM gene. Furthermore we have constructed three oligonucleotides, that exclusively hybridize to mRNAs lacking certain exons, by letting them consist of sequences adjacent to both sides of the splice sites. By means of these probes we have characterized...... the five NCAM mRNAs in rat brain....

  17. Development, characterization and experimental validation of a cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) gene expression oligonucleotide microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Paula; Soria, Marcelo; Blesa, David; DiRienzo, Julio; Moschen, Sebastian; Rivarola, Maximo; Clavijo, Bernardo Jose; Gonzalez, Sergio; Peluffo, Lucila; Príncipi, Dario; Dosio, Guillermo; Aguirrezabal, Luis; García-García, Francisco; Conesa, Ana; Hopp, Esteban; Dopazo, Joaquín; Heinz, Ruth Amelia; Paniego, Norma

    2012-01-01

    Oligonucleotide-based microarrays with accurate gene coverage represent a key strategy for transcriptional studies in orphan species such as sunflower, H. annuus L., which lacks full genome sequences. The goal of this study was the development and functional annotation of a comprehensive sunflower unigene collection and the design and validation of a custom sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray. A large scale EST (>130,000 ESTs) curation, assembly and sequence annotation was performed using Blast2GO (www.blast2go.de). The EST assembly comprises 41,013 putative transcripts (12,924 contigs and 28,089 singletons). The resulting Sunflower Unigen Resource (SUR version 1.0) was used to design an oligonucleotide-based Agilent microarray for cultivated sunflower. This microarray includes a total of 42,326 features: 1,417 Agilent controls, 74 control probes for sunflower replicated 10 times (740 controls) and 40,169 different non-control probes. Microarray performance was validated using a model experiment examining the induction of senescence by water deficit. Pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microarrays was performed using the Bioconductor limma package. The analyses based on p-values calculated by eBayes (psunflower unigene collection, and a custom, validated sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray using Agilent technology. Both the curated unigene collection and the validated oligonucleotide microarray provide key resources for sunflower genome analysis, transcriptional studies, and molecular breeding for crop improvement.

  18. Conserved alternative and antisense transcripts at the programmed cell death 2 locus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mihola, Ondřej; Forejt, Jiří; Trachtulec, Zdeněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2007), s. 20 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/01/0997; GA ČR GA301/05/0738; GA AV ČR IAA5052406; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Pdcd2 * antisense * alternative transcript * imprinting Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.180, year: 2007

  19. Inhibition of enterovirus 71 infection by antisense octaguanidinium dendrimer-conjugated morpholino oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chee Wah; Chan, Yoke Fun; Quah, Yi Wan; Poh, Chit Laa

    2014-07-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) infections are generally manifested as mild hand, foot and mouth disease, but have been reported to cause severe neurological complications with high mortality rates. Treatment options remain limited due to the lack of antivirals. Octaguanidinium-conjugated morpholino oligomers (vivo-MOs) are single-stranded DNA-like antisense agents that can readily penetrate cells and reduce gene expression by steric blocking of complementary RNA sequences. In this study, inhibitory effects of three vivo-MOs that are complementary to the EV-71 internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) were tested in RD cells. Vivo-MO-1 and vivo-MO-2 targeting the EV-71 IRES showed significant viral plaque reductions of 2.5 and 3.5 log10PFU/ml, respectively. Both vivo-MOs reduced viral RNA copies and viral capsid expression in RD cells in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, vivo-MO-3 targeting the EV-71 RdRP exhibited less antiviral activity. Both vivo-MO-1 and 2 remained active when administered either 4h before or within 6h after EV-71 infection. Vivo-MO-2 exhibited antiviral activities against poliovirus (PV) and coxsackievirus A16 but vivo-MO-1 showed no antiviral activities against PV. Both the IRES-targeting vivo-MO-1 and vivo-MO-2 inhibit EV-71 RNA translation. Resistant mutants arose after serial passages in the presence of vivo-MO-1, but none were isolated against vivo-MO-2. A single T to C substitution at nucleotide position 533 was sufficient to confer resistance to vivo-MO-1. Our findings suggest that IRES-targeting vivo-MOs are good antiviral candidates for treating early EV-71 infection, and vivo-MO-2 is a more favorable candidate with broader antiviral spectrum against enteroviruses and are refractory to antiviral resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing the Interplay between the Physicochemical Parameters of Ion-Pairing Reagents and the Analyte Sequence on the Electrospray Desorption Process for Oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, Babak; Murph, Mandi M.; Bartlett, Michael G.

    2017-08-01

    Alkylamines are widely used as ion-pairing agents during LC-MS of oligonucleotides. In addition to a better chromatographic separation, they also assist with the desorption of oligonucleotide ions into the gas phase, cause charge state reduction, and decrease cation adduction. However, the choice of such ion-pairing agents has considerable influence on the MS signal intensity of oligonucleotides as they can also cause significant ion suppression. Interestingly, optimal ion-pairing agents should be selected on a case by case basis as their choice is strongly influenced by the sequence of the oligonucleotide under investigation. Despite imposing major practical difficulties to analytical method development, such a highly variable system that responds very strongly to the nuances of the electrospray composition provides an excellent opportunity for a fundamental study of the electrospray ionization process. Our investigations using this system quantitatively revealed the major factors that influenced the ESI ionization efficiency of oligonucleotides. Parameters such as boiling point, proton affinity, partition coefficient, water solubility, and Henry's law constants for the ion-pairing reagents and the hydrophobic thymine content of the oligonucleotides were found to be the most significant contributors. Identification of these parameters also allowed for the development of a statistical predictive algorithm that can assist with the choice of an optimum IP agent for each particular oligonucleotide sequence. We believe that research in the field of oligonucleotide bioanalysis will significantly benefit from this algorithm (included in Supplementary Material) as it advocates for the use of lesser-known but more suitable ion-pair alternatives to TEA for many oligonucleotide sequences.

  1. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (cetp) inhibition in the treatment of cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Kaur, Mandeep; Esau, Luke E.; Sagar, Sunii

    2016-01-01

    In one embodiment, the invention provides methods of treatment which use therapeutically effective amounts of Choleste ryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) inhibitors to treat a variety of cancers. In certain embodiments, the inhibitor is a CETP-inhibiting small molecule, CETP-inhibiting antisense oligonucleotide, CETP-inhibiting siRNA or a CETP- inhibiting antibody. Related pharmaceutical compositions, kits, diagnostics and screens are also provided.

