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Sample records for antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia

  1. Structural brain correlates of sensorimotor gating in antipsychotic-naive men with first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Trine B; Oranje, Bob; Skimminge, Arnold;

    2013-01-01

    with schizophrenia and healthy controls; however, these studies included only patients with chronic illness and medicated patients. Our aim was to examine the structural brain correlates of PPI in antipsychotic-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Methods: We performed acoustic PPI assessment...... and structural MRI (1.5 and 3 T) in men with first-episode schizophrenia and age-matched controls. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate the association between PPI and grey matter volumes. Results: We included 27 patients and 38 controls in the study. Patients had lower PPI than controls. The brain...... areas in which PPI and grey matter volume correlated did not differ between the groups. Independent of group, PPI was significantly and positively associated with regional grey matter volume in the right superior parietal cortex. Prepulse inhibition and grey matter volume associations were also observed...

  2. Sensorimotor gating and habituation in antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients before and after 6 months' treatment with quetiapine

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    Aggernaes, Bodil; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Ebdrup, Bjorn H;

    2010-01-01

    of the human startle reflex in a large group of antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients, and the effect of subsequent treatment with quetiapine. Thirty-four antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients (24 males, 10 females), and age- and gender-matched healthy controls were......Impaired prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI) in schizophrenia has been replicated in many studies. However, previous results may have been influenced by course of illness, and antipsychotic medication. Studies on antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients are lacking...

  3. Sensorimotor gating and habituation in antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients before and after 6 months' treatment with quetiapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggernaes, Bodil; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Ebdrup, Bjorn H;

    2010-01-01

    Impaired prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI) in schizophrenia has been replicated in many studies. However, previous results may have been influenced by course of illness, and antipsychotic medication. Studies on antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients are lacking...

  4. Hippocampal and caudate volume reductions in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia

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    Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte; Rasmussen, Hans;

    2010-01-01

    that hippocampal and caudate volumes were decreased in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. We found no ventricular enlargement, differences in global volume or significant associations between tissue volume and duration of untreated illness or psychopathology. The hippocampal volume reductions appeared...

  5. Hippocampal and caudate volume reductions in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte; Rasmussen, Hans;

    2010-01-01

    reductions appeared to be influenced by a history of substance abuse. Exploratory analyses indicated reduced volume of the nucleus accumbens in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. LIMITATIONS: This study was not a priori designed to test for differences between schizophrenia patients with or without...... a false discovery rate correction (p < 0.05) to control for multiple comparisons. We derived and analyzed estimates of brain structure volumes. We grouped patients as those with (n = 9) or without (n = 29) any lifetime substance abuse to examine the possible effects of substance abuse. RESULTS: We...... found that hippocampal and caudate volumes were decreased in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. We found no ventricular enlargement, differences in global volume or significant associations between tissue volume and duration of untreated illness or psychopathology. The hippocampal volume...

  6. Effects of Dopamine D2/D3 Blockade on Human Sensory and Sensorimotor Gating in Initially Antipsychotic-Naive, First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients

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    Düring, Signe; Glenthøj, Birte Y; Andersen, Gitte Saltoft;

    2014-01-01

    , the effects of a potent D2/D3 receptor antagonist, amisulpride, were investigated on PPI and P50 gating in a large sample of antipsychotic-naive, first-episode patients with schizophrenia. A total of 52 initially antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients were assessed for their P50 gating, PPI......, and habituation/sensitization abilities at baseline and after 2 and 6 weeks of treatment with flexible doses of amisulpride. In addition, 47 matched healthy controls were assessed at baseline and after 6 weeks. At baseline, the patients showed significantly reduced PPI, yet normal levels of P50 gating......, habituation, and sensitization. Treatment with amisulpride showed no effects on these measures, either at 2 or 6 weeks of follow-up. This is the first study investigating the effects of monotherapy with a relatively selective dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist (amisulpride) on sensory and sensorimotor gating...

  7. Decreased frontal serotonin2A receptor binding in antipsychotic-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hans; Erritzoe, David; Andersen, Rune;

    2010-01-01

    , in vivo studies of serotonin(2A) binding report conflicting results, presumably because sample sizes have been small or because schizophrenic patients who were not antipsychotic-naive were included. Furthermore, the relationships between serotonin(2A) binding, psychopathology, and central neurocognitive...

  8. Apoptotic markers in cultured fibroblasts correlate with brain metabolites and regional brain volume in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalla, A; Bargalló, N; Gassó, P; Molina, O; Pareto, D; Mas, S; Roca, J M; Bernardo, M; Lafuente, A; Parellada, E

    2015-08-25

    Cultured fibroblasts from first-episode schizophrenia patients (FES) have shown increased susceptibility to apoptosis, which may be related to glutamate dysfunction and progressive neuroanatomical changes. Here we determine whether apoptotic markers obtained from cultured fibroblasts in FES and controls correlate with changes in brain glutamate and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and regional brain volumes. Eleven antipsychotic-naive FES and seven age- and gender-matched controls underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Glutamate plus glutamine (Glx) and NAA levels were measured in the anterior cingulate (AC) and the left thalamus (LT). Hallmarks of apoptotic susceptibility (caspase-3-baseline activity, phosphatidylserine externalization and chromatin condensation) were measured in fibroblast cultures obtained from skin biopsies after inducing apoptosis with staurosporine (STS) at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 μM. Apoptotic biomarkers were correlated to brain metabolites and regional brain volume. FES and controls showed a negative correlation in the AC between Glx levels and percentages of cells with condensed chromatin (CC) after both apoptosis inductions (STS 0.5 μM: r = -0.90; P = 0.001; STS 0.25 μM: r = -0.73; P = 0.003), and between NAA and cells with CC (STS 0.5 μM induction r = -0.76; P = 0.002; STS 0.25 μM r = -0.62; P = 0.01). In addition, we found a negative correlation between percentages of cells with CC and regional brain volume in the right supratemporal cortex and post-central region (STS 0.25 and 0.5 μM; P < 0.05 family-wise error corrected (FWEc)). We reveal for the first time that peripheral markers of apoptotic susceptibility may correlate with brain metabolites, Glx and NAA, and regional brain volume in FES and controls, which is consistent with the neuroprogressive theories around the onset of the schizophrenia illness.

  9. Glutamatergic Metabolites, Volume and Cortical Thickness in Antipsychotic-Naive Patients with First-Episode Psychosis: Implications for Excitotoxicity.

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    Plitman, Eric; Patel, Raihaan; Chung, Jun Ku; Pipitone, Jon; Chavez, Sofia; Reyes-Madrigal, Francisco; Gómez-Cruz, Gladys; León-Ortiz, Pablo; Chakravarty, M Mallar; de la Fuente-Sandoval, Camilo; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2016-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies investigating patients with schizophrenia often report appreciable volumetric reductions and cortical thinning, yet the cause of these deficits is unknown. The association between subcortical and cortical structural alterations, and glutamatergic neurometabolites is of particular interest due to glutamate's capacity for neurotoxicity; elevated levels may be related to neuroanatomical compromise through an excitotoxic process. To this end, we explored the relationships between glutamatergic neurometabolites and structural measures in antipsychotic-naive patients experiencing their first non-affective episode of psychosis (FEP). Sixty antipsychotic-naive patients with FEP and 60 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent a magnetic resonance imaging session, which included a T1-weighted volumetric image and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the precommissural dorsal caudate. Group differences in precommissural caudate volume (PCV) and cortical thickness (CT), and the relationships between glutamatergic neurometabolites (ie, glutamate+glutamine (Glx) and glutamate) and these structural measures, were examined. PCV was decreased in the FEP group (pschizophrenia. PMID:27272768

  10. The predictive value of early treatment response in antipsychotic-naive patients with first-episode psychosis: Haloperidol versus olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sean A; Rosebush, Patricia I; Anglin, Rebecca E; Mazurek, Michael F

    2016-07-30

    Early antipsychotic response predicts outcomes for psychotic patients, but recent evidence suggests that this may not be true for patients treated with olanzapine. In this study, we assessed the predictive value of early response to olanzapine or haloperidol in 75 antipsychotic-naive, first-episode psychosis inpatients. Patients were assessed weekly using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Regression analyses were used to determine whether improvement at week 2 or week 3 predicted improvement at hospital discharge. The majority of patients in both groups experienced a decrease in symptom severity of ≥50% at week 2. In the haloperidol group, week 2 improvement predicted improvement at discharge for all measures except the HAM-A. In the olanzapine group, week 2 improvement only predicted improvement at discharge for HAM-D scores. However, week 3 improvement in the olanzapine group predicted improvement at discharge for all measures except the HAM-A. Olanzapine non-responders at week 3 (but not week 2) benefited from having olanzapine switched to another antipsychotic. These results suggest that a 2 week trial of haloperidol is sufficient to predict treatment outcomes, while a 3 week trial is required for olanzapine. PMID:27156027

  11. Neural markers of negative symptom outcomes in distributed working memory brain activity of antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejad, Ayna B.; Madsen, Kristoffer H.; Ebdrup, Bjørn H.;

    2013-01-01

    Since working memory deficits in schizophrenia have been linked to negative symptoms, we tested whether features of the one could predict the treatment outcome in the other. Specifically, we hypothesized that working memory-related functional connectivity at pre-treatment can predict improvement...... of negative symptoms in antipsychotic-treated patients. Fourteen antipsychotic-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia were clinically assessed before and after 7 months of quetiapine monotherapy. At baseline, patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a verbal n...... but not the default mode network. These preliminary data suggest that functional patterns at baseline can predict negative symptom treatment–response in schizophrenia. This information may be used to stratify patients into subgroups thereby facilitating personalized treatment....

  12. Relationship of frontal D(2/3) binding potentials to cognition: a study of antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia patients.

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    Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pinborg, Lars H; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Friberg, Lars; Baaré, William F C; Gade, Anders; Svarer, Claus; Glenthøj, Birte Y

    2013-02-01

    Studies of in vivo dopamine receptors in schizophrenia have mostly focused on D(2) receptors in striatal areas or on D(1) receptors in cortex. No previous study has examined the correlation between cortical dopamine D(2/3) receptor binding potentials and cognition in schizophrenia patients. The objective was to examine this relation in the frontal cortex in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia patients. Based on preclinical and pharmacological evidence, we specifically expected to find a relation between D(2/3) receptor binding potentials and set shifting. This was a cross-sectional, case-control study using single-photon emission computerized tomography with the D(2/3)-receptor ligand [(123)I]epidepride, co-registered with structural magnetic resonance imaging and correlated to cognitive measures. Participants were 24 antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients and 20 healthy controls matched for gender and age. For patients, a significant linear correlation between D(2/3) BP(ND) and set shifting was found, while significant quadratic associations were observed for verbal fluency, planning and attention. For controls, the only significant association with D(2/3) BP(ND) was a quadratic partial correlation for set shifting. The main findings indicated a relation between D(2/3) receptor binding in the frontal cortex and set shifting, planning and attention, but also support a differential involvement of cortical dopamine D(2/3) receptor binding in at least some cognitive functions, perhaps particularly attention, in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy people. The results suggest that cortical D(2/3) receptor function may be more involved in some cognitive functions (i.e. attention, fluency and planning) in patients with schizophrenia than in healthy people, suggesting that information processing in schizophrenia may be characterized by lower signal:noise ratios. PMID:22338593

  13. Volume and asymmetry abnormalities of insula in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia: A 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging study

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    Harve Shanmugam Virupaksha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Insula, which is a vital brain region for self-awareness, empathy, and sensory stimuli processing, is critically implicated in schizophrenia pathogenesis. Existing studies on insula volume abnormalities report inconsistent findings potentially due to the evaluation of ′antipsychotic-treated′ schizophrenia patients as well as suboptimal methodology. Aim: To understand the role of insula in schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: In this first-time 3-T magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined antipsychotic-naive schizophrenic patients (N=30 and age-, sex-, handedness- and education-matched healthy controls (N=28. Positive and negative symptoms were scored with good interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC>0.9 by using the scales for negative and positive symptoms. Gray matter volume of insula and its anterior/posterior subregions were measured by using a three-dimensional, interactive, semiautomated software based on the valid method with good interrater reliability (ICC>0.85. Intracranial volume was automatically measured by using the FreeSurfer software. Results: Patients had significantly deficient gray matter volumes of left (F=33.4; Pleft in male patients in comparison with male controls (left>right (t=2.7; P=0.01. Conclusions: Robust insular volume deficits in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia support intrinsic role for insula in pathogenesis of this disorder. The first-time demonstration of a relationship between right posterior insular deficit and negative symptoms is in tune with the background neurobiological literature. Another novel observation of sex-specific anterior insular asymmetry reversal in patients supports evolutionary postulates of schizophrenia pathogenesis.

  14. Orbitofrontal lobe volume deficits in Antipsychotic-Naive schizophrenia: A 3-Tesla MRI study

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    Behere Rishikesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prefrontal cortex deficits have been consistently demonstrated in schizophrenia. The orbitofrontal lobe (OFL, a critical component of the prefrontal cortex, subserves social and neuro-cognitive functions. While these functional impairments are established in schizophrenia, the OFL volume deficits have not been well studied, especially in antipsychotic-naοve patients. Aim: To study OFL volume deficits in antipsychotic-naοve schizophrenia patients in comparison with matched healthy controls using high-resolution 3-tesla (3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Materials and Methods: Fourteen antipsychotic-naοve schizophrenia patients (DSM-IV and 14 age-, sex-, handedness- and education-matched healthy controls were scanned using 3T MRI. Psychopathology was assessed in the patient group using the scale for assessment of negative symptoms and the scale for assessment of positive symptoms (SAPS. The OFL volume was measured using Region of Interest (ROI-based manual morphometry technique, with good inter-rater reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.98. Results: Total OFL volume was significantly smaller in schizophrenia patients (43.3 ± 9.6 mL in comparison with healthy controls (52.1 ± 12.2 mL after controlling for the potential confounding effects of age, sex and intracranial volume (F = 5.3, P = .03. Duration of untreated psychosis did not correlate significantly with OFL volumes. There was a trend towards significant negative correlation between the left and total OFL volumes and SAPS scores (r = -0.49, P = .06. Conclusion: OFL volume deficits might underlie the pathogenesis of schizophrenia symptoms with possible neuro-developmental origins.

  15. Safe sex and first-episode schizophrenia.

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    Mason, S E; Miller, R

    2001-01-01

    The need for educating patients about the dangers of unprotected sexual activity is well documented in the literature. Using clinical examples, the authors describe safe-sex strategies for patients experiencing their first episode of schizophrenia. Interventions are based on a 2-year experience of working in a hospital-based treatment and research project with 68 patients. Strategies that begin in the healing phase of schizophrenia take place in both individual and group sessions. First-episode patients are encouraged to speak explicitly about their sex-related behaviors, and HIV testing is suggested when needed. The goal of this approach is to emphasize safe-sex/HIV prevention strategies within a framework of good clinical practice. PMID:11407142

  16. Frontal fasciculi and psychotic symptoms in antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia before and after 6 weeks of selective dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Raghava, Jayachandra M; Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard;

    2016-01-01

    of fractional anisotropy (FA) using voxelwise tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and anatomic region of interest (ROI)-based analyses. Subsequently, patients underwent 6 weeks of antipsychotic monotherapy with amisulpride. We repeated the examinations after 6 weeks. RESULTS: We included 38 patients...... longitudinal fasciculus (z = -3.31, p= 0.001). At re-examination, all correlations between positive symptoms and frontal fasciculi had resolved. Fractional anisotropy in the ATR increased more in patients than in controls (z = -4.92, pamisulpride dose correlated positively with FA changes...... in the right CT (t= 2.52, p= 0.019). LIMITATIONS: Smoking and a previous diagnosis of substance abuse were potential confounders. Long-term effects of amisulpride on white matter were not evaluated. CONCLUSION: Antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia displayed subtle deficits in white matter...

  17. Neurological soft signs discriminating mood disorders from first episode schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, MPM; Liddle, PF; Burgerhof, JGM; Knegtering, R; Bosch, RJ

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the specificity of neurological soft signs (NSS) for first episode schizophrenia compared with mood disorders. Method: We assessed NSS in a sample of 60 healthy controls, 191 first episode psychosis patients and 81 mood disorder patients. We used a principle component analy

  18. Relationship between Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism and hippocampal volume in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia: evidence for differential susceptibility?

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    Sunil Vasu Kalmady

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various lines of evidence including epidemiological, genetic and foetal pathogenetic models suggest a compelling role for Interleukin-6 (IL-6 in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. IL-6 mediated inflammatory response triggered by maternal infection or stress induces disruption of prenatal hippocampal development which might contribute towards psychopathology during adulthood. There is a substantial lack of knowledge on how genetic predisposition to elevated IL-6 expression effects hippocampal structure in schizophrenia patients. In this first-time study, we evaluated the relationship between functional polymorphism rs1800795 of IL-6 and hippocampal gray matter volume in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients in comparison with healthy controls. METHODOLOGY: We examined antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients [N = 28] in comparison with healthy controls [N = 37] group matched on age, sex and handedness. Using 3 Tesla - MRI, bilateral hippocampi were manually segmented by blinded raters with good inter-rater reliability using a valid method. Additionally, Voxel-based Morphometry (VBM analysis was performed using hippocampal mask. The IL-6 level was measured in blood plasma using ELISA technique. SNP rs1800795 was genotyped using PCR and DNA sequencing. Psychotic symptoms were assessed using Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms and Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms. RESULTS: Schizophrenia patients had significantly deficient left and right hippocampal volumes after controlling for the potential confounding effects of age, sex and total brain volume. Plasma IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients than controls. There was a significant diagnosis by rs1800795 genotype interaction involving both right and left hippocampal volumes. Interestingly, this effect was significant only in men but not in women. CONCLUSION: Our first time observations suggest a significant relationship between IL-6 rs1800795 and reduced

  19. Inferior parietal lobule volume and schneiderian first-rank symptoms in Antipsychotic-Naive schizophrenia: A 3-Tesla MRI study

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    Danivas Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As per Frith′s neuro-cognitive model, inferior parietal lobule (IPL is implicated in the pathogenesis of Schneiderian first-rank symptoms (FRS in schizophrenia. The specific role of IPL structural abnormalities in the pathogenesis of FRS is yet to be ascertained. Materials and Methods: Using 3-tesla MRI scanner, this first-time study examined antipsychotic-naοve schizophrenia patients ( n = 28 (patients with FRS [FRS +]: N = 14, M: F = 7:7; and patients without FRS [FRS-]: N = 14, M: F = 7:7 in comparison with sex-, handedness-, education- and socioeconomic status-matched healthy controls ( n = 14, M: F = 7:7. The volume of IPL was measured using a three-dimensional, interactive, semi-automated analysis, with good inter-rater reliability. Results: FRS + patients showed significant volume deficit in right IPL in comparison with healthy controls (F = 4.0; P=.028 after controlling for the potential confounding effects of age, sex and intracranial volume. Conclusions: Right IPL volume deficit in FRS+patients adds further support to the Frith′s model of FRS in schizophrenia.

  20. First episode schizophrenia: functional MRI findings and treatment response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veelen, N.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    The research of this thesis centers on the investigation of first-episode medication-naive and recent onset schizophrenia patients. In part I, functional MRI studies are described, in part II short term treatment effects are compared between ziprasidone and olanzapine. Part I, chapter 2: Differences

  1. Social cognition and neurocognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliksted, Vibeke Fuglsang; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Weed, Ethan;

    2014-01-01

    -episode schizophrenia. Researchers have speculated about social cognitive subgroups since patients with schizophrenia appear to be a very heterogeneous group. METHODS: Patients with a recent diagnosis of first-episode schizophrenia were tested regarding theory of mind, social perception, neurocognition, IQ...... symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Complex aspects of social cognition explained 24% of the variance in the patient group. The other principal components consisted mainly of aspects of simple perception of theory of mind. Neurocognition and clinical symptoms only explained a minor proportion of the variance......BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown a significant impact of social cognitive domains on real world functioning and prognosis in schizophrenia. However, the correlations between specific aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, IQ and clinical symptoms remain unclear in first...

  2. Predictors of poor adherence to medication among patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder

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    Quach, Phuong Le; Mors, Ole; Christensen, Torben Østergaard;

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to identify predictors for poor adherence to medication among patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder.......This study sought to identify predictors for poor adherence to medication among patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder....

  3. Executive attention impairment in first-episode schizophrenia

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    Orellana Gricel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared the attention abilities of a group of first-episode schizophrenia (FES patients and a group of healthy participants using the Attention Network Test (ANT, a standard procedure that estimates the functional state of three neural networks controlling the efficiency of three different attentional behaviors, i.e., alerting (achieving and maintaining a state of high sensitivity to incoming stimuli, orienting (ability to select information from sensory input, and executive attention (mechanisms for resolving conflict among thoughts, feelings, and actions. Methods We evaluated 22 FES patients from 17 to 29 years of age with a recent history of a single psychotic episode treated only with atypical neuroleptics, and 20 healthy persons matched with FES patients by sex, age, and educational level as the control group. Attention was estimated using the ANT in which participants indicate whether a central horizontal arrow is pointing to the left or the right. The central arrow may be preceded by spatial or temporal cues denoting where and when the arrow will appear, and may be flanked by other arrows (hereafter, flankers pointing in the same or the opposite direction. Results The efficiency of the alerting, orienting, and executive networks was estimated by measuring how reaction time was influenced by congruency between temporal, spatial, and flanker cues. We found that the control group only demonstrated significantly greater attention efficiency than FES patients in the executive attention network. Conclusions FES patients are impaired in executive attention but not in alerting or orienting attention, suggesting that executive attention deficit may be a primary impairment during the progression of the disease.

  4. The neurobiology and treatment of first-episode schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, R S; Sommer, I E

    2014-01-01

    It is evident that once psychosis is present in patients with schizophrenia, the underlying biological process of the illness has already been ongoing for many years. At the time of diagnosis, patients with schizophrenia show decreased mean intracranial volume (ICV) as compared with healthy subjects. Since ICV is driven by brain growth, which reaches its maximum size at approximately 13 years of age, this finding suggests that brain development in patients with schizophrenia is stunted before...

  5. Structural covariance in schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis: An approach based on graph analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugman, André; Assunção, Idaiane; Vieira, Gilson; Gadelha, Ary; White, Thomas P; Oliveira, Pedro Paulo M; Noto, Cristiano; Crossley, Nicolas; Mcguire, Philip; Cordeiro, Quirino; Belangero, Sintia I O; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Jackowski, Andrea P; Sato, João Ricardo

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that produces abnormalities across different brain regions. Measuring structural covariance with MRI is a well-established approach to investigate common changes in distinct systems. We investigated structural covariance in schizophrenia in a large Brazilian sample of individuals with chronic schizophrenia (n = 143), First Episode Psychosis (n = 32), and matched healthy controls (n = 82) using a combination of graph analysis and computational neuroanatomy. Firstly, we proposed the connectivity-closeness and integrity-closeness centrality measures and them compared healthy controls with chronic schizophrenia regarding these metrics. We then conducted a second analysis on the mapped regions comparing the pairwise difference between the three groups. Our results show that compared with controls, both patient groups (in pairwise comparisons) had a reduced integrity-closeness in pars orbitalis and insula, suggesting that the relationship between these areas and other brain regions is increased in schizophrenia. No differences were found between the First Episode Psychosis and Schizophrenia groups. Since in schizophrenia the brain is affected as a whole, this may mirror that these regions may be related to the generalized structural alteration seen in schizophrenia.

  6. IQ subgroups in relation to neurocognitive profiles, psychopathology and brain volume in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Høj; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Rostrup, Egill;

    Background and Aim: Approximately half of patients with schizophrenia experience a deterioration in IQ before or around illness onset and recent studies have found apositive association between IQ and brain volume in first episode schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the combined...... impact of estimated IQ trajectory and IQ level at illness onset on psychopathology, neurocognitive profiles and brain volume. Materials and methods: The design is a cross-sectional, case-control study of 60 first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients and 60 matched healthy controls....... Promorbid IQ was estimated using the Danish Adult Reading Test and current IQ using 4 subtests from Wechsler's Adult Intelligence Scale III. Patients were divided into 4 subgroups based on a combination of both IQ trajectory from premorbid levels (stable vs. deteriorating) and IQ at illness onset (high vs...

  7. Relationship between event-related potential P300 and first episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xing-shi; LU Ying-zhi; WANG Ji-jun; WANG Hong-xing; ZHANG Ming-dao; LOU Fei-yin; CHEN Chong

    2007-01-01

    @@ Although P300 abnormalities of event-related potentials (ERPs) are consistently reported among schizophrenic patients as being the most compelling indices of their brain dysfunction,1 whether they are trait markers or state markers of schizophrenia remains in controversy.2,3 To shed a light on this point, we made a longitudinal study of P300 among first episode schizophrenic patients, from no medication until the patients had been medicated for 12 weeks.

  8. Reduced cortical thickness in right Heschl’s gyrus associated with auditory verbal hallucinations severity in first-episode schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xudong; Liang, Shengxiang; Pu, Weidan; Song, Yinnan; Tumbwene E. Mwansisya; Yang, Qing; Liu, Haihong; Liu, Zhening; Shan, Baoci; Xue, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    Background Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) represent one of the most intriguing phenomena in schizophrenia, however, brain abnormalities underlying AVHs remain unclear. The present study examined the association between cortical thickness and AVHs in first-episode schizophrenia. Method High-resolution MR images were obtained in 49 first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and 50 well-matched healthy controls (HCs). Among the FES patients, 18 suffered persistent AVHs (“auditory hallucin...

  9. Structural abnormalities of the brain in schizophrenia: sex differences in the Cantabria First Episode of Schizophrenia Study.

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    Vázquez-Barquero, J L; Cuesta Núñez, M J; Quintana Pando, F; de la Varga, M; Herrera Castanedo, S; Dunn, G

    1995-11-01

    This paper examines structural brain abnormalities, as evaluated by the CT scan, in first episodes of schizophrenia and their association with sociodemographic, diagnostic and clinical variables. The investigation included all patients with a first episode of schizophrenia who, over a 2-year period, made contact with any of the public mental health services of the Autonomous Region of Cantabria in Northern Spain. Diagnostic and clinical characteristics were evaluated through the use of the Spanish version of the Present State Examination (PSE-9) and the Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SANS and SAPS respectively). The study demonstrated the presence of structural brain abnormalities in this sample of first episode schizophrenics. These abnormalities were mainly expressed in the presence of larger VBR for schizophrenic patients than in the controls, these findings being more marked in women than in men. We failed to reveal, however, any evidence of an association of these brain abnormalities with diagnostic or clinical characteristics. PMID:8637954

  10. Association between unmet needs and clinical status in patients with first episode of schizophrenia in Chile

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    Natalia eJorquera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder involving needs in several matters that are often not covered. A need is defined as a gap between the ideal state and the current state of a patient about a specific topic. Aim: To describe needs in patients with first episode of schizophrenia at the start of treatment, and to describe associated clinical factors. Methods: Observational descriptive cross-sectional design. Patients were over fifteen years old, with first episode schizophrenia, and admitted to treatment in the public health system from six district in two cities of Chile, between 2005 and 2006. Sociodemographic data, clinical evaluations of current psychosis based on the PANSS, and the time of untreated psychosis were obtained. A clinical interview, was carried out followed by the Camberwell Assessment of Need. Results: 29 patients were evaluated, 79.3% male, mean age 21.9 years old. The areas with more needs reported were; psychotic symptoms with 65.5% of sample, 21.1% of which reported it unmet; and daytime activities, where 44.8% of patients reported a need, 61.54% of them as unmet. The percentage of unmet needs correlated with PANSS score (r= 0.55; p=0.003, and with time of positive symptoms prior to diagnosis (r= 0.416; p=0.03. Discussion: Needs assessment in schizophrenia is necessary. It may affect its clinical course, be relevant in its management and help monitor recovery. Defining the main needs in people with first episode schizophrenia and associated factors allows for a better design of treatment strategies in order to obtain better therapeutic results and recovery.

  11. Predictors of remission and recovery in a first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder sample: 2-year follow-up of the OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lone; Thorup, Anne; Øqhlenschlaeger, Johan;

    2008-01-01

    To examine the frequency and predictors of good outcome for patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD).......To examine the frequency and predictors of good outcome for patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD)....

  12. Facial emotion recognition in first-episode schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daros, Alexander R; Ruocco, Anthony C; Reilly, James L; Harris, Margret S H; Sweeney, John A

    2014-03-01

    Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have difficulties recognizing facial expressions of emotion. Differences in deficits between these disorders and the effects of treating acute symptoms of illness with antipsychotic medication on these deficits are not well characterized. First-episode patients with schizophrenia (n=24) and psychotic bipolar I disorder (n=16) were compared to a healthy control group (n=32) on the Penn Emotional Acuity Test. Patients were studied during an acute psychotic episode and after seven weeks of treatment with antipsychotic medication. During acute psychosis, bipolar patients showed deficits recognizing subtle facial expressions of happiness and sadness, and this deficit did not resolve with treatment. Schizophrenia patients similarly had difficulty recognizing subtle happy faces during acute illness that also did not resolve with treatment. In addition, problems recognizing subtle expressions of sadness among schizophrenia patients were apparent after treatment. Poorer emotion recognition at follow-up was related to negative symptom severity for schizophrenia patients. These findings highlight the severity and persistence of emotion recognition deficits early in the course of psychotic bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and demonstrate an association of emotion processing deficits to negative symptoms in schizophrenia during periods of relative clinical stability. PMID:24457036

  13. Plasma metabonomics study of first-Episode schizophrenia treated with olanzapine in female patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ying; Zhang, Lei; He, Shen; Wen, Hui; Yu, Yi-Min; Cao, Chun-Hua; Li, Hua-Fang

    2016-03-23

    Schizophrenia is a persistent chronic mental illness with an unknown pathogenic mechanism; no empirical laboratory-based tests are available to support the diagnosis of schizophrenia or to identify biomarkers correlated with the therapeutic effect of olanzapine. For this study, 15 female first-episode, drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy female volunteers were recruited. Tests for blood glucose and lipids were conducted at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment with olanzapine. UPLC-MS based metabonomic analysis was performed on both case and control groups to identify biomarkers of schizophrenia at baseline and to explore which biomarkers correlated with the therapeutic effect of olanzapine after a 4-week treatment. Compared with the control group, the case group showed significant changes in plasma metabolites. Thirteen distinct metabolites were identified. Among all the therapeutically effective cases, levels of these metabolites appeared to shift towards the normal trend; 8 of the identified 13 metabolites changed dramatically. The metabolites that we found are potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia.

  14. Wavelet Features for Recognition of First Episode of Schizophrenia from MRI Brain Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dluhos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning methods are increasingly used in various fields of medicine, contributing to early diagnosis and better quality of care. These outputs are particularly desirable in case of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, due to the inherent potential for creating a new gold standard in the diagnosis and differentiation of particular disorders. This paper presents a scheme for automated classification from magnetic resonance images based on multiresolution representation in the wavelet domain. Implementation of the proposed algorithm, utilizing support vector machines classifier, is introduced and tested on a dataset containing 104 patients with first episode schizophrenia and healthy volunteers. Optimal parameters of different phases of the algorithm are sought and the quality of classification is estimated by robust cross validation techniques. Values of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity over 71% are achieved.

  15. The Cantabria first episode schizophrenia study: a summary of general findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Barquero, J L; Cuesta Nuñez, M J; de la Varga, M; Herrera Castanedo, S; Gaite, L; Arenal, A

    1995-03-01

    This article describes the general findings of the initial cross-sectional stage of a prospective follow-up study of all first episodes of schizophrenia that occurred in the Autonomous Community of Cantabria over a 2-year period and that established contact with any mental health service. The project comprises: i) a 2-year cross-sectional stage, in which the sample was gathered and studied with structured psychiatric instruments such as the Present State Examination and the Scales for the Assessment of Negative and Positive Symptoms (SANS and SAPS), and; ii) a continuous follow-up. We detected, in the risk age ranged of 15-54 years, an incidence of 1.9 per 10,000 inhabitants per year for schizophrenia and of 1.3 per 10,000 inhabitants per year for the S+ CATEGO diagnosis, without any significant gender difference of morbidity. The mean age for the total schizophrenic population was 26 years, being significantly higher in women than in men. In contrast with what happens with marital status, type of household or urban/rural way of life, there was no gender difference in relation to the other sociodemographic variables. The way in which nosological and clinical variables are associated with first episodes of schizophrenia was also examined in this study. We found that 75% of patients reached a maximum CATEGO-ID level, 71% received a S+ CATEGO diagnosis, 59% presented first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia and that the percentage of a schizophrenic negative syndrome, as identified by the SANS and SAPS, was very low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7625188

  16. Altered depth of the olfactory sulcus in first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Yumiko; Nakamura, Kazue; Ikeda, Eiji; Furuichi, Atsushi; Kido, Mikio; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro; Noguchi, Kyo; Seto, Hikaru; Suzuki, Michio

    2013-01-10

    A shallow olfactory sulcus has been reported in chronic schizophrenia, possibly reflecting abnormal forebrain development during early gestation. However, it remains unclear whether this abnormality exists at the early illness stage and/or develops progressively over the course of the illness. This magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study investigated the length and depth of the olfactory sulcus in 64 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 64 controls, of whom longitudinal MRI data (mean inter-scan interval=2.6 years) were available for 20 patients and 21 controls. In the cross-sectional comparison at the baseline, the schizophrenia patients had a significantly shallower olfactory sulcus compared with the controls bilaterally, but there was no group difference in its anterior-posterior length. A longitudinal comparison demonstrated that the sulcus length and depth did not change over time in either group. The olfactory sulcus measures of the patients did not significantly correlate with clinical variables such as onset age, medication or symptom severity. These findings suggest that the olfactory sulcus depth, but not length, may be a static vulnerability marker of schizophrenia that reflects early neurodevelopmental abnormality.

  17. The association between psychopathology of first-episode psychosis patients within the schizophrenia spectrum and previous offending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben;

    2009-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality. The aim was to describe possible psychopathological differences between schizophrenia spectrum patients with and without a criminal career before first-episode psychosis. In a multi-centre study, 16 psychiatric ...

