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Sample records for antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia

  1. Hippocampal and caudate volume reductions in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte; Rasmussen, Hans; Aggernaes, Bodil; Langkilde, Annika R; Paulson, Olaf B; Lublin, Henrik; Skimminge, Arnold; Baaré, William

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enlarged ventricles and reduced hippocampal volume are consistently found in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Studies investigating brain structure in antipsychotic-naive patients have generally focused on the striatum. In this study, we examined whether ventricular enlargem......BACKGROUND: Enlarged ventricles and reduced hippocampal volume are consistently found in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Studies investigating brain structure in antipsychotic-naive patients have generally focused on the striatum. In this study, we examined whether ventricular...... a false discovery rate correction (p < 0.05) to control for multiple comparisons. We derived and analyzed estimates of brain structure volumes. We grouped patients as those with (n = 9) or without (n = 29) any lifetime substance abuse to examine the possible effects of substance abuse. RESULTS: We...... reductions appeared to be influenced by a history of substance abuse. Exploratory analyses indicated reduced volume of the nucleus accumbens in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. LIMITATIONS: This study was not a priori designed to test for differences between schizophrenia patients with or without...

  2. Structural brain correlates of sensorimotor gating in antipsychotic-naive men with first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Trine B; Oranje, Bob; Skimminge, Arnold; Aggernæs, Bodil; Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Glenthøj, Birte; Baaré, William

    2013-01-01

    in the left rostral dorsal premotor cortex, the right presupplementary motor area and the anterior medial superior frontal gyrus bilaterally. Follow-up analyses suggested that the rostral dorsal premotor cortex and presupplementary motor area correlations were driven predominantly by the controls......Background: Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex is modulated by a complex neural network. Prepulse inhibition impairments are found at all stages of schizophrenia. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggest that brain correlates of PPI differ between patients with...... schizophrenia and healthy controls; however, these studies included only patients with chronic illness and medicated patients. Our aim was to examine the structural brain correlates of PPI in antipsychotic-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Methods: We performed acoustic PPI assessment and...

  3. Sensorimotor gating and habituation in antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients before and after 6 months' treatment with quetiapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggernaes, Bodil; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Ebdrup, Bjorn H; Rasmussen, Hans; Lublin, Henrik; Oranje, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Impaired prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI) in schizophrenia has been replicated in many studies. However, previous results may have been influenced by course of illness, and antipsychotic medication. Studies on antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients are lacking...... the human startle reflex in a large group of antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients, and the effect of subsequent treatment with quetiapine. Thirty-four antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients (24 males, 10 females), and age- and gender-matched healthy controls......-significant trend for reduced sensitization at baseline, but not at follow-up. Patients and controls showed similar levels of habituation, both at baseline, and at follow-up. These findings indicate that PPI deficits are already present from the earliest stage of clinical onset of schizophrenia, before the patients...

  4. Hippocampal and caudate volume reductions in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte; Rasmussen, Hans;

    2010-01-01

    reductions appeared to be influenced by a history of substance abuse. Exploratory analyses indicated reduced volume of the nucleus accumbens in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. LIMITATIONS: This study was not a priori designed to test for differences between schizophrenia patients with or without...... a false discovery rate correction (p < 0.05) to control for multiple comparisons. We derived and analyzed estimates of brain structure volumes. We grouped patients as those with (n = 9) or without (n = 29) any lifetime substance abuse to examine the possible effects of substance abuse. RESULTS: We...... found that hippocampal and caudate volumes were decreased in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. We found no ventricular enlargement, differences in global volume or significant associations between tissue volume and duration of untreated illness or psychopathology. The hippocampal volume...

  5. Progressive striatal and hippocampal volume loss in initially antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients treated with quetiapine: relationship to dose and symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Skimminge, Arnold; Rasmussen, Hans; Aggernaes, Bodil; Oranje, Bob; Lublin, Henrik; Baaré, William; Glenthøj, Birte

    2011-01-01

    scarcely been investigated. Here we investigated structural brain changes in antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients after 6 months treatment with the SGA, quetiapine. We have recently reported on baseline volume reductions in the caudate nucleus and hippocampus. Baseline and follow-up T1...... underlying progressive brain changes, specific antipsychotic compounds and clinical symptoms warrant further research....

  6. Neocortical serotonin2A receptor binding predicts quetiapine associated weight gain in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hans; Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Oranje, B; Pinborg, Lars H; Knudsen, Gitte M; Glenthøj, Birte

    2014-01-01

    to treatment and subsequent increase in BMI (rho = 0.59, p = 0.022). At follow-up, the serotonin2A receptor occupancy was positively correlated with BMI increase (rho = 0.54, p = 0.038). To our knowledge, these are the first in vivo receptor imaging data in initially antipsychotic-naive first...

  7. Sensorimotor gating and habituation in antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients before and after 6 months' treatment with quetiapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggernaes, Bodil; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Ebdrup, Bjorn H; Rasmussen, Hans; Lublin, Henrik; Oranje, Bob

    2010-01-01

    , since these patients are so difficult to recruit. Furthermore, longitudinal studies are few, and their results are inconsistent: some results indicating a reduction of PPI deficits by treatment with atypical antipsychotics, while others do not. This study reports on PPI, habituation and sensitization of......-significant trend for reduced sensitization at baseline, but not at follow-up. Patients and controls showed similar levels of habituation, both at baseline, and at follow-up. These findings indicate that PPI deficits are already present from the earliest stage of clinical onset of schizophrenia, before the patients...... have received any antipsychotic treatment. In addition, following 6 months' treatment with quetiapine these PPI deficits were normalized. Furthermore, the results suggest that schizophrenia patients in the antipsychotic-naive state show reduced levels of sensitization, yet normal levels of habituation....

  8. Effects of Dopamine D2/D3 Blockade on Human Sensory and Sensorimotor Gating in Initially Antipsychotic-Naive, First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Düring, Signe; Glenthøj, Birte Y; Andersen, Gitte Saltoft;

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that psychophysiological measures of sensory and sensorimotor gating, P50 gating and prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI), underlie core features of schizophrenia and are linked to dopaminergic pathways in the striatum and prefrontal cortex. In the present study, ...

  9. Stability of prepulse inhibition and habituation of the startle reflex in schizophrenia: a 6-year follow-up study of initially antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Trine Bjørg; Oranje, Bob; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Bro, Hannah; Glenthøj, Birte Y

    Deficits in information processing appear to be core features in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) and habituation of the startle reflex are operational measures of early information processing. Impaired PPI in schizophrenia has been replicated in many studies and is...... regarded as an endophenotype for schizophrenia. However, reports on the stability of PPI over a longer period of time are lacking, both for patients with schizophrenia and for healthy subjects. The current study examined 25 initially drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients and 23 healthy matched...

  10. Glutamatergic Metabolites, Volume and Cortical Thickness in Antipsychotic-Naive Patients with First-Episode Psychosis: Implications for Excitotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plitman, Eric; Patel, Raihaan; Chung, Jun Ku; Pipitone, Jon; Chavez, Sofia; Reyes-Madrigal, Francisco; Gómez-Cruz, Gladys; León-Ortiz, Pablo; Chakravarty, M Mallar; de la Fuente-Sandoval, Camilo; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2016-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies investigating patients with schizophrenia often report appreciable volumetric reductions and cortical thinning, yet the cause of these deficits is unknown. The association between subcortical and cortical structural alterations, and glutamatergic neurometabolites is of particular interest due to glutamate's capacity for neurotoxicity; elevated levels may be related to neuroanatomical compromise through an excitotoxic process. To this end, we explored the relationships between glutamatergic neurometabolites and structural measures in antipsychotic-naive patients experiencing their first non-affective episode of psychosis (FEP). Sixty antipsychotic-naive patients with FEP and 60 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent a magnetic resonance imaging session, which included a T1-weighted volumetric image and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the precommissural dorsal caudate. Group differences in precommissural caudate volume (PCV) and cortical thickness (CT), and the relationships between glutamatergic neurometabolites (ie, glutamate+glutamine (Glx) and glutamate) and these structural measures, were examined. PCV was decreased in the FEP group (pschizophrenia. PMID:27272768

  11. The predictive value of early treatment response in antipsychotic-naive patients with first-episode psychosis: Haloperidol versus olanzapine.

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    Rasmussen, Sean A; Rosebush, Patricia I; Anglin, Rebecca E; Mazurek, Michael F

    2016-07-30

    Early antipsychotic response predicts outcomes for psychotic patients, but recent evidence suggests that this may not be true for patients treated with olanzapine. In this study, we assessed the predictive value of early response to olanzapine or haloperidol in 75 antipsychotic-naive, first-episode psychosis inpatients. Patients were assessed weekly using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Regression analyses were used to determine whether improvement at week 2 or week 3 predicted improvement at hospital discharge. The majority of patients in both groups experienced a decrease in symptom severity of ≥50% at week 2. In the haloperidol group, week 2 improvement predicted improvement at discharge for all measures except the HAM-A. In the olanzapine group, week 2 improvement only predicted improvement at discharge for HAM-D scores. However, week 3 improvement in the olanzapine group predicted improvement at discharge for all measures except the HAM-A. Olanzapine non-responders at week 3 (but not week 2) benefited from having olanzapine switched to another antipsychotic. These results suggest that a 2 week trial of haloperidol is sufficient to predict treatment outcomes, while a 3 week trial is required for olanzapine. PMID:27156027

  12. Frontal fasciculi and psychotic symptoms in antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia before and after 6 weeks of selective dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Raghava, Jayachandra M; Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard;

    2016-01-01

    with FA changes in the right CT (t= 2.52, p= 0.019). LIMITATIONS: Smoking and a previous diagnosis of substance abuse were potential confounders. Long-term effects of amisulpride on white matter were not evaluated. CONCLUSION: Antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia displayed subtle deficits in......BACKGROUND: Psychotic symptoms are core clinical features of schizophrenia. We tested recent hypotheses proposing that psychotic, or positive, symptoms stem from irregularities in long-range white matter tracts projecting into the frontal cortex, and we predicted that selective dopamine D2....../3 receptor blockade would restore white matter. METHODS: Between December 2008 and July 2011, antipsychotic-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia and matched healthy controls underwent baseline examination with 3 T MRI diffusion tensor imaging and clinical assessments. We assessed group differences...

  13. Relationship of frontal D(2/3) binding potentials to cognition: a study of antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia patients.

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    Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pinborg, Lars H; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Friberg, Lars; Baaré, William F C; Gade, Anders; Svarer, Claus; Glenthøj, Birte Y

    2013-02-01

    Studies of in vivo dopamine receptors in schizophrenia have mostly focused on D(2) receptors in striatal areas or on D(1) receptors in cortex. No previous study has examined the correlation between cortical dopamine D(2/3) receptor binding potentials and cognition in schizophrenia patients. The objective was to examine this relation in the frontal cortex in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia patients. Based on preclinical and pharmacological evidence, we specifically expected to find a relation between D(2/3) receptor binding potentials and set shifting. This was a cross-sectional, case-control study using single-photon emission computerized tomography with the D(2/3)-receptor ligand [(123)I]epidepride, co-registered with structural magnetic resonance imaging and correlated to cognitive measures. Participants were 24 antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients and 20 healthy controls matched for gender and age. For patients, a significant linear correlation between D(2/3) BP(ND) and set shifting was found, while significant quadratic associations were observed for verbal fluency, planning and attention. For controls, the only significant association with D(2/3) BP(ND) was a quadratic partial correlation for set shifting. The main findings indicated a relation between D(2/3) receptor binding in the frontal cortex and set shifting, planning and attention, but also support a differential involvement of cortical dopamine D(2/3) receptor binding in at least some cognitive functions, perhaps particularly attention, in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy people. The results suggest that cortical D(2/3) receptor function may be more involved in some cognitive functions (i.e. attention, fluency and planning) in patients with schizophrenia than in healthy people, suggesting that information processing in schizophrenia may be characterized by lower signal:noise ratios. PMID:22338593

  14. Volume and asymmetry abnormalities of insula in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia: A 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harve Shanmugam Virupaksha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Insula, which is a vital brain region for self-awareness, empathy, and sensory stimuli processing, is critically implicated in schizophrenia pathogenesis. Existing studies on insula volume abnormalities report inconsistent findings potentially due to the evaluation of ′antipsychotic-treated′ schizophrenia patients as well as suboptimal methodology. Aim: To understand the role of insula in schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: In this first-time 3-T magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined antipsychotic-naive schizophrenic patients (N=30 and age-, sex-, handedness- and education-matched healthy controls (N=28. Positive and negative symptoms were scored with good interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC>0.9 by using the scales for negative and positive symptoms. Gray matter volume of insula and its anterior/posterior subregions were measured by using a three-dimensional, interactive, semiautomated software based on the valid method with good interrater reliability (ICC>0.85. Intracranial volume was automatically measured by using the FreeSurfer software. Results: Patients had significantly deficient gray matter volumes of left (F=33.4; Pleft in male patients in comparison with male controls (left>right (t=2.7; P=0.01. Conclusions: Robust insular volume deficits in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia support intrinsic role for insula in pathogenesis of this disorder. The first-time demonstration of a relationship between right posterior insular deficit and negative symptoms is in tune with the background neurobiological literature. Another novel observation of sex-specific anterior insular asymmetry reversal in patients supports evolutionary postulates of schizophrenia pathogenesis.

  15. Safe sex and first-episode schizophrenia.

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    Mason, S E; Miller, R

    2001-01-01

    The need for educating patients about the dangers of unprotected sexual activity is well documented in the literature. Using clinical examples, the authors describe safe-sex strategies for patients experiencing their first episode of schizophrenia. Interventions are based on a 2-year experience of working in a hospital-based treatment and research project with 68 patients. Strategies that begin in the healing phase of schizophrenia take place in both individual and group sessions. First-episode patients are encouraged to speak explicitly about their sex-related behaviors, and HIV testing is suggested when needed. The goal of this approach is to emphasize safe-sex/HIV prevention strategies within a framework of good clinical practice. PMID:11407142

  16. Orbitofrontal lobe volume deficits in Antipsychotic-Naive schizophrenia: A 3-Tesla MRI study

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    Behere Rishikesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prefrontal cortex deficits have been consistently demonstrated in schizophrenia. The orbitofrontal lobe (OFL, a critical component of the prefrontal cortex, subserves social and neuro-cognitive functions. While these functional impairments are established in schizophrenia, the OFL volume deficits have not been well studied, especially in antipsychotic-naοve patients. Aim: To study OFL volume deficits in antipsychotic-naοve schizophrenia patients in comparison with matched healthy controls using high-resolution 3-tesla (3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Materials and Methods: Fourteen antipsychotic-naοve schizophrenia patients (DSM-IV and 14 age-, sex-, handedness- and education-matched healthy controls were scanned using 3T MRI. Psychopathology was assessed in the patient group using the scale for assessment of negative symptoms and the scale for assessment of positive symptoms (SAPS. The OFL volume was measured using Region of Interest (ROI-based manual morphometry technique, with good inter-rater reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.98. Results: Total OFL volume was significantly smaller in schizophrenia patients (43.3 ± 9.6 mL in comparison with healthy controls (52.1 ± 12.2 mL after controlling for the potential confounding effects of age, sex and intracranial volume (F = 5.3, P = .03. Duration of untreated psychosis did not correlate significantly with OFL volumes. There was a trend towards significant negative correlation between the left and total OFL volumes and SAPS scores (r = -0.49, P = .06. Conclusion: OFL volume deficits might underlie the pathogenesis of schizophrenia symptoms with possible neuro-developmental origins.

  17. Volume and Asymmetry Abnormalities of Insula in Antipsychotic-Naive Schizophrenia: A 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Harve Shanmugam Virupaksha; Kalmady, Sunil V.; Venkataram Shivakumar; Rashmi Arasappa; Ganesan Venkatasubramanian; Bangalore N Gangadhar

    2012-01-01

    Context: Insula, which is a vital brain region for self-awareness, empathy, and sensory stimuli processing, is critically implicated in schizophrenia pathogenesis. Existing studies on insula volume abnormalities report inconsistent findings potentially due to the evaluation of ′antipsychotic-treated′ schizophrenia patients as well as suboptimal methodology. Aim: To understand the role of insula in schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: In this first-time 3-T magnetic resonance imaging study, w...

  18. Relationship between Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism and hippocampal volume in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia: evidence for differential susceptibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Vasu Kalmady

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various lines of evidence including epidemiological, genetic and foetal pathogenetic models suggest a compelling role for Interleukin-6 (IL-6 in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. IL-6 mediated inflammatory response triggered by maternal infection or stress induces disruption of prenatal hippocampal development which might contribute towards psychopathology during adulthood. There is a substantial lack of knowledge on how genetic predisposition to elevated IL-6 expression effects hippocampal structure in schizophrenia patients. In this first-time study, we evaluated the relationship between functional polymorphism rs1800795 of IL-6 and hippocampal gray matter volume in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients in comparison with healthy controls. METHODOLOGY: We examined antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients [N = 28] in comparison with healthy controls [N = 37] group matched on age, sex and handedness. Using 3 Tesla - MRI, bilateral hippocampi were manually segmented by blinded raters with good inter-rater reliability using a valid method. Additionally, Voxel-based Morphometry (VBM analysis was performed using hippocampal mask. The IL-6 level was measured in blood plasma using ELISA technique. SNP rs1800795 was genotyped using PCR and DNA sequencing. Psychotic symptoms were assessed using Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms and Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms. RESULTS: Schizophrenia patients had significantly deficient left and right hippocampal volumes after controlling for the potential confounding effects of age, sex and total brain volume. Plasma IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients than controls. There was a significant diagnosis by rs1800795 genotype interaction involving both right and left hippocampal volumes. Interestingly, this effect was significant only in men but not in women. CONCLUSION: Our first time observations suggest a significant relationship between IL-6 rs1800795 and reduced

  19. Neural markers of negative symptom outcomes in distributed working memory brain activity of antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejad, Ayna B.; Madsen, Kristoffer H.; Ebdrup, Bjørn H.;

    2013-01-01

    Since working memory deficits in schizophrenia have been linked to negative symptoms, we tested whether features of the one could predict the treatment outcome in the other. Specifically, we hypothesized that working memory-related functional connectivity at pre-treatment can predict improvement of......-back task. Spatial independent component analysis identified task-modulated brain networks. A linear support vector machine was trained with these components to discriminate six patients who showed improvement in negative symptoms from eight non-improvers. Classification accuracy and significance was...

  20. Social cognition and neurocognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliksted, Vibeke Fuglsang; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Weed, Ethan;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown a significant impact of social cognitive domains on real world functioning and prognosis in schizophrenia. However, the correlations between specific aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, IQ and clinical symptoms remain unclear in first...... clinical symptoms. RESULTS: Data from 36 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 36 one to one matched healthy controls were analysed. Principal component analysis in the patient group was used to examine the variance contributed by different aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, and clinical...... symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Complex aspects of social cognition explained 24% of the variance in the patient group. The other principal components consisted mainly of aspects of simple perception of theory of mind. Neurocognition and clinical symptoms only explained a minor proportion of the variance in the...

  1. Luria revisited: complex motor phenomena in first episode schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

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    Zaytseva, Yuliya; Korsakova, Natalya; Gurovich, Isaac Ya; Heinz, Andreas; Rapp, Michael A

    2014-12-15

    Patients with schizophrenia frequently exhibit motor deficits. However, to date, there are no studies comparing motor performance in first episode patients with schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD; e.g. schizoaffective and brief psychosis). Participants comprised 57 first episode patients with schizophrenia, 32 first episode patients with SSD, and 51 healthy controls who underwent neuropsychological testing based on Luria׳s systematic approach, including the following tests on complex motor sequencing: the Fist-Edge-Palm (FEP) test and the bimanual probe (BP). Schizophrenia patients performed worse than SSD patients in FEP and BP, and both patient groups showed decreased scores compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, we found that a higher proportion of schizophrenia cases failed to correct their motor performance and needed external error correction, while SSD cases exhibited a higher proportion of self-correction in FEP and in BP. Lack of insight and poor executive functioning correlated with motor performance in schizophrenia, while impulse control and difficulties in abstract thinking were related to motor performance in schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Thus, psychomotor impairments appear already in first episode patients with schizophrenia and differ from impairments in SSD. Especially the inability to self-correct errors may be characteristic of schizophrenia, suggesting that impairments in error monitoring are related to psychomotor dysfunction in schizophrenia. PMID:25200763

  2. Executive attention impairment in first-episode schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orellana Gricel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared the attention abilities of a group of first-episode schizophrenia (FES patients and a group of healthy participants using the Attention Network Test (ANT, a standard procedure that estimates the functional state of three neural networks controlling the efficiency of three different attentional behaviors, i.e., alerting (achieving and maintaining a state of high sensitivity to incoming stimuli, orienting (ability to select information from sensory input, and executive attention (mechanisms for resolving conflict among thoughts, feelings, and actions. Methods We evaluated 22 FES patients from 17 to 29 years of age with a recent history of a single psychotic episode treated only with atypical neuroleptics, and 20 healthy persons matched with FES patients by sex, age, and educational level as the control group. Attention was estimated using the ANT in which participants indicate whether a central horizontal arrow is pointing to the left or the right. The central arrow may be preceded by spatial or temporal cues denoting where and when the arrow will appear, and may be flanked by other arrows (hereafter, flankers pointing in the same or the opposite direction. Results The efficiency of the alerting, orienting, and executive networks was estimated by measuring how reaction time was influenced by congruency between temporal, spatial, and flanker cues. We found that the control group only demonstrated significantly greater attention efficiency than FES patients in the executive attention network. Conclusions FES patients are impaired in executive attention but not in alerting or orienting attention, suggesting that executive attention deficit may be a primary impairment during the progression of the disease.

  3. The neurobiology and treatment of first-episode schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, R S; Sommer, I E

    2014-01-01

    It is evident that once psychosis is present in patients with schizophrenia, the underlying biological process of the illness has already been ongoing for many years. At the time of diagnosis, patients with schizophrenia show decreased mean intracranial volume (ICV) as compared with healthy subjects. Since ICV is driven by brain growth, which reaches its maximum size at approximately 13 years of age, this finding suggests that brain development in patients with schizophrenia is stunted before...

  4. Longitudinal Changes in Resting-State Cerebral Activity in Patients with First-Episode Schizophrenia: A 1-Year Follow-up Functional MR Imaging Study.

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    Li, Fei; Lui, Su; Yao, Li; Hu, Junmei; Lv, Peilin; Huang, Xiaoqi; Mechelli, Andrea; Sweeney, John A; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To determine whether the brain functional abnormalities of drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia are reduced after 1 year of undergoing antipsychotic treatment and whether pretreatment resting-state functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging parameters are associated with longitudinal changes in clinical symptoms. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the local ethical committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Twenty antipsychotic-naive first-episode patients with schizophrenia and 16 healthy individuals were recruited and underwent resting-state functional MR imaging at baseline and again at 1-year follow-up, by which time significant clinical improvement was seen. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) were analyzed with analysis of covariance. Results The amount of ALFF in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the amount of FC between the bilateral IPLs significantly increased over the follow-up period, and the amount of ALFF in the right occipital gyrus was reduced (P < .050, AlphaSim corrected [ http://afni.nimh.nih.gov/pub/dist/doc/manual/AlphaSim.pdf ]), returning toward normal levels. Furthermore, the degree of alteration in ALFF values in the right OFC (P = .037) and occipital gyrus (P = .002) at baseline was significantly correlated with the magnitude of the normalization in those regions at 1-year follow-up. In contrast, abnormalities of ALFF in the bilateral thalamus, ventral medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and right amygdala and of FC between the right OFC and the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex at baseline did not improve in patients at 1-year follow-up. Conclusion These findings show that some, but not all, neurophysiologic alterations that occur during the acute phase of schizophrenia are normalized in the context of clinical improvement and suggest therapeutic implications for

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging predictors of treatment response in first-episode schizophrenia.

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    Szeszko, Philip R; Narr, Katherine L; Phillips, Owen R; McCormack, Joanne; Sevy, Serge; Gunduz-Bruce, Handan; Kane, John M; Bilder, Robert M; Robinson, Delbert G

    2012-05-01

    Identifying neurobiological predictors of response to antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia is a critical goal of translational psychiatry. Few studies, however, have investigated the relationship between indices of brain structure and treatment response in the context of a controlled clinical trial. In this study, we sought to identify magnetic resonance (MR) imaging measures of the brain that predict treatment response in patients experiencing a first-episode of schizophrenia. Structural MR imaging scans were acquired in 39 patients experiencing a first-episode of schizophrenia with minimal or no prior exposure to antipsychotics participating in a double-blind 16-week clinical trial comparing the efficacy of risperidone vs olanzapine. Twenty-five patients were classified as responders by meeting operationally defined treatment response criteria on 2 consecutive study visits. Fourteen patients never responded to antipsychotic medication at any point during the clinical trial. MR imaging scans were also acquired in 45 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Cortical pattern matching methods were used to compare cortical thickness and asymmetry measures among groups. Statistical mapping results, confirmed by permutation testing, indicated that responders had greater cortical thickness in occipital regions and greater frontal cortical asymmetry compared with nonresponders. Moreover, among responders, greater thickness in temporal regions was associated with less time to respond. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that plasticity and cortical thickness may be more preserved in responders and that MR imaging may assist in the prediction of antipsychotic drug response in patients experiencing a first-episode of schizophrenia. PMID:21084552

  6. A magnetic resonance imaging study in first-episode disorganized-type patients with schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although a number of radiological studies have suggested that brains of patients suffering from schizophrenia have morphological abnormalities, the results are inconsistent. In the present study, in order to examine the brain, morphological features of homogeneous schizophrenics' brain magnetic resonance imagings (MRI) were taken, before neuroleptic treatment, from subjects suffering from disorganized-type schizophrenia, (DOS) during their first episodes. Results showed that DOS had significantly smaller indices for bilateral frontal gray matter (GM), left hippocampal formation (HF), left parahippocampal gray matter (PHGM) and left cingulate gyrus gray matter (CGM) than normal controls. These findings support the previous computed tomography (CT) and MRI studies on schizophrenic brains, although the subjects were not defined as disorganized-type, and may suggest the involvement of a neurocircuit between the bilateral frontal lobe and the left side of limbic system in the first-episode DOS group. (author). 54 refs

  7. Relationship between event-related potential P300 and first episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xing-shi; LU Ying-zhi; WANG Ji-jun; WANG Hong-xing; ZHANG Ming-dao; LOU Fei-yin; CHEN Chong

    2007-01-01

    @@ Although P300 abnormalities of event-related potentials (ERPs) are consistently reported among schizophrenic patients as being the most compelling indices of their brain dysfunction,1 whether they are trait markers or state markers of schizophrenia remains in controversy.2,3 To shed a light on this point, we made a longitudinal study of P300 among first episode schizophrenic patients, from no medication until the patients had been medicated for 12 weeks.

  8. [Guidelines on long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotics for first-episode schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin, J-M

    2013-09-01

    The current review raises the question of the place of long-acting injectable (LAI) atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of first-episode schizophrenia in current and future guidelines. After exposing the different points of view adopted in the former, the author presents the clinical trials conducted with LAI atypicals in this indication, as well as the surveys related to psychiatrists'opinion regarding the use of these drugs in early schizophrenia. Pros and cons of this therapeutic option are discussed and suggestions are made for further guidelines. PMID:24084422

  9. Structural abnormalities of the brain in schizophrenia: sex differences in the Cantabria First Episode of Schizophrenia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Barquero, J L; Cuesta Núñez, M J; Quintana Pando, F; de la Varga, M; Herrera Castanedo, S; Dunn, G

    1995-11-01

    This paper examines structural brain abnormalities, as evaluated by the CT scan, in first episodes of schizophrenia and their association with sociodemographic, diagnostic and clinical variables. The investigation included all patients with a first episode of schizophrenia who, over a 2-year period, made contact with any of the public mental health services of the Autonomous Region of Cantabria in Northern Spain. Diagnostic and clinical characteristics were evaluated through the use of the Spanish version of the Present State Examination (PSE-9) and the Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SANS and SAPS respectively). The study demonstrated the presence of structural brain abnormalities in this sample of first episode schizophrenics. These abnormalities were mainly expressed in the presence of larger VBR for schizophrenic patients than in the controls, these findings being more marked in women than in men. We failed to reveal, however, any evidence of an association of these brain abnormalities with diagnostic or clinical characteristics. PMID:8637954

  10. Association between unmet needs and clinical status in patients with first episode of schizophrenia in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia eJorquera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder involving needs in several matters that are often not covered. A need is defined as a gap between the ideal state and the current state of a patient about a specific topic. Aim: To describe needs in patients with first episode of schizophrenia at the start of treatment, and to describe associated clinical factors. Methods: Observational descriptive cross-sectional design. Patients were over fifteen years old, with first episode schizophrenia, and admitted to treatment in the public health system from six district in two cities of Chile, between 2005 and 2006. Sociodemographic data, clinical evaluations of current psychosis based on the PANSS, and the time of untreated psychosis were obtained. A clinical interview, was carried out followed by the Camberwell Assessment of Need. Results: 29 patients were evaluated, 79.3% male, mean age 21.9 years old. The areas with more needs reported were; psychotic symptoms with 65.5% of sample, 21.1% of which reported it unmet; and daytime activities, where 44.8% of patients reported a need, 61.54% of them as unmet. The percentage of unmet needs correlated with PANSS score (r= 0.55; p=0.003, and with time of positive symptoms prior to diagnosis (r= 0.416; p=0.03. Discussion: Needs assessment in schizophrenia is necessary. It may affect its clinical course, be relevant in its management and help monitor recovery. Defining the main needs in people with first episode schizophrenia and associated factors allows for a better design of treatment strategies in order to obtain better therapeutic results and recovery.

  11. Regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions in first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narr, Katherine L; Thompson, Paul M; Szeszko, Philip; Robinson, Delbert; Jang, Seonah; Woods, Roger P; Kim, Sharon; Hayashi, Kiralee M; Asunction, Dina; Toga, Arthur W; Bilder, Robert M

    2004-04-01

    Hippocampal volume reductions are widely observed in schizophrenia. Some studies suggest anterior hippocampal regions are more susceptible and associated with frontal lobe dysfunctions, while others implicate posterior regions. Using high-resolution MR images and novel computational image analysis methods, we identified the hippocampal subregions most vulnerable to disease processes in 62 (45 m/17 f) first-episode schizophrenia patients compared to 60 (30 m/30 f) healthy controls, similar in age. The hippocampi were traced on coronal brain slices and hemispheric volumes were compared between diagnostic groups. Regional structural abnormalities were identified by comparing distances, measured from homologous hippocampal surface points to the central core of each individual's hippocampal surface model, between groups in 3D. CSF concentrations were also compared statistically at homologous hippocampal surface points to localize corresponding gray matter reductions. Significant bilateral hippocampal volume reductions were observed in schizophrenia irrespective of brain size corrections. Statistical mapping results, confirmed by permutation testing, showed pronounced left hemisphere shape differences in anterior and midbody CA1 and CA2 regions in patients. Significant CSF increases surrounding the hippocampus were observed in a similar spatial pattern in schizophrenia. Results confirm that hippocampal volume reductions are a robust neuroanatomical correlate of schizophrenia and are present by first episode. Mid- to antero-lateral hippocampal regions show pronounced volume changes and complementary increases in peri-hippocampal CSF, suggesting that these hippocampal regions are more susceptible to disease processes in schizophrenia. Targeting regional hippocampal abnormalities may help dissociate schizophrenia patients from other groups exhibiting global hippocampal volume changes, and better focus systems-level pathophysiological hypotheses. PMID:15050580

  12. Predictors of remission and recovery in a first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder sample: 2-year follow-up of the OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lone; Thorup, Anne; Øqhlenschlaeger, Johan; Christensen, Torben Øqstergaard; Jeppesen, Pia; Krarup, Gertrud; Jørrgensen, Per; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Nordentoft, Merete

    2008-01-01

    To examine the frequency and predictors of good outcome for patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD).......To examine the frequency and predictors of good outcome for patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD)....

  13. Facial emotion recognition in first-episode schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daros, Alexander R; Ruocco, Anthony C; Reilly, James L; Harris, Margret S H; Sweeney, John A

    2014-03-01

    Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have difficulties recognizing facial expressions of emotion. Differences in deficits between these disorders and the effects of treating acute symptoms of illness with antipsychotic medication on these deficits are not well characterized. First-episode patients with schizophrenia (n=24) and psychotic bipolar I disorder (n=16) were compared to a healthy control group (n=32) on the Penn Emotional Acuity Test. Patients were studied during an acute psychotic episode and after seven weeks of treatment with antipsychotic medication. During acute psychosis, bipolar patients showed deficits recognizing subtle facial expressions of happiness and sadness, and this deficit did not resolve with treatment. Schizophrenia patients similarly had difficulty recognizing subtle happy faces during acute illness that also did not resolve with treatment. In addition, problems recognizing subtle expressions of sadness among schizophrenia patients were apparent after treatment. Poorer emotion recognition at follow-up was related to negative symptom severity for schizophrenia patients. These findings highlight the severity and persistence of emotion recognition deficits early in the course of psychotic bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and demonstrate an association of emotion processing deficits to negative symptoms in schizophrenia during periods of relative clinical stability. PMID:24457036

  14. IQ subgroups in relation to neurocognitive profiles, psychopathology and brain volume in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Høj; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Rostrup, Egill;

    . Promorbid IQ was estimated using the Danish Adult Reading Test and current IQ using 4 subtests from Wechsler's Adult Intelligence Scale III. Patients were divided into 4 subgroups based on a combination of both IQ trajectory from premorbid levels (stable vs. deteriorating) and IQ at illness onset (high vs....... low) using the healthy controls as reference. The IQ subgroups were compared using psychopathology ratings (Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale), neuropsychological assessments (Brief Assessment of Cognition in schizophrenia and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) and a combined 3T......Background and Aim: Approximately half of patients with schizophrenia experience a deterioration in IQ before or around illness onset and recent studies have found apositive association between IQ and brain volume in first episode schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the combined...

  15. Volumetric and shape analysis of the thalamus in first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, Denise M; Narr, Katherine L; Robinson, Delbert G; Hamilton, Liberty S; Sevy, Serge; Burdick, Katherine E; Gunduz-Bruce, Handan; McCormack, Joanne; Bilder, Robert M; Szeszko, Philip R

    2009-04-01

    Thalamic abnormalities have been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, although the majority of studies used chronic samples treated extensively with antipsychotics. Moreover, the clinical and neuropsychological correlates of these abnormalities remain largely unknown. Using high-resolution MR imaging and novel methods for shape analysis, we investigated thalamic subregions in 35 (25 M/10 F) first-episode schizophrenia patients compared with 33 (23 M/10 F) healthy volunteers. The right and left thalami were traced bilaterally on coronal brain slices and volumes were compared between groups. In addition, regional abnormalities were identified by comparing distances, measured from homologous thalamic surface points to the central core of each individual's surface model, between groups in 3D space. Patients had significantly less total thalamic volume compared with healthy volunteers. Statistical mapping demonstrated most pronounced shape abnormalities in the pulvinar; however, estimated false discovery rates in these regions were sizable. Smaller thalamus volume was significantly correlated with worse overall neuropsychological functioning and specific deficits were observed in the language, motor, and executive domains. There were no significant associations between thalamus volume and positive or negative symptoms. Our findings suggest that thalamic abnormalities are evident at the onset of a first episode of schizophrenia prior to extensive pharmacologic intervention and that these abnormalities have neuropsychological correlates. PMID:18570200

  16. The relationship between facial emotion recognition and executive functions in first-episode patients with schizophrenia and their siblings

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chengqing; Zhang, Tianhong; Li, Zezhi; Heeramun-Aubeeluck, Anisha; Liu, Na; Huang, Nan; Zhang, Jie; He, Leiying; Li, Hui; Tang, YingYing; Chen, FaZhan; Liu, Fei; Wang, Jijun; Lu, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Although many studies have examined executive functions and facial emotion recognition in people with schizophrenia, few of them focused on the correlation between them. Furthermore, their relationship in the siblings of patients also remains unclear. The aim of the present study is to examine the correlation between executive functions and facial emotion recognition in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and their siblings. Methods Thirty patients with first-episode schizoph...

  17. Wavelet Features for Recognition of First Episode of Schizophrenia from MRI Brain Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dluhos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning methods are increasingly used in various fields of medicine, contributing to early diagnosis and better quality of care. These outputs are particularly desirable in case of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, due to the inherent potential for creating a new gold standard in the diagnosis and differentiation of particular disorders. This paper presents a scheme for automated classification from magnetic resonance images based on multiresolution representation in the wavelet domain. Implementation of the proposed algorithm, utilizing support vector machines classifier, is introduced and tested on a dataset containing 104 patients with first episode schizophrenia and healthy volunteers. Optimal parameters of different phases of the algorithm are sought and the quality of classification is estimated by robust cross validation techniques. Values of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity over 71% are achieved.

  18. The Cantabria first episode schizophrenia study: a summary of general findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Barquero, J L; Cuesta Nuñez, M J; de la Varga, M; Herrera Castanedo, S; Gaite, L; Arenal, A

    1995-03-01

    This article describes the general findings of the initial cross-sectional stage of a prospective follow-up study of all first episodes of schizophrenia that occurred in the Autonomous Community of Cantabria over a 2-year period and that established contact with any mental health service. The project comprises: i) a 2-year cross-sectional stage, in which the sample was gathered and studied with structured psychiatric instruments such as the Present State Examination and the Scales for the Assessment of Negative and Positive Symptoms (SANS and SAPS), and; ii) a continuous follow-up. We detected, in the risk age ranged of 15-54 years, an incidence of 1.9 per 10,000 inhabitants per year for schizophrenia and of 1.3 per 10,000 inhabitants per year for the S+ CATEGO diagnosis, without any significant gender difference of morbidity. The mean age for the total schizophrenic population was 26 years, being significantly higher in women than in men. In contrast with what happens with marital status, type of household or urban/rural way of life, there was no gender difference in relation to the other sociodemographic variables. The way in which nosological and clinical variables are associated with first episodes of schizophrenia was also examined in this study. We found that 75% of patients reached a maximum CATEGO-ID level, 71% received a S+ CATEGO diagnosis, 59% presented first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia and that the percentage of a schizophrenic negative syndrome, as identified by the SANS and SAPS, was very low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7625188

  19. Duration of Untreated Psychosis Is Associated with More Negative Schizophrenia Symptoms after Acute Treatment for First-Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grano, Niklas; Lindsberg, Jenni; Karjalainen, Marjaana; Gronroos, Peter; Blomberg, Ari-Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Evidence of association between duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients is inconsistent in the recent literature. In the present study, DUP, schizophrenia symptoms, duration of medication, and diagnosis were obtained from hospital archives in a sample of FEP patients.…

  20. First Episode Schizophrenia Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Assessment after Atypical Antipsychotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Aim: Since regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) findings in schizophrenic patients are inconsistent, the aim of our study was to evaluate and compare rCBF in the first episode of schizophrenia, before and after atypical antipsychotic treatment. Method: 21 patients who met criteria for schizophrenia were assessed PANSS score and tomographic brain perfusion (SPECT). The treatment was administered for 10-12 weeks and the dose was 4.8mg/day Risperidone, 11.6mg/day Olanzepine, 440mg/day Quetiapine. After finishing treatment all patients underwent a control SPECT study. Results: PANSS scores revealed two groups: group A-14 patients with predominant positive symptoms; 9 received Olanzapine and 5 Quetiapine. In group B -7 patients with predominant negative symptoms received Risperidone. Positive symptoms were associated with hypoperfusion in posterior parietal regions and superior temporal gyrus, bilaterally; for negative symptoms we found hypoperfusion in prefrontal cortex, predominantly in left side and a hyper perfusion in left basal ganglia. All patients that received atypical antipsychotic drugs had clinical improvement and decreases in PANSS scores; the control SPECT analysis revealed the same cortical changes as first studies in 15 patients and an increase of the rCBF in frontal lobes for 4 patients. 14 patients we noticed an increased rCBF at subcortical level, especially in left caudate nuclei. Conclusions: We found nonspecific features of rCBF in patients with first episode of schizophrenia, suggesting a perfusion dynamic balance rather than a fixed model. Those aspects are much more related to clinical symptoms, than to the therapeutical response. The rCBF changes in subcortical level after treatment (64.4% increase of rCBF; 35.6% not modified), can have a good prognostic value for therapeutic response. (author)

  1. Neuron-specific Enclose and Myelin Basic Protein in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with First Episode Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shuying; WU Hanrong; GUO Huirong; ZHAO Zheng

    2006-01-01

    In order to study whether patients with schizophrenia have cerebral injury, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and myelin basic protein (MBP)in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 33 patients with first episode schizophrenia and 9 from the control group were determined by double antibody sandwich enzyme immunoassay method. The results showed that there was significant difference in the NSE contents between the experimental group and control group (P<0.01). The NSE contents in CSF in the experimental group were positively correlated with MBP in schizophrenia patients (P<0.05). These findings suggested that patients with schizophrenia had cerebral injury.

  2. Sex-Specific Patterns of Aberrant Brain Function in First-Episode Treatment-Naive Patients with Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Lei; Mingli Li; Wei Deng; Yi Zhou; Xiaohong Ma; Qiang Wang; Wanjun Guo; Yinfei Li; Lijun Jiang; Yuanyuan Han; Chaohua Huang; Xun Hu; Tao Li

    2015-01-01

    Male and female patients with schizophrenia show significant differences in a number of important clinical features, yet the neural substrates of these differences are still poorly understood. Here we explored the sex differences in the brain functional aberrations in 124 treatment-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia (61 males), compared with 102 age-matched healthy controls (50 males). Maps of degree centrality (DC) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) were constru...

  3. Cognitive effects of six months of treatment with quetiapine in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Rasmussen, Hans;

    2011-01-01

    Effects of quetiapine on cognition were assessed in a group of first-episode antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia (N=24). A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests was administered at baseline and after 6months of treatment with quetiapine. In order to examine retest effects, a...

  4. Course and predictors of suicidality over the first two years of treatment in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, Ingrid; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Friis, Svein;

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the course of suicidal behavior over the first 2 years of comprehensive, integrated treatment in two groups of patients with DSM-IV first episode schizophrenia spectrum psychosis, where one group was recruited through an early detection program. We h...... no between-groups differences. Severe suicidality (plans and attempts) was predicted by drug abuse, dissatisfaction with life and severe suicidality at start of treatment....

  5. Classification of First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients and Healthy Subjects by Automated MRI Measures of Regional Brain Volume and Cortical Thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Yoichiro Takayanagi; Tsutomu Takahashi; Lina Orikabe; Yuriko Mozue; Yasuhiro Kawasaki; Kazue Nakamura; Yoko Sato; Masanari Itokawa; Hidenori Yamasue; Kiyoto Kasai; Masayoshi Kurachi; Yuji Okazaki; Michio Suzuki

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have repeatedly demonstrated regional brain structural abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia, relatively few MRI-based studies have attempted to distinguish between patients with first-episode schizophrenia and healthy controls. METHOD: Three-dimensional MR images were acquired from 52 (29 males, 23 females) first-episode schizophrenia patients and 40 (22 males, 18 females) healthy subjects. Multiple brain measure...

  6. An optimized voxel-based morphometry MRI study of the brain in patients with first episode schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the structural differences between patients with first episode schizophrenia and normal controls using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study. Methods: High resolution T1 weighted images were obtained using 3.0 T MR from 13 first-episode, untreated schizophrenia and 13 age, sex, handedness matched normal controls. Images were preprocessed by employing the optimized VBM and two sample t-test was used to detect differences between patients and normal controls with respect to both density and volume of gray matter in the brain. Results Patients with schizophrenia had significant lower gray matter density and gray matter volume generally distributed among bilateral hemispheres, especially in bilateral frontal and temporal lobes. However, no significant increase of gray matter density and gray matter volume was observed in these patients. Conclusions: Optimized voxel-based morphometry study is an automatic and effective method to study psychological diseases such as schizophrenia. Compared with normal controls, patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower gray matter density and gray matter volume across the bilateral hemispheres. (authors)

  7. Impaired temporoparietal deactivation with working memory load in antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejad, Ayna B; Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Siebner, Hartwig R;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. Neuroimaging studies have shown abnormal task-related deactivations during working memory (WM) in schizophrenia patients with recent emphasis on brain regions within the default mode network. Using fMRI, we tested whether antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients were impaired...... at deactivating brain regions that do not subserve WM. Methods. Twenty-three antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 35 healthy individuals underwent whole-brain 3T fMRI scans while performing a verbal N-back task including 0-back (no WM load), 1-back (low WM load), and 2-back (high WM...... demands. Since patients were antipsychotic-naïve and task performance was equal to controls, we infer that this impaired temporoparietal deactivation may represent a primary dysfunction in schizophrenia....

  8. Impaired prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle in Chinese patients with first-episode, medication-na(i)ve schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-ren; TAN Yun-long; YANG Fu-de; ZHANG Wu-fang; ZOU Yi-zhuang; TAN Shu-ping; SONG Chong-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia have prominent abnormality in information processing that can be observed by measures of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle reflex and PPI deficits have been considered as a candidate endophenotypic marker of schizophrenia.However,there has been little information on PPI and related measures in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.The research was to explore the deficits of acoustic startle reflex that might exist in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.Methods Startle response to acoustic stimuli,habituation,and PPI were examined in 31 Chinese patients with first-episode,medication-naǐve schizophrenia and 30 age-and sex-matched healthy Chinese controls.At the same day of startle testing,psychopathological symptoms of the patients were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).Results Compared with healthy controls,patients exhibited the significant reduction in startle response and PPI deficits at 60 milliseconds (ms) intervals (PPI60,P <0.05) but not at 30 or 120 ms intervals.Furthermore,there was a relatively strong correlation between PPI60 (P <0.05) and scores of positive scale of PANSS in patients with schizophrenia.Conclusion Our findings confirmed impaired PPI in Chinese patients with schizophrenia and suggested that a relationship between sensorimotor gating deficits and clinical symptoms of patients with schizophrenia might exist.

  9. Serotonin2A receptor blockade and clinical effect in first-episode schizophrenia patients treated with quetiapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hans; Ebdrup, Bjorn H; Erritzoe, David; Aggernaes, Bodil; Oranje, Bob; Kalbitzer, Jan Gustav Martin; Pinborg, Lars H; Baaré, William F C; Svarer, Claus; Lublin, Henrik; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Glenthøj, Birte Yding

    2011-01-01

    -episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients have reported on the relationship between serotonin2A receptor occupancy and treatment effect after sustained treatment with a specific atypical antipsychotic compound. OBJECTIVES: Here, we measured serotonin2A receptor occupancy with [(18)F]altanserin PET in 15 first......-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients before and after 6 months of quetiapine treatment. Moreover, we investigated possible relationships between clinical efficacy, oral dose, and plasma levels of quetiapine RESULTS: Significant nonlinear relationships were found between serotonin2A receptor occupancy...... whereas no additional serotonin2A receptor associated treatment effect was obtained above a receptor occupancy of 70%. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the data point to a therapeutic role of the serotonin2A receptor in the treatment of subgroups of patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, the study...

  10. Predictors of remission and recovery in a first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder sample: 2-year follow-up of the OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency and predictors of good outcome for patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD). METHOD: We conducted a 2-year follow-up of a cohort of patients (n = 547) with first-episode SSD. We evaluated the patients on demographic variables, diagnosis...

  11. The 5-Year Course of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in First-Episode Schizophrenia and Related Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    De Haan, Lieuwe; Sterk, Bouke; Wouters, Luuk; Linszen, Don H

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the course of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in first-episode schizophrenia and related disorders and their relationship with clinical characteristics.

  12. Olanzapine vs. Risperidone in Patients with First-Episode Schizophrenia and a Lifetime History of Cannabis Use Disorders: 16-Week Clinical and Substance Use outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Sevy, Serge; Robinson, Delbert G.; Sunday, Suzanne; Napolitano, Barbara; Miller, Rachel; McCormack, Joanne; Kane, John M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of olanzapine and risperidone for the acute treatment of first-episode schizophrenia patients with cannabis use disorders. This secondary analysis of a previously published study included forty-nine first-episode patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, or schizoaffective disorder and a co-occurring lifetime diagnosis of cannabis use disorders randomly assigned to treatment with either olanzapine (n=28) or risp...

  13. The effect of cannabis use and cognitive reserve on age at onset and psychosis outcomes in first-episode schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Leeson, V. C.; I. Harrison; Ron, M A; Barnes, T. R.; Joyce, E M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis use is associated with a younger age at onset of psychosis, an indicator of poor prognosis, but better cognitive function, a positive prognostic indicator. We aimed to clarify the role of age at onset and cognition on outcomes in cannabis users with first-episode schizophrenia as well as the effect of cannabis dose and cessation of use. Methods: Ninety-nine patients without alcohol or substance abuse other than cannabis were divided into lifetime users and never-users of c...

  14. The association between psychopathology of first-episode psychosis patients within the schizophrenia spectrum and previous offending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben;

    2008-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality. The aim was to describe possible psychopathological differences between schizophrenia spectrum patients with and without a criminal career before first-episode psychosis. In a multi-centre study, 16 psychiatric...... were linked with data concerning criminal and psychiatric history. No key characteristics were found to assist the early detection of criminal persons before first psychiatric hospital contact for a psychotic incident. However, when adjusted for sex, age, abuse, living conditions, marital status......, employment status and education, a primarily positive symptomatology was associated with a prior criminal career. The premorbid level of functioning and several function parameters were also significantly associated with criminal history. There are significant differences in psychopathology between...

  15. Effects of antipsychotics on insight in schizophrenia: results from independent samples of first-episode and acutely relapsed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiak, Błażej; Frydecka, Dorota; Beszłej, Jan A; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Tybura, Piotr; Kucharska-Mazur, Jolanta; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Bieńkowski, Przemysław; Samochowiec, Jerzy

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to investigate whether antipsychotics differentially impact insight and whether these effects appear because of improvement in psychopathological manifestation in 132 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 201 acutely relapsed schizophrenic patients, who were followed up for 12 weeks. Olanzapine and risperidone were administered to first-episode schizophrenia patients, whereas acutely relapsed schizophrenic patients were treated with olanzapine, perazine and ziprasidone. The Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess psychopathology. Insight was assessed using the G12 item of PANSS. Unadjusted mixed-model regression analysis indicated a significant improvement in the PANSS G12 item score in both groups. There were no significant differences between distinct treatment subgroups of patients in terms of improvement in the PANSS G12 item score. After adjustment for the trajectories of changes in symptom dimensions, a decrease in the PANSS G12 item score was because of an improvement in positive, negative and excitement symptoms. A decrease in the PANSS G12 item score was also related to an increase in the severity of depressive symptomatology. Our results indicate that antipsychotics exert similar effects on insight in acute psychosis. These effects are likely because of an improvement in psychopathological manifestation. The improvement in insight might be related to the development of depressive symptoms. PMID:26836264

  16. Compensatory cognitive training for people with first-episode schizophrenia: results from a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendella, Paul D; Burton, Cynthia Z; Tasca, Giorgio A; Roy, Paul; St Louis, Lea; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive training or remediation now has multiple studies and meta-analyses supporting its efficacy in improving cognition and functioning in people with schizophrenia. However, relatively little is known about cognitive training outcomes in early psychosis. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial of Compensatory Cognitive Training (CCT) compared to Treatment as Usual (TAU) in 27 participants with first-episode psychosis who had received treatment for psychosis for less than six months. Assessments of cognition (MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery; MCCB) and functional capacity (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief; UPSA-B) were administered at baseline and following the 12-week treatment. The CCT condition, compared to TAU, was associated with significant improvements on the MCCB composite score, as well as MCCB subtests measuring processing speed (Trail Making) and social cognition (Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), with large effects on these three outcome measures. There were no significant CCT-associated effects on the UPSA-B or on positive, negative, or depressive symptoms. CCT treatment of cognitive impairments in first-episode schizophrenia is feasible and can result in large effect size improvements in global cognition, processing speed, and social cognition. PMID:25631454

  17. Structural brain abnormalities in first episode schizophrenia. Is it just illness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rais, M.

    2011-01-01

    Although neuroimaging studies consistently demonstrated brain volume alterations in patients with schizophrenia, confounding factors like age, IQ, duration of the illness, use of antipsychotic medication and drug (ab-)use might partly explain these results. Therefore, the relation between confoundin

  18. Abnormal negative feedback processing in first episode schizophrenia: evidence from an oculomotor rule switching task

    OpenAIRE

    Huddy, Vyv C.; Hodgson, Timothy L.; Ron, Maria A; Barnes, Thomas RE; Joyce, Eileen M

    2011-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia are impaired on executive tasks, where positive and negative feedbacks are used to update task rules or switch attention. However, research to date using saccadic tasks has not revealed clear deficits in task switching in these patients. The present study used an oculomotor ‘ rule switching ’ task to investigate the use of negative feedback when switching between task rules in people with schizophrenia. M...

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging and the prediction of outcome in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dazzan, Paola; Arango, Celso; Fleischacker, Wolfgang;

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measures are promising outcome markers for schizophrenia, since regional frontal and temporal grey matter volumes reductions, and enlargement of the ventricles, have been associated with outcome in this disorder. However, a number of methodological...... outcomes. CONCLUSION: Neuroimaging data, possibly in combination with other biomarkers of disease, could help stratifying patients with psychoses to generate patient clusters clinically meaningful, and useful to detect true therapeutic effects in clinical trials. Optimization of Treatment and Management...... of Schizophrenia in Europe (OPTiMiSE), a large multicenter study funded by the FP7 European Commission, could generate these much-needed findings....

  20. Early detection of the first episode of schizophrenia and suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, Ingrid; Johannesen, Jan Olav; Friis, Svein;

    2006-01-01

    The suicide rate in schizophrenia is high, with the risk being highest early in the course. The rate of suicide attempts before treatment onset is also high and is often the event leading up to first treatment contact. A previous report showed that the duration of untreated psychosis can be reduced...

  1. Early effects of treatment in first episode schizophrenia on brain perfusion evaluated with 99mTc-ECD-SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim of our study was to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow (r-CBF) in acute first-episode schizophrenia and the early effects of antipsychotic drugs on r-CBF. Methods: Clinical criteria for schizophrenia were met according to International Classification of Diseases - 10th Edition (ICD-10). Psychic status and severity of disease of each patient were evaluated with a semi-structured psychiatric interview, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) on the same day as the scintigraphic study. R-CBF was evaluated using 99m-Tc-ECD. Until now 9 first-episode schizophrenic patients 2-7 (average 5.2) days after the beginning of antipsychotic treatment and 7 pts 8-15 (average 10.4) weeks later were investigated. R-CBF was evaluated in every patient in comparison to cerebellar blood flow in frontal and temporal regions in 4 slices. Both studies were compared. Homogeneity of brain perfusion was assessed visually as homogenous, moderately and severely non-homogenous. Results: In acute patients, perfusion was non-homogenous and decreased in left frontal lobe (90.1±4.4) in comparison to the right side (93.3±±4.6, p<0.05). Increase in perfusion was significant (p<0.05) between first and second scan in left (90.1±4.4 to 94.1±5.2, p<0.05) and right (93.4±4.6 to 96.9±5.8, p<0.05) frontal lobes. Significant difference in perfusion between right and left posterior region of temporal lobe found on the first scan was no longer present on the second scan. Perfusion was significantly more homogenous on the second scan. Significant decrease in PANSS (p<0.05) and CGI (p<0.001) scores was noted. Conclusions: Despite the low number of patients included so far, our findings implicate that patients with first-episode schizophrenia have significant bilateral frontal hypoperfusion, more pronounced on the left side. After average 10 weeks of medication, bilateral increase in blood flow was observed in frontal lobes and left-right difference was no

  2. Reward learning impairments in patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Chi-wan, Tracey; 陳緻韻

    2015-01-01

    Reward learning refers to outcome-based learning that involves selecting optimal response choices from feedback which facilitate adaptive behavior. It is believed that reward learning paradigm represents a promising translational target in schizophrenia research. Previous studies generated relatively consistent evidence of rapid learning deficits but mixed findings on gradual learning deficits. Reward learning impairments were also associated with symptoms as well as antipsychotics treatment....

  3. Patterns of regional gray matter loss at different stages of schizophrenia:A multisite, cross-sectional VBM study in first-episode and chronic illness

    OpenAIRE

    Ulysses S. Torres; Duran, Fabio L.S.; Maristela S Schaufelberger; Crippa, José A. S.; Louzã, Mario R.; Paulo C. Sallet; Kanegusuku, Caroline Y.O.; Elkis, Helio; Gattaz, Wagner F.; Bassitt, Débora P.; Antonio W Zuardi; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo C.; Leite, Claudia C.; Claudio C de Castro; Santos, Antonio Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia have been repeatedly demonstrated in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, but it remains unclear whether these are static or progressive in nature. While longitudinal MRI studies have been traditionally used to assess the issue of progression of brain abnormalities in schizophrenia, information from cross-sectional neuroimaging studies directly comparing first-episode and chronic schizophrenia patients to healthy controls may al...

  4. Neural markers of early remission in first-episode schizophrenia: a volumetric neuroimaging study of the parahippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Michael; Malla, Ashok K; Joober, Ridha; Lord, Catherine; Smith, Evelyne; Pruessner, Jens; Lepage, Martin

    2012-01-30

    Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), our laboratory recently identified significantly lower grey matter concentration in the parahippocampal gyrus bilaterally in non-remitted patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) compared with remitted FEP patients. These results identified a localized difference but did not reveal which cortex (entorhinal, perirhinal, or parahippocampal), if any, was predominantly affected. So, the parahippocampal gyrus was manually segmented and grey matter volumes from the three cortices were compared between 42 non-remitted and 17 remitted patients with a first episode of schizophrenia (FES). Remission was defined as mild or less on eight key symptoms and maintained for 6 consecutive months following the 2005 consensus definition. The non-remitted patients displayed smaller volumes in the parahippocampal cortex - trend-level difference on the left [mm(3), mean (S.D.): non-remitted=2486 (413); remitted=2775 (593)] and significant difference on the right [mm(3), mean (S.D.): non-remitted=2546 (463); remitted=2926 (525)]. No notable differences were found in the entorhinal or perirhinal cortices. This result supported our VBM finding of reduced parahippocampal grey matter bilaterally in non-remitted patients and further suggested differences may be selectively limited to the parahippocampal cortex. A smaller parahippocampal cortex may represent a neural marker in FES patients who do not achieve remission after 1 year of treatment. PMID:22285715

  5. Gender differences in young adults with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders at baseline in the Danish OPUS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia;

    2007-01-01

    Gender differences in age at first onset, duration of untreated psychosis, psychopathology, social functioning, and self-esteem were investigated in a group of 578 young adults with a first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder. The mean age at first-onset of symptoms, age at first contact......, and duration of untreated psychosis were similar for men and women. Men had more severe negative symptoms, poorer premorbid functioning, and poorer social networks, whereas women had more severe hallucinations. More men than women were substance abusers, were unemployed, and lived alone. Women had poorer self-esteem...... functioning, which cannot be explained by older age of onset for women. Women make more suicide attempts and experience lower self-esteem in spite of better social functioning....

  6. Gender differences in young adults with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders at baseline in the Danish OPUS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia;

    2007-01-01

    Gender differences in age at first onset, duration of untreated psychosis, psychopathology, social functioning, and self-esteem were investigated in a group of 578 young adults with a first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder. The mean age at first-onset of symptoms, age at first contact......, and duration of untreated psychosis were similar for men and women. Men had more severe negative symptoms, poorer premorbid functioning, and poorer social networks, whereas women had more severe hallucinations. More men than women were substance abusers, were unemployed, and lived alone. Women had poorer self-esteem...... functioning, which cannot be explained by older age of onset for women. Women make more suicide attempts and experience lower self-esteem in spite of better social functioning. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-May...