  2. 5´-O-Methylphosphonate nucleic acids—new modified DNAs that increase the Escherichia coli RNase H cleavage rate of hybrid duplexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šípová, Hana; Špringer, Tomáš; Rejman, Dominik; Šimák, Ondřej; Petrová, Magdalena; Novák, Pavel; Rosenbergová, Šárka; Páv, Ondřej; Liboska, Radek; Barvík, I.; Štěpánek, J.; Rosenberg, Ivan; Homola, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 8 (2014), s. 5378-5389 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0820; GA ČR GA13-26526S Institutional support: RVO:67985882 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Antisense Oligonucleotides * Ribonuclease H * Surface Plasmon Resonance Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering; CC - Organic Chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 9.112, year: 2014

  3. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (cetp) inhibition in the treatment of cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Kaur, Mandeep

    2016-09-01

    In one embodiment, the invention provides methods of treatment which use therapeutically effective amounts of Choleste ryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) inhibitors to treat a variety of cancers. In certain embodiments, the inhibitor is a CETP-inhibiting small molecule, CETP-inhibiting antisense oligonucleotide, CETP-inhibiting siRNA or a CETP- inhibiting antibody. Related pharmaceutical compositions, kits, diagnostics and screens are also provided.

  4. Resolving prokaryotic taxonomy without rRNA: longer oligonucleotide word lengths improve genome and metagenome taxonomic classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Eric B; Raymond, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Oligonucleotide signatures, especially tetranucleotide signatures, have been used as method for homology binning by exploiting an organism's inherent biases towards the use of specific oligonucleotide words. Tetranucleotide signatures have been especially useful in environmental metagenomics samples as many of these samples contain organisms from poorly classified phyla which cannot be easily identified using traditional homology methods, including NCBI BLAST. This study examines oligonucleotide signatures across 1,424 completed genomes from across the tree of life, substantially expanding upon previous work. A comprehensive analysis of mononucleotide through nonanucleotide word lengths suggests that longer word lengths substantially improve the classification of DNA fragments across a range of sizes of relevance to high throughput sequencing. We find that, at present, heptanucleotide signatures represent an optimal balance between prediction accuracy and computational time for resolving taxonomy using both genomic and metagenomic fragments. We directly compare the ability of tetranucleotide and heptanucleotide world lengths (tetranucleotide signatures are the current standard for oligonucleotide word usage analyses) for taxonomic binning of metagenome reads. We present evidence that heptanucleotide word lengths consistently provide more taxonomic resolving power, particularly in distinguishing between closely related organisms that are often present in metagenomic samples. This implies that longer oligonucleotide word lengths should replace tetranucleotide signatures for most analyses. Finally, we show that the application of longer word lengths to metagenomic datasets leads to more accurate taxonomic binning of DNA scaffolds and have the potential to substantially improve taxonomic assignment and assembly of metagenomic data.

  5. Resolving prokaryotic taxonomy without rRNA: longer oligonucleotide word lengths improve genome and metagenome taxonomic classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric B Alsop

    Full Text Available Oligonucleotide signatures, especially tetranucleotide signatures, have been used as method for homology binning by exploiting an organism's inherent biases towards the use of specific oligonucleotide words. Tetranucleotide signatures have been especially useful in environmental metagenomics samples as many of these samples contain organisms from poorly classified phyla which cannot be easily identified using traditional homology methods, including NCBI BLAST. This study examines oligonucleotide signatures across 1,424 completed genomes from across the tree of life, substantially expanding upon previous work. A comprehensive analysis of mononucleotide through nonanucleotide word lengths suggests that longer word lengths substantially improve the classification of DNA fragments across a range of sizes of relevance to high throughput sequencing. We find that, at present, heptanucleotide signatures represent an optimal balance between prediction accuracy and computational time for resolving taxonomy using both genomic and metagenomic fragments. We directly compare the ability of tetranucleotide and heptanucleotide world lengths (tetranucleotide signatures are the current standard for oligonucleotide word usage analyses for taxonomic binning of metagenome reads. We present evidence that heptanucleotide word lengths consistently provide more taxonomic resolving power, particularly in distinguishing between closely related organisms that are often present in metagenomic samples. This implies that longer oligonucleotide word lengths should replace tetranucleotide signatures for most analyses. Finally, we show that the application of longer word lengths to metagenomic datasets leads to more accurate taxonomic binning of DNA scaffolds and have the potential to substantially improve taxonomic assignment and assembly of metagenomic data.

  6. Inhibition of microRNA-214-5p promotes cell survival and extracellular matrix formation by targeting collagen type IV alpha 1 in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q S; Meng, F Y; Zhao, Y H; Jin, C L; Tian, J; Yi, X J

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional effects of microRNA (miR)-214-5p on osteoblastic cells, which might provide a potential role of miR-214-5p in bone fracture healing. Blood samples were obtained from patients with hand fracture or intra-articular calcaneal fracture and from healthy controls (HCs). Expression of miR-214-5p was monitored by qRT-PCR at day 7, 14 and 21 post-surgery. Mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were transfected with antisense oligonucleotides (ASO)-miR-214-5p, collagen type IV alpha 1 (COL4A1) vector or their controls; thereafter, cell viability, apoptotic rate, and the expression of collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1), type II collagen (COL-II), and type X collagen (COL-X) were determined. Luciferase reporter assay, qRT-PCR, and Western blot were performed to ascertain whether COL4A1 was a target of miR-214-5p. Plasma miR-214-5p was highly expressed in patients with bone fracture compared with HCs after fracture (p extracellular matrix (ECM) formation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells by targeting COL4A1. Cite this article: Q. S. Li, F. Y. Meng, Y. H. Zhao, C. L. Jin, J. Tian, X. J. Yi. Inhibition of microRNA-214-5p promotes cell survival and extracellular matrix formation by targeting collagen type IV alpha 1 in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:464-471. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.68.BJR-2016-0208.R2. © 2017 Yi et al.

  7. Light-Triggered Release of DNA from Plasmon-Resonant Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huschka, Ryan

    demand upon illumination with a near-infrared (NIR) laser. A poly(L)lysine peptide (PLL) epilayer coated onto the AuNS surface (AuNS-PLL) is used to capture intact, single-stranded antisense DNA oligonucleotide, or alternatively, double-stranded short-interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules. A green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing human lung cancer H1299 cell line was used to determine cellular uptake and GFP gene silencing mediated by AuNS-PLL delivery vector. The light-triggered release of oligonucleotides could have broad applications in the study of cellular processes and in the development of intracellular targeted therapies.