  18. Duration of Untreated Psychosis Is Associated with More Negative Schizophrenia Symptoms after Acute Treatment for First-Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grano, Niklas; Lindsberg, Jenni; Karjalainen, Marjaana; Gronroos, Peter; Blomberg, Ari-Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Evidence of association between duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients is inconsistent in the recent literature. In the present study, DUP, schizophrenia symptoms, duration of medication, and diagnosis were obtained from hospital archives in a sample of FEP patients.…

  19. New developments in diagnosis and treatment update: Schizophrenia/first episode psychosis in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Anusha

    2014-01-01

    Childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) is diagnosed before the age of 13 years, and early onset schizophrenia (EOS) is diagnosed before the age of 18 years. EOS is considered extremely rare and its prevalence in comparison to the worldwide prevalence of schizophrenia (1%) has not adequately been studied. Patients who experience the first episode of psychosis need to be treated early and optimally to lessen the morbidity and improve the outcome of the illness. Treatment needs to be a combination of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological modalities. Pharmacological intervention is necessary for remission, improvement of positive symptoms and to aid with the efficacy of psychosocial interventions. There is a lack of efficacy and safety data of the use of antipsychotic medication in children, with most of the information available being extrapolations of adult data. An increased use of atypical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of EOS has been accompanied by growing concern about the appropriate use and associated side effects in children and adolescents. This update highlights new developments, concepts and treatment trends in EOS.

  20. Relationship of Cognition to Clinical Response in First-Episode Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampush, Joey W; Lencz, Todd; DeRosse, Pamela; John, Majnu; Gallego, Juan A; Petrides, Georgios; Hassoun, Youssef; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Addington, Jean; Kellner, Charles H; Tohen, Mauricio; Burdick, Katherine E; Goldberg, Terry E; Kane, John M; Robinson, Delbert G; Malhotra, Anil K

    2015-11-01

    First-episode schizophrenia (FES) spectrum disorders are associated with pronounced cognitive dysfunction across all domains. However, less is known about the course of cognitive functioning, following the first presentation of psychosis, and the relationship of cognition to clinical course during initial treatment. The present longitudinal study examined the magnitude of neurocognitive impairment, using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery, in patients experiencing their first episode of psychosis at baseline and after 12 weeks of randomized antipsychotic treatment with either aripiprazole or risperidone. At baseline, FES patients evidenced marked impairments in cognitive functioning. Notably, performance on the mazes task of planning and reasoning significantly predicted the likelihood of meeting stringent criteria for positive symptom remission during the first 12 weeks of the trial. Performance on indices of general cognitive function, working memory, and verbal learning improved over time, but these improvements were mediated by improvements in both positive and negative symptoms. We did not detect any differential effects of antipsychotic medication assignment (aripiprazole vs risperidone) on cognitive functioning. Our results suggest that a brief paper-and-pencil measure reflecting planning/reasoning abilities may index responsivity to antipsychotic medication. However, improvements in cognitive functioning over time were related to clinical symptom improvement, reflecting "pseudospecificity."

  1. Neuron-specific Enclose and Myelin Basic Protein in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with First Episode Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shuying; WU Hanrong; GUO Huirong; ZHAO Zheng

    2006-01-01

    In order to study whether patients with schizophrenia have cerebral injury, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and myelin basic protein (MBP)in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 33 patients with first episode schizophrenia and 9 from the control group were determined by double antibody sandwich enzyme immunoassay method. The results showed that there was significant difference in the NSE contents between the experimental group and control group (P<0.01). The NSE contents in CSF in the experimental group were positively correlated with MBP in schizophrenia patients (P<0.05). These findings suggested that patients with schizophrenia had cerebral injury.

  2. Prevalence and profile of cognitive deficits in a cohort of first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Høj; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard;

    Background and Aims: Cognitive deficits are considered a core feature of schizophrenia with prevalence estimates ranging from ca. 75-85 %. These deficits are present in the early phase of the illness; however in most first-episode schizophrenia studies the patients are receiving antipsychotic...... medication, which can affect the results on specific domains such as processing speed. As part of the PECANS project (Pan European Collaboration on Antipsychotic Naïve Schizophrenia) the aim of the present study is to establish the prevalence and profile of cognitive deficits in a cohort of first......-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients, without the potential confounding effects associated with medication and chronicity. Methods: The overall design of the PECANS project is a 2-year longitudinal case-control study with assessment at baseline and follow-ups after 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 and 2 years. Sixty...

  3. Sex-Specific Patterns of Aberrant Brain Function in First-Episode Treatment-Naive Patients with Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Lei; Mingli Li; Wei Deng; Yi Zhou; Xiaohong Ma; Qiang Wang; Wanjun Guo; Yinfei Li; Lijun Jiang; Yuanyuan Han; Chaohua Huang; Xun Hu; Tao Li

    2015-01-01

    Male and female patients with schizophrenia show significant differences in a number of important clinical features, yet the neural substrates of these differences are still poorly understood. Here we explored the sex differences in the brain functional aberrations in 124 treatment-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia (61 males), compared with 102 age-matched healthy controls (50 males). Maps of degree centrality (DC) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) were constru...

  4. Course and predictors of suicidality over the first two years of treatment in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, Ingrid; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Friis, Svein;

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the course of suicidal behavior over the first 2 years of comprehensive, integrated treatment in two groups of patients with DSM-IV first episode schizophrenia spectrum psychosis, where one group was recruited through an early detection program. We...

  5. Differential effects of antipsychotic drugs on insight in first episode schizophrenia : Data from the European First-Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, G. H. M.; Timmerman, Marieke; Derks, E.M.; Fleischhacker, W. W.; Kahn, R. S.; Aleman, A.

    2015-01-01

    Although antipsychotics are widely prescribed, their effect of on improving poor illness insight in schizophrenia has seldom been investigated and therefore remains uncertain. This paper examines the effects of low dose haloperidol, amisulpride, olanzapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone on insight in

  6. Rorschach Inkblot Method data at baseline and after 2 years treatment of consecutively admitted patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Andersen, Palle Bent; Knudsen, Per Bjerregaard;

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Rorschach Inkblot Method is regarded as an important clinical instrument for detailed diagnostic description of the integrative capacities of individuals in psychotic states and as an instrument for measuring progression in the course of treatment. Aims: To describe relevant...... Rorschach variables at baseline in a group of consecutively admitted patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Furthermore, to describe the changes in these variables from baseline to year 2 for the group of patients given psychiatric standard treatment, and to compare these changes with changes in other......'s Rorschach Comprehensive System at inclusion and after 2 years. Results: Core variables of the Rorschach, assumed to show changes (e.g. reality testing, perceptual and thought disorders) in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia, all improved but revealed no significant changes after 2 years...

  7. IQ as a predictor of functional outcome in schizophrenia: a longitudinal, four-year study of first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Verity C; Barnes, Thomas R E; Hutton, Sam B; Ron, Maria A; Joyce, Eileen M

    2009-01-01

    Studies of established schizophrenia have consistently found that cognitive function predicts social and clinical outcomes. The findings from first-episode studies have been more variable, with only some studies reporting predictive relationships. We tested the possibility that an index of general cognitive ability, IQ, may be a more sensitive and reliable predictor of outcome in first-episode schizophrenia than specific measures of memory and executive function. Fifty-four patients with first-episode schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assessed for cognitive and social function as well as symptoms at three time points over the four years following first presentation of their psychotic illness. Regression analyses were performed to determine whether IQ and specific neuropsychological measures at first episode and one-year follow-up predicted four-year social function and residual symptoms. The effects of premorbid and concurrent IQ on outcome were also assessed. Premorbid IQ and IQ at each assessment significantly predicted social function at four-year follow-up. This relationship remained significant after the social function or symptom scores at first presentation were accounted for in the regression. Specific measures predicted certain domains of social function, but these were weaker and less consistent than IQ. The predictive values of cognition on residual symptoms were less strong; the most consistent finding was a relationship between IQ and the negative syndrome. This study suggests that early in the course of schizophrenia, general cognitive ability, as measured by IQ, is a more sensitive and reliable predictor of functional outcome than measures of specific ability. PMID:18793828

  8. Classification of First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients and Healthy Subjects by Automated MRI Measures of Regional Brain Volume and Cortical Thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Yoichiro Takayanagi; Tsutomu Takahashi; Lina Orikabe; Yuriko Mozue; Yasuhiro Kawasaki; Kazue Nakamura; Yoko Sato; Masanari Itokawa; Hidenori Yamasue; Kiyoto Kasai; Masayoshi Kurachi; Yuji Okazaki; Michio Suzuki

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have repeatedly demonstrated regional brain structural abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia, relatively few MRI-based studies have attempted to distinguish between patients with first-episode schizophrenia and healthy controls. METHOD: Three-dimensional MR images were acquired from 52 (29 males, 23 females) first-episode schizophrenia patients and 40 (22 males, 18 females) healthy subjects. Multiple brain measure...

  9. Prevalence and Profile of Cognitive Deficits in a Cohort of First-Episode Antipsychotic-Naïve Schizophrenia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Høj; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard;

    2014-01-01

    in Schizophrenia) and CANTAB (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery). Premorbid intelligence is estimated using DART (Danish Adult Reading Test) and current intelligence is estimated from 4 subtests from WAIS-III (Wechsler´s Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd ed.). Psychopathology ratings are obtained......Prevalence and profile of cognitive deficits in a cohort of first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients M Høj Jensen, B Y Glenthøj, M Ødegaard Nielsen, S Wulff, B Fagerlund. Lundbeck Foundation Centre for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research, Psychiatric...... Centre Glostrup, Copenhagen University Hospital Glostrup, Nordre Ringvej 29-67, 2600 Glostrup, Denmark Background and aims: Cognitive deficits are considered a core feature of schizophrenia with prevalence estimates ranging from ca. 75-85 %. These deficits are present in the early phase of the illness...

  10. Impaired prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle in Chinese patients with first-episode, medication-na(i)ve schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-ren; TAN Yun-long; YANG Fu-de; ZHANG Wu-fang; ZOU Yi-zhuang; TAN Shu-ping; SONG Chong-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia have prominent abnormality in information processing that can be observed by measures of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle reflex and PPI deficits have been considered as a candidate endophenotypic marker of schizophrenia.However,there has been little information on PPI and related measures in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.The research was to explore the deficits of acoustic startle reflex that might exist in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.Methods Startle response to acoustic stimuli,habituation,and PPI were examined in 31 Chinese patients with first-episode,medication-naǐve schizophrenia and 30 age-and sex-matched healthy Chinese controls.At the same day of startle testing,psychopathological symptoms of the patients were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).Results Compared with healthy controls,patients exhibited the significant reduction in startle response and PPI deficits at 60 milliseconds (ms) intervals (PPI60,P <0.05) but not at 30 or 120 ms intervals.Furthermore,there was a relatively strong correlation between PPI60 (P <0.05) and scores of positive scale of PANSS in patients with schizophrenia.Conclusion Our findings confirmed impaired PPI in Chinese patients with schizophrenia and suggested that a relationship between sensorimotor gating deficits and clinical symptoms of patients with schizophrenia might exist.

  11. Neuropsychological function-brain structure relationships and stage of illness: an investigation into chronic and first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Preethi; Kumari, Veena; Corr, Philip J J; Fannon, Dominic; Sharma, Tonmoy

    2008-04-15

    Neuropsychological function-brain structure relationships may differ as a function of illness stage because of progressive brain matter loss through the course of schizophrenia. In this study, we tested whether neuropsychological function-brain structure relationships differed as a function of illness stage. In addition, we tested whether these relationships differed between older and young healthy controls. Function-structure relationships were examined in 35 first-episode patients (31 with schizophrenia, 4 with schizoaffective disorder), 54 chronic schizophrenia patients, 21 older healthy controls and 20 young healthy controls. MRI volumes of frontal and temporal lobe structures, as well as the whole brain, were estimated using a region-of-interest approach. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed between the MRI and neuropsychological measures. Stronger relationships of immediate memory-total prefrontal cortex (PFC) volume in chronic than first-episode patients, and in older than young controls were observed. The abstract reasoning (WCST perseverative errors)-total temporal lobe volume relationship was stronger in older than young controls. These function-structure relationships appeared unexplained by whole brain volume or age in chronic patients. A similar dissociation between young and older subjects of both healthy and patient groups suggests that a 'bigger-is-better' relationship style is present in older individuals regardless of a diagnosis of schizophrenia. PMID:18226505

  12. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy across the Stages of Psychosis: Prodromal, First Episode, and Chronic Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valmaggia, Lucia R.; Tabraham, Paul; Morris, Eric; Bouman, Theo K.

    2008-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been increasingly used as an adjunctive treatment for psychotic disorders. This paper describes the CBT of three cases, each at a different stage of psychotic disorder: at-risk mental state, first-episode psychosis, and chronic psychotic disorder. For the at-risk mental state, treatment…

  13. Gender differences in young adults with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders at baseline in the Danish OPUS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia;

    2007-01-01

    Gender differences in age at first onset, duration of untreated psychosis, psychopathology, social functioning, and self-esteem were investigated in a group of 578 young adults with a first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder. The mean age at first-onset of symptoms, age at first contact......, and duration of untreated psychosis were similar for men and women. Men had more severe negative symptoms, poorer premorbid functioning, and poorer social networks, whereas women had more severe hallucinations. More men than women were substance abusers, were unemployed, and lived alone. Women had poorer self......-esteem than men, in spite of better scores in functioning. Premorbid social adjustment was significantly related to the level of negative symptoms and number of friends. Conclusion is that men and women with first-episode psychosis showed different psychopathological characteristics and different social...

  14. Altered Patterns of Reward Activation in a Large Cohort of Antipsychotic Naïve First Episode Schizophrenia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Rostrup, Egill; Wulff, Sanne;

    2014-01-01

    not have been caught by the focused analyses. By using a multivariate approach we want to confirm previous findings in a smaller group of patients, and further we expect this method to reveal other important alterations in reward processing. METHODS 53 antipsychotic-naïve first-episode patients...... with schizophrenia and 48 age and gender matched healthy controls were included in a large first episode study. Among several other examinations, the participants went through a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) while playing a monetary reward task. The functional images were analyzed using...... parts of striatum and medial and dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex LV 4 described a widespread network with group difference related the period right after the action applied to target when the outcome was uncertain. LV 5 defined among others small areas in medial prefrontal and anterior cingulated cortex...

  15. Predictors of remission and recovery in a first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder sample: 2-year follow-up of the OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency and predictors of good outcome for patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD). METHOD: We conducted a 2-year follow-up of a cohort of patients (n = 547) with first-episode SSD. We evaluated the patients on demographic variables, diagnosis...

  16. Basal ganglia volumes in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients before and after short-term treatment with either a typical or an atypical antipsychotic drug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthoj, Andreas; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Mackeprang, Torben;

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined basal ganglia volumes in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients before and after treatment with either a specific typical or atypical antipsychotic compound. Sixteen antipsychotic drug-naive and three minimally medicated first-episode schizophrenic patients and...... in caudate volume in patients suggests intrinsic basal ganglia pathology in schizophrenia, most likely of neurodevelopmental origin....

  17. No difference in the prevalence of cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) between first-episode schizophrenia patients, offspring of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajarethinam, Rajaprabhakaran; Sohi, Jasdeep; Arfken, Cynthia; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2008-08-01

    The reported prevalence of cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), is extremely variable (from 0.1% to 85%) depending upon the measurement method or imaging resolution. Higher prevalence of CSP has been found in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined the prevalence of CSP in a large number of first-episode schizophrenia patients, young relatives of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. We manually measured CSP using 1.5 mm T1 MRI scans from ongoing studies at University of Pittsburgh in 89 first-episode patients with schizophrenia (age=23.8+/-7.4, M/F=61/28), 64 genetically at-risk individuals (offspring and siblings of schizophrenia patients, age 15.2+/-3.7, M/F=29/32) and 120 comparison subjects (n=120, age=22.1+/-7.9, M/F62/50). CSP was present in 64% of the first-episode patients (mean length 1.87+/-2.3 mm), 64.6% of the at-risk individuals (1.64+/-1.96 mm) and 64.2% of the normal controls (1.88+/-2.0 mm). There was no difference in the prevalence of CSP exceeding 4 mm. We also did not find any influence of the sex or age in the presence or size of CSP. Our data cast doubt on the significance of CSP as markers of neurodevelopmental pathology in schizophrenia.

  18. The 5-Year Course of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in First-Episode Schizophrenia and Related Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    De Haan, Lieuwe; Sterk, Bouke; Wouters, Luuk; Linszen, Don H

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the course of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in first-episode schizophrenia and related disorders and their relationship with clinical characteristics.

  19. Olanzapine vs. Risperidone in Patients with First-Episode Schizophrenia and a Lifetime History of Cannabis Use Disorders: 16-Week Clinical and Substance Use outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Sevy, Serge; Robinson, Delbert G.; Sunday, Suzanne; Napolitano, Barbara; Miller, Rachel; McCormack, Joanne; Kane, John M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of olanzapine and risperidone for the acute treatment of first-episode schizophrenia patients with cannabis use disorders. This secondary analysis of a previously published study included forty-nine first-episode patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, or schizoaffective disorder and a co-occurring lifetime diagnosis of cannabis use disorders randomly assigned to treatment with either olanzapine (n=28) or risp...

  20. Metabolic syndrome and aerobic fitness in patients with first-episode schizophrenia, including a 1-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, L.; Vestergaard, C. H.; Moeller, M. K.;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic abnormalities in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) with sex- and age-matched healthy controls; to investigate changes in MetS during 1year of treatment; and to investigate predictors of MetS. METHODS: Pa...... adverse effects of antipsychotics, our study highlights that low aerobic fitness is a significant risk factor for MetS. Promoting a healthier lifestyle should be part of psychiatric treatment and rehabilitation....

  1. The effect of cannabis use and cognitive reserve on age at onset and psychosis outcomes in first-episode schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Leeson, V. C.; I. Harrison; Ron, M A; Barnes, T. R.; Joyce, E M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis use is associated with a younger age at onset of psychosis, an indicator of poor prognosis, but better cognitive function, a positive prognostic indicator. We aimed to clarify the role of age at onset and cognition on outcomes in cannabis users with first-episode schizophrenia as well as the effect of cannabis dose and cessation of use. Methods: Ninety-nine patients without alcohol or substance abuse other than cannabis were divided into lifetime users and never-users of c...

  2. Treatment of patients with first-episode psychosis: two-year outcome data from the Danish National Schizophrenia Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Valbak, Kristian; Harder, Susanne;

    2006-01-01

    First episode psychosis interventions have been in focus in the last two decades in an attempt to improve the course and outcome of schizophrenic disorders. The Danish National Schizophrenia Project began in 1997 its intake of patients, aged 16-35, with a first psychotic episode of a schizophrenic...... patients in the treatment-as-usual group. Improvement in the intervention groups continued into the second year. Patients receiving integrated assertive treatment faired better than those being treated with the less intensive method of supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy, and the latter group improved...

  3. Cognitive effects of six months of treatment with quetiapine in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Rasmussen, Hans;

    2011-01-01

    Effects of quetiapine on cognition were assessed in a group of first-episode antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia (N=24). A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests was administered at baseline and after 6months of treatment with quetiapine. In order to examine retest effects...... on sustained attention and working memory that were found in healthy controls. The main result of the study is that there was very little evidence of efficacy of quetiapine on cognition. The study also indicated a lack of normal retest effects in patients compared to controls....

  4. The association between psychopathology of first-episode psychosis patients within the schizophrenia spectrum and previous offending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben;

    2008-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality. The aim was to describe possible psychopathological differences between schizophrenia spectrum patients with and without a criminal career before first-episode psychosis. In a multi-centre study, 16 psychiatric...... were linked with data concerning criminal and psychiatric history. No key characteristics were found to assist the early detection of criminal persons before first psychiatric hospital contact for a psychotic incident. However, when adjusted for sex, age, abuse, living conditions, marital status......, employment status and education, a primarily positive symptomatology was associated with a prior criminal career. The premorbid level of functioning and several function parameters were also significantly associated with criminal history. There are significant differences in psychopathology between...

  5. Compensatory cognitive training for people with first-episode schizophrenia: results from a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendella, Paul D; Burton, Cynthia Z; Tasca, Giorgio A; Roy, Paul; St Louis, Lea; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive training or remediation now has multiple studies and meta-analyses supporting its efficacy in improving cognition and functioning in people with schizophrenia. However, relatively little is known about cognitive training outcomes in early psychosis. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial of Compensatory Cognitive Training (CCT) compared to Treatment as Usual (TAU) in 27 participants with first-episode psychosis who had received treatment for psychosis for less than six months. Assessments of cognition (MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery; MCCB) and functional capacity (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief; UPSA-B) were administered at baseline and following the 12-week treatment. The CCT condition, compared to TAU, was associated with significant improvements on the MCCB composite score, as well as MCCB subtests measuring processing speed (Trail Making) and social cognition (Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), with large effects on these three outcome measures. There were no significant CCT-associated effects on the UPSA-B or on positive, negative, or depressive symptoms. CCT treatment of cognitive impairments in first-episode schizophrenia is feasible and can result in large effect size improvements in global cognition, processing speed, and social cognition. PMID:25631454

  6. Effects of antipsychotics on insight in schizophrenia: results from independent samples of first-episode and acutely relapsed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiak, Błażej; Frydecka, Dorota; Beszłej, Jan A; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Tybura, Piotr; Kucharska-Mazur, Jolanta; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Bieńkowski, Przemysław; Samochowiec, Jerzy

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to investigate whether antipsychotics differentially impact insight and whether these effects appear because of improvement in psychopathological manifestation in 132 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 201 acutely relapsed schizophrenic patients, who were followed up for 12 weeks. Olanzapine and risperidone were administered to first-episode schizophrenia patients, whereas acutely relapsed schizophrenic patients were treated with olanzapine, perazine and ziprasidone. The Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess psychopathology. Insight was assessed using the G12 item of PANSS. Unadjusted mixed-model regression analysis indicated a significant improvement in the PANSS G12 item score in both groups. There were no significant differences between distinct treatment subgroups of patients in terms of improvement in the PANSS G12 item score. After adjustment for the trajectories of changes in symptom dimensions, a decrease in the PANSS G12 item score was because of an improvement in positive, negative and excitement symptoms. A decrease in the PANSS G12 item score was also related to an increase in the severity of depressive symptomatology. Our results indicate that antipsychotics exert similar effects on insight in acute psychosis. These effects are likely because of an improvement in psychopathological manifestation. The improvement in insight might be related to the development of depressive symptoms. PMID:26836264

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging and the prediction of outcome in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dazzan, Paola; Arango, Celso; Fleischacker, Wolfgang;

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measures are promising outcome markers for schizophrenia, since regional frontal and temporal grey matter volumes reductions, and enlargement of the ventricles, have been associated with outcome in this disorder. However, a number of methodological iss...

  8. Structural brain abnormalities in first episode schizophrenia. Is it just illness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rais, M.

    2011-01-01

    Although neuroimaging studies consistently demonstrated brain volume alterations in patients with schizophrenia, confounding factors like age, IQ, duration of the illness, use of antipsychotic medication and drug (ab-)use might partly explain these results. Therefore, the relation between confoundin

  9. Long-term diagnostic stability and outcome in recent first-episode cohort studies of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J; Naz, Bushra; Fochtmann, Laura J; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Tanenberg-Karant, Marsha

    2005-07-01

    Knowing the long-term outcomes of schizophrenia and stability of a schizophrenia diagnosis are important from a clinical standpoint as well as essential to future research on diagnostic classifications and outcome. As in prior research on schizophrenia, prospectively designed long-term studies over the past 30 years find that the predominant course of illness includes chronically poor functioning, with little evidence of long-term improvement. Mortality due to suicide is significant at about 10% over 10-year periods of follow-up. Within studies, outcome domains are interrelated, and the relatively consistent predictors of poorer outcome include family history of schizophrenia, insidious onset, poor premorbid functioning, severity of negative symptoms, and severity and duration of untreated psychosis. Residing in a developed rather than a developing country is also associated with a poorer long-term course. The diagnostic stability of schizophrenia is less well studied. The positive predictive value exceeds 90%, and preliminary findings from the 10-year follow-up of the Suffolk County Mental Health Project cohort have found that the agreement across time increased from k = .52 (baseline to 10 years) to k = .76 (6 or 24 months to 10 years). After discussing several limitations of the existing body of research, we suggest that future studies incorporate more "modifiable" risk factors into the assessment battery that could potentially be used as building blocks in experimental intervention designs.

  10. Early detection of the first episode of schizophrenia and suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, Ingrid; Johannesen, Jan Olav; Friis, Svein;

    2006-01-01

    The suicide rate in schizophrenia is high, with the risk being highest early in the course. The rate of suicide attempts before treatment onset is also high and is often the event leading up to first treatment contact. A previous report showed that the duration of untreated psychosis can be reduced...

  11. Reward learning impairments in patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Chi-wan, Tracey; 陳緻韻

    2015-01-01

    Reward learning refers to outcome-based learning that involves selecting optimal response choices from feedback which facilitate adaptive behavior. It is believed that reward learning paradigm represents a promising translational target in schizophrenia research. Previous studies generated relatively consistent evidence of rapid learning deficits but mixed findings on gradual learning deficits. Reward learning impairments were also associated with symptoms as well as antipsychotics treatment....

  12. Sex-Specific Patterns of Aberrant Brain Function in First-Episode Treatment-Naive Patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Male and female patients with schizophrenia show significant differences in a number of important clinical features, yet the neural substrates of these differences are still poorly understood. Here we explored the sex differences in the brain functional aberrations in 124 treatment-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia (61 males, compared with 102 age-matched healthy controls (50 males. Maps of degree centrality (DC and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF were constructed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and compared between groups. We found that: (1 Selective DC reduction was observed in the right putamen (Put_R in male patients and the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG in female patients; (2 Functional connectivity analysis (using Put_R and MFG as seeds found that male and female patients have disturbed functional integration in two separate networks, i.e., the sensorimotor network and the default mode network; (3 Significant ALFF alterations were also observed in these two networks in both genders; (4 Sex specific brain functional alterations were associated with various symptoms in patients. These results suggested that sex-specific patterns of functional aberration existed in schizophrenia, and these patterns were associated with the clinical features both in male and female patients.

  13. Patterns of regional gray matter loss at different stages of schizophrenia:A multisite, cross-sectional VBM study in first-episode and chronic illness

    OpenAIRE

    Ulysses S. Torres; Duran, Fabio L.S.; Maristela S Schaufelberger; Crippa, José A. S.; Louzã, Mario R.; Paulo C. Sallet; Kanegusuku, Caroline Y.O.; Elkis, Helio; Gattaz, Wagner F.; Bassitt, Débora P.; Antonio W Zuardi; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo C.; Leite, Claudia C.; Claudio C de Castro; Santos, Antonio Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia have been repeatedly demonstrated in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, but it remains unclear whether these are static or progressive in nature. While longitudinal MRI studies have been traditionally used to assess the issue of progression of brain abnormalities in schizophrenia, information from cross-sectional neuroimaging studies directly comparing first-episode and chronic schizophrenia patients to healthy controls may al...

  14. Neural markers of early remission in first-episode schizophrenia: a volumetric neuroimaging study of the parahippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Michael; Malla, Ashok K; Joober, Ridha; Lord, Catherine; Smith, Evelyne; Pruessner, Jens; Lepage, Martin

    2012-01-30

    Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), our laboratory recently identified significantly lower grey matter concentration in the parahippocampal gyrus bilaterally in non-remitted patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) compared with remitted FEP patients. These results identified a localized difference but did not reveal which cortex (entorhinal, perirhinal, or parahippocampal), if any, was predominantly affected. So, the parahippocampal gyrus was manually segmented and grey matter volumes from the three cortices were compared between 42 non-remitted and 17 remitted patients with a first episode of schizophrenia (FES). Remission was defined as mild or less on eight key symptoms and maintained for 6 consecutive months following the 2005 consensus definition. The non-remitted patients displayed smaller volumes in the parahippocampal cortex - trend-level difference on the left [mm(3), mean (S.D.): non-remitted=2486 (413); remitted=2775 (593)] and significant difference on the right [mm(3), mean (S.D.): non-remitted=2546 (463); remitted=2926 (525)]. No notable differences were found in the entorhinal or perirhinal cortices. This result supported our VBM finding of reduced parahippocampal grey matter bilaterally in non-remitted patients and further suggested differences may be selectively limited to the parahippocampal cortex. A smaller parahippocampal cortex may represent a neural marker in FES patients who do not achieve remission after 1 year of treatment. PMID:22285715

  15. Gender differences in young adults with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders at baseline in the Danish OPUS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia;

    2007-01-01

    Gender differences in age at first onset, duration of untreated psychosis, psychopathology, social functioning, and self-esteem were investigated in a group of 578 young adults with a first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder. The mean age at first-onset of symptoms, age at first contact......, and duration of untreated psychosis were similar for men and women. Men had more severe negative symptoms, poorer premorbid functioning, and poorer social networks, whereas women had more severe hallucinations. More men than women were substance abusers, were unemployed, and lived alone. Women had poorer self-esteem...... functioning, which cannot be explained by older age of onset for women. Women make more suicide attempts and experience lower self-esteem in spite of better social functioning....

  16. Cerebellar grey-matter deficits, cannabis use and first-episode schizophrenia in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Martin; Rasser, Paul E; Peck, Greg; Carr, Vaughan J; Ward, Philip B; Thompson, Paul M; Johnston, Patrick; Baker, Amanda; Schall, Ulrich

    2012-04-01

    Epidemiological data link adolescent cannabis use to psychosis and schizophrenia, but its contribution to schizophrenia neuropathology remains controversial. First-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients show regional cerebral grey- and white-matter changes as well as a distinct pattern of regional grey-matter loss in the vermis of the cerebellum. The cerebellum possesses a high density of cannabinoid type 1 receptors involved in the neuronal diversification of the developing brain. Cannabis abuse may interfere with this process during adolescent brain maturation leading to 'schizophrenia-like' cerebellar pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging and cortical pattern matching techniques were used to investigate cerebellar grey and white matter in FES patients with and without a history of cannabis use and non-psychiatric cannabis users. In the latter group we found lifetime dose-dependent regional reduction of grey matter in the right cerebellar lobules and a tendency for more profound grey-matter reduction in lobule III with younger age at onset of cannabis use. The overall regional grey-matter differences in cannabis users were within the normal variability of grey-matter distribution. By contrast, FES subjects had lower total cerebellar grey-matter:total cerebellar volume ratio and marked grey-matter loss in the vermis, pedunculi, flocculi and lobules compared to pair-wise matched healthy control subjects. This pattern and degree of grey-matter loss did not differ from age-matched FES subjects with comorbid cannabis use. Our findings indicate small dose-dependent effects of juvenile cannabis use on cerebellar neuropathology but no evidence of an additional effect of cannabis use on FES cerebellar grey-matter pathology.

  17. Course of intelligence deficits in early onset, first episode schizophrenia: a controlled, 5-year longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt Moellegaard; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine;

    2010-01-01

    Only few prospective longitudinal studies have assessed the course of intelligence deficits in early onset schizophrenia (EOS), and these have used different age appropriate versions of Wechsler Intelligence Scales and age appropriate norms. The post-psychotic development of intelligence in EOS has...... predominantly been characterized as relatively stable in these studies. However, comparisons of IQs from different test versions based on the different norms may not permit unequivocal interpretations. The objective of the current study was to compare the development of intelligence in EOS patients (N = 10......) from their first psychotic episode to 5 years of post onset with that of healthy controls (N = 35) and patients who at baseline had been diagnosed with other non-affective psychoses (N = 8). The same version of a Wechsler Intelligence Scale was administered at both baseline and follow-up assessments...

  18. Frequency and predictive values of first rank symptoms at baseline among 362 young adult patients with first-episode schizophrenia Results from the Danish OPUS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia;

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the frequency of the Schneiderian First Rank Symptoms (FRSs) in a representative group of patients with first-episode schizophrenia and to analyse the predictive value of these symptoms in relation to psychopathology, work situation, depression, dependency and admission after 2 yea...

  19. Frequency and predictive values of first rank symptoms at baseline among 362 young adult patients with first-episode schizophrenia Results from the Danish OPUS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia;

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the frequency of the Schneiderian First Rank Symptoms (FRSs) in a representative group of patients with first-episode schizophrenia and to analyse the predictive value of these symptoms in relation to psychopathology, work situation, depression, dependency and admission after 2 years...

  20. Classification of first-episode schizophrenia patients and healthy subjects by automated MRI measures of regional brain volume and cortical thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Takayanagi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies have repeatedly demonstrated regional brain structural abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia, relatively few MRI-based studies have attempted to distinguish between patients with first-episode schizophrenia and healthy controls. METHOD: Three-dimensional MR images were acquired from 52 (29 males, 23 females first-episode schizophrenia patients and 40 (22 males, 18 females healthy subjects. Multiple brain measures (regional brain volume and cortical thickness were calculated by a fully automated procedure and were used for group comparison and classification by linear discriminant function analysis. RESULTS: Schizophrenia patients showed gray matter volume reductions and cortical thinning in various brain regions predominantly in prefrontal and temporal cortices compared with controls. The classifiers obtained from 66 subjects of the first group successfully assigned 26 subjects of the second group with accuracy above 80%. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that combinations of automated brain measures successfully differentiated first-episode schizophrenia patients from healthy controls. Such neuroimaging approaches may provide objective biological information adjunct to clinical diagnosis of early schizophrenia.

