WorldWideScience

Sample records for antireflection coatings based

  1. Protective infrared antireflection coating based on sputtered germanium carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Des; Waddell, Ewan; Placido, Frank

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes optical, durablility and environmental performance of a germanium carbide based durable antireflection coating. The coating has been demonstrated on germanium and zinc selenide infra-red material however is applicable to other materials such as zinc sulphide. The material is deposited using a novel reactive closed field magnetron sputtering technique, offering significant advantages over conventional evaporation processes for germanium carbide such as plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. The sputtering process is "cold", making it suitable for use on a wide range of substrates. Moreover, the drum format provide more efficient loading for high throughput production. The use of the closed field and unbalanced magnetrons creates a magnetic confinement that extends the electron mean free path leading to high ion current densities. The combination of high current densities with ion energies in the range ~30eV creates optimum thin film growth conditions. As a result the films are dense, spectrally stable, supersmooth and low stress. Films incorporate low hydrogen content resulting in minimal C-H absorption bands within critical infra-red passbands such as 3 to 5um and 8 to 12um. Tuning of germanium carbide (Ge(1-x)Cx) film refractive index from pure germanium (refractive index 4) to pure germanium carbide (refractive index 1.8) will be demonstrated. Use of film grading to achieve single and dual band anti-reflection performance will be shown. Environmental and durability levels are shown to be suitable for use in harsh external environments.

  2. Characterization of single layer anti-reflective coatings for bolometer-based rare event searches

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, E V

    2016-01-01

    A photon signal added to the existing phonon signal can powerfully reduce backgrounds for bolometer-based rare event searches. Anti-reflective coatings can significantly increase the performance of the secondary light sensing bolometer in these experiments. Coatings of SiO2, HfO2, and TiO2 on Ge and Si were fabricated and characterized at room temperature and all angles of incidence.

  3. Epoxy-based broadband anti-reflection coating for millimeter-wave optics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosen, Darin; Keating, Brian; Krantz, William; Lee, Adrian T; Quealy, Erin; Richards, Paul L; Siritanasak, Praween; Walker, William

    2013-01-01

    We have developed epoxy-based, broadband anti-reflection coatings for millimeter-wave astrophysics experiments with cryogenic optics. By using multiple-layer coatings where each layer steps in dielectric constant, we achieved low reflection over a wide bandwidth. We suppressed the reflection from an alumina disk to 10% over fractional bandwidths of 92% and 104% using two-layer and three-layer coatings, respectively. The dielectric constants of epoxies were tuned between 2.06 and 7.44 by mixing three types of epoxy and doping with strontium titanate powder required for the high dielectric mixtures. At 140 Kelvin, the band-integrated absorption loss in the coatings was suppressed to less than 1% for the two-layer coating, and below 10% for the three-layer coating.

  4. Plasmonic and silicon spherical nanoparticle antireflective coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Baryshnikova, K. V.; Petrov, M. I.; Babicheva, V. E.; Belov, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, plasmonic antireflecting nanostructures have been extensively studied to be utilized in various optical and optoelectronic systems such as lenses, solar cells, photodetectors, and others. The growing interest to all-dielectric photonics as an alternative optical technology along with plasmonics motivates us to compare antireflective properties of plasmonic and all-dielectric nanoparticle coatings based on silver and crystalline silicon respectively. Our simulation result...

  5. Plasmonic and silicon spherical nanoparticle antireflective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikova, K. V.; Petrov, M. I.; Babicheva, V. E.; Belov, P. A.

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade, plasmonic antireflecting nanostructures have been extensively studied to be utilized in various optical and optoelectronic systems such as lenses, solar cells, photodetectors, and others. The growing interest to all-dielectric photonics as an alternative optical technology along with plasmonics motivates us to compare antireflective properties of plasmonic and all-dielectric nanoparticle coatings based on silver and crystalline silicon respectively. Our simulation results for spherical nanoparticles array on top of amorphous silicon show that both silicon and silver coatings demonstrate strong antireflective properties in the visible spectral range. For the first time, we show that zero reflectance from the structure with silicon coatings originates from the destructive interference of electric- and magnetic-dipole responses of nanoparticle array with the wave reflected from the substrate, and we refer to this reflection suppression as substrate-mediated Kerker effect. We theoretically compare the silicon and silver coating effectiveness for the thin-film photovoltaic applications. Silver nanoparticles can be more efficient, enabling up to 30% increase of the overall absorbance in semiconductor layer. Nevertheless, silicon coatings allow up to 64% absorbance increase in the narrow band spectral range because of the substrate-mediated Kerker effect, and band position can be effectively tuned by varying the nanoparticles sizes.

  6. Plasmonic and silicon spherical nanoparticle antireflective coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikova, K V; Petrov, M I; Babicheva, V E; Belov, P A

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, plasmonic antireflecting nanostructures have been extensively studied to be utilized in various optical and optoelectronic systems such as lenses, solar cells, photodetectors, and others. The growing interest to all-dielectric photonics as an alternative optical technology along with plasmonics motivates us to compare antireflective properties of plasmonic and all-dielectric nanoparticle coatings based on silver and crystalline silicon respectively. Our simulation results for spherical nanoparticles array on top of amorphous silicon show that both silicon and silver coatings demonstrate strong antireflective properties in the visible spectral range. For the first time, we show that zero reflectance from the structure with silicon coatings originates from the destructive interference of electric- and magnetic-dipole responses of nanoparticle array with the wave reflected from the substrate, and we refer to this reflection suppression as substrate-mediated Kerker effect. We theoretically compare the silicon and silver coating effectiveness for the thin-film photovoltaic applications. Silver nanoparticles can be more efficient, enabling up to 30% increase of the overall absorbance in semiconductor layer. Nevertheless, silicon coatings allow up to 64% absorbance increase in the narrow band spectral range because of the substrate-mediated Kerker effect, and band position can be effectively tuned by varying the nanoparticles sizes. PMID:26926602

  7. Optical enhancing durable anti-reflective coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Varadarajan, Aravamuthan; Movassat, Meisam

    2016-07-05

    Disclosed herein are polysilsesquioxane based anti-reflective coating (ARC) compositions, methods of preparation, and methods of deposition on a substrate. In embodiments, the polysilsesquioxane of this disclosure is prepared in a two-step process of acid catalyzed hydrolysis of organoalkoxysilane followed by addition of tetralkoxysilane that generates silicone polymers with >40 mol % silanol based on Si-NMR. These high silanol siloxane polymers are stable and have a long shelf-life in the polar organic solvents at room temperature. Also disclosed are low refractive index ARC made from these compositions with and without additives such as porogens, templates, Si--OH condensation catalyst and/or nanofillers. Also disclosed are methods and apparatus for applying coatings to flat substrates including substrate pre-treatment processes, coating processes including flow coating and roll coating, and coating curing processes including skin-curing using hot-air knives. Also disclosed are coating compositions and formulations for highly tunable, durable, highly abrasion-resistant functionalized anti-reflective coatings.

  8. High gain durable anti-reflective coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Brophy, Brenor L.; Colson, Thomas E.; Gonsalves, Peter R.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.

    2016-07-26

    Disclosed herein are polysilsesquioxane-based anti-reflective coating (ARC) compositions, methods of preparation, and methods of deposition on a substrate. In one embodiment, the polysilsesquioxane of this disclosure is prepared in a two-step process of acid catalyzed hydrolysis of organoalkoxysilane followed by addition of tetralkoxysilane that generates silicone polymers with >40 mol % silanol based on Si-NMR. These high silanol siloxane polymers are stable and have a long shelf-life in polar organic solvents at room temperature. Also disclosed are low refractive index ARC made from these compositions with and without additives such as porogens, templates, thermal radical initiator, photo radical initiators, crosslinkers, Si--OH condensation catalyst and nano-fillers. Also disclosed are methods and apparatus for applying coatings to flat substrates including substrate pre-treatment processes, coating processes and coating curing processes including skin-curing using hot-air knives. Also disclosed are coating compositions and formulations for highly tunable, durable, highly abrasion-resistant functionalized anti-reflective coatings.

  9. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Carol S.; Reed, Scott T.

    1990-01-01

    An antireflection film made from a reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  10. Antireflective bilayer coatings based on Al2O3 film for UV region

    OpenAIRE

    Marszałek Konstanty; Winkowski Paweł; Marszałek Marta

    2015-01-01

    Bilayer antireflective coatings consisting of aluminium oxide Al2O3/MgF2 and Al2O3/SiO2 are presented in this paper. Oxide films were deposited by means of e-gun evaporation in vacuum of 5 × 10-3 Pa in the presence of oxygen, and magnesium fluoride was prepared by thermal evaporation on heated optical lenses made from quartz glass (Corning HPFS). Substrate temperature was maintained at 250 _C during the deposition. Thickness and deposition rate were controlled with a thickness measuring syste...

  11. Bright Single-Photon Sources Based on Anti-Reflection Coated Deterministic Quantum Dot Microlenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schnauber

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on enhancing the photon-extraction efficiency (PEE of deterministic quantum dot (QD microlenses via anti-reflection (AR coating. The AR-coating deposited on top of the curved microlens surface is composed of a thin layer of Ta2O5, and is found to effectively reduce back-reflection of light at the semiconductor-vacuum interface. A statistical analysis of spectroscopic data reveals, that the AR-coating improves the light out-coupling of respective microlenses by a factor of 1.57 ± 0.71, in quantitative agreement with numerical calculations. Taking the enhancement factor into account, we predict improved out-coupling of light with a PEE of up to 50%. The quantum nature of emission from QDs integrated into AR-coated microlenses is demonstrated via photon auto-correlation measurements revealing strong suppression of two-photon emission events with g(2(0 = 0.05 ± 0.02. As such, these bright non-classical light sources are highly attractive with respect to applications in the field of quantum cryptography.

  12. Broadband antireflection coatings for multifunctional avionic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Neelam; Kumar, Mukesh; Rao, P. K.; Karar, Vinod; Sharma, Amit Lochan

    2015-06-01

    Broadband Multilayer Antireflection (AR) coatings markedly improve the transmission efficiency of any optical component such as lens, prism, beam-splitter, beam combiner or a window. By reducing surface reflections over a wide wavelength range, broadband antireflection coatings improve transmission and enhance contrast which is desired in avionic displays. The broadband antireflection coating consisting of MgF2, ZrO2 and Al2O3 were designed to cover the whole visible spectrum and fabricated on optical grade glass substrate. The optical characterization of these coatings indicates reduction of the reflection to 2.28% as compared to 8.5 % at 545 nm (i.e. design wavelength of most avionic displays) for bare substrate making them useful in optical displays for avionic applications.

  13. Investigation of sol-gel antireflective coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very high power laser systems present material design challenges which often approach the inherent optical survival strength of components. Optical coatings in the UV region suffer from anomalously high absorption and scattering in the deposited layers. The losses caused by these effects are often unacceptable or, in the case of absorption, usually fatal to the absorbing coatings. Unfortunately, no metals exist that have high enough reflectivities in the UV to serve as uncoated mirrors as they normally do in the CO2 region of the infrared. Adequate multilayer dielectric coatings are therefore critically important for the development and utilization of UV lasers. The same could be said for relfection suppressing antireflective coatings in that wavelength range. Antireflective properties of gradientindex designs have been rediscovered and their potential for resolving UV laser design difficulties has been vigorously tested. These antireflective properties have been attained on glass or fused silica surfaces by chemical surface treatments

  14. ANTIREFLECTION MULTILAYER COATINGS WITH THIN METAL LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gubanova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of anti-reflective coatings for metal surfaces of Al, Ti, N,i Cr is proposed. The coatings have the form of alternating layers of dielectric/metal/dielectric with the number of cells up to15. The method of calculation of such coatings is proposed. We have calculated the coatings of the type [HfO2/Cr/HfO2]15, [ZrO2/Ti/Al2O3]15, [ZrO2/Cr/ZrO2]15. It is shown that the proposed interference coatings provide reduction of the residual reflectance of the metal several times (from 3.5 to 6.0 in a wide spectral range (300-1000 nm. The proposed coatings can be recommended as anti-reflective coatings for energy saving solar systems and batteries, and photovoltaic cells.

  15. Functional photocatalytically active and scratch resistant antireflective coating based on TiO2 and SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, M.; Wojcieszak, D.; Kaczmarek, D.; Domaradzki, J.; Song, S.; Gibson, D.; Placido, F.; Mazur, P.; Kalisz, M.; Poniedzialek, A.

    2016-09-01

    Antireflection (AR) multilayer coating, based on combination of five TiO2 and SiO2 thin films, was deposited by microwave assisted reactive magnetron sputtering process on microscope glass substrates. In this work X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and wettability measurements were used to characterize the structural and surface properties of the deposited coating. These studies revealed that prepared coating was amorphous with low surface roughness. Photocatalytic properties were determined based on phenol decomposition reaction. Measurements of optical properties showed that transmittance in the visible wavelength range was increased after the deposition of AR coating as-compared to bare glass substrate. The mechanical properties were determined on the basis of nano-indentation and scratch resistance tests. Performed research has shown that deposition of an additional thin 10 nm thick TiO2 thin film top layer, the prepared AR coating was photocatalytically active, hydrophobic, scratch resistant and had increased hardness as-compared to bare glass substrate. These results indicate that prepared AR multilayer could be used also as a self-cleaning and protective coating.

  16. Plasmonic and silicon spherical nanoparticle anti-reflective coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshnikova, K V; Babicheva, V E; Belov, P A

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, plasmonic antireflecting nanostructures have been extensively studied to be utilized in various optical and optoelectronic systems such as lenses, solar cells, photodetectors, and others. The growing interest to all-dielectric photonics as an alternative optical technology along with plasmonics motivates us to compare antireflection properties of all-dielectric and plasmonic nanoparticle coatings based on silver and crystalline silicon. Our results of numerical simulations for periodic arrays of spherical nanoparticles on top of amorphous silicon show that both silicon and silver nanoparticle coatings demonstrate strong anti-reflective properties in the visible spectral range. In this work, we show for the first time that blooming effect, that is zero reflection from the structure, with silicon coatings originates from the interference of electric- and magnetic-dipole responses of nanoparticles with the wave reflected from the substrate, and we refer to it as substrate-mediated Kerker ef...

  17. Self-Cleaning Antireflective Optical Coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Guldin, Stefan

    2013-11-13

    Low-cost antireflection coatings (ARCs) on large optical surfaces are an ingredient-technology for high-performance solar cells. While nanoporous thin films that meet the zero-reflectance conditions on transparent substrates can be cheaply manufactured, their suitability for outdoor applications is limited by the lack of robustness and cleanability. Here, we present a simple method for the manufacture of robust self-cleaning ARCs. Our strategy relies on the self-assembly of a block-copolymer in combination with silica-based sol-gel chemistry and preformed TiO2 nanocrystals. The spontaneous dense packing of copolymer micelles followed by a condensation reaction results in an inverse opal-type silica morphology that is loaded with TiO2 photocatalytic hot-spots. The very low volume fraction of the inorganic network allows the optimization of the antireflecting properties of the porous ARC despite the high refractive index of the embedded photocatalytic TiO2 nanocrystals. The resulting ARCs combine high optical and self-cleaning performance and can be deposited onto flexible plastic substrates. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. Antireflective bilayer coatings based on Al2O3 film for UV region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marszałek Konstanty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bilayer antireflective coatings consisting of aluminium oxide Al2O3/MgF2 and Al2O3/SiO2 are presented in this paper. Oxide films were deposited by means of e-gun evaporation in vacuum of 5 × 10-3 Pa in the presence of oxygen, and magnesium fluoride was prepared by thermal evaporation on heated optical lenses made from quartz glass (Corning HPFS. Substrate temperature was maintained at 250 _C during the deposition. Thickness and deposition rate were controlled with a thickness measuring system Inficon XTC/2. The experimental results of the optical measurements carried out during and after the deposition process have been presented. Physical thickness measurements were made during the deposition process and resulted in 44 nm/52 nm for Al2O3/MgF2 and 44 nm/50 nm for Al2O3/SiO2 system. Optimization was carried out for ultraviolet region with minimum of reflectance at 300 nm. The influence of post deposition annealing on the crystal structure was determined by X-ray measurements. In the range from ultraviolet to the beginning of visible region, the reflectance of both systems decreased and reached minimum at 290 nm. The value of reflectance at this point, for the coating Al2O3/MgF2 was equal to R290nm = 0.6 % and for Al2O3/SiO2R290nm = 1.1 %. Despite the difference between these values both are sufficient for applications in the UV optical systems for medicine and UV laser technology.

  19. Antireflective Coatings for Glass and Transparent Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskens, Pascal; Burghoorn, Marieke; Mourad, Maurice Christian Danho; Vroon, Zeger

    2016-07-12

    Antireflective coatings (ARCs) are applied to reduce surface reflections. We review coatings that reduce the reflection of the surface of the transparent substrates float glass, polyethylene terephthalate, poly(methyl methacrylate), and polycarbonate. Three main coating concepts exist to lower the reflection at the interface of a transparent substrate and air: multilayer interference coatings, graded index coatings, and quarter-wave coatings. We introduce and discuss these three concepts, and zoom in on porous quarter-wave coatings comprising colloidal particles. We extensively discuss the four routes for introducing porosity in quarter-wave coatings through the use of colloidal particles, which have the highest potential for application: (1) packing of dense nanospheres, (2) integration of voids through hollow nanospheres, (3) integration of voids through sacrificial particle templates, and (4) packing of nonspherical nanoparticles. Finally, we address the remaining challenges in the field of ARCs, and elaborate on potential strategies for future research in this area. PMID:27187719

  20. Self-Cleaning Antireflective Optical Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Guldin, Stefan; Kohn, Peter; Stefik, Morgan; Song, Juho; Divitini, Giorgio; Ecarla, Fanny; Ducati, Caterina; Wiesner, Ulrich; Steiner, Ullrich

    2013-01-01

    Low-cost antireflection coatings (ARCs) on large optical surfaces are an ingredient-technology for high-performance solar cells. While nanoporous thin films that meet the zero-reflectance conditions on transparent substrates can be cheaply manufactured, their suitability for outdoor applications is limited by the lack of robustness and cleanability. Here, we present a simple method for the manufacture of robust self-cleaning ARCs. Our strategy relies on the self-assembly of a block-copolymer ...

  1. Antireflection coatings for Si-base photoelectrical devices made of lanthanum, samarium and dysprosium fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectral dependences of light transmission through rare-element fluorides and the antireflection effect of the surface of silicon photoelectric converters with usage of the fluorides are investigated. It is established that fluoride films of lanthanum, samarium and dysprosium have a high transparency in the spectral reflection coefficient for a silicon surface up to 3.3-4.0%

  2. Process and performance optimization of bottom antireflective coatings: II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shuji; Sagan, John P.; Shan, Jianhui; Gonzalez, Eleazar; Dixit, Sunit S.; Liu, Ying; Khanna, Dinesh N.

    1999-06-01

    The newly developed AZ BARLi II coating material is a photoresist solvent-based bottom antireflective coating (BARC) for i-line lithographic application. The coating material has good compatibility with common edge bead removal solvents such as ethyl lactate, PGME, or PGMEA mixed with ethyl lactate or PGME. To evaluate the BARC material, its chemical compatibility with common EBR solvents has been tested by several analytical techniques including liquid particle counts and surface defect studies. Both top and bottom EBR dispense processes have been investigated and optimized. Improvements on edge roughness, visual cleanliness, and the BARC coating buildup at the edge will be discussed in this paper.

  3. Scandium oxide antireflection coatings for superluminescent LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladany, I.; Zanzucchi, P. J.; Andrews, J. T.; Kane, J.; Depiano, E.

    1986-01-01

    For an employment of laser diodes as superluminescent LEDs (SLDs) or amplifiers, the facets of the diodes must be coated with antireflection films. In the work reported, scandium oxide was evaporated from an e-beam source onto Supersil II fused silica substrates. The obtained samples were used for measurements of absorption and reflectivity. Results of index measurements on e-beam evaporated films are presented. It is shown that excellent coatings with reflectivities of 0.00025 can be obtained using these films. Attention is given to the refractive indices for scandium oxide films as a function of wavelength, the power output vs current for laser before coating and after coating with Sc2O3.

  4. Design of broadband omnidirectional antireflection coatings using ant colony algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Zhou, H Y; Guo, S; Luan, X X; Cui, W K; Ma, Y F; Shi, L

    2014-06-30

    Optimization method which is based on the ant colony algorithm (ACA) is described to optimize antireflection (AR) coating system with broadband omnidirectional characteristics for silicon solar cells incorporated with the solar spectrum (AM1.5 radiation). It's the first time to use ACA method for optimizing the AR coating system. In this paper, for the wavelength range from 400 nm to 1100 nm, the optimized three-layer AR coating system could provide an average reflectance of 2.98% for incident angles from Raveθ+ to 80° and 6.56% for incident angles from 0° to 90°. PMID:24978076

  5. Ultraporous nanocrystalline TiO2-based films: synthesis, patterning and application as anti-reflective, self-cleaning, superhydrophilic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustini, Marco; Grenier, Antonin; Naudin, Guillaume; Li, Ronghua; Grosso, David

    2015-11-01

    Crack-free, anatase-based optical coatings with a refractive index down to 1.27, a porosity up to 80 vol%, and a tunable thickness up to 1.5 μm were fabricated. The extraordinary stability of the porosity upon thermally induced crystallisation and template removal was attributed to the combined effects of the presence of 10% molar silica in the inorganic phase, a flash treatment at 500 °C, and the use of templates with different dimensions ranging from a few nanometers to 50 nm. The hierarchical porous system was directly patterned by UV lithography and used as multifunctional anti-reflective, self-cleaning coatings.Crack-free, anatase-based optical coatings with a refractive index down to 1.27, a porosity up to 80 vol%, and a tunable thickness up to 1.5 μm were fabricated. The extraordinary stability of the porosity upon thermally induced crystallisation and template removal was attributed to the combined effects of the presence of 10% molar silica in the inorganic phase, a flash treatment at 500 °C, and the use of templates with different dimensions ranging from a few nanometers to 50 nm. The hierarchical porous system was directly patterned by UV lithography and used as multifunctional anti-reflective, self-cleaning coatings. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06466j

  6. Advanced Antireflection Coatings for High-Performance Solar Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Noren

    2015-01-01

    Phase II objectives: Develop and refine antireflection coatings incorporating lanthanum titanate as an intermediate refractive index material; Investigate wet/dry thermal oxidation of aluminum containing semiconductor compounds as a means of forming a more transparent window layer with equal or better optical properties than its unoxidized form; Develop a fabrication process that allows integration of the oxidized window layer and maintains the necessary electrical properties for contacting the solar cell; Conduct an experimental demonstration of the best candidates for improved antireflection coatings.

  7. High gain durable anti-reflective coating with oblate voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Brophy, Brenor L.; Colson, Thomas E.; Gonsalves, Peter R.; Abrams, Ze' ev

    2016-06-28

    Disclosed herein are single layer transparent coatings with an anti-reflective property, a hydrophobic property, and that are highly abrasion resistant. The single layer transparent coatings contain a plurality of oblate voids. At least 1% of the oblate voids are open to a surface of the single layer transparent coatings.

  8. Optimization of broadband omnidirectional antireflection coatings for solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Xia; Li, Chong; Zhou, Hongyi; Lv, Benshun; Feng, Yajie; Wang, Huaqiang; Liu, Wuming

    2015-01-01

    Broadband and omnidirectional antireflection coating is a generally effective way to improve solar cell efficiency, because the destructive interference between the reflected and input waves could maximize transmission light in the absorption layer. Several theoretical calculations have been developed to optimize the anti-reflective coating to maximize the average transmittance. However, the solar irradiances of the clear sky spectral direct beam on a receiver plane at different positions and times are variable greatly. Here we report a new theoretical calculation of anti-reflective coating with incident quantum efficiency {\\eta}in as evaluation function for practical application. The two-layer and three-layer anti-reflective coatings are optimized over {\\lambda} = [300, 1100] nm and {\\theta} = [0{\\deg}, 90{\\deg}] for cities of Quito, Beijing and Moscow. The {\\eta}in of two-layer anti-reflective coating increases by 0.26%, 1.37% and 4.24% for these 3 cities, respectively, compared with that other theoretical ...

  9. A novel trilayer antireflection coating using dip-coating technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Xu; Yi Yin; Haiming Ma; Hui Ye; Xu Liu

    2011-01-01

    We report a new structure for broadband antireflection coating by dip-coating technique,which has minimal cost and is compatible with large-scale manufacturing.The coatings are prepared by depositing SiO2 sol-gel film on a glass substrate,subsequently depositing SiO2 single-layer particle coating through electrostatic attraction,and depositing a final very thin Si02 sol-gel film to improve the mechanical strength of the whole coating structure.The refractive index of the structure changes gradually from the top to the substrate.The transmittance of a glass substrate has been experimentally found to be improved in the spectral range of 400-1400 nn and in the incidence angle range from 0° to at least 45°.The mechanical strength is immensely improved because of the additional thin Si02 sol-gel layer.The surface texture can be applied to the substrates of different materials and shapes as an add-on coating.

  10. Antireflection coatings for intraocular lenses of sapphire and fianite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadband antireflection coatings for intraocular lenses of sapphire and fianite are calculated and implemented practically. Their residual reflectance in the liquid with a refracting index of 1.336 is below 0.2% from each face virtually over the entire visible region. 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Optimization of multilayer antireflection coating for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Urmita; Zaman, Mohammad Asif

    2016-05-01

    Multilayer antireflection coating (ARC) for photovoltaics is optimized using Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm. A general transfer-matrix based mathematical formulation is used for evaluating reflection spectra of the system. Exact and complete values of refractive indices are used in the analysis to provide higher accuracy of the results. The proposed optimization method takes into account the solar irradiance spectra, absorption characteristics of semiconductors and angle of incidence to maximize efficiency. This method is found to reduce the average reflectance for a wide range of angles of incidence. The proposed method is used to design ARC for silicon solar cell and a multi-junction AlGaAs/GaAs/Ge solar cell. Finally, comparative analysis of different ARC designs is provided in terms of corresponding solar cell characteristics.

  12. Antireflection coatings on plastics deposited by plasma polymerization process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K M K Srivatsa; M Bera; A Basu; T K Bhattacharya

    2008-08-01

    Antireflection coatings (ARCs) are deposited on the surfaces of optical elements like spectacle lenses to increase light transmission and improve their performance. In the ophthalmic industry, plastic lenses are rapidly displacing glass lenses due to several advantageous features. However, the deposition of ARCs on plastic lenses is a challenging task, because the plastic surface needs treatment for adhesion improvement and surface hardening before depositing the ARC. This surface treatment is usually done in a multi-stage process—exposure to energetic radiations, followed by deposition of a carbonyl hard coating by spin or dip coating processes, UV curing, etc. However, this treatment can also be done by plasma processes. Moreover, the plasma polymerization process allows deposition of optical films at room temperature, essential for plastics. The energetic ions in plasma processes provide similar effects as in ion assisted physical deposition processes to produce hard coatings, without requiring sophisticated ion sources. The plasma polymerization process is more economical than ion-assisted physical vapour deposition processes as regards equipment and source materials and is more cost-effective, enabling the surface treatment and deposition of the ARC in the same deposition system in a single run by varying the system parameters at each step. Since published results of the plasma polymerization processes developed abroad are rather sketchy and the techniques are mostly veiled in commercial secrecy, innovative and indigenous plasma-based techniques have been developed in this work for depositing the complete ARCs on plastic substrates.

  13. Low-loss antireflection coating for the visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscalu, G. L.

    1995-03-01

    It is shown the procedure of achieving a broadband antireflection coating for the visible. The coating structure is composed of 8 layers made of two materials: zirconium dioxide and magnesium fluoride. The experimental efficiency for getting a coating (for the admissibility criterion--specular reflection factor in the spectral (440 - 650) nm EQ 0.4% and average specular reflection factor in the same spectral EQ 0.3%) is 90%, when the coating is achieved under a vacuum system equipped with a photometer that operates at a single wavelength. The coating has the same performances when it is individualized on any type of glass with ne equals 1.48...1.90.

  14. Subwavelength metal grating metamaterial for polarization selective optical antireflection coating

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Wonkyu; Hendrickson, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    A metamaterial structure consisting of a one-dimensional metal/air-gap subwavelength grating is investigated for optical antireflection coating on germanium substrate in the infrared regime. For incident light polarized perpendicularly to the grating lines, the metamaterial exhibits effective dielectric property and Fabry-Perot like plasmon-coupled optical resonance results in complete elimination of reflection and enhancement of transmission. It is found that the subwavelength grating metamaterial antireflection structure does not require a deep subwavelength grating period, which is advantageous for device fabrication. Maximal transmittance of 93.4% with complete elimination of reflection is seen in the mid-wave infrared range.

  15. Anti-reflective and anti-soiling coatings for self-cleaning properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor L.; Nair, Vinod; Dave, Bakul Champaklal

    2016-05-31

    The disclosure discloses abrasion resistant, persistently hydrophobic and oleophobic, anti-reflective and anti-soiling coatings for glass. The coatings described herein have wide application, including for example the front cover glass of solar modules. Methods of applying the coatings using various apparatus are disclosed. Methods for using the coatings in solar energy generation plants to achieve greater energy yield and reduced operations costs are disclosed. Coating materials are formed by combinations of hydrolyzed silane-base precursors through sol-gel processes. Several methods of synthesis and formulation of coating materials are disclosed.

  16. Wide spectrum antireflective coating for laser fusion systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of depositing a laser damage resistant, wide-spectrum antireflective coating on fused silica has been developed. This work was sponsored under a subcontract with the University of California, with technical direction from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The coating is applied from a specific silanol polymer solution and converted to a porous SiO2 film. The pore size of the film is first reduced by a heat treatment to prevent uv scattering. Then gradation of the pore volume is achieved by a mild etching to a sufficient depth to prevent a smoother index transition from air to the substrate glass. The resulting antireflectivity covers the entire transmission range of silica and may be extended to a wavelength as short as 250 nm. Laser damage thresholds as high as 9 j/cm2 have been demonstrated on processed samples

  17. High-Quality Hollow Closed-Pore Silica Antireflection Coatings Based on Styrene-Acrylate Emulsion @ Organic-Inorganic Silica Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaolong; Zhao, Haixin; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Tao; Kong, Depeng; Chen, Taojing; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2016-05-11

    Making use of a facile and low-cost way for the preparation of a hierarchically organized novel hollow closed-pore silica antireflective coating (CHAR) with tailored optical properties and a mechanical reliability is of great interest in the field of solar photovoltaic technology. The process mainly contains two aspects: (1) a styrene-acrylate emulsion @ organic-inorganic silica precursor (SA@OISP) core/shell hierarchical nanostructure, consisting of a sacrificial styrene-acrylate (SA) primary template, was fabricated using a sol-gel method; (2) the self-assembly of the nanostructures leads to SA@OISP nanospheres forming the high-quality hollow closed-pore silica antireflection coating (CHAR) by a dip-coating process and a subsequent calcination treatment. The resulting SA@OISP nanospheres have a mean diameter of 65.2 nm and contained a SA soft core with a mean diameter of approximately 54.8 nm and an organic-inorganic silica precursor (OISP) shell with a thickness of approximately 6-10 nm. Furthermore, the prepared CHAR film exhibited a high transmittance and good ruggedness. An average transmittance (TAV) of 97.64% was obtained, and the value is close to the ideal single-layered antireflection coating (98.09%) over a broad range of wavelengths (from 380 to 1100 nm). The CHAR film showed a stable TAV, with attenuation values of less than 0.8% and 0.43% after the abrasion test and the damp heat test, respectively. The conversion efficiency of the CHAR coating cover solar modules tends to be increased by 3.75%. The promising results obtained in this study suggest that the CHAR film was considered as an essential component of the solar module and were expected to provide additional solar energy harvest under extreme outdoor climates. PMID:27104837

  18. Estimation of reflection spectra for different type antireflection coatings to silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aroutiounian, V.; Martirosyan, Kh. [Dept. Phys. Semicond. and Microelectronics, Yerevan State Univ., Yerevan (Armenia)

    2004-07-01

    In this letter, we simulate the cases of different types antireflection coatings made from porous silicon, dielectric mirrors, silicon oxynitride and silicon carbide to explore antireflection coating having advanced properties in solar cells. Using the optical matrix approach method, we calculate the reflectance of these structures. Comparing with the reflectance obtained for other antireflection coatings, we find a much lower reflectance in the UV-, visible- and IR-regions of the solar spectrum for these antireflection coatings, indicating the strong interest of the letters in solar cell applications. (orig.)

  19. Modified porous silica antireflective coatings with laser damage resistance for Ti:sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qiaoying; Li, Haiyuan; Liu, Ruijun; Tang, Yongxing; Jiang, Zhonghong

    2005-04-01

    Porous SiO2 antireflective (AR) coatings are prepared from the colloidal silica solution modified with methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) based on the sol-gel route. The viscosity of modified silica suspensions changes but their stability keeps when MTES is introduced. The refractive indices of modified coatings vary little after bake treatment from 100 to 150 Celsius. The modified silica coatings on Ti:sapphire crystal, owning good homogeneity, display prominent antireflective effect within the laser output waveband (750-850 nm) of Ti:sapphire lasers, with average transmission above 98.6%, and own laser induced damage thresholds (LIDTs) of more than 2.2 J/cm2 at 800 nm with the pulse duration of 300 ps.

  20. Abrasion-resistant antireflective coating for polycarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wydeven, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Following plasma-polymerization technique, treatment in oxygen glow discharge further enhances abrasion resistance and transmission. Improvement in abrasion resistance was shown by measuring percentage of haze resulting from abrasion. Coating samples were analyzed for abrasion using standard fresh rubber eraser. Other tests included spectra measurements and elemental analysis with spectrometers and spectrophotometers.

  1. Wide-band antireflection coatings; Breitbandige Antireflexbeschichtungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombert, A.; Rommel, M. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    In most cases, solar receivers - from solar collectors to buildings - have a transparent cover. In order to minimize the losses due to reflection, the aim is to find an AR coating which can be used for the broad bandwidth of the solar spectrum. Conventional solutions like multilayer systems with high and low refractive index layers are not suitable. The main problem is to produce layers with very low refractive indices. One solution which was investigated in the past is to synthesize layers with a low effective refractive index due to porosity; i.e. by mixing the bulk material with air on a subwavelength scale. Another possibility to achieve this mixture is given by subwave length surface-relief structures. Porous sol-gel coatings are suited for glass, subwavelength surface-relief structures can be replicated mainly in polymer materials by cheap embossing processes. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nahezu alle solaren Empfaenger sind transparent abgedeckt, z.B. durch Glascheiben. An diesen Abdeckungen wird ein Teil der einfallenden Solarstrahlung reflektiert. Diese Verluste koennen durch reflexionsmindernde Oberflaechen reduziert werden. Antireflexbeschichtungen, die z.B. fuer Brillenglaeser eingesetzt werden, eignen sich nicht fuer solare Entspiegelungen, da ihre spektrale Bandbreite nicht ausreicht. Das Hauptproblem liegt darin, dass Materialien mit sehr niedrigen Brechungsindices, wie sie fuer spektral breitbandige Antireflexbeschichtungen benoetigt werden, nicht verfuegbar sind. Der Ausweg besteht in poroesen Beschichtungen bzw. in einer Oberflaechenstrukturierung. Aufgrund des Luftanteils in der Mischung lassen sich sehr niedrige `effektive` Brechungsindices synthetisieren. Poroese Sol-Gel-Schichten eignen sich insbesondere zur Erhoehung der solaren Transmission von anorganischem Glas. Oberflaechenstrukturen sind aufgrund der Herstellbarkeit durch preisguenstige Praegeprozesse vielversprechend, finden aber derzeit ihre Anwendung ueberwiegend bei polymeren Materialien. (orig.)

  2. Ultraviolet antireflection coatings for use in silicon detector design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamden, Erika T.; Greer, Frank; Hoenk, Michael E.; Blacksberg, Jordana; Dickie, Matthew R.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Martin, D. Christopher; Schiminovich, David

    2011-07-01

    We report on the development of coatings for a charged-coupled device (CCD) detector optimized for use in a fixed dispersion UV spectrograph. Because of the rapidly changing index of refraction of Si, single layer broadband antireflection (AR) coatings are not suitable to increase quantum efficiency at all wavelengths of interest. Instead, we describe a creative solution that provides excellent performance over UV wavelengths. We describe progress in the development of a coated CCD detector with theoretical quantum efficiencies (QEs) of greater than 60% at wavelengths from 120 to 300nm. This high efficiency may be reached by coating a backside-illuminated, thinned, delta-doped CCD with a series of thin film AR coatings. The materials tested include MgF2 (optimized for highest performance from 120--150nm), SiO2 (150--180nm), Al2O3 (180--240nm), MgO (200--250nm), and HfO2 (240--300nm). A variety of deposition techniques were tested and a selection of coatings that minimized reflectance on a Si test wafer were applied to functional devices. We also discuss future uses and improvements, including graded and multilayer coatings.

  3. Ultraviolet antireflection coatings for use in silicon detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the development of coatings for a charged-coupled device (CCD) detector optimized for use in a fixed dispersion UV spectrograph. Because of the rapidly changing index of refraction of Si, single layer broadband antireflection (AR) coatings are not suitable to increase quantum efficiency at all wavelengths of interest. Instead, we describe a creative solution that provides excellent performance over UV wavelengths. We describe progress in the development of a coated CCD detector with theoretical quantum efficiencies (QEs) of greater than 60% at wavelengths from 120 to 300 nm. This high efficiency may be reached by coating a backside-illuminated, thinned, delta-doped CCD with a series of thin film AR coatings. The materials tested include MgF2 (optimized for highest performance from 120-150 nm), SiO2 (150-180 nm), Al2O3 (180-240 nm), MgO (200-250 nm), and HfO2 (240-300 nm). A variety of deposition techniques were tested and a selection of coatings that minimized reflectance on a Si test wafer were applied to functional devices. We also discuss future uses and improvements, including graded and multilayer coatings.

  4. Omnidirectional wavelength selective emitters/absorbers based on dielectric-filled anti-reflection coated two-dimensional metallic photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeng, Yi Xiang; Chou, Jeffrey B.; Rinnerbauer, Veronika; Shen, Yichen; Kim, Sang-Gook; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin; Čelanović, Ivan

    2014-08-01

    We demonstrate designs of dielectric-filled anti-reflection coated (ARC) two-dimensional (2D) metallic photonic crystals (MPhCs) capable of omnidirectional, polarization insensitive, wavelength selective emission/absorption. Up to 26% improvement in hemispherically averaged emittance/absorptance below the cutoff wavelength is observed for optimized hafnium oxide filled 2D tantalum (Ta) PhCs over the unfilled 2D Ta PhCs. The optimized designs possess high hemispherically averaged emittance/absorptance of 0.86 at wavelengths below the cutoff wavelength and low hemispherically averaged emittance/absorptance of 0.12 at wavelengths above the cutoff wavelength, which is extremely promising for applications such as thermophotovoltaic energy conversion, solar absorption, and infrared spectroscopy.

  5. Infrared 8- to 15-μm high-efficiency antireflection coating on germanium substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ke-fei; Su, Zhaoxu; Liu, JiaHuan; Yang, Chongming

    1998-08-01

    To increase the strength of infrared high efficiency antireflection coatings is a problem difficult to be resolved. A mixture of BaF2 and CeF2 has been used as a low refractive index material to design and prepare infrared 8 - 11.5 (mu) high efficiency anti-reflection coating to acquire good strength of film layer. The processing conditions of the films deposition have also been introduced. The spectral transmittance measured, physical and chemical properties of the infrared anti-reflection coating are given.

  6. Design Multilayer Antireflection Coatings for Terrestrial Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the influence of methods to design antireflection coatings (ARCs on reflectivity of broadband solar cells, we provide detailed analyses about the ARC coupled with a window layer and the refractive index dispersion effect of each layer. By multidimensional matrix data simulation, two methods were employed to measure the composite reflection of a SiO2/ZnS double-layer ARC within the spectral ranges of 300–870 nm (dual junction and 300–1850 nm (triple junction under AM1.5 solar radiation. A comparison study, between the results obtained from the commonly used weighted average reflectance method (WAR and that from the introduced effective average reflectance method (EAR, shows that the optimization of ARC by EAR method is convenient and feasible.

  7. Adhesion of Antireflective Coatings in Multijunction Photovoltaics: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, Ryan; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.; Miller, David C.

    2016-06-16

    The development of a new composite dual cantilever beam (cDCB) thin-film adhesion testing method is reported, which allows the measurement of adhesion on the fragile thin substrates used in multijunction photovoltaics. We address the adhesion of several antireflective coating systems on multijunction cells. By varying interface chemistry and morphology, we demonstrate the ensuing effects on adhesion and help to develop an understanding of how high adhesion can be achieved, as adhesion values ranging from 0.5 J/m2 to 10 J/m2 were measured. Damp Heat (85 degrees C/85% RH) was used to invoke degradation of interfacial adhesion. We show that even with germanium substrates that fracture easily, quantitative measurements of adhesion can still be made at high test yield. The cDCB test is discussed as an important new methodology, which can be broadly applied to any system that makes use of thin, brittle, or otherwise fragile substrates.

  8. Development of Advanced Anti-Reflection Coatings for High Performance Solar Energy Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MicroLink and its subcontractor Magnolia Solar will develop and demonstrate advanced anti-reflection coating (ARC) designs that will provide a better broadband and...

  9. Development of Advanced Anti-Reflection Coatings for High Performance Solar Energy Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MicroLink Devices will increase the efficiency of multi-junction solar cells by designing and demonstrating advanced anti-reflection coatings (ARCs) that will...

  10. Nano-Enabled Low-Cost High-Performance UV Anti-Reflection Coatings Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this program, Agiltron and the groups of Professors Rubner and Cohen at MIT propose a novel nano-porous coating for next generation NASA UV anti-reflection (AR)...

  11. New nanoporous anti-reflective coating by water treatment of ALD deposited Al2O3

    OpenAIRE

    Isakov, Kirill

    2016-01-01

    In this work a process for fabricating nanoporous alumina anti-reflective coatings was developed. Anti-reflective coatings were designed for air-glass interface and soda-lime glass was used in the experiments. Alumina was deposited on glass by atomic layer deposition, and then transformed into nanoporous state by immersion in heated de-ionized water. The conditions for nanoporous alumina creation by de-ionized water treatment were investigated and the resulted structure was analysed with ...

  12. Broad Band Antireflection Coatings for Silicon and Germanium Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuidenhout, Dirk Francois

    Infrared antireflection coatings for silicon and germanium substrates and some of the associated problems are addressed in this thesis. One of the first problems identified and investigated was that of the adhesion of ZnS films to germanium substrates. The cleaning of the Ge discs was evaluated by means of Auger spectroscopy. The main contaminant species found were carbon, oxygen and in the case of germanium substrates sulphur. No sulphur was found on silicon substrates. A wash in a series of organic solutions followed by a bake inside the vacuum chamber lead to much improved though still not acceptable adhesion of ZnS films to germanium substrates. The influence of a contact layer between the substrate and ZnS was investigated. Firstly, metal contact layers (Ni, Cr, Cu) were tried to improve the adhesion of the ZnS films. These samples (germanium-metal-zinc sulphide) were annealed in air in order to transfer the germanium -metal film to a germanide region and thus high optical transmission at long wave-lengths. Slight absorption still results even after the annealing of these samples. A dielectric material, Y_2O_3 , was therefore tested replacing the metal films. The system Ge-Y_2O_3 -ZnS in conjunction with an organic wash and vacuum bake lead to excellent adhesion of the ZnS layers to the germanium substrates. The next problem area addressed was that of a low refractive index material replacement for ThF _4. Four materials were investigated, i.e. ZnS, PbF_2, Y_2O _3 and YF_3. The refractive indices found for these compounds in thin film form at a wavelength of 10 μm is 2,18 for ZnS, 1,7 for PbF_2, 1,42 for Y_2O_3 and 1,3 for YF_3. From these results YF_3 was chosen as low refractive index material in the coating designs. Multi-layer coatings incorporating ZnS, Ge and YF_3 films were designed and evaporated. Measured reflectance values below 0,2% were obtained from 9 μm to 11 mum. These systems were stable and robust. Finally, a silicon ball lens was

  13. Comparative Study Between Various Antireflective Coatings For Solar Cells Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incessant progress in thin layers technology, especially inhomogeneous materials with variable index allows the fabrication of antireflective coating (ARC) less sensitive to the thickness and the incidence angle. Accordingly, our work is devoted to study the optical behaviour of graded refractive index ARC made from: silicon oxynitrides (SiOxNy), mixture of silicon and titanium oxides (SiO2-TiO2) and porous silicon (P-Si), for solar applications. The refractive index of the studied ARC varies versus thickness according to Fermi profile variation law. The physical parameters of such coating are its: thickness, form factor, profile inflection point and silica or air (porosity) volume fraction variation at the two interfaces (air/ARC and ARC/substrate). The optimisation of the studied films performance shows that best results are obtained with P-Si ARC, which reduce weighted reflectance till to 1.86% (between 300-1100 nm) leading to an improvement in photogenerated current of 51%.

  14. Thin film type 248-nm bottom antireflective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Tomoyuki; Nakayama, Keisuke; Mizusawa, Kenichi; Nakajima, Yasuyuki; Yoon, Sangwoong; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Young-Ho; Chung, Hoesik; Chon, Sang Mun

    2003-06-01

    A frequent problem encountered by photoresists during the manufacturing of semiconductor device is that activating radiation is reflected back into the photoresist by the substrate. So, it is necessary that the light reflection is reduced from the substrate. One approach to reduce the light reflection is the use of bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) applied to the substrate beneath the photoresist layer. The BARC technology has been utilized for a few years to minimize the reflectivity. As the chip size is reduced to sub 0.13-micron, the photoresist thickness has to decrease with the aspect ratio being less than 3.0. Therefore, new Organic BARC is strongly required which has the minimum reflectivity with thinner BARC thickness and higher etch selectivity towards resist. SAMSUNG Electronics has developed the advanced Organic BARC with Nissan Chemical Industries, Ltd. and Brewer Science, Inc. for achieving the above purpose. As a result, the suitable high performance SNAC2002 series KrF Organic BARCs were developed. Using CF4 gas as etchant, the plasma etch rate of SNAC2002 series is about 1.4 times higher than that of conventional KrF resists and 1.25 times higher than the existing product. The SNAC2002 series can minimize the substrate reflectivity at below 40nm BARC thickness, shows excellent litho performance and coating properties.

  15. Broadband antireflective silicon nanostructures produced by spin-coated Ag nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon Beom; Yeo, Chan Il; Lee, Yong Hwan; Ravindran, Sooraj; Lee, Yong Tak

    2014-01-01

    We report the fabrication of broadband antireflective silicon (Si) nanostructures fabricated using spin-coated silver (Ag) nanoparticles as an etch mask followed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching process. This fabrication technique is a simple, fast, cost-effective, and high-throughput method, making it highly suitable for mass production. Prior to the fabrication of Si nanostructures, theoretical investigations were carried out using a rigorous coupled-wave analysis method in order to determine the effects of variations in the geometrical features of Si nanostructures to obtain antireflection over a broad wavelength range. The Ag ink ratio and ICP etching conditions, which can affect the distribution, distance between the adjacent nanostructures, and height of the resulting Si nanostructures, were carefully adjusted to determine the optimal experimental conditions for obtaining desirable Si nanostructures for practical applications. The Si nanostructures fabricated using the optimal experimental conditions showed a very low average reflectance of 8.3%, which is much lower than that of bulk Si (36.8%), as well as a very low reflectance for a wide range of incident angles and different polarizations over a broad wavelength range of 300 to 1,100 nm. These results indicate that the fabrication technique is highly beneficial to produce antireflective structures for Si-based device applications requiring low light reflection. PMID:24484636

  16. Millimeter-Wave Broadband Anti-Reflection Coatings Using Laser Ablation of Sub-Wavelength Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumura, Tomotake; Wen, Qi; Hanany, Shaul; Koch, Jürgen; Suttman, Oliver; Schütz, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first use of laser ablation to make sub-millimeter, broad-band, anti-reflection coatings (ARC) based on sub-wavelength structures (SWS) on alumina and sapphire. We used a 515 nm laser to produce pyramid-shaped structures with pitch of about 320 \\mu m and total height of near 800 \\mu m. Transmission measurements between 70 and 140 GHz are in agreement with simulations using electromagnetic propagation software. The simulations indicate that SWS ARC with the fabricated shape should have a fractional bandwidth response of $\\Delta \

  17. Millimeter-Wave Broadband Anti-Reflection Coatings Using Laser Ablation of Sub-Wavelength Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumura, Tomotake; Young, Karl; Wen, Qi; Hanany, Shaul; Ishino, Hirokazu; Inoue, Yuki; Hazumi, Masashi; Koch, Jürgen; Suttman, Oliver; Schütz, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first use of laser ablation to make sub-millimeter, broad-band, anti-reflection coatings (ARC) based on sub-wavelength structures (SWS) on alumina and sapphire. We used a 515 nm laser to produce pyramid-shaped structures with pitch of about 320 $\\mu$m and total height of near 800 $\\mu$m. Transmission measurements between 70 and 140 GHz are in agreement with simulations using electromagnetic propagation software. The simulations indicate that SWS ARC with the fabricated shape ...

  18. Millimeter-wave broadband antireflection coatings using laser ablation of subwavelength structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Tomotake; Young, Karl; Wen, Qi; Hanany, Shaul; Ishino, Hirokazu; Inoue, Yuki; Hazumi, Masashi; Koch, Jürgen; Suttman, Oliver; Schütz, Viktor

    2016-05-01

    We report on the first use of laser ablation to make sub-millimeter, broad-band, anti-reflection coatings (ARC) based on sub-wavelength structures (SWS) on alumina and sapphire. We used a 515 nm laser to produce pyramid-shaped structures with pitch of about 320 $\\mu$m and total height of near 800 $\\mu$m. Transmission measurements between 70 and 140 GHz are in agreement with simulations using electromagnetic propagation software. The simulations indicate that SWS ARC with the fabricated shape should have a fractional bandwidth response of $\\Delta \

  19. Antireflectance coating on shielding window glasses using glacial acetic acid at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High density lead glasses having thickness of several centimeters and large dimensions are used as shielding windows in hot cells. To improve visibility, the reflection of light from its optically polished surfaces needs to be minimized to improve transmission as absorption of light in the thick glasses can not be avoided. Antireflectance coating of a material having low refractive index is required for this purpose. Selective leaching of lead at ambient temperature in glacial acetic acid develops a silica rich leached layer on glass surface. Since silica has low refractive index, the leached layer serves as antireflectance coating. Two optically polished discs of shielding window glasses were leached in glacial acetic acid at ambient temperature for 2, 5 and 10 days and their reflectance and transmittance spectra were taken to find effect of leaching. For transparent glass transmittance could be improved from 78.76% to 85.31% after 10 days leaching. Reflectance from the glass could be decreased from 12.48 to 11.67%. For coloured glass transmittance improved from 87.77% to 88.24% after 5 days leaching while reflectance decreased from 12.28% to 5.6% during same period. Based on data generated, 10 days leaching time is recommended for developing anti reflectance coating on transparent shielding window glass and 5 days for coloured shielding window glass. The procedure can be used for shielding windows of any dimensions by fabrication a PVC tank of slightly high dimensions and filling with acetic acid (author)

  20. Broadband Plasma-Sprayed Anti-reflection Coating for Millimeter-Wave Astrophysics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, O.; Lee, A.; Raum, C.; Suzuki, A.

    2016-08-01

    We have developed a plasma-sprayed anti-reflection (AR) coating technology for millimeter-wave astrophysics experiments with cryogenic optics which achieves minimal dissipative loss and broad bandwidth and is easily and accurately applied. Plasma spraying is a coating process through which melted or heated materials are sprayed onto a substrate. The dielectric constants of the plasma-sprayed coatings were tuned between 2.7 and 7.9 by mixing hollow ceramic microspheres with alumina powder as the base material and varying the plasma energy of the spray. By spraying low loss ceramic materials with a tunable dielectric constant, we can apply multiple layers of AR coating for broadband millimeter-wave detection. At 300 K, we achieved a fractional bandwidth of 106 over 90% transmission using a three-layer AR coating. Applying ceramic coatings on ceramic lenses offers an additional benefit of preventing cryogenic delamination of the coatings. We report on methodology of coating application and measurement of uniformity, repeatability, transmission property, and cryogenic adhesion performance.

  1. Broadband Plasma-Sprayed Anti-reflection Coating for Millimeter-Wave Astrophysics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, O.; Lee, A.; Raum, C.; Suzuki, A.

    2016-02-01

    We have developed a plasma-sprayed anti-reflection (AR) coating technology for millimeter-wave astrophysics experiments with cryogenic optics which achieves minimal dissipative loss and broad bandwidth and is easily and accurately applied. Plasma spraying is a coating process through which melted or heated materials are sprayed onto a substrate. The dielectric constants of the plasma-sprayed coatings were tuned between 2.7 and 7.9 by mixing hollow ceramic microspheres with alumina powder as the base material and varying the plasma energy of the spray. By spraying low loss ceramic materials with a tunable dielectric constant, we can apply multiple layers of AR coating for broadband millimeter-wave detection. At 300 K, we achieved a fractional bandwidth of 106 over 90% transmission using a three-layer AR coating. Applying ceramic coatings on ceramic lenses offers an additional benefit of preventing cryogenic delamination of the coatings. We report on methodology of coating application and measurement of uniformity, repeatability, transmission property, and cryogenic adhesion performance.

  2. Optimization of antireflection coating design for multijunction solar cells and concentrator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Christopher E.; Desfonds, Eric; Masson, Denis; Fafard, Simon; Carlson, Andrew; Cook, John; Hall, Trevor J.; Hinzer, Karin

    2008-06-01

    Photovoltaic solar cells are a route towards local, environmentally benign, sustainable and affordable energy solutions. Antireflection coatings are necessary to input a high percentage of available light for photovoltaic conversion, and therefore have been widely exploited for silicon solar cells. Multi-junction III-V semiconductor solar cells have achieved the highest efficiencies of any photovoltaic technology, yielding up to 40% in the laboratory and 37% in commercial devices under varying levels of concentrated light. These devices benefit from a wide absorption spectrum (300- 1800 nm), but this also introduces significant challenges for antireflection coating design. Each sub-cell junction is electrically connected in series, limiting the overall device photocurrent by the lowest current-producing junction. Therefore, antireflection coating optimization must maximize the current from the limiting sub-cells at the expense of the others. Solar concentration, necessary for economical terrestrial deployment of multi-junction solar cells, introduces an angular-dependent irradiance spectrum. Antireflection coatings are optimized for both direct normal incidence in air and angular incidence in an Opel Mk-I concentrator, resulting in as little as 1-2% loss in photocurrent as compared to an ideal zero-reflectance solar cell, showing a similar performance to antireflection coatings on silicon solar cells. A transparent conductive oxide layer has also been considered to replace the metallic-grid front electrode and for inclusion as part of a multi-layer antireflection coating. Optimization of the solar cell, antireflection coating, and concentrator system should be considered simultaneously to enable overall optimal device performance.

  3. Quantitative Adhesion Characterization of Antireflective Coatings in Multijunction Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, Ryan; Rewari, Raunaq; Novoa, Fernando D.; Hebert, Peter; Ermer, James; Miller, David C.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the development of a new composite dual cantilever beam (cDCB) thin-film adhesion testing method, which enables the quantitative measurement of adhesion on the thin and fragile substrates used in multijunction photovoltaics. In particular, we address the adhesion of several 2- and 3-layer antireflective coating systems on multijunction cells. By varying interface chemistry and morphology through processing, we demonstrate the marked effects on adhesion and help to develop an understanding of how high adhesion can be achieved, as adhesion values ranging from 0.5 J/m2 to 10 J/m2 were measured. Damp heat (85 degrees C/85% RH) was used to invoke degradation of interfacial adhesion. We demonstrate that even with germanium substrates that fracture relatively easily, quantitative measurements of adhesion can be made at high test yield. The cDCB test is discussed as an important new methodology, which can be broadly applied to any system that makes use of thin, brittle, or otherwise fragile substrates.

  4. Characterization of Silicon Moth-Eye Antireflection Coatings for Astronomical Applications in the Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeram, Sarik; Ge, Jian; Jiang, Peng; Phillips, Blayne

    2016-01-01

    Silicon moth-eye antireflective structures have emerged to be an excellent approachfor reducing the amount of light that is lost upon incidence on a given surface of optics made of silicon. This property has been exploited for a wide variety of products ranging from eyeglasses and flat-panel displays to solar panels. These materials typically come in the form of coatings that are applied to an optical substrate such as glass. Moth-eye coatings, made of a periodic array of subwavelength pillars on silicon substrates or other substrates, can produce the desired antireflection (AR) performance for a broad wavelength range and over a wide range of incident angles. In the field of astronomy, every photon striking a detector is significant - and thus, losses from reflectivity at the various optical interfaces before a detector can have significant implications to the science at hand. Moth-eye AR coatings on these optical interfaces may minimize their reflection losses while maximizing light throughput for a multitude of different astronomical instruments. In addition, moth-eye AR coatings, which are patterned directly on silicon surfaces, can significantly enhance the coating durability. At the University of Florida, we tested two moth-eye filters designed for use in the near-infrared regime at 1-8 microns by examining their optical properties, such as transmission, the scattered light, and wavefront quality, and testing the coatings at cryogenic temperatures to characterize their viability for use in both ground- and space-based infrared instruments. This presentation will report our lab evaluation results.