  7. Basal ganglia volumes in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients before and after short-term treatment with either a typical or an atypical antipsychotic drug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthoj, Andreas; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Mackeprang, Torben; Pagsberg, Anne K; Hemmingsen, Ralf; Jernigan, Terry L; Baaré, William Frans Christian

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined basal ganglia volumes in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients before and after treatment with either a specific typical or atypical antipsychotic compound. Sixteen antipsychotic drug-naive and three minimally medicated first-episode schizophrenic patients and...... altered asymmetry in caudate volume in patients suggests intrinsic basal ganglia pathology in schizophrenia, most likely of neurodevelopmental origin.......The present study examined basal ganglia volumes in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients before and after treatment with either a specific typical or atypical antipsychotic compound. Sixteen antipsychotic drug-naive and three minimally medicated first-episode schizophrenic patients and...... 19 matched controls participated. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with either low doses of the typical antipsychotic drug, zuclopenthixol, or the atypical compound, risperidone. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained in patients before and after 12 weeks of...

  8. Frequency and predictive values of first rank symptoms at baseline among 362 young adult patients with first-episode schizophrenia Results from the Danish OPUS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia;

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the frequency of the Schneiderian First Rank Symptoms (FRSs) in a representative group of patients with first-episode schizophrenia and to analyse the predictive value of these symptoms in relation to psychopathology, work situation, depression, dependency and admission after 2 yea...

  9. Frequency and predictive values of first rank symptoms at baseline among 362 young adult patients with first-episode schizophrenia Results from the Danish OPUS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia; Nordentoft, Merete

    To investigate the frequency of the Schneiderian First Rank Symptoms (FRSs) in a representative group of patients with first-episode schizophrenia and to analyse the predictive value of these symptoms in relation to psychopathology, work situation, depression, dependency and admission after 2 years...

  10. Classification of first-episode schizophrenia patients and healthy subjects by automated MRI measures of regional brain volume and cortical thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Takayanagi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies have repeatedly demonstrated regional brain structural abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia, relatively few MRI-based studies have attempted to distinguish between patients with first-episode schizophrenia and healthy controls. METHOD: Three-dimensional MR images were acquired from 52 (29 males, 23 females first-episode schizophrenia patients and 40 (22 males, 18 females healthy subjects. Multiple brain measures (regional brain volume and cortical thickness were calculated by a fully automated procedure and were used for group comparison and classification by linear discriminant function analysis. RESULTS: Schizophrenia patients showed gray matter volume reductions and cortical thinning in various brain regions predominantly in prefrontal and temporal cortices compared with controls. The classifiers obtained from 66 subjects of the first group successfully assigned 26 subjects of the second group with accuracy above 80%. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that combinations of automated brain measures successfully differentiated first-episode schizophrenia patients from healthy controls. Such neuroimaging approaches may provide objective biological information adjunct to clinical diagnosis of early schizophrenia.

  11. A longitudinal study of alterations of hippocampal volumes and serum BDNF levels in association to atypical antipsychotics in a sample of first-episode patients with schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Rizos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with structural and functional abnormalities of the hippocampus, which have been suggested to play an important role in the formation and emergence of schizophrenia syndrome. Patients with schizophrenia exhibit significant bilateral hippocampal volume reduction and progressive hippocampal volume decrease in first-episode patients with schizophrenia has been shown in many neuroimaging studies. Dysfunction of the neurotrophic system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The initiation of antipsychotic medication alters the levels of serum Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF levels. However it is unclear whether treatment with antipsychotics is associated with alterations of hippocampal volume and BDNF levels. METHODS: In the present longitudinal study we investigated the association between serum BDNF levels and hippocampal volumes in a sample of fourteen first-episode drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia (FEP. MRI scans, BDNF and clinical measurements were performed twice: at baseline before the initiation of antipsychotic treatment and 8 months later, while the patients were receiving monotherapy with second generation antipsychotics (SGAs. RESULTS: We found that left hippocampal volume was decreased (corrected left HV [t = 2.977, df = 13, p = .011] at follow-up; We also found that the higher the BDNF levels change the higher were the differences of corrected left hippocampus after 8 months of treatment with atypical antipsychotics (Pearson r = 0.597, p = 0.024. CONCLUSIONS: The association of BDNF with hippocampal volume alterations in schizophrenia merits further investigation and replication in larger longitudinal studies.

  12. Prefrontal and Hippocampal Brain Volume Deficits: The Role of Low Physical Activity on Brain Plasticity in First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Sarah C.; Hardy, Anthony; Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Jarrahi, Behnaz; Sandu, Navjot; Subotnik, Kenneth L.; Ventura, Joseph; Nuechterlein, Keith H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our objective in the present study was to conduct the first empirical study to examine regular physical activity habits and their relationship with brain volume and cortical thickness in patients in the early phase of schizophrenia. Relationships between larger brain volumes and higher physical activity levels have been reported in samples of healthy and aging populations, but have never been explored in first-episode schizophrenia patients. Method We collected MRI structural scans in fourteen first-episode schizophrenia patients with either self-reported low or high physical activity levels. Results We found a reduction in total grey matter volume, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampal grey matter volumes in the low physical activity group compared to the high activity group. Cortical thickness in the dorsolateral and orbitofrontal PFC were also significantly reduced in the low physical activity group compared to the high activity group. In the combined sample, greater overall physical activity levels showed a non-significant tendency with better performance on tests of verbal memory and social cognition. Conclusions Together these pilot study findings suggest that greater amounts of physical activity may have a positive influence on brain health and cognition in first-episode schizophrenia patients and support the development of physical exercise interventions in this patient population to improve brain plasticity and cognitive functioning. PMID:26581798

  13. Cognitive impairments in first-episode drug-naive and chronic medicated schizophrenia: MATRICS consensus cognitive battery in a Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing Qin; Chen, Da Chun; Tan, Yun Long; Xiu, Mei Hong; Yang, Fu De; Soares, Jair C; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2016-04-30

    Cognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia and we examined the cognitive profile of first-episode and chronic schizophrenia in a Chinese Han population using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). We recruited 79 first-episode drug-naïve (FEDN) schizophrenia, 132 chronic medicated schizophrenia inpatients and 124 healthy controls. We assessed patient psychopathology using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). MCCB total score (pEmotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) were significantly higher in FEDN than in chronic patients (all pMultiple regression analysis confirmed that in FEDN and chronic patients, total score and negative symptom of PANSS were independent contributors to MCCB total score, respectively. Our results not only demonstrate the applicability of the MCCB as a sensitive measure of cognitive impairment for schizophrenia patients in a Chinese Han population, but also suggest that the compromised cognition is present in the early stage of schizophrenia, some of which could be more severe in the chronic stage of illness. PMID:27086233

  14. Role of Long-Acting Injectable Second-Generation Antipsychotics in the Treatment of First-Episode Schizophrenia: A Clinical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Přikryl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 80% of patients with the first-episode schizophrenia reach symptomatic remission after antipsychotic therapy. However, within two years most of them relapse, mainly due to low levels of insight into the illness and nonadherence to their oral medication. Therefore, although the formal data available is limited, many experts recommend prescribing long-acting injectable second-generation antipsychotics (mostly risperidone or alternatively paliperidone in the early stages of schizophrenia, particularly in patients who have benefited from the original oral molecule in the past and agree to receive long-term injectable treatment. Early application of long-acting injectable second-generation antipsychotics can significantly reduce the risk of relapse in the future and thus improve not only the social and working potential of patients with schizophrenia but also their quality of life.

  15. Striatal D(2/3) Binding Potential Values in Drug-Naïve First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients Correlate With Treatment Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Sanne; Pinborg, Lars Hageman; Svarer, Claus; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn; Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Allerup, Peter; Bak, Nikolaj; Rasmussen, Hans; Frandsen, Erik; Rostrup, Egill; Glenthøj, Birte Yding

    2015-01-01

    potential (BP(p)) values and treatment outcome in a cohort of antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients. Additionally, we wished to investigate associations between striatal dopamine D(2/3) receptor blockade and alterations of negative symptoms as well as functioning and subjective well......-being. Twenty-eight antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients and 26 controls were included in the study. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with [(123)I]iodobenzamide ([(123)I]-IBZM) was used to examine striatal D(2/3) receptor BP(p). Patients were examined before and after 6 weeks of......(p) of dopamine D(2/3) receptors in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode patients with schizophrenia and treatment response. Patients with a low BP(p) have a better treatment response than patients with a high BP(p). The results further suggest that functioning may decline at high levels of dopamine...

  16. Patients with first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia and subjects at ultra-high risk of psychosis shared increased cerebellar-default mode network connectivity at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Houliang; Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Wang, Guodong; Lyu, Hailong; Wu, Renrong; Chen, Jindong; Wang, Shuai; Li, Lehua; Zhao, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Increased cerebellar-default mode network (DMN) connectivity has been observed in first-episode, drug-naive patients with schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether increased cerebellar-DMN connectivity starts earlier than disease onset. Thirty-four ultra-high risk (UHR) subjects, 31 first-episode, drug-naive patients with schizophrenia and 37 healthy controls were enrolled for a resting-state scan. The imaging data were analyzed using the seed-based functional connectivity (FC) method. Compared with the controls, UHR subjects and patients with schizophrenia shared increased connectivity between the right Crus I and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus and between Lobule IX and the left superior medial prefrontal cortex. There are positive correlations between the right Crus I-bilateral precuneus connectivity and clinical variables (Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes/Positive and Negative Symptom Scale negative symptoms/total scores) in the UHR subjects. Increased cerebellar-DMN connectivity shared by the UHR subjects and the patients not only highlights the importance of the DMN in the pathophysiology of psychosis but also may be a trait alteration for psychosis. PMID:27188233

  17. Effect of integrated treatment on the use of coercive measures in first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. A randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlenschlaeger, Johan; Nordentoft, Merete; Thorup, Anne; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone; Christensen, Torben; Krarup, Gertrud; Jørgensen, Per

    2008-01-01

    The effect of integrated treatment on the use of coercive measures in first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder in Denmark is not known. A total of 328 patients were randomly assigned to integrated treatment (167 patients) or standard treatment (161 patients). Integrated treatment consisted of...... assertive community treatment, psycho-educational multi-family groups, and social skills training. Data on coercion were extracted from the register from the National Board of Health, and data on continuity from medical records. Even though the level of continuity seemed higher in integrated treatment, this...

  18. Neurological signs and involuntary movements in schizophrenia: intrinsic to and informative on systems pathobiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whitty, Peter F

    2012-02-01

    While it has long been considered whether the pathobiology of schizophrenia extends beyond its defining symptoms to involve diverse domains of abnormality, in the manner of a systemic disease, studies of neuromotor dysfunction have been confounded by treatment with antipsychotic drugs. This challenge has been illuminated by a new generation of studies on first-episode schizophrenia before initiation of antipsychotic treatment and by opportunities in developing countries to study chronically ill patients who have remained antipsychotic naive due to limitations in provision of psychiatric care. Building from studies in antipsychotic-naive patients, this article reviews 2 domains of neuromotor dysfunction in schizophrenia: neurological signs and involuntary movements. The presence and characteristics of neurological signs in untreated vis-a-vis treated psychosis indicate a vulnerability marker for schizophrenia and implicate disruption to neuronal circuits linking the basal ganglia, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. The presence and characteristics of involuntary movements in untreated vis-a-vis treated psychosis indicate an intrinsic feature of the disease process and implicate dysfunction in cortical-basal ganglia-cortical circuitry. These neuromotor disorders of schizophrenia join other markers of subtle but pervasive cerebral and extracerebral, systemic dysfunction, and complement current concepts of schizophrenia as a disorder of developmentally determined cortical-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical\\/cerebellar network disconnectivity.

  19. MMPI in first-episode paranoid schizophrenia%MMPI对首发偏执型精神分裂症的价值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉; 王晓英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics and diagnosis value of MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) in first-episode paranoid schizophrenia. Methods Before the treatment, MMPI was administrated to the patient with first-episode paranoid schizophrenia. Analyzed the efficiency of the survey results and compared the results with that of controls of the same number. Results ignificant differences were found between the patients with first-episode paranoid schizophrenia and healthy controls in two validity scales and T-scores of seven clinical sub-scale. For the T-scorcs of the MMPI two point codes types for Pa (paranoid) and Sc (schizophrenia), there was a significant difference between the study and control group. For first-episode paranoid schizophrenia, the MMPI results cannot resolve the contradictions between sensitivity and specificity, the false positive and negative results should be noticed. Conclusion MMPI results were more specific and sensitive compared with the normal controls. However, it cannot replace clinical psychiatric examination for diagnosis of the first-episode paranoid schizophrenia. MMPI could be chosen as an accessory method for clinical psychiatry.%目的 探讨MMPI(明尼苏达多项人格测查表)在首发偏执型精神分裂症中的特征及诊断价值.方法 对首发偏执型精神分裂症患者,在未治疗前行MMPI测试,分析其有效测评结果,并与之按1∶1匹配正常组对照分析.结果 首发偏执型精神分裂症患者组有2个效度量表及7个临床子量表的T分均与正常对照组差异有统计学意义;临床子量表两点测图Pa(偏执)、Sc(精神分裂)模式的T分,患者组与正常对照组差异有统计学意义;MMPI的测试结果无法解决敏感性与特异性间矛盾,存在假阳性与假阴性结果.结论 MMPI对首发偏执型精神分裂症的敏感性与特异性高于正常人群的随机水平,将其作为精神科临床辅助检查工具有一定的实用价

  20. A randomized controlled study of the efficacy of six-month supplementation with concentrated fish oil rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in first episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawełczyk, Tomasz; Grancow-Grabka, Marta; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Trafalska, Elżbieta; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    Short-term clinical trials of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) as add-on therapy in patients with schizophrenia revealed mixed results. The majority of these studies used an 8- to 12-week intervention based on ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid. A randomized placebo-controlled trial was designed to compare the efficacy of 26-week intervention, composed of either 2.2 g/day of n-3 PUFA, or olive oil placebo, with regard to symptom severity in first-episode schizophrenia patients. Seventy-one patients (aged 16-35) were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to the study arms. The primary outcome measure of the clinical evaluation was schizophrenia symptom severity change measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Mixed models repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences between the study arms regarding total PANSS score change favouring n-3 PUFA (p = 0.016; effect size (ES) = 0.29). A fifty-percent improvement in symptom severity was achieved significantly more frequently in the n-3 PUFA group than in the placebo group (69.4 vs 40.0%; p = 0.017). N-3 PUFA intervention was also associated with an improvement in general psychopathology, measured by means of PANSS (p = 0.009; ES = 0.32), depressive symptoms (p = 0.006; ES = 0.34), the level of functioning (p = 0.01; ES = 0.31) and clinical global impression (p = 0.046; ES = 0.29). The findings suggest that 6-month intervention with n-3 PUFA may be a valuable add-on therapy able to decrease the intensity of symptoms and improve the level of functioning in first-episode schizophrenia patients. PMID:26679763

  1. The association between psychopathology of first-episode psychosis patients within the schizophrenia spectrum and previous offending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben;

    2009-01-01

    treatment centres included and rated 477 patients with first-episode psychosis over a 2-year period on socio-demography, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, OPerational CRITeria checklist, Global Assessment of Functioning, Premorbid Adjustment Scale and Self-report Insight Scale for psychosis. Data......, employment status and education, a primarily positive symptomatology was associated with a prior criminal career. The premorbid level of functioning and several function parameters were also significantly associated with criminal history. There are significant differences in psychopathology between...

  2. A Virtual Reality Task Based on Animal Research - Spatial Learning and Memory in Patients after the First Episode of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta eFajnerova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cognitive deficit is considered to be a characteristic feature of schizophrenia disorder. A similar cognitive dysfunction was demonstrated in animal models of schizophrenia. However, the poor comparability of methods used to assess cognition in animals and humans could be responsible for low predictive validity of current animal models. In order to assess spatial abilities in schizophrenia and compare our results with the data obtained in animal models we designed a virtual analogue of the Morris water maze (MWM, the virtual Four Goals Navigation (vFGN task.Method: Twenty-nine patients after the first psychotic episode with schizophrenia symptoms and a matched group of healthy volunteers performed the vFGN task. They were required to find and remember four hidden goal positions in an enclosed virtual arena. The task consisted of two parts. The Reference memory (RM session with a stable goal position was designed to test spatial learning. The Delayed-matching-to-place (DMP session presented a modified working memory protocol designed to test the ability to remember a sequence of three hidden goal positions.Results: Data obtained in the RM session show impaired spatial learning in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls in pointing and navigation accuracy. The DMP session showed impaired spatial memory in schizophrenia during the recall of spatial sequence and similar deficit in spatial bias in probe trials. The pointing accuracy and the quadrant preference showed higher sensitivity toward the cognitive deficit than the navigation accuracy. Direct navigation to the goal was affected by sex and age of the tested subjects. Age affected spatial performance only in healthy controls. Conclusions: Despite some limitations of the study, our results correspond well to previous studies in animal models of schizophrenia and support the decline of spatial cognition in schizophrenia, indicating the usefulness of the vFGN task in

  3. A Selective Review of Cerebral Abnormalities in Patients With First-Episode Schizophrenia Before and After Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qiyong; Lui, Su; Sweeney, John A

    2016-03-01

    The question of whether there are significant changes in brain anatomy and function at illness onset and over the early course of schizophrenia is a crucial issue with broad implications for prognosis, patient care, and models of illness pathophysiology. Prefrontal hypoactivity and hippocampal and subcortical hyperactivity at the onset of illness may represent a core illness pathophysiology. Gray matter changes have been most robust within thalamo-cortical networks, whereas altered brain activity has been most pronounced in fronto-parietal and default-mode networks. These findings indicate that regional anatomical and functional brain abnormalities are significantly dissociated during the early course of schizophrenia prior to antipsychotic treatment. One possible explanation is that functional MRI may reflect physiological alterations related to acute psychosis or consequences of distal anatomic changes, while changes in brain anatomy reflect more stable and long-standing alterations. The relative stability of brain measures in the early years after illness onset stands in contrast to indirect evidence for moderate progressive changes provided by our recent study of chronic never-treated patients. Our recent cross-sectional study of never-treated patients with chronic schizophrenia found an accelerated age-related decline in cortical thickness, relative to healthy controls, that could not be attributed to medication effects. Studies must consider both the clinical heterogeneity that affects findings of brain changes within schizophrenia and the low specificity of the brain changes, which can occur in other early-onset mental disorders as well. PMID:26621570

  4. Predictive validity of a culturally informed diagnosis of schizophrenia : A 30 month follow-up study with first episode psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandi, Tekleh; Havenaar, Johan M.; Laan, Wijnand; Kahn, Rene S.; van den Brink, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown discrepancies between a standard diagnostic interview for schizophrenia (CASH) and a culture sensitive version of this instrument (CASH-CS) in Moroccan patients. More specifically we showed that among Moroccan immigrants the CASH-CS resulted in fewer patients with a diagn

  5. Comorbid substance abuse in first-episode schizophrenia : Effects on cognition and psychopathology in the EUFEST study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wobrock, T.; Falkai, P.; Schneider-Axmann, T.; Hasan, A.; Galderisi, S.; Davidson, M.; Kahn, R. S.; Derks, E. M.; Boter, H.; Rybakowski, J. K.; Libiger, J.; Dollfus, S.; Lopez-Ibor, J. J.; Peuskens, J.; Hranov, L. G.; Gaebel, W.; Fleischhacker, W. W.

    2013-01-01

    Studies and meta-analyses investigating the influence of substance use disorder (SUD) (substance abuse or dependence) on psychopathology and neurocognitive function in schizophrenia patients have revealed controversial results. Most studies did only have small samples and did not focus exclusively o

  6. An MRI study of spatial probability brain map differences between first-episode schizophrenia and normal controls

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hae-Jeong; Levitt, James; Shenton, Martha E.; Salisbury, Dean F.; Kubicki, Marek; Kikinis, Ron; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    We created a spatial probability atlas of schizophrenia to provide information about the neuroanatomic variability of brain regions of patients with the disorder. Probability maps of 16 regions of interest (ROIs) were constructed by taking manually parcellated ROIs from subjects’ magnetic resonance images (MRIs) and linearly transforming them into Talairach space using the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) template. ROIs included temporal, parietal, and prefrontal cortex subregions, with ...

  7. 48 echo T2 myelin imaging of white matter in first-episode schizophrenia: Evidence for aberrant myelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna J.M. Lang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myelin water imaging provides a novel strategy to assess myelin integrity and corresponding clinical relationships in psychosis, of particular relevance in frontal white matter regions. In the current study, T2 myelin water imaging was used to assess the myelin water fraction (MWF signal from frontal areas in a sample of 58 individuals experiencing first-episode psychosis (FEP and 44 healthy volunteers. No differences in frontal MWF were observed between FEP subjects and healthy volunteers; however, differences in normal patterns of associations between frontal MWF and age, education and IQ were seen. Significant positive relationships between frontal MWF and age, North American Adult Reading Test (NAART IQ, and years of completed education were observed in healthy volunteers. In contrast, only the relationship between frontal MWF and NAART IQ was significant after Bonferroni correction in the FEP group. Additionally, significant positive relationships between age and MWF in the anterior and posterior internal capsules, the genu, and the splenium were observed in healthy volunteers. In FEP subjects, only the relationship between age and MWF in the splenium was statistically significant. Frontal MWF was not associated with local white matter volume. Altered patterns of association between age, years of education, and MWF in FEP suggest that subtle disturbances in myelination may be present early in the course of psychosis.

  8. Detection and significance of serum interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in first-episode schizophrenia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Yan; Chao Cheng; Hui-Xia Wang; Yuan-Yuan Li; Shuai-Bin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To detect changes of serum interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in first-episode and different subtypes, and to analyze the correlation between pathological and immune mechanism.Methods:90 first-episode schizophrenia patients admitted to our hospital were enrolled as observation group, and were subdivided into four groups including negative and positive , family type and distributing types. During the same period, 35 physical healthy volunteers were enrolled as control group. Serum interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-αand interleukin-1β in both observation group and control group were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA), correlation between these factors and mental symptoms were analyzed with pearson correlation analysis.Results:The levels of serum IL-6, TNF-αα, IL-1β of the observation group before and after the treatment were significantly higher than those of control group, the level of IL-1β in observation group after treatment was significantly lower than that before the treatment (P<0.05). Before treatment, the level of IL-6 in family type was significantly higher than that in distributing type, the level of TNF-αα in negative type was significantly higher than that in positive type. After treatment the level of TNF-αα was significantly reduced in family type and negative type, the IL-1β was significantly reduced in four subtypes. Pearson correlation analysis showed that TNF-αα lever was positively correlated with symptoms of negative subtype. IL-1β level and PANSS scores, symptoms of both positive and negative types were positively correlated.Conclusion:The levels of IL-6, TNF-αα, IL-1β levels are significantly increases in patients with first-episode schizophrenia, immune activation may be activated and IL-6 level is closely related to the family type of the disease which is genetic influenced, TNF-αα is associated with symptoms of negative type. IL-1β level may be a certain extent

  9. [Young person's first-episode psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki, Pirjo; Veijola, Juha

    2012-01-01

    Young person's first-episode psychosis may signify the onset of schizophrenia, psychotic depression or bipolar disorder. It can also be a brief condition resulting in full recovery. The psychosis may be caused by drugs. First-episode psychosis is usually preceded by a long period of nonspecific symptoms. Provision of close and active follow-up is important in the prodromal phase. Treatment of first-episode psychosis is individual. Usually it involves medication, individual discussions, psychotherapy or music therapy as well as family meetings. The therapy helps the young person become independent. PMID:22312825

  10. The effect of atypical antipsychotics on brain N-acetylaspartate levels in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode patients with schizophrenia: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grošić V

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vladimir Grošić,1 Petra Folnegovic Grošić,2 Petra Kalember,3,4 Maja Bajs Janović,2 Marko Radoš,3,4 Mate Mihanović,1 Neven Henigsberg3,51Psychiatric Hospital Sveti Ivan, Zagreb, 2University Hospital Center Zagreb, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, 3Polyclinic Neuron, Croatian Institute for Brain Research, Zagreb, 4Department of Neuropharmacology and Behavioral Pharmacology, Croatian Institute for Brain Research, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, 5Vrapče University Hospital, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, CroatiaPurpose: To investigate the correlates of a clinical therapeutic response by using the parameters measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy after the administration of atypical antipsychotics.Patients and methods: Twenty-five antipsychotic-naïve first-episode patients with schizophrenia were monitored for 12 months. The patients were evaluated using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression Scale of Severity, Tower of London – Drexel University, Letter–Number Span Test, Trail Making Test A, and Personal and Social Performance Scale. They were administered atypical antipsychotics, starting with quetiapine. In the absence of a therapeutic response, another antipsychotic was introduced.Results: After 12 study months, the N-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr level did not significantly change at the whole-group level. Additional analysis revealed a significant rise in the NAA/Cr level in the study group that stayed on the same antipsychotic throughout the study course (P=0.008 and a significant drop in NAA/Cr in the study group that switched antipsychotics (P=0.005. On the whole-group level, no significant correlations between NAA/Cr values and other scores were found at either baseline or after 12 study months.Conclusion: One-year treatment with atypical antipsychotics administered to antipsychotic-naïve patients didn’t result

  11. First-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    . Patients with first-episode psychosis had significantly high NEO-PI-R scores for neuroticism and agreeableness, and lower scores for conscientiousness and extroversion. The median time for remission in the total sample was three months. Female gender and better premorbid functioning were predictive of less...

  12. 首发精神分裂症儿童少年的共患病%Comorbidity in children and adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 刘靖; 姚旭东

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the occurrence of comorbidity in children and adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia and explore the clinical features of schizophrenia with comorbidity and risk factors of comorbidity. Methods: Fifty-two children and adolescents meeting criteria for schizophrenia of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-Ⅳ) were included in this cross-sectional study. They were assessed with the self-made general condition questionnaire, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), KiddieSade-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL), Chinese version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents ( MINI Kid) ( Parent Version), Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS) and the Social Disability Screening Schedule (SDSS). Results: There were 57.7% (30/52) of children and adolescents with firstepisode schizophrenia having comorbidities. There were 14 (26. 9% ) with current comorbidities, 10 ( 19. 2% ) with previous comorbidities, 6 (11.5% ) with current and previous comorbidities. There were 24 (46.2%) having 1 comorbidity, 4 (7. 7% ) having 2 comorbidities, 2 (3.8%) having 3 comorbidities. The comorbidities included 19 with depression disorder (4 with suicide behavior), 5 with generalized anxiety disorder, 1 with panic disorder, 2 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, 2 with social phobia, 5 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 7 with tic disorder (5 with transient tic disorder and 2 with de la Tourette's syndrome), 2 with pervasive developmental disorder (both were Asperger's syndromes). The previous comorbidities included 5 with depression disorder, 1 with panic disorder, 2 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, 1 with social phobia, 2 with ADHD, 7 with tic disorder. The current comorbidities included 14 with depression disorder, 5 with generalized anxiety disorder, 2 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, 1 with social phobia, 3 with ADHD, 2 with pervasive

  13. 首发精神分裂症患者血清甲状腺激素检测临床研究%Clinical research of serum thyroid hormone detection in first-episode schizophrenia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小泉; 王祖森; 宋传福; 梁可美; 李江涌; 侯正华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between thyroid function and first-episode schizophrenia and clinical signifi-cance. Methods A total of 84 unrelated schizophrenia inpatients were recruited from the Fourth People's Hospital of Wuhu City from December 2008 to August 2010. Self-made questionnaire was applied to collect the demographic data of all subjects. The cobas® e411 automatic electrochemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer was determined respectively to the two groups of serum thyroid glycine (T3),thyroxine(T4),freethyroidhormones(FT3,FT4)andthyroid-stimulatinghormone(TSH)level. AndtheSPSS13.0statis-tical software was carried on the chi-square test and t test. Results The serum T4(100.88 ±24.10) and FT3(4.64 ±4.64)levels in first-episode schizophrenia patients were lower than those in normal controls[(108. 09 ± 15. 13), P=0. 039;(4. 97 ± 4. 97),P=0. 012]. No significant differences were found in serum T3, FT4 and TSH levels between first-episode schizophrenia patients and con-trols(P>0. 05). The serum FT3 (4. 45 ± 0. 82) and FT4 (16. 40 ± 3. 48) levels in the female first-episode schizophrenia patients were significantly lower than that in the male group[(5. 07 ± 1. 00),P0.05);首发精神分裂症女性组血清FT3(4.45±0.82)、FT4(16.40±3.48)与男性组血清FT3(5.07± 1.00)、FT4(18.51±3.37)比较差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05)。结论首发精神分裂症,尤其是女性精神分裂症的发生与甲状腺异常高度相关,应采取有效措施应对。

  14. 首发精神分裂症患者执行功能障碍的对照研究%A case-control study of executive function in first-episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金成; 赵晓川; 宋美; 吴振国; 辛博; 高明龙

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨首发抑郁症患者执行功能损害的特点. 方法:80例首发精神分裂症患者作为研究组,80 例健康体检者作为对照组,采用威斯康星卡片分类测验( WCST)和Stroop色词测试评估两组的认知功能并进行比较. 结果:两组在 WSCT 的完成分类数、错误应答数、持续错误数和Stroop色词测试中读颜色卡片时错误数及所用时间差异有统计学意义(p<0.05). 结论:首次发病的精神分裂症患者存在执行功能显著受损.%Objective:To observe the characteristics of executive function of first-episode schizophrenia.Methods:80 first-episode schizophrenia were col-lected to the study group, and the control group with 80 normal people.Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Stroop color word test were conducted to assess the pa-tient's executive function, the results were compared.Results:The correct categories, response errors, continue errors of WSCT and the errors, time of Stroop were statis-ticly different between two groups(p<0.05).Conclusions:The executive function in patients with first-episode schizophrenia shows impairment.

  15. A virtual reality task based on animal research – spatial learning and memory in patients after the first episode of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Fajnerová, Iveta; Rodriguez, Mabel; Levčík, David; Konrádová, Lucie; Mikoláš, Pavol; Brom, Cyril; Stuchlík, Aleš; Vlček, Kamil; Horáček, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Cognitive deficit is considered to be a characteristic feature of schizophrenia disorder. A similar cognitive dysfunction was demonstrated in animal models of schizophrenia. However, the poor comparability of methods used to assess cognition in animals and humans could be responsible for low predictive validity of current animal models. In order to assess spatial abilities in schizophrenia and compare our results with the data obtained in animal models, we designed a virtual analo...

  16. Epidemiological and clinical characterization following a first psychotic episode in major depressive disorder: Comparisons with Schizophrenia and Bipolar I Disorder in the Cavan-Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study (CAMFEPS).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Owoeye, Olabisi

    2013-05-28

    While recent research on psychotic illness has focussed on the nosological, clinical, and biological relationships between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, little attention has been directed to the most common other psychotic diagnosis, major depressive disorder with psychotic features (MDDP). As this diagnostic category captures the confluence between dimensions of psychotic and affective psychopathology, it is of unappreciated heuristic potential to inform on the nature of psychotic illness. Therefore, the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of MDDP were compared with those of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder within the Cavan-Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study (n = 370). Epidemiologically, the first psychotic episode of MDDP (n = 77) was uniformly distributed across the adult life span, while schizophrenia (n = 73) and bipolar disorder (n = 73) were primarily disorders of young adulthood; the incidence of MDDP, like bipolar disorder, did not differ between the sexes, while the incidence of schizophrenia was more common in males than in females. Clinically, MDDP was characterized by negative symptoms, executive dysfunction, neurological soft signs (NSS), premorbid intellectual function, premorbid adjustment, and quality of life similar to those for schizophrenia, while bipolar disorder was characterized by less prominent negative symptoms, executive dysfunction and NSS, and better quality of life. These findings suggest that what we currently categorize as MDDP may be more closely aligned with other psychotic diagnoses than has been considered previously. They indicate that differences in how psychosis is manifested vis-à-vis depression and mania may be quantitative rather than qualitative and occur within a dimensional space, rather than validating categorical distinctions.

  17. Primeiro episódio da esquizofrenia e assistência de enfermagem Primer episodio de la esquizofrenia y asistencia de enfermería First episode of schizophrenia and nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Cristina Ciccone Giacon

    2006-06-01

    disponibles y pocos recursos sociales. Tal condición muestra la necesidad de estudios relacionados al primer episodio.Schizophrenia is one of the main health problems in current days, requiring considerable investment from the health system. Intervening in the first episode offers a unique opportunity in the treatment of schizophrenia and influences the course of the illness. This article consists of a critical literature review aimed at examining knowledge on first episode schizophrenia and discussing the contribution of nursing care. A research was carried out in bibliographical databases. The data collected made possible the organization of information on the general concept of schizophrenia, its first episode, types of intervention and nursing performance. We found out that in Brazil there are few studies related to first episode schizophrenia in Nursing, few available specialized services, and few social resources. This situation reveals the need for more studies on first episode schizophrenia.

  18. Association between impaired brain activity and volume at the sub-region of Broca's area in ultra-high risk and first-episode schizophrenia: A multi-modal neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashiro, Norichika; Koike, Shinsuke; Satomura, Yoshihiro; Suga, Motomu; Nagai, Tatsuya; Natsubori, Tatsunobu; Tada, Mariko; Gonoi, Wataru; Takizawa, Ryu; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that functional abnormalities in Broca's area, which is important in language production (speech and thoughts before speech), play an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. While multi-modal approaches have proved useful in revealing the specific pathophysiology of psychosis, the association of functional abnormalities with gray matter volume (GMV) here in subjects with an ultra-high risk (UHR) of schizophrenia, those with first-episode schizophrenia (FES), and healthy controls has yet to be clarified. Therefore, the relationship between cortical activity measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during a verbal fluency task, and GMV in the Broca's area assessed using a manual tracing in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which considers individual structural variation, was examined for 57 subjects (23 UHR/18 FES/16 controls). The UHR and FES group showed significantly reduced brain activity compared to control group in the left pars triangularis (PT) (P=.036, .003, respectively). Furthermore in the FES group, the reduced brain activity significantly positively correlated with the volume in the left PT (B=0.29, P=.027), while significant negative association was evident for all subjects (B=-0.18, P=.010). This correlation remained significant after adjusting for antipsychotics dosage, and voxel-wise analysis could not detect any significant correlation between impaired cortical activity and volume. The significant relationship between neural activity and GMV in the left PT may reflect a specific pathophysiology related to the onset of schizophrenia. PMID:26873807

  19. Effects of Blocking D2/D3 Receptors on Mismatch Negativity and P3a Amplitude of Initially Antipsychotic Naïve, First Episode Schizophrenia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Düring, Signe; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Oranje, Bob

    2015-01-01

    -episode schizophrenia patients were tested in a MMN paradigm at baseline and after six weeks of treatment with amisulpride. We further examined 48 age and gender matched controls in this paradigm.ResultsAt baseline the patients showed significantly reduced P3a amplitude compared to healthy controls, but no differences......-episode patients with schizophrenia have normal MMN, yet reduced P3a amplitude compared to healthycontrols. In spite of the fact that the six weeks amisulpride treatment improved the patients both clinically and functionally, it had no effect on either MMN or P3a amplitude. This suggests that even though there is......BackgroundReduced Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a amplitude have been suggestedto be among the core deficits inschizophrenia since the late seventies. Blockade of dopamine D2 receptors play an important role in the treatment of schizophrenia. In addition, there is some evidence indicating that...

  20. Distinct molecular phenotypes in male and female schizophrenia patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M Ramsey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In schizophrenia, sex specific dimorphisms related to age of onset, course of illness and response to antipsychotic treatment may be mirrored by sex-related differences in the underlying molecular pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we have carried out multiplex immunoassay profiling of sera from 4 independent cohorts of first episode antipsychotic naive schizophrenia patients (n = 133 and controls (n = 133 to identify such sex-specific illness processes in the periphery. The concentrations of 16 molecules associated with hormonal, inflammation and growth factor pathways showed significant sex differences in schizophrenia patients compared with controls. In female patients, the inflammation-related analytes alpha-1-antitrypsin, B lymphocyte chemoattractant BLC and interleukin-15 showed negative associations with positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS scores. In male patients, the hormones prolactin and testosterone were negatively associated with PANSS ratings. In addition, we investigated molecular changes in a subset of 33 patients before and after 6 weeks of treatment with antipsychotics and found that treatment induced sex-specific changes in the levels of testosterone, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, follicle stimulating hormone, interleukin-13 and macrophage-derived chemokine. Finally, we evaluated overlapping and distinct biomarkers in the sex-specific molecular signatures in schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that future studies should investigate the common and sex-specific aetiologies of schizophrenia, as the current findings suggest that different therapeutic strategies may be required for male and female patients.

  1. 护理访谈对首发精神分裂症病人家属心理状况的影响%The impact of nursing interview on the psychological status of first-episode schizophrenia patients' family members

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫金灿; 冼彩燕

    2012-01-01

    目的:评价护理访谈对首发精神分裂症病人家属心理健康状况的影响.方法:在人院时、住院期间、出院前对80例首发精神分裂症病人家属实施护理访谈,采用SCL - 90对家属进行心理健康测评.结果:首发精神分裂症病人家属SCL-90各项因子分与常模比较,访谈前,其人际关系、焦虑、抑郁、偏执、敌对、恐怖和躯体化7项因子分比较有差异(P<0.05);病人的配偶有4项因子分得分高于病人的子女或父母的得分(P<0.05).干预后,各项因子分与国内常模比较无差异(P>0.05).结论:护理访谈能改善首发精神分裂症病人家属,尤其是配偶的心理健康状况,缓解家属的心理压力,给病人一个良好的家庭康复环境,有利于促进病人早日康复.%Objective:To evaluate the impact of nursing interviews on psychological status of first - episode schizophrenia patients' family members. Methods; Cany out nursing interviews for the 80 patients' family members when patients on admission, during hospitalization,discharge. Used SCL -90 to evaluate their psychological status. Results: Before the interview, the overall mental health status of the first - episode schizophrenia patients' family members, compared with the norm, there were significant differences in seven factors scores, such as their interpersonal relationships, anxiety, depression, paranoia, hostility, terror and somatization ( P 0.05 ). Conclusion: Nursing interview could improve the mental health status of first - episode schizophrenia patients' family members, especially the spouses of the patients. To ease the psychological pressure, give patients a good family rehabilitative environment, promote the patient a speedy recovery.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and the Prediction of Outcome in First-Episode Schizophrenia: A Review of Current Evidence and Directions for Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    Dazzan, Paola; Arango, Celso; Fleischacker, Wolfgang; Galderisi, Silvana; Glenthøj, Birte; Leucht, Stephan; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kahn, Rene; Rujescu, Dan; Sommer, Iris; Winter, Inge; McGuire, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measures are promising outcome markers for schizophrenia, since regional frontal and temporal grey matter volumes reductions, and enlargement of the ventricles, have been associated with outcome in this disorder. However, a number of methodological issues have limited the potential clinical utility of these findings. This article reviewed studies that examined brain structure at illness onset as a predictor of outcome, discusses the limitations of the findings...

  3. A virtual reality task based on animal research – spatial learning and memory in patients after the first episode of schizophrenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fajnerová, Iveta; Rodriguez, M.; Levčík, David; Konrádová, L.; Mikoláš, P.; Brom, C.; Stuchlík, Aleš; Vlček, Kamil; Horáček, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, May 27 (2014), s. 157. ISSN 1662-5153 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13386 Grant ostatní: GA MZd(CZ) NT14291; GA MZd(CZ) NT13843 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : schizophrenia * spatial navigation * learning and memory * virtual reality environment * cognitive deficit * Morris Water Maze (MWM) * psychotic disorders * spatial behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.270, year: 2014

  4. Levels of serum anti-NMDAR antibodies in patients with first-episode schizophrenia%首发精神分裂症患者血清抗 NMDAR 抗体水平的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓江; 曾勇; 李明; 熊鹏; 徐飞; 陈鹏

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究首发精神分裂症患者血清中抗N -甲基-D -天冬氨酸受体(NMDAR)抗体浓度水平变化。方法用酶联免疫吸附技术(ELISA)测定80名健康对照和82例首发精神分裂症患者血清抗NMDAR抗体浓度水平。结果首发精神分裂症患者组血清抗NMDAR抗体浓度显著高于对照组[(208.84±113.60)pg/ml比(107.29±40.57)pg/ml ],差异有统计学意义(t =-7.162,P <0.01)。患者组男、女血清抗NMDAR抗体浓度水平[(215.75±133.20)pg/ml比(200.00±83.14)pg/ml]差异无统计学意义(t=0.621,P>0.05)。精神分裂症患者血清抗NMDAR抗体浓度与PANSS总分、阳性症状分及阴性症状分均呈正相关( r值分别为0.364,0.276,0.260;P<0.05)。结论首发精神分裂症患者血清抗NMDAR抗体水平升高,与精神分裂症临床症状呈正相关。%Objective To explore serum level of anti-NMDAR antibodies in patients with first-episode schizophrenia .Methods The serum concentrations of anti -NMDAR antibodies in 80 healthy controls and 82 patients with first -episode schizophrenia were assessed by enzyme linked immunosor‐bent assay (ELISA) .Results The level of serum anti-NMDAR antibody in first-episode schizophreni‐a was observably higher than healthy controls[(208 .84 ± 113 .60)pg/ml vs(107 .29 ± 40 .57) pg/ml] , and the difference was statistically significant (t = - 7 .162 ,P 0 .05) .The serum concentra‐tion of anti -NMDAR antibodies was positively correlated with PANSS total score ,the positive syn‐drome scores and the negative syndrome scores (r= 0 .364 ,0 .276 ,0 .260 ,respectively ;P< 0 .05) .Con‐clusions The level of serum antibody anti -NMDAR in first -episode schizophrenia is increased ,and there is a positive correlation with the clinical symptoms of schizophrenia .

  5. Clinical analysis on duration of untreated psychosis and early symptoms of first-episode schizophrenia%首发精神分裂症未治疗时间与早期症状临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical analysis on duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and early symptoms of first-episode schizophrenia. Methods: Psychotic symptoms rating scale (SOS) was used to evaluate the early symptoms and DUP of 100 patients eligible for the first-episode schizophrenia in CCMD-Ⅲ.Results: Early symptoms with the incidence rate of over 40% and lasting more than 6 months were sleep disturbance, role dysfunction, suspicion, bizarre behaviors, emotional disorders, ideas of reference, abnormal perception, paranoia, abulomania and so on. The median DUP was 26 months and the long DUP was relevant to negative symptoms. Conclusion: The early identification of early symptoms, strengthening publicity of mental health knowledge and shortening DUP are very important.%目的:探讨首发精神分裂症未治疗时间(DUP)及患者早期症状临床分析.方法:对100例符合(CCMD-Ⅲ)中精神分裂症首次发作的患者应用首发精神分裂症精神症状评定量表(SOS)评定早期症状及患者的DUP.结果:发生率>40%、持续时间超过6个月的早期症状依次有睡眠障碍、角色功能障碍、疑心、怪异行为、情绪障碍、牵连观念、知觉异常、妄想、意志缺乏等.DUP中位数为26个月且长DUP与阴性症状相关.结论:尽早识别早期症状,加强精神卫生的知识宣传,缩短DUP非常重要.

  6. Effect of outpatient follow-up on the rehabilitation of patients with first-episode schizophrenia%门诊随访对首发精神分裂症患者康复疗效的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪英; 王树珍; 余莉; 石璐

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the adjunctive effect of outpatient follow-up on the rehabilitation of patients with first-episode schizophrenia.Methods Methods included establishing outpatient follow-up teams,developing the records of patients,providing follow-up services through telephone,mailing letters,consultation hot line,home-visiting and so on.The two groups of patients with psychiatric symptoms,social function,quality of life and medication compliance were evaluated.Results Outpatient follow-up relieved the psychiatric symptoms and improved social functions,increased the medication compliance and improved the patients'quality of life (P <0.01).Conclusion Outpatient follow-up can significantly improve the rehabilitation of the patients with first-episode schizophrenia,and enhance their quality of life and social functions.%目的 探讨门诊随访对首发精神分裂症患者的辅助治疗作用.方法 成立门诊随访小组,建立患者档案资料,采用电话随访、邮递信函、咨询热线及上门随访等形式进行门诊随访干预,并对两组患者的精神病症状、社会功能、生活质量和服药依从性进行评价.结果 门诊随访干预12个月后,改善了患者精神症状和社会功能,提高了服药依从性和生活质量(P<0.01).结论 门诊随访可明显提高首发精神分裂症患者的康复疗效,提高其生活质量及社会功能.

  7. Auditory change detection in schizophrenia: sources of activity, related neuropsychological function and symptoms in patients with a first episode in adolescence, and patients 14 years after an adolescent illness-onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachsse Jan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The event-related brain response mismatch negativity (MMN registers changes in auditory stimulation with temporal lobe sources reflecting short-term echoic memory and frontal sources a deviance-induced switch in processing. Impairment, controversially present at the onset of schizophrenia, develops rapidly and can remain independent of clinical improvement. We examined the characteristics of the scalp-recorded MMN and related these to tests of short-term memory and set-shifting. We assessed whether the equivalent dipole sources are affected already at illness-onset in adolescence and how these features differ after a 14-year course following an adolescent onset. The strength, latency, orientation and location of frontal and temporal lobe sources of MMN activity early and late in the course of adolescent-onset schizophrenia are analysed and illustrated. Methods MMN, a measure of auditory change-detection, was elicited by short deviant tones in a 3-tone oddball-presentation and recorded from 32 scalp electrodes. Four dipole sources were placed following hypothesis-led calculations using brain electrical source analysis on brain atlas and MR-images. A short neuropsychological test battery was administered. We compared 28 adolescent patients with a first episode of schizophrenia and 18 patients 14 years after diagnosis in adolescence with two age-matched control groups from the community (n = 22 and 18, respectively. Results MMN peaked earlier in the younger than the older subjects. The amplitude was reduced in patients, especially the younger group, and was here associated with negative symptoms and slow set-shifting. In first-episode patients the temporal lobe sources were more ventral than in controls, while the left cingular and right inferior-mid frontal sources were more caudal. In the older patients the left temporal locus remained ventral (developmental stasis, the right temporal locus extended more antero

  8. Survey on glucose metabolism in patients with first episode attack of schizophrenia%首发精神分裂症患者糖代谢的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈姝子; 刘遵建; 张成芳; 崔东红; 林萍

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨首发精神分裂症患者的糖代谢情况.方法:对56例首发精神分裂症患者及56名健康人进行空腹血糖、餐后2h血糖、胰岛素及糖化血红蛋白的测定,并计算胰岛素抵抗指数.结果:精神分裂症患者的餐后2h血糖、胰岛素、糖化血红蛋白( HbAc1)水平及胰岛素抵抗指数均高于健康对照者,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).精神分裂症患者组的糖代谢异常发生率为23.2%,与健康对照组相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).男女性别间糖代谢异常发生率无统计学意义,而随着年龄增大,其糖代谢异常发生率明显上升.结论:与普通人群相比,首发精神分裂症患者具有较高的糖代谢异常发生率,提示精神分裂症与糖代谢异常间可能存在一定相关性.%Objective: To study the status of glucose metabolism in patients with first episode attack of schizophrenia. Methods Fifty- six patients with first-episode attack of schizophrenia and 56 healthy normal controls were enrolled in the study. Fasting plasma glucose( FPG), 2-hour plasma glucose in the oral glucose tolerance test (PG), fasting insulin level (FI) and HbAlc were determined in the two groups. IR (insulin resistance) was calculated. The diagnosis of impaired glucose regulation (IGR) was made according to the WHO criteria. Results 2h-PG, FI,HbAlc and IR were significantly higher in patients than in controls. The prevalence of IGR was significantly higher in patients than in controls (P<0.01). No statistically significant difference was found between male and female. The prevalence rate of IGR increased with the increase in age. Conclusions The prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism is high in patients with first-episode attack of schizophrenia. This suggests that there may be some correlation between impaired glucose metabolism and schizophrenia.

  9. 初发精神分裂症患者神经认知功能早期受损状况调查%The survey of impaired neurocognitive function in patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊峰; 贺定翠; 邓小鹏; 凃哲明; 刘波

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过分析初发精神分裂症患者与健康人群认知功能的差异,探讨初发精神分裂症患者早期神经认知功能缺陷的程度与特点。方法选取住院的初发精神分裂症患者120例为患者组,健康人群120例为对照组,采用阳性与阴性症状量表、成套神经认知功能测验全面评定患者的精神症状与认知功能。结果(1)阳性症状、阴性症状、一般精神病理以及PANSS总分无性别差异(P>0.05)。(2)在11项神经认知功能测验中,患者组与对照组之间差异显著(P<0.05),患者组学习和记忆、精细动作、信息处理速度以及执行功能的成绩显著低于对照组( P<0.001)。(3)男患者的颜色连线2测验( P<0.05)、Stroop色词测验(单词总数 P<0.05,颜色总数 P<0.05,色/词总数 P<0.01)、WMS-Ⅲ空间广度总分(P<0.01)的成绩显著低于女患者。结论初发精神分裂症患者的认知功能全面损害,且男性患者执行功能与视觉空间记忆的缺陷更严重。%Objective To investigate the neurocognitive function of patients with first-episode schizophrenia by comparing the difference between schizophrenia group and health group.Methods One hundred and twenty patients with first-episode schizophrenia were considered as the patient group ,and 120 normal people were considered as the control group. The psychiat-ric symptoms and cognitive function of two groups were evaluated by a positive and negative syndrome scale and a set of neuro-psychological test battery. Results The neuropsychological function ,learning and memory ,fine movement ,information pro-cessing speed and executive function of patients group were lower than these of control group ;the color trail making test 2 , stroop color word test and WMS-Ⅲ spatial span of male patients were lower than female patients. Conclusion The neuropsy-chological function ,executive function and visual space

  10. Study on Aggressive Behavior of First Episode Schizophrenia Patients.%首发精神分裂症患者攻击行为的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永刚

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨有攻击行为精神分裂症的临床特征及相关问题.方法 196例首发精神分裂症患者按有无攻击行为分为研究组和对照组,研究组76例伴有攻击行为,对照组120例无攻击行为,两组分别从性别、文化程度、家庭史、发病年龄、精神症状、诊断分型、脑电图和病前性格等方面对照分析.结果 两组经t检验,x2检验,在性别(x2=6.54,P<0.05)、发病年龄(t=2.71,P<0.05)、诊断分型偏执型(x2=4.32,P<0.05)、诊断分型青春型(x2=265.69,P<0.05)、阳性精神症状(x2=58.32,P<0.05)、脑电图(x2=10.65,P<0.05)和病前性格(x2=12.19,P<0.05)等方面差异明显.结论 有攻击行为的精神分裂症患者与生物、心理社会因素关系密切.%Objective To explore the clinical features of schizophrenia patients with aggressive behavior and related issues. Methods A total of 196 cases of schizophrenia were divided into study group and control group.study group 76 cases with aggressive behavior,in the control group of 120 patients without aggressive behavior.two groups were similar to gender,education level, family history age of onset of psychiatric symptoms,diagnosis,classification,EEG and pre-morbid personality and so on. Results By t- test,X2 test,there were significant differences in gender (x2 = 6.54,P<0. 05),age (t=2. 71,P<0. 05),diagnosis of paranoid type (x2 = 4. 32,P<0.05),Diagnostic classification of youth type (x2= 265. 69,P<0. 05),positive psychotic symptoms (x2= 58. 32,P<0. 05),electroencephalogram (X2 = 10. 65,P<0. 05) and pre-morbid personality (x2=12. 19,P<0. 05).Conclusion Aggressive behavior in schizophrenic patients is related to biologicad and social fuctors.

  11. Atypical antipsychotic drug treatment for 6 months restores N-acetylaspartate in left prefrontal cortex and left thalamus of first-episode patients with early onset schizophrenia: A magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Jing-Li; Cheng, Zheng-Xiang; Duan, Hui-Feng; Yang, Jia-Ming; Zhu, Xi-Quan; Gao, Cun-You

    2014-07-30

    Early onset schizophrenia (EOS) is often associated with poorer outcomes, including lack of school education, higher risk of mental disability and resistance to treatment. But the knowledge of the neurobiological mechanism of EOS is limited. Here, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we investigated the possible neurochemical abnormalities in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and thalamus of first-episode drug-naïve patients with EOS, and followed up the effects of atypical antipsychotic treatment for 6 months on neurochemical metabolites and clinical symptoms. We measured the ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho) to creatine (Cr) in 41 adolescents with first episode of EOS and in 28 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and years of education. The EOS patients presented with abnormally low NAA/Cr values in the left PFC and left thalamus with a reduced tendency in the right PFC compared with healthy controls. No significant differences were detected between groups for Cho/Cr in PFC and thalamus in any hemisphere. After atypical antipsychotic treatment for 6 months, the reduced NAA/Cr in the left PFC and left thalamus in EOS patients was elevated to the normal level in healthy controls, without any alteration in Cho/Cr. We also found that there was no significant correlation between the neurochemical metabolite ratios in the PFC and thalamus in patients with EOS, and clinical characteristics. Our results suggest that there was neurochemical metabolite abnormalities in PFC and thalamus in EOS patients, atypical antipsychotic treatment can effectively relieve the symptoms and restore the reduced NAA in PFC and thalamus. PMID:24831926

  12. 奥氮平对首发精神分裂症认知功能影响的多中心研究%A Multicenter Study of Olanzapine on Congnitive Function in First-episode Schizophrenia.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙群星; 刘勇; 李四冬; 尹继续

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of olanzapine on cognitive function in first-episode schizophrenia. Methods 100 cases of first-episode schizophrenia were conducted a multicenter, randomized clinical trial. The positive and negative scale (PANSS) and 10 neuropsychological tests such as Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale, Weschler Memory Scale, Iorn Nails Tank Test, Flnger Tapping Test, Motor Function Test, Coordinated Hand function Test, Connection Test A and B, Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST) and Verbal Fluency Test were adopted to assess these subjectsat baseline and the end of 4,8,12 weeks. Results The total score of PANSS in both groups showed significant difference after treatment than before (P < 0.01 ). The efficiency rate and markedly effective rate in study group was 98.0% and 82.0% respectively, while control group was 96.0% and 78.0%respectively. There were not significant differences in curative effect between the two groups, but clozapine group had more side effects than olanzapine group (P < 0.01 ). Both groups has gradually improved in neuropsychological tests since 81h weekends. Compared with pre-treatment, neuropsychological tests such as tapping test, motor function test, coordinated hand function test and Wisconsin Card Sort Test were significantly different in both groups, and the study group was better than control groups. ( P < 0.05 ). Conclusions Olanzapine can better improve the cognitive function of first-episode schizophrenia.%目的 探讨奥氮平对首发精神分裂症患者认知功能的影响.方法 对100例首发精神分裂症患者进行随机观察.于治疗前,治疗第4周末、8周末、12周末各做一次韦氏成人智力量表、韦氏记忆量表、铁槽铁钉测验、手指敲击试验、动作功能测验、手功能协调测验、连线测验a和b、威斯康星卡片分类测验(WCST)及言语流利性测验等10项神经心理测查及阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)评定.结果 两组PANSS总

  13. 认知行为干预对首发精神分裂症患者的影响%Effect of cognitive behavior intervention on patients with first - episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭菜军; 叶会连; 黄美莲; 张月莲; 钟丽红

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨认知行为干预对首发精神分裂症患者疾病康复及服药依从性的影响。方法:将120例首发精神分裂症患者随机分为研究组和对照组各60例,两组均接受常规抗精神病药物治疗和护理,在此基础上研究组予以认知行为干预,对照组接受常规健康教育及康疗活动;于干预前及干预第6周末采用自制的药物认知与服药态度评估表及简明精神病评定量表( BPRS)来评价患者服药依从性的优劣及疾病的康复情况。结果:干预8周后,研究组服药态度、服药依从性明显改善,与对照组比较差异均有统计学意义(P <0.01),患者 BPRS 总分及各因子得分较对照组显著降低(P <0.01)。结论:对首发精神分裂症患者实施认知行为干预,有助于患者认识自身疾病,提高其服药依从性,对改善患者的病情有重要的临床意义,为预防复发、减少住院次数、促进早日回归社会奠定基础。%Objective:To investigate the effect of cognitive behavior intervention on the rehabilitation and medication compliance of pa-tients with first - episode schizophrenia. Methods:120 patients with first - episode schizophrenia were randomly divided into the study group and the control group(60 cases in each group). The patients in both groups received the conventional treatment with antipsychotic drugs and nursing care,in addition the patients in the study group were given cognitive behavior intervention and the patients in the control group only received routine health education and rehabilitation activities. The self - designed evaluation form of patient's cognition and atti-tude towards medication and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale(BPRS)were used to evaluate the patient's rehabilitation and the medica-tion compliance before the intervention and at the end of 6th week after the intervention. Results:After 8 weeks of treatment,the medication compliance and

  14. Application of Maslows hierarchy of needs in rehabilitation of first-episode schizophrenia%马斯洛需要层次论在首发精神分裂症患者康复中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲金玉; 蒲冬玉; 张笑梅; 孙梦月; 刘情情

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨马斯洛需要层次论在首发精神分裂症患者康复护理中的应用效果.方法:首发精神分裂症患者80例,随机分为2组各40例.观察组用马斯洛需要层次论作为指导,针对患者不同阶段的不同需要采取护理措施,满足其躯体和心理各层次的需要;对照组按精神科常规护理.分别在入院时、治疗6周后及出院时,采用阳性和阴性症状评定量表(PANSS)、护士用住院患者观察量表(NOSIE-30)及社会功能缺陷筛选量表(SDSS)进行评定.结果:治疗6周后和出院时2组PANSS总分、阳性症状、阴性症状、一般精神病理评分及SDSS评分均低于入院时(P<0.05,0.01),均呈持续下降趋势,且观察组更低于对照组(P<0.05);治疗6周后和出院时2组NOSIE-30评分均高于入院时(P<0.05,0.01),均呈持续上升趋势,且观察组更高于对照组(P<0.05).结论:在首发精神分裂症患者康复过程中,应用马斯洛需要层次论指导临床护理,能提高治疗依从性及生活自理能力,改善患者生活质量,促进社会功能的康复.%Objective: To explore the application of Maslows hierarchy of needs in rehabilitation of first-episode schizophrenia. Methods: Eighty cases of first-episode schizophrenia were randomly divided into two groups.40 cases in each group. The patients in observation group were guided by Maslows hierarchy of needs according to different needs of different stages, and nursing intervention was given to meet patients' physical and psychological needs patients in control group were given routine psychiatric nursing. The scores of PANSS. NOSIE-30 and SDSS on admission.6 weeks after admission.and at discharge were assessed. Results: Six weeks after admission and at discharge, the scores of PANSS. negative symptoms, positive symptoms and general psychopathology subscale in both groups were lower than pretreatment( P<0. 05 .0. 01 ) .exhibiting a persistent downward trend.and more significantly in

  15. Study of Lurasidone in Treating Antipsychotic Naive or Quasi-Naive Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-24

    Schizophrenia; Schizoaffective Disorder; Schizophreniform Disorder; Psychosis NOS; Autistic Disorder; Asperger Syndrome; Child Development Disorders, Pervasive; Bipolar I Disorder; Bipolar II Disorder; Mood Disorder NOS; Severe Major Depression With Psychotic Features; Single Episode Major Depression Without Psychotic Symptoms; Severe Mood Disorder With Psychotic Features

  16. Value of Encephalofluctuograph technology in the diagnosis of first-episode schizophrenia%脑电超慢涨落检测对首发精神分裂症患者的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞扬; 陆春英; 过树荣

    2012-01-01

    目的 应用脑电超慢涨落仪(ET)测定阳性、阴性精神分裂症患者的神经递质水平,探讨脑电超慢涨落在精神分裂症诊断中的应用价值.方法 应用脑电超慢涨落仪,根据脑内不同神经递质有不同的振荡频率的原理,通过多重频谱分析与非线性处理的方法,测定100例首发精神分裂症和60例正常对照者各种神经递质的水平,对其结果进行分析.结果 ①与正常对照组相比,精神分裂症阳性组、阴性组的多巴胺(DA)活动升高,去甲肾上腺素(NE)、谷氨酸(Glu)活动降低,差异具有统计学意义;②与正常对照组比较,精神分裂症阴性组的5-羟色胺(5-HT)活动升高,差异具有统计学意义;③精神分裂症阳性组与阴性组比较,DA、5-HT、Glu、g-氨基丁酸、NE活动明显异常,差异具有统计学意义.结论 脑电超慢涨落仪在测定精神分裂症神经递质的变化中具有一定价值,可作为精神分裂症患者脑神经递质的评估手段之一.%Objective To determine the neurotransmitter levels of the positive and negative schizophrenia with Encephalofluctuograph technology (ET), and to further explore the application value of Encephalofluctuograph technology in the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Methods Encephalofluctuograph technology was adopted to measure the neurotransmitter levels in 100 patients with first episode schizophrenics and 60 healthy individuals (the control group). The results are analyzed subsequently. Results Compared to the control group, the positive schizophrenia group and negative schizophrenia group had significantly increased DA motility, significantly decreased NE and glue motility. The 5-HT motility of the negative schizophrenia group was significantly higher than that of the control group. The mobility of DA, 5-HT, Glu, GABA and NE in the positive schizophrenia group were significantly abnormal, showing statistically significant difference with those in the negative schizophrenia

  17. 健康教育对首发精神分裂症患者治疗效果的影响%The Effect of Health Education on Patients with First Episode Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳丽萍; 冯飞; 徐国建

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of health education on patients with first episode schizophrenia. Method A total of 80 patients with first episode schizophrenia were randomly assigned to either experimental group(n=40)which received health education and routine therapy or control group which received routine therapy only. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)was administered at baseline,week 2 and week 4. The Clinical Global Impression(CGI)was administered at the moment of reaching hospital and leaving hospital. Results Compared with control group,the experimental group showed more score decrease un BPRS at week 2 and 40 = 2. 43>.P<0. 05;t= 4. 73,P<0. 01) ;at the moment of leaving hospital,the GI of experimental group was less than that of control group 0 = 3. 5,P<0. 01). There was significant difference in compliance between two groups in a month after discharge (X2 = 10. 29,P<0. 01). Conclusion Health education can improve the effect on schizophrenia and treatment compliance.%目的 探讨健康教育对首发精神分裂症患者治疗效果的影响.方法 将40例在河南省洛阳荣康医院住院的首发精神分裂症、平均住院45天以上的患者,随机分成实验组和对照组各20例.实验组在接受常规抗精神病药物治疗的同时再接受健康教育,对照组只接受常规治疗.在入组前及实验的第2周,第4周分别进行简明精神病量表(BPRS)测评,在入院时和出院时分别进行临床疗效总评量表(CGI)测评,出院1个月后对所有患者和家属进行服药依从性的回访.结果 接受健康教育的实验组在第2周、第4周的BPRS评分较对照组评分低.两组间采用t检验,显示第2周评分结果对比有统计学意义(t=2.43,P<0.05);第4周对比有显著统计学意义(t=4.73,P<0.01).出院时实验组患者CGI“疗效总评(GI)”评分低于对照组,两组间采用t检验,差别有显著统计学意义(t=3.5,P<0.01).出院1个月服药依从性实

  18. N400 changes elicited by Chinese sentences in first episode schizophrenia%首发精神分裂症患者汉语认知过程中N400的改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兴时; 唐云翔; 徐一峰; 肖泽萍; 王继军; 张明岛; 楼翡璎; 陈冲

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨在匹配和非匹配结尾词汉语句子认知过程中,首发精神分裂症患者事件相关电位(ERP)N400的改变.方法 在2006年1月至2009年2月,应用中国润杰WJ-1型ERP仪,采用汉语正常句子结尾词(匹配)与句子结尾歧义词(非匹配)的刺激范式,对56例首发精神分裂症患者和62名健康成人的N400作了比较.结果 (1)潜伏期:患者组的N400潜伏期在5个脑区明显延迟于健康对照组.患者组在Cz脑区,匹配指标上(健康对照组:358ms±32ms,患者组:394ms±45ms,P<0.01)、非匹配指标上(446ms±35 ms)均延迟于健康对照组(410ms±29ms,P<0.01).患者组在Fz、Pz、C3和C4脑区也有类似变化.(2)波幅:与健康对照组相比,患者组的N400波幅在5个脑区明显低于健康对照组.患者组在Cz脑区,匹配指标上(健康对照组:8.6 μV±5.1 μV,患者组:5.2μV±4.6μV,P<0.01)、非匹配指标上(8.5 μV±5.9μV)均低于健康对照组(13.4 μV±6.7 μV,P<0.01).患者组在Fz、Pz、C3和C4脑区也有类似变化.(3)N400潜伏期延迟和波幅下降与阳性症状分和PANSS总分呈负相关.结论 句子结尾词是引起N400的良好刺激材料,具有良好的N400启动效应,可为进一步探索精神分裂症发病的脑机制及其早期诊断提供依据.%Objective To explore N400 changes elicited by Chinese sentences ending with matching (congruent) or mismatching (incongruent) words in first episode schizophrenia. Methods ERP ( event-related potentials) component N400 were recorded by an ERP device in 56 first episode schizophrenia (FES) and 62 normal controls (NC) according to a paradigm of Chinese sentences ending with matching or mismatching words. Results ( 1 ) Latencies: compared with NC, FES showed prolonged N400 latencies in five areas at pre-treatment: in Cz. The latencies were (358 ms ±32 ms vs 394 ms ±45 ms,P <0.01 ) in congruent and(410 ms ± 29 ms vs 446 ms ± 35 ms, P < 0.01 )in incongruent situation. And so did in Fz

  19. Structural brain abnormalities in early onset first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, A K; Baaré, William Frans Christian; Raabjerg Christensen, A M;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations. METHODS: We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder...