  8. Therapeutic Inhibition of miR-208a Improves Cardiac Function and Survival During Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Rusty L.; Hullinger, Thomas G.; Semus, Hillary M.; Dickinson, Brent A.; Seto, Anita G.; Lynch, Joshua M.; Stack, Christianna; Latimer, Paul A.; Olson, Eric N.; van Rooij, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Background Diastolic dysfunction in response to hypertrophy is a major clinical syndrome with few therapeutic options. MicroRNAs act as negative regulators of gene expression by inhibiting translation or promoting degradation of target mRNAs. Previously, we reported that genetic deletion of the cardiac-specific miR-208a prevents pathological cardiac remodeling and upregulation of Myh7 in response to pressure overload. Whether this miRNA might contribute to diastolic dysfunction or other forms of heart disease is currently unknown. Methods and Results Here, we show that systemic delivery of an antisense oligonucleotide induces potent and sustained silencing of miR-208a in the heart. Therapeutic inhibition of miR-208a by subcutaneous delivery of antimiR-208a during hypertension-induced heart failure in Dahl hypertensive rats dose-dependently prevents pathological myosin switching and cardiac remodeling while improving cardiac function, overall health, and survival. Transcriptional profiling indicates that antimiR-208a evokes prominent effects on cardiac gene expression; plasma analysis indicates significant changes in circulating levels of miRNAs on antimiR-208a treatment. Conclusions These studies indicate the potential of oligonucleotide-based therapies for modulating cardiac miRNAs and validate miR-208 as a potent therapeutic target for the modulation of cardiac function and remodeling during heart disease progression. PMID:21900086

  9. Silencing of Foxp3 enhances the antitumor efficacy of GM-CSF genetically modified tumor cell vaccine against B16 melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Miguel,1 Luis Sendra,1 Verónica Noé,2 Carles J Ciudad,2 Francisco Dasí,3,4 David Hervas,5 María José Herrero,1,6 Salvador F Aliño17 1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, 3Research University Hospital of Valencia, INCLIVA Health Research Institute, 4Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia Foundation, 5Biostatistics Unit, 6Pharmacogenetics Unit, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Fe (IIS La Fe, 7Clinical Pharmacology Unit, ACM Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain Abstract: The antitumor response after therapeutic vaccination has a limited effect and seems to be related to the presence of T regulatory cells (Treg, which express the immunoregulatory molecules CTLA4 and Foxp3. The blockage of CTLA4 using antibodies has shown an effective antitumor response conducing to the approval of the human anti-CTLA4 antibody ipilimumab by the US Food and Drug Administration. On the other hand, Foxp3 is crucial for Treg development. For this reason, it is an attractive target for cancer treatment. This study aims to evaluate whether combining therapeutic vaccination with CTLA4 or Foxp3 gene silencing enhances the antitumor response. First, the “in vitro” cell entrance and gene silencing efficacy of two tools, 2'-O-methyl phosphorotioate-modified oligonucleotides (2'-OMe-PS-ASOs and polypurine reverse Hoogsteen hairpins (PPRHs, were evaluated in EL4 cells and cultured primary lymphocytes. Following B16 tumor transplant, C57BL6 mice were vaccinated with irradiated B16 tumor cells engineered to produce granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF and were intraperitoneally treated with CTLA4 and Foxp3 2'-OMe-PS-ASO before and after vaccination. Tumor growth, mice survival, and CTLA4 and Foxp3 expression in blood cells were measured. The following

  10. Correction of Spatial Bias in Oligonucleotide Array Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Serhal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oligonucleotide microarrays allow for high-throughput gene expression profiling assays. The technology relies on the fundamental assumption that observed hybridization signal intensities (HSIs for each intended target, on average, correlate with their target’s true concentration in the sample. However, systematic, nonbiological variation from several sources undermines this hypothesis. Background hybridization signal has been previously identified as one such important source, one manifestation of which appears in the form of spatial autocorrelation. Results. We propose an algorithm, pyn, for the elimination of spatial autocorrelation in HSIs, exploiting the duality of desirable mutual information shared by probes in a common probe set and undesirable mutual information shared by spatially proximate probes. We show that this correction procedure reduces spatial autocorrelation in HSIs; increases HSI reproducibility across replicate arrays; increases differentially expressed gene detection power; and performs better than previously published methods. Conclusions. The proposed algorithm increases both precision and accuracy, while requiring virtually no changes to users’ current analysis pipelines: the correction consists merely of a transformation of raw HSIs (e.g., CEL files for Affymetrix arrays. A free, open-source implementation is provided as an R package, compatible with standard Bioconductor tools. The approach may also be tailored to other platform types and other sources of bias.

  11. An oral oligonucleotide delivery system based on a thiolated polymer: Development and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martien, Ronny; Hoyer, Herbert; Perera, Glen; Schnürch, Andreas Bernkop

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an oral oligonucleotide delivery system based on a thiolated polymer/reduced glutathione (GSH) system providing a protective effect toward nucleases and permeation enhancement. A polycarbophil-cysteine conjugate (PCP-Cys) was synthesized. Enzymatic degradation of a model oligonucleotide by DNase I and within freshly collected intestinal fluid was investigated in the absence and presence of PCP-Cys. Permeation studies with PCP-Cys/GSH versus control were performed in vitro on Caco-2 cell monolayers and ex vivo on rat intestinal mucosa. PCP-Cys displayed 223 ± 13.8 μmol thiol groups per gram polymer. After 4h, 61% of the free oligonucleotides were degraded by DNase I and 80% within intestinal fluid. In contrast, less than 41% (DNase I) and 60% (intestinal fluid) were degraded in the presence of 0.02% (m/v) PCP-Cys. Permeation studies revealed an 8-fold (Caco-2) and 10-fold (intestinal mucosa) increase in apparent permeability compared to buffer control. Hence, this PCP-Cys/GSH system might be a promising tool for the oral administration of oligonucleotides as it allows a significant protection toward degrading enzymes and facilitates their transport across intestinal membranes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sequence-Dependent Mechanism of DNA Oligonucleotide Dehybridization Resolved through Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanstead, Paul J; Stevenson, Paul; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2016-09-14

    Despite its important role in biology and nanotechnology, many questions remain regarding the molecular mechanism and dynamics by which oligonucleotides recognize and hybridize to their complementary sequence. The thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA oligonucleotide hybridization and dehybridization are often assumed to involve an all-or-nothing two-state dissociation pathway, but deviations from this behavior can be considerable even for short sequences. We introduce a new strategy to characterize the base-pair-specific thermal dissociation mechanism of DNA oligonucleotides through steady-state and time-resolved infrared spectroscopy. Experiments are interpreted with a lattice model to provide a structure-specific interpretation. This method is applied to a model set of self-complementary 10-base-pair sequences in which the placement of GC base pairs is varied in an otherwise AT strand. Through a combination of Fourier transform infrared and two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy, experiments reveal varying degrees of deviation from simple two-state behavior. As the temperature is increased, duplexes dissociate through a path in which the terminal bases fray, without any significant contribution from loop configurations. Transient temperature jump experiments reveal time scales of 70-100 ns for fraying and 10-30 μs for complete dissociation near the melting temperature. Whether or not frayed states are metastable intermediates or short-lived configurations during the full dissociation of the duplex is dictated by the nucleobase sequence.