  5. Layer-by-Layer-Assembled High-Performance Broadband Antireflection Coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Shimomura, Hiroomi

    2010-03-24

    Nanoparticles are indispensable ingredients of solution-processed optical, dielectric, and catalytic thin films. Although solution-based methods are promising low-cost alternatives to vacuum methods, they can have significant limitations. Coating uniformity, thickness control, roughness control, mechanical durability, and incorporation of a diverse set of functional organic molecules into nanoparticle thin films are major challenges. We have used the electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly technique to make uniform, conformal multistack nanoparticle thin films for optical applications with precise thickness control over each stack. Two particularly sought-after optical applications are broadband antireflection and structural color. The effects of interstack and surface roughness on optical properties of these constructs (e.g., haze and spectral response) have been studied quantitatively using a combination of Fourier-transform methods and atomic force microscopy measurements. Deconvoluting root-mean-square roughness into its large-, intermediate-, and small-scale components enables enhanced optical simulations. A 4-stack broadband antireflection coating (<0.5% average reflectance in the visible range, and 0.2% haze) composed of alternating high-index (n ≈ 1.96) and low-index (n ≈ 1.28) stacks has been made on glass substrate. Films calcinated at 550 °C endure a one-hour-long cloth cleaning test under 100 kPa normal stress. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. Breath Figure-Assisted Fabrication of Nanostructured Coating on Silicon Surface and Evaluation of Its Antireflection Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Galeotti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report our recent results on the fabrication of nanostructured polymer layers aimed at developing efficient antireflection coating on silicon. The proposed manufacturing approach is based on self-assembly and relies on breath figure formation. By simple and straightforward operations, we are able to produce different nanostructured coatings: densely packed nanodomes, randomly distributed nanopores, and multilayered close-packed nanopores. By optical reflectivity measurements on coated silicon wafers, we show that the latter type of nanostructure is able to reduce the reflectivity of standard silicon surface (≈40% at 450 nm to about 10%.

  7. Wideband antireflection coatings on germanium and filters for second optical window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciosek, Jerzy; Firak, Jozef; Stanislawek, Urszula; Kwasny, Miroslaw; Kopczynski, Krzysztof

    2003-10-01

    The investigation results of wideband (8-12 μm) antireflection coatings on germanium substrate and spectral characteristics of interference wideband filter for spectral range of 8-12 μm are presented. For design of filters and antireflection coatings the following layer materials were used: Ge, ZnS and Mira, and substrate materials such as: Ge for antireflection coatings and ZnSe for interference filters. Wideband filter for the range of 8-12 μm requires application of additional two filters cutting off radiation from the range of 1-7 μm. The cutting off filters are interference filters for which construction germanium, Mira, and ZnS were used. The constructions of basic and cutting off filters were designed considering technical possibilities of vacuum device BAK 550 of the Balzers firm.

  8. Calculation of reflectance of porous silicon double-layer antireflection coating for silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martirosyan, Kh.S.; Hovhannisyan, A.S.; Aroutiounian, V.M. [Department of Physics of Semiconductors and Microelectronics, Yerevan State University, 375025 Yerevan (Armenia)

    2007-07-01

    Calculations of the reflectance spectrum of the double-layer porous silicon antireflection coating for silicon solar cells were carried out using optical matrix approach method. Comparison of obtained reflectance spectrum of double-layer porous silicon with the spectra obtained experimentally without optimization of parameters of layers and for the SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} antireflection coating was shown lower reflectance value for this new construction proposed by us. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Design of multi-layer anti-reflection coating for terrestrial solar panel glass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B GEETHA PRIYADARSHINI; A K SHARMA

    2016-06-01

    To date, there is no ideal anti-reflection (AR) coating available on solar glass which can effectively transmit the incident light within the visible wavelength range. However, there is a need to develop multifunctional coatingwith superior anti-reflection properties and self-cleaning ability meant to be used for solar glass panels. In spite of self-cleaning ability of materials like TiO2 and ZnO, these coatings on glass substrate have tendency to reduce lighttransmission due to their high refractive indices than glass. Thus, to infuse the anti-reflective property, a low refractive index, SiO$_2$ layer needs to be used in conjunction with TiO$_2$ and ZnO layers. In such case, the optimization ofindividual layer thickness is crucial to achieve maximum transmittance of the visible light. In the present study, we propose an omni-directional anti-reflection coating design for the visible spectral wavelength range of 400–700 nm,where the maximum intensity of light is converted into electrical energy. Herein, we employ the quarter wavelength criteria using SiO$_2$, TiO$_2$ and ZnO to design the coating composed of single, double and triple layers. The thicknessof individual layers was optimized for maximum light transmittance using essential Mcleod simulation software to produce destructive interference between reflected waves and constructive interference between transmitted waves.

  10. An in-situ monitoring technique for optimizing antireflection coatings using a monolithic integrated photodetector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saini, Vikram; Yvind, Kresten; Larsson, David

    2006-01-01

    A very low reflectivity of the order of 10-4 is demonstrated for dual-layer anti-reflection coatings on normal facet semiconductor lasers, by integrated in situ monitoring. The method has been tested on three and eight quantum-well InGaAsP ridge lasers that consist of a gain section and an...

  11. Highly transparent triboelectric nanogenerator for harvesting water-related energy reinforced by antireflection coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qijie; Yan, Xiaoqin; Gu, Yousong; Zhang, Kui; Liang, Mengyuan; Lu, Shengnan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Yue

    2015-03-01

    Water-related energy is an inexhaustible and renewable energy resource in our environment, which has huge amount of energy and is not largely dictated by daytime and sunlight. The transparent characteristic plays a key role in practical applications for some devices designed for harvesting water-related energy. In this paper, a highly transparent triboelectric nanogenerator (T-TENG) was designed to harvest the electrostatic energy from flowing water. The instantaneous output power density of the T-TENG is 11.56 mW/m2. Moreover, with the PTFE film acting as an antireflection coating, the maximum transmittance of the fabricated T-TENG is 87.4%, which is larger than that of individual glass substrate. The T-TENG can be integrated with silicon-based solar cell, building glass and car glass, which demonstrates its potential applications for harvesting waste water energy in our living environment and on smart home system and smart car system.

  12. Characterization and simulation on antireflective coating of amorphous silicon oxide thin films with gradient refractive index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Jin, Qi; Qu, Xingling; Jin, Jing; Jiang, Chaochao; Yang, Weiguang; Wang, Linjun; Shi, Weimin

    2016-08-01

    The optical reflective properties of silicon oxide (SixOy) thin films with gradient refractive index are studied both theoretically and experimentally. The thin films are widely used in photovoltaic as antireflective coatings (ARCs). An effective finite difference time domain (FDTD) model is built to find the optimized reflection spectra corresponding to structure of SixOy ARCs with gradient refractive index. Based on the simulation analysis, it shows the variation of reflection spectra with gradient refractive index distribution. The gradient refractive index of SixOy ARCs can be obtained in adjustment of SiH4 to N2O ratio by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. The optimized reflection spectra measured by UV-visible spectroscopy confirms to agree well with that simulated by FDTD method.

  13. Millimeter-wave broadband antireflection coatings using laser ablation of subwavelength structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Tomotake; Young, Karl; Wen, Qi; Hanany, Shaul; Ishino, Hirokazu; Inoue, Yuki; Hazumi, Masashi; Koch, Jürgen; Suttman, Oliver; Schütz, Viktor

    2016-05-01

    We report on the first use of laser ablation to make submillimeter, broadband, antireflection coatings (ARCs) based on subwavelength structures (SWSs) on alumina and sapphire. We used a 515 nm laser to produce pyramid-shaped structures with a pitch of about 320 μm and a total height of near 800 μm. Transmission measurements between 70 and 140 GHz are in agreement with simulations using electromagnetic propagation software. The simulations indicate that SWS-ARCs with the fabricated shape should have a fractional bandwidth response of Δν/νcenter=0.55 centered on 235 GHz for which reflections are below 3%. Extension of the bandwidth to both lower and higher frequencies, between a few tens of gigahertz and a few terahertz, should be straightforward with appropriate adjustment of laser ablation parameters. PMID:27140362

  14. An experimental study of antireflective coatings in Ge light detectors for scintillating bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, M.; Beeman, J. W.; Giuliani, A.; Dumoulin, L.; Olivieri, E.; Pessina, G.; Plantevin, O.; Rusconi, C.; Tenconi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Luminescent bolometers are double-readout devices able to measure simultaneously the phonon and the light yields after a particle interaction in the detector. This operation allows in some cases to tag the type of the interacting quantum, crucial issue for background control in rare event experiments such as the search for neutrinoless double beta decay and for interactions of particle dark matter candidates. The light detectors used in the LUCIFER and LUMINEU searches (projects aiming at the study of the double beta interesting candidates 82Se and 100Mo using ZnSe and ZnMoO4 scintillating bolometers) consist of hyper-pure Ge thin slabs equipped with NTD thermistors. A substantial sensitivity improvement of the Ge light detectors can be obtained applying a proper anti-reflective coatings on the Ge side exposed to the luminescent bolometer. The present paper deals with the investigation of this aspect, proving and quantifying the positive effect of a SiO2 and a SiO coating and setting the experimental bases for future tests of other coating materials. The results confirm that an appropriate coating procedure helps in improving the sensitivity of bolometric light detectors by an important factor (in the range 20% - 35%) and needs to be included in the recipe for the development of an optimized radio-pure scintillating bolometer.

  15. An experimental study of antireflective coatings in Ge light detectors for scintillating bolometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancuso M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent bolometers are double-readout devices able to measure simultaneously the phonon and the light yields after a particle interaction in the detector. This operation allows in some cases to tag the type of the interacting quantum, crucial issue for background control in rare event experiments such as the search for neutrinoless double beta decay and for interactions of particle dark matter candidates. The light detectors used in the LUCIFER and LUMINEU searches (projects aiming at the study of the double beta interesting candidates 82Se and 100Mo using ZnSe and ZnMoO4 scintillating bolometers consist of hyper-pure Ge thin slabs equipped with NTD thermistors. A substantial sensitivity improvement of the Ge light detectors can be obtained applying a proper anti-reflective coatings on the Ge side exposed to the luminescent bolometer. The present paper deals with the investigation of this aspect, proving and quantifying the positive effect of a SiO2 and a SiO coating and setting the experimental bases for future tests of other coating materials. The results confirm that an appropriate coating procedure helps in improving the sensitivity of bolometric light detectors by an important factor (in the range 20% – 35% and needs to be included in the recipe for the development of an optimized radio-pure scintillating bolometer.

  16. Scale-up of Nano-Engineered Anti-Reflection Coating Process for Large Plastic Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In a recently completed NASA SBIR program, Agiltron and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology developed a novel nanoporous UV anti-reflection coating technology...

  17. Technological peculiarities of deposition anti-reflective layers in low-e coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurjev, Y.; Sidelev, D.

    2013-12-01

    This article reports on the investigation of technological features magnetron sputtering for deposition anti-reflection layers in low-emission (low-e) coatings. The three-layer TiO2-Cu-TiO2 films were deposited by dual and planar magnetron sputtering systems (MS) on glass substrate. Studies of the current-voltage characteristics (CVC) and the hysteresis effect show that deposition of anti-reflection layers is possible in the transition mode with higher rates. For planar magnetron, the stability of electrical discharge parameters is achieved at 60 % O2 content in mixture. The calculations optical band gap Eg show that anti-reflective films have a rutile or anatase phases that depending on the content O2 in gas mixture. The optimum deposition conditions of TiO2 films were determined for all modifications of magnetrons. Anti-reflective layers, which are deposited by balanced dual MS, improve the transparency of low-e coatings (integral TVIS increase in 15%).

  18. Technological peculiarities of deposition anti-reflective layers in low-e coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reports on the investigation of technological features magnetron sputtering for deposition anti-reflection layers in low-emission (low-e) coatings. The three-layer TiO2-Cu-TiO2 films were deposited by dual and planar magnetron sputtering systems (MS) on glass substrate. Studies of the current-voltage characteristics (CVC) and the hysteresis effect show that deposition of anti-reflection layers is possible in the transition mode with higher rates. For planar magnetron, the stability of electrical discharge parameters is achieved at 60 % O2 content in mixture. The calculations optical band gap Eg show that anti-reflective films have a rutile or anatase phases that depending on the content O2 in gas mixture. The optimum deposition conditions of TiO2 films were determined for all modifications of magnetrons. Anti-reflective layers, which are deposited by balanced dual MS, improve the transparency of low-e coatings (integral TVIS increase in 15%)

  19. Low reflectance of diamond-like carbon/porous silicon double layer antireflection coating for silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aroutiounian, V M [Department of Semiconductor Physics and Microelectronics, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Street, Yerevan 375025 (Armenia); Martirosyan, Kh [Department of Semiconductor Physics and Microelectronics, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Street, Yerevan 375025 (Armenia); Soukiassian, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Laboratoire SIMA associe a l' Universite Paris-Sud/Orsay, DSM-DRECAM-SPCSI, Saclay, Batiment 462, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2004-10-07

    Reflectance calculations for diamond-like carbon (DLC) antireflection thin-film coatings on porous silicon (PS) have been carried out using the optical matrix approach method. Comparison with the reflectance spectrum obtained for other antireflection coatings shows a much lower reflectance with a larger energy range including the ultraviolet, visible and infrared regions of the solar spectrum for the DLC/PS double layer. This finding is relevant in solar cell applications. (rapid communication)

  20. Fabrication of superhydrophilic and antireflective silica coatings on poly(methyl methacrylate) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Zhi [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); He, Junhui, E-mail: jhhe@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) (China); Xu, Ligang [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Self-cleaning and antireflection properties were successfully achieved by assembling (PDDA/S-20){sub n} coatings on PMMA substrates followed by oxygen plasma treatment. Highlights: ► Porous silica coatings were created by layer-by-layer assembly on PMMA substrates. ► Silica coatings were treated by oxygen plasma. ► Porous silica coatings were highly antireflective and superhydrophilic on PMMA substrates. -- Abstract: Silica nanoparticles of ca. 20 nm in size were synthesized, from which hierarchically porous silica coatings were fabricated on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrates via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly followed by oxygen plasma treatment. These porous silica coatings were highly transparent and superhydrophilic. The maximum transmittance reached as high as 99%, whereas that of the PMMA substrate is only 92%. After oxygen plasma treatment, the time for a water droplet to spread to a contact angle of lower than 5° decreased to as short as 0.5 s. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the morphology and structure of nanoparticles and coating surfaces. Transmission and reflection spectra were recorded on UV–vis spectrophotometer. Surface wettability was studied by a contact angle/interface system. The influence of mesopores on the transmittance and wetting properties of coatings was discussed on the basis of experimental observations.

  1. Fabrication of superhydrophilic and antireflective silica coatings on poly(methyl methacrylate) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Self-cleaning and antireflection properties were successfully achieved by assembling (PDDA/S-20)n coatings on PMMA substrates followed by oxygen plasma treatment. Highlights: ► Porous silica coatings were created by layer-by-layer assembly on PMMA substrates. ► Silica coatings were treated by oxygen plasma. ► Porous silica coatings were highly antireflective and superhydrophilic on PMMA substrates. -- Abstract: Silica nanoparticles of ca. 20 nm in size were synthesized, from which hierarchically porous silica coatings were fabricated on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrates via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly followed by oxygen plasma treatment. These porous silica coatings were highly transparent and superhydrophilic. The maximum transmittance reached as high as 99%, whereas that of the PMMA substrate is only 92%. After oxygen plasma treatment, the time for a water droplet to spread to a contact angle of lower than 5° decreased to as short as 0.5 s. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the morphology and structure of nanoparticles and coating surfaces. Transmission and reflection spectra were recorded on UV–vis spectrophotometer. Surface wettability was studied by a contact angle/interface system. The influence of mesopores on the transmittance and wetting properties of coatings was discussed on the basis of experimental observations.

  2. Interference multilayer antireflection coatings for two wavelengths in the near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencheva, Tamara G.; Nenkov, Milen; Michev, Javor

    2001-04-01

    The investigation deals with analysis of antireflection coatings of two transparent materials with high (H) and low (L) refractive index for two wavelengths 1.30 micrometer and 1.55 micrometer in the near IR on glass/silica substrates. The results are obtained by numerical optimization approach which algorithms are realized using programming language DELPHI. The initial structures of LHL three-layer and LHLH four-layer coating (optimized for both wavelengths) are modifications of double-layer antireflection coating for one wavelength 1.4 micrometer. It is shown that the highest transmittance near 1.30 and 1.55 micrometer (practically equal to 100%) shows LHLH four-layer coating structure. The total physical and optical thickness of optimized LHLH four-layer coating is smaller than corresponding value for optimized LHL three-layer coating. Four-layer LHLH coating is more stable with respect to small n and d variations and corresponding transmittance changes are less than in case of LHL three-layer coating.

  3. Broadband antireflection and field emission properties of TiN-coated Si-nanopillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuan-Ming; Ravipati, Srikanth; Kao, Pin-Hsu; Shieh, Jiann; Ko, Fu-Hsiang; Juang, Jenh-Yih

    2014-08-21

    Broadband antireflection and field emission characteristics of silicon nanopillars (Si-NPs) fabricated by self-masking dry etching in hydrogen-containing plasma were systematically investigated. In particular, the effects of ultrathin (5-20 nm) titanium nitride (TiN) films deposited on Si-NPs by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on the optoelectronic properties were explored. The results showed that by coating the Si-NPs with a thin layer of TiN the antireflection capability of pristine Si-NPs can be significantly improved, especially in the wavelength range of 1000-1500 nm. The enhanced field emission characteristics of these TiN/Si-NP heterostructures suggest that, in addition to the reflectance suppression in the long wavelength range arising from the strong wavelength-dependent refractive index of TiN, the TiN-coating may have also significantly modified the effective work function at the TiN/Si interface as well. PMID:25029029

  4. Broadband terahertz absorption enabled by coating an ultrathin antireflection film on doped semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongxing; Shi, Fenghua; Chen, Yihang

    2016-09-01

    We show that perfect absorption of terahertz wave can be achieved in a compact system where an ultrathin film of lossless dielectric is coated on a doped semiconductor substrate. Due to the nontrivial reflection phase shift at the interface between the two media, strong resonant behavior and the concomitant antireflection occur at wavelengths that are much larger than the thickness of the dielectric film, resulting in strong absorption of the incident wave in a wide frequency range. Using this mechanism, we design a broadband terahertz absorber by coating a Ge film on a highly doped GaAs substrate. We show that such a system not only has a perfect absorption peak, but also exhibits high absorptance (over 0.9) within a fractional bandwidth of over 20%. By varying the free carrier density in the GaAs substrate, the central frequency of the absorption band can be tuned from 1.79 to 2.69 THz. In addition, the absorption performance of the proposed system is shown to be insensitive to both incident angle and polarization. Our results offer a low-cost way for the design of absorption-based THz devices. PMID:27607670

  5. Plasma polymerized coating for polycarbonate - Single layer, abrasion resistant, and antireflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wydeven, T.

    1977-01-01

    Plasma polymerized vinyltrimethoxy silane films were deposited on transparent polycarbonate substrates. The adherent, clear films protected the substrates from abrasion and also served as antireflection coatings. Posttreatment of the vinyltrimethoxy silane films in an oxygen glow discharge further improved the abrasion resistance. ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis) and IR transmission spectra of some films were recorded, and an elemental analysis of the films was obtained.

  6. Low-Doping Effect on Nano structured ZnO: Al as Anti-Reflecting Coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of substituting low concentration Al at Zn-site as an anti-reflecting coating (ARC) for Zn1-xAlxO compound on structural, morphological and optical properties have been studied. Zn1-xAlxO sample with x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 were synthesized via a sol gel method. The films obtained from the sol gel have been annealed at 400 degree Celsius for 2 hours. X-ray diffraction Method (XIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) have been used for structural characterization and morphology of the film. XRD spectra show all samples exhibit hexagonal structure. The particle size decreases with increasing Al concentration. These films exhibit a dense and compact film structure that could be effective for light trapping in thin film solar cells. The optical property has been characterised using UV-Visible-NIR and photoluminescence spectrometer. The band gaps increase as the concentration of Al increases. The increase of the band gap is an important requirement for good anti-reflecting coating element. Therefore these films can be applied as anti-reflecting coating thin film for solar cells. (author)

  7. A simplified method for generating periodic nanostructures by interference lithography without the use of an anti-reflection coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interference lithography has proven to be a useful technique for generating periodic sub-diffraction limited nanostructures. Interference lithography can be implemented by exposing a photoresist polymer to laser light using a two-beam arrangement or more simply a one beam configuration based on a Lloyd's Mirror Interferometer. For typical photoresist layers, an anti-reflection coating must be deposited on the substrate to prevent adverse reflections from cancelling the holographic pattern of the interfering beams. For silicon substrates, such coatings are typically multilayered and complex in composition. By thinning the photoresist layer to a thickness well below the quarter wavelength of the exposing beam, we demonstrate that interference gratings can be generated without an anti-reflection coating on the substrate. We used ammonium dichromate doped polyvinyl alcohol as the positive photoresist because it provides excellent pinhole free layers down to thicknesses of 40 nm, and can be cross-linked by a low-cost single mode 457 nm laser, and can be etched in water. Gratings with a period of 320 nm and depth of 4 nm were realized, as well as a variety of morphologies depending on the photoresist thickness. This simplified interference lithography technique promises to be useful for generating periodic nanostructures with high fidelity and minimal substrate treatments

  8. A simplified method for generating periodic nanostructures by interference lithography without the use of an anti-reflection coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapon, Omree; Muallem, Merav; Palatnik, Alex; Aviv, Hagit; Tischler, Yaakov R. [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 5920002 (Israel); Bar-Ilan University Institute for Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Ramat-Gan 5920002 (Israel)

    2015-11-16

    Interference lithography has proven to be a useful technique for generating periodic sub-diffraction limited nanostructures. Interference lithography can be implemented by exposing a photoresist polymer to laser light using a two-beam arrangement or more simply a one beam configuration based on a Lloyd's Mirror Interferometer. For typical photoresist layers, an anti-reflection coating must be deposited on the substrate to prevent adverse reflections from cancelling the holographic pattern of the interfering beams. For silicon substrates, such coatings are typically multilayered and complex in composition. By thinning the photoresist layer to a thickness well below the quarter wavelength of the exposing beam, we demonstrate that interference gratings can be generated without an anti-reflection coating on the substrate. We used ammonium dichromate doped polyvinyl alcohol as the positive photoresist because it provides excellent pinhole free layers down to thicknesses of 40 nm, and can be cross-linked by a low-cost single mode 457 nm laser, and can be etched in water. Gratings with a period of 320 nm and depth of 4 nm were realized, as well as a variety of morphologies depending on the photoresist thickness. This simplified interference lithography technique promises to be useful for generating periodic nanostructures with high fidelity and minimal substrate treatments.

  9. A simplified method for generating periodic nanostructures by interference lithography without the use of an anti-reflection coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapon, Omree; Muallem, Merav; Palatnik, Alex; Aviv, Hagit; Tischler, Yaakov. R.

    2015-11-01

    Interference lithography has proven to be a useful technique for generating periodic sub-diffraction limited nanostructures. Interference lithography can be implemented by exposing a photoresist polymer to laser light using a two-beam arrangement or more simply a one beam configuration based on a Lloyd's Mirror Interferometer. For typical photoresist layers, an anti-reflection coating must be deposited on the substrate to prevent adverse reflections from cancelling the holographic pattern of the interfering beams. For silicon substrates, such coatings are typically multilayered and complex in composition. By thinning the photoresist layer to a thickness well below the quarter wavelength of the exposing beam, we demonstrate that interference gratings can be generated without an anti-reflection coating on the substrate. We used ammonium dichromate doped polyvinyl alcohol as the positive photoresist because it provides excellent pinhole free layers down to thicknesses of 40 nm, and can be cross-linked by a low-cost single mode 457 nm laser, and can be etched in water. Gratings with a period of 320 nm and depth of 4 nm were realized, as well as a variety of morphologies depending on the photoresist thickness. This simplified interference lithography technique promises to be useful for generating periodic nanostructures with high fidelity and minimal substrate treatments.

  10. Ion-assisted deposition of yttrium fluoride as a substitute for thorium fluoride: application to infrared antireflection coating on germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robic, Jean-Yves; Rolland, Bernard; Deutsch, Jean-Claude; Gallais, Patrick

    1994-11-01

    Yttrium fluoride has been proposed as a substitute for thorium fluoride in anti-reflection coatings for the infrared range. We have studied the ion assisted deposition (IAD) of YF3 in order to obtain dense and low absorbency layers in the 8 to 12 mm spectral window. Refractive index and extinction coefficient of this fluoride were determined from spectrophotometry measurements. We have then associated the YF3 with ZnS and Ge layers so as to obtain four layer anti-reflection coatings on germanium. The stress induced by each layer in the coating was measured and the sum was shown to be equal to the stress of the total coating. Eventually, an industrial, high efficiency, both side anti-reflection coating on germanium was developed using IAD YF3 film.

  11. Broad-bandwidth Metamaterial Antireflection Coatings for Sub-Millimeter Astronomy and CMB Foreground Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Jeff

    Sub-millimeter observations are crucial for answering questions about star and galaxy formation; understanding galactic dust foregrounds; and for removing these foregrounds to detect the faint signature of inflationary gravitational waves in the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Achieving these goals requires improved, broad-band antireflection coated lenses and half-wave plates (HWPs). These optical elements will significantly boost the sensitivity and capability of future sub-millimeter and CMB missions. We propose to develop wide-bandwidth metamaterial antireflection coatings for silicon lenses and sapphire HWPs with 3:1 ratio bandwidth that are scalable across the sub-millimeter band from 300 GHz to 3 THz. This is an extension of our successful work on saw cut metamaterial AR coatings for silicon optics at millimeter wave lengths. These, and the proposed coatings consist of arrays of sub-wavelength scale features cut into optical surfaces that behave like simple dielectrics. We have demonstrated saw cut 3:1 bandwidth coatings on silicon lenses, but these coatings are limited to the millimeter wave band by the limitations of dicing saw machining. The crucial advance needed to extend these broad band coatings throughout the sub-millimeter band is the development of laser cut graded index metamaterial coatings. The proposed work includes developing the capability to fabricate these coatings, optimizing the design of these metamaterials, fabricating and testing prototype lenses and HWPs, and working with the PIPER collaboration to achieve a sub-orbital demonstration of this technology. The proposed work will develop potentially revolutionary new high performance coatings for the sub-millimeter bands, and cary this technology to TRL 7 paving the way for its use in space. We anticipate that there will be a wide range of applications for these coatings on future NASA balloons and satellites.

  12. Plasma-polymerized coating for polycarbonate: Single-layer, abrasion resistant, and antireflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wydeven, Theodore

    1991-01-01

    Plasma-polymerized vinyl trimethoxy silane films were deposited on transparent polycarbonate substrates. The adherent, clear films protected the substrates from abrasion and also served as antireflection coatings. Post-treatment of the vinyl trimethoxy silane films in an oxygen glow discharge further improved their abrasion resistance. The coatings were characterized by elemental analysis of the bulk, ESCA analysis of the surface, transmission, thickness, abrasion resistance, haze, and adhesion. This patented process is currently used by the world's largest manufacturers of non-prescription sunglasses to protect the plastic glasses from scratching and thereby to increase their useful lifetime.

  13. High-performance antireflective coatings with a porous nanoparticle layer for visible wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Tsuyoshi; Ishizawa, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Akira

    2011-03-20

    Ghosts and flares are well-known problems that are caused by reflections from lens surfaces when we take photographs. It is more difficult to prevent such stray light in a digital camera than in a film camera because of high reflectance from the low-pass filter and diffraction from the image sensor. To prevent such stray light, we introduce an ultralow refractive index layer into the antireflective (AR) coatings. We used the solgel method to form porous fluoride layers with ultralow refractive indices, and we succeeded in developing a unique process to form AR coatings with superior performance. PMID:21460972

  14. Advancements in organic antireflective coatings for dual-damascene processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Shreeram V.; Shao, Xie; Lamb, James E., III; Brakensiek, Nickolas L.; Johnson, Joe; Wu, Xiaoming; Xu, Gu; Simmons, William J.

    2000-06-01

    Dual Damascene (DD) process has been implemented in manufacturing semiconductor devices with smaller feature sizes (EQ 0.20 micrometer), due to increased use of copper as a metal of choice for interconnects. Copper is preferred over aluminum due to its lower resistance which helps to minimize the effects of interconnect delays. Via first DD process is the most commonly used process for manufacturing semiconductor devices since it requires less number of processing steps and also it can make use of a via fill material to minimize the resist thickness variations in the trench patterning photolithography step. Absence of via fill material results in non-uniform fill of vias (in isolated and dense via regions) thus leading to non-uniform focus and dose for exposure of the resist in the deep vias. This results in poor resolution and poor critical dimension (CD) control in the trench-patterning step. When a via fill organic material such as a bottom anti- reflective coating (BARC) is used, then the resist thickness variations are minimized thus enhancing the resolution and CD control in trench patterning. Via fill organic BARC materials can also act as etch blocks at the base of the via to protect the substrate from over etch. In this paper we review the important role of via fill organic BARCs in improving the efficiency of via first DD process now being implemented in semiconductor manufacturing.

  15. UV anti-reflection coatings for use in silicon detector design

    CERN Document Server

    Hamden, Erika T; Hoenk, Michael E; Blacksberg, Jordana; Dickie, Matthew R; Nikzad, Shouleh; Martin, Christopher D; Schiminovich, David

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of coatings for a CCD detector optimized for use in a fixed dispersion UV spectrograph. Due to the rapidly changing index of refraction of Si, single layer broadband anti-reflection coatings are not suitable to increase quantum efficiency at all wavelengths of interest. Instead, we describe a creative solution that provides excellent performance over UV wavelengths. We describe progress in the development of a CCD detector with theoretical quantum efficiencies (QE) of greater than 60% at wavelengths from 120 to 300nm. This high efficiency may be reached by coating a backside illuminated, thinned, delta-doped CCD with a series of thin film anti-reflection coatings. The materials tested include MgF2 (optimized for highest performance from 120-150nm), SiO2 (150-180nm), Al2O3(180-240nm), MgO (200-250nm), and HfO2 (240-300nm). A variety of deposition techniques were tested and a selection of coatings which minimized reflectance on a Si test wafer were applied to live devices. We also d...

  16. A Metasurface Anti-reflection Coating for Enhancing Surface Plasmon-Polariton of Metallic Hole Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Khagendra; Jeon, Jiyeon; Kim, Jun; Ku, Zahyun; Lee, Sang Jun; Zhou, Jiangfeng; Usf, Usa Collaboration; Kriss, Korea Collaboration; Afrl, Usa Collaboration

    We demonstrate a metasurface made of metallic disk resonator array as an anti-reflection (AR) coating to enhance (reduce) the transmission (reflection) through metal hole array (MHA). Our result show that the simulated (measured) transmission at the first order surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) resonance is increased up to 82 %(88%) compared to uncoated MHA. The electric field of the surface wave is also enhanced by 33%. Using an effective medium theory, we show that the metasurface operates at off-resonance wavelengths and can be understood as a thin film that exhibits high effective permittivity (~30) with very low loss (loss tangent ~0.005). Thus we reveal the mechanism of the metasurface AR coating as the traditional thin film AR coating. With tunable effective permittivity, our structure provides great flexibility to achieve AR coating for general substance at any wavelength.

  17. High durability antireflection coatings for silicon and multispectral ZnS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shay; Marcovitch, Orna; Yadin, Ygal; Klaiman, Dror; Koren, Nitzan; Zipin, Hedva

    2007-04-01

    In the current complex battle field, military platforms are required to operate on land, at sea and in the air in all weather conditions both day and night. In order to achieve such capabilities, advanced electro-optical systems are being constantly developed and improved. These systems such as missile seeker heads, reconnaissance and target acquisition pods and tracking, monitoring and alert systems have external optical components (window or dome) which must remain operational even at extreme environmental conditions. Depending on the intended use of the system, there are a few choices of window and dome materials. Amongst the more common materials one can point out sapphire, ZnS, germanium and silicon. Other materials such as spinel, ALON and yittria may also be considered. Most infrared materials have high indices of refraction and therefore they reflect a large part of radiation. To minimize the reflection and increase the transmission, antireflection (AR) coatings are the most common choice. Since these systems operate at different environments and weather conditions, the coatings must be made durable to withstand these extreme conditions. In cases where the window or dome is made of relatively soft materials such as multispectral ZnS, the coating may also serve as protection for the window or dome. In this work, several antireflection coatings have been designed and manufactured for silicon and multispectral ZnS. The coating materials were chosen to be either oxides or fluorides which are known to have high durability. Ellipsometry measurements were used to characterize the optical constants of the thin films. The effects of the deposition conditions on the optical constants of the deposited thin films and durability of the coatings will be discussed. The coatings were tested according to MIL-STD-810E and were also subjected to rain erosion tests at the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) whirling arm apparatus in which one of the coatings showed

  18. Durable superhydrophobic and antireflective surfaces by trimethylsilanized silica nanoparticles-based sol-gel processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Michele; Cannavale, Alessandro; De Marco, Luisa; Aricò, Antonino S; Cingolani, Roberto; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2009-06-01

    We present a robust and cost-effective coating method to fabricate long-term durable superhydrophobic andsimultaneouslyantireflective surfaces by a double-layer coating comprising trimethylsiloxane (TMS) surface-functionalized silica nanoparticles partially embedded into an organosilica binder matrix produced through a sol-gel process. A dense and homogeneous organosilica gel layer was first coated onto a glass substrate, and then, a trimethylsilanized nanospheres-based superhydrophobic layer was deposited onto it. After thermal curing, the two layers turned into a monolithic film, and the hydrophobic nanoparticles were permanently fixed to the glass substrate. Such treated surfaces showed a tremendous water repellency (contact angle = 168 degrees ) and stable self-cleaning effect during 2000 h of outdoor exposure. Besides this, nanotextured topology generated by the self-assembled nanoparticles-based top layer produced a fair antireflection effect consisting of more than a 3% increase in optical transmittance. PMID:19466786

  19. Improvement in power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices by using excimer ultraviolet-radiation induced mesoporous silica anti-reflection coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An anti-reflection thin film with a mesoporous structure is demonstrated to improve the light-collection and photocurrent-generation abilities of organic photovoltaic cells. The mesoporous film was prepared by sol–gel-derived silica with an excimer ultraviolet-radiation removable self-assembling triblock copolymer as the nanostructured template. The method for fabricating this film was much easier than conventional processes used to prepare anti-reflection materials as they involve vacuum or high-temperature conditions. By using this mesoporous film as an anti-reflection coating on the glass side of an indium tin oxide-coated glass substrate, an enhancement of about 6% in the photocurrent generation could be achieved in a device with a poly(3-hexylthiophene):(6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester bulk-heterojunction layer. A glass substrate with a coating of the mesoporous anti-reflection film showed an obvious improvement in transmittance for wavelengths extending from the visible-light region to the near-infrared region. The result also indicates that the prepared anti-reflection material is not only compatible with the photoactive materials with wide band gaps but works very well with semiconductors with small band gaps as well, e.g. thieno(3,4-b)-thiophene/benzodithiophene copolymer (PTB7). In this work, ∼ 3.6% photocurrent enhancement can also be obtained in PTB7-based solar cells, indicating the wide compatibility of thus-prepared mesoporous film. - Highlights: • A mesoporous film is demonstrated to improve light collection of organic photovoltaic cells. • The film was prepared by sol–gel silica with a light removable copolymer template. • An enhancement of 6% in photocurrent could be achieved in the devices

  20. Study of major factors to affect photoresist profile on developable bottom anti-reflective coating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hyo Jung; Ju, Dong Kyu; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Jaehyun

    2011-04-01

    As critical dimensions continue to shrink in lithography, new materials will be needed to meet the new demands imposed by this shrinkage. Recently, there are needs for novel materials with various substrates and immersing process, including double patterning process, a high resolution implant process, and so on. Among such materials, Developable Bottom Anti-reflective Coating material (DBARC) is a good candidate for high resolution implant application as well as double patterning. DBARC should have reflectivity control function as an ordinary BARC, as well as an appropriate solubility in TMAH-based conventional developer after exposure and bake process. The most distinguished advantage of DBARC is to skip BARC etch process that is required in normal BARC process. In spite of this advantage, the photoresist profile on DBARC could be influenced by components and process conditions of DBARC. Several groups have tried to solve this issue to implement DBARC to new process. We have studied material-related factors affecting photoresist profiles, such as a polymer, photo-acid generators (PAGs), and additives. And we explored the effect of process condition for photoresist and DBARC. In case of polymer, we studied the effect of dissolution rate in developer and crosslinking functionality. For PAGs and additives, the effect of acid diffusivity and cross-linking degree according to their bulkiness were examined. We also evaluated coated film stability in a photoresist solvent after BARC bake process and compared lithographic performance of various DBARC formulations. In addition, the effect of photoresist profile with bake condition of photoresist and DBARC were investigated. In this paper, we will demonstrate the most influential factors of DBARC to photoresist profile and suggest the optimum formulation and process condition for DBARC application.

  1. Performance of "Moth Eye" Anti-Reflective Coatings for Solar Cell Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, E.; Kane, M.; Jiang, P.

    2011-03-14

    An inexpensive, effective anti-reflective coating (ARC) has been developed at the University of Florida to significantly enhance the absorption of light by silicon in solar cells. This coating has nano-scale features, and its microstructure mimics that of various night active insects (e.g. a moth's eye). It is a square array of pillars, each about 700 nm high and having a diameter of about 300 nm. Samples of silicon having this coating were exposed either to various combinations of either elevated temperature and humidity or to gamma irradiation ({sup 60}Co) at the Savannah River National Laboratory, or to a broad spectrum ultraviolet light and to a 532 nm laser light at the University of Florida. The anti-reflective properties of the coatings were unaffected by any of these environmental stresses, and the microstructure of the coating was also unaffected. In fact, the reflectivity of the gamma irradiated ARC became lower (advantageous for solar cell applications) at wavelengths between 400 and 1000 nm. These results show that this coating is robust and should be tested in actual systems exposed to either weather or a space environment. Structural details of the ARCs were studied to optimize their performance. Square arrays performed better than hexagonal arrays - the natural moth-eye coating is indeed a square array. The optimal depth of the templated nanopillars in the ARC was investigated. A wet etching technology for ARC formation was developed that would be less expensive and much faster than dry etching. Theoretical modeling revealed that dimple arrays should perform better than nipple arrays. A method of fabricating both dimple and nipple arrays having the same length was developed, and the dimple arrays performed better than the nipple arrays, in agreement with the modeling. The commercial viability of the technology is quite feasible, since the technology is scalable and inexpensive. This technology is also compatible with current industrial

  2. Atomic Layer Deposition of Chemical Passivation Layers and High Performance Anti-Reflection Coatings on Back-Illuminated Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor); Greer, Frank (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A back-illuminated silicon photodetector has a layer of Al2O3 deposited on a silicon oxide surface that receives electromagnetic radiation to be detected. The Al2O3 layer has an antireflection coating deposited thereon. The Al2O3 layer provides a chemically resistant separation layer between the silicon oxide surface and the antireflection coating. The Al2O3 layer is thin enough that it is optically innocuous. Under deep ultraviolet radiation, the silicon oxide layer and the antireflection coating do not interact chemically. In one embodiment, the silicon photodetector has a delta-doped layer near (within a few nanometers of) the silicon oxide surface. The Al2O3 layer is expected to provide similar protection for doped layers fabricated using other methods, such as MBE, ion implantation and CVD deposition.

  3. Antireflective coatings for multijunction solar cells under wide-angle ray bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, Marta; Domínguez, César; Antón, Ignacio; Sala, Gabriel

    2012-03-26

    Two important aspects must be considered when optimizing antireflection coatings (ARCs) for multijunction solar cells to be used in concentrators: the angular light distribution over the cell created by the particular concentration system and the wide spectral bandwidth the solar cell is sensitive to. In this article, a numerical optimization procedure and its results are presented. The potential efficiency enhancement by means of ARC optimization is calculated for several concentrating PV systems. In addition, two methods for ARCs direct characterization are presented. The results of these show that real ARCs slightly underperform theoretical predictions. PMID:22453483

  4. Influence of window layer thickness on double layer antireflection coating for triple junction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimization of a SiO2/TiO2, SiO2/ZnS double layer antireflection coating (ARC) on Ga0.5In0.5P/In0.02Ga0.98As/Ge solar cells for terrestrial application is discussed. The Al0.5In0.5P window layer thickness is also taken into consideration. It is shown that the optimal parameters of double layer ARC vary with the thickness of the window layer. (semiconductor technology)

  5. Solgel derived tantalum pentoxide films as ultraviolet antireflective coatings for silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehg, T J; Ochoa-Tapia, J A; Knoesen, A; Higgins, B G

    1989-12-15

    A solgel process is described to produce Ta(2)O(5) films as short wavelength antireflective (AR) coatings for silicon. The AR coatings were optimized for 370 nm by controlling the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of Ta(OC(2)H(5))(5), the spin coating parameters, and the heat treatment process (rapid thermal processing (RTP) and muffle furnace). Film thickness uniformity across the wafer was better than 1%, and all the coatings tested passed the standard scotch tape test before and after heat treatment and exhibited no change in optical properties after submersion in liquid N(2). Several heat treatment protocols for densifying the films were studied. Spin coated films heat treated in a muffle furnace at 275 degrees C yielded Ta(2)O(5) AR coatings that reduced the reflectance losses from silicon at 370 nm by 86%, the reduction being within 1% of the theoretical value. Films subjected to RTP at temperatures ranging from 300 to 1000 degrees C reduced the reflectance loss in some cases by as much as 95%. The results demonstrate that spin coated solgel derived Ta(2)O(5) films subjected to a low temperature (coatings for high index silicon devices, such as charge couple imagers and photovoltaic cells. PMID:20556030

  6. Peculiarities of the capacitance-voltage characteristic of a photoelectric solar energy convertor based on a silicon p- n junction with a porous silicon antireflection coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregulov, V. V.

    2014-09-01

    Experimental results on the high-frequency capacitance-voltage characteristic of a photoelectric solar energy converter based on the n +- p junction with a thin porous silicon film on the frontal surface are considered. It is shown that the capacitance-voltage characteristic is determined by the surface metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure formed as a result of growing of a porous silicon layer by electrochemical anode etching. The effective thickness of the insulator layer of the MIS structure, the impurity concentration in its semiconductor region, and the density of surface states are determined.

  7. Reflective and antireflective coatings for the optical chain of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnoli, Giacomo; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Catalano, Osvaldo; Pareschi, Giovanni; Perri, Luca; Stringhetti, Luca

    2013-09-01

    ASTRI is a Flagship Project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF. One of the main aims of the ASTRI Project is the design, construction and on-field verification of a dual mirror (2M) end-to-end prototype for the Small Size Telescope (SST) envisaged to become part of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype is designed according to the Schwarzschild-Couder optical scheme, and adopts a camera based on Silicon Photo Multipliers (SiPM); it will be assembled at the INAF astronomical site of Serra La Nave on mount Etna (Catania, Italy) in the second half of 2014, and will start scientific validation phase soon after. With its 4m wide primary dish, the telescope will be sensitive to multi-TeV Very High Energy (VHE) gamma rays up to 100 TeV and above, with a point spread function of ~2 arcminutes and a wide (semiaperture 4.8°) corrected field of view. The peculiarities of the optical design and of the SiPM bandpass pushed towards specifically optimized choices in terms of reflective coatings for both the primary and the secondary mirror. Fully dielectric multi-layer coatings have been developed and tested as an option for the primary mirror, aiming to filter out the large Night Sky Background contamination at wavelengths λ>~700 nm. On the other hand, for the large monolithic secondary mirror a simpler design with quartz-overcoated aluminium has been optimized for incidences far from normality. The conformation of the ASTRI camera in turn pushed towards the design of a reimaging system based on thin pyramidal light guides, that could be optionally integrated in the focal surface, aiming to increase the fill factor. An anti-reflective coating optimized for a wide range of incident angles faraway from normality was specifically developed to enhance the UV-optical transparency of these elements. The issues, strategy, simulations and experimental results are thoroughly

  8. Novel conformal organic antireflective coatings for advanced I-line lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Shreeram V.; Nowak, Kelly A.; Fowler, Shelly; Williams, Paul; Arjona, Mikko

    2001-08-01

    Flash memory chips are playing a critical role in semiconductor devices due to increased popularity of hand held electronic communication devices such as cell phones and PDAs (personal Digital Assistants). Flash memory offers two primary advantages in semiconductor devices. First, it offers flexibility of in-circuit programming capability to reduce the loss from programming errors and to significantly reduce commercialization time to market for new devices. Second, flash memory has a double density memory capability through stacked gate structures which increases the memory capability and thus saves significantly on chip real estate. However, due to stacked gate structures the requirements for manufacturing of flash memory devices are significantly different from traditional memory devices. Stacked gate structures also offer unique challenges to lithographic patterning materials such as Bottom Anti-Reflective Coating (BARC) compositions used to achieve CD control and to minimize standing wave effect in photolithography. To be applicable in flash memory manufacturing a BARC should form a conformal coating on high topography of stacked gate features as well as provide the normal anti-reflection properties for CD control. In this paper we report on a new highly conformal advanced i-line BARC for use in design and manufacture of flash memory devices. Conformal BARCs being significantly thinner in trenches than the planarizing BARCs offer the advantage of reducing BARC overetch and thus minimizing resist thickness loss.

  9. Controlled synthesis and characteristics of antireflection coatings of TiO2 produced from a organometallic colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Titanium dioxide antireflection coating was made by a less used titanium colloidal precursor solution. → Sol-gel spin-coating process was used to make thin films on silicon substrates. → Various process parameters have been studied and their effect on physical, structural and optical properties was investigated. → Application of the coating on silicon solar cells showed an enhancement more than 20% in Jsc in comparison to the cell devoid of the coating. - Abstract: Antireflection titanium dioxide (TiO2) coatings have been developed on monocrystalline silicon by a sol-gel spin-coating process using titanium di-isopropoxidebis(acetylacetonate) colloidal precursor solution. The effect of titanium content in the precursor, spin rate, sintering duration and temperature have been studied and their effect on coating thickness and optical properties (i.e., refractive index and reflectivity) were investigated. The influence of post-deposition sintering temperature on the optical characteristics, composition and the microstructure of the coatings have been evaluated by UV-vis spectroscopy, ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Solar cells made on silicon wafers with TiO2 as antireflection layer showed enhancement of more than 20% in short circuit current density in comparison to a cell devoid of the TiO2 coating.

  10. 17.1%-Efficient Multi-Scale-Textured Black Silicon Solar Cells without Dielectric Antireflection Coating: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toor, F.; Page, M. R.; Branz, H. M.; Yuan, H. C.

    2011-07-01

    In this work we present 17.1%-efficient p-type single crystal Si solar cells with a multi-scale-textured surface and no dielectric antireflection coating. Multi-scale texturing is achieved by a gold-nanoparticle-assisted nanoporous etch after conventional micron scale KOH-based pyramid texturing (pyramid black etching). By incorporating geometric enhancement of antireflection, this multi-scale texturing reduces the nanoporosity depth required to make silicon 'black' compared to nanoporous planar surfaces. As a result, it improves short-wavelength spectral response (blue response), previously one of the major limiting factors in 'black-Si' solar cells. With multi-scale texturing, the spectrum-weighted average reflectance from 350- to 1000-nm wavelength is below 2% with a 100-nm deep nanoporous layer. In comparison, roughly 250-nm deep nanopores are needed to achieve similar reflectance on planar surface. Here, we characterize surface morphology, reflectivity and solar cell performance of the multi-scale textured solar cells.

  11. ZnSe hollow nanospheres in mechanically stable near-IR antireflection coatings for ZnSe substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Luo, Rui-Chun; Mao, Yong-Qiang; Du, Xi-Wen; Yang, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Though possessing low absorption throughout a wide infrared (IR) spectral regime, owing to a high refractive index, zinc selenide substrates are generally covered by antireflection coatings (ARCs) for practical optical uses. However, achieving a high transmission of ZnSe substrates in the near-IR (NIR) region is still challenging. Herein, for the first time, colloidal ZnSe hollow nanospheres (HNSs) smaller than 100 nm were prepared and adopted to assemble ARCs for ZnSe substrates. The voiding kinetics of the HNSs was found to agree well with the nanoscale Kirkendall effect, and the self-diffusion of the Zn ion in the core was faster than its diffusion through the ZnSe shell. With single-index ARCs, the transmission of ZnSe substrates was remarkably enhanced in the NIR region, with up to an 18% increase at 840 nm. Besides, the ZnSe HNS-based ARCs showed superior mechanical stability even under violent ultrasonication in organic solutions. We expect that ZnSe HNSs will make it possible to construct graded-index ARCs to realize omnidirectional and broadband antireflection in IR, through further tuning of HNSs’ void fraction.

  12. A New Artificial Dielectric Metamaterial and its Application as a THz Anti-Reflection Coating

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jin; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Savini, Giorgio; Whitehouse, Nicola; 10.1364/AO.48.006635

    2011-01-01

    We describe a novel artificial dielectric material which has applications at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. The material is manufactured from layers of metal mesh patterned onto thin polypropylene sheets which are then bonded together using a hot pressing process to provide planar rugged discs which can be reliably cycled to cryogenic temperatures. The refractive index of this material can be tuned by adjusting the geometry and spacing of the metal-mesh layers. We demonstrate its usage by designing and characterising a broadband anti-reflection coating for a Z-cut crystalline Quartz plate. The coating was fabricated and applied to the quartz using the hot press technique and characterized using a Fourier Transform Spectrometer. The performance is shown to be in good agreement with HFSS and transmission line modelling results.

  13. Surface structured optical coatings with near-perfect broadband and wide-angle antireflective properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, Emmett E; McMahon, William E; Farrell, Robert M; DenBaars, Steven P; Speck, James S; Bowers, John E

    2014-10-01

    Optical thin-film coatings are typically limited to designs where the refractive index varies in only a single dimension. However, additional control over the propagation of incoming light is possible by structuring the other two dimensions. In this work, we demonstrate a three-dimensional surface structured optical coating that combines the principles of thin-film optical design with bio-inspired nanostructures to yield near-perfect antireflection. Using this hybrid approach, we attain average reflection losses of 0.2% on sapphire and 0.6% on gallium nitride for 300-1800 nm light. This performance is maintained to very wide incidence angles, achieving less than 1% reflection at all measured wavelengths out to 45° for sapphire. This hybrid design has the potential to significantly enhance the broadband and wide-angle properties for a number of optical systems that require high transparency. PMID:25238041

  14. Large-aperture Wide-bandwidth Antireflection-coated Silicon Lenses for Millimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, R.; Munson, C. D.; Niemack, M. D.; McMahon, J. J.; Britton, J.; Wollack, Edward J.; Beall, J.; Devlin, M. J.; Fowler, J.; Gallardo, P.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K.; Newburgh, L.; Nibarger, J. P.; Page, L.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Staggs, S. T.; Thornton, R.; Zhang, L.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing scale of cryogenic detector arrays for submillimeter and millimeter wavelength astrophysics has led to the need for large aperture, high index of refraction, low loss, cryogenic refracting optics. Silicon with n 3.4, low loss, and high thermal conductivity is a nearly optimal material for these purposes but requires an antireflection (AR) coating with broad bandwidth, low loss, low reflectance, and a matched coefficient of thermal expansion. We present an AR coating for curved silicon optics comprised of subwavelength features cut into the lens surface with a custom three-axis silicon dicing saw. These features constitute a metamaterial that behaves as a simple dielectric coating.We have fabricated silicon lenses as large as 33.4 cm in diameter with micromachined layers optimized for use between 125 and 165 GHz. Our design reduces average reflections to a few tenths of a percent for angles of incidence up to 30deg with low cross polarization.We describe the design, tolerance, manufacture, and measurements of these coatings and present measurements of the optical properties of silicon at millimeter wavelengths at cryogenic and room temperatures. This coating and lens fabrication approach is applicable from centimeter to submillimeter wavelengths and can be used to fabricate coatings with greater than octave bandwidth.

  15. Anti-Reflective and Waterproof Hard Coating for High Power Laser Optical Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murahara, Masataka; Yabe, Takashi; Uchida, Shigeaki; Yoshida, Kunio; Okamoto, Yoshiaki

    2006-05-01

    A hard coating method of single crystalline porous silica film is widely used for high power laser optical elements in the air. However, there is no protective hard coating method for the elements to survive high power laser irradiance while in the water. We, thus, developed a new method for a waterproof coating with photo-oxidation of silicone oil. The silicone oil was spin-coated onto the surface of optical elements, and then irradiated with a xenon excimer lamp in the air. In this treatment, a protective coating for plastic lenses, mirrors, and nonlinear optical crystals, which are highly deliquescent, was developed by taking advantage of the phenomenon in which organic silicone oil is transformed to inorganic amorphous glass by a process of photo-oxidation. This technique has enabled an optical thin coating film to transmit ultraviolet rays of wavelengths under 200 nm and possess the characteristics of homogeneity, high density, resistance to environment, anti-reflectiveness, resistance to water, and Mohs' scale of 5, which is comparable to apatite. This allows us to cool a slab laser head and use as a mirror for underwater laser welding.

  16. Large-aperture wide-bandwidth antireflection-coated silicon lenses for millimeter wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, R; Niemack, M D; McMahon, J J; Britton, J; Wollack, E J; Beall, J; Devlin, M J; Fowler, J; Gallardo, P; Hubmayr, J; Irwin, K; Newburgh, L; Nibarger, J P; Page, L; Quijada, M A; Schmitt, B L; Staggs, S T; Thornton, R; Zhang, L

    2013-01-01

    The increasing scale of cryogenic detector arrays for sub-millimeter and millimeter wavelength astrophysics has led to the need for large aperture, high index of refraction, low loss, cryogenic refracting optics. Silicon with n = 3.4, low loss, and relatively high thermal conductivity is a nearly optimal material for these purposes, but requires an antireflection (AR) coating with broad bandwidth, low loss, low reflectance, and a matched coefficient of thermal expansion. We present an AR coating for curved silicon optics comprised of subwavelength features cut into the lens surface with a custom three axis silicon dicing saw. These features constitute a metamaterial that behaves as a simple dielectric coating. We have fabricated and coated silicon lenses as large as 33.4 cm in diameter with coatings optimized for use between 125-165 GHz. Our design reduces average reflections to a few tenths of a percent for angles of incidence up to 30 degrees with low cross-polarization. We describe the design, tolerance, m...

  17. Evaporation of uniform antireflection coatings on hemispherical lenses to enhance infrared antenna gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovick, Brian A.; Krenz, Peter M.; Zummo, Guy; Boreman, Glenn D.

    2010-03-01

    Infrared dipole-coupled bolometers receive radiation more efficiently when illuminated through a high permittivity, antireflection (AR) coated, hemispherical immersion lens. To maintain the enhanced responsivity for all illumination angles, the AR coating must be uniform over the hemispherical surface. An evaporation method for depositing a uniform AR coating on the hemispherical surface is presented. The lens is tilted relative to the source, which can be either electron-beam or thermal, and rotated throughout the deposition. Evaporation at an angle of 70° yields a uniform film with less than 10% thickness variation over a 120° full angle of the hemispherical surface. A theoretical model is developed and compared to profilometer measurements. In all cases, there is general agreement between theory and measurement. A single dipole is fabricated onto the flat surface of an AR-coated germanium immersion lens and the responsivity is measured for both substrate-side and air-side illumination. With a zinc sulfide (ZnS) single-layer AR coating, substrate-side illumination yields a broadside antenna response 49 ± 2.7 times greater than air-side illumination.

  18. Multispectral antireflection coating simultaneously effective in visible, diode laser, Nd-YAG and eye safe laser wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-spectral antireflection coating effective in visible region for sighting system, Nd-YAG laser wavelength for designator/seeker system, both diode laser and eye safe laser wavelength for ranging purpose can use common objective/receiver optics highly useful for state of art laser instrumentation. In this paper, design and fabrication of antireflection coating simultaneously effective in visible region (500 to 650nm), diode laser at 904±25nm and Nd-YAG laser at 1064±25nm, and erbium-glass laser wavelength at 1540±25nm has been reported. Inhomogeneous refractive index profile as suggested by Southwell was used to design this coating. The inhomogeneous profile was then approximated with eleven steps from substrate to air medium in order to obtain desirable antireflection property in the visible and laser wavelengths. These steps were then converted into the available coating materials (titanium-di-oxide and magnesium fluoride) of twenty-two layer stack. The multilayer stack was fabricated by using electron beam gun evaporation system in Balzers BAK-600 vacuum coating unit. The result achieved were less than 2% average reflection (98% average transmission) from 500 to 650nm, 1.5% reflection (98.5% average transmission) at 904nm, 1064nm and 1540nm. The coated samples successfully passed the specifications of MIL-C-14806 tests

  19. Titanium dioxide antireflection coating for silicon solar cells by spray deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, W.; Tracy, E.

    1980-01-01

    A high-speed production process is described for depositing a single-layer, quarter-wavelength thick antireflection coating of titanium dioxide on metal-patterned single-crystal silicon solar cells for terrestrial applications. Controlled atomization spraying of an organotitanium solution was selected as the most cost-effective method of film deposition using commercial automated equipment. The optimal composition consists of titanium isopropoxide as the titanium source, n-butyl acetate as the diluent solvent, sec-butanol as the leveling agent, and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to render the material uniformly depositable. Application of the process to the coating of circular, large-diameter solar cells with either screen-printed silver metallization or with vacuum-evaporated Ti/Pd/Ag metallization showed increases of over 40% in the electrical conversion efficiency. Optical characteristics, corrosion resistance, and several other important properties of the spray-deposited film are reported. Experimental evidence indicates a wide tolerance in the coating thickness upon the overall efficiency of the cell. Considerations pertaining to the optimization of AR coatings in general are discussed, and a comprehensive critical survey of the literature is presented.

  20. Indium doped zinc oxide nanowire thin films for antireflection and solar absorber coating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaik, Ummar Pasha [ACRHEM, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India); Krishna, M. Ghanashyam, E-mail: mgksp@uohyd.ac.in [ACRHEM and School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Indium doped ZnO nanowire thin films were prepared by thermal oxidation of Zn-In metal bilayer films at 500°C. The ZnO:In nanowires are 20-100 nm in diameter and several tens of microns long. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the formation of oxide and indicate that the films are polycrystalline, both in the as deposited and annealed states. The transmission which is <2% for the as deposited Zn-In films increases to >90% for the ZnO:In nanowire films. Significantly, the reflectance for the as deposited films is < 10% in the region between 200 to 1500 nm and < 2% for the nanowire films. Thus, the as deposited films can be used solar absorber coatings while the nanowire films are useful for antireflection applications. The growth of nanowires by this technique is attractive since it does not involve very high temperatures and the use of catalysts.