  1. Prefrontal cortex connectivity dysfunction in performing the Fist-Edge-Palm task in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and non-psychotic first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Raymond C K; Huang, Jia; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Ya; Lai, Yun-yao; Hong, Nan; Shum, David H K; Cheung, Eric F C; Yu, Xin; Dazzan, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Neurological soft signs have been considered one of the promising neurological endophenotypes for schizophrenia. However, most previous studies have employed clinical rating data only. The present study aimed to examine the neurobiological basis of one of the typical motor coordination signs, the Fist-Edge-Palm (FEP) task, in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and their non-psychotic first degree relatives. Thirteen patients with first-episode schizophrenia, 14 non-psychotic first-degree relatives and 14 healthy controls were recruited. All of them were instructed to perform the FEP task in a 3 T GE Machine. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis was used to evaluate the functional connectivity between the sensorimotor cortex and frontal regions when participants performed the FEP task compared to simple motor tasks. In the contrast of palm-tapping (PT) vs. rest, activation of the left frontal-parietal region was lowest in the schizophrenia group, intermediate in the relative group and highest in the healthy control group. In the contrast of FEP vs. PT, patients with schizophrenia did not show areas of significant activation, while relatives and healthy controls showed significant activation of the left middle frontal gyrus. Moreover, with the increase in task complexity, significant functional connectivity was observed between the sensorimotor cortex and the right frontal gyrus in healthy controls but not in patients with first episode schizophrenia. These findings suggest that activity of the left frontal-parietal and frontal regions may be neurofunctional correlates of neurological soft signs, which in turn may be a potential endophenotype of schizophrenia. Moreover, the right frontal gyrus may play a specific role in the execution of the FEP task in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. PMID:26594623

  2. A longitudinal study of alterations of hippocampal volumes and serum BDNF levels in association to atypical antipsychotics in a sample of first-episode patients with schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Rizos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with structural and functional abnormalities of the hippocampus, which have been suggested to play an important role in the formation and emergence of schizophrenia syndrome. Patients with schizophrenia exhibit significant bilateral hippocampal volume reduction and progressive hippocampal volume decrease in first-episode patients with schizophrenia has been shown in many neuroimaging studies. Dysfunction of the neurotrophic system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The initiation of antipsychotic medication alters the levels of serum Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF levels. However it is unclear whether treatment with antipsychotics is associated with alterations of hippocampal volume and BDNF levels. METHODS: In the present longitudinal study we investigated the association between serum BDNF levels and hippocampal volumes in a sample of fourteen first-episode drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia (FEP. MRI scans, BDNF and clinical measurements were performed twice: at baseline before the initiation of antipsychotic treatment and 8 months later, while the patients were receiving monotherapy with second generation antipsychotics (SGAs. RESULTS: We found that left hippocampal volume was decreased (corrected left HV [t = 2.977, df = 13, p = .011] at follow-up; We also found that the higher the BDNF levels change the higher were the differences of corrected left hippocampus after 8 months of treatment with atypical antipsychotics (Pearson r = 0.597, p = 0.024. CONCLUSIONS: The association of BDNF with hippocampal volume alterations in schizophrenia merits further investigation and replication in larger longitudinal studies.

  3. Prefrontal and Hippocampal Brain Volume Deficits: The Role of Low Physical Activity on Brain Plasticity in First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Sarah C.; Hardy, Anthony; Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Jarrahi, Behnaz; Sandu, Navjot; Subotnik, Kenneth L.; Ventura, Joseph; Nuechterlein, Keith H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our objective in the present study was to conduct the first empirical study to examine regular physical activity habits and their relationship with brain volume and cortical thickness in patients in the early phase of schizophrenia. Relationships between larger brain volumes and higher physical activity levels have been reported in samples of healthy and aging populations, but have never been explored in first-episode schizophrenia patients. Method We collected MRI structural scans in fourteen first-episode schizophrenia patients with either self-reported low or high physical activity levels. Results We found a reduction in total grey matter volume, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampal grey matter volumes in the low physical activity group compared to the high activity group. Cortical thickness in the dorsolateral and orbitofrontal PFC were also significantly reduced in the low physical activity group compared to the high activity group. In the combined sample, greater overall physical activity levels showed a non-significant tendency with better performance on tests of verbal memory and social cognition. Conclusions Together these pilot study findings suggest that greater amounts of physical activity may have a positive influence on brain health and cognition in first-episode schizophrenia patients and support the development of physical exercise interventions in this patient population to improve brain plasticity and cognitive functioning. PMID:26581798

  4. Cognitive impairments in first-episode drug-naive and chronic medicated schizophrenia: MATRICS consensus cognitive battery in a Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing Qin; Chen, Da Chun; Tan, Yun Long; Xiu, Mei Hong; Yang, Fu De; Soares, Jair C; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2016-04-30

    Cognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia and we examined the cognitive profile of first-episode and chronic schizophrenia in a Chinese Han population using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). We recruited 79 first-episode drug-naïve (FEDN) schizophrenia, 132 chronic medicated schizophrenia inpatients and 124 healthy controls. We assessed patient psychopathology using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). MCCB total score (pEmotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) were significantly higher in FEDN than in chronic patients (all pMultiple regression analysis confirmed that in FEDN and chronic patients, total score and negative symptom of PANSS were independent contributors to MCCB total score, respectively. Our results not only demonstrate the applicability of the MCCB as a sensitive measure of cognitive impairment for schizophrenia patients in a Chinese Han population, but also suggest that the compromised cognition is present in the early stage of schizophrenia, some of which could be more severe in the chronic stage of illness. PMID:27086233

  5. Resting-state cerebellar-cerebral networks are differently affected in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia patients and unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Chen, Jindong; Wu, Renrong; Zhang, Zhikun; Yu, Miaoyu; Xiao, Changqing; Zhao, Jingping

    2015-11-26

    Dysconnectivity hypothesis posits that schizophrenia is a disorder with dysconnectivity of the cortico-cerebellar-thalamic-cortical circuit (CCTCC). However, it remains unclear to the changes of the cerebral connectivity with the cerebellum in schizophrenia patients and unaffected siblings. Forty-nine patients with first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia patients, 46 unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients and 46 healthy controls participated in the study. Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity approach was employed to analyze the data. Compared with the controls, the patients and the siblings share increased default-mode network (DMN) seed - right Crus II connectivity. The patients have decreased right dorsal attention network (DAN) seed - bilateral cerebellum 4,5 connectivity relative to the controls. By contrast, the siblings exhibit increased FC between the right DAN seed and the right cerebellum 6 and right cerebellum 4,5 compared to the controls. No other abnormal connectivities (executive control network and salience network) are observed in the patients/siblings relative to the controls. There are no correlations between abnormal cerebellar-cerebral connectivities and clinical variables. Cerebellar-cerebral connectivity of brain networks within the cerebellum are differently affected in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia patients and unaffected siblings. Increased DMN connectivity with the cerebellum may serve as potential endophenotype for schizophrenia.

  6. Effects of Blocking D2/D3 Receptors on Mismatch Negativity and P3a Amplitude of Initially Antipsychotic Naïve, First Episode Schizophrenia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Düring, Signe; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Oranje, Bob

    2016-01-01

    in mismatch negativity and P3a amplitude are related to increased dopaminergic activity. This is the first study investigating the effect of amisulpride, a potent D2-antagonist, on mismatch negativity and P3a amplitude in a large group of antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia patients. METHODS......: Fifty-one antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia patients were tested in a mismatch negativity paradigm at baseline and after 6 weeks of treatment with amisulpride. We further examined 48 age- and gender-matched controls in this paradigm. RESULTS: At baseline, the patients showed significantly...... reduced P3a amplitude compared with healthy controls, but no differences in mismatch negativity. Although the treatment with amisulpride significantly improved the patients' psychopathological (PANSS) and functional (GAF) scores, it did not influence their mismatch negativity amplitude, while also...

  7. Social network among young adults with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders: results from the Danish OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia;

    2006-01-01

    Social network has considerable impact on physical and mental health. Patients experiencing first-episode psychosis early in adult life may experience severe problems concerning development and maintenance of their social network.......Social network has considerable impact on physical and mental health. Patients experiencing first-episode psychosis early in adult life may experience severe problems concerning development and maintenance of their social network....

  8. Effects of Short-Term Inpatient Treatment on Sensitivity to a Size Contrast Illusion in First-Episode Psychosis and Multiple-Episode Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Silverstein

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the Ebbinghaus illusion, a shape appears larger than its actual size when surrounded by small shapes and smaller than its actual size when surrounded by large shapes. Resistance to this illusion has been previously reported in schizophrenia, and linked to disorganized symptoms and poorer prognosis in cross-sectional studies. It is unclear, however, when in the course of illness this resistance first emerges or how it varies longitudinally with illness phase. Method: First-episode psychosis patients, multiple-episode schizophrenia patients and healthy controls completed a psychophysical task at two different time points, corresponding to hospital admission and discharge for patients. The task required judging the relative size of two circles centered on either side of the screen. Targets were presented without context (baseline, or were surrounded by shapes that made the size judgment harder or easier (misleading and helpful contexts, respectively. Context sensitivity was operationalized as improvement relative to baseline in the helpful condition minus the amount of decrement (relative to baseline in the misleading condition. Results: At admission, context sensitivity was lower in the multiple-episode group than in the other groups, and was marginally less in the first episode than in the control group. In addition, schizophrenia patients were significantly more and less accurate than the other groups in the misleading and helpful conditions, respectively. At discharge, all groups exhibited similar context sensitivity. Poorer context sensitivity was related to higher levels of disorganized symptoms, and lower level of depression, excitement, and positive symptoms. Discussion: Resistance to the Ebbinghaus illusion, as a characteristic of the acute phase of schizophrenia, emerges after the first episode of psychosis. This suggests that visual context processing is a state-marker in schizophrenia and a biomarker of relapse and

  9. Re-visiting the nature and relationships between neurological signs and neurocognitive functions in first-episode schizophrenia: An invariance model across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Raymond C K; Dai, Shan; Lui, Simon S Y; Ho, Karen K Y; Hung, Karen S Y; Wang, Ya; Geng, Fu-lei; Li, Zhi; Cheung, Eric F C

    2015-07-02

    The present study examined different types of neurological signs in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and their relationships with neurocognitive functions. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs were adopted with the use of the abridged Cambridge Neurological Inventory which comprises items capturing motor coordination, sensory integration and disinhibition. A total of 157 patients with first-episode schizophrenia were assessed at baseline and 101 of them were re-assessed at six-month interval. A structural equation model (SEM) with invariance model across time was used for data analysis. The model fitted well with the data at baseline assessment, X^2(21) = 21.78, p = 0.413, NFI = 0.95, NNFI = 1.00, CFI = 1.00, IFI = 1.00, RMSEA = 0.015. Subsequent SEM analysis with invariance model at six-month interval also demonstrated the same stable pattern across time and showed strong measurement invariance and structure invariance across time. Our findings suggest that neurological signs capture more or less the same construct captured by conventional neurocognitive tests in patients with schizophrenia. The measurement and structure of these relationships appear to be stable over time.

  10. Neurological signs and involuntary movements in schizophrenia: intrinsic to and informative on systems pathobiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whitty, Peter F

    2012-02-01

    While it has long been considered whether the pathobiology of schizophrenia extends beyond its defining symptoms to involve diverse domains of abnormality, in the manner of a systemic disease, studies of neuromotor dysfunction have been confounded by treatment with antipsychotic drugs. This challenge has been illuminated by a new generation of studies on first-episode schizophrenia before initiation of antipsychotic treatment and by opportunities in developing countries to study chronically ill patients who have remained antipsychotic naive due to limitations in provision of psychiatric care. Building from studies in antipsychotic-naive patients, this article reviews 2 domains of neuromotor dysfunction in schizophrenia: neurological signs and involuntary movements. The presence and characteristics of neurological signs in untreated vis-a-vis treated psychosis indicate a vulnerability marker for schizophrenia and implicate disruption to neuronal circuits linking the basal ganglia, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. The presence and characteristics of involuntary movements in untreated vis-a-vis treated psychosis indicate an intrinsic feature of the disease process and implicate dysfunction in cortical-basal ganglia-cortical circuitry. These neuromotor disorders of schizophrenia join other markers of subtle but pervasive cerebral and extracerebral, systemic dysfunction, and complement current concepts of schizophrenia as a disorder of developmentally determined cortical-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical\\/cerebellar network disconnectivity.

  11. Impaired temporoparietal deactivation with working memory load in antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejad, Ayna B; Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Siebner, Hartwig R;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. Neuroimaging studies have shown abnormal task-related deactivations during working memory (WM) in schizophrenia patients with recent emphasis on brain regions within the default mode network. Using fMRI, we tested whether antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients were impaired...

  12. MMPI in first-episode paranoid schizophrenia%MMPI对首发偏执型精神分裂症的价值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉; 王晓英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics and diagnosis value of MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) in first-episode paranoid schizophrenia. Methods Before the treatment, MMPI was administrated to the patient with first-episode paranoid schizophrenia. Analyzed the efficiency of the survey results and compared the results with that of controls of the same number. Results ignificant differences were found between the patients with first-episode paranoid schizophrenia and healthy controls in two validity scales and T-scores of seven clinical sub-scale. For the T-scorcs of the MMPI two point codes types for Pa (paranoid) and Sc (schizophrenia), there was a significant difference between the study and control group. For first-episode paranoid schizophrenia, the MMPI results cannot resolve the contradictions between sensitivity and specificity, the false positive and negative results should be noticed. Conclusion MMPI results were more specific and sensitive compared with the normal controls. However, it cannot replace clinical psychiatric examination for diagnosis of the first-episode paranoid schizophrenia. MMPI could be chosen as an accessory method for clinical psychiatry.%目的 探讨MMPI(明尼苏达多项人格测查表)在首发偏执型精神分裂症中的特征及诊断价值.方法 对首发偏执型精神分裂症患者,在未治疗前行MMPI测试,分析其有效测评结果,并与之按1∶1匹配正常组对照分析.结果 首发偏执型精神分裂症患者组有2个效度量表及7个临床子量表的T分均与正常对照组差异有统计学意义;临床子量表两点测图Pa(偏执)、Sc(精神分裂)模式的T分,患者组与正常对照组差异有统计学意义;MMPI的测试结果无法解决敏感性与特异性间矛盾,存在假阳性与假阴性结果.结论 MMPI对首发偏执型精神分裂症的敏感性与特异性高于正常人群的随机水平,将其作为精神科临床辅助检查工具有一定的实用价

  13. A randomized controlled study of the efficacy of six-month supplementation with concentrated fish oil rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in first episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawełczyk, Tomasz; Grancow-Grabka, Marta; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Trafalska, Elżbieta; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    Short-term clinical trials of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) as add-on therapy in patients with schizophrenia revealed mixed results. The majority of these studies used an 8- to 12-week intervention based on ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid. A randomized placebo-controlled trial was designed to compare the efficacy of 26-week intervention, composed of either 2.2 g/day of n-3 PUFA, or olive oil placebo, with regard to symptom severity in first-episode schizophrenia patients. Seventy-one patients (aged 16-35) were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to the study arms. The primary outcome measure of the clinical evaluation was schizophrenia symptom severity change measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Mixed models repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences between the study arms regarding total PANSS score change favouring n-3 PUFA (p = 0.016; effect size (ES) = 0.29). A fifty-percent improvement in symptom severity was achieved significantly more frequently in the n-3 PUFA group than in the placebo group (69.4 vs 40.0%; p = 0.017). N-3 PUFA intervention was also associated with an improvement in general psychopathology, measured by means of PANSS (p = 0.009; ES = 0.32), depressive symptoms (p = 0.006; ES = 0.34), the level of functioning (p = 0.01; ES = 0.31) and clinical global impression (p = 0.046; ES = 0.29). The findings suggest that 6-month intervention with n-3 PUFA may be a valuable add-on therapy able to decrease the intensity of symptoms and improve the level of functioning in first-episode schizophrenia patients.

  14. The research of cognitive style of patients with first episode schizophrenia%首发精神分裂症患者认知风格的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏桥; 戴天刚; 易鹏程

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the different cognitive styles between patients with first-episode schizophrenia and normal people. Methods We tested 42 patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 43 normal adults with Stick Frame Instrument Test(SFIT) and Embedded Figure Test(EFT). Then we compared the sum of errors of SFIT and the scores of EFT. Results①There was significant difference of scores of error between the two groups in the SFIT when the stick and the frame are in small angle(P0.05). ②There was no significant difference either between nor in the two groups of the scores of EFT (P>0.05).③The sum of errors of SFIT and the scroes of EFT showed a weak negative correlation (r=-0.255,P0.05);③用图形镶嵌实验得分与棒框仪误差总和具有较弱相关性(r=-0.255,P<0.05)。结论首发精神分裂症患者与健康志愿者之间的认知风格存在差异,但采用不同的实验工具可能会得到不同的结论。

  15. A Virtual Reality Task Based on Animal Research - Spatial Learning and Memory in Patients after the First Episode of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta eFajnerova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cognitive deficit is considered to be a characteristic feature of schizophrenia disorder. A similar cognitive dysfunction was demonstrated in animal models of schizophrenia. However, the poor comparability of methods used to assess cognition in animals and humans could be responsible for low predictive validity of current animal models. In order to assess spatial abilities in schizophrenia and compare our results with the data obtained in animal models we designed a virtual analogue of the Morris water maze (MWM, the virtual Four Goals Navigation (vFGN task.Method: Twenty-nine patients after the first psychotic episode with schizophrenia symptoms and a matched group of healthy volunteers performed the vFGN task. They were required to find and remember four hidden goal positions in an enclosed virtual arena. The task consisted of two parts. The Reference memory (RM session with a stable goal position was designed to test spatial learning. The Delayed-matching-to-place (DMP session presented a modified working memory protocol designed to test the ability to remember a sequence of three hidden goal positions.Results: Data obtained in the RM session show impaired spatial learning in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls in pointing and navigation accuracy. The DMP session showed impaired spatial memory in schizophrenia during the recall of spatial sequence and similar deficit in spatial bias in probe trials. The pointing accuracy and the quadrant preference showed higher sensitivity toward the cognitive deficit than the navigation accuracy. Direct navigation to the goal was affected by sex and age of the tested subjects. Age affected spatial performance only in healthy controls. Conclusions: Despite some limitations of the study, our results correspond well to previous studies in animal models of schizophrenia and support the decline of spatial cognition in schizophrenia, indicating the usefulness of the vFGN task in

  16. Predictive validity of a culturally informed diagnosis of schizophrenia : A 30 month follow-up study with first episode psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandi, Tekleh; Havenaar, Johan M.; Laan, Wijnand; Kahn, Rene S.; van den Brink, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown discrepancies between a standard diagnostic interview for schizophrenia (CASH) and a culture sensitive version of this instrument (CASH-CS) in Moroccan patients. More specifically we showed that among Moroccan immigrants the CASH-CS resulted in fewer patients with a diagn

  17. Comorbid substance abuse in first-episode schizophrenia : Effects on cognition and psychopathology in the EUFEST study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wobrock, T.; Falkai, P.; Schneider-Axmann, T.; Hasan, A.; Galderisi, S.; Davidson, M.; Kahn, R. S.; Derks, E. M.; Boter, H.; Rybakowski, J. K.; Libiger, J.; Dollfus, S.; Lopez-Ibor, J. J.; Peuskens, J.; Hranov, L. G.; Gaebel, W.; Fleischhacker, W. W.

    2013-01-01

    Studies and meta-analyses investigating the influence of substance use disorder (SUD) (substance abuse or dependence) on psychopathology and neurocognitive function in schizophrenia patients have revealed controversial results. Most studies did only have small samples and did not focus exclusively o

  18. A Selective Review of Cerebral Abnormalities in Patients With First-Episode Schizophrenia Before and After Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qiyong; Lui, Su; Sweeney, John A

    2016-03-01

    The question of whether there are significant changes in brain anatomy and function at illness onset and over the early course of schizophrenia is a crucial issue with broad implications for prognosis, patient care, and models of illness pathophysiology. Prefrontal hypoactivity and hippocampal and subcortical hyperactivity at the onset of illness may represent a core illness pathophysiology. Gray matter changes have been most robust within thalamo-cortical networks, whereas altered brain activity has been most pronounced in fronto-parietal and default-mode networks. These findings indicate that regional anatomical and functional brain abnormalities are significantly dissociated during the early course of schizophrenia prior to antipsychotic treatment. One possible explanation is that functional MRI may reflect physiological alterations related to acute psychosis or consequences of distal anatomic changes, while changes in brain anatomy reflect more stable and long-standing alterations. The relative stability of brain measures in the early years after illness onset stands in contrast to indirect evidence for moderate progressive changes provided by our recent study of chronic never-treated patients. Our recent cross-sectional study of never-treated patients with chronic schizophrenia found an accelerated age-related decline in cortical thickness, relative to healthy controls, that could not be attributed to medication effects. Studies must consider both the clinical heterogeneity that affects findings of brain changes within schizophrenia and the low specificity of the brain changes, which can occur in other early-onset mental disorders as well. PMID:26621570

  19. Anterior cingulate cortex-related connectivity in first-episode schizophrenia: a spectral dynamic causal modeling study with functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Biao eCui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the neural basis of schizophrenia (SZ is important for shedding light on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this mental disorder. Structural and functional alterations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC have been implicated in the neurobiology of SZ. However, the effective connectivity among them in SZ remains unclear. The current study investigated how neuronal pathways involving these regions were affected in first-episode SZ using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Forty-nine patients with a first-episode of psychosis and diagnosis of SZ—according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision—were studied. Fifty healthy controls (HCs were included for comparison. All subjects underwent resting state fMRI. We used spectral dynamic causal modeling (DCM to estimate directed connections among the bilateral ACC, DLPFC, hippocampus, and MPFC. We characterized the differences using Bayesian parameter averaging (BPA in addition to classical inference (t-test. In addition to common effective connectivity in these two groups, HCs displayed widespread significant connections predominantly involved in ACC not detected in SZ patients, but SZ showed few connections. Based on BPA results, SZ patients exhibited anterior cingulate cortico-prefrontal-hippocampal hyperconnectivity, as well as ACC-related and hippocampal-dorsolateral prefrontal-medial prefrontal hypoconnectivity. In summary, sDCM revealed the pattern of effective connectivity involving ACC in patients with first-episode SZ. This study provides a potential link between SZ and dysfunction of ACC, creating an ideal situation to associate mechanisms behind SZ with aberrant connectivity among these cognition and emotion-related regions.

  20. 48 echo T2 myelin imaging of white matter in first-episode schizophrenia: Evidence for aberrant myelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna J.M. Lang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myelin water imaging provides a novel strategy to assess myelin integrity and corresponding clinical relationships in psychosis, of particular relevance in frontal white matter regions. In the current study, T2 myelin water imaging was used to assess the myelin water fraction (MWF signal from frontal areas in a sample of 58 individuals experiencing first-episode psychosis (FEP and 44 healthy volunteers. No differences in frontal MWF were observed between FEP subjects and healthy volunteers; however, differences in normal patterns of associations between frontal MWF and age, education and IQ were seen. Significant positive relationships between frontal MWF and age, North American Adult Reading Test (NAART IQ, and years of completed education were observed in healthy volunteers. In contrast, only the relationship between frontal MWF and NAART IQ was significant after Bonferroni correction in the FEP group. Additionally, significant positive relationships between age and MWF in the anterior and posterior internal capsules, the genu, and the splenium were observed in healthy volunteers. In FEP subjects, only the relationship between age and MWF in the splenium was statistically significant. Frontal MWF was not associated with local white matter volume. Altered patterns of association between age, years of education, and MWF in FEP suggest that subtle disturbances in myelination may be present early in the course of psychosis.

  1. Improvement of cognitive flexibility and cingulate blood flow correlates after atypical antipsychotic treatment in drug-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Bernardo M; Garolera, Maite; Ariza, Mar; Pareto, Deborah; Salamero, Manel; Valles, Vicenç; Delgado, Luis; Alberni, Joan

    2011-12-30

    The aim of this study was to examine the changes in cognitive flexibility and associated cerebral blood flow in the anterior cingulate lobe of drug-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia who were treated with atypical antipsychotics for 6 weeks. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were obtained from 8 healthy subjects both at rest and while performing the flexibility subtest of the TAP (Test for Attentional Performance). SPECT images were obtained in parallel from 8 first-episode drug-naive schizophrenic patients while they were performing the same task both before and after 6 weeks of neuroleptic treatment. In the control group, an increase in the perfusion indices of the dorsal section of the anterior cingulate gyrus was observed in the activation condition. Task performance was altered and the level of perfusion of the brain region related to the task execution was significantly decreased in the patients at baseline. After treatment, there was a significant improvement in both task performance and the level of perfusion of the dorsal section of the anterior cingulate. We conclude that treatment with second-generation neuroleptics improves cognitive flexibility, and there was a relationship between such improvements and normalization of perfusion indices of the involved brain areas.

  2. Detection and significance of serum interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in first-episode schizophrenia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Yan; Chao Cheng; Hui-Xia Wang; Yuan-Yuan Li; Shuai-Bin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To detect changes of serum interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in first-episode and different subtypes, and to analyze the correlation between pathological and immune mechanism.Methods:90 first-episode schizophrenia patients admitted to our hospital were enrolled as observation group, and were subdivided into four groups including negative and positive , family type and distributing types. During the same period, 35 physical healthy volunteers were enrolled as control group. Serum interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-αand interleukin-1β in both observation group and control group were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA), correlation between these factors and mental symptoms were analyzed with pearson correlation analysis.Results:The levels of serum IL-6, TNF-αα, IL-1β of the observation group before and after the treatment were significantly higher than those of control group, the level of IL-1β in observation group after treatment was significantly lower than that before the treatment (P<0.05). Before treatment, the level of IL-6 in family type was significantly higher than that in distributing type, the level of TNF-αα in negative type was significantly higher than that in positive type. After treatment the level of TNF-αα was significantly reduced in family type and negative type, the IL-1β was significantly reduced in four subtypes. Pearson correlation analysis showed that TNF-αα lever was positively correlated with symptoms of negative subtype. IL-1β level and PANSS scores, symptoms of both positive and negative types were positively correlated.Conclusion:The levels of IL-6, TNF-αα, IL-1β levels are significantly increases in patients with first-episode schizophrenia, immune activation may be activated and IL-6 level is closely related to the family type of the disease which is genetic influenced, TNF-αα is associated with symptoms of negative type. IL-1β level may be a certain extent

  3. MiRNA-365 and miRNA-520c-3p respond to risperidone treatment in first-episode schizophrenia after a 1 year remission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Sha; YUAN Yan-bo; GUAN Li-li; WEI Hui; CHENG Zhang; HAN Xue; YANG Lei

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control gene expression by destabilizing target transcripts and inhibiting their translation.Aberrant expression of miRNAs has been described in many human diseases,including schizophrenia.However,the effects on miRNA expression in response to antipsychotic treatment in peripheral circulation have not been thoroughly examined.Methods Using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR),We quantified the expression of seven candidate miRNAs in plasma samples of 40 first-episode schizophrenics before and after antipsychotic treatment.The patients were all treated with risperidone and achieved remission in 1 year.Results Compared with the baseline,the expression levels of miR-365 and miR-520c-3p were significantly downregulated after 1 year of risperidone treatment (P <0.001).There were no significant correlations between the clinical symptoms and the expression levels of these two miRNAs (P >0.05).Conclusions This study analyzed possible circulating miRNAs in response to antipsychotic monotherapy for schizophrenia,the further mechanism need to be confirmed.

  4. [Young person's first-episode psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki, Pirjo; Veijola, Juha

    2012-01-01

    Young person's first-episode psychosis may signify the onset of schizophrenia, psychotic depression or bipolar disorder. It can also be a brief condition resulting in full recovery. The psychosis may be caused by drugs. First-episode psychosis is usually preceded by a long period of nonspecific symptoms. Provision of close and active follow-up is important in the prodromal phase. Treatment of first-episode psychosis is individual. Usually it involves medication, individual discussions, psychotherapy or music therapy as well as family meetings. The therapy helps the young person become independent. PMID:22312825

  5. Differences in P50 and prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex between male smokers and non-smokers with first episode schizophrenia without medical treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Lisheng; Chen Xingshi; Chen Meijuan; Tang Yunxiang; Wang Jijun; Zhang Mingdao; Lou Feiying

    2014-01-01

    Backgorund Nicotine may improve schizophrenia patient's cognitive deficit symptoms.This study was to explore the chronic effects of smoking on prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI) and P50 in the patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES).Methods The event-related potentials (ERP) recording and analysis instrument made by Brain Products,Germany,was used to detect PPI and P50 in 49 male FES patients (FES group,n=21 for smokers and n=28 for non-smokers) and 43 normal male controls (control group,n=19 for smokers and n=24 for non-smokers).Results Compared with normal controls,the FES group had prolonged PPI latency when elicited by single stronger stimulus (P <0.05); the FES group had prolonged PPI latency and increased PPI amplitude (P <0.05,0.01) when elicited by weak and strong stimuli.The FES group had lower PPI inhibition rate than normal controls (P <0.05).Compared with normal controls,the FES group had increased P50-S2 amplitude and increased amplitude ratio S2/S1 (both P <0.05).In the control group,the smokers had a tendency of increase in P50-S2 amplitude (P >0.05) and shorter P50-S2 latency (P <0.05) than the non-smokers.The smokers had higher PPI amplitude than the non-smokers (P <0.05).In the FES group,the smokers had higher P50-S1 amplitude,shorter P50-S2 latency,and higher amplitude ratio S2/S1 than the non-smokers (P <0.05,0.01).The smokers had higher PPI amplitude than the non-smokers (P <0.05).Conclusions There is obvious PPI and P50 deficits in schizophrenic patients.However,these deficits are relatively preserved in the smokers compared with the non-smokers,which suggests that long-term smoking might partially improve the sensory gating in schizophrenic patients.Whether this conclusion can be deduced to female patients requires further follow-ups.

  6. The effect of atypical antipsychotics on brain N-acetylaspartate levels in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode patients with schizophrenia: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grošić V

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vladimir Grošić,1 Petra Folnegovic Grošić,2 Petra Kalember,3,4 Maja Bajs Janović,2 Marko Radoš,3,4 Mate Mihanović,1 Neven Henigsberg3,51Psychiatric Hospital Sveti Ivan, Zagreb, 2University Hospital Center Zagreb, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, 3Polyclinic Neuron, Croatian Institute for Brain Research, Zagreb, 4Department of Neuropharmacology and Behavioral Pharmacology, Croatian Institute for Brain Research, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, 5Vrapče University Hospital, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, CroatiaPurpose: To investigate the correlates of a clinical therapeutic response by using the parameters measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy after the administration of atypical antipsychotics.Patients and methods: Twenty-five antipsychotic-naïve first-episode patients with schizophrenia were monitored for 12 months. The patients were evaluated using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression Scale of Severity, Tower of London – Drexel University, Letter–Number Span Test, Trail Making Test A, and Personal and Social Performance Scale. They were administered atypical antipsychotics, starting with quetiapine. In the absence of a therapeutic response, another antipsychotic was introduced.Results: After 12 study months, the N-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr level did not significantly change at the whole-group level. Additional analysis revealed a significant rise in the NAA/Cr level in the study group that stayed on the same antipsychotic throughout the study course (P=0.008 and a significant drop in NAA/Cr in the study group that switched antipsychotics (P=0.005. On the whole-group level, no significant correlations between NAA/Cr values and other scores were found at either baseline or after 12 study months.Conclusion: One-year treatment with atypical antipsychotics administered to antipsychotic-naïve patients didn’t result

  7. Comparative study on sex differences and marital status of the patients with first episode schizophrenia%首发精神分裂症患者性别差异与婚姻状况对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张延赤; 赵富帅; 赵丽丽; 郑博文

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare the difference of sex and marriage status of male and female inpatients with first episode schizophrenia.Methods:124 inpatients with first episode schizophrenia were selected.The clinical data were compared and analyzed.Results:The marital status of male was obviously inferior to female.The married rate was lower than that of female.The divorce rate was higher than that of female.Conclusion:The marriage status of male and female patients with first episode schizophrenia have significant difference.It should be focused on one respect in formulating rehabilitation treatment programme.%目的:比较男性与女性首发精神分裂症住院患者性别、婚姻状况的差异.方法:收集首发精神分裂症住院患者124例,对临床资料进行比较分析.结果:男性的婚姻状况明显不如女性,已婚率低于女性,离婚率高于女性.结论:男性及女性首发精神分裂症患者婚姻状况存在显著差异,在制定康复治疗方案时,应有所侧重.

  8. Voxel-Based Morphometry in Individuals at Genetic High Risk for Schizophrenia and Patients with Schizophrenia during Their First Episode of Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Chuan; Zhou, Qian; Wei, Shengnan; Jiang, Xiaowei; Geng, Haiyang; Zhou, Yifang; Tang, Yanqing; Wang, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding morphologic changes in vulnerable and early disease state of schizophrenia (SZ) may provide further insight into the development of psychosis. Method Whole brain voxel-based morphometry was performed to identify gray matter (GM) regional differences in 60 individuals with SZ during their first psychotic episode (FE-SZ), 31 individuals at genetic high risk for SZ (GHR-SZ) individuals, and 71 healthy controls. Results Significant differences were found in several regions including the prefrontal cortex, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus, occipital lobe, and cerebellum among the three groups (p<0.05, corrected). Compared to the HC group, the FE-SZ group had significantly decreased GM volumes in several regions including the cerebellum, hippocampus, fusiform gyrus, lingual gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri and significantly increased GM volumes in the middle frontal gyrus and inferior operculum frontal gyrus (p<0.05). The GHR-SZ group had significant decreases in GM volumes in the supramaginal gyrus, precentral gyrus, and rolandic operculum and significant increases in GM volumes in the cerebellum, fusiform gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, inferior operculum frontal gyrus, and superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri when compared to the HC group (p<0.05). Compared to the GHR-SZ group, the FE-SZ group had significant decreases in GM volumes in several regions including the cerebellum, fusiform gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri (p<0.05). Conclusions The findings herein implicate the involvement of multisensory integration in SZ development and pathophysiology. Additionally, the patterns of observed differences suggest possible indicators of disease, vulnerability, and resiliency in SZ. PMID:27723806

  9. Basal ganglia volumes in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients before and after short-term treatment with either a typical or an atypical antipsychotic drug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthoj, Andreas; Glenthoj, Birte Y; Mackeprang, Torben;

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined basal ganglia volumes in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients before and after treatment with either a specific typical or atypical antipsychotic compound. Sixteen antipsychotic drug-naive and three minimally medicated first-episode schizophrenic patients...... or intracranial volume, the only significant difference between patients and controls was a Hemisphere x Group interaction for the caudate nucleus at baseline, with controls having larger left than right caudate nuclei and patients having marginally larger right than left caudate volumes. Within patients, the two...