  13. Development of dansyl-modified oligonucleotide probes responding to structural changes in a duplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Kowata, Keiko; Komatsu, Yasuo

    2013-11-15

    We have synthesized a nonnucleoside amidite block of dansyl fluorophore to prepare dansyl-modified oligonucleotides (ONTs). The fluorescence intensities of dansyl-ONT specifically increased by the presence of adjacent guanosine residues but, significantly reduced in a dansyl-flipping duplex. These changes were caused by solvatochromism effect due to the number of guanine which is hydrophobic functional group and the external environment of dansyl group. The fluorescence intensities could be plotted as a function of the ONTs concentrations and the increase in the fluorescence was observed to equimolar concentrations of target DNA. This duplex exhibited higher melting temperature relative to the corresponding duplexes containing other base pairs. Similar changes in fluorescence could be detected upon hybridization with complementary RNAs. Thus, the dansyl-modified ONTs provide sequence specific fluorescent probe of DNA and RNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Similar effects of substance P on learning and memory function between hippocampus and striatal marginal division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Zeng, Changchun; Shu, Siyun; Liu, Xuemei; Li, Chuhua

    2014-01-01

    Substance P is an endogenous neurokinin that is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The neuropeptide substance P and its high-affinity receptor neurokinin 1 receptor are known to play an important role in the central nervous system in inflammation, blood pressure, motor behavior and anxiety. The effects of substance P in the hippocampus and the marginal division of the striatum on memory remain poorly understood. Compared with the hippocampus as a control, immunofluorescence showed high expression of the substance P receptor, neurokinin 1, in the marginal division of the striatum of normal rats. Unilateral or bilateral injection of an antisense oligonucleotide against neurokinin 1 receptor mRNA in the rat hippocampus or marginal division of the striatum effectively reduced neurokinin 1 receptor expression. Independent of injection site, rats that received this antisense oligonucleotide showed obviously increased footshock times in a Y-maze test. These results indicate that the marginal division of the striatum plays a similar function in learning and memory to the hippocampus, which is a valuable addition to our mechanistic understanding of the learning and memory functions of the marginal division of the striatum. PMID:25206901

  15. Detection of KatG Gen Mutation on Mycobacterium Tuberculosis by Means of PCR-Dot Blot Hybridization with 32P Labeled Oligonucleotide Probe Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria Lina R; Budiman Bela; Andi Yasmon

    2009-01-01

    Handling and controlling of tuberculosis, a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is now complicated since there are many MTBs that are resistant against anti-tuberculosis drugs such as isoniazid. The drug resistance could occurred due to the inadequate and un-regular drug utilization that cause gene mutation of the drug target such as katG gene for isoniazid. The molecular biology techniques such as the PCR- dot blot hybridization with radioisotope ( 32 P) labeled oligonucleotide probe, has been reported as a technique that is more sensitive and rapid for detection of gene mutations related with drug resistances. Hence, the aim of this study was to apply the PCR- dot blot hybridization technique using 32 P labeled oligonucleotide probe for detection of single mutation at codon 315 of katG gene of MTBs that rise the isoniazid resistance. In this study, we used 89 sputum specimens and a standard MTB (MTB H 37 RV) as a control. DNA extractions were performed by the BOOM method and the phenol chloroform for sputum samples and standard MTB, respectively. Primers used for PCR technique were Pt8 and Pt9 and RTB59 and RTB36 for detecting tuberculosis causing Mycobacterium and the existence of katG gene, respectively. Both of the primers are specific for IS6110 region and katG gene, respectively. PCR products were detected by an agarose gel electrophoresis technique. Dot blot hybridization with 32 P-oligonucleotide probe 315mu was performed to detect mutation at codon 315 of tested samples. Results of the PCR using primer Pt8 and Pt9 showed that all sputum specimens had positive results. Mutation detection by PCR- dot blot hybridization with 32 P-oligonucleotide probe 315mu, revealed that 11 of 89 tested samples had a mutation at their codon 315 of katG gene. Based upon these results, it is concluded that PCR-dot blot hybridization with 32 P-oligonucleotide probe is a technique that is rapid and highly specific and sensitive for detection of mutation at codon

  16. Ninth international symposium on radiopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this Symposium is to provide a forum for those international scientists involved in applying the principles of pharmacology and radiation biology to the development of agents for the diagnosis and treatment of disease. The program will highlight state-of-the-art progress in the development of those agents used in conjunction with some form of radiation such as radiopharmaceuticals, radiopaques, photo- and radiosensitizing drugs, and neutron capture agents. An underlying pharmacokinetic parameter associated with all these agents is the need for site-specific delivery to an organ or tumor. Therefore, a major goal of the symposium will be to address those pharmacologic principles for targeting molecules to specific tissue sites. Accordingly, session themes will include receptor-mediated processes, membrane transporters, antibody interactions, metabolic trapping, and oligonucleotide-antisense mechanisms.