  1. New generation of bottom anti-reflective coatings (BARCs): photodefinable BARCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Douglas J.; Trudgeon, Tonya

    2003-06-01

    Three polymer systems, polycarbonates, polysulfonyl esters, and hybrid carbonate-sulfones, were evaluated as materials for a new generation of bottom anti-reflective coatings (BARCs). The polymers were tested for their solubility in accepted industry solvents, resistance to photoresist solvents after casting, thermal stability, and photosensitivity. From these, polysulfonyl esters show more promising properties as photodefinable BARCs than the other systems because of their good solvent solubility and resistance to photoresist solvents after casting. These polymers can be formulated in ethyl lactate (EL) or 1-methoxy-2-acetoxypropane (PGMEA) but are insoluble in the same solvents after curing above 170°C. The polysulfonyl esters were thermally stable up to ~300°C in air. The cured films were exposed with DUV light at 200 to 600 mJ/cm2. After exposure, the films can be easily removed in alkaline developer.

  2. Laser-induced damage behaviors of antireflective coatings at cryogenic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Zhang, Weili; He, Hongbo

    2012-12-20

    The laser-induced damage to antireflective coatings on Yb:YAG crystals under different temperatures was investigated. An optical profiler, field-emission scanning-electron microscopy, and a step profiler were used to determine the damage morphology, including size and depth. The results show that there is about 5 J/cm(2) decrease in the laser-induced damage threshold of cryogenic conditions compared to that of room temperature in 1-on-1 test mode, and a 3 J/cm(2) decrease in 100-on-1 mode. There is an accumulation effect in both cases. Meanwhile, the damage areas and depths are also much larger under cryogenic conditions. The precipitation of the subsurface defects in the substrate and the thermal stress in the interface between the film and the substrate under cryogenic conditions are considered to be the key factors in the unique damage behaviors. PMID:23262610

  3. Reflectance spectrum of diamond-like carbon/porous silicon double-layer antireflection coatings designed for silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aroutiounian, V.M.; Martirosyan, Kh.S. [Department of Physics of Semiconductors and Microelectronics, Yerevan State University, 375025 Yerevan (Armenia); Soukiassian, P.G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Laboratoire SIMA associe a l' Universite de Paris-Sud/Orsay, DSM/DRECAM/SPCSI, Batiment 462, Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2007-07-01

    In this study, our purpose was to investigate the possibility of using a diamond-like carbon/porous silicon double-layer antireflection coating which is characterized by low reflectance, in order to enhance the performance of silicon solar cells and to protect them from various external influences. Experimental results obtained from reflectance measurements showed the possibility of achieving low reflectance value. Theoretical simulations of the reflectance spectra were carried out. The comparison of the reflectance spectrum of such diamond-like carbon/porous silicon double layer antireflection coating with spectra obtained from other types of coating layers showed a much lower reflectance within larger energy range including the UV, visible and infrared regions of the solar spectrum. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. A moisture-resistant antireflective coating by sol-gel process for neodymium-doped phosphate laser glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruijun Liu; Ruoyu Zhan; Yongxing Tang; Jianqiang Zhu

    2006-01-01

    @@ Using methyl triethoxysilicane as precursor, a moisture-resistant coating for neodymium-doped laser glass was developed by the sol-gel process. Colloidal silica was added in coating solution as modifier. The refractive index of this coating varied from 1.31 to 1.42. A porous antireflective (AR) silica coating with the index of 1.27 was coated on the moisture-resistant coating surface. The two-layer coating possessed transmission up to 99.1% at wavelength of 966 nm, surface root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of 1.245nm, and roughness of average (RA) of 0.961 nm. In the case of laser of 1053-nm laser wavelength and 1-ns pulse duration, the damage threshold of the two-layer coatings was more than 15 J/cm2.

  5. Broad band antireflection coating on zinc sulphide simultaneously effective in SWIR, MWIR and LWIR regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Upadhyaya, A. S.

    2009-07-01

    In recent years multi-spectral imagery is steadily growing popularity. Multi-channel imaging which includes short-wave infrared (SWIR), mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) systems are useful for threat detection, tracking, thermal signature detection and terrain analysis. In this paper, a broad band antireflection coating on ZnS substrate, simultaneously effective in SWIR, MWIR and LWIR is reported. The coating design approach was evolved using gradient index concept, where refractive index varies gradually from incident media to the ZnS ( n = 2.2) substrate. The gradient index profile depicted by 4th degree polynomial n( t) = -0.45 t4 + 1.9 t3 - 2.7 t2 + 1.9 t + 1,where n( t) is the refractive index at the distance t from ambient, and t is the thickness in micron. The profile is best approximated by eight discrete step index layers, whose first layer is thorium fluoride ( n = 1.42; lowest index stable material available). Other seven layers are replaced by two equivalent layer system of real materials thorium fluoride and zinc sulphide. Final 15 layers design is deposited by e-beam evaporation. The maximum layer thickness was restricted around 0.7 μm to overcome the stress problem in the film. This 15 layers coating has shown average transmission 95% in 0.9-10.5 μm spectral band having peak 99% at 9 μm.

  6. Effect of substrate index of refraction on the design of antireflection coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Ronald R.

    2011-09-01

    Formulae to estimate the average percent reflectance (Rave) of a broadband antireflection (AR) coating as a function of the bandwidth (B), the overall thickness (C), the index of refraction of the last layer (L), and the difference between the indices of the high- and low-index layers (D) were reported in 1991. Various refinements of these formulae and other insights into the underlying behavior of such coating designs have been reported up until the present time. Dobrowolski, et al.6 and Tikhonravov, et al.7 have also added independent viewpoints to this subject over this period. In the previous studies, the effects of the index of refraction of the substrate have mostly been ignored and have appeared to be very minor. This study has investigated the influence of the substrate index on the Rave results. It has been found that there seem to be two classes of designs with respect to the effect of substrate index. In the class of "step down" AR designs, there is a significant effect, in the other class, there is no significant effect. Even in the step-down case, there is no effect of substrate index if any and all indices of refraction for the coating materials are available from that of the index of the substrate to the index of the media.

  7. Broadband anti-reflective and water-repellent coatings on glass substrates for self-cleaning photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoyu [Functional Nanomaterials Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry (TIPC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun Donglu 29, Haidianqu, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); He, Junhui, E-mail: jhhe@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Functional Nanomaterials Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry (TIPC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun Donglu 29, Haidianqu, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Weiyi [Institute of Optoelectronics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: High performance broadband antireflective and water-repellent coatings were fabricated on glass substrates, which can improve the short-circuit current of solar cells as much as 6.6% in comparison with glass substrates without the coatings. - Highlights: • Broadband anti-reflective and water-repellent coatings were fabricated. • Transmittance increased to 99.0%, significantly higher than that of commercial solar glasses. • The performance of standard solar cells with the AR coating was enhanced as much as 6.6%. - Abstract: High performance broadband antireflective (AR) and water-repellent coatings were fabricated on glass substrates by assembly of silica nanoparticles and polyelectrolytes via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique, followed by calcination and hydrophobic modification. A porous poly(diallyladimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)/20 nm SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (S-20) multilayer coating with AR property was prepared first. The maximum transmittance is as high as 99.0%, while that of the glass substrate is only 91.3%. After calcination and hydrophobic modification, the coating became water-repellent while maintaining the good AR property. Such water-repellent AR coatings can improve the short-circuit current of solar cells as much as 6.6% in comparison with glass substrates without the coatings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology and thickness of coatings. Transmission spectra and reflection spectra were characterized by UV–vis spectrophotometer. The surface wettability was studied by a contact angle/interface system.

  8. Broadband anti-reflective and water-repellent coatings on glass substrates for self-cleaning photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: High performance broadband antireflective and water-repellent coatings were fabricated on glass substrates, which can improve the short-circuit current of solar cells as much as 6.6% in comparison with glass substrates without the coatings. - Highlights: • Broadband anti-reflective and water-repellent coatings were fabricated. • Transmittance increased to 99.0%, significantly higher than that of commercial solar glasses. • The performance of standard solar cells with the AR coating was enhanced as much as 6.6%. - Abstract: High performance broadband antireflective (AR) and water-repellent coatings were fabricated on glass substrates by assembly of silica nanoparticles and polyelectrolytes via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique, followed by calcination and hydrophobic modification. A porous poly(diallyladimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)/20 nm SiO2 nanoparticles (S-20) multilayer coating with AR property was prepared first. The maximum transmittance is as high as 99.0%, while that of the glass substrate is only 91.3%. After calcination and hydrophobic modification, the coating became water-repellent while maintaining the good AR property. Such water-repellent AR coatings can improve the short-circuit current of solar cells as much as 6.6% in comparison with glass substrates without the coatings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology and thickness of coatings. Transmission spectra and reflection spectra were characterized by UV–vis spectrophotometer. The surface wettability was studied by a contact angle/interface system

  9. Antireflective Coatings using Layer-by-Layer Self Assembly of Silica and Titania Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Castedo, Raisa; Lal, Anitesh Anand; Mazilu, Dan

    2011-03-01

    It is known that glass substrates (borosilicate glass) reflect about 4% of light at each air/glass interface and thus, they transmit only 92% of light. For some devices like camera lenses, it is important to maximize the amount of transmitted light. Previous research has demonstrated that it is possible to do so by adding antireflective coatings to the substrates. Our research aimed to deposit thin films on glass substrates that would minimize the reflectance of light and thus, maximize its transmittance. The thin films consisted of multiple alternating layers of silica and titania nanoparticles following the theory behind double-quarter periodic systems and were deposited on the substrates via the ISAM (ionically self-assembled monolayers) technique. Several experiments were conducted in order to investigate the factors that affected the quality of the coatings and some of the significant factors observed were the pH and the molarity of the silica, titania and PDDA solutions. A number of factor-level combinations yielded transmittances in excess of 96%, well above the value for uncoated substrates. R.E.Lee Summer Research Program at Washington and Lee University.

  10. Deep-ultraviolet tailored- and low-refractive index antireflection coatings for light-extraction enhancement of light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xing; Shatalov, Max; Saxena, Tanuj; Shur, Michael S.

    2013-04-01

    An omnidirectional antireflection (AR) coating for a deep-ultraviolet (UV) AR band is designed and fabricated on the sapphire substrate of a deep-UV flip-chip light-emitting diode (LED) device. The two-layer AR coating uses the tailored- and low-refractive index nanoporous alumina fabricated by glancing-angle deposition methodology. The AR coating effectively matches the refractive indices between the air and sapphire substrate. At close-to-normal angles of incidence, this AR coating almost completely eliminates the Fresnel reflection at the sapphire/air interface of the deep-UV LED device. The resulting improvement of the light-extraction efficiency by 8% is in good agreement with the simulation results. For a total thickness of 172 nm for the two-layer AR coating, extinction was negligible (coating applications.

  11. Composite films prepared by plasma ion-assisted deposition (IAD) for design and fabrication of antireflection coatings in visible and near-infrared spectral regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Ho, Fang C.

    1994-11-01

    Ion-assisted deposition (IAD) processes configured with a well-controlled plasma source at the center base of a vacuum chamber, which accommodates two independent e-gun sources, is used to deposition TiO2MgF2 and TiO2-SiO2 composite films of selected component ratios. Films prepared by this technology are found durable, uniform, and nonabsorbing in visible and near-IR regions. Single- and multilayer antireflection coatings with refractive index from 1.38 to 2.36 at (lambda) equals 550 nm are presented. Methods of enhancement in optical performance of these coatings are studied. The advantages of AR coatings formed by TiO2-MgF2 composite films over those similar systems consisting of TiO2-SiO2 composite films in both visible and near-IR regions are also presented.

  12. Robust antireflection coatings By UV cross-linking of silica nanoparticles and diazo-resin polycation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Jason I.; Heflin, James R.; Ritter, Alfred L.

    2007-09-01

    Antireflection coatings have been fabricated by self-assembly using silica nanoparticles. The ionic self-assembled multilayer (ISAM) films are tightly packed and homogeneous. While the geometric properties of a matrix of spherical particles with corresponding void interstices are highly suitable to meet the conditions for minimal reflectivity, it is also a cause for the lack of cohesion within the constituent body, as well as to the substrate surface. This study investigates methods for improving the interconnectivity of the nanoparticle structure. One such method involves UV curing of diazo-resin (DAR)/silica nanoparticle films, thereby converting the ionic interaction into a stronger covalent bond. Factorial analysis and response surface methods are incorporated to determine factors that affect film properties, and to optimize their optical and adhesive capabilities. The second study looks at the adhesive strength of composite multilayer films. Films are fabricated with silica nanoparticles and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), and dipped into aqueous solutions of PAH and poly(methacrylic acid, sodium salt) (PMA) to improve cohesion of silica nanoparticles in the matrix, as well as binding strength to the substrate surface. The results of the two studies are discussed.

  13. 碱/酸两步催化法制备耐候性SiO2增透膜的研究%Preparation and Characterization of Environment-Resistant Silica Antireflective Coating by Base/Acid Two-Step Catalyzed Sol-Gel Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    业海平; 张欣向; 肖波; 晏良宏; 江波

    2011-01-01

    Antireflective (AR) coatings with high transmittance and abrasion-resistance were prepared by a two-step base/acid catalyzed sol-gel process using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor. It was found that addition of 50% acid-catalyzed SiO2 in the sol afforded the AR coatings relatively high transmittance and enhanced abrasion-resistance. It provided the AR coating with highest transmittance while the mole ratio of nH2O/nHCl was 1∶0.001 0. The water contact angle of base/acid two-step catalyzed AR coating was 11.3°, in this work,hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS) was further used to modify the hydrophobicity of AR coatings. After HMDS treatment, the hydroxyl groups of AR coating were replaced by -OSi (CH3)3, which greatly increases the hydrophobicity of the coating, affording HMDS modified AR coating excellent environment resistance.%以正硅酸乙酯(TEOS)为先驱体,采用碱/酸两步催化溶胶-凝胶法制备出一种兼具碱催化增透膜的高透过率和酸催化增透膜的良好耐摩擦性能的优点的SiO2增透膜.对酸碱催化SiO2相对比例及酸催化时水含量的系统研究表明,当酸催化SiO2的含量为50%时,增透膜综合性能最好,即具有高透过率和高耐摩擦性;当nH2o/nHCI=1∶0.0010时,增透膜的透过率最高.碱/酸两步催化法制备的增透膜与水的接触角仅为11.3°,本文进一步用六甲基二硅氧烷(HMDS)对增透膜表面进行了修饰,修饰后增透膜的接触角提高至52.5°,增透膜的疏水性及环境稳定性得到较大的提高.

  14. Studies and testing of antireflective (AR) coatings for soda-lime glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastirik, E. M.; Sparks, T. G.; Coleman, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    Processes for producing antireflection films on glass are concentrated in three areas: acid etching of glass, plasma etching of glass, and acid development of sodium silicate films on glass. The best transmission was achieved through the acid etching technique, while the most durable films were produced from development of sodium silicate films. Control of the acid etching technique is presently inadequate for production implementation. While films having excellent antireflective properties were fabricated by plasma etching techniques, all were water soluble.

  15. Wide band antireflective coatings Al2O3 / HfO2 / MgF2 for UV region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkowski, P.; Marszałek, Konstanty W.

    2013-07-01

    Deposition technology of the three layers antireflective coatings consists of hafnium compound are presented in this paper. Oxide films were deposited by means of e-gun evaporation in vacuum of 5x10-5 mbar in presence of oxygen and fluoride films by thermal evaporation. Substrate temperature was 250°C. Coatings were deposited onto optical lenses made from quartz glass (Corning HPFS). Thickness and deposition rate were controlled by thickness measuring system Inficon XTC/2. Simulations leading to optimization of thickness and experimental results of optical measurements carried during and after deposition process were presented. Physical thickness measurements were made during deposition process and were equal to 43 nm/74 nm/51 nm for Al2O3 / HfO2 / MgF2 respectively. Optimization was carried out for ultraviolet region from 230nm to the beginning of visible region 400 nm. In this region the average reflectance of the antireflective coating was less than 0.5% in the whole range of application.

  16. Design and preparation of frequency doubling antireflection coating with different thicknesses of interlayer for LiB3O5 crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenxia Deng; Huihui Gao; Lianjun Xiao; Hongbo He; Zhengxiu Fan; Jianda Shao

    2007-01-01

    Design and preparation of frequency doubling antireflection coating with different thicknesses of interlayer were investigated for LiB3O5 (LBO) substrate. The design was based on the vector method. The thickness of the inserted SiO2 interlayer could be changed in a wide range for the four-layer design with two zeros at 1064 and 532 nm. The coatings without any interlayer and with 0.1 quarter-wave (λ/4), 0.3 λ/4, 0.5 λ/4 SiO2 interlayer were deposited respectively on LBO by using electron beam evaporation technique.All the prepared coatings with SiO2 interlayer indicated satisfying optical behavior. This expanded our option for the thickness of an interlayer when coating on LBO substrate. The prepared films with SiO2 interlayer showed better adhesion than that without any interlayer. The thickness of the interlayer affected the adhesion, the adhesion for the coating with 0.5 λ/4 SiO2 interlayer was not as good as the other two.

  17. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger;

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an...... index of the nanostructured surfaces was estimated from atomic force micrographs and the theoretical reflectance was calculated using the transfer matrix method and effective medium theory. The measured reflectance shows good agreement with the theory of graded index antireflective nanostructures...

  18. Synthesis of antireflective silica coatings through the synergy of polypeptide layer-by-layer assemblies and biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-Lun; Lin, Ting-Xuan; Hsu, Feng-Ming; Jan, Jeng-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    We report a versatile approach to synthesize silica coatings with antireflective (AR) characteristics through the combination of a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique and biomineralization. LbL assembled decanoyl-modified poly(l-lysine)/poly(l-glutamic acid) (PLL-g-Dec/PLGA) multilayer films were used as templates for silica mineralization, followed by calcination. The specific deposition of silica onto the LbL polypeptide assemblies through amine-catalyzed polycondensation resulted in silica coatings that exhibited the transcription of the nano-/microstructured polypeptide films and their film thickness and porosity can be tuned by varying the number of bilayers, degree of substitution, and PLL molecular weight. AR silica coatings exhibiting more than 6% increase in transmittance in the near UV/visible spectral range can be obtained at an optimized refractive index, thickness, and surface roughness. The abrasion test showed that the silica coatings exhibited sufficient structural durability due to continuous silica nanostructures and low surface roughness. This study demonstrated that nanostructured thin films can be synthesized for AR coatings using the synergy between the LbL assembly technique and biomineralization.We report a versatile approach to synthesize silica coatings with antireflective (AR) characteristics through the combination of a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique and biomineralization. LbL assembled decanoyl-modified poly(l-lysine)/poly(l-glutamic acid) (PLL-g-Dec/PLGA) multilayer films were used as templates for silica mineralization, followed by calcination. The specific deposition of silica onto the LbL polypeptide assemblies through amine-catalyzed polycondensation resulted in silica coatings that exhibited the transcription of the nano-/microstructured polypeptide films and their film thickness and porosity can be tuned by varying the number of bilayers, degree of substitution, and PLL molecular weight. AR silica coatings exhibiting

  19. Employing SiO_2 Buffer Layer to Improve Adhesion of the Frequency-doubled Antireflection Coating on LBO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Tianya; SHAN Jing; WU Wei; GUO Yongxin; SHAO Jianda; FAN Zhengxiu

    2009-01-01

    Frequency-doubled antireflection coatings simultaneously effective at 1064 nm and 532 nm were deposited on the lithium triborate(LiB_3O_5 or LBO)crystals using the electron beam evaporation method.Comparing with the sample without buffer layer,it is found that the adhesion of the sample with buffer layer of SiO_2 between coating and LBO substrate is improved significantly from 137.4 mN to greater than 200 mN.And the laser-induced damage threshold is increased by 20% from 15.1 J/cm~2 to 18.6 J/cm~2 .The strengthening mechanism of adhesion of the buffer layer of SiO_2 is discussed by considering full plastic indentation and shear theory.

  20. Two-layer anti-reflection coating with mullite and polyimide foam for large-diameter cryogenic infrared filters

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Yuki; Hasegawa, Masaya; Hazumi, Masashi; Hori, Yasuto; Suzuki, Aritoki; Tomaru, Takayuki; Matsumura, Tomotake; Sakata, Toshifumi; Minamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirai, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a novel two-layer anti-reflection (AR) coating method for large-diameter infrared (IR) filters made of alumina, for the use at cryogenic temperatures in millimeter wave measurements. Thermally- sprayed mullite and polyimide foam (Skybond Foam) are used as the AR material. An advantage of the Skybond Foam is that the index of refraction is chosen between 1.1 and 1.7 by changing the filling factor. Combination with mullite is suitable for wide-band millimeter wave measurements with sufficient IR cutoff capability. We present the material properties, fabrication of a large-diameter IR filter made of alumina with this AR coating method, and characterizations at cryogenic temperatures. This technology can be applied to a low-temperature receiver system with a large-diameter focal plane for next-generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization measurements, such as POLARBEAR-2 (PB-2).

  1. Almost zero reflectance of a silicon oxynitride/porous silicon double layer antireflection coating for silicon photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aroutiounian, V M [Department of Semiconductor Physics and Microelectronics, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoukian Street, Yerevan 375025 (Armenia); Martirosyan, Kh [Department of Semiconductor Physics and Microelectronics, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoukian Street, Yerevan 375025 (Armenia); Soukiassian, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Laboratoire SIMA associe a l' Universite de Paris-Sud/Orsay, DSM/DRECAM/SPCSI, Batiment 462, Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-04-21

    Reflectance spectrum calculations for a silicon oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y})-porous silicon (PS) double layer antireflection coating is performed using the matrix method. The results are compared with the corresponding spectrum of diamond-like carbon (DLC)/PS and SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} double layer coatings. A lower reflectance in the visible and infrared regions of the solar spectrum for the SiO{sub x}N{sub y}/PS double layer is obtained, especially in the 450-600 nm spectral range (with a flat reflectance response remaining as low as {approx}0.01%), which corresponds to the maximum intensity of solar irradiation. These findings are of importance in solar cell applications.

  2. Design and fabrication of a SiOx/ITO double-layer anti-reflective coating for heterojunction silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D.; Digdaya, A.; Santbergen, R.; Van Swaaij, R.A.C.M.M.; Zeman, M. [Photovoltaic Materials and Devices, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5031, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Bronsveld, P.; Van Roosmalen, J.A.M.; Weeber, A.W. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    In this contribution optical simulations of both flat and textured heterojunction silicon solar cells are presented and verified experimentally. Using Advanced Semiconductor Analysis (ASA) software, we optimize a double-layer anti-reflective (AR) coating, which has an additional SiOx film on the top of the existing indium tin oxide (ITO) coating. Our approach is based on maximizing the absorbance of the crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer, which is strongly correlated with the solar cell's short circuit current (Jsc). Our simulations show that for a flat heterojunction silicon solar cell c-Si absorbance can increase by using a double-layer AR coating instead of a single-layer AR coating. As predicted by the simulations, experimental devices show corresponding Jsc increase, leading to the increase of the solar cell efficiency. On a textured heterojunction silicon solar cell the incident light travels an oblique path through the AR coating and we use an advanced ray-tracing model to optimize the single and double-layer AR coating for this case. Our simulations show that for the textured heterojunction silicon solar cell, reflection losses are lower but parasitic absorption losses in the ITO and amorphous silicon layers play a more important role. Using a double-layer AR coating not only reduces reflection losses further, but because a thinner ITO layer can be used it also reduces parasitic absorption losses. Experimentally, our textured heterojunction silicon solar cell with a double-layer AR coating shows that the Jsc (active area) of 40.5 mA/cm{sup 2} and an efficiency of 19.0%.

  3. Antireflection and self-cleaning properties of a moth-eye-like surface coated with TiO2 particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Kazuya; Sakai, Munetoshi; Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Taketoshi; Takagi, Katsuhiko; Fujishima, Akira

    2011-04-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films with a moth-eye-like surface are coated with TiO(2) particles to form self-cleaning antireflective films. The use of a TiO(2) suspension of high concentration to coat the PET surface produces a thicker TiO(2) layer with smaller pores, whereas a low concentration of a TiO(2) suspension gives a thinner layer of TiO(2) with larger pores. The PET films coated with TiO(2) particles exhibit a high transmittance of 76-95% and almost no absorption in the range of 400-800 nm. The PET films coated with a TiO(2) suspension with a concentration of ≥2 vol % exhibit superhydrophilicity after irradiation with UV light. After irradiation, the superhydrophilic nature is retained for at least 18 days. The TiO(2)-coated PET films showed the ability to decompose methylene blue under UV irradiation. PMID:21391643

  4. Antireflection coating formed by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition for terahertz-frequency germanium optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosako, Iwao

    2003-07-01

    A method of manufacturing optical coatings for germanium optics used at terahertz frequencies has been developed. The various optical coatings used at terahertz frequencies are difficult to manufacture conventionally because these coatings must be as thick as several tens of micrometers, which is far thicker than those used in the optical region. One way to overcome this problem is to form a silicon oxide layer through plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition, with silane (SiH4) as a source gas. Using this method, I formed 21-μm-thick silicon oxide films as antireflection (AR) layers for germanium optics and obtained low reflection at 1.7 THz (wavelength, λ = 175 μm). This method is easily applied to large-aperture optics and micro-optics as well as to optics with a complex surface form. The AR coatings can also be formed for photoconductive detectors made from germanium doped with gallium at a low temperature (160 °C) this low temperature ensures that the doped impurities in the germanium do not diffuse. Fabrication of optical coatings upon substrates that have refractive indices of 3.84-11.7 may also be possible by control of the refractive indices of the deposited layers.

  5. Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coatings for metal-backed solar cells optimized using simulated annealing algorithm incorporated with solar spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Jung; Chen, Yu-Ting

    2011-07-01

    Broadband omnidirectional antireflection (AR) coatings for solar cells optimized using simulated annealing (SA) algorithm incorporated with the solar (irradiance) spectrum at Earth's surface (AM1.57 radiation) are described. Material dispersions and reflections from the planar backside metal are considered in the rigorous electromagnetic calculations. Optimized AR coatings for bulk crystalline Si and thin-film CuIn(1-x)GaxSe(2) (CIGS) solar cells as two representative cases are presented and the effect of solar spectrum in the AR coating designs is investigated. In general, the angle-averaged reflectance of a solar-spectrum-incorporated AR design is shown to be smaller and more uniform in the spectral range with relatively stronger solar irradiance. By incorporating the transparent conductive and buffer layers as part of the AR coating in CIGS solar cells (2μm-thick CIGS layer), a single MgF(2) layer could provide an average reflectance of 8.46% for wavelengths ranging from 350 nm to 1200 nm and incident angles from 0° to 80°. PMID:21747557

  6. Influence of Vacuum Organic Contaminations on Laser-Induced Damage of 1064 nm Anti-Reflective Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yun; LIU Shi-Jie; HE Hong-Bo; ZHAO Yuan-An; SHAO Jian-Da; FAN Zheng-Xiu

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the influence of vacuum organic contaminations on laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of optical coatings. Anti-reflective (AR) coatings at 1064nm made by Ta2O5/SiO2 are deposited by the ion beam sputtering method. The LIDTs of AR coatings are measured in vacuum and in atmosphere, respectively. It is exhibited that contaminations in vacuum are easily to be absorbed onto optical surface because of lower pressure,and they become origins of damage, resulting in the decrease of LIDT from 24.5 J/cm2 in air to 15.7J/cm2 in vacuum. The LIDT of coatings in vacuum has is slightly changed compared with the value in atmosphere after the organic contaminations are wiped off. These results indicate that organic contaminations are the main reason of the LIDT decrease in vacuum. Additionally, damage morphologies have distinct changes from vacuum to atmosphere because of the differences between the residual stress and thermal decomposability of filmy materials.

  7. Long term testing and evaluation of PV modules with and without Sunarc antireflective coating of the cover glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Han, Jiangong; Kong, Weiqiang; Stergiakis, Stamoulis

    2015-01-01

    3% up to 6%. The improvement is best in facade and off south tilted orientations, where the better incidence angle modifier, has a larger influence. In the PV application only one side of the glass treatment is active. This reduces the possible improvement compared to solar thermal and greenhouse...... applications. In PV applications the slightly higher cell temperature, due to the higher transmittance of the glass for all solar wavelengths, reduces the potential electrical performance improvement.......Two Photovoltaic (PV) modules have been manufactured by Swemodule. One with Sunarc antireflective coated glass and one without glass surface treatment. The modules have been tested at DTU during 16 months under realistic outdoor conditions. Exactly the same polycrystalline cells were used in the...

  8. Dual wavelength laser-induced damage threshold measurements of alumina/silica and hafnia/silica ultraviolet antireflective coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrohs, Marius; Jensen, Lars; Günster, Stefan; Alig, Thimotheus; Ristau, Detlev

    2016-01-01

    An approach for the measurement of the laser-induced damage threshold with two wavelengths combined was made while testing antireflective coatings for the wavelengths 266 and 532 nm. Samples were made of Al2O3/SiO2 and HfO2/SiO2 ion beam sputtered films. The results show that adding radiation of a second wavelength might lead to a significant reduction of the threshold. The damage morphology of single and dual wavelength tests is very similar and does not suggest an altered damage mechanism. Further investigations indicated that the dual wavelength threshold is a function of the temporal delay of the two pulses. PMID:26835628

  9. Preparation and stress evolution of sol–gel SiO2 antireflective coatings for small-size anisotropic lithium triborate crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Bingtao Tian; Xiaodong Wang; Yanyan Niu; Jinlong Zhang; Qinghua Zhang; Zhihua Zhang; Guangming Wu; Bin Zhou; Jun Shen

    2016-01-01

    Lithium triborate (LiB3O5, LBO) crystal is now one of the most useful nonlinear optical materials for frequency conversion of high power lasers. The use of the crystal, however, has been hampered by the unavailability of antireflective (AR) coatings with high laser damage resistance. In this work, a “point contact” dip-coating method is developed to prepare sol–gel SiO2 AR coatings on small-size LBO crystals. Using this approach, we obtain a homogenous coating surface on an 8 mm×8 mm×3 mm LBO...

  10. An abrasion-resistant and broadband antireflective silica coating by block copolymer assisted sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liping; Li, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Qinghua; Shen, Jun

    2014-09-01

    A double-layer broadband antireflective (AR) coating was prepared on glass substrate via sol-gel process using two kinds of acid-catalyzed TEOS-derived silica sols. The relative dense layer with a porosity of ∼10% was obtained from an as-prepared sol, while the porous layer with a porosity of ∼55% was from a modified one with block copolymer (BCP) Pluronic F127 as template which results in abundant ordered mesopores. The two layers give rise to a reasonable refractive index gradient from air to the substrate and thus high transmittance in a wide wavelength range, and both of them have the same tough skeleton despite different porosity, for which each single-layer and the double-layer coatings all behaved well in the mechanical property tests. The high transmittance and the strong ability of resisting abrasion make this coating promising for applications in some harsh conditions. In addition, the preparation is simple, low-cost, time-saving, and flexible for realizing the optical property. PMID:25117300

  11. Radiation sensitive developable bottom anti-reflective coatings (DBARC) for 193nm lithography: first generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toukhy, Medhat; Oberlander, Joseph; Mullen, Salem; Lu, PingHung; Neisser, Mark

    2007-03-01

    A first generation DBARC applicable for 1 st minimum 193nm lithography is described in this paper. The polymer used in this DBARC is insoluble in the casting solvent of the resist, which is propyleneglycolmonomethyletheracetate (PGMEA). Photo acid generator (PAG) and base extractions from the DBARC coating by the resist casting solvent were examined by the DBARC dissolution rates in the developer, before and after solvent treatments. Although the resist and the DBARC do not appear to intermix, strong interaction between the two is evident by their lithographic performance and dissolution rate study.

  12. TiO2/Ni composite as antireflection coating for solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Adawiya J.; Najim, Aus A.; Muhi, Malik A. H.

    2016-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) considered as one of the best material already used as a window in solar cells due to its antireflection capability. In this work, pure and Ni-doped (1, 3 and 5 wt%) TiO2 thin films were deposited using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The optical measurements obtained by UV-vis indicate that the highest optical band gap was found with (5%) doping level (Eg=3.82 eV), corresponding to a lower reflectance and higher transmittance. Empirical equations between energy band gap and concentration level, reflectance with energy band gap, refractive index and concentration have been determined; a perfect fit with the experimental data was obtained.

  13. High efficiency antireflection coating in MWIR region (3.6-4.9 μm) simultaneously effective for Germanium and Silicon optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Meenakshi; Nautiyal, B. B.; Bandyopadhyay, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Antireflection coatings have critical importance in thermal imaging system working in MWIR region (3-5 μm) since optics of high refractive index materials are used. Germanium (Ge) and Silicon (Si) optics are used extensively in the MWIR thermal systems. In this paper a study has been carried out on the design and fabrication of multi-substrate antireflection coating effective for Germanium and Silicon optics in MWIR (3.6-4.9 μm) region. The wave band 3.6-4.9 μm is chosen for the reported work because detector system used in MWIR region has a band selection filter effective in the same wavelength region and atmospheric transmission window in MWIR region is effective in 3-5 μm spectral band. Comprehensive search method was used to design the multilayer stack on the substrate. The coating materials used in the design were Germanium (Ge), Hafnium oxide (HfO 2) and Y-Ba-Fluoride (IR-F625). The fabrication of coating was made in a coating plant fitted with Cryo pump system and residual gas analyzer (RGA). The evaporation was carried out at high vacuum (2-6 × 10 -6 mbar) with the help of electron beam gun system and layer thicknesses were measured with crystal monitor. The result achieved for the antireflection coating was 98.5% average transmission in 3.6-4.9 μm band for Germanium and Silicon optics. This work will be helpful in reducing the plant operation time, material and power consumption, as two different kinds of optics are simultaneously coated in a single coating cycle.

  14. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger;

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an...... injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  15. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger;

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an...... injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  16. Comparison of Base-catalyzed Silica Antireflective Coatings Modified by Different Surface Treatments of Water-NH3 and/or Hexamethyldisilazane Vapors%水氨或/和六甲基二硅氮烷表面处理碱催化二氧化硅增透膜结果的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍艳芳; 罗荣辉; 苏永钢

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the shortcoming that base-catalyzed quarter-wave silica antireflective coatings,prepared by sol-gel method,are porous and therefore low environment-resistant,water/NH3 vapor and/or hexamethyldisilazane vapor were utilized to modify the surface of these coatings to obtain high hydrophobicity and abrasion-resistance.Otherwise,comparison between different modified results from single vapor and combined vapors,were carried out to show the changes of coatings' physical properties and microstructures after different surface modifications and the influence of the treated order of combined vapors to the result coatings.According to the investigations,some conclusion can be drawn that water-ammonia vapor treatment facilitates the cross-link between hydroxyl groups in coatings,which reduces the film thickness,strengthens the abrasion-resistance,and simultaneously maintains the high transmittance; hexamethyldisilazane vapor treatment introduces methyl groups into coatings,making the polarity of coating surface and the interaction between particles decreased obviously,leading to poorer abrasion-resistance but fortunately,distinctly improved hydrophobicity; when coatings are treated by water-ammonia combined hexamethyldisilazane vapor,the water-ammonia vapor firstly strengthens the abrasion-resistance and meanwhile reduces the amount of hydroxyl groups which hindered the later hexamethyldisilazane vapor treatment,finally obtaining AR coatings with good abrasion-resistance and a certain extent of hydrophobicity; when coatings are treated by hexamethyldisilazane combined water-ammonia vapor,the hexamethyldisilazane vapor obviously improves the hydrophobicity but weakens the effect of water-ammonia vapor,resulting in a slight weaker abrasion-resistance compared to that after single water-ammonia vapor treatment.%针对溶胶-凝胶法制备的1/4波长二氧化硅增透膜耐环境性差的缺点,对其进行了水氨或/和六甲基二硅氮烷的表面处理,并对单

  17. Ion-plasma way of receiving strengthening heat reflecting anti-reflection coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ion-plasma deposition strengthening heat reflecting clarifying coatings is developed for plastic screens of means of individual protection. The method of magnetron sputtering are received strengthening coatings with integrated coefficient of a transmission in visible area of a range more than 96%

  18. Measurements and simulations of the optical gain and anti-reflection coating modal reflectivity in quantum cascade lasers with multiple active region stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report spectrally resolved gain measurements and simulations for quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) composed of multiple heterogeneous stacks designed for broadband emission in the mid-infrared. The measurement method is first demonstrated on a reference single active region QCL based on a double-phonon resonance design emitting at 7.8 μm. It is then extended to a three-stack active region based on bound-to-continuum designs with a broadband emission range from 7.5 to 10.5 μm. A tight agreement is found with simulations based on a density matrix model. The latter implements exhaustive microscopic scattering and dephasing sources with virtually no fitting parameters. The quantitative agreement is furthermore assessed by measuring gain coefficients obtained by studying the threshold current dependence with the cavity length. These results are particularly relevant to understand fundamental gain mechanisms in complex semiconductor heterostructure QCLs and to move towards efficient gain engineering. Finally, the method is extended to the measurement of the modal reflectivity of an anti-reflection coating deposited on the front facet of the broadband QCL

  19. Measurements and simulations of the optical gain and anti-reflection coating modal reflectivity in quantum cascade lasers with multiple active region stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidaux, Y.; Terazzi, R.; Bismuto, A.; Gresch, T.; Blaser, S.; Muller, A.; Faist, J.

    2015-09-01

    We report spectrally resolved gain measurements and simulations for quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) composed of multiple heterogeneous stacks designed for broadband emission in the mid-infrared. The measurement method is first demonstrated on a reference single active region QCL based on a double-phonon resonance design emitting at 7.8 μm. It is then extended to a three-stack active region based on bound-to-continuum designs with a broadband emission range from 7.5 to 10.5 μm. A tight agreement is found with simulations based on a density matrix model. The latter implements exhaustive microscopic scattering and dephasing sources with virtually no fitting parameters. The quantitative agreement is furthermore assessed by measuring gain coefficients obtained by studying the threshold current dependence with the cavity length. These results are particularly relevant to understand fundamental gain mechanisms in complex semiconductor heterostructure QCLs and to move towards efficient gain engineering. Finally, the method is extended to the measurement of the modal reflectivity of an anti-reflection coating deposited on the front facet of the broadband QCL.

  20. Realization of Colored Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells with SiO2/SiNx:H Double Layer Antireflection Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We presented a method to use SiO2/SiNx:H double layer antireflection coatings (DARC on acid textures to fabricate colored multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si solar cells. Firstly, we modeled the perceived colors and short-circuit current density (Jsc as a function of SiNx:H thickness for single layer SiNx:H, and as a function of SiO2 thickness for the case of SiO2/SiNx:H (DARC with fixed SiNx:H (refractive index n=2.1 at 633 nm, and thickness = 80 nm. The simulation results show that it is possible to achieve various colors by adjusting the thickness of SiO2 to avoid significant optical losses. Therefore, we carried out the experiments by using electron beam (e-beam evaporation to deposit a layer of SiO2 over the standard SiNx:H for 156×156 mm2 mc-Si solar cells which were fabricated by a conventional process. Semisphere reflectivity over 300 nm to 1100 nm and I-V measurements were performed for grey yellow, purple, deep blue, and green cells. The efficiency of colored SiO2/SiNx:H DARC cells is comparable to that of standard SiNx:H light blue cells, which shows the potential of colored cells in industrial applications.

  1. Magnetron sputtered TiO/sub 2/ and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ antireflection coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical and structural properties of single- and double-layer films from TiO/sub 2/ and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, obtained by the method of reactive magnetron sputtering at direct current are investigated with values of a discharge current density 5, 10 and 20 mA/cm/sup 2/ and partial oxygen presence P=8.7*10/sup -2/ Pa. The films were deposited on the silicon and quartz substrates using pipeline type magnetron apparatus with three magnetrons. The Ti- and Al - targets were installed on the magnetron's cathodes. The results of X-ray diffraction (RXD) evidence that the TiO/sub 2/ films have structure of anatase modification and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ films were amorphous. With the growth of the discharge current density the films with higher values of refraction coefficient were deposited. Computer simulation showed that the utilisation of the obtained TiO/sub 2/ and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ films one can be make double-layer antireflection coating. (AC) with an average value of the reflection coefficient not exceeding 3% within the spectral range of 0.4 - 1.1 mu m. (author)

  2. Rapid replication and facile modulation of subwavelength antireflective polymer film using injection nanomolding and optical property of multilayer coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Peng, Cheng-Chang; Huang, Chieh-Tse

    2013-10-01

    A rapid, cost-effective and high-throughput process for nanotexturing subwavelength structures with high uniformity using the polycarbonate (PC) is realized via injection nanomolding. The process enables the precise control of nanohole array (NHA) surface topography (nanohole depth, diameter, and periodicity) over large areas thereby presenting a highly versatile platform for fabricating substrates with user-defined, functional performance. Specifically, the optical property of the PC substrates were systematically characterized and tuned through the modulation of the depths of NHA. The aspect ratio submicron holes can be easily modulated and experimentally proven by simply adjusting the molding temperature. The nanotextured depths were reliably fabricated in the range of 200 to 400 nm with a period of approximately 700 nm. The fabricated PC films can reduce the reflectivity from an original bare film of 10.2% and 8.9% to 1.4% and 2.1% with 400-nm depth of nanoholes at the wavelength of 400 and 550 nm, respectively. Compared with conventional moth-like nanostructures with nanopillar arrays with heights adjustable only by an etching process, this paper proposes a facile route with submicron holes to achieve a similar antireflective function, with a significantly reduced time and facile height modulation capability. Furthermore, the effects of multilayer coatings of dielectric and metallic layers on the nanomolded NHA have been performed and potential sensing application is explored.

  3. Nanocrystalline ZnO film deposited by ultrasonic spray on textured silicon substrate as an anti-reflection coating layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ZnO thin film was successfully synthesized on glass, flat surface and textured silicon substrates by chemical spray deposition. The textured silicon substrate was carried out using two solutions (NaOH/IPA and Na2CO3). Textured with Na2CO3 solution, the sample surface exhibits uniform pyramids with an average height of 5 μm. The properties and morphology of ZnO films were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra revealed a preferred orientation of the ZnO nanocrystalline film along the c-axis where the low value of the tensile strain 0.26% was obtained. SEM images show that all films display a granular, polycrystalline morphology. The morphology of the ZnO layers depends dramatically on the substrate used and follows the contours of the pyramids on the substrate surface. The average reflectance of the textured surface was found to be around 13% and it decreases dramatically to 2.57% after deposition of a ZnO antireflection coating. FT-IR peaks arising from the bonding between Zn-O are clearly represented using a silicon textured surface. A very intense photoluminescence (PL) emission peak is observed for ZnO/textured Si, revealing the good quality of the layer. The PL peak at 380.5 nm (UV emission) and the high-intensity PL peak at 427.5 nm are observed and a high luminescence occurs when using a textured Si substrate.

  4. Nano-Enabled Low-Cost High-Performance UV Anti-Reflection Coatings Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Agiltron together with Prof. Michael Rubner's group at MIT is developing a new family of nanoporous, low refractive index coatings for next generation NASA UV...

  5. Broad Bandwidth Meta-Material Antireflection Coatings for Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The effort's objective is to realize broadband low-reflectance coatings. The two key technical challenges are the design of the precision engineered materials...

  6. Broad Band Antireflection Coating on Zinc Sulphide Window for Shortwave infrared cum Night Vision System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In state of art technology, integrated devices are widely used or their potential advantages. Common system reduces weight as well as total space covered by its various parts. In the state of art surveillance system integrated SWIR and night vision system used for more accurate identification of object. In this system a common optical window is used, which passes the radiation of both the regions, further both the spectral regions are separated in two channels. ZnS is a good choice for a common window, as it transmit both the region of interest, night vision (650 – 850 nm) as well as SWIR (0.9 – 1.7 μm). In this work a broad band anti reflection coating is developed on ZnS window to enhance the transmission. This seven layer coating is designed using flip flop design method. After getting the final design, some minor refinement is done, using simplex method. SiO2 and TiO2 coating material combination is used for this work. The coating is fabricated by physical vapour deposition process and the materials were evaporated by electron beam gun. Average transmission of both side coated substrate from 660 to 1700 nm is 95%. This coating also acts as contrast enhancement filter for night vision devices, as it reflect the region of 590 – 660 nm. Several trials have been conducted to check the coating repeatability, and it is observed that transmission variation in different trials is not very much and it is under the tolerance limit. The coating also passes environmental test for stability.

  7. Defect Band Luminescence Intensity Reversal as Related to Application of Anti-Reflection Coating on mc-Si PV Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrey, H.; Johnston, S.; Yan, F.; Gorman, B.; Al-Jassim, M.

    2012-06-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) imaging is widely used to identify defective regions within mc-Si PV cells. Recent PL imaging investigations of defect band luminescence (DBL) in mc-Si have revealed a perplexing phenomenon. Namely, the reversal of the DBL intensity in various regions of mc-Si PV material upon the application of a SiNx:H anti-reflective coating (ARC). Regions with low DBL intensity before ARC application often exhibit high DBL intensity afterwards, and the converse is also true. PL imaging alone cannot explain this effect. We have used high resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy and electron beam induced current (EBIC) techniques to elucidate the origin of the DBL intensity reversal. Multiple sub-bandgap energy levels were identified that change in peak position and intensity upon the application of the ARC. Using this data, in addition to EBIC contrast information, we provide an explanation for the DBL intensity reversal based on the interaction of the detected energy levels with the SiNx:H ARC application. Multiple investigations have suggested that this is a global problem for mc-Si PV cells. Our results have the potential to provide mc-Si PV producers a pathway to increased efficiencies through defect mitigation strategies.

  8. Perfect anti-reflection from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Q-Han Park

    2013-01-01

    Reducing unwanted reflections through impedance matching, called anti-reflection, has long been an important challenge in optics and electrical engineering. Beyond trial and error optimization, however, a systematic way to realize anti-reflection is still absent. Here, we report the discovery of an analytic solution to this long standing problem. For electromagnetic waves, we find the graded permittivity and permeability that completely remove any given impedance mismatch. We demonstrate that perfect broadband anti-reflection is possible when a dispersive, graded refractive index medium is used for the impedance-matching layer. We also present a design rule for the ultra-thin anti-reflection coating which we confirm experimentally by showing the anti-reflection behavior of an exemplary λ/25-thick coating made of metamaterials. This work opens a new path to anti-reflection applications in optoelectronic device, transmission line and stealth technologies.

  9. Antireflection coating on germanium for dual channel (3-5 and 7.5-10.6 μm) thermal imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Kant, P.; Bandyopadhyay, P. K.; Chandra, P.; Nijhawan, O. P.

    1999-02-01

    The dual channel thermal imager, operating in the 3-5 and 7.5-10.6 μm wavelength bands, is one of the latest achievements in instrumentation for target recognition and acquisition. While the 3-5 μm band is utilised for detecting hot objects such as engine exhausts of vehicles and fighter planes, the 7.5-10.6 μm band is employed for human bodies and objects at ambient temperatures. Many substrates are available which transmit in both these wavelength bands and their transmission can be enhanced by providing a suitable antireflection coating. In this paper, a broad band antireflection coating on germanium substrate is reported. The design approach involves achieving a continuously varying refractive index from that of the incident medium to the substrate. The continuously varying refractive index profile may be generated by using a sequence of thin layers of high and low refractive index materials. In this design a continuous refractive index profile is approximated by using a 13-layer stack of thorium fluoride and germanium as low and high index coating materials respectively. This coating conforms to environmental stability standards and shows an average transmission of 91% in 3-5 μm band and 94.5% in 7.5-10.6 μm band with a peak of 97% at 9 μm on 10 mm thick germanium substrate. Polycrystalline germanium has 2.5% absorption for a 10 mm thick substrate.

  10. Review of modern techniques to generate antireflective properties on thermoplastic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Ulrike

    2006-03-01

    Modern optical applications need solutions for providing polymer surfaces with antireflective properties. The problems involved in coating comprise thermal limitations, incompatible mechanical properties of coating and substrate materials, and interaction between polymers and plasma. As an alternative for coating, antireflective properties on polymers can also be obtained by hot embossing or by ion etching of surface structures. My objective is to provide the criteria for choosing suitable deposition or structuring methods based on an understanding of plasma-, radiation-, and ion-induced surface phenomena; material compatibility; mechanical and environmental performance; and cost issues. The potential to produce antireflective interference coatings is documented for plasma-enhanced physical- and chemical-vapor-deposition methods, including modern hybrid techniques, as well as for solgel wet-chemical processes. The review about state-of-the-art coatings focuses on the thermoplastic acrylic, polycarbonate, and cycloolefin polymers.

  11. Application of ionized cluster beam to anti-reflection coating of transmission windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High transmission films with high adhesive strength have been developed by using the ionized cluster beam (ICB) method. It was demonstrated that the acceleration voltage plays a very important role in controlling the optical quality of films. The transmission windows obtained are as follows. (1) The germanium (Ge) window coated with a zinc sulfide (ZnS) film obtained at 3 kV acceleration voltage had a transmittance of 96% at 10 μm wavelength and the adhesive strength of the film obtained was over 430 kg cm-2, which endured even after thermal treatment at 4600C. (2) The zinc sulfide (ZnS) window coated with lead fluoride (PbF2) film obtained by controlling the acceleration voltage within the range from 0.5 kV to zero had a transmittance of 95% at 10 μm wavelength and the adhesive strength of the film was 240 kg cm-2. (author)

  12. Sol gel TiO2 antireflection coatings for silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; M. Szindler

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper was to investigate changes in surface morphology and optical reflection of thin films of titanium dioxide. Thin films were prepared using sol gel spin coating method.Design/methodology/approach: The microanalysis have been investigated by the Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy EDS. The changes in surface topography was observed by the atomic force microscope AFM and scanning electron microscope SEM. The results of roughness have been prepared in the software X...

  13. Preparation and stress evolution of sol-gel SiO2 antireflective coatings for small-size anisotropic lithium triborate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bingtao; Wang, Xiaodong; Niu, Yanyan; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhang, Zhihua; Wu, Guangming; Zhou, Bin; Shen, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Lithium triborate (LiB3O5, LBO) crystal is now one of the most useful nonlinear optical materials for frequency conversion of high power lasers. The use of the crystal, however, has been hampered by the unavailability of antireflective (AR) coatings with high laser damage resistance. In this work, a "point contact" dip-coating method is developed to prepare sol-gel SiO2 AR coatings on small-size LBO crystals. Using this approach, we obtain a homogenous coating surface on an 8 mm×8 mm×3 mm LBO crystal. The stress measurements show that the stresses in sol-gel SiO2 coatings vary with the time of natural drying, which is beyond our expectation. The anisotropic Young's modulus of the LBO crystal and the different evolution tendency of the stress in the different SiO2 coating layers are found to be responsible for the crack of the double-layer AR coatings on anisotropic LBO crystal. Meanwhile, the resulting coatings on LBO crystal achieve a LIDT of over 15 J/cm2 (532 nm, 3ns) and the coated LBO is expected to have a transmittance of over 99% at 800 nm.

  14. Preparation and stress evolution of sol–gel SiO2 antireflective coatings for small-size anisotropic lithium triborate crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtao Tian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium triborate (LiB3O5, LBO crystal is now one of the most useful nonlinear optical materials for frequency conversion of high power lasers. The use of the crystal, however, has been hampered by the unavailability of antireflective (AR coatings with high laser damage resistance. In this work, a “point contact” dip-coating method is developed to prepare sol–gel SiO2 AR coatings on small-size LBO crystals. Using this approach, we obtain a homogenous coating surface on an 8 mm×8 mm×3 mm LBO crystal. The stress measurements show that the stresses in sol–gel SiO2 coatings vary with the time of natural drying, which is beyond our expectation. The anisotropic Young’s modulus of the LBO crystal and the different evolution tendency of the stress in the different SiO2 coating layers are found to be responsible for the crack of the double-layer AR coatings on anisotropic LBO crystal. Meanwhile, the resulting coatings on LBO crystal achieve a LIDT of over 15 J/cm2 (532 nm, 3ns and the coated LBO is expected to have a transmittance of over 99% at 800 nm.

  15. Optimal design and fabrication method for antireflection coatings for P-polarized 193 nm laser beam at large angles of incidence (68°-74°).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingcheng; Jin, Chunshui; Li, Chun; Deng, Wenyuan; Chang, Yanhe

    2013-09-01

    Most of the optical axes in modern systems are bent for optomechanical considerations. Antireflection (AR) coatings for polarized light at oblique incidence are widely used in optical surfaces like prisms or multiform lenses to suppress undesirable reflections. The optimal design and fabrication method for AR coatings with large-angle range (68°-74°) for a P-polarized 193 nm laser beam is discussed in detail. Experimental results showed that after coating, the reflection loss of a P-polarized laser beam at large angles of incidence on the optical surfaces is reduced dramatically, which could greatly improve the output efficiency of the optical components in the deep ultraviolet vacuum range. PMID:24323257

  16. Effect of diffuse roof cover with anti-reflection coating for roses; Effect van diffuus kasdek met Anti Reflectie coating bij Roos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Victoria, N.; Kempkes, F.

    2012-10-15

    The rose Red Naomi was cultivated in two greenhouses at Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture in Bleiswijk, Netherlands (August 2010 - September 2011). One greenhouse covered with normal float glass; the other with AR coated diffuse glass (70% haze). This Anti-Reflection coating on both glass sides compensated for the loss in light transmission caused by the diffusing structure in the glass. The diffuse AR glass lead to a 5.2% higher production (>6.1% fresh weight). Sunscreens were necessary in spring and summer to avoid high light levels on the flower buds, as they cause very high bud temperatures leading to quality problems (blue petal edges and burnt leaf tips). The diffuse greenhouse cover allowed a 100 W/m{sup 2} higher screening threshold than the reference glass. This caused a 2.7% higher daily light integral, able to explain part of the extra production obtained. Part of the extra production achieved can not be explained by the measured factors as no differences were found in the amount of light intercepted by the crop or in leaf photosynthesis under both cover types. The light under the diffuse AR cover was nevertheless much smoother, so the crop seemed to suffer less (lower bud temperatures and less burned leaf tips), and this should provide an explanation for the rest of the extra production. The cover properties did not influence disease development (powdery mildew). The obtained extra production makes the tempered, diffuse glass with Anti Reflection coating on both sides economically feasible [Dutch] Tussen augustus 2010 en september 2011 is bij Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw het effect van diffuus glas, met dubbelzijdige AR coating, op de productie en energiegebruik van roos 'Red Naomi' onderzocht. Onder het diffuse glas werden 5,2% meer bloemtakken geproduceerd, deze rozen waren ook iets langer en zwaarder (6,1% meer versgewicht). Dit verschil kan deels verklaard worden doordat er onder het diffuse glas pas bij hogere stralingsniveau

  17. Effects of the chemical bonding on the optical and mechanical properties for germanium carbide films used as antireflection and protection coating of ZnS windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chaoquan; Zheng, Weitao; Tian, Hongwei; LeXu; Jiang, Qing

    2006-05-01

    Germanium carbide (Ge1-xCx) films have been prepared by RF reactive sputtering a pure Ge(111) target at different flow rate ratios of CH4/(CH4+Ar) in a CH4/Ar mixture discharge, and it has been found that the composition, chemical bonding, optical and mechanical properties of Ge1-xCx films are remarkably influenced by the flow rate ratio of CH4/(CH4+Ar). The effects of the chemical bonding on the optical and mechanical properties of the Ge1-xCx films have been explored. In addition, an antireflection Ge1-xCx double-layer coating deposited on both sides of the ZnS substrate wafer has been developed for application as an infrared window. It is shown that the transmittance in the wavelength region between 8 and 12 µm and the hardness of the ZnS substrate have been significantly improved by the double-layer coating.

  18. Amorphous Silicon Compound Films for Surface Passivation and Antireflection Coating of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Petres, Roman

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 1 gives an introductory overview of the current status of photovoltaics, with focus on crystalline silicon (c-Si) based technology. An essential contribution to the reduction of electricity generation costs at the solar module production level is to be expected mainly from reduced silicon consumption by using thinner wafers and/or employing cheaper silicon feedstock. Together with sufficient light trapping, the key factor to being able to exploit the combined cost reduction potential ...

  19. Investigation of the degradation of the antireflection coatings of the nonlinear crystal under the action of the high average power laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the local heating role in the processes of the degradation of the antireflection coatings of the nonlinear crystals when they have been used in the CW and quasi-CW YAG lasers was carried out. The broad sample range of the oxide, nitride and fluoride films deposited on the LiNbO3, BaNaNbO5, LiIO3 KTP and BBO crystals was considered. Investigation of these samples was carried out under the intense heating of their surfaces by the action of the CO2 laser pulses. The analysis of the obtained results with account for the chemical reaction thermodynamics, thermotension and other factors is presented

  20. Design and Preparation of SiO2/TiO2/SiO2-TiO2 Antireflective Coatings with Excellent Abrasion-resistance and Transmittance via Sol-Gel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YE Long-Qiang, ZHANG Qing-Hua, ZHANG Yu-Lu, ZHANG Xin-Xiang, JIANG Bo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Triple-layer broadband antireflective (AR coatings with excellent abrasion-resistance and transmittance were designed using the theory of optical coating design. And the designed coatings were prepared on K9 glass via Sol-Gel process in this work. SiO2 and TiO2 sols were prepared using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS and titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP as precursors, respectively, and hydrochloric acid as catalyst. It is found that the average transmittance of the AR coatings over the entire visible region can reach 98.7%, which is 7.1% higher than that at the blank K9 glass. Moreover the transmittance of the AR coating does not obviously decrease after abrasion test, showing the excellent abrasion-resistance of the AR coatings. Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS is further used to modify the surface of the AR coatings, which greatly improves the hydrophobicity of the coatings, and thus gives the AR coatings excellent environmental resistance.