  10. 首发精神分裂症儿童少年的共患病%Comorbidity in children and adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 刘靖; 姚旭东

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the occurrence of comorbidity in children and adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia and explore the clinical features of schizophrenia with comorbidity and risk factors of comorbidity. Methods: Fifty-two children and adolescents meeting criteria for schizophrenia of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-Ⅳ) were included in this cross-sectional study. They were assessed with the self-made general condition questionnaire, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), KiddieSade-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL), Chinese version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents ( MINI Kid) ( Parent Version), Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS) and the Social Disability Screening Schedule (SDSS). Results: There were 57.7% (30/52) of children and adolescents with firstepisode schizophrenia having comorbidities. There were 14 (26. 9% ) with current comorbidities, 10 ( 19. 2% ) with previous comorbidities, 6 (11.5% ) with current and previous comorbidities. There were 24 (46.2%) having 1 comorbidity, 4 (7. 7% ) having 2 comorbidities, 2 (3.8%) having 3 comorbidities. The comorbidities included 19 with depression disorder (4 with suicide behavior), 5 with generalized anxiety disorder, 1 with panic disorder, 2 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, 2 with social phobia, 5 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 7 with tic disorder (5 with transient tic disorder and 2 with de la Tourette's syndrome), 2 with pervasive developmental disorder (both were Asperger's syndromes). The previous comorbidities included 5 with depression disorder, 1 with panic disorder, 2 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, 1 with social phobia, 2 with ADHD, 7 with tic disorder. The current comorbidities included 14 with depression disorder, 5 with generalized anxiety disorder, 2 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, 1 with social phobia, 3 with ADHD, 2 with pervasive

  11. Comparison of Neuropsychological Function of First-episode Schizophrenia Patients and Their Healthy Siblings%首发精神分裂症及其健康同胞神经心理功能的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡茂荣; 王娟; 李乐华; 陈晋东; 吴仁容; 赵靖平

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨首发精神分裂症患者及其健康同胞神经心理功能差异.方法:采用范畴流利测验、连线测验(TMT)、数字符号编码测验和Stoop测验对在92例首发精神分裂症患者、56例健康同胞及62例健康对照者进行测评.结果:首发精神分裂症患者及其健康同胞所有神经心理测验成绩均差于健康对照组(P<0.05).与健康同胞组比较.首发精神分裂症患者组除范畴流利测验外,其他神经心理测验成绩差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:首发精神分裂症患者及其健康同胞存在认知损害,语义流畅性功能可能是精神分裂症的潜在内表型.%Objective: To explore difference of neuropsychological function among first-episode schizophrenia patients,their healthy siblings and healthy controls.Methods: 92 first-episode schizophrenia patients, 56 their healthy siblings and 62 healthy controls were assessed with Category Fluency Test, Trail Making Test (TMT), Symbol Coding Test, and Stroop Test.Results: Compared with controls, first-episode schizophrenia patients and their healthy siblings showed poorer performance on all measures of neuropsychological tests.Patients performed worse than siblings in other any measures except for Category Fluency Test.Conclusion: First-episode schizophrenia patients and their healthy siblings have neuropsychological deficits.Semantic verbal fluency may be tests for the potential endophenotype of schizophrenia.

  12. 首发精神分裂症患者血清甲状腺激素检测临床研究%Clinical research of serum thyroid hormone detection in first-episode schizophrenia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小泉; 王祖森; 宋传福; 梁可美; 李江涌; 侯正华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between thyroid function and first-episode schizophrenia and clinical signifi-cance. Methods A total of 84 unrelated schizophrenia inpatients were recruited from the Fourth People's Hospital of Wuhu City from December 2008 to August 2010. Self-made questionnaire was applied to collect the demographic data of all subjects. The cobas® e411 automatic electrochemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer was determined respectively to the two groups of serum thyroid glycine (T3),thyroxine(T4),freethyroidhormones(FT3,FT4)andthyroid-stimulatinghormone(TSH)level. AndtheSPSS13.0statis-tical software was carried on the chi-square test and t test. Results The serum T4(100.88 ±24.10) and FT3(4.64 ±4.64)levels in first-episode schizophrenia patients were lower than those in normal controls[(108. 09 ± 15. 13), P=0. 039;(4. 97 ± 4. 97),P=0. 012]. No significant differences were found in serum T3, FT4 and TSH levels between first-episode schizophrenia patients and con-trols(P>0. 05). The serum FT3 (4. 45 ± 0. 82) and FT4 (16. 40 ± 3. 48) levels in the female first-episode schizophrenia patients were significantly lower than that in the male group[(5. 07 ± 1. 00),P0.05);首发精神分裂症女性组血清FT3(4.45±0.82)、FT4(16.40±3.48)与男性组血清FT3(5.07± 1.00)、FT4(18.51±3.37)比较差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05)。结论首发精神分裂症,尤其是女性精神分裂症的发生与甲状腺异常高度相关,应采取有效措施应对。

  13. 氨磺必利与利培酮治疗首发精神分裂症的疗效对照研究%Amisulpride and Risperidone Treatment First-episode Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analysis efficacy of amisulpride and risperidone treatment first -episode schizophrenia.Methods 74 patients with first -episode schizo-phrenia were given Amisulpride and risperidone therapy,BPRS score,adverse reaction were compared.Result BPRS rating scale values were significantly reduced,be-tween groups was no significant difference;observation group adverse reactions(18.92%) was obviously lower than the control group.Conclusion Amisulpride and risper-idone can be effective in the treatment of first-episode schizophrenia,Amisulpride low adverse reaction,good safety.%目的:分析氨磺必利与利培酮治疗首发精神分裂症的疗效差异。方法选择74例首发精神分裂症患者为研究对象,分别给予氨磺必利及利培酮治疗,比较BPRS量表评分、不良反应发生率。结果观察组与对照组BPRS量表评分值均明显降低,组间比较无明显差异(P>0.05);观察组不良反应发生率(18.92%)明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论氨磺必利与利培酮均可有效治疗首发精神分裂症,氨磺必利不良反应较少,具有优良的治疗安全性。

  14. 首发精神分裂症患者执行功能障碍的对照研究%A case-control study of executive function in first-episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金成; 赵晓川; 宋美; 吴振国; 辛博; 高明龙

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨首发抑郁症患者执行功能损害的特点. 方法:80例首发精神分裂症患者作为研究组,80 例健康体检者作为对照组,采用威斯康星卡片分类测验( WCST)和Stroop色词测试评估两组的认知功能并进行比较. 结果:两组在 WSCT 的完成分类数、错误应答数、持续错误数和Stroop色词测试中读颜色卡片时错误数及所用时间差异有统计学意义(p<0.05). 结论:首次发病的精神分裂症患者存在执行功能显著受损.%Objective:To observe the characteristics of executive function of first-episode schizophrenia.Methods:80 first-episode schizophrenia were col-lected to the study group, and the control group with 80 normal people.Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Stroop color word test were conducted to assess the pa-tient's executive function, the results were compared.Results:The correct categories, response errors, continue errors of WSCT and the errors, time of Stroop were statis-ticly different between two groups(p<0.05).Conclusions:The executive function in patients with first-episode schizophrenia shows impairment.

  15. A virtual reality task based on animal research – spatial learning and memory in patients after the first episode of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Fajnerová, Iveta; Rodriguez, Mabel; Levčík, David; Konrádová, Lucie; Mikoláš, Pavol; Brom, Cyril; Stuchlík, Aleš; Vlček, Kamil; Horáček, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Cognitive deficit is considered to be a characteristic feature of schizophrenia disorder. A similar cognitive dysfunction was demonstrated in animal models of schizophrenia. However, the poor comparability of methods used to assess cognition in animals and humans could be responsible for low predictive validity of current animal models. In order to assess spatial abilities in schizophrenia and compare our results with the data obtained in animal models, we designed a virtual analo...

  16. Epidemiological and clinical characterization following a first psychotic episode in major depressive disorder: Comparisons with Schizophrenia and Bipolar I Disorder in the Cavan-Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study (CAMFEPS).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Owoeye, Olabisi

    2013-05-28

    While recent research on psychotic illness has focussed on the nosological, clinical, and biological relationships between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, little attention has been directed to the most common other psychotic diagnosis, major depressive disorder with psychotic features (MDDP). As this diagnostic category captures the confluence between dimensions of psychotic and affective psychopathology, it is of unappreciated heuristic potential to inform on the nature of psychotic illness. Therefore, the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of MDDP were compared with those of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder within the Cavan-Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study (n = 370). Epidemiologically, the first psychotic episode of MDDP (n = 77) was uniformly distributed across the adult life span, while schizophrenia (n = 73) and bipolar disorder (n = 73) were primarily disorders of young adulthood; the incidence of MDDP, like bipolar disorder, did not differ between the sexes, while the incidence of schizophrenia was more common in males than in females. Clinically, MDDP was characterized by negative symptoms, executive dysfunction, neurological soft signs (NSS), premorbid intellectual function, premorbid adjustment, and quality of life similar to those for schizophrenia, while bipolar disorder was characterized by less prominent negative symptoms, executive dysfunction and NSS, and better quality of life. These findings suggest that what we currently categorize as MDDP may be more closely aligned with other psychotic diagnoses than has been considered previously. They indicate that differences in how psychosis is manifested vis-à-vis depression and mania may be quantitative rather than qualitative and occur within a dimensional space, rather than validating categorical distinctions.

  17. Primeiro episódio da esquizofrenia e assistência de enfermagem Primer episodio de la esquizofrenia y asistencia de enfermería First episode of schizophrenia and nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Cristina Ciccone Giacon

    2006-06-01

    disponibles y pocos recursos sociales. Tal condición muestra la necesidad de estudios relacionados al primer episodio.Schizophrenia is one of the main health problems in current days, requiring considerable investment from the health system. Intervening in the first episode offers a unique opportunity in the treatment of schizophrenia and influences the course of the illness. This article consists of a critical literature review aimed at examining knowledge on first episode schizophrenia and discussing the contribution of nursing care. A research was carried out in bibliographical databases. The data collected made possible the organization of information on the general concept of schizophrenia, its first episode, types of intervention and nursing performance. We found out that in Brazil there are few studies related to first episode schizophrenia in Nursing, few available specialized services, and few social resources. This situation reveals the need for more studies on first episode schizophrenia.

  18. First-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    social functioning. 16.4 percent of the patients remained psychotic within the first two years. These patients were younger, usually men living alone, with longer DUP, worsening of premorbid social functioning and with schizophrenia. Control of interaction effects showed that duration of untreated...... should warn clinicians to pay attention to the more elaborate needs of these patients. A re-evaluation at three months should reveal that non-remitted patients with longer DUPs indicate high risk of continuous non-remission. A possible shift to clozapine for this group should be strongly considered....

  19. Structural brain abnormalities in early onset first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, A K; Baaré, William Frans Christian; Raabjerg Christensen, A M;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations. METHODS: We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, delusi...... already at illness onset in young schizophrenia spectrum patients, suggests aberrant neurodevelopmental processes in the pathogenesis of these disorders. Gray matter volume changes, however, appear not to be a key feature in early onset first-episode psychosis....

  20. Association between impaired brain activity and volume at the sub-region of Broca's area in ultra-high risk and first-episode schizophrenia: A multi-modal neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashiro, Norichika; Koike, Shinsuke; Satomura, Yoshihiro; Suga, Motomu; Nagai, Tatsuya; Natsubori, Tatsunobu; Tada, Mariko; Gonoi, Wataru; Takizawa, Ryu; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that functional abnormalities in Broca's area, which is important in language production (speech and thoughts before speech), play an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. While multi-modal approaches have proved useful in revealing the specific pathophysiology of psychosis, the association of functional abnormalities with gray matter volume (GMV) here in subjects with an ultra-high risk (UHR) of schizophrenia, those with first-episode schizophrenia (FES), and healthy controls has yet to be clarified. Therefore, the relationship between cortical activity measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during a verbal fluency task, and GMV in the Broca's area assessed using a manual tracing in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which considers individual structural variation, was examined for 57 subjects (23 UHR/18 FES/16 controls). The UHR and FES group showed significantly reduced brain activity compared to control group in the left pars triangularis (PT) (P=.036, .003, respectively). Furthermore in the FES group, the reduced brain activity significantly positively correlated with the volume in the left PT (B=0.29, P=.027), while significant negative association was evident for all subjects (B=-0.18, P=.010). This correlation remained significant after adjusting for antipsychotics dosage, and voxel-wise analysis could not detect any significant correlation between impaired cortical activity and volume. The significant relationship between neural activity and GMV in the left PT may reflect a specific pathophysiology related to the onset of schizophrenia. PMID:26873807

  1. Distinct molecular phenotypes in male and female schizophrenia patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M Ramsey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In schizophrenia, sex specific dimorphisms related to age of onset, course of illness and response to antipsychotic treatment may be mirrored by sex-related differences in the underlying molecular pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we have carried out multiplex immunoassay profiling of sera from 4 independent cohorts of first episode antipsychotic naive schizophrenia patients (n = 133 and controls (n = 133 to identify such sex-specific illness processes in the periphery. The concentrations of 16 molecules associated with hormonal, inflammation and growth factor pathways showed significant sex differences in schizophrenia patients compared with controls. In female patients, the inflammation-related analytes alpha-1-antitrypsin, B lymphocyte chemoattractant BLC and interleukin-15 showed negative associations with positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS scores. In male patients, the hormones prolactin and testosterone were negatively associated with PANSS ratings. In addition, we investigated molecular changes in a subset of 33 patients before and after 6 weeks of treatment with antipsychotics and found that treatment induced sex-specific changes in the levels of testosterone, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, follicle stimulating hormone, interleukin-13 and macrophage-derived chemokine. Finally, we evaluated overlapping and distinct biomarkers in the sex-specific molecular signatures in schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that future studies should investigate the common and sex-specific aetiologies of schizophrenia, as the current findings suggest that different therapeutic strategies may be required for male and female patients.

  2. Cognitive Effects of Antipsychotic Drugs in First-Episode Schizophrenia and Schizophreniform Disorder: A Randomized, Open-Label Clinical Trial (EUFEST)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Davidson; S. Galderisi; M. Weiser; N. Werbeloff; W.W. Fleischhacker; R.S. Keefe; H. Boter; I.P.M. Keet; D. Prelipceanu; J.K. Rybakowski; J. Libiger; M. Hummer; S. Dollfus; J.J. López-Ibor; L.G. Hranov; W. Gaebel; J. Peuskens; N. Lindefors; A. Riecher-Roessler; R.S. Kahn

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive impairment, manifested as mild to moderate deviations from psychometric norms, is present in many but not all schizophrenia patients. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of haloperidol with that of second-generation antipsychotic drugs on the cognitive per

  3. 护理访谈对首发精神分裂症病人家属心理状况的影响%The impact of nursing interview on the psychological status of first-episode schizophrenia patients' family members

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫金灿; 冼彩燕

    2012-01-01

    目的:评价护理访谈对首发精神分裂症病人家属心理健康状况的影响.方法:在人院时、住院期间、出院前对80例首发精神分裂症病人家属实施护理访谈,采用SCL - 90对家属进行心理健康测评.结果:首发精神分裂症病人家属SCL-90各项因子分与常模比较,访谈前,其人际关系、焦虑、抑郁、偏执、敌对、恐怖和躯体化7项因子分比较有差异(P<0.05);病人的配偶有4项因子分得分高于病人的子女或父母的得分(P<0.05).干预后,各项因子分与国内常模比较无差异(P>0.05).结论:护理访谈能改善首发精神分裂症病人家属,尤其是配偶的心理健康状况,缓解家属的心理压力,给病人一个良好的家庭康复环境,有利于促进病人早日康复.%Objective:To evaluate the impact of nursing interviews on psychological status of first - episode schizophrenia patients' family members. Methods; Cany out nursing interviews for the 80 patients' family members when patients on admission, during hospitalization,discharge. Used SCL -90 to evaluate their psychological status. Results: Before the interview, the overall mental health status of the first - episode schizophrenia patients' family members, compared with the norm, there were significant differences in seven factors scores, such as their interpersonal relationships, anxiety, depression, paranoia, hostility, terror and somatization ( P 0.05 ). Conclusion: Nursing interview could improve the mental health status of first - episode schizophrenia patients' family members, especially the spouses of the patients. To ease the psychological pressure, give patients a good family rehabilitative environment, promote the patient a speedy recovery.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and the Prediction of Outcome in First-Episode Schizophrenia: A Review of Current Evidence and Directions for Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    Dazzan, Paola; Arango, Celso; Fleischacker, Wolfgang; Galderisi, Silvana; Glenthøj, Birte; Leucht, Stephan; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kahn, Rene; Rujescu, Dan; Sommer, Iris; Winter, Inge; McGuire, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measures are promising outcome markers for schizophrenia, since regional frontal and temporal grey matter volumes reductions, and enlargement of the ventricles, have been associated with outcome in this disorder. However, a number of methodological issues have limited the potential clinical utility of these findings. This article reviewed studies that examined brain structure at illness onset as a predictor of outcome, discusses the limitations of the findings...

  5. Levels of serum anti-NMDAR antibodies in patients with first-episode schizophrenia%首发精神分裂症患者血清抗 NMDAR 抗体水平的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓江; 曾勇; 李明; 熊鹏; 徐飞; 陈鹏

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究首发精神分裂症患者血清中抗N -甲基-D -天冬氨酸受体(NMDAR)抗体浓度水平变化。方法用酶联免疫吸附技术(ELISA)测定80名健康对照和82例首发精神分裂症患者血清抗NMDAR抗体浓度水平。结果首发精神分裂症患者组血清抗NMDAR抗体浓度显著高于对照组[(208.84±113.60)pg/ml比(107.29±40.57)pg/ml ],差异有统计学意义(t =-7.162,P <0.01)。患者组男、女血清抗NMDAR抗体浓度水平[(215.75±133.20)pg/ml比(200.00±83.14)pg/ml]差异无统计学意义(t=0.621,P>0.05)。精神分裂症患者血清抗NMDAR抗体浓度与PANSS总分、阳性症状分及阴性症状分均呈正相关( r值分别为0.364,0.276,0.260;P<0.05)。结论首发精神分裂症患者血清抗NMDAR抗体水平升高,与精神分裂症临床症状呈正相关。%Objective To explore serum level of anti-NMDAR antibodies in patients with first-episode schizophrenia .Methods The serum concentrations of anti -NMDAR antibodies in 80 healthy controls and 82 patients with first -episode schizophrenia were assessed by enzyme linked immunosor‐bent assay (ELISA) .Results The level of serum anti-NMDAR antibody in first-episode schizophreni‐a was observably higher than healthy controls[(208 .84 ± 113 .60)pg/ml vs(107 .29 ± 40 .57) pg/ml] , and the difference was statistically significant (t = - 7 .162 ,P 0 .05) .The serum concentra‐tion of anti -NMDAR antibodies was positively correlated with PANSS total score ,the positive syn‐drome scores and the negative syndrome scores (r= 0 .364 ,0 .276 ,0 .260 ,respectively ;P< 0 .05) .Con‐clusions The level of serum antibody anti -NMDAR in first -episode schizophrenia is increased ,and there is a positive correlation with the clinical symptoms of schizophrenia .

  6. Clinical analysis on duration of untreated psychosis and early symptoms of first-episode schizophrenia%首发精神分裂症未治疗时间与早期症状临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical analysis on duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and early symptoms of first-episode schizophrenia. Methods: Psychotic symptoms rating scale (SOS) was used to evaluate the early symptoms and DUP of 100 patients eligible for the first-episode schizophrenia in CCMD-Ⅲ.Results: Early symptoms with the incidence rate of over 40% and lasting more than 6 months were sleep disturbance, role dysfunction, suspicion, bizarre behaviors, emotional disorders, ideas of reference, abnormal perception, paranoia, abulomania and so on. The median DUP was 26 months and the long DUP was relevant to negative symptoms. Conclusion: The early identification of early symptoms, strengthening publicity of mental health knowledge and shortening DUP are very important.%目的:探讨首发精神分裂症未治疗时间(DUP)及患者早期症状临床分析.方法:对100例符合(CCMD-Ⅲ)中精神分裂症首次发作的患者应用首发精神分裂症精神症状评定量表(SOS)评定早期症状及患者的DUP.结果:发生率>40%、持续时间超过6个月的早期症状依次有睡眠障碍、角色功能障碍、疑心、怪异行为、情绪障碍、牵连观念、知觉异常、妄想、意志缺乏等.DUP中位数为26个月且长DUP与阴性症状相关.结论:尽早识别早期症状,加强精神卫生的知识宣传,缩短DUP非常重要.

  7. Effect of outpatient follow-up on the rehabilitation of patients with first-episode schizophrenia%门诊随访对首发精神分裂症患者康复疗效的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪英; 王树珍; 余莉; 石璐

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the adjunctive effect of outpatient follow-up on the rehabilitation of patients with first-episode schizophrenia.Methods Methods included establishing outpatient follow-up teams,developing the records of patients,providing follow-up services through telephone,mailing letters,consultation hot line,home-visiting and so on.The two groups of patients with psychiatric symptoms,social function,quality of life and medication compliance were evaluated.Results Outpatient follow-up relieved the psychiatric symptoms and improved social functions,increased the medication compliance and improved the patients'quality of life (P <0.01).Conclusion Outpatient follow-up can significantly improve the rehabilitation of the patients with first-episode schizophrenia,and enhance their quality of life and social functions.%目的 探讨门诊随访对首发精神分裂症患者的辅助治疗作用.方法 成立门诊随访小组,建立患者档案资料,采用电话随访、邮递信函、咨询热线及上门随访等形式进行门诊随访干预,并对两组患者的精神病症状、社会功能、生活质量和服药依从性进行评价.结果 门诊随访干预12个月后,改善了患者精神症状和社会功能,提高了服药依从性和生活质量(P<0.01).结论 门诊随访可明显提高首发精神分裂症患者的康复疗效,提高其生活质量及社会功能.

  8. Study of Lurasidone in Treating Antipsychotic Naive or Quasi-Naive Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-24

    Schizophrenia; Schizoaffective Disorder; Schizophreniform Disorder; Psychosis NOS; Autistic Disorder; Asperger Syndrome; Child Development Disorders, Pervasive; Bipolar I Disorder; Bipolar II Disorder; Mood Disorder NOS; Severe Major Depression With Psychotic Features; Single Episode Major Depression Without Psychotic Symptoms; Severe Mood Disorder With Psychotic Features

  9. Auditory change detection in schizophrenia: sources of activity, related neuropsychological function and symptoms in patients with a first episode in adolescence, and patients 14 years after an adolescent illness-onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachsse Jan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The event-related brain response mismatch negativity (MMN registers changes in auditory stimulation with temporal lobe sources reflecting short-term echoic memory and frontal sources a deviance-induced switch in processing. Impairment, controversially present at the onset of schizophrenia, develops rapidly and can remain independent of clinical improvement. We examined the characteristics of the scalp-recorded MMN and related these to tests of short-term memory and set-shifting. We assessed whether the equivalent dipole sources are affected already at illness-onset in adolescence and how these features differ after a 14-year course following an adolescent onset. The strength, latency, orientation and location of frontal and temporal lobe sources of MMN activity early and late in the course of adolescent-onset schizophrenia are analysed and illustrated. Methods MMN, a measure of auditory change-detection, was elicited by short deviant tones in a 3-tone oddball-presentation and recorded from 32 scalp electrodes. Four dipole sources were placed following hypothesis-led calculations using brain electrical source analysis on brain atlas and MR-images. A short neuropsychological test battery was administered. We compared 28 adolescent patients with a first episode of schizophrenia and 18 patients 14 years after diagnosis in adolescence with two age-matched control groups from the community (n = 22 and 18, respectively. Results MMN peaked earlier in the younger than the older subjects. The amplitude was reduced in patients, especially the younger group, and was here associated with negative symptoms and slow set-shifting. In first-episode patients the temporal lobe sources were more ventral than in controls, while the left cingular and right inferior-mid frontal sources were more caudal. In the older patients the left temporal locus remained ventral (developmental stasis, the right temporal locus extended more antero

  10. 精神病未治疗期长短对首发精神分裂症脑灰质的影响%Effect of duration of untreated psychosis on gray matter in untreated first-episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏钦令; 李雷俊; 骆众星; 康庄; 韩自力; 张晋碚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of duration of untreated psychosis(DUP) and the gray matter volumes in patients with first-episode schizophrenia.Methods 39 patients with first-episode schizophrenia were divided into two groups according to DUP:long-DUP group and short-DUP group.All the subjects underwent T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging.After transformed with MRIcro software,all the images underwent standardization,segmentation,modulation and smoothing with Statistical Parametric Mapping 5 (SPM5) software.The gray matter volumes of the two groups underwent two-sample t-test with a Voxel-based morphometry (VBM)using SPM5 software.Results Long-DUP schizophrenic patients presented significantly reduced GM volume in the left thalamus(MNI:-6,-16,2;cluster=141 voxels)and the left temporal lobe(MNI:-46,-58,-6;cluster=69 Voxels),compared with short-DUP schizophrenic patients.Conclusion Delayed DUP may increase the loss of gray matter in schizophrenia.%目的 分析精神病未治疗期(duration of untreated psychosis,DUP)对精神分裂症患者局部脑灰质结构的影响.方法 39例首发未服药精神分裂症患者根据DUP分为长DUP组和短DUP组.所有受试者接受T1加权成像扫描.所得图像经MRIcro软件转化为统计参数图(Statistical Parametric Mapping-V,SPM5)软件町以处理的图像.然后以SPM5软件进行}冬{像的标准化、分割、调整和平滑等步骤.对两组的平滑后灰质图像以VBM方法进行两样本t检验.结果 ①长DUP患者左侧丘脑区(MNI:-6,-16,2;cluster=141voxels)、左侧颞叶区(MNI:-46,-58,-6;cluster=69 voxels)灰质体积较短DUP患者下降.②未发现长DUP患者有脑区灰质体积较短DUP患者增高.结论 发病后未治疗时间的延长会加重精神分裂症患者的脑灰质结构障碍.

  11. Survey on glucose metabolism in patients with first episode attack of schizophrenia%首发精神分裂症患者糖代谢的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈姝子; 刘遵建; 张成芳; 崔东红; 林萍

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨首发精神分裂症患者的糖代谢情况.方法:对56例首发精神分裂症患者及56名健康人进行空腹血糖、餐后2h血糖、胰岛素及糖化血红蛋白的测定,并计算胰岛素抵抗指数.结果:精神分裂症患者的餐后2h血糖、胰岛素、糖化血红蛋白( HbAc1)水平及胰岛素抵抗指数均高于健康对照者,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).精神分裂症患者组的糖代谢异常发生率为23.2%,与健康对照组相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).男女性别间糖代谢异常发生率无统计学意义,而随着年龄增大,其糖代谢异常发生率明显上升.结论:与普通人群相比,首发精神分裂症患者具有较高的糖代谢异常发生率,提示精神分裂症与糖代谢异常间可能存在一定相关性.%Objective: To study the status of glucose metabolism in patients with first episode attack of schizophrenia. Methods Fifty- six patients with first-episode attack of schizophrenia and 56 healthy normal controls were enrolled in the study. Fasting plasma glucose( FPG), 2-hour plasma glucose in the oral glucose tolerance test (PG), fasting insulin level (FI) and HbAlc were determined in the two groups. IR (insulin resistance) was calculated. The diagnosis of impaired glucose regulation (IGR) was made according to the WHO criteria. Results 2h-PG, FI,HbAlc and IR were significantly higher in patients than in controls. The prevalence of IGR was significantly higher in patients than in controls (P<0.01). No statistically significant difference was found between male and female. The prevalence rate of IGR increased with the increase in age. Conclusions The prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism is high in patients with first-episode attack of schizophrenia. This suggests that there may be some correlation between impaired glucose metabolism and schizophrenia.

  12. 初发精神分裂症患者神经认知功能早期受损状况调查%The survey of impaired neurocognitive function in patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊峰; 贺定翠; 邓小鹏; 凃哲明; 刘波

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过分析初发精神分裂症患者与健康人群认知功能的差异,探讨初发精神分裂症患者早期神经认知功能缺陷的程度与特点。方法选取住院的初发精神分裂症患者120例为患者组,健康人群120例为对照组,采用阳性与阴性症状量表、成套神经认知功能测验全面评定患者的精神症状与认知功能。结果(1)阳性症状、阴性症状、一般精神病理以及PANSS总分无性别差异(P>0.05)。(2)在11项神经认知功能测验中,患者组与对照组之间差异显著(P<0.05),患者组学习和记忆、精细动作、信息处理速度以及执行功能的成绩显著低于对照组( P<0.001)。(3)男患者的颜色连线2测验( P<0.05)、Stroop色词测验(单词总数 P<0.05,颜色总数 P<0.05,色/词总数 P<0.01)、WMS-Ⅲ空间广度总分(P<0.01)的成绩显著低于女患者。结论初发精神分裂症患者的认知功能全面损害,且男性患者执行功能与视觉空间记忆的缺陷更严重。%Objective To investigate the neurocognitive function of patients with first-episode schizophrenia by comparing the difference between schizophrenia group and health group.Methods One hundred and twenty patients with first-episode schizophrenia were considered as the patient group ,and 120 normal people were considered as the control group. The psychiat-ric symptoms and cognitive function of two groups were evaluated by a positive and negative syndrome scale and a set of neuro-psychological test battery. Results The neuropsychological function ,learning and memory ,fine movement ,information pro-cessing speed and executive function of patients group were lower than these of control group ;the color trail making test 2 , stroop color word test and WMS-Ⅲ spatial span of male patients were lower than female patients. Conclusion The neuropsy-chological function ,executive function and visual space

  13. Study on Aggressive Behavior of First Episode Schizophrenia Patients.%首发精神分裂症患者攻击行为的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永刚

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨有攻击行为精神分裂症的临床特征及相关问题.方法 196例首发精神分裂症患者按有无攻击行为分为研究组和对照组,研究组76例伴有攻击行为,对照组120例无攻击行为,两组分别从性别、文化程度、家庭史、发病年龄、精神症状、诊断分型、脑电图和病前性格等方面对照分析.结果 两组经t检验,x2检验,在性别(x2=6.54,P<0.05)、发病年龄(t=2.71,P<0.05)、诊断分型偏执型(x2=4.32,P<0.05)、诊断分型青春型(x2=265.69,P<0.05)、阳性精神症状(x2=58.32,P<0.05)、脑电图(x2=10.65,P<0.05)和病前性格(x2=12.19,P<0.05)等方面差异明显.结论 有攻击行为的精神分裂症患者与生物、心理社会因素关系密切.%Objective To explore the clinical features of schizophrenia patients with aggressive behavior and related issues. Methods A total of 196 cases of schizophrenia were divided into study group and control group.study group 76 cases with aggressive behavior,in the control group of 120 patients without aggressive behavior.two groups were similar to gender,education level, family history age of onset of psychiatric symptoms,diagnosis,classification,EEG and pre-morbid personality and so on. Results By t- test,X2 test,there were significant differences in gender (x2 = 6.54,P<0. 05),age (t=2. 71,P<0. 05),diagnosis of paranoid type (x2 = 4. 32,P<0.05),Diagnostic classification of youth type (x2= 265. 69,P<0. 05),positive psychotic symptoms (x2= 58. 32,P<0. 05),electroencephalogram (X2 = 10. 65,P<0. 05) and pre-morbid personality (x2=12. 19,P<0. 05).Conclusion Aggressive behavior in schizophrenic patients is related to biologicad and social fuctors.