  20. The N1 auditory evoked potential component as an endophenotype for schizophrenia: high-density electrical mapping in clinically unaffected first-degree relatives, first-episode, and chronic schizophrenia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Foxe, John J.; Yeap, Sherlyn; Snyder, Adam C.; Kelly, Simon P; Thakore, Jogin H.; Molholm, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    The N1 component of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) is a robust and easily recorded metric of auditory sensory-perceptual processing. In patients with schizophrenia, a diminution in the amplitude of this component is a near-ubiquitous finding. A pair of recent studies has also shown this N1 deficit in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia probands, suggesting that the deficit may be linked to the underlying genetic risk of the disease rather than to the disease state itself. However, in...

  1. Early detection of first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn;

    2006-01-01

    Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven.......Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven....

  2. White-matter hyperintensities in first-episode psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    ZANETTI, MARCUS V.; Schaufelberger, Maristela S.; Cláudio C. de Castro; Menezes, Paulo R.; Scazufca, Márcia; McGuire, Philip K; Murray, Robin M.; Busatto, Geraldo F.

    2008-01-01

    Background White-matter hyperintensities have been associated with both schizophrenia and mood disorders, particularly bipolar disorder, but results are inconsistent across studies. Aims To examine whether white-matter hyperintensities are a vulnerability marker for psychosis or are specifically associated with bipolar disorder. Method T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired in 129 individuals with first-episode psychosis (either affective or non-affective psychoses) and 102...

  3. Major Self-mutilation in the First Episode of Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Large, Matthew; Babidge, Nick; Andrews, Doug; Storey, Philip; Nielssen, Olav

    2008-01-01

    Major self-mutilation (MSM) is a rare but catastrophic complication of severe mental illness. Most people who inflict MSM have a psychotic disorder, usually a schizophrenia spectrum psychosis. It is not known when in the course of psychotic illness, MSM is most likely to occur. In this study, the proportion of patients in first episode of psychosis (FEP) was assessed using the results of a systematic review of published case reports. Histories of patients who had removed an eye or a testicle,...

  4. Untreated Illness Duration Correlates with Gray Matter Loss in First Episode Psychoses

    OpenAIRE

    Bangalore, Srihari S.; Goradia, Dhruman D.; Nutche, Jeffrey; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Prasad, Konasale M.R.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2009-01-01

    Frontolimbic neural circuit dysfunction has been thought to underlie schizophrenia. Prolonged duration of untreated illness is associated with frontolimbic structural changes. We present data addressing this question in minimally treated first episode patients with psychoses. To determine the relationship between Duration of Untreated Illness (DUI) and gray matter changes in schizophrenia, we analyzed the structural magnetic resonance images of 82 minimally treated first episode patients with...

  5. Neurocognitive performance in first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Andresen, Burghard; Perro, Christian; Schickel, Marc; Krausz, Micheal; Naber, Dieter

    2002-02-01

    Previous research on neuropsychological disturbances in first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients has provided mixed results which can be partially attributed to methodological inconsistencies. For the present study, 70 schizophrenic patients (40 with chronic and 30 with first-episode schizophrenia) were compared to 30 healthy controls on a large battery of neuropsychological tests. Special attention was paid to potential confounds such as differences in psychopathology, age and educational level between the schizophrenic sub-samples. Healthy controls performed better than both first-episode and chronic patients in almost all cognitive domains (P < 0.01), while the patient samples did not differ in any of the tasks. Results were confirmed in a second series of analyses in which patient subgroups were equated for sociodemographic background variables. The present results confirm recent data collected in longitudinal studies, thus, lending further support for a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. It is suggested that neuropsychological disturbances occur early in schizophrenia and do not worsen in the course beyond age-related decrement. Possible reasons why previous research has produced contradictory findings are discussed. PMID:12056580

  6. 家庭干预对首发精神分裂症患者预后的影响%Effect of family intervention on the prognosis of first-episode patients with schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁睿贞; 程晓雯; 江学锋; 熊祥玉; 张晨

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effect of family intervention on the prognosis of first-episode patients with schizophrenia.Methods Seventy-six first-episode schizophrenic patients were randomly assigned into two groups:the intervention group (n =38) and the control group (n =38).Both groups received drug treatment,while the intervention group had family intervention for a year as follow-up research.The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale (FACES Ⅱ-CV) were used to assess these patients at baseline before and after the intervention.Results At the end of follow-up,the total score of BPRS was (19.5 ± 7.7) and (21.8 ± 7.2) respectively in the intervention group and the control group,lower than its baseline as (34.5 ± 13.2) and (34.9 ± 14.3),but the score of anxiety and depression as well as lack of energy was better in the intervention group [(2.1 ±0.9) and (4.4 ±0.6)] than in the control group [(3.6 ± 0.8) and (7.6 ± 0.5)],and the differences were statistically significant (t =5.67,5.37,-8.9,-19.8,respectively; P < 0.01).The score of actual cohesion,ideal cohesion,actual adaptability and ideal adaptability in FACES Ⅱ-CV improved compared to the baseline in the intervention group,and the differences were statistically significant (t =-2.3,-2.8,-4.9,-4.3,respectively; P < 0.05).After the follow-up study,score of every factor was higher in the intervention group than in the control group,with statistically significant differences (t =2.2,2.6,4.0,3.8,respectively; P < 0.05).During the follow-up,the total score of BPRS was positively related to BPRS at the baseline (t =2.0,P < 0.05),and negatively related to actual cohesion at the baseline (t =-4.1,P < 0.01),actual cohesion during follow-up (t =-3.6,P < 0.01)and actual adaptability during follow-up (t =-6.6,P < 0.01).Conclusions Family intervention combined with drug treatment can improve schizophrenic patients' negative symptoms,family cohesion and

  7. 首发精神分裂症患者脑形态CT研究%Computed Tomography Study of the Brain Morphology of Patients with First-episode Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程祖胜; 夏国园; 夏瑞明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the computed tomography(CT) changes of the brain morphology of patients with first-episode schizophrenia(FES).Methods 100 cases that diagnosed FES by clinical were analyzed retrospectively.According to the diagnostic criteria of ICD10,first attacked,first treated by antipsychotic drug and the duration of disease less than two years were enrolled.Meanwhile,they were compared with the healthy matched groups( n = 100).All subjects received brain CT scan and the CT images were obtained.Relevant data and index were measured, calculated and observed.CT changes of the brain morphology of patients with FES were analyzed by statistical processing.Results The index indicated the ventricular dilatation and cerebral atrophy changes in patients of FES ,such as the number of FHI ,VBR, HZ increased;the number of PFAI and CMI decreased.The lateral and the third ventricles had a modest expansion, the sulci enlarged, the lateral fissure widened and presented RASF, the cerebral lobe was diffuse and limitations atrophied.The incidence of pineal calculus was obvious increased and prematured.Conclusion FES patients had the decrease of the brain volume, abnormal dilatation of ventricular and cerebral atrophy as a result of the brain tissue lose ,which was the further evidence of neurodevelopment hypothesis of FES brain.The results of the research can provide important imaging evidence for the schizophernia etiology research.%目的 探讨首发精神分裂症(FES)患者脑形态CT变化.方法 回顾性分析100例经临床确诊的FES患者,符合ICD10诊断标准、首次发病、首次经抗精神药物治疗且病程≤2年,并和对照组(n=100)进行对照.所有研究对象经头部CT扫描获得脑部CT图像,测量、计算及观察有关数据和指标,经过统计学处理后分析FES患者脑形态CT改变.结果 FES患者反映脑室扩大、脑萎缩的指标发生改变,如FHI、VBR、HZ等增大;PFAI、CMI等减小.表现为侧脑室、第三脑室

  8. Caregiver psychoeducation for first-episode psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McWilliams, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    International best-practice guidelines for the management of first-episode psychosis have recommended the provision of psychoeducation for multifamily groups. While there is ample evidence of their efficacy in multiepisode psychosis, there is a paucity of evidence supporting this approach specifically for first-episode psychosis. We sought to determine whether a six-week caregiver psychoeducation programme geared specifically at first-episode psychosis improves caregiver knowledge and attitudes.

  9. Making sense of first episode psychosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Billings, J

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses whether the concept of illness perceptions, which has been developed in the arena of chronic physical illness, can be applied to an acute mental illness such as first episode psychosis. Literature related to first episode psychosis and illness perceptions is reviewed and the potential benefits and problems of using the illness perceptions framework when trying to understand how people make sense of a first episode of psychosis are discussed. Finally, areas warranting expl...

  10. 对比齐拉西酮与利培酮对首发精神分裂症患者生活质量的影响%Effects of Ziprasidone and Risperidone for First-episode Schizophrenia Patients Quality of Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 万燕平; 陈彦华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To contrast analysis of ziprasidone and risperidone the influence of quality of life in patients with first-episode schizophrenia.Methods In February 2012-June 2013 to come to our hospital make a diagnosis and give treatment,100 cases of patients with first-episode schizophrenia as the research object,is divided into two groups.Results After a period of treatment,given the quality of life in patients with two groups of rating scale,found the quality of life of patients with observation group was obviously higher than that of control group.Conclusion In patients with first-episode schizophrenia give ziprasidone treatment,not only can treat patients,at the same time can improve the life quality of patients.%目的:对比分析齐拉西酮与利培酮对首发精神分裂症患者生活质量的影响。方法选择2012年2月~2013年6月前来我院诊治的首发精神分裂症患者100例为研究对象,分为两组。结果经过一段时间的治疗后,对两组患者给予生活质量量表评分,发现观察组患者的生活质量明显高于对照组。结论对首发精神分裂症患者给予齐拉西酮治疗,不仅可以治疗患者病情,同时可提高患者的生活质量。

  11. Apathy in first episode psychosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evensen, Julie; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Barder, Helene;

    2012-01-01

    Apathy is a common symptom in first episode psychosis (FEP), and is associated with poor functioning. Prevalence and correlates of apathy 10 years after the first psychotic episode remain unexplored.......Apathy is a common symptom in first episode psychosis (FEP), and is associated with poor functioning. Prevalence and correlates of apathy 10 years after the first psychotic episode remain unexplored....

  12. Deinstitutionalization revisited: a 5-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial of hospital-based rehabilitation versus specialized assertive intervention (OPUS) versus standard treatment for patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Øhlenschlæger, Johan; Thorup, Anne Amalie Elgaard; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia; Bertelsen, Mette

    BACKGROUND: The effects of hospital-based rehabilitation including weekly supportive psychodynamic therapy compared with specialized assertive intervention and standard treatment has not previously been investigated in first-episode psychosis. The aim of the study was to examine long-term effect on...... special part of the Copenhagen OPUS trial and randomized to either the specialized assertive intervention program (OPUS), standard treatment or hospital-based rehabilitation. RESULTS: It was a stable pattern that patients randomized to hospital-based rehabilitation spent more days in psychiatric wards and...

  13. Predictors of recovery in first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Stephen; Mors, Ole; Secher, Rikke Gry;

    2013-01-01

    Recovery, the optimal goal in treatment, is the attainment of both symptomatic and functional remission over a sustained period of time. Identification of factors that promote recovery can help develop interventions that facilitate good outcomes for people with first episode psychosis.......Recovery, the optimal goal in treatment, is the attainment of both symptomatic and functional remission over a sustained period of time. Identification of factors that promote recovery can help develop interventions that facilitate good outcomes for people with first episode psychosis....

  14. Structural brain abnormalities in early onset first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, A K; Baaré, W F C; Raabjerg Christensen, A M;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations. METHODS: We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder......, delusional disorder or other non-organic psychosis), aged 10-18 to those of 29 matched controls, using optimized voxel-based morphometry. RESULTS: Psychotic patients had frontal white matter abnormalities, but expected (regional) gray matter reductions were not observed. Post hoc analyses revealed that...

  15. Deinstitutionalization revisited: a 5-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial of hospital-based rehabilitation versus specialized assertive intervention (OPUS) versus standard treatment for patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Øhlenschlæger, Johan; Thorup, Anne Amalie Elgaard; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia; Bertelsen, Mette

    BACKGROUND: The effects of hospital-based rehabilitation including weekly supportive psychodynamic therapy compared with specialized assertive intervention and standard treatment has not previously been investigated in first-episode psychosis. The aim of the study was to examine long-term effect on...... special part of the Copenhagen OPUS trial and randomized to either the specialized assertive intervention program (OPUS), standard treatment or hospital-based rehabilitation. RESULTS: It was a stable pattern that patients randomized to hospital-based rehabilitation spent more days in psychiatric wards and...... in supported housing throughout the 5-year follow-up period compared with the two other groups. Patients in OPUS treatment spent significantly fewer days in psychiatric wards and supported housing in the first 3 years compared with patients in hospital-based rehabilitation. Due to attrition and small...

  16. Cognitive training plus a comprehensive psychosocial programme (OPUS versus the comprehensive psychosocial programme alone for patients with first-episode schizophrenia (the NEUROCOM trial: A study protocol for a centrally randomised, observer-blinded multi-centre clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melau Marianne

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to 85% of patients with schizophrenia demonstrate cognitive dysfunction in at least one domain. Cognitive dysfunction plays a major role in functional outcome. It is hypothesized that addition of cognitive training to a comprehensive psychosocial programme (OPUS enhances both cognitive and everyday functional capacity of patients more than the comprehensive psychosocial programme alone. Methods The NEUROCOM trial examines the effect on cognitive functioning and everyday functional capacity of patients with schizophrenia of a 16-week manualised programme of individual cognitive training integrated in a comprehensive psychosocial programme versus the comprehensive psychosocial programme alone. The cognitive training consists of four modules focusing on attention, executive functioning, learning, and memory. Cognitive training involves computer-assisted training tasks as well as practical everyday tasks and calendar training. It takes place twice a week, and every other week the patient and trainer engage in a dialogue on the patient's cognitive difficulties, motivational goals, and progress in competence level. Cognitive training relies on errorless learning principles, scaffolding, and verbalisation in its effort to improve cognitive abilities and teach patients how to apply compensation strategies as well as structured problem solving techniques. At 16-week post-training and at ten-months follow-up, assessments are conducted to investigate immediate outcome and possible long-term effects of cognitive training. We conduct blinded assessments of cognition, everyday functional capacity and associations with the labour market, symptom severity, and self-esteem. Discussion Results from four-month and ten-month follow-ups have the potential of reliably providing documentation of the long-term effect of CT for patients with schizophrenia. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00472862.

  17. Personality disorders in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Haahr, Ulrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Friis, Svein; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Larsen, Tor K.; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; McGlashan, Thomas; Vaglum, Per

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of personality disorders in the early course of first-episode psychosis and their likely presence in the premorbid period. Fifty-five patients were enrolled at baseline and premorbid function was evaluated by the Premorbid Adjustment Scale. Thi...

  18. How successful are first episode programs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Rasmussen, Jesper Østrup; Melau, Marianne;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It has been hypothesized that the first 5 years after first episode of psychosis are a critical period with opportunities for ameliorating the course of illness. On the basis of this rationale, specialized assertive early intervention services were developed. We wanted to...

  19. Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, René S; Sommer, Iris E; Murray, Robin M; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Weinberger, Daniel R; Cannon, Tyrone D; O'Donovan, Michael; Correll, Christoph U; Kane, John M; van Os, Jim; Insel, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder with a heterogeneous genetic and neurobiological background that influences early brain development, and is expressed as a combination of psychotic symptoms - such as hallucinations, delusions and disorganization - and motivational and cognitive dysfunctions. The mean lifetime prevalence of the disorder is just below 1%, but large regional differences in prevalence rates are evident owing to disparities in urbanicity and patterns of immigration. Although gross brain pathology is not a characteristic of schizophrenia, the disorder involves subtle pathological changes in specific neural cell populations and in cell-cell communication. Schizophrenia, as a cognitive and behavioural disorder, is ultimately about how the brain processes information. Indeed, neuroimaging studies have shown that information processing is functionally abnormal in patients with first-episode and chronic schizophrenia. Although pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia can relieve psychotic symptoms, such drugs generally do not lead to substantial improvements in social, cognitive and occupational functioning. Psychosocial interventions such as cognitive-behavioural therapy, cognitive remediation and supported education and employment have added treatment value, but are inconsistently applied. Given that schizophrenia starts many years before a diagnosis is typically made, the identification of individuals at risk and those in the early phases of the disorder, and the exploration of preventive approaches are crucial. PMID:27189524

  20. 首发青少年精神分裂症心理防御机制与父母养育方式的相关性研究%A correlation study of mental defense mechanism with parental rearing pattern in adolescent patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 周云

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship of mental defense mechanisms with parental rearing pattern in patients with first-episode adolescent schizophrenia. Methods A total of 46 adolescent patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 46 healthy controls were assessed with the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) and Egma Minnen av Bardndosnauppforstran ( EMBU). Results Score of warmth and understanding in parental rearing pattern were positively related with mature defense styles ( father: r = 0. 449, P < 0. 01; mother: r = 0. 471, P < 0. 01) and were negatively related with immature defense styles (father:r= -0.312,P<0.05;mother:r = -0.349,P<0.01). Score of punishment, over interference,refusal were negatively related with mature defense styles (P<0.05) and were positively related with immature defense styles ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The defense styles and parental rearing patterns in adolescent first-episode schizophrenics were different from those of healthy individuals. The defense styles in patients with first-episode schizophrenia are related with their parents' rearing patterns.%目的 探讨首发青少年精神分裂症患者的防御机制与父母养育方式的相关性.方法 采用防御方式问卷和父母养育方式评价量表,对46例首发青少年精神分裂症患者进行问卷调查,并与46例正常受试者加以比较.结果 父母亲的情感温暖理解与成熟防御方式呈正相关(父:r =0.449,P<0.01,母:r=0.471,P<0.01),与不成熟防御方式呈负相关(父:r=-0.312,P<0.05,母:r=-0.349,P<0.01);而惩罚、过分干涉保护、拒绝否认与成熟防御方式呈负相关(P<0.05或P<0.01),与不成熟防御方式呈正相关(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 首发青少年精神分裂症的防御机制和父母养育方式与正常人有着明显的不同,且防御机制和父母养育方式之间有一定的相关性.

  1. Controlled study of mismatched negativity in first-episode deficit and non-deficit forms schizophrenia patients who not received treatment%缺陷型及非缺陷型精神分裂症首次发病未服药患者失匹配负波的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李喆; 邓伟; 李寅飞; 丁蕾; 刘祥; 郑重; 李涛

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the characteristics of mismatched negativity (MMN) and correlation with clinical status in first-episode deficit and non-deficit forms schizophrenia patients who not received treatment.Method:According to the assessed by deficit form schizophrenia diagnosis scale (SDS),100 first-episode schizophrenia patients who not received treatment were classified as deficit form schizophrenia (DS) group (45 cases) and non-deficit form schizophrenia (NDS) group (55 cases).MMN of the patients was measured by brain evoked potentiometer,and the results were compared with 50 normal controls (control group).The relationships between MMN changes and age,course of disease,condition and functioning status of the patients were analyzed.Results:Compared to control group,MMN latency and amplitude in DS and NDS groups were significantly delayed and decreased (F =21.72,F =5.95 ; all P =0.00) ; but there were no significantly differences of MMN latency and amplitude between groups of DS and NDS(all P > 0.05).Non correlation had been found between variables of MMN latency and amplitude with age of onset,course of disease,the scores of positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS,including total score,positive symptoms score,negative symptoms score and general psychopathology score),score of global assessment functioning(GAF) in groups of DS and NDS(all P > 0.05).Conclusion:Abnormalities of MMN are existed in patients with deficit type and nondeficit type schizophrenia.It maybe the trait marker of patients with schizophrenia.%目的:探讨缺陷型与非缺陷型精神分裂症首次发病未服药患者失匹配负波(MMN)的特征及与临床状态的相关性. 方法:根据缺陷型精神分裂症诊断量表评分将100例首发精神分裂症患者分为缺陷型(缺陷组,45例)和非缺陷型(非缺陷组,55例);采用脑诱发电位仪检测MMN,并与50名正常对照者(对照组)比较;分析患者MMN改变与其发病年龄、病

  2. Examination of anomalous self-experience in first-episode psychosis: interrater reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Paul; Haug, Elisabeth; Raballo, Andrea;

    2011-01-01

    Background: The growing research focus on early detection of schizophrenia has fostered an increasing interest in the nonpsychotic experiential anomalies that may antedate schizophrenia spectrum disorders and assist early differential diagnosis. The Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience (EASE......) is a phenomenologically inspired checklist, specifically designed to support the comprehensive assessment of these characteristic subjective experiences. Aim: To assess the interrater reliability of the EASE. Sampling and Methods: Twenty-five first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients were interviewed...

  3. Effectiveness Study of Solution Focused Mode on the Rehabilitation among Young and Middle-aged Patients with First-episode Schizophrenia%焦点解决模式对中青年首发精神分裂症患者康复的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁光美; 裴锦飞; 鲍文卿

    2014-01-01

    Objective Discuss the effect of solution focused mode oriented community health education on the rehabilitation among young and middle-aged patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Method Divided 80 young and middle-aged patients with first-episode schizophrenia into treatment group (n=40) and control group (n=40) randomly based on their diagnosis date. Carried out health education with community follow-up visit method on patients in control group while treatment group received solution focused mode oriented community health education. Assessed the patients in two groups with BPRS, SDSS and MRSS and compared their recurrence rates in the 6th month and 12th month after discharging from hospital. Results①The scores of all scales in both groups significantly decreased after 6 months discharging from hospital (p0.05). ②Scores of all scales of treatment group significantly decreased compared with that when discharging from hospital and 6 months later(p < 0.05). Comparison between groups showed that scores of all scales and recurrence rates for treatment group were lower than control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion Solution focused mode oriented community health education could effectively help with the rehabilitation among young and middle-aged patients with first-episode schizophrenia, improve their compliance and reduce recurrence.%目的探讨以焦点解决模式为指导的社区健康教育对中青年首发精神分裂症患者康复的效果。方法将纳入社区管理的80名中青年首发精神分裂症患者按确诊时间随机分为对照组(n=40)和干预组(n=40),对照组采用社区随访法进行健康教育,干预组在此基础上以焦点解决模式为指导进行健康教育。分别于出院后6个月、12个月,应用简明精神病量表(BPRS)、社会功能缺陷筛选量表(SDSS)和康复状态量表(MRSS)对两组患者进行评估并比较两组复发率。结果(1)6个月后,两组患者各量表评分较出院

  4. Duration of untreated psychiatry affecting white matter integrity in first-episode medication-free patients with schizophrenia%精神病未治疗期对首发未服药精神分裂症脑白质完整性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏钦令; 朱康顺; 王相兰; 张晋碚; 康庄; 国效峰; 韩自力; 赵靖平

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of duration of untreated psychiatry (DUP) on the white matter integrity in first-episode medication-free patients with schizophrenia. Methods The Chinese version of Nottingham Onset Schedule was used to assess the DUP of 39 first-episode medication-free patients with schizophrenia. According to the median of DUP, the 39 patients were grouped into long-DUP group and short-DUP group. Diffusion weighted images of the 39 patients' whole brains were acquired with a Half-Fourier Acquired Single-Shot Turbo Spin Echo (HASTE) sequence.After being preprocessed with DTI-studio and statistical parametric mapping software (SPM5), the fractional anisotropy (FA) images of the 2 groups were compared by two-sample t-test with SPM5 software. The differences of gender, age, education level and total scores of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores between the 2 groups were also detected. Results No significant difference was noted on gender, age, education level, PANSS scores between the 2 groups (P>0.05).Subjects of long-DUP group showed significantly reduced FA value in the right anterior cingulate fasciculus (x=8, y=40, z=24) and left prefrontal white matter thresholded (x=32, y=34, z=4) as compared with that of short-DUP group at a level of P<0.001 (uncorrected). Conclusion Extension of the duration of DUP will reduce the white matter integrity in first-episode medication-free patients with schizophrenia.%目的 探讨精神病未治疗期(DUP)对首发未服药精神分裂症患者脑白质完整性的影响.方法 应用汉化的诺丁汉发病症状量表评定39例首发未服药精神分裂症患者的DUP,以其中位数为界将患者分为长DUP组和短DUP组,同时比较两组患者的性别构成、年龄、受教育年限、阳性和阴性症状量表总分.采用自旋回波序列得到弥散张量磁共振成像资料,以DTI-Studi0软件和统计参数图软件(SPM5)对所得图像进行预处理,得到的分子

  5. 应用P300测定未经治疗的首发精神分裂症患者认知功能的Meta分析%Event-related Potential P300 studies on cognitive function in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia: a Meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易峰; 毛静宇; 梅佳; 苏旭江; 张洋洋

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究未经治疗的首发精神分裂症患者与健康者事件相关电位P300的差异.方法 计算机检索PubMed、Medline、Cochrane Library、万方数据库、中国知网全文数据库、维普中文期刊数据库以及中国学位论文全文数据库中关于应用P300评定未经治疗首发精神分裂症患者认知功能的对照研究文献,应用分析软件RevMan 5.1对两组P300潜伏期及波幅检测数据进行Meta分析.结果 共有14篇文献纳入分析.Meta分析的结果显示,研究组与对照组之间P300潜伏期的标准化均数差(Standardized mean difference,SMD)为0.18,95%CI为(0.04,0.31),研究组潜伏期较对照组延长(P=0.01);两组之间P300波幅SMD值为-0.59,95%CI为(-0.73,-0.46),研究组波幅低于对照组(P<0.01).结论 P300可用于评估首发精神分裂症患者的早期认知功能损害,并可以在临床中作为精神分裂症的辅助诊断指标.%Objective To assess the differences of Event-related potential P300 between drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia and the healthy control group. Methods Computer retrieval was performed for event-related potential P300 studies on drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia and healthy people in Pubmed ,Medline,Cochrane Library,Wanfang Data,China National Knowledge Infrastructure,VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals and China Dissertation Database. Meta-analyses were conducted about P300 latency and amplitude in two groups with RevMan 5.1 software. Results 14 studies met inclusion criteria. The pooled analysis showed that the standardized mean difference (SMD) of P300 latency between the two groups was 0.18 (95 %CI,0.04~ 0.31),and the schizophrenia group have a longer P300 latency than the control group (P=0.01). SMD of P300 amplitude was -0.59 (95 % CI,-0.73~0.46),and the patient group had a lower amplitude than the control group (P <0.01). Conclusion P300 is applicable for the evaluation of the cognitive impairments of initial

  6. Substance abuse in first-episode schizophrenic patients: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brambilla MA

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several studies suggest a high comorbidity of substance abuse and schizophrenia, associated with higher frequency of relapse, more positive symptoms and depression, cognitive impairment, poorer outcome and treatment response. A high incidence of substance abuse is also observed in first-episode patients. Among patients with substance abuse, the onset precedes the onset of psychosis of several years in most cases. All the patients with a first episode of schizophrenia, at first admission to the Psychiatric Service of Diagnosis and Treatment of Ospedale Maggiore of Milan during the years 1990 to 2004, have been included in our study. The clinical evaluation has been obtained considering the following items of Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS: conceptual disorganization, depressed mood, hostility, hallucinations, unusual content of thought. The results showed that 34.7% of first-episode schizophrenic patients had a lifetime history of substance abuse. The age of onset of schizophrenia is significantly lower for drug abusers than for patients without any type of abuse and for alcohol abusers (p Our findings seem to indicate that substance abuse in the early course of illness determines an earlier onset of schizophrenia and increases severity of some psychotic symptoms like "hallucination" and "unusual content of thought". Therefore persons incurring a risk of schizophrenia may be warned of the possible relation between substances and psychosis and have to be counselled against the use of them.

  7. Suicidal behaviour and mortality in first-episode psychosis: the OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Those with first-episode psychosis are at high-risk of suicide. AIMS: To identify predictive factors for suicidal thoughts, plans and attempts, and to investigate the rate of suicides and other deaths during the 5 years after first diagnosis and initiation of treatment. METHOD: A...... longitudinal, prospective, 5-year follow-up study of 547 individuals with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum psychosis. Individuals presenting for their first treatment in mental health services in two circumscribed urban areas in Denmark were included in a randomised controlled trial of integrated v...

  8. Comparison of Short-term Metabolic Risk in First-episode Young-adult Schizophrenia Treated with Aripiprazole and Olanzapine%阿立哌唑与奥氮平对首发年轻成人精神分裂症患者短期内代谢风险的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小立; 魏钦令; 钟智勇; 张晋碚

    2011-01-01

    摘要:[目的]比较阿立哌唑与奥氮平对首发年轻成人精神分裂症患者短期内的代谢风险.[方法]采用开放对照的临床观察方法,对符合美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版(DSM-Ⅳ)精神分裂症诊断标准的首发住院精神分裂症患者,分别使用阿立哌唑(21例)和奥氮平(42例)治疗,自然观察时间不低于2周,不大于4周,于治疗前后各检测一次体质量、腰围、空腹血脂血糖及胰岛素、C肽.[结果]观察结束时:阿立哌唑组的体质量、体质量指数(BMI)、腰围、腰臀比均有增高(P<0.05),糖脂改变无统计学差异,男女患者间各项代谢指标的变化无统计学差异(P>0.05);奥氮平组的体质量、体质量指数(BMI)、腰围、腰臀比、甘油三酯(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白(HDL)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL)、载脂蛋白AI和B100及脂蛋白LPa较治疗前增高(P<0.0l),且胰岛素(INS)水平和胰岛素抵抗指数(IR)增高(P<0.05),多元逐步回归分析显示胰岛素抵抗与甘油三脂的增高有关(R2 =0.107,P=0.007);奥氛平组男性患者的空腹胰岛素和C肽、胰岛素抵抗指数均增高(P<0.05),女性患者则没有.[结论]阿立哌唑和奥氮平对首发年轻成人精神分裂症患者短期内的代谢风险即有差异,性别差异可能影响着非典型抗精神病药物的代谢风险.%[Objective] To compare the short-term metabolic risk in the first-episode young-adult schizophrenia treated with Aripiprazole and Olanzapine. [ Methods] The open-lable, natural observed, compared method was designed for this study. All of these cases were diagnosed as first-episode schizophrenia in accordance with the DSM-IV diagnosis criteria and respectively allocated into two groups for either Aripiprazole or Olanzapine treatment. The natural observed period was from two weeks to four weeks. Weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, and lipid concentration, fasting insulin and C peptide

  9. Depressive symptoms in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sönmez, Nasrettin; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Evensen, Julie; Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Haahr, Ulrik; Ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Langeveld, Hans; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The present study examined if any patient characteristics at baseline predicted depressive symptoms at 10 years and whether patients prone to depressive symptoms in the first year of treatment had a different prognosis in the following years. METHOD: A total of 299 first-episode psychosis...... predicted depression at 10 years of follow up. Thirty-eight patients were depressed at both baseline and 1 year follow up. This group had poorer symptomatic and functional outcome in the follow-up period compared to a group of patients with no depression in the first year of treatment. CONCLUSION......: Depressive symptoms are frequent among FEP patients at baseline but decrease after treatment because their general symptoms have been initiated. Patients with poor social functioning in childhood and alcohol use at baseline are more prone to have depressive symptoms at 10 years of follow up. Patients...

  10. Gender differences in first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koster, A.; Lajer, M.; Lindhardt, A.;

    2008-01-01

    In the description of 1 episode schizophrenia patients, female gender is associated with better social function and a higher degree of compliance, while males exhibit more negative symptoms and a higher degree of abuse. The question is raised whether gender specific differences exist which should...

  11. The influencing factors of duration of untreated psychosis and the relationship between DUP and treatment outcome in epidemiological first episode schizophrenia%首发精神分裂症患者精神病治疗前期间影响因素与临床疗效关系的流行病学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖海军; 朱志启; 吴景欢; 黄庆军

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨首发精神分裂症患者精神病治疗前期间(duration of untreated psychosis,DUP)的影响因素及临床疗效和DUP的关系.方法 对912例首发精神分裂症患者的病案资料进行流行病学调查.收集患者的一般资料、临床诊断及临床疗效.参考精神分裂症首发症状评定量表评估患者的DUP.根据DUP的中位值将患者分为短DUP和长DUP2组.结果 短DUP与长DUP2组间婚姻比较差异具有显著性(P<0.05),其中未婚在短DUP组频数分布(63.7%)高于长DUP组(52.6%),差异具有显著性(λ2=5.990,P<0.05),离婚在短DUP组频数分布(0.6%)低于长DUP组(4.4%),差异具有显著性(λ2=15.079,P<0.01).精神分裂症单纯型在短DUP组频数分布(1.5%)低于长DUP组(4.1%),差异具有显著性(λ2=5.868,P<0.05).2组临床疗效间的比较差异具有显著性(λ2=36.093,P<0.01),2组临床疗效间Ridit分析显示差异有显著性(u=5.183,P<0.01).多因素Logistic回归分析发现婚姻、发病年龄和临床诊断对DUP有显著影响.结论 在首发精神分裂症患者中,婚姻、发病年龄和临床诊断对DUP有影响,DUP越长其临床疗效越差.%Objective To explore the influencing factor of duration of untreated psychosis(DUP) and the relationship between duration of untreated psychosis and treatment outcome in epidemiological first-episode schizophrenia. Methods 912 medical records of the first episode schizophrenia patients were recruited in the study for epidemiological survey . The general medical data, clinical diagnosis, and treatment outcome were collected. DUP was determined refer to symptom onset for schizophrenia (SOS) scale. Patients were divided into short DUP and long DUP groups according to the median values of DUP values. Results Between short DUP and long DUP groups, the difference in marriage was significant ( P < 0. 05). The unmarried patients in the short DUP group (63.7% ) was higher than the long DUP group (52.6% ), the variance was significant (λ2

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging correlates of first-episode psychosis in young adult male patients: combined analysis of grey and white matter.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruef A.; Curtis L.; Moy G.; Bessero S.; Badan Bâ M.; Lazeyras F.; Lövblad K.O.; Haller S.; Malafosse A.; Giannakopoulos P.; Merlo M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several patterns of grey and white matter changes have been separately described in young adults with first-episode psychosis. Concomitant investigation of grey and white matter densities in patients with first-episode psychosis without other psychiatric comorbidities that include all relevant imaging markers could provide clues to the neurodevelopmental hypothesis in schizophrenia. Methods: We recruited patients with first-episode psychosis diagnosed according to the DSM-IV-TR an...

  13. Prevention of negative symptom psychopathologies in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, Ingrid; Larsen, Tor K; Haahr, Ulrik;

    2008-01-01

    The duration of untreated psychosis (DUP)-the time from onset of psychotic symptoms to the start of adequate treatment--is consistently correlated with better course and outcome, but the mechanisms are poorly understood....

  14. White matter tracts in first-episode psychosis: A DTI tractography study of the uncinate fasciculus

    OpenAIRE

    Price, G.; Cercignani, M.; Parker, G J M; Altmann, D. R.; Barnes, T. R. E.; Barker, G. J.; Joyce, E. M.; Ron, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    A model of disconnectivity involving abnormalities in the cortex and connecting white matter pathways may explain the symptoms and cognitive abnormalities of schizophrenia. Recently, diffusion imaging tractography has made it possible to study white matter pathways in detail, and we present here a study of patients with first-episode psychosis using this technique. We studied the uncinate fasciculus (UF), the largest white matter tract that connects the frontal and temporal lobes, two brain r...

  15. Childhood trauma and cognitive function in first-episode affective and non-affective psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aas, Monica

    2011-06-01

    A history of childhood trauma is reportedly more prevalent in people suffering from psychosis than in the general population. Childhood trauma has also been linked to cognitive abnormalities in adulthood, and cognitive abnormalities, in turn, are one of the key clinical features of psychosis. Therefore, this study investigated whether there was a relationship between childhood trauma and cognitive function in patients with first-episode psychosis. The potential impact of diagnosis (schizophrenia or affective psychosis) and gender on this association was also examined.

  16. [First-episodes psychosis: clinical and epidemiological news].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, M

    2013-09-01

    In the context of the development of early intervention for first-episode psychosis, this manuscript reviews new data with respect to its incidence, risk factors and evolution. Annual incidence of non-affective psychosis appeared to be between 14 and 30/100,000 in people aged 18-64. Incidence decreases with age and is twice higher in men than in women. There is an interaction between age and gender; the risk of psychosis decreases with age faster in men than in women. Thus, for schizophrenia, incidence rate is twice higher in men under 45 year-old and similar in both genders after. There is evidence that genetic and environmental factors may cause enduring liability to psychotic disorder, and, in addition, that genes and environment may interact synergistically. Some environmental factors have been identified; they concern foetal life, childhood or adolescence and may be conceptualized at the individual or the contextual level. The definition of recent onset psychosis may be based on duration of psychosis, between two and five years. Its development is identified through the occurrence of major psychotic symptoms, such as positive, negative symptomatology or disorganization, and impairment of social functioning. The types and patterns of occurrence and of evolution of psychotic symptoms have a prognostic impact. A long duration of untreated psychosis impacts symptomatology. It is associated with less severe positive symptoms at baseline and more severe after three years, insidious onset, male gender, early onset, and diagnosis of schizophrenia. Recent onset psychosis is often associated with comorbidities, such as depression, anxiety disorders, suicidal behaviours, and addiction. Symptomatic remission rates are found between 25 and 60%. Symptomatic and functional remissions favour each other. A third to half of patients is active, employed or students. Symptoms and evolution are various in studies, probably corresponding to various patho-physiological mechanisms

  17. Effects of adjunctive celecoxib treatment with risperidone on the cognitive function in first-episode schizophrenia patients%利培酮合并赛来昔布治疗对精神分裂症首次发病患者认知功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈大春; 张向阳; 李艳丽; 杨可冰; 王宁; 聂鹰; 谭云龙; 周东丰

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨利培酮合并赛来昔布对精神分裂症首发患者认知功能的影响.方法 符合美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版诊断标准的精神分裂症首次发病(以下简称首发)住院患者90例,随机分到利培酮+赛来昔布组(研究组,46例)或利培酮+空白剂组(对照组,44例),观察治疗时间均为12周.认知功能评定使用阳性和阴性症状量表、汉密尔顿抑郁量表、威斯康星卡片分类(WCST)、重复性神经心理测查系统(RBANS).结果 治疗第12周末,研究组PANSS总分及分量表分低于对照组(P均<0.05);研究组HAMD评分低于对照组;两组患者RBANS测验总分及部分分量表评分均较基线明显提高,差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05);WCST部分因子分均较基线有明显改善,差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05);两组间各量表评分的差异均无统计学意义(P均>0.05).研究组男性患者的延时记忆量表分明显高于女性患者,差异有统计学意义(F=4.8;υ=1.0,38;P=0.03),且临床症状的改善与认知功能的提高存在显著相关性(P<0.05).结论 利培酮具有改善首发精神分裂症患者认知功能的作用;赛来昔布对男性患者的延时记忆有改善作用.%Objective To evaluate the effects of celecoxib added to risperidone on the cognitive function in the first-episode patients with schizophrenia.Methods Ninety inpatients with first-episode schizophrenia (DSM-IV criteria) were enrolled and assigned randomly into risperidone plus celecoxib group (46 cases) and risperidone plus placebo group (44 cases).The dosage of risperidone,starting from 2 mg/ d was adjusted according to the clinical efficacy and side-effects.The dosage of celecoxib was 200 mg/d for the first week,and maintained at 400 mg/d until the end of 12-week study.The cognitive function was rated with the Wisconsin Cards Sort Test (WCST) and Repeatable Battery for the Assessmental of Neurepsychological Status(RBANS) both at baseline

  18. 汉族女性精神分裂症首发患者利培酮治疗所致闭经的危险因素%Risk factors for medication-induced amenorrhea in first-episode female Chinese patients with schizophrenia treated with risperidone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海支; 任丽华; 沈仲夏; 钱敏才; 沈鑫华; 杨胜良; 杨剑虹; 宋娟芬; 费小聪; 陶百平; 宋宝华

    2013-01-01

    Background:Amenorrhea is a common adverse effect of treatment with antipsychotic medications that influences both fertility and adherence to medication regimens. Most research suggests that medication-induced prolactinemia is the main cause of amenorrhea but few prospective studies have assessed this hypothesis. Aim:Identify risk factors for amenorrhea following treatment with antipsychotic medication. Methods:The study used a prospective, nested case-control design. First-episode, drug naïve female patients with schizophrenia who were in the middle of their menstrual cycle at the time of admission were enrolled. Serum levels of six reproductive hormones were assessed before and after a 12-week course of treatment with risperidone:progesterone, estradiol, prolactin, follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone. The hormone levels of 31 patients who had no menstruation during the entire 12 weeks of treatment (the amenorrhea group) were compared to those of 31 age-matched subjects who had normal menstrual periods over the 12 weeks of treatment (the control group). Results:We found a dramatic 4-fold increase in prolactin levels in women of childbearing age treated with risperidone, but the pretreatment and posttreatment levels of prolactin were not different between patients who did and did not develop amenorrhea with treatment. However, there were significantly lower pretreatment levels of estradiol and progesterone in patients who subsequently developed amenorrhea with risperidone treatment than in patients who did not develop amenorrhea. A conditional logistic regression analysis found that pretreatment levels of estradiol remained significantly associated with the development of amenorrhea during treatment even when adjusting for the pretreatment levels of the other five reproductive hormones assessed. Conclusion:These findings do not support the suggestion that amenorrhea associated with the use of antipsychotic medication is the result

  19. The study of the association of impairment of cognition and performance-based skills with clinical symp- toms in drug-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients%首发未用药精神分裂症认知功能及生活技能与临床特征的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈大春; 杨可冰; 李艳丽; 王宁; 聂鹰; 崔界峰; 陈楠; 张向阳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate cognitive impairment and performance-based skills and to explore their rela⁃tionships with clinical phenotypes in drug-naïve first-episode patients with schizophrenia. Methods One hundred and forty-five inpatients and 65 healthy controls matched for age, gender and education were recruited. The MATRICS Con⁃sensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), Stroop, digit span test, emotional recognition test, University of California, San Diego, Performance-based Skill Assessment (UPSA) and Positive Negative Syndrome Scale scale (PANSS) were used to evaluate cognitive function, life skill and symptoms, respectively. Results Compared with the controls, total score of MCCB and scores of 10 subscales, scores of digit span, emotional recognition and Stroop were significantly lower in patients (all P<0.05). The UPSA total score and scores of financial skill and communication skill were lower in patients than in controls (all P<0.05). Verbal memory, visual memory , Stroop, communication skill scores and total UPSA standard score were sig⁃nificantly higher in patients with paranoid subtype of schizophrenia than in patients with non-paranoid subtype of schizo⁃ phrenia (all P<0.05). The score of MCCB associated with education years (OR=1.29, 95%CI: 1.13~1.47) and PANSS (OR=0.95, 95%CI:0.92~0.97). Conclusions First-episode, drug-naive patients with schizophrenia have markedly cog⁃nitive and performance-based skills deficits, which are associated with clinical symptoms. These deficits are differences between paranoid subtype and non-paranoid subtype of schizophrenia.%目的:探讨首发未用药精神分裂症患者认知功能、生活技能状况及其与临床特征的关系。方法纳入首发精神分裂症住院患者145例和65名正常对照,采用精神分裂症认知功能成套测验中文版(MATRICS consensus cognitive battery,MCCB)、Stroop色词测验等评估两组认知功能,加州大学圣地亚哥分校基于任

  20. The influence of impaired processing speed on cognition in first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune; Fagerlund, B; Rasmussen, Hans; Aggernaes, B; Gade, Anders; Oranje, B; Glenthoj, B

    BACKGROUND: Impaired cognition is a prominent feature of schizophrenia. To what extent the heterogeneous cognitive impairments can be accounted for by considering only a single underlying impairment or a small number of core impairments remains elusive. This study examined whether cognitive...... impairments in antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia patients may be determined by a relative slower speed of information processing. METHOD: Forty-eight antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 48 matched healthy controls were administered a comprehensive battery of...... neuropsychological tests to assess domains of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. Composite scores were calculated, grouping tests into cognitive domains. RESULTS: There were significant differences between patients and healthy controls on global cognition and all cognitive domains, including verbal intelligence...

  1. 精神分裂症首次发病未治疗患者血清脑源性神经营养因子水平测定%Clinical research of the relation of plasma levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor in the untreated illness in patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁杰; 瞿正万; 蔡正宜; 杨建飞; 张洁; 金莹

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relation of plasma levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor in pa-tients with first-episode schizophrenia during untreated period . Provide a certain basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Method:We picked 66 untreated in-patients and out-patients who were newly diagnosed as schizo-phrenia according to ICD-10 as the study group and 40 normal people as the control group. After joining the group,the positive and negative symptoms scale( PANSS)was used to identify the degree of mental symptoms. Morning blood drawn and plasma concentrations of BDNF were also measured. Results:Plasma BDNF levels in patients with schizophrenia(21. 35 ± 3. 94)ug / L was lower than the normal control group(23. 68 ± 6. 14) ug/L,P<0. 05;The duration of untreated illness was related to serum BDNF levels(r=3. 216,P<0. 05). Conclusion:The longer duration of untreated illness,the more obvious BDNF levels decline,which suggest BD-NF levels may be an important indicator of disease development and prognosis.%目的:了解首发精神分裂症未治疗患者脑源性神经营养因子( BDNF)水平的变化,为临床诊治提供一定的依据。方法:抽取初诊的住院或门诊符合ICD-10精神分裂症诊断标准首发未治疗患者计66例,正常对照组40例。入组后使用阳性和阴性症状量表( PANSS)判别精神症状程度,抽取晨血,测定血清BDNF浓度。结果:精神分裂症患者血清BDNF水平(21.35±3.94)ug/L,显著低于正常对照组[(23.68±6.14)ug/L,P<0.05];未治疗时间与血清BDNF水平具有相关性(r=3.216,P<0.05)。结论:精神分裂症患者未治疗期越长,BDNF水平下降越明显,提示BDNF水平或许是精神分裂症患者发展的生物学指标之一。

  2. IQ Trajectory, Cognitive Reserve, and Clinical Outcome Following a First Episode of Psychosis: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Leeson, Verity C.; Sharma, Pranev; Harrison, Masuma; Ron, Maria A.; Barnes, Thomas R. E.; Joyce, Eileen M.

    2009-01-01

    Comparison of current and estimated premorbid IQ in schizophrenia suggests that there are subgroups with low IQ, deteriorated IQ (DIQ), or preserved IQ and that this is established by psychosis onset. There are no controlled studies examining the trajectory of these IQ subgroups longitudinally or their relationship with clinical and social outcomes. Of 129 individuals with first-episode schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, 25% showed stable low IQ, 31% showed stable IQ in the average/hi...

  3. Effects of amisulpride and quetiapine on serum sex hormone,bone mineral density and body weight in female patients ;with first-episode schizophrenia%氨磺必利和喹硫平对首发女性精神分裂症性激素、骨密度及体质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓高超

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of amisulpride and quetiapine on serum sex hormone,bone mineral density and body weight in female patients with first-episode schizophrenia.Methods A total of 96 female patients with first-episode schizophrenia were randomly divided into amisulpride group(n=46)and quetiapine group(n=50)for treatment of 12 months. They were examined with serum prolactin,estradiol,progesterone,bone mineral density and Body Mass Index (BMI)before and at the 6th,12th month end of treatment.Results At the 6th and 12th month end of treatment,the level of prolactin in amisulpride group was significantly higher than that before treatment (P<0.05 )and the levels of estradiol and progesterone in amisulpride group were significantly lower than those before treatment(P<0.05).At the 6th and 12th month end of treatment,the level of prolactin in amisulpride group was significantly higher than that in quetiapine group and the level of estradiol in amisulpride group was significantly lower than that in quetiapine group(P<0.05).At the 6th and 12th month end of treatment,the Body Mass Index (BMI)in two groups were all significantly higher than those before treatment(P<0.05).At the 12th month end of treatment, the level of bone mineral density in amisulpride group was significantly lower than that before treatment(P<0.05)and that in quetiapine group (P<0.05).At the 12th month end of treatment,the change rate of bone mineral density in amisulpride group was negatively related to the change rate of prolactin(P<0.05 ),and was positively related to the change rate of estradiol and BMI(P<0.05).At the 12th month end of treatment,the change rate of bone mineral density in quetiapine group was positively related to the change rate of BMI (P<0.05 ).Conclusion Amisulpride can significantly influence the level of serum sex hormone,bone mineral density and body weight in female patients with schizophrenia.%目的:探讨氨磺必利和喹硫平对首发女性精神分裂症患

  4. Efficacy and safety of paliperidone ER in the treatment of adolescent patients with first-episode schizophrenia%帕利哌酮缓释片治疗儿童期首发精神分裂症37例的疗效及安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凌; 周天红; 雷彤

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of paliperidone ER in the treatment of adolescent patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Methods: All patients ( n = 37) were treated with paliperidone ER for 6 months. The primary efficacy measure was response rate. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) , Personal and Social Performance (PSP) and Medication Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) were adopted as secondary efficacy measures. Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) and laboratory examinations were adopted as safety measures. Results: The response rate was 86.5% at end point. Total PANSS score, positive scale and general psychopathology scale scores demonstrated a significant improvement after 4-day, 1-week, 2-week, 3-month and 6-month treatment (P < 0.05). Negative scale score was significantly reduced after 1-week, 2-week, 3-month and 6-month treatment (P < 0.05 ). The adverse events were minimal and most of them were alleviated without any special intervention. Social functioning was also significantly improved. Medication satisfaction rate was 81.1%. Conclusion: Paliperidone ER is fast onset and effective in improving the symptoms of schizophrenia and social functioning. It has demonstrated a favorable safety with good compliance for adolescent patients.%目的:探讨帕利哌酮缓释片治疗儿童期首发精神分裂症患者临床疗效及安全性.方法:对37例儿童期首发精神分裂症患者应用帕利哌酮缓释片治疗,观察6个月.采用阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)、个人和社会功能量表(PSP)评定临床疗效,并通过治疗满意度调查问卷(MSQ)调查治疗满意度;采用副反应量表(TESS)评定不良反应,并进行实验室监测.结果:观察结束时总有效率为86.5%;PANSS总分、阳性症状分量表、一般精神病理分量表评分于治疗4 d起较治疗前有所下降(P<0.05),于治疗1周末、2周末、3月末、6月末,均较治疗前有显著下降(P<0.01);阴性

  5. Supportive Psychodynamic Psychotherapy versus Treatment as Usual for First-Episode Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Harder, Susanne; Knudsen, Per; Køster, Anne; Lindhardt, Anne; Lajer, Matilde; Valbak, Kristian; Winther, Gerda

    2012-01-01

    During recent decades, the field of treatment of schizophrenia has lacked empirical, systematic outcome studies that support psychodynamic psychotherapy as an evidence-based intervention for patients with schizophrenia. The Danish schizophrenia project (DNS) compared psychodynamic psychotherapy for...... manualized individual supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy (SPP) in addition to treatment as usual or with treatment as usual alone (TaU). Symptoms and functional outcomes were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF). The study.......000) and GAF(symptom) (p = 0.010) significantly favored SPP in combination with TaU over TaU alone. In spite of limitations, this study speaks in favor of including supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy in the treatment for patients with schizophrenic first-episode psychoses....

  6. 精神分裂症首次发病患者面孔识别事件相关电位研究%Research in facial recognition examined by event-related potentials in patients with the first-episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨程青; 陆峥; 王继军; 陈发展; 刘娜; 何磊英; 黄楠; 李惠; 唐莹莹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the characters of facial recognition in patients with the firstepisode schizophrenia.Methods In the case-control study,the experiment contained facial emotion and gender recognition tasks,which was designed using the Ekman Standard Faces Database to compare the recognition ability among patients with the first-episode schizophrenia and healthy controls.The experiment focused on the event-related potentials (ERP) such as P100,N170,N250 and P300 in their amplitudes and latency.Evoked potential data were obtained using a 64-channel EEG system.Results ( 1 ) Behavioral data:As to facial gender recognition,there were no significant differences on total accuracy (F =3.306,P =0.077) and total reaction time ( F =3.866,P =0.056) among the two groups,and as to facial emotional expression recognition,the total accuracy was lower in patient group than in the control group ] (60.5 ± 2.1 ) % vs.(44.5 ± 2.4) %,P =0.009 ],and there was no significant difference on total reaction time among the two groups ( F =3.580,P =0.066 ).(2) Electrophysiological Data:Four ERP components corresponding to the P100,N170,N250,and P300 were identified. Group differences were noted for the N170 "structure modulation" component that underlies the structure encoding of facial features.Shortened latency of the N170 (F=3.176,P =0.047) and lower amplitude of the N250 (F=4.516,P =0.015) was found in patient group than healthy control group.Conclusion Patients with schizophrenia demonstrate abnormalities in early structure encoding and affect encoding of facial features that precedes the ERP response typically associated with facial structure recognition and affect recognition,N170,N250 may be the characteristic index of schizophrenia.%目的 探讨精神分裂症首次发病患者面孔识别障碍的特点.方法 采用病例对照研究设计,对性别、年龄、文化程度匹配的精神分裂症首次发病患者组(30例)和对照组(30例),应用Ekman标准表情库中

  7. Depression and quality of life in first-episode psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Renwick, Laoise

    2012-07-01

    Quality of life (QOL) has gained recognition as a valid measure of outcome in first-episode psychosis (FEP). This study aimed to determine the influence of specific groups of depressive symptoms on separate domains of subjectively appraised QOL.

  8. Reducing the duration of untreated first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, Ingrid; Larsen, Tor K; Haahr, Ulrik; Friis, Svein; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Simonsen, Erik; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Most studies on first-episode psychosis show an association between a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and poorer short-term outcome, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood....

  9. Serum level of interleukin-6 associated with the dose of clozapine and amelioration of symptoms in female patients with first-episode schizophrenia%女性首发精神分裂症患者血清白细胞介素6水平与氯氮平用量及症状改善的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建强; 吕路线; 石玉中

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine produced in the process of organic immune activities. The problems still need further exploration, including whether the changes of serum level of IL-6 after clozapine treatment ware induced directly by the drug, and whether IL-6 is directly correlated with the changes of the psychiatric symptoms in female patients.with first-episode schizophrenia.OBJECTIVE: To explore the changes of the serum level of IL-6 and its relation with the dose of clozapine and the amelioration of the symptoms in female patients with first-episode schizophrenia.DESIGN: A non-randomized case-control observation synchronically.SETTING: Department of Psychiatry, Second Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: Twenty female patients with first-episode schizophrenia (patient group) were selected from Henan Psychiatric Hospital. They all met the diagnostic standards of schizophrenia in the 3rd edition of Chinese Classification and diagnostic criteria of Mental Disorders (CCMD-3), their score of positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS)was above 60 points, and had not been treated or at least not taking medicine for 2 weeks during clinical treatment.Patients with physical disease, endocrine and immune system diseases, malnutrition and other mental problems, those with the history of being allergic and hormone treatment, those receiving immune pharmaceutical treatment, and recently having been vaccinated preventively, and the pregnant and breast-feeding women were excluded. Twenty healthy female volunteers, who had no significnat difference in age and gender from the subjects in the patient group,were taken as the control group, and the exclusive standards were the same as those in the patient group. All the subjects were enrolled with the approval of themselves and their guardians.METHODS: All the patients were adminsitrated with clozapine only, with the dose being added by 25-50 mg per day,and the maximal dose was reached

  10. Long-term trajectories of positive and negative symptoms in first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Stephen; Mors, Ole; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben;

    2015-01-01

    .05) and substance abuse (OR 3.47-5.90, p<0.01) were associated with poorer positive symptom trajectories (higher levels of psychotic symptoms) while poor social functioning (OR 1.34-5.55, p<0.05), disorganized symptoms (OR 2.01-2.38, p<0.05) and schizophrenia diagnosis (OR 5.70-8.86, p<0.05) were...... associated with poorer negative symptom trajectories (higher levels of negative symptoms). A proportion of people displayed significant changes in symptoms several years after diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Trajectories of illness for positive and negative symptoms were heterogeneous among people with first episode...