  1. Space qualification of an antireflection coating on the surface of a ruled grating prism: increasing the throughput of the single-object slitless spectroscopy mode of NIRISS onboard JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Loïc.; Doyon, René; Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Little, Steve L.; Enzor, Greg S.; Maszkiewicz, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Grating prisms (grism) designed for near-infrared spectroscopy typically make use of high-refractive index materials such as zinc selenide (ZnSe), at the expense of large Fresnel losses ( 18%). Part of the loss can be recovered by using anti-reflection (AR) coatings. The technique is however considered risky when applied on the ruled surface of a grating, especially for a space application at cryogenic temperature. Such a grism, made of ZnSe and machined at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is mounted in the Near-Infrared Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) onboard the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Its Single Object Slitless Spectrograph (SOSS) observing mode uses the ZnSe grism and a cross-dispersing prism to produce R=700 spectra in orders 1 and 2 to cover the 0.6 to 2.5 microns spectral domain. The ZnSe grism is blazed at 1.23 microns, has a density of 54 lines/mm and its triangular grooves have a depth of 700 nm, a base of 18 microns, with facets angled at 1.9 degrees. Here, an AR coating produced by Thin Film Lab (TFL) and deposited on the ruled surface of a ZnSe grism sample was space qualified. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed no groove profile change pre/post coating despite the large relative thickness of the AR coating to that of the groove depth ( 35%). Also, the wavefront error map remained almost unchanged at lambda/8 (peak-to-valley at 632 nm) and survived unscathed through a series of three cryogenic cycles to 20 K. Finally, the transmission gain across our operating spectral range was almost as high as that for a unruled surface covered with the same AR coating (10-15%).

  2. Fabrication of CuO-based antireflection structures using self-arranged submicron SiO2 spheres for thermoelectric solar generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Tasuku; Mizoshiri, Mizue; Mikami, Masashi; Itou, Yoshitaka; Sakurai, Junpei; Hata, Seiichi

    2016-06-01

    We fabricated antireflection structures (ARSs) on the hot side of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) to absorb near-infrared (NIR) solar light with low reflective energy loss. First, the ARSs, composed of a CuO thin-film coated hemisphere array were designed using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Reflective loss was reduced to 6.7% at a grating period of 200 nm, as determined by simulation. Then, the ARSs were fabricated on a glass substrate using self-arranged submicron SiO2 spheres, following the coating of a CuO thin film. Finally, the effect of the ARSs on NIR solar light generation was investigated by evaluating the generation properties of the TEG with the ARSs on the hot side. In comparison with the TEG with the CuO flat thin film on the hot side, the ARSs increased the temperature difference between the hot and cold sides by approximately 1.4 times. The CuO-based ARSs absorbed NIR solar light effectively.

  3. A novel method for crystalline silicon solar cells with low contact resistance and antireflection coating by an oxidized Mg layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Lee, Youn-Jung; Ju, Minkyu; Ryu, Kyungyul; Kim, Bonggi; Yi, Junsin

    2012-01-01

    One of the key issues in the solar industry is lowering dopant concentration of emitter for high-efficiency crystalline solar cells. However, it is well known that a low surface concentration of dopants results in poor contact formation between the front Ag electrode and the n-layer of Si. In this paper, an evaporated Mg layer is used to reduce series resistance of c-Si solar cells. A layer of Mg metal is deposited on a lightly doped n-type Si emitter by evaporation. Ag electrode is screen printed to collect the generated electrons. Small work function difference between Mg and n-type silicon reduces the contact resistance. During a co-firing process, Mg is oxidized, and the oxidized layer serves as an antireflection layer. The measurement of an Ag/Mg/n-Si solar cell shows that V oc, J sc, FF, and efficiency are 602 mV, 36.9 mA/cm2, 80.1%, and 17.75%, respectively. It can be applied to the manufacturing of low-cost, simple, and high-efficiency solar cells.

  4. Silicon nitride anti-reflection coating on the glass and transparent conductive oxide interface for thin film solar cells and modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahashi, T.; Morishima, M.; Fujibayashi, T.; Yang, R.; Lin, J.; Matsunaga, D.

    2015-10-01

    Anti-reflection coating (ARC) is well known as an important technique to enhance solar cell performance. Typical ARC has been applied on the glass surface to reduce light reflection loss at the air/glass interface. However, reflection loss occurs not only at glass surface but also at other interfaces such as glass/transparent conductive oxide (TCO) interface. The refractive index of SiNx is tunable from 1.6 to 2.7, and the range from 1.7 to 2.0 is suitable for ARC at glass/TCO interface. In this study, we examined the AR effect of silicon nitride (SiNx) deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at the glass/TCO interface with thin film silicon solar cell and module. Reflectivity reduction of 1.6% for glass/ZnO substrate has been obtained with optimal SiNx layer, which contribute 2.0% gain in cell efficiency. Besides, we also confirmed the relative efficiency gain of around 2% for large-sized solar module, leading to a world-record large area stabilized module conversion efficiency of 12.34%.

  5. Improvement in photovoltaic properties of silicon solar cells with a doped porous silicon layer with rare earth (Ce, La) as antireflection coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance improvement of solar cells due to the formation of a porous silicon layer treated with rare earth (Ce, La) in the n+ emitter of silicon n+/p junctions has been investigated. The photovoltaic properties of the cells with and without treatment of the porous silicon layer are compared. From the reflection measurements, it was shown that the cells with treated PS layers have lower reflectivity value compared to cell with untreated PS layer. The main result is that the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency of solar cells can be enhanced by using the treated porous silicon layers with the rare earth (Ce, La) as anti-reflection coatings. -- Highlights: • The reduction of optical loss in silicon (c-Si) solar cells attracts the attention of many researches to achieve high efficiencies. • To attain this aim, the treated PS layers with rare earth (La, Ce) are suggested to be used as an (ARC) of c-Si solar cell. • The result showed a decrease in the optical losses which can explain the improved photovoltaic properties

  6. Effect of substrate heating on the adhesion and humidity resistance of evaporated MgF{sub 2}/ZnS antireflection coatings and on the performance of high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guangchun; Zhao, Jianhua; Green, Martin A. [Photovoltaics Special Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1998-02-27

    This paper reports experimental results with substrate heating during thermal evaporation of MgF{sub 2}/ZnS DLAR (double-layer antireflection) coatings. The higher substrate temperature significantly improves the adhesion and humidity resistance of such coatings, while marginally reducing the performance of high-efficiency silicon PERL (passivated emitter, rear locally diffused) cells. The optimum substrate temperature for the evaporation of such DLAR coatings on the PERL cells is about 150C. At this temperature, the DLAR coatings have good durability, but give only slightly reduced PERL cell performance compared to the unheated substrate case. This reduction in the PERL cell performance is believed due to the partial removal of the hydrogen passivation, which was introduced through a standard `alneal` (aluminium anneal) process

  7. Performance Improvement of GaN-Based Flip-Chip White Light-Emitting Diodes with Diffused Nanorod Reflector and with ZnO Nanorod Antireflection Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ying Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The GaN-based flip-chip white light-emitting diodes (FCWLEDs with diffused ZnO nanorod reflector and with ZnO nanorod antireflection layer were fabricated. The ZnO nanorod array grown using an aqueous solution method was combined with Al metal to form the diffused ZnO nanorod reflector. It could avoid the blue light emitted out from the Mg-doped GaN layer of the FCWLEDs, which caused more blue light emitted out from the sapphire substrate to pump the phosphor. Moreover, the ZnO nanorod array was utilized as the antireflection layer of the FCWLEDs to reduce the total reflection loss. The light output power and the phosphor conversion efficiency of the FCWLEDs with diffused nanorod reflector and 250 nm long ZnO nanorod antireflection layer were improved from 21.15 mW to 23.90 mW and from 77.6% to 80.1% in comparison with the FCWLEDs with diffused nanorod reflector and without ZnO nanorod antireflection layer, respectively.

  8. Tailored antireflective biomimetic nanostructures for UV applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morhard, Christoph; Pacholski, Claudia; Spatz, Joachim P [Department of New Materials and Biosystems, Max Planck Institute for Metals Research, Heisenbergstrasse 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Lehr, Dennis; Brunner, Robert; Helgert, Michael [Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH, Technology Center, Carl-Zeiss-Promenade 10, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Sundermann, Michael, E-mail: Pacholski@mf.mpg.de [Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH, Technology Center, Carl-Zeiss-Strasse 56, D-73447 Oberkochen (Germany)

    2010-10-22

    Antireflective surfaces composed of biomimetic sub-wavelength structures that employ the 'moth eye principle' for reflectance reduction are highly desirable in many optical applications such as solar cells, photodetectors and laser optics. We report an efficient approach for the fabrication of antireflective surfaces based on a two-step process consisting of gold nanoparticle mask generation by micellar block copolymer nanolithography and a multi-step reactive ion etching process. Depending on the RIE process parameters nanostructured surfaces with tailored antireflective properties can easily be fabricated that show optimum performance for specific applications.

  9. Development of broadband antireflection of high-index substrate using SiNx/SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kim Peng; Ng, Doris K. T.; Wang, Qian

    2016-03-01

    Broadband antireflection coatings are commonly required in many silicon or III-V compound semiconductor based optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, and image sensors so as to enhance light conversion efficiency. Conventional approach using a single-layer antireflection coating is simple and commonly used in industry but it has a limited working bandwidth. To achieve broadband or even omni-directional characteristics, structures using thick graded refractive index (GRIN) multilayers or nanostructured surfaces which have equivalent graded refractive index profile have been proposed and demonstrated. In this paper, we will show our development of broadband antireflection for high index substrate using SiNx/SiO2 via inductively coupled plasma chemical vapour deposition (ICPCVD). Global optimization of thin-film broadband antireflection coating using adaptive simulated annealing is presented. Unlike the conventional optical coating design which uses the refractive index of available materials, the optimization approach used here decides the optimal values of the refractive index as well as the thickness of each layer. The first thin-film material optimization is carried out on the ICP-CVD machine operating at low temperature of 250°C by tuning the SiH4/N2 gas ratio. The demonstrated double layer antireflection thin film reduces the average reflectance of Si surface from ~32% to ~3.17% at normal incidence for wavelength range from 400 to 1100 nm. This optical thin-film design and material development can be extended to optical wavelength filters and integrated micro-GRIN devices.

  10. Multi-layer coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Brophy, Brenor L.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.; Gonsalves, Peter R.

    2016-06-28

    Disclosed herein are coating materials and methods for applying a top-layer coating that is durable, abrasion resistant, highly transparent, hydrophobic, low-friction, moisture-sealing, anti-soiling, and self-cleaning to an existing conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating. The top coat imparts superior durability performance and new properties to the under-laying conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating without reducing the anti-reflectiveness of the coating. Methods and data for optimizing the relative thickness of the under-layer high temperature anti-reflective coating and the top-layer thickness for optimizing optical performance are also disclosed.

  11. Giant efficiency enhancement of GaAs solar cells with graded antireflection layers based on syringelike ZnO nanorod arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Li-Ko; Lai, Kun-Yu; Lin, Guan-Jhong; Fu, Po-Han; Chang, Hung-Chih; Lin, Chin-An; He, Jr-Hau [Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China)

    2011-07-15

    An effective antireflection coating of syringelike ZnO NRAs is demonstrated for GaAs solar cells. Energy conversion efficiency is significantly enhanced by up to 32%. GaAs is focussed on as a model system, but the hydrothermal growth of syringelike ZnO nanostructures is readily compatible with the existing processes in the photovoltaic industry, and highly applicable for various types of solar cells. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. The optimization of triple layer anti-reflection coatings and its application on solar cells%三层减反射膜的模拟及其在太阳电池中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫臣; 张静全; 冯良桓; 武莉莉; 李卫; 黎兵; 曾广根; 王文武

    2013-01-01

    The anti-reflection coatings with the structure of Al2O3/H4/MgF2 triple layer were prepared with electron beam evaporation technology on the glass substrate. The transmittance and surface morphology of the films were examined. The anti-reflection coating structure was optimized considering AMI. 5 spectrum and the spectroscopy response band of CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells through TFCALC software simulation. Then the optimized anti-reflection coatings were prepared on the CdTe thin film solar cells. It was found that the quantum efficiency of solar cells with anti-reflection coatings increase by 7. 3% than without, and the photoelectric conversion efficiency increased from 12. 5% to 13. 3%.%使用减反射膜层是提高太阳电池短路电流密度进而提高电池转换效率的有效手段之一.针对CdTe薄膜太阳电池的光谱响应范围,基于AM1.5辐照光谱,优化设计了MgF2/H4/Al2O3结构的减反射薄膜,使用电子束蒸发技术制备了该减反射膜,使用椭圆偏振仪、紫外/可见分光光度计、原子力显微镜分别测量了所制备薄膜的光学性质和表面形貌,对比分析了膜系结构理论模拟与实验测量结果.结果表明,使用该减反射薄膜后,电池的量子效率提高了7.3%;光电转换效率从12.5%提高到13.3%.

  13. Wet-recess process optimization of a bottom antireflective coating for the via-first dual-damascene scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakensiek, Nickolas L.; Kidd, Brian; Washburn, Carlton A.; Murphy, Earnest

    2004-05-01

    The via-first process is unique by the fact that a material is needed to fill the vias to some arbitrary value, with little or no isolated-dense via bias so that the underlying layer underneath the via is protected from the trench etch step. Secondly, this material may have to coat over the surface of the wafer with some chosen thickness again with minimum or no bias to maximize the trench photolithography process window. Finally, the material must be easily removed from the via after the trench etch with no residue, crowning, or fencing. The ideal via fill material would be able to perform all the above listed parameters, but no perfect solution exists yet. The etchback process that is discussed herein, called the solvent etchback (SOLVE) process bypasses these lengthy modules, will fit within today"s manufacturing processes and will have little impact on throughput of the photobay coating tools. The process utilizes industry standard photoresists solvents such as PGMEA, Ethyl Lactate, PGME and existing solvent prewet dispense nozzles in the BARC coater module. Also, this process only requires one material that can both fill the via and act as a BARC during the trench photo step with a user defined thickness on top the wafer that will minimize light reflections coming from the substrate. The process flow for the SOLVE process is: 1. Coat a wafer with a thick BARC to planarize the wafer and minimize isolated-dense bias. 2. Bake the BARC so that it is partially crosslinked. 3. Apply a solvent to the wafer and etchback the BARC to a thickness that suits the trench photo step. 4. Bake the BARC to fully crosslink the BARC. Process variables that can have an affect on the SOLVE process are the softbake temperature and time to modify the BARC thickness on the wafer. Dispense parameters that will modify the post-etch uniformity of the wafer include the dispense time, dispense spin speed and the IDI M450 dispense pressure. The repeatability of the process can be modified

  14. Fluorine Based Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Denis Brassard

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic coatings, inspired by nature, are an emerging technology. These water repellent coatings can be used as solutions for corrosion, biofouling and even water and air drag reduction applications. In this work, synthesis of monodispersive silica nanoparticles of ~120 nm diameter has been realized via Stöber process and further functionalized using fluoroalkylsilane (FAS-17 molecules to incorporate the fluorinated groups with the silica nanoparticles in an ethanolic solution. The synthesized fluorinated silica nanoparticles have been spin coated on flat aluminum alloy, silicon and glass substrates. Functionalization of silica nanoparticles with fluorinated groups has been confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR by showing the presence of C-F and Si-O-Si bonds. The water contact angles and surface roughness increase with the number of spin-coated thin films layers. The critical size of ~119 nm renders aluminum surface superhydrophobic with three layers of coating using as-prepared nanoparticle suspended solution. On the other hand, seven layers are required for a 50 vol.% diluted solution to achieve superhydrophobicity. In both the cases, water contact angles were more than 150°, contact angle hysteresis was less than 2° having a critical roughness value of ~0.700 µm. The fluorinated silica nanoparticle coated surfaces are also transparent and can be used as paint additives to obtain transparent coatings.

  15. Simulation and fabrication of SiO2/graded-index TiO2 antireflection coating for triple-junction GaAs solar cells by using the hybrid deposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GaAs-based multi-junction solar cells (MJ-SCs) provide a wide solar-energy absorption-band (300–1800 nm), but designing and fabricating a broadband antireflection coating (ARC) are challenging. Because MJ-SCs are typically in a series that connects each subcell, the total output current is limited by the subcell that generates the smallest photocurrent. Thus, the ARC for MJ-SCs must be designed not only to obtain broadband absorption but also to minimize light reflection at the wavelength band of the current-limited cell. This study proposes a broadband SiO2/graded-index TiO2 ARC for improving the current-limited subcell performance by using a hybrid deposition (e-beam evaporation and spin-on coating). A bottom TiO2 layer and a top SiO2 layer were deposited through e-beam evaporation, but the middle TiO2 layer was deposited using spin-on coating because the refractive index values of the TiO2 films could be tuned by applying the spin speed. Therefore, the graded-index TiO2 layers were easily obtained using a hybrid deposition method. In addition, a suitable reflectance spectrum of an ARC structure for a middle-cell current-limited triple-junction (3-J) GaAs solar cell was simulated using commercial optical software. The photovoltaic current–voltage and external quantum efficiency (EQE) were measured and compared. The resulting improvements of a short-circuit current of 32.4% and conversion efficiency of 31.8% were attributed to an enhanced EQE of 32.97% as well as a low broadband reflectance exhibited on the middle cell of the 3-J GaAs solar cell with a SiO2/graded-index TiO2 ARC. - Highlights: • A broadband SiO2/graded-index TiO2 ARC obtained by a hybrid deposition • A suitable triple-layer ARC was simulated by a commercial optical software. • Optical reflection, photovoltaic I–V, and EQE of 3-J GaAs solar cell were characterized. • An increased Jsc of 32.4% and an increased η of 31.8% are obtained in the cell with proposed ARC

  16. Laser-based coatings removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A. [F2 Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D&D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building. This report describes the use of pulse-repetetion laser systems for the removal of paints and coatings.

  17. Y2O3: Eu3+, Tb3+ spherical particles based anti-reflection and wavelength conversion bi-functional films: Synthesis and application to solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Eu3+ and Tb3+ co-doped Y2O3 particles were successfully prepared. The as prepared particles can convert UV region photos to visible photons between 460 nm and 640 nm, which just matched the spectral response of most solar cells. • Y2O3 is not only a good photoluminescence host material, but also it has high corrosion resistivity, thermal stability, and transparency from violet to infrared light. Cooperated with SiO2 sols, it could realize a better anti-reflection property. • As a proof-of-concept application, the as prepared bi-functional films could effectively improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency by 0.23% compared to pure SiO2 AR coating film and 0.55% compared to glass. - Abstract: In this study, Eu3+ and Tb3+ co-doped Y2O3 particles were prepared via the simple, cost-effective urea homogeneous precipitation method without additives. The chosen particles were added in the SiO2 sols to get anti-reflection (AR) and wavelength conversion bi-functional films. Careful investigations were carried out to find the optimum preparation conditions and proper morphology. SEM images showed that the particle sizes reduced as metal ion/urea ratio decreased. Additionally, the extracted particles turned from sphere to lamellar type when the deionized water, which was used as solvent, reduced to a certain extent. The mechanisms of the morphology formation and diversification were proposed as well. The as prepared materials can convert UV region photos to visible photons between 460 nm and 640 nm, which just matched the spectral response of most solar cells. The spherical sample showed better luminescence performance than the one with lamellar morphology. In addition, the optical transmittance spectra indicated that the films adding spherical particles had better anti-reflective performance, and the best adding amount was 0.08 g. Finally, As a proof-of-concept application, the as prepared bi-functional films were used to test the standard

  18. Polyester based hybrid organic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojiang

    Polyesters are a class of polymers widely used in organic coatings applications. In this work, four types of organic coatings based on polyester polyols were prepared: UV-curable polyester/poly(meth)acrylate coatings, thermal curable polyester polyurethane-urea coatings, thermal curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings, and UV-curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings. Polyester/poly(meth)acrylate block copolymers are synthesized using a combination of polycondensation and Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP). All block copolymers are characterized by means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). In the case of unsaturated-polyester-based block copolymers the main chain double bond in the polyester backbone remains almost unaffected during ATRP. The unsaturated block copolymers are crosslinkable and can form networks upon photo-irradiation in the presence of a suitable photoinitiator. These copolymers might be interesting candidates for coatings with better overall properties than those based on neat polyesters. Thermal curable polyester polyol based Polyurethane-Urea (PUU) coatings were formulated using Partially Blocked HDI isocyanurate (PBH), Isophorone Diamine (IPDA), and polyester polyol. As a comparison, the polyurethane coatings (PU) without adding IPDA were also prepared. The mechanical and viscoelastic properties of the PUU and PU coating were investigated by using tensile test and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analyzer (DMTA). It was found that PUU coating exhibited higher crosslink density, Tg, tensile modulus and strength than the corresponding PU coating. Thermal curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings were prepared by using polyamine and cyclic carbonate terminated polyester. Cyclic carbonate terminated polyester was synthesized from the reaction of the carbon dioxide and epoxidized polyester which was prepared from the polyester polyol. The properties of the epoxidized and cyclic carbonate

  19. Laser-based coatings removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D ampersand D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building

  20. Performance Improvement of GaN-Based Flip-Chip White Light-Emitting Diodes with Diffused Nanorod Reflector and with ZnO Nanorod Antireflection Layer

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The GaN-based flip-chip white light-emitting diodes (FCWLEDs) with diffused ZnO nanorod reflector and with ZnO nanorod antireflection layer were fabricated. The ZnO nanorod array grown using an aqueous solution method was combined with Al metal to form the diffused ZnO nanorod reflector. It could avoid the blue light emitted out from the Mg-doped GaN layer of the FCWLEDs, which caused more blue light emitted out from the sapphire substrate to pump the phosphor. Moreover, the ZnO nanorod array...

  1. Antireflective nanostructured zinc oxide arrays produced by pulsed electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conditions for the pulsed electrochemical deposition of nanostructured zinc oxide arrays with a certain morphology, crystal structure, and optical properties from aqueous electrolytes onto substrates of transparent electrically conducting tin dioxide and on single-crystal silicon wafers with built-in homojunctions are studied in order to develop antireflection coatings for solar cells. It is shown that it is possible to obtain single-layer planar antireflection coatings or arrays of nanorods of this material, both having the form of hexagonal prisms and exhibiting the moth-eye effect

  2. Antireflective Nanocomposite Based Coating on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells for Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gangopadhyay, Utpal; Jana, Sukhendu; Das, Sayan; Garain, Sutapa; Ray, Soma

    2013-01-01

    Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems represent an interesting, alternative approach for increasing the available area for electricity production and potentially for further reducing the cost of solar electricity. In BIPV systems, the visual impression of a solar module becomes important, including its color. However, the range of solar cell colours and shapes currently on offer to architects and BIPV system designers is still very limited, and this is a barrier to the widespread us...

  3. Broadband and omnidirectional anti-reflection layer for III/V multi-junction solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Diedenhofen, Silke L; Haverkamp, Erik; Bauhuis, Gerard; Schermer, John; Rivas, Jaime Gómez; 10.1016/j.solmat.2012.02.022

    2012-01-01

    We report a novel graded refractive index antireflection coating for III/V quadruple solar cells based on bottom-up grown tapered GaP nanowires. We have calculated the photocurrent density of an InGaP-GaAs-InGaAsP-InGaAs solar cell with a MgF2/ZnS double layer antireflection coating and with a graded refractive index coating. The photocurrent density can be increased by 5.9 % when the solar cell is coated with a graded refractive index layer with a thickness of 1\\mu m. We propose to realize such a graded refractive index layer by growing tapered GaP nanowires on III/V solar cells. For a first demonstration of the feasibility of the growth of tapered nanowires on III/V solar cells, we have grown tapered GaP nanowires on AlInP/GaAs substrates. We show experimentally that the reflection from the nanowire coated substrate is reduced and that the transmission into the substrate is increased for a broad spectral and angular range.

  4. Design, Preparation and Modification of Third-Harmonic Silica Antireflective Coatings with Different Thickness%不同厚度三倍频SiO2增透膜的设计、制备与改性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雨露; 张欣向; 业海平; 晏良宏; 江波

    2012-01-01

    本文通过光学计算设计了具有不同厚度的三倍频增透膜.以氨水为催化剂、正硅酸乙酯(TEOS)为前驱体,通过溶胶-凝胶(Sol-Gel)技术制得SiO2溶胶;采用浸渍提拉法镀膜得到符合设计要求的三倍频增透膜.研究结果表明,增透膜的耐磨擦性能随着膜层厚度的增大而增大,本文制得的厚度达到200 nm以上的三倍频增透膜耐磨擦性能显著优于传统的1/4波长三倍频增透膜.此外,本文以甲基含氢硅油为膜表面修饰剂,提出一种全新的超快的表面疏水性改性的方法.经该方法处理后,增透膜由亲水膜转变为疏水膜,对水的接触角从23.4.增大至95.,增透膜的耐环境性显著提高.%Third-harmonic antireflective (AR) coatings with different thickness were designed via optical formula in this work. Using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor and ammonia as catalyst, SiC>2 sol was prepared by sol-gel process. The designed AR coatings were obtained by dip-coating process. It is found that the abrasion-resistance of AR coatings increased with film thickness, indicating that the abrasion-resistance of third-harmonic AR coatings prepared in this work is much better than that of the traditional quarter-wave third-harmonic AR coating. In addition, a totally new and super-fast surface modification method was proposed by using methyl hydrogen silicone oil as modifier. The water contact angle of AR coating increased from 23.4° to 95° after the surface modification.

  5. Improved light extraction efficiency of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes with an antireflective interface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongxue; Ma, Ping; Liu, Boting; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin

    2016-05-01

    GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes (FC-LEDs) grown on nanopatterned sapphire substrates (NPSS) are fabricated using self-assembled SiO2 nanospheres as masks during inductively coupled plasma etching. By controlling the pattern spacing, epitaxial GaN can be grown from the top or bottom of patterns to obtain two different GaN/substrate interfaces. The optoelectronic characteristics of FC-LED chips with different GaN/sapphire interfaces are studied. The FC-LED with an antireflective interface layer consisting of a NPSS with GaN in the pattern spacings demonstrates better optical properties than the FC-LED with an interface embedded with air voids. Our study indicates that the two types of FC-LEDs grown on NPSS show higher crystal quality and improved electrical and optical characteristics compared with those of FC-LEDs grown on conventional planar sapphire substrates.

  6. Scaling up the neutral solution antireflection process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtenson, G.R.; Brown, N.J.; Cook, L.M.

    The neutral solution process (NSP) for chemically producing antireflection coatings has been scaled up from 24 cm and used successfully to treat components as large as 90 cm diameter. Since the process is primarily determined by diffusion through the surface, it has proven to be relatively insensitive to fluid flow effects which influence the chemical concentration buildup at the surface. Large parts visually appear more uniform than small parts processed in model tanks. The major problems encountered have been associated with using plastic support components beyond their normal temperature limits and with handling parts to the required cleanliness outside of a clean room environment.

  7. Silane based coating of aluminium mold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A method of preparing an aluminum mold for injection molding is provided, the method comprises the steps of providing an aluminum mold having a least one surface, subjecting the at least one surface to a gas or liquid phase silane to thereby form an anti-stiction coating, the anti-stiction coating...... comprising a chemically bonded monolayer of silane compounds on the at least one surface wherein the silane is a halogenated silane. The at least one surface coated with the anti-stiction coating may be configured to withstand an injection molding process at a pressure above 100 MPa. Furthermore, a mold...... having at least one closed cavity is provided, at least one surface of the at least one cavity being an aluminium surface coated with a silane based coating layer. The silane based anti-stiction coating improves the anti-stiction properties of the mold which may allow for molding and demolding of...

  8. Lignin based controlled release coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Eastham, D.

    2011-01-01

    Urea is a commonly used fertilizer. Due to its high water-solubility, misuse easily leads to excess nitrogen levels in the soil. The aim of this research was to develop an economically feasible and biodegradable slow-release coating for urea. For this purpose, lignin was selected as coating material

  9. Optimization of the genetic operators and algorithm parameters for the design of a multilayer anti-reflection coating using the genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjaykumar J.; Kheraj, Vipul

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes a systematic investigation on the use of the genetic algorithm (GA) to accomplish ultra-low reflective multilayer coating designs for optoelectronic device applications. The algorithm is implemented using LabVIEW as a programming tool. The effects of the genetic operators, such as the type of crossover and mutation, as well as algorithm parameters, such as population size and range of search space, on the convergence of design-solution were studied. Finally, the optimal design is obtained in terms of the thickness of each layer for the multilayer AR coating using optimized genetic operators and algorithm parameters. The program is successfully tested to design AR coating in NIR wavelength range to achieve average reflectivity (R) below 10-3 over the spectral bandwidth of 200 nm with different combinations of coating materials in the stack. The random-point crossover operator is found to exhibit a better convergence rate of the solution than single-point and double-point crossover. Periodically re-initializing the thickness value of a randomly selected layer from the stack effectively prevents the solution from becoming trapped in local minima and improves the convergence probability.

  10. Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} spherical particles based anti-reflection and wavelength conversion bi-functional films: Synthesis and application to solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Hui [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Base, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Ji, Ruonan [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Hu, Xiaoyun, E-mail: hxy3275@nwu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Base, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Han, Linzi; Hao, Yuanyuan; Sun, Qian [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Zhang, Dekai [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Base, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Fan, Jun [School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Bai, Jintao [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Base, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); and others

    2015-04-25

    Highlights: • Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} co-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles were successfully prepared. The as prepared particles can convert UV region photos to visible photons between 460 nm and 640 nm, which just matched the spectral response of most solar cells. • Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is not only a good photoluminescence host material, but also it has high corrosion resistivity, thermal stability, and transparency from violet to infrared light. Cooperated with SiO{sub 2} sols, it could realize a better anti-reflection property. • As a proof-of-concept application, the as prepared bi-functional films could effectively improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency by 0.23% compared to pure SiO{sub 2} AR coating film and 0.55% compared to glass. - Abstract: In this study, Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} co-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles were prepared via the simple, cost-effective urea homogeneous precipitation method without additives. The chosen particles were added in the SiO{sub 2} sols to get anti-reflection (AR) and wavelength conversion bi-functional films. Careful investigations were carried out to find the optimum preparation conditions and proper morphology. SEM images showed that the particle sizes reduced as metal ion/urea ratio decreased. Additionally, the extracted particles turned from sphere to lamellar type when the deionized water, which was used as solvent, reduced to a certain extent. The mechanisms of the morphology formation and diversification were proposed as well. The as prepared materials can convert UV region photos to visible photons between 460 nm and 640 nm, which just matched the spectral response of most solar cells. The spherical sample showed better luminescence performance than the one with lamellar morphology. In addition, the optical transmittance spectra indicated that the films adding spherical particles had better anti-reflective performance, and the best adding amount was 0.08 g. Finally, As a proof-of-concept application

  11. Optical coating and nano-structuring on plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U.Schulz; P.Munzert; A.Kaless; N.Kaiser

    2005-01-01

    The coating of plastics for optical applications is intended to improve the mechanical durability of soft polymers and to serve an antireflection function. Usually a classic four-layer antireflection system is added on top of a single-layer hard coating. With needle optimisation,an alternative coating design has been developed. Plasma ion assisted deposition was used to deposit coatings upon polymers. Uniform antireflection and high scratch resistance have been achieved.

  12. Large-Area Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Using Novel Antireflective Nanoabsorber Texturing Surface by Multihollow Cathode Plasma System and Spin-On Doping

    OpenAIRE

    Utpal Gangopadhyay; Sukhendu Jana; Sayan Das

    2013-01-01

    We present 11.7% efficient p-type crystalline silicon solar cells with a nanoscale textured surface and no dielectric antireflection coating. We propose nanocrystalline-like textured surface consisting of nanocrystalline columnar structures of diameters from 50 to 100 nm and depth of about 500 nm formed by reactive-ion etching (RIE) in multihollow cathode system. This novel nano textured surface acts as an antireflective absorbing surface of c-Si abbreviate as ARNAB (antireflective nanoabsorb...

  13. Simulation and Experimental Study on Anti-reflection Characteristics of Nano-patterned Si Structures for Si Quantum Dot-Based Light-Emitting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wenyi; Lu, Peng; Li, Wei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Ling; Chen, Kunji

    2016-12-01

    Surface-textured structure is currently an interesting topic since it can efficiently reduce the optical losses in advanced optoelectronic devices via light management. In this work, we built a model in finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solutions by setting the simulation parameters based on the morphology of the Si nanostructures and compared with the experimental results in order to study the anti-reflection behaviors of the present nano-patterned structures. It is found that the reflectance is gradually reduced by increasing the depth of Si nanostructures which is in well agreement with the experimental observations. The reflectance can be lower than 10 % in the light range from 400 to 850 nm for Si nano-patterned structures with a depth of 150 nm despite the quite low aspect ratio, which can be understood as the formation of gradually changed index layer and the scattering effect of Si nano-patterned structures. By depositing the Si quantum dots/SiO2 multilayers on nano-patterned Si substrate, the reflectance can be further suppressed and the luminescence intensity centered at 820 nm from Si quantum dots is enhanced by 6.6-fold compared with that of flat one, which can be attributed to the improved light extraction efficiency. However, the further etch time causes the reduction of luminescence intensity from Si quantum dots which may ascribe to the serious surface recombination of carriers. PMID:27356564

  14. Bio-Based Coatings for Paper Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhore Kumar Rastogi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The barrier resistance and wettability of papers are commonly controlled by the application of petroleum-based derivatives such as polyethylene, waxes and/or fluor- derivatives as coating. While surface hydrophobicity is improved by employing these polymers, they have become disfavored due to limitations in fossil-oil resources, poor recyclability, and environmental concerns on generated waste with lack of biodegradation. Alternatively, biopolymers including polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and polyesters can be used to formulate new pathways for fully bio-based paper coatings. However, difficulties in processing of most biopolymers may arise due to hydrophilicity, crystallization behavior, brittleness or melt instabilities that hinder a full exploitation at industrial scale. Therefore, blending with other biopolymers, plasticizers and compatibilizers is advantageous to improve the coating performance. In this paper, an overview of barrier properties and processing of bio-based polymers and their composites as paper coating will be discussed. In particular, recent technical advances in nanotechnological routes for bio-based nano- composite coatings will be summarized, including the use of biopolymer nanoparticles, or nanofillers such as nanoclay and nanocellulose. The combination of biopolymers along with surface modification of nanofillers can be used to create hierarchical structures that enhance hydrophobicity, complete barrier protection and functionalities of coated papers.

  15. Development of antireflection coatings with a sup 6 LiF/ sup 6 sup 2 Ni multilayer converter for ultracold neutron detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Maier-Komor, P; Bergmaier, A; Dollinger, G; Paul, S; Schott, W

    2002-01-01

    High efficiency detectors for ultracold neutrons (UCN) are needed at the new high flux neutron source, Forschungsreaktor Muenchen II. In the development described, silicon PIN diodes were chosen to detect the alpha-particles or the tritons created in the reaction sup 6 Li(n,alpha)t. The high reflectance of UCN on sup 6 Li with its positive optical potential must be compensated by a material with negative optical potential. The isotope sup 6 sup 2 Ni was chosen for this. To avoid problems due to chemical reactions of Li with humidity, the compound sup 6 LiF was chosen. One hundred and fifty double layers of sup 6 LiF/ sup 6 sup 2 Ni had to be deposited by physical vapor deposition on silicon PIN diodes which had already been coated with 88 nm approx 77 mu g/cm sup 2 of sup 5 sup 8 Ni for reflection of the UCN. The theoretical optimal thickness of the sup 6 sup 2 Ni layers is 3 nm, and that of sup 6 LiF is 6 nm. Since expensive isotopes were involved, a small source-to-substrate distance had to be used, but wit...

  16. Spectral reflectance data of a high temperature stable solar selective coating based on MoSi2–Si3N4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pinilla, D.; Rodríguez-Palomo, A.; Álvarez-Fraga, L.; Céspedes, E.; Prieto, J.E.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Prieto, C.

    2016-01-01

    Data of optical performance, thermal stability and ageing are given for solar selective coatings (SSC) based on a novel MoSi2–Si3N4 absorbing composite. SSC have been prepared as multilayer stacks formed by silver as metallic infrared reflector, a double layer composite and an antireflective layer (doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2016.04.001 [1]). Spectroscopic reflectance data corresponding to the optical performance of samples after moderate vacuum annealing at temperatures up to 600 °C and after ageing test of more than 200 h with several heating–cooling cycles are shown here. PMID:27182544

  17. Spectral reflectance data of a high temperature stable solar selective coating based on MoSi2 -Si3N4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pinilla, D; Rodríguez-Palomo, A; Álvarez-Fraga, L; Céspedes, E; Prieto, J E; Muñoz-Martín, A; Prieto, C

    2016-06-01

    Data of optical performance, thermal stability and ageing are given for solar selective coatings (SSC) based on a novel MoSi2-Si3N4 absorbing composite. SSC have been prepared as multilayer stacks formed by silver as metallic infrared reflector, a double layer composite and an antireflective layer (doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2016.04.001 [1]). Spectroscopic reflectance data corresponding to the optical performance of samples after moderate vacuum annealing at temperatures up to 600 °C and after ageing test of more than 200 h with several heating-cooling cycles are shown here. PMID:27182544

  18. Spectral reflectance data of a high temperature stable solar selective coating based on MoSi2–Si3N4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hernández-Pinilla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Data of optical performance, thermal stability and ageing are given for solar selective coatings (SSC based on a novel MoSi2–Si3N4 absorbing composite. SSC have been prepared as multilayer stacks formed by silver as metallic infrared reflector, a double layer composite and an antireflective layer (doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2016.04.001 [1]. Spectroscopic reflectance data corresponding to the optical performance of samples after moderate vacuum annealing at temperatures up to 600 °C and after ageing test of more than 200 h with several heating–cooling cycles are shown here.

  19. Electrochemical deposition of black nickel solar absorber coatings on stainless steel AISI316L for thermal solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lira-Cantú, Monica; Morales Sabio, Angel; Brustenga, Alex; Gómez-Romero, P.

    2005-01-01

    We report the electrochemical deposition of nanostructured nickel-based solar absorber coatings on stainless steel AISI type 316L. A sol–gel silica-based antireflection coating, from TEOS, was also applied to the solar surface by the dip-coating method. We report our initial results and analyze the influence of the stainless steel substrate on the final total reflectance properties of the solar absorber. The relation between surface morphology, observed by SEM and AFM, the comp...

  20. Optimized antireflective silicon nanostructure arrays using nanosphere lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dohaeng; Bae, Jiwoong; Hong, Soonwook; Yang, Hwichul; Kim, Young-Beom

    2016-05-01

    Broadband optical antireflective arrays of sub-wavelength structures were fabricated on silicon substrates using colloidal nanosphere lithography in conjunction with reactive ion etching. The morphology of the nanostructures, including the shape, base diameter and height, was precisely controlled by modifying the conventional process of nanosphere lithography. We investigated their effects on the optical characteristics based on experimentally measured reflectance performance. The Si nanostructure arrays demonstrated optical antireflection performance with an average reflectance of about 1% across the spectral range from 300 to 800 nm, i.e. near-ultraviolet to visible wavelengths. This fabrication method can be used to create a large surface area and offers a promising approach for antireflective applications.

  1. Carbon nanotube based functional superhydrophobic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sunny

    The main objective of this dissertation is synthesis of carbon nanotube (CNT) based superhydrophobic materials. The materials were designed such that electrical and mechanical properties of CNTs could be combined with superhydrophobicity to create materials with unique properties, such as self-cleaning adhesives, miniature flotation devices, ice-repellant coatings, and coatings for heat transfer furnaces. The coatings were divided into two broad categories based on CNT structure: Vertically aligned CNT arrays (VA coatings) and mesh-like (non-aligned) carbon nanotube arrays (NA coatings). VA coatings were used to create self-cleaning adhesives and flexible field emission devices. Coatings with self cleaning property along with high adhesiveness were inspired from structure found on gecko foot. Gecko foot is covered with thousands of microscopic hairs called setae; these setae are further divided into hundreds of nanometer sized hairs called spatulas. When gecko presses its foot against any surface, these hairs bend and conform to the topology of the surface resulting into very large area of contact. Such large area of intimate contact allows geckos to adhere to surfaces using van der Waals (vdW) interactions alone. VA-CNTs adhere to a variety of surfaces using a similar mechanism. CNTs of suitable diameter could withstand four times higher adhesion force than gecko foot. We found that upon soiling these CNT based adhesives (gecko tape) could be cleaned using a water droplet (lotus effect) or by applying vibrations. These materials could be used for applications requiring reversible adhesion. VA coatings were also used for developing field emission devices. A single CNT can emit electrons at very low threshold voltages. Achieving efficient electron emission on large scale has a lot of challenges such as screening effect, pull-off and lower current efficiency. We have explored the use of polymer-CNT composite structures to overcome these challenges in this work. NA

  2. BDS Thin Film UV Antireflection Laser Damage Competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C J

    2010-10-26

    UV antireflection coatings are a challenging coating for high power laser applications as exemplified by the use of uncoated Brewster's windows in laser cavities. In order to understand the current laser resistance of UV AR coatings in the industrial and university sectors, a double blind laser damage competition was performed. The coatings have a maximum reflectance of 0.5% at 355 nm at normal incidence. Damage testing will be performed using the raster scan method with a 7.5 ns pulse length on a single testing facility to facilitate direct comparisons. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes and coating materials will also be shared.

  3. Coating based Fiber Bragg Grating humidity sensor array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Boersma, A.; Jansen, T.H.

    2012-01-01

    A coating based FBG humidity sensor is developed for distributed humidity sensing. The sensitivity of the coated FBG is optimized by varying the chemical composition and the thickness of the coating. A sensitivity of ~2 pm/%RH and a rapid response are demonstrated. The composition of the coating can

  4. Thermal sprayed iron base alloys coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particularities of thermal spraying of iron-based alloys coatings are associated with sufficiently great values of parameter of melting difficulty (for Fe D = 2.08 I-10/sup 10/ kJ.kg/sup -1/.m/sup -3/), and relatively low values of coefficients-of heat accumulation (for Fe b=C.raw.Lambda /sub 0.5/=108 W.m/sup -2/.K.sec/sup-0.5/). These materials are less inclined to form quality coating under the influence of the thermal activation and therefore it is reasonable to use in addition the mechanical activation of substrate surface. The powder of iron-base alloy FeSi/sub 7/AI/sub 3.5/C/sub 2/ was obtained by melt-atomization with water hardening of droplets. The main phase components of powder are alpha and gamma -solid solution on base of Fe (austenite), cementite (Fe/sub 3/C), metastable rhombic lattice x-phase, and possibly metastable carbide Fe/sub 2/C. When the powder particles shape is oval which axis dimensions about 80 and 300 micro meter, the main phase components of detonation sprayed coatings in case of oxy-acetylene gas mixture are alpha and gamma -phases, in case of oxy-propane-butane mixture the coating phase component the same as initial powder. When the powder particles size is 63-100 micro meter, the coatings phase components are alpha and gamma - solid solutions, Fe/sub 3/C, x-phase, Fe/sub 2/C, Fe/sub 3/0/sub 4/ and FeO. The main phase components of FeSi/sub 7/B/sub 12,6/ powder are alpha-solid solution, borides Fe/sub 2/B and FeB, X- phase. The sprayed coatings have the same phase composition. These types of Fe-base alloys powders have relatively low cost, easy available and can used for deposition of wear resistant coatings. (author)

  5. Tunable Antireflection Layers for Planar Bolometer Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ari-David; Chuss, David; Woolack, Edward; Chervenak, James; Henry, Ross; Wray, James

    2007-01-01

    It remains a challenge to obtain high-efficiency coupling of far-infrared through millimeter radiation to large-format detector arrays. The conventional approach of increasing detector coupling is to use reflective backshorts. However, this approach often results in excessive systematic errors resulting from reflections off the backshort edge. An alternate approach to both increasing quantum efficiency and reducing systematics associated with stray light is to place an antireflective coating near the front surface of the array. When incorporated with a resistive layer and placed behind the detector focal plane, the AR coating can serve to prevent optical ghosting by capturing radiation transmitted through the detector. By etching a hexagonal pattern in silicon, in which the sizes of the hexes are smaller than the wavelength of incident radiation, it is possible to fabricate a material that has a controllable dielectric constant, thereby allowing for simple tunable optical device fabrication. To this end, we have fabricated and tested tunable silicon "honeycomb" AR layers and AR/resistive layer devices. These devices were fabricated entirely out of silicon in order to eliminate problems associated with differential contraction upon detector cooling.

  6. Bio-Based Coatings for Paper Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Vibhore Kumar Rastogi; Pieter Samyn

    2015-01-01

    The barrier resistance and wettability of papers are commonly controlled by the application of petroleum-based derivatives such as polyethylene, waxes and/or fluor- derivatives as coating. While surface hydrophobicity is improved by employing these polymers, they have become disfavored due to limitations in fossil-oil resources, poor recyclability, and environmental concerns on generated waste with lack of biodegradation. Alternatively, biopolymers including polysaccharides, proteins, lipids ...

  7. Enzyme-based antifouling coatings: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stefan Møller; Pedersen, Leif Toudal; Laursen, M.H.;

    2007-01-01

    A systematic overview is presented of the literature that reports the antifouling (AF) protection of underwater structures via the action of enzymes. The overall aim of this review is to assess the state of the art of enzymatic AF technology, and to highlight the obstacles that have to be overcome...... for successful development of enzymatic AF coatings. The approaches described in the literature are divided into direct and indirect enzymatic AF, depending on the intended action of the enzymes. Direct antifouling is used when the enzymes themselves are active antifoulants. Indirect antifouling...... refers to the use of enzymes to release an active biocide with AF activity. For direct AF, several patents have been granted, and a commercial product has been launched. However, the achievement of an efficient broad-spectrum AF coating based on a single or a few enzymes has not yet been achieved. An...

  8. Purely inorganic coatings based on nanoparticles for magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feil, Florian [DECHEMA e.V., Karl-Winnacker-Institut, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: feil@dechema.de; Fuerbeth, Wolfram; Schuetze, Michael [DECHEMA e.V., Karl-Winnacker-Institut, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2009-03-30

    The chemical nanotechnology is offering a chance to apply stable inorganic coatings onto magnesium alloys. The cast alloy AZ91 as well as the wrought alloy AZ31 could be dip-coated with aqueous dispersions based on commercially available silica particles and various additives. The high surface activity of the nanoparticles and appropriate additives, e.g. boron, aluminium or alkali salts, help to densify these coatings under moderate conditions even suitable for those thermally precarious magnesium alloys. Another coating technique is based on the electrophoretic deposition of nanoparticles already containing all sintering aids. These particles could be synthesised by a base-catalysed sol-gel process. Polydiethoxysiloxane can act as an adhesion promoter for these coatings. Additionally concentration gradients of different oxides within these particles can adjust the coating properties, too. Usually single coatings are very thin (200-500 nm). However, multiple coating applications as well as a process involving special particle mixtures lead to coatings with a thickness of up to several micrometers. Even after thermal treatment at 200 or 400 deg. C these coatings stay crack-free. The composition and texture of these coatings were studied using IR, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and other techniques. Electrochemical impedance measurements show an improvement of the corrosion performance by these coatings. The coating resistance is improving with the coating thickness.

  9. Development of new maskless manufacturing method for anti-reflection structure and application to large-area lens with curved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazuya; Takaoka, Toshimitsu; Fukui, Hidetoshi; Haruta, Yasuyuki; Yamashita, Tomoya; Kitagawa, Seiichiro

    2016-03-01

    In general, thin-film coating process is widely applied on optical lens surface as anti-reflection function. In normal production process, at first lens is manufactured by molding, then anti-reflection is added by thin-film coating. In recent years, instead of thin-film coating, sub-wavelength structures adding on surface of molding die are widely studied and development to keep anti-reflection performance. As merits, applying sub-wavelength structure, coating process becomes unnecessary and it is possible to reduce man-hour costs. In addition to cost merit, these are some technical advantages on this study. Adhesion of coating depends on material of plastic, and it is impossible to apply anti-reflection function on arbitrary surface. Sub-wavelength structure can solve both problems. Manufacturing method of anti-reflection structure can be divided into two types mainly. One method is with the resist patterning, and the other is mask-less method that does not require patterning. What we have developed is new mask-less method which is no need for resist patterning and possible to impart an anti-reflection structure to large area and curved lens surface, and can be expected to apply to various market segments. We report developed technique and characteristics of production lens.

  10. Biomimetic ‘moth-eye’ anti-reflection boundary for graphene plasmons circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we propose the anti-reflection boundary design for planar graphene plasmons (GPs) circuits based on biomimetic moth-eye structures. The anti-reflection functionalities are investigated by analytical effective medium theory combined with transfer matrix method and numerical finite element method. Both analytical and numerical methods have shown that average reflection losses of 1% can be achieved within the mid-infrared region. Moreover, for plasmons with a very wide incident angle, the performance of such anti-reflection boundary could still be maintained, achieving less than 1% reflection up to 60° incident angle. The proposed moth-eye anti-reflection boundary would be helpful for the future development of high integration GPs circuits. (paper)

  11. Nanostructured Antireflective and Thermoisolative Cicada Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Junko; Ryu, Meguya; Seniutinas, Gediminas; Balčytis, Armandas; Maximova, Ksenia; Wang, Xuewen; Zamengo, Massimiliano; Ivanova, Elena P; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2016-05-10

    Inter-related mechanical, thermal, and optical macroscopic properties of biomaterials are defined at the nanoscale by their constituent structures and patterns, which underpin complex functions of an entire bio-object. Here, the temperature diffusivity of a cicada (Cyclochila australasiae) wing with nanotextured surfaces was measured using two complementary techniques: a direct contact method and IR imaging. The 4-6-μm-thick wing section was shown to have a thermal diffusivity of α⊥ = (0.71 ± 0.15) × 10(-7) m(2)/s, as measured by the contact temperature wave method along the thickness of the wing; it corresponds to the inherent thermal property of the cuticle. The in-plane thermal diffusivity value of the wing was determined by IR imaging and was considerably larger at α∥ = (3.6 ± 0.2) × 10(-7) m(2)/s as a result of heat transport via air. Optical properties of wings covered with nanospikes were numerically simulated using an accurate 3D model of the wing pattern and showed that light is concentrated between spikes where intensity is enhanced by up to 3- to 4-fold. The closely packed pattern of nanospikes reduces the reflectivity of the wing throughout the visible light spectrum and over a wide range of incident angles, hence acting as an antireflection coating. PMID:27101865

  12. Antireflection and SiO2 Surface Passivation by Liquid-Phase Chemistry for Efficient Black Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, H. C.; Oh, J.; Zhang, Y.; Kuznetsov, O. A.; Flood, D. J.; Branz, H. M.

    2012-06-01

    We report solar cells with both black Si antireflection and SiO2 surface passivation provided by inexpensive liquid-phase chemistry, rather than by conventional vacuum-based techniques. Preliminary cell efficiency has reached 16.4%. Nanoporous black Si antireflection on crystalline Si by aqueous etching promises low surface reflection for high photon utilization, together with lower manufacturing cost compared to vacuum-based antireflection coating. Ag-nanoparticle-assisted black Si etching and post-etching chemical treatment recently developed at NREL enables excellent control over the pore diameter and pore separation. Performance of black Si solar cells, including open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, and blue response, has benefited from these improvements. Prior to this study, our black Si solar cells were all passivated by thermal SiO2 produced in tube furnaces. Although this passivation is effective, it is not yet ideal for ultra-low-cost manufacturing. In this study, we report, for the first time, the integration of black Si with a proprietary liquid-phase deposition (LPD) passivation from Natcore Technology. The Natcore LPD forms a layer of <10-nm SiO2 on top of the black Si surface in a relatively mild chemical bath at room temperature. We demonstrate black Si solar cells with LPD SiO2 with a spectrum-weighted average reflection lower than 5%, similar to the more costly thermally grown SiO2 approach. However, LPD SiO2 provides somewhat better surface-passivation quality according to the lifetime analysis by the photo-conductivity decay measurement. Moreover, black Si solar cells with LPD SiO2 passivation exhibit higher spectral response at short wavelength compared to those passivated by thermally grown SiO2. With further optimization, the combination of aqueous black Si etching and LPD could provide a pathway for low-cost, high-efficiency crystalline Si solar cells.

  13. Antireflection-structured surfaces for mid-infrared entrance windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, Didier; Harvey, Erol C.; Pigot, Claude; Rizvi, Nadeem H.

    1998-08-01

    SubWavelength Structured Surfaces (SWS), by synthesizing effective index of refraction, offer an attractive way to mimic antireflective coating effects. It is of particular interest for some IR materials of high index of refraction such as CdTe or KRS-5. These material are often used for entrance window in cryogenic IR instrument in the 20 microns band. For these materials, multilayer antireflective coatings provide limited performances in transmission, while expected performances of SWS can be very high even for a wavelength range covering both the N and Q atmospheric windows, from 7 microns to 28 microns. The SWS simulates a gradient index layer. Its main parameters are its pitch and its depth. The pitches required depend on the IR material index. For CdTe and KRS5, they are around 3 microns to work in N-band and Q-band and around 6 microns to work only on Q- band, and the depth required is around 10 microns to work till 28 microns. We have tried a new approach to realize these structures by using excimer laser ablation technique. We describe the used technique and our results for different materials such as CdTe, KRS5, CsBr and CsI. Antireflection structured surfaces on CdTe could offer an increase in transmission better than 25 percent at 24 microns. We measured a transmission efficiency of near 96 percent between 23 micrometers and 35 micrometers on KRS-5, and more than 95 percent between 18.5 micrometers and 35.5 micrometers on CsI.

  14. Optically optimal wavelength-scale patterned ITO/ZnO composite coatings for thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Moreau, Antoine; Centeno, Emmanuel; Seassal, Christian

    2012-01-01

    A new methodology is proposed for finding structures that are, optically speaking, locally optimal : a physical analysis of much simpler structures is used to constrain the optimization process. The obtained designs are based on a flat amorphous silicon layer (to minimize recombination) with a patterned anti-reflective coating made of ITO or ZnO, or a composite ITO/ZnO coating. These latter structures are realistic and present good performances despite very thin active layers.

  15. Scratch induced failure of plasma sprayed alumina based coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Scratch induced failure of alumina based coatings including nanostructured is reported. ► Ceramic is deposited on bond coat instead of steel, emulating a realistic situation. ► Lateral force data is supplemented with microscopy to observe coating failure. ► The failure mechanism during scratching has been identified. ► Critical load of failure has been calculated for each bond-top coat combination. -- Abstract: A set of plasma sprayed coatings were obtained from three alumina based top coat and two bond coat powders. Scratch test was undertaken on these coatings, under constant and linearly varying load. Test results include the lateral force data and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Failure occurred by large area spallation of the top coat and in most cases tensile cracks appeared on the exposed bond coat. The lateral force showed an increasing trend with an increase in normal load up to a certain point and beyond this, it assumed a steady average value. The locations of coating spallation and occurrence of maximum lateral force did not coincide. A bond coat did not show a significant role in determining the scratch adhesion strength.

  16. Development of metal based thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Il

    In this work, metal-based thermal barrier coatings (MBTBCs) have been produced, using high frequency induction plasma spraying (IPS) of iron-based nanostructured alloy powders. Important advances have been made over recent years to the development of ceramic-based thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for internal combustion engines application, but they are not yet applied in mass production situations. Besides the important economic considerations, the reliability of ceramic: TBCs is also an issue, being associated with the difficulty of predicting their "in-service" lifetime. Through engineering of the nano/amorphous structure of MBTBCs, their thermal conductivity can be made as low as those of ceramic-based TBCs, with reduced mean free paths of the electrons/phonons scattering. In this work, nano/amorphous structured coatings were deposited by IPS using the following spray parameters: spraying distance (210 ˜ 270 mm), plasma gas composition (Ar/N2), IPS torch power (24kW), and powder feed-rate (16g/min.). The structure and properties of the deposited layers were characterized through SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) observations. The thermal diffusivity (alpha) properties of the MBTBCs were measured using a laser flash method. Density (rho) and specific heat (Cp) of the MBTBCs were also measured, and their thermal conductivity (k) calculated (k =alpharhoCp). The thermal conductivity of MBTBCs was found to be as low as 1.99 W/m/K. The heat treatment study showed that crystal structure changes, and grain size growth from a few nanometers to tenth of nanometers occurred at 550°C under static exposure conditions. Thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of MBTBCs was 13E-6/K, which is close to the TEC of cast iron and thus, closer to the TEC values of aluminium alloys than are conventional TBCs. Fracture toughness of MBTBCs has also been assessed by use of Vickers hardness tests, with a 500 g load for 15 s, and the results show that there are no measurable crack

  17. Interactions between base paper and coating color in metered size press coating

    OpenAIRE

    Forsström, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to gain a greater understanding of the interactions between the base paper and coating color in the metered size press (MSP) nip. The effect of base paper in precoating with an MSP was investigated using mill woodfree base papers, laboratory sheets, pilot base papers and non-porous materials. The coating color formulations consisted of commercial raw materials, in most cases latex-CMC colors with a pigment mixture of CaCO3 and kaolin. Coating studies were carried...