  14. Study on metabolic risk of first-episode acute schizophrenia patients treated with aripiprazole%阿立哌唑对首发急性精神分裂症患者代谢风险的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小立; 文飞; 钟智勇; 韩自力

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑对首发急性期精神分裂症患者的代谢影响.方法:31例首发急性期精神分裂症患者入选病例组接受阿立哌唑治疗,治疗前后各测量一次体重、腰围、腰臀比、血清TC、TG、高密度脂蛋白(HDL)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL)、载脂蛋白A1(Apo-A1)、载脂蛋白B(Apo B100)、脂蛋白a(LPa)、空腹血糖(FBS)、空腹胰岛素(INS)、C肽(C-P),并分别计算出BMI、胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR).另设健康对照组44例,同法测量上述指标.将病例组与健康对照组、病例组治疗前后各项指标进行比较分析.结果:病例组INS、C-P及HOMA-IR均高于正常对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);病例组治疗后体重、BMI、腰围、腰臀比均较治疗前增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗后:病例组TG、INS、C-P、HOMA-IR均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);且aPOA1低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:精神分裂症患者本身可能存在有代谢异常;非典型抗精神病药物(APS)阿立哌唑对患者血糖、血脂代谢相对影响较小.%AIM: To study the metabolic risk of first-episode acute schizophrenia patients trea ted with aripiprazole.METHODS: 31 first-episode acute patients with schizophrenic were enrolled into case group and 44 healthy subjects were enrolled into controle group, all cases accepted treatment with oral aripiprazole.At the baseline and at the end, all patients were checked or tested for weight, waist circumference, waist-to-hipratio(WHR), TC, TG, high density lipoprotein(HDL), low density lipoprotein(LDL), apolipoprotein A1 ( Apo Al), apolipoprotein B (Apo-B100), lipoprotein a (LPa),fasting blood glucose (FBS), fasting insulin (INS)and c-peptide(C-P),respectively.The BMI and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated.All indexes were compared and analysed between the case group and controle group,pre and post treatment in the case group.RESULTS:The INS, C-P and HOMA

  15. Effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on recovery of first episode schizophrenia%认知行为治疗对首发精神分裂症患者康复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹九英; 邓文英; 许律琴; 傅深省; 蒋娅玲

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨认知行为治疗对首发精神分裂症患者康复的影响.方法 将80例精神科住院的首发精神分裂症患者分为两组,对照组40例,采用常规药物治疗和护理,研究组40例,在患者住院2周后增加认知行为治疗.干预前后采用阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS)、住院患者护士观察量表(NOSIE)、住院精神患者社会功能评定量表(SSPI)、症状评定量表(SCL-90)进行评定,并与对照组进行比较.结果 干预后两组患者NOSIE各因子分、总积极分、总消极分和SSPI量表、PANSS量表评分比较,经统计学分析,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).研究组患者SCL-90量表因子中人际关系、抑郁、焦虑、敌对、恐怖、偏执、精神病性因子分明显减少(P<0.05).结论 认知行为治疗干预可明显加快首发精神分裂症患者的社会功能的恢复,提高患者生活质量,促进患者的康复.%Objective To evaluate the intervention effects of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) on the patients with first episode schizophrenia. Methods A total of 80 patients with first episode schizophrenia were randomly divided into study group (n =40) and control group (n =40). The study group was treated by routine drugs and psychiatric nursing after two weeks combining with CBT while the control group was treated only by routine drugs and psychiatric nursing. Both groups were assessed with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Nurses Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation (NOSIE) , Scale of Social-skill for Psychiatric Inpatients (SSPI) , and Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90) before and after CBT intervention. The scores of those scales were compared between two groups. Results There were significant differences after CBT intervention in all factors, total negative factors and total positive factors of NOSIE, total score of SSPI and PANSS (P<0.01) between two groups. Factors score of interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, panic, paranoid ideation

  16. Application of Maslows hierarchy of needs in rehabilitation of first-episode schizophrenia%马斯洛需要层次论在首发精神分裂症患者康复中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲金玉; 蒲冬玉; 张笑梅; 孙梦月; 刘情情

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨马斯洛需要层次论在首发精神分裂症患者康复护理中的应用效果.方法:首发精神分裂症患者80例,随机分为2组各40例.观察组用马斯洛需要层次论作为指导,针对患者不同阶段的不同需要采取护理措施,满足其躯体和心理各层次的需要;对照组按精神科常规护理.分别在入院时、治疗6周后及出院时,采用阳性和阴性症状评定量表(PANSS)、护士用住院患者观察量表(NOSIE-30)及社会功能缺陷筛选量表(SDSS)进行评定.结果:治疗6周后和出院时2组PANSS总分、阳性症状、阴性症状、一般精神病理评分及SDSS评分均低于入院时(P<0.05,0.01),均呈持续下降趋势,且观察组更低于对照组(P<0.05);治疗6周后和出院时2组NOSIE-30评分均高于入院时(P<0.05,0.01),均呈持续上升趋势,且观察组更高于对照组(P<0.05).结论:在首发精神分裂症患者康复过程中,应用马斯洛需要层次论指导临床护理,能提高治疗依从性及生活自理能力,改善患者生活质量,促进社会功能的康复.%Objective: To explore the application of Maslows hierarchy of needs in rehabilitation of first-episode schizophrenia. Methods: Eighty cases of first-episode schizophrenia were randomly divided into two groups.40 cases in each group. The patients in observation group were guided by Maslows hierarchy of needs according to different needs of different stages, and nursing intervention was given to meet patients' physical and psychological needs patients in control group were given routine psychiatric nursing. The scores of PANSS. NOSIE-30 and SDSS on admission.6 weeks after admission.and at discharge were assessed. Results: Six weeks after admission and at discharge, the scores of PANSS. negative symptoms, positive symptoms and general psychopathology subscale in both groups were lower than pretreatment( P<0. 05 .0. 01 ) .exhibiting a persistent downward trend.and more significantly in

  17. Relationship between serum level of GFAP and cognitive function in patients with first episode schizophrenia.%首发精神分裂症患者血清GFAP与认知功能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国华; 李继荣; 吴秋霞; 熊鹏; 曾勇; 徐飞; 卢瑾; 姜林伶

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究首发精神分裂症患者血清中胶质纤维酸性蛋白(Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein,GFAP)水平的变化与认知功能障碍之间的关系.方法 用酶联免疫吸附技术(Enzyme-linked Immunoadsordent Assay,ELISA)测定48例精神分裂症患者(患者组)和42例正常对照者(对照组)血清GFAP的浓度,并用威斯康星卡片分类测验(Wisconsin Cord Sorting Test,WCST)检测首发精神分裂症患者和正常人的认知功能.比较两组血清GFAP浓度,同时探讨GFAP浓度的变化与认知功能的关系.结果 (1)患者组血清浓度高于对照组(P<0.01);(2)患者组WCST成绩低于对照组(P<0.01),表明首发精神分裂症患者认知功能及执行能力比正常人差;(3)相关分析表明WCST中错误应答数、持续性错误数与患者血清GFAP浓度呈正相关,完成分类个数与患者血清GFAP浓度呈负相关(P<0.05).结论 首发精神分裂症患者存在认知功能障碍和神经胶质细胞损害,且代表神经胶质细胞损害的血清GFAP浓度与认知功能障碍程度呈正相关.%Objective To study the relevance between serum level of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cognitive dysfunction in patients with first episode schizophrenia. Methods Serum GFAP level was measured with Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent method and the cognitive function was assessed with Wisconsin cord sorting test in 48 patients with first episode schizophrenia ( study group) and 42 normal controls ( control group) . Serum GFAP level was compared between the two groups and the relationship between GFAP level and cognitive dysfunction was analyzed. Results (1) Serum GFAP level in study group was significantly higher than that in control group ( P <0. 01). (2) Score of WCST in study group was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.01). (3)Serum GFAP level in study group was positively correlated with number of wrong answers and number of continued errors, and was negatively correlated

  18. 认知行为干预对首发精神分裂症患者的影响%Effect of cognitive behavior intervention on patients with first - episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭菜军; 叶会连; 黄美莲; 张月莲; 钟丽红

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨认知行为干预对首发精神分裂症患者疾病康复及服药依从性的影响。方法:将120例首发精神分裂症患者随机分为研究组和对照组各60例,两组均接受常规抗精神病药物治疗和护理,在此基础上研究组予以认知行为干预,对照组接受常规健康教育及康疗活动;于干预前及干预第6周末采用自制的药物认知与服药态度评估表及简明精神病评定量表( BPRS)来评价患者服药依从性的优劣及疾病的康复情况。结果:干预8周后,研究组服药态度、服药依从性明显改善,与对照组比较差异均有统计学意义(P <0.01),患者 BPRS 总分及各因子得分较对照组显著降低(P <0.01)。结论:对首发精神分裂症患者实施认知行为干预,有助于患者认识自身疾病,提高其服药依从性,对改善患者的病情有重要的临床意义,为预防复发、减少住院次数、促进早日回归社会奠定基础。%Objective:To investigate the effect of cognitive behavior intervention on the rehabilitation and medication compliance of pa-tients with first - episode schizophrenia. Methods:120 patients with first - episode schizophrenia were randomly divided into the study group and the control group(60 cases in each group). The patients in both groups received the conventional treatment with antipsychotic drugs and nursing care,in addition the patients in the study group were given cognitive behavior intervention and the patients in the control group only received routine health education and rehabilitation activities. The self - designed evaluation form of patient's cognition and atti-tude towards medication and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale(BPRS)were used to evaluate the patient's rehabilitation and the medica-tion compliance before the intervention and at the end of 6th week after the intervention. Results:After 8 weeks of treatment,the medication compliance and

  19. 奥氮平对首发精神分裂症认知功能影响的多中心研究%A Multicenter Study of Olanzapine on Congnitive Function in First-episode Schizophrenia.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙群星; 刘勇; 李四冬; 尹继续

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of olanzapine on cognitive function in first-episode schizophrenia. Methods 100 cases of first-episode schizophrenia were conducted a multicenter, randomized clinical trial. The positive and negative scale (PANSS) and 10 neuropsychological tests such as Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale, Weschler Memory Scale, Iorn Nails Tank Test, Flnger Tapping Test, Motor Function Test, Coordinated Hand function Test, Connection Test A and B, Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST) and Verbal Fluency Test were adopted to assess these subjectsat baseline and the end of 4,8,12 weeks. Results The total score of PANSS in both groups showed significant difference after treatment than before (P < 0.01 ). The efficiency rate and markedly effective rate in study group was 98.0% and 82.0% respectively, while control group was 96.0% and 78.0%respectively. There were not significant differences in curative effect between the two groups, but clozapine group had more side effects than olanzapine group (P < 0.01 ). Both groups has gradually improved in neuropsychological tests since 81h weekends. Compared with pre-treatment, neuropsychological tests such as tapping test, motor function test, coordinated hand function test and Wisconsin Card Sort Test were significantly different in both groups, and the study group was better than control groups. ( P < 0.05 ). Conclusions Olanzapine can better improve the cognitive function of first-episode schizophrenia.%目的 探讨奥氮平对首发精神分裂症患者认知功能的影响.方法 对100例首发精神分裂症患者进行随机观察.于治疗前,治疗第4周末、8周末、12周末各做一次韦氏成人智力量表、韦氏记忆量表、铁槽铁钉测验、手指敲击试验、动作功能测验、手功能协调测验、连线测验a和b、威斯康星卡片分类测验(WCST)及言语流利性测验等10项神经心理测查及阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)评定.结果 两组PANSS总

  20. 氨磺必利与阿立哌唑治疗首发精神分裂症对照研究%A Comparative Study of Amisulpride and Aripiprazole in the Treatment of First Episode Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇红杰

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨氨磺必利与阿立哌唑治疗首发精神分裂症的临床疗效与安全性。方法:将75例首发精神分裂症患者按照随机数字表法分成两组,氨磺必利组37例,阿立哌唑组38例,治疗8周。采用阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)评定疗效,采用治疗中出现的症状量表(TESS)评定不良反应。结果:氨磺必利组的治疗总有效率为89.19%,阿立哌唑组为92.11%,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。治疗第4、6、8周PANSS总分及各因子评分两组比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:氨磺必利与阿立哌唑治疗首发精神分裂症均有良好效果,不良反应均较少。%Objective:To investigate the efficacy and safety of Amisulpride and Aripiprazole in the treatment of first episode schizophrenia. Method:75 patients of first opisode schizoprenia were randomly divided into two groups(amisulpride 37,aripiprazole 38).Both of the amisulpride and aripiprazole were administered to two groups respectively for 8 weeks. Their symptoms were assessed with PANSS and their side effects were assessed with TESS before and after the treatment. Result:The total cure rates were 89.19%in amisulpride group and 92.11%in aripiprazole group,with no significant difference between the two groups(P>0.05). PANSS score and each factor score in treatment of 4,6,8 weeks between the two groups had no statistical significance(P>0.05). Conclusion:Both of the amisulpride and aripiprazole have notable curative effect with less side-effect in the treatment of first episode schizophrenia.

  1. Cortical and subcortical 5-HT2A receptor binding in neuroleptic-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erritzoe, David; Rasmussen, Hans; Kristiansen, Klaus Nyegaard;

    2008-01-01

    .5+/-5.7 years) and gender underwent a 40 min positron emission tomography (PET) study using the 5-HT(2A) antagonist, [(18)F]altanserin, as a radioligand. PET images were co-registered to 3 T magnetic resonance images (MRIs) for each individual subject, and ROIs were applied automatically onto the individual...... in the caudate nucleus was detected in the group of schizophrenic patients (0.7+/-0.1) when compared to the healthy controls (0.5+/-0.3) (p=0.02). Our results confirm other in vivo findings of no difference in cortical 5-HT(2A) receptor binding between first-episode antipsychotic-naive schizophrenic patients...... and age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. However, a preliminary finding of increased 5-HT(2A) binding in the caudate nucleus requires further investigation to explore the relation of subcortical and cortical 5-HT(2A) receptor binding....

  2. Value of Encephalofluctuograph technology in the diagnosis of first-episode schizophrenia%脑电超慢涨落检测对首发精神分裂症患者的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞扬; 陆春英; 过树荣

    2012-01-01

    目的 应用脑电超慢涨落仪(ET)测定阳性、阴性精神分裂症患者的神经递质水平,探讨脑电超慢涨落在精神分裂症诊断中的应用价值.方法 应用脑电超慢涨落仪,根据脑内不同神经递质有不同的振荡频率的原理,通过多重频谱分析与非线性处理的方法,测定100例首发精神分裂症和60例正常对照者各种神经递质的水平,对其结果进行分析.结果 ①与正常对照组相比,精神分裂症阳性组、阴性组的多巴胺(DA)活动升高,去甲肾上腺素(NE)、谷氨酸(Glu)活动降低,差异具有统计学意义;②与正常对照组比较,精神分裂症阴性组的5-羟色胺(5-HT)活动升高,差异具有统计学意义;③精神分裂症阳性组与阴性组比较,DA、5-HT、Glu、g-氨基丁酸、NE活动明显异常,差异具有统计学意义.结论 脑电超慢涨落仪在测定精神分裂症神经递质的变化中具有一定价值,可作为精神分裂症患者脑神经递质的评估手段之一.%Objective To determine the neurotransmitter levels of the positive and negative schizophrenia with Encephalofluctuograph technology (ET), and to further explore the application value of Encephalofluctuograph technology in the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Methods Encephalofluctuograph technology was adopted to measure the neurotransmitter levels in 100 patients with first episode schizophrenics and 60 healthy individuals (the control group). The results are analyzed subsequently. Results Compared to the control group, the positive schizophrenia group and negative schizophrenia group had significantly increased DA motility, significantly decreased NE and glue motility. The 5-HT motility of the negative schizophrenia group was significantly higher than that of the control group. The mobility of DA, 5-HT, Glu, GABA and NE in the positive schizophrenia group were significantly abnormal, showing statistically significant difference with those in the negative schizophrenia

  3. 利培酮口服液治疗首发精神分裂症急性期对照观察%A control study of risperidone oral solution in treating first-episode schizophrenia patients in acute phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄卓玮; 龚传鹏

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨利培酮13服液治疗首发精神分裂症急性期的疗效和安全性.方法:96例精神分裂症的急性期患者随机分为两组,分别给予利培酮口服液(研究组,n=49)和氯氮平(对照组,n=47)单药治疗4周.采用阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS)评定临床疗效,临床总体印象量表(CGI-SI)评定病情严重程度,治疗中出现的症状量表(TESS)评定不良反应,自编依从性量表评定依从性.结果:治疗后两组患者PANSS及CGI-SI评分显著下降(P0.05).治疗后第4天,研究组兴奋、敌对、不合作、冲动控制缺乏因子分下降较对照组显著(P<0.05);研究组不良反应发生率明显低于对照组(P<0.05);研究组治疗依从性在治疗14 d、28 d、3个月和6个月时均优于对照组(P<0.05).结论:利培酮口服液对首发精神分裂症急性期患者的疗效和氯氮平相当,但利培酮口服液改善兴奋、敌对性等因子分较迅速,耐受性和依从性较好.%Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of risperidone oral solution in the treatment of patients on the acute phase with first-episode schizophrenia. Method:96 schizophrenia patients were randomly assigned to the group treated with risperidone oral solution group ( n = 49 ) and the other group treated with clozapine (n =47 ),respectively for 4 weeks. The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and clinical global impressions-severity of illness rating scale(CGI-SI) were used to rate the efficacy;the treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) was used to measure side effects and the compliance scale was used to assess the subjects'compliance with the treatment. Results:Both risperidone and clozapine group significantly showed score decrease on PANSS and CGI-SI after 4 weeks (P <0.01 ), but no significant difference was found between two groups ( P > 0.05 ). Excitement, hostility, uncooperativeness and poor impulse control of PANSS significantly decreased more in risperidone oral solution group

  4. 健康教育对首发精神分裂症患者治疗效果的影响%The Effect of Health Education on Patients with First Episode Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳丽萍; 冯飞; 徐国建

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of health education on patients with first episode schizophrenia. Method A total of 80 patients with first episode schizophrenia were randomly assigned to either experimental group(n=40)which received health education and routine therapy or control group which received routine therapy only. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)was administered at baseline,week 2 and week 4. The Clinical Global Impression(CGI)was administered at the moment of reaching hospital and leaving hospital. Results Compared with control group,the experimental group showed more score decrease un BPRS at week 2 and 40 = 2. 43>.P<0. 05;t= 4. 73,P<0. 01) ;at the moment of leaving hospital,the GI of experimental group was less than that of control group 0 = 3. 5,P<0. 01). There was significant difference in compliance between two groups in a month after discharge (X2 = 10. 29,P<0. 01). Conclusion Health education can improve the effect on schizophrenia and treatment compliance.%目的 探讨健康教育对首发精神分裂症患者治疗效果的影响.方法 将40例在河南省洛阳荣康医院住院的首发精神分裂症、平均住院45天以上的患者,随机分成实验组和对照组各20例.实验组在接受常规抗精神病药物治疗的同时再接受健康教育,对照组只接受常规治疗.在入组前及实验的第2周,第4周分别进行简明精神病量表(BPRS)测评,在入院时和出院时分别进行临床疗效总评量表(CGI)测评,出院1个月后对所有患者和家属进行服药依从性的回访.结果 接受健康教育的实验组在第2周、第4周的BPRS评分较对照组评分低.两组间采用t检验,显示第2周评分结果对比有统计学意义(t=2.43,P<0.05);第4周对比有显著统计学意义(t=4.73,P<0.01).出院时实验组患者CGI“疗效总评(GI)”评分低于对照组,两组间采用t检验,差别有显著统计学意义(t=3.5,P<0.01).出院1个月服药依从性实

  5. Effects of amisulpride on the cognitive function in first-episode schizophrenia patients%氨磺必利对首发精神分裂症患者认知功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄继伟; 李林; 吕维忠; 韩自力

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨氨磺必利对首发精神分裂症患者认知功能的影响.方法 对64例首发精神分裂症患者,按抛币法随机分为两组,分别给予氨磺必利和利培酮治疗,疗程12周.在治疗前及治疗后2,4,8,12周末分别采用阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS),副反应量表(TESS)评定疗效和不良反应;治疗前后采用韦氏成人记忆量表(WMS-RC),威斯康星卡片分类测验(WCST),连线测验A和B等进行认知功能评定,并与正常对照组比较.结果 治疗12周后,氨磺必利组和利培酮组的PANSS总分分别为(44.7±6.7)分,(45.2±7.4)分,与治疗前比较均差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),两组间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).治疗前,两患者组WMS-RC的长时记忆,短时记忆,瞬时记忆,记忆商(QM),WCST的持续错误数(Rpe),持续应答数(Rp),完成第一个分类所需应答数(R1st)和完成分类数(Cc)及TAT-A,TAT-B受损明显,与对照组比较均差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或<0.01).治疗12周后,患者组WMS-RC的再认,联想,理解,背数,记忆商(QM),及TAT-A,TAT-B与治疗前比较均明显改善接近正常(均P>0.05);患者组WCST的Rpe,Rp,R1st,Cc评分[氨磺必利组分别为(20.63 ±13.06)分,(28.75±15.72)分,(43.17±22.13)分,(3.62±2.21)分.利培酮组分别为(20.41±13.82)分,(29.31±16.12)分,(42.78±21.42)分,(3.67±2.32)分.]与正常对照组比较均差异有统计学意义(均P<0.05).两组间治疗前后认知功能各项评分比较无统计学意义(均P>0.05).结论 氨磺必利治疗精神分裂症疗效肯定,与利培酮相当,对精神分裂症的认知功能缺陷有改善作用.%Objective To explore the effects of amisulpride on the cognitive function in first-episode schizophrenia patients.Methods 64 patients in first-episode schizophrenia were divided into two groups randomly according to the method of tossing a coin,then treated with amisulpride or risperidone respectively for 12 weeks.The efficacy and adverse

  6. N400 changes elicited by Chinese sentences in first episode schizophrenia%首发精神分裂症患者汉语认知过程中N400的改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兴时; 唐云翔; 徐一峰; 肖泽萍; 王继军; 张明岛; 楼翡璎; 陈冲

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨在匹配和非匹配结尾词汉语句子认知过程中,首发精神分裂症患者事件相关电位(ERP)N400的改变.方法 在2006年1月至2009年2月,应用中国润杰WJ-1型ERP仪,采用汉语正常句子结尾词(匹配)与句子结尾歧义词(非匹配)的刺激范式,对56例首发精神分裂症患者和62名健康成人的N400作了比较.结果 (1)潜伏期:患者组的N400潜伏期在5个脑区明显延迟于健康对照组.患者组在Cz脑区,匹配指标上(健康对照组:358ms±32ms,患者组:394ms±45ms,P<0.01)、非匹配指标上(446ms±35 ms)均延迟于健康对照组(410ms±29ms,P<0.01).患者组在Fz、Pz、C3和C4脑区也有类似变化.(2)波幅:与健康对照组相比,患者组的N400波幅在5个脑区明显低于健康对照组.患者组在Cz脑区,匹配指标上(健康对照组:8.6 μV±5.1 μV,患者组:5.2μV±4.6μV,P<0.01)、非匹配指标上(8.5 μV±5.9μV)均低于健康对照组(13.4 μV±6.7 μV,P<0.01).患者组在Fz、Pz、C3和C4脑区也有类似变化.(3)N400潜伏期延迟和波幅下降与阳性症状分和PANSS总分呈负相关.结论 句子结尾词是引起N400的良好刺激材料,具有良好的N400启动效应,可为进一步探索精神分裂症发病的脑机制及其早期诊断提供依据.%Objective To explore N400 changes elicited by Chinese sentences ending with matching (congruent) or mismatching (incongruent) words in first episode schizophrenia. Methods ERP ( event-related potentials) component N400 were recorded by an ERP device in 56 first episode schizophrenia (FES) and 62 normal controls (NC) according to a paradigm of Chinese sentences ending with matching or mismatching words. Results ( 1 ) Latencies: compared with NC, FES showed prolonged N400 latencies in five areas at pre-treatment: in Cz. The latencies were (358 ms ±32 ms vs 394 ms ±45 ms,P <0.01 ) in congruent and(410 ms ± 29 ms vs 446 ms ± 35 ms, P < 0.01 )in incongruent situation. And so did in Fz

  7. The Effect of Family Intervention on the Rehabilitation of Patients with First-episode Schizophrenia%家庭干预对首发精神分裂症患者康复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文娟; 刘培培; 李健成

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨家庭干预对首发精神分裂症患者康复的作用。方法将90例首发期精神分裂症患者随机分为研究组和对照组各45例。对照组进行药物干预,研究组在药物干预的基础上进行家庭干预。所有患者均评定简明精神病量表( BPRS )、社会功能缺陷筛选量表(SDSS)和自知力与治疗态度问卷(ITAQ),并评定康复效果。结果9个月后,研究组BPRS评分低于对照组(t=2.74,3.85;P<0.01);6个月后,研究组SDSS评分和ITAQ评分均低于对照组(t=2.87,4.89,5.31,2.77,6.31;P<0.01);12个月后,总有效率研究组高于对照组(χ2=3.91,P<0.05)。结论家庭干预可以显著改善首发精神分裂症患者的社会功能和康复效果,延缓其社会功能衰退。%Objective To explore the effect of family intervention on the rehabilitation of patients with first -episode schizophrenia . Methods 90patientswithfirst-episodeschizophreniawererandomlydividedintostudygroup(45cases,treatedwithdrugtherapyplus family intervention) and control group(45cases,treated with drug therapy)for 12 months.All patients were assessed with Brief Psychiat-ric Rating Scale(BPRS),Social Disability Screening Schedule (SDSS)and Insight Treatment Attitude Questionnaire (ITAQ).Results After 9-months intervention,scores of BPRS in study group were significantly lower than those in control group ((t=2.74,3.85;P<0.01);After 6-months intervention,scores of SDSS and ITAQ in study group were significantly lower than those in control group (t=2.87,4.89,5.31,2.77,6.31;P<0.01);After 12-months intervention ,the total effective rate in study group was significantly higher than that in control group (χ2 =3.91,P<0.05).Conclusion Family intervention is beneficial for patients with first -episode schizo-phrenia in improving their social function and rehabilitation outcome .

  8. 不同剂量利培酮治疗首发精神分裂症的疗效观察%Clinical observation of various dosages of risperidone in treatment of first episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隗春玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of various dosages of Risperidone Tablets in treatment of first episode schizophrenia and safety evaluation.Methods Patients (127 cases) with first episode schizophrenia from Beijing Fangshan District Mental Health Care Hospital from April 2012 to April 2014 were randomly divided into high-dosage group ( 62 cases) and low-dosage group (65 cases). The patients in the high-dosage group werepo administered with Risperidone Tablets 0.5 — 1 mg/d at beginning, then gradually added to 6 mg/d according to patient's condition and adverse reactions in the second and third day, and maintained the dosage of 6 mg/d. The patients in the low-dosage group were same to those in the high-dosage group except added dosage and maintenance dosage of 3 mg/d. Two groups were treated for 8 weeks. After treatment, the efficacy was evaluated, and PANSS score, EPS occurrence and TESS scores in two groups were compared.Results The efficacies in the high-dosage and low-dosage groups were 93.85% and 82.26%, respectively, and there were differences between two groups (P < 0.05). After treatment, negative symptom scale scores, positive symptom scale score, the psychopathology scale scores, and PANSS total score in two groups were significantly lower, and the difference was statistically significant in the same group (P < 0.05). The observational indexes of the low-dosage group were significantly lower than those in the same period in the high-dosage group treated for 4 and 8 weeks, with significant difference between two groups (P < 0.05). The incidence of EPS and TESS scores at 4 and 8 week in the low-dosage group were obviously lower than those in the high-dosage group, and the difference was statistically significant between two groups (P < 0.05).Conclusion Low-dosage of Risperidone Tablets has curative effect in treatment of first episode schizophrenia with better clinical efficacy, less PANSS score, incidence of EPS, and TESS scores, which be superior to

  9. Early detection of first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn;

    2006-01-01

    Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven.......Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven....

  10. Meta analysis of comparative study of ziprasidone and clozapine for the treatment of first-episode schizophrenia%齐拉西酮与氯氮平治疗首发精神分裂症的 Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任培丽; 徐莉娟; 王蘅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the differences of efficacy and side effects between ziprasidone and clozapine for the treatment of first -epi-sode schizophrenia.Methods Nine comparative studies of ziprasidone and clozapine for the treatment of first -episode schizophrenia were rean-alyzed by meta analysis.Results The significant differences on symp-toms between prior and post treatment were found ( P<0.01 ) .Ziprasi-done was superior to clozapine in improving the total scores of positive and negative syndrome scale ( PANSS ) and the negative symptoms of schizophrenia ( P<0.05 ).The somnolence , constipation , salivation , ab-normal electrocardiogram , weight gain , blurred vision and abnormal liver function in ziprasidone group were significantly less than clozapine group (P<0.05 or P<0.01), but the extrapyramidal symptoms(EPS) in zi-prasidone group was significantly more than that of clozapine group ( P<0.01 ).Conclusion Ziprasidone has an advantage over clozapine in im-proving the total scores of PANSS and the negative symptoms in first -ep-isode schizophrenic , with less adverse drug effects.%目的:评价齐拉西酮与氯氮平治疗首发精神分裂症的疗效及不良反应。方法用Meta分析方法对9项齐拉西酮与氯氮平治疗首发精神分裂症对照研究的文献进行再分析。结果齐拉西酮、氯氮平在治疗首发精神分裂症方面均有显著的疗效(P<0.01)。齐拉西酮在改善阳性与阴性症状量表总分(PANSS)和阴性症状方面显著优于氯氮平( P<0.05)。齐拉西酮组在嗜睡、便秘、流延、心电图异常、体重增加、视物模糊和肝功异常等不良反应均显著少于氯氮平组(P<0.05或P<0.01);锥体外系反应(EPS),齐拉西酮组显著多于氯氮平组(P<0.01)。结论齐拉西酮在改善首发精神分裂症患者PANSS总分和阴性症状方面优于氯氮平,且不良反应较少。

  11. [First-episode psychosis, cognitive difficulties and remediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidailhet, P

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive difficulties are a core feature of schizophrenia. They are frequent, severe, and clearly associated with functional disabilities. They have been explored during different phases of the disease, but what we know essentially concerns the chronic period in middle-age patients. In this article we will specifically focus on cognition at the time of first episode. First episode is a key life period, occurring while social demands are increasing and more complex on the one hand, and while there are important changes in structural and functional cerebral anatomy on the other hand. Exploring cognitive difficulties at the time of first episode offers the opportunity to better know their time course, to avoid interpretative difficulties due to the chronicity of the disease and its treatments, and to develop early therapeutics in order to improve outcome. Cognitive difficulties are clearly present at the time of first episode; their nature and severity appear similar to those observed in more chronic patients. Therefore, they cannot be entirely explained by treatments, hospitalizations or chronicity, and appear more as an intrinsic feature of the disease. The course of their trajectory through the progression of the disease remains uncertain; while they are already present during childhood or adolescence in some subjects who will later declare schizophrenia, they seem to worsen during the period of early prodroms, that is years before psychotic symptoms emerge. Whether they aggravate again during the first episode process is still a matter of debate. While longer DUP is associated with a poor outcome, this does not seem to hold true for cognitive impairments. Cannabis or tobacco use are neither associated with worse cognitive abilities in first-episode patients; a reverse relationship even sometimes exists. Cognitive impairment appears as largely independent from other clinical dimensions, acknowledging its own physiopathology and requiring specific evaluation and

  12. 认知疗法对首发精神分裂症患者认知功能的影响%Influences of cognitive therapy on cognitive function of first-episode schizophrenia patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健; 冯纳婷; 孙群星; 郭华

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨认知疗法对首发精神分裂症患者认知功能的影响。方法将100例首发精神分裂症患者随机分为两组。两组均应用齐拉西酮治疗,研究组在此基础上联合认知疗法,观察12周。于治疗前后采用韦氏成人智力量表、韦氏记忆量表、铁槽铁钉测验、手指敲击试验、动作功能测验、手功能测验、连线测验A和B、威斯康星卡片分类测验及言语流利性测验等评定认知状况,采用阳性与阴性症状量表评定精神症状。结果两组治疗8周起铁槽铁钉测验、手指敲击测验、连线测验完成类别数、韦氏成人智力量表和研究组手功能协调测验得分均较治疗前显著改善( P<0.05或0.01);治疗12周末,两组动作功能测验和研究组视觉连线A得分较治疗前显著改善( P<0.05或0.01)。研究组治疗4周末起操作智商,治疗12周末铁槽铁钉(左右手)、总记忆商和手指敲击(左手)显著优于对照组( P<0.05或0.01)。结论认知治疗能显著改善首发精神分裂症患者的认知功能,效果优于单用药物治疗。%Objective To explore the influences of cognitive therapy on cognitive function of first-episode schizophrenia patient .Methods A total of 100 first-episode schizophrenics were randomly divided into two groups .Both groups were treated with ziprasidone , research group was plus cognitive therapy for 12 weeks .Before and after treatment cognitive status was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) ,Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) ,Iron Nails Tank Tests (INTT ) ,Finger Tapping Test (FTT) ,Motor Function Test (MFT) ,Hand Function Test (HFT) ,Tail Making Test A and B (TMTA/B) ,Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST ) and Verbal Fluency Test (VF) and mental symptom with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) .Results Since the 8th week treatment the INTT ,FTT , completed sorts of the TM T ,WAIS scores of

  13. Candida albicans exposures, sex specificity and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severance, Emily G; Gressitt, Kristin L; Stallings, Catherine R; Katsafanas, Emily; Schweinfurth, Lucy A; Savage, Christina L; Adamos, Maria B; Sweeney, Kevin M; Origoni, Andrea E; Khushalani, Sunil; Leweke, F Markus; Dickerson, Faith B; Yolken, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Immune aberrations in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have led to the hypotheses that infectious agents or corresponding immune responses might contribute to psychiatric etiopathogeneses. We investigated case–control differences in exposure to the opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, and examined associations with cognition, medication, lifestyle, and somatic conditions. We quantified C. albicans IgG antibodies in two cohorts totaling 947 individuals and evaluated odds ratios (OR) of exposure with psychiatric disorder using multivariate regressions. The case–control cohort included 261 with schizophrenia, 270 with bipolar disorder, and 277 non-psychiatric controls; the second included 139 with first-episode schizophrenia, 78 of whom were antipsychotic naive. No differences in C. albicans exposures were found until diagnostic groups were stratified by sex. In males, C. albicans seropositivity conferred increased odds for a schizophrenia diagnosis (OR 2.04–9.53, P⩽0.0001). In females, C. albicans seropositivity conferred increased odds for lower cognitive scores on Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) in schizophrenia (OR 1.12, P⩽0.004), with significant decreases on memory modules for both disorders (P⩽0.0007–0.03). C. albicans IgG levels were not impacted by antipsychotic medications. Gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances were associated with elevated C. albicans in males with schizophrenia and females with bipolar disorder (P⩽0.009–0.02). C. albicans exposure was associated with homelessness in bipolar males (P⩽0.0015). In conclusion, sex-specific C. albicans immune responses were evident in psychiatric disorder subsets. Inquiry regarding C. albicans infection or symptoms may expedite amelioration of this treatable comorbid condition. Yeast exposure as a risk factor for schizophrenia and its associated cognitive and GI effects require further investigation including the possible contribution of

  14. Candida albicans exposures, sex specificity and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severance, Emily G; Gressitt, Kristin L; Stallings, Catherine R; Katsafanas, Emily; Schweinfurth, Lucy A; Savage, Christina L; Adamos, Maria B; Sweeney, Kevin M; Origoni, Andrea E; Khushalani, Sunil; Leweke, F Markus; Dickerson, Faith B; Yolken, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Immune aberrations in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have led to the hypotheses that infectious agents or corresponding immune responses might contribute to psychiatric etiopathogeneses. We investigated case-control differences in exposure to the opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, and examined associations with cognition, medication, lifestyle, and somatic conditions. We quantified C. albicans IgG antibodies in two cohorts totaling 947 individuals and evaluated odds ratios (OR) of exposure with psychiatric disorder using multivariate regressions. The case-control cohort included 261 with schizophrenia, 270 with bipolar disorder, and 277 non-psychiatric controls; the second included 139 with first-episode schizophrenia, 78 of whom were antipsychotic naive. No differences in C. albicans exposures were found until diagnostic groups were stratified by sex. In males, C. albicans seropositivity conferred increased odds for a schizophrenia diagnosis (OR 2.04-9.53, P⩽0.0001). In females, C. albicans seropositivity conferred increased odds for lower cognitive scores on Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) in schizophrenia (OR 1.12, P⩽0.004), with significant decreases on memory modules for both disorders (P⩽0.0007-0.03). C. albicans IgG levels were not impacted by antipsychotic medications. Gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances were associated with elevated C. albicans in males with schizophrenia and females with bipolar disorder (P⩽0.009-0.02). C. albicans exposure was associated with homelessness in bipolar males (P⩽0.0015). In conclusion, sex-specific C. albicans immune responses were evident in psychiatric disorder subsets. Inquiry regarding C. albicans infection or symptoms may expedite amelioration of this treatable comorbid condition. Yeast exposure as a risk factor for schizophrenia and its associated cognitive and GI effects require further investigation including the possible contribution of gut

  15. Structural brain abnormalities in early onset first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, A K; Baaré, W F C; Raabjerg Christensen, A M;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations. METHODS: We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder......, delusional disorder or other non-organic psychosis), aged 10-18 to those of 29 matched controls, using optimized voxel-based morphometry. RESULTS: Psychotic patients had frontal white matter abnormalities, but expected (regional) gray matter reductions were not observed. Post hoc analyses revealed...... already at illness onset in young schizophrenia spectrum patients, suggests aberrant neurodevelopmental processes in the pathogenesis of these disorders. Gray matter volume changes, however, appear not to be a key feature in early onset first-episode psychosis....