  17. Ninth international symposium on radiopharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this Symposium is to provide a forum for those international scientists involved in applying the principles of pharmacology and radiation biology to the development of agents for the diagnosis and treatment of disease. The program will highlight state-of-the-art progress in the development of those agents used in conjunction with some form of radiation such as radiopharmaceuticals, radiopaques, photo- and radiosensitizing drugs, and neutron capture agents. An underlying pharmacokinetic parameter associated with all these agents is the need for site-specific delivery to an organ or tumor. Therefore, a major goal of the symposium will be to address those pharmacologic principles for targeting molecules to specific tissue sites. Accordingly, session themes will include receptor-mediated processes, membrane transporters, antibody interactions, metabolic trapping, and oligonucleotide-antisense mechanisms

  18. Argonaute pull-down and RISC analysis using 2'-O-methylated oligonucleotides affinity matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannot, Guillaume; Vasquez-Rifo, Alejandro; Simard, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, several novel small non-coding RNA pathways have been unveiled, which reach out to many biological processes. Common to all these pathways is the binding of a small RNA molecule to a protein member of the Argonaute family, which forms a minimal core complex called the RNA-induced silencing complex or RISC. The RISC targets mRNAs in a sequence-specific manner, either to induce mRNA cleavage through the intrinsic activity of the Argonaute protein or to abrogate protein synthesis by a mechanism that is still under investigation. We describe here, in details, a method for the affinity chromatography of the let-7 RISC starting from extracts of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our method exploits the sequence specificity of the RISC and makes use of biotinylated and 2'-O-methylated oligonucleotides to trap and pull-down small RNAs and their associated proteins. Importantly, this technique may easily be adapted to target other small RNAs expressed in different cell types or model organisms. This method provides a useful strategy to identify the proteins associated with the RISC, and hence gain insight in the functions of small RNAs.

  19. Participation of Polycomb group gene extra sex combs in hedgehog signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, Norihisa; Sakai, Atsushi; Yamada, Kouji; Higashinakagawa, Toru

    2004-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) genes are required for stable inheritance of epigenetic states across cell divisions, a phenomenon termed cellular memory. PcG proteins form multimeric nuclear complex which modifies the chromatin structure of target site. Drosophila PcG gene extra sex combs (esc) and its vertebrate orthologs constitute a member of ESC-E(Z) complex, which possesses histone methyltransferase activity. Here we report isolation and characterization of medaka esc homolog, termed oleed. Hypomorphic knock-down of oleed using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides resulted in the fusion of eyes, termed cyclopia. Prechordal plate formation was not substantially impaired, but expression of hedgehog target genes was dependent on oleed, suggesting some link with hedgehog signaling. In support of this implication, histone methylation, which requires the activity of esc gene product, is increased in hedgehog stimulated mouse NIH-3T3 cells. Our data argue for the novel role of esc in hedgehog signaling and provide fundamental insight into the epigenetic mechanisms in general

  20. Method for detecting binding efficiencies of synthetic oligonucleotides: Targeting bacteria and insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expanding applications of gene-based targeting biotechnology in functional genomics and the treatment of plants, animals, and microbes has synergized the need for new methods to measure binding efficiencies of these products to their genetic targets. The adaptation and innovative use of Cell–Penetra...

  1. Signaling Pathways that Mediate Neurotoxin-Induced Death of Dopamine Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    2001), and prion encephalopathies (Boel- laard et al., 1991; Liberski et al., 2002). Nutrient deprivation, including withdrawal of serum (Mitchener...2001), prion encephalopathies (Boellaard et al., 1991; Jeffrey et al., 1992), and diffuse Lewy body disease (Zhu et al., 2003). Extensive cytoplasmic...tor receptor levels using antisense oligonucleotides prevents the loss of axotomized sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia of newborn rats. J

  2. Targeted in vitro and in vivo gene transfer into T Lymphocytes: potential of direct inhibition of allo-immune activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehra Mandeep R

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful inhibition of alloimmune activation in organ transplantation remains one of the key events in achieving a long-term graft survival. Since T lymphocytes are largely responsible for alloimmune activation, targeted gene transfer of gene of cyclin kinase inhibitor p21 into T cells might inhibit their aberrant proliferation. A number of strategies using either adenoviral or lentiviral vectors linked to mono or bispecific antibodies directed against T cell surface markers/cytokines did not yield the desired results. Therefore, this study was designed to test if a CD3promoter-p21 chimeric construct would in vitro and in vivo transfer p21 gene to T lymphocytes and result in inhibition of proliferation. CD3 promoter-p21 chimeric constructs were prepared with p21 in the sense and antisense orientation. For in vitro studies EL4-IL-2 thyoma cells were used and for in vivo studies CD3p21 sense and antisense plasmid DNA was injected intramuscularly in mice. Lymphocyte proliferation was quantified by 3H-thymidine uptake assay; IL-2 mRNA expression was studied by RT-PCR and using Real Time PCR assay, we monitored the CD3, p21, TNF-α and IFN-γ mRNA expression. Results Transfection of CD3p21 sense and antisense in mouse thyoma cell line (EL4-IL-2 resulted in modulation of mitogen-induced proliferation. The intramuscular injection of CD3p21 sense and antisense plasmid DNA into mice also modulated lymphocyte proliferation and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion These results demonstrate a novel strategy of in vitro and in vivo transfer of p21 gene to T cells using CD3-promoter to achieve targeted inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and immune activation.

  3. Hydration-dependent dynamics of human telomeric oligonucleotides in the picosecond timescale: A neutron scattering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastiani, F.; Comez, L.; Sacchetti, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); CNR, Istituto Officina dei Materiali, Unità di Perugia, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Longo, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Elettra—Sincrotrone Trieste, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Orecchini, A.; Petrillo, C.; Paciaroni, A., E-mail: alessandro.paciaroni@fisica.unipg.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); De Francesco, A. [CNR-IOM OGG c/o Institut Laue-Langevin, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS20156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Muthmann, M. [Jülich Centre for Neutron Science, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Outstation at Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum, Lichtenbergstrasse 1, 85747 Garching (Germany); Teixeira, S. C. M. [EPSAM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Institut Laue–Langevin, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS20156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-07-07

    The dynamics of the human oligonucleotide AG{sub 3}(T{sub 2}AG{sub 3}){sub 3} has been investigated by incoherent neutron scattering in the sub-nanosecond timescale. A hydration-dependent dynamical activation of thermal fluctuations in weakly hydrated samples was found, similar to that of protein powders. The amplitudes of such thermal fluctuations were evaluated in two different exchanged wave-vector ranges, so as to single out the different contributions from intra- and inter-nucleotide dynamics. The activation energy was calculated from the temperature-dependent characteristic times of the corresponding dynamical processes. The trends of both amplitudes and activation energies support a picture where oligonucleotides possess a larger conformational flexibility than long DNA sequences. This additional flexibility, which likely results from a significant relative chain-end contribution to the average chain dynamics, could be related to the strong structural polymorphism of the investigated oligonucleotides.