  18. Optical phenomena and antifrosting property on biomimetics slippery fluid-infused antireflective films via layer-by-layer comparison with superhydrophobic and antireflective films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Kengo; Nishizawa, Shingo; Kyung, Kyu-Hong; Shiratori, Seimei

    2014-08-27

    Sophisticated material interfaces generated by natural life forms such as lotus leaves and Nepenthes pitcher plants have exceptional abilities to resolve challenges in wide areas of industry and medicine. The nano- and microstructures inspired by these natural materials can repel various liquids and form self-cleaning coatings. In particular, slippery liquid-infused surfaces are receiving remarkable interest as transparent, nonfouling, and antifrosting synthetic surfaces for solar cells and optical devices. Here we focus on the transparency of lubricant-infused texture on antireflective films fabricated by layer-by-layer self-assembly that decrease light scattering, which is important to maintain device properties. A slippery fluid-infused antireflective film composed of chitin nanofibers less than 50 nm in diameter prevented light scattering at the long-wavelength side by Rayleigh scattering to achieve 97.2% transmittance. Moreover, films composed of the same materials demonstrated three different morphologies: superhydrophilicity with antireflection, superhydrophobicity, and omniphobicity, mimicking the biological structures of moth eyes, lotus leaves, and pitcher plants, respectively. The effect of thermal changes on the ability of each film to prevent frost formation was investigated. The slippery fluid-infused antireflective film showed effective antifrosting behavior. PMID:25093243

  19. Aluminium-based Coatings for Cadmium Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Cardilli , Emanuele

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium electroplating is widely used in the aerospace industry for the corrosion protection of high strength steels. Cadmium is also used as compatible coating to reduce the galvanic corrosion generated in the assembly of components manufactured with different materials. However, environmental and safety concerns over the high toxicity of cadmium has led to the investigation of suitable replacements. Aluminium coatings are promising coatings for the replacement of electropl...

  20. Perfect anti-reflection from first principles

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Q-Han Park

    2013-01-01

    Reducing unwanted reflections through impedance matching, called anti-reflection, has long been an important challenge in optics and electrical engineering. Beyond trial and error optimization, however, a systematic way to realize anti-reflection is still absent. Here, we report the discovery of an analytic solution to this long standing problem. For electromagnetic waves, we find the graded permittivity and permeability that completely remove any given impedance mismatch. We demonstrate that...

  1. Strengthening investigation of anti-reflective nano-porous silica films derived by base/acid two-step sol-gel process and mixed atmosphere treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method to improve the mechanical properties of nano porous silica films is reported. The thin films are prepared using the base/acid two-step catalytic sol-gel process and the dip-coating method, and then annealed in the mixed gas of ammonia and water vapor. The films are characterized with TEM, AFM, FTR, spectrophotometer and ellipsometry, respectively. The experimental results show that the two-step catalysis remarkably strengthens the films, and the scratch-resistance of the silica films is further improved after treatment in the mixed gas. The increase in strength is attributed to the cross-linking of silica particles by the two-step catalysis and the mixed gas treatment. And the films still have low refractive index (1.24) as well as much high transmittance over 99.5%

  2. Glycerol Based Polymers for Nonfouling and Switchable Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Becherer, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the preparation and application of glycerol based polymers as coatings were described. The coatings were classified into passive and responsive materials. Whereas the coatings of the first group were developed to passivate materials and thus reduce biofouling, the fouling behavior of the second group could be controlled by adjusting the ambient temperature. The first group was further subdivided into nonfouling surfaces for biomedical applications and on the other side marine ap...

  3. Fluidized bed coating efficiency and morphology of coatings for producing Al-based nanocomposite hollow spheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mostafa Amirjan; Hamid Khorsand; Manouchehr Khorasani

    2014-01-01

    We performed fluidized bed coating of Al-based nanocomposite powder–binder suspensions onto polymer substrates. The effects of the type and amount of the binder and nanoparticle additive on the coating process efficiency and coating characteristics were investigated. The efficiency decreased from 52% to 49% as the processing time increased from 15 to 20 min. However, the amount and thickness of the coating also increased as the processing time and amount of the binder were increased. The addition of nanoparticles to the system decreased the thickness of the coating from 222 to 207 µm when polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was used as a binder. The suspension containing 3wt% R-4410 binder exhibited the greatest efficiency of 60%.

  4. Performances and reliability of WC based thermal spray coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal spray processes are used for a lot of traditional and innovative applications and their importance is becoming higher and higher. WC/CoCr based thermal spray coatings represent one of the most important class of coatings that find application in a wide range of industrial sectors. This paper will address a review of current applications and characteristics of this kind of coating. The most important spraying processes, namely HVOF (high velocity oxygen fuel) are examined, the characterization of the coatings from the point of view of corrosion and wear resistance is considered. (author)

  5. Electrodeposition of nickel-based composite coatings for tribological applications

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study, evaluate, and compare the different electro deposition processes for producing nickel-based composite coatings for application in tribology, including: Ni/BMA luminescent coating, Ni-P/MoS2 and Ni-P/WS2 self-lubricating coatings. In the first part, a new luminescent Ni coating containing an embedded, blue emitting rare-earth mixed metal oxide (BaMgAl11O17:Eu2+) BAM was electrodeposited successfully from an aqueous electrolyte. Two types of surfac...

  6. On Sliding Friction of PEEK Based Composite Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Liao; G. Zhang; C. Mateus; H. Li; C. Coddet

    2004-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) based composite materials become of great interest to applications as bearing and slider materials due to their excellent tribological performance. In present work, graphite and MoS2 (7%, wt) filled PEEK coatings were prepared using serigraph technique. Employing a uniform design experiment, the friction behavior of the composite coatings was systematically investigated under dry sliding conditions on a ball-on-disc arrangement. The evolution mechanism of coating friction coefficient was discussed. Correlation of coatings friction coefficient with sliding velocity and applied load was accomplished usingstepwise regression method. The results indicate that friction coefficients of PEEK + MoS2 and PEEK + graphite coating decrease while increasing applied load. Moreover, friction coefficient of PEEK + MoS2 coating increases with increasing sliding velocity.

  7. Development of Processing Windows for HVOF Carbide-Based Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Andrew Siao Ming; Howse, Hugo; Wade, Scott A.; Berndt, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Optimized processing windows for spraying high-quality metal carbide-based coatings are developed using particle diagnostic technology. The cermet coatings were produced via the high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spray process and are proposed for service applications such as marine hydraulics. The traditional "trial and error" method for developing coating process parameters is not technically robust, as well as being costly and time consuming. Instead, this contribution investigated the use of real-time monitoring of parameters associated with the HVOF flame jets and particles using in-flight particle diagnostics. Subsequently, coatings can be produced with knowledge concerning the molten particle size, temperature, and velocity profile. The analytical results allow identification of optimized coating process windows, which translate to coatings of lower porosity and improved mechanical performance.

  8. Numerical Parametric Analysis of Bond Coat Thickness Effect on Residual Stresses in Zirconia-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Musharaf; Hasham, Hasan Junaid; Baig, Yasir

    2016-02-01

    Numerical-based finite element investigation has been conducted to explain the effect of bond coat thickness on stress distribution in traditional and nanostructured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-based thermal barrier coatings (TBC). Stress components have been determined to quantitatively analyze the mechanical response of both kinds of coatings under the thermal shock effect. It has been found that maximum radial tensile and compressive stresses that exist at thermally grown oxide (TGO)/bond coat interface and within TGO respectively decrease with an increase in bond coat thickness. Effect of bond coat thickness on axial tensile stresses is not significant. However, axial compressive stresses that exist at the edge of the specimen near bond coat/substrate interface decrease appreciably with the increase in bond coat thickness. Residual stress profile as a function of bond coat thickness is further explained for comparative analysis of both coatings to draw some useful conclusions helpful in failure studies of TBCs.

  9. Development of Aloe vera based edible coating for tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athmaselvi, K. A.; Sumitha, P.; Revathy, B.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of formulated Aloe vera based edible coating on mass loss, colour, firmness, pH, acidity, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid and lycopene on the coated tomato was investigated. The tomato in control showed a rapid deterioration with an estimated shelf life period of 19 days, based on the mass loss, colour changes, accelerated softening and ripening. On the contrary, the coating on tomatoes delayed the ripening and extended the shelf life up to 39 days. The physiological loss in weight was 7.6 and 15.1%, firmness was 36 and 46.2 N on 20th day for control and coated tomatoes, respectively. From the results, it was concluded that the use of Aloe vera based edible coating leads to increased tomato shelf-life.

  10. Optical properties of porous-silicon-based structures with modified nanodiamond films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzova, V. A.; Korets, A. Ya.; Merkushev, F. F.; Semenova, O. V.

    2015-02-01

    We have studied the optical properties of silicon-based sandwich structures with diamond-like films deposited by electrophoresis from aqueous suspensions of modified detonation nanodiamonds. It is shown that these films can be used as antireflection and protective coatings for silicon-based solar cells.

  11. Quantitative analysis of silica aerogel-based thermal insulation coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical heat transfer model for a silica aerogel-based thermal insulation coating was developed. The model can estimate the thermal conductivity of a two-component (binder-aerogel) coating with potential binder intrusion into the nano-porous aerogel structure. The latter is modelled using ...

  12. Model-based analysis of thermal insulation coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren

    2014-01-01

    thermal insulation coating developed. Data from a previous experimental investigation with hollow glass sphere-based epoxy and acrylic coatings were used for model validation. Simulations of thermal conductivities were in good agreement with experimental data. Using the model, a parameter study was also...

  13. Use of ZnO as antireflective, protective, antibacterial, and biocompatible multifunction nanolayer of thermochromic VO2 nanofilm for intelligent windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huaijuan; Li, Jinhua; Bao, Shanhu; Li, Jian; Liu, Xuanyong; Jin, Ping

    2016-02-01

    A multifunctional VO2/ZnO bilayer film is designed and deposited by magnetron sputtering apparatus. The integration of the antireflective, antioxidative and anti-corrosion functions, and antibacterial performance makes the heterostructure film a promising candidate in the energy-saving smart window. The ZnO thin film as the antireflection layer can markedly boost the solar regulation efficiency (ΔTsol) from 7.7% to 12.2% and possesses excellent luminous transmittance (Tlum-L = 50.3%) in the low-temperature semiconductor phase. The ZnO layer as the protection barrier can not only protect VO2 thin film from oxidation to much toxic V2O5, but also decrease the release of V ions. Besides, the synergistic effect of releasing killing by Zn2+ ions and contact killing by ZnO NPs makes ZnO thin film an outstanding antibacterial coating. In terms of the biological safety, ZnO coating with appropriate film thickness can effectively attenuate the cytotoxicity of VO2 on human HIBEpiC cells. We hope this work can provide new insights for better designing of novel multifunctional VO2-based intelligent energy-saving windows.

  14. Design and fabrication of infrared antireflecting bi-periodic micro-structured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffaron, R.; Escoubas, L.; Simon, J. J.; Torchio, Ph.; Flory, F.; Berginc, G.; Masclet, Ph.; Perret, C.; Schiavone, P.

    2008-04-01

    Broadband antireflection properties of material surfaces are of primary interest for a wide variety of applications: to enhance the efficiency of photovoltaic cells, to increase the sensitivity of photodetectors, to improve the performance of light emitting diodes, etc... In the past, broadband antireflection multilayer coatings were widely used and recently very low refractive index materials in thin film form have been fabricated by several groups. The research work presented in this paper aims at modeling and fabricating bi-periodic micro-structured silicon surfaces exhibiting broadband antireflection properties in the infrared range. These structures of pyramidal shape, which typical dimensions are smaller than the wavelength, are not in the Effective Medium Theory (EMT) validity domain. The optimization of the optical properties of such patterned surfaces needs a fully Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) rigorous description of light propagation phenomena. The influence of various opto-geometrical parameters such as period, depth, shape of the pattern is examined. The antireflective properties of such bi-periodic patterned surfaces is then discussed using the photonic crystal theory and photonic band diagrams description. The structure is considered as a two dimensional periodic structure with a nonuniform third dimension. Correlations between the density of Bloch modes, flatness of dispersion curves and the surface reflectance are presented. The last part of this paper is devoted to the presentation of the fabrication and the characterization of the structures. Low cost and large surface processing techniques are proposed using wet anisotropic etching through a silica mask obtained by photolithography or nanoimprinting.

  15. Texturing of the Silicon Substrate with Nanopores and Si Nanowires for Anti-reflecting Surfaces of Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Druzhinin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the prospects of obtaining a functional multi-layer anti-reflecting coating of the front surface of solar cells by texturing the surface of the silicon by electrochemical etching. The physical model of the "Black Si" coating with discrete inhomogeneity of the refractive index and technological aspects of producing of "Black Si" functional anti-reflecting coatings were presented. The investigation results of the spectral characteristics of the obtained multilayer multiporous "Black Si" coatings for silicon solar cells made by electrochemical etching are presented. The possibility of creating the texture on a silicon wafer surface using silicon nanowires and ordered nanopores obtained by metal-assisted chemical etching was shown.

  16. Electrodeposition of catalytic ternary cobalt based coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Ved, M. V.; Sakhnenko, N. D.; Glushkova, M. A.; Hapon, Yu. K.; Kozyar, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Consistent patterns for electrodeposition of Co-Mo-W and Co-Mo-Zr coatings from polyligand citrate-pyrophosphate bath were investigated. The effect of both current density amplitude and pulse on/off time on the quality, composition and surface topography of the galvanic alloys were determined. It was established the coating Co-Mo-Zr enrichment by alloying components with current density increasing as well as the rising of pulse time promotes the content of zirconium, and pause – molybdenum be...

  17. Photo-assisted reduction in nanostructured cerium-based coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanostructured cerium-based coatings on AZ31 Mg alloy substrates exposed to sunlight under ambient conditions had an ∼30% increase in Ce(III) species compared to unexposed coatings as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A decrease in film cracks and shift in bandgap from 2.5 eV to 2.7 eV were also measured. Visible changes in color, from yellow to translucent, with exposure were also observed and suggest that cerium-based coatings are reduced by light exposure in humid environments

  18. Silicon-based coatings on niobium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon coatings on niobium substrates were subjected to thermal, ion beams and laser mixing, and the effectiveness of the different methods for the synthesis of graded interfaces was compared. The resulting metal/silicon interfaces are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS)

  19. Transport and antifouling properties of papain-based antifouling coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Rafael S.; Armelin, Elaine; Moreno-Martínez, Juan A.; Alemán, Carlos; Ferreira, Carlos A.

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work is to study the antifouling performance and water uptake behaviour of coatings formulated with papain (an environmentally friendly pigment). Antifouling coatings have been formulated using rosin (natural resin) as matrix and papain adsorbed in activated carbon as pigment. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were used to evaluate the behaviour of the formulated coatings in the marine environment and to calculate the apparent water coefficient of diffusion (D). FTIR and XPS analyses confirm the presence of papain adsorbed inside the activated carbon pores and the release of papain in water. Immersion tests in the Mediterranean Sea were carried out for 7 months to verify the degree of biofouling of the tested coatings. These field assays clearly indicate the excellent behaviour of papain-based antifouling coatings; the results being similar to those achieved using a commercial coating. Additionally, the EIS technique is shown to be a great tool to predict the coating diffusivity of antifouling coatings before immersion tests. Furthermore, the use of biodegradable papain as a nature-friendly antifouling agent can eliminate the negative environmental impact caused by metals and chemical biocides typically used in current commercial formulations.

  20. Irradiation performance of thorium oxide based coated particle fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BISO coated ThO2 particles as fertile fuel and BISO or TRISO coated (Th, U)O2 particles as fissile fuel for a High-temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) were irradiated to investigate particle performances in loosely-packed condition of two capsules in JRR-2 and one capsule in JMTR. Irradiation of these coated particles was achieved to a maximum fast neutron fluence of 2.22 x 1021 neutrons/cm2 (E > 0.18 MeV) and a maximum thermal neutron fluence of 1.35 x 1021 neutrons/cm2 at temperatures of 770 to 1225 deg C. And a maximum burnup of fissile particles was 2.42 % FIMA. It was found in the post-irradiation examinations that the coated particles were intact except a little of the BISO coated fissile particles, and the thorium oxide based coated particles performed well under the irradiation conditions. The data were also taken on the fission product behavior released from the fuel kernels during the irradiation. And density of the outer LTIPyC (OPyC) increased as increasing the fluence of fast neutron. As a result of the densification of the OPyC, the crushing strength of the BISO coated particles increased, otherwise the TRISO coated particles decreased. (author)

  1. Optical Fiber Sensors Based on Nanoparticle-Embedded Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Urrutia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of nanoparticles (NPs in scientific applications has attracted the attention of many researchers in the last few years. The use of NPs can help researchers to tune the physical characteristics of the sensing coating (thickness, roughness, specific area, refractive index, etc. leading to enhanced sensors with response time or sensitivity better than traditional sensing coatings. Additionally, NPs also offer other special properties that depend on their nanometric size, and this is also a source of new sensing applications. This review focuses on the current status of research in the use of NPs within coatings in optical fiber sensing. Most used sensing principles in fiber optics are briefly described and classified into several groups: absorbance-based sensors, interferometric sensors, fluorescence-based sensors, fiber grating sensors, and resonance-based sensors, among others. For each sensor group, specific examples of the utilization of NP-embedded coatings in their sensing structure are reported.

  2. Development of EQ coating for a new TBC coating system in Ni-base superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawagishi, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Harada, H. [National Institute for Materials Science, Ibaraki (Japan); Sato, A. [National Institute for Materials Science, Ibaraki (Japan)]|[Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ang, J. [National Institute for Materials Science, Ibaraki (Japan)]|[The Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Ni-base single crystal (SC) superalloys containing high concentrations of refractory elements prone to generate a diffusion layer called Secondary Reaction Zone (SRZ) beneath their bond coating during exposure at high temperatures. SRZ cause a reduction of the load bearing cross section and it is detrimental to the creep properties of thin-wall turbine airfoils. In this study, a new bond coat system, ''EQ coating'' which is stable and suppressing SRZ is proposed. The characteristic of EQ system is that the coating stays in equilibrium state and never reacts with the substrate. Diffusion couples of coating materials and substrate alloys were made and were heat treated at 1100 C for 300 h and 1000 h. The concentration profiles of alloying elements in these diffusion couples were analyzed by EPMA to investigate the existence of the diffusion zone. Cyclic oxidation examinations were carried out at 1100 C in air and the oxidation properties of EQ coating materials were discussed. (orig.)

  3. Improved Antireflection Properties of an Optical Film Surface with Mixing Conical Sub wavelength Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on finite difference time domain method, an optical film surface with mixing conical sub wavelength structures is numerically investigated to improve antireflection property. The mixing conical sub wavelength structure is combined with the pure periodic conical sub wavelength structures and the added small conical structures in the gap between the pure periodic conical sub wavelength structures. The antireflection properties of two types of sub wavelength structures with different aspect ratios in spectral range of 400- 800 nm are analyzed and compared. It is shown that, for the mixing type, the average reflectance is decreased and the variances of the reflectance are evidently smaller. When the added structure with a better aspect ratio exists, the average reflectance of the surface can be below 0.30%. Obviously, the antireflection properties of the optical film surface with mixing conical sub wavelength structures can be improved.

  4. Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dennis G.

    1989-01-01

    This review covers analytical techniques applicable to the examination of coatings, raw materials, and substrates upon which coatings are placed. Techniques include chemical and electrochemical methods, chromatography, spectroscopy, thermal analysis, microscopy, and miscellaneous techniques. (MVL)

  5. The influence of process parameters and coating properties of double glazing coated with transparent conducting oxides on the efficiency of solar-thermal flat-plate collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to increase the performance of a solar-thermal flat-plate collector, we insert a double glazing with low-emitting (low-e) coating on the inner glass pane. The low-e coating system is based on sputter deposited aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) and additional antireflective (AR) coatings. In this paper, we analyze the optical and electronic AZO film properties in dependence of the process parameters such as substrate temperature, argon pressure, direct current (DC) power, and target doping concentration. Emphasis is placed on the influence of these coating properties and the application of AR coatings on the efficiency of the double-glazed collector. Simulations of the collector efficiency with our collector model are presented. - Highlights: ► We apply a ZnO:Al coating to a double-glazed solar-thermal flat-plate collector. ► We analyze the influence of the deposition parameters on the collector efficiency. ► The influence of the substrate temperature, argon pressure, and DC power is low. ► The doping concentration and antireflective coatings have a strong influence. ► The collector efficiency is up to 45% higher compared to a single-glazed collector

  6. Superhydrophobic chitosan-based coatings for textile processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, N. A.; Philipchenko, A. B.

    2012-12-01

    A simple method to design the superhydrophobic anti-bacterial textile for biomedical applications was developed. For the coating formulation the spraying of nanoparticles dispersion over the textile sample was applied, allowing the way to get multiscale textured layer on a top of cotton fabric. The anti-bacterial functionality of coating is supported by using chitosan-based nanoparticles. In our approach the fabrication of nanoparticles was based on electrostatic interaction between amine group of chitosan and negatively charged fluoroanion. It was demonstrated that the relative number of fluoroanions per elementary unit of chitosan plays the crucial role in the structure of aggregates in the coating and its wettability as well as in durability of coatings in contact with aqueous media.

  7. Strain Sensors Based on Carbon Nanotube - Polymer Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowski, Krzysztof; Zbyrad, Paulina; Wilmański, Alan; Uhl, Tadeusz

    2014-01-01

    In this work there have been investigated the potential usage of the CNT's as strain sensors for the structural health monitoring based on the spray coatings. Experimental work was performed on the metal and glass-reinforced composites. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) were mixed with different matrix materials (acrylic and epoxy) and then applied to the test material with the use of two techniques (screen printing and spray coating). Futhermore, sensors were investigated using SEM. Resp...

  8. Characterization of zeolite-based coatings for adsorption heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Freni, Angelo; Bonaccorsi, Lucio; Chmielewski, Stefanie; Frazzica, Andrea; Calabrese, Luigi; Restuccia, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This book proposes a radically new approach for characterizing thermophysical and mechanical properties of zeolite-based adsorbent coatings for Adsorptive Heat Transformers (AHT). It presents a developed standard protocol for the complete characterization of advanced coated adsorbers. Providing an in-depth analysis of the different procedures necessary for evaluating the performance of adsorbers, it also presents an analysis of their stability under the hydrothermal and mechanical stresses during their entire life cycle. Adsorptive Heat Transformers (AHT), especially adsorption chillers and

  9. Edible coatings based on chitosan-beeswax emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Sónia Cristina Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The use of edible biopolymer-based films and coatings is an environmentally friendly technology that offers substantial advantages for increase of shelf-life of many food products including fruits and vegetables. The development of this kind of films and coatings is a technological challenge for the industry and a very active research field worldwide. In this work biodegradable edible films of chitosan with different contents of beeswax were prepared and characterized. Their hygroscopic pr...

  10. Application of physical gradient index (Moth-Eye) structures to ALON windows as a durable anti-reflection treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Neeta; Goldman, Lee M.; Sastri, Suri A.; Ondercin, Robert J.; Kobrin, Paul

    2009-05-01

    The optical performance of windows and domes are subject to degradation from rain and sand erosion damage in harsh flight environments. While durable window and dome materials, such as ALON®, spinel and sapphire are more or less impervious to rain and sand erosion damage in the captive carry environments, the coatings use to provide antireflection (AR) function are not. Rain and/or sand erosion damage of the outer AR coating leads to degradation of the windows optical performance, even when the underlying window itself is not damaged. Surmet has been working on design and development of physical gradient index (Moth- Eye) structures based AR surfaces etched directly into the surface of the ALON substrate. By eliminating the need for less durable coating materials, these structures offer high optical performance without compromising durability. The difficulty of this approach is that the same durability that makes ALON impervious to erosion damage makes it very difficult to etch. Processes have been developed at Surmet which facilitate the etching of fine deep features into ALON surfaces required for broadband AR function. Recent results will be presented.

  11. Wet-chemistry based selective coatings for concentrating solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimon, Eran; Kribus, Abraham; Flitsanov, Yuri; Shkolnik, Oleg; Feuermann, Daniel; Zwicker, Camille; Larush, Liraz; Mandler, Daniel; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2013-09-01

    Spectrally selective coatings are common in low and medium temperature solar applications from solar water heating collectors to parabolic trough absorber tubes. They are also an essential element for high efficiency in higher temperature Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems. Selective coatings for CSP are usually prepared using advanced expensive methods such as sputtering and vapor deposition. In this work, coatings were prepared using low-cost wet-chemistry methods. Solutions based on Alumina and Silica sol gel were prepared and then dispersed with black spinel pigments. The black dispersions were applied by spray/roll coating methods on stainless steel plates. The spectral emissivity of sample coatings was measured in the temperature range between 200 and 500°C, while the spectral absorptivity was measured at room temperature and 500°C. Emissivity at wavelengths of 0.4-1.7 μm was evaluated indirectly using multiple measurements of directional reflectivity. Emissivity at wavelengths 2-14 μm was measured directly using a broadband IR camera that acquires the radiation emitted from the sample, and a range of spectral filters. Emissivity measurement results for a range of coated samples will be presented, and the impact of coating thickness, pigment loading, and surface preparation will be discussed.

  12. Sol-gel optical coatings for lasers, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are three basic types of antireflective (AR) coatings. The first is a single-layer coating in which the coating index is equal to the square root of the index of the substrate, assuming air is the external medium. The second type is a system of two or more layers of different indexes. The third type is a graded-index system, where the index is uniformly and continuously graded from the substrate to the external medium. Low reflection ranges from narrow for the single-layer to broad for the graded-layer and multilayered with a large number of layers. Four types of sol-gel AR coatings have been developed at CEL-V. They are based on single-layer or multilayer designs. They consist mainly of amorphous silica in the polymeric and/or colloidal state, combined in certain cases with other metallic oxides, binders, fillers, hydrophobic and lubricating agents, and adhesion promoters. These antireflective sol-gel-derived optical coatings have been prepared and tested for the proposed French megajoule neodymium-glass laser

  13. Zr-based conversion coatings for multi-metal substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezo Palacios, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this PhD work, a new surface treatment based on the application of Zr-based conversion coatings by immersion in a Cu containing Zr-based conversion solution was investigated as a replacement of the traditional phosphating process for the automotive industry. Nowadays most of the cars are made of a combination of different metals, therefore, one of the aims of this work is to study the formation mechanism of Zr-based conversion coatings on different metallic surfaces. Prior to the immersion...

  14. Zr-based conversion coatings for multi-metal substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerezo Palacios, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this PhD work, a new surface treatment based on the application of Zr-based conversion coatings by immersion in a Cu containing Zr-based conversion solution was investigated as a replacement of the traditional phosphating process for the automotive industry. Nowadays most of the cars are made of

  15. Oxidation resistance coating for niobium base structural composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidation behavior of Al-rich Mo(Si,Al)2 base alloys, which is a candidate material for the oxidation resistance coating on Nb base structural composites, were investigated by thermogravimetry. The Mo(Si,Al)2 base alloys containing Mo5(Si,Al)3 up to about 10 vol% exhibits excellent oxidation resistance at temperatures ranging from 780 to 1580 K, particularly at 1580 K due to continuous Al2O3 layer development. To evaluate the applicability of the Mo(Si,Al)2 base coating, plasma spraying on Nb base composites were undertaken. However, interface reaction layer was found to form during the following heat treatment. Preparation of Mo(Si,Al)2/Al2O3/Nb layered structures via powder metallurgical process was attempted to preclude diffusion reaction between coating and substrate. (orig.)

  16. Antireflective silica thin films with super water repellence via a solgel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yao; Fan, Wen Hao; Li, Zhi Hong; Wu, Dong; Sun, Yu Han

    2003-01-01

    A solgel process was developed, through which silica films possessing both high antireflection and super water repellence were obtained. In this process, methyl-modified SiO2 sols synthesized by colloidal suspension of SiO2 particles and hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) were used to deposit spinning-coating films on optical glass substrates. On the resultant films the contact angle for water increased with the increasing amount of HMDS in the reaction mixture. The biggest contact angle was 165 degrees, and the lowest reflectivity on one-sided film reached 0.03%. The antireflections were high all the while. One advantage of this process is that neither a roughened surface nor fluoroalkyltrialkoxylsilane (FAS) is needed to obtained super water repellence. PMID:12518829

  17. Enhancement in broadband and quasi-omnidirectional antireflection of nanopillar arrays by ion milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhifeng; Hawkeye, Matthew M; Brett, Michael J

    2012-07-11

    A new technique is developed to fabricate biomimetic antireflection coatings (ARCs). This technique combines a bottom-up fabrication approach (glancing angle deposition, or GLAD) with a top-down engineering process (ion milling). The GLAD technique is first utilized to produce nanopillar arrays (NPAs) with broadened structures, which are subsequently transformed into biomimetic tapered geometries by means of post-deposition ion milling. This structure transformation, due to milling-induced mass redistribution, remarkably decreases reflection over a wide wavelength range (300-1700 nm) and field of view (angle of incidence index transition from the substrate to the air, which improves the impedance match and reduces reflection losses. Additionally, ion bombardment tends to alter the stoichiometry and diminish the crystallographic structure of the NPA materials. The broadband and quasi-omnidirectional antireflection observed establishes the strong competitiveness of this technique with the methods previously reported. PMID:22705498

  18. Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings Development for Si-Based Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Choi, R. Sung; Robinson, Raymond C.; Lee, Kang N.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Miller, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced environmental barrier coating concepts based on multi-component HfO2 (ZrO2) and modified mullite systems are developed for monolithic Si3N4 and SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) applications. Comprehensive testing approaches were established using the water vapor cyclic furnace, high pressure burner rig and laser heat flux steam rig to evaluate the coating water vapor stability, cyclic durability, radiation and erosion resistance under simulated engine environments. Test results demonstrated the feasibility and durability of the environmental barrier coating systems for 2700 to 3000 F monolithic Si3N4 and SiC/SiC CMC component applications. The high-temperature-capable environmental barrier coating systems are being further developed and optimized in collaboration with engine companies for advanced turbine engine applications.

  19. Bioactivity of polyurethane-based scaffolds coated with Bioglass (registered)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyurethane (PUR) and polyurethane/poly(d, l-lactide) acid (PUR/PDLLA) based scaffolds coated with Bioglass (registered) particles for application in bone tissue engineering were fabricated. The slurry-dipping method was used for coating preparation. The homogeneous structure of the Bioglass (registered) coatings on the surface of the PUR and PUR/PDLLA foams indicated a good adhesion of the bioactive glass particles to polyurethane without any additional surface treatment. In vitro studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) were performed to study the influence of Bioglass (registered) coating on biodegrability and bioactivity of PUR-based scaffolds. The surface of Bioglass (registered) -coated samples was covered by a layer of carbonate-containing apatite after 7 days of immersion in SBF, while in uncoated polymer samples apatite crystals were not detected even after 21 days of immersion in SBF. The apatite layer was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDS analysis and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR-ATR). Weight loss measurements showed that the in vitro degradation rate of the composite scaffolds in SBF was higher in comparison to uncoated polyurethane samples. PUR and PUR/PDLLA foams with Bioglass (registered) coating have potential to be used as bioactive, biodegradable scaffolds in bone tissue engineering

  20. Superhydrophobic chitosan-based coatings for textile processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Chitosan nanoparticles can be used for design of the superhydrophobic anti-bacterial textile. ► Spraying the nanoparticle dispersion allows one to get multiscale textured coating. ► Relative number of fluoroanions per elementary unit of chitosan plays the crucial role in the structure of aggregates and coating wettability. - Abstract: A simple method to design the superhydrophobic anti-bacterial textile for biomedical applications was developed. For the coating formulation the spraying of nanoparticles dispersion over the textile sample was applied, allowing the way to get multiscale textured layer on a top of cotton fabric. The anti-bacterial functionality of coating is supported by using chitosan-based nanoparticles. In our approach the fabrication of nanoparticles was based on electrostatic interaction between amine group of chitosan and negatively charged fluoroanion. It was demonstrated that the relative number of fluoroanions per elementary unit of chitosan plays the crucial role in the structure of aggregates in the coating and its wettability as well as in durability of coatings in contact with aqueous media.

  1. Water-based Flexographic Printing on Polymer-coated Board

    OpenAIRE

    Rentzhog, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This doctoral thesis comprises three studies dealing with water-based flexography on polymer-coated boards, which have been presented in the five papers included at the end of the thesis. The first study (covered in three papers) presents results from characterisation of a matrix of water-based inks with respect to their rheology, surface tension, wetting, and fulltone printing performance on PE-coated board. The commercial water-based inks used vary in type of pigment and acrylic vehicle, an...

  2. Carbon nanotube-based coatings on titanium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elzbieta Dlugon; Wojciech Simka; Aneta Fraczek-Szczypta; Wiktor Niemiec; Jaroslaw Markowski; Marzena Szymanska; Marta Blazewicz

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports results of the modification of titanium surface with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The Ti samples were covered with CNTs via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. Prior to EPD process, CNTs were functionalized by chemical treatment. Mechanical, electrochemical and biological properties of CNT-covered Ti samples were studied and compared to those obtained for unmodified titanium surface. Atomic force microscopy was used to investigate the surface topography. To determine micromechanical characteristics of CNT-covered metallic samples indentation tests were conducted. Throughout electrochemical studies were performed in order to characterize the impact of the coating on the corrosion of titanium substrate. In vitro experiments were conducted using the human osteoblast NHOst cell line. CNT layers shielded titanium from corrosion gave the surface-enhanced biointegrative properties. Cells proliferated better on the modified surface in comparison to unmodified titanium. The deposited layer enhanced cell adhesion and spreading as compared to titanium sample.

  3. Optically transparent, superhydrophobic methyltrimethoxysilane based silica coatings without silylating reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superhydrophobic surfaces have drawn lot of interest, in both academic and industries because of optically transparent, adherent and self-cleaning behavior. Surface chemical composition and morphology plays an important role in determining the superhydrophobic nature of coating surface. Such concert of non-wettability can be achieved, using surface modifying reagents or co-precursor method in sol-gel process. Attempts have been made to increase the hydrophobicity and optical transparency of methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) based silica coatings using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) instead of formal routes like surface modification using silylating reagents. The optically transparent, superhydrophobic uniform coatings were obtained by simple dip coating method. The molar ratio of MTMS:MeOH:H2O was kept constant at 1:5.63:1.58, respectively with 0.5 M NH4F as a catalyst and the weight percent of PMMA varied from 1 to 8. The hydrophobicity of silica coatings was analyzed by FTIR and contact angle measurements. These substrates exhibited 91% optical transmittance as compared to glass and water drop contact angle as high as 171 ± 1 deg. The effect of humidity on hydrophobic nature of coating has been studied by exposing these films at relative humidity of 90% at constant temperature of 30 deg. C for a period of 45 days. The micro-structural studies carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  4. Preparation of stable ultrahydrophobic and superoleophobic silica-based coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimittrakoolchai, On-Uma; Supothina, Sitthisuntorn

    2012-06-01

    Silica-Based coatings having excellent water- and oil-repellent properties and good weathering stability have been deposited onto glass surface by a simple one-step dip coating technique. To achieve ultra water repellency and super oil repellency, the chemical composition of SiO2 nanoparticle employed as surface roughness enhancer and trichloro(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl)silane employed as surface-energy reducing substance was varied. At the optimum synthesis condition, the coating exhibited very high contact angles of 173.2, 146.7 and 147.6 degrees for water, ethylene glycol and seed oil, respectively. The achievement of excellent water- and oil-repellency is also described based on the presence of air trapped in micropore of the coating in addition to its high surface roughness and low surface free energy. The coatings have good weathering stability based on natural and accelerated weathering tests indicating feasibility for practical use. PMID:22905559

  5. Preparation of Scratch-Resistant Nano-Porous Silica Films Derived by Sol-Gel Process and Their Anti-reflective Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangming WU; Jun SHEN; Tianhe YANG; Bin ZHOU; Jue WANG

    2003-01-01

    Structural strengthening of the nano porous silica films has been reported. The films were prepared with a base/acid two-step catalyzed TEOS-based sol-gel processing and dip-coating, and then baked in the mixed gas of ammonia and water vapor. The silica films were characterized with TEM, AFM, FTIR, spectrophotometer, ellipsometer, and abrasion test, respectively. The experimental results have shown that the films have a nanostructure with a low refractive index and can form an excellent scratch-resistant broadband anti-reflectance. The two-step catalysis noticeably strengthens the films, and the mixed gas treatment further improves mechanical strength of the silica network. Finally the strengthening mechanism has been discussed.

  6. Thermal stability of protective coatings produced on nickel based superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pytel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper the results of high temperature cyclic oxidation tests of the protective diffusion coatings were presented. One of the main purposes of this work was to produce three different types of protective coatings by three different methods, i.e. slurry method, vapour phase aluminizing (VPA and chemical vapour deposition (CVD, applied on nickel based René 80 superalloy substrate.Design/methodology/approach: The high temperature cyclic oxidation tests were carried out in 23h cycles at constant temperature 1100°C using Carbolite CWF 1300 chamber furnace. The samples were removed outside and were weighted after each cycle. The microstructure investigations of all kinds of the coatings were conducted by the use of light microscope (Nikon Epiphot 300 and a scanning electron microscope (Hitachi S-3400N. In the analysis influence of each method have been taken into consideration, i.e. especially influence of the kind of process on microstructure, coating thickness, chemical composition, first of all aluminium content (in outer ȕ-NiAl layer so-called additive layer, diffusion layer and substrate. For the chemical composition examination x-ray energy dispersive (EDS method was applied using Thermo equipment.Findings: It was found that the best high cyclic oxidation resistance of coating was obtained using CVD method (the maximal increase of samples weight after 28th cycle was observed, whereas in case of the slurry sample after 3rd and VPA after 5th.Research limitations/implications: The research results will be used in the future in order to increase coating thickness, aluminium content and to produce Pt, Pd, Zr, Hf and Si modified aluminide coatings.Practical implications: The CVD method will be used to coat internal passages of turbine blades, for example to produce modified aluminide bond coats on single crystal nickel based superalloys.Originality/value: Chemical vapour deposition is an unique method which is a “pure method

  7. Antireflective Boundary Conditions for Deblurring Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Donatelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey paper deals with the use of antireflective boundary conditions for deblurring problems where the issues that we consider are the precision of the reconstruction when the noise is not present, the linear algebra related to these boundary conditions, the iterative and noniterative regularization solvers when the noise is considered, both from the viewpoint of the computational cost and from the viewpoint of the quality of the reconstruction. In the latter case, we consider a reblurring approach that replaces the transposition operation with correlation. For many of the considered items, the anti-reflective algebra coming from the given boundary conditions is the optimal choice. Numerical experiments corroborating the previous statement and a conclusion section end the paper.

  8. Thin film coated submicron gratings: theory, design, fabrication and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heine, C.

    1996-12-31

    The realization of new applications of submicron grating structures requires efficient theoretical methods and elaborate fabrication techniques. In this work rigorous diffraction theory for one-dimensional gratings has been investigated and optimization techniques, based on methods used in thin film optics, have been developed. Submicron gratings embossed in polycarbonate have been fabricated and characterized. This includes transmission measurements which are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. Designs for a wide range of optical filters, which lead to improved optical and mechanical properties, are presented. This has been demonstrated for broadband antireflection structures for solar energy applications, based on MgF{sub 2}-coated gratings. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  9. Self-assembled nanolaminate coatings (SV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, H.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (LM Aero) are collaborating to develop affordable, self-assembled, nanocomposite coatings and associated fabrication processes that will be tailored to Lockheed Martin product requirements. The purpose of this project is to develop a family of self-assembled coatings with properties tailored to specific performance requirements, such as antireflective (AR) optics, using Sandia-developed self-assembled techniques. The project met its objectives by development of a simple and economic self-assembly processes to fabricate multifunctional coatings. Specifically, materials, functionalization methods, and associated coating processes for single layer and multiple layers coatings have been developed to accomplish high reflective coatings, hydrophobic coatings, and anti-reflective coatings. Associated modeling and simulations have been developed to guide the coating designs for optimum optical performance. The accomplishments result in significant advantages of reduced costs, increased manufacturing freedom/producibility, improved logistics, and the incorporation of new technology solutions not possible with conventional technologies. These self-assembled coatings with tailored properties will significantly address LMC's needs and give LMC a significant competitive lead in new engineered materials. This work complements SNL's LDRD and BES programs aimed at developing multifunctional nanomaterials for microelectronics and optics as well as structure/property investigations of self-assembled nanomaterials. In addition, this project will provide SNL with new opportunities to develop and apply self-assembled nanocomposite optical coatings for use in the wavelength ranges of 3-5 and 8-12 micrometers, ranges of vital importance to military-based sensors and weapons. The SANC technologies will be applied to multiple programs within the LM Company including the F-35, F-22, ADP (Future Strike Bomber

  10. Porosity of detonation coatings on the base of chromium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porosity of detonation coatings on the base of chromium carbide is estimated by the hydrostatic weighing. The open porosity value dependence on the distance of spraying, depth of the charge, ratio and volume of the detonator barrie filing with gas components is established. Pore distribution in the cross section of a specimen tested for porosity is studied by the methods of metallographic analysis

  11. Deposition of aluminide and silicide based protective coatings on niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compare aluminide and alumino-silicide composite coatings on niobium using halide activated pack cementation (HAPC) technique for improving its oxidation resistance. The coated samples are characterized by SEM, EDS, EPMA and hardness measurements. We observe formation of NbAl3 in aluminide coating of Nb, though the alumino-silicide coating leads to formation primarily of NbSi2 in the inner layer and a ternary compound of Nb-Si-Al in the outer layer, as reported earlier (Majumdar et al. ). Formation of niobium silicide is preferred over niobium aluminide during alumino-silicide coating experiments, indicating Si is more strongly bonded to Nb than Al, although equivalent quantities of aluminium and silicon powders were used in the pack chemistry. We also employ first-principles density functional pseudopotential-based calculations to calculate the relative stability of these intermediate phases and the adhesion strength of the Al/Nb and Si/Nb interfaces. NbSi2 exhibits much stronger covalent character as compared to NbAl3. The ideal work of adhesion for the relaxed Al/Nb and Si/Nb interfaces are calculated to be 3226 mJ/m2 and 3545 mJ/m2, respectively, indicating stronger Nb-Si bonding across the interface.

  12. Deposition of aluminide and silicide based protective coatings on niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, S.; Arya, A.; Sharma, I. G.; Suri, A. K.; Banerjee, S.

    2010-11-01

    We compare aluminide and alumino-silicide composite coatings on niobium using halide activated pack cementation (HAPC) technique for improving its oxidation resistance. The coated samples are characterized by SEM, EDS, EPMA and hardness measurements. We observe formation of NbAl3 in aluminide coating of Nb, though the alumino-silicide coating leads to formation primarily of NbSi2 in the inner layer and a ternary compound of Nb-Si-Al in the outer layer, as reported earlier (Majumdar et al. [11]). Formation of niobium silicide is preferred over niobium aluminide during alumino-silicide coating experiments, indicating Si is more strongly bonded to Nb than Al, although equivalent quantities of aluminium and silicon powders were used in the pack chemistry. We also employ first-principles density functional pseudopotential-based calculations to calculate the relative stability of these intermediate phases and the adhesion strength of the Al/Nb and Si/Nb interfaces. NbSi2 exhibits much stronger covalent character as compared to NbAl3. The ideal work of adhesion for the relaxed Al/Nb and Si/Nb interfaces are calculated to be 3226 mJ/m2 and 3545 mJ/m2, respectively, indicating stronger Nb-Si bonding across the interface.

  13. Top-flat and top-patterned cone gratings for mid-infrared antireflective properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Jean-Baptiste; Le Rouzo, Judikaël.; Escoubas, Ludovic; Flory, François; Simon, Jean-Jacques; Berginc, Gérard

    2013-03-01

    Achieving a broadband antireflection property from material surfaces is one of the highest priorities for those who want to improve the efficiency of solar cells or the sensitivity of photo-detectors. To lower the reflectance of a surface, we have decided to study the optical response of a top-flat cone shaped silicon grating, based on previous work exploring pyramid gratings. Through rigorous numerical methods, such as Finite Different Time Domain or Rigorous Coupled-Wave Analysis, we then designed several structures theoretically demonstrating an antireflective character within the middle infrared region. From the opto-geometrical parameters such as period, depth and shape of the pattern determined by numerical analysis, these structures have been fabricated using controlled slope plasma etching processes. Afterwards, optical characterizations of several samples were carried out. The reflectance of the grating in the near and middle infrared domains has been measured by Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry and a comparison with numerical analysis has been made. As expected, those structures offer a fair antireflective character in the region of interest. Further numerical investigations led to the fact that patterning the top of the cone could enlarge the antireflective domain to the visible region. Thus, as with the simple cone grating, a comparison of the numerical analysis with the experimental measurements is made. Finally, diffracted orders are studied and compared between both structures. Those orders are critical and must be limited as one wants to avoid crosstalk phenomena in imaging systems.

  14. A study of the anti-reflection efficiency of natural nano-arrays of varying sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Mingxia; Liang Aiping [Key Laboratory of the Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101 Beijing (China); Zheng Yongmei [School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, 100191 Beijing (China); Watson, Gregory S; Watson, Jolanta A, E-mail: liangap@ioz.ac.cn, E-mail: zhengym@buaa.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy and Molecular Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4811 QLD (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    The dependence of optical reflectivity and wettability on the surface topography of 32 species of cicada wing membranes has been investigated using UV-visible spectrophotometry, contact angle measurements and environmental scanning electron microscopy. The nanoscale hexagonally close packed protrusions have been shown to exhibit an anti-reflection and in some cases an anti-wetting function. The parameters of the structures were measured to be 77-148 nm in diameter, 44-117 nm in spacing and 159-481 nm in height. The transmittance spectrum and static contact angles were measured. At a wavelength range of 500-2500 nm, only minor differences in the anti-reflection performance were observed for each cicada species ascribed to the mechanism of impedance matching between cuticle and air. The transmittance properties of cicada wings were altered successfully through the scanning probe microscope-based manipulation by reducing the protrusion height via the contact mode. A near linear dependence was found between a decrease in protuberance height and a resulting increase in reflectance intensity. A diversity of wettability was observed with contact angles varying from 56.5{sup 0} to 146.0{sup 0}. Both effects of anti-reflection and wettability are dependent on the height of protrusions. The anti-reflection is insensitive when the wavelength is larger than the lateral feature size of the nanostructure. The stronger hydrophobic properties are generally associated with a larger diameter, closer spacing and greater height of protrusions when the wing membrane is intact.

  15. Coatings in space: ground- and space-based stability investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Erich J.; Weissbrodt, Peter; Raupach, L.; Lauth, Hans; Kappel, Heiner; Wagner, Sigrid; Schmitt, Dirk-Roger

    1994-11-01

    Optical components for space optics--especially coated optical elements which represent the external surfaces of optical space instrumentation--have to work under harsh operation conditions like thermal loads, irradiation by photons, electrons and protons, as well as in atomic oxygen environments at low earth orbits. Additionally they have to withstand other cross contamination coming from the spacecraft. Therefore, the stability against these influences is a decisive factor for the application performance of optical coatings in space- borne devices. Some very recent results, based on the Surface Effects Sample Monitor flight experiment carried out aboard the ORFEUS-Shuttle Pallet Satellite, STS-51, Discovery, are presented here along with laboratory experiments in an UHV-surface analysis system. The topics include ground simulation of selective and complex particle bombardment of optical coatings analyzed by XPS as well as the verification of these results by flight experiments in combination with optical measurements (transmission, scattering).

  16. Inexpensive LED-based spectrophotometer for analyzing optical coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Hardie, Kayla; Kuntz, Katanya B; Jennewein, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Optical coatings are widespread in everyday life, from camera lenses to glasses, to complex optics experiments. A simple, reliable device that can quickly and inexpensively analyze optical coatings is a valuable laboratory tool. Such a device can identify unknown or mislabelled optics, and characterize the transmission spectra of optical elements used in an experiment. We present the design and characterization of a LED-based spectrophotometer, and demonstrate its ability to identify different optical coatings. Our approach uses ten LEDs that cover a spectrum from 365 nm to 1000 nm. A small servomotor and microcontroller rotates a LED board to sequentially position each LED over an optical sample, and the transmitted light corresponding to each LED is measured with a silicon photodetector. The device is automated, portable, inexpensive, user-friendly and simple to build.

  17. Neutron beam monitor based on a boron-coated GEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jian-Rong; LI Yi; SUN Zhi-Jia; LIU Ben; WANG Yan-Feng; YANG Gui-An; ZHOU Liang; XU Hong; DONG Jing; YANG Lei

    2011-01-01

    A new thermal neutron beam monitor with a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is developed to meet the needs of the next generation of neutron facilities. A prototype chamber has been constructed with two 100 mm×100 mm GEM foils. Enriched boron-10 is coated on one surface of the aluminum cathode plate as the neutron convertor. 96 channel pads with an area of 8 mm×8 mm each are used for fast signal readout.In order to study the basic characteristics of a boron-coated GEM, several irradiation tests were carried out with α source 239pu and neutron source 241Am(Be). The signal induced by the neutron source has a high signal-to-noise ratio. A clear image obtained from α source 239pu is presented, which shows that the neutron beam monitor based on a boron-coated GEM has a good two-dimensional imaging ability.

  18. Energy-saving spectrally-selective coatings based on MoO3/Ag thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Transparent heat mirrors are multilayer structures that transmit light and reflect infrared radiation, thus conserving energy. In this work, this was achieved by deposition of molybdenum oxide thin films on top of silver layers. The silver layer provides the desired high infrared reflectance. The MoO3 thin film is a dielectric material characterized by wide band gap and high refractive index. It works as an antireflective layer, and thus provides the necessary high visible transparency. - Highlights: • Transparent heat mirrors transmit light and reflect infrared heat. • In this work, they were deposited using MoO3/Ag multilayer coatings. • The MoO3 films were smooth, had high refractive index, and wide bandgap. • The fabricated heat mirrors had high visible transparency and infrared reflection. - Abstract: Transparent heat mirrors are spectrally selective coatings that transmit light and reflect heat in the form of infrared radiation. In this work, these coatings were achieved by depositing a two-layer structure consisting of molybdenum oxide thin films deposited on silver thin films by thermal evaporation. First, the structural, chemical, and optical properties of molybdenum oxide thin films, that are relevant to their use in transparent heat mirrors, were investigated. Then, the optical properties of the two-layer structure were determined. Moreover, chemical depth profiling was carried out to investigate the spatial distribution of the elements among the layers. The deposited heat mirrors were found to exhibit the desired behavior of high visible transparency and high infrared reflection

  19. Knowledge-based optical coatings design and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Karl H.; Gonzalez, Avelino J.; Yoo, Hoi J.

    1990-12-01

    The theory of thin film optics is well developed for the spectral analysis of a given optical coating. The inverse synthesis - designing an optical coating for a certain spectral performance - is more complicated. Usually a multitude of theoretical designs is feasible because most design problems are over-determined with the number of layers possible with three variables each (n, k, t). The expertise of a good thin film designer comes in at this point with a mostly intuitive selection of certain designs based on previous experience and current manufacturing capabilities. Manufacturing a designed coating poses yet another subset of multiple solutions, as thin if in deposition technology has evolved over the years with a vast variety of different processes. The abundance of published literature may often be more confusing than helpful to the practicing thin film engineer, even if he has time and opportunity to read it. The choice of the right process is also severely limited by the given manufacturing hardware and cost considerations which may not easily allow for the adaption of a new manufacturing approach, even if it promises to be better technically (it ought to be also cheaper). On the user end of the thin film coating business, the typical optical designer or engineer who needs an optical coating may have limited or no knowledge at all about the theoretical and manufacturing criteria for the optimum selection of what he needs. This can be sensed frequently by overly tight tolerances and requirements for optical performance which sometimes stretch the limits of mother nature. We introduce here a know1edge-based system (KBS) intended to assist expert designers and manufacturers in their task of maximizing results and minimizing errors, trial runs, and unproductive time. It will help the experts to manipulate parameters which are largely determined through heuristic reasoning by employing artificial intelligence techniques. In a later state, the KBS will include a

  20. Photonic hydrophones based on coated fiber Bragg gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of underwater acoustic sensors with performances competitive with conventional piezoelectric hydrophones would overcome intrinsic limitations related to the piezoceramic technology. Optical fiber technology represents a valid platform to implement acoustic sensors for underwater scenarios. Here we report on recent numerical and experimental results obtained with photonic hydrophones based on fiber-Bragg-grating (FBG) with ring shaped coatings. Our numerical results fully characterize the opto-acoustic response of the optical hydrophone, and highlight the key role played by the coating in enhancing significantly its sensitivity by comparison with a standard uncoated configuration. Furthermore, the analysis reveals that the hydrophone sensitivity spectrum exhibits characteristic resonances, which strongly improve the sensitivity with respect to its background level. Our experimental results confirmed the expected resonant behavior of such devices and are in good agreement with the numerical predictions. Optical hydrophones based on coated FBG exhibited an excellent capability to detect acoustic waves in the acoustic frequency range, with extremely high sensitivities. By comparison with bare FBGs, sensitivity enhancements of up to three orders of magnitude were found, demonstrating the effectiveness of polymeric coatings in tailoring the acoustic response of FBG-based hydrophones.

  1. Key Durability Issues with Mullite-Based Environmental Barrier Coatings for Si-Based Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N.

    2000-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed mullite (3Al2O3.2SiO2) and mullite/yttria-stabilized-zirconia (YSZ) dual layer coatings have been developed to protect silicon -based ceramics from environmental attack. Mullite-based coating systems show excellent durability in air. However, in combustion environments, corrosive species such as molten salt or water vapor penetrate through cracks in the coating and attack the Si-based ceramics along the interface. Thus the modification of the coating system for enhanced crack-resistance is necessary for long-term durability in combustion environments. Other key durability issues include interfacial contamination and coating/substrate bonding. Interfacial contamination leads to enhanced oxidation and interfacial pore formation, while a weak coating/substrate bonding leads to rapid attack of the interface by corrosive species, both of which can cause a premature failure of the coating. Interfacial contamination can be minimized by limiting impurities in coating and substrate materials. The interface may be modified to improve the coating/substrate bond.

  2. Effects of Citric Acid on Starch-Based Barrier Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Erik

    2013-01-01

    With growing environmental concerns, efforts are made to replace petroleum based products with renewable alternatives. This is particularly evident in the packaging industry, where replacing synthetic polymers with renewable materials is of considerable interest. Materials for food packaging need to give protection, acting as a barrier against substances that can adversely affect the food quality such as water and oxygen. In this work, barrier dispersion coatings based on starch were used to ...

  3. Hollow Casein-Based Polymeric Nanospheres for Opaque Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Ma, Jianzhong; Xu, Qunna; Zhou, Jianhua; Simion, Demetra; Carmen, Gaidău; Wang, John; Li, Yunqi

    2016-05-11

    Casein-based hollow polymeric sphere were fabricated through emulsifier-free polymerization coupled with alkali swelling approach. Hollow structure and nanoscale size of casein-based polymeric spheres were verified by TEM, AFM, SEM, and UV-vis spectra. The as-obtained hollow spheres were proved exhibiting superior opaque characteristic. Through adjusting the structural parameters, for example, MAA usages and MAA content in seed to core, sphere film showed tunable visible-light transmittance and antiultraviolet property. The formation mechanism of casein-based hollow sphere has been discussed in depth. Worth mentioning, the resultant hollow polymeric sphere can easily form films itself at room temperature, which would open a new possibility of designing opaque coatings in several fields, such as leather, packaging, paper making, biomedical, and special indoor coating applications. PMID:27090208

  4. Lab Coats or Trench Coats? Detective Sleuthing as an Alternative to Scientifically Based Research in Indigenous Educational Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaomea, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Amidst late 19th-century efforts to emphasize modern medicine's transition to a more scientific approach, physicians seeking to represent themselves as scientists began wearing white laboratory coats. Today educational researchers are likewise urged to don metaphorical white coats as scientifically based research is held up as the cure-all…

  5. Environmental Barrier Coatings for Silicon-Based Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N.; Fox, Dennis S.; Robinson, Raymond C.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2001-01-01

    Silicon-based ceramics, such as SiC fiber-reinforced SiC (SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and monolithic silicon nitride (Si3N4), are prime candidates for hot section structural components of next generation gas turbine engines. Silicon-based ceramics, however, suffer from rapid surface recession in combustion environments due to volatilization of the silica scale via reaction with water vapor, a major product of combustion. Therefore, application of silicon-based ceramic components in the hot section of advanced gas turbine engines requires development of a reliable method to protect the ceramic from environmental attack. An external environmental barrier coating (EBC) is considered a logical approach to achieve protection and CP long-term stability. The first generation EBC consisted of two layers, mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2) bond coat and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ, ZrO2-8 Wt.% Y2O3) top coat. Second generation EBCs, with substantially improved performance compared with the first generation EBC, were developed in the NASA High Speed Research-Enabling Propulsion Materials (HSR-EPM) Program. The first generation EBC consisted of two layers, mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2) bond coat and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ, ZrO2-8 wt.% Y2O3) top coat. Second generation EBCs, with substantially improved performance compared with the first generation EBC, were developed in the NASA High Speed Research-Enabling Propulsion Materials (HSR-EPM) Program (5). They consist of three layers, a silicon first bond coat, a mullite or a mullite + BSAS (BaO(1-x)-SrO(x)-Al2O3-2SiO2) second bond coat, and a BSAS top coat. The EPM EBCs were applied on SiC/SiC CMC combustor liners in three Solar Turbines (San Diego, CA) Centaur 50s gas turbine engines. The combined operation of the three engines has accumulated over 24,000 hours without failure (approximately 1,250 C maximum combustor liner temperature), with the engine in Texaco, Bakersfield, CA, accumulating about 14,000 hours. As the

  6. CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF A CONVERSION COATING BASED ON ZIRCONIUM AND COLORANTS ON GALVANIZED STEEL BY ELECTRODEPOSITION

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane Soares Costa; Raquel Dei Agnoli; Jane Zoppas Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion performance of Zr-based coating on substrates obtained by zinc electrodeposition in an alkaline bath is compared to chromate coatings (Cr III and Cr VI). The “nano Zr” is a conversion coating formed by immersion in a hexafluorozirconic acid solution. Since the “nano Zr” coating is transparent, the addiction of a colorant provides color to the surface. In this case, the colorant, when applied after the conversion coating, conferred the yellow color to the surface. The coa...