  11. Psychometric evaluation of the Danish and Swedish Satisfaction with Life Scale in first episode psychosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hochwälder, Jacek; Mattsson, Maria; Holmqvist, Ragnhild; Cullberg, Johan; Rosenbaum, Bent

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To psychometrically evaluate the Satisfaction with Life Scale in two cohorts of first-episode psychosis patients in the Danish National Schizophrenia Project and in the Swedish Parachute Project. METHOD: Four properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale were examined in the Danish cohort...... Life Scale and various life conditions were investigated in the Swedish cohort. RESULTS: For both samples, the analysis indicated that the obtained four-dimensional 11-item scale had satisfactory properties. Moderately high scores were obtained in the four subscales: "living," "social relationships...

  12. The effect of drug maintenance therapy combined with family intervention for the first-episode schizophrenia in stable condition%药物维持治疗联合家庭干预对首发精神分裂症患者的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰芳; 李越霞; 李文锋

    2014-01-01

    To discuss the effect of drug maintenance therapy combined with family intervention with simple drug maintenance therapy for the first -episode schizophrenia in stable condition.Methods:After the treatment of acute phase,60 patients in stable condition met the study criteria were selected to be divided into intervention group and control group at ranadom .The family intervention group received drug maintenance therapy and family intervention and the control group received simple drug maintenance therapy.The patients of two groups were assessed blindly by Social Support Scale (SSRS),Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale ( BPRS) and Insight and Treatment Attitude Questionnaire ( ITAQ) at the time of enrollment and 1 year later.The obtained data were statistically analyzed.Results:The readmission rate and BPRC score of the family intervention were lower than the control group .And the subjective support,support utiliza-tion and ITAQ scores of were higher than that of control group (P0.05).Conclusion:Compared with simple drug maintenance therapy ,drug maintenance therapy combined with family intervention can effectively reduce patients readmission rates , maintain the patients in stable condition ,promote the recovery of insight and improve subjective support and support utilization .%目的:探讨药物维持治疗联合家庭干预对缓解期首发精神分裂症患者的影响。方法:选择经过急性期治疗后病情稳定的精神分裂症患者60例,将其随机等分为家庭干预组和对照组,对照组予以单纯药物维持治疗,家庭干预组予以药物维持治疗和家庭干预。采用社会支持量表( SSRS)、简明精神病量表( BPRS)及自知力与治疗态度问卷( ITAQ)分别于患者入组时和治疗1年后采用盲法评定两组患者的精神病性症状严重程度、自知力和社会支持情况。结果:1年后家庭干预组患者再住院率、BPRS评分低于对照组(P<0.05),主观支持、支

  13. The economic cost of pathways to care in first episode psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Heslin, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined the economic cost of psychoses other than schizophrenia and there have been no studies of the economic cost of pathways to care in patients with their first episode of psychosis. The aims of this study were to explore the economic cost of pathways to care in patients with a first episode of psychosis and to examine variation in costs. Data on pathways to care for first episode psychosis patients referred to specialist mental health services in south-east London and Nottingham between 1997-2000. Costs of pathway events were estimated and compared between diagnostic groups. The average costs for patients in south-east London were £54 (CI £33-£75) higher, compared to patients in Nottingham. Across both centres unemployed patients had £25 (CI £7-£43) higher average costs compared to employed patients. Higher costs were associated with being unemployed and living in south-east London and these differences could not be accounted for by any single factor. This should be considered when the National Health Service (NHS) is making decisions about funding.

  14. Prevalence of item level negative symptoms in first episode psychosis diagnoses.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyne, John

    2012-03-01

    The relevance of negative symptoms across the diagnostic spectrum of the psychoses remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to report on prevalence of item and subscale level negative symptoms across the first episode psychosis (FEP) diagnostic spectrum in an epidemiological sample, and to ascertain whether items and subscales were more prevalent in a schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses group compared to an \\'all other psychotic diagnoses\\' group. We measured negative symptoms in 330 patients presenting with FEP using the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), and ascertained diagnosis using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV. Prevalence of SANS items and subscales were tabulated across all psychotic diagnoses, and logistic regression analysis determined which items and subscales were predictive of schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses. SANS items were most prevalent in schizophrenia spectrum conditions but frequently presented in other FEP diagnoses, particularly substance induced psychotic disorder and Major Depressive Disorder. Brief psychotic disorder and bipolar disorders had low levels of negative symptoms. SANS items and subscales which significantly predicted schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses, were also frequently present in some of the other psychotic diagnoses. Conclusions: SANS items have high prevalence in FEP, and while commonest in schizophrenia spectrum conditions are not restricted to this diagnostic subgroup.

  15. Cognitive dysfunction at baseline predicts symptomatic 1-year outcome in first-episode schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, S; Krausz, M; Gottwalz, E; Lambert, M; Perro, C; Ganzer, S; Naber, D

    2000-01-01

    The present study addresses the consequences of cognitive disturbances on symptomatic outcome. Fifty-three first-episode schizophrenics were reassessed (n = 32) 1 year after admission. Simple regression analyses revealed that several self-perceived cognitive deficits at baseline as measured with the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire significantly predicted increased Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale global scores at follow-up (p = 0.05 to p = 0.005). A stepwise regression analysis proved memory dysfunction to be the strongest predictor of symptomatic worsening (p = 0.005). It is suggested that the exploration and treatment of neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia is of great clinical importance with regard to its impact on both functional and symptomatic outcome in schizophrenia. PMID:10601828

  16. Retrospective study on structural neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coentre, Ricardo; Silva-Dos-Santos, Amilcar; Talina, Miguel Cotrim

    2016-01-01

    Background. No consensus between guidelines exists regarding neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis. The purpose of this study is to assess anomalies found in structural neuroimaging exams (brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) in the initial medical work-up of patients presenting first-episode psychosis. Methods. The study subjects were 32 patients aged 18-48 years (mean age: 29.6 years), consecutively admitted with first-episode psychosis diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data and neuroimaging exams (CT and MRI) were retrospectively studied. Diagnostic assessments were made using the Operational Criteria Checklist +. Neuroimaging images (CT and MRI) and respective reports were analysed by an experienced consultant psychiatrist. Results. None of the patients had abnormalities in neuroimaging exams responsible for psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven percent of patients had incidental brain findings not causally related to the psychosis (brain atrophy, arachnoid cyst, asymmetric lateral ventricles, dilated lateral ventricles, plagiocephaly and falx cerebri calcification). No further medical referral was needed for any of these patients. No significant differences regarding gender, age, diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, in-stay and cannabis use were found between patients who had neuroimaging abnormalities versus those without. Discussion. This study suggests that structural neuroimaging exams reveal scarce abnormalities in young patients with first-episode psychosis. Structural neuroimaging is especially useful in first-episode psychosis patients with neurological symptoms, atypical clinical picture and old age. PMID:27257547

  17. White Matter Changes in First Episode Psychosis and their Relation to the Size of Sample Studied: A DTI Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melicher, T.; Horáček, J.; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Španiel, F.; Tintěra, J.; Ibrahim, I.; Mikoláš, P.; Novák, T.; Mohr, P.; Höschl, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 162, 1-3 (2015), s. 22-28. ISSN 0920-9964 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23940S Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 1392213 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : first episode psychosis * schizophrenia * diffusion tensor imaging * Tract-Based Spatial Statistics * fractional anisotropy Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.923, year: 2014

  18. Substance abuse in first-episode non-affective psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn;

    2006-01-01

    patients abusing both drugs and alcohol had poor premorbid academic functioning from early childhood. Overall, drug and alcohol abuse are highly prevalent in contemporary first-episode psychosis samples. In our study, substance abuse comorbidity did not generate differences on diagnosis, duration of...

  19. Treatment delay and response rate in first episode psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wunderink, A; Nienhuis, FJ; Sytema, S; Wiersma, D

    2006-01-01

    Objective: There is no consistent evidence of long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) predicting long time to response (TTR) in first psychosis. This Study aims to investigate the predictors of DUP and TTR in a first episode patient population. Method: An epidemiologically representative sample o

  20. Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE in First Episode of Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Kazemi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Neurocognitive deficits are now recognized as part of the fundamental disturbances and are a major determinant of functional outcome in psychosis. A cross-sectional association between cognitive deficits and poor social and occupational outcomes has been demonstrated; and treatment of cognitive impairment at the time of the first episode may have the potential to change functional outcomes of the illness. We conducted this study to evaluate cognitive function in first episode of psychosis by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. "nMethod: Sixty two patients with first episode of psychosis were selected and underwent psychiatric interview and took MMSE test. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS-18 software. "nResults: According to MMSE scale, 47 patients (75.8% showed definite cognitive impairment, 8(12.9% showed possible impairment ,and 7(11.3% showed no cognitive impairment. According to MMSE subscale, registration (69.4% and recall (77.3% were the most impaired cognitive areas.  "nConclusions:  The results of the current study indicate significant cognitive impairment in patients with first episode of psychosis. We recommend future studies with larger sample size and control group for further evaluation of cognitive function as early treatment of cognitive impairments may have important implications in the course of illness.

  1. The Phenomenology of Emotion Experience in First-Episode Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vodušek, V V; Parnas, J; Tomori, M;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although it has been suggested that disturbances in emotion experience and regulation play a central role in the aetiology and psychopathology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, the phenomenology of emotion experience in schizophrenia remains under-researched. SAMPLING AND METHODS: In...... cognitive and social functioning domains. Due to the relatively small sample size and its selection from psychotherapeutic units, the results may not be generalizable to all schizophrenia patients....

  2. Positive and negative caregiver experiences in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Lysaker, Paul H.; Harder, Susanne;

    2014-01-01

    Objectives While caregivers of persons with first-episode psychosis often report a range of negative experiences, little is known about what psychological factors are involved. The aim of this study was to examine how caregivers' general wellbeing, emotional overinvolvement and metacognition...... influenced their reports of both positive and negative caregiving experiences. Design A prospective consecutive cross-sectional study. Methods Forty caregivers of patients with first-episode psychosis were interviewed using semi-structured interview and questionnaires. Results Greater levels of distress...... and overinvolvement were associated with more negative experiences of caregiving while greater metacognitive capacity was associated with more positive experiences of caregiving. Conclusions The experience of positive and negative aspects of caregiving seems to be associated with different variables. Greater...

  3. Ten year neurocognitive trajectories in first-episode psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Eidsmo Barder

    2013-10-01

    Conclusions: Main findings are long-term stability in neurocognitive functioning in first episode psychosis patients, with the exception of verbal memory in patients with psychotic relapse or non-remission early in the course of illness. We conclude that worsening of specific parts of cognitive function may be expected for patients with on-going psychosis, but that most patients should expect no change in cognitive performance during the first 10 years after being diagnosed.

  4. Incentive motivation in first-episode psychosis: A behavioural study

    OpenAIRE

    Blackwell Andrew D; Corlett Philip R; Clark Luke; Murray Graham K; Cools Roshan; Jones Peter B; Robbins Trevor W; Poustka Luise

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background: It has been proposed that there are abnormalities in incentive motivational processing in psychosis, possibly secondary to subcortical dopamine abnormalities, but few empirical studies have addressed this issue. Methods: We studied incentive motivation in 18 first-episode psychosis patients from the Cambridge early psychosis service CAMEO and 19 control participants using the Cued Reinforcement Reaction Time Task, which measures motivationally driven behaviour. We also ga...

  5. Health beliefs and carer burden in first episode psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Maya; Chawla, Rajan; Krynicki, Carl R; Rankin, Philip; Upthegrove, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background Carer burden is high during First Episode Psychosis (FEP) and evidence suggests that this is a predictor of poor long-term outcome. However our understanding of factors associated with higher burden is poor. We propose that carers’ cultural backgrounds and health belief models will influence their perceived burden of care, over and above that explained by severity of illness. Methods Patients with FEP and their primary Carers were recruited from the Early Intervention Service. Pati...

  6. Evaluation of Risk Factors Associated with First Episode Febrile Seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharawat, Indar Kumar; Singh, Jitender; Singh, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Febrile seizure (FS) is the single most common type of seizure seen in children between 6 months to 5 years of age. The purpose of our study was to identify the risk factors associated with the first episode of febrile seizures, which would help in the better management and preventive measures in children at risk for FS episodes. Aim To evaluate the risk factors associated with the first episode of febrile seizures in Indian children. Materials and Methods This was a hospital based, case control study. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with the first FS episode in children. Seventy (70) children between age 6 months to 5 years with their first episode of FS were compared with 70 children with fever but without seizures based on various risk factors. Results The mean age was 24.90±16.11 months in cases and 26.34±16.93 months in controls. Male: female ratio was 2:1. A positive family history was found in 31.4% of first degree and 11.4% in second degree relatives. Mean maximum temperature was 102.06±1.1°F and URI (upper respiratory infection) was most common cause of fever. Antenatal complication was significantly higher in the case group. RBC (Red Blood Cells) indices like lower mean haemoglobin, MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume), MCH (Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin concentration) and higher RDW (Red Cell Distribution Width) values were seen in patients. Serum sodium, Serum calcium and random blood sugar values of the cases were significantly lower than those of controls (pblood sugar and microcytic hypochromic anaemia are the risk factors associated with the occurrence of first episode of febrile seizure and, thus, preventive measures in removing these risk factors could lead to a decrease in incidence of FS.

  7. Reinforcement and Reversal Learning in First-Episode Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, G. K.; Cheng, F.; Clark, L.; Barnett, J.H.; Blackwell, A. D.; Fletcher, P.C.; Robbins, T. W.; Bullmore, E. T.; Jones, P B

    2008-01-01

    Background: Abnormalities in reinforcement learning and reversal learning have been reported in psychosis, possibly secondary to subcortical dopamine abnormalities. Methods: We studied simple discrimination (SD) learning and reversal learning in a sample of 119 first-episode psychosis patients from the Cambridge early psychosis service (CAMEO) and 107 control participants. We used data on reinforcement learning and reversal learning extracted from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automat...

  8. FIRST EPISODE PSYCHOSIS AND TREATMENT DELAY – CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Ienciu, Monica; Romoşan, Felicia; Bredicean, Cristina; Romoşan, R

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: According to the clinical perspective, early diagnosis of the prodromal phase and early treatment provision in the first episode of psychosis (FEP) is able to prevent or reduce morbidity. The main aim of this study is to inventory and analyze the most important causes of treatment delay from the perspective of patients, families and healthcare providers. The secondary aim is to point out the most important consequences of treatment delay. Subjects and methods: The st...

  9. Social anxiety and the shame of psychosis: a study in first episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchwood, Max; Trower, Peter; Brunet, Kat; Gilbert, Paul; Iqbal, Zaffer; Jackson, Chris

    2007-05-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SaD) or social phobia is a co-morbid affective disorder in schizophrenia, present in up to one in three individuals. We employ 'social rank' theory to predict that one pathway to social anxiety in schizophrenia is triggered by the anticipation of a catastrophic loss of social status that the stigma of schizophrenia can entail. A group of 79 people with a first episode of psychosis were assessed for social anxiety: hypotheses were tested comparing 23 socially anxious and 56 non-anxious patients on measures of cognitive appraisals of shame/stigma of psychosis and perceived social status, controlling for depression, psychotic symptoms and general psychopathology. Participants with social anxiety experienced greater shame attached to their diagnosis and felt that the diagnosis placed them apart from others, i.e., socially marginalised them and incurred low social status. We propose a stigma model of social anxiety that makes testable predictions about how the shame beliefs may contaminate social interaction and thereby exacerbate and maintain social phobia. PMID:17005158

  10. Emotional Intelligence in a Group of Patients with First-Episode Psychosis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Pooretemad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the Emotional Intelligence (EI of a group of patients with first episode psychosis in Iran as compared with a healthy control group. A case-control design was used. EI was assessed using Persian version of Bar-On Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i administered on 25 patients with history of a single psychotic episode in the last two years, as well as 64 healthy participants. The mean (±SD of EI scores of patients and healthy controls group was 319.8 (±40.9 and 328.8 (±33.3, respectively. Two-independent sample t-test revealed no significant difference in the EI scores of two groups (P=0.29. In contrast with chronic schizophrenia, the patients with first-episode psychosis were not different from the healthy subjects in terms of emotional intelligence score. It might be implied that the low emotional intelligence of the patients with chronic psychotic disorders is an accumulative result of the underlying disease over time.

  11. Prospective study of the course of delusional themes in first-episode non-affective psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellersgaard, Ditte; Mors, Ole; Thorup, Anne;

    2014-01-01

    principal component analysis to the patients' scores on 12 items of delusions from the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms in Schizophrenia, SAPS. The course of the patients' predominant delusional themes was analysed afterwards. RESULTS: The 12 delusional themes from SAPS were converted into five...... groups using principal component analysis. At all three follow ups there were almost equal proportions of patients with the predominant delusion being from the same group of delusional themes as at baseline and of patients with the predominant delusion being from another group of delusional themes than......AIM: The stability of delusional themes in psychotic disorders is only sparsely lit. The study aims to investigate the stability of delusional themes over a period of time in patients with first-episode non-affective psychosis. METHODS: The data were drawn from a randomized controlled trial of 547...

  12. Analysis of thyroid hormone changes and related factors in first-episode schizophrenia patiens%首发精神分裂症患者血清甲状腺激素的变化及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程敏锋; 温盛霖; 钟智勇

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨首发精神分裂症患者血清甲状腺激素的变化及相关影响因素.方法:采用化学免疫发光法检测135例首发精神分裂症患者和100例健康对照组的血清游离三碘甲状腺原氨酸(FT3)、游离甲状腺素(FT4)、促甲状腺激素(TSH)的水平.同时收集患者的一般资料,进行阳性症状量表(SAPS)、阴性症状量表(SANS)的评定.结果:①病例组的血清FT4水平(17.87±3.07 pmol/L)高于对照组(15.96±2.77 pmol/L),差异具有统计学意义(t=4.773,P=0.000).②病例组不同病程和不同临床分型患者的血清FT3、FT4和TSH水平的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:首发精神分裂症患者存在血清甲状腺激素水平紊乱,与病程、临床症状关系不大,可能是素质指标.%Objective:To explore the changes of thyroid function in patients with first - onset schizophrenia patients and the related factors. Methods; 135 cases with schizophrenia (schizophrenia group) and 100 healthy subjects (control group) were recruited for the research. Thyroid functions(FT3,FT4,TSH) were tested by chemilumi-nescence immunoassay. Schizophrenia group was tested by the self - made general condition questionnaire, the assessment of positive symptoms( SAPS) , the assessment of negative symptoms(SANS). Results: 1. The level of FT4 in the schizophrenia group( 17. 87 ± 3.07 pmol/L)was higher than that of the control group( 15.96 ± 2.77 pmol/L) (t =4.773 ,P =0.000). 2. There were no difference about the different courses and different clinical subtypes in the schizophrenia group ( P > 0. 05 ). Conclusion; Thyroid functions of patients with first - onset schizophrenia were disturbed, without relationship with course and clinical signs, it may be quality mark.

  13. Very Low-Dose Risperidone in First-Episode Psychosis: A Safe and Effective Way to Initiate Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. McGorry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients experiencing a first psychotic episode have high rates of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs when treated with the doses of neuroleptics used in multiepisode or chronic schizophrenia. There is some evidence that lower doses may be equally, if not more, effective but less toxic in this population. Here, we report the results of a biphasic open label trial designed to assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of low-dose (2–4 mg/day risperidone treatment in a group of 96 first-episode nonaffective psychosis patients. At the end of the trial, 62% of patients met the response criteria although approximately 80% had achieved a response at some time during the study. Reports of EPS remained low, and there were no dystonic reactions. We conclude that even at a dose of 2 mg/day, risperidone was highly effective in reducing acute symptomatology in a real world sample of young first-episode psychosis patients.

  14. Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schizophrenia is a serious brain illness. People who have it may hear voices that aren't there. ... job or take care of themselves. Symptoms of schizophrenia usually start between ages 16 and 30. Men ...

  15. Intrinsic motivation and amotivation in first episode and prolonged psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Lauren; Lysaker, Paul H; Firmin, Ruth L; Breier, Alan; Vohs, Jenifer L

    2015-12-01

    The deleterious functional implications of motivation deficits in psychosis have generated interest in examining dimensions of the construct. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding whether dimensions of motivation differ over the course of psychosis. Therefore, this study examined two motivation dimensions, trait-like intrinsic motivation, and the negative symptom of amotivation, and tested the impact of illness phase on the 1) levels of these dimensions and 2) relationship between these dimensions. Participants with first episode psychosis (FEP; n=40) and prolonged psychosis (n=66) completed clinician-rated measures of intrinsic motivation and amotivation. Analyses revealed that when controlling for group differences in gender and education, the FEP group had significantly more intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation than the prolonged psychosis group. Moreover, intrinsic motivation was negatively correlated with amotivation in both FEP and prolonged psychosis, but the magnitude of the relationship did not statistically differ between groups. These findings suggest that motivation deficits are more severe later in the course of psychosis and that low intrinsic motivation may be partially independent of amotivation in both first episode and prolonged psychosis. Clinically, these results highlight the importance of targeting motivation in early intervention services. PMID:26386901

  16. Incentive motivation in first-episode psychosis: A behavioural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackwell Andrew D

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: It has been proposed that there are abnormalities in incentive motivational processing in psychosis, possibly secondary to subcortical dopamine abnormalities, but few empirical studies have addressed this issue. Methods: We studied incentive motivation in 18 first-episode psychosis patients from the Cambridge early psychosis service CAMEO and 19 control participants using the Cued Reinforcement Reaction Time Task, which measures motivationally driven behaviour. We also gathered information on participants' attentional, executive and spatial working memory function in order to determine whether any incentive motivation deficits were secondary to generalised cognitive impairment. Results: We demonstrated the anticipated "reinforcement-related speeding" effect in controls (17 out of 19 control participants responded faster during an "odd-one-out" task in response to a cue that indicated a high likelihood of a large points reward. Only 4 out of 18 patients showed this effect and there was a significant interaction effect between reinforcement probability and diagnosis on reaction time (F1,35 = 14.2, p = 0.001. This deficit was present in spite of preserved executive and attentional function in patients, and persisted even in antipsychotic medication free patients. Conclusion: There are incentive motivation processing abnormalities in first-episode psychosis; these may be secondary to dopamine dysfunction and are not attributable to generalised cognitive impairment.

  17. COGNITIVE AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS, WHILE THE FIRST EPISODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A EBRAHIMI

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is assumed that the process of schizophrenia effect on patient"s cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to examine and to compare cognitive profile of patients with that of control group. Methods: 40 patients with schizophrenia were selected from Isfahan Noor Hospital. 40 non-patients as control group were selected and matched on the base of age, sex, education, economic status. Cognitive functions of two groups were assessed by WAlS-R. Results: Results show that schizophrenic patients appear at a lower level of IQ than control group. Nonverbal IQ was more impaired than the other kind of IQ in patients. Cognitive profile analysis reveals that patients had low scores on all of the WAlS-R subscles except information and word subscales. Discussion: These findings show that schizophrenic patients in the first episode of theire illness reveal a remarkable impairment on inteligence performance. Cognitive profile analysis indicates that schizophrenic patients performer significatly at a lower level in comparison with control group, in: abstraction, visual - special perception, verbal and non-verbal conceptualization, social judgment, attention, motor-visual organization and mental flexibility.

  18. 10 year course of IQ in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Sundet, Kjetil; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd;

    2015-01-01

    are largely uninvestigated, but may identify subgroups with different intellectual trajectories. Eighty-nine first-episode psychosis patients were investigated on IQ at baseline and at 10-years follow-up. Total time in psychosis was defined as two separate variables; Duration of psychosis before start...... of treatment (i.e. duration of untreated psychosis: DUP), and duration of psychosis after start of treatment (DAT). The sample was divided in three equal groups based on DUP and DAT, respectively. To investigate if diagnosis could separate IQ-trajectories beyond that of psychotic duration, two...... diagnostic categories were defined: core versus non-core SSDs. No significant change in IQ was found for the total sample. Intellectual course was not related to DUP or stringency of diagnostic category. However, a subgroup with long DAT demonstrated a significant intellectual decline, mainly associated with...

  19. Suicidal behavior and mortality in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Madsen, Trine; Fedyszyn, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    particularly high during the first year of the initial contact with mental health services, being almost twice as high as in the later course of the illness. The most consistently reported risk factor for suicide among people with psychotic disorders is a history of attempted suicide and depression. Suicide...... risk in psychosis in Denmark decreased over time, most likely because of improved quality of inpatient and outpatient services. There is a high proportion of young people with first-episode psychosis who attempted suicide before their first contact with mental health services. This finding suggests...... that the mortality rates associated with psychotic disorders may be underreported because of suicide deaths taking place before first treatment contact. However, currently, no data exist to confirm or refute this hypothesis. Attempted suicide can be an early warning sign of later psychotic disorder...

  20. Integrated treatment ameliorates negative symptoms in first episode psychosis--results from the Danish OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne Amalie Elgaard; Petersen, L; Jeppesen, P;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of integrated treatment on negative, psychotic and disorganised symptoms in patients with first episode psychosis.......To investigate the effect of integrated treatment on negative, psychotic and disorganised symptoms in patients with first episode psychosis....

  1. Schizophrenia and Metacognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Stephen F.; Mors, Ole; Nordentoft, Merete;

    2014-01-01

    tested for relationships between course of illness and levels of specific metacognitions in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. A large cohort of people with first episode psychosis (n = 578) recruited as part the OPUS trial (1998–2000) were tested. Information about course of illness (remitted, episodic...... metacognitive beliefs may also impact on positive symptoms and course of illness within schizophrenia....

  2. A systematic review of cognitive function in first-episode psychosis, including a discussion on childhood trauma, stress and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MonicaAas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To carry out a systematic review of the literature addressing cognitive functions in first-episode psychosis, divided into domains. Although this is not a full “cognitive-genetics-in-schizophrenia review”, we will also include putative ideas of mechanism(s behind these impairments, focusing on how early stress, and genetic vulnerability may moderate cognitive function in psychosis. METHOD: Relevant studies were identified via computer literature searches for research published up to and including January 2013, only case-control studies were included for the neurocognitive meta-analysis.RESULTS: Patients with first-episode psychosis present global cognitive impairment compared to healthy controls. The largest effect size was observed for verbal memory (Cohen’s d effect size=2.10, followed by executive function (effect size =1.86, and general IQ (effect size =1.71. However, effect sizes varied between studies. CONCLUSION: Cognitive impairment across domains, up to severe level based on Cohen’s effect size, is present already in first-episode psychosis studies. However, differences in levels of impairment are observed between studies, as well as within domains, indicating that further consolidation of cognitive impairment over the course of illness may be present. Cognitive abnormalities may be linked to a neurodevelopmental model including increased sensitivity to the negative effect of stress, as well as genetic vulnerability. More research on this field is needed.

  3. Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008355 Efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, risperidone controlled, multicenter study. YAN Jun(闫俊), et al. Instit Mental Health, Peking Univ, Beijing 100083. Chin J Psychiat 2008;41(2):81-84.Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in treating acute exacerbation of schizophrenia.

  4. The prevalence, diagnostic significance and demographic characteristics of Schneiderian first-rank symptoms in an epidemiological sample of first-episode psychoses.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ihara, Kazushige

    2009-01-01

    The diagnostic significance of first-rank symptoms (FRSs) remains uncertain. Ethnic differences in FRSs may account for high rates of schizophrenia in minority groups. This study aims to examine the prevalence of FRSs in an epidemiological sample of first-episode psychoses stratified by relevant demographic variables. SAMPLING AND METHOD: We identified everyone aged 16-64 presenting with their first psychosis over 2 years in 3 UK centres.

  5. Thalamic shape abnormalities in antipsychotic naïve schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Danivas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia states abnormal pruning as one of the pathogenetic mechanism in schizophrenia. Though thalamic volume abnormalities have been documented, the shape differences of thalamus in antipsychotic-free schizophrenia in comparison with age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers need validation. Materials and Methods: We examined antipsychotic naïve schizophrenia patients ( n=60 and age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers ( n=44. The thalamic shape abnormalities were analyzed from their coded structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data using three-dimensional automated image analysis software, FMRIB′s (Oxford Center for the functional MRI of the brain tools-FIRST (FMRIB′s Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool by creating deformable mesh model. Correlation with the psychopathology scores was carried out using F-statistics. Results: Patients with schizophrenia showed significant inward deformations in the regions corresponding to anterior, ventromedial, mediodorsal, and pulvinar nuclei. There was a direct correlation between negative syndrome score and the deformation in the right mediodorsal and right pulvinar nuclei. Conclusion: The inward deformations of thalamus in antipsychotic naive schizophrenia patients correspond to those nuclei which have reciprocal connections with frontal, superior temporal, and anterior cingulate regions and support the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia.

  6. Functionally aberrant electrophysiological cortical connectivities in first episode medication-naive schizophrenics from three psychiatry centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Lehmann‡

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional dissociation between brain processes is widely hypothesized to account for aberrations of thought and emotions in schizophrenic patients. The typically small groups of analyzed schizophrenic patients yielded different neurophysiological findings, probably because small patient groups are likely to comprise different schizophrenia subtypes. We analyzed multichannel eyes-closed resting EEG from three small groups of acutely ill, first episode productive schizophrenic patients before start of medication (from three centers: Bern N=9; Osaka N=9; Berlin N=12 and their controls. Low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA was used to compute intracortical source model-based lagged functional connectivity not biased by volume conduction effects between 19 cortical regions of interest (ROIs. The connectivities were compared between controls and patients of each group. Conjunction analysis determined six aberrant cortical functional connectivities that were the same in the three patient groups. Four of these six concerned the facilitating EEG alpha 1 frequency activity; they were decreased in the patients. Another two of these six connectivities concerned the inhibiting EEG delta frequency activity; they were increased in the patients. The principal orientation of the six aberrant cortical functional connectivities was sagittal; five of them involved both hemispheres. In sum, activity in the posterior brain areas of preprocessing functions and the anterior brain areas of evaluation and behavior control functions were compromised by either decreased coupled activation or increased coupled inhibition, common across schizophrenia subtypes in the three patient groups. These results of the analyzed three independent groups of schizophrenics support the concept of functional dissociation.

  7. Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a smile or frown Having trouble experiencing happiness Having trouble planning and sticking with an activity, ... to make decisions Problems using information immediately after learning it Trouble paying attention What causes schizophrenia? Many ...

  8. Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Freudenreich O, Brown HE, Holt DJ. Psychosis and schizophrenia. In: Stern ...

  9. Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stigma with hope. Take the Pledge Join Donate stigma free Pledge What Can I Do? Share Your Story National ... Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness that interferes with a person’s ability to think ...

  10. Antipsychotic pharmacogenomics in first episode psychosis: a role for glutamate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J M; Reilly, J L; Harris, M S H; Patel, S R; Weiden, P J; Prasad, K M; Badner, J A; Nimgaonkar, V L; Keshavan, M S; Sweeney, J A; Bishop, J R

    2016-01-01

    Genetic factors may underlie beneficial and adverse responses to antipsychotic treatment. These relationships may be easier to identify among patients early in the course of disease who have limited exposure to antipsychotic drugs. We examined 86 first episode patients (schizophrenia, psychotic bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder with psychotic features) who had minimal to no prior antipsychotic exposure in a 6-week pharmacogenomic study of antipsychotic treatment response. Response was measured by change in Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale total score. Risperidone monotherapy was the primary antipsychotic treatment. Pharmacogenomic association studies were completed to (1) examine candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes known to be involved with glutamate signaling, and (2) conduct an exploratory genome-wide association study of symptom response to identify potential novel associations for future investigation. Two SNPs in GRM7 (rs2069062 and rs2014195) were significantly associated with antipsychotic response in candidate gene analysis, as were two SNPs in the human glutamate receptor delta 2 (GRID2) gene (rs9307122 and rs1875705) in genome-wide association analysis. Further examination of these findings with those from a separate risperidone-treated study sample demonstrated that top SNPs in both studies were overrepresented in glutamate genes and that there were similarities in neurodevelopmental gene categories associated with drug response from both study samples. These associations indicate a role for gene variants related to glutamate signaling and antipsychotic response with more broad association patterns indicating the potential importance of genes involved in neuronal development. PMID:26905411

  11. Taurine and Epidermal Growth Factor Belong to the Signature of First-Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koido, Kati; Innos, Jürgen; Haring, Liina; Zilmer, Mihkel; Ottas, Aigar; Vasar, Eero

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the levels of two amino acid derivatives taurine and spermine in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and their response to antipsychotic treatment. The levels of taurine and spermine were significantly up-regulated in antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients compared to control subjects (CS). Treatment of FEP patients with antipsychotic drugs significantly reduced the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. This positive effect was accompanied by a significant reduction of taurine and spermine to the levels measured in CS. General linear model was used to establish associations of taurine and spermine with the levels of cytokines and growth factors, measured in our previous experiments using the same study sample. There was a strong association between taurine and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Both biomarkers significantly correlated with the disease symptoms as well as with the effectiveness of antipsychotic treatment. Accordingly one can conclude that taurine and EGF belong to the signature of FEP. Most probably they reflect altered oxidative stress and corrupted function of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in FEP. PMID:27471446

  12. Identifying persistent negative symptoms in first episode psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovington Cindy L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although persistent negative symptoms (PNS are known to contribute significantly to poor functional outcome, they remain poorly understood. We examined the heuristic value of various PNS definitions and their respective prevalence in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP. We also contrasted those definitions to the Proxy for the Deficit Syndrome (PDS to identify deficit syndrome (DS in the same FEP cohort. Methods One hundred and fifty-eight FEP patients were separated into PNS and non-PNS groups based on ratings from the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS. PNS was defined in the following ways: 1 having a score of 3 or greater on at least 1 global subscale of the SANS (PNS_1; 2 having a score of 3 or more on at least 2 global subscales of the SANS (PNS_2; and 3 having a score of 3 or more on a combination of specific SANS subscales and items (PNS_H. For all three definitions, symptoms had to be present for a minimum of six consecutive months. Negative symptoms were measured upon entry to the program and subsequently at 1,2,3,6,9 and 12 months. Functional outcome was quantified at first assessment and month 12. Results PNS prevalence: PNS_1 (27%; PNS_2 (13.2%; PNS_H (13.2%. The prevalence of DS was found to be 3% when applying the PDS. Regardless of the definition being applied, when compared to non-PNS, patients in the PNS group were shown to have significantly worse functioning at month 12. All three PNS definitions showed similar associations with functional outcome at month 12. Conclusion Persistent negative symptoms are present in about 27% of FEP patients with both affective and non-affective psychosis. Although there has previously been doubt as to whether PNS represents a separate subdomain of negative symptoms, the current study suggests that PNS may be more applicable to FEP when compared to DS. Although all three PNS definitions were comparable in predicting functional outcome, we suggest that the

  13. Selected Executive Skills in Adolescents with Recent First Episode Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyte, Zoe A.; Goodyer, Ian M.; Sahakian, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: To investigate whether recent first episode major depression in adolescence is characterised by selected executive difficulties in attentional flexibility, behavioural inhibition and decision-making. Methods: Selected executive functions were compared in adolescents with recent (past year) first episode major depression (n = 30) and…

  14. First-episode psychosis patients recruited into treatment via early detection teams versus ordinary pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Jan Olav; Joa, Inge; Auestad, Bjørn;

    2011-01-01

    To compare the 5-year course and outcome of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients recruited via active outreach detection teams (DTs) versus ordinary referral channels (not-DT).......To compare the 5-year course and outcome of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients recruited via active outreach detection teams (DTs) versus ordinary referral channels (not-DT)....

  15. Integrated treatment of first-episode psychosis: effect of treatment on family burden: OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone; Thorup, Anne; Abel, Maj-Britt; Oehlenschlaeger, Johan; Christensen, Torben; Krarup, Gertrud; Hemmingsen, Ralf; Jørgensen, Per; Nordentoft, Merete

    2005-01-01

    The families of patients with first-episode psychosis often play a major role in care and often experience lack of support.......The families of patients with first-episode psychosis often play a major role in care and often experience lack of support....

  16. Gender differences in first-episode psychosis at 5-year follow-up - two different courses of disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, A; Albert, Nancy; Bertelsen, M;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Gender differences in psychosis have been investigated, and the results have contributed to a better understanding of the disease, but many questions are unanswered. In clinical terms, women and men with psychosis differ in terms of access to social support, tendency of substance abuse......, level of functioning and symptom patterns. We aimed to investigate how gender differences at onset of psychosis develop during the first 5years of treatment. METHOD: A total of 578 patients with a first-episode psychosis in the schizophrenia spectrum were included in the Danish OPUS trial - a randomized...... clinical trial comparing 2years of intensive early-intervention programme with standard treatment. All patients were assessed with validated instruments at inclusion, and after 2 and 5years. Data were analysed for significant gender differences. RESULTS: Males have significantly higher levels of negative...

  17. Physical activity and anomalous bodily experiences in patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Lene; Moeller, Marianne K; Vestergaard, Claus H;

    2016-01-01

    : Both physical activity and aerobic fitness were measured. Anomalous bodily experiences were measured by selected items from the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience and The Body Awareness Scale. Psychopathological data comprising negative and positive symptoms and data on psychotropic medication....... AIM: The purpose of the study was to compare physical activity in patients with FES with healthy controls; to investigate changes in physical activity over 1 year of follow-up; and to explore the correlations of physical activity and anomalous bodily experiences reported by patients with FES. METHODS...... anomalous bodily experiences had significantly lower physical activity compared with patients with fewer such experiences (p = 0.030). In linear regression analyses only negative symptoms were significantly correlated with low physical activity (β = -0.88; 95% confidence interval = -1.48 to -0.29; p < 0...

  18. Course of intelligence deficits in early onset, first episode schizophrenia: a controlled, 5-year longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt Moellegaard; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine;

    2010-01-01

    predominantly been characterized as relatively stable in these studies. However, comparisons of IQs from different test versions based on the different norms may not permit unequivocal interpretations. The objective of the current study was to compare the development of intelligence in EOS patients (N = 10......, and the same norms were used to derive IQs at baseline and follow-up. Significantly smaller change in mean full scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) was found in diagnostically stable EOS patients compared with healthy controls during the follow-up period. However, no statistically significant...

  19. Substance abuse and first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The Danish OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia; Thorup, Anne;

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years.......To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years....

  20. Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005280 Association between polymorphism in the dopamine D4 receptor gene and qualitative and quantitative characters of schizophrenia in Chinese. ZHAO Ai-ling(赵爱玲),et al. Dept Psych, 2nd Xi-angya Hosp,Central South Univ,Changsha 410011. Chin J Psychi,2005;38(1) :3-6. Objective: To investigate the relationship between 48 bp variant number tandem repeat polymorphism in the third exon of dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene

  1. Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008489 Establishment of a schizophrenia mouse model of deficient sensorimotor gating by MK-801. SU Yunai(苏允爱), et al. Key Lab, Ment Health, Health Ministry, Instit Ment Health Peking Univ, Beijing 100083.Chin J Nerv Ment Dis 2008;34(5):283-286. Objective To investigate the effects of MK-801, a selective non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, on

  2. Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Sarah JE; Gaughan, Tracey M; Hunter, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia is approximately 0.7% and incidence rates vary between 7.7 and 43.0 per 100,000; about 75% of people have relapses and continued disability, and one third fail to respond to standard treatment. Positive symptoms include auditory hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorder. Negative symptoms (anhedonia, asociality, flattening of affect, and demotivation) and cognitive dysfunction have not been consistently improved by any treatment.

  3. The association between working alliance and clinical and functional outcome in a cohort of 400 patients with first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melau, Marianne; Harder, Susanne; Jeppesen, Pia;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Working alliance between patients with a first-episode psychosis and their case manager is regarded as a key element in specialized early intervention services. The impact of this patient-case manager dyad on functional and clinical outcome is unknown. We aimed to investigate if a strong...... working alliance was associated with fewer clinical symptoms and better social functioning. METHOD: In a cross-sectional design, patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders (ICD-10, F20-29) were included after 18 months of treatment (N = 400). Baseline data were collected between June...... between working alliance and better social functioning (β = 1.45; 95% CI, 0.55 to 2.36). General self-efficacy mediated the effect of working alliance, explaining 14%-18% of the variance in associated outcomes. Global level of cognitive functioning, compliance, and self-efficacy influenced clinical and...

  4. Using internet enabled mobile devices and social networking technologies to promote exercise as an intervention for young first episode psychosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Pamela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people with first episode psychosis are at an increased risk for a range of poor health outcomes. In contrast to the growing body of evidence that suggests that exercise therapy may benefit the physical and mental health of people diagnosed with schizophrenia, there are no studies to date that have sought to extend the use of exercise therapy among patients with first episode psychosis. The aim of the study is to test the feasibility and acceptability of an exercise program that will be delivered via internet enabled mobile devices and social networking technologies among young people with first episode psychosis. Methods/Design This study is a qualitative pilot study being conducted at Orygen Youth Health Research Centre in Melbourne, Australia. Participants are young people aged 15-24 who are receiving clinical care at a specialist first episode psychosis treatment centre. Participants will also comprise young people from the general population. The exercise intervention is a 9-week running program, designed to gradually build a person's level of fitness to be able to run 5 kilometres (3 miles towards the end of the program. The program will be delivered via an internet enabled mobile device. Participants will be asked to post messages about their running experiences on the social networking website, and will also be asked to attend three face-to-face interviews. Discussion This paper describes the development of a qualitative study to pilot a running program coupled with the use of internet enabled mobile devices among young people with first episode psychosis. If the program is found to be feasible and acceptable to patients, it is hoped that further rigorous evaluations will ultimately lead to the introduction of exercise therapy as part of an evidence-based, multidisciplinary approach in routine clinical care.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of early intervention in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Lene Halling; Kronborg, Christian; Bertelsen, Mette;

    2013-01-01

    community treatment, psychoeducational family treatment and social skills training for individuals with first-episode psychosis compared with standard treatment. METHOD: An incremental cost-effectiveness analysis of a randomised controlled trial, adopting a public sector perspective was undertaken. RESULTS...

  6. A narrative analysis investigating the impact of first episode psychosis on siblings' identity

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, S.; Simonds, LM; Billings, J

    2011-01-01

    Research investigating the impact and experience of first episode psychosis amongst siblings is limited. This study reports the findings of a narrative analysis of the accounts of four siblings, two male and two female, aged between 17 and 24 years, of young people with a first episode of psychosis. The aim of the analysis was to explore the impact of this experience on siblings’ sense of self and their identity development and the roles they adopt within their families. The analysis focused ...

  7. Cortisol and Inflammatory Biomarkers Predict Poor Treatment Response in First Episode Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mondelli, Valeria; Ciufolini, Simone; Belvederi Murri, Martino; Bonaccorso, Stefania; Di Forti, Marta; Giordano, Annalisa; Marques, Tiago R; Zunszain, Patricia A.; Morgan, Craig; MURRAY, Robin M.; Pariante, Carmine M.; Dazzan, Paola

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cortisol and inflammatory markers have been increasingly reported as abnormal at psychosis onset. The main aim of our study was to investigate the ability of these biomarkers to predict treatment response at 12 weeks follow-up in first episode psychosis.METHODS: In a longitudinal study, we collected saliva and blood samples in 68 first episode psychosis patients (and 57 controls) at baseline and assessed response to clinician-led antipsychotic treatment after 12 weeks. Moreover, w...

  8. Tardive dyskinesia in a South Asian population with first episode psychosis treated with antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam UU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Usman Adam, Nusrat Husain, Peter M Haddad, Tariq Munshi, Fauzia Tariq, Farooq Naeem, Imran B ChaudhryBackground: Tardive dyskinesia (TD is a side effect of antipsychotic treatment that often only appears after months or years of treatment. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials lasting more than 1 year showed that second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs were associated with an approximately fivefold lower risk of TD compared to haloperidol in patients with chronic schizophrenia. In contrast, there is little research on the risk of TD with other first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs, and this applies especially to their use in the treatment of patients with first episode psychosis (FEP.Objectives: To determine the severity and point prevalence of TD in a naturalistic sample of patients with FEP in Pakistan treated with FGAs or SGAs.Methods: This was an observational study. TD was assessed by trained clinicians using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale.Results: In the total sample (number =86 the mean age of patients was 26 years and the prevalence of TD (Schooler Kane criteria was 29% with no significant difference between those treated with FGAs and SGAs (31% FGAs versus 26% SGAs; P=0.805. The Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale total score (items 1–7, a measure of the severity of TD, was significantly higher for patients treated with FGAs versus those treated with SGAs (P=0.033. Scores on specific items showed that this reflected higher scores for dyskinesia affecting the muscles of facial expression, as well as of the upper and lower limb, whereas scores did not differ significantly in other body areas. Conclusion: FGAs were associated with greater severity, though not prevalence, of TD than SGAs. The study highlights the relatively high rate of TD in Asian FEP patients and the need for clinicians to monitor for this and other potential antipsychotic side effects during treatment. Keywords: first-generation antipsychotic

  9. A randomised multicentre trial of integrated versus standard treatment for patients with a first episode of psychotic illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lone Bente; Jeppesen, Pia; Thorup, Anne;

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of integrated treatment for patients with a first episode of psychotic illness.......To evaluate the effects of integrated treatment for patients with a first episode of psychotic illness....

  10. Visual Hallucinations in First-Episode Psychosis: Association with Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solesvik, Martine; Joa, Inge; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Langeveld, Johannes; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Bjørnestad, Jone; Anda, Liss Gøril; Gisselgård, Jens; Hegelstad, Wenche ten Velden

    2016-01-01

    Background Hallucinations are a core diagnostic criterion for psychotic disorders and have been investigated with regard to its association with childhood trauma in first-episode psychosis samples. Research has largely focused on auditory hallucinations, while specific investigations of visual hallucinations in first-episode psychosis remain scarce. Objectives The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of visual hallucinations, and to explore the association between visual hallucination and childhood trauma in a first-episode psychosis sample. Methods Subjects were included from TIPS-2, a first episode psychosis study in south Rogaland, Norway. Based on the medical journal descriptions of the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), a separate score for visual and auditory hallucinations was created (N = 204). Patients were grouped according to hallucination severity (none, mild, and psychotic hallucinations) and multinomial logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with visual hallucination group. Results Visual hallucinations of a psychotic nature were reported by 26.5% of patients. The experience of childhood interpersonal trauma increased the likelihood of having psychotic visual hallucinations. Conclusion Visual hallucinations are common in first-episode psychosis, and are related to childhood interpersonal trauma. PMID:27144681

  11. Visual Hallucinations in First-Episode Psychosis: Association with Childhood Trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Solesvik

    Full Text Available Hallucinations are a core diagnostic criterion for psychotic disorders and have been investigated with regard to its association with childhood trauma in first-episode psychosis samples. Research has largely focused on auditory hallucinations, while specific investigations of visual hallucinations in first-episode psychosis remain scarce.The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of visual hallucinations, and to explore the association between visual hallucination and childhood trauma in a first-episode psychosis sample.Subjects were included from TIPS-2, a first episode psychosis study in south Rogaland, Norway. Based on the medical journal descriptions of the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS, a separate score for visual and auditory hallucinations was created (N = 204. Patients were grouped according to hallucination severity (none, mild, and psychotic hallucinations and multinomial logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with visual hallucination group.Visual hallucinations of a psychotic nature were reported by 26.5% of patients. The experience of childhood interpersonal trauma increased the likelihood of having psychotic visual hallucinations.Visual hallucinations are common in first-episode psychosis, and are related to childhood interpersonal trauma.

  12. The promise of biological markers for treatment response in first-episode psychosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, Guillaume; d'Albis, Marc-Antoine; Jamain, Stéphane; Tamouza, Ryad; Arango, Celso; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Glenthøj, Birte; Leweke, Markus; Lewis, Shôn; McGuire, Phillip; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Sommer, Iris E; Winter-van Rossum, Inge; Kapur, Shitij; Kahn, René S; Rujescu, Dan; Leboyer, Marion

    2015-05-01

    Successful treatment of first-episode psychosis is one of the major factors that impacts long-term prognosis. Currently, there are no satisfactory biological markers (biomarkers) to predict which patients with a first-episode psychosis will respond to which treatment. In addition, a non-negligible rate of patients does not respond to any treatment or may develop side effects that affect adherence to the treatments as well as negatively impact physical health. Thus, there clearly is a pressing need for defining biomarkers that may be helpful to predict response to treatment and sensitivity to side effects in first-episode psychosis. The present systematic review provides (1) trials that assessed biological markers associated with antipsychotic response or side effects in first-episode psychosis and (2) potential biomarkers associated with biological disturbances that may guide the choice of conventional treatments or the prescription of innovative treatments. Trials including first-episode psychoses are few in number. Most of the available data focused on pharmacogenetics markers with so far only preliminary results. To date, these studies yielded-beside markers for metabolism of antipsychotics-no or only a few biomarkers for response or side effects, none of which have been implemented in daily clinical practice. Other biomarkers exploring immunoinflammatory, oxidative, and hormonal disturbances emerged as biomarkers of first-episode psychoses in the last decades, and some of them have been associated with treatment response. In addition to pharmacogenetics, further efforts should focus on the association of emergent biomarkers with conventional treatments or with innovative therapies efficacy, where some preliminary data suggest promising results. PMID:25759473

  13. Effects on referral patterns of reducing intensive informational campaigns about first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Auestad, Bjørn;

    2007-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess referral patterns and duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) following the partial dismantling of intensive, information campaigns (IC) to help detect first-episode, non-affective psychosis via early detection teams in the TIPS study.......The primary aim of this study was to assess referral patterns and duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) following the partial dismantling of intensive, information campaigns (IC) to help detect first-episode, non-affective psychosis via early detection teams in the TIPS study....

  14. The quality of life among first-episode psychotic patients in the OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: From an 'objective' perspective, treatment of first-episode psychosis has improved in many ways with the development of specialised early and intensive team-based treatment like e.g. the 'OPUS' treatment. However, the patients' perspective is also important and was investigated in the...... symptoms) to a minor extent and more strongly with the affective balance and level of self-esteem.......BACKGROUND: From an 'objective' perspective, treatment of first-episode psychosis has improved in many ways with the development of specialised early and intensive team-based treatment like e.g. the 'OPUS' treatment. However, the patients' perspective is also important and was investigated in the...

  15. Examination of anomalous self-experience in first-episode psychosis: interrater reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Paul; Haug, Elisabeth; Raballo, Andrea;

    2011-01-01

    Background: The growing research focus on early detection of schizophrenia has fostered an increasing interest in the nonpsychotic experiential anomalies that may antedate schizophrenia spectrum disorders and assist early differential diagnosis. The Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience (EASE)...

  16. A Systematic Review of Cognitive Function in First-Episode Psychosis, Including a Discussion on Childhood Trauma, Stress, and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Monica; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Melle, Ingrid; Murray, Robin M.; Pariante, Carmine M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To carry out a systematic review of the literature addressing cognitive functions in first-episode psychosis (FEP), divided into domains. Although this is not a full “cognitive-genetics-in-schizophrenia review,” we will also include putative ideas of mechanism(s) behind these impairments, focusing on how early stress, and genetic vulnerability may moderate cognitive function in psychosis. Method: Relevant studies were identified via computer literature searches for research published up to and including January 2013, only case-control studies were included for the neurocognitive meta-analysis. Results: Patients with FEP present global cognitive impairment compared to healthy controls. The largest effect size was observed for verbal memory (Cohen’s d effect size = 2.10), followed by executive function (effect size = 1.86), and general IQ (effect size = 1.71). However, effect sizes varied between studies. Conclusion: Cognitive impairment across domains, up to severe level based on Cohen’s effect size, is present already in FEP studies. However, differences in levels of impairment are observed between studies, as well as within domains, indicating that further consolidation of cognitive impairment over the course of illness may be present. Cognitive abnormalities may be linked to a neurodevelopmental model including increased sensitivity to the negative effect of stress, as well as genetic vulnerability. More research on this field is needed. PMID:24409157

  17. The influence of comorbid personality disorder and neuroticism on treatment outcome in first episode depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Camilla; Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann; Vinberg, Maj;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has never been investigated whether comorbid personality disorder or neuroticism predicts a poor treatment outcome in first episode depression. METHODS: Medically treated patients discharged with a diagnosis of a single depressive episode from a psychiatric in- or outpatient hospit...

  18. The promise of biological markers for treatment response in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fond, Guillaume; d'Albis, Marc-Antoine; Jamain, Stéphane;

    2015-01-01

    -no or only a few biomarkers for response or side effects, none of which have been implemented in daily clinical practice. Other biomarkers exploring immunoinflammatory, oxidative, and hormonal disturbances emerged as biomarkers of first-episode psychoses in the last decades, and some of them have been...

  19. Criminal offending and distinguishing features of offenders among persons experiencing a first episode of psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2011-02-01

    Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) are at increased risk of criminal offending, particularly violent offending, as compared with the general population. Most offenders with SMI acquire convictions prior to contact with mental health services. This study examined offending among 301 individuals experiencing their first episode of psychosis.

  20. Striatal dysfunction during reversal learning in unmedicated schizophrenia patients ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Schlagenhauf, Florian; Huys, Quentin J.M.; Deserno, Lorenz; Rapp, Michael A.; Beck, Anne; Heinze, Hans-Joachim; Dolan, Ray; Heinz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Subjects with schizophrenia are impaired at reinforcement-driven reversal learning from as early as their first episode. The neurobiological basis of this deficit is unknown. We obtained behavioral and fMRI data in 24 unmedicated, primarily first episode, schizophrenia patients and 24 age-, IQ- and gender-matched healthy controls during a reversal learning task. We supplemented our fMRI analysis, focusing on learning from prediction errors, with detailed computational modeling to probe task s...

  1. Predictors of acute bacterial meningitis among children with a first episode of febrile convulsion from Northern India: A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Amiraj Singh; Joginder Silayach; Geeta Gathwala; Jaya Shankar Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Context: There is limited data to support need of lumbar puncture among Indian children aged less than 5 years presenting with a first episode of fever and seizure. Aims: To determine the incidence and clinical predictors of meningitis among children aged 6-60 months presenting with a first episode of febrile convulsion. Settings and Designs: A prospective study was conducted on 35 children (6-60 months) with a first episode of febrile convulsion subjected to lumbar puncture in a tertiary car...

  2. Is intervention necessary after a first episode of acute idiopathic pancreatitis?

    OpenAIRE

    Ballinger, A B; Barnes, E.; Alstead, E M; Fairclough, P D

    1996-01-01

    Acute idiopathic pancreatitis is a term used when no underlying cause has been identified on routine investigation. However, more specialised investigations may identify aetiological factors, biliary sludge and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction for example, in 38-72% of patients with recurrent episodes. Treatment of these abnormalities may prevent further episodes of pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to follow up and determine the outcome in patients with a first episode of idiopathic pancr...

  3. Examining the clinical characteristics of individuals with first episode psychosis with sleep satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Dwyer, Edel

    2014-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed Background: Sleep is a complex yet vital process essential for energy, productivity and emotional balance. Sleep disruption has significant implications for an individual???s health, wellbeing and occupational performance. Sleep disruption is linked to many psychiatric conditions including First Episode Psychosis (FEP). Early recognition and subsequent treatment of FEP can reduce the social and occupational disruption with which it is associated. Objectives: The resear...

  4. Neurocognitive development in first episode psychosis 5 years follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Sundet, Kjetil; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd;

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are documented in first-episode psychosis (FEP), but the continuing course is not fully understood. The present study examines the longitudinal development of neurocognitive function in a five year follow-up of FEP-patients, focusing on the relation to illness severity, as meas...... significant associations between neurocognition and number of relapses but not diagnostic group, indicating that neurocognition is more related to recurring psychotic episodes than to the descriptive diagnosis per se....

  5. Self-Determination Theory and First-Episode Psychosis: A Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Cindy Woolverton; R. Brock Frost; Nicole A. Kiewel

    2014-01-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) posits that human well-being depends on the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Although many scholars have suggested that SDT may be relevant to psychotic disorders, only one empirical study of SDT in individuals with psychosis has been completed to date by Breitborde and colleagues (2012). This study revealed that individuals with first-episode psychosis reported lower satisfaction of the three basic psychol...

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE RESULTS FROM ARTHROSCOPIC SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR TRAUMATIC ANTERIOR SHOULDER DISLOCATION: FIRST EPISODE

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; do Val Sella, Guilherme; Botelho, Vinicius; Duarte, Clodoaldo; Checchia, Sergio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical results obtained of patients who underwent arthroscopic surgical treatment following a first episode of traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation. Methods: Between August 2000 and October 2008, 14 shoulders of 14 patients were treated by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of Santa Casa Hospital, São Paulo. Thirteen patients (93%) were male and one (7%) was female; their ages ranged from 17 to 41 years, with a mean of 28 years. All of the patients evaluated were regul...

  7. The relationship between insight and neurological dysfunction in first-episode psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hill, M

    2012-04-01

    Impaired insight is commonly seen in psychosis and some studies have proposed that is a biologically based deficit. Support for this view comes from the excess of neurological soft signs (NSS) observed in patients with psychoses and their neural correlates which demonstrate a degree of overlap with the regions of interest implicated in neuroimaging studies of insight. The aim was to examine the relationship between NSS and insight in a sample of 241 first-episode psychosis patients.

  8. The value of renal ultrasound in children with a first episode of urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common pediatric problem. Guidelines recommend obtaining a renal ultrasonogram (RUS) for young children after a first UTI. Our aim was to assess the value of routine RUS in the management of children hospitalized with a first episode of UTI. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of 130 children 12 years of age or younger admitted with a first UTI. Children were excluded if they had a urinary tract abnormality before ...

  9. Childhood Trauma and Hippocampal and Amygdalar Volumes in First-Episode Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoy, K.E.; Barrett, Suzanne; Shannon, Ciaran; Campbell, C; Watson, D. R.; Rushe, T; Shevlin, M.; Bai, Feng; Cooper, Stephen; Mulholland, Ciaran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A history of childhood trauma is common in individuals who later develop psychosis. Similar neuroanatomical abnormalities are observed in people who have been exposed to childhood trauma and people with psychosis. However, the relationship between childhood trauma and such abnormalities in psychosis has not been investigated. This study aimed to explore the association between the experience of childhood trauma and hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in a first-episode psychosis (FEP...

  10. The quality of life among first-episode psychotic patients in the OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: From an 'objective' perspective, treatment of first-episode psychosis has improved in many ways with the development of specialised early and intensive team-based treatment like e.g. the 'OPUS' treatment. However, the patients' perspective is also important and was investigated in the...... symptoms) to a minor extent and more strongly with the affective balance and level of self-esteem....