  16. Major Self-mutilation in the First Episode of Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Large, Matthew; Babidge, Nick; Andrews, Doug; Storey, Philip; Nielssen, Olav

    2008-01-01

    Major self-mutilation (MSM) is a rare but catastrophic complication of severe mental illness. Most people who inflict MSM have a psychotic disorder, usually a schizophrenia spectrum psychosis. It is not known when in the course of psychotic illness, MSM is most likely to occur. In this study, the proportion of patients in first episode of psychosis (FEP) was assessed using the results of a systematic review of published case reports. Histories of patients who had removed an eye or a testicle,...

  17. Neurocognitive performance in first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Andresen, Burghard; Perro, Christian; Schickel, Marc; Krausz, Micheal; Naber, Dieter

    2002-02-01

    Previous research on neuropsychological disturbances in first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients has provided mixed results which can be partially attributed to methodological inconsistencies. For the present study, 70 schizophrenic patients (40 with chronic and 30 with first-episode schizophrenia) were compared to 30 healthy controls on a large battery of neuropsychological tests. Special attention was paid to potential confounds such as differences in psychopathology, age and educational level between the schizophrenic sub-samples. Healthy controls performed better than both first-episode and chronic patients in almost all cognitive domains (P < 0.01), while the patient samples did not differ in any of the tasks. Results were confirmed in a second series of analyses in which patient subgroups were equated for sociodemographic background variables. The present results confirm recent data collected in longitudinal studies, thus, lending further support for a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. It is suggested that neuropsychological disturbances occur early in schizophrenia and do not worsen in the course beyond age-related decrement. Possible reasons why previous research has produced contradictory findings are discussed. PMID:12056580

  18. Caregiver psychoeducation for first-episode psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McWilliams, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    International best-practice guidelines for the management of first-episode psychosis have recommended the provision of psychoeducation for multifamily groups. While there is ample evidence of their efficacy in multiepisode psychosis, there is a paucity of evidence supporting this approach specifically for first-episode psychosis. We sought to determine whether a six-week caregiver psychoeducation programme geared specifically at first-episode psychosis improves caregiver knowledge and attitudes.

  19. Making sense of first episode psychosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Billings, J

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses whether the concept of illness perceptions, which has been developed in the arena of chronic physical illness, can be applied to an acute mental illness such as first episode psychosis. Literature related to first episode psychosis and illness perceptions is reviewed and the potential benefits and problems of using the illness perceptions framework when trying to understand how people make sense of a first episode of psychosis are discussed. Finally, areas warranting expl...

  20. 家庭干预对首发精神分裂症患者预后的影响%Effect of family intervention on the prognosis of first-episode patients with schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁睿贞; 程晓雯; 江学锋; 熊祥玉; 张晨

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effect of family intervention on the prognosis of first-episode patients with schizophrenia.Methods Seventy-six first-episode schizophrenic patients were randomly assigned into two groups:the intervention group (n =38) and the control group (n =38).Both groups received drug treatment,while the intervention group had family intervention for a year as follow-up research.The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale (FACES Ⅱ-CV) were used to assess these patients at baseline before and after the intervention.Results At the end of follow-up,the total score of BPRS was (19.5 ± 7.7) and (21.8 ± 7.2) respectively in the intervention group and the control group,lower than its baseline as (34.5 ± 13.2) and (34.9 ± 14.3),but the score of anxiety and depression as well as lack of energy was better in the intervention group [(2.1 ±0.9) and (4.4 ±0.6)] than in the control group [(3.6 ± 0.8) and (7.6 ± 0.5)],and the differences were statistically significant (t =5.67,5.37,-8.9,-19.8,respectively; P < 0.01).The score of actual cohesion,ideal cohesion,actual adaptability and ideal adaptability in FACES Ⅱ-CV improved compared to the baseline in the intervention group,and the differences were statistically significant (t =-2.3,-2.8,-4.9,-4.3,respectively; P < 0.05).After the follow-up study,score of every factor was higher in the intervention group than in the control group,with statistically significant differences (t =2.2,2.6,4.0,3.8,respectively; P < 0.05).During the follow-up,the total score of BPRS was positively related to BPRS at the baseline (t =2.0,P < 0.05),and negatively related to actual cohesion at the baseline (t =-4.1,P < 0.01),actual cohesion during follow-up (t =-3.6,P < 0.01)and actual adaptability during follow-up (t =-6.6,P < 0.01).Conclusions Family intervention combined with drug treatment can improve schizophrenic patients' negative symptoms,family cohesion and

  1. 首发精神分裂症患者脑形态CT研究%Computed Tomography Study of the Brain Morphology of Patients with First-episode Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程祖胜; 夏国园; 夏瑞明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the computed tomography(CT) changes of the brain morphology of patients with first-episode schizophrenia(FES).Methods 100 cases that diagnosed FES by clinical were analyzed retrospectively.According to the diagnostic criteria of ICD10,first attacked,first treated by antipsychotic drug and the duration of disease less than two years were enrolled.Meanwhile,they were compared with the healthy matched groups( n = 100).All subjects received brain CT scan and the CT images were obtained.Relevant data and index were measured, calculated and observed.CT changes of the brain morphology of patients with FES were analyzed by statistical processing.Results The index indicated the ventricular dilatation and cerebral atrophy changes in patients of FES ,such as the number of FHI ,VBR, HZ increased;the number of PFAI and CMI decreased.The lateral and the third ventricles had a modest expansion, the sulci enlarged, the lateral fissure widened and presented RASF, the cerebral lobe was diffuse and limitations atrophied.The incidence of pineal calculus was obvious increased and prematured.Conclusion FES patients had the decrease of the brain volume, abnormal dilatation of ventricular and cerebral atrophy as a result of the brain tissue lose ,which was the further evidence of neurodevelopment hypothesis of FES brain.The results of the research can provide important imaging evidence for the schizophernia etiology research.%目的 探讨首发精神分裂症(FES)患者脑形态CT变化.方法 回顾性分析100例经临床确诊的FES患者,符合ICD10诊断标准、首次发病、首次经抗精神药物治疗且病程≤2年,并和对照组(n=100)进行对照.所有研究对象经头部CT扫描获得脑部CT图像,测量、计算及观察有关数据和指标,经过统计学处理后分析FES患者脑形态CT改变.结果 FES患者反映脑室扩大、脑萎缩的指标发生改变,如FHI、VBR、HZ等增大;PFAI、CMI等减小.表现为侧脑室、第三脑室

  2. 对比齐拉西酮与利培酮对首发精神分裂症患者生活质量的影响%Effects of Ziprasidone and Risperidone for First-episode Schizophrenia Patients Quality of Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 万燕平; 陈彦华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To contrast analysis of ziprasidone and risperidone the influence of quality of life in patients with first-episode schizophrenia.Methods In February 2012-June 2013 to come to our hospital make a diagnosis and give treatment,100 cases of patients with first-episode schizophrenia as the research object,is divided into two groups.Results After a period of treatment,given the quality of life in patients with two groups of rating scale,found the quality of life of patients with observation group was obviously higher than that of control group.Conclusion In patients with first-episode schizophrenia give ziprasidone treatment,not only can treat patients,at the same time can improve the life quality of patients.%目的:对比分析齐拉西酮与利培酮对首发精神分裂症患者生活质量的影响。方法选择2012年2月~2013年6月前来我院诊治的首发精神分裂症患者100例为研究对象,分为两组。结果经过一段时间的治疗后,对两组患者给予生活质量量表评分,发现观察组患者的生活质量明显高于对照组。结论对首发精神分裂症患者给予齐拉西酮治疗,不仅可以治疗患者病情,同时可提高患者的生活质量。

  3. 首发精神分裂症患者治疗前后尿酸水平变化及其临床意义%Change of uric acid levels of first -episode schizophrenia before and after treatment and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程云; 陈雪菲; 薛永

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate serum uric acid changes of first -episode schizophrenia after treatment and its clinical signifi-canceMethods:165 cases of first-episode schizophrenia were chosen for study on changes of uric acid.Serum uric acid were detected by olympus640 automatic chemical analyzer.614 serum samples of healthy controls were investigated as parallel group.Reasults:Serum uric acid of first -episode schizophrenia were increased significant after treatment compared with before treatment.,The increase of serum uric acid levels were more significant in femail group(P<0.05)after treatment.There was no significant difference of the uric acid levels be-fore and after treatment.Conclusion:Elevated uric acid levels in schizophrenic patients with antipsychotic drug treatment.Determination of serum uric acid in the process of treatment of schizophrenia might help to understand the effect of drug on patients with uric acid metabo-lism, conduce to rehabilitation and treatment of schizophrenia patients.%目的:探讨165例首发精神分裂症患者治疗前后尿酸水平变化及临床意义。方法:选取165例临床确诊首发精神分裂症患者,并对165例患者治疗前及治疗后8周血清作尿酸检查,血清尿酸检测采用OLYMPUS640全自动生化分析仪检测,方法学为trinder反应终点法。选取614例健康人群做平行对照。结果:165例首发精神分裂症患者治疗前与治疗后比较,治疗后尿酸水平升高(t=2.275,P<0.05),治疗前与健康对照比较,患者组尿酸水平低于对照组(t=7.83,P<0.05),治疗8周后患者尿酸水平低于对照组(t=4.93,P<0.01)。结论:首发精神分裂症患者治疗后血清尿酸水平升高,可能与精神分裂症患者服药治疗相关。

  4. Apathy in first episode psychosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evensen, Julie; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Barder, Helene;

    2012-01-01

    Apathy is a common symptom in first episode psychosis (FEP), and is associated with poor functioning. Prevalence and correlates of apathy 10 years after the first psychotic episode remain unexplored....

  5. Predictors of recovery in first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Stephen F; Mors, Ole; Secher, Rikke Gry;

    2013-01-01

    Recovery, the optimal goal in treatment, is the attainment of both symptomatic and functional remission over a sustained period of time. Identification of factors that promote recovery can help develop interventions that facilitate good outcomes for people with first episode psychosis.......Recovery, the optimal goal in treatment, is the attainment of both symptomatic and functional remission over a sustained period of time. Identification of factors that promote recovery can help develop interventions that facilitate good outcomes for people with first episode psychosis....

  6. 首发精神分裂症患者使用阿立哌唑后血清IL-2、IL-4水平变化的探讨%Explore the level changes of IL-2,IL-4 in the first-episode schizophrenia after the treatment of arip-iprazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩倩; 李亚飞; 朱祥路; 蒋天玉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the differences of serum IL-2 ,IL-4 in the first-episode schizo-phrenia and healthy controls were explored ,and to compare the changes of symptoms before and after aripiprazole treatment and the changes of serum IL-2 ,IL-4 .Methods Serum of IL-2 ,IL-4 was exam-ined with Flow Cytometry in 35 healthy volunteers and 35 first episode patients .The symptoms of pa-tients were evaluated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale .Results There were no statistical sig-nificantly differents in the serum of IL-2 ,IL-4 in the first-episode schizophrenia than normal .controls (P>0 .05) .The serum levels of IL-4 was lower in patients with first-episode schizophrenia after aripi-prazole treatment (P<0 .01) .IL-2 and IL-4 levels were increased in positive symptoms of schizophre-nia patients before aripiprazole treatment (positive symptoms) than normal controls (P<0 .05) .IL-2 and IL-4 levels were different in positive symptoms of schizophrenia patients before and after aripi-prazole treatment (P<0 .05) .Conclusion The patients with schizophrenia have immune dysfunction ;Aripiprazole of antipsychotics have lowered the level of IL-2 ,IL-4 and positive symptoms also im-proved .Conclusion.%目的:探讨首发精神分裂症患者血清细胞因子IL-2、IL-4与正常人的差异,比较分析首发精神分裂症患者经过阿立哌唑治疗前后症状改变及细胞因子IL-2、IL-4的变化。方法选择35例首发精神分裂症患者作为研究组,35例健康志愿者作为对照组,通过流式细胞学技术测定血清标本中IL-2、IL-4的水平,用PANSS量表评定精神症状。结果(1)首发精神分裂症患者IL-2、IL-4水平与正常对照组相比,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。(2)首发精神分裂症患者阿立哌唑治疗后较治疗前IL-4水平降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。(3)首发精神分裂症阳性症状患者血清IL-2、IL-4水平在治疗前均高于对照组(P<0.05

  7. Deinstitutionalization revisited: a 5-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial of hospital-based rehabilitation versus specialized assertive intervention (OPUS) versus standard treatment for patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Øhlenschlæger, Johan; Thorup, Anne Amalie Elgaard;

    2010-01-01

    in a special part of the Copenhagen OPUS trial and randomized to either the specialized assertive intervention program (OPUS), standard treatment or hospital-based rehabilitation. RESULTS: It was a stable pattern that patients randomized to hospital-based rehabilitation spent more days in psychiatric wards......BACKGROUND: The effects of hospital-based rehabilitation including weekly supportive psychodynamic therapy compared with specialized assertive intervention and standard treatment has not previously been investigated in first-episode psychosis. The aim of the study was to examine long-term effect...... and in supported housing throughout the 5-year follow-up period compared with the two other groups. Patients in OPUS treatment spent significantly fewer days in psychiatric wards and supported housing in the first 3 years compared with patients in hospital-based rehabilitation. Due to attrition and small sample...

  8. Neurocognition and occupational functioning in patients with first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tandberg, Marte; Ueland, Torill; Sundet, Kjetil;

    2011-01-01

    Neurocognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia that is associated with poor occupational functioning. Few studies have investigated this relationship in patients with first-episode psychosis. The current study examined the characteristics of employed and unemployed patients with first......-episode psychosis at baseline and 2-year follow-up, and the predictive value of neurocognition on employment status. One-hundred and twenty-two first-episode psychosis patients were assessed with clinical and neurocognitive measures at baseline. Occupational status was assessed at baseline and 2-year follow...

  9. Study on the serum neuron-specific enolase,cognitive function and clinical characteristics of first episode schizophrenia who are smoking%首发吸烟精神分裂症患者血清神经元特异性烯醇化酶、认知功能及临床特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓秋; 李亚军

    2015-01-01

    目的:对首发吸烟精神分裂症患者血清神经元特异性烯醇化酶(NSE)、认知功能及临床特征进行分析研究。方法:收治首发吸烟精神分裂症患者70例,用阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS)与临床疗效总评量表(CGI)评定临床症状特征、用威斯星卡片分类测验(WCST)评测认知功能,用化学发光法检测血清NSE水平。结果:吸烟患者血清NSE水平高于非吸烟患者,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:吸烟可能是精神分裂症的环境易感染因素之一。%Objective:To investigate and analyze the serum neuron-specific enolase,cognitive function and clinical characteristics of first episode schizophrenia who are smoking.Methods:70 patients with first episode schizophrenia who are smoking were selected,we evaluated the patients' clinical symptom characteristics with positive and negative symptoms scale(PANSS)and the clinical global impression scale (CGI),with Wes Star Card Sorting Test(WCST)to evaluate the cognitive function of patients, detected Serum NSE level by chemiluminescence method.Results:The serum NSE level in patients with smoking was higher than that in non smoking patients,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:Smoking may be one of the factors in environment susceptible of schizophrenia.

  10. Control study of effect and safety of olanzapine and amisulpride in the treatment of first-episode schizophrenia%奥氮平与氨磺必利治疗首发精神分裂症的效果和安全性对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马周

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨奥氮平与氨磺必利治疗首发精神分裂症的临床效果和安全性。方法选取2008年3月~2013年4月本院收治的的首发精神分裂症患者200例,将其随机分为实验组和对照组,每组各100例。实验组给予奥氮平治疗,对照组给予氨磺必利治疗,比较两组的治疗效果和不良反应发生情况。结果两组的治疗效果、不良反应发生情况、复发时间、持续治疗时间比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论奥氮平与氨磺必利治疗首发精神分裂症均可以获得满意的临床效果,不良反应较少,具有临床推广价值。%Objective To discuss the clinical effect and safety of olanzapine and amisulpride in the treatment of first-episode schizophrenia. Methods Two hundred patients with first-episode schizophrenia who accepted treatment in our hospital from March 2008 to April 2013 were selected and randomly divided into experimental group (n=100) and the control group (n=100).The experimental group was treated with olanzapine,while the control group was treated with amisulpride. The clinical effect and adverse reaction in both groups were compared. Results There was no statistical difference of therapeutic effect,adverse reaction,recurrence time and continuous curative time in the two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Olanzapine and amisulpride can obtain a satisfied clinical effect on treating first-episode schizophre-nia with few adverse reaction,and it has clinical promotion value.

  11. 帕利哌酮缓释片和奥氮平治疗首发精神分裂症的对照研究%A control study of paliperidone extended - release tablets and olanzapine in the treatment of first - episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛智群; 李达; 查智群; 顾曙光; 季萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare efficacy and safety of paliperidone extended -release tablets and olanzapine in the treatment of first - episode schizophrenia. Methods 90 adult patients with first - episode schizophrenia in accordance with CCMD - HI were randomized into study group treated with paliperidone extended - release tablets and control group treated with olanzapine for 8 weeks. The Positive and Nenative Syndrome Scale ( PANSS) and Treatment Emergent Side effect Scale ( TESS) were used to evaluate efficacy and side effects respectively at the baseline and at the ends of the 2nd, 4th and 8th weekends of the treatment. Results There was no significant difference in effective rate between study group and control group (91. 2% vs. 96. 5% , P >0. 05). Total score and factor scores of PANSS at each interview - point showed no significant differences between the two groups ( P > 0.05 ). The incidence rate of side effects in both groups was low and the severity was mild. Conclusion Paliperidone extended - release tablets have equivalent efficacy and safety in the treatment of first - episode schizophrenia.%目的 评价帕利哌酮缓释片和奥氮平治疗首发精神分裂症的疗效和安全性.方法 对符合CCMD -3中首发精神分裂症诊断标准的90例患者,随机分为帕利哌酮缓释片组和奥氮平组,分别治疗8周.采用阳性和阴性症状量表( PANSS)和副反应量表(TESS)评定疗效及副反应.结果 帕利哌酮缓释片组有效率为91.2%,奥氮平组有效率为96.5%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);两组治疗前后各时点PANSS总分及各因子分比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组治疗中的不良反应发生率低、程度轻.结论 帕利哌酮缓释片与奥氮平治疗首发精神分裂症疗效相当,不良反应轻.两种药物均为疗效好、安全性高的抗精神病药.

  12. Formal thought disorder in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayer, Ahmet; Yalınçetin, Berna; Aydınlı, Esra; Sevilmiş, Şilay; Ulaş, Halis; Binbay, Tolga; Akdede, Berna Binnur; Alptekin, Köksal

    2016-10-01

    Formal thought disorder (FTD) is one of the fundamental symptom clusters of schizophrenia and it was found to be the strongest predictor determining conversion from first-episode acute transient psychotic disorder to schizophrenia. Our goal in the present study was to compare a first-episode psychosis (FEP) sample to a healthy control group in relation to subtypes of FTD. Fifty six patients aged between 15 and 45years with FEP and forty five control subjects were included in the study. All the patients were under medication for less than six weeks or drug-naive. FTD was assessed using the Thought and Language Index (TLI), which is composed of impoverishment of thought and disorganization of thought subscales. FEP patients showed significantly higher scores on the items of poverty of speech, weakening of goal, perseveration, looseness, peculiar word use, peculiar sentence construction and peculiar logic compared to controls. Poverty of speech, perseveration and peculiar word use were the significant factors differentiating FEP patients from controls when controlling for years of education, family history of psychosis and drug abuse. PMID:27565775

  13. Depressive symptoms in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sönmez, Nasrettin; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Evensen, Julie;

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The present study examined if any patient characteristics at baseline predicted depressive symptoms at 10 years and whether patients prone to depressive symptoms in the first year of treatment had a different prognosis in the following years. METHOD: A total of 299 first-episode psychosis...

  14. Family Intervention in First-Episode Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvar Sadath

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Family interventions have produced benefits on clinical and family outcomes in long standing psychosis. However, little is known about the efficacy of such interventions in the early stages of psychosis. This article reviews published research over the last two decades on family intervention in first-episode psychosis. Electronic databases, such as PubMed, PsycINFO, and ScienceDirect, have been systematically searched. In addition, an exhaustive Internet search was also carried out using Google and Google Scholar to identify the potential studies that evaluated family interventions in first-episode psychosis. We have identified seven reports of five randomized controlled trials (RCTs and five non-randomized and uncontrolled studies of family intervention. Our review on 12 reports of family intervention studies has shown mixed effects on outcomes in first-episode psychosis. Most of the reports showed no added benefits or very short-term benefits on primary clinical or family outcome variables. There is a dearth of family intervention studies in first-episode psychosis. More RCTs are needed to reach reliable conclusions.

  15. Cognitive training plus a comprehensive psychosocial programme (OPUS versus the comprehensive psychosocial programme alone for patients with first-episode schizophrenia (the NEUROCOM trial: A study protocol for a centrally randomised, observer-blinded multi-centre clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melau Marianne

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to 85% of patients with schizophrenia demonstrate cognitive dysfunction in at least one domain. Cognitive dysfunction plays a major role in functional outcome. It is hypothesized that addition of cognitive training to a comprehensive psychosocial programme (OPUS enhances both cognitive and everyday functional capacity of patients more than the comprehensive psychosocial programme alone. Methods The NEUROCOM trial examines the effect on cognitive functioning and everyday functional capacity of patients with schizophrenia of a 16-week manualised programme of individual cognitive training integrated in a comprehensive psychosocial programme versus the comprehensive psychosocial programme alone. The cognitive training consists of four modules focusing on attention, executive functioning, learning, and memory. Cognitive training involves computer-assisted training tasks as well as practical everyday tasks and calendar training. It takes place twice a week, and every other week the patient and trainer engage in a dialogue on the patient's cognitive difficulties, motivational goals, and progress in competence level. Cognitive training relies on errorless learning principles, scaffolding, and verbalisation in its effort to improve cognitive abilities and teach patients how to apply compensation strategies as well as structured problem solving techniques. At 16-week post-training and at ten-months follow-up, assessments are conducted to investigate immediate outcome and possible long-term effects of cognitive training. We conduct blinded assessments of cognition, everyday functional capacity and associations with the labour market, symptom severity, and self-esteem. Discussion Results from four-month and ten-month follow-ups have the potential of reliably providing documentation of the long-term effect of CT for patients with schizophrenia. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00472862.

  16. 首发青少年精神分裂症心理防御机制与父母养育方式的相关性研究%A correlation study of mental defense mechanism with parental rearing pattern in adolescent patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 周云

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship of mental defense mechanisms with parental rearing pattern in patients with first-episode adolescent schizophrenia. Methods A total of 46 adolescent patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 46 healthy controls were assessed with the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) and Egma Minnen av Bardndosnauppforstran ( EMBU). Results Score of warmth and understanding in parental rearing pattern were positively related with mature defense styles ( father: r = 0. 449, P < 0. 01; mother: r = 0. 471, P < 0. 01) and were negatively related with immature defense styles (father:r= -0.312,P<0.05;mother:r = -0.349,P<0.01). Score of punishment, over interference,refusal were negatively related with mature defense styles (P<0.05) and were positively related with immature defense styles ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The defense styles and parental rearing patterns in adolescent first-episode schizophrenics were different from those of healthy individuals. The defense styles in patients with first-episode schizophrenia are related with their parents' rearing patterns.%目的 探讨首发青少年精神分裂症患者的防御机制与父母养育方式的相关性.方法 采用防御方式问卷和父母养育方式评价量表,对46例首发青少年精神分裂症患者进行问卷调查,并与46例正常受试者加以比较.结果 父母亲的情感温暖理解与成熟防御方式呈正相关(父:r =0.449,P<0.01,母:r=0.471,P<0.01),与不成熟防御方式呈负相关(父:r=-0.312,P<0.05,母:r=-0.349,P<0.01);而惩罚、过分干涉保护、拒绝否认与成熟防御方式呈负相关(P<0.05或P<0.01),与不成熟防御方式呈正相关(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 首发青少年精神分裂症的防御机制和父母养育方式与正常人有着明显的不同,且防御机制和父母养育方式之间有一定的相关性.

  17. Controlled study of mismatched negativity in first-episode deficit and non-deficit forms schizophrenia patients who not received treatment%缺陷型及非缺陷型精神分裂症首次发病未服药患者失匹配负波的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李喆; 邓伟; 李寅飞; 丁蕾; 刘祥; 郑重; 李涛

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the characteristics of mismatched negativity (MMN) and correlation with clinical status in first-episode deficit and non-deficit forms schizophrenia patients who not received treatment.Method:According to the assessed by deficit form schizophrenia diagnosis scale (SDS),100 first-episode schizophrenia patients who not received treatment were classified as deficit form schizophrenia (DS) group (45 cases) and non-deficit form schizophrenia (NDS) group (55 cases).MMN of the patients was measured by brain evoked potentiometer,and the results were compared with 50 normal controls (control group).The relationships between MMN changes and age,course of disease,condition and functioning status of the patients were analyzed.Results:Compared to control group,MMN latency and amplitude in DS and NDS groups were significantly delayed and decreased (F =21.72,F =5.95 ; all P =0.00) ; but there were no significantly differences of MMN latency and amplitude between groups of DS and NDS(all P > 0.05).Non correlation had been found between variables of MMN latency and amplitude with age of onset,course of disease,the scores of positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS,including total score,positive symptoms score,negative symptoms score and general psychopathology score),score of global assessment functioning(GAF) in groups of DS and NDS(all P > 0.05).Conclusion:Abnormalities of MMN are existed in patients with deficit type and nondeficit type schizophrenia.It maybe the trait marker of patients with schizophrenia.%目的:探讨缺陷型与非缺陷型精神分裂症首次发病未服药患者失匹配负波(MMN)的特征及与临床状态的相关性. 方法:根据缺陷型精神分裂症诊断量表评分将100例首发精神分裂症患者分为缺陷型(缺陷组,45例)和非缺陷型(非缺陷组,55例);采用脑诱发电位仪检测MMN,并与50名正常对照者(对照组)比较;分析患者MMN改变与其发病年龄、病

  18. A comparison of six kinds of antipsychotic drugs′effects on the cognitive function in patients with first-episode schizophrenia%6种抗精神病药对精神分裂症首次发病患者认知功能影响的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储文革; 陈燕; 赵宜生; 赵兵; 许志平; 邱睿; 梁涛; 程利民; 王卫民

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较利培酮、奥氮平、奎硫平、阿立哌唑、齐拉西酮、氨磺必利6种抗精神病药对急性期首发精神分裂症患者认知功能的影响。方法:120例精神分裂症首发患者分为6个药物组,每组各20例,分别给予6种抗精神病药治疗,观察12周。采用阳性和阴性症状量表( PANSS)、韦氏成人智力测验( WAIS-RC)、威斯康星卡片分类测验( WCST)、临床记忆量表( CMS)在治疗前后评估疗效及认知功能。结果:与治疗前相比,各药物组PANSS阳性症状、阴性症状及总分在治疗后各时点均明显下降(P0.05)。结论:6种新型抗精神病药均能改善首发精神分裂症患者的认知功能。%Objective:To make a comparison of the effects of the acute treatment with six kinds of antip-sychotic drugs,risperidone,olanzapine,quetiapine,aripiprazole,ziprasidone and amisulprid,on the cognitive function in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Method:One hundred and twenty schizophrenic patients were divided into 6 groups,each group made up of 20 cases. Cases from each group receive medical treatment with one of the six antipsychotic drugs respectively and undergo the medical observation for 12 weeks. Positive and negative syndrome scale( PANSS),Wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised-China( WAIS-RC),Wisconsin card sort test(WCST)and clinical memory scale(CMS)were applied to make an assessment of the patients′therapeutic effectiveness and the improvement of cognitive function before and after the treatment. Resuits:After the treatment with different kinds of antipsychotic drugs,the PANSS positive,negative and total treatment scale scores of schizophrenia patients on each group at all time points declined obviously( P 0. 05). Conciusion:The six kinds of newly-developed antipsychotic drugs can improve the cognitive function of first-episode schizophrenia patients.

  19. Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, René S; Sommer, Iris E; Murray, Robin M; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Weinberger, Daniel R; Cannon, Tyrone D; O'Donovan, Michael; Correll, Christoph U; Kane, John M; van Os, Jim; Insel, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder with a heterogeneous genetic and neurobiological background that influences early brain development, and is expressed as a combination of psychotic symptoms - such as hallucinations, delusions and disorganization - and motivational and cognitive dysfunctions. The mean lifetime prevalence of the disorder is just below 1%, but large regional differences in prevalence rates are evident owing to disparities in urbanicity and patterns of immigration. Although gross brain pathology is not a characteristic of schizophrenia, the disorder involves subtle pathological changes in specific neural cell populations and in cell-cell communication. Schizophrenia, as a cognitive and behavioural disorder, is ultimately about how the brain processes information. Indeed, neuroimaging studies have shown that information processing is functionally abnormal in patients with first-episode and chronic schizophrenia. Although pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia can relieve psychotic symptoms, such drugs generally do not lead to substantial improvements in social, cognitive and occupational functioning. Psychosocial interventions such as cognitive-behavioural therapy, cognitive remediation and supported education and employment have added treatment value, but are inconsistently applied. Given that schizophrenia starts many years before a diagnosis is typically made, the identification of individuals at risk and those in the early phases of the disorder, and the exploration of preventive approaches are crucial. PMID:27189524

  20. 10 year course of IQ in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Sundet, Kjetil; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd;

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of patients suffering from schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSDs) exhibit a general intellectual impairment at illness onset, but the subsequent intellectual course remains unclear. Relationships between accumulated time in psychosis and long-term intellectual functioning...... are largely uninvestigated, but may identify subgroups with different intellectual trajectories. Eighty-nine first-episode psychosis patients were investigated on IQ at baseline and at 10-years follow-up. Total time in psychosis was defined as two separate variables; Duration of psychosis before start...... of treatment (i.e. duration of untreated psychosis: DUP), and duration of psychosis after start of treatment (DAT). The sample was divided in three equal groups based on DUP and DAT, respectively. To investigate if diagnosis could separate IQ-trajectories beyond that of psychotic duration, two diagnostic...