  4. Polynucleotides. XXXII. Further studies on the synthesis of oligonucleotides containing 8,2'-S-cycloadenosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, M; Tezuka, T

    1975-01-01

    A dinucleoside monophosphate, 8,2'-anhydro-8-mercapto-9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine phosphoryl-(3'-5')-inosine (AspI) was synthesized by the condensation of protected 8-mercapto-adenosine 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and 2',3'-isopropylideneinosine with diphenylphosphorochloridate. 8-Mercaptoadenosine 2',3'-cyclic phosphate was polymerized by using tetraphenyl pyrophosphate as the condensing reagent. As oligonucleotides, thus obtained, contained some uncyclized 8-mercaptoadenosine residues and were cleaved at these sites with 0.3N KOH. As 5'-phosphate was synthesized and polymerized with DCC to give oligonucleotides with chain lengths 2 to 9. PMID:170595

  5. Diversity of antisense and other non-coding RNAs in Archaea revealed by comparative small RNA sequencing in four Pyrobaculum species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Bernick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A great diversity of small, non-coding RNA molecules with roles in gene regulation and RNA processing have been intensely studied in eukaryotic and bacterial model organisms, yet our knowledge of possible parallel roles for small RNAs in archaea is limited. We employed RNA-seq to identify novel small RNA across multiple species of the hyperthermophilic genus Pyrobaculum, known for unusual RNA gene characteristics. By comparing transcriptional data collected in parallel among four species, we were able to identify conserved RNA genes fitting into known and novel families. Among our findings, we highlight three novel cis-antisense small RNAs encoded opposite to key regulatory (ferric uptake regulator, metabolic (triose-phosphate isomerase, and core transcriptional apparatus genes (transcription factor B. We also found a large increase in the number of conserved C/D box small RNA genes over what had been previously recognized; many of these genes are encoded antisense to protein coding genes. The conserved opposition to orthologous genes across the Pyrobaculum genus suggests similarities to other cis-antisense regulatory systems. Furthermore, the genus-specific nature of these small RNAs indicates they are relatively recent, stable adaptations.

  6. Immobilization of oligonucleotide probes on silicon surfaces using biotin–streptavidin system examined with microscopic and spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awsiuk, K., E-mail: kamil.awsiuk@uj.edu.pl [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, Kraków 30-059 (Poland); Rysz, J. [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, Kraków 30-059 (Poland); Petrou, P. [Institute of Nuclear and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Energy and Safety, NCSR “Demokritos”, End Patriarchou Gregoriou Str., Aghia Paraskevi 15310 (Greece); Budkowski, A. [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, Kraków 30-059 (Poland); Bernasik, A. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, Kraków 30-059 (Poland); Kakabakos, S. [Institute of Nuclear and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Energy and Safety, NCSR “Demokritos”, End Patriarchou Gregoriou Str., Aghia Paraskevi 15310 (Greece); Marzec, M.M. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, Kraków 30-059 (Poland); Raptis, I. [Institute for Advanced Materials, Physicochemical Processes, Nanotechnology and Microsystems, NCSR “Demokritos”, End Patriarchou Gregoriou Str., Aghia Paraskevi 15310 (Greece)

    2014-01-30

    To immobilize effectively oligonucleotide probes on SiO{sub 2} modified with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, four procedures based on streptavidin–biotin system are compared with Atomic Force Microscopy, Angle-Resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. The first approach involves: adsorption of biotinylated Bovine Serum Albumin, blocking free surface sites with BSA, binding of streptavidin and biotinylated oligonucleotide (b-oligo). Final steps are exchanged in the second procedure with immobilization of preformed streptavidin–b-oligo conjugate. The third approach consists of streptavidin adsorption, blocking with BSA and b-oligo binding. Finally, streptavidin–b-oligo conjugate is immobilized directly within the fourth method. Surface coverage with biomolecules, determined from ARXPS, accords with average AFM height, and is anti-correlated with the intensity of Si+ ions. Higher biomolecular coverage was achieved during the last steps of the first (2.45(±0.38) mg/m{sup 2}) and second (1.31(±0.22) mg/m{sup 2}) approach, as compared to lower surface density resulting from the third (0.58(±0.20) mg/m{sup 2}) and fourth (0.41(±0.11) mg/m{sup 2}) method. Phosphorus atomic concentration indicates effectiveness of oligonucleotide immobilization. Secondary ions intensities, characteristic for oligonucleotides, streptavidin, BSA, and proteins, allow additional insight into overlayer composition. These measurements verify the ARXPS results and show the superiority of the first two immobilization approaches in terms of streptavidin and oligonucleotide density achieved onto the surface.

  7. Immobilization of oligonucleotide probes on silicon surfaces using biotin–streptavidin system examined with microscopic and spectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awsiuk, K.; Rysz, J.; Petrou, P.; Budkowski, A.; Bernasik, A.; Kakabakos, S.; Marzec, M.M.; Raptis, I.

    2014-01-01

    To immobilize effectively oligonucleotide probes on SiO 2 modified with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, four procedures based on streptavidin–biotin system are compared with Atomic Force Microscopy, Angle-Resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. The first approach involves: adsorption of biotinylated Bovine Serum Albumin, blocking free surface sites with BSA, binding of streptavidin and biotinylated oligonucleotide (b-oligo). Final steps are exchanged in the second procedure with immobilization of preformed streptavidin–b-oligo conjugate. The third approach consists of streptavidin adsorption, blocking with BSA and b-oligo binding. Finally, streptavidin–b-oligo conjugate is immobilized directly within the fourth method. Surface coverage with biomolecules, determined from ARXPS, accords with average AFM height, and is anti-correlated with the intensity of Si+ ions. Higher biomolecular coverage was achieved during the last steps of the first (2.45(±0.38) mg/m 2 ) and second (1.31(±0.22) mg/m 2 ) approach, as compared to lower surface density resulting from the third (0.58(±0.20) mg/m 2 ) and fourth (0.41(±0.11) mg/m 2 ) method. Phosphorus atomic concentration indicates effectiveness of oligonucleotide immobilization. Secondary ions intensities, characteristic for oligonucleotides, streptavidin, BSA, and proteins, allow additional insight into overlayer composition. These measurements verify the ARXPS results and show the superiority of the first two immobilization approaches in terms of streptavidin and oligonucleotide density achieved onto the surface.