  11. Explanatory models in patients with first episode depression: a study from north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Kumar, Vineet; Chakrabarti, Subho; Hollikatti, Prabhakar; Singh, Pritpal; Tyagi, Shikha; Kulhara, Parmanand; Avasthi, Ajit

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the explanatory models of patients with first episode depression presenting to a tertiary care hospital located in North-western India. One hundred sixty four consecutive patients with diagnosis of first episode depression (except severe depression with psychotic symptoms) according to the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision (ICD-10) and ≥18 years of age were evaluated for their explanatory models using the causal models section of Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC). The most common explanations given were categorized into Karma-deed-heredity category (77.4%), followed by psychological explanations (62.2%), weakness (50%) and social causes (40.2%). Among the various specific causes the commonly reported explanations by at least one-fourth of the sample in decreasing order were: will of god (51.2%), fate/chance (40.9%), weakness of nerves (37.8%), general weakness (34.7%), bad deeds (26.2%), evil eye (24.4%) and family problems (21.9%). There was some influence of sociodemographic features on the explanations given by the patients. From the study, it can be concluded that patients with first episode depression have multiple explanatory models for their symptoms of depression which are slightly different than those reported in previous studies done from other parts of India. Understanding the multiple explanatory models for their symptoms of depression can have important treatment implications. PMID:22981054

  12. Opposite effective connectivity in the posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex between first-episode schizophrenic patients with suicide risk and healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiran Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The schizophrenic patients with high suicide risk are characterized by depression, better cognitive function, and prominent positive symptoms. However, the neurobiological basis of suicide attempts in schizophrenia is not clear. The suicide in schizophrenia is implicated in the defects in emotional process and decision-making, which are associated with prefrontal-cingulate circuit. In order to explore the possible neurobiological basis of suicide in schizophrenia, we investigated the correlation of prefrontal-cingulate circuit with suicide risk in schizophrenia via dynamic casual modelling. METHOD: Participants were 33 first-episode schizophrenic patients comprising of a high suicide risk group (N = 14 and a low suicide risk group (N = 19. A comparison group of healthy controls (N = 15 were matched for age, gender and education. N-back tasking functional magnetic resonance imaging data was collected. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls group, the two patients groups showed decreased task-related suppression during 2-back task state versus baseline state in the left posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex; the hyper-connectivity from the left posterior cingulate cortex to the left medial prefrontal cortex existed in both schizophrenic patients groups, but hypo-connectivity in the opposite direction only existed in the schizophrenic patients group with high suicide risk. CONCLUSIONS: The hyper-connectivity from the left posterior cingulate cortex to the left medial prefrontal cortex may suggest that the abnormal effective connectivity was associated with risk for schizophrenia. The hypo-connectivity in the opposite direction may represent a possible correlate of increased vulnerability to suicide attempt.

  13. Family Functioning in First-Episode and Chronic Psychosis: The Role of Patient's Symptom Severity and Psychosocial Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutra, Katerina; Triliva, Sofia; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Basta, Maria; Lionis, Christos; Vgontzas, Alexandros N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between illness-related characteristics, such as symptom severity and psychosocial functioning, and specific aspects of family functioning both in patients experiencing their first episode of psychosis (FEP) and chronically ill patients. A total of 50 FEP and 50 chronic patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (most recent episode manic severe with psychotic features) and their family caregivers participated in the study. Family functioning was evaluated in terms of cohesion and flexibility (FACES IV Package), expressed emotion (FQ), family burden (FBS) and caregivers' psychological distress (GHQ-28). Patients' symptom severity (BPRS) and psychosocial functioning (GAS) were assessed by their treating psychiatrist within 2 weeks from the caregivers' assessment. Increased symptom severity was associated with greater dysfunction in terms of family cohesion and flexibility (β coefficient -0.13; 95 % CI -0.23, -0.03), increased caregivers' EE levels on the form of emotional overinvolvement (β coefficient 1.03; 95 % CI 0.02, 2.03), and psychological distress (β coefficient 3.37; 95 % CI 1.29, 5.45). Family burden was found to be significantly related to both symptom severity (β coefficient 3.01; 95 % CI 1.50, 4.51) and patient's functioning (β coefficient -2.04; 95 % CI -3.55, -0.53). No significant interaction effect of chronicity was observed in the afore-mentioned associations. These findings indicate that severe psychopathology and patient's low psychosocial functioning are associated with poor family functioning. It appears that the effect for family function is significant from the early stages of the illness. Thus, early psychoeducational interventions should focus on patients with severe symptomatology and impaired functioning and their families. PMID:26286079

  14. Multifamily group treatment in a program for patients with first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjell, Anne; Bloch Thorsen, Gerd Ragna; Friis, Svein;

    2007-01-01

    Psychoeducational multifamily group treatment based on the McFarlane model was implemented for adult patients experiencing a first episode of psychosis and for the families of 301 patients. Patients were participants in a research project in Norway and Denmark. Of 301 patients 246 were invited to...... participate and 147 agreed. Patients' reluctance to participate increased with age. Most had to wait between six and 12 months until a sufficient number was gathered to start a group. Treatment was well received by patients and families. Care should be taken to prevent a long delay before group commencement...

  15. Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis use: predictors of negative outcomes in first episode psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itxaso González-Ortega

    Full Text Available Although depressive symptoms in first episode psychosis have been associated with cannabis abuse, their influence on the long-term functional course of FEP patients who abuse cannabis is unknown. The aims of the study were to examine the influence of subclinical depressive symptoms on the long-term outcome in first episode-psychosis patients who were cannabis users and to assess the influence of these subclinical depressive symptoms on the ability to quit cannabis use.64 FEP patients who were cannabis users at baseline were followed-up for 5 years. Two groups were defined: (a patients with subclinical depressive symptoms at least once during follow-up (DPG, and (b patients without subclinical depressive symptoms during follow-up (NDPG. Psychotic symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, depressive symptoms using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17, and psychosocial functioning was assessed using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF. A linear mixed-effects model was used to analyze the combined influence of cannabis use and subclinical depressive symptomatology on the clinical outcome.Subclinical depressive symptoms were associated with continued abuse of cannabis during follow-up (β= 4.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78 to 11.17; P = .001 and with worse functioning (β = -5.50; 95% CI: -9.02 to -0.33; P = .009.Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis abuse during follow-up could be predictors of negative outcomes in FEP patients.

  16. The diagnostic yield of the first episode of a periodic health evaluation: a descriptive epidemiology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kermott Cindy A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of a periodic health evaluation remain debatable. The incremental value added by such evaluations beyond the delivery of age appropriate screening and preventive medicine recommendations is unclear. Methods We retrospectively collected data on a cohort of consecutive patients presenting for their first episode of a comprehensive periodic health evaluation. We abstracted data on new diagnoses that were identified during this single episode of care and that were not trivial (i.e., required additional testing or intervention. Results The cohort consisted of 491 patients. The rate of new diagnoses per this single episode of care was 0.9 diagnoses per patient. The majority of these diagnoses was not prompted by patients’ complaints (71% and would not have been identified by screening guidelines (51%. Men (odds ratio 2.67; 95% CI, 1.76, 4.03 and those with multiple complaints at presentation (odds ratio 1.12; 95% CI, 1.05, 1.19 were more likely to receive a clinically relevant diagnosis at the conclusion of the visit. Age was not a predictor of receiving a diagnosis in this cohort. Conclusion The first episode of a comprehensive periodic health evaluation may reveal numerous important diagnoses or risk factors that are not always identified through routine screening.

  17. Social functioning in Chinese college students with and without schizotypal personality traits: an exploratory study of the Chinese version of the First Episode Social Functioning Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The First Episode Social Functioning Scale (FESFS was designed to measure social functioning of young individuals with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to validate a Chinese version of the FESFS in a sample of young Chinese adults. METHOD: The FESFS was translated to Chinese prior to being administered to 1576 college students. The factor structure, reliability, and validity of the scale were examined. RESULTS: Two items were deleted after item analysis and the internal consistency of the whole scale was .89. A six-factor structure was derived by exploratory factor analysis. The factors were interpersonal, family and friends, school, living skills, intimacy, and balance. Estimates of the structural equation model supported this structure, with Goodness of Fit Chi-Square χ(2 = 1097.53 (p<0.0001, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = 0.058, and the comparative fit index (CFI = 0.93. Scale validity was supported by significant correlations between social functioning factors scores and schizophrenia personality questionnaire (SPQ scores. Individuals with schizotypal personality features presented poorer social functioning than those without schizotypal personality features. CONCLUSIONS: The Chinese revised version of the FESFS was found to have good psychometric properties and could be used in the future to examine social functioning in Chinese college students.

  18. The role of DMSA renal scintigraphy in the first episode of urinary tract infection in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scintigraphy in the first episode of urinary tract infection (UTI) has been the subject of debate for many years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), renal ultrasonography and DMSA renal scintigraphy and to detect renal parenchymal changes by performing DMSA renal scintigraphy at 6 months after the first episode of UTI. A prospective study was conducted in 67 hospitalized children (46 boys, 21 girls). Mean age of the patients was 0.97±1.57 years (0.02-7.26 years). All children received VCUG, renal ultrasonography and DMSA renal scintigraphy. DMSA renal scintigraphy was performed at 1 and 6 months after UTI. Of 67 children, 17 (25.4%), 23 (34.3%) and 20 (29.9%) had vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), abnormal renal ultrasonography and abnormal DMSA renal scintigraphy, respectively. Unilateral hydronephrosis had a significant correlation with VUR at p value 0.024. In renal units, abnormal renal ultrasonography and hydronephrosis had significant correlations with VUR at p values 0.039 and 0.021, respectively. In patients and renal units, hydronephrosis had no significant correlation with abnormal DMSA renal scintigraphy at 1 month after UTI. However, abnormal renal ultrasonography and VUR had significant correlations with abnormal DMSA renal scintigraphy at p values 0.022 and <0.001 in patients and at p values 0.024 and <0.001 in renal units, respectively. Both in patients and renal units, VUR (Grade I-III) had no significant correlation with abnormal DMSA renal scintigraphy. However, severe VUR (Grade IV-V) had significant correlations with abnormal DMSA renal scintigraphy at p values <0.001 and <0.001, respectively. Seventeen patients underwent DMSA renal scintigraphy at 6 months after UTI. In addition, 15 (88.2%) developed persistent renal scarring. Abnormal renal ultrasonography and severe VUR identify renal parenchymal changes. DMSA renal scintigraphy in the first

  19. Do stressful life events predict medical treatment outcome in first episode of depression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Camilla; Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Vinberg, Maj;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether medical treatment outcome in first episode depression differ for patients with and without stressful life events prior to onset of depression. METHODS: Patients discharged with a diagnosis of a single depressive episode from a psychiatric in- or outpatient hospital...... interview of recent life events (IRLE). Medical treatment history was assessed in detail using standardised procedures (TRAQ). Remission was defined as a score or= 4 on TRAQ following (1) first trial of antidepressant treatment (2) two...... adequate trials of antidepressant treatment. RESULTS: A total of 399 patients participated in the interview and among these 301 patients obtained a SCAN diagnosis of a single depressive episode. A total of 62.8% of the 301 patients experienced at least one moderate to severe stressful life event in a 6...

  20. Assessment of posttraumatic symptoms in patients with first-episode psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder is common among patients with psychotic disorders. The present study examined the internal reliability and comparability of the Impact of Event Scale (IES) in a sample of 38 patients with first-episode psychosis and 47 controls exposed to severe physical and\\/or sexual abuse. The IES total score and both subscales showed high internal consistency in both groups (Cronbach\\'s alpha coefficients of approximately 0.9 or higher). Given their equivalent trauma reporting, the lack of differences in IES scores between patients and controls seems to indicate that patients are likely to report accurately and neither exaggerate nor minimize their posttraumatic symptoms. Overall, the findings suggest that the IES can be used to assess symptoms of posttraumatic stress in patients with psychotic disorders as in other populations.

  1. Early Predictors of Ten-Year Course in First-Episode Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Svein; Melle, Ingrid; Johannessen, Jan Olav;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Identifying patients at risk of poor outcome at an early stage of illness can aid in treatment planning. This study sought to create a best-fit statistical model of known baseline and early-course risk factors to predict time in psychosis during a ten-year follow-up period after a first...... psychotic episode. METHODS: Between 1997 and 2000, 301 patients with DSM-IV nonorganic, nonaffective first-episode psychosis were recruited consecutively from catchment area-based sectors in Norway and Denmark. Specialized mental health personnel evaluated patients at baseline, three months, and one, two......, five, and ten years (N=186 at ten years). Time in psychosis was defined as time with scores ≥4 on any of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale items P1, P3, P5, P6, and G9. Evaluations were retrospective, based on clinical interviews and all available clinical information. During the first two years...

  2. Prevalence and Profile of Cognitive Deficits in a Cohort of First-Episode Antipsychotic-Naïve Schizophrenia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Høj; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard;

    2014-01-01

    are obtained using PANSS (Positive and Negative Symptom Scale). Results: Preliminary analyses show significant deficits in almost all cognitive domains assessed with effect sizes ranging between 0.5 to 1.2 standard deviations below the average of the healthy controls. The prevalence and profile of...

  3. Prevalence and profile of cognitive deficits in a cohort of first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Høj; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard;

    intelligence is estimated using DART (Danish Adult Reading Test) and current intelligence is estimated from 4 subtests from WAIS-III (Wechsler´s Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd ed.). Psychopathology ratings are obtained using PANSS (Positive and Negative Symptom Scale). Results: Preliminary analyses show...

  4. Altered Patterns of Reward Activation in a Large Cohort of Antipsychotic Naïve First Episode Schizophrenia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Rostrup, Egill; Wulff, Sanne;

    2014-01-01

    differences. LV 3, 4 and 5 were describing covariance which explained by group differences. LV 3 described areas in the brain related to group differences during the anticipation evoked by uncertain cues, and during outcome evaluation of certain gain, certain loss and uncertain loss. Among these areas were...... which were related to group differences during outcome evaluation of unexpected missed gain and unexpected loss but also related to neutral outcome . DISCUSSION The results of these analyses can be divided in two parts. First some of the findings confirm our own previous more hypothesis specific...

  5. Treatment of patients with first-episode psychosis: two-year outcome data from the Danish National Schizophrenia Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Valbak, Kristian; Harder, Susanne;

    2006-01-01

    psychodynamic psychotherapy as a supplement to treatment as usual", "integrated, assertive, psychosocial and educational treatment programme", or "treatment as usual". Data on symptoms and social function and sociodemographic data were obtained at inclusion, and at year 1 and 2. The three sub-cohorts did...... patients in the treatment-as-usual group. Improvement in the intervention groups continued into the second year. Patients receiving integrated assertive treatment faired better than those being treated with the less intensive method of supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy, and the latter group improved...

  6. Rorschach Inkblot Method data at baseline and after 2 years treatment of consecutively admitted patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Andersen, Palle Bent; Knudsen, Per Bjerregaard;

    2012-01-01

    of treatment, while other measurements (PANSS, GAF) did. Furthermore, discrepancies were found between the Perceptual-Thinking Index (PTI) and PANSS(positive) symptoms of delusions and hallucinations. Conclusion: The small sample limits the conclusions, but the Rorschach variables may have problems reflecting...

  7. Metabolic syndrome and aerobic fitness in patients with first-episode schizophrenia, including a 1-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, L; Vestergaard, C H; Moeller, M K;

    2015-01-01

    dietary habits, sleeping disturbances, psychopathology and psychotropic medication were also obtained. Patients were assessed at baseline and at 1year follow-up. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls patients with FES had a higher baseline prevalence of MetS (p=.07), and metabolic abnormalities: WC (p...

  8. A meta-analysis of neuropsychological functioning in first-episode bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rico S C; Hermens, Daniel F; Scott, Jan; Redoblado-Hodge, M Antoinette; Naismith, Sharon L; Lagopoulos, Jim; Griffiths, Kristi R; Porter, Melanie A; Hickie, Ian B

    2014-10-01

    Broad neuropsychological deficits have been consistently demonstrated in well-established bipolar disorder. The aim of the current study was to systematically review neuropsychological studies in first-episode bipolar disorders to determine the breadth, extent and predictors of cognitive dysfunction at this early stage of illness through meta-analytic procedures. Electronic databases were searched for studies published between January 1980 and December 2013. Twelve studies met eligibility criteria (N = 341, mean age = 28.2 years), and pooled effect sizes (ES) were calculated across eight cognitive domains. Moderator analyses were conducted to identify predictors of between-study heterogeneity. Controlling for known confounds, medium to large deficits (ES ≥ 0.5) in psychomotor speed, attention and working memory, and cognitive flexibility were identified, whereas smaller deficits (ES 0.20-0.49) were found in the domains of verbal learning and memory, attentional switching, and verbal fluency. A medium to large deficit in response inhibition was only detected in non-euthymic cases. Visual learning and memory functioning was not significantly worse in cases compared with controls. Overall, first-episode bipolar disorders are associated with widespread cognitive dysfunction. Since euthymia was not associated with superior cognitive performance in most domains, these results indicate that even in the earliest stages of disease, cognitive deficits are not mood-state dependent. The current findings have important implications for whether cognitive impairments represent neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative processes. Future studies need to more clearly characterise the presence of psychotic features, and the nature and number of previous mood episodes. PMID:25016347

  9. Suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Ventriglio; Alessandro Gentile; Iris Bonfitto; Eleonora Stella; Massimo Mari; Luca Steardo; Antonello Bellomo

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a relevant leading cause of death among patients affected by schizophrenia. Even if suicidal ideation may be present in different stages of disease, some differences have been described between the risk of suicide in patients experiencing first-episode of psychosis and those with long-term schizophrenia. It is particularly higher during the first year of illness and reaches a steady decline over the following years. Suicidal ideation and attempts may also be common among subjec...

  10. Depressive symptoms in first episode schizophrenic patients.%首发精神分裂症病人的抑郁症状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李献云; 费立鹏; 张培琰; 吉中孚

    2001-01-01

    Objective  To investigate the prevalence, characteristics and correlates of depressive symptoms in first episode schizophrenic patients. Methods To examine 164 first episode schizophrenic patients at the time of admission and at 3,6,9, and 12 months after starting treatment using the HAMD, BPRS, the Chinese version of SANS, CGI and GAF. Results 71% of the patients had depressive symptoms (mild or more) at damission, but the prevalence of depressive symptoms dropped to a mean of 12% during the recovery period. The most prominent depressive symptoms during the acute phase of schizophrenia were ‘cognitive disturbance’ and ‘retardation’ (the respective subscales constituted 35% and 29% of the total HAMD score on admission). Depressive symptoms improved in parallel with the schizophrenic illness. The severity of depressive symptoms was not related to gender, age of onset, educational level, duration of prodromal period or duration of illness. At admission the severity of depressive symptoms was only related to the BPRS anxiety and depression subscale score, but during the recovery period the HAMD total score was significantly correlated with all of the other clinical scales. The level of depressive symptoms at admission and at three months after starting treatment was not related to the subsequent course of positive or negative symptoms. Conclusions Depressive symptoms appeared to be a separate symptom cluster during the acute phase of first episode schizophrenia. The severity of depressive symptoms did not predict the clinical outcome of first episode schizophrenic patients.%目的探讨首发精神分裂症病人抑郁症状的发生率、特征及相关因素。方法于入院、治疗3、6、9、12月时用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、简明精神病评定量表(BPRS)、阴性症状量表中文版(SANS-CV)、临床总体印象量表(CGI)及功能总体评定量表(GAF)对164例首发精神分裂症患者进行评定。结果急性期首发精神

  11. Can insight be predicted in first-episode psychosis patients? A longitudinal and hierarchical analysis of predictors in a drug-naïve sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Manuel J; Peralta, Victor; Campos, Maria S; Garcia-Jalon, Elena

    2011-08-01

    Poor insight is a ubiquitous phenomenon in psychosis with great repercussions on clinical practise and the outcomes of patients. Poor insight comprises "state" and "trait" components. This paper targeted predictors of global insight and insight dimensions at baseline in the drug-naïve status of first-episode psychosis patients and during a 6-month follow up after episode remission. Seventy-seven consecutive and previously unmedicated patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (FESSD) completed baseline and 6-month insight, premorbid, symptomatological and neuropsychological assessments. Insight measures served as dependent variables for a set of hierarchical multiple regression models. Premorbid personality abnormalities and duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) significantly predicted 'state' and 'trait' insight global scores. Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) significantly predicted 'state' insight, measured as refusal of treatment at baseline. Moreover, premorbid personality abnormalities and DUP with minor contributions of demographic variables, cognitive functioning and psychopathological dimensions predicted 'trait insight', defined as insight after remission of the psychosis episode 'Insight improver' FESSD patients showed better late adolescent premorbid adjustment, lower personality disturbances (sociopathic, schizoid and schizotypy dimensions), shorter DUP, and lower positive, negative and disorganisation symptoms and better cognitive performance on the Trail Making B test at the 6-month follow-up assessment. Premorbid personality abnormalities and DUP were predictors of 'state' and 'trait' insight, both at global scores and dimension levels. Moreover, insight improvement in patients with FESSD was related to premorbid abnormalities (in both adjustment and personality), shorter DUP, fewer positive and negative symptoms and better performance in cognitive tests at the 6-month follow up. PMID:21632216

  12. Five-Year Follow-Up of Supportive Psychodynamic Psychotherapy in First-Episode Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Susanne; Køster, Anne; Valbak, Kristian;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The long-term outcomes of several approaches to intervention targeting social functioning in schizophrenia are not well documented. Contemporary supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy (SPP) aims to improve social functioning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-te...

  13. Specific and generalized neuropsychological deficits: a comparison of patients with various first-episode psychosis presentations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zanelli, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence suggests that compromised neuropsychological function is frequently observed in schizophrenia. Neurocognitive dysfunction has often been reported in other psychotic disorders, although there are inconsistencies in the literature. In the context of four distinct diagnostic groups, the authors compared neuropsychological performance among patients experiencing their first psychotic episode.

  14. Relationship of frontal D2/3 binding potentials to cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pinborg, Lars H; Mortensen, Erik Lykke;

    2013-01-01

    Studies of in vivo dopamine receptors in schizophrenia have mostly focused on D2 receptors in striatal areas or on D1 receptors in cortex. No previous study has examined the correlation between cortical dopamine D2/3 receptor binding potentials and cognition in schizophrenia patients. The objective...... was to examine this relation in the frontal cortex in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia patients. Based on preclinical and pharmacological evidence, we specifically expected to find a relation between D2/3 receptor binding potentials and set shifting. This was a cross-sectional, case......-control study using single-photon emission computerized tomography with the D2/3-receptor ligand [123I]epidepride, co-registered with structural magnetic resonance imaging and correlated to cognitive measures. Participants were 24 antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients and 20 healthy controls...

  15. Metacognitive functioning predicts positive and negative symptoms over 12 months in first episode psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, Hamish J; Gumley, Andrew I.; MacBeth, Angus; Schwannauer, Matthias; Lysaker, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    The negative symptoms of schizophrenia are a major source of impairment and distress but both pharmacological and psychological treatment options provide only modest benefit. Developing more effective psychological treatments for negative symptoms will require a more sophisticated understanding of the psychological processes that are implicated in their development and maintenance. We extended previous work by demonstrating that metacognitive functioning is related to negative symptom express...

  16. The effects and determinants of exercise participation in first-episode psychosis: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Firth, Joseph; Carney, Rebekah; Jerome, Lauren; Elliott, Rebecca; French, Paul; Yung, Alison R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous qualitative studies have found that exercise may facilitate symptomatic and functional recovery in people with long-term schizophrenia. This study examined the perceived effects of exercise as experienced by people in the early stages of psychosis, and explored which aspects of an exercise intervention facilitated or hindered their engagement. Methods Nineteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with early intervention service users who had participated in a 10-week ...

  17. Lipid correlates of attentional impulsivity in first episode mania: Results from an Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana Rao Kavoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attentional/cognitive impulsivity has been demonstrated as being associated with an increased risk for suicide and other self-harming behaviors, along with a more severe course in patients with bipolar disorder. That an alteration of the various serum lipid fractions might be associated with increased impulsivity has been proposed in the past, but evidences are ambiguous and mainly based on western population data. Objective: The present study was aimed to analyze the attentional impulsivity and various serum lipid fractions in bipolar patients, from an Indian perspective. Materials and Methods: At presentation, 60 drug free/naïve first episode Mania patients were rated on the Barratt impulsiveness scale-version 11 and Young Mania Rating Scale; body mass index (BMI was calculated and blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL, triglycerides (TG and apolipoproteins A1 and B. Results: The analysis revealed statistically significant negative correlation and inverse linear relationship between TC, TG, VLDL and BMI with attentional impulsivity. Conclusion: The present study adds to the growing literature on a complex relationship between lipid fractions and attentional impulsivity. The findings present interesting insights into the possible substrates of human behavior at biochemical levels. The implications are many, including a need to introspect regarding the promotion of weight loss and cholesterol reduction programs in constitutionally vulnerable population.

  18. Interaction between genetic polymorphisms and stressful life events in first episode depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A polymorphism in the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene seems to moderate the influence of stressful life events on depression. However, the results from previous studies of gene-environment interactions in depression are inconsistent and might be confounded by the history of depress......BACKGROUND: A polymorphism in the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene seems to moderate the influence of stressful life events on depression. However, the results from previous studies of gene-environment interactions in depression are inconsistent and might be confounded by the history...... of depression among participants. METHOD: We applied a case-only design, including 290 ethnically homogeneous patients suffering exclusively from first episode depression. Psychiatric mo-morbidity, personality traits and disorders and stressful life events in a six months period preceding onset of depression...... were evaluated by means of interviews and questionnaires. Additionally, we genotyped nine polymorphisms in the genes encoding the serotonin transporter, brain derived neurotrophic factor, catechol-O-methyltransferase, angiotensin converting enzyme, tryptophane hydroxylase, and the serotonin receptors 1...

  19. Metacognition in first-episode psychosis and its association with positive and negative symptom profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Gumley, Andrew; Jansen, Jens Einar; Pedersen, Marlene Buch; Nielsen, Hanne-Grethe Lyse; Trier, Christopher Høier; Haahr, Ulrik H; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-04-30

    There is growing evidence that metacognitive abilities which include the ability to synthesize knowledge regarding mental states in self and others and use this ability to solve problems are impaired in non-affective psychosis and associated with positive and negative symptom severity. We sought to (a) investigate the severity of metacognitive impairments in first-episode psychosis (FEP) compared to non-clinical controls and (b) explore associations with positive and negative symptom profiles. Ninety-seven people with FEP were compared to 101 control persons. Metacognition was assessed with interviews and the Metacognitive assessment scale-abbreviated. Four groups based on positive and negative symptoms were identified by cluster analysis and compared on metacognition, childhood adversities, duration of untreated psychosis and premorbid social and academic adjustment. Those with high levels of negative symptoms had poorer metacognitive abilities. Those with high positive and low negative symptoms did not have poorer metacognitive abilities than those with low positive and negative symptoms. None of the other predictors differed between the groups. The FEP group had poorer metacognitive abilities than the control group. Inclusion of metacognition in psychosis models may improve our understanding of negative symptoms, while previous findings of a relation with positive symptoms may have been confounded. Implications for current interventions are discussed. PMID:27086205

  20. Personality and coping in first episode psychosis linked to mental health care use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte-Stalenhoef, Anne Neeltje; la Bastide-van Gemert, Sacha; van de Willige, Gerard; Dost-Otter, Rianne; Visser, Ellen; Liemburg, Edith J; Knegtering, Henderikus; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Schoevers, Robert A; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H M; Bruggeman, Richard

    2016-04-30

    A body of literature focuses on associations of neuroticism, extraversion, passive coping and active coping with the course of psychotic illness. Less is known about other personality and coping variables - and underlying causal mechanisms between variables remain unclear. We explored causal effects from personality, coping and symptoms on mental health care consumption over two years in 208 first episode patients. Causal inference search algorithms lead to formation of a hypothetical causal model based on presumptions on (non-)mutuality between variables and consistent with data. Structural equation modelling estimated effect sizes conditionally on the causal model. Our observed model implies that none of the coping or personality variables have any effect on the number of days of hospitalisation, whereas general psychopathology symptoms do have a direct positive effect. For ambulatory care it is proposed that openness to experience, depressive symptoms and age have direct positive effects. Reassuring thoughts as a coping strategy seems to have a direct negative effect on the use of ambulatory care and mediates indirect effects of other personality and coping variables on ambulatory care. Furthermore, while previously established relations between personality and symptoms are confirmed by our model, it challenges traditional ideas about causation between personality and symptoms. PMID:27086236

  1. Recollection rejection of new items in individuals with first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Synthia; Lepage, Martin; Benoit, Audrey; Charbonneau, Geneviève; Hawco, Colin; Malla, Ashok K; Joober, Ridha; Brodeur, Mathieu B

    2016-01-01

    Many objects seen for the first time look familiar because they resemble known objects. To overcome this feeling of familiarity and detect novelty, memories of known objects must be recollected and compared to new objects. This experiment examines whether recollection performed when perceiving new items (i.e., recollection rejection) is abnormal in people who experienced a first episode of psychosis (FEP). Recollection of old items is impaired in this clinical population but it has not yet been demonstrated that this impairment influences the processing of new items. Eighteen FEP participants and 19 healthy controls completed an episodic memory task consisting of a study phase and a recognition phase. All the new objects looked familiar because they resembled the studied objects. Brain activity underlying false recognition and correct rejection of new objects was measured with functional resonance magnetic imaging and compared across groups. Behavioral responses to new items were not significantly different between the 2 groups. However, the between-groups analysis revealed significant differences in brain activity in the left middle frontal gyrus, the left inferior parietal lobule, the right superior parietal lobule, and the right temporal fusiform gyrus during the correct rejection of new items. This activity seems related to recollection rejection and suggests that FEP patients do not normally recollect information of past events when they process new items. PMID:26726818

  2. Cannabis and First-Episode Psychosis: Different Long-term Outcomes Depending on Continued or Discontinued Use

    OpenAIRE

    González-Pinto, Ana; Alberich, Susana; Barbeito, Sara; Gutierrez, Miguel; Vega, Patricia; Ibáñez, Berta; Haidar, Mahmoud Karim; Vieta, Eduard; Arango, Celso

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the influence of cannabis use on long-term outcome in patients with a first psychotic episode, comparing patients who have never used cannabis with (a) those who used cannabis before the first episode but stopped using it during follow-up and (b) those who used cannabis both before the first episode and during follow-up. Methods: Patients were studied following their first admission for psychosis. They were interviewed at years 1, 3, and 5. At follow-up after 8 years, fu...

  3. Differences in Facial Emotion Recognition between First Episode Psychosis, Borderline Personality Disorder and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez de Artaza, Maider; Bustamante, Sonia; Orgaz, Pablo; Osa, Luis; Angosto, Virxinia; Valverde, Cristina; Bilbao, Amaia; Madrazo, Arantza; van Os, Jim; Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    Background Facial emotion recognition (FER) is essential to guide social functioning and behaviour for interpersonal communication. FER may be altered in severe mental illness such as in psychosis and in borderline personality disorder patients. However, it is unclear if these FER alterations are specifically related to psychosis. Awareness of FER alterations may be useful in clinical settings to improve treatment strategies. The aim of our study was to examine FER in patients with severe mental disorder and their relation with psychotic symptomatology. Materials and Methods Socio-demographic and clinical variables were collected. Alterations on emotion recognition were assessed in 3 groups: patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) (n = 64), borderline personality patients (BPD) (n = 37) and healthy controls (n = 137), using the Degraded Facial Affect Recognition Task. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Structured Interview for Schizotypy Revised and Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences scales were used to assess positive psychotic symptoms. WAIS III subtests were used to assess IQ. Results Kruskal-Wallis analysis showed a significant difference between groups on the FER of neutral faces score between FEP, BPD patients and controls and between FEP patients and controls in angry face recognition. No significant differences were found between groups in the fear or happy conditions. There was a significant difference between groups in the attribution of negative emotion to happy faces. BPD and FEP groups had a much higher tendency to recognize happy faces as negatives. There was no association with the different symptom domains in either group. Conclusions FEP and BPD patients have problems in recognizing neutral faces more frequently than controls. Moreover, patients tend to over-report negative emotions in recognition of happy faces. Although no relation between psychotic symptoms and FER alterations was found, these deficits could contribute to a

  4. The role of MRI and CT of the brain in first episodes of psychosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To investigate whether imaging is associated with early detection of the organic causes of the first episode of psychosis (FEP). Materials and methods: Individuals with FEP but no neurological signs referred to a tertiary centre for cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) were reviewed retrospectively. Two groups were evaluated with either CT or MRI; the two groups were independent and no individual underwent both CT and MRI. Results: One hundred and twelve consecutive cerebral MRI and 204 consecutive CT examinations were identified. Three (2.7%) individuals had brain lesions [brain tumour and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy] potentially accountable for the psychosis at MRI. Seventy patients (62.5%) had incidental brain lesions, such as cerebral atrophy, small vessel ischaemic changes, unruptured Circle of Willis aneurysm, cavernoma, and arachnoid cysts at MRI. Three patients (1.5%) had focal brain lesions (primary or secondary tumours) potentially accountable for the psychosis at CT. One hundred and thirty-three patients (65.2%) had incidental brain lesions unrelated to the psychosis on CT scan. There was no significant difference between MRI and CT imaging in detecting organic disease potentially responsible for FEP (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Routine MRI or CT imaging of the brain is unlikely to reveal disease leading to a significant change in management. MRI was comparable with CT in terms of diagnosis of both pathological and incidental cerebral lesions. Therefore, routine brain structural imaging of FEP in patients without focal neurology may not be routinely required and if imaging is requested then CT may function equally as well as MRI as the first-line investigation

  5. Role of environmental confounding in the association between FKBP5 and first-episode psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya eAjnakina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Failure to account for the etiological diversity that typically occurs in psychiatric cohorts may increase the potential for confounding, as a proportion of genetic variance will be specific to exposures that have variable distribution in cases. This study investigated whether minimizing the potential for such confounding strengthened the evidence for a genetic candidate currently unsupported at the genome-wide level.Methods: 291 first-episode psychosis cases from South London UK, and 218 unaffected controls were evaluated for a functional polymorphism at the rs1360780 locus in FKBP5. The relationship between FKBP5 and psychosis was modelled using logistic regression. Cannabis use (Cannabis Experiences Questionnaire and parental separation (Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire were modelled as confounders in the analysis.Results: Association at rs1360780 was not detected until the effects of the two environmental factors had been adjusted for in the model (OR=2.81, 95% CI 1.23-6.43, p=0.02. A statistical interaction between rs1360780 and parental separation was confirmed by stratified tests (OR=2.8, p=0.02 vs. OR=0.89, p=0.80. The genetic main effect was directionally-consistent with findings in other (stress-related clinical phenotypes. Moreover, the variation in effect magnitude was explained by the level of power associated with different cannabis constructs used in the model (r=0.95.Conclusions: Our results suggest that the extent to which genetic variants in FKBP5 can influence susceptibility to psychosis may depend on the other etiological factors involved. This finding requires further validation in other large independent cohorts. Potentially this work could have translational implications, as the ability to discriminate between genetic etiologies, based on a case-by-case understanding of exposure history would confer an important clinical advantage that would benefit the delivery of personalizable treatment

  6. Hair cortisol in drug-naïve first-episode individuals with psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis H. Andrade

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare hair cortisol concentrations (HCC in drug-naïve first-episode psychosis (FEP patients and healthy controls and to investigate the correlations between HCC and psychopathology. Methods: Twenty-four drug-naïve FEP patients and 27 gender- and age-matched healthy control subjects were recruited. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-1 was used to confirm/rule out diagnoses, and the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS was used to assess symptom severity. Hair samples (2-3 cm long obtained from the posterior vertex region of the scalp were processed in 1-cm segments considering a hair growth rate of 1 cm per month. The 1-cm segments were classified according to their proximity to the scalp: segment A was the closest to the scalp and referred to the month prior to inclusion in the study. Segments B and C referred to the 2nd and 3rd months prior to the time of evaluation respectively. Hair steroid extraction was performed using a known protocol. Results: Two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA with gender and age as covariates revealed a group effect (F1.106 = 4.899, p = 0.029 on HCC. Between-segment differences correlated with total PANSS score and with PANSS General Psychopathology subscale and total score. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, as assessed by long-term (3-month cortisol concentration, is abnormal in the early stages of psychosis. The magnitude of changes in HCC over time prior to the FEP correlates to psychopathology. HPA axis abnormalities might begin prior to full-blown clinical presentation requiring hospital admission.

  7. Association Between Genetic Polymorphisms in the Serotonergic System and Comorbid Personality Disorders Among Patients with First-Episode Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens D; Bock, Camilla; Kessing, Lars V

    2014-01-01

    personality disorders in patients recently diagnosed with first-episode depression. A total of 290 participants were systematically recruited via the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. Diagnoses of personality disorders were assessed by a SCID-II interview, and polymorphisms in the genes encoding...

  8. The development of subjective quality of life over the first 2 years in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, Ingrid; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Joa, Inge;

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine changes in subjective quality of life (general s-QoL) in patients with first-episode psychosis from baseline to 2 years follow-up. A total of 201 of 252 patients had full quality of life assessment at both baseline and at 2 years. Repeated measure analyse...

  9. A Pharmacovigilance Study in First Episode of Psychosis: Psychopharmacological Interventions and Safety Profiles in the PEPs Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioque, Miquel; Llerena, Adrián; Cabrera, Bibiana; Mezquida, Gisela; Lobo, Antonio; González-Pinto, Ana; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M.; Corripio, Iluminada; Aguilar, Eduardo J.; Bulbena, Antoni; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Vieta, Eduard; Lafuente, Amàlia; Mas, Sergi; Parellada, Mara; Saiz-Ruiz, Jerónimo; Cuesta, Manuel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The characterization of the first episode of psychosis and how it should be treated are principal issues in actual research. Realistic, naturalistic studies are necessary to represent the entire population of first episode of psychosis attended in daily practice. Methods: Sixteen participating centers from the PEPs project recruited 335 first episode of psychosis patients, aged 7 to 35 years. This article describes and discusses the psychopharmacological interventions and safety profiles at baseline and during a 60-day pharmacovigilance period. Results: The majority of first episode of psychosis patients received a second-generation antipsychotic (96.3%), orally (95%), and in adjusted doses according to the product specifications (87.2%). A total of 24% were receiving an antipsychotic polytherapy pattern at baseline, frequently associated with lower or higher doses of antipsychotics than the recommended ones. Eight patients were taking clozapine, all in monotherapy. Males received higher doses of antipsychotic (P=.043). A total of 5.2% of the patients were being treated with long-acting injectable antipsychotics; 12.2% of the patients received anticholinergic drugs, 12.2% antidepressants, and 13.7% mood stabilizers, while almost 40% received benzodiazepines; and 35.52% reported at least one adverse drug reaction during the pharmacovigilance period, more frequently associated with higher antipsychotic doses and antipsychotic polytherapy (85.2% vs 45.5%, P<.001). Conclusions: These data indicate that the overall pharmacologic prescription for treating a first episode of psychosis in Spain follows the clinical practice guideline recommendations, and, together with security issues, support future research of determinate pharmacological strategies for the treatment of early phases of psychosis, such as the role of clozapine, long-acting injectable antipsychotics, antipsychotic combination, and the use of benzodiazepines. PMID:26506856

  10. Diagnostic role of initial renal cortical scintigraphy in children with the first episode of acute pyelonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of the first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) in children has been the subject of debate for many years. Diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (APN) is usually based on clinical and biological data. The clinical usefulness of early Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy remains controversial, although it may influence the type and duration of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the role of initial cortical scintigraphy in the detection of early renal parenchymal damage in children highly suspected of having APN and to compare the scintigraphic findings with selected clinical/laboratory parameters and ultrasonography. A prospective study was conducted in 34 infants and young children (18 boys, 16 girls), aged 1.5-36 months (mean 9.8±8.7 months), hospitalized with a first episode of clinically suspected APN. Within the first 5 days after admission, Tc-99m DMSA renal scintigraphy, ultrasonography (US), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count (WBC) and urine analyses were performed. DMSA scintigraphy showed changes consistent with APN in 27/34 (79%) patients, with a mean age of 10.9 months, including 12 males (44%) and 15 (56%) females. Out of 9 febrile children with negative urine culture and supportive evidence of UTI, scintigraphy showed parenchymal involvement in 8 children (24% in the whole group, 30% in scintigraphically documented APN). There were no statistically significant correlations between the frequency or size of the initial scintigraphic abnormalities and age, sex, body temperature, CRP levels or ESR. A CRP level of >54 mg/L and a WBC of >13,300/mm3 had sensitivities of 56 and 59% and specificities of 86 and 71%, respectively. US showed changes consistent with APN in 7/34 (21%) in the whole group and in 7/27 (26%) patients with positive cortical scan (p<0.05). Initial DMSA renal scintigraphy is a sensitive method for the early diagnosis of APN in young children and is

  11. Change in cannabis use, clinical symptoms and social functioning among patients with first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, L; Hjorthøj, C R; Thorup, Anne A.E.;

    2014-01-01

    use: abstainers, stoppers, starters and continuers. Psychotic, negative and disorganized dimensions (ranging from zero to five) were calculated for each of the four groups based on the Schedule for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia. RESULTS: Cannabis users were younger...... patients included in the OPUS trial. The patients included were in the age range of 18 to 45 years old and 59% were male. Cannabis use was extracted from the Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry. At follow-up, the patients were divided into different groups according to the variable cannabis...... difference in psychotic dimension -1.04, 95% CI -1.77 to -0.31, p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Continuous cannabis use was associated with higher levels of psychotic symptoms after 5 years, and this association was only partly explained by insufficient antipsychotic medication....

  12. Assessing clinical and functional outcomes in a gene-environment interaction study in first episode of psychosis (PEPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Miquel; Bioque, Miquel; Parellada, Mara; Saiz Ruiz, Jerónimo; Cuesta, Manuel J; Llerena, Adrián; Sanjuán, Julio; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Arango, Celso; Cabrera, Bibiana

    2013-01-01

    The PEPs study is a multicenter, naturalistic, prospective, longitudinal study designed to evaluate clinical, neuropsychological, neuroimaging, biochemical, environmental and pharmacogenetic variables in a sample of nearly 350 first episode of psychosis patients and 250 healthy controls. The PEPs project was conducted in Spain from January 2009 to December 2011. This article describes the rationale for the measurement approach adopted, providing an overview of the selected clinical and functional measures. The main objectives are: a) the thorough clinical and neurocognitive characterization of a sample of first episodes of psychosis, and b) the study of the interactions between the genetic and environmental variables selected to predict clinical and brain structural outcomes, and to determine the relationship of genetic polymorphisms involved in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and the responses and adverse effects of treatment. PMID:23206389

  13. Self-Reported Quality of Life in a Scottish First Episode Psychosis Cohort:Associations with Symptomatology and Premorbid Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    MacBeth, Angus; Gumley, Andrew; Schwannauer, Matthias; Fisher, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background.There is increased interest in quality of life as a clinically relevant factor in adjustment to, and recovery from first episode psychosis. Given the subjective nature of quality of life it is proposed that this variable may be associated with compromised functioning prior to the onset of psychosis, and may also have an impact on an individual’s adjustment to psychosis after treatment is initiated.Aim.The current study aims to explore associations between subjective quality of life...

  14. Predictors of acute bacterial meningitis among children with a first episode of febrile convulsion from Northern India: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiraj Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is limited data to support need of lumbar puncture among Indian children aged less than 5 years presenting with a first episode of fever and seizure. Aims: To determine the incidence and clinical predictors of meningitis among children aged 6-60 months presenting with a first episode of febrile convulsion. Settings and Designs: A prospective study was conducted on 35 children (6-60 months with a first episode of febrile convulsion subjected to lumbar puncture in a tertiary care teaching hospital of North India. Materials and Methods: Clinical characteristics were compared between the two groups: Children with meningitis (n = 17 and children without meningitis (n = 18. Statistical Methods: Multivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the independent predictors of meningitis. Results: A total of 120 children were screened; 35 children subjected to lumbar puncture were finally enrolled. The mean (SD age of enrolled children was 18.49 (10.79 months. The incidence of meningitis was 48.6% (17/35. Children with meningitis significantly had a higher proportion of children with high grade (temperature >104°F fever (P = 0.005, received prior antibiotics (P = 0. 041, had lower hemoglobin levels (P = 0.04 and lower blood sugar levels (P = 0.03 as compared to children with no meningitis. On multivariate logistic regression, it was observed that high-grade fever was an independent predictor of meningitis (odds ratio: 0.03 [0.001-0.86] [P = 0.04]. Conclusion: We found that the presence of high-grade fever was an important predictor of meningitis among children aged 6-60 months presenting with a first episode of febrile convulsion.

  15. Reduced hippocampal volume and hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis function in first episode psychosis: Evidence for sex differences

    OpenAIRE

    Marita Pruessner; Martin Lepage; Louis Collins, D.; Pruessner, Jens C.; Ridha Joober; Ashok K Malla

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hippocampal volume (HV) decline is an important marker of psychosis and has been associated with hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation in various disorders. Given recent findings of sex differences in HPA axis function in psychosis, the current study investigated differences in HV in male and female first episode psychosis (FEP) patients and controls and the interaction of HV with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and symptoms. Methods: Fifty-eight patient...

  16. ARIPIPRAZOLE VERSUS HALOPERIDOL TREATMENT IN EARLY-STAGE SCHIZOPHRENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Girgis, Ragy R; Merrill, David B.; Vorel, Stanislav R.; Kim, Edward; Portland, Kimberly; You, Min; Pikalov, Andrei; Whitehead, Richard; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a secondary analysis of a completed study of the differential efficacy and side effects of aripiprazole versus haloperidol in early-stage schizophrenia (ESS), a subpopulation of patients which does not include first episode or chronic patients. A subpopulation of 360 individuals with ESS were identified from a randomized, multi-center, double-blind study of 1294 individuals with schizophrenia at different stages of illness who were randomized to treatment with aripiprazole (ESS=2...

  17. The Impact of Substance Use on Brain Structure in People at High Risk of Developing Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, Killian A.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Dominic E. Job; Whalley, Heather; Moorhead, Thomas W.; Hall, Jeremy; Owens, David G. C.; Lawrie, Stephen M; JOHNSTONE, EVE C

    2010-01-01

    Ventricular enlargement and reduced prefrontal volume are consistent findings in schizophrenia. Both are present in first episode subjects and may be detectable before the onset of clinical disorder. Substance misuse is more common in people with schizophrenia and is associated with similar brain abnormalities. We employ a prospective cohort study with nested case control comparison design to investigate the association between substance misuse, brain abnormality, and subsequent schizophrenia...

  18. Ethnic Identity and the Risk of Schizophrenia in Ethnic Minorities: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Veling, Wim; Hoek, Hans W; Wiersma, Durk; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The high incidence of schizophrenia in immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe may be explained by social stress associated with ethnic minority status. Positive identification with one's own ethnic group is a strong predictor of mental health in immigrants. We investigated whether negative ethnic identity is related to schizophrenia risk in non-Western immigrants. Methods: Matched case-control study of first-episode schizophrenia, including 100 non-Western immigrant cases, gene...

  19. Cortical thinning in temporo-parietal junction (TPJ in non-affective first-episode of psychosis patients with persistent negative symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bodnar

    Full Text Available Negative symptoms represent an unmet therapeutic need in many patients with schizophrenia. In an extension to our previous voxel-based morphometry findings, we employed a more specific, vertex-based approach to explore cortical thinning in relation to persistent negative symptoms (PNS in non-affective first-episode of psychosis (FEP patients to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology of primary negative symptoms.This study included 62 non-affective FEP patients and 60 non-clinical controls; 16 patients were identified with PNS (i.e., at least 1 primary negative symptom at moderate or greater severity sustained for at least 6 consecutive months. Using cortical thickness analyses, we explored for differences between PNS and non-PNS patients as well as between each patient group and healthy controls; cut-off threshold was set at p<0.01, corrected for multiple comparisons.A thinner cortex prominently in the right superior temporal gyrus extending into the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left orbital frontal gyrus was identified in PNS patients vs. non-PNS patients. Compared with healthy controls, PNS patients showed a thinner cortex prominently in the right superior temporal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, and right cingulate; non-PNS patients showed a thinner cortex prominently in the parahippocampal gyrus bi-laterally.Cortical thinning in the early stages of non-affective psychosis is present in the frontal and temporo-parietal regions in patients with PNS. With these brain regions strongly related to social cognitive functioning, our finding suggests a potential link between primary negative symptoms and social cognitive deficits through common brain etiologies.

  20. Pre-morbid fertility in psychosis: findings from the AESOP first episode study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbron, Jorge; Stahl, Daniel; Hutchinson, Gerard; Dazzan, Paola; Morgan, Kevin; Doody, Gillian A; Jones, Peter B; Murray, Robin M; Fearon, Paul; Morgan, Craig; MacCabe, James H

    2014-07-01

    Individuals with psychotic illnesses are known to have a reduced fertility. It is unclear whether this is due to biological or social factors. Most fertility studies have been conducted in chronic schizophrenia, where confounders like medication and hospitalisation make this difficult to elicit. A less severe reduction of fertility has been observed in some ethnic minorities, but results are inconsistent. We sought to investigate pre-morbid fertility in an ethnically diverse sample of individuals with first-onset psychosis. Data were derived from 515 people with a first psychotic episode (FEP) and 383 controls. We made case-control comparisons of differences in the proportion of those with children (fertility rates) and mean number of children (MNC). Analyses were then stratified by diagnosis, gender and ethnicity, and adjusted for potential confounders. We found that FEP showed a reduced fertility rate (age-adjusted OR of having children 0.47 [95% CI=0.39, 0.56]), irrespective of diagnosis, and there was little evidence of confounding by gender, ethnicity, religious background, education level, or history of past relationships (fully adjusted OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.37, 0.80). Women had a somewhat greater reduction in fertility rates than men (Men: age-adjusted OR 0.61 [95% CI 0.42, 0.89]; Women: age-adjusted OR 0.46 [95% CI 0.31, 0.69]) and we could not find any evidence of ethnic differences in the degree of fertility reduction. FEP who had previously experienced a stable relationship had an MNC that was comparable to that of the general population and had a later onset of illness. This is the largest case-control study to date to investigate fertility in first-onset psychosis. Our data suggests that fertility is affected, even prior to the onset of a psychotic illness, and there are likely to be biological and environmental factors involved, but the former seem to have a stronger influence. PMID:24802590

  1. Attributional style in fist episode of schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders with and without paranoid ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytseva, Yulia; Burova, Vitalina; Garakh, Zanna; Gurovich, Isaac Ya

    2013-09-01

    In the present study we evaluated attributional style which refers to how individuals explain the causes for positive and negative events in their lives in patients with first episode of schizophrenia with and without paranoid ideation. 43 patients with first episode of psychosis and 37 matched normal controls completed Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ) (Combs et al. 2007). Between group comparison of AIHQ scores showed a notable tendency to show aggressive response in overall patients group. We obtained significant elevation of hostility and blame biases scores in intentional and accidental situations in patients with paranoid ideation while the patients with non-paranoid ideation showed greater hostility and blame biases only in accidental situations as compared to controls. Correlations with positive and negative symptoms were obtained. Our findings suggest that patients with first episode of psychosis exhibit difficulties of the attribution biases which are interconnected with symptoms and thus indicate a trait-deficit of attributional style. PMID:23995202

  2. Incidence of recurrent venous thromboembolism and of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in patients after a first episode of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Daniela; Grifoni, Elisa; Antonucci, Emilia; Arcangeli, Chiara; Prisco, Domenico; Abbate, Rosanna; Miniati, Massimo

    2010-10-01

    After a first episode of pulmonary embolism (PE), two major problems need to be considered: risk of recurrence when anticoagulation is stopped, and risk of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTPH). We followed prospectively consecutive patients who survived a first episode of PE, with or without deep vein thrombosis, to assess the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrences and of symptomatic and asymptomatic CTPH. After 3-6 months of oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography for measuring transtricuspid (rV-rA) gradient. When rV-rA gradient was >35 mmHg further evaluations were performed to rule in or out CTPH. During follow-up patients who developed persistent dyspnea were re-evaluated. In patients who underwent OAT withdrawal D-dimer (DD), prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2), and thrombophilia were evaluated one month after warfarin discontinuation. Overall, 239 patients, 118 males, median age 59(16-89) years, were followed up for a median time of 36(9-192) months. Nine patients had rV-rA gradient >30 mmHg and ≤35 mmHg, and one of 37 mmHg. Among patients with normal rV-rA gradient, one developed persistent dyspnea 55 months after the first event and CPTH was confirmed. Among 206 patients who stopped OAT, 23(11.2%) had VTE recurrence, 11 PE(48%). Elevated DD and F1 + 2 levels after stopping OAT were significantly associated with recurrence. None of patients with recurrent VTE had elevated rV-rA gradient. In our series the incidence of CTPH after a first episode of PE was 0.4%. VTE recurrence and elevated DD and F1 + 2 levels seemed not to be related to the development of CTPH. PMID:20157841

  3. Disrupted Structural and Functional Connectivity in Prefrontal-Hippocampus Circuitry in First-Episode Medication-Naive Adolescent Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Geng

    Full Text Available Evidence implicates abnormalities in prefrontal-hippocampus neural circuitry in major depressive disorder (MDD. This study investigates the potential disruptions in prefrontal-hippocampus structural and functional connectivity, as well as their relationship in first-episode medication-naïve adolescents with MDD in order to investigate the early stage of the illness without confounds of illness course and medication exposure.Diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI data were acquired from 26 first-episode medication-naïve MDD adolescents and 31 healthy controls (HC. Fractional anisotropy (FA values of the fornix and the prefrontal-hippocampus functional connectivity was compared between MDD and HC groups. The correlation between the FA value of fornix and the strength of the functional connectivity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC region showing significant differences between the two groups was identified.Compared with the HC group, adolescent MDD group had significant lower FA values in the fornix, as well as decreased functional connectivity in four PFC regions. Significant negative correlations were observed between fornix FA values and functional connectivity from hippocampus to PFC within the HC group. There was no significant correlation between the fornix FA and the strength of functional connectivity within the adolescent MDD group.First-episode medication-naïve adolescent MDD showed decreased structural and functional connectivity as well as deficits of the association between structural and functional connectivity shown in HC in the PFC-hippocampus neural circuitry. These findings suggest that abnormal PFC-hippocampus neural circuitry may present in the early onset of MDD and play an important role in the neuropathophysiology of MDD.

  4. Differing patterns of brain structural abnormalities between black and white patients with their first episode of psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, K D

    2010-07-01

    African-Caribbean and black African people living in the UK are reported to have a higher incidence of diagnosed psychosis compared with white British people. It has been argued that this may be a consequence of misdiagnosis. If this is true they might be less likely to show the patterns of structural brain abnormalities reported in white British patients. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate whether there are differences in the prevalence of structural brain abnormalities in white and black first-episode psychosis patients.

  5. Service User Perspectives on the Experience of Illness and Pathway to Care in First-Episode Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Wøldike, Peter Michael; Haahr, Ulrik Helt;

    2015-01-01

    to include psychological factors such as normalisation of symptoms and fear of stigma when attempting to reduce DUP in early psychosis, in addition to initiatives to reduce service delays. Also, a greater use of the potentials inherent in Internet and social media platforms seems important in this regard....... service users (median age 20, range 15-24, 6 males, 5 females) diagnosed with a first-episode psychosis and currently enrolled in treatment for this disorder. Fear of stigma, lack of knowledge about mental illness and normalisation of symptoms were barriers to accessing appropriate treatment, while...

  6. Altered functional connectivity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate resting-state functional connectivity alteration of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Twenty-two first-episode MDD patients and thirty age-, gender- and education-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled. Rest state functional magnetic resonance images and structure magnetic resonance images were scanned. The functional connectivity analysis was done based on the result of voxel-based morphometry (VBM). And the right DLPFC was chosen as the seed region of interests (ROI), as its gray matter density (GMD) decreased in the MDD patients compared with controls and its GMD values were negative correlation with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores. Results: Compared to healthy controls, the MDD patients showed increased functional connectivity with right the DLPFC in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), thalamus and precentral gyrus. In contrast, there were decreased functional connectivity between the right DLPFC and right parietal lobe. Conclusions: By applying the VBM results to the functional connectivity analysis, the study suggested that abnormality of GMD in right DLPFC might be related to the functional connectivity alteration in the pathophysiology of MDD, which might be useful in further characterizing structure–function relations in this disorder.

  7. Dissociation of regional activity in default mode network in medication-naive, first-episode somatization disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinji Su

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with somatization disorder (SD have altered neural activity in the brain regions of the default mode network (DMN. However, the regional alteration of the DMN in SD remains unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the regional alterations of the DMN in patients with SD at rest. METHODS: Twenty-five first-episode, medication-naive patients with SD and 28 age-, sex-, education- matched healthy controls underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI scan. The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF was applied to analyze the data. RESULTS: Patients with SD showed a dissociation pattern of resting-state fALFF in the DMN, with increased fALFF in the bilateral superior medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC, BA8, 9 and decreased fALFF in the left precuneus (PCu, BA7. Furthermore, significantly positive correlation was observed between the z values of the voxels within the bilateral superior MPFC and somatization subscale scores of the Symptom Check List (SCL-90 in patients with SD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that there is a dissociation pattern of the anterior and posterior DMN in first-episode, treatment-naive patients with SD. The results provide new insight for the importance of the DMN in the pathophysiology of SD.

  8. Altered functional connectivity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Ting, E-mail: yeting@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Peng, Jing, E-mail: ppengjjing@sina.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Nie, Binbin, E-mail: niebb@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, Juan, E-mail: gaojuan@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Jiangtao, E-mail: Liujiangtao813@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Li, Yang, E-mail: Liyang2007428@hotmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Wang, Gang, E-mail: gangwang@gmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Ma, Xin, E-mail: lijianshe@medmail.com.cn [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Li, Kuncheng [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); and others

    2012-12-15

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate resting-state functional connectivity alteration of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Twenty-two first-episode MDD patients and thirty age-, gender- and education-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled. Rest state functional magnetic resonance images and structure magnetic resonance images were scanned. The functional connectivity analysis was done based on the result of voxel-based morphometry (VBM). And the right DLPFC was chosen as the seed region of interests (ROI), as its gray matter density (GMD) decreased in the MDD patients compared with controls and its GMD values were negative correlation with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores. Results: Compared to healthy controls, the MDD patients showed increased functional connectivity with right the DLPFC in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), thalamus and precentral gyrus. In contrast, there were decreased functional connectivity between the right DLPFC and right parietal lobe. Conclusions: By applying the VBM results to the functional connectivity analysis, the study suggested that abnormality of GMD in right DLPFC might be related to the functional connectivity alteration in the pathophysiology of MDD, which might be useful in further characterizing structure–function relations in this disorder.

  9. Prospective Memory Performance in Non-Psychotic First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Schizophrenia: A Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fu-Chun Zhou; Wei-Min Hou; Chuan-Yue Wang; Ungvari, Gabor S.; CHIU, Helen F. K.; Correll, Christoph U.; Shum, David H.K.; David Man; Deng-Tang Liu; Yu-Tao Xiang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed at investigating prospective memory and its socio-demographic and neurocognitive correlates in non-psychotic, first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with schizophrenia compared to patients with first episode schizophrenia (FES), and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: Forty-seven FES patients, 50 non-psychotic FDRs (23 offspring and 27 siblings) of patients with chronic schizophrenia (unrelated to the FES group) and 51 HCs were studied. The Chinese version of the Cambridge...

  10. “Then one day I broke down”. The experience of depression and social anxiety in adolescents with first-episode psychosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington-Twist, Tara Elspeth Leanne

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Young people recovering from first episode psychosis experience a high degree of emotional distress and co-morbidity. Depression and social anxiety are highly prevalent following first episode psychosis and have been associated with poorer outcome, increased risk of suicide and lower quality of life. However, there is little research examining how these emotional difficulties relate to the course of psychotic symptoms and subsequent adaptation and recovery. The pr...

  11. A randomized, double-blind, comparative trial comparing high- and standard-dose oral acyclovir for first-episode genital herpes infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, A; Benedetti, J; Davis, G.; Remington, M; Winter, C; Corey, L

    1994-01-01

    Orally administered acyclovir ameliorates the clinical course and decreases the duration of viral shedding in patients with first-episode genital herpes infections. We investigated in a randomized, double-blind, comparative trial whether a higher (4 g) than standard (1 g) daily dose of oral acyclovir results in greater clinical benefit and influences the time to first recurrence. A total of 139 patients with first-episode genital herpes were randomized to receive orally 4 or 1 g of acyclovir ...