  1. 氨磺必利对首发精神分裂症临床疗效及糖脂代谢的影响%The influence of amisulpride on clinical efficacy and glucolipid metabolism of first-episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓良华; 许世欢; 徐健; 唐立岩

    2015-01-01

    Objective Objective To explore the influence of amisulpride on clinical efficacy and glucolipid metabolism of first‐episode schizophrenia .Methods Seventy first‐episode schizophrenics were randomly divided into two groups of 35 ones each ,research group took orally amisulpride and control group did ris‐peridone for 8 weeks .Efficacies were assessed with the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) before and after treatment and adverse reactions with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) , and changes of blood‐fasting sugar ,cholesterol total ,triacylglycerol ,serum insulin and body mass index (BMI) detected at the same time .Results After treatment the total and each factor scores of the PANSS of both groups significantly lowered compared with pretreatment (P 0 .05) ,but those heightened more significantly after treatment com‐pared with pretreatment in control group (P0 .05) .Conclusion Amisulpride has an evident effect in schizophrenia and less influence on glucolipid metabolism .%目的:探讨氨磺必利对首发精神分裂症患者的临床疗效及糖脂代谢的影响。方法将70例首发精神分裂症患者随机分为两组,每组35例,研究组口服氨磺必利治疗,对照组口服利培酮治疗,观察8周。于治疗前后采用阳性与阴性症状量表评定临床疗效,副反应量表评定不良反应,同时检测空腹血糖、总胆固醇、三酰甘油、血清胰岛素及体质量指数的变化。结果治疗后两组阳性与阴性症状量表总分及各因子分均较治疗前显著下降(P<0.01)。治疗8周末研究组糖脂代谢各项指标检测结果与治疗前比较均无显著变化(P>0.05),而对照组各项指标检测结果均较治疗前显著升高(P<0.05或0.01),研究组各项指标检测结果均显著低于对照组(P<0.05或 P<0.01);两组其他不良反应发生率比较差异无显著性(χ2=0.32,P>0.05)。结论氨磺必

  2. A control study of amisulpride in the treatment of female first-episode schizophrenia%氨磺必利治疗女性首发精神分裂症对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐东; 王秀丽; 杨靖; 万宏颖

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical efficacy and safety of amisulpride in the treatment of female first‐episode schizophrenia .Methods Eighty‐four female first‐episode schizophrenics were randomly as‐signed to two groups of 42 ones each ,research group took orally amisulpride and control group did risperi‐done for 7 weeks .Efficacies were assessed with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) before and after treatment and adverse reactions with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scales (TESS) .Results Since the end of the 1st week the BPRS scores of both groups lowered more significantly compared with pretreat‐ment (P0.05) .Adverse reactions of both groups were mild ,but the incidence of tremor ,akathisia and myo‐tonia as well as the increase value of body mass were significantly lower in research than control group (P<0.05) .Conclusion Amisulpride takes effect rapidly ,has an evident effect ,higher safety and less in‐fluence on body mass in female schizophrenia ,and is favorable to the improvement of compliance of female patient .%目的:探讨氨磺必利治疗女性首发精神分裂症患者的临床疗效和安全性。方法将84例首发精神分裂症患者随机分为两组,每组42例,研究组口服氨磺必利治疗,对照组口服利培酮治疗,观察7周。采用简明精神病量表评定临床疗效,副反应量表评定不良反应。结果治疗1周末起两组简明精神病量表评分均较治疗前显著下降(P<0.01),治疗7周末研究组显效率95.2%、有效率100%,对照组分别为92.9%、100%,两组比较差异无显著性( P>0.05)。两组不良反应均较轻,但研究组震颤、静坐不能、肌强直发生率及体质量增加值显著低于对照组( P<0.05)。结论氨磺必利治疗女性首发精神分裂症起效快,疗效显著,安全性高,对体质量影响较小,有利于提高女性患者的治疗依从性。

  3. 氨磺必利与阿立哌唑治疗首发精神分裂症对照研究%A controlled study of amisulpride vs aripiprazole in the first-episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆强

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of amisulpride and aripi‐prazole in the treatment of first‐episode schizophrenia .Methods Using randomized ,double‐blind ,double‐dummy parallel controlled method 124 first‐episode schizophrenics were assigned to two groups taking o‐rally amisulpride and aripiprazole respectively for 8 weeks .Efficacies were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and adverse reactions with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) .Results After treatment the PANSS and CGI scores of both groups lowered more significantly compared with pretreatment (P 0 .05) .Ad‐verse reactions were mild ,there were no group significant difference in incidence of adverse reaction (P>0 .05) .Conclusion Both amisulpride and aripiprazole have an equivalent evident effect in first‐episode schizophrenia ,take effect rapidly ,and have higher safety and better compliance .%目的:探讨氨磺必利与阿立哌唑治疗首发精神分裂症的疗效及安全性。方法将124例首发精神分裂症患者按随机数字表分为两组,采用双盲、双模拟平行对照的方法分别口服氨磺必利和阿立哌唑治疗,观察8周。采用阳性与阴性症状量表、临床疗效总评量表评定临床疗效,副反应量表评定不良反应。结果治疗后两组阳性与阴性症状量表和临床疗效总评量表评分均较治疗前显著性下降( P<0.05或0.01);治疗8周末氨磺必利组显效率63.3%、总有效率88.3%,阿立哌唑组分别为64.4%、91.5%,两组比较差异无显著性(χ2=0.01、0.33,P>0.05)。不良反应均较轻微,发生率比较差异无显著性(P>0.05)。结论氨磺必利与阿立哌唑治疗首发精神分裂症疗效显著,总体疗效相当,起效快,安全性高,依从性好。

  4. 氨磺必利联合重复经颅磁刺激治疗首发精神分裂症的随机对照研究%Clinical controlled study on amisulpride combined with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of first - episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦金; 金毅琼; 马素杰; 成艳红

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of amisulpride combined with Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimu-lation(rTMS)for patients with first - episode schizophrenia. Methods Using random number table,88 patients of first - episode schizophrenia were randomly assigned to study group(44 cases)and control group(44 cases),the study group was treated with amisulpride combined with rTMS,and the control group was treated with amisulpride. The efficacy were assessed by Positive and Nega-tive Syndrome Scale(PANSS)before and after treatment for 2,4,6,8 weeks,and the adverse reactions were evaluated with Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale(TESS). Results After 8 weeks treatment,the scores of PANSS in both groups decreased significantly com-pared to the baseline(P 0. 05). The scores of negative symptom in study group decreased signifi-cantly compared to the control group,and there was statistically significant difference(P 0. 05). Conclusion Amisulpride combined with rTMS is as effective as amisulpride for the treatment of positive symptoms of first - episode schizophrenia patients,but it is more effec-tive than amisulpride in the treatment of the negative symptoms.%目的:探讨氨磺必利合并重复经颅磁刺激(rTMS)治疗精神分裂症的效果。方法采用随机数字表法将符合《国际疾病分类(第10版)》(ICD -10)精神分裂症诊断标准的88例首发精神分裂症患者分为研究组和对照组各44例,研究组采用氨磺必利联合重复经颅磁刺激(rTMS)治疗,对照组单用氨磺必利治疗,采用阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)于治疗前及治疗后第2、4、6、8周评定疗效,采用副反应量表(TESS)评定不良反应。结果经8周治疗,两组 PANSS 总评分均较治疗前低(P 均0.05)。但研究组阴性症状评分减分与对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P 0.05)。结论氨磺必利合并 rTMS 对首发精神分裂症阳性症状的疗效与单用氨磺

  5. 氨磺必利对首发精神分裂症患者脑脊液和血清细胞因子的影响%Influence of Amisulpride on Cerebrospinal Fluid and Serum Cytokine LeVels in Patients with First-Episode Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉涛; 刘海军; 张学志

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨氨磺必利对首发精神分裂症患者脑脊液和血清细胞因子水平的影响.方法 选择医院收治的首发精神病患者100例,随机分为对照组和观察组,各50例.对照组予舒必利片,观察组予氨磺必利片,均根据患者症状类型调整剂量,均治疗8周.结果 治疗后,观察组总有效率为88. 00%,明显高于对照组的74. 00%( P<0. 05);两组患者血清以及脑脊液中白细胞介素( IL ) -1β,IL-6,IL-2,肿瘤坏死因子-α( TNF-α)表达水平明显降低,且观察组降低更明显( P<0. 05);两组患者不良反应症状均较轻微,不影响治疗,但观察组不良反应总发生率明显低于对照组( P<0. 05).结论 氨磺必利治疗首发精神分裂症能显著提高临床疗效,其作用机制可能与降低患者血清、脑脊液中特定细胞因子的表达水平有关,不良反应较小,安全性高,值得推广.%Objective To discuss the influence of amisulpride on the cerebrospinal fluid and serum cytokine levels in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Methods 100 cases of first-episode schizophrenia patients admitted to the hospital were randomly divided into control group and observation group, 50 cases in each group. The two groups were given risperidone, based on this the observation group were given amisulpride tablets orally. The dosage of the drugs were adjusted based on the type of symptoms of the patients;the two groups were treated for 8 weeks. Results The total effective rate of the observation group was 88. 00%, which was higher than 74. 00% of the control group ( P < 0. 05 );IL-1β, IL-6, IL-2, TNF-α of the two groups were significantly improved compared with before treatment, and the improvement in the observation group was more obvious than the control group ( P < 0. 05 ) . The adverse re-actions of the two groups were mild and did not affect the treatment course, but the occurrence rate of the observation group was sig-nificantly less than the control group

  6. Efficacy and quality of life comparative study of amisulpride and sulpride in treatment of first-episode schizophrenia%氨磺必利与舒必利治疗首发精神分裂症的疗效及生活质量对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨靖; 张勇; 王秀丽; 邵玉单

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨氨磺必利与舒必利治疗精神分裂症的疗效及对其生活质量的影响.方法 将94例首发精神分裂症患者随机分为氨磺必利组和舒必利组,观察8周.分别于治疗前及治疗2、4、8周末采用阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS)评定疗效,用治疗时出现的症状量表(TESS)评定不良反应,用生活质量综合评定问卷(GQOLI-74)于治疗前和治疗8周末评定生活质量.结果 两组PANSS分值治疗前后差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01),但两组间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);两组GQOLI-74评定除物质生活维度无明显变化,总分及躯体健康维度、心理健康维度、社会功能维度均显著升高(P <0.05或<0.01),氨磺必利组优于舒必利组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或<0.01).结论 氨磺必利与舒必利治疗首发精神分裂症疗效相当,但氨磺必利组安全性高,依从性好,对患者的生活质量改善明显.%Objective To investigate the efficacy and of amisulpride and sulpiride on treatment of patients with first-episode schizophrenia and its effect on patients' quality of life.Methods Ninetyfour patients with first-episode schizophrenia were randomly divided into sulpride group and amisulpride group.The treatment course was 8 weeks.Treatment efficacy and tolerability was evaluated using positive and negative syndrome scale(PANSS) and the treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) at baseline and 2,4,8 weeks after treatment,respectively.Quality of life was evaluated using generic quality of life inventory-74(GQOLI-74) before treatment and 8 weeks after treatment.Results There were signiticant differences in the scores of PANSS before and after treatment in both groups(P <0.01).But there was no significant difference in PANSS scores between the two groups after treatment(P > 0.05).There were significant differences in total score of GQOLI-74 and quality of physical health,psychological life and social function between the two

  7. A comparative study of perospirone and amisulpride in the treatment of female patients with schizophrenia in first-episode%哌罗匹隆与氨磺必利治疗首发女性精神分裂症对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙涛; 曹九英; 许律琴; 谭常赞; 朱建忠; 范鲁; 娄元菊; 宋西俊; 黄秋明

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy of perospirone and amisulpride in treatment of female patients with schizophrenia in first-episode.Methods A total of 100 female patients with schizophrenia in first -episode were randomly divided into perospirone group with perospirone and amisulpride group with amisulpride for treatment of 8 weeks.They were assessed with positive and negative symptom scale ( PANSS) and side effects scale ( TESS) before treatment and in the 8th weekend of treatment, quality of life scale (QOL-100)in the 12th month end after treatment.Results In the 8th weekend of treatment, there was no difference in the total effective rate between perospirone group(88%) and amisulpride group(86%) ( P>0.05), but the rate of side effects in perospirone group were significantly less than those in amisulpride group(P<0.05).In the 12th month end after treatment, the total scores of QOL-100 in perospirone group were significantly more than those in amisulpride group(P <0.05).Conclusion It’ s effective for perospirone and amisulpride to treat the female patients with schizophrenia in first-episode, but perospirone is more safe and helpful to improve the quality of life in the patients.%目的:探讨哌罗匹隆与氨磺必利对首发女性精神分裂症患者的临床疗效及安全性。方法将100例首发女性精神分裂症患者随机分为哌罗匹隆组和氨磺必利组各50例,分别给予哌罗匹隆和氨磺必利治疗,分别于治疗前和治疗后第8周末应用阳性和阴性综合征量表( PANSS)及治疗中需处理的不良反应症状量表( TESS)进行评分,在治疗12个月末采用生存质量测定量表( QOL-100)量表评定患者的生活质量。结果治疗后第8周末,两组总有效率比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),哌罗匹隆组总不良反应发生率(22.00%)低于氨磺必利组(48.00%)(P<0.05)。治疗12个月末,哌罗匹隆组QOL-100量表总

  8. Duration of untreated psychiatry affecting white matter integrity in first-episode medication-free patients with schizophrenia%精神病未治疗期对首发未服药精神分裂症脑白质完整性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏钦令; 朱康顺; 王相兰; 张晋碚; 康庄; 国效峰; 韩自力; 赵靖平

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of duration of untreated psychiatry (DUP) on the white matter integrity in first-episode medication-free patients with schizophrenia. Methods The Chinese version of Nottingham Onset Schedule was used to assess the DUP of 39 first-episode medication-free patients with schizophrenia. According to the median of DUP, the 39 patients were grouped into long-DUP group and short-DUP group. Diffusion weighted images of the 39 patients' whole brains were acquired with a Half-Fourier Acquired Single-Shot Turbo Spin Echo (HASTE) sequence.After being preprocessed with DTI-studio and statistical parametric mapping software (SPM5), the fractional anisotropy (FA) images of the 2 groups were compared by two-sample t-test with SPM5 software. The differences of gender, age, education level and total scores of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores between the 2 groups were also detected. Results No significant difference was noted on gender, age, education level, PANSS scores between the 2 groups (P>0.05).Subjects of long-DUP group showed significantly reduced FA value in the right anterior cingulate fasciculus (x=8, y=40, z=24) and left prefrontal white matter thresholded (x=32, y=34, z=4) as compared with that of short-DUP group at a level of P<0.001 (uncorrected). Conclusion Extension of the duration of DUP will reduce the white matter integrity in first-episode medication-free patients with schizophrenia.%目的 探讨精神病未治疗期(DUP)对首发未服药精神分裂症患者脑白质完整性的影响.方法 应用汉化的诺丁汉发病症状量表评定39例首发未服药精神分裂症患者的DUP,以其中位数为界将患者分为长DUP组和短DUP组,同时比较两组患者的性别构成、年龄、受教育年限、阳性和阴性症状量表总分.采用自旋回波序列得到弥散张量磁共振成像资料,以DTI-Studi0软件和统计参数图软件(SPM5)对所得图像进行预处理,得到的分子

  9. Effectiveness Study of Solution Focused Mode on the Rehabilitation among Young and Middle-aged Patients with First-episode Schizophrenia%焦点解决模式对中青年首发精神分裂症患者康复的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁光美; 裴锦飞; 鲍文卿

    2014-01-01

    Objective Discuss the effect of solution focused mode oriented community health education on the rehabilitation among young and middle-aged patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Method Divided 80 young and middle-aged patients with first-episode schizophrenia into treatment group (n=40) and control group (n=40) randomly based on their diagnosis date. Carried out health education with community follow-up visit method on patients in control group while treatment group received solution focused mode oriented community health education. Assessed the patients in two groups with BPRS, SDSS and MRSS and compared their recurrence rates in the 6th month and 12th month after discharging from hospital. Results①The scores of all scales in both groups significantly decreased after 6 months discharging from hospital (p0.05). ②Scores of all scales of treatment group significantly decreased compared with that when discharging from hospital and 6 months later(p < 0.05). Comparison between groups showed that scores of all scales and recurrence rates for treatment group were lower than control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion Solution focused mode oriented community health education could effectively help with the rehabilitation among young and middle-aged patients with first-episode schizophrenia, improve their compliance and reduce recurrence.%目的探讨以焦点解决模式为指导的社区健康教育对中青年首发精神分裂症患者康复的效果。方法将纳入社区管理的80名中青年首发精神分裂症患者按确诊时间随机分为对照组(n=40)和干预组(n=40),对照组采用社区随访法进行健康教育,干预组在此基础上以焦点解决模式为指导进行健康教育。分别于出院后6个月、12个月,应用简明精神病量表(BPRS)、社会功能缺陷筛选量表(SDSS)和康复状态量表(MRSS)对两组患者进行评估并比较两组复发率。结果(1)6个月后,两组患者各量表评分较出院

  10. 首发儿童精神分裂症患者病前行为特征与事件相关电位的关系%The relationship between event related potentials and the premorbid behavior of the first-episode child schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭芳; 郭素芹; 朱俊敬

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship between event related potentials and the premorbid behavior of the first-episode child schizophrenia.We reviewed the behavior characteristics of the first-episode child schizophrenia when they were 6 to 11 years old,who were detected by Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist.We assessed the cognitive function of patients by the event-related potential P300.We used t test to compare the difference of each P300 data before and after the treatment between the group with the CBCL scale high achievers and low achievers.Results:The difference of social competence scores,the total score of cbcl,the score of depression factor,the score of social withdrawal factor,the score of aggressive factor of the CBCL scale between the study group and the control group were statistically significant(Z=-2.820,-2.325,-2.561,-2.837,-2.759;P<0.05).The total score of social capacity and the P300 latency before the treatment was negatively correlated(r=-0.231,P<0.05).Conclusion:There are some correlation between the social abilities and cognitive function of the first-episode child schizophrenia.The lower of social ability,the more serious damage of cognitive.%目的:研究儿童精神分裂症首发患者病前行为特征与事件相关电位的关系。方法:采用Achenbach儿童行为量表,回顾性调查儿童精神分裂症首发患者在6~11岁时的行为特征。采用事件相关电位P300对患者的认知功能进行评估。用t检验比较CBCL量表高分组与低分组患者治疗前后P300各数据间的差别。结果:研究组与对照组CBCL量表社会能力总分、行为问题总分、抑郁因子分、社会退缩因子分、攻击性因子分之间差异具有统计学意义(Z=-2.820,-2.325,-2.561,-2.837,-2.759;P<0.05),社会能力总分与治疗前 P300潜伏期呈负相关(r=-0.231, P<0.05)。结论:首发儿童精神分裂症患者病前社会能力与认知功能存在相关关系,社会能力较

  11. 应用P300测定未经治疗的首发精神分裂症患者认知功能的Meta分析%Event-related Potential P300 studies on cognitive function in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia: a Meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易峰; 毛静宇; 梅佳; 苏旭江; 张洋洋

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究未经治疗的首发精神分裂症患者与健康者事件相关电位P300的差异.方法 计算机检索PubMed、Medline、Cochrane Library、万方数据库、中国知网全文数据库、维普中文期刊数据库以及中国学位论文全文数据库中关于应用P300评定未经治疗首发精神分裂症患者认知功能的对照研究文献,应用分析软件RevMan 5.1对两组P300潜伏期及波幅检测数据进行Meta分析.结果 共有14篇文献纳入分析.Meta分析的结果显示,研究组与对照组之间P300潜伏期的标准化均数差(Standardized mean difference,SMD)为0.18,95%CI为(0.04,0.31),研究组潜伏期较对照组延长(P=0.01);两组之间P300波幅SMD值为-0.59,95%CI为(-0.73,-0.46),研究组波幅低于对照组(P<0.01).结论 P300可用于评估首发精神分裂症患者的早期认知功能损害,并可以在临床中作为精神分裂症的辅助诊断指标.%Objective To assess the differences of Event-related potential P300 between drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia and the healthy control group. Methods Computer retrieval was performed for event-related potential P300 studies on drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia and healthy people in Pubmed ,Medline,Cochrane Library,Wanfang Data,China National Knowledge Infrastructure,VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals and China Dissertation Database. Meta-analyses were conducted about P300 latency and amplitude in two groups with RevMan 5.1 software. Results 14 studies met inclusion criteria. The pooled analysis showed that the standardized mean difference (SMD) of P300 latency between the two groups was 0.18 (95 %CI,0.04~ 0.31),and the schizophrenia group have a longer P300 latency than the control group (P=0.01). SMD of P300 amplitude was -0.59 (95 % CI,-0.73~0.46),and the patient group had a lower amplitude than the control group (P <0.01). Conclusion P300 is applicable for the evaluation of the cognitive impairments of initial

  12. 首发未服药精神分裂症患者脑弥散张量成像的基于体素分析%A voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging study of first-episode medication-free patients with schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏钦令; 郑俩荣; 胡冰; 康庄; 国效锋; 胡茂荣; 韩自力

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the changes of white matter integrity in first-episode medication-flee patients with schizophrenia. Methods Diffusion tensor images (DTI) of whole brains of 40 first-episode medication-flee patients with schizophrenia and 68 healthy controls were acquired with a single-shot echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence aligned to the straight axial plane. Two-sample t-test by with voxel-based analysis in SPM5 software was performed on the fractional anisotropy (FA)images of the 2 groups after being preprocessed with DTI-studio and SPM5 software.Results Subjects of schizophrenia showed reduced white matter FA in these regions: the right amygdale (MNI:24, 2, -14; cluster=347 voxels), bilateral anterior cingulate (MNI: 6, 42, 2; cluster=586 voxels), right orbitofrontal (MNI: 20, 18, -10; cluster=166 voxels) as compared with healthy controls. Conclusion Abnormal white matter in the corticolimbic system circuit exists in patients with schizophrenia, which maybe involve in the neural mechanism of schizophrenia.%目的分析首发未服药精神分裂症患者脑白质完整性的变化。 方法对40例首发未服药精神分裂症患者和68例健康对照者进行脑弥散张量磁共振成像检查,以DTI-studio软件和统计参数图(SPM)软件对所得图像进行预处理,得到的各向异性分数(FA)图像在SPM软件中进行两样本t检验,获得两组患者FA值差异统计参数图。 结果在P值小于0.001(未校正)水平下,首发未服药精神分裂症患者右侧杏仁核区(MNI:24,2,-14,cluster=347 voxels)、双侧前扣带区(MNI:6,42,2,cluster=586 voxels)、右侧前额叶眶上回区域(MNI:20,18,-10,cluster= 166 voxels)白质FA值较健康对照者下降,且未发现前者有脑区白质FA值较后者增高。 结论精神分裂症患者皮层一边缘系统环路存在结构连接障碍,这可能是精神分裂症的神经机制。

  13. 首发精神分裂症患者体质量指数与脑灰质体积比率的相关性%Relationship Between Body Mass Index and Volume Ratio of Brain Gray Matter in Patients with First-episode Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 邓伟; 何宗岭; 李名立; 黄明敏; 李涛; 邓红

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析未经治疗的首发精神分裂症患者体质量指数(body mass index,BMI)与年龄、脑体积指标、精神病性症状的相关性,以探讨首发精神分裂症的特征性BMI异常.方法 未用药首发精神分裂症患者97例及与之相匹配的健康对照97例纳入本研究.测评BMI,做磁共振扫描,评定患者的精神病性症状.结果 ①两组间BMI值、白质体积值、灰质体积值、灰质体积比率差异无统计学意义.②相关分析:健康对照组BMI与年龄呈正相关(r=0.42,P=0.001),与脑灰质体积(r=-0.33,P=0.012)及脑灰质体积比率呈负相关(r=-0.39,P=0.003),与白质体积不存在相关性.患者组上述相关性消失,且没有发现BMI与阳性与阴性症状量表总量表分或各因子分存在相关性.结论 对正常青壮年BMI的研究,发现其与年龄呈正相关,与灰质体积比率呈负相关.首发精神分裂症患者BMI与年龄和脑灰质体积比率的相关性消失,且该异常独立于临床症状存在.%Objective To analyze the relationship between psychotic symptoms and body mass index (BMI) and brain mass index in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Methods We identified 97 patients with first-episode and drug-free schizophrenia and compared their BMI and scare MRI results with 97 healthy participants. Results There were no statistically significant differences in BMI, volume of white matter and volume of grey matter between the patients with schizophrenia and healthy participants. BMI was positively correlated with age and negatively correlated with gray matter volume and the ratio of gray matter volume in the healthy participants. No such correlations were found in the patients with schizophrenia. BMI were not correlated with the total score of PANSS, nor with the factor score of PANSS. Conclusion BMI is positive correlated with age, but negatively correlated with gray matter volume and the ratio of gray matter volume in healthy adult. But such

  14. Striatal Reward Activity and Antipsychotic-Associated Weight Change in Patients With Schizophrenia Undergoing Initial Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Rostrup, Egill; Wulff, Sanne;

    2016-01-01

    anticipation is associated with amisulpride-induced weight change in antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia undergoing initial treatment and to examine the association between weight change and changes in reward anticipation activity after treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants: Sixty......-nine antipsychotic-naive inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia were included in a multimodal longitudinal cohort study from December 16, 2008, to December 11, 2013. Fifty-eight patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a monetary reward task. After 6 weeks of treatment......Importance: Weight gain is a common and serious adverse effect of antipsychotic treatment. A variable individual predisposition to development of metabolic disturbances calls for predictive biological markers. Objectives: To investigate whether attenuated striatal activity during reward...

  15. The influence of impaired processing speed on cognition in first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune; Fagerlund, B; Rasmussen, Hans;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impaired cognition is a prominent feature of schizophrenia. To what extent the heterogeneous cognitive impairments can be accounted for by considering only a single underlying impairment or a small number of core impairments remains elusive. This study examined whether cognitive...... impairments in antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia patients may be determined by a relative slower speed of information processing. METHOD: Forty-eight antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 48 matched healthy controls were administered a comprehensive battery...

  16. Substance abuse in first-episode schizophrenic patients: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brambilla MA

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several studies suggest a high comorbidity of substance abuse and schizophrenia, associated with higher frequency of relapse, more positive symptoms and depression, cognitive impairment, poorer outcome and treatment response. A high incidence of substance abuse is also observed in first-episode patients. Among patients with substance abuse, the onset precedes the onset of psychosis of several years in most cases. All the patients with a first episode of schizophrenia, at first admission to the Psychiatric Service of Diagnosis and Treatment of Ospedale Maggiore of Milan during the years 1990 to 2004, have been included in our study. The clinical evaluation has been obtained considering the following items of Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS: conceptual disorganization, depressed mood, hostility, hallucinations, unusual content of thought. The results showed that 34.7% of first-episode schizophrenic patients had a lifetime history of substance abuse. The age of onset of schizophrenia is significantly lower for drug abusers than for patients without any type of abuse and for alcohol abusers (p Our findings seem to indicate that substance abuse in the early course of illness determines an earlier onset of schizophrenia and increases severity of some psychotic symptoms like "hallucination" and "unusual content of thought". Therefore persons incurring a risk of schizophrenia may be warned of the possible relation between substances and psychosis and have to be counselled against the use of them.

  17. 氨磺必利与氯氮平对首发精神分裂症患者社会功能的影响%Effects of amisulpride and clanzapine on social function of pa-tient with first-episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国伟; 张程赪

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of amisulpride and clanzapine on social function of patient with first-episode schizophrenia .Methods A total of 100 patients with first-episode schizophrenia were randomly divided into two groups of 50 ones each ,research group took orally amisulpride and control group did clanzapine for 12 weeks .Efficacies were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and social functions with the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP) .Results After treatment total scores and each factor scores of PANSS of both groups lowered more significantly compared with pretreatment (P0 .05);After treatment the PSP total scores of both groups heightened more significantly (P<0 .01) ,so did those in research than control group (P<0 .05) .Conclusion Both amisulpride and clozapine could im-prove positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenic ,but the former has an advantage in social functions over the latter .%目的:探讨氨磺必利与氯氮平对首发精神分裂症患者社会功能的影响。方法将100例首发精神分裂症患者随机分为两组,每组50例,研究组口服氨磺必利治疗,对照组口服氯氮平治疗,观察12周。于治疗前后采用阳性与阴性症状量表评定精神症状,个人与社会功能量表评定社会功能。结果治疗后两组阳性与阴性症状量表总分及各因子分均较治疗前显著下降(P<0.01),同期两组评分比较差异无显著性(P>0.05);治疗后两组个人与社会功能量表总分均较治疗前显著升高(P<0.01),研究组较对照组升高更显著(P<0.05)。结论氨磺必利与氯氮平均能够改善精神分裂症患者的阳性、阴性症状,但氨磺必利改善患者的社会功能显著优于氯氮平。

  18. A control study of psychological traits of patients with anxie-ty,depression and first-episode schizophrenia%焦虑症抑郁症与首发精神分裂症患者心理特质对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云斌; 周朝当

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the differences of psychological traits of patients with anxiety ,depres-sion and first-episode schizophrenia .Methods Assessments were carried out Minnesota Multiphasic Per-sonality Inventory (M M PI) in 39 anxiety and depression patients and 32 first-episode schizophrenics .Re-sults Scores of neuroticism ,paranoia and psychopathic personality scale in anxiety and depression patients were significantly higher than norm (P<0 .01) ,so was that of neuroticism than schizophrenia (P<0 .01);neuroticism scale scores of anxiety and depression patients were positively related to psychopathic personal-ity notably (P<0 .01) and negatively to paranoia (P<0 .01) .Conclusion Neuroticism of anxiety and de-pression patients is more outstanding than that of schizophrenics ,they have two different psychological traits of neuroticism-psychopathic personality and paranoia .%目的:探讨焦虑症、抑郁症患者与首发精神分裂症患者心理特质的差异性。方法对39例焦虑症、抑郁症患者及32例首发精神分裂症患者采用明尼苏达多相人格测验附加量表进行测评分析。结果焦虑症、抑郁症患者神经质、偏执及病态人格量表评分显著高于常模(P<0.01),神经质量表评分显著高于精神分裂症(P<0.01);焦虑症、抑郁症患者神经质量表评分与病态人格量表评分呈显著正相关(P<0.01),与偏执量表评分呈显著负相关(P<0.01)。结论焦虑症、抑郁症患者的神经质较精神分裂症患者突出,可能存在神经质-病态人格、偏执2种不同的心理特质。

  19. Apathy is associated with executive functioning in first episode psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agartz Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The underlying nature of negative symptoms in psychosis is poorly understood. Investigation of the relationship between the different negative subsymptoms and neurocognition is one approach to understand more of the underlying nature. Apathy, one of the subsymptoms, is also a common symptom in other brain disorders. Its association with neurocognition, in particular executive functioning, is well documented in other brain disorders, but only studied in one former study of chronic patients with schizophrenia. This study investigates the association between apathy and neurocognitive functioning in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP, with the hypothesis that apathy is more associated with tests representing executive function than tests representing other neurocognitive domains. Methods Seventy-one FEP patients were assessed with an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Level of apathy was assessed with the abridged Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-C-Apathy. Results AES-C-Apathy was only significantly associated with tests from the executive domain [Semantic fluency (r = .37, p Conclusion We replicated in FEP patients the relationship between apathy and executive functioning reported in another study for chronic patients with schizophrenia. We also found apathy in FEP to have the same relationship to executive functioning, as assessed with the Verbal fluency tests, as that reported in patients with other brain disorders, pointing to a common underlying nature of this symptom across disorders.

  20. Personality disorders in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Haahr, Ulrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke;

    2008-01-01

    . Thirty-three of these of the patients were assessed at two-year follow-up for comorbid personality disorders by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders and by the self-report instrument Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II. Half of the patients met the criteria of two......The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of personality disorders in the early course of first-episode psychosis and their likely presence in the premorbid period. Fifty-five patients were enrolled at baseline and premorbid function was evaluated by the Premorbid Adjustment Scale...... or more personality disorders, while one-third of the patients did not fulfil the criteria for any personality disorder. The schizoid and the avoidant were the most frequent personality disorders and both were associated with social withdrawal during childhood and adolescence. The limitation of the study...

  1. Pharmacotherapy of first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Martin; Conus, Philippe; Lambert, Tim; McGorry, Pat D

    2003-05-01

    Early intervention in psychosis has attracted more attention in the last few years. The treatment of this phase of the disorders requires a specific and adapted approach. The issue of engaging the patient is so critical that it influences not only the choice of medication, but also the context and the way in which it is administered. In the case of a first admission, patients should be observed for 24-48 h without any antipsychotic treatment, in order to clarify the diagnosis and exclude the possibility that symptoms are caused by acute intoxication with illicit substances, for example. The diagnosis is often difficult and unstable. A dimensional, rather than a categorical approach, is usually more likely to be adopted. In recent years, atypical antipsychotics have become the most frequently used first-line treatment. They are less likely to cause secondary negative symptoms, cognitive impairments and dysphoria. They also appear to influence the course of depression and hostility/aggression better than conventional neuroleptics, have possibly mood-stabilising properties and, subjectively, are often better accepted by patients. On the risk side, prevalence of acute extrapyramidal side effects and possibly tardive dyskinesia are lower, compared to the older neuroleptics. Although, the risk for short-term weight gain, cardiovascular, and especially hyperglycaemic complications are somewhat higher for some of these antipsychotics. Finally, the dose should be adapted as it has been shown that patients presenting a first psychotic episode respond to a lower dose of antipsychotic. This article focuses on the pharmacotherapy of first-episode psychosis, on the basis of a computerised and a manual search for articles dealing with antipsychotic treatment of these patients. Findings are discussed and combined in clinical guidelines for first-episode affective and non-affective psychosis, for patients with incomplete recovery or treatment resistance, for cases of emergency and

  2. Therapeutic effects of aripiprazole and olanzapine on the patients with first-episode acute schizophrenia and their influence on plasma prolactin level%阿立哌唑与奥氮平对首发精神分裂症 急性期疗效及对催乳素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小立; 王继辉; 钟智勇; 韩自力

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To study the efficacy on first-episode acute schizophrenia treated with aripiprazole and olanzapine and the effect on plasma prolactin level. METHODS: 65 inpatients with first-episode acute schizophrenia were divided into either olanzapine group [n = 42, M21, F21; age(23. 9±6. 6)year] or aripiprazole group[(n=23, M1l, F12; age (23. 7 ± 7. 2) year] for 4 week treatment. The plasma prolactin level, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and clinical global impressionglobal improvement (CGI-I) were measured before and after 4 week treatment. RESULTS: The score of PANSS (59 ± 13) after therapy in olanzapine group was significantly lower than that before therapy (103+15) (P 0.05) in the CGI-I score between the two groups. The difference of negative symptoms and general psychopathological sub-scale scoreschanging from base to end between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0. 01). Compared with the prolactin baseline level (547 ±382) uIu/mL,the plasma prolactin level (418 ±362) ulu/mL in olanzapine group was significantly decreased after treatment, and there was no difference. Compared with the prolactin baseline level (351 ±299) ulu/mL, the plasma prolactin level (123 ±114) ulu/mL in aripiprazole group was significantly decreased after treatment, and there was significant difference ( P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The therapeutic effects were similar in the aripiprazole and olanzapine group for first-episode acute schizophrenia. Olanzapine is better for the general psychopathological symptoms, and aripiprazole is better for the negative symptoms. Aripiprazole maybe decrease the plasma prolactin level of first-episode acute schizophrenia.%目的:研究奥氮平和阿立哌唑对首发精神分裂症患者急性期疗效及对血中催乳素(PRI)水平的影响.方法:65例首发精神分裂症患者分为奥氮平组42例[男21例,女21例;年龄(23.9±6.6)岁]和阿立哌唑组23例[男11例,女12例;年龄(23.7±7.2)岁].分别给予奥

  3. Comparison of Short-term Metabolic Risk in First-episode Young-adult Schizophrenia Treated with Aripiprazole and Olanzapine%阿立哌唑与奥氮平对首发年轻成人精神分裂症患者短期内代谢风险的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小立; 魏钦令; 钟智勇; 张晋碚

    2011-01-01

    摘要:[目的]比较阿立哌唑与奥氮平对首发年轻成人精神分裂症患者短期内的代谢风险.[方法]采用开放对照的临床观察方法,对符合美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版(DSM-Ⅳ)精神分裂症诊断标准的首发住院精神分裂症患者,分别使用阿立哌唑(21例)和奥氮平(42例)治疗,自然观察时间不低于2周,不大于4周,于治疗前后各检测一次体质量、腰围、空腹血脂血糖及胰岛素、C肽.[结果]观察结束时:阿立哌唑组的体质量、体质量指数(BMI)、腰围、腰臀比均有增高(P<0.05),糖脂改变无统计学差异,男女患者间各项代谢指标的变化无统计学差异(P>0.05);奥氮平组的体质量、体质量指数(BMI)、腰围、腰臀比、甘油三酯(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白(HDL)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL)、载脂蛋白AI和B100及脂蛋白LPa较治疗前增高(P<0.0l),且胰岛素(INS)水平和胰岛素抵抗指数(IR)增高(P<0.05),多元逐步回归分析显示胰岛素抵抗与甘油三脂的增高有关(R2 =0.107,P=0.007);奥氛平组男性患者的空腹胰岛素和C肽、胰岛素抵抗指数均增高(P<0.05),女性患者则没有.[结论]阿立哌唑和奥氮平对首发年轻成人精神分裂症患者短期内的代谢风险即有差异,性别差异可能影响着非典型抗精神病药物的代谢风险.%[Objective] To compare the short-term metabolic risk in the first-episode young-adult schizophrenia treated with Aripiprazole and Olanzapine. [ Methods] The open-lable, natural observed, compared method was designed for this study. All of these cases were diagnosed as first-episode schizophrenia in accordance with the DSM-IV diagnosis criteria and respectively allocated into two groups for either Aripiprazole or Olanzapine treatment. The natural observed period was from two weeks to four weeks. Weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, and lipid concentration, fasting insulin and C peptide

  4. Gender differences in first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koster, A.; Lajer, M.; Lindhardt, A.;

    2008-01-01

    In the description of 1 episode schizophrenia patients, female gender is associated with better social function and a higher degree of compliance, while males exhibit more negative symptoms and a higher degree of abuse. The question is raised whether gender specific differences exist which should...