  7. Melanin-Based Coatings as Lead-Binding Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Sono

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between metal ions and different forms of melanin play significant roles in melanin biochemistry. The binding properties of natural melanin and related synthetic materials can be exploited for nonbiological applications, potentially including water purification. A method for investigating metal ion-melanin interactions on solid support is described, with lead as the initial target. 2.5 cm discs of the hydrophobic polymer PVDF were coated with synthetic eumelanin from the tyrosinase-catalyzed polymerization of L-dopa, and with melanin extracted from human hair. Lead (Pb2+ binding was quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy (flame mode, and the data was well fit by the Langmuir model. Langmuir affinities ranged from 3.4·103 to 2.2·104 M-1. At the maximum capacity observed, the synthetic eumelanin coating bound ~9% of its mass in lead. Binding of copper (Cu2+, zinc (Zn2+, and cadmium (Cd2+ to the synthetic-eumelanin-coated discs was also investigated. Under the conditions tested, the Langmuir affinities for Zn2+, Cd2+, and Cu2+ were 35%, 53%, and 77%, respectively, of the Langmuir affinity for Pb2+. The synthetic-eumelanin-coated discs have a slightly higher capacity for Cu2+ on a per mole basis than for Pb2+, and lower capacities for Cd2+ and Zn2+. The system described can be used to address biological questions and potentially be applied toward melanin-based water purification.

  8. Reaction synthesis of Ni-Al based particle composite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUSAN,DONALD F.; MISIOLEK,WOICECK Z.; MARDER,ARNOLD R.

    2000-02-11

    Electrodeposited metal matrix/metal particle composite (EMMC) coatings were produced with a nickel matrix and aluminum particles. By optimizing the process parameters, coatings were deposited with 20 volume percent aluminum particles. Coating morphology and composition were characterized using light optical microscopy (LOM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Differential thermal analysis (DTA) was employed to study reactive phase formation. The effect of heat treatment on coating phase formation was studied in the temperature range 415 to 1,000 C. Long-time exposure at low temperature results in the formation of several intermetallic phases at the Ni matrix/Al particle interfaces and concentrically around the original Al particles. Upon heating to the 500--600 C range, the aluminum particles react with the nickel matrix to form NiAl islands within the Ni matrix. When exposed to higher temperatures (600--1,000 C), diffusional reaction between NiAl and nickel produces ({gamma})Ni{sub 3}Al. The final equilibrium microstructure consists of blocks of ({gamma}{prime})Ni{sub 3}Al in a {gamma}(Ni) solid solution matrix, with small pores also present. Pore formation is explained based on local density changes during intermetallic phase formation and microstructural development is discussed with reference to reaction synthesis of bulk nickel aluminides.

  9. Pack cementation diffusion coatings for iron-base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-02-01

    With the aid of computer-assisted calculations of the equilibrium vapor pressures in halide-activated cementation packs, processing conditions have been identified and experimentally verified for the codeposition of two or more alloying elements in a diffusion coating on a variety of steels. The Cr-Si ferrite layers have proven to be very resistant to high temperature cyclic oxidation and to pitting in aqueous solutions. The process has been patented, and is being transferred for industrial application, e.g. for water walls of utility boilers, etc. In the proposed extension of this project, the use of mixed pure metal powders in the pack will be extended to achieve similar ferrite Fe-Cr-Al coatings with excellent oxidation resistance, with the eventual transfer of the technology to industry. In other recent studies, Ni-base alloy rods were aluminized by the halide-activated pack cementation process to bring their average composition to that for the ORNL-developed Ni{sub 3}Al, for use as a welding rod. A similar effort to develop a welding rod for the ORNL Fe{sub 3}Al alloy did not yield reproducible coating compositions or growth kinetics. The continued effort to produce Duriron-type (Fe-18Si-5Cr) coatings on steels was not successful. Literature for the intrinsic diffusion coefficients suggests that this task cannot be achieved.

  10. The Modification of the Acrylate Emulsion for Water-Based Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wei-Feng; Fa-Ai Zhang

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction The developments of the environment friendly materials and technology are largely promoted recently.There also come some new kinds of coatings including water-based coating, powder coating, high-solid coating and UV-cured coating[1]. The emulsion polymerization is the main method for preparing the polymer for coatings. One of the most widely used polymers is acrylate resin which is not well in some properties, such as weather resistance, endurance and water resistance[2]. We hope to improve the various properties of the acrylic emulsion by adding silicone made from tetraethyl orthosilicate(TEOS), making it better applied in coating field.

  11. Control of polarization effects by internal antireflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittl, Z

    1981-01-01

    Mouchart's theory of the buffer layer is reformulated in terms of internal antireflection and extended to general dielectric/metallic media. The all-dielectric case is then studied in oblique incidence as a means of depolarizing partial reflectors. Several procedures are indicated for the construction of buffering stacks which, when coupled with germinal stacks, balance out their p and s reflections at the given level. Examples of depolarized half-mirrors are presented. A novel version of the Argand diagram for thin films in oblique incidence is introduced during the analysis. PMID:20309073

  12. Performance Comparison of Steam-Based and Chromate Conversion Coatings on Aluminum Alloy 6060

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, oxide layers generated on aluminum alloy 6060(UNS A96060) using a steam-based process were compared with conventional chromate and chromate-phosphate conversion coatings. Chemical composition and microstructure of the conversion coatings were investigated and their corrosion...... performance was evaluated using potentio dynamic polarization, acetic acid salt spray, and filiform corrosion testing of powder coated specimens. The steam-based process resulted in homogenous growth of oxide layer and superior coverageover intermetallic particles when compared to chromate-based conversion...... coatings. The coating formed by steam showed improved corrosion resistance, while adhesion to powder coatingand filiform corrosion was comparable with chromate conversion coatings....

  13. Niobium based coatings for dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, G.; Rodil, S. E.; Arzate, H.; Muhl, S.; Olaya, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    Niobium based thin films were deposited on stainless steel (SS) substrates to evaluate them as possible biocompatible surfaces that might improve the biocompatibility and extend the life time of stainless steel dental implants. Niobium nitride and niobium oxide thin films were deposited by reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering under standard deposition conditions without substrate bias or heating. The biocompatibility of the surfaces was evaluated by testing the cellular adhesion and viability/proliferation of human cementoblasts during different culture times, up to 7 days. The response of the films was compared to the bare substrate and pieces of Ti6Al4V; the most commonly used implant material for orthopedics and osteo-synthesis applications. The physicochemical properties of the films were evaluated by different means; X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The results suggested that the niobium oxide films were amorphous and of stoichiometric Nb2O5 (a-Nb2O5), while the niobium nitride films were crystalline in the FCC phase (c-NbN) and were also stoichiometric with an Nb to N ratio of one. The biological evaluation showed that the biocompatibility of the SS could be improved by any of the two films, but neither was better than the Ti6Al4V alloy. On the other hand, comparing the two films, the c-NbN seemed to be a better surface than the oxide in terms of the adhesion and proliferation of human cemetoblasts.

  14. Niobium based coatings for dental implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niobium based thin films were deposited on stainless steel (SS) substrates to evaluate them as possible biocompatible surfaces that might improve the biocompatibility and extend the life time of stainless steel dental implants. Niobium nitride and niobium oxide thin films were deposited by reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering under standard deposition conditions without substrate bias or heating. The biocompatibility of the surfaces was evaluated by testing the cellular adhesion and viability/proliferation of human cementoblasts during different culture times, up to 7 days. The response of the films was compared to the bare substrate and pieces of Ti6Al4V; the most commonly used implant material for orthopedics and osteo-synthesis applications. The physicochemical properties of the films were evaluated by different means; X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The results suggested that the niobium oxide films were amorphous and of stoichiometric Nb2O5 (a-Nb2O5), while the niobium nitride films were crystalline in the FCC phase (c-NbN) and were also stoichiometric with an Nb to N ratio of one. The biological evaluation showed that the biocompatibility of the SS could be improved by any of the two films, but neither was better than the Ti6Al4V alloy. On the other hand, comparing the two films, the c-NbN seemed to be a better surface than the oxide in terms of the adhesion and proliferation of human cemetoblasts.

  15. Niobium based coatings for dental implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, G., E-mail: enggiova@hotmail.com [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, CU, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Rodil, S.E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, CU, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Arzate, H. [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CU, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Muhl, S. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, CU, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Olaya, J.J. [Unidad de Materiales, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Mecatronica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Cra. 30 45-03 Bogota (Colombia)

    2011-01-15

    Niobium based thin films were deposited on stainless steel (SS) substrates to evaluate them as possible biocompatible surfaces that might improve the biocompatibility and extend the life time of stainless steel dental implants. Niobium nitride and niobium oxide thin films were deposited by reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering under standard deposition conditions without substrate bias or heating. The biocompatibility of the surfaces was evaluated by testing the cellular adhesion and viability/proliferation of human cementoblasts during different culture times, up to 7 days. The response of the films was compared to the bare substrate and pieces of Ti6Al4V; the most commonly used implant material for orthopedics and osteo-synthesis applications. The physicochemical properties of the films were evaluated by different means; X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The results suggested that the niobium oxide films were amorphous and of stoichiometric Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} (a-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}), while the niobium nitride films were crystalline in the FCC phase (c-NbN) and were also stoichiometric with an Nb to N ratio of one. The biological evaluation showed that the biocompatibility of the SS could be improved by any of the two films, but neither was better than the Ti6Al4V alloy. On the other hand, comparing the two films, the c-NbN seemed to be a better surface than the oxide in terms of the adhesion and proliferation of human cemetoblasts.

  16. Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brullot, W., E-mail: ward.brullot@fys.kuleuven.be [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Reddy, N.K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 46, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Wouters, J.; Valev, V.K.; Goderis, B. [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Vermant, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 46, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Verbiest, T. [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-06-15

    Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by a facile protocol and thoroughly characterized. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized using a modified forced hydrolysis method were functionalized with polyethylene glycol silane (PEG silane), precipitated and dried. These functionalized particles are dispersable in a range of solvents and concentrations depending on the desired properties. Examples of tunable properties are magnetic behavior, optical and magneto-optical response, thermal features and rheological behavior. As such, PEG silane functionalized particles represent a platform for the development of new materials that have broad applicability in e.g. biomedical, industrial or photonic environments. Magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, thermal and rheological properties of several ferrofluids based on PEG coated particles with different concentrations of particles dispersed in low molecular mass polyethylene glycol were investigated, establishing the applicability of such materials. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, thermal and rheological characterization of ferrofluids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tunable properties of versatile polyethylene glycol stabilized ferrofluids.

  17. Formation and Oxidation Resistance of Silicide Coatings for Mo and Mo-Based Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The forming process of silicide coatings on pure Mo and Mo-base alloys, obtained by the gasphase deposition method, has been studied by examining the microstructure of coatings and the relationship between coating thickness and process parameters. It was shown that the growth of coatings was diffusion-controlled, the diffusion of silicon to be coated into Mo or Mo-base alloys was mainly responsible for the formation of silicide. The relationship between initial silicide thickness and oxidation resistance was also investigated, and the equation of service life of the coatings at high temperature in air is presented.

  18. High performance coated board inspection system based on commercial components

    CERN Document Server

    Barjaktarovic, M; Radunovic, J

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a vision system for defect (fault) detection on a coated board developed using three industrial firewire cameras and a PC. Application for image processing and system control was realized with the LabView software package. Software for defect detection is based on a variation of the image segmentation algorithm. Standard steps in image segmentation are modified to match the characteristics of defects. Software optimization was accomplished using SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) technology available in the Intel Pentium 4 processors that provided real time inspection capability. System provides benefits such as: improvement in production process, higher quality of delivered coated board and reduction of waste. This was proven during successful exploitation of the system for more than a year.

  19. Tailored Aluminium based Coatings for Optical Appearance and Corrosion Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerbeck, Martin

    The current project investigated the possibility of designing aluminium based coatings focusing on the effect of composition and surface finish on the optical appearance and on the alkaline corrosion properties using titanium as the main alloying element. The main results and discussions of this...... the previously described magnetron sputtered Al-Ti coatings showed that 13 wt. % titanium and more improved the corrosion resistance at pH 13.5 and this was further improved by heat treatment, especially at 400 °C and more. The improved corrosion properties were ascribed to structural relaxation......, decreased galvanic potential differences in the microstructure, and protection from the network of the Al3Ti phases precipitated during the heat treatment. Laser surface cladding of aluminium containing up to 20 wt. % Ti6Al4V were studied focusing on the microstructure and the alkaline corrosion properties...

  20. Heat resistance of carbon steel with chromium-based gas-thermal sprayed coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat resistance of steel with chromium-base plasma sprayed coating is studied in comparison with chromium coating and base material. The specimens were oxidized at the air under 1250 K during 48 h. Investigations into steel-chromium coating interface were carried out and the structure of cinder was studied. Refs. 7, figs. 2

  1. Efficient light incoupling into silicon thin-film solar cells by anti-reflecting MgO/high-compact-AZO with air-side textured glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light incoupling effects have been enhanced at front interfaces of silicon (Si) thin-film solar cells. Firstly, a MgO thin film was introduced at glass substrate/Al-doped ZnO (AZO) interface for anti-reflection effect. We additionally found that the surface morphology of AZO films grown on MgO film after texture-etching is dependent on the compactness of AZO. For high-compact AZO films, the texture-etched MgO/AZO double layer exhibited significantly enhanced light-scattering capability. Secondly, we made textured surfaces at air/glass interface through simple plasma-etching without sacrificial layers or masks by optimizing the etching pressure. The additional air-side texture contributed to further improvement of total light scattering from the MgO/AZO-coated glass substrate. Fabricated microcrystalline Si thin-film solar cells employing the MgO coated glass with air-side surface texture showed decreased cell reflectance and increased quantum efficiency. The Jsc increased from 21.7 to 26.5 mA cm−2 and final efficiency of 9.49% was achieved. Based on our experimental results, the suggested structure, the MgO coating on glass substrate of which air-side surface is texture-etched, can offer a promising approach to improve the light incoupling and efficiency of Si thin-film solar cells. (paper)

  2. Geometric dependence of antireflective nanocone arrays towards ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antireflective characteristics of Si nanocone (NC) arrays were estimated using a theory devised for an inhomogeneous antireflection layer, and further verified by the Fourier modal method (FMM). Considering a better impedance matching from air to Si, a minimum depth of 400 nm is essentially required. Although Si NC arrays have usually been suggested to be at a base diameter of ∼300 nm for infinitely thick Si wafers, as wafers become thinner than 50 μm, the optimal base diameter of the NCs is suggested to be ∼500 nm so as to excite more resonant modes. Our simulation work indicates that geometrical parameters such as the top diameter and filling ratio of the NCs are much more sensitive in terms of optimizing the optical performance on ultrathin (∼5 μm) wafers, suggesting the need for strict control of the surface morphology in the nanostructure fabrication process. (paper)

  3. Palladium coated fibre Bragg grating based hydrogen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection of steam generator leaks in fast nuclear reactors is carried out by monitoring hydrogen in argon cover-gas. Hydrogen released during sodium cleaning of fast reactor components is required to be monitored. Hydrogen sensors with good sensitivity, stability and response time are required for all the above applications. We report a new type of hydrogen sensor with a Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) coated with palladium thin film which is used to detect the leak of hydrogen gas in the Steam Generator (SG) module of the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). If water leaks into sodium, it results in sodium-water reaction. In this reaction hydrogen and sodium hydroxide are formed. Due to the explosive risk of hydrogen system, hydrogen sensors are of great interest in this case. It is known that hydrogen forms an explosive mixture with air once its concentration exceeds beyond the explosion limit of four percent. The advantages of FBG based hydrogen sensor over the other hydrogen sensors are its inherent property of safety from sparking, immunity to ambient electromagnetic interference. The sensing mechanism in this device is based on mechanical strain that is induced in the palladium coating when it absorbs hydrogen. This process physically stretches the grating and causes the grating period and grating's refractive index, to change. The Bragg wavelength shift is directly proportional to the strain induced and can be directly related to the percentage of hydrogen exposure. The online monitoring of palladium thin film coating on FBG is carried out and recorded the wavelength change and strain induced on the FBG. A hydrogen sensor set up have been fabricated which consists of SS vessel of capacity 10 litres, provided with pressure gauge, Argon filling line with a valve, Hydrogen injection line with flange, a vent line with valve and Hydrogen sensor fixing point. The Palladium coated FBG based Hydrogen sensor is tested in this experimental facility in the exposure of hydrogen in

  4. Al2O3 antireflection coatings for silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; M. Szindler

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper was to investigate changes in surface morphology and optical properties of thin films of Al2O3. Thin films were prepared using atomic layer deposition (ALD) method.Design/methodology/approach: The microanalysis was investigated by the Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy EDS. The changes in surface topography was observed by the atomic force microscope AFM XE-100 and scanning electron microscope SEM. The results of roughness was obtained by the software XEI Park...

  5. Questionable effects of antireflective coatings on inefficiently cooled solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Galster, Georg; Larsen, Esben

    1998-01-01

    of the output power and efficiency curves throughout the day the coherence between technical parameters of the solar cells and the climate in the operation region is observed and examined. It is shown how the drop in output power around noon can be avoided by fitting technical parameters of the solar cells......A model for temperature effects in p-n junction solar cells is introduced. The temperature of solar cells and the losses in the solar cell junction region caused by elevating temperature are discussed. The model developed is examined for low-cost silicon solar cells. In order to improve the shape...

  6. High efficiency infrared antireflection coatings (ARCs) for space optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendra, C. L.; Thutupalli, G. K. M.; Mohan, S.

    1989-05-01

    The development of non-quarter-wave IR ARCs for the Ge optics of space electrooptic hardware is described. A novel design-optimization method is applied in which the geometrical thicknesses of the ARC layers are calculated analytically (as explained by Nagendra, 1987). Two ARCs are developed: a three-layer system (ThF4/Ge/ThF4) for use at 7-12 microns and a two-layer system (CdTe/CdSe) for 14-16 microns. The ARCs are deposited in a vacuum-evaporation facility and subjected to optical and durability testing. The results are presented in graphs, and it is demonstrated that the ARCs are durable and transparent over the desired wavelength range and have spectral transmittance characteristics in good agreement with the theoretically predicted values.

  7. Laser processing of solar cells with anti-reflective coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Dennis, Tim; Waldhauer, Ann; Kim, Taeseok; Cousins, Peter John

    2016-02-16

    Contact holes of solar cells are formed by laser ablation to accommodate various solar cell designs. Use of a laser to form the contact holes is facilitated by replacing films formed on the diffusion regions with a film that has substantially uniform thickness. Contact holes may be formed to deep diffusion regions to increase the laser ablation process margins. The laser configuration may be tailored to form contact holes through dielectric films of varying thicknesses.

  8. Novel coating systems based on PVD for steel sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhmacher, B. [Dortmunder Oberflaechenzentrum GmbH (DOC) von Thyssen Krupp Stahl (Germany); Ehlers, K.D. [Salzgitter AG, Stahl und Technologie (Germany); Flossdorf, F.J. [Verein Deutscher Eisenhuettenwerke (VDEh) (Germany). Fachbereich Werkstofftechnik; Hagler, J. [Vereinigte Oesterreichische Eisen- und Stahlwerke AG (VOeST)-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Linz (Austria); Metzner, C.; Scheffel, B. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Elektronenstrahl und Plasmatechnik (FEP), Dresden (Germany); Steffen, R. [Stahlwerke Bremen GmbH (Germany)

    2001-08-01

    Physical vapour deposition (PVD) in combination with conventional coating processes such as hot-dip coating or electrolytic deposition offers interesting development approaches for novel steel strip coating systems. In joint-research projects of several German and Austrian steel companies with the Fraunhofer-Institute for Electron-beam and Plasma technology (FEP) different promising approaches for new PVD-coated steel sheet products, in particular in combination with conventional coating processes have been investigated. For an industrial application challenges particularly remain in terms of process development, i.e. to integrate PVD coating-processes into conventional steel strip coating lines. (orig.)

  9. Tantalum-based thin film coatings for wear resistant arthroprostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagna, C; Faga, M G; Spriano, S

    2011-10-01

    Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys with high carbon content (HC-CoCrMo) are widely used as materials for arthroprosthesis, in particular in metal-on-metal (MoM) hip joints. In spite of their good wear and corrosion resistance, production of metallic wear particles and metal ion release will occur on a large time-scale. An enhancement of the metal ion level in the patient's blood and urine is often reported in clinical data. Hypersensitivity, inflammatory response and cell necrosis can occur as consequence. So implants on young patients and women on childbearing age are not so widespread. The aim of this research is the realization of a thin film coating in order to improve the biocompatibility of Co-based alloys and to reduce debris production, ion release and citotoxicity. The innovative process consists of a thermal treatment in molten salts, in order to obtain a tantalum enriched thin film coating. Tantalum is chosen because it is considered a biocompatible metal with high corrosion resistance and low ion release. Three HC-CoCrMo alloys, produced by different manufacturing processes, are tested as substrates. The coating is a thin film of TaC or it can be composed by a multilayer of two tantalum carbides and metallic tantalum, depending on the temperature of the treatment and on the carbon content of the substrate. The thin films as well the substrates are characterized from the structural, chemical and morphological point of view. Moreover mechanical behaviour of treated and untreated materials is analyzed by means of nanohardness, scratch and ball-on-disc wear tests. The coating increases the mechanical and tribological properties of HC-CoCrMo. PMID:22400292

  10. Asymmetric electrochemical supercapacitor, based on polypyrrole coated carbon nanotube electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Polypyrrole (PPy) coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were prepared. • New method is based on the use of new electrochemically active dopants for PPy. • The dopans provided dispersion of MWCNT and promoted PPy coating formation. • Symmetric PPy–MWCNT supercapacitors showed high capacitance and low resistance. • Asymmetric PPy–MWCNT/VN–MWCNT devices and modules allowed larger voltage window. - Abstract: Conductive polypyrrole (PPy) polymer – multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites were synthesized using sulfanilic acid azochromotrop (SPADNS) and sulfonazo III sodium salt (CHR-BS) as anionic dopants for chemical polymerization of PPy. The composites were tested for application in electrodes of electrochemical supercapacitors (ES). Sedimentation tests, electrophoretic deposition experiments and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) investigations showed that strong adsorption of anionic CHR-BS on MWCNT provided MWCNT dispersion. The analysis of scanning and transmission electron microscopy data demonstrated that the use of CHR-BS allowed the formation of PPy coatings on MWCNT. As a result, the composites, prepared using CHR-BS, showed higher capacitance, compared to the composites, prepared using SPADNS. The electrodes, containing MWCNT, coated with PPy showed a capacitance of 179 F g−1 for active mass loading of 10 mg cm−2, good capacitance retention at scan rates in the range of 2–100 mV s−1 and excellent cyclic stability. Asymmetric ES devices, containing positive PPy–MWCNT electrodes and negative vanadium nitride (VN)–MWCNT electrodes showed significant improvement in energy storage performance, compared to the symmetric ES due to the larger voltage window. The low impedance and high capacitance of the individual cells paved the way to the development of modules with higher voltage, which showed good electrochemical performance

  11. CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF A CONVERSION COATING BASED ON ZIRCONIUM AND COLORANTS ON GALVANIZED STEEL BY ELECTRODEPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Soares Costa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion performance of Zr-based coating on substrates obtained by zinc electrodeposition in an alkaline bath is compared to chromate coatings (Cr III and Cr VI. The “nano Zr” is a conversion coating formed by immersion in a hexafluorozirconic acid solution. Since the “nano Zr” coating is transparent, the addiction of a colorant provides color to the surface. In this case, the colorant, when applied after the conversion coating, conferred the yellow color to the surface. The coating produced improves the corrosion protection of the substrate. For this study the samples were analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and accelerated corrosion test in a humidity chamber. The results showed similar behaviors between the “nano Zr”, colorant and the chromate (Cr III coating. Therefore this kind of conversion coating is a promising substitute for chromate coatings.

  12. Fabrication of sub-wavelength antireflective structure to enhance the efficiency of InGaAs solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Yu Chou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Large differences in the refractive index between semiconductors (Si, GaAs, etc. and air produces considerable Fresnel loss, which can seriously hinder the absorption of sunlight by photovoltaic solar cells. This study presents a cost-effective roller nanoimprinting technique for the fabrication of sub-wavelength structures (SWSs as an alternative to conventional anti-reflective coatings used to reduce reflectance in triple-junction InGaP/InGaAs/Ge solar cells. The proposed nanoimprinting technology uses a soft PDMS mold duplicated from a hard silicon template, which is fabricated using PS sphere lithography and dry etching processes. To evaluate the anti-reflective performance of SWSs, we employed rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA to simulate the propagation of electromagnetic plane waves in a GaAs substrate. Simulation results demonstrated a considerable reduction in reflectance resulting from a gradual change in the refractive index provided by SWSs. Photoelectric conversion efficiency was also increased.

  13. Wide-angle antireflection ZnO films on bullet-like nanostructures of multi-crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanosphere lithography and antireflection coating techniques have been applied to fabricate wide-angle antireflection structures on multicrystalline silicon substrates. Self-assembled 550-nm SiO2 nanospheres were arranged periodically to act as a mask to block the inductively coupled plasma dry etching and form bulletlike nanostructures on the surface of the multicrystalline silicon wafer. Then a 65-nm-thick zinc oxide film was deposited on the nanostructures using the atomic layer deposition method. The results show that when applying the nanostructure with a ZnO film the average reflectivity of the multicrystalline silicon wafer can be decreased from 36% to 0.65% in the wavelength range from 400 nm to 850 nm for an incident angle of 8 deg. . When the incident angle reaches 60 deg. the average reflectivity of the sample becomes less than 4.6%.

  14. Optical thin films and coatings from materials to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Flory, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Optical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. This book provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas.$bOptical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. Optical thin films and coatings provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas. Part one explores the design and manufacture of optical coatings. Part two highlights unconventional features of optical thin films including scattering properties of random structures in thin films, optical properties of thin film materials at short wavelengths, thermal properties and colour effects. Part three focusses on novel materials for optical thin films and coatings...

  15. The influence of glass coating on the single domain wall potential in amorphous glass-coated Fe-based microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Rastislav [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I, EUPDS, UPV/EHU, Plaza Europa 1, San Sebastian, 20018 (Spain) and Inst. Phys., Fac. Sci., UPJS, Park Angelinum 9, 041 54 Kosice (Slovakia)]. E-mail: rvarga@upjs.sk; Zhukov, Arcady [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I, EUPDS, UPV/EHU, Plaza Europa 1, San Sebastian, 20018 (Spain); Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. de Quimica, UPV/EHU, 1072, 20080, San Sebastian (Spain); Ipatov, Michail [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I, EUPDS, UPV/EHU, Plaza Europa 1, San Sebastian, 20018 (Spain); Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. de Quimica, UPV/EHU, 1072, 20080, San Sebastian (Spain); Maria Blanco, Juan [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I, EUPDS, UPV/EHU, Plaza Europa 1, San Sebastian, 20018 (Spain); Gonzalez, Julian [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. de Quimica, UPV/EHU, 1072, 20080, San Sebastian (Spain); Zhukova, Valentina [' TAMag Iberica' S.L., P. Tecnologico de Miramon, P. Mikeletegi 56, San Sebastian (Spain); Vojtanik, Pavol [Inst. Phys., Fac. Sci., UPJS, Park Angelinum 9, 041 54 Kosice (Slovakia)

    2006-09-15

    The effect of the glass coating on the single domain wall potential in amorphous glass-coated Fe-based microwire has been studied by the switching field distribution technique. The thermoactivated mechanism model is used to describe the thermally activated switching through the complex energy barrier in amorphous FeSiB microwires. Glass removal leads to the increase of the probability of the thermally activated switching pointing to the decrease of the energy barrier.

  16. The influence of glass coating on the single domain wall potential in amorphous glass-coated Fe-based microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the glass coating on the single domain wall potential in amorphous glass-coated Fe-based microwire has been studied by the switching field distribution technique. The thermoactivated mechanism model is used to describe the thermally activated switching through the complex energy barrier in amorphous FeSiB microwires. Glass removal leads to the increase of the probability of the thermally activated switching pointing to the decrease of the energy barrier

  17. Anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jihun; Branz, Howard M

    2014-05-20

    Exemplary embodiments are disclosed of anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production by photoelectrolysis of water. A nanoporous black Si is disclosed as an efficient photocathode for H.sub.2 production from water splitting half-reaction.

  18. Gas Sensors Based on Coated and Doped Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Meyyappan, Meyya

    2008-01-01

    Efforts are underway to develop inexpensive, low-power electronic sensors, based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), for measuring part-per-million and part-per-billion of selected gases (small molecules) at room temperature. Chemically unmodified SWCNTs are mostly unresponsive to typical gases that one might wish to detect. However, the electrical resistances of SWCNTs can be made to vary with concentrations of gases of interest by coating or doping the SWCNTs with suitable materials. Accordingly, the basic idea of the present development efforts is to incorporate thus-treated SWCNTs into electronic devices that measure their electrical resistances.

  19. Elaboration, characterization of CrN- based coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cr, CrN and CrAlN monolayers were synthesized by RF dual magnetron sputtering on AISI4140 steel and silicon substrates at 200 deg. C. Multilayers coatings based on the three mono-layers such as CrN/CrAlN and Cr/CrN/CrAlN were also synthesized only on Si. The physico-chemical and mechanical properties of the layers were determined by AFM, SEM+WDS, stress, roughness and nanoindentation measurements. The influence of the thickness on the mechanical properties of the monolayers stresses has been studied and as a consequence we compared the mono and multilayers stress state.

  20. Elaboration, characterization of Cr-N based coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Tlili, Brahim; Nouveau, Corinne; Guillemot, Gildas

    2010-01-01

    Cr, CrN and CrAlN monolayers were synthesized by RF dual magnetron sputtering on AISI4140 steel and silicon substrates at 200°C. Multilayers coatings based on the three mono-layers such as CrN/CrAlN and Cr/CrN/CrAlN were also synthesized only on Si. The physico-chemical and mechanical properties of the layers were determined by AFM, SEM+WDS, stress, roughness and nanoindentation measurements. The influence of the thickness on the mechanical properties of the monolayers stresses has been st...

  1. Tailored Aluminium based Coatings for Optical Appearance and Corrosion Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerbeck, Martin

    that the roughness after etching increases with higher amounts of alloying elements (especially iron and silicon). Proper polishing requires some alloy hardness, while alloy purity is required for a glossy appearance after anodisation. Magnetron sputtered aluminium based coatings containing up to 18 wt...... the optical effect of partially oxidised intermetallics and the subsurface morphology after anodisation. It was suggested, that the darkening of the anodised specimens happened due to roughness of the oxide-substrate interface causing light trapping and optical scattering and absorption by the...

  2. Broadband antireflection nanodome structures on SiC substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Zhu, Xiaolong; Møller, Uffe Visbech;

    2013-01-01

    Nanodome structures are demonstrated on the SiC substrate by using nanosphere lithography and dry etching. Significant surface antireflection has been observed over a broad spectral range from 400 nm to 1600 nm.......Nanodome structures are demonstrated on the SiC substrate by using nanosphere lithography and dry etching. Significant surface antireflection has been observed over a broad spectral range from 400 nm to 1600 nm....

  3. Graft-copolymer-based approach to clear, durable, and anti-smudge polyurethane coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabnawaz, Muhammad; Liu, Guojun

    2015-05-26

    Clear anti-smudge coatings with a thickness of up to tens of micrometers have been prepared through a graft-copolymer-based approach from commercial precursors. The coatings repel water, diiodomethane, hexadecane, ink, and an artificial fingerprint liquid. In addition, they can be readily applied onto different substrates using different coating methods. These coatings could find applications in protecting hand-held electronic devices from fingerprints, windows from stains, and buildings from graffiti. PMID:25919762

  4. Formation of silicide based oxidation resistant coating over Mo-30 wt. % W alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicide based oxidation resistant coatings were developed over Mo-30 W alloy using halide activated pack cementation process. Coated samples were characterized by SEM, optical microscopy, EDX and hardness measurements. Isothermal oxidation tests of coated alloy performed at 1000 deg C for 25h revealed a smaller weight gain at the initial stage of oxidation followed by no weight change indicating the protective nature of the coating. (author)

  5. Adhesion between coating layers based on epoxy and silicone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jacob R.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Kiil, Søren;

    2007-01-01

    The adhesion between a silicon tie-coat and epoxy primers, used in marine coating systems, has been studied in this work. Six epoxy coatings (with varying chain lengths of the epoxy resins), some of which have shown problems with adhesion to the tie-coat during service life, have been considered....... The experimental investigation includes measurements of the surface tension of the tie-coat and the critical surface tensions of the epoxies, topographic investigation of the surfaces of cured epoxy coatings via atomic force microscopy (AFM), and pull-off tests for investigating the strength of...

  6. Solderability study of RABiTS-based YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yifei [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6305 (United States); Duckworth, Robert C., E-mail: duckworthrc@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6305 (United States); Ha, Tam T.; Gouge, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6305 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Study examines the implication of solder and flux selection in YBCO splice joints. Focus is on commercially available RABiTS-based YBCO coated conductors. Solderability varied with solder and flux for three different stabilizations tested. Resistivity of stabilizer was dominant factor in splice joint resistance. Solder materials affected splice joint resistance when solderability was poor. The solderability of commercially available YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) coated conductors that were made from Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS)-based templates was studied. The coated conductors, also known as second-generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires (in the geometry of flat tapes about 4 mm wide), were laminated with copper, brass, or stainless steel strips as stabilizers. To understand the factors that influence their solderability, surface profilometry and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the wire surfaces. The solderability of three solders, 52In48Sn, 67Bi33In, and 100In (wt.%), was evaluated using a standard test (IPC/ECA J-STD-002) and with two different commercial fluxes. It was found that the solderability varied with the solder and flux but the three different wires showed similar solderability for a fixed combination of solder and flux. Solder joints of the 2G wires were fabricated using the tools and the procedures recommended by the HTS wire manufacturer. The solder joints were made in a lap-joint geometry and with the superconducting sides of the two wires face-to-face. The electrical resistances of the solder joints were measured at 77 K, and the results were analyzed to qualify the soldering materials and evaluate the soldering process. It was concluded that although the selection of soldering materials affected the resistance of a solder joint, the resistivity of the stabilizer was the dominant factor.

  7. All Optical Flip-Flop Based on Coupled Laser Diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, MT Martin

    1999-01-01

    An all optical set-reset flip flop is presented that is based on two coupled identical laser diodes. The lasers are coupled so that when one of the lasers lases it quenches lasing in the other laser. The state of the flip flop is determined by which laser is currently lasing. Rate equations are used to model the flip flop and obtain steady state characteristics. The flip flop is experimentally demonstrated by use of antireflection coated laser diodes and free space optics.

  8. Development of wear-resistant coatings for cobalt-base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockeram, B.V.

    1999-03-01

    The costs and hazards resulting from nuclear plant radiation exposure with activated cobalt wear debris could potentially be reduced by covering the cobalt-base materials with a wear resistant coating. However, the hardnesses of many cobalt-base wear alloys are significantly lower than conventional PVD hard coatings, and mechanical support of the hard coating is a concern. Four approaches have been taken to minimize the hardness differences between the substrate and PVD hard coating: (1) use a thin Cr-nitride hard coating with layers that are graded with respect to hardness, (2) use a thicker, multilayered coating (Cr-nitride or Zr-nitride) with graded layers, (3) use nitriding to harden the alloy subsurface followed by application of a multilayered coating of Cr-nitride, and (4) use of nitriding alone. Since little work has been done on application of PVD hard coatings to cobalt-base alloys, some details on process development and characterization of the coatings is presented. Scratch testing was used to evaluate the adhesion of the different coatings. A bench-top rolling contact test was used to evaluate the wear resistance of the coatings. The test results are discussed, and the more desirable coating approaches are identified.

  9. Development of wear-resistant coatings for cobalt-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The costs and hazards resulting from nuclear plant radiation exposure with activated cobalt wear debris could potentially be reduced by covering the cobalt-base materials with a wear resistant coating. However, the hardnesses of many cobalt-base wear alloys are significantly lower than conventional PVD hard coatings, and mechanical support of the hard coating is a concern. Four approaches have been taken to minimize the hardness differences between the substrate and PVD hard coating: (1) use a thin Cr-nitride hard coating with layers that are graded with respect to hardness, (2) use a thicker, multilayered coating (Cr-nitride or Zr-nitride) with graded layers, (3) use nitriding to harden the alloy subsurface followed by application of a multilayered coating of Cr-nitride, and (4) use of nitriding alone. Since little work has been done on application of PVD hard coatings to cobalt-base alloys, some details on process development and characterization of the coatings is presented. Scratch testing was used to evaluate the adhesion of the different coatings. A bench-top rolling contact test was used to evaluate the wear resistance of the coatings. The test results are discussed, and the more desirable coating approaches are identified

  10. A corrosion resistant cerium oxide based coating on aluminum alloy 2024 prepared by brush plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerium oxide based coatings were prepared on AA2024 Al alloy by brush plating. The characteristic of this technology is that hydrogen peroxide, which usually causes the plating solution to be unstable, is not necessary in the plating electrolyte. The coating showed laminated structures and good adhesive strength with the substrate. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the coatings were composed of Ce(III) and Ce(IV) oxides. The brush plated coatings on Al alloys improved corrosion resistance. The influence of plating parameters on structure and corrosion resistance of the cerium oxide based coating was studied.

  11. A corrosion resistant cerium oxide based coating on aluminum alloy 2024 prepared by brush plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Junlei; Han Zhongzhi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zuo Yu, E-mail: zuoy@mail.buct.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Tang Yuming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Cerium oxide based coatings were prepared on AA2024 Al alloy by brush plating. The characteristic of this technology is that hydrogen peroxide, which usually causes the plating solution to be unstable, is not necessary in the plating electrolyte. The coating showed laminated structures and good adhesive strength with the substrate. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the coatings were composed of Ce(III) and Ce(IV) oxides. The brush plated coatings on Al alloys improved corrosion resistance. The influence of plating parameters on structure and corrosion resistance of the cerium oxide based coating was studied.

  12. Coatings and Tints of Spectacle Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zeki Büyükyıldız

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spectacle lenses are made of mineral or organic (plastic materials. Various coatings and tints are applied to the spectacle lenses according to the characteristic of the lens material, and for the personal needs and cosmetic purpose. The coatings may be classified in seven groups: 1 Anti-reflection coatings, 2 Hard coatings, 3 Clean coat, 4 Mirror coatings, 5 Color tint coating (one of coloring processes, 6 Photochromic coating (one of photochromic processes, and 7 Anti-fog coatings. Anti-reflection coatings reduce unwanted reflections from the lens surfaces and increase light transmission. Hard coatings are applied for preventing the plastic lens surface from scratches and abrasion. Hard coatings are not required for the mineral lenses due to their hardness. Clean coat makes the lens surface smooth and hydrophobic. Thus, it prevents the adherence of dust, tarnish, and dirt particles on the lens surface. Mirror coatings are applied onto the sunglasses for cosmetic purpose. Color tinted and photochromic lenses are used for sun protection and absorption of the harmful UV radiations. Anti-fog coatings make the lens surface hydrophilic and prevent the coalescence of tiny water droplets on the lens surface that reduces light transmission. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 359-69

  13. The hardness, adhesion, and wear resistance of coatings developed for cobalt-base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockeram, B.V.; Wilson, W.L.

    2000-05-01

    One potential approach for reducing the level of nuclear plant radiation exposure that results from activated cobalt wear debris is the use of a wear resistant coating. However, large differences in stiffness between a coating/substrate can result in high interfacial stresses that produce coating de-adhesion when a coated substrate is subjected to high stress wear contact. Scratch adhesion and indentation tests have been used to identify four promising coating processes [1,2]: (1) the use of a thin Cr-nitride coating with a hard and less-stiff interlayer, (2) the use of a thick, multilayered Cr-nitride coating with graded layers, (3) use of the duplex approach, or nitriding to harden the material subsurface followed by application of a multilayered Cr-nitride coating, and (4) application of nitriding alone. The processing, characterization, and adhesion of these coating systems are discussed. The wear resistance and performance has been evaluated using laboratory pin-on-disc, 4-ball, and high stress rolling contact tests. Based on the results of these tests, the best coating candidate from the high-stress rolling contact wear test was the thin duplex coating, which consists of ion nitriding followed deposition of a thin Cr-nitride coating, while the thin Cr-nitride coating exhibited the best results in the 4-ball wear test.

  14. Effect of Microstructure on Wear Behavior of Iron Aluminide Based Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUZi-xin; LIUYan; XUBin-shi; ZHANGWei; MAShi-ning

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study has been carried out to investigate the effect of microstructure on sliding wear behavior of Fe-Al coatings and Fe-Al/WC composite coatings produced by high velocity arc spraying (HVAS) and cored wires. After heat treatment at 300℃, 450℃, 550℃, 650℃ and 800℃, the microstructure of the coatings will be changed. The changes of microstructure have obvious effects on the microhardness of the coatings, which may be the most important factor influencing the coatings sliding wear behavior. After heat treated at 450℃-650℃, increasing of the amounts of iron aluminides (including Fe3Al and FeAl ) and dispersion strengthening of FeEWEC and Fe6W6C will lead to a rise of microhardness of the coatings. Increasing the microhardness through heat treatment would improve the sliding wear resistance of the iron aluminide based coatings coatings.

  15. Novel Surface Coating System Based on Maleated Shellac

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Hasmukh S.; Patel, Sumeet J.

    2010-01-01

    Shellac a natural forest product was reacted with various proportion of maleic anhydride. The resulted maleated shellac samples were designated as (MS-1 to 3) and applied for the preparation of surface coating material. Thus various compositions of coating materials were prepared by varying the contents of MS and commercial grades of acrylic resins (AR). The coating materials were applied on substrates like plaster of paris, cement and limed surface. All the coating showed film performance wi...

  16. High Temperature coatings based on β-NiAI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severs, Kevin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    High temperature alloys are reviewed, focusing on current superalloys and their coatings. The synthesis, characerization, and oxidation performance of a NiAl–TiB2 composite are explained. A novel coating process for Mo–Ni–Al alloys for improved oxidation performance is examined. The cyclic oxidation performance of coated and uncoated Mo–Ni–Al alloys is discussed.

  17. Simple fabrication of an antireflective hemispherical surface structure using a self-assembly method for the terahertz frequency range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Seon; Kim, Dong-Ju; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Hwang, Sehyun; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2012-07-01

    A hemispherical surface structure was fabricated on a sapphire substrate by utilizing a self-assembly and spin-coating process for a terahertz (THz) antireflection coating. The self-assembled glass spheres and spin-coated material led to a gradual change in the effective refractive index. The aspect ratio of the hemispherical surface structure was controlled easily by adjusting the thickness of the B-staged bisbenzocyclobutene used as a coating. The reflectance of the fabricated hemispherical surface structure, having a period of 140 μm, exhibited low reflectance and low Fabry-Perot resonance in a THz spectral range from 0.1 to 1.9 THz. PMID:22743514

  18. Modeling of coating process, phase changes, and damage of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings on Ni-base superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Tilmann; Bialas, Marcin; Bednarz, Piotr; Singheiser, Lorenz; Bobzin, Kirsten; Bagcivan, Nazlim; Parkot, Daniel; Kashko, Tatyana; Petkovicc, Jvica [Surface Engineering Institute, University Aachen (Germany); Hallstedt, Bengt; Nemna, Sergey; Schneider, Jochen M. [Materials Chemistry, University Aachen (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The paper gives an overview on the modeling activities on plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating in the frame of TFB 63. In the first part, through-process modeling of the APS deposition of a ZrO{sub 2} based TBC is described. Starting from simulation of the plasma jet, heat transfer into the powder particles, particle melting, particle impact on the substrate surface, and solidification is simulated. A homogenization method is introduced to describe the mechanical properties of the resulting TBC. The second part shows simulation of interdiffusion and phase transformations of MCrAlY and intermetallic oxidation protection coatings on several cast Ni-base alloy substrates. Finally, FEM-based damage simulation of oxidation protection coatings by transversal fatigue cracks during thermomechanical fatigue loading as well as by delamination of the TBC during thermocyclic loading is discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Porous alumina based ordered nanocomposite coating for wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Arti; Muthukumar, M.; Bobji, M. S.

    2016-08-01

    Uniformly dispersed nanocomposite coating of aligned metallic nanowires in a matrix of amorphous alumina is fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition of copper into the pores of porous anodic alumina. Uniform deposition is obtained by controlling the geometry of the dendritic structure at the bottom of pores through stepwise voltage reduction followed by mild etching. The tribological behaviour of this nanocomposite coating is evaluated using a ball on flat reciprocating tribometer under the dry contact conditions. The nanocomposite coating has higher wear resistance compared to corresponding porous alumina coating. Wear resistant nanocomposite coating has wide applications especially in protecting the internal surfaces of aluminium internal combustion engines.

  20. Iron-Based Amorphous Coatings Produced by HVOF Thermal Spray Processing-Coating Structure and Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardsley, M B

    2008-03-26

    The feasibility to coat large SNF/HLW containers with a structurally amorphous material (SAM) was demonstrated on sub-scale models fabricated from Type 316L stainless steel. The sub-scale model were coated with SAM 1651 material using kerosene high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) torch to thicknesses ranging from 1 mm to 2 mm. The process parameters such as standoff distance, oxygen flow, and kerosene flow, were optimized in order to improve the corrosion properties of the coatings. Testing in an electrochemical cell and long-term exposure to a salt spray environment were used to guide the selection of process parameters.

  1. Microcapsule-based self-healing anticorrosive coatings: Capsule size, coating formulation, and exposure testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesterova, Tatyana; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Pedersen, Lars Thorslund;

    2012-01-01

    actual self-healing effect was not part of this work. The synthesis parameters investigated are stirrer geometry, agitation rate, temperature, and stabilizer concentration. It was found that an increase in stirring rate, correct choice of temperature, and a high stabilizer concentration all caused a...... (CPVC) was conducted using gloss measurements and a PVC ladder and found to be about 30 vol%. Due to the rather large capsules used (relative to the coating thickness), the low CPVC value can probably be ascribed to a fairly low packing efficiency in the coating, but this needs to be confirmed. Coating...

  2. A novel research reactor concept based on coated particle fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A plate fuel based on coated particle fuel (CPF) for research reactors was studied. • Characteristics of the CPF-based core were compared to conventional reactors. • The Doppler effect can be significantly enhanced due to higher fuel temperature. • A very high thermal flux on the order of 1014 neutrons/cm2 sec can be achieved. - Abstract: This work presents a preliminary study of a novel plate-type fuel concept for a high-performance and ultra-safe research reactor. This new fuel type consists of coated particle fuel (CPF) randomly dispersed in an aluminum matrix with a certain packing fraction that can be adjusted depending on the reactor design requirements. The CPF can also be varied in the fuel kernel material between UC and UO2. For the purpose of this study, UO2 was used as the reference fuel type. Using this novel fuel type, a 20 MWth pool-type research reactor was investigated to determine the preliminary performance and safety characteristics of the new fuel. The core thermal analysis was done using the MATRA-P code. The neutronics analysis was done using the Monte Carlo Serpent code for an equilibrium cycle resulting from a multi-batch fuel management. In this analysis, it was found that the Doppler effect is significantly enhanced through the implementation of CPF, in turn improving the inherent safety of the reactor. In addition to the notable improvement in safety, the new fuel type also promises to be able to achieve a high thermal neutron flux, improving the performance and utility of the reactor. It is concluded that the CPF-based fuel concept presented in this paper can enable new high-flux reactor designs using simple plate-type fuels with improved safety

  3. Isothermal Low Cycle Fatigue of Uncoated and Coated Nickel-Base Superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High strength nickel-base superalloys have been used in turbine blades for many years because of their superior performance at high temperatures. However, the superalloys have limited oxidation and corrosion resistance and to solve this problem, protective coatings are deposited on the surface of the superalloys. The positive effect of coatings is based on protecting the surface zone in contact with hot gas atmosphere with elements like aluminium, chromium, which form a thermodynamically stable oxide layer that acts as a diffusion barrier to slow down the reaction between the substrate material and the aggressive environment. There are also other degradation mechanisms that affect nickel-base superalloys such as aging of microstructure, fatigue and creep. Long-term aging in metallic coating results in the changes of mechanical properties due to the significant interdiffusion of the main alloying elements between substrate and coatings. However, application of the coatings has mechanical side effects, the significance of which is not yet fully investigated. This work covers a study on the fatigue behaviour of a polycrystalline, IN792. and two single crystal nickel-base superalloys, CMSX-4 and SCB, coated with three different coatings. an overlay coating AMDRY997, a platinum aluminide modified diffusion coating RT22 and an innovative coating with an interdiffusion harrier of NiW called IC1, under low cycle fatigue loading conditions. Both low cycle fatigue properties, cyclic strain and stress response and fracture behaviour of the uncoated, coated and long-term aged coated specimens are presented. The main conclusions are that at 500 deg C the presence of the coatings have, in most cases, reduced the fatigue lives of the nickel-base substrates while at 900 deg C the coatings do improve the fatigue lives of the superalloys except RT22 coated on some superalloys and under certain test conditions. The reduction of the fatigue life at 500 deg C can be related to early

  4. Simple, Fast, and Cost-Effective Fabrication of Wafer-Scale Nanohole Arrays on Silicon for Antireflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Di

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, fast, and cost-effective method was developed in this paper for the high-throughput fabrication of nanohole arrays on silicon (Si, which is utilized for antireflection. Wafer-scale polystyrene (PS monolayer colloidal crystal was developed as templates by spin-coating method. Metallic shadow mask was prepared by lifting off the oxygen etched PS beads from the deposited chromium film. Nanohole arrays were fabricated by Si dry etching. A series of nanohole arrays were fabricated with the similar diameter but with different depth. It is found that the maximum depth of the Si-hole was determined by the diameter of the Cr-mask. The antireflection ability of these Si-hole arrays was investigated. The results show that the reflection decreases with the depth of the Si-hole. The deepest Si-hole arrays show the best antireflection ability (reflection 600 nm, which was about 28 percent of the nonpatterned silicon wafer’s reflection. The proposed method has the potential for high-throughput fabrication of patterned Si wafer, and the low reflectivity allows the application of these wafers in crystalline silicon solar cells.

  5. Design and fabrication of antireflective GaN subwavelength grating structures using periodic silica sphere monolayer array patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Yu, Jae Su

    2013-12-01

    We designed and fabricated gallium nitride (GaN) subwavelength grating (SWG) structures on GaN/sapphire via patterning using the periodic silica sphere monolayer array as an etch mask and a subsequent dry etching for efficient antireflection coatings. Theoretical optimization of GaN SWG structures was performed in terms of their geometrical parameters by the rigorous coupled-wave analysis simulation using a theoretical structural model. The bullet-like parabola-shaped SWGs with a large height-to-diameter ratio ( R H/D) yielded good broadband and wide-angle antireflective surface properties. Considering the R H/D, the GaN SWG structure using 320-nm silica spheres theoretically and experimentally exhibited the most efficient antireflection property because it provided a linearly graded effective refractive index profile with relatively long relaxation length. For various geometries of the fabricated GaN SWGs on GaN/sapphire, the calculated reflectance results showed a similar tendency with the experimental results.

  6. Development of wear-resistant coatings for cobalt-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level of nuclear plant radiation exposure due to activated cobalt wear debris could potentially be reduced by covering the cobalt-base materials with a wear resistant coating. Laboratory pin-on-disc and rolling contact wear tests were used to evaluate the wear performance of several coatings. Based on the results of these tests, multilayer Cr-nitride coatings and ion nitriding are the most promising approaches

  7. Correlating coating characteristics with the performance of drug-coated balloons--a comparative in vitro investigation of own established hydrogel- and ionic liquid-based coating matrices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kaule

    Full Text Available Drug-coated balloons (DCB, which have emerged as a therapeutic alternative to drug-eluting stents in percutaneous cardiovascular intervention, are well described with regard to clinical efficacy and safety within a number of clinical studies. In vitro studies elucidating the correlation between coating additive and DCB performance are however rare but considered important for the understanding of DCB requirements and the improvement of established DCB. In this regard, we examined three different DCB-systems, which were developed in former studies based on the ionic liquid cetylpyridinium salicylate, the body-own hydrogel hyaluronic acid and the pharmaceutically well-established hydrogel polyvinylpyrrolidone, considering coating morphology, coating thickness, drug-loss, drug-transfer to the vessel wall, residual drug-concentration on the balloon surface and entire drug-load during simulated use in an in vitro vessel model. Moreover, we investigated particle release of the different DCB during simulated use and determined the influence of the three coatings on the mechanical behavior of the balloon catheter. We could show that coating characteristics can be indeed correlated with the performance of DCB. For instance, paclitaxel incorporation in the matrix can reduce the drug wash-off and benefit a high drug transfer. Additionally, a thin coating with a smooth surface and high but delayed solubility can reduce drug wash-off and decrease particle burden. As a result, we suggest that it is very important to characterize DCB in terms of mentioned properties in vitro in addition to their clinical efficacy in order to better understand their function and provide more data for the clinicians to improve the tool of DCB in coronary angioplasty.

  8. Antireflective characteristics of hemispherical grid grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Zhibin; JIANG Huilin; LIU Guojun; SUN Qiang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the optical characteristics of new type hemispherical grid subwavelength grating are studied by using multi-level column structure approximation and rigorous coupled-wave analysis. This kind of grating could be fabricated by chemical methods, thus simplifying the fabrication technology of subwavelength gratings for visible light. By computer simulation and calculation, the hemispherical grid subwavelength gratings are proved to have antireflective characteristics. Two design schemes of this kind of grating are presented. In the first scheme, the grating could achieve a reflectivity as low as 3.4416×10-7, which can be adapted to 0.46―0.7 μm of visible waveband and ±12° incident angle field. In the second scheme, the grating can achieve a reflectivity as low as 3.112×10-4 and adapted to the whole visible waveband and ±23° incident angle field. The application field of the latter scheme is wider than that of the former. The results of this paper could provide reference for the applications of the hemispherical grid subwavelength gratings for the visible waveband.

  9. Fabrication and microstructure of Fe-based amorphous composite coatings by laser cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Qingjun; Zou Zengda; Qu Shiyao; Wang Xinhong

    2008-01-01

    Fe-based amorphous composite coatings were fabricated on AISI 1045 steel by laser cladding. The results of the X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses show the coating is composed of an amorphous phase in majority and a nanocrystalline phase in minority. Phase composition of the coating changes along the depth of the coating. The reasonable scanning speed for fabricating an amorphous composite coating is 3 500mm/min when the laser power is 4 800W and the laser beam diameter is 2mm. If the scanning speed is lower than 3 500mm/min, the intensity of the two main diffraction peaks in X-ray diffraction patterns of the coatings decreases with the scanning speeds increasing. At the same time, a broad halo peak emerges and enlarges. High laser power and fast scanning speed are the essential conditions of amorphization. The coating exhibits high microhardness.

  10. Antifouling properties of papain-based antifouling coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Rafael; Armelín Diggroc, Elaine Aparecida; Moreno Martinez, Juan Antonio; Alemán Llansó, Carlos; Ferreira, Carlos Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the antifouling performance and water uptake behaviour of coatings formulated with papain (an environmentally friendly pigment). Antifouling coatings have been formulated using rosin (natural resin) as matrix and papain adsorbed in activated carbon as pigment. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were used to evaluate the behaviour of the formulated coatings in the marine environment and to calculate the apparent water coefficient of diffu...

  11. Application of Ketone-Based Resins as Anticorrosive Coating

    OpenAIRE

    Esma Sezer; Nilgün Kızılcan; Kerim Çoban

    2011-01-01

    Effect of some newly synthesized modified ketonic resins on corrosion inhibition of stainless steel (SS) and copper (Cu) was investigated in acidic medium. Carboxyl, hydroxyl, and carbonyl functionalized resins have been coated on metal electrode as a thin film by dipping method. Corrosion characteristics of coating on SS (304 L) and Cu were investigated by polarization, open-circuit, and impedance measurement. These measurements performed at different time and the stability of polymeric coat...

  12. Fracture of niobium-base silicide coated alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical properties and character of fracture of Nb-W-Mo-Zr-C alloy composition with complex by composition and structure silicide coating under different states of stage-by-stage coating are studied. Structural features, character of fracture from ductile to quasibrittle transcrystalline one and, respectively, the composition plasticity level are defined by interrelation of fracture processes in coating, matrix plastic flow and possibility and way of stress relaxation on their boundary

  13. Cerium-based conversion coatings to improve the corrosion resistance of aluminium alloy 6061-T6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cerium-based conversion coatings. • Cerium salt sources assisted with hydrogen peroxide. • Protective properties of the conversion coating. - Abstract: Cerium-based conversion coatings were deposited on aluminium alloy 6061-T6 by immersion in two cerium salt sources (chloride- and nitrate-based) assisted with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The morphology and composition of the coatings were analysed using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Electrochemical measurements to assess corrosion behaviour were performed using free corrosion potential, polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with a 3% NaCl solution. The influence of H2O2 on the generation of the coating was studied by cyclic voltammetry tests. The protective properties of the coating generated are heavily dependent upon the chelating effect, chaotropic anion, the pH and H2O2 content

  14. Development of polysaccharides-based edible coatings for citrus fruits: a layer-by-layer approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Hadar; Granit, Rina; Porat, Ron; Poverenov, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable coatings for citrus fruits that would replace the currently used polyethylene-based waxes, are of great interest. Methylcellulose (MC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and chitosan (CH) coatings were examined on the most sensitive citrus fruit model: mandarins. Among the examined polysaccharides, CMC provided mandarins with the best firmness, lowest weight loss and satisfying gloss, while not affecting natural flavour and the respiration process. To enhance coating performance, glycerol, oleic acid and stearic acid were added; however, mandarin quality generally deteriorated with these additives. Then, a layer-by-layer (LBL) approach was applied. LbL coatings, based on a combination of two polysaccharides, CMC as an internal layer and chitosan as an external layer, gave the best performance. Different concentrations of chitosan were examined. The LbL coatings notably improved all quantified parameters of fruit quality, proving that polysaccharide-based edible coating may offer an alternative to synthetic waxes. PMID:25053081

  15. Application of reactive acrylate microgels in water-base coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SA Sheng-shu; ZHANG Bao-hua; YANG Qing; WANG Xia-qin; MAO Zhi-ping

    2009-01-01

    Reactive acrylate microgels with different reactive groups such as carboxyl, hydroxide groups had excellent prop-erties such as quick-dry, low viscosity, high adhesion and hardness, which made them extensively used in preparing paints or in coating-modification. Reactive acrylate microgels were prepared by emulsion co-polymerization with zwitterions surfactant, anionic surfactant and nonionic surfactant as co-emulsifier. The water-base baking paints made from reactive acrylate micro-gels and melamine-formaldehyde resin had excellent combination properties. The aluminium powder can be well-dispersed in the paints. The influences of monomer components on the properties of the water-base baking paints were discussed in this paper. And the baking paints were also compared with the marketing solvent acrylate baking paints. It was found that the water-base acrylate amino baking paints had better combination properties than the organic solvent acrylate baking paints, which means that the water-base baking paints had a bright marketing future.