  12. A 2 year follow-up of involuntary admission's influence upon adherence and outcome in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opjordsmoen, Stein; Friis, Svein; Melle, Ingrid;

    2010-01-01

    Objective:  To see, if voluntary admission for treatment in first-episode psychosis results in better adherence to treatment and more favourable outcome than involuntary admission. Method:  We compared consecutively first-admitted, hospitalised patients from a voluntary (n = 91) with an involuntary...... years were measured. Results:  More women than men were admitted involuntarily. Voluntary patients had less psychopathology and better functioning than involuntary patients at baseline. No significant difference as to duration of psychotherapy and medication between groups was found. No significant...... difference was found as to psychopathology and functioning between voluntarily and involuntarily admitted patients at follow-up. Conclusion:  Legal admission status per se did not seem to influence treatment adherence and outcome....

  13. First-Episode of Synthetic Cannabinoid-Induced Psychosis in a Young Adult, Successfully Managed with Hospitalization and Risperidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Aileen; Li, Kevin J.; Young, Jonathan; Pinnaka, Subhash; Lapidus, Kyle A. B.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids- (SCs-) induced psychosis is a growing public health concern. It leads to significant impairment, including emotional distress, difficulty communicating, and other debilitating symptoms. In this case report, we discuss a patient with no previous history of psychotic symptoms, presenting with first-episode psychosis in the context of progressive, acutely worsening, disorganized, psychotic thoughts and behaviors following prolonged use of SCs. We also discuss relevant literature on SCs-induced psychosis, highlighting its prevalence, presentation, diagnosis, and recommended management. It is important to diagnose and treat SCs-induced psychosis as early and efficiently as possible, in order to alleviate symptoms while limiting functional impairment and emotional distress to the patient. PMID:27429822

  14. The impact a first episode of major depression has on marital dissatisfaction: Is remission associated with improvement in dissatisfaction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Moyá

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Prior research suggests that marital dissatisfaction is associated with Major Depression (MD. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether remission from a first episode of MD is associated with improvement in marital dissatisfaction and whether the degree of marital dissatisfaction at the time of diagnosis has an influence on the outcome of MD. Methods: The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and the Areas of Change Questionnaire were administered to 59 married couples in which one member fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for a first Episode of MD, but her husband (or his wife did not suffer any mental disorder, and to 53 control couples at 6 outpatient clinics, at baseline and after a 6-months follow-up. Results: The level of marital dissatisfaction in couples with a persistent depressed participant decreased in comparison to couples without a depressed subject (p < 0.05 CI: -10.6 and -0.2, but there were no significant differences between couples in which the depressed spouse recovered from MD and comparison couples. Regardless of MD´s severity, high levels of satisfaction were associated with a higher probability to recover. Limitations: The follow-up period was short and we assessed the level of marital dissatisfaction using self-report measures. Conclusion: This study shows that MD has an influence on Marital Satisfaction even at a very early stage of the Depressive Disorder. What is more, changes in any of the two factors (MD or marital dissatisfaction influenced the other factor´s course; thus an effective intervention on MD may have a positive impact on marital dissatisfaction as well.

  15. First-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Ulrik; Friis, Svein; Larsen, Tor K;

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic stability is important for daily clinical work and planning of treatment. The aims of this study were to measure diagnostic stability in a clinical epidemiologic sample and to identify markers of change in diagnosis....

  16. First Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... late teens to midtwenties. Psychosis can be a symptom of a mental illness or a physical condition. Psychosis can be caused by some medications, alcohol or drug abuse. Three out of 100 people will experience psychosis ...

  17. COGNITIVE TASK PERFORMANCE AND SYMPTOMS CONTRIBUTE TO PERSONALITY ABNORMALITIES IN FIRST HOSPITALIZED SCHIZOPHRENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Gurrera, Ronald J.; McCarley, Robert W.; Salisbury, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Chronic schizophrenia patients have personality abnormalities and cognitive deficits that are associated with poor clinical, social, and vocational outcomes. Very few studies have examined relationships between personality and cognitive function, and chronic illness effects may have confounded those studies. In this study personality traits in clinically stable first episode schizophrenia patients (21M, 9F) and psychiatrically healthy controls (38M, 24F) were measured with the NEO-FFI, a self...

  18. Overgeneral autobiographical memory at baseline predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yansong; Zhang, Fuquan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Leiming; Wang, Jun; Na, Aiguo; Sun, Yujun; Zhao, Xudong

    2016-09-30

    Previous studies have shown that overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a characteristic of depression. However, there are no studies to explore the association between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression (FE). This study investigated whether baseline OGM predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. We recruited 125 patients with FE. The participants were divided into remitted group and non-remitted group according to the severity of their depression at 12 months follow-up. The measures consisted of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, and Autobiographical Memory Test. Hierarchical linear regression analyses and bootstrap mediation analyses were conducted. The results showed that non-remitted patients had more OGM at baseline. Baseline OGM predicted depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. Rumination mediated the relationship between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up. Our findings highlight OGM as a vulnerability factor involved in the maintenance of depression in patients with FE. PMID:27392229

  19. Suicidal behaviour in first-episode non-affective psychosis: Specific risk periods and stage-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Alcaraz, Elisa García; Hernández, Begoña Vicente; Pérez-Iglesias, Rocío; López Moríñigo, Javier David; Duta, Rina; David, Anthony S; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto

    2015-12-01

    Suicide is a major cause of premature death in psychosis. Earlier stages have been associated with higher risk. However, such risk periods have not been specifically determined and risk factors for suicidal behaviour may change over those periods, which may have crucial implications for suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize the highest risk period for suicide in a representative sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. Suicidal behaviour prior to first presentation of psychosis and during a 3-year follow-up was examined in a sample of 397 individuals. Risk factors for suicidal behaviour during specific time periods were investigated and compared. The greatest suicide risk was found during the month before and 2 months after first contact with psychiatric services (i.e., 'early' attempts). Severity of depressive symptoms and cannabis use emerged as predominant risk factors across time. 'Early' attempters were characterized as being male, living in urban areas, having poor premorbid adjustment, requiring hospitalization, scoring higher on anxiety measures and unusual thought content than non-attempters. Greater suspiciousness and more severe depressive symptoms distinguished the 'late' attempters. In conclusion, there is a specific high risk period for suicide in FEP around the time of the first presentation. Early intervention programmes targeting phase-specific risk factors, particularly psychotic symptoms management and secondary depression prevention strategies may be useful for suicide prevention in psychosis. PMID:26475577

  20. Brain Gray Matter Abnormalities in First-Episode, Treatment-Naive Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bochao; Cai, Wu; Wang, Xiuli; Lei, Du; Guo, Yingkun; Yang, Xun; Wu, Qizhu; Gong, Jianping; Gong, Qiyong; Ning, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Although several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have been conducted in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the brain structural abnormalities in OCD, especially in children, are not yet well characterized. We aimed to identify gray matter (GM) abnormalities in the early stage of pediatric OCD and examine the relationship between these structural abnormalities with clinical characteristics. Examinations of 30 first-episode, treatment-naive pediatric OCD patients without any comorbidities and 30 matched healthy controls (HCs) were performed with 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) was used to conduct voxel-wise tests for group differences in regional gray matter volume (GMV). Compared to HCs, the patient group exhibited more GMV in the bilateral putamen and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and less GMV in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL). The GMV alternation in the right putamen of OCD patients was positively correlated with Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) scores, while the GMV alternation in the left IPL exhibited a trend to negatively correlate with HAM-A scores. Our current results suggest that the GM abnormalities were defined in the early stage of pediatric OCD. Moreover, these findings provided further evidence of brain GM abnormalities that are not only present in the classical fronto–striatal–thalamic circuit but also in the default mode network (DMN), which may represent the interaction of abnormally functional organization of both network in pediatric OCD. PMID:27445736

  1. Disrupted causal connectivity anchored on the anterior cingulate cortex in first-episode medication-naive major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhan; Xu, Shunliang; Huang, Manli; Shi, Yushu; Xiong, Bing; Yang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, major depressive disorder (MDD) has been demonstrated to be associated with abnormalities in neural networks, particularly the prefrontal-limbic network (PLN). However, there are few current studies that have examined information flow in the PLN. In this study, Granger causality analysis (GCA), based on signed regression coefficient, was used to explore changes in causal connectivity in resting-state PLNs of MDD patients. A total of 23 first-episode medication-naïve MDD patients and 20 normal control participants were subjected to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) scans. Increased causal effects of the right insular cortex, right putamen and right caudate on the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and reduced causal effects of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) on the rACC were found in MDD patients compared to normal controls. The extensive reduction in the causal effect of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) demonstrates impaired top-down cognitive control in MDD patients. Changes in the causal relationship between the right insula and rACC suggest problems in coordination of the default mode network by the right anterior insular cortex (rAI). These findings provide valuable insight into MDD-related neural network disorders reported in previous RS-fMRI studies and may potentially guide clinical treatment of MDD in the future. PMID:26234517

  2. Reduced white matter integrity and its correlation with clinical symptom in first-episode, treatment-naive generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Qian, Shaowen; Liu, Kai; Li, Bo; Li, Min; Xin, Kuolin; Sun, Gang

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore white matter microstructural alterations in the patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique, and to assess neural associations with the symptom severity. Twenty-eight first-episode, treatment-naive GAD patients without co-morbidities and 28 matched healthy controls underwent DTI acquisition and clinical symptom assessments. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to analyze white matter microstructural abnormalities in patients with GAD, as well as their associations with clinical symptom scores in a voxel-wise manner. Compared to controls, patients showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values in 7 clusters of white matter in bilateral uncinate fasciculus, body of corpus callosum, left middle cingulum (cingulate gyrus), bilateral anterior thalamic radiation and corona radiate, right anterior limb of internal capsule, bilateral inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus, bilateral superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and increased mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity in widespread white matter regions. Reduced FA values in right uncinate fasciculus, left cingulum bundle showed significantly negative correlations with clinical symptom severity for Hamilton anxiety Rating Scale scores. Our findings suggest microstructural abnormalities in uncinate fasciculus and cingulum bundle play key roles in the underlying neural basis of GAD. PMID:27515289

  3. Brain Gray Matter Abnormalities in First-Episode, Treatment-Naive Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bochao; Cai, Wu; Wang, Xiuli; Lei, Du; Guo, Yingkun; Yang, Xun; Wu, Qizhu; Gong, Jianping; Gong, Qiyong; Ning, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Although several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have been conducted in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the brain structural abnormalities in OCD, especially in children, are not yet well characterized. We aimed to identify gray matter (GM) abnormalities in the early stage of pediatric OCD and examine the relationship between these structural abnormalities with clinical characteristics. Examinations of 30 first-episode, treatment-naive pediatric OCD patients without any comorbidities and 30 matched healthy controls (HCs) were performed with 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) was used to conduct voxel-wise tests for group differences in regional gray matter volume (GMV). Compared to HCs, the patient group exhibited more GMV in the bilateral putamen and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and less GMV in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL). The GMV alternation in the right putamen of OCD patients was positively correlated with Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) scores, while the GMV alternation in the left IPL exhibited a trend to negatively correlate with HAM-A scores. Our current results suggest that the GM abnormalities were defined in the early stage of pediatric OCD. Moreover, these findings provided further evidence of brain GM abnormalities that are not only present in the classical fronto-striatal-thalamic circuit but also in the default mode network (DMN), which may represent the interaction of abnormally functional organization of both network in pediatric OCD. PMID:27445736

  4. Evidence for Trait Related Theory of Mind Impairment in First Episode Psychosis Patients and Its Relationship with Processing Speed: A 3 Year Follow-up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Setién-Suero, Esther; Neergaard, Karl D.; Ferro, Adele; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Ríos-Lago, Marcos; Otero, Soraya; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Jose M.; Crespo-facorro, Benedicto

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to confirm whether first-episode psychosis patients present a stable trait impairment in theory of mind (ToM) and to examine the potential relationship between ToM and clinical symptomatology and neurocognition. Patients with a first episode of psychosis (N = 160) and healthy controls (N = 159) were assessed with an extensive neuropsychological test battery, which included a mental state decoding task known as “The Reading the Mind in the Eyes” (Eyes test), at baseline and re...

  5. Initial diagnosis and treatment in first-episode psychosis: can an operationalized diagnostic classification system enhance treating clinicians' diagnosis and the treatment chosen?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coentre, Ricardo

    2011-05-01

    Diagnosis during the initial stages of first-episode psychosis is particularly challenging but crucial in deciding on treatment. This is compounded by important differences in the two major classification systems, International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV). We aimed to compare the concordance between an operationalized diagnosis using Operational Criteria Checklist (OPCRIT) and treating clinician-generated diagnosis in first episode psychosis diagnosis and its correlation with treatment prescribed.

  6. Study of Attention Deficit in Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Kafi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Attention deficit has significant effect on the life of patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the attention deficit in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: In the present post-hoc study, 132 patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were selected via non-randomized sampling at Shafa Hospital (Rasht, Iran and then divided into four equal groups: chronic schizophrenia patients, first-episode patients, chronic bipolar patients, and first-episode bipolar patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals were selected as the control group. Subjects were evaluated by Stroop color-word test. The gathered Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Attention deficit among chronic schizophrenics and patients suffering from bipolar disease was higher than the control group (p <1. Chronic schizophrenic patients compared with schizophrenia bipolar disease and first round schizophrenia showed more attention deficit. There was no significant difference among the first bipolar disease and schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, as well as the first round schizophrenia (p<0.05. Conclusion: Attention deficit is more severe in schizophrenic patients than bipolar disorder, and chronicity is more effective in schizophrenic patients. Key words: Attention, Schizophrenia, Chronicity

  7. Effect of integrated treatment on the use of coercive measures in first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. A randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlenschlæger, Johan; Nordentoft, Merete; Thorup, Anne;

    2008-01-01

    assertive community treatment, psycho-educational multi-family groups, and social skills training. Data on coercion were extracted from the register from the National Board of Health, and data on continuity from medical records. Even though the level of continuity seemed higher in integrated treatment, this...

  8. Global Micro- and Macro-structural White Matter Alterations and the reward circuit in First-episode Antipsychotic-naïve Schizophrenia Patients. Preliminary Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghava, Jayachandra Mitta; Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard;

    hypothalamus separately. All tracking was performed using PROBTRACKX. Results Baseline: Voxel-wise statistics performed on the probabilistic WM fiber maps for whole brain identified deficiencies in patients, showing reduced macro-structural connectivity in: thalamus, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, forceps......-lwise statistics performed on the probabilistic WM fiber maps for whole brain showed significant interaction, indicating improvement in the connectivity within the patients in Forceps major, right Cingulum (hippocampus), right Anterior thalamic radiation. Conclusions These preliminary results indicate that...

  9. Cognitive training plus a comprehensive psychosocial programme (OPUS) versus the comprehensive psychosocial programme alone for patients with first-episode schizophrenia (the NEUROCOM trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Lone; Christensen, Torben Ø; Olsen, Birthe B;

    2011-01-01

    long-term effects of cognitive training. We conduct blinded assessments of cognition, everyday functional capacity and associations with the labour market, symptom severity, and self-esteem. Discussion: Results from four-month and ten-month follow-ups have the potential of reliably providing...

  10. Altered activation of innate immunity associates with white matter volume and diffusion in first-episode psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Mäntylä

    Full Text Available First-episode psychosis (FEP is associated with inflammatory and brain structural changes, but few studies have investigated whether systemic inflammation associates with brain structural changes in FEP. Thirty-seven FEP patients (median 27 days on antipsychotic medication, and 19 matched controls were recruited. Serum levels of 38 chemokines and cytokines, and cardiovascular risk markers were measured at baseline and 2 months later. We collected T1- and diffusion-weighted MRIs with a 3 T scanner from the patients at baseline. We analyzed the association of psychosis-related inflammatory markers with gray and white matter (WM volume using voxel-based morphometry and WM diffusion using tract-based spatial statistics with whole-brain and region-of-interest (ROI analyses. FEP patients had higher CCL22 and lower TGFα, CXCL1, CCL7, IFN-α2 and ApoA-I than controls. CCL22 decreased significantly between baseline and 2 months in patients but was still higher than in controls. The association between inflammatory markers and FEP remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, smoking and BMI. We did not observe a correlation of inflammatory markers with any symptoms or duration of antipsychotic treatment. Baseline CCL22 levels correlated negatively with WM volume and positively with mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity bilaterally in the frontal lobes in ROI analyses. Decreased serum level of ApoA-I was associated with smaller volume of the medial temporal WM. In whole-brain analyses, CCL22 correlated positively with mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity, and CXCL1 associated negatively with fractional anisotropy and positively with mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity in several brain regions. This is the first report to demonstrate an association between circulating chemokine levels and WM in FEP patients. Interestingly, CCL22 has been previously implicated in autoimmune diseases associated with WM pathology. The results suggest that an

  11. Criticism and Depression among the Caregivers of At-Risk Mental State and First-Episode Psychosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaie, Yumiko; Ohmuro, Noriyuki; Katsura, Masahiro; Obara, Chika; Kikuchi, Tatsuo; Ito, Fumiaki; Miyakoshi, Tetsuo; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Matsumoto, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    Expressed emotion (EE), especially criticism, is an important predictor of outcomes for the patient for a wide range of mental health problems. To understand complex links between EE and various relevant variables in early phase psychosis, this study examined criticism, distress of caregivers, other patients’, and caregivers’ variables, and links between criticism and these variables in those with at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis and first-episode psychosis (FEP). The participants were 56 patients (mean age 18.8 ± 4.2 years) with ARMS and their caregivers (49.4 ± 5.8 years) and 43 patients (21.7 ± 5.2 years) with FEP and their caregivers (49.3 ± 7.4 years). We investigated criticisms made by caregivers using the Japanese version of the Family Attitude Scale and caregiver depressive symptoms via the self-report Beck Depression Inventory. We also assessed psychiatric symptoms and functioning of the patients. Approximately one-third of caregivers of patients with ARMS or FEP had depressive symptoms, predominately with mild-to-moderate symptom levels, whereas only a small portion exhibited high criticism. The level of criticism and depression were comparable between ARMS and FEP caregivers. The link between criticism, caregivers’ depression, and patients’ symptoms were observed in FEP but not in ARMS caregivers. These findings imply that the interaction between criticism and caregivers’ and patients’ mental states may develop during or after the onset of established psychosis and interventions for the caregivers should be tailored to the patient’s specific stage of illness. Interventions for FEP caregivers should target their emotional distress and include education about patient’s general symptoms. PMID:26918629

  12. A nutrition intervention is effective in improving dietary components linked to cardiometabolic risk in youth with first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, Scott B; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Watkins, Andrew; Curtis, Jackie; Kalucy, Megan; Samaras, Katherine

    2016-06-01

    Severe mental illness is characterised by a 20-year mortality gap due to cardiometabolic disease. Poor diet in those with severe mental illness is an important and modifiable risk factor. The present study aimed to (i) examine baseline nutritional intake in youth with first-episode psychosis (FEP), (ii) evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of nutritional intervention early in FEP and (iii) to evaluate the effectiveness of early dietary intervention on key nutritional end points. Participants were recruited over a 12-month period from a community-based programme specifically targeting young people aged 15-25 years with newly diagnosed FEP. Individual dietetic consultations and practical group sessions were offered as part of a broader lifestyle programme. Dietary assessments were conducted before and at the end of the 12-week intervention. Participants exceeded recommended energy and Na intakes at baseline. Retention within the nutrition intervention was 67 %, consistent with other interventions offered to FEP clients. There was a 47 % reduction in discretionary food intake (-94 g/d, P<0·001) and reductions in daily energy (-24 %, P<0·001) and Na (-26 %, P<0·001) intakes. Diet quality significantly improved, and the mean change was 3·6 (95 % CI 0·2, 6·9, P<0·05), although this finding was not significant after Bonferroni's correction. Increased vegetable intake was the main factor contributing to improved diet quality. Nutrition intervention delivered shortly after initiation of antipsychotic medication is feasible, acceptable and effective in youth with FEP. Strategies to prevent weight gain and metabolic decline will contribute to prevent premature cardiometabolic disease in this vulnerable population. PMID:27153205

  13. Criticism and Depression among the Caregivers of At-Risk Mental State and First-Episode Psychosis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Hamaie

    Full Text Available Expressed emotion (EE, especially criticism, is an important predictor of outcomes for the patient for a wide range of mental health problems. To understand complex links between EE and various relevant variables in early phase psychosis, this study examined criticism, distress of caregivers, other patients', and caregivers' variables, and links between criticism and these variables in those with at-risk mental state (ARMS for psychosis and first-episode psychosis (FEP. The participants were 56 patients (mean age 18.8 ± 4.2 years with ARMS and their caregivers (49.4 ± 5.8 years and 43 patients (21.7 ± 5.2 years with FEP and their caregivers (49.3 ± 7.4 years. We investigated criticisms made by caregivers using the Japanese version of the Family Attitude Scale and caregiver depressive symptoms via the self-report Beck Depression Inventory. We also assessed psychiatric symptoms and functioning of the patients. Approximately one-third of caregivers of patients with ARMS or FEP had depressive symptoms, predominately with mild-to-moderate symptom levels, whereas only a small portion exhibited high criticism. The level of criticism and depression were comparable between ARMS and FEP caregivers. The link between criticism, caregivers' depression, and patients' symptoms were observed in FEP but not in ARMS caregivers. These findings imply that the interaction between criticism and caregivers' and patients' mental states may develop during or after the onset of established psychosis and interventions for the caregivers should be tailored to the patient's specific stage of illness. Interventions for FEP caregivers should target their emotional distress and include education about patient's general symptoms.

  14. The experience of childhood trauma and its influence on the course of illness in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Pedersen, Marlene Buch; Trauelsen, Anne Marie;

    2016-01-01

    Persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders often report high levels of childhood trauma, which often exacerbates symptoms and impede the process of recovery. However, little is known about how these traumas are experienced by service users and how they are integrated in their life stories...... and in semistructured interviews, and many of the traumas did not seem integrated in their personal narratives. The analyses further revealed that although participants often described complicated and traumatic childhood environments, they still felt supported by their families; they reported a range of ways in which...

  15. Epidemiology of early-onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, H; Nowotny, B

    1995-01-01

    A total of 232 (84%) first episodes of schizophrenia from our epidemiologically defined ABC sample (Age, Beginning and Course) were retrospectively assessed with regard to the onset and early course of the disorder. In a follow-up study a representative subgroup (n = 133) was prospectively examined in five cross sections over 3 years from first admission on. Population-based incidence rates for 5-year age groups comprising a range of adult patients who had been admitted with a first schizophrenic episode after age 20 years the prodromal phase, in 11% the psychotic prephase, began before that age. This demonstrates that schizophrenia often begins in an age period in which the social and cognitive development and brain maturation are still unfinished. Early-onset schizophrenias (schizophrenia-specific positive and negative syndromes in early-onset schizophrenia is comparable to that of higher age groups. However, neurotic syndromes, emotional disorders and conduct disorders are most frequent in younger patients, especially in young men. Paranoid syndromes seem to prevail in late-onset schizophrenia, whereas less differentiated positive syndromes, such as delusional mood, are more frequent in the youngest age group. An earlier onset of schizophrenia has more severe social consequences than onset in adults, because it interrupts the cognitive and social development at an earlier stage. The worse social course of schizophrenia in men compared with women cannot be related to a more severe symptomatology, but to the earlier age at onset and the impairment or stagnation of social ascent at an earlier stage of social and cognitive development. Social disability in the sense of an adaptation to the expectations of the social environment, as well as symptomatology during the further course of schizophrenia, show no major differences between the genders nor between the age groups. PMID:7654792

  16. Non-linear Dynamics of Speech in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Simonsen, Arndis; Weed, Ethan;

    speech patterns of people with schizophrenia contrasting them with matched controls and in relation to positive and negative symptoms. We employ both traditional measures (pitch mean and range, pause number and duration, speech rate, etc.) and 2) non-linear techniques measuring the temporal structure...... (regularity and complexity) of speech. Our aims are (1) to achieve a more fine-grained understanding of the speech patterns in schizophrenia than has previously been achieved using traditional, linear measures of prosody and fluency, and (2) to employ the results in a supervised machine-learning process...... (discriminant function) to classify speech production as either belonging to the control or the schizophrenia group, based solely on acoustic features. Methods We analyze the speech production of 57 Danish adults with first-episode of schizophrenia (23F 34M, Mean Age=22.93 SD=3.46) and 57 matched controls. All...

  17. Cognitive deficits and levels of IQ in adolescent onset schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, A Katrine; Hemmingsen, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    profile and severity of cognitive impairments in first-episode early onset psychotic patients who received the schizophrenia diagnosis to those diagnosed with other non-organic, non-affective psychotic disorders. The secondary purpose was to examine whether the profile of cognitive deficits, in terms of......Cognitive deficits have been found to be prevalent in early onset schizophrenia. Whether these deficits also characterise other early onset psychotic disorders to a similar degree is unclear, as very few comparative studies have been done. The primary purpose of this study was to compare the...... intelligence, executive functions, memory, attention and processing speed was global or specific. First-episode psychotic adolescents (N = 39) between the ages 11 and 17 years were included, 18 of whom were diagnosed with schizophrenia, and 21 with other non-organic, non-affective psychoses, using ICD-10...

  18. Patterns and Correlates of Expressed Emotion, Perceived Criticism, and Rearing Style in First Admitted Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    von Polier, Georg G.; Meng, Heiner; Lambert, Martin; Strauss, Monika; Zarotti, Gianni; Karle, Michael; Dubois, Reinmar; Stark, Fritz-Michael; Neidhart, Sibylle; Zollinger, Ruedi; Bürgin, Dieter; Felder, Wilhelm; Resch, Franz; Koch, Eginhard; Schulte-Markwort, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess patterns and correlates of family variables in 31 adolescents treated for their first episode of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (early-onset schizophrenia [EOS]). Expressed emotion, perceived criticism, and rearing style were assessed. Potential correlates were patient psychopathology, premorbid adjustment, illness duration, quality of life (QoL), sociodemographic variables, patient and caregiver "illness concept," and caregiver personality traits and su...

  19. Cerebral and cerebellar gray matter reduction in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate cerebral and cerebellar gray matter abnormalities in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Materials and methods: We examined the structural difference in regional gray matter density (GMD) between 22 first-episode MDD patients and 30 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls by optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based on magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Compared with healthy controls, MDD patients showed decreased GMD in the right medial and left lateral orbitofrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilateral temporal pole, right superior temporal gyrus, bilateral anterior insular cortex, left parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum. In addition, in MDD patients, there was a negative correlation between GMD values of the right DLPFC and the score of the depression rating scale. Conclusions: Our findings provided additional support for the involvement of limbic-cortical circuits in the pathophysiology of MDD and preliminary evidence that a defect involving the cerebellum may also be implicated.

  20. First episode drug-naïve major depressive disorder with panic disorder: gray matter deficits in limbic and default network structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chien-Han; Hsu, Yuan-Yu; Wu, Yu-Te

    2010-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the structural differences in the brains of first episode, drug-naïve patients with major depressive disorder and panic disorder versus healthy control subjects. High-resolution brain magnetic resonance images were performed on patients and health control subjects (age, sex and handedness matched). Structural magnetic resonance images of brain were estimated by optimized voxel-based morphometry of FSL (FMRIB Software Library). Patients had deficits of gray matter volumes over right anterior cingulate cortex, right medial frontal gyrus, left posterior cingulate cortex, right parahippocampal gyrus, limbic areas, occipital lingual gyrus and bilateral cerebellums when compared to controls. These results suggested that this group of patients has possible deficits of gray matter volumes over the default-mode network, fronto-cingulate and limbic structures. The decline of gray matter volumes might have started since the first episode. PMID:20599363

  1. Cerebral and cerebellar gray matter reduction in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Jing, E-mail: ppengjjing@sina.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Liu Jiangtao, E-mail: Liujiangtao813@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Nie Binbin, E-mail: niebb@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Yang, E-mail: Liyang2007428@hotmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Shan Baoci, E-mail: shanbc@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Gang, E-mail: gangwang@gmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: likuncheng1955@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate cerebral and cerebellar gray matter abnormalities in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Materials and methods: We examined the structural difference in regional gray matter density (GMD) between 22 first-episode MDD patients and 30 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls by optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based on magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Compared with healthy controls, MDD patients showed decreased GMD in the right medial and left lateral orbitofrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilateral temporal pole, right superior temporal gyrus, bilateral anterior insular cortex, left parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum. In addition, in MDD patients, there was a negative correlation between GMD values of the right DLPFC and the score of the depression rating scale. Conclusions: Our findings provided additional support for the involvement of limbic-cortical circuits in the pathophysiology of MDD and preliminary evidence that a defect involving the cerebellum may also be implicated.

  2. The effect of five years versus two years of specialised assertive intervention for first episode psychosis - OPUS II: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gluud Christian; Petersen Lone; Bertelsen Mette; Thorup Anne; Jeppesen Pia; Melau Marianne; Krarup Gertrud; Nordentoft Merete

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Danish OPUS I trial randomized 547 patients with first-episode psychosis to a two-year early-specialised assertive treatment programme (OPUS) versus standard treatment. The two years OPUS treatment had significant positive effects on psychotic and negative symptoms, secondary substance abuse, treatment adherence, lower dosage of antipsychotic medication, and a higher treatment satisfaction. However, three years after end of the OPUS treatment, the positive clinical eff...

  3. Comparison of plasma MicroRNA levels in drug naive, first episode depressed patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camkurt, Mehmet Akif; Acar, Şenel; Coşkun, Salih; Güneş, Mehmet; Güneş, Serkan; Yılmaz, Mehmet Fatih; Görür, Ayşegül; Tamer, Lülüfer

    2015-10-01

    Major depression is the most common psychiatric disorder. The diagnosis of depression depends on a patient's subjective complaints, and the nature of the heterogeneous disorder. Thus, there is no known biomarker for depression to date. Previous research has indicated that microRNAs are dysregulated in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. We aimed to investigate microRNA dysregulation in plasma samples of patients with major depression. Venous blood samples of 50 depressed patients and 41 healthy controls were collected and the quantification of microRNAs was established using qRT-PCR. We found miR-320a significantly downregulated and miR-451a significantly upregulated in depressed patients. We also found miR-17-5p and miR-223-3p upregulated, but not as significantly as miR-451a. Merging our results with previous published data shows that the blood miR-320 family may be a potential microRNA family dysregulated in major depression. Research should be performed on miR-320-related pathways and their relationship to depression. Additionally, miR-451a could serve as a candidate biomarker for depression based on the acting mechanism of ketamine. Studies targeting miR-451a levels before and after treatment could be helpful. PMID:26343596

  4. Evidence for Trait Related Theory of Mind Impairment in First Episode Psychosis Patients and Its Relationship with Processing Speed: A 3 Year Follow-up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Setién-Suero, Esther; Neergaard, Karl D.; Ferro, Adele; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Ríos-Lago, Marcos; Otero, Soraya; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Jose M.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to confirm whether first-episode psychosis patients present a stable trait impairment in theory of mind (ToM) and to examine the potential relationship between ToM and clinical symptomatology and neurocognition. Patients with a first episode of psychosis (N = 160) and healthy controls (N = 159) were assessed with an extensive neuropsychological test battery, which included a mental state decoding task known as “The Reading the Mind in the Eyes” (Eyes test), at baseline and reassessed after 1 and 3 years. The clinical group performed below healthy controls on the Eyes test while not showing test-retest differences between baseline and follow-up administrations. Analyses revealed age, education and premorbid IQ as potential moderators. Poorer performance on the Eyes test was not linked to clinical symptomatology but was associated with greater neurocognitive deficit, particularly related to processing speed. The persistence of ToM deficits in patients suggests that there are trait related metalizing impairments in first episode psychosis. This study shows the influence of processing speed and moderator variables on efficient ToM. PMID:27199826

  5. Five-year follow-up of a randomized multicenter trial of intensive early intervention vs standard treatment for patients with a first episode of psychotic illness: the OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone;

    2008-01-01

    Intensive early treatment for first-episode psychosis has been shown to be effective. It is unknown if the positive effects are sustained for 5 years.......Intensive early treatment for first-episode psychosis has been shown to be effective. It is unknown if the positive effects are sustained for 5 years....

  6. Psychologic status and health education of parents of female first episode schizophrenic patients%首发女精神分裂症患者父母的心理状况及健康教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石玉中; 李荣娓; 吕路线

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨父母在女儿患精神分裂症后的心理状况及健康教育的效果.方法对住院的首发女精神分裂症患者的98位父母采用焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)和自编的定式调查表进行测评,并根据测评存在的心理问题给予健康教育.结果多数精神分裂症患者的父母存在明显的焦虑及抑郁情绪,经健康教育后她们的SAS和SDS评分随之下降.结论针对患者父母的心理问题,应主动做好她们的健康教育工作,提高她们的心理承受能力.%Objective To investigate the effect of those parents psychologic status and health education when their daughters had schiz ophrenia. Methods 98 parents whose children were of the female first episode schizophrenia inpatients were tested with SAS, SDS and self-made investigating scale. Health education was given according to psychological questions. Results Most parents had significant anxiety and depression mood Their SAS and SDS scores decreased relevantly after health education. Conclusions According to the psychological questions of these parents, we should give them health education and improve their psychological ability of facing difficulty.

  7. Modulation of the Default Mode Network in First-Episode, Drug-Naïve Major Depressive Disorder via Acupuncture at Baihui (GV20) Acupoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Demao; Liao, Hai; Duan, Gaoxiong; Liu, Yanfei; He, Qianchao; Liu, Huimei; Tang, Lijun; Pang, Yong; Tao, Jien

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that acupuncture modulates the default mode network (DMN) in healthy subjects and patients with certain disorder. However, few studies have been performed to investigate whether or not acupuncture might modulate the DMN in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Thereby, the aim of the present study was to assess alterations of the DMN induced by acupuncture stimulation in patients with first-episode, drug-naïve MDD. Materials and Methods: Twenty nine patients with first-episode, drug-naïve MDD and 29 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. All the healthy subjects underwent 6-min resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) scan. While patients underwent acupuncture stimulation for 20-min electro-acupuncture stimulation (EAS) at Baihui acupoint (GV20) and two 6-min R-fMRI scans before and after EAS. Based on the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PC/PCC) as the seed region, functional connectivity (FC) method was adopted to examine abnormal DMN in patients by comparing with healthy subjects and to evaluate the influence of EAS on intrinsic connectivity within the DMN in patients with MDD. Results: Compared to healthy subjects, MDD patients had abnormal DMN. Moreover, results showed that EAS at GV20 induced increased FC between the PC/PCC and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and decreased FC between the PC/PCC and left middle prefrontal cortex, left angualr gyrus and bilateral hippocampus/parahippocampus (HIPP/paraHIPP) in patients with MDD, which were the main brain regions showing significant differences between the patients and healthy subjects. Conclusion: Our findings provide imaging evidence to support that GV20-related acupuncture stimulation may modulate the DMN in patients with first-episode, drug-naïve MDD. This study may partly interpret the neural mechanisms of acupuncture at GV20 which is used to treat patients with MDD in clinical. PMID:27242492

  8. Frontal D2/3 Receptor Availability in Schizophrenia Patients Before and After Their First Antipsychotic Treatment: Relation to Cognitive Functions and Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Nørbak-Emig, Henrik; Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Svarer, Claus; Rasmussen, Hans; Friberg, Lars; Allerup, Peter N.; Rostrup, Egill; Pinborg, Lars H; Glenthøj, Birte Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We have previously reported associations between frontal D2/3 receptor binding potential positive symptoms and cognitive deficits in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients. Here, we examined the effect of dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade on cognition. Additionally, we explored the relation between frontal D2/3 receptor availability and treatment effect on positive symptoms. Methods: Twenty-five antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients were examined with the Posi...

  9. Service user perspectives on the experience of illness and pathway to care in first-episode psychosis: a qualitative study within the TOP project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Wøldike, Peter Michael; Haahr, Ulrik Helt; Simonsen, Erik

    2015-03-01

    Delays in initiating treatment are associated with poor clinical and functional outcomes, yet there remains unclarity as to what facilitates and what acts as barriers to accessing appropriate support for first-episode psychosis. To explore this we examined service users' views of their illness trajectory and help-seeking behavior. To describe service-users' experiences with and understanding of their illness and pathway to care, including their need for treatment, the role of their relatives and experience with the treatment service. In-depth interviews were conducted with eleven randomly selected service users (median age 20, range 15-24, 6 males, 5 females) diagnosed with a first-episode psychosis and currently enrolled in treatment for this disorder. Fear of stigma, lack of knowledge about mental illness and normalisation of symptoms were barriers to accessing appropriate treatment, while support from significant others and information accessed by internet were reported as important elements in seeking appropriate treatment. The findings regarding barriers to treatment are in accordance with themes found in earlier studies and serve to validate these. Our study highlights the need to include psychological factors such as normalisation of symptoms and fear of stigma when attempting to reduce DUP in early psychosis, in addition to initiatives to reduce service delays. Also, a greater use of the potentials inherent in Internet and social media platforms seems important in this regard. PMID:25464933

  10. Surface-Based Regional Homogeneity in First-Episode, Drug-Naïve Major Depression: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jie Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous volume-based regional homogeneity (ReHo studies neglected the intersubject variability in cortical folding patterns. Recently, surface-based ReHo was developed to reduce the intersubject variability and to increase statistical power. The present study used this novel surface-based ReHo approach to explore the brain functional activity differences between first-episode, drug-naïve MDD patients and healthy controls. Methods. Thirty-three first-episode, drug-naïve MDD patients and 32 healthy controls participated in structural and resting-state fMRI scans. MDD patients were rated with a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression prior to the scan. Results. In comparison with the healthy controls, MDD patients showed reduced surface-based ReHo in the left insula. There was no increase in surface-based ReHo in MDD patients. The surface-based ReHo value in the left insula was not significantly correlated with the clinical information or the depressive scores in the MDD group. Conclusions. The decreased surface-based ReHo in the left insula in MDD may lead to the abnormal top-down cortical-limbic regulation of emotional and cognitive information. The surface-based ReHo may be a useful index to explore the pathophysiological mechanism of MDD.

  11. Schizophrenia (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... characterized by disturbances in perception, affect, behavior and communication lasting longer than 6 months (this includes psychotic behavior). The person suffering from schizophrenia has deteriorated occupational, interpersonal and self-supportive abilities.

  12. Altered circadian clock gene expression in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anne-Sofie; Owe-Larsson, Björn; Hetta, Jerker; Lundkvist, Gabriella B

    2016-07-01

    Impaired circadian rhythmicity has been reported in several psychiatric disorders. Schizophrenia is commonly associated with aberrant sleep-wake cycles and insomnia. It is not known if schizophrenia is associated with disturbances in molecular rhythmicity. We cultured fibroblasts from skin samples obtained from patients with chronic schizophrenia and from healthy controls, respectively, and analyzed the circadian expression during 48h of the clock genes CLOCK, BMAL1, PER1, PER2, CRY1, CRY2, REV-ERBα and DBP. In fibroblasts obtained from patients with chronic schizophrenia, we found a loss of rhythmic expression of CRY1 and PER2 compared to cells from healthy controls. We also estimated the sleep quality in these patients and found that most of them suffered from poor sleep in comparison with the healthy controls. In another patient sample, we analyzed mononuclear blood cells from patients with schizophrenia experiencing their first episode of psychosis, and found decreased expression of CLOCK, PER2 and CRY1 compared to blood cells from healthy controls. These novel findings show disturbances in the molecular clock in schizophrenia and have important implications in our understanding of the aberrant rhythms reported in this disease. PMID:27132483

  13. Altering the course of schizophrenia: progress and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, Mark J; Andrieux, Annie; Bartzokis, George; Cadenhead, Kristin; Dazzan, Paola; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Gallinat, Jürgen; Giedd, Jay; Grayson, Dennis R; Heinrichs, Markus; Kahn, René; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Leboyer, Marion; Lewis, David; Marin, Oscar; Marin, Philippe; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; McGorry, Patrick; McGuire, Philip; Owen, Michael J; Patterson, Paul; Sawa, Akira; Spedding, Michael; Uhlhaas, Peter; Vaccarino, Flora; Wahlestedt, Claes; Weinberger, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Despite a lack of recent progress in the treatment of schizophrenia, our understanding of its genetic and environmental causes has considerably improved, and their relationship to aberrant patterns of neurodevelopment has become clearer. This raises the possibility that 'disease-modifying' strategies could alter the course to - and of - this debilitating disorder, rather than simply alleviating symptoms. A promising window for course-altering intervention is around the time of the first episode of psychosis, especially in young people at risk of transition to schizophrenia. Indeed, studies performed in both individuals at risk of developing schizophrenia and rodent models for schizophrenia suggest that pre-diagnostic pharmacotherapy and psychosocial or cognitive-behavioural interventions can delay or moderate the emergence of psychosis. Of particular interest are 'hybrid' strategies that both relieve presenting symptoms and reduce the risk of transition to schizophrenia or another psychiatric disorder. This Review aims to provide a broad-based consideration of the challenges and opportunities inherent in efforts to alter the course of schizophrenia. PMID:26939910

  14. Efficacy of Community Treatments for Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    JulioArmijo; EmmanuelMendez; SaraSchilling; ArielCastro; GracielaRojas

    2013-01-01

    Background: In Chile, the clinical guidelines “for the treatment of people from first episode of schizophrenia” aim to support individuals with schizophrenia to live independently, establishment occupational goals, and gain an adequate quality of life and social interaction. This requires the implementation of a treatment model that integrates psychosocial and pharmacological dimensions. Community intervention strategies ensure the achievement of these goals. Objectives: This study compile...

  15. A history of childhood trauma is associated with slower improvement rates: Findings from a one-year follow-up study of patients with a first-episode psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Aas, Monica; Andreassen, Ole A; Aminoff, Sofie R; Færden, Ann; Romm, Kristin L.; Nesvåg, Ragnar; Berg, Akiah O; Simonsen, Carmen; Agartz, Ingrid; Melle, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether childhood trauma was associated with more severe clinical features in patients with first-episode psychosis, both at the initial assessment and after one year. Methods Ninety-six patients with a first-episode of a DSM-IV diagnosis of psychosis, in addition to 264 healthy controls from the same catchment area, were recruited to the TOP NORMENT...

  16. 首发及复发精神分裂症的性激素水平比较%Compare the levels of sex hormones of first episode schizophrenia with relapse schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢国军; 刘锐; 吴小霞; 雷素珍; 徐彩霞

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较首发与复发精神分裂症的性激素水平,探讨精神分裂症与性激素的关系.方法:选取符合条件的首发及复发精神分裂症患者95例,使用利培酮治疗,疗程6周,分别于治疗前和治疗后进行雌二醇(E2)、孕酮(Prog)、睾酮(T)、催乳素(PRL)、促卵泡激素(FSH)、黄体生成素(LH)检测和BPRS评定.结果:与首发男性患者相比,复发男性患者的基线Prog水平较高,T水平较低,治疗后T水平仍低于首发患者;与首发女性患者相比,复发女性患者的基线E2、T水平较低,PRL水平较高,治疗后E2、Prog、LH水平低于首发患者,PRL水平仍高于首发患者.上述差异均有显著性(P<0.05).结论:无论治疗前还是治疗后,首发与复发精神分裂症的性激素水平均有差异,影响因素较多.

  17. Mental health starts with physical health: current status and future directions of non-pharmacological interventions to improve physical health in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Jesse; Killackey, Eóin; Phillips, Lisa; Álvarez-Jiménez, Mario

    2015-08-01

    People with psychotic disorders have reduced life expectancy compared with the general population. This difference is primarily due to increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease associated with antipsychotic drugs and with modifiable risk factors, including weight gain, low exercise, poor diet, and high prevalence of cigarette smoking. We review non-pharmacological interventions for physical health behaviour in patients with chronic and first-episode psychosis. Our findings suggest that weight loss and attenuation of weight gain are achievable but limited and might not persist beyond the end of an intervention. Evidence for smoking cessation interventions is scarce. The case for early intervention to prevent deterioration of physical health is strong. We propose a framework for development of interventions, which addresses three main factors largely absent in previous research: (1) examination of aetiological factors related to poor physical health, (2) theory-driven interventions that target aetiological factors, and (3) assessment of feasibility. PMID:26249304

  18. Are variations in whole blood BDNF level associated with the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in patients with first episode depression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann; Bennike, Bente;

    2013-01-01

    stressful life events (SLE) in a cohort of patients with a first depressive episode. 262 patients with first episode depression (females 174, males 88, age range 18-70, mean age 41) participated and control sample of 84 participants was included (females 52, males 32, age range 22-70, mean age 42......Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems to play an important role in the pathophysiology of affective disorders. The current study investigated whether blood level BDNF is correlated with the severity of depressive symptoms and recent (six months prior to onset of depression) experience of......). Symptomatology was rated using Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and Becks Depression Inventory (BDI 21). No differences in whole blood BDNF was seen in relation to the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and no significant correlations between whole blood BDNF and HAMD-17 or BDI 21 scores were found. No...

  19. Comprehensive early intervention for patients with first-episode psychosis in Japan (J-CAP: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harima Hirohiko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Comprehensive approaches for patients with psychotic symptoms play essential roles in the symptomatic and functional outcomes of patients, especially during disease onset. In Japan, the shortage of mental health services, particularly for outpatients, and community-based supports has been a major problem. The purpose of this trial is to investigate the effectiveness and affordability of 18-month comprehensive early intervention services for patients with first-episode psychosis compared with typical treatment. Methods This interventional, parallel, single-blinded (open but blinded raters trial was effectively designed. The participants are patients with a diagnosis of F2 or F3 (International Classification of Disease, 10 th revision, with psychotic symptoms. The inclusion criteria were an age of 15-35 years, onset of psychotic symptoms within 5 years, first-episode psychosis, and residence in the catchment area of each site. Allocation will be conducted equally between case management and standard care groups. After enrollment, standard care will be provided for both groups, and community-based care to promote recovery for 18 months will be provided for the comprehensive approach group. The primary outcome will be the function domain of the global assessment of functioning scores at 18 months after enrollment. Data assessment will be performed at enrollment and 18, 36, and 60 months after enrollment. The target sample size will be 150, and registration will occur from March 1, 2011, to September 30, 2012. Discussion This trial will provide promising results about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of early intervention services in Japan to improve the quality and quantity of community mental health services. Trial registration This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (No. UMIN000005092.

  20. The Relative Importance of Family History, Gender, Mode of Onset, and Age at Onset in Predicting Clinical Features of First-Episode Psychotic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Michael T; Berez, Chantal; Walker, Elaine F

    2014-11-01

    Objective: Family history of psychosis, gender, mode of onset, and age at onset are considered prognostic factors important to clinicians evaluating first-episode psychosis; yet, clinicians have little guidance as to how these four factors differentially predict early-course substance abuse, symptomatology, and functioning. We conducted a "head-to-head comparison" of these four factors regarding their associations with key clinical features at initial hospitalization. We also assessed potential interactions between gender and family history with regard to age at onset of psychosis and symptom severity.Methods: Consecutively admitted first-episode patients (n=334) were evaluated in two studies that rigorously assessed a number of early-course variables. Associations among variables of interest were examined using Pearson correlations, ÷2 tests, Student's t-tests, and 2x2 factorial analyses of variance.Results: Substance (nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis) abuse and positive symptom severity were predicted only by male gender. Negative symptom severity and global functioning impairments were predicted by earlier age at onset of psychosis. General psychopathology symptom severity was predicted by both mode of onset and age at onset. Interaction effects were not observed with regard to gender and family history in predicting age at onset or symptom severity.Conclusions: The four prognostic features have differential associations with substance abuse, domains of symptom severity, and global functioning. Gender and age at onset of psychosis appear to be more predictive of clinical features at the time of initial evaluation (and thus presumably longer-term outcomes) than the presence of a family history of psychosis and a more gradual mode of onset. PMID:25367167

  1. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in first episode psychosis and in subjects at ultra high risk for developing psychosis; onset and relationship to psychotic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Sterk; K. Lankreijer; D.H. Linszen; L. de Haan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and obsessive compulsive disorder in patients with schizophrenia or related disorders or subjects at ultra high risk for development of psychosis. Secondly, to determine the time of occurrence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms re

  2. Glutamatergic system dysfunction in schizophrenia. A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was performed to determine whether there are any differences in metabolite levels as measured by 1 H MRS between chronic and first-episode schizophrenic patients. 17 patients with the diagnosis of chronic schizophrenia and 31 patients with first-episode schizophrenia (ICD-10) were included into the study. The patients were assessed by means of PANSS, CGI and Calgary scales.We also examined 13 healthy persons as control group. MRI and MRS procedures: Proton resonance spectroscopy was performed on a 1,5 MR scanner, PRESS sequence, TR=1500 ms, TE=35 ms, number of repetition=192 and included suppression of water by MOIST sequence. Each volume element (voxel) had dimension of 2x2x2 cm and was localised in the left frontal lobe, in the left temporal lobe and in left thalamus. Complex containing glutamine (Gln), glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was measured. Ratios of metabolite to creatine and unsuppressed water signal were analysed. We didn't find any significant differences in Glx levels between chronic and first-episode patients and between chronic patients and controls in all studied regions.In the left temporal lobe Glx/Cr ratio was significantly higher in first-episode patients in comparison to controls.We observed significant positive correlation between Glx/Cr level in the left temporal lobe and CGI and PANSS-Negative scores, and negative correlation between Glx/H20 level in the left temporal lobe and PANSS-Positive score. Increased Glx level in the left temporal lobe in first-episode patients suggest that altered glutamatergic activity in this region is present at the onset of disease and doesn't progress over time. (author)

  3. Genetics Home Reference: schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions schizophrenia schizophrenia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Schizophrenia is a mental health disorder classified as a ...

  4. A Neuroanatomical Signature for Schizophrenia Across Different Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qiyong; Dazzan, Paola; Scarpazza, Cristina; Kasai, Kyioto; Hu, Xinyu; Marques, Tiago R; Iwashiro, Norichika; Huang, Xiaoqi; Murray, Robin M; Koike, Shinsuke; David, Anthony S; Yamasue, Hidenori; Lui, Su; Mechelli, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Schizophrenia is a disabling clinical syndrome found across the world. While the incidence and clinical expression of this illness are strongly influenced by ethnic factors, it is unclear whether patients from different ethnicities show distinct brain deficits. In this multicentre study, we used structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging to investigate neuroanatomy in 126 patients with first episode schizophrenia who came from 4 ethnically distinct cohorts (White Caucasians, African-Caribbeans, Japanese, and Chinese). Each patient was individually matched with a healthy control of the same ethnicity, gender, and age (±1 year). We report a reduction in the gray matter volume of the right anterior insula in patients relative to controls (P literature, implicating the right anterior insula in bipolar disorder, depression, addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and anxiety, we speculate that the neuroanatomical deficit reported here may represent a transdiagnostic feature of Axis I disorders. PMID:26264820

  5. Causal connectivity alterations of cortical-subcortical circuit anchored on reduced hemodynamic response brain regions in first-episode drug-naïve major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing; Zou, Ke; He, Zongling; Sun, Xueli; Chen, Huafu

    2016-01-01

    Some efforts were done to investigate the disruption of brain causal connectivity networks involved in major depressive disorder (MDD) using Granger causality (GC) analysis. However, the homogenous hemodynamic response function (HRF) assumption over the brain may disturb the inference of temporal precedence. Here we applied a blind deconvolution approach to examine the altered HRF shape in first-episode, drug-naïve MDD patients. The regions with abnormal HRF shape in patients were chosen as seeds to detect the GC alterations in MDD. The results demonstrated significantly decreased magnitude of spontaneous hemodynamic response of the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and the caudate nucleus (CAU) in MDD comparing to healthy controls, suggesting MDD patients likely had alterations in neurovascular coupling and cerebrovascular physiology in these two regions. GC mapping showed increased/decreased GC in OFC-/CAU centered networks in MDD. The outgoing GC values from OFC to anterior cingulate cortex and occipital regions were positively correlated with Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) scores, while the incoming GC from insula, middle and superior temporal gyrus to CAU were negatively correlated with HAMD scores of MDD. The abnormalities of directional connections in the cortico-subcortico-cerebellar network may lead to unbalanced integrating the emotional-related information for MDD, and further exacerbating depressive symptoms. PMID:26911651

  6. Early insulin resistance predicts weight gain and waist circumference increase in first-episode psychosis--A one year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinänen, Jaakko; Mantere, Outi; Kieseppä, Tuula; Mäntylä, Teemu; Torniainen, Minna; Lindgren, Maija; Sundvall, Jouko; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2015-12-01

    First-episode psychosis (FEP) is associated with weight gain during the first year of treatment, and risk of abdominal obesity is particularly increased. To identify early risk markers of weight gain and abdominal obesity, we investigated baseline metabolic differences in 60 FEP patients and 27 controls, and longitudinal changes during the first year of treatment in patients. Compared to controls at baseline, patients had higher low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride and apolipoprotein B levels, and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein A-I but no difference in body mass index or waist circumference. At 12-month follow-up, 60.6% of patients were overweight or obese and 58.8% had abdominal obesity. No significant increase during follow-up was seen in markers of glucose and lipid metabolism or blood pressure, but increase in C-reactive protein between baseline and 12-month follow-up was statistically significant. Weight increase was predicted by baseline insulin resistance and olanzapine use, while increase in waist circumference was predicted by baseline insulin resistance only. In conclusion, insulin resistance may be an early marker of increased vulnerability to weight gain and abdominal obesity in young adults with FEP. Olanzapine should be avoided as a first-line treatment in FEP due to the substantial weight increase it causes. In addition, the increase in the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity was accompanied by the emergence of low-grade systemic inflammation. PMID:26589392

  7. Satisfaction with inpatient treatment for first-episode psychosis among different ethnic groups: A report from the UK AeSOP study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boydell, Jane

    2010-09-17

    BACKGROUND: There is concern about the level of satisfaction with mental healthcare among minority ethnic patients in the UK, particularly as black patients have more compulsory admissions to hospital. AIMS: To determine and compare levels of satisfaction with mental healthcare between patients from different ethnic groups in a three-centre study of first-onset psychosis. METHOD: Data were collected from 216 patients with first-episode psychosis and 101 caregivers from South London, Nottingham and Bristol, using the Acute Services Study Questionnaire (Patient and Relative Version) and measures of sociodemographic variables and insight. RESULTS: No differences were found between ethnic groups in most domains of satisfaction tested individually, including items relating to treatment by ward staff and number of domains rated as satisfactory. However, logistic regression modelling (adjusting for age, gender, social class, diagnostic category and compulsion) showed that black Caribbean patients did not believe that they were receiving the right treatment and were less satisfied with medication than white patients. Black African patients were less satisfied with non-pharmacological treatments than white patients. These findings were not explained by lack of insight or compulsory treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The study found that black patients were less satisfied with specific aspects of treatment, particularly medication, but were equally satisfied with nursing and social care. Understanding the reasons behind this may improve the acceptability of psychiatric care to black minority ethnic groups.

  8. First-episode bipolar disorder is associated with erythrocyte membrane docosahexaenoic acid deficits: Dissociation from clinical response to lithium or quetiapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Tso, Patrick; Blom, Thomas J; Welge, Jeffrey A; Strawn, Jeffrey R; Adler, Caleb M; DelBello, Melissa P; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2015-12-15

    Deficits in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may be associated with the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. However, LCn-3 fatty acid status at the initial onset of mania and its association with treatment response are not known. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was determined in first-episode bipolar manic or mixed (n=40) and healthy (n=40) subjects. Mood symptom ratings were obtained with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Erythrocyte fatty acid composition and clinical ratings were also determined within a sub-group of bipolar subjects following 8-week (n=19) or 52-week (n=11) open-label treatment with lithium or quetiapine. At baseline bipolar subjects exhibited significantly lower erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition compared with healthy subjects (-23%, pYMRS and HDRS total scores decreased significantly whereas erythrocyte fatty acids including DHA did not change. These data indicate that selective erythrocyte DHA deficits coincide with the initial onset of manic symptoms, and reductions in mood symptoms following treatment are not mediated by changes in fatty acid status. PMID:26477955

  9. Free thyroxine levels are associated with cognitive changes in individuals with a first episode of psychosis: A prospective 1-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labad, J; Barbero, J D; Gutiérrez-Zotes, A; Montalvo, I; Creus, M; Cabezas, Á; Solé, M; Algora, M J; Garcia-Parés, G; Vilella, E

    2016-03-01

    The results of previous cross-sectional studies suggest that free thyroxine (FT4) levels are associated with cognitive abilities (particularly attention/vigilance) during the early stages of psychosis. We aimed to explore whether hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid hormones predict cognitive changes in a 1-year longitudinal study following first episodes of psychosis (FEP). We studied 36 FEP patients and a control group of 50 healthy subjects (HS). Plasma levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and FT4 were measured. Cognitive assessment was performed with the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). FEP patients were assessed twice (baseline and after 1year), whereas HS were assessed only once. We compared cognitive changes at 1year between three groups based on baseline FT4 levels: 1) lowest quartile (Q1, FT41.54ng/dL). No differences in TSH or FT4 levels were found between HS and FEP patients. All participants had FT4 levels within the normal range. HS outperformed FEP patients in all cognitive tasks. In relation to the relationship between FT4 levels and cognitive changes, a U-shaped pattern was observed: FEP patients from the middle quartiles (Q2-Q3) improved in attention/vigilance, whereas both extreme quartiles (Q1 and Q4) showed a worsening in this cognitive domain over time. Patients with lower FT4 (Q1) showed poorer baseline attention; therefore, lower baseline FT4 levels predicted a poorer prognosis in terms of attention performance. Our study suggests that baseline FT4 levels are associated with changes in attention and vigilance performance over one year in FEP patients. PMID:26805411

  10. Schizophrenia patients differentiation based on MR vascular perfusion and volumetric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, A. B.; Joskowicz, L.; Moshel, S.; Israeli, D.

    2015-03-01

    Candecomp/Parafac Decomposition (CPD) has emerged as a framework for modeling N-way arrays (higher-order matrices). CPD is naturally well suited for the analysis of data sets comprised of observations of a function of multiple discrete indices. In this study we evaluate the prospects of using CPD for modeling MRI brain properties (i.e. brain volume and gray-level) for schizophrenia diagnosis. Taking into account that 3D imaging data consists of millions of pixels per patient, the diagnosis of a schizophrenia patient based on pixel analysis constitutes a methodological challenge (e.g. multiple comparison problem). We show that the CPD could potentially be used as a dimensionality redaction method and as a discriminator between schizophrenia patients and match control, using the gradient of pre- and post Gd-T1-weighted MRI data, which is strongly correlated with cerebral blood perfusion. Our approach was tested on 68 MRI scans: 40 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 28 matched controls. The CPD subject's scores exhibit statistically significant result (P schizophrenia with MRI, the results suggest that the CPD could potentially be used to discriminate between schizophrenia patients and matched control. In addition, the CPD model suggests for brain regions that might exhibit abnormalities in schizophrenia patients for future research.

  11. Comparison of Plasma Neurosteroid and Prolactin Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Riahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The present study aimed to compare plasma levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, and prolactin in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. Method. A total of 100 patients with schizophrenia disorder (69 men and 31 women and 190 healthy individuals (94 men and 96 women participated in this cross-sectional study. They were tested for hormone levels and completed demographic questionnaires. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and one-way analysis of variance. Results. Serum testosterone level was significantly higher in men with schizophrenia than in healthy men. Women with schizophrenia had a significantly higher level of testosterone and lower level of prolactin compared to healthy women. There were no significant differences in hormone levels across various subtypes of schizophrenia. No significant differences also were observed in hormones levels in patients with first-episode schizophrenia disorder compared to those in patients with recurrent episodes. Conclusion. This study indicated that abnormal testosterone and prolactin levels might be associated with pathophysiology of schizophrenia disorder.