  5. The influencing factors of duration of untreated psychosis and the relationship between DUP and treatment outcome in epidemiological first episode schizophrenia%首发精神分裂症患者精神病治疗前期间影响因素与临床疗效关系的流行病学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖海军; 朱志启; 吴景欢; 黄庆军

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨首发精神分裂症患者精神病治疗前期间(duration of untreated psychosis,DUP)的影响因素及临床疗效和DUP的关系.方法 对912例首发精神分裂症患者的病案资料进行流行病学调查.收集患者的一般资料、临床诊断及临床疗效.参考精神分裂症首发症状评定量表评估患者的DUP.根据DUP的中位值将患者分为短DUP和长DUP2组.结果 短DUP与长DUP2组间婚姻比较差异具有显著性(P<0.05),其中未婚在短DUP组频数分布(63.7%)高于长DUP组(52.6%),差异具有显著性(λ2=5.990,P<0.05),离婚在短DUP组频数分布(0.6%)低于长DUP组(4.4%),差异具有显著性(λ2=15.079,P<0.01).精神分裂症单纯型在短DUP组频数分布(1.5%)低于长DUP组(4.1%),差异具有显著性(λ2=5.868,P<0.05).2组临床疗效间的比较差异具有显著性(λ2=36.093,P<0.01),2组临床疗效间Ridit分析显示差异有显著性(u=5.183,P<0.01).多因素Logistic回归分析发现婚姻、发病年龄和临床诊断对DUP有显著影响.结论 在首发精神分裂症患者中,婚姻、发病年龄和临床诊断对DUP有影响,DUP越长其临床疗效越差.%Objective To explore the influencing factor of duration of untreated psychosis(DUP) and the relationship between duration of untreated psychosis and treatment outcome in epidemiological first-episode schizophrenia. Methods 912 medical records of the first episode schizophrenia patients were recruited in the study for epidemiological survey . The general medical data, clinical diagnosis, and treatment outcome were collected. DUP was determined refer to symptom onset for schizophrenia (SOS) scale. Patients were divided into short DUP and long DUP groups according to the median values of DUP values. Results Between short DUP and long DUP groups, the difference in marriage was significant ( P < 0. 05). The unmarried patients in the short DUP group (63.7% ) was higher than the long DUP group (52.6% ), the variance was significant (λ2

  6. 五种常用二代抗精神病药物对首发精神分裂症患者泌乳素的近期影响%The short term effects of five second-generation antipsychotics on serum prolactin in the first-episode schizophrenia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王厚亮; 赵靖平; 韩洪赢; 温盛霖; 张俊成

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨目前临床常用的5种二代抗精神病药物对首发精神分裂症患者血清泌乳素(prolactin, PRL)水平的近期影响。方法250例首发精神分裂症患者随机分为5组,分别采用利培酮、奥氮平、帕利哌酮、喹硫平、齐拉西酮治疗6周,检测基线(入组时)和治疗每周末血清泌乳素水平,并在基线和治疗第6周末采用阳性与阴性症状量表(positive and negative symptom scale,PANSS)和副反应量表(treatment emergent symptom scale,TESS)评估各药物疗效与安全性。结果患者泌乳素水平经重复测量方差分析示,时间因素主效应、分组因素主效应和时间与分组的交互效应均具有统计学意义(均P0.05)。结论抗精神病药物治疗使患者泌乳素水平逐渐增高;不同二代抗精神病药物对泌乳素的近期影响不同,利培酮和奥氮平在治疗早期就能明显升高泌乳素水平。%Objective To explore the short term effects of five second-generation antipsychotics on the serum pro⁃lactin levels of first-episode schizophrenia patients. Methods Two hundred fifty first-episode schizophrenia patients were randomly divided into five groups and were then treated with risperidone, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine or ziprasidone, respectively. The serum prolactin were tested at baseline, and every week following initiation of treatment. The positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) and the treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) were used to evalu⁃ate the effect and side effect of treatment. Results Repeated measure ANOVA for serum prolactin showed that the main effects of time, the main effect of group, and the interactive effect of time and group were significant (all P0.05). Conclusion The level of serum prolactin gradually increases in schizophrenia patients receiving treatment of antipsychotics. The short term effects of different second generation antipsy⁃chotics on serum prolactin

  7. The comparative study of cognitive functions between familial and sporadic patients with first-episode schizophrenia%首发家族性和散发性精神分裂症患者认知功能的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅; 李寅飞; 雷威; 韩媛媛; 邓红; 邓伟; 李涛; 李名立; 李娜; 林鄞; 任虹燕; 黄朝华

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨首发家族性与散发性精神分裂症患者的认知功能差异。方法纳入首发精神分裂症患者127例,其中家族性患者40例,散发性患者87例;同时纳入96名正常对照。采用修订的韦氏成人智力测验中部分量表对所有受试者进行认知功能评估,阳性与阴性症状量表(positive and negative syndrome scale , PANSS)评定患者症状的严重程度,并分析认知功能与精神症状的相关性。结果家族性组与散发性组患者PANSS总分[(91.51±14.07)vs.(87.23±16.37)]、阳性症状分[(25.89±6.70)vs.(23.72±6.04)]、阴性症状分[(18.19±6.43)vs.(19.07±8.01)]差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);两患者组全智商量表分、言语智商量表分和操作智商量表分均低于对照组(均P0.05)。结论首发精神分裂患者在发病初期认知功能即存在显著损害,散发性患者在智力方面受损较重,其受损程度与临床症状严重程度相关,而家族性患者智力的损害则独立于临床症状。%Objective To investigate the difference in cognitive functions between first-episode schizophrenia pa-tients with and without family history. Methods One hundred twenty-seven patients with first-episode schizophrenia were recruited, including 40 patients with family history and 87 sporadic patients. Ninety-six matched normal subjects served as controls. Seven subscales of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised in China (WAIS-RC) were used to assess the cognitive functions of all subjects. Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) was used to assess patients ’ symptoms. The relationship between clinical symptoms and cognitive deficits was analyzed. Results There was no signifi-cant difference in the PANSS scores between familial patients and sporadic patients [(91.51±14.07) vs. (87.23±16.37), P>0.05]. The scores of full intelligence quotient (IQ), verbal IQ and operation IQ were lower in patient

  8. Prevention of negative symptom psychopathologies in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, Ingrid; Larsen, Tor K; Haahr, Ulrik;

    2008-01-01

    The duration of untreated psychosis (DUP)-the time from onset of psychotic symptoms to the start of adequate treatment--is consistently correlated with better course and outcome, but the mechanisms are poorly understood.......The duration of untreated psychosis (DUP)-the time from onset of psychotic symptoms to the start of adequate treatment--is consistently correlated with better course and outcome, but the mechanisms are poorly understood....

  9. 健康管理随访对门诊首发精神分裂症患者服药依从性及复发的影响%Influence of the health management follow-up visits on medication compliance and the recurrence in the first-episode schizophrenia outpatients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈姬; 韦娟娟; 张毅

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解门诊首发精神分裂症患者实施健康管理随访干预对服药依从性及复发的影响。方法对136例经精神科门诊规范治疗后稳定的首发精神分裂症患者,随机分为研究组(68例)及对照组(68例),对照组进行常规门诊随访;研究组在此基础上实施健康管理随访干预。两组进行为期1年的随访,分别于入组时、24周、52周进行简明精神病量表(BPRS)、服药依从性量表(MARS)、疾病复发的评定,并分析影响服药依从性的相关因素。结果研究组患者在24周、52周M A RS量表评分为(8.98±1.80)分,(7.02±1.90)分,明显高于对照组且差异有统计学意义( P<0.01);52周时研究组复发率为22.05%,对照组复发率为51.47%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);Logistic回归分析结果显示服药依从性与健康教育、服药次数、自知力、BPRS量表分值等因素有相关性。结论通过对门诊首发精神分裂症患者实施健康管理随访,能够提高患者服药依从性,降低疾病复发风险。%Objective To investigate the influence of the health management follow -up visits on the medication compliance and the recurrence of the outpatients with first-episode schizophrenia .Meth‐ods One hundred and thirty -six outpatients with first -episode schizophrenia with a steady condition after a regular therapy were randomly chosen ,and divided into the intervene group(68 patients) and the control group (68 patients) .The patients in the control group were treated in a regular way ;while those in the intervene group had health management follow -up visits as well as the regular treatment .After a one-year research ,both groups were evaluated with BPRS ,MARS and recurrence at the beginning ,at the end of six months and at the end of twelve months of the study .And the relevant factors of the medi‐cation compliance were analyzed

  10. Metabolism of glucose in first-episode drug-naive patients with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives%首发精神分裂症患者及其正常Ⅰ级亲属糖代谢的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文娟; 朱浩; 谭立文; 万风

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨在排除抗精神病药物影响下精神分裂症患者及其正常Ⅰ级亲属的糖代谢情况.方法 选择58例符合中国精神障碍分类与诊断标准第3版(CCMD-3)和精神障碍诊断统计手册第4版(DSM-Ⅳ)中分裂症诊断标准的、首发且未服药的精神分裂症患者(患者组),以及其22例正常Ⅰ级亲属(亲属组)、24例普通人群(正常对照组)为研究对象.检测空腹血糖、胰岛素、C-肽以及口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTY)后2h血浆中血糖、胰岛素和C-肽水平.结果 患者组OGTT后2h血糖[(8.51±2.05)mmol/L]和糖代谢异常发病率(48.3%)均显著高于与亲属组[(5.61±1.38)mmol/L,9.1%]、正常对照组[(5.88±1.21)mmol/L,4.2%](均P<0.01),且患者组的空腹胰岛素、C-肽、OGTT后2h胰岛素及胰岛素抵抗指数(IRI)也都明显高于正常对照组[分别为(19.18±7.92)mU/L,(14.51±6.87)mU/L;(76.83±36.65)mU/L,(55.05±26.91)mU/L;(472.44±167.69)pmol/L,(324.27±160.23)pmol/L;(4.56±2.05),(3.24±1.55)],差异有显著性(均P<0.05).结论 与普通人群相比,精神分裂症患者具有较高的糖代谢异常发病率,精神分裂症与糖代谢异常之间存在一定的相关性.%Objective To study metabolism of glucose in first-episode drug-naive schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives. Methods In this cross-sectional study, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), oral glucose toler-ance, insulin and C-peptide(CP) were measured in 58 first-episode drug-naive patients with schizophrenia, 22 their first-degree relatives and 24 healthy subjects. Results The morbility of impaired glucose metabolism in pa-tients was 48.3%, which was significantly higher than that in first-degree relatives and healthy subjects, respec-tively (P<0.01). And the level of OGTT 2 h plasma glucose (2 hPG) was similar results also (schizophrenic : 8.51 ±2.05 mmol/L; first-degree relatives:5.61±1.38 mmol/L; healthy subjects:5.88±1.21 mmol/L). In addi-tion, compared with controls, the patients

  11. Childhood trauma and cognitive function in first-episode affective and non-affective psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aas, Monica

    2011-06-01

    A history of childhood trauma is reportedly more prevalent in people suffering from psychosis than in the general population. Childhood trauma has also been linked to cognitive abnormalities in adulthood, and cognitive abnormalities, in turn, are one of the key clinical features of psychosis. Therefore, this study investigated whether there was a relationship between childhood trauma and cognitive function in patients with first-episode psychosis. The potential impact of diagnosis (schizophrenia or affective psychosis) and gender on this association was also examined.

  12. [First-episodes psychosis: clinical and epidemiological news].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, M

    2013-09-01

    In the context of the development of early intervention for first-episode psychosis, this manuscript reviews new data with respect to its incidence, risk factors and evolution. Annual incidence of non-affective psychosis appeared to be between 14 and 30/100,000 in people aged 18-64. Incidence decreases with age and is twice higher in men than in women. There is an interaction between age and gender; the risk of psychosis decreases with age faster in men than in women. Thus, for schizophrenia, incidence rate is twice higher in men under 45 year-old and similar in both genders after. There is evidence that genetic and environmental factors may cause enduring liability to psychotic disorder, and, in addition, that genes and environment may interact synergistically. Some environmental factors have been identified; they concern foetal life, childhood or adolescence and may be conceptualized at the individual or the contextual level. The definition of recent onset psychosis may be based on duration of psychosis, between two and five years. Its development is identified through the occurrence of major psychotic symptoms, such as positive, negative symptomatology or disorganization, and impairment of social functioning. The types and patterns of occurrence and of evolution of psychotic symptoms have a prognostic impact. A long duration of untreated psychosis impacts symptomatology. It is associated with less severe positive symptoms at baseline and more severe after three years, insidious onset, male gender, early onset, and diagnosis of schizophrenia. Recent onset psychosis is often associated with comorbidities, such as depression, anxiety disorders, suicidal behaviours, and addiction. Symptomatic remission rates are found between 25 and 60%. Symptomatic and functional remissions favour each other. A third to half of patients is active, employed or students. Symptoms and evolution are various in studies, probably corresponding to various patho-physiological mechanisms

  13. The applied research of strengths model of case management in patients with first-episode schizophrenia%个案管理优势模式在首发精神分裂症患者康复护理中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锦成; 黎彩萍

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo understand the impact of the advantages of strengths model of case management for patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Methods A medication compliance questionnaire, social disability screening schedule(SDSS) and world health organization quality of life summary table(WHOQOL-BREF) were preformed to compare the two groups of patients.Results The medication compliance of the study group was higher (P<0.05), SDSS score was lower(P<0.05), and the quality of life of the study group was higher than the control group(P<0.05).ConclusionThe strengths model of case management will help patient to adherence to treatment, maintain social function of patients and improve their quality of life.%目的:了解个案管理优势模式对首发精神分裂症患者影响。方法采用自制服药依从性调查表、社会功能缺陷筛选量表(SDSS)、世界卫生组织生活质量简表(WHOQOL-BREF),对两组患者进行测评。结果研究组患者的服药依从性更高(P<0.05),SDSS评分更低(P<0.05),在生活质量的各个评分中均显著高于对照组患者(P<0.05)。结论引进个案管理优势模式有利于改善患者对治疗的依从性,保持患者的社会功能和提高其生活质量。

  14. Effects of adjunctive celecoxib treatment with risperidone on the cognitive function in first-episode schizophrenia patients%利培酮合并赛来昔布治疗对精神分裂症首次发病患者认知功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈大春; 张向阳; 李艳丽; 杨可冰; 王宁; 聂鹰; 谭云龙; 周东丰

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨利培酮合并赛来昔布对精神分裂症首发患者认知功能的影响.方法 符合美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版诊断标准的精神分裂症首次发病(以下简称首发)住院患者90例,随机分到利培酮+赛来昔布组(研究组,46例)或利培酮+空白剂组(对照组,44例),观察治疗时间均为12周.认知功能评定使用阳性和阴性症状量表、汉密尔顿抑郁量表、威斯康星卡片分类(WCST)、重复性神经心理测查系统(RBANS).结果 治疗第12周末,研究组PANSS总分及分量表分低于对照组(P均<0.05);研究组HAMD评分低于对照组;两组患者RBANS测验总分及部分分量表评分均较基线明显提高,差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05);WCST部分因子分均较基线有明显改善,差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05);两组间各量表评分的差异均无统计学意义(P均>0.05).研究组男性患者的延时记忆量表分明显高于女性患者,差异有统计学意义(F=4.8;υ=1.0,38;P=0.03),且临床症状的改善与认知功能的提高存在显著相关性(P<0.05).结论 利培酮具有改善首发精神分裂症患者认知功能的作用;赛来昔布对男性患者的延时记忆有改善作用.%Objective To evaluate the effects of celecoxib added to risperidone on the cognitive function in the first-episode patients with schizophrenia.Methods Ninety inpatients with first-episode schizophrenia (DSM-IV criteria) were enrolled and assigned randomly into risperidone plus celecoxib group (46 cases) and risperidone plus placebo group (44 cases).The dosage of risperidone,starting from 2 mg/ d was adjusted according to the clinical efficacy and side-effects.The dosage of celecoxib was 200 mg/d for the first week,and maintained at 400 mg/d until the end of 12-week study.The cognitive function was rated with the Wisconsin Cards Sort Test (WCST) and Repeatable Battery for the Assessmental of Neurepsychological Status(RBANS) both at baseline

  15. 首发精神分裂症患者血清叶酸、同型半胱氨酸与P300的相关性%Correlation between serum folate,homocysteine and P300 in patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔萌; 亢小燕; 庄蓉; 蒋东; 曾波涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between serum homocysteine ,folate and P300 in first-episode schizophrenia patients .Methods Fifty patients with first -episode schizophrenia were se‐lected as patient group ,choosing the age and sex -matched 50 healthy people in hospital staff and com‐munity groups as control group ,all participants were sepatately tested serum folate ,homocysteine and P300 ,and assessing psychotic symptoms when patients enrolled by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale(PANSS) .Results Compared with the control group ,the level of serum folate was lower than in patient group ,the difference was statistically significant (t=5 .14 ,P<0 .01);Serum homocysteine was higher than the control group ,the difference was statistically significant (t=4 .23 ,P<0 .01);Compared with the control group ,P300 amplitude was lower and the incubation period was higher in patient group , and the difference was statistically significant (t=2 .51 -3 .23 ,P<0 .05) .In patient group ,serum ho‐mocysteine and Cz ,Pz site of P300 latency was positively correlated (r=0 .36~0 .46 ,P<0 .05) ,serum homocysteine and Cz ,Pz point of P300 amplitude was negatively correlated (r= -0 .38 - -0 .51 ,P<0.05) .Conclusions The amplitude and latency of P300's changes in first-episode schizophrenia patients may be associated with serum homocysteine metabolism ,and with no direct correlation with serum folate levels .%目的:研究首发精神分裂症患者血清叶酸及同型半胱氨酸与P300的相关性。方法选取50例首发精神分裂症患者作为患者组,在医院职工和社区人群中选取年龄、性别相匹配的50名健康人作为对照组,分别测定所有被试的血清叶酸及同型半胱氨酸和 P300,应用阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS)评定患者组入组时精神症状。结果患者组血清叶酸水平低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(t =5.14,P <0.01);血清同型半胱氨酸高于对照组,

  16. 全病程医疗服务模式对军队首发精神分裂症患者2年疗效随访%Follow-up study on two-year curative effects of whole-course medical management model on military patients with first episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡光涛; 宋航; 王国威; 陈许波; 贺英

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究全病程医疗服务模式对军队精神分裂症患者长期疗效、服药依从性和社会功能的影响.方法 126例军队首发精神分裂症患者随机分配至全病程医疗服务模式组(实验组)63例,传统医疗服务模式组(对照组)63例,随访研究2年.在基线,入组后第4、8 w入组后第3、6、12、18、24个月时进行疗效和社会功能评定.疗效评定主要指标为阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)评分、持续治疗时间,次要指标为停药率、复发率,社会功能评定采用社会功能缺陷筛选量表(SDSS).结果 组间疗效平行对照,2组在基线及入组后第4 w时PANSS总分无显著性差异(P>0.05);入组第8 w起,实验组PANSS总分显著低于对照组;组内疗效前后对照,第12、18、24个月PANSS总分与第3个月比较,实验组有显著性差异(P<0.05),对照组差异无显著性(P>0.05).入组后第6、12、18、24个月,实验组SDSS评分显著低于对照组(P<0.05或P<0.01);实验组1年内停药率及复发率均显著低于对照组(P<0.05),停药前持续治疗时间(TTD)显著高于对照组(t=2.93,P<0.01).结论 "全病程医疗服务模式"能有效提高军队首发精神分裂症患者的疗效和依从性,改善预后,值得推广.%Objective To study the effects of the whole course medical management model on the long term curative effect, medication compliance, and social function of military patients with first episode schizophrenia. Methods 126 military patients with first episode schizophrenia were randomly divided into whole course medical management model group( experimental group,63 cases ) and traditional medical management model group( control group,63 cases ). The follow - up was carried out for 2 years. The curative effects and social function were evaluated at the beginning,4,8 w,3,6,12,18,24 months after the grouping. The key indicators of curative effect evaluation included positive and negative syndrome scale( PANSS )scoring

  17. 奥氮平对首次发病精神分裂症患者肝脏脂肪含量的影响%Effects of olanzapine treatment upon liver fat content in first-episode schizophrenia patients: a preliminary study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈方斌; 陈琪; 潘园园; 孙剑; 徐乐平; 王焕林

    2014-01-01

    目的 观察奥氮平对首次发病精神分裂症患者肝脏脂肪含量(liver fat content,LFC)的影响.方法 首次发病精神分裂症25例患者(患者组)接受奥氮平单药治疗,剂量为10~ 20 mg/d,疗程8周.患者组分别于治疗前、治疗后(第8周末),采用质子磁共振波谱分析测定LFC,并与25名健康人(对照组)进行比较;患者组另予测定人体学指标[体质量指数(body mass index,BMI)、腰围/身高比(waist-height ratio,WHR)]、血清代谢指标(空腹血糖、甘油三酯、胆固醇)及稳态模型评估的胰岛素抵抗指数(homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance,HOMA-IR).结果 (1)治疗后患者组LFC较治疗前增高(分别为4.99%±1.79%、3.98%±0.83%,=2.958,P <0.01),并高于对照组(4.02%±0.80%,t=2.436,P<0.05),差异有统计学意义;(2)治疗后患者组BMI、WHR、甘油三酯、胆固醇、HOMA-IR较治疗前增高;(3)治疗前患者组LFC值与HOMA-IR、BMI、WHR、甘油三酯呈正相关(r=0.447、0.424、0.421、0.413,均P<0.05);治疗后LFC值与HOMA-IR、甘油三酯呈正相关(r=0.425、0.400,均P<0.05);治疗前后LFC变化值与HOMA-IR、WHR变化值呈正相关(r=0.478,P<0.01;r =0.430,P <0.05);(4)治疗后患者组有4例(4/25,16%)LFC高于脂肪肝诊断临界值(LFC>5.5%).结论 奥氮平治疗可能增加精神分裂症患者肝脏的脂肪沉积.%Objective To observe the effects of olanzapine treatment upon liver tat content (LFC)in first-episode schizophrenia patients.Methods A total of 25 first-episode schizophrenia patients were administered olanzapine alone with dosage ranging from 10 to 20 mg per day for eight weeks.1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was used for LFC measurements before and after eight-week olanzapine treatment.The results were compared with those of the normal control group (n =25).Other indicators,including body mass index (BMI),waist-height ratio (WHR),fasting plasma glucose (FPG),triglyceride (TG

  18. 汉族女性精神分裂症首发患者利培酮治疗所致闭经的危险因素%Risk factors for medication-induced amenorrhea in first-episode female Chinese patients with schizophrenia treated with risperidone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海支; 任丽华; 沈仲夏; 钱敏才; 沈鑫华; 杨胜良; 杨剑虹; 宋娟芬; 费小聪; 陶百平; 宋宝华

    2013-01-01

    Background:Amenorrhea is a common adverse effect of treatment with antipsychotic medications that influences both fertility and adherence to medication regimens. Most research suggests that medication-induced prolactinemia is the main cause of amenorrhea but few prospective studies have assessed this hypothesis. Aim:Identify risk factors for amenorrhea following treatment with antipsychotic medication. Methods:The study used a prospective, nested case-control design. First-episode, drug naïve female patients with schizophrenia who were in the middle of their menstrual cycle at the time of admission were enrolled. Serum levels of six reproductive hormones were assessed before and after a 12-week course of treatment with risperidone:progesterone, estradiol, prolactin, follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone. The hormone levels of 31 patients who had no menstruation during the entire 12 weeks of treatment (the amenorrhea group) were compared to those of 31 age-matched subjects who had normal menstrual periods over the 12 weeks of treatment (the control group). Results:We found a dramatic 4-fold increase in prolactin levels in women of childbearing age treated with risperidone, but the pretreatment and posttreatment levels of prolactin were not different between patients who did and did not develop amenorrhea with treatment. However, there were significantly lower pretreatment levels of estradiol and progesterone in patients who subsequently developed amenorrhea with risperidone treatment than in patients who did not develop amenorrhea. A conditional logistic regression analysis found that pretreatment levels of estradiol remained significantly associated with the development of amenorrhea during treatment even when adjusting for the pretreatment levels of the other five reproductive hormones assessed. Conclusion:These findings do not support the suggestion that amenorrhea associated with the use of antipsychotic medication is the result

  19. The study of the association of impairment of cognition and performance-based skills with clinical symp- toms in drug-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients%首发未用药精神分裂症认知功能及生活技能与临床特征的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈大春; 杨可冰; 李艳丽; 王宁; 聂鹰; 崔界峰; 陈楠; 张向阳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate cognitive impairment and performance-based skills and to explore their rela⁃tionships with clinical phenotypes in drug-naïve first-episode patients with schizophrenia. Methods One hundred and forty-five inpatients and 65 healthy controls matched for age, gender and education were recruited. The MATRICS Con⁃sensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), Stroop, digit span test, emotional recognition test, University of California, San Diego, Performance-based Skill Assessment (UPSA) and Positive Negative Syndrome Scale scale (PANSS) were used to evaluate cognitive function, life skill and symptoms, respectively. Results Compared with the controls, total score of MCCB and scores of 10 subscales, scores of digit span, emotional recognition and Stroop were significantly lower in patients (all P<0.05). The UPSA total score and scores of financial skill and communication skill were lower in patients than in controls (all P<0.05). Verbal memory, visual memory , Stroop, communication skill scores and total UPSA standard score were sig⁃nificantly higher in patients with paranoid subtype of schizophrenia than in patients with non-paranoid subtype of schizo⁃ phrenia (all P<0.05). The score of MCCB associated with education years (OR=1.29, 95%CI: 1.13~1.47) and PANSS (OR=0.95, 95%CI:0.92~0.97). Conclusions First-episode, drug-naive patients with schizophrenia have markedly cog⁃nitive and performance-based skills deficits, which are associated with clinical symptoms. These deficits are differences between paranoid subtype and non-paranoid subtype of schizophrenia.%目的:探讨首发未用药精神分裂症患者认知功能、生活技能状况及其与临床特征的关系。方法纳入首发精神分裂症住院患者145例和65名正常对照,采用精神分裂症认知功能成套测验中文版(MATRICS consensus cognitive battery,MCCB)、Stroop色词测验等评估两组认知功能,加州大学圣地亚哥分校基于任

  20. 精神分裂症首次发病未治疗患者血清脑源性神经营养因子水平测定%Clinical research of the relation of plasma levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor in the untreated illness in patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁杰; 瞿正万; 蔡正宜; 杨建飞; 张洁; 金莹

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relation of plasma levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor in pa-tients with first-episode schizophrenia during untreated period . Provide a certain basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Method:We picked 66 untreated in-patients and out-patients who were newly diagnosed as schizo-phrenia according to ICD-10 as the study group and 40 normal people as the control group. After joining the group,the positive and negative symptoms scale( PANSS)was used to identify the degree of mental symptoms. Morning blood drawn and plasma concentrations of BDNF were also measured. Results:Plasma BDNF levels in patients with schizophrenia(21. 35 ± 3. 94)ug / L was lower than the normal control group(23. 68 ± 6. 14) ug/L,P<0. 05;The duration of untreated illness was related to serum BDNF levels(r=3. 216,P<0. 05). Conclusion:The longer duration of untreated illness,the more obvious BDNF levels decline,which suggest BD-NF levels may be an important indicator of disease development and prognosis.%目的:了解首发精神分裂症未治疗患者脑源性神经营养因子( BDNF)水平的变化,为临床诊治提供一定的依据。方法:抽取初诊的住院或门诊符合ICD-10精神分裂症诊断标准首发未治疗患者计66例,正常对照组40例。入组后使用阳性和阴性症状量表( PANSS)判别精神症状程度,抽取晨血,测定血清BDNF浓度。结果:精神分裂症患者血清BDNF水平(21.35±3.94)ug/L,显著低于正常对照组[(23.68±6.14)ug/L,P<0.05];未治疗时间与血清BDNF水平具有相关性(r=3.216,P<0.05)。结论:精神分裂症患者未治疗期越长,BDNF水平下降越明显,提示BDNF水平或许是精神分裂症患者发展的生物学指标之一。

  1. 氨磺必利与丁二酸洛沙平治疗首发精神分裂症对照研究%A control study of amisulpride vs . loxapin succinate in the treatment of first-episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华永; 王刚平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of amisulpride vs .loxapin succinate in the treat-ment of first-episode schizophrenia .Methods Sixty-five first-episode schizophrenics were randomly as-signed to two groups took orally amisulpride or loxapin succinate for 6 weeks .Before and after treatment efficacies were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS ) and adverse reactions with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) .Results After treatment the total scores of the PANSS of both groups lowered continuously compared with pretreatment (P0 .05) .Adverse reactions of both groups were mild ,tremor incidence was significantly lower in research than control group (χ2 =4 .04 ,P0 .05) . Conclusion Amisulpride has an efficacy equivalent to loxapin succinate ,but the former has higher safety and better compliance .%目的:探讨氨磺必利与丁二酸洛沙平治疗首发精神分裂症患者的临床疗效和安全性。方法将65例首发精神分裂症患者随机分为两组,分别口服氨磺必利与丁二酸洛沙平治疗,观察6周。治疗前后采用阳性与阴性症状量表评定临床疗效,副反应量表评定不良反应。结果治疗后两组阳性与阴性症状量表总分均较治疗前呈持续性下降(P<0.01);治疗6周末研究组显效率80.0%、有效率93.3%,对照组分别为76.7%、90.0%,两组比较差异无显著性( P>0.05)。两组不良反应均较轻,研究组震颤发生率显著低于对照组(χ2=4.04,P<0.05),其他不良反应与对照组比较差异无显著性(P>0.05)。结论氨磺必利与丁二酸洛沙平治疗首发精神分裂症疗效显著且相当,但氨磺必利安全性更高,依从性更好。

  2. Effects of amisulpride and quetiapine on serum sex hormone,bone mineral density and body weight in female patients ;with first-episode schizophrenia%氨磺必利和喹硫平对首发女性精神分裂症性激素、骨密度及体质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓高超

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of amisulpride and quetiapine on serum sex hormone,bone mineral density and body weight in female patients with first-episode schizophrenia.Methods A total of 96 female patients with first-episode schizophrenia were randomly divided into amisulpride group(n=46)and quetiapine group(n=50)for treatment of 12 months. They were examined with serum prolactin,estradiol,progesterone,bone mineral density and Body Mass Index (BMI)before and at the 6th,12th month end of treatment.Results At the 6th and 12th month end of treatment,the level of prolactin in amisulpride group was significantly higher than that before treatment (P<0.05 )and the levels of estradiol and progesterone in amisulpride group were significantly lower than those before treatment(P<0.05).At the 6th and 12th month end of treatment,the level of prolactin in amisulpride group was significantly higher than that in quetiapine group and the level of estradiol in amisulpride group was significantly lower than that in quetiapine group(P<0.05).At the 6th and 12th month end of treatment,the Body Mass Index (BMI)in two groups were all significantly higher than those before treatment(P<0.05).At the 12th month end of treatment, the level of bone mineral density in amisulpride group was significantly lower than that before treatment(P<0.05)and that in quetiapine group (P<0.05).At the 12th month end of treatment,the change rate of bone mineral density in amisulpride group was negatively related to the change rate of prolactin(P<0.05 ),and was positively related to the change rate of estradiol and BMI(P<0.05).At the 12th month end of treatment,the change rate of bone mineral density in quetiapine group was positively related to the change rate of BMI (P<0.05 ).Conclusion Amisulpride can significantly influence the level of serum sex hormone,bone mineral density and body weight in female patients with schizophrenia.%目的:探讨氨磺必利和喹硫平对首发女性精神分裂症患

  3. Influence of quetiapine fumarate on brain electrical activity during sleep in patients with first-episode schizophrenia%富马酸喹硫平对首发精神分裂症患者睡眠脑电活动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫润涛; 马晓燕; 祖国平; 石玉中; 娄百玉; 穆俊林

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of brain electrical activity during sleep after the administration of quetiapine fumarate in patients with first-episode schizophrenia.Methods Forty-three patients with first episode schizophrenia (observation group) underwent polysomnography before and after 4-week treatment with quetiapine fumarate to record the total sleep time,sleep latency,sleep efficiency,awakening time,rapid eye movement sleep latency,rapid eye movement sleep time,percentage of slow-wave sleep stage 1 in total sleep time (S1 %),percentage of slow-wave sleep stage 2 in total sleep time (S2 %),and percentage of slow-wave sleep stage 3 and 4 in total sleep time (SWS%),and were compared with 36 healthy volunteers (control group).Results The total sleep time,sleep latency,sleep efficiency,awakening time,rapid eye movement sleep latency