  16. Advanced Silicone-based Coatings for Flexible Fabric Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Silicone coatings are the system of choice for inflatable fabrics used in several space, military, and consumer applications, including airbags, parachutes, rafts,...

  17. Fabrication of robust and thermally stable superhydrophobic nanocomposite coatings based on thermoplastic polyurethane and silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyfi, Javad [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, Seyed Hassan, E-mail: shjafari@ut.ac.ir [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khonakdar, Hossein Ali [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Hohe Strasse 6, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Sadeghi, Gity Mir Mohamad [Department of Polymer Engineering & Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zohuri, Gholamhossein [Polymer Group, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hejazi, Iman [Department of Polymer Engineering & Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Simon, Frank [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Hohe Strasse 6, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic coatings were prepared from an intrinsically hydrophilic polymer. • The superhydrophobicity remained intact at elevated temperatures. • Polyurethane plays a key role in improving the mechanical robustness of the coatings. • A complete surface coverage of nanosilica is necessary for superhydrophobicity. - Abstract: In this paper, superhydrophobic nanocomposite coatings based on thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and modified nanosilica were fabricated using a simple solution-based method. The main challenge was to impart superhydrophobicity to an intrinsically hydrophilic polymer substrate. The prepared nanocomposite coatings were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Based on the obtained results, it was proved that in order to achieve superhydrophobicity, no TPU macromolecule should be present on the coating's top layer, thus a complete coverage of coating's top layer by nanosilica particles was necessary for achieving ultra water repellent coatings. Mechanical and thermal resistance of the coatings, which are the main challenges in commercializing superhydrophobic surfaces, were also studied by drop impact and thermal annealing tests, respectively. It was proved that using TPU as a sublayer results in improving mechanical resistance of the coatings as compared with the pure silica nanocoating. Moreover, the samples showed an excellent resistance against elevated temperatures (150 °C) and remained superhydrophobic; however, further increment of the annealing temperatures to 200 °C caused the TPU macromolecules to migrate onto the top layer of the coatings significantly reducing the water repellency, which was visually proved by SEM.

  18. Fabrication of robust and thermally stable superhydrophobic nanocomposite coatings based on thermoplastic polyurethane and silica nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic coatings were prepared from an intrinsically hydrophilic polymer. • The superhydrophobicity remained intact at elevated temperatures. • Polyurethane plays a key role in improving the mechanical robustness of the coatings. • A complete surface coverage of nanosilica is necessary for superhydrophobicity. - Abstract: In this paper, superhydrophobic nanocomposite coatings based on thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and modified nanosilica were fabricated using a simple solution-based method. The main challenge was to impart superhydrophobicity to an intrinsically hydrophilic polymer substrate. The prepared nanocomposite coatings were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Based on the obtained results, it was proved that in order to achieve superhydrophobicity, no TPU macromolecule should be present on the coating's top layer, thus a complete coverage of coating's top layer by nanosilica particles was necessary for achieving ultra water repellent coatings. Mechanical and thermal resistance of the coatings, which are the main challenges in commercializing superhydrophobic surfaces, were also studied by drop impact and thermal annealing tests, respectively. It was proved that using TPU as a sublayer results in improving mechanical resistance of the coatings as compared with the pure silica nanocoating. Moreover, the samples showed an excellent resistance against elevated temperatures (150 °C) and remained superhydrophobic; however, further increment of the annealing temperatures to 200 °C caused the TPU macromolecules to migrate onto the top layer of the coatings significantly reducing the water repellency, which was visually proved by SEM

  19. Temperature-Sensitive Coating Sensor Based on Hematite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencic, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    A temperature-sensitive coating, based on hematite (iron III oxide), has been developed to measure surface temperature using spectral techniques. The hematite powder is added to a binder that allows the mixture to be painted on the surface of a test specimen. The coating dynamically changes its relative spectral makeup or color with changes in temperature. The color changes from a reddish-brown appearance at room temperature (25 C) to a black-gray appearance at temperatures around 600 C. The color change is reversible and repeatable with temperature cycling from low to high and back to low temperatures. Detection of the spectral changes can be recorded by different sensors, including spectrometers, photodiodes, and cameras. Using a-priori information obtained through calibration experiments in known thermal environments, the color change can then be calibrated to yield accurate quantitative temperature information. Temperature information can be obtained at a point, or over an entire surface, depending on the type of equipment used for data acquisition. Because this innovation uses spectrophotometry principles of operation, rather than the current methods, which use photoluminescence principles, white light can be used for illumination rather than high-intensity short wavelength excitation. The generation of high-intensity white (or potentially filtered long wavelength light) is much easier, and is used more prevalently for photography and video technologies. In outdoor tests, the Sun can be used for short durations as an illumination source as long as the amplitude remains relatively constant. The reflected light is also much higher in intensity than the emitted light from the inefficient current methods. Having a much brighter surface allows a wider array of detection schemes and devices. Because color change is the principle of operation, the development of high-quality, lower-cost digital cameras can be used for detection, as opposed to the high-cost imagers

  20. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND CORROSION PROTECTION OF CARBON STEEL COATED WITH AN EPOXY BASED POWDER COATING CONTAINING MONTMORILONITE FUNCTIONALIZED WITH SILANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Tibola Bertuoli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the MMT-Na+ clay was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (γ-APS and incorporated in a commercial formulation epoxy-based powder coating in a proportion of 8 wt% and applied on 1008 carbon steel panels by electrostatic spray. Adhesion, flexibility, impact and corrosion performance in salt spray chamber tests were performed to evaluate the coatings. The presence of clay did not affect the mechanical properties of the film, however greater subcutaneous migration was assessed after the completion of salt spray testing, which can compromise the use of paints obtained as primers.

  1. Amylose Rich Starch as an Aqueous Based Pharmaceutical Coating Material - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dureja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Until about 1950, sugar was the first choice as coating agent for pharmaceutical preparations. As the tablets coating technique was changed from sugar coating to film coating, a number of polymers like Methyl Cellulose (MC, Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC and Ethyl Cellulose (EC become the main coating materials in place of sugar. As for as aqueous coating materials are concerned, Sodium Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (Sod. CMC, Polyvinyl Acetate (PA, Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP, Sodium Alginate, Poly Ethyl Glycol and HPMC etc. are used either alone or in combination. Starch, especially amylose rich starch is known to have good film forming property. Therefore amylose rich starch is now-a-days used as aqueous based coating materials for pharmaceutical coating. It is successfully used for coating in combination with sorbitol and glycerol as plasticizer. A nine months study on prepared films justifies the stability of amylose rich starch. Both the dispersion and solution of amylose rich starch are used for coating purpose. The amylose rich starch composition for this is 70% amylose and 30% amylopectin. Aging problems are overcome by proper type and proper concentration of plasticizer. The coating with amylose rich starch provides safety, economic and ecological benefits.

  2. Dihydroxynaphthalene-based mimicry of fungal melanogenesis for multifunctional coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Le, Thao Thanh; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-05-01

    Material-independent adhesive action derived from polycatechol structures has been intensively studied due to its high applicability in surface engineering. Here, we for the first time demonstrate that a dihydroxynaphthalene-based fungal melanin mimetic, which exhibit a catechol-free structure, can act as a coating agent for material-independent surface modifications on the nanoscale. This mimetic was made by using laccase to catalyse the oxidative polymerization of specifically 2,7-dihydroxynaphthalene. Analyses of the product of this reaction, using Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, bactericidal action, charge-dependent sorption behaviour, phenol content, Zeta potential measurements and free radical scavenging activity, yielded results consistent with it containing hydroxyphenyl groups. Moreover, nuclear magnetic resonance analyses of the product revealed that C-O coupling and C-C coupling were the main mechanisms for its synthesis, thus clearly excluding a catechol structure in the polymerization. This product, termed poly(2,7-DHN), was successfully deposited onto a wide variety of solid surfaces, including metals, polymeric materials, ceramics, biosurfaces and mineral complexes. The melanin-like polymerization could be used to co-immobilize other organic molecules, forming functional surfaces. In addition, the hydroxyphenyl group contained in the coated poly(2,7-DHN) induced secondary metal chelation/reduction and adhesion with proteins, suggesting the potential of this poly(2,7-DHN) layer to serve as a platform material for a variety of surface engineering applications. Moreover, the novel physicochemical properties of the poly(2,7-DHN) illuminate its potential applications as bactericidal, radical-scavenging and pollutant-sorbing agents. PMID:26833568

  3. Persistence of oral coatings of CMC and starch-based custard desserts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Kapper, C.; Borsboom, P.; Prinz, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Food coatings that remain after swallowing starch-based or CMC-based custard desserts were investigated for 19 subjects. Foods were orally processed for 5 s using a pre-defined protocol, after which the food was swallowed. The remaining food coating was assessed sensorially as well as instrumentally

  4. The formation of ZnO-based coatings from solutions containing high-molecular polyvinylpyrrolidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstrop'ev, S. K.; Soshnikov, I. P.; Khrebtov, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    A method for deposition of transparent nanosize ZnO-based coatings on the glass surface from solutions containing high-molecular polyvinylpyrrolidone is described. The method can be used to form transparent homogeneous coatings based on ZnO with an increased energy gap width. It does not require any intricate technological equipment.

  5. Residual stresses in coating-based systems, part Ⅰ:Mechanisms and analytical modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiancheng; WU Yixiong; XU Binshi; WANG Haidou

    2007-01-01

    Thin films and multi-layered coatings comprised of different classes of materials are often used for various fimctional devices. The thermo-mechanical integrity of these systems is becoming a major concern and is strongly related to the residual stresses because of the fabrication processes. In this paper, the sources of the residual stresses in the coating-based systems and the concept of"misfit strain" were briefly reviewed. Analytical models were developed to predict the residual stresses in multi-layered film structures or coating-based systems using the force and moment balances. In addition, the residual stress distributions in the functionally and compositionally graded coatings were also analyzed.

  6. Fabrication of Antireflective Sub-Wavelength Structures on Silicon Nitride Using Nano Cluster Mask for Solar Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Men-Ku

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have developed a simple and scalable approach for fabricating sub-wavelength structures (SWS on silicon nitride by means of self-assembled nickel nanoparticle masks and inductively coupled plasma (ICP ion etching. Silicon nitride SWS surfaces with diameter of 160–200 nm and a height of 140–150 nm were obtained. A low reflectivity below 1% was observed over wavelength from 590 to 680 nm. Using the measured reflectivity data in PC1D, the solar cell characteristics has been compared for single layer anti-reflection (SLAR coatings and SWS and a 0.8% improvement in efficiency has been seen.

  7. Effective antireflection properties of porous silicon nanowires for photovoltaic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Najar, Adel

    2013-01-01

    Porous silicon nanowires (PSiNWs) have been prepared by metal-assisted chemical etching method on the n-Si substrate. The presence of nano-pores with pore size ranging between 10-50nm in SiNWs was confirmed by electron tomography (ET) in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The PSiNWs give strong photoluminescence peak at red wavelength. Ultra-low reflectance of <5% span over wavelength 250 nm to 1050 nm has been measured. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method has been employed to model the optical reflectance for both Si wafer and PSiNWs. Our calculation results are in agreement with the measured reflectance from nanowires length of 6 µm and 60% porosity. The low reflectance is attributed to the effective graded index of PSiNWs and enhancement of multiple optical scattering from the pores and nanowires. PSiNW structures with low surface reflectance can potentially serve as an antireflection layer for Si-based photovoltaic devices.

  8. Sodium Bentonite-Based Fire Retardant Coatings Containing Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium bentonite (SB) gel and foam coatings were tested for their ability to suppress the rate of heat increase at the surface of commercial lap siding. Starch was added to some treatments to determine whether it stabilized the coating and prevented vertical slumping. A commercial fire protection ge...

  9. Broadband-antireflective hybrid nanopillar array for photovoltaic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subwavelength structures such as nanopillars, nanoholes, and nanodomes have recently attracted considerable attention as antireflective structures for solar cells. Recent studies on the optical property of nanopillar array revealed that the reflection minimum is related to the diameter, the pitch, and the height of nanopillars. Here, we investigate the “hybrid” nanopillar array, which is composed of different diameters of nanopillars. Finite differential time domain simulations revealed that the photogeneration in a hybrid nanopillar array is spatially heterogeneous: carriers are generated mainly in the narrower pillars for short-wavelength incident light and in the thicker pillars for long-wavelength light, respectively. Hybrid silicon nanopillar arrays fabricated by using electron beam lithography and dry etching show excellent broadband antireflection property. Hybrid nanopillar array is thus highly promising for next-generation antireflection for photovoltaic applications

  10. Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Carbon-Based Graded Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research on coatings with advanced architecture, composed of a Cr/Cr2N ceramic/metal multilayer and graded carbon layers with varying properties from Cr/a-C:H to a-C:N. The microstructure of the coatings was analysed using transmission electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, the mechanical properties were tested by nanoindentation, spherical indentation, and scratch testing, and tribological tests were also conducted. The proper selection of subsequent layers in graded coatings allowed high hardness and fracture resistance to be obtained as well as good adhesion to multilayers. Moreover, these coatings have higher wear resistance than single coatings and a friction coefficient equal to 0.25.

  11. Durable polymer-aerogel based superhydrophobic coatings: a composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, David J.; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    2016-02-02

    Provided are polymer-aerogel composite coatings, devices and articles including polymer-aerogel composite coatings, and methods for preparing the polymer-aerogel composite. The exemplary article can include a surface, wherein the surface includes at least one region and a polymer-aerogel composite coating disposed over the at least one region, wherein the polymer-aerogel composite coating has a water contact angle of at least about 140.degree. and a contact angle hysteresis of less than about 1.degree.. The polymer-aerogel composite coating can include a polymer and an ultra high water content catalyzed polysilicate aerogel, the polysilicate aerogel including a three dimensional network of silica particles having surface functional groups derivatized with a silylating agent and a plurality of pores.

  12. Durable polymer-aerogel based superhydrophobic coatings, a composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, David J; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    2014-03-04

    Provided are polymer-aerogel composite coatings, devices and articles including polymer-aerogel composite coatings, and methods for preparing the polymer-aerogel composite. The exemplary article can include a surface, wherein the surface includes at least one region and a polymer-aerogel composite coating disposed over the at least one region, wherein the polymer-aerogel composite coating has a water contact angle of at least about 140.degree. and a contact angle hysteresis of less than about 1.degree.. The polymer-aerogel composite coating can include a polymer and an ultra high water content catalyzed polysilicate aerogel, the polysilicate aerogel including a three dimensional network of silica particles having surface functional groups derivatized with a silylating agent and a plurality of pores.

  13. Fabrication and performance of polymer-nanocomposite anti-reflective thin films deposited by RIR-MAPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singaravelu, S.; Mayo, D. C.; Park, H-. K.; Schriver, K. E.; Klopf, John M. [W& M, JLAB; Kelley, Michael J. [W& M; Haglund, R. F. [VANDERBILT

    2014-07-01

    Design of polymer anti-reflective (AR) optical coatings for plastic substrates is challenging because polymers exhibit a relatively narrow range of refractive indices. Here, we report synthesis of a four-layer AR stack using hybrid polymer: nanoparticle materials deposited by resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation. An Er: YAG laser ablated frozen solutions of a high-index composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), alternating with a layer of PMMA. The optimized AR coatings, with thicknesses calculated using commercial software, yielded a coating for polycarbonate with transmission over 97 %, scattering <3 %, and a reflection coefficient below 0.5 % across the visible range, with a much smaller number of layers than would be predicted by a standard thin film calculation. The TiO2 nanoparticles contribute more to the enhanced refractive index of the high-index layers than can be accounted for by an effective medium model of the nanocomposite.

  14. Multi-layer Ti-based Coating Obtained by Arc PVD Method

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlov, Konstantin; Gorchakov, Konstantin; Gorchakova, Svetlana; Salojoki, Kari; Barchenko, Vladimir; Sokolov, Aleksandr

    2013-01-01

    We report the obtaining and primary studies of ~ 250microns thick multi-layer Ti-based protective coating deposited at high cooling rate from substance generated by cathode arc discharge in vacuum. High adhesion to steel substrate was attained through prior Arc plasma generator cleaning and successive Ion Bombardment method. All three arc-generated fractions including mainly droplet, vapour and ions have been utilised to form the coating. Obtained coating features pore-free, least defects and...

  15. Wear mechanism of Mo−W doped carbon-based coating during boundary lubricated sliding

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, Paranjayee; Ehiasarian, Arutiun; Hovsepian, Papken

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature tribological applications of state-of-the-art diamond-like-carbon (DLC) coatings in automotive industry are often compromised due to their poor adhesion strength and low thermal stability. A molybdenum and tungsten doped carbon-based coating (Mo−W−C) is developed in order to overcome these limitations and to enhance tribological performance during boundary lubricated sliding at ambient and elevated temperature. The coating was deposited utilising HIPIMS technology. Mo−W−C...

  16. An assessment of the mechanical strengths of aluminide-based thin coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Li, SY; Ng, HP; Ngan, AHW

    2001-01-01

    Titanium aluminide and nickel aluminide-based thin coatings were synthesized by magnetron sputtering from intermetallic TiAl and Ni3Al alloy targets on nickel substrates. Both types of aluminide coating exhibited high surface hardness values that varied with the degree of heat treatment. The hardness of the coatings was investigated using micro- and nano- indentation techniques. In order to estimate the intrinsic strength of the films, the indentation size effects of the apparent hardness wer...

  17. ZrN based Nanostructured Hard Coatings : Structure-Property Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Yalamanchili, Phani Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the hard coatings have been introduced, there has been a constant push for better mechanical properties, which motivates for deeper understanding of the microstructure-mechanical properties correlation. The aim of this thesis is to extend the knowledge on how microstructural variation influences the deformation, fracture and wear behavior of ZrN based nanostructured coatings. Few microns thick, monolithic Zr-Si-N and multilayered Zr-Al-N coatings were deposited by reactive arc depo...

  18. Effect of palladium diffusion in coatings deposited on the nickel based superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zagula-Yavorska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper the effect of palladium diffusion in coatings deposited on the surface of nickel based superalloy was evaluated.Design/methodology/approach: The palladium coatings 3 and 7 μm thick were deposited by the electroplating process on Inconel 713 LC Ni-base superalloy. The heat treatment of electroplated coatings at the temperature 1050°C for 2 h under argon atmosphere was performed. The microstructure investigations of the heat treated coatings were conduced by the use of optical microscope (Nikon Epiphot 300 and a scanning electron microscope (Hitachi S-3400N equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectroscope EDS (VOYAGER of NORAN INSTRUMENTS. The phase composition was identified by X-ray (ARL X’TRAX diffractometer. The surface roughness parameter - Ra of heat treated coatings was evaluated by Perthometer S2 MAHR equipment.Findings: The microstructure of 3 µm thick palladium electroplated coating after diffusion treatment consists of three phases: AlPd2, Ni3Al, Ni0,52Pd0,475. The increase of palladium thickness from 3 to 7 μm does not influence the phase composition of heat treated coatings. Heat treatment of palladium electroplating coatings increases the surface roughness parameter Ra.Research limitations/implications: The results will be used in the future investigations to explain the influence of palladium on the oxidation resistance of aluminide coatings.Practical implications: The palladium electroplating coatings after heat treatment and aluminizing process may be used as an alternative to platinum modified aluminide coatings as coatings for turbine blades of aircraft engines.Originality/value: The paper includes the results of microstructure and surface roughness investigations of palladium electroplating coatings 3 and 7 µm thick after diffusion treatment. Inconel 713 LC; Palladium electroplating; Diffusion treatment; Surface roughness

  19. An Antireflective Nanostructure Array Fabricated by Nanosilver Colloidal Lithography on a Silicon Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Seong-Je

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An alternative method is presented for fabricating an antireflective nanostructure array using nanosilver colloidal lithography. Spin coating was used to produce the multilayered silver nanoparticles, which grew by self-assembly and were transformed into randomly distributed nanosilver islands through the thermodynamic action of dewetting and Oswald ripening. The average size and coverage rate of the islands increased with concentration in the range of 50–90 nm and 40–65%, respectively. The nanosilver islands were critically affected by concentration and spin speed. The effects of these two parameters were investigated, after etching and wet removal of nanosilver residues. The reflection nearly disappeared in the ultraviolet wavelength range and was 17% of the reflection of a bare silicon wafer in the visible range.

  20. Antireflective indium-tin-oxide nanobranches for efficient organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Juyoung; Park, Jae Yong; Dong, Wan Jae; Jung, Gwan Ho; Yu, Hak Ki; Lee, Jong-Lam

    2016-02-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) nanobranched structures with low reflectance have been designed for application to organic solar cells. The ITO nanobranches are deposited on the front surface of glass without damages to organic active layer by using an electron beam deposition. Through a finite-difference time-domain, we find that the field intensity in the glass region is enhanced with ITO nanobranches. Consequently, the number of incident photons induces strong absorption within the PTB7-PC70BM active layer, leading to the enhanced short circuit current density (Jsc). Compared with a flat device (power conversion efficiency (PCE) = 6.53%, Jsc = 13.3 mA/cm2), improved PCE of 7.09% is achieved in an antireflection coating, which is mainly due to the increased Jsc of 14.2 mA/cm2.

  1. An effective reflectance method for designing broadband antireflection films coupled with solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan Feng; He Ji-Fang; Shang Xiang-Jun; Li Mi-Feng; Ni Hai-Qiao; Xu Ying-Qiang; Niu Zhi-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    The solar spectrum covers a broad wavelength range,which requires that antireflection coating (ARC) is effective over a relatively wide wavelength range for more incident light coming into the cell.In this paper,we present two methods to measure the composite reflection of SiO2/ZnS double-layer ARC in the wavelength ranges of 300-870 nm (dualjunction) and 300-1850 nm (triple-junction),under the solar spectrum AM0.In order to give sufficient consideration to the ARC coupled with the window layer and the dispersion effect of the refractive index of each layer,we use multidimensional matrix data for reliable simulation.A comparison between the results obtained from the weighted-average reflectance (WAR) method commonly used and that from the effective-average reflectance (EAR) method introduced here shows that the optimized ARC through minimizing the effective-average reflectance is convenient and available.

  2. Improvement of adhesion between plastic substrates and antireflection layers by ion-assisted reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Cho, Jun-Sik; Koh, Seok-Keun; Kim, Donghwan

    2004-02-02

    Enhanced adhesion was observed between antireflection (AR) layers and polycarbonate (PC) substrates by irradiating the substrates with low-energy Ar ions in an O{sub 2} environment. The AR coating consisted of SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} multi-layers that were deposited by ion-beam sputtering. Improved adhesion was evidenced by a peeling test. Ion irradiation caused the surface characteristics to become more hydrophilic as measured by the water contact angle, which decreased from 76 deg. to 18 deg. after the ion irradiation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the concentration of hydrophilic groups such as C=O and C-O increased as a result of the ion irradiation. The changes in surface roughness and in optical transmittance were negligible. The optical reflectance of the AR/PC structure was below 1% in the visible range.

  3. LARGE AREA FILTERED ARC DEPOSITION OF CARBON AND BORON BASED HARD COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Rabi S.

    2003-12-05

    This document is a final report covering work performed under Contract No. DE-FG02-99ER82911 from the Department of Energy under a SBIR Phase II Program. Wear resistant, hard coatings can play a vital role in many engineering applications. The primary goal of this project was to develop coatings containing boron and carbon with hardness greater than 30 GPa and evaluate these coatings for machining applications. UES has developed a number of carbon and boron containing coatings with hardness in the range of 34 to 65 GPa using a combination of filtered cathodic arc and magnetron sputtering. The boron containing coatings were based on TiB2, TiBN, and TiBCN, while the carbon containing coatings ere TiC+C and hydrogen free diamond-like-carbon. Machining tests were performed with single and multilayer coated tools. The turning and milling tests were run at TechSolve Inc., under a subcontract at Ohio State University. Significant increases in tool lives were realized in end milling of H-13 die steel (8X) and titanium alloy (80%) using the TiBN coating. A multilayer TiBN/TiN performed the best in end-milling of highly abrasive Al-Si alloys. A 40% increase in life over the TiAlN benchmark coating was found. Further evaluations of these coatings with commercialization partners are currently in progress.

  4. Biodegradable, elastomeric coatings with controlled anti-proliferative agent release for magnesium-based cardiovascular stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xinzhu; Mao, Zhongwei; Ye, Sang-Ho; Koo, Youngmi; Yun, Yeoheung; Tiasha, Tarannum R; Shanov, Vesselin; Wagner, William R

    2016-08-01

    Vascular stent design continues to evolve to further improve the efficacy and minimize the risks associated with these devices. Drug-eluting coatings have been widely adopted and, more recently, biodegradable stents have been the focus of extensive evaluation. In this report, biodegradable elastomeric polyurethanes were synthesized and applied as drug-eluting coatings for a relatively new class of degradable vascular stents based on Mg. The dynamic degradation behavior, hemocompatibility and drug release were investigated for poly(carbonate urethane) urea (PCUU) and poly(ester urethane) urea (PEUU) coated magnesium alloy (AZ31) stents. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) coated and bare stents were employed as control groups. The PCUU coating effectively slowed the Mg alloy corrosion in dynamic degradation testing compared to PEUU-coated, PLGA-coated and bare Mg alloy stents. This was confirmed by electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and magnesium ion release experiments. PCUU-coating of AZ31 was also associated with significantly reduced platelet adhesion in acute blood contact testing. Rat vascular smooth muscle cell (rSMC) proliferation was successfully inhibited when paclitaxel was released from pre-loaded PCUU coatings. The corrosion retardation, low thrombogenicity, drug loading capacity, and high elasticity make PCUU an attractive option for drug eluting coating on biodegradable metallic cardiovascular stents. PMID:27085049

  5. Effect of dielectric coating on the sensing capability of gold nanorods based on plasmonic band widening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dielectric coating-induced widening of the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of gold nanorods was investigated theoretically. The line width of the longitudinal SPR could be enlarged by increasing the thickness or the dielectric constant of the coated dielectric shell. The corresponding physical origin has been illuminated by the dielectric coating-enhanced anisotropic distribution of the surface charge. This dielectric coating-dependent widening of the longitudinal SPR presents a new biologic sensing picture based on tuning the line width of the plasmonic absorption band of metallic nanostructure.

  6. Properties of coatings on tungsten carbide base applied by detonation spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of technological parameters of detonation spraying on the quality of wear-resistant coatings on the base of tungsten carbide with nickel addition is considered. Data are given on the influence of the charge composition, thickness of sprayed layer, expenditure of transporting gas and the distance to the coated surface on hardness, adhesive strength and wear resistance of the coatings. The coatings 0.2-0.4 mm thick are shown to be optimum nickel content in the charge should not exceed 10%

  7. CrN-based wear resistant hard coatings for machining and forming tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly wear resistant multicomponent or multilayer hard coatings, based on CrN but incorporating other metals, have been developed using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating technology. They are exploited in coated machining and forming tools cutting and forming of a wide range of materials in various application environments. These coatings are characterized by desirable properties including good adhesion, high hardness, high toughness, high wear resistance, high thermal stability and high machining capability for steel. The coatings appear to show almost universal working characteristics under operating conditions of low and high temperature, low and high machining speed, machining of ordinary materials and difficult to machine materials, and machining under lubricated and under minimum lubricant quantity or even dry conditions. These coatings can be used for cutting and for forming tools, for conventional (macro-) machining tools as well as for micromachining tools, either as a single coating or in combination with an advanced, self-lubricating topcoat.

  8. Evaluation of paint coating thickness variations based on pulsed Infrared thermography laser technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezghani, S.; Perrin, E.; Vrabie, V.; Bodnar, J. L.; Marthe, J.; Cauwe, B.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a pulsed Infrared thermography technique using a homogeneous heat provided by a laser source is used for the non-destructive evaluation of paint coating thickness variations. Firstly, numerical simulations of the thermal response of a paint coated sample are performed. By analyzing the thermal responses as a function of thermal properties and thickness of both coating and substrate layers, optimal excitation parameters of the heating source are determined. Two characteristic parameters were studied with respect to the paint coating layer thickness variations. Results obtained using an experimental test bench based on the pulsed Infrared thermography laser technique are compared with those given by a classical Eddy current technique for paint coating variations from 5 to 130 μm. These results demonstrate the efficiency of this approach and suggest that the pulsed Infrared thermography technique presents good perspectives to characterize the heterogeneity of paint coating on large scale samples with other heating sources.

  9. Compositional dependence of microstructure and tribological properties of plasma sprayed Fe-based metallic glass coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qin; LI Ran; LIU ZengQian; SHI MinJie; LUO XueKun; ZHANG Tao

    2012-01-01

    Gas-atomized powders of three Fe-based glass-forming alloys were sprayed on mild steel substrates by atmospheric plasma spaying using the same spaying parameters.Microstructures,thermal stabilities and tribological properties of the sprayed coatings were analyzed.The coating performances showed a strong dependence on the intrinsic characters of the compositions,i,e.,glass-forming ability (GFA) and supercooled liquid region (ΔTx).The coatings tended to exhibit higher amorphous phase fraction for the composition with higher GFA and lower porosity for that with larger ΔTx.All the coatings exhibited superior wear resistance compared with the substrate.Higher wear resistance could be obtained in coatings with higher amorphous phase fraction,i.e.higher GFA of the composition.This study has important implications for composition selecting and optimizing in the fabrication of metallic glass coatings.

  10. Radiation Control Coatings Installed on Federal Buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaba, R.L.; Petrie, T.W.

    1999-03-16

    The technical objectives of this CRADA comprise technology deployment and energy conservation efforts with the radiation control coatings industry and the utility sector. The results of this collaboration include a high-level data reporting, analysis and management system to support the deployment efforts. The technical objectives include successfully install, commission, operate, maintain and document the performance of radiation control coatings on roofs at Tyndall AFB and the Buildings Technology Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory; determine the life cycle savings that can be achieved by using radiation control coatings on entire roofs at Tyndall AFB, based on documented installed cost and operating maintenance costs with and without the coatings; determine if any specific improvements are required in the coatings before they can be successfully deployed in the federal sector; determine the most effective way to facilitate the widespread and rapid deployment of radiation control coatings in the federal sector; and clearly define any barriers to deployment.

  11. Specifications of ZnO growth for heterostructure solar cell and PC1D based simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar Hussain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article is related to our recently published article (Hussain et al., in press [1] where we have proposed a new solar cell model based on n-ZnO as front layer and p-Si as rear region. The ZnO layer will act as an active n-layer as well as antireflection (AR coating saving considerable processing cost. There are several reports presenting use of ZnO as window/antireflection coating in solar cells (Mansoor et al., 2015; Haq et al., 2014; Hussain et al., 2014; Matsui et al., 2014; Ding et al., 2014 [2–6] but, here, we provide data specifically related to simultaneous use of ZnO as n-layer and AR coating. Apart from the information we already published, we provide additional data related to growth of ZnO (with and without Ga incorporation layers using MOCVD. The data related to PC1D based simulation of internal and external quantum efficiencies with and without antireflection effects of ZnO as well as the effects of doping level in p-Si on current–voltage characteristics have been provided.

  12. Optimization of cardiovascular stent against restenosis: factorial design-based statistical analysis of polymer coating conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Acharya

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to optimize the physicodynamic conditions of polymeric system as a coating substrate for drug eluting stents against restenosis. As Nitric Oxide (NO has multifunctional activities, such as regulating blood flow and pressure, and influencing thrombus formation, a continuous and spatiotemporal delivery of NO loaded in the polymer based nanoparticles could be a viable option to reduce and prevent restenosis. To identify the most suitable carrier for S-Nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, a NO prodrug, stents were coated with various polymers, such as poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA, polyethylene glycol (PEG and polycaprolactone (PCL, using solvent evaporation technique. Full factorial design was used to evaluate the effects of the formulation variables in polymer-based stent coatings on the GSNO release rate and weight loss rate. The least square regression model was used for data analysis in the optimization process. The polymer-coated stents were further assessed with Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images and platelet adhesion studies. Stents coated with PCL matrix displayed more sustained and controlled drug release profiles than those coated with PLGA and PEG. Stents coated with PCL matrix showed the least platelet adhesion rate. Subsequently, stents coated with PCL matrix were subjected to the further optimization processes for improvement of surface morphology and enhancement of the drug release duration. The results of this study demonstrated that PCL matrix containing GSNO is a promising system for stent surface coating against restenosis.

  13. Processing-microstructure-property relations in HVOF sprayed calcium phosphate based bioceramic coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, K A; Li, H; Cheang, P

    2003-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) based bioceramic coatings were deposited onto titanium alloy substrates using the high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray technique. This study aimed to reveal the relations among processing parameters, microstructure, and properties of the bioceramic coatings. The processing conditions were altered through changing the starting HA powder size, content of bioinert ceramic additives or composite powder preparation techniques. Coating structure was characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM); and the mechanical properties, Young's modulus and fracture toughness, of the coatings were evaluated through indentation techniques. Results demonstrated dominant influence of the melt state of HA powders on the phase composition of resultant coatings, and it was found that the HVOF HA coatings possess competitive mechanical properties. Furthermore, addition of titania or zirconia, as secondary phase in HA, showed promising effect on improving the mechanical properties of the HVOF HA-based coatings. Chemical reactions between HA and titania; and, HA and zirconia during coating deposition were revealed and characterized. Incorporation modes of the additives into HA and their reinforcing mechanisms were elucidated. The relationship among the processing, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the HVOF sprayed bioceramic coatings was summarily examined. PMID:12699659

  14. In-depth analysis of switchable glycerol based polymeric coatings for cell sheet engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becherer, Tobias; Heinen, Silke; Wei, Qiang; Haag, Rainer; Weinhart, Marie

    2015-10-01

    Scaffold-free cell sheet engineering using thermoresponsive substrates provides a promising alternative to conventional tissue engineering which in general employs biodegradable scaffold materials. We have previously developed a thermoresponsive coating with glycerol based linear copolymers that enables gentle harvesting of entire cell sheets. In this article we present an in-depth analysis of these thermoresponsive linear polyglycidyl ethers and their performance as coating for substrates in cell culture in comparison with commercially available poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) coated culture dishes. A series of copolymers of glycidyl methyl ether (GME) and glycidyl ethyl ether (EGE) was prepared in order to study their thermoresponsive properties in solution and on the surface with respect to the comonomer ratio. In both cases, when grafted to planar surfaces or spherical nanoparticles, the applied thermoresponsive polyglycerol coatings render the respective surfaces switchable. Protein adsorption experiments on copolymer coated planar surfaces with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy reveal the ability of the tested thermoresponsive coatings to be switched between highly protein resistant and adsorptive states. Cell culture experiments demonstrate that these thermoresponsive coatings allow for adhesion and proliferation of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts comparable to TCPS and faster than on PNIPAM substrates. Temperature triggered detachment of complete cell sheets from copolymer coated substrates was accomplished within minutes while maintaining high viability of the harvested cells. Thus such glycerol based copolymers present a promising alternative to PNIPAM as a thermoresponsive coating of cell culture substrates. PMID:26143602

  15. Development of a thin film vitreous bond based composite ceramic coating for corrosion and abrasion services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IPC has been involved with the Alberta Research Council in developing a vitreous bond (VB) - based composite ceramic fluoropolymer coating technology. Compared to the present state of the art which is based on a hard discontinuous phase (ceramic particles) suspended in a soft continuous matrix (fluoropolymer mix) the novelty of our approach consists of designing a composite system in which both the ceramic and the fluoropolymer phases are continuous. The ceramic matrix will provide the strength and the erosion resistance for the fluoropolymer matrix even at high temperatures. The ceramic formulation employed is not affected by temperatures up to 500 oF while the fluoropolymer matrix provides a corrosion protection seal for the ceramic matrix. The inherent flexibility of the polymer matrix will protect against brittle fractures that may develop by handling or impact. Therefore the composite coating is able to withstand the deformation of the substrate without chipping or disbanding. The fluoropolymer matrix also provides dry lubrication properties further enhancing the erosion resistance of the ceramic phase. The thickness of the coating is very thin, in the 25 to 100 micron range. In summary, the coating technology is able to provide the following features: Corrosion protection levels similar to those of fluoropolymer coatings; Erosion resistance similar to that of ceramic coatings; Price comparable to that of polymer coatings; Exceptional wear resistance properties; and Capability for coating complicated shapes internally or externally or both. This paper will discuss the theory and development of this new technology and the resultant coating and potential properties. (author)

  16. Aragonite coating solutions (ACS) based on artificial seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    2015-03-01

    Aragonite (CaCO3, calcium carbonate) is an abundant biomaterial of marine life. It is the dominant inorganic phase of coral reefs, mollusc bivalve shells and the stalactites or stalagmites of geological sediments. Inorganic and initially precipitate-free aragonite coating solutions (ACS) of pH 7.4 were developed in this study to deposit monolayers of aragonite spherules or ooids on biomaterial (e.g., UHMWPE, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene) surfaces soaked in ACS at 30 °C. The ACS solutions of this study have been developed for the surface engineering of synthetic biomaterials. The abiotic ACS solutions, enriched with calcium and bicarbonate ions at different concentrations, essentially mimicked the artificial seawater composition and started to deposit aragonite after a long (4 h) incubation period at the tropical sea surface temperature of 30 °C. While numerous techniques for the solution deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), of low thermodynamic solubility, on synthetic biomaterials have been demonstrated, procedures related to the solution-based surface deposition of high solubility aragonite remained uncommon. Monolayers of aragonite ooids deposited at 30 °C on UHMWPE substrates soaked in organic-free ACS solutions were found to possess nano-structures similar to the mortar-and-brick-type botryoids observed in biogenic marine shells. Samples were characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR, ICP-AES and contact angle goniometry.

  17. Advanced Silicone-based Coatings for Flexible Fabric Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High performance silicone coatings are desired for flexible fabrics used in several space and consumer applications. For instance, the total weight of silicone...

  18. Tribological Performance of MoS2-based Coatings after Deposition and Storage in Humid Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JINGYang; LUOJian-bin; PANGSi-qin

    2004-01-01

    MoS2-based composite coatings were deposited with the nano-compound unbalanced plasma plating technique the effects of processing parameters and working enwironments on the tribological properties of the coatings were examined by the drilling experiuments and XPS.the distances between substrate and Ti larget, Ti content and deposition pressure were varied in order to determine the optimun conditions for producing lubricious,long-lasting MoS2-based coatings,IT is found that the tribological performance of Tin-MoS2 roating decreases rqapidly in humid air but the humid resistant property of Tin-MoS2/Ti coating improves evidently it is indicated that the humid-resistantance property and the abrasion durability of MoS2-based coatings can be enhanced markedly by adding Ti with a certain contents.

  19. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Properties of Edible Surface Coating Based on Carrageenan Conjugated with Silver Nanoparticles on Sekaki Papaya (Carica Papaya cv. Sekaki): A New Antimicrobial Edible Coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibacterial properties of edible surface coating based on carrageenan incorporated with silver nanoparticles (SNPs), was investigated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to obtain optimum concentration of SNPs. Results obtained indicate that SNPs with concentration of 40 ml L-1 effectively inhibited the growth of both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. Sekaki papaya fruits were then coated with prepared edible coating formulation comprising of carrageenan (0.8 % w/v) and glycerol (1.0 % w/v) with and without SNPs (40 ppm) and stored at ambient conditions (26±2 degree Celsius and 60±10 % RH). Microbial analysis of coated and uncoated papaya samples during storage indicated that the edible coating comprising of carrageenan, glycerol and SNPs, strongly inhibited the growth of fungus that caused post harvest diseases of papaya as compared to uncoated and coated papaya fruits with edible coating without SNPs. (author)

  20. Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Carbon-Based Graded Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Kot, M; Ł. Major; Lackner, J. M.; K. Chronowska-Przywara; Janusz, M.; Rakowski, W

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents research on coatings with advanced architecture, composed of a Cr/Cr2N ceramic/metal multilayer and graded carbon layers with varying properties from Cr/a-C:H to a-C:N. The microstructure of the coatings was analysed using transmission electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, the mechanical properties were tested by nanoindentation, spherical indentation, and scratch testing, and tribological tests were also conducted. The proper selection of subsequent layer...

  1. Novel Base Metal-Palladium Catalytic Diesel Filter Coating with NO2 Reducing Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, K.; Dahl, S.; Mogensen, G.;

    2007-01-01

    price structure. The novel base metal/palladium catalytic coat has been applied on commercial silicon carbide wall flow diesel filters and tested in an engine test bench. Results from engine bench tests concerning soot combustion, HC-, CO-, NO2- removal with the novel coat will are compared to present...

  2. Broadband antireflection properties of thin heterogeneous dielectric films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvartsburg, A B; Petite, G; Hecquet, P

    2000-12-01

    New exactly solvable flexible models of inhomogeneous thin film with smooth and deep variations of dielectric susceptibility epsilon(z) are presented. Formation of cutoff frequencies of such films (as well as the broadband antireflection), controlled by the profiles epsilon(z), is shown. The crucial role of gradients of epsilon(z) in the optics of strongly inhomogeneous media is emphasized. PMID:11140487

  3. Antireflecting sublayers for neutron thin film polarising mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the neutron polarising capability of Iron/Cobalt thin film mirrors deposited onto various Gadolinium-rich antireflecting sublayers are presented and the results compared with theoretical predictions. Excellent results were obtained in the cold neutron region though a degradation in performance is predicted in the thermal region at wavelengths approximately 1A. (author)

  4. Fabrication of robust and thermally stable superhydrophobic nanocomposite coatings based on thermoplastic polyurethane and silica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfi, Javad; Jafari, Seyed Hassan; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali; Sadeghi, Gity Mir Mohamad; Zohuri, Gholamhossein; Hejazi, Iman; Simon, Frank

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, superhydrophobic nanocomposite coatings based on thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and modified nanosilica were fabricated using a simple solution-based method. The main challenge was to impart superhydrophobicity to an intrinsically hydrophilic polymer substrate. The prepared nanocomposite coatings were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Based on the obtained results, it was proved that in order to achieve superhydrophobicity, no TPU macromolecule should be present on the coating's top layer, thus a complete coverage of coating's top layer by nanosilica particles was necessary for achieving ultra water repellent coatings. Mechanical and thermal resistance of the coatings, which are the main challenges in commercializing superhydrophobic surfaces, were also studied by drop impact and thermal annealing tests, respectively. It was proved that using TPU as a sublayer results in improving mechanical resistance of the coatings as compared with the pure silica nanocoating. Moreover, the samples showed an excellent resistance against elevated temperatures (150 °C) and remained superhydrophobic; however, further increment of the annealing temperatures to 200 °C caused the TPU macromolecules to migrate onto the top layer of the coatings significantly reducing the water repellency, which was visually proved by SEM.

  5. Biological characterization of a new silicon based coating developed for dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ibáñez, M; Juan-Díaz, M J; Lara-Saez, I; Coso, A; Franco, J; Gurruchaga, M; Suay Antón, J; Goñi, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    Taking into account the influence of Si in osteoblast cell proliferation, a series of sol-gel derived silicon based coating was prepared by controlling the process parameters and varying the different Si-alkoxide precursors molar rate in order to obtain materials able to release Si compounds. For this purpose, methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMOS) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) were hydrolysed together and the sol obtained was used to dip-coat the different substrates. The silicon release ability of the coatings was tested finding that it was dependent on the TEOS precursor content, reaching a Si amount value around ninefolds higher for coatings with TEOS than for the pure MTMOS material. To test the effect of this released Si, the in vitro performance of developed coatings was tested with human adipose mesenchymal stem cells finding a significantly higher proliferation and mineralization on the coating with the higher TEOS content. For in vivo evaluation of the biocompatibility, coated implants were placed in the tibia of the rabbit and a histological analysis was performed. The evaluation of parameters such as the bone marrow state, the presence of giant cells and the fibrous capsule proved the biocompatibility of the developed coatings. Furthermore, coated implants seemed to produce a qualitatively higher osteoblastic activity and a higher number of bone spicules than the control (uncoated commercial SLA titanium dental implant). PMID:26936366

  6. Wear Characteristics of Multilayer-Coated Cutting Tools in Milling Wood and Wood-Based Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fahrussiam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the characteristic of wear on the clearance face of newly multilayer-coated K10 cutting tools when cutting mersawa wood, fiberboard, particleboard, and glass reinforced concrete (GRC. The K10 cutting tools were coated with monolayer titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN, multilayer TiAlN/titanium silicon nitride (TiSiN, and TiAlN/titanium boron oxide nitride (TiBON. Cutting tests were performed on computer numeric control router at a high cutting speed of 17 m/s and a feed rate of 0.2 mm/rev to investigate the wear characteristics on the clearance face of these coated tools. Experimental results show that the coated tools experienced a smaller amount of clearance wear than the uncoated tool in cutting the mersawa wood, fiberboard, particleboard, and GRC. The GRC compared to the other work materials caused higher amount of clearance wear for both the uncoated and coated cutting tools. High content of silica and density were the reason for this phenomenon. The best coating among other coated cutting tools in this study was multilayer TiAlN/TiBON. The high hardness, low coefficient of friction, high resistance to oxidation, and high resistance to delamination wear of the multilayer-coated TiAlN/TiBON tool indicate a very promising applicability of this coating for high-speed cutting of abrasive woods and wood-based materials.

  7. Yttrium oxide coatings for high power lasers at 351 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yttrium oxide has proven to be a useful coating material for high power UV lasers. In combination with silicon dioxide it produces an effective dual wavelength antireflection coating at 351 and 1054 nanometers which has good resistance to damage at both wavelengths. While a durable coating material, yttrium oxide may be removed safely from a lightly damaged optic and reapplied. Index inhomogeneity of the material is investigated as well as modification of the film structure with ion-assisted deposition

  8. Optical coatings for laser fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasers for fusion experiments use thin-film dielectric coatings for reflecting, antireflecting and polarizing surface elements. Coatings are most important to the Nd:glass laser application. The most important requirements of these coatings are accuracy of the average value of reflectance and transmission, uniformity of amplitude and phase front of the reflected or transmitted light, and laser damage threshold. Damage resistance strongly affects the laser's design and performance. The success of advanced lasers for future experiments and for reactor applications requires significant developments in damage resistant coatings for ultraviolet laser radiation

  9. Laser cladding of Zr-based coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy for improvement of wear and corrosion resistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kaijin Huang; Xin Lin; Changsheng Xie; T M Yue

    2013-02-01

    To improve the wear and corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloy, Zr-based coating made of Zr powder was fabricated on AZ91D magnesium alloy by laser cladding. The microstructure of the coating was characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM techniques. The wear resistance of the coating was evaluated under dry sliding wear test condition at room temperature. The corrosion resistance of the coating was tested in simulated body fluid. The results show that the coating mainly consists of Zr, zirconium oxides and Zr aluminides. The coating exhibits excellent wear resistance due to the high microhardness of the coating. The main wear mechanism of the coating and the AZ91D sample are different, the former is abrasive wear and the latter is adhesive wear. The coating compared to AZ91D magnesium alloy exhibits good corrosion resistance because of the good corrosion resistance of Zr, zirconium oxides and Zr aluminides in the coating.

  10. Microstructural studies and residual stress evolution in zirconia-based thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thick thermal barrier coatings consisting of NiCrAlY bond coating and a 1.4 mm thick Zirconia-based top coating were air plasma sprayed onto grit blasted nickel-base substrates, Hastelloy X. Different amounts of external cooling were utilized during the spraying of the top coatings, which resulted in different specimen temperature histories. A finite element model was developed to simulate the heat flux from the spraying process and the resulting thermal stresses in the specimen. The modelled stresses after the spraying of the bond coating and the top coating were compared to measured residual stresses. The measurements were performed with a layer removal technique, allowing the residual stresses to be determined as a function of depth in the specimen. Further, the microstructure of the top coatings was studied by electron microscopy techniques. In the bond coating, high tensile stresses were predicted. These stresses remained after the spraying of the top coating, where low compressive stresses were predicted as a result from stress relaxation by microcracking. Good agreement between modelled and measured residual stress was found, except from a measured compressive zone in the substrate. The compressive stresses were found to have originated during the grit blasting process, which was not incorporated in the model. The top coating microstructure contained high densities of vertical microcracks and horizontal delaminations. Both defect densities decreased when the substrate temperature during spraying was high. A correlation between modelled inelastic strain in the top coating and point counted densities of vertical microcracks was obtained. 33 refs, 8 figs,

  11. Aragonite coating solutions (ACS) based on artificial seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Developed completely inorganic solutions for the deposition of monolayers of aragonite spherules (or ooids). • Solutions mimicked the artificial seawater. • Biomimetic crystallization was performed at the tropical sea surface temperature of 30 °C. - Abstract: Aragonite (CaCO3, calcium carbonate) is an abundant biomaterial of marine life. It is the dominant inorganic phase of coral reefs, mollusc bivalve shells and the stalactites or stalagmites of geological sediments. Inorganic and initially precipitate-free aragonite coating solutions (ACS) of pH 7.4 were developed in this study to deposit monolayers of aragonite spherules or ooids on biomaterial (e.g., UHMWPE, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene) surfaces soaked in ACS at 30 °C. The ACS solutions of this study have been developed for the surface engineering of synthetic biomaterials. The abiotic ACS solutions, enriched with calcium and bicarbonate ions at different concentrations, essentially mimicked the artificial seawater composition and started to deposit aragonite after a long (4 h) incubation period at the tropical sea surface temperature of 30 °C. While numerous techniques for the solution deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), of low thermodynamic solubility, on synthetic biomaterials have been demonstrated, procedures related to the solution-based surface deposition of high solubility aragonite remained uncommon. Monolayers of aragonite ooids deposited at 30 °C on UHMWPE substrates soaked in organic-free ACS solutions were found to possess nano-structures similar to the mortar-and-brick-type botryoids observed in biogenic marine shells. Samples were characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR, ICP-AES and contact angle goniometry

  12. Mechanical characteristics of Fe-based coating obtained by nanoindentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → AFM combined with O and P method was put forward to investigate materials of pile-up. → Properties obtained by G and S and new proposed methods showed the same distribution. → Both hardness and elastic modulus showed certain surface roughness dependence. → Elastic modulus obtained by AFM combined with O and P method was insensitive to RMS. - Abstract: In this study, clad layers of iron-based alloy with a nature of self-fluxing were melted on low carbon steel by plasma cladding process. Nanoindentation with atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to investigate the mechanical properties of the coating. Hardness and elastic modulus at ultra-low loads were first determined using the method proposed by Giannakopoulos and Suresh (G and S method). The true contact area and mechanical properties were then determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM) combined with the Oliver and Pharr method (new proposed method) as the correction group. The mechanical properties calculated by the two methods showed the same distribution while had deviation in specific values. The effect of surface roughness to the calculated mechanical properties was investigated. Both hardness and elastic modulus were found to exhibit certain surface roughness dependence. When root mean square (RMS) roughness ranged from 2.2 nm to 4.4 nm, hardness calculated by both the methods increased obviously and reached maximums around 4.1 nm. Elastic modulus calculated by G and S method at different RMS showed the same distribution with that of hardness, while reduced elastic modulus obtained by AFM was insensitive to the range of RMS.

  13. Aragonite coating solutions (ACS) based on artificial seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tas, A. Cuneyt, E-mail: c_tas@hotmail.com

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Developed completely inorganic solutions for the deposition of monolayers of aragonite spherules (or ooids). • Solutions mimicked the artificial seawater. • Biomimetic crystallization was performed at the tropical sea surface temperature of 30 °C. - Abstract: Aragonite (CaCO{sub 3}, calcium carbonate) is an abundant biomaterial of marine life. It is the dominant inorganic phase of coral reefs, mollusc bivalve shells and the stalactites or stalagmites of geological sediments. Inorganic and initially precipitate-free aragonite coating solutions (ACS) of pH 7.4 were developed in this study to deposit monolayers of aragonite spherules or ooids on biomaterial (e.g., UHMWPE, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene) surfaces soaked in ACS at 30 °C. The ACS solutions of this study have been developed for the surface engineering of synthetic biomaterials. The abiotic ACS solutions, enriched with calcium and bicarbonate ions at different concentrations, essentially mimicked the artificial seawater composition and started to deposit aragonite after a long (4 h) incubation period at the tropical sea surface temperature of 30 °C. While numerous techniques for the solution deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}), of low thermodynamic solubility, on synthetic biomaterials have been demonstrated, procedures related to the solution-based surface deposition of high solubility aragonite remained uncommon. Monolayers of aragonite ooids deposited at 30 °C on UHMWPE substrates soaked in organic-free ACS solutions were found to possess nano-structures similar to the mortar-and-brick-type botryoids observed in biogenic marine shells. Samples were characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR, ICP-AES and contact angle goniometry.

  14. Corrosion resistance of Ti-based metallic glass coating in concentrated nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigated the corrosion resistance of a Ti-based metallic glass coating in concentrated HNO3 solution, and discovered the coating's superior corrosion resistance compared with 304 L substrate. The coating exhibited a fully amorphous and pore-free structure with the thickness of ∼380 μm. A relatively uniform and thick passivation film was formed on the surface of the coating as an oxygen diffusion barrier, leading to the much improved corrosion resistance. The Raman spectrum evidenced that the passivation film was mainly TiO2 with a mixed structure of anatase and rutile. We believe that the present findings will open up a new horizon for coatings in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing applications. - Highlights: • A fully amorphous Ti-based metallic glass coating was formed. • The amorphous coating exhibited superior corrosion resistance in HNO3. • A uniform and mix-structured TiO2 corrosion product was formed. • The coating may become the optimal candidate for nuclear applications

  15. Experimental evaluation of chromium-carbide-based solid lubricant coatings for use to 760 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    1987-01-01

    A research program is described which further developed and investigated chromium carbide based self-lubricating coatings for use to 760 C. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the base stock because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. Additives were silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The three coating components were blended in powder form, applied to stainless steel substrates by plasma spraying and then diamond ground to the desired coating thickness. A variety of coating compositions was tested to determine the coating composition which gave optimum tribological results. Coatings were tested in air, helium, and hydrogen at temperatures from 25 to 760 C. Several counterface materials were evaluated with the objective of discovering a satisfactory metal/coating sliding combination for potential applications, such as piston ring/cylinder liner couples for Stirling engines. In general, silver and fluoride additions to chromium carbide reduced the friction coefficient and increased the wear resistance relative to the unmodified coating. The lubricant additives acted synergistically in reducing friction and wear.

  16. Lithography-Free, Low-Cost Method for Improving Photodiode Performance by Etching Silicon Nanocones as Antireflection Layer

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Jing; Lin, Jiahao; Liu, Gang Logan

    2016-01-01

    A three-step process has been demonstrated to improve the performance of photodiode by creating nanocone forest on the surface of photodiode as an antireflection layer. This high-throughput, low-cost process has been shown to decrease the reflectivity by 66.1%, enhance the quantum efficiency by 27%, and increase the responsivity by 25.7%. This low-cost manufacture process can be applied to increase the responsivity of silicon based photonic devices.

  17. Electrochemical Characterization of Multilayer Cr/CrN-Based Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio C. Caiazzo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a series of mono-and multilayer coatings were considered. They consisted of CrN and Cr prepared by physical vapor deposition with a cathodic arc. The most common steels for molds of plastics were chosen as substrates: X37CrMoV5-1 (SMV3, X2NiCoMo18-8-5 (MARVAL M1, X105CrCoMo18-2 (N690 and X40CrMo15 (X13T6. The samples were made with surface state conditions reproducing the main finishes required for molding of plastics: mirror, electro-eroded, sandblasted and ground finish. The coatings were characterized morphologically and chemically. The corrosion behavior of bare and coated steels was evaluated by electrochemical methods.

  18. Characterization of hydrogen barrier coatings for titanium-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the barrier efficiency of a thick thermal spray deposit on the α-titanium alloy, Ti-5Al-2.4Sn against hydrogen penetration. Therefore, a duplex coating has been applied by plasma spraying using a Sulzer Metco F4 gun. The selected duplex coating system consisted of a 0.1-0.2 mm thick tantalum bond layer and a chromium oxide top layer doped with 3 wt% titanium oxide. The achieved thickness of the top layer was about 0.6 mm. The coated specimens have been characterized with regard to bond strength, hardness and microstructure. Hydrogen charging experiments were performed in a Sievert's apparatus

  19. Development of chitosan-based antimicrobial leather coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Isabel P; Amaral, Joana S; Pinto, Vera; Ferreira, Maria José; Barreiro, Maria Filomena

    2013-10-15

    The development of antimicrobial coatings for footwear components is of great interest both from industry and consumer's point of view. In this work, antimicrobial leather materials were developed taking advantage of chitosan intrinsic antimicrobial activity and film forming capacity. Considering the specificities of the leather tanning industry, different coating technologies, namely drum, calender and spray, were tested, being the best results achieved with the drum. This last approach was further investigated to assess the effect of chitosan content, type of solubilizing acid, and impregnation time on the achieved antimicrobial capacity. Considering chitosan price (economic reasons) and the obtained results (antimicrobial activity and coating effectiveness, as inspected by SEM), the impregnation in the drum using a chitosan content of 1% (w/v) in a formic acid solution during 2h, is proposed as the best option for obtaining leather with antimicrobial capacity. PMID:23987468

  20. A degradable polydopamine coating based on disulfide-exchange reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Daewha; Lee, Hojae; Kim, Beom Jin; Park, Taegyun; Choi, Ji Yu; Park, Matthew; Lee, Juno; Cho, Hyeoncheol; Hong, Seok-Pyo; Yang, Sung Ho; Jung, Sun Ho; Ko, Sung-Bo; Choi, Insung S.