  8. miR-221 and miR-222 expression affects the proliferation potential of human prostate carcinoma cell lines by targeting p27Kip1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galardi, Silvia; Mercatelli, Neri; Giorda, Ezio; Massalini, Simone; Frajese, Giovanni Vanni; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna; Farace, Maria Giulia

    2007-08-10

    MicroRNAs are short regulatory RNAs that negatively modulate protein expression at a post-transcriptional level and are deeply involved in the pathogenesis of several types of cancers. Here we show that miR-221 and miR-222, encoded in tandem on chromosome X, are overexpressed in the PC3 cellular model of aggressive prostate carcinoma, as compared with LNCaP and 22Rv1 cell line models of slowly growing carcinomas. In all cell lines tested, we show an inverse relationship between the expression of miR-221 and miR-222 and the cell cycle inhibitor p27(Kip1). We recognize two target sites for the microRNAs in the 3' untranslated region of p27 mRNA, and we show that miR-221/222 ectopic overexpression directly results in p27 down-regulation in LNCaP cells. In those cells, we demonstrate that the ectopic overexpression of miR-221/222 strongly affects their growth potential by inducing a G(1) to S shift in the cell cycle and is sufficient to induce a powerful enhancement of their colony-forming potential in soft agar. Consistently, miR-221 and miR-222 knock-down through antisense LNA oligonucleotides increases p27(Kip1) in PC3 cells and strongly reduces their clonogenicity in vitro. Our results suggest that miR-221/222 can be regarded as a new family of oncogenes, directly targeting the tumor suppressor p27(Kip1), and that their overexpression might be one of the factors contributing to the oncogenesis and progression of prostate carcinoma through p27(Kip1) down-regulation.

  9. Tandem Oligonucleotide Probe Annealing and Elongation To Discriminate Viral Sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskova, Maria; Uhd, Jesper; Miotke, Laura

    2017-01-01

    opportunities in transcriptome analysis, virology, and other fields. Herein, we report for the first time a "click" chemistry approach to oligonucleotide probe elongation as a novel approach to specifically detect a viral sequence. We hybridized a library of short, terminally labeled probes to Ebola virus RNA...

  10. Genome dynamics of short oligonucleotides: the example of bacterial DNA uptake enhancing sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Bakkali

    Full Text Available Among the many bacteria naturally competent for transformation by DNA uptake-a phenomenon with significant clinical and financial implications- Pasteurellaceae and Neisseriaceae species preferentially take up DNA containing specific short sequences. The genomic overrepresentation of these DNA uptake enhancing sequences (DUES causes preferential uptake of conspecific DNA, but the function(s behind this overrepresentation and its evolution are still a matter for discovery. Here I analyze DUES genome dynamics and evolution and test the validity of the results to other selectively constrained oligonucleotides. I use statistical methods and computer simulations to examine DUESs accumulation in Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae genomes. I analyze DUESs sequence and nucleotide frequencies, as well as those of all their mismatched forms, and prove the dependence of DUESs genomic overrepresentation on their preferential uptake by quantifying and correlating both characteristics. I then argue that mutation, uptake bias, and weak selection against DUESs in less constrained parts of the genome combined are sufficient enough to cause DUESs accumulation in susceptible parts of the genome with no need for other DUES function. The distribution of overrepresentation values across sequences with different mismatch loads compared to the DUES suggests a gradual yet not linear molecular drive of DNA sequences depending on their similarity to the DUES. Other genomically overrepresented sequences, both pro- and eukaryotic, show similar distribution of frequencies suggesting that the molecular drive reported above applies to other frequent oligonucleotides. Rare oligonucleotides, however, seem to be gradually drawn to genomic underrepresentation, thus, suggesting a molecular drag. To my knowledge this work provides the first clear evidence of the gradual evolution of selectively constrained oligonucleotides, including repeated, palindromic and protein

  11. Rapid blockade of telomerase activity and tumor cell growth by the DPL lipofection of ribbon antisense to hTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Arun K; Park, Jeong-Hoh; Moon, Ik-Jae; Kang, Hyungu; Lee, Yun-Han; Doh, Kyung-Oh; Suh, Seong-Il; Chang, Byeong-Churl; Park, Jong-Gu

    2005-09-29

    Ribbon antisense (RiAS) to the hTR RNA, a component of the telomerase complex, was employed to inhibit telomerase activity and cancer cell growth. The antisense molecule, hTR-RiAS, combined with enhanced cellular uptake was shown to effectively inhibit telomerase activity and cause rapid cell death in various cancer cell lines. When cancer cells were treated with hTR-RiAS, the level of hTR RNA was reduced by more than 90% accompanied with reduction in telomerase activity. When checked for cancer cell viability, cancer cell lines treated with hTR-RiAS using DNA+Peptide+Lipid complex showed 70-80% growth inhibition in 3 days. The reduced cell viability was due to apoptosis as the percentage of cells exhibiting the sub-G0 arrest and DNA fragmentation increased after antisense treatment. Further, when subcutaneous tumors of a colon cancer cell line (SW480) were treated intratumorally with hTR-RiAS, tumor growth was markedly suppressed with almost total ablation of hTR RNA in the tumor tissue. Cells in the tumor tissue were also found to undergo apoptosis after hTR-RiAS treatment. These results suggest that hTR-RiAS is an effective anticancer reagent, with a potential for broad efficacy to diverse malignant tumors.

  12. Heated oligonucleotide ligation assay (HOLA): an affordable single nucleotide polymorphism assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, W C; Gorrochotegui-Escalante, N; Duteau, N M

    2006-03-01

    Most single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection requires expensive equipment and reagents. The oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) is an inexpensive SNP assay that detects ligation between a biotinylated "allele-specific detector" and a 3' fluorescein-labeled "reporter" oligonucleotide. No ligation occurs unless the 3' detector nucleotide is complementary to the SNP nucleotide. The original OLA used chemical denaturation and neutralization. Heated OLA (HOLA) instead uses a thermal stable ligase and cycles of denaturing and hybridization for ligation and SNP detection. The cost per genotype is approximately US$1.25 with two-allele SNPs or approximately US$1.75 with three-allele SNPs. We illustrate the development of HOLA for SNP detection in the Early Trypsin and Abundant Trypsin loci in the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) and at the a-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase locus in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s.