  12. Comparison of Plasma Neurosteroid and Prolactin Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia and Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Forough; Izadi-Mazidi, Maryam; Ghaffari, Ali; Yousefi, Elham; Khademvatan, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Background. The present study aimed to compare plasma levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and prolactin in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. Method. A total of 100 patients with schizophrenia disorder (69 men and 31 women) and 190 healthy individuals (94 men and 96 women) participated in this cross-sectional study. They were tested for hormone levels and completed demographic questionnaires. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and one-way analysis of variance. Results. Serum testosterone level was significantly higher in men with schizophrenia than in healthy men. Women with schizophrenia had a significantly higher level of testosterone and lower level of prolactin compared to healthy women. There were no significant differences in hormone levels across various subtypes of schizophrenia. No significant differences also were observed in hormones levels in patients with first-episode schizophrenia disorder compared to those in patients with recurrent episodes. Conclusion. This study indicated that abnormal testosterone and prolactin levels might be associated with pathophysiology of schizophrenia disorder. PMID:27293968

  13. [Integrative neuroimaging for schizophrenia targeting early intervention and prevention (IN-STEP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Kiyoto

    2010-11-01

    The editorial of the new-year issue of Nature 2010 features "A decade for psychiatric disorders". The DALY estimation clearly shows that psychiatric disorders are the top source for burden of diseases to the individual life and society. Schizophrenia is a most devastating psychiatric disorder in which the onset is usually at youth and the cognitive dysfunction persists for life-long in some patients. Schizophrenia is associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities. It has been unknown whether post-onset progressive pathology is also present in schizophrenia until the recent sophistication of in vivo neuroimaging techniques. Longitudinal neuroimaging studies on first-episode schizophrenia have shown a progressive deterioration of structure and function of neocortical regions in the early stage of the disorder. Insult to dendritic spines through glutamatergic dysfunction may underlie this process, which may in turn be a promising molecular target for intervention to improve the functional outcome of schizophrenia. More recently, the question of whether early intervention can be targeted at prodromal stage of schizophrenia has called special attention in psychiatry. In University of Tokyo, the integrative neuroimaging studies for schizophrenia targeting early intervention and prevention (IN-STEP) is ongoing. Through these efforts, we would like to contribute to the establishment of "youth mental health", where every youth in the community can know, prevent, and have easy access to needs- and value-based services, and pursue mental well-being and recovery. PMID:21921453

  14. Regional Abnormality of Grey Matter in Schizophrenia: Effect from the Illness or Treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yue

    Full Text Available Both schizophrenia and antipsychotic treatment are known to modulate brain morphology. However, it is difficult to establish whether observed structural brain abnormalities are due to disease or the effects of treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of illness and antipsychotic treatment on brain structures in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia based on a longitudinal short-term design. Twenty antipsychotic-naïve subjects with first-episode schizophrenia and twenty-four age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent 3T MRI scans. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to examine the brain structural abnormality in patients compared to healthy controls. Nine patients were included in the follow-up examination after 8 weeks of treatment. Tensor-based morphometry (TBM was used to identify longitudinal brain structural changes. We observed significantly reduced grey matter volume in the right superior temporal gyrus in antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls. After 8 weeks of treatment, patients showed significantly increased grey matter volume primarily in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, insula, right thalamus, left superior occipital cortex and the bilateral cerebellum. In addition, a greater enlargement of the prefrontal cortex is associated with the improvement in negative symptoms, and a more enlarged thalamus is associated with greater improvement in positive symptoms. Our results suggest the following: (1 the abnormality in the right superior temporal gyrus is present in the early stages of schizophrenia, possibly representing the core region related to schizophrenia; and (2 atypical antipsychotics could modulate brain morphology involving the thalamus, cortical grey matter and cerebellum. In addition, examination of the prefrontal cortex and thalamus might facilitate an efficient response to atypical antipsychotics in terms of symptom improvement.

  15. Distinct facial processing related negative cognitive bias in first-episode and recurrent major depression: evidence from the N170 ERP component.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: States of depression are associated with increased sensitivity to negative events. For this novel study, we have assessed the relationship between the number of depressive episodes and the dysfunctional processing of emotional facial expressions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a visual emotional oddball paradigm to manipulate the processing of emotional information while event-related brain potentials were recorded in 45 patients with first episode major depression (F-MD, 40 patients with recurrent major depression (R-MD, and 46 healthy controls (HC. Compared with the HC group, F-MD patients had lower N170 amplitudes when identifying happy, neutral, and sad faces; R-MD patients had lower N170 amplitudes when identifying happy and neutral faces, but higher N170 amplitudes when identifying sad faces. F-MD patients had longer N170 latencies when identifying happy, neutral, and sad faces relative to the HC group, and R-MD patients had longer N170 latencies when identifying happy and neutral faces, but shorter N170 latencies when identifying sad faces compared with F-MD patients. Interestingly, a negative relationship was observed between N170 amplitude and the depressive severity score for identification of happy faces in R-MD patients while N170 amplitude was positively correlated with the depressive severity score for identification of sad faces in F-MD and R-MD patients. Additionally, the deficits of N170 amplitude for sad faces positively correlated with the number of depressive episodes in R-MD patients. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide new evidence that having more recurrent depressive episodes and serious depressive states are likely to aggravate the already abnormal processing of emotional facial expressions in patients with depression. Moreover, it further suggests that the impaired processing as indexed by N170 amplitude for positive face identification may be a potentially useful biomarker for predicting

  16. Frontal dopamine D(2/3) receptor binding in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients correlates with positive psychotic symptoms and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthoj, Birte Y; Mackeprang, Torben; Svarer, Claus;

    2006-01-01

    with single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) using the D(2/3)-receptor ligand [123I]epidepride. RESULTS: In the hitherto largest study on extrastriatal D(2/3) receptors we detected a significant correlation between frontal D(2/3) BP values and positive schizophrenic symptoms in the...... larger group of male schizophrenic patients, higher frontal BP values in male (n = 17) compared to female (n = 8) patients, and - in accordance with this - significantly fewer positive schizophrenic symptoms in the female patients. No significant differences in BP values were observed between patients....../3) receptor BP values and positive symptoms in male schizophrenic patients. They are in agreement with the hypothesis that frontal D(2/3) receptor activity is significant for positive psychotic symptoms. Additionally, the data support a thalamic hemispheric imbalance in schizophrenia...

  17. Atypical visual and somatosensory adaptation in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, G N; Butler, J S; Peters, G A; Molholm, S; Foxe, J J

    2016-01-01

    Neurophysiological investigations in patients with schizophrenia consistently show early sensory processing deficits in the visual system. Importantly, comparable sensory deficits have also been established in healthy first-degree biological relatives of patients with schizophrenia and in first-episode drug-naive patients. The clear implication is that these measures are endophenotypic, related to the underlying genetic liability for schizophrenia. However, there is significant overlap between patient response distributions and those of healthy individuals without affected first-degree relatives. Here we sought to develop more sensitive measures of sensory dysfunction in this population, with an eye to establishing endophenotypic markers with better predictive capabilities. We used a sensory adaptation paradigm in which electrophysiological responses to basic visual and somatosensory stimuli presented at different rates (ranging from 250 to 2550 ms interstimulus intervals, in blocked presentations) were compared. Our main hypothesis was that adaptation would be substantially diminished in schizophrenia, and that this would be especially prevalent in the visual system. High-density event-related potential recordings showed amplitude reductions in sensory adaptation in patients with schizophrenia (N=15 Experiment 1, N=12 Experiment 2) compared with age-matched healthy controls (N=15 Experiment 1, N=12 Experiment 2), and this was seen for both sensory modalities. At the individual participant level, reduced adaptation was more robust for visual compared with somatosensory stimulation. These results point to significant impairments in short-term sensory plasticity across sensory modalities in schizophrenia. These simple-to-execute measures may prove valuable as candidate endophenotypes and will bear follow-up in future work. PMID:27163205

  18. SCHIZOPHRENIA: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Sharma Kailash

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia continues to be a mysterious disease fascinating the minds of psychiatrists, pharmacologists and neuroscientists all over the world for more than a century. The crucial welfare of the millions afflicted with schizophrenia is at stake. The cause of schizophrenia is not yet identified. However, it appears from the available reports that schizophrenia results from genetic, occupational and environmental risk factors, which act independently or combine synergistically to develop sch...

  19. Correlation between serum levels of homocysteine and folate and cognitive dysfunction in first-episode schizophrenics%首发精神分裂症患者血清叶酸、同型半胱氨酸水平及其与认知功能的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭梅; 朱琪玥; 张伟; 李雪; 郝以辉; 李幼辉; 吕路线; 宋学勤

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨首发精神分裂症患者血清叶酸、同型半胱氨酸水平及其与认知功能之间的关系.方法 选取2012年10月至2013年6月就诊于郑州大学第一附属医院的60例首发未用药精神分裂症患者(患者组)和同期的健康对照者(对照组)60名,采用电化学免疫发光法和循环酶法分别测定受试者血清叶酸和同型半胱氨酸水平,阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS)评定患者组入组时精神症状,精神分裂症认知功能成套测验(MCCB)评估患者入组时的认知功能.结果 患者组血清叶酸水平[(4.1 ±1.9) ng/ml]低于对照组[(7.5±1.9)ng/ml] (P <0.001);同型半胱氨酸水平患者组[(27 ±9)μmol/L]高于对照组[(18±6)μmol/L] (P =0.006);相关分析显示,患者组叶酸水平和同型半胱氨酸水平呈负相关(r=-0.38,P=0.002),患者组血清叶酸水平与阴性症状呈负相关(r=-0.25,P<0.05),患者血清同型半胱氨酸水平与连线测验分呈正相关(r=0.28),与霍普金斯词语学习测验分、简易视觉记忆测验分、Stroop色词测验分和持续操作测验评分呈负相关(r=-0.38,r=-0.33,r=-0.30,r=-0.30,均P<0.05).结论 首发精神分裂症患者血清叶酸水平降低,同型半胱氨酸水平升高,与患者精神症状和认知功能的损害程度存在一定相关性.%Objective To explore the correlation between serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and folate and cognitive function in first-episode drug-naǐve schizophrenics.Methods A total of 60 first-episode schizophrenics (schizophrenia group) from our hospital and 60 healthy individuals (control group) were enrolled.Serum levels of folate and Hcy were measured with electrochemical luminescence method and enzymatic cycling assay respectively.Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to evaluate the mental symptoms and Matrics Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) was used to evaluate the cognitive function.Results Serum level of folate in schizophrenia group (4.1

  20. Psychotherapy and Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Peter F.; LYS, CHRISTINE

    1996-01-01

    Psychotherapy for patients with schizophrenia, although almost universally practiced in some form with clinical management of schizophrenia, has not been the present focus of such rigorous scientific inquiry as has been afforded to other current treatment modalities. This review highlights areas of potential progress and opportunities for clearer definition of psychotherapies for schizophrenia.

  1. The ABC Schizophrenia Study: a preliminary overview of the results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, H; Maurer, K; Löffler, W; an der Heiden, W; Munk-Jørgensen, P; Hambrecht, M; Riecher-Rössler, A

    1998-08-01

    The ABC Schizophrenia Study, a large-scale epidemiological and neurobiological research project commenced in 1987, initially pursued two aims: (1) to elucidate the possible causes of the sex difference in age at first admission for schizophrenia and (2) to analyse the early course of the disorder from onset until first contact and its implications for further course and outcome. First, transnational case-register data (for Denmark and Germany) were compared, second, a population-based sample of first-episode cases of schizophrenia (n = 232) were selected and third, the results obtained were compared with data from the WHO Determinants of Outcome Study by using a systematic methodology. A consistent result was a 3-4 years higher age of onset for women by any definition of onset, which was not explainable by social variables, such as differences in the male-female societal roles. A sensitivity-reducing effect of oestrogen on central D2 receptors was identified as the underlying neurobiological mechanism in animal experiments. Applicability to humans with schizophrenia was established in a controlled clinical study. A comparison of familial and sporadic cases showed that in cases with a high genetic load, the sex difference in age of onset disappeared due to a clearly reduced age of onset in women, whereas in sporadic cases it increased. To analyse early course retrospectively, a semistructured interview, IRAOS, was developed. The early stages of the disorder were reconstructed in comparison with age- and sex-matched controls from the same population of origin. The initial signs consisted mainly of negative and affective symptoms, which accumulated exponentially until the first episode, as did the later emerging positive symptoms. Social disability appeared 2-4 years before first admission on average. In early-onset cases, social course and outcome, studied prospectively over 5 years, was determined by the level of social development at onset through social stagnation

  2. Can structural neuroimaging be used to define phenotypes and course of schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, John G; Lauriello, John

    2012-09-01

    This article examines whether structural neuroimaging measures have been found to predict outcome in schizophrenia and whether changes in neuroimaging measures have been found to correlate with poor outcome in the disorder. Overall, there is little compelling evidence that structural neuroimaging measures in either first-episode or chronic patients predict future outcome. Progressive brain changes might reflect a neuroimaging phenotype associated with a worse course of the disorder. At the same time, there are many fruitful avenues that future research could take in an attempt to better predict future outcome or to identify specific imaging phenotypes associated with outcome. PMID:22929870

  3. Altered functional connectivity links in neuroleptic-naïve and neuroleptic-treated patients with schizophrenia, and their relation to symptoms including volition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidan Pu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze functional connectivity in untreated and treated patients with schizophrenia, resting-state fMRI data were obtained for whole-brain functional connectivity analysis from 22 first-episode neuroleptic-naïve schizophrenia (NNS, 61 first-episode neuroleptic-treated schizophrenia (NTS patients, and 60 healthy controls (HC. Reductions were found in untreated and treated patients in the functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus, and this was correlated with the reduction in volition from the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS, that is in the willful initiation, sustenance, and control of thoughts, behavior, movements, and speech, and with the general and negative symptoms. In addition in both patient groups interhemispheric functional connectivity was weaker between the orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala and temporal pole. These functional connectivity changes and the related symptoms were not treated by the neuroleptics. Differences between the patient groups were that there were more strong functional connectivity links in the NNS patients (including in hippocampal, frontal, and striatal circuits than in the NTS patients. These findings with a whole brain analysis in untreated and treated patients with schizophrenia provide evidence on some of the brain regions implicated in the volitional, other general, and negative symptoms, of schizophrenia that are not treated by neuroleptics so have implications for the development of other treatments; and provide evidence on some brain systems in which neuroleptics do alter the functional connectivity.

  4. Metamemory in schizophrenia: retrospective confidence ratings interact with neurocognitive deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifler, Sarah; Rausch, Franziska; Schirmbeck, Frederike; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Mier, Daniela; Esslinger, Christine; Englisch, Susanne; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kirsch, Peter; Zink, Mathias

    2015-02-28

    Prior studies with schizophrenia patients described a reduced ability to discriminate between correct and false memories in terms of confidence compared to control groups. This metamemory bias has been associated with the emergence and maintenance of delusions. The relation to neuropsychological performance and other clinical dimensions is incompletely understood. In a cross-sectional study, metamemory functioning was explored in 32 schizophrenia patients and 25 healthy controls. Metamemory was assessed using a verbal recognition task combined with retrospective confidence level ratings. Associations of metamemory performance with six neuropsychological domains (executive functioning/problem solving, speed of processing, working memory, verbal and visual learning, and attention/vigilance) and psychopathological measures were analyzed. Results revealed a significantly smaller discrepancy between confidence ratings for correct and incorrect recognitions in the patient group. Furthermore, patients showed significantly lower recognition accuracy in the metamemory task and marked deficits in all neuropsychological domains. Across all participants, metamemory performance significantly correlated with executive functioning and working memory. No associations with delusions were found. This data confirms prior findings of metamemory biases in schizophrenia. Selective neuropsychological abilities seem to be modulating factors of metamemory functioning. Longitudinal studies in at risk mental state and first-episode patients are needed to reveal causal interrelations. PMID:25530415

  5. SCHIZOPHRENIA: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia continues to be a mysterious disease fascinating the minds of psychiatrists, pharmacologists and neuroscientists all over the world for more than a century. The crucial welfare of the millions afflicted with schizophrenia is at stake. The cause of schizophrenia is not yet identified. However, it appears from the available reports that schizophrenia results from genetic, occupational and environmental risk factors, which act independently or combine synergistically to develop schizophrenia. In any case, schizophrenia should not be confined to split personality or multiple personality- disorder. Typically, a schizophrenic patient shows both, positive symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations or cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms such as social withdrawal, inability to articulate or loss of emotional tone. Some psycho-active drugs such as Cocaine, Heroin, LSD, Prozac, and Ketamine produce positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Brain regions affected in schizophrenia are amygdala, ventral striatum, frontal cortex, temporal cortex, hippocampus and thalamus. The levels of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine, serotonin and nor-epinephrine are significantly altered in schizophrenia. The enigma of schizophrenia has fascinated neuroscientists all over the world to develop parallel animal models in an attempt to discover new medicines for the effective management of this psychiatric disorder.

  6. Cognitive deficits and levels of IQ in adolescent onset schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, A Katrine; Hemmingsen, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive deficits have been found to be prevalent in early onset schizophrenia. Whether these deficits also characterise other early onset psychotic disorders to a similar degree is unclear, as very few comparative studies have been done. The primary purpose of this study was to compare the...... intelligence, executive functions, memory, attention and processing speed was global or specific. First-episode psychotic adolescents (N = 39) between the ages 11 and 17 years were included, 18 of whom were diagnosed with schizophrenia, and 21 with other non-organic, non-affective psychoses, using ICD-10...... criteria. A healthy control group (N = 40) was included, matched on gender and age. Cognitive functions were assessed using WISC-III/R, the CANTAB battery, WCST, Trail Making B, fluency tasks, and Buschke's selective reminding task. A similar profile and level of impairment was found on measures of...

  7. Demodex Parazytes in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Demodex parazytes are commonly present all over the world, especially in facial region of humans. Demodex spp. are assumed to be more common in schizophrenia due to partial suppression of immune system and lack of good self-care. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Demodex ectoparasites in schizophrenia patients. Material and Method: In the study, 31 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 30 subjects without any psychiatric disorder or skin disease were subje...

  8. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Yoshio Arturo; Matcheri S Keshavan

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are pervasive, severe, and largely independent of the positive and negative symptoms of the illness. These deficits are increasingly considered to be core features of schizophrenia with evidence that the extent of cognitive impairment is the most salient predictor of daily functioning. Unfortunately, current schizophrenia treatment has been limited in addressing the cognitive deficits of the illness. Alterations in neuroplasticity are hypothesized to underp...

  9. Schizophrenia and Suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Cetin; Salih Saygin Eker

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is one of the major causes of premature death among patients with schizophrenia. Follow-up studies have estimated that 4-5% of these patients die by suicide. Reducing the high rates of suicide in schizophrenia is possible with understanding of predictive risk factors. Various studies have identified risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia patients. Clinical risk factors include previous suicide attempts, comorbid depression, feelings of hopelessness, concept of insight and substance...

  10. Schizophrenia and Suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Çetin, Özlem; Eker, Salih Saygın

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is one of the major causes of premature death among patients with schizophrenia. Follow-up studies have estimated that 4-5% of these patients die by suicide. Reducing the high rates of suicide in schizophrenia is possible with understanding of predictive risk factors. Various studies have identified risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia patients. Clinical risk factors include previous suicide attempts, comorbid depression, feelings of hopelessness, concept of insight and substanc...

  11. Endocannabinoids and Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphane Potvin; Lahcen Ait Bentaleb; Emmanuel Stip; Joëlle Desfoss��s

    2010-01-01

    The endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachydonoylglycerol (2-AG) are lipids naturally derived from membrane precursors which bind cannabinoid receptors (CB1, CB2). This endocannabinoid system is disturbed in schizophrenia. Indeed, there seems to be an association between schizophrenia and polymorphisms of the CB1 receptor gene. Moreover, CB1 receptors are found in higher density in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and basal ganglia of patients with schizophrenia. Similarly, anandamide leve...

  12. Aqueduct stenosis and schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Dewan, M J; Bick, P

    1983-01-01

    Three patients with hydrocephalus and aqueduct stenosis are described, who also have schizophrenia defined according to strict diagnostic criteria. There are no previous reports of such an association.

  13. Biological study in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schizophrenia is associated with enormous morbidity, mortality, personal disability, and social cost. Although considerable research on schizophrenia has been performed, the etiology of this disease has not been fully elucidated. In recent years, imaging and genetic technologies have been developed dramatically. Disturbances in glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurotransmission may underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We attempted an integrative review, of studies pertaining to recent advances of schizophrenia research with a focus on neuroimaging and genetic studies. Additionally, we present the preliminary findings of the clinical research in our outpatient unit, specialized for early intervention, at the University of Tokyo Hospital. (author)

  14. Vitamin therapy in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating and poorly understood disease for which the only accepted therapy is nonspecific antipsychotic and anti-seizure medication. This article summarizes the evidence that certain vitamin deficiencies likely worsen the symptoms of schizophrenia, and the evidence that large doses of certain vitamins could improve the core metabolic abnormalities that predispose some people to develop it; it recounts the history of a controversial vitamin-based therapy for schizophrenia called orthomolecular psychiatry; and it concludes by advocating a process for discovering promising new schizophrenia therapies that involves small, carefully conducted clinical trials of nutrient combinations in appropriately selected patients. PMID:18587164

  15. Exploring rationality in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth;

    2015-01-01

    Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method...... Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence and...... differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality....

  16. Bilingualism and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Mary V

    2016-06-22

    Although a bilingual advantage has been described for neurodegenerative disease in general, it is not known whether such an advantage could accrue to individuals suffering from schizophrenia, since language networks are known to be disrupted in this condition. The aim of this minireview was to scan the existing literature to determine: (1) whether individuals with schizophrenia are able to learn a second language as adults; (2) whether clinical assessment, both for the purpose of accurate diagnosis and for the prediction of treatment response, should be carried out in both languages in bilinguals with schizophrenia; (3) whether psychotherapy in schizophrenia is affected by bilingualism; and (4) whether speaking a second language improves outcome in schizophrenia. The literature to date is too sparse to make definitive statements, but: (1) individuals with schizophrenia appear to be capable of learning a new languages as adults; and (2) it is possible that teaching a foreign language may serve as a form of cognitive rehabilitation for this condition. This literature review recommends research into the effects of bilingualism on the outcome of schizophrenia. Included in this review is a retrospective pilot study conducted in Canada, which suggests that employment opportunities for patients with schizophrenia are improved when they speak more than one language. This is important to note because employment is generally problematic in the context of schizophrenia while, at the same time, the ability to obtain work contributes significantly to quality of life. PMID:27354960

  17. 首发、复发和双相抑郁患者精神症状的比较%Comparison of the mental symptoms in patients with first episode depression, recurrent depression and bipolar depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任志斌; 马永春; 金卫东; 王鹤秋; 王乃信

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨首发、复发及双相抑郁患者精神症状的差异. 方法:对首次抑郁发作患者(首发组,24例)、复发性抑郁症患者(复发组,57例)及双相抑郁患者(双相组,25例)进行汉密尔顿抑郁评定量表(HAMD)、汉密尔顿焦虑评定量表(HAMA)、杨氏躁狂评定量表(YMRS)以及阳性和阴性症状评定量表(PANSS)评定和比较. 结果:HAMD、HAMA评分在3组间差异无统计学意义;YMRS评分3组间差异有统计学意义(F=5.2,P=0.007);双相组(6.6±9.0)显著高于首发组(2.8±3.4)和复发组(2.2±3.2)(q =3.86,g =4.40;P均<0.05).双相组HAMD中的躯体焦虑因子分、体重因子分均显著低于复发组(P<0.05或P<0.01);双相组精神病理学症状评分如意志活动、愤怒、幻觉、易激惹、激越、思维联想加快、破坏或攻击行为、活动增加显著高于首发组及复发组(P<0.05或P<0.01). 结论:双相障碍患者抑郁发作时可出现与躁狂相关精神症状.%Objective:To explore the difference in mental symptoms among depressive patients with first episode,recurrent and bipolar episode.Method:The evaluations of Hamilton depression scale (HAMD),Hamilton anxiety scale(HAMA),Young mania rating scale (YMRS) and positive and negative symptoms rating scale (PANSS) were preformed in 24 patients with first episode (first episode group),57 patients with recurrence depression (recurrence group) and 24 patients with bipolar depression (bipolar group).The results were compared among the three groups.Results:The scores of HAMD,HAMA among the three groups were no significant difference,but score of YMRS among the three groups were significantly different (F =5.2,P =0.007).The score of YMRS in bipolar group (6.6 ± 9.0) was significantly higher than first episode group (2.8 ± 3.4) and recurrence group (2.2 ± 3.2) (q =3.86,q =4.40 ; all P < 0.05).The scors of somatic anxiety factor and weight factor of HAMD in bipolar group were significantly lower than those in

  18. Second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics in schizophrenia: patient functioning and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montemagni C

    2016-04-01

    SGA-LAIs are still lacking. Lastly, some data on their use, especially in first-episode or recent-onset schizophrenia and in refractory or treatment-resistant schizophrenia, is available. Keywords: outcome, first-episode schizophrenia, recent-onset schizophrenia, treatment resistant schizophrenia

  19. Neuroimmune biomarkers in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Jakub; Rahmoune, Hassan; Guest, Paul C; Bahn, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with a broad spectrum of clinical and biological manifestations. Due to the lack of objective tests, the accurate diagnosis and selection of effective treatments for schizophrenia remains challenging. Numerous technologies have been employed in search of schizophrenia biomarkers. These studies have suggested that neuroinflammatory processes may play a role in schizophrenia pathogenesis, at least in a subgroup of patients. The evidence indicates alterations in both pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules in the central nervous system, which have also been found in peripheral tissues and may correlate with schizophrenia symptoms. In line with these findings, certain immunomodulatory interventions have shown beneficial effects on psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia patients, in particular those with distinct immune signatures. In this review, we evaluate these findings and their potential for more targeted drug interventions and the development of companion diagnostics. Although currently no validated markers exist for schizophrenia patient stratification or the prediction of treatment efficacy, we propose that utilisation of inflammatory markers for diagnostic and theranostic purposes may lead to novel therapeutic approaches and deliver more effective care for schizophrenia patients. PMID:25124519

  20. [Dreams and schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tögel, C

    1983-08-01

    This paper deals with the internal relationship between dream and schizophrenia, which has been a subject of discussion in philosophy and medicine since Kant and Griesinger, and shows that it can be supported by Marxist epistemology. A psychological theory of dream and schizophrenia would therefore have an integrative function with regard to psychotherapy and psychiatry. PMID:6635036

  1. Diabetes and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvisaari, Jaana; Keinänen, Jaakko; Eskelinen, Saana; Mantere, Outi

    2016-02-01

    People with schizophrenia have 2- to 5-fold higher risk of type 2 diabetes than the general population. The traditional risk factors for type 2 diabetes, especially obesity, poor diet, and sedentary lifestyle, are common in people with schizophrenia already early in the course of illness. People with schizophrenia also often have low socioeconomic status and income, which affects their possibilities to make healthy lifestyle choices. Antipsychotic medications increase the risk of type 2 diabetes both directly by affecting insulin sensitivity and indirectly by causing weight gain. Lifestyle modification interventions for prevention of diabetes should be an integral part of treatment of patients with schizophrenia. In the treatment of type 2 diabetes in patients with schizophrenia, communication and collaboration between medical care and psychiatric treatment providers are essential. PMID:26803652

  2. Schizophrenia and Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Cetin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is one of the major causes of premature death among patients with schizophrenia. Follow-up studies have estimated that 4-5% of these patients die by suicide. Reducing the high rates of suicide in schizophrenia is possible with understanding of predictive risk factors. Various studies have identified risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia patients. Clinical risk factors include previous suicide attempts, comorbid depression, feelings of hopelessness, concept of insight and substance abuse. Biopsychosocial factors, such as a high intelligence quotient and high level of premorbid functioning, have also been associated with an increased risk of suicide in patients with schizophrenia. The risk of suicide is considered to be highest in the early course of illness. Antipsychotic drugs, in particular clozapine and antidepressants may be helpful in reducing the risk of suicide in schizophrenia.

  3. Demodex Parazytes in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Demodex parazytes are commonly present all over the world, especially in facial region of humans. Demodex spp. are assumed to be more common in schizophrenia due to partial suppression of immune system and lack of good self-care. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Demodex ectoparasites in schizophrenia patients. Material and Method: In the study, 31 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 30 subjects without any psychiatric disorder or skin disease were subjected to standard superficial skin biopsy technique to determine Demodex spp. Results: Demodex spp. were found positive in nine schizophrenia patients and it was found positive in two healthy controls. Considering the prevalence of Demodex spp., a significant relationship is found between schizophrenia patients and normal controls (p

  4. Endocannabinoids and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Potvin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachydonoylglycerol (2-AG are lipids naturally derived from membrane precursors which bind cannabinoid receptors (CB1, CB2. This endocannabinoid system is disturbed in schizophrenia. Indeed, there seems to be an association between schizophrenia and polymorphisms of the CB1 receptor gene. Moreover, CB1 receptors are found in higher density in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and basal ganglia of patients with schizophrenia. Similarly, anandamide levels are increased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and in the serum of schizophrenia patients, including during the prodromal state, suggesting that they may play a protective role in psychosis homeostasis. Future studies are needed to further explore the role of the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  5. Bipolar disorder first episode and suicidal behavior: are there differences according to type of suicide attempt? A polaridade do primeiro episódio no transtorno bipolar é um preditor para tentativa de suicídio (violenta e não violenta) futura?

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Silva Neves; Leandro Fernandes Malloy-Diniz; Izabela Guimarães Barbosa; Paulo Marcos Brasil; Humberto Corrêa

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the polarity of the first mood episode may be a marker for suicidal behavior, particularly the violent subtype. METHOD: One hundred and sixty-eight patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (DSM-IV) were grouped according to type of first episode: depression or manic/hypomanic. Groups were compared for demographic and clinical variables. We performed logistic regression in order to test the association between first episode...

  6. No change in N-acetyl aspartate in first episode of moderate depression after antidepressant treatment: 1H magnetic spectroscopy study of left amygdala and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajs Janović M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Maja Bajs Janović,1,3 Petra Kalember,2 Špiro Janović,1,3 Pero Hrabač,2 Petra Folnegović Grošić,1 Vladimir Grošić,4 Marko Radoš,5 Neven Henigsberg2,61University Department of Psychiatry, Clinical Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb, 2Polyclinic Neuron, Croatian Institute for Brain Research, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, 3University North, Varaždin, 4Psychiatric Hospital Sveti Ivan, Zagreb, 5University Department of Radiology, Clinical Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb, 6Psychiatric Clinic Vrapče, Zagreb, CroatiaBackground: The role of brain metabolites as biological correlates of the intensity, symptoms, and course of major depression has not been determined. It has also been inconclusive whether the change in brain metabolites, measured with proton magnetic spectroscopy, could be correlated with the treatment outcome. Methods: Proton magnetic spectroscopy was performed in 29 participants with a first episode of moderate depression occurring in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left amygdala at baseline and after 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment with escitalopram. The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and the Beck Depression Inventory were used to assess the intensity of depression at baseline and at the endpoint of the study. At endpoint, the participants were identified as responders (n=17 or nonresponders (n=12 to the antidepressant therapy. Results: There was no significant change in the N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratio (NAA/Cr after treatment with antidepressant medication. The baseline and endpoint NAA/Cr ratios were not significantly different between the responder and nonresponder groups. The correlation between NAA/Cr and changes in the scores of clinical scales were not significant in either group. Conclusion: This study could not confirm any significant changes in NAA after antidepressant treatment in the first episode of moderate depression, or in

  7. Neurocognition and neuroimaging of persistent negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovington, Cindy L; Lepage, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Negative symptoms have been a conundrum to researchers and clinicians alike since having first been identified by Bleuler and Kraepelin. The term 'negative symptoms' has been scrutinized with regards to what it encompasses. Negative symptomatology has been categorized into distinct subdomains, including primary symptoms, secondary symptoms, deficit syndrome and, more recently, persistent negative symptoms (PNS). Although there have been some theories put forward with regards to negative symptoms, there are still discordant findings regarding PNS. Thus, this article aimed to review the structural, functional and cognitive correlates of PNS in an attempt to better understand these specific negative symptoms in schizophrenia. According to the reviewed literature, deficit syndrome appears to have similar neurocognitive and structural deficits as PNS; however, some minor distinctions may suggest that PNS are a separate subtype of negative symptoms. White matter decrements in the frontal lobe and gray matter reductions in the temporal lobe may be related more specifically to PNS. Furthermore, unlike deficit syndrome, structural abnormalities in the frontal and temporal lobe also appear to be related to PNS in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Cognitive domains, such as memory, are impaired and appear to be predominantly related to PNS. Hence, PNS do appear to have neuroimaging and neurocognitive correlates and warrant further research. PMID:22243045

  8. Reduced activation in ventral striatum and ventral tegmental area during probabilistic decision-making in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Franziska; Mier, Daniela; Eifler, Sarah; Esslinger, Christine; Schilling, Claudia; Schirmbeck, Frederike; Englisch, Susanne; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kirsch, Peter; Zink, Mathias

    2014-07-01

    Patients with schizophrenia suffer from deficits in monitoring and controlling their own thoughts. Within these so-called metacognitive impairments, alterations in probabilistic reasoning might be one cognitive phenomenon disposing to delusions. However, so far little is known about alterations in associated brain functionality. A previously established task for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which requires a probabilistic decision after a variable amount of stimuli, was applied to 23 schizophrenia patients and 28 healthy controls matched for age, gender and educational levels. We compared activation patterns during decision-making under conditions of certainty versus uncertainty and evaluated the process of final decision-making in ventral striatum (VS) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). We replicated a pre-described extended cortical activation pattern during probabilistic reasoning. During final decision-making, activations in several fronto- and parietocortical areas, as well as in VS and VTA became apparent. In both of these regions schizophrenia patients showed a significantly reduced activation. These results further define the network underlying probabilistic decision-making. The observed hypo-activation in regions commonly associated with dopaminergic neurotransmission fits into current concepts of disrupted prediction error signaling in schizophrenia and suggests functional links to reward anticipation. Forthcoming studies with patients at risk for psychosis and drug-naive first episode patients are necessary to elucidate the development of these findings over time and the interplay with associated clinical symptoms. PMID:24831391

  9. Changing the name of schizophrenia: patient perspectives and implications for DSM-V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Tranulis

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of schizophrenia is increasingly contested by researchers, clinicians, patients and family members. Preeminent researchers proposed its replacement with the salience syndrome concept, arguing for increased validity and less stigmatizing potential. This is the first study exploring the effects on stigma of this nosological proposal. METHODS: TWO STUDIES WERE CONDUCTED: one with 161 undergraduate students regarding their stigmatizing attitudes linked to the label of schizophrenia or salience syndrome, the other involved in-depth qualitative interviews with 19 participants treated in a first episode psychosis program. The interviews explored the subjective validity, acceptability and effects on stigma of a diagnosis of schizophrenia or salience syndrome. RESULTS: Overall, no significant differences were found between labels in study 1. For study 2, the majority of participants preferred a diagnosis of salience syndrome, considering it less stigmatizing mostly because of its novelty and the concealing potential of the new diagnostic entity, though many found it hard to relate to and somewhat difficult to understand. DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that the label change does not impact the stigmatizing potential for individuals who are not familiar with mental illness - they appear to base their attitudes on descriptions rather than the label alone. For those suffering from mental illness, a name change for schizophrenia to "salience syndrome" might offer only a temporary relief from stigma. Claims of de-stigmatizing effects should be grounded in sound scientific models of stigma and ideally in empirical data.

  10. A systematic review and meta-analysis of cognitive remediation in early schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, Emily R; Neill, Jo C; Harte, Michael; Khan, Zarshed; Drake, Richard J

    2015-10-01

    Neurocognitive impairment predicts disability in schizophrenia, making intervention theoretically attractive as a means to minimise chronic disability. Many trials confirm that cognitive remediation (CR) produces meaningful, durable improvements in cognition and functioning but fewer focus on the early stages. We systematically reviewed CR trials in early schizophrenia to determine its efficacy on global cognition, functioning and symptoms. Two reviewers independently searched electronic databases to identify randomised controlled trials investigating CR following a first episode of psychosis. Eleven trials with 615 participants were identified. Random effect models revealed a non-significant effect of CR on global cognition (effect size=0.13, 95% CI -0.04, 0.31; p0.14), pmemory) and five others showed borderline significant benefits. There was a significant effect on functioning (0.18; CI 0.01, 0.36; p<0.05) and symptoms (0.19; CI 0.02, 0.36; p<0.05). CR's effect on functioning and symptoms was larger in trials with adjunctive psychiatric rehabilitation and small group interventions. CR's effect sizes in early illness were smaller than those in chronic schizophrenia, perhaps because of participants' reduced scope for improvement, though trials' small number and size produces uncertain estimates of effect. However, significant benefits were seen in functioning and symptoms and moderator analyses indicate factors that may increase CR's effect. Findings here, theoretical considerations and trials in chronic schizophrenia suggest that targeting social cognition might also enhance its efficacy. PMID:26305063

  11. Pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, schizophrenia was considered to be a severe psychiatric disorder, with a chronic course and an unfavorable outcome. Throughout history, there has been incidence of schizophrenia, roughly one percent of the population, consistently, in every culture. It is generally acknowledged that schizophrenia has multifactorial etiology, with multiple susceptibility genes interacting with environmental insults to yield a range of phenotypes in the schizophrenia spectrum. The discovery of antipsychotics in the 1950s revolutionized the treatment of schizophrenia and focused on the positive symptoms. By the 1960s, however, it became evident that the reduction in positive symptoms did not lead to recovery from schizophrenia and did not significantly improve the functional outcome. The advent of the novel antipsychotics during the last 15 years represents a significant improvement over the effectiveness of conventional antipsychotics. These agents are, however, not a magic bullet and bear their own side effects, such as weight gain, diabetes, hyperprolactinemia, and QTc prolongation. Nevertheless, at this point, they seem to be more effective and safer than the conventional antipsychotics. Moreover, advances in the treatment of schizophrenia have been and continue to be urgently needed.

  12. 青少年期首发抑郁患者前瞻性记忆对照分析%Compare Analysis of Prospective Memory of Adolescents with First Episode Major Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰; 郭田友; 赵永忠; 陈宏; 王维千; 易艳红; 郭晗峰; 杨闯

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristics of event-based and time-based prospective memory in the First Episode Major Depressio(FEMD) in Adolescents. Methods: A battery of neuropsychological tests including event-based prospective memor(EBPM) and time-based prospective memory(TBPM) were conducted in 31 un-medicated FEMD patients and 22 age and IQ matched health controls(HC). Results: There were statistic differences between the FEMD group and the health controls in TBPM(P0.05).Con-clusion: This study indicated that First Episode Major Depression in Children and Adolescents show deficit in specific domain of prospective memory.%目的:探讨儿童青少年期首发抑郁患者基于时间前瞻记忆(Time-based Prospective Memory,TBPM)和基于事件前瞻记忆(Event-based Prospective Memory,EBPM)的特点.方法:对31例青少年期首次发作符合DSM-Ⅳ的抑郁障碍(Major Depression Disorder,MDD)患者及22例年龄和智商匹配健康对照进行成套神经心理测试,测试内容包括TBPM和EBPM作业操作.结果:MDD组(3.06±1.12)TBPM测验成绩差于HC组(5.05±0.90),差异有统计学意义(P< 0.05);而两组间EBPM测验成绩比较,无统计学意义.结论:青少年首发抑郁患者TBPM存在缺陷,而EBPM损害不明显.

  13. A Large Scale (N=400) Investigation of Gray Matter Differences in Schizophrenia Using Optimized Voxel-based Morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, Shashwath A.; Giuliani, Nicole R.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Schretlen, David J.; Pulver, Anne; Cascella, Nicola; Keshavan, Matcheri; Kates, Wendy; Buchanan, Robert; Sharma, Tonmoy; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many studies have employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of MRI images as an automated method of investigating cortical gray matter differences in schizophrenia. However, results from these studies vary widely, likely due to different methodological or statistical approaches. Objective To use VBM to investigate gray matter differences in schizophrenia in a sample significantly larger than any published to date, and to increase statistical power sufficiently to reveal differences missed in smaller analyses. Methods Magnetic resonance whole brain images were acquired from four geographic sites, all using the same model 1.5T scanner and software version, and combined to form a sample of 200 patients with both first episode and chronic schizophrenia and 200 healthy controls, matched for age, gender and scanner location. Gray matter concentration was assessed and compared using optimized VBM. Results Compared to the healthy controls, schizophrenia patients showed significantly less gray matter concentration in multiple cortical and subcortical regions, some previously unreported. Overall, we found lower concentrations of gray matter in regions identified in prior studies, most of which reported only subsets of the affected areas. Conclusions Gray matter differences in schizophrenia are most comprehensively elucidated using a large, diverse and representative sample. PMID:18378428

  14. Prospective memory performance in non-psychotic first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia: a controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chun Zhou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed at investigating prospective memory and its socio-demographic and neurocognitive correlates in non-psychotic, first-degree relatives (FDRs of patients with schizophrenia compared to patients with first episode schizophrenia (FES, and healthy controls (HCs. METHODS: Forty-seven FES patients, 50 non-psychotic FDRs (23 offspring and 27 siblings of patients with chronic schizophrenia (unrelated to the FES group and 51 HCs were studied. The Chinese version of the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (C-CAMPROMPT was used to measure time-based prospective memory (TBPM and event-based prospective memory (EBPM performance. Other cognitive functions (involving respective memory and executive functions were evaluated with standardized tests. RESULTS: After controlling for basic demographic characteristics including age, gender and educational level, there was a significant difference between FDRs, FES and HCs with respect to both TBPM (F(2,142 = 10.4, p<0.001 and EBPM (F(2,142 = 10.8, p<0.001. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that lower scores of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R and the STROOP Word-Color Test (SWCT contributed to TBPM impairment, while lower educational level and higher scores of the Color Trails Test-2 (CTT-2 contributed to EBPM deficit in FDRs. CONCLUSIONS: FDRs share similar but attenuated prospective memory impairments with schizophrenia patients, suggesting that prospective memory deficits may represent an endophenotype of schizophrenia.

  15. Neurocognitive dysfunction in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Melle, Ingrid; Friis, Svein;

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship of neurocognitive function with duration of untreated psychosis, premorbid illness factors, and clinical symptoms to determine whether long duration of untreated psychosis independently compromises cognitive function....

  16. Yoga therapy for Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    N Gangadhar Bangalore; Shivarama Varambally

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most severe mental disorders. Despite significant advances in pharmacotherapy, treatment remains sub-optimal, with many patients having persisting deficits, especially in cognitive and social functioning. Yoga as a therapy has proven to be effective as a sole or additional intervention in psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Recently, there has been significant interest in the application of yoga therapy in psychosis and schizophrenia. To review a)...

  17. Animal models of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, CA; Watson, DJG; Fone, KCF

    2011-01-01

    Developing reliable, predictive animal models for complex psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, is essential to increase our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for the development of novel drugs with improved therapeutic efficacy. All available animal models of schizophrenia fit into four different induction categories: developmental, drug-induced, lesion or genetic manipulation, and the best characterized examples of each type are reviewed herein. Most rod...

  18. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Selma Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Neuropsychology has had an explosive grow in the last decades. It contributions to the fields of Psychiatry are growing in an exponential rate. Research related to schizophrenia has bringing new views of the nature of the disease, at the same time offering contradictions and questions pending to resolve. The present article exposes the most relevant discoveries in the neuropshychology of schizophrenia neuroanatomy dysfunctions, development neurofuntionality, alterations in neurotransmitters a...

  19. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Selma Sánchez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychology has had an explosive grow in the last decades. It contributions to the fields of Psychiatry are growing in an exponential rate. Research related to schizophrenia has bringing new views of the nature of the disease, at the same time offering contradictions and questions pending to resolve. The present article exposes the most relevant discoveries in the neuropshychology of schizophrenia neuroanatomy dysfunctions, development neurofuntionality, alterations in neurotransmitters and cognitive deficiencies and areas for exploring.

  20. Bilingualism and schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Seeman, Mary V.

    2016-01-01

    Although a bilingual advantage has been described for neurodegenerative disease in general, it is not known whether such an advantage could accrue to individuals suffering from schizophrenia, since language networks are known to be disrupted in this condition. The aim of this minireview was to scan the existing literature to determine: (1) whether individuals with schizophrenia are able to learn a second language as adults; (2) whether clinical assessment, both for the purpose of accurate dia...

  1. Influence of drug compliance treatment on prognosis of first episode schizophrenic patients%药物依从性治疗对首发精神分裂症病人预后的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立华; 邵华; 崔虹

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To probe into the influence of drug compliance treatment on prognosis of first episode schizophrenic patients.Methods:A total of 80 first episode schizophrenic patients were randomly divided into control group and observation group,40 cases in each.The patients in control group received the routine health education in psychiatry,while the patients in observation group received the intervention of drug treatment com-pliance.The patients in two groups were followed up for 6 months,and then to evaluate them respectively be-fore the intervention,3 and 6 months after the intervention by the insight and treatment attitude questionnaire table(ITAQ),brief psychiatric rating scale(BPRS)and social disability screening scale(SDSS)and medication compliance,recurrence rate.Results:The differences of BPRS,ITAQ and SDSS scores in two groups between 3 months and 6 months after intervention were statistically significant(P <0.05).The differences of medication compliance and recurrence rate in two groups between 3 months and 6 months after intervention were statisti-cally significant(P <0.05).Conclusion:The drug compliance treatment could increase the understanding of dis-ease and treatment of first episode schizophrenic patients,and improving drug compliance and reducing recur-rence had a certain role in promoting the recovery of patients’social function.%[目的]探讨药物依从性治疗对首发精神分裂症病人预后的影响。[方法]将80例首发精神分裂症病人随机分为对照组与观察组各40例。对照组采用精神科常规健康教育,观察组采用药物依从性治疗方法进行干预。对两组病人随访6个月,并分别于干预前、干预后3个月、6个月时采用自知力与治疗态度问卷(ITAQ)、简明精神病量表(BPRS)、社会功能缺陷筛选量表(SDSS)及服药依从性、复发率对两组病人进行评定。[结果]两组干预后3个月、6个月BPRS、ITAQ及 SDSS评分比较

  2. Study on cognitive function in first-episode patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder%首次发病的强迫症患者认知功能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莹; 兰光华

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨首次发病的强迫症(OCD)患者认知功能的特点及相关影响因素. 方法:采用逻辑记忆、视觉再生记忆、连线测验、数字广度、Stroop测验及威斯康星卡片分类测验分别对35例首次发病的OCD患者(OCD组)及30名健康对照者(HC组)进行神经心理学测评;应用Yale-Brown强迫量表(Y-BOCS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)、状态-特质焦虑问卷(STAI)评定患者的病情及抑郁、焦虑程度.结果:OCD组的逻辑延迟记忆、视觉再生记忆、连线测验A、B时间、数字广度倒背、Stroop测验字色阅读时间、威斯康星卡片分类测验成绩较明显差于健康对照组(P均<0.05).OCD患者的病程与其视觉延迟记忆、数字广度倒背分呈负相关(r=-0.39,P=0.024;r=-0.38,P=0.027),SDS分与Stroop测验字色阅读时间正相关(r =0.37,P<0.05),Y-BOCS分、SAI分及TAI分与各神经心理学指标的相关性无统计学意义(P均>0.05). 结论:首次发病的OCD患者存在记忆、注意和执行功能损害.%Objective:To investigate the cognitive function features and related factors in first-episode patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).Method:Neuropsychological measuring including logical memory,visual reproduction memory,trail-making test,digit span,Stroop test and Wisconsin card sorting test were preformed in 35 first-episode OCD patients (OCD group) and 30 healthy collators (HC group).The severity of disease,depressive and anxiety symptoms in OCD patients were assessed by Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (Y-BOCS),self-rating depression scale (SDS) and state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI).Results:The achievements of logical delayed memory,visual reproduction memory,trail making test A and B,digit backward span,Stroop test and Wisconsin card sorting test in OCD group were significantly lower than those in HC group (all P < 0.05).The course of OCD patient was negative correlated with visual delayed memory and digit backward span scores

  3. 米氮平和帕罗西汀在首发抑郁症治疗中的应用效果%Application of mirtazapine and paroxetine in the treatment of first-episode depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨米氮平和帕罗西汀在首发抑郁症治疗中的应用效果。方法:2012年1月-2013年12月收治首发抑郁症患者64例,分为米氮平组和帕罗西汀组,各32例。结果:两组临床疗效差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗后两组汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评分均较治疗前差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),两组治疗后HAMD评分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:米氮平和帕罗西汀治疗首发抑郁症疗效相当,可有效改善患者抑郁状态,均可作为首选用药。%To investigate the application effect of mirtazapine and paroxetine in the treatment of first-episode depression.Methods:64 cases with first-episode depressive were selected from January 2012 to December 2013.They were divided into the mirtazapine group and the paroxetine group with 32 cases in each.Results:There was no significant difference in clinical curative effect of the two groups(P>0.05).The Hamilton Depression Scale(HAMD) score of the two groups after treatment significantly improved compared with before the treatment(P<0.05),and there was no difference in HAMD scores of the two groups after treatment.Conclusion:Mirtazapine and paroxetine in the treatment of depression episode have considerable effect,and they can effectively improve patients' depression,so both of them can be used as the first-line therapy.

  4. Neurodevelopmental correlates in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Maja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary aetiopathogenetic considerations, based on neuro-imaging genetic and developmental neurobiology studies, suggest neurodevelopmental origin of schizophrenia. Several lines of evidence including structural abnormalities on in vivo brain imaging, the excess of prenatal and obstetric complications and the association of congenital and minor physical anomalies with schizophrenia, strongly indicate the neurodevelopmental pathogenesis of schizophrenia. On the other hand, controversial concept of psychotic continuum suggests schizophrenia and depression sharing the same genetic contribution to the pathogenesis. If this would be the case, depression could also be considered as neuro developmental disorder. The aims of the study were to investigate the association between: a pregnancy and birth complications (PBC, and b minor physical anomalies (MPA and schizophrenia or depression. Experimental groups consisted of 60 schizophrenic, 28 major depression patients and 30 healthy controls. All patients were diagnosed according to DSM-IV. Schizophrenic group was divided with regard to PANSS score into positive (n=32 and negative form (n=28 subgroups. PBC information were gathered from maternal recall while MPA were examined by using Waldrop scale for adults. The results showed that negative and positive schizophrenic subgroups had significantly more PBC than depressive group (p<0,05, as well than controls (p<0,001; p<0,05; respectively. There was no significant trend for more PBC in negative than in positive subgroup. All schizophrenic patients had higher rates of MPA than depressives (p<0,05. This trend for more MPA was not significant in comparison with healthy controls. These findings suggest that schizophrenia, especially its negative forms, could be considered as a member of the spectrum of neuro developmental disorders, which does not seem to be the case with depression. PBC and MPA could also be valuable in evaluation of risks for

  5. The neuroproteomics of schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    English, Jane A

    2011-01-15

    Proteomics is the study of global gene expression of an organ, body system, fluid, or cellular compartment at the protein level. Proteomic findings are reflective of complex gene × environment interactions, and the importance of this is increasingly appreciated in schizophrenia research. In this review, we outline the main proteomic methods available to researchers in this area and summarize, for the first time, the findings of the main quantitative neuroproteomic investigations of schizophrenia brain. Our review of these data revealed 16 gray matter proteins, and eight white matter proteins that were differentially expressed in the same direction in two or more investigations. Pathway analysis identified cellular assembly and organization as particularly disrupted in both gray and white matter, whereas the glycolysis-gluconeogenesis pathway was the major signaling pathway significantly altered in both. Reassuringly, these findings show remarkable convergence with functional pathways and positional candidate genes implicated from genomic studies. The specificity of schizophrenia proteomic findings are also addressed in the context of neuroproteomic investigations of neurodegenerative disorders and bipolar disorder. Finally, we discuss the major challenges in the field of neuroproteomics, such as the need for high throughput validation methods and optimal sample preparation. Future directions in the neuroproteomics of schizophrenia, including the use of blood-based biomarker work, the need to focus on subproteomes, and the increasing use of mass spectrometry-based methods are all discussed. This area of research is still in its infancy and offers huge potential to our understanding of schizophrenia on a cellular level.

  6. Physical disease and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A E

    1988-01-01

    Researchers have long speculated about the existence of a relationship between physical disease and schizophrenia. Psychodynamic and life-stress theories offer opposing predictions about the nature of this relationship. Unfortunately, the empirical research on this topic is often contradictory and frequently plagued by various methodological inadequacies. Despite the theoretical controversy and methodological problems, the present review of the empirical literature suggests that patients with schizophrenia may be at increased risk for breast cancer and possibly for cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, patients with schizophrenia seem to be at reduced risk for developing either rheumatoid arthritis or lung cancer. The epidemiological investigations are worth pursuing since the convincing demonstration of a relationship between schizophrenia and a particular physical disease would yield valuable information about the pathogenesis of both disorders. Future research on this topic will need to consider the possible mediating effects of third variables, such as smoking habits, which may be associated with schizophrenia and which also are, independently, recognized as risk factors for particular physical disorders. PMID:3291096

  7. Explore the Visual Space Working Memory in First-episode Patients with Depressive Disorder%首发抑郁症患者的视空间工作记忆探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宇棋; 吴晓珺; 杨漫欣

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The paper aimed to study characteristics and influencing factors of the visual spatial working memory of the patients with the first-episode depression. Methods: 30 first-episode depression patients and 30 normal controls were measured by Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), neuropsychological testing and the spatial working memory test. Results: The experimental group and control group has no difference in terms of base memory (P> 0.05). Visual spatial working memory of the first-episode patients was significantly damaged (P= 0.035), while their location memory relatively Temained(P= 0.518). Degree of depression has relevance to the damage degree of both visual spatial working memory and distance memory (r =- 0.272, P = 0.036; r =- 0.323, P= 0.012), while it has no relevance to the damage degree of position memory (r=-0.083,P = 0.572). Visual spatial working memory is influenced by gender and education level (P = 0.011, p = 0.298; P = 0.000, p = 0.536), but not by age (P= 0.345, P = 0.129), among which education level has a greater impact on the distance memory (P = 0.000, P = 0.568) while gender and educational level has impact on position memory (P = 0.029, p = 0.263; P = 0.001,p = 0.484). Conclusion; The distance memory of patients with first-episode depression is damaged, while their location memory relatively remained. The damage degree of the distance working memory has relevance to the degree of depression. It can be predicted that the process of the visual spatial distance working memory and visual spatial location working memory may have applied different neural circuits.%目的:探究首发抑郁症患者的视空间工作记忆特点及影响因素.方法:收集首发抑郁症患者、健康对照者各30例,分别进行汉密尔顿抑郁量表的评估、神经心理背景测试和视空间工作记忆测试.结果:实验组和对照组的基础记忆水平差异没有统计学意义(P>0.05).抑郁患者视空间距

  8. 首发与复发抑郁症患者的认知功能特征比较%Comparison on characteristics of cognitive function in first-episode and recurrent depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴占占; 周振和; 王军; 袁国桢

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristic of cognitive function ,its differences in pa-tients with first -episode and recurrent depression and its correlation with the severity of the disease. Methods We recruited 61 depressive patients met DSM - Ⅳ criteria for depression from Wuxi Mental Health Center.These patients were divided into two groups:first-episode group (n= 31) ,and recur-rent group (n = 30).We also recruited 31 healthy people and assigned them into control group.All the groups were assessed with Wechsler Digit Span(DS) ,Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST ) and Iowa Gambling Task (IGT ).Three groups were compared in the differences of each measurement ,assessed the degree of depression with HAMD-24 and analyzed its correlation with the index of cognitive func-tion.Results (1)Differences in the three groups of patients with DS score were statistically significant (P 0.05).(2)Differences of WCST in the three groups were statistically significant (P 0.05).(3)The three groups were sig-nificantly different in IGT (P 0.05).Conclusions First-episode depression patients don't show obvious impairments in short -term memory and executive function ,In emotional decisional decisions ,they tend to make low income and low -risking decision.The short -term memory and executive function in patients with recurrent depression were significantly compromised and the emotional decision-making for losses are more sensitive than the first-episode patients.Depression level is positively correlated with cognitive impairment ,long disease duration and the severity of depression may have an important impact on patients' cognitive impairment.%目的 探讨首发与复发抑郁症患者的认知功能特征及两者间的差异,以及与疾病严重程度的相关性.方法 招募符合DSM-Ⅳ中抑郁症诊断标准的首发抑郁症患者共31例为首发组,复发性抑郁症患者30例为复发组,健康志愿者31名为对照组,对3组进行韦氏数字广度(DS)测验、

  9. Conventional and alternative preventive treatments in the first stages of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Piskulic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Schizophrenia is a progressive disorder that moves through multiple stages starting from non-specific risk factors to at-risk mental state (ARMS (also known as ultra-high risk of psychosis or UHR to first episode of psychosis (FEP to chronic course marred by frequent relapses and varying degrees of disability. In order to prevent a deteriorating course, treatments designed to address and possibly even correct the abnormal neuronal system functioning and psychosocial deficits need to be implemented early before potentially irreversible and maladaptive changes take place. Methods: A literature search was conducted in the electronic databases Pub-Med and MEDLINE for relevant empirical and review articles published in peer reviewed journals. Results: The review of literature suggests that a range of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions are being used and trialled in treatment of early stages of schizophrenia with varying degrees of success. Conclusions: There is a variety of therapies for schizophrenia ranging in scope from improving symptom profiles to functional recovery and a good rationale for their use early in the course of illness. Treatments that focus on integrating pharmacological, psychological and psychosocial interventions with a strong evidence base for effectiveness need to be integrated for the best chance to avert or hinder schizophrenia. Schizophrenia research is moving towards a notion that early intervention can interact with existing and intact neuroplasticity mechanisms that can be harnessed in an adaptive manner to promote healthier neural system functioning and increased stress resiliency, which will in turn lead to symptom reduction and functional recovery.

  10. CNVs conferring risk of autism or schizophrenia affect cognition in controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Hreinn; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Steinberg, Stacy; Magnusdottir, Brynja; Morgen, Katrin; Arnarsdottir, Sunna; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Walters, G Bragi; Jonsdottir, Gudrun A; Doyle, Orla M; Tost, Heike; Grimm, Oliver; Kristjansdottir, Solveig; Snorrason, Heimir; Davidsdottir, Solveig R; Gudmundsson, Larus J; Jonsson, Gudbjorn F; Stefansdottir, Berglind; Helgadottir, Isafold; Haraldsson, Magnus; Jonsdottir, Birna; Thygesen, Johan H; Schwarz, Adam J; Didriksen, Michael; Stensbøl, Tine B; Brammer, Michael; Kapur, Shitij; Halldorsson, Jonas G; Hreidarsson, Stefan; Saemundsen, Evald; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Stefansson, Kari

    2014-01-16

    In a small fraction of patients with schizophrenia or autism, alleles of copy-number variants (CNVs) in their genomes are probably the strongest factors contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease. These CNVs may provide an entry point for investigations into the mechanisms of brain function and dysfunction alike. They are not fully penetrant and offer an opportunity to study their effects separate from that of manifest disease. Here we show in an Icelandic sample that a few of the CNVs clearly alter fecundity (measured as the number of children by age 45). Furthermore, we use various tests of cognitive function to demonstrate that control subjects carrying the CNVs perform at a level that is between that of schizophrenia patients and population controls. The CNVs do not all affect the same cognitive domains, hence the cognitive deficits that drive or accompany the pathogenesis vary from one CNV to another. Controls carrying the chromosome 15q11.2 deletion between breakpoints 1 and 2 (15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion) have a history of dyslexia and dyscalculia, even after adjusting for IQ in the analysis, and the CNV only confers modest effects on other cognitive traits. The 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion affects brain structure in a pattern consistent with both that observed during first-episode psychosis in schizophrenia and that of structural correlates in dyslexia. PMID:24352232

  11. Neurocognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia and during the Early Phases of Psychosis: Targeting Cognitive Remediation Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Zaytseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent interest in the early course of schizophrenia accentuated altered cognition prior to the onset. Ultrahigh risk (UHR individuals with attenuated positive symptoms and transient psychotic episodes demonstrate neurocognitive deficits across multiple domains such as memory, executive functioning, and processing speed which are consistent with similar disturbances identified in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation (CR approaches representing a broad set of activities are aimed to restore or improve cognitive functioning. CR proved to be effective in modulating the cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia but is rarely used in ultrahigh risk individuals. From the clinical prospective, a better understanding of cognitive functioning in at-risk states is essential for the development of optimal early intervention models. In the review, we highlight the intervention targets, notably the specific cognitive deficits in at risk individuals which preceed the transition to psychosis and emphasize the need of the additional studies using CR approaches in UHR group aiming to enhance cognition and therefore mediate functional improvement.