    2015-11-01

    Although the programmed degradation of biocompatible films finds applications in various fields including biomedical and bionanotechnological areas, coating methods have generally been limited to be substrate-specific, not applicable to any kinds of substrates. In this paper, we report a dopamine derivative, which allows for both universal coating of various substrates and stimuli-responsive film degradation, inspired by mussel-adhesive proteins. Two dopamine moieties are linked together by the disulfide bond, the cleavage of which enables the programmed film degradation. Mechanistic analysis of the degradable films indicates that the initial cleavage of the disulfide linkage causes rapid uptake of water molecules, hydrating the films, which leads to rapid degradation. Our substrate-independent coating of degradable films provides an advanced tool for drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and anti-fouling strategies.Although the programmed degradation of biocompatible films finds applications in various fields including biomedical and bionanotechnological areas, coating methods have generally been limited to be substrate-specific, not applicable to any kinds of substrates. In this paper, we report a dopamine derivative, which allows for both universal coating of various substrates and stimuli-responsive film degradation, inspired by mussel-adhesive proteins. Two dopamine moieties are linked together by the disulfide bond, the cleavage of which enables the programmed film degradation. Mechanistic analysis of the degradable films indicates that the initial cleavage of the disulfide linkage causes rapid uptake of water molecules, hydrating the films, which leads to rapid degradation. Our substrate-independent coating of degradable films provides an advanced tool for drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and anti-fouling strategies. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis, characterization, and other additional details. See DOI: 10

  1. Emission plasma coatings based on LaB/sub 6/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrashin, A.A.; Chernyaev, V.N.; Korzo, V.F.; Blokhin, V.G. (Moskovskij Aviatsionnyj Tekhnologicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1982-01-01

    A new technologic method of the obtaining of thin films of refractory compounds is developed using the impulse plasma accelerators (IPA) and electromagnetic separator to separate the drop and vapour ionized parts of plasma flux. The construction of discharge ignition unit is worked out. Emission characteristics are studied and the work function of thermoemission coatings on the basis of LaB/sub 6/ depending on the conditions of their obtaining is determined. A possibility to create refractory emission plasma coatings with the decreased work function is shown.

  2. An environmentally compliant cerium-based conversion coating for aluminum protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xuan

    Chromate conversion coatings have been extensively used in the aircraft industry for the corrosion protection of aluminum alloys. Unfortunately, hexavalent chromium, which is a primary component in the chromating process, is a confirmed carcinogen. Because of rising remediation and disposal costs caused by increasingly strict regulations, the replacement of the traditional chromate conversion process is becoming a top priority in the metal finishing industry. This research focused on the electrodeposition of cerium-based coatings on 7075-T6 aluminum alloy in an electrolyte containing a cerium salt, an oxidizing agent and an organic solvent. The cerium-rich deposits were characterized by phase composition, oxidation state, coating thickness, surface morphology, deposition mechanism and polarization behavior. Chemical and electrochemical tests were utilized to compare the corrosion resistance between cerium-based coatings and chromate conversion coatings. To characterize and simulate the deposition process, a variety of approaches were utilized to study the oxidation states of cerium in various soluble and precipitated forms as a function of hydrogen peroxide and electrolyte pH. The pH ranges where the oxidation and reduction reactions dominate were determined. Further studies were performed to optimize the corrosion performance of cerium-based coatings and to understand the effects of electrolyte constituents and deposition parameters. The optimum levels for these variables were identified. A patent disclosure on the cerium-based coating process was made to the University of Missouri-Rolla and has now been officially filed with the U.S. Patent Office.

  3. Sustainable polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from waste aerobic granular sludge as a surface coating material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.M.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Girbal-Neuhauser, E.; Adriaanse, M.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the possibility of utilizing polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from aerobic granular sludge as a coating material, the morphology, molecular weight distribution and chemical composition of the recovered biomaterial were investigated by atomic force microscopy, size exclusion chr

  4. Thermal Properties, Thermal Shock, and Thermal Cycling Behavior of Lanthanum Zirconate-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xingye; Lu, Zhe; Jung, Yeon-Gil; Li, Li; Knapp, James; Zhang, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Lanthanum zirconate (La2Zr2O7) coatings are newly proposed thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems which exhibit lower thermal conductivity and potentially higher thermal stability compared to other traditional thermal barrier systems. In this work, La2Zr2O7 and 8 wt pct yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) single-layer and double-layer TBC systems were deposited using the air plasma spray technique. Thermal properties of the coatings were measured. Furnace heat treatment and jet engine thermal shock tests were implemented to evaluate coating performance during thermal cycling. The measured average thermal conductivity of porous La2Zr2O7 coating ranged from 0.59 to 0.68 W/m/K in the temperature range of 297 K to 1172 K (24 °C to 899 °C), which was approximately 25 pct lower than that of porous 8YSZ (0.84 to 0.87 W/m/K) in the same temperature range. The coefficients of thermal expansion values of La2Zr2O7 were approximately 9 to 10 × 10-6/K from 400 K to 1600 K (127 °C to 1327 °C), which were about 10 pct lower than those of porous 8YSZ. The double-layer coating system consisting of the porous 8YSZ and La2Zr2O7 layers had better thermal shock resistance and thermal cycling performance than those of single-layer La2Zr2O7 coating and double-layer coating with dense 8YSZ and La2Zr2O7 coatings. This study suggests that porous 8YSZ coating can be employed as a buffer layer in La2Zr2O7-based TBC systems to improve the overall coating durability during service.

  5. Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Ni-Base Thermal Spray Coatings Deposited by Flame Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amokrane, Bradai Mohand; Abdelhamid, Sadeddine; Youcef, Mouadji; Abderrahim, Benabbas; Nedjemeddine, Bounar; Ahmed, Mammeri

    2011-10-01

    In this work, two different Ni-base powders, namely, ProXon 21021 (P21) and ProXon 21031 (P31), were sprayed onto a steel substrate 35CrMo4 using a thermal flame spray technique. The morphology and chemical composition of the phases that are present in the powders and coatings were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The hardness and wear resistance of the coatings were investigated. The XRD analysis revealed that the phases present in the coatings are different from the initial powders. In addition, some inhomogeneities such as oxides, porosity, and unmelted particles were observed by SEM. It was found that the P31 spray-coated exhibited higher microhardness, higher wear resistance, and significantly lower friction coefficient in comparison with those of P21 coatings.

  6. Zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron-particle-based magnetorheological fluid for polishing optical glasses and ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on magnetorheological finishing (MRF) spotting experiments performed on glasses and ceramics using a zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron (CI)-particle-based magnetorheological (MR) fluid. The zirconia-coated magnetic CI particles were prepared via sol-gel synthesis in kilogram quantities. The coating layer was ∼50-100 nm thick, faceted in surface structure, and well adhered. Coated particles showed long-term stability against aqueous corrosion. ''Free'' nanocrystalline zirconia polishing abrasives were cogenerated in the coating process, resulting in an abrasive-charged powder for MRF. A viable MR fluid was prepared simply by adding water. Spot polishing tests were performed on a variety of optical glasses and ceramics over a period of nearly three weeks with no signs of MR fluid degradation or corrosion. Stable material removal rates and smooth surfaces inside spots were obtained.

  7. Zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron-particle-based magnetorheological fluid for polishing optical glasses and ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafrir, Shai N.; Romanofsky, Henry J.; Skarlinski, Michael; Wang, Mimi; Miao, Chunlin; Salzman, Sivan; Chartier, Taylor; Mici, Joni; Lambropoulos, John C.; Shen Rui; Yang Hong; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2009-12-10

    We report on magnetorheological finishing (MRF) spotting experiments performed on glasses and ceramics using a zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron (CI)-particle-based magnetorheological (MR) fluid. The zirconia-coated magnetic CI particles were prepared via sol-gel synthesis in kilogram quantities. The coating layer was {approx}50-100 nm thick, faceted in surface structure, and well adhered. Coated particles showed long-term stability against aqueous corrosion. ''Free'' nanocrystalline zirconia polishing abrasives were cogenerated in the coating process, resulting in an abrasive-charged powder for MRF. A viable MR fluid was prepared simply by adding water. Spot polishing tests were performed on a variety of optical glasses and ceramics over a period of nearly three weeks with no signs of MR fluid degradation or corrosion. Stable material removal rates and smooth surfaces inside spots were obtained.

  8. Application of protein-phenolic based coating on tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Pereira Cipolatti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the use of protein-phenolic based coating made from fermented rice bran on cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum. Tests were performed with glycerol 3% (v/v, glycerol with protein-phenolic rice bran extract (5%, glycerol with protein-phenolic extract after 96 hours of fermentation (5%, and a control (without coating. The coated cherry tomatoes were kept at room temperature for 28 days. Mass loss, pH and acidity, total soluble solids, and carotenoids were determined every 96 hours. The coating made from the biomass extract reduced the carotenoid and acidity levels in the fruits studied by 17 and 21.1%, respectively, compared to the control. The coating proved an efficient barrier to water vapor with mass loss of 57% less than the control suggesting that it can be used as an alternative for vegetable tissue conservation.

  9. Low Cycle Fatigue and Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue of Uncoated and Coated Nickel-Base Superalloys

    OpenAIRE

    Stekovic, Svjetlana

    2007-01-01

    High strength nickel-base superalloys have been used in turbine blades for many years because of their superior performance at high temperatures. In such environments superalloys have limited oxidation and corrosion resistance and to solve this problem, protective coatings are deposited on the surface. The positive effect of coatings is based on protecting the surface zone in contact with hot gas atmosphere with a thermodynamically stable oxide layer that acts as a diffusion barrier. During s...

  10. Unique coatings produced by water based plasma system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chráska, Pavel

    New York : Stony Brook University, 2014. [Center for Thermal Spray Research, Spring 2014 Consortium Meeting. New York (US), 04.06.2014-05.06.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma spraying * water/hybrid systems * coatings * natural materils * FGM Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass http://www.ctsr-sunysb.org/PublicationsLogIn.aspx

  11. Carbon-Based Wear Coatings: Properties and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2003-01-01

    The technical function of numerous engineering systems - such as vehicles, machines, and instruments - depends on the processes of motion and on the surface systems. Many processes in nature and technology depend on the motion and dynamic behavior of solids, liquids, and gases. Smart surface systems are essential because of the recent technological push toward higher speeds, loads, and operating temperatures; longer life; lighter weight and smaller size (including nanotechnology); and harsh environments in mechanical, mechatronic, and biomechanical systems. If proper attention is not given to surface systems, then vehicles, machines, instruments, and other technical systems could have short lives, consume excessive energy, experience breakdowns, result in liabilities, and fail to accomplish their missions. Surface systems strongly affect our national economy and our lifestyles. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, we believe that proper attention to surface systems, especially in education, research, and application, could lead to economic savings of between 1.3 and 1.6 percent of the gross domestic product. Wear coatings and surface systems continue to experience rapid growth as new coating and surface engineering technologies are discovered, more cost-effective coating and surface engineering solutions are developed, and marketers aggressively pursue, uncover, and exploit new applications for engineered surface systems in cutting tools and wear components. Wear coatings and smart surface systems have been used widely in industrial, consumer, automotive, aerospace, and biomedical applications. This presentation expresses the author's views of and insights into smart surface systems in wear coatings. A revolution is taking place in carbon science and technology. Diamond, an allotrope of carbon, joins graphite, fullerenes, and nanotubes as its major pure carbon structures. It has a unique combination of extreme properties: hardness and abrasion resistance; adhesion

  12. A concept for the EQ coating system for nickel-based superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagishi, K.; Sato, A.; Harada, H.

    2008-07-01

    Nickel-based single-crystal superalloys with high concentrations of refractory elements are prone to generate a diffusion layer called a secondary reaction zone (SRZ) beneath their bond coating during long exposure to high temperatures. The SRZ causes a reduction of the load-bearing cross section and it is detrimental to the creep properties of thin-walled turbine airfoils. In this study, a new bond coat system, “EQ coating,” which is thermodynamically stable and suppresses SRZ has been proposed. Diffusion couples of coating materials and substrate alloys were made and heat treated at 1,100°C for 300 h and 1,000 h. Cyclic oxidation examinations were carried out at 1,100°C in air and the oxidation properties of EQ coating materials were discussed. High-velocity frame-sprayed EQ coatings designed for second-generation nickel-based superalloys were deposited on fourth-and fifth-generation nickel-based superalloys, and the stability of the microstructure at the interface and creep property of the coating system were investigated.

  13. Microstructure evolution of Fe-based WC composite coating prepared by laser induction hybrid rapid cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fe + 50 wt.% WC composite coating was prepared by laser induction hybrid rapid cladding (LIHRC) on steel substrate. The phase and microstructure of the composite coating were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and energy dispersive spectrum (EDS). The results showed that WC particles were dissolved almost completely to precipitate the coarse herringbone M6C eutectic carbides and the fine dendritic M6C carbides, and that the partially dissolved WC particles with an alloyed reaction layer were occasionally observed in the whole coating. The phases of the composite coating were composed of supersaturated solid solution α-Fe, retained austenite, Fe3C, W2C, M6C and M7C3. The microstructure evolution in the composite coating was represented by the transformation of three parts such as Fe-based metallic matrix, dispersed carbides and incompletely dissolved WC particles. The microhardness of Fe-based WC composite coating was three times much higher than that of the substrate, but was relatively lower than that of Ni-based WC composite coating by LIHRC.

  14. A protective (Mo,W)(Si,Ge)2 coating on Nb-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a multicomponent diffusion coating that has been developed to protect Nb-base alloys from high-temperature environmental attack. A solid solution of molybdenum and tungsten disilicide constituted the primary coating layer which supported a slow-growing protective silica scale in service. Germanium additions were made during the coating process to improved the cyclic oxidation resistance by increasing the thermal expansion coefficient of the silica scale formed, and, to avoid pesting by decreasing the viscosity of the protective vitreous film. The development of the halide-activated pack cementation coating process to produce the coating on Nb-base alloys is described. The results of cyclic oxidation for coupons coated under different conditions in air at 1370 degrees C are presented. Many coupons have successfully passed 200 one-hour cyclic oxidation tests at 1370 degrees C with weight gain values in the range of 1.2-1.6 mg/cm2. This multicomponent silicide coating offers significant promise to protect Nb-base alloys in oxidizing environments and thermal cycling at high temperatures

  15. Selection of boron based tribological hard coatings using multi-criteria decision making methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Boron based coating selection problem for cutting tools was solved. • EXPROM2, TOPSIS and VIKOR methods were used for ranking the alternative materials. • The best coatings for cutting tool were selected as TiBN and TiSiBN. • The ranking results are in good agreement with cutting test results in literature. - Abstract: Mechanical and tribological properties of hard coatings can be enhanced using boron as alloying element. Therefore, multicomponent nanostructured boron based hard coatings are deposited on cutting tools by different methods at different parameters. Different mechanical and tribological properties are obtained after deposition, and it is a difficult task to select the best coating material. In this paper, therefore, a systematic evaluation model was proposed to tackle the difficulty of the material selection with specific properties among a set of available alternatives. The alternatives consist of multicomponent nanostructured TiBN, TiCrBN, TiSiBN and TiAlSiBN coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering and ion implantation assisted magnetron sputtering at different parameters. The alternative coating materials were ranked by using three multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods, i.e. EXPROM2 (preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation), TOPSIS (technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution) and VIKOR (VIšekriterijumsko KOmpromisno Rangiranje), in order to determine the best coating material for cutting tools. Hardness (H), Young’s modulus (E), elastic recovery, friction coefficient, critical load, H/E and H3/E2 ratios were considered as material selection criteria. In order to determine the importance weights of the evaluation criteria, a compromised weighting method, which composes of the analytic hierarchy process and Entropy methods, were used. The ranking results showed that TiBN and TiSiBN coatings deposited at given parameters are the best coatings for cutting tools

  16. Surface Passivation and Antireflection Behavior of ALD on n-Type Silicon for Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing-Song Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic layer deposition, a method of excellent step coverage and conformal deposition, was used to deposit TiO2 thin films for the surface passivation and antireflection coating of silicon solar cells. TiO2 thin films deposited at different temperatures (200°C, 300°C, 400°C, and 500°C on FZ n-type silicon wafers are in the thickness of 66.4 nm ± 1.1 nm and in the form of self-limiting growth. For the properties of surface passivation, Si surface is effectively passivated by the 200°C deposition TiO2 thin film. Its effective minority carrier lifetime, measured by the photoconductance decay method, is improved 133% at the injection level of  cm−3. Depending on different deposition parameters and annealing processes, we can control the crystallinity of TiO2 and find low-temperature TiO2 phase (anatase better passivation performance than the high-temperature one (rutile, which is consistent with the results of work function measured by Kelvin probe. In addition, TiO2 thin films on polished Si wafer serve as good ARC layers with refractive index between 2.13 and 2.44 at 632.8 nm. Weighted average reflectance at AM1.5G reduces more than half after the deposition of TiO2. Finally, surface passivation and antireflection properties of TiO2 are stable after the cofire process of conventional crystalline Si solar cells.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of Fe-based amorphous coatings prepared by high-velocity arc spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Fe-based cored wires were designed to achieve high glass forming ability. • Novel highly amorphous coatings were fabricated by arc spray technology. • The as-obtained amorphous coating possessed high thermal stability up to 873 K. • The as-obtained amorphous coating exhibited a high bonding strength over 44 MPa. - Abstract: Fe-based coatings with a high amorphous content were firstly developed by the traditional twin wires arc spray technology. In consideration of empirical rules, including the multi-component system, an optimal concentration of small atoms, negative heat of mixing and an appropriate atom size mismatch among the main components, the cored wires were designed to contain eight elements, which have an optimized atomic volume strain criterion λn, in range of 0.14–0.21, to render the coatings a high glass forming ability. Then the coatings were prepared using the above-designed cored wires through a rapid arc spray melting and solidification process. Crystalline phases could not be identified from the XRD patterns within the XRD resolution limits, suggesting that the as-sprayed coatings were approximately comprised of fully amorphous phases. With a dense structure and a low porosity of only 2%, the amorphous Fe-based coatings exhibited an attractive combination of high hardness (900–1100 HV0.3) and superior bonding strength (44.9–54.8 MPa). The coating at λn = 0.21 had the lowest Gibbs free energy difference ΔG, exhibited the largest super-cooled liquid region ΔTx, Lu’s criterion factor γ value and the heat of crystallization (ΔH) values, which indicating the highest GFA

  18. Plasma spray processing of TiC-based coatings for sliding wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Mahesh

    Titanium carbide-reinforced metallic coatings, produced by plasma spraying, can be used for sliding wear resistant applications. The sliding wear properties of such coatings are governed to a large extent by the strength, structure and stability of the bond interface between the carbide and the metallic phases. In the present investigation, the microstructure and sliding wear properties of plasma sprayed metal-bonded TiC coatings containing up to 90 v/o carbide have been studied. It was shown that alloying of the metallic phase improved carbide retention in TiC cermets due to better interface bonding, and increased wear resistance and lowered sliding coefficient of friction. TiC-based coatings were produced from both physically blended and synthesized feed powders. It was observed that the precursor TiC-based powder morphology and structure greatly affected the plasma sprayed coating microstructures and the resultant physical and mechanical characteristics. Physical blending of powders induced segregation during spraying, leading to somewhat lower deposit efficiencies and coating uniformity, while synthesized and alloyed titanium carbide/metal composite powders reduced problems of segregation and reactions associated with plasma spraying of physically blended powders where the TiC was in direct contact with the plasma jet. To understand oxidation effects of the environment, Ti and TiC-based coatings were produced under low pressure (VPS), air plasma (APS) and shrouded plasma sprayed conditions. APS Ti and TiC-based powders with reactive matrices suffered severe oxidation decomposition during flight, leading to poor deposition efficiencies and oxidized microstructures. High particle temperatures and cold air plasma spraying. Coating oxidation due to reactions of the particles with the surrounding air during spraying reduced coating hardness and wear resistance. TiC-with Ti or Ti-alloy matrix coatings with the highest hardness, density and wear resistance was

  19. Novel polymer coatings based on plasma polymerized 2-methoxyethyl acrylate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhenning; Jiang, Juan; Benter, Maike;

    2008-01-01

    properties[4-6]. We have exploited these possibilities and prepared plasma polymerized 2-methoxyethyl acrylate (PPMEA) coatings on various polymer substrates. The PPMEA coatings were optimized using various plasma polymerization conditions and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy......Poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) is cited as the most blood compatible polyme~l]. Modification of polymer surfaces with PMEA has recently brought to improved materials for such applications[1,2]. Recently PMEA and its block copolymers with PMMA with controlled characteristics have been...... synthesized by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP)[3]. This enabled a surface segregation of the more hydrophilic block to the polymer/air interface and enrichment of the surface with PMEA. Here we present another way to modify a surface with this material - plasma polymerization in a low energy...

  20. Facile approach in fabricating superhydrophobic coatings from silica-based nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yonggang; Wang, Qihua

    2010-10-01

    This study develops a one-step technique to synthesize various super water-repellent coatings with addition of modified silica nanoparticles. Surface topography observation showed that stacking of spherical silica nanoparticles formed primary surface roughness. The wettability of the products was investigated. It was found that the as-prepared surface possesses superhydrophobic properties not only for pure water but also for corrosive water under both acidic and basic conditions. The silica-based nanocomposite coatings can be fabricated on glass substrates and other functional engineering material surfaces, such as copper, iron, aluminum alloy, to form self-cleaning coatings.

  1. Investigation of Cu-based Infiltration Coatings for Metal-supported SOFC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Reddy Sudireddy, Bhaskar; Persson, Åsa Helen; Nielsen, Jimmi; Sachitanand, R.; Froitzheim, J.

    2013-01-01

    coatings based on Cu in combination with Ni:Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 (Ni:CGO) have been studied. The candidates for a corrosion resistant coating should limit the formation of Cr2O3 on the surface of FeCr particles. Promising fuel cell performance with an ASR of 0.5 _cm2 was obtained at 650 ºC with H2 as fuel....... However, various analysis techniques showed no improved corrosion resistance with the addition of a Cu coating....

  2. Application of protein-phenolic based coating on tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum)

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Pereira Cipolatti; Larine Kupski; Meritaine da Rocha; Melissa dos Santos Oliveira; Jaqueline Garda Buffon; Eliana Badiale Furlong

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of protein-phenolic based coating made from fermented rice bran on cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum). Tests were performed with glycerol 3% (v/v), glycerol with protein-phenolic rice bran extract (5%), glycerol with protein-phenolic extract after 96 hours of fermentation (5%), and a control (without coating). The coated cherry tomatoes were kept at room temperature for 28 days. Mass loss, pH and acidity, total soluble solids, and carote...

  3. Preparation of Polyacrylate-based Conductive Coatings and Its PTC Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Chuan-xi; HU Hui-rong; ZHOU Zhi-yong; ZHANG Yi; DONG Li-jie

    2004-01-01

    Polyacrylate- based conductive coatings were prepared from polyacrylate emulsion as matrix andcarbon black (CB) whose surface was treated with titanate coupling agent as conducting particles. One kind oforganic crystal was added to study its effects on the electrical conductivity and PTC ( positive temperature coeffi-cient ) effect of the conductive coatings. Experimental results show that the coatings containing only polyacrylateemulsion and CB exhibit an excellent electrical conductivity but bad PTC effect, and when organic crystal is added,PTC effect is characterized and can increase by 2 orders of magtitude. The critical transformation temperature ofpolyacrylate emulsion/CB PTC composites is decided by melting point of organic crystals.

  4. Influence of color coatings on aircraft surface ice detection based on multi-wavelength imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Jing-chang; Yu, Zhi-jing; Gao, Jian-shu; Zheng, Da-chuan

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a simple aircraft surface ice detection system is proposed based on multi-wavelength imaging. Its feasibility is proved by the experimental results. The influence of color coatings of aircraft surface is investigated. The results show that the ice area can be clearly distinguished from the red, white, gray and blue coatings painted aluminum plates. Due to the strong absorption, not enough signals can be detected for the black coatings. Thus, a deep research is needed. Even though, the results of this paper are helpful to the development of aircraft surface ice detection.

  5. Properties of conductive coatings for thermal control mirrors and solar cell covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, D. E.; Kan, H. K. A.

    1975-01-01

    Conductive transparent coatings applied to the dielectric surfaces of a spacecraft offer the possibility of distributing charge uniformly over the entire spacecraft surface. Optical and electrical measurements of such a coating as a function of temperature are described. These results are used in considering the impact of a conductive coating on the absorptance of thermal control mirrors and on the transmittance of solar cell cover glass, which can be improved by the application of an antireflection coating.

  6. Melanin-Based Coatings as Lead-Binding Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Sono; Diane Lye; Moore, Christine A.; W. Christopher Boyd; Thomas A. Gorlin; Belitsky, Jason M.

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between metal ions and different forms of melanin play significant roles in melanin biochemistry. The binding properties of natural melanin and related synthetic materials can be exploited for nonbiological applications, potentially including water purification. A method for investigating metal ion-melanin interactions on solid support is described, with lead as the initial target. 2.5 cm discs of the hydrophobic polymer PVDF were coated with synthetic eumelanin from the tyros...

  7. Chitosan-based leather functional coatings with improved antimicrobial properties

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, J.S.; Fernandes, I.P.; De Pinto, V; Ferreira, M. J.; Barreiro, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Among the interesting biological activities that have been ascribed to chitosan, the antimicrobial activity is probably the one that generates the higher number of applications. Developing antimicrobial coatings for footwear components to be used in direct contact with the feet is of great interest; both at industrial level (reducing the possibility of material deterioration and quality loss) and from the consumer’s point of view (decreasing skin infections and minimizing...

  8. Graphene-Tapered ZnO Nanorods Array as a Flexible Antireflection Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Taeseup Song

    2015-01-01

    Flexible solar cells have drawn a great deal of attention due to their various advantages including deformable and wearable characteristics. In the solar cells, the antireflection layer plays an important role in the improvement in the conversion efficiency by increasing the light transmission and suppressing the Fresnel refraction. For the successful implantation of the antireflection layer into the flexible solar cells, the flexible mechanical property of the antireflection layer is also ne...

  9. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Plasma Sprayed Ni-Based Metallic Glass Coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various developmental research works on the metallic glass have been conducted in order to broaden its application field. Thermal spraying method is one of the potential techniques to enhance the excellent properties such as high toughness and corrosion resistance of the metallic glass material. The gas tunnel type plasma spraying is useful to obtain high quality ceramic coatings such as Al2O3 and ZrO2 coatings. In this study, the Ni-based metallic glass coatings were produced by the gas tunnel type plasma spraying under various experimental conditions, and their microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. At the plasma current of 200-300 A, the Ni-based metallic glass coatings of more than 200 μm in thickness were formed densely with Vickers hardness of about Hv = 600.

  10. Flat-top and patterned-topped cone gratings for visible and mid-infrared antireflective properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Jean-Baptiste; Le Rouzo, Judikaël; Escoubas, Ludovic; Berginc, Gérard; Gourgon, Cécile; Desplats, Olivier; Simon, Jean-Jacques

    2013-07-01

    Achieving a broadband antireflection property from material surfaces is one of the highest priorities for those who want to improve the efficiency of solar cells or the sensitivity of photo-detectors. To lower the reflectance of a surface, we are concerned with the study of the optical response of flat-top and patterned-topped cone shaped silicon gratings, based on previous work exploring pyramid gratings. Through rigorous numerical methods such as Finite Different Time Domain, we first designed several flat-top structures that theoretically demonstrate an antireflective character within the middle infrared region. From the opto-geometrical parameters such as period, depth and shape of the pattern determined by numerical analysis, these structures have been fabricated using controlled slope plasma etching processes. In order to extend the antireflective properties up to the visible wavelengths, patterned-topped cones have been fabricated as well. Afterwards, optical characterizations of several samples were carried out. Thus, the performances of the flat-top and patterned-topped cones have been compared in the visible and mid infrared range. PMID:23842391

  11. Tantalum-based multilayer coating on cobalt alloys in total hip and knee replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobalt–chromium–molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys are widely used in total hip and knee joint replacement, due to high mechanical properties and resistance to wear and corrosion. They are able to form efficient artificial joints by means of coupling metal-on-polymer or metal-on-metal contacts. However, a high concentration of stress and direct friction between surfaces leads to the formation of polyethylene wear debris and the release of toxic metal ions into the human body, limiting, as a consequence, the lifetime of implants. The aim of this research is a surface modification of CoCrMo alloys in order to improve their biocompatibility and to decrease the release of metal ions and polyethylene debris. Thermal treatment in molten salts was the process employed for the deposition of tantalum-enriched coating. Tantalum and its compounds are considered biocompatible materials with low ion release and high corrosion resistance. Three different CoCrMo alloys were processed as substrates. An adherent coating of about 1 μm of thickness, with a multilayer structure consisting of two tantalum carbides and metallic tantalum was deposited. The substrates and modified layers were characterized by means of structural, chemical and morphological analysis. Moreover nanoindentation, scratch and tribological tests were carried out in order to evaluate the mechanical behavior of the substrates and coating. The hardness of the coated samples increases more than double than the untreated alloys meanwhile the presence of the coating reduced the wear volume and rate of about one order of magnitude. - Highlights: ► Thermal treatment in molten salts deposits a Ta-based coating on Co-based alloys. ► Coating is composed by one or two tantalum carbides and/or metallic tantalum. ► The coating structure depends on thermal temperature and substrates carbon content. ► Coating is able to enhance biocompatibility, wear resistance and hardness.

  12. Tantalum-based multilayer coating on cobalt alloys in total hip and knee replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagna, C., E-mail: cristina.balagna@polito.it [Institute of Materials Engineering and Physics, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24,10129 Torino (Italy); Faga, M.G. [Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali Ceramici, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Strada delle Cacce 73, 10135 Torino (Italy); Spriano, S. [Institute of Materials Engineering and Physics, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24,10129 Torino (Italy)

    2012-05-01

    Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys are widely used in total hip and knee joint replacement, due to high mechanical properties and resistance to wear and corrosion. They are able to form efficient artificial joints by means of coupling metal-on-polymer or metal-on-metal contacts. However, a high concentration of stress and direct friction between surfaces leads to the formation of polyethylene wear debris and the release of toxic metal ions into the human body, limiting, as a consequence, the lifetime of implants. The aim of this research is a surface modification of CoCrMo alloys in order to improve their biocompatibility and to decrease the release of metal ions and polyethylene debris. Thermal treatment in molten salts was the process employed for the deposition of tantalum-enriched coating. Tantalum and its compounds are considered biocompatible materials with low ion release and high corrosion resistance. Three different CoCrMo alloys were processed as substrates. An adherent coating of about 1 {mu}m of thickness, with a multilayer structure consisting of two tantalum carbides and metallic tantalum was deposited. The substrates and modified layers were characterized by means of structural, chemical and morphological analysis. Moreover nanoindentation, scratch and tribological tests were carried out in order to evaluate the mechanical behavior of the substrates and coating. The hardness of the coated samples increases more than double than the untreated alloys meanwhile the presence of the coating reduced the wear volume and rate of about one order of magnitude. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal treatment in molten salts deposits a Ta-based coating on Co-based alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coating is composed by one or two tantalum carbides and/or metallic tantalum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coating structure depends on thermal temperature and substrates carbon content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coating is able to

  13. Graded index and randomly oriented core-shell silicon nanowires for broadband and wide angle antireflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pignalosa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Antireflection with broadband and wide angle properties is important for a wide range of applications on photovoltaic cells and display. The SiOx shell layer provides a natural antireflection from air to the Si core absorption layer. In this work, we have demonstrated the random core-shell silicon nanowires with both broadband (from 400nm to 900nm and wide angle (from normal incidence to 60º antireflection characteristics within AM1.5 solar spectrum. The graded index structure from the randomly oriented core-shell (Air/SiOx/Si nanowires may provide a potential avenue to realize a broadband and wide angle antireflection layer.

  14. STS-29 Commander Coats in JSC fixed base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    STS-29 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Michael L. Coats sits at commanders station forward flight deck controls in JSC fixed base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS). Coats, wearing communications kit assembly headset and flight coveralls, looks away from forward control panels to aft flight deck. Pilots station seat back appears in foreground. FB-SMS is located in JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  15. Plasma sprayed ceramic thermal barrier coating for NiAl-based intermetallic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert A. (Inventor); Doychak, Joseph (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating system consists of two layers of a zirconia-yttria ceramic. The first layer is applied by low pressure plasma spraying. The second layer is applied by conventional atmospheric pressure plasma spraying. This facilitates the attachment of a durable thermally insulating ceramic coating directly to the surface of a highly oxidation resistant NiAl-based intermetallic alloy after the alloy has been preoxidized to promote the formation of a desirable Al2O3 scale.

  16. Corrosion and wear protective composition modulated alloy coatings based on ternary Ni-P-X alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leisner, P.; Benzon, M. E.; Christoffersen, Lasse; Panagopoulos, C. N.; Papachristos, V. D.; Katsikis, S.

    Scattered reporting in the litterature describes a number of ternary Ni-P-X alloyes (where X can be Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pd, Re or W) with promising corrosin and wear protective performance. Based on a systematic study of Ni-P-X alloys it is the intention to produce coatings with improved corrosion and...... wear performance compared with conventional coatings like electroless nickel, hard chromioum and anodised aluminium....

  17. Effect of Rare Earth on Microstructure of Vacuum Melting Ni-Based Self-Fluxing Alloy Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣天鹏; 闵丹

    2004-01-01

    The Ni-based self-fluxing alloy coating containing RE was acquired by the technique of vacuum melting on the hypoeutectoid steel (Fe-0.45%C) matrix. By X-ray diffraction, SEM and EDX, the microstructure and phase structure of section of coating and the microstructure near the interface between coating and matrix were investigated, and the effect of RE on microstructure of coating was also discussed. The results show that the microstructure of the NiCrBSi alloy coating is composed of Ni-based solid solution and a lot of massive, globular and needle secondary phases CrB, Ni3B, Cr7C3, Cr23C6 among the solid solution. The metallurgical binding between steel matrix and coating is realized. RE makes needle phase of alloy coating vanish. New phases of NiB and Cr6.5Ni2.5Si are precipitated from alloy coating, and secondary phases of alloy coating are sphericized. Consequently, RE also hinders the diffusion of Ni, Cr and Si atoms from coating to matrix and Fe atoms from matrix to coating, holds back the dilution of Fe for NiCrBSi alloy coating, and assures the chemical composition of the alloy coating.

  18. Polydopamine film coated controlled-release multielement compound fertilizer based on mussel-inspired chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xin; Ma, Zhi-yuan; Zhang, Guo-xiang; Hu, Jia-mei; Liu, Zhi-yong; Wang, He-yun; Zhou, Feng

    2013-03-27

    This work reports on a facile and reliable method to prepare a polydopamine film coated controlled-release multielement compound fertilizer (PCMCF) based on mussel-inspired chemistry for the first time. The polydopamine (Pdop) film was coated on double copper potassium pyrophosphate trihydrate, providing three essential nutrients (Cu, K, and P) by spontaneous oxidative polymerization of dopamine. The thickness of the polymer coating of the fertilizer was controlled by using the multistep deposition technique. The morphology and composition of the products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer, a vis spectrophotometer, and a Kjeltec autoanalyzer. The controlled-release behavior of four elements, including nitrogen from Pdop, was evaluated in water and in soil (sterilized or not). The results revealed that the coated fertilizers had good slow-release properties, incubated in either water or soil. It is noted that the release rate of nutrients of PCMCF can be tailored by the thickness of the Pdop coating, and the Pdop coating can be biodegraded in soil. This coating technology will be effective and promising in the research and development of controlled-release fertilizer. PMID:23464683

  19. Novel smart stannate based coatings of self-healing functionality for AZ91D magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart stannate based coatings were used for improving the corrosion resistance of AZ91D alloy. The proposed coatings characterize with their safety compared with the process involving toxic chromate. They are also industrially applicable and economically attractive where only two steps are needed for the coating preparation and the chemicals used are just a diluted tin-oxide solution. The electrochemical behavior and the self-healing characteristics due to stannate coatings on Mg substrate has been evaluated in 3.5% NaCl solution. Polarization measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, SEM–EDS analyses were performed to assess the performance of the coatings in NaCl and to determine the optimum conditions for self-healing ability. Results showed that stannate coatings improve the resistance to localized corrosion and micro-cracks due to formation of tin oxide-rich magnesium hydroxide layer. It was confirmed that stannate are promising coatings provide a self-healing functionality for Mg substrate that heal the pitting zones and auto-repair the micro-cracks

  20. Duplex Al-based thermal spray coatings for corrosion protection in high temperature refinery applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Adriana da Cunha

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of thermal spray coatings has been effective in preventing corrosion of steel and iron products. It has been used in a wide range of applications spreading from the petroleum to the food industry. In this work, the performance and effectiveness of a two-layered aluminum-based thermal spray coating applied to an ASTM A387 G11 steel was evaluated. The coating structure was comprised of an inner Al-Fe-Cr layer and an outer layer of aluminum. Coated samples were tested in the reactor zone of a fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU of a petrochemical plant for 2.5 years. The reactor zone temperature was about 793 K (520 °C and the environment was a mixed gas containing sulfur, oxygen and carbon. Laboratory-scale tests were also conducted on the coated samples in order to gain a better understanding of the corrosive effect of the gaseous species present in the FCCU atmosphere. Porosity present in the thermal spray coatings allowed the penetration of the atmosphere corrodents, which instigated intergranular corrosion of the steel substrate. The presence of an inner Al-Fe-Cr layer did not prevent coating spallation, which further contributed to the internal corrosion process.

  1. Abrasion, Erosion and Cavitation Erosion Wear Properties of Thermally Sprayed Alumina Based Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville Matikainen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermally-sprayed alumina based materials, e.g., alumina-titania (Al2O3-TiO2, are commonly applied as wear resistant coatings in industrial applications. Properties of the coatings depend on the spray process, powder morphology, and chemical composition of the powder. In this study, wear resistant coatings from Al2O3 and Al2O3-13TiO2 powders were sprayed with plasma and high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF spray processes. Both, fused and crushed, and agglomerated and sintered Al2O3-13TiO2 powders were studied and compared to pure Al2O3. The coatings were tested for abrasion, erosion, and cavitation resistances in order to study the effect of the coating structure on the wear behavior. Improved coating properties were achieved when agglomerated and sintered nanostructured Al2O3-13TiO2 powder was used in plasma spraying. Coatings with the highest wear resistance in all tests were produced by HVOF spraying from fused and crushed powders.

  2. Fabrication of superhydrophobic coating via a facile and versatile method based on nanoparticle aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herein, we report a facile and low cost method for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surface via spin coating the mixture of polydimethylsiloxane precursor (PDMS) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles. The surface hydrophobicity can be well tuned by adjusting the weight percent of PDMS and SiO2. The water contact angle (WCA) can increase from 106.8 ± 1.2° on PDMS film to 165.2 ± 2.3° on PDMS/SiO2 coating, companying with a change from adhering to rolling which was observed from tilting angle (TA) characterization. Multi-scale physical structures with SiO2 nanoparticle aggregates and networks of SiO2 nanoparticle aggregates are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM), and they can be observed more clearly from the AFM images treated with software (WSxM). Then the relationship between surface hydrophobicity and structures is further discussed based on Wenzel and Cassie models, indicating that the appearance of networks of nanoparticle aggregates is important in the Cassie state. The superhydrophobic coating can keep the superhydrophobicity at least for one month under environment conditions and readily regenerate after mechanical damage. Additionally, the superhydrophobic coating can be fabricated using other methods including dip coating, spray coating and casting. Thus, a large area of superhydrophobic coatings can be easily fabricated. Therefore the range of possible applications for these facile and versatile methods can be expanded to various actual conditions.

  3. Simulation and evaluation of tablet-coating burst based on finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Li, Juan; Miao, Kong-Song; Shan, Wei-Guang; Tang, Lan; Yu, Hai-Ning

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to simulate and evaluate the burst behavior of coated tablets. Three-dimensional finite element models of tablet-coating were established using software ANSYS. Swelling pressure of cores was measured by a self-made device and applied at the internal surface of the models. Mechanical properties of the polymer film were determined using a texture analyzer and applied as material properties of the models. The resulted finite element models were validated by experimental data. The validated models were used to assess the factors those influenced burst behavior and predict the coating burst behavior. The simulation results of coating burst and failure location were strongly matched with the experimental data. It was found that internal swelling pressure, inside corner radius and corner thickness were three main factors controlling the stress distribution and burst behavior. Based on the linear relationship between the internal pressure and the maximum principle stress on coating, burst pressure of coatings was calculated and used to predict the burst behavior. This study demonstrated that burst behavior of coated tablets could be simulated and evaluated by finite element method. PMID:26727401

  4. Continuous preparation of polymer coated drug crystals by solid hollow fiber membrane-based cooling crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyue; Singh, Dhananjay; Sirkar, Kamalesh K; Pfeffer, Robert

    2016-02-29

    A facile way to continuously coat drug crystals with a polymer is needed in controlled drug release. Conventional polymer coating methods have disadvantages: high energy consumption, low productivity, batch processing. A novel method for continuous polymer coating of drug crystals based on solid hollow fiber cooling crystallization (SHFCC) is introduced here. The drug acting as the host particle and the polymer for coating are Griseofulvin (GF) and Eudragit RL100, respectively. The polymer's cloud point temperature in its acetone solution was determined by UV spectrophotometry. An acetone solution of the polymer containing the drug in solution as well as undissolved drug crystals in suspension were pumped through the tube side of the SHFCC device; a cold liquid was circulated in the shell side to rapidly cool down the feed solution-suspension in the hollow-fiber lumen. The polymer precipitated from the solution and coated the suspended crystals due to rapid temperature reduction and heterogeneous nucleation; crystals formed from the solution were also coated by the polymer. Characterizations by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, laser diffraction spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and dissolution tests show that a uniformly coated, free-flowing drug/product can be obtained under appropriate operating conditions without losing the drug's pharmaceutical properties and controlled release characteristics. PMID:26772536

  5. Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxylapatite-Based Coatings: Chemical, Mechanical, Microstructural, and Biomedical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Robert B.

    2016-06-01

    This contribution discusses salient properties and functions of hydroxylapatite (HA)-based plasma-sprayed coatings, including the effect on biomedical efficacy of coating thickness, phase composition and distribution, amorphicity and crystallinity, porosity and surface roughness, cohesion and adhesion, micro- and nano-structured surface morphology, and residual coating stresses. In addition, it will provide details of the thermal alteration that HA particles undergo in the extremely hot plasma jet that leads to dehydroxylated phases such as oxyhydroxylapatite (OHA) and oxyapatite (OA) as well as thermal decomposition products such as tri-(TCP) and tetracalcium phosphates (TTCP), and quenched phases such as amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). The contribution will further explain the role of ACP during the in vitro interaction of the as-deposited coatings with simulated body fluid resembling the composition of extracellular fluid (ECF) as well as the in vivo responses of coatings to the ECF and the host tissue, respectively. Finally, it will briefly describe performance profiles required to fulfill biological functions of osteoconductive bioceramic coatings designed to improve osseointegration of hip endoprostheses and dental root implants. In large parts, the content of this contribution is a targeted review of work done by the author and his students and coworkers over the last two decades. In addition, it is considered a stepping stone toward a standard operation procedure aimed at depositing plasma-sprayed bioceramic implant coatings with optimum properties.

  6. The role of hydrogen peroxide in the deposition of cerium-based conversion coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerium-based conversion coatings are progressing as an effective alternative to hazardous chromate-based systems used in the treatment of metal surfaces. However, there is still considerable debate over the mechanism by which these coatings are formed. Here, titrations of cerium-based conversion coating solutions were carried out in order to model the reactions that occur at the metal-solution interface during coating, with a particular emphasis on investigating the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The titration curves obtained support the proposed formation of Ce(III) peroxo complexes such as Ce(H2O2)3+ as an initial step, followed by deprotonation, oxidation and precipitation to form peroxo-containing Ce(IV) species such as Ce(IV)(O2)(OH)2. The precipitates resulting from titrations were characterised by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis, confirming the presence of peroxo bonds, and nano-sized CeO2 crystallites that decreased in size with increasing H2O2 concentration. Characterisation of cerium conversion coatings on aluminium alloy surfaces confirmed the presence of peroxo species in the coatings, thereby supporting the titration model

  7. Optimization of Ni-Based WC/Co/Cr Composite Coatings Produced by Multilayer Laser Cladding

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Angelastro; Sabina L. Campanelli; Giuseppe Casalino; Antonio D. Ludovico

    2013-01-01

    As a surface coating technique, laser cladding (LC) has been developed for improving wear, corrosion, and fatigue properties of mechanical components. The main advantage of this process is the capability of introducing hard particles such as SiC, TiC, and WC as reinforcements in the metallic matrix such as Ni-based alloy, Co-based alloy, and Fe-based alloy to form ceramic-metal composite coatings, which have very high hardness and good wear resistance. In this paper, Ni-based alloy (Colmonoy ...

  8. Thermal cycling behaviour of thermal barrier coating systems based on first- and fourth-generation Ni-based superalloys

    OpenAIRE

    Duhamel, Cécilie; Chieux, Marion; Molins, Régine; Rémy, Luc; Monceau, Daniel; Rouaix-Vande Put, Aurélie; Guédou, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the cyclic oxidation behaviour of thermal barrier coating systems. The systems consist of an yttria-stabilised zircona ceramic top coat deposited by EB-PVD, a b-(Ni,Pt)Al bond coat and a Ni-based superalloy. Two different superalloys are studied: a first-generation one and a fourthgeneration one containing Re, Ru and Hf. The aim of this work is to characterise the microstructural evolution of those systems and to correlate it to their resistance to spallation. Thermal cy...

  9. Tailored Aluminium based Coatings for Optical Appearance and Corrosion Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Aggerbeck, Martin; Ambat, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    I dette projekt blev muligheden for at designe aluminiumsbaserede coatings undersøgt med fokus på hvordan den kemiske sammensætning og overfladens beskaffenhed påvirker den visuelle fremtoning og de basiske korrosionsegenskaber med titan anvendt som det primære legeringselement. De primære resultater og diskussioner fra dette arbejde præsenteres i form af i bilag som fire artikelmanuskripter indsendt til publikation i tidsskrifter. Anvendelsen af aluminium er bred, fra transportmidler, bygnin...

  10. Self-healing phenomenon and dynamic hardness of C60-based nanocomposite coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkov, Oleksiy V; Pukha, Volodymyr E; Devizenko, Alexander Yu; Kim, Hae-Jin; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2014-05-14

    The phenomenon of surface self-healing in C60-based polymer coatings deposited by ion-beam assisted physical vapor deposition was investigated. Nanoindentation of the coatings led to the formation of a protrusion rather than an indent. This protrusion was accompanied by an abnormal shape of the force-distance curve, where the unloading curve lies above the loading curve due to an additional force applied in pulling the indenter out of the media. The coatings exhibited a nanocomposite structure that was strongly affected by the ratio of C60 ion and C60 molecular beam intensities during deposition. The coatings also demonstrated the dynamic hardness effect, where the effective value of the hardness depends significantly on the indentation speed. PMID:24697539

  11. The fabrication of carbon-nanotube-coated electrodes and a field-emission-based luminescent device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sanjay; Yamini Sarada, B; Kar, Kamal K

    2010-02-10

    Tungsten substrates were coated with an Ni or Ni-Co catalyst by the electroless dip coating technique. Various carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method under different growth conditions. It was observed that Ni-and Ni-Co-coated tungsten substrates give very good growth of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in terms of yield, uniformity and alignment at a growth temperature of 600 degrees C. We fabricated a field-emission-based luminescent light bulb where a tungsten wire coated with carbon nanotubes served as a cathode. Results show lower threshold voltage, better emission stability and higher luminescence for CNT cathodes in comparison with uncoated tungsten cathodes. We found that aligned-coiled carbon nanotubes are superior to straight CNTs in terms of field emission characteristics and luminescence properties. PMID:20057034

  12. Superficial modification of aluminium-base alloys (anodising and non-anodising) by silica coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transparent and colourless silica coatings were deposited on anadosing and non-anodising substrates of aluminium-base alloys (series 6063). Coatings were prepared by sol-gel (dipping method) from a silica alkoxide and a mixture of both silica alkolide and silica alkylalkoxide. Preparations were optimised from viscosity, density, surface tension, and contact angle measurements. Densification was carried out at 60 and 120 degree centigree. Reflectance attenuation of coated samples was analysed by UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy. The results indicated that -10% of attenuation is reached. Durability and resistance against degradation tests of the metal/coating system were undertaken by immersion into aqueous solutions. Electrochemical impedance measurements and potential corrosion of the metallic substrate for variable times were performed. (Author) 7 refs

  13. Inhibitory effect of coated mannan against the adhesion of Candida biofilms to denture base resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Maki; Ohshima, Tomoko; Maeda, Nobuko; Ohkubo, Chikahiro

    2013-01-01

    The adherence of Candida on dentures is related to diseases such as denture stomatitis and aspiration pneumonia. Mannan is a major component of the Candida cell surface, and contributes to the cell adherence. A previous report indicated that the adherence of C. albicans to culture dishes was inhibited by the coating them with mannan. The purpose of this study was to examine the adhesion inhibitory effect of mannan coating on acrylic denture surfaces against C. albicans and C. glabrata. The amount of Candida attached on the acrylic surfaces coated with mannan was calibrated by culture methods. Mannan showed significant inhibitory effects on Candida adhesion in both the yeast and hyphal form in a concentration-dependent manner, and the durability of the inhibitory effect continued for three days. These results suggest that mannan coating on the denture base acrylic can prevent Candida adhesion on the denture. PMID:23718993

  14. Application of Epoxy Based Coating Instacote on Waste Tank Tops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This evaluation examines the compatibility of coating Instacote with existing High-Level Waste facilities and safety practices. No significant incompatibilities are identified. The following actions need to be completed as indicated when applying Instacote on waste tank tops:(1) Prior to application in ITP facilities, the final product should be tested for chemical resistance to sodium tetraphenylborate solutions or sodium titanate slurries.(2) Any waste contaminated with Part A or B that can not be removed by the vendor such as for radiological contamination, HLW must hold the waste until HLW completes a formal assessment of the waste, disposal criteria, and impact.(3) Prior to the start of any application of the coating, each riser needs to be evaluated for masking and masking applied if needed.(4) At the conclusion of an application actual total weight of material applied to a waste tank needs to documented and sent to the tank top loading files for reference purposes.(5) Verify that the final product contains less than 250 ppm chloride

  15. Synthesis and characterization of antibacterial polyurethane coatings from quaternary ammonium salts functionalized soybean oil based polyols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Hadi; Yeganeh, Hamid; Mehdipour-Ataei, Shahram; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Yari, Abbas; Saeedi-Eslami, Seyyed Nasirodin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a simple and versatile synthetic approach was developed to prepare bactericidal polyurethane coatings. For this purpose, introduction of both quaternary ammonium salts (QASs), with well-known antibacterial activity, and reactive hydroxyl groups on to the backbone of soybean oil was considered. Epoxidized soybean oil was reacted with diethylamine and the intermediate tertiary amine containing polyol was reacted with two different alkylating agents, methyl iodide and benzyl chloride, to produce MQAP and BQAP, respectively. These functional polyols were reacted with different diisocyanate monomers to prepare polyurethane coatings. Depending on the structure of monomers used for the preparation of polyurethane coatings, initial modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break of samples were in the ranges of 122-339 MPa, 4.6-12.4 MPa and 8.4-46%, respectively. Polyurethane coatings based on isophorone diisocyanate showed proper mechanical properties and adhesion strength (0.41 MPa) for coating application. Study of fibroblast cells interaction with prepared polyurethanes showed promising cells viability in the range of 78-108%. Meanwhile, MQAP based samples with higher concentration of QASs showed better adhesion strength, surface hydrophilicity and antibacterial activity (about 95% bacterial reduction). Therefore, these materials can find applications as bactericidal coating for biomedical devices and implants. PMID:25428057

  16. An intelligent anticorrosion coating based on pH-responsive supramolecular nanocontainers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs), which have been used as the nanocontainers for the corrosion inhibitor, benzotriazole, were fabricated using the hard-template method. Alkaline-responsive HMSNs based on cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6])/bisammonium supramolecular complex and acid-responsive HMSNs based on α-cyclodextrin (α-CD)/aniline supramolecular complex, which operate in water, have been achieved and characterized by solid-state NMR, thermogravimetry analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis. The two elaborately designed nanocontainers show the pH-controlled encapsulation/release behaviors for benzotriazole molecules. Equal amounts of the alkaline- and acid-responsive nanocontainers were uniformly distributed in the hybrid zirconia-silica sol–gel coating and thus formed the intelligent anticorrosion coating. The self-healing property of AA2024 alloy coated with the intelligent anticorrosion coating is evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The sol–gel coating doped with the pH-responsive nanocontainers clearly demonstrates long-term corrosion protection performances when compared to the undoped sol–gel coating, which is attributed to the release of corrosion inhibitor from the nanocontainers after feeling the changes of environmental pH values near the corroded areas. (paper)

  17. Hafnia-Based Nanostructured Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramana, Chintalapalle; Choudhuri, Ahsan

    2013-01-31

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are critical technologies for future gas turbine engines of advanced coal based power generation systems. TBCs protect engine components and allow further increase in engine temperatures for higher efficiency. In this work, nanostructured HfO{sub 2}-based coatings, namely Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized HfO{sub 2} (YSH), Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized HfO{sub 2} (GSH) and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}-HfO{sub 2} (YSZH) were investigated for potential TBC applications in hydrogen turbines. Experimental efforts are aimed at creating a fundamental understanding of these TBC materials. Nanostructured ceramic coatings of YSH, GSH and YSZH were grown by physical vapor deposition methods. The effects of processing parameters and ceramic composition on the microstructural evolution of YSH, GSH and YSZH nanostructured coatings was studied using combined X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Electron microscopy analyses. Efforts were directed to derive a detailed understanding of crystal-structure, morphology, and stability of the coatings. In addition, thermal conductivity as a function of composition in YSH, YSZH and GSH coatings was determined. Laboratory experiments using accelerated test environments were used to investigate the relative importance of various thermo-mechanical and thermo-chemical failure modes of TBCs. Effects of thermal cycling, oxidation and their complex interactions were evaluated using a syngas combustor rig.

  18. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on low cost carbon-coated tungsten disulphide counter electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Carbon-coated WS2 films are used as the counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. •The plastic carbon-coated WS2 counter electrodes are prepared at room temperature. •The device with carbon-coated WS2 electrode exhibits comparable performance to that of the cell with Pt electrode. -- Abstract: Carbon-coated tungsten disulphide (WS2) is synthesized using a simple method and characterized with X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and laser Raman spectrum. The WS2-based counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are prepared at low temperature. The electrochemical catalytic activity of the WS2 counter electrodes is investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The DSSCs assembled with carbon-coated WS2 counter electrodes show a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5.5%, which is comparable to that of the DSSCs based on Pt electrode (5.6%). Plastic WS2 counter electrodes are also prepared which give a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5.0%. Our study indicates that carbon-coated WS2 is a good candidate to replace the Pt counter electrodes in DSSCs

  19. Biocorrosion behavior and cell viability of adhesive polymer coated magnesium based alloys for medical implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdal-hay, Abdalla; Dewidar, Montasser; Lim, Jae Kyoo

    2012-11-01

    The present study was ultimately aimed to design novel adhesive biodegradable polymer, poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), coatings onto Mg based alloys by the dip-coating technique in order to control the degradation rate and enhance the biocompatibility of magnesium alloys. The influence of various solvents on PVAc surface topography and their protection of Mg alloys were dramatically studied in vitro. Electrochemical polarization, degradation, and PVAc film cytocompatibility were also tested. Our results showed that the solvent had a significant effect on coating quality. PVAc/dichloromethane solution showed a porous structure and solution concentration could control the porous size. The coatings prepared using tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide solvents are exceptional in their ability to generate porous morphology even at low polymer concentration. In general, the corrosion performance appears to be different on different PVAc-solvent system. Immersion tests illustrated that the porous morphology on PVAc stabilized corrosion rates. A uniform corrosion attack in artificial simulation body fluid was also exhibited. The cytocompatibility of osteoblast cells (MC3T3) revealed high adherence, proliferation, and survival on the porous structure of PVAc coated Mg alloy, which was not observed for the uncoated samples. This novel PVAc coating is a promising candidate for biodegradable implant materials, which might widen the use of Mg based implants.

  20. Development of the tongue coating analyzer based on concave grating monochrometer and virtual instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Zeng, Lvming; Huang, Zhen; Zeng, Wenping

    2010-10-01

    The tongue coating diagnosis is an important part in tongue diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).The change of the thickness and color of the tongue coating can reflect the pathological state for the patient. By observing the tongue coating, a Chinese doctor can determine the nature or severity of disease. Because some limitations existed in the tongue diagnosis method of TCM and the method based on the digital image processing, a novel tongue coating analyzer(TCA) based on the concave grating monochrometer and virtual instrument is developed in this paper. This analyzer consists of the light source system, check cavity, optical fiber probe, concave grating monochrometer, spectrum detector system based on CCD and data acquisition (DAQ) card, signal processing circuit system, computer and data analysis software based on LabVIEW, etc. Experimental results show that the novel TCA's spectral range can reach 300-1000 nm, its wavelength resolution can reach 1nm, and this TCA uses the back-split-light technology and multi-channel parallel analysis. Compared with the TCA based on the image processing technology, this TCA has many advantages, such as, compact volume, simpler algorithm, faster processing speed, higher accuracy, cheaper cost and real-time handle data and display the result, etc. Therefore, it has the greatly potential values in the fields of the tongue coating diagnosis for TCM.