  13. The Contribution of the Activation Entropy to the Gas-Phase Stability of Modified Nucleic Acid Duplexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Yvonne; Dugovič, Branislav; Istrate, Alena; Fignolé, Annabel; Leumann, Christian J.; Schürch, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Tricyclo-DNA (tcDNA) is a sugar-modified analogue of DNA currently tested for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in an antisense approach. Tandem mass spectrometry plays a key role in modern medical diagnostics and has become a widespread technique for the structure elucidation and quantification of antisense oligonucleotides. Herein, mechanistic aspects of the fragmentation of tcDNA are discussed, which lay the basis for reliable sequencing and quantification of the antisense oligonucleotide. Excellent selectivity of tcDNA for complementary RNA is demonstrated in direct competition experiments. Moreover, the kinetic stability and fragmentation pattern of matched and mismatched tcDNA heteroduplexes were investigated and compared with non-modified DNA and RNA duplexes. Although the separation of the constituting strands is the entropy-favored fragmentation pathway of all nucleic acid duplexes, it was found to be only a minor pathway of tcDNA duplexes. The modified hybrid duplexes preferentially undergo neutral base loss and backbone cleavage. This difference is due to the low activation entropy for the strand dissociation of modified duplexes that arises from the conformational constraint of the tc-sugar-moiety. The low activation entropy results in a relatively high free activation enthalpy for the dissociation comparable to the free activation enthalpy of the alternative reaction pathway, the release of a nucleobase. The gas-phase behavior of tcDNA duplexes illustrates the impact of the activation entropy on the fragmentation kinetics and suggests that tandem mass spectrometric experiments are not suited to determine the relative stability of different types of nucleic acid duplexes.

  14. Targeted Editing of Myostatin Gene in Sheep by Transcription Activator-like Effector Nucleases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxia Zhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin (MSTN is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Gene knockout of MSTN can result in increasing muscle mass in sheep. The objectives were to investigate whether myostatin gene can be edited in sheep by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs in tandem with single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides (ssODNs. We designed a pair of TALENs to target a highly conserved sequence in the coding region of the sheep MSTN gene. The activity of the TALENs was verified by using luciferase single-strand annealing reporter assay in HEK 293T cell line. Co-transfection of TALENs and ssODNs oligonucleotides induced precise gene editing of myostatin gene in sheep primary fibroblasts. MSTN gene-edited cells were successfully used as nuclear donors for generating cloned embryos. TALENs combined with ssDNA oligonucleotides provide a useful approach for precise gene modification in livestock animals.

  15. Development, characterization and experimental validation of a cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. gene expression oligonucleotide microarray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fernandez

    Full Text Available Oligonucleotide-based microarrays with accurate gene coverage represent a key strategy for transcriptional studies in orphan species such as sunflower, H. annuus L., which lacks full genome sequences. The goal of this study was the development and functional annotation of a comprehensive sunflower unigene collection and the design and validation of a custom sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray. A large scale EST (>130,000 ESTs curation, assembly and sequence annotation was performed using Blast2GO (www.blast2go.de. The EST assembly comprises 41,013 putative transcripts (12,924 contigs and 28,089 singletons. The resulting Sunflower Unigen Resource (SUR version 1.0 was used to design an oligonucleotide-based Agilent microarray for cultivated sunflower. This microarray includes a total of 42,326 features: 1,417 Agilent controls, 74 control probes for sunflower replicated 10 times (740 controls and 40,169 different non-control probes. Microarray performance was validated using a model experiment examining the induction of senescence by water deficit. Pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microarrays was performed using the Bioconductor limma package. The analyses based on p-values calculated by eBayes (p<0.01 allowed the detection of 558 differentially expressed genes between water stress and control conditions; from these, ten genes were further validated by qPCR. Over-represented ontologies were identified using FatiScan in the Babelomics suite. This work generated a curated and trustable sunflower unigene collection, and a custom, validated sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray using Agilent technology. Both the curated unigene collection and the validated oligonucleotide microarray provide key resources for sunflower genome analysis, transcriptional studies, and molecular breeding for crop improvement.

  16. In vitro Selection and Interaction Studies of a DNA Aptamer Targeting Protein A

    OpenAIRE

    Stoltenburg, Regina; Schubert, Thomas; Strehlitz, Beate

    2015-01-01

    A new DNA aptamer targeting Protein A is presented. The aptamer was selected by use of the FluMag-SELEX procedure. The SELEX technology (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) is widely applied as an in vitro selection and amplification method to generate target-specific aptamers and exists in various modified variants. FluMag-SELEX is one of them and is characterized by the use of magnetic beads for target immobilization and fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides for moni...

  17. Spectroscopic (UV/VIS, Raman) and Electrophoresis Study of Cytosine-Guanine Oligonucleotide DNA Influenced by Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihashemian, Seyedeh Maryam; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Boon Tong, Goh; Abdul Rahman, Saadah

    2016-01-01

    Studying the effect of a magnetic field on oligonucleotide DNA can provide a novel DNA manipulation technique for potential application in bioengineering and medicine. In this work, the optical and electrochemical response of a 100 bases oligonucleotides DNA, cytosine-guanine (CG100), is investigated via exposure to different magnetic fields (250, 500, 750, and 1000 mT). As a result of the optical response of CG100 to the magnetic field, the ultra-violet-visible spectrum indicated a slight variation in the band gap of CG100 of about 0.3 eV. Raman spectroscopy showed a significant deviation in hydrogen and phosphate bonds' vibration after exposure to the magnetic field. Oligonucleotide DNA mobility was investigated in the external electric field using the gel electrophoresis technique, which revealed a small decrease in the migration of CG100 after exposure to the magnetic field.

  18. Nanobiopolymer for direct targeting and inhibition of EGFR expression in triple negative breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Inoue

    Full Text Available Treatment options for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC are generally limited to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Recently, anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR therapy has been introduced for TNBC patients. We engineered a novel nanobioconjugate based on a poly(β-L-malic acid (PMLA nanoplatform for TNBC treatment. The nanobioconjugate carries anti-tumor nucleosome-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb 2C5 to target breast cancer cells, anti-mouse transferrin receptor (TfR antibody for drug delivery through the host endothelial system, and Morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (AON to inhibit EGFR synthesis. The nanobioconjugates variants were: (1 P (BioPolymer with AON, 2C5 and anti-TfR for tumor endothelial and cancer cell targeting, and EGFR suppression (P/AON/2C5/TfR, and (2 P with AON and 2C5 (P/AON/2C5. Controls included (3 P with 2C5 but without AON (P/2C5, (4 PBS, and (5 P with PEG and leucine ester (LOEt for endosomal escape (P/mPEG/LOEt. Drugs were injected intravenously to MDA-MB-468 TNBC bearing mice. Tissue accumulation of injected nanobioconjugates labeled with Alexa Fluor 680 was examined by Xenogen IVIS 200 (live imaging and confocal microscopy of tissue sections. Levels of EGFR, phosphorylated and total Akt in tumor samples were detected by western blotting. In vitro western blot showed that the leading nanobioconjugate P/AON/2C5/TfR inhibited EGFR s