  12. Depression in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R E

    1988-12-01

    Depressive syndromes that occur during the course of schizophrenia are not clearly understood but have important implications for the treatment of the schizophrenic patient. In this review of the literature on depression secondary to schizophrenia, the author notes that lack of tested diagnostic criteria has led to a misunderstanding of its relatively high frequency and its association with poor outcome features such as impaired psychosocial functioning, schizophrenic relapse, and suicide. Differential diagnosis, including ruling out akinetic depression, is essential, he believes, partly because the concept of schizophrenic depression as postpsychotic is not supported by evidence. Clinical management must address such increased risk factors as relapse and suicide, but evidence indicates that secondary depression in schizophrenia does not respond to antidepressant medication. PMID:3068116

  13. Schizophrenia, neuroimaging and connectomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornito, Alex; Zalesky, Andrew; Pantelis, Christos; Bullmore, Edward T

    2012-10-01

    Schizophrenia is frequently characterized as a disorder of brain connectivity. Neuroimaging has played a central role in supporting this view, with nearly two decades of research providing abundant evidence of structural and functional connectivity abnormalities in the disorder. In recent years, our understanding of how schizophrenia affects brain networks has been greatly advanced by attempts to map the complete set of inter-regional interactions comprising the brain's intricate web of connectivity; i.e., the human connectome. Imaging connectomics refers to the use of neuroimaging techniques to generate these maps which, combined with the application of graph theoretic methods, has enabled relatively comprehensive mapping of brain network connectivity and topology in unprecedented detail. Here, we review the application of these techniques to the study of schizophrenia, focusing principally on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research, while drawing attention to key methodological issues in the field. The published findings suggest that schizophrenia is associated with a widespread and possibly context-independent functional connectivity deficit, upon which are superimposed more circumscribed, context-dependent alterations associated with transient states of hyper- and/or hypo-connectivity. In some cases, these changes in inter-regional functional coupling dynamics can be related to measures of intra-regional dysfunction. Topological disturbances of functional brain networks in schizophrenia point to reduced local network connectivity and modular structure, as well as increased global integration and network robustness. Some, but not all, of these functional abnormalities appear to have an anatomical basis, though the relationship between the two is complex. By comprehensively mapping connectomic disturbances in patients with schizophrenia across the entire brain, this work has provided important insights into the highly distributed character of neural

  14. 21.2.Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930403 Family therapy of social psycologic in-tervention and rehabilitation of schizophrenia.KANG Ming(亢明),et al.Dept Psychiatr,3rdPeople’s Hosp,Huaiyin,Jiangsu Prov,223001.Chin J Nerv & Ment Dis 1992;18(5):258—260.Family therapy of social psychologic interven-tion(SPI) was used for the rehabilitation of dis-charged patients with schizophrenia.It was indi-cated that family therapy of SPI had significanteffect on the recovery of social function,im-provement of relation between the patients andmembers of the family,and preventing relapse ofschizophrenia etc.The social function of the

  15. Performance of Verbal Fluency as an Endophenotype in Patients with Familial versus Sporadic Schizophrenia and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sugai; Deng, Wei; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xiaohong; Li, Mingli; Brown, Matthew R G; Hu, Xun; Li, Xinmin; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Li, Tao

    2016-01-01

    What's the neurocognitive deficit as an endophenotype to familial schizophrenia? Here, we investigate the neurocognitive endophenotype in first-episode patients with familial schizophrenia (FS) and sporadic schizophrenia (SS), and their parents. 98 FS patients and their 105 parents; 190 SS patients and their 207 parents; 195 controls matched with patients, and 190 controls matched with the patients' parents, were assessed with the short version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised in China (WAIS-RC), the immediate and delayed logical memory tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised in China (WMS-RC), the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), the Trail Making Test Parts A and B-Modified (TMA, TMB-M), and the Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST-M). The results showed that with age, gender, and education as covariates, after controlling for false discovery rates, the FS group and their parent group performed worse than the SS group and their parent group on VFT. No significant differences were found for other neurocognitive tests between the FS and SS patient groups, and their respective parent groups. Our findings suggest the patients with familial and sporadic schizophrenia and their respective parent groups may have a different genetic predisposition in relation to a cognitive endophenotype. PMID:27581658

  16. Feasibility and Effectiveness of a Multi-Element Psychosocial Intervention for First-Episode Psychosis: Results From the Cluster-Randomized Controlled GET UP PIANO Trial in a Catchment Area of 10 Million Inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Mirella; Bonetto, Chiara; Lasalvia, Antonio; Fioritti, Angelo; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Santonastaso, Paolo; Pileggi, Francesca; Neri, Giovanni; Ghigi, Daniela; Giubilini, Franco; Miceli, Maurizio; Scarone, Silvio; Cocchi, Angelo; Torresani, Stefano; Faravelli, Carlo; Cremonese, Carla; Scocco, Paolo; Leuci, Emanuela; Mazzi, Fausto; Pratelli, Michela; Bellini, Francesca; Tosato, Sarah; De Santi, Katia; Bissoli, Sarah; Poli, Sara; Ira, Elisa; Zoppei, Silvia; Rucci, Paola; Bislenghi, Laura; Patelli, Giovanni; Cristofalo, Doriana; Meneghelli, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Integrated multi-element psychosocial interventions have been suggested to improve the outcomes of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, but they have been studied primarily in experimental settings and in nonepidemiologically representative samples. Thus, we performed a cluster-randomized controlled trial, comparing an integrated multi-element psychosocial intervention, comprising cognitive behavioral therapy, family intervention, and case management, with treatment as usual (TAU) for FEP patients in 117 community mental health centers (CMHCs) in a large area of northern Italy (10 million inhabitants). The randomized units (clusters) were the CMHCs, and the units of observation the patients (and, when available, their family members). The primary hypotheses were that add-on multicomponent intervention: (1) results in greater improvements in symptoms, as assessed with positive and negative syndrome scale and (2) reduces in-hospital stay, based on days of hospitalization over the 9-month follow-up. Four hundred and forty-four FEP patients received the intervention or TAU and were assessed at baseline and 9 months. Based on the retention rates of patients (and families) in the experimental arm, multi-element psychosocial interventions can be implemented in routine mental health services. Regarding primary outcomes, patients in the experimental arm showed greater reductions in overall symptom severity, while no difference could be found for days of hospitalization. Among the secondary outcomes, greater improvements were detected in the experimental arm for global functioning, emotional well-being, and subjective burden of delusions. No difference could be found for service disengagement and subjective burden of auditory hallucinations. These findings support feasibility and effectiveness of early interventions for psychosis in generalist mental health services. PMID:25995057

  17. 舍曲林治疗首发青少年抑郁症认知功能的研究%The cognitive function after sertraline treatment in first-episode adolescent depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜燕; 杜亚松; 龚云; 李惠琳; 赵滢; 刘文文; 李炎; 杨曹骅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of sertraline on cognitive function in first-episode adolescent depression and some related factors of cognitive function. Methods Twenty-one adolescents with first-episode depression were recruited and given sertraline treatment for 6 weeks, and 21 healthy adolescents were involved as controls. Children's depression inventory(CDI) were evaluated at the baseline and the end point of treatment. A series of neuropsychological tests including Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), wpatial working tnemory(SWM), stockings of Cambridge(SOC), intra-dimensional/ extra-dimensional shifts(IED) and delayed matching to sample (DMS)were performed twice to evaluate cognitive function. Results The patients had significant improvement in WCST and IED after sertraline treatment (P< 0.01). There was no obvious improvement on SWM strategy score after treatment, which was statistically higher than that of the control group(F<0.05). The amendment of IED EDS errors were positively correlated to the reductions in CDI total score and interpersonal problems item score (r=0.539, P=0.038; r=0.502, P=0.034). The amendment of DMS percent correct was negatively correlated to the reductions in negative mood item score(r=-0.585, P =0.011). The amendment of SOC four mean moves was positively correlated to the reductions in negative self-esteem item score(r=0.518, P=0.028). Conclusion The cognitive function can be improved after sertraline treatment in first-episode depressive adolescents correlated to the symptoms alleviation. Sertraline has no effect on working memory.%目的 探讨舍曲林对首发青少年抑郁症患者认知功能的影响及其相关因素.方法 对21例首发青少年抑郁症患者(抑郁症组)给予舍曲林(一日50 mg)治疗,共6周,并以21例健康者(健康对照组)为对照,评估治疗前后儿童抑郁量表(CDI)、威斯康辛卡片分类测验(WCST)、空间工作记忆(SWM)、剑桥袜(SOC)、目标内外注意转换(IED)和

  18. Intensive psychotherapy of schizophrenia.

    OpenAIRE

    Keats, C. J.; McGlashan, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    The literature on strategies of investigative psychotherapy of schizophrenia is selectively reviewed, and a case history is presented. The format is modelled on the authors' research technique of contrasting theory with practice. While long-term observation of single cases does not address cause and effect, descriptions of cases with a variety of known outcomes can help to build a typology of treatment processes.

  19. Neural chaos and schizophrenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bob, P.; Chládek, Jan; Šusta, M.; Glaslová, K.; Jagla, F.; Kukleta, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2007), s. 298-305. ISSN 0231-5882 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : EDA * Lyapunov exponent * schizophrenia * chaos Subject RIV: FL - Psychiatry, Sexuology Impact factor: 1.286, year: 2007

  20. Yoga therapy for Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Gangadhar Bangalore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most severe mental disorders. Despite significant advances in pharmacotherapy, treatment remains sub-optimal, with many patients having persisting deficits, especially in cognitive and social functioning. Yoga as a therapy has proven to be effective as a sole or additional intervention in psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Recently, there has been significant interest in the application of yoga therapy in psychosis and schizophrenia. To review a the evidence for the use of yoga therapy in patients with schizophrenia b studies which have been done in this area, c the barriers for reaching yoga to patients, and d future directions, an English language literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and EBSCO as well as grey literature was done. Research reports have demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of yoga as an add-on therapy in schizophrenia, particularly in improving negative symptomatology and social cognition. However, the biological underpinnings of this effect remain unclear, although there are some indications that hormones like oxytocin may contribute to the changes in social cognition.

  1. Between health and schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyszkowska, Magdalena

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article, based on the literature review, presents actual concerns on prognosis and opportunity to achieve recovery in persons with schizophrenia. Catamnestic long-term studies published during last decades more often indicated a favorable course of schizophrenia than it was in the past. One explanation may be the progress in pharmacotherapy, which allows the achievement of a better outcome in the treatment. On the other hand, the researchers have been committed to more detailed studies on the course of schizophrenia by more frequently repeated public testimonials of the ill persons, which forced the prognosis to be more optimistic. A good example is the discussion about the recovery in schizophrenia and the change in perception of the disease, despite differences in the attitudes between clinicians and patients. Seeing the opportunity to conduct a normal life in spite of serious mental disease is challenging for patients and their relatives, as well for psychiatrists and therapists. It motivates to overcome the limitations that the disease brings and the barriers in society.

  2. Early and sustained dynamic intervention in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on the Danish National Schizophrenia Project manual for psychodynamic individual psychotherapy with persons in states of schizophrenia. The methods for engaging with and treating a patient with schizophrenia in a supportive, psychodynamic way are described....

  3. Early and sustained dynamic intervention in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent

    This paper is based on the Danish National Schizophrenia Project manual for psychodynamic individual psychotherapy with persons in states of schizophrenia. The methods for engaging with and treating a patient with schizophrenia in a supportive, psychodynamic way are described....

  4. Predicting treatment response from dopamine D2/3 receptor bnding potential? - A study in antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Sanne; Pinborg, Lars Hageman; Svarer, Claus;

    Background and aim: One of the best validated findings in schizophrenia is the association between increased striatal dopaminergic transmission and positive psychotic symptoms. Numerous studies have likewise confirmed an association between blockade of striatal dopamine D2 receptors and the effect...... of antipsychotic compounds on the positive symptoms. Furthermore, blockade of striatal dopamine D2 receptors have in studies shown to associate negatively with subjective well-being. Our main aim was to explore a possible predictive value of striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor binding potential (BPp) for...... treatment outcome in a cohort of antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients. We further wanted to explore possible associations between the dopamine blockade and alterations of negative symptoms as well as functioning and subjective well-being. Materials and methods: The Study was a...

  5. Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia Scientists uncovered a mechanism behind genetic variations previously linked to schizophrenia. The findings may lead to new clinical approaches. ...

  6. GWAS, cytomegalovirus infection, and schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Grove, Jakob; Børglum, Anders D; PEARCE, BRAD D.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years good progress has been made in uncovering the genetic underpinnings of schizophrenia. Even so, as a polygenic disorder, schizophrenia has a complex etiology that is far from understood. Meanwhile data are being collected enabling the study of interactions between genes and the environment. A confluence of data from genetic and environmental exposure studies points to the role of infections and immunity in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In a recent study by Børglum et al...

  7. Viral infection, inflammation and schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kneeland, Rachel E.; Fatemi, S. Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with genetic and environmental etiologies. Prenatal viral/bacterial infections and inflammation play major roles in the genesis of schizophrenia. In this review, we describe a viral model of schizophrenia tested in mice whereby the offspring of mice prenatally infected with influenza at E7, E9, E16, and E18 show significant gene, protein, and brain structural abnormalities postnatally. Similarly, we describe data on rodents exposed to bact...

  8. Ocular convergence deficits in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    MarkSBolding; KristineB.Hopkins; AdrienneC.Lahti

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have been reported to exhibit a higher prevalence of convergence insufficiency (CI) than the “normal” adult population. The purpose of this study was to determine if individuals with schizophrenia exhibit clinical signs of CI and to determine if the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) is an effective instrument for identifying CI in this population. Twenty participants with schizophrenia (SZ) and 20 healthy controls (HC) completed the study. The p...

  9. Excess Early Mortality in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often referred to as one of the most severe mental disorders, primarily because of the very high mortality rates of those with the disorder. This article reviews the literature on excess early mortality in persons with schizophrenia and suggests reasons for the high mortality as...... well as possible ways to reduce it. Persons with schizophrenia have an exceptionally short life expectancy. High mortality is found in all age groups, resulting in a life expectancy of approximately 20 years below that of the general population. Evidence suggests that persons with schizophrenia may not...

  10. On incomprehensibility in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mads Gram

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the supposedly incomprehensibility of schizophrenic delusions. According to the contemporary classificatory systems (DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10), some delusions typically found in schizophrenia are considered bizarre and incomprehensible. The aim of this article is to discuss...... the notion of understanding that deems these delusions incomprehensible and to see if it is possible to comprehend these delusions if we apply another notion of understanding. First, I discuss the contemporary schizophrenia definitions and their inherent problems, and I argue that the notion...... of incomprehensibility in these definitions rests heavily on Jaspers’ notions of understanding and empathy. Secondly, I discuss two Wittgensteinian attempts to comprehend bizarre delusions: (a) Campbell’s proposal to conceive delusions as framework propositions and (b) Sass’s suggestion to interpret delusions...

  11. Imaging genetics of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen an explosive growth of interest in the application of imaging genetics to understand neurogenetic mechanisms of schizophrenia. Imaging genetics applies structural and functional neuroimaging to study subjects carrying genetic risk variants that relate to a psychiatric disorder. We review selected aspects of this literature, starting with a widely studied candidate gene - the catechol-0-methyltransferase gene (COMT)- discussing other candidate genes in the dopaminergic s...

  12. INSIGHT, PSYCHOPATHOLOGY & SCHIZOPHRENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrongh, K.P. Lincoln; Chandrasekaran, R.; Perme, Bojir

    2002-01-01

    25 inpatients with schizophrenia were examined to explore the relationship between insight and psychopathology and illness severity over a four-week period. The average degree of insight improved irrespective of the type of recovery. There was no consistent relationship between the changes in insight and changes in psychopathology. The severity of mental illness and awareness of mental disorder showed a semi-independent pattern of association. It is concluded that insight operates to some ext...

  13. Token economy for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMonagle, T

    2000-01-01

    A token economy is a behavioural therapy technique in which the desired change is achieved by means of tokens administered for the performance of predefined behaviours according to a program. Though token economy programmes were widespread in the 1970s they became largely restricted to wards where long-stay patients from institutions are prepared for transfer into the community and were particularly aimed at changing negative symptoms of schizophrenia - poor motivation, poor attention and social withdrawal.

  14. Neural models of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Heckers, Stephan

    2000-01-01

    Hallucinations and delusions - two diagnostic features of psychosis shared across the spectrum of heterogeneous schizophrenia constructs - can be described in terms of the pathophysiology of sensory information processing: hallucination is the impaired ability to classify representations as internally or externally generated, while delusion is the immutable linking of representations with each other in the absence of external dependency. The key anatomical systems in higher-order information ...

  15. 首发抑郁症患者认知功能三个月随访研究%The longitudinal study of cognitive function in first-episode patients with major depressive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜巧荣; 左丽娜; 张红玲; 李素萍; 彭菊意; 张克让

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究首发抑郁症患者治疗前(第0周)和治疗后(第6周、第3个月)的认知功能改变及特点.方法 对62例首发抑郁症患者(患者组),于治疗前和治疗后评定汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、重复性神经心理状态(RBANS)测验、威斯康星卡片分类测验(WCST),并与82名健康志愿者(对照组)比较.结果 (1)患者组治疗前后方差分析表明,HAMD总分(F=97.69,P<0.01)、RBANS即刻记忆(F=26.10,P<0.01)、延时记忆(F=11.20,P<0.01)、总分(F=3.81,P<0.05)、WCST的总测验数(F=9.99,P<0.01)、持续错误数(F=21.81,P<0.01)、分类数(F=5.49,P<0.05)均有统计学差异.(2)患者组治疗前HAMD总分(t=29.92,P<0.01),RBANS即刻记忆(t=-4.55,P<0.01)、视觉广度(t=-2.41,P<0.05)、言语功能(t=-3.01,P<0.01)、延时记忆(t=-2.99,P<0.01)、总分(t=-4.52,P<0.01)与对照组之间均有统计学差异;患者组治疗6周后HAMD总分(t=6.37,P<0.01)、RBANS即刻记忆(t=2.73,P<0.01)、WCST的分类数(t=2.49,P<0.05)、总应答数(t=-3.98,P<0.01)、正确应答数(t=2.68,P<0.05)、持续错误数(t=-4.80,P<0.01)均与对照组有统计学差异;患者组治疗3个月后HAMD总分(t=2.20,P<0.05),RBANS即刻记忆(t=4.42,P<0101),WCST的分类数(t=2.41,Pfirst-episode patients with major depressive disorder before treatment ( 0 week ) and after treatment ( 6 weeks, 3 months ). Methods 62 patients with major depressive disorder ( patient group ) were measured with Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) ,Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS)and Wisconsin card sorting test ( WCST) before and after treatment. 82 normal controls ( control

  16. 自动思维在首发女性抑郁症患者发病中的交互作用%The interaction of automatic thinking in female patients with first-episode depressive disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨致蓉; 罗晓东; 王卫平

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨首发女性抑郁症患者自动思维与抑郁症相关的应激因素之间存在交互作用。方法选取住院的60例首发女性抑郁症患者,经过自动思维问卷、功能失调性态度问卷、社会支持量表、应付方式问卷及YG性人格测验测评,用Spearman相关分析及路径分析方法,分析自动思维与抑郁症相关的应激因素在首发女性抑郁症患者发病过程中的相互作用。结果①自动思维总分与抑郁/焦虑总分、功能失调性认知总分、脆弱性、吸引和排斥、完美化和自主性态度等因子分呈正相关(P<0.05或P<0.01)。②自动思维总分与十二种性格中的自卑感、神经质、缺乏客观性和非合作性因子分呈正相关,与支配性、社会内外向性因子分呈负相关(P<0.05或P<0.01)。③自动思维和自责、合理化呈正相关,自动思维和社会支持总分、主观支持呈负相关(P<0.05或P<0.01)。④路径分析表明:自动思维对抑郁有直接预测作用;神经质、完美化、自责、焦虑通过自动思维对抑郁有间接预测作用;主观支持对自动思维有负向预测作用,且通过自动思维对抑郁有间接预测作用(P<0.05或P<0.01)。结论自动思维与抑郁症相关的应激因素之间存在交互作用,在开展抑郁症的心理治疗时需要综合考虑这些因素。%Objective To investigate the interaciton of automatic thoughts and stress factors related depression in fe-male patients with first-episode depressive disorder. Methods The 60 female patients with first-episode depression were enrolled and assessed by Hamilton Depression Rating Scale(HAMD),Hamilton anxiety scale(HAMA),Automatic thought questionnaire (ATQ), Dysfunctional attitude scale (DAS),ways of coping, the social support scale and Y-G Personality Questionnaire. Spearman correlation analysis and path analysis were used to analyse the interaciton of auto-matic thoughts and stress factors

  17. Temporal Processing Dysfunction in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christine A.; Boggs, Jennifer; O'Donnell, Brian F.; Shekhar, Anantha; Hetrick, William P.

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia may be associated with a fundamental disturbance in the temporal coordination of information processing in the brain, leading to classic symptoms of schizophrenia such as thought disorder and disorganized and contextually inappropriate behavior. Despite the growing interest and centrality of time-dependent conceptualizations of the…

  18. Change in level of productivity in the treatment of schizophrenia with olanzapine or other antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osuntokun Olawale

    2011-05-01

    first episode patients, OLZ therapy was associated with greater improvements in productivity levels compared to haloperidol (HAL, during the acute phase (OLZ = -0.31 ± 1.59, HAL = -0.69 ± 1.56, p = 0.011 and over the long-term (OLZ = 0.10 ± 1.50, HAL = -0.32 ± 1.91, p = 0.008. Significantly more chronically ill and first episode patients treated with olanzapine showed moderately high (>50%-75% of the time and high levels of productivity (>75%-100% of the time at endpoint, when compared to risperidone or haloperidol-treated patients (p Conclusions Some antipsychotic medications significantly differed in beneficial impact on productivity level in the long-term treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Findings further highlight the link between clinical and functional outcomes, showing significant associations between higher productivity, lower symptom severity and better persistence on therapy. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00088049; NCT00036088

  19. Pharmacotherapy of Schizophrenia: Ploypharmacy Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rahiminejad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "nSchizophrenia is a debilitating illness, rating as one of the leading causes of lost years of quality of life. The illness imposes a disproportionate burden on patients and their families, healthcare systems and society. Pharmacological management is the cornerstone of treatment of schizophrenia, and antipsychotics, both first generation of antipsychotics and second generation of antipsychotics, are efficacious in reducing levels of psychopathology in acute episodes of schizophrenia. Clearly a need for innovative treatment strategies in schizophrenia that will ensure increased effectiveness against negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction dysfunction. Therefore, in majority of cases polypharmacy is one of the effective approaches. This review focused on polypharmacy in the treatment of schizophrenia and in particular negative symptoms.

  20. 老年女性首发抑郁症的心理社会因素研究%A study on psychosocial and personality factors of first episode depression in elderly women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张苏霞; 张家兴

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of the psychosocial and personality factors on the incidence of depression in elderly women. Methods Thirty six elderly women diagnosed as the first episode depression by the Chinese Classification and Diagnostic Criteria-3 ( CCMD-3 ) were recruited to the study group, and thirty six healthy elderly women were assigned to the control group. We analyzed the differences between two groups using Life Events Scale ( LES), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) , Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) , and D-Personality Scale (DS14). Results LES score; the number of negative life events ( study group 7. 14 ± 1. 62, control group 3. 94 ± 1.61, and the value of negative events (study group 17. 84 ±2. 64, control group 10. 64 ±6. 81. SSRS score; (study group 38. 42 ±6. 24, control group 42. 95 ± 5. 62. EPQ score; N scale scores ( study group 58. 56 ± 7. 43, control group 51. 24 ± 4. 62. DS14 score; (study group 28. 56 ±4. 76, control group 16. 3 ±2. 71. The differences between the study group and the control group were statistically significant Conclusion Negative life events, neuroticism and sad personality, and cognitive dysfunction were all the risk factors of the depression in elderly women.%目的 探讨女性老年抑郁症患者发病与心理社会因素之间的关系.方法 按(CCMD-3)诊断标准,随机选取60~69岁女性首发抑郁症患者36名,同时选取年龄、性别相近的36名健康志愿者作为对照组,采用生活事件量表(LES)、社会支持评定量表(SSRS)、艾森克个性问卷(EPQ)和D型人格量表(DS14)对以上两组进行测评分析.结果 LES评分:负性生活事件数(研究组7.14±1.62分,对照组3.94±1.61分)、负性事件值(研究组17.84±2.64分,对照组10.64±6.81分);SSRS评分:(研究组38.42±6.24分,对照组42.95±5.62分);EPQ评分:N量表(研究组58.56±7.43分,对照组51.24±4.62分);DS14总分:(研究组28.56±4.76分,对照组16.3±2.71分)研究组与对

  1. Analysis of Alzheimer's Disease with First-episod Depressive Symptoms%以抑郁症状为首发的阿尔茨海默病分析探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昊; 李龙宣; 梁唯

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the clinical features of Alzheimer's disease symptoms of depression for the first .Methods:in our hospital from 2011 January to 2012 January, 72 cases of hospitalized patients with Alzheimer's disease, in which 36 patients with de-pressive symptoms as initial as study group, another 36 cases without depressive symptoms for first -episode patients as control group, were analyzed for the two groups of patients and psychiatric symptoms .Results:the disease symptoms of depression , the study group of psychological factors, morbidity was higher than that of control group , the study group personality change, behavior disorder rate was significantly lower than that of the control group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion:passive and with-drawal behavior personality and affective symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease often appear in early duration of dementia, with social and psychological factors have more severe depressive symptoms , such as depression symptoms as the first symptom in patients with Alzheimer's disease in the process of diagnosis is prone to be misdiagnosed , so for this kind of patients with long-term follow-up, which is important, can make patients early treatment, the progression of the disease slowed down, but also can greatly improve the quality of life in patients.%目的:分析以抑郁症状为首发的阿尔茨海默病临床特征。方法:选择我院从2011年1月~2012年1月收治的阿尔茨海默病患者72例,其中36例以抑郁症状为首发的患者作为研究组,另外36例不以抑郁症状为首发的患者作为对照组,对于2组患者的各项情况以及精神症状进行对比分析。结果:研究组的抑郁症状、病前心理因素要明显高于对照组,研究组的人格改变、行为障碍发生率要明显低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论:阿尔茨海默病患者的被动和退缩行为人格和情

  2. A co-expression network analysis reveals lncRNA abnormalities in peripheral blood in early-onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yan; Cui, Yuehua; Li, Xinrong; Wang, Binhong; Na, Long; Shi, Junyan; Wang, Liang; Qiu, Lixia; Zhang, Kerang; Liu, Guifen; Xu, Yong

    2015-12-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulators of gene expression and disease processes especially in neuropsychiatric disorders. To explore the potential regulatory roles of lncRNAs in schizophrenia, we performed an integrated co-expression network analysis on lncRNA and mRNA microarray profiles generated from the peripheral blood samples in 19 drug-naïve first-episode early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) patients and 18 demographically matched typically developing controls (TDCs). Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), we showed that the lncRNAs were organized into co-expressed modules, and two lncRNA modules were associated with EOS. The mRNA networks were constructed and three disease-associated modules were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that the mRNAs were highly enriched for mitochondrion and related biological processes. Moreover, our results revealed a significant correlation between lncRNAs and mRNAs using the canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Our results suggest that the convergent lncRNA alteration may be involved in the etiologies of EOS, and mitochondrial dysfunction participates in the pathological process of the disease. Our findings may shed light on the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and facilitate future diagnosis and therapeutic strategies. PMID:25967042

  3. Anterior Cingulate Cortico-Hippocampal Dysconnectivity in Unaffected Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients: A Stochastic Dynamic Causal Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yi-Bin; Li, Chen; Cui, Long-Biao; Liu, Jian; Guo, Fan; Li, Liang; Liu, Ting-Ting; Liu, Kang; Chen, Gang; Xi, Min; Wang, Hua-Ning; Yin, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Familial risk plays a significant role in the etiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Many studies using neuroimaging have demonstrated structural and functional alterations in relatives of SZ patients, with significant results found in diverse brain regions involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), caudate, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and hippocampus. This study investigated whether unaffected relatives of first episode SZ differ from healthy controls (HCs) in effective connectivity measures among these regions. Forty-six unaffected first-degree relatives of first episode SZ patients-according to the DSM-IV-were studied. Fifty HCs were included for comparison. All subjects underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM) to estimate the directed connections between the left ACC, right ACC, left caudate, right caudate, left DLPFC, left hippocampus, and right hippocampus. We used Bayesian parameter averaging (BPA) to characterize the differences. The BPA results showed hyperconnectivity from the left ACC to right hippocampus and hypoconnectivity from the right ACC to right hippocampus in SZ relatives compared to HCs. The pattern of anterior cingulate cortico-hippocampal connectivity in SZ relatives may be a familial feature of SZ risk, appearing to reflect familial susceptibility for SZ. PMID:27512370

  4. Cortical gray matter loss in schizophrenia: Could microglia be the culprit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rački, Valentino; Petrić, Daniela; Kučić, Natalia; Gržeta, Nika; Jurdana, Kristina; Rončević-Gržeta, Ika

    2016-03-01

    Cortical gray matter loss in schizophrenia remains a great therapeutic difficulty. Each psychotic episode causes irreversible cortical gray matter loss, that causes the patients to never regain their previous state of functioning. Microglial cells are part of the innate immune system and their functions, among others, include phagocytosis and release of neurotrophic factors. They have a key impact on developmental and plasticity-induced removal of neuronal precursors, live-but-stressed neurons and synapses, while also stimulating synaptic growth and development. We hypothesize that microglia are the culprit for the cortical gray matter loss in schizophrenia through abnormal synaptic pruning, phagocytosis of stressed neurons and lacking neurotrophic factor release. Furthermore, we propose a research that could validate the hypotheses using serum samples of first-episode early-onset patients. By measuring the serum levels of milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8), subcomponent in the classical pathway of complement activation (C1q), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), we could gain an insight into the state of microglial activation during various stages of the disease. If this hypothesis is valid, new targeted drugs could be developed in order to reduce the deterioration of cortical gray matter, thereby possibly improving negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. PMID:26880628

  5. Coding and Noncoding Gene Expression Biomarkers in Mood Disorders and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoza Mamdani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mood disorders and schizophrenia are common and complex disorders with consistent evidence of genetic and environmental influences on predisposition. It is generally believed that the consequences of disease, gene expression, and allelic heterogeneity may be partly the explanation for the variability observed in treatment response. Correspondingly, while effective treatments are available for some patients, approximately half of the patients fail to respond to current neuropsychiatric treatments. A number of peripheral gene expression studies have been conducted to understand these brain-based disorders and mechanisms of treatment response with the aim of identifying suitable biomarkers and perhaps subgroups of patients based upon molecular fingerprint. In this review, we summarize the results from blood-derived gene expression studies implemented with the aim of discovering biomarkers for treatment response and classification of disorders. We include data from a biomarker study conducted in first-episode subjects with schizophrenia, where the results provide insight into possible individual biological differences that predict antipsychotic response. It is concluded that, while peripheral studies of expression are generating valuable results in pathways involving immune regulation and response, larger studies are required which hopefully will lead to robust biomarkers for treatment response and perhaps underlying variations relevant to these complex disorders.

  6. Persistent suicide risk in clinically improved schizophrenia patients: challenge of the suicidal dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amresh Shrivastava

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Amresh Shrivastava1, Megan E Johnston2, Nilesh Shah3, Marco Innamorati4, Larry Stitt5, Meghana Thakar3, David Lester6, Maurizio Pompili4,71Silver Mind Hospital and Mental Health Foundation of India, Mumbai, India; 2Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Lokmanya Tilak Municipal General Hospital, University of Mumbai, India; 4Department of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Sensory Functions, Suicide Prevention Center, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; 5Department of Biostatistics, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada; 6The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, Pomona, NJ, USA; 7McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USABackground: Suicide is a major problem in schizophrenia, estimated to affect 9%–13% of patients. About 25% of schizophrenic patients make at least one suicide attempt in their lifetime. Current outcome measures do not address this problem, even though it affects quality of life and patient safety. The aim of this study was to assess suicidality in long-term clinically improved schizophrenia patients who were treated in a nongovernmental psychiatric treatment centre in Mumbai, India.Method: Participants were 61 patients out of 200 consecutive hospitalized first-episode patients with schizophrenia diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders who were much improved on the Clinical Global Impression Scale-Improvement (CGI-I scale at the endpoint of a 10-year follow-up. Clinical assessment tools included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia, CGI-I, Global Assessment of Functioning, and suicidality.Results: Many of the patients, although clinically improved, experienced emerging suicidality during the 10-year follow-up period. All of the patients reported significant suicidality (ie, suicide attempts, suicidal crises, or suicidal ideation at the end of the study, whereas only 83% had

  7. EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gricel eOrellana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The executive function (EF is a set of abilities, which allows us to invoke voluntary control of our behavioral responses. These functions enable human beings to develop and carry out plans, make up analogies, obey social rules, solve problems, adapt to unexpected circumstances, do many tasks simultaneously and locate episodes in time and place. EF includes divided attention and sustained attention, working memory, set-shifting, flexibility, planning and the regulation of goal directed behavior and can be defined as a brain function underlying the human faculty to act or think not only in reaction to external events but also in relation with internal goals and states. EF is mostly associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC. Besides EF, PFC is involved in self-regulation of behavior, i.e. the ability to regulate behavior according to internal goals and constraints, particularly in less structured situations. Self-regulation of behavior is subtended by ventral medial /orbital PFC. Impairment of EF is one of the most commonly observed deficits in schizophrenia through the various disease stages. Impairment in tasks measuring conceptualization, planning, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, ability to solve complex problems and working memory occur in schizophrenia. Disorders detected by executive tests are consistent with evidence from functional neuroimaging, which have shown PFC dysfunction in patients while performing these kinds of tasks. Schizophrenics also exhibit deficit in odor identifying, decision-making and self-regulation of behavior suggesting dysfunction of the orbital PFC. However, impairment in executive tests is explained by dysfunction of prefronto-striato-thalamic, prefronto-parietal and prefronto-temporal neural networks mainly. Disorders in executive functions may be considered central facts with respect to schizophrenia and it has been suggested that negative symptoms may be explained by that executive dysfunction.

  8. Executive functioning in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Gricel; Slachevsky, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The executive function (EF) is a set of abilities, which allows us to invoke voluntary control of our behavioral responses. These functions enable human beings to develop and carry out plans, make up analogies, obey social rules, solve problems, adapt to unexpected circumstances, do many tasks simultaneously, and locate episodes in time and place. EF includes divided attention and sustained attention, working memory (WM), set-shifting, flexibility, planning, and the regulation of goal directed behavior and can be defined as a brain function underlying the human faculty to act or think not only in reaction to external events but also in relation with internal goals and states. EF is mostly associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Besides EF, PFC is involved in self-regulation of behavior, i.e., the ability to regulate behavior according to internal goals and constraints, particularly in less structured situations. Self-regulation of behavior is subtended by ventral medial/orbital PFC. Impairment of EF is one of the most commonly observed deficits in schizophrenia through the various disease stages. Impairment in tasks measuring conceptualization, planning, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, ability to solve complex problems, and WM occur in schizophrenia. Disorders detected by executive tests are consistent with evidence from functional neuroimaging, which have shown PFC dysfunction in patients while performing these kinds of tasks. Schizophrenics also exhibit deficit in odor identifying, decision-making, and self-regulation of behavior suggesting dysfunction of the orbital PFC. However, impairment in executive tests is explained by dysfunction of prefronto-striato-thalamic, prefronto-parietal, and prefronto-temporal neural networks mainly. Disorders in EFs may be considered central facts with respect to schizophrenia and it has been suggested that negative symptoms may be explained by that executive dysfunction. PMID:23805107

  9. Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkis, Helio; Buckley, Peter F

    2016-06-01

    Although treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) was described 50 years ago and has a gold standard treatment with clozapine based on well-defined criteria, there is still a matter of great interest and controversy. In terms of the underlying mechanisms of the development of TRS, progress has been made for the elucidation of the neurochemical mechanisms. Structural neuroimaging studies have shown that patients with TRS have significant reduction of the prefrontal cortex volume when compared with non- TRS. This article updates and enhances our previous review with new evidence mainly derived from new studies, clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. PMID:27216902

  10. [Psychotherapy for schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böker, W

    2001-09-01

    Based on different theoretical concepts, psychotherapeutic methods in the treatment of schizophrenia reach from clinical pragmatism, psychoanalysis, learning theory, cognition and communication psychology to concepts of systems-theory. Both the German (DGPPN) and the American (APA) practice guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenic patients don't separate psychotherapy, social and rehabilitation measures strictly. So a specific psychotherapy for psychotic patients seems to be missing. A better relationship between patient and expert is fundamental for building up a ??? therapeutic liaison. For that purpose, the disease concepts of both sides must be carefully explained and integrated ("Basic psychotherapy"). PMID:11533865

  11. Alexithymia and schizophrenias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, G; Ricca, V

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to verify whether an increasing degree of alexithymia correlates with a prevalence of negative over positive symptoms. The framework of the research is phenomenologically oriented conception of the illness-coping vulnerability paradigm. Schizophrenic basic symptoms as markers of schizotropic process activity were assessed with the Frankfurter Beschwerde-Fragebogen, and cognitive features of the personological matrix were investigated using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Our findings on a sample of 20 longitudinally followed outpatients advocate the hypothesis that among those factors characterizing the tendency towards the nonparanoid prototype of schizophrenia, impairment of language capacity and alexithymia may have a relevant role. PMID:8559950

  12. A literature review on Study’s methodology of nursing care for Patients with schizophrenia considering their neurocognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kurebayashi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION; Cognitive dysfunctions of schizophrenia predict daily living problems in patients, and psychiatric nurses should consider neurocognitive abilities of schizophrenic patients. However, development of nursing care considering their neurocognitive function is remains preliminary. To facilitate the development, clarifying the methodology of recent studies is required. AIM; To clarify the methodology of the study of nursing care considering neurocognitive functions of schizophrenic patients and to obtain suggestions for further studies. METHOD; Electronic databases were searched using key terms. RESULTS; Nine articles were eligible. Seven articles discussed enhancing neurocognitive functions and only investigated inpatients. The measurement methods used to determine neurocognitive functions varied among the nine articles. Some articles introduced video games or dedicated rooms, while some used structured methods as nursing intervention. DISCUSSION; Future studies are required to use methods that measure several neurocognitive domains, examine intervention efficacy in outpatients and first-episode patients and develop feasible interventional methods in clinical settings.

  13. Empathy in schizophrenia: impaired resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf

    2009-09-01

    Resonance is the phenomenon of one person unconsciously mirroring the motor actions as basis of emotional expressions of another person. This shared representation serves as a basis for sharing physiological and emotional states of others and is an important component of empathy. Contagious laughing and contagious yawning are examples of resonance. In the interpersonal contact with individuals with schizophrenia we can often experience impaired empathic resonance. The aim of this study is to determine differences in empathic resonance-in terms of contagion by yawning and laughing-in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls in the context of psychopathology and social functioning. We presented video sequences of yawning, laughing or neutral faces to 43 schizophrenia outpatients and 45 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Participants were video-taped during the stimulation and rated regarding contagion by yawning and laughing. In addition, we assessed self-rated empathic abilities (Interpersonal Reactivity Index), psychopathology (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in the schizophrenia group resp. Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire in the control group), social dysfunction (Social Dysfunction Index) and executive functions (Stroop, Fluency). Individuals with schizophrenia showed lower contagion rates for yawning and laughing. Self-rated empathic concern showed no group difference and did not correlate with contagion. Low rate of contagion by laughing correlated with the schizophrenia negative syndrome and with social dysfunction. We conclude that impaired resonance is a handicap for individuals with schizophrenia in social life. Blunted observable resonance does not necessarily reflect reduced subjective empathic concern. PMID:19377866

  14. Unipolar Depression in Paroxysmal Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Bobrov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the current study, the clinical characteristics of unipolar depression in the clinical picture of schizophrenia with the paroxysmal type of disease course are presented. Given the concomitant depression with phobic symptoms, the following clinical variants are marked: depression with generalized social phobia and/or anthropophobia and depression with generalized pathological body sensations and hypochondriacal phobias. In other words, we are talking about a necessity to allocate a special type of schizophrenia with affective structure episodes and comorbid neurosis-like symptoms. Information on the basic treatment strategy of schizophrenia with depressive structure episodes and comorbid neurosis-like symptoms in everyday psychiatric practice is also provided.

  15. DERMATOGLYPHIC PATTERNS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday N

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatoglyphic is the scientific study of epidermal ridges and their configuration on the palmar region of hand and the fingers and plantar region of sole and toes. Dermatoglyphic pattern, such as Whorls, Arches, Loops and atd angle have been hypothesized to be indirect measure for early abnormal development process that can lead later psychiatric disorder such as schizophrenia. Under the genetic background of dermatoglyphic patterns and schizophrenia, the study was undertaken to determine the correlation between them. The present study include 63 male and 46 female of schizophrenic patient diagnosed at Institute of Psychiatry and Human Behaviour(IPHB Hospital, Goa were compared with control group accordingly. The patterns seen on hand and fingers were calculated and compared with the frequency of finger print patterns in control group. It was observed that there is increased frequency of arches and decrease frequency of whorls in control males and females which was significant difference, where as in female schizophrenics there is decrease frequency of radial loop compared to male schizophrenics and significant difference observed in atd angle of right and left hand between female control and female schizophrenics.

  16. [Schizophrenia, cognition and neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaladjian, A; Fakra, E; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Azorin, J-M

    2011-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex illness whose mechanisms are still largely unknown. Functional brain imaging, by making the link between psyche and brain, has recently become an indispensable tool to study in vivo the neural bases underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disease. But despite the proliferation of data coming from this approach, the exact impact of functional imaging on our understanding of the disease remains blurry. In general, studies of the brain functioning of patients with schizophrenia found activation abnormalities which vary in nature and localization depending of the cognitive paradigm used. However, it appears that neurofunctional abnormalities observed in patients cannot be reduced to a simple well-localized deficit. It would be rather an alteration of the dynamics of the interactions between different brain regions that underlie the cognitive disturbances encountered in the disease. Functional brain imaging now offers new perspectives to clarify the dynamics of the brain networks, and particularly those involved in high-level cognitive functions, such as cognitive control or social cognition which seem to play a crucial role in the disease. The characterization of these features is an important issue not only to develop new hypotheses on the pathophysiology of the disorder, but also more pragmatically to identify potential therapeutic targets. PMID:22212841

  17. Sex differences in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Kathryn M; Drake, Richard; Goldstein, Jill M

    2010-01-01

    Evidence suggests sex differences in schizophrenia reflect differences in both neurodevelopmental processes and social effects on disease risk and course. Male:female incidence approximates 1.4:1 but at older onset women predominate. Prevalence differences appear smaller. Men have poorer premorbid adjustment and present with worse negative and less depressive symptoms than women, which may explain their worse medium term outcome according to a range of measures. Substance abuse is a predominantly male activity in this group, as elsewhere. Findings of sex differences in brain morphology are inconsistent but occur in areas that normally show sexual dimorphism, implying that the same factors are important drivers of sex differences in both normal neurodevelopmental processes and those associated with schizophrenia. There are sex differences in antipsychotic responses but sex-specific endocrine effects on illness and response to antipsychotics are potentially complex. Oestrogen's role as an adjunctive medication is not yet clear due to methodological differences between the few randomized controlled trials. Services that are sensitive to differences in gender can better meet their patients' specific needs and potentially improve outcome. PMID:21047156

  18. Schizophrenia in Translation: Dissecting Motivation in Schizophrenia and Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Eleanor H.; Waltz, James A.; Kellendonk, Christoph; Balsam, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    The negative symptoms of schizophrenia include deficits in motivation, for which there is currently no treatment available. Animal models provide a powerful tool for identifying the potential pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the motivation deficits of schizophrenia with the aim of discovering novel treatment targets. The success of such an approach critically depends on meticulously detailed analysis of motivational phenotypes in patients and in animal models. Here, we review the resu...

  19. Neural complexity, dissociation, and schizophrenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bob, P.; Šusta, M.; Chládek, Jan; Glaslová, K.; Fedor-Ferybergh, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 10 (2007), HY1-5. ISSN 1234-1010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : neural complexity * dissociation * schizophrenia Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.607, year: 2007

  20. GWAS, Cytomegalovirus Infection, and Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, Jakob; Børglum, Anders; Pearce, Brad D

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, good progress has been made in uncovering the genetic underpinnings of schizophrenia. Even so, as a polygenic disorder, schizophrenia has a complex etiology that is far from understood. Meanwhile, data are being collected enabling the study of interactions between genes and the...... environment. A confluence of data from genetic and environmental exposure studies point to the role of infections and immunity in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In a recent study by Børglum et al., a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene CTNNA3 was identified that may provide clues to gene......-environment interactions. The carriers of the minor allele for the SNP had a fivefold risk of later developing schizophrenia if their mothers were CMV positive, while the children not carrying the allele had no excess risk from maternal CMV. In the current paper, we summarize recent advances to clarify a possible...

  1. Conscious brain, metacognition and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob, Petr; Pec, Ondrej; Mishara, Aaron L; Touskova, Tereza; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-07-01

    Recent findings indicate that the binding and synchronization of distributed neural activities are crucial for cognitive processes and consciousness. In addition, there is increasing evidence that disrupted feature binding is related to experiences of disintegration of consciousness in schizophrenia. These data suggest that the disrupted binding and disintegration of consciousness could be typically related to schizophrenia in terms of Bleuler's concept of "splitting". In this context, deficits in metacognitive capacity in schizophrenia may be conceptualized as a spectrum from more discrete to more synthetic activities, related to specific levels of neural binding and neurocognitive deficits. This review summarizes the recent research on metacognition and its relationship to deficits of conscious awareness that may be found in schizophrenia patients. Deficits in synthetic metacognition are likely linked to the integration of information during specific processes of neural binding. Those in turn may be related to a range of mental activities including reasoning style, learning potential and insight. PMID:27178724

  2. Visual integration dysfunction in schizophrenia arises by the first psychotic episode and worsens with illness duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Brian P; Paterno, Danielle; Kastner, Sabine; Silverstein, Steven M

    2016-05-01

    Visual integration dysfunction characterizes schizophrenia, but prior studies have not yet established whether the problem arises by the first psychotic episode or worsens with illness duration. To investigate the issue, we compared chronic schizophrenia patients (SZs), first episode psychosis patients (FEs), and well-matched healthy controls on a brief but sensitive psychophysical task in which subjects attempted to locate an integrated shape embedded in noise. Task difficulty depended on the number of noise elements co-presented with the shape. For half of the experiment, the entire display was scaled down in size to produce a high spatial frequency (HSF) condition, which has been shown to worsen patient integration deficits. Catch trials-in which the circular target appeared without noise-were also added so as to confirm that subjects were paying adequate attention. We found that controls integrated contours under noisier conditions than FEs, who, in turn, integrated better than SZs. These differences, which were at times large in magnitude (d = 1.7), clearly emerged only for HSF displays. Catch trial accuracy was above 95% for each group and could not explain the foregoing differences. Prolonged illness duration predicted poorer HSF integration across patients, but age had little effect on controls, indicating that the former factor was driving the effect in patients. Taken together, a brief psychophysical task efficiently demonstrates large visual integration impairments in schizophrenia. The deficit arises by the first psychotic episode, worsens with illness duration, and may serve as a biomarker of illness progression. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27030995

  3. Towards a geography of schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The schizophrenia is one of the more severe and the more frequent mental diseases. It cannot be explained by a structural anomaly of the brain but by a cerebral functioning disorder. With the imagery (NMR imaging, positron computed tomography) the searchers have particularly studied two sorts of schizophrenia: the lack of will and the pseudo hallucinations. In these two cases, an alteration of the affected cerebral areas activity compared with healthy persons is observed. (O.M.)

  4. Visual surround suppression in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Samuel Tibber; Elaine J Anderson; Tracy eBobin; Elena eAntonova; Alice eSeabright; Bernice eWright; Patricia eCarlin; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Dakin, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgements of contrast - a manifestation of weaker surround suppression. To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with schizophrenia to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the tar...

  5. Values in Persons With Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; BALLERINI, MASSIMO

    2006-01-01

    This is an explorative study on the values of persons with schizophrenia based on transcripts of individual therapy sessions conducted for 40 persons with chart diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizotypal disorder. Values are action-guiding attitudes that subject human activities to be worthy of praise or blame. The schizophrenic value system conveys an overall crisis of common sense. The outcome of this has been designated as antagonomia and idionomia. Antagonomia reflects the choice to take a...

  6. A Bias in the Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reade, William Kent; Wertheimer, Michael

    1976-01-01

    Research shows a relationship between diagnoses of schizophrenia among twins. It was studied whether information that a twin was schizophrenic would bias diagnoses. Such information almost doubled the rater's estimates of probability of schizophrenia in a hypothetical case history. (NG)

  7. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes in relat......, rather than imprison, individuals with schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that greater alertness is needed in the judicial system for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia....

  8. Nonconscious and Conscious Color Priming in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Jahshan, Carol; Wynn, Jonathan K.; Breitmeyer, Bruno G.; Green, Michael F

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in visual processing are well established in schizophrenia. However, there is conflicting evidence about whether these deficits start before the formation of percepts because visual processing studies in schizophrenia have typically examined the processing of consciously registered stimuli. In this study, we used nonconscious color priming to evaluate the very early visual processing stages in schizophrenia. Nonconscious and conscious color priming was assessed in 148 schizophrenia p...

  9. Grammatical Processing in Schizophrenia: Evidence from Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walenski, Matthew; Weickert, Thomas W.; Maloof, Christopher J.; Ullman, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia commonly present with impaired language. Here we investigate language in schizophrenia with a focus on inflectional morphology, using an intensively studied and relatively well-understood linguistic paradigm. Patients with schizophrenia (n = 43) and age-matched healthy control subjects (n =…

  10. A Danish Twin Study of Schizophrenia Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kläning, Ulla; Trumbetta, Susan L; Gottesman, Irving I;

    2016-01-01

    whether variance in schizophrenia liability attributable to environmental factors may have decreased with successive cohorts exposed to improvements in public health. ICD-10 diagnoses were determined by clinical interview. Although the best-fitting, most parsimonious biometric model of schizophrenia...... in prenatal and perinatal care and with a secular decline in the prevalence of schizophrenia in that region....

  11. Predicting risk and the emergence of schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Mary C

    2012-09-01

    This article gives an overview of genetic and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia. The presence of certain molecular, biological, and psychosocial factors at certain points in the life span, has been linked to later development of schizophrenia. All need to be considered in the context of schizophrenia as a lifelong brain disorder. Research interest in schizophrenia is shifting to late childhood\\/early adolescence for screening and preventative measures. This article discusses those environmental risk factors for schizophrenia for which there is the largest evidence base.

  12. The global costs of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Martin; Mangalore, Roshni; Simon, Judit

    2004-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic disease associated with a significant and long-lasting health, social, and financial burden, not only for patients but also for families, other caregivers, and the wider society. Many national and local studies have sought to estimate the societal burden of the illness--or some components of it--in monetary terms. Findings vary. We systematically reviewed the literature to locate all existing international estimates to date. Sixty-two relevant studies were found and summarized. Within- and between-country differences were analyzed descriptively. Despite the wide diversity of data sets and methods applied, all cost-of-illness estimates highlight the heavy societal burden of schizophrenia. Such information helps us to understand the health, health care, economic, and policy importance of schizophrenia, and to better interpret and explain the large within- and across-country differences that exist. PMID:15279046

  13. Patterns and correlates of expressed emotion, perceived criticism, and rearing style in first admitted early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Polier, Georg G; Meng, Heiner; Lambert, Martin; Strauss, Monika; Zarotti, Gianni; Karle, Michael; Dubois, Reinmar; Stark, Fritz-Michael; Neidhart, Sibylle; Zollinger, Ruedi; Bürgin, Dieter; Felder, Wilhelm; Resch, Franz; Koch, Eginhard; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Schimmelmann, Benno G

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess patterns and correlates of family variables in 31 adolescents treated for their first episode of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (early-onset schizophrenia [EOS]). Expressed emotion, perceived criticism, and rearing style were assessed. Potential correlates were patient psychopathology, premorbid adjustment, illness duration, quality of life (QoL), sociodemographic variables, patient and caregiver "illness concept," and caregiver personality traits and support. Families were rated as critical more frequently by patients than raters (55% vs. 13%). Perceived criticism was associated with worse QoL in relationship with parents and peers. An adverse rearing style was associated with a negative illness concept in patients, particularly with less trust in their physician. Future research should examine perceived criticism as a predictor of relapse and indicator of adolescents with EOS who need extended support and treatment. Rearing style should be carefully observed because of its link with patients' illness concept and, potentially, to service engagement and medication adherence. PMID:25259947

  14. Ocular convergence deficits in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MarkSBolding

    2012-10-01

    Twenty participants with schizophrenia (SZ and 20 healthy controls (HC completed the study. The prevalence of CI (15% in the SZ group was slightly higher than reported norms, but the difference was not significant. The SZ group had significantly higher scores on the CISS than the HC group, but the CISS scores did not correlate with clinical measures of CI in individuals with SZ. The only exception was that SZ patients had a significantly reduced fusional reserve as determined by Sheard’s criteria. Further study is needed to determine why individuals with schizophrenia reported symptoms associated with CI even though clinical measures did not support this diagnosis.

  15. 强迫症与精神分裂症错误相关负电位的比较研究%A comparative study of error-related negativity (ERN) between obsessive-compulsive disorder and of schizophrenia.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卫敏; 肖泽萍; 张敏; 李惠; 唐莺莹; 王继军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study error-related negativity (ERN) abnormalities in palienls with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or wilh schizophrenia (SZ). Methods Twenty-one OCD palienls, 19 first episode schizophrenia patienls and 23 heallhy controls were recruiled in the presenl sludy. Both ERN and correcl-relaled negalivily ( CRN) were analyzed. Results ERN amplitude was significantly increased in OCD palienls (Z =-2.60, ρ<0. 01) while significantly decreased in schizophrenia patients ( Z = - 2. 16, ρ< 0. 05 ) , as compared to health controls. ERN peak latency was longer in schizophrenia than in the conlrol groups (ι = 3. 60, P 0.05).无论是强迫症组,还是精神分裂症组,其ERN/CRN指标与临床精神症状之间均未见相关(P>0.05).结论 强迫症和精神分裂症的ERN均存在异常但方向相反,提示ERN可能作为二者鉴别诊断的参考.

  16. Efficacy evaluation on aripirazole combined with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in cognitive of first-episode schizophrenia patients with different duration of untreated psychosis%阿立哌唑联合认知行为干预对首发精神分裂症不同未治期患者认知功能的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾德夫; 张瑜良; 朱雨亭

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑联合认知行为干预对首发精神分裂症不同未治疗期患者认知功能改善的影响。方法选取符合《国际疾病分类(第10版)》(ICD-10)精神分裂症诊断标准的96例首发精神分裂症患者为研究对象。将未治疗期0.05),治疗后两组完成分类数、正确应答数、概念化水平百分数及持续性应答数和WMS评分均较治疗前高(P0. 05). After the treatment,the complete classification number,the correct response number,the percentage of conceptual level,sus-tained response and WMS scores were higher than before(P<0. 01),and the observation group was higher than the control group(P<0. 01). The continuous error count,completion time and the number of move TOH were reduce,the observation group is lower than the control group(P<0. 01). Conclusion Aripirazole combined with Coynitive Behewioral for patients with DUP less than 1 year cogni-tive behavior damage effect is better then that of patients with DUP more than 1 year.

  17. A controlled study of the changes of serum hormones level relasted to thyroid in first-episode schizophrenia%首发精神分裂症患者的血清甲状腺相关激素水平变化及其与临床关系对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王从杰; 宋波; 杨丽; 杨海英; 徐文英; 陈桂兵

    2002-01-01

    目的 探讨首发精神分裂症患者血清甲状腺相关激素(T3、T4、TSH、FT3及FT4)水平的动态变化及其与临床关系。方法 41例患者分别于疗前、疗后进行BPRS评定及血清T3、T4、TSH、FT3、FT4测定,并与正常对照组作比较。结果 研究组疗前血清甲状腺素(T4)显著高于对照组,并随治疗及病情改善而恢复正常。但游离甲状腺素(FT4)在疗前、疗后均低于正常对照组。患者的BPRS得分高低与其疗前血清T3、T4水平显著正相关(P<0.05)。结论 精神分裂症患者血清T4、FT4水平变化可能与其疾病本身有关。血清T3,T4水平似乎可预测精神分裂症的严重度。

  18. Comparation of P50 auditory sensory gating between first episode schizophrenia and bipolar Ⅰ disorder%首发精神分裂症与双相情感障碍Ⅰ型患者听觉感觉门控P50的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李喆; 郑重; 邓伟; 刘祥; 李寅飞; 李涛

    2014-01-01

    目的 比较首发精神分裂症患者与伴精神症状史的双相情感障碍Ⅰ型患者的听觉感觉门控P50(SG P50)及其与临床特征的相关性.方法 比较40例首发精神分裂症患者(精神分裂症组),50例伴精神症状史的双相情感障碍Ⅰ型患者(双相情感障碍组)以及50例健康对照(对照组)SG P50;阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS)评估精神分裂症组症状,汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)及杨氏躁狂量表(YMRS)分别评估双相情感障碍组抑都发作和躁狂发作症状,大体功能评定量表(GAF)评定3组总体功能水平;偏相关分析患者组P50同临床特征的关系.结果 两患者组较对照组以及精神分裂症组较双相情感障碍组的S1-S2波幅差值、P50抑制度均降低,S2/S1波幅比均增高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).双相情感障碍组S1-P50波幅最低,精神分裂症组S2-P50波幅最高,与其他两组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).精神分裂症组P50与其临床特征无相关性(P>0.05);双相情感障碍组P50部分指标与其临床特征有相关性(P<0.05).结论 首发精神分裂症与伴精神症状史的双相情感障碍Ⅰ型患者均有听觉SG P50抑制缺陷,前者更重,而受损机制可能既有重叠也有独立;P50抑制可能是精神疾病的素质性标记,情感障碍的状态性标记.

  19. Imbalanced kynurenine pathway in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Magdalena E; Bhat, Maria; Skogh, Elisabeth; Samuelsson, Martin; Lundberg, Kristina; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Sellgren, Carl; Schwieler, Lilly; Engberg, Göran; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Erhardt, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Several studies suggest a role for kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. It has been proposed that increased brain KYNA levels in schizophrenia result from a pathological shift in the kynurenine pathway toward enhanced KYNA formation, away from the other branch of the pathway leading to quinolinic acid (QUIN). Here we investigate the levels of QUIN in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and relate those to CSF levels of KYNA and other kynurenine metabolites from the same individuals. CSF QUIN levels from stable outpatients treated with olanzapine (n = 22) and those of controls (n = 26) were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. No difference in CSF QUIN levels between patients and controls was observed (20.6 ± 1.5 nM vs. 18.2 ± 1.1 nM, P = 0.36). CSF QUIN was positively correlated to CSF kynurenine and CSF KYNA in patients but not in controls. The CSF QUIN/KYNA ratio was lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.027). In summary, the present study offers support for an over-activated and imbalanced kynurenine pathway, favoring the production of KYNA over QUIN in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25288889

  20. The Connectomic Blueprint of Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collin, G.

    2015-01-01

    The foundation for the studies comprising this thesis is the notion that schizophrenia's symptoms stem from faulty integration of neural information due to disruptions in the brain's anatomical connections. This theory is by no means new; it can be traced back to visionary neuroscientists in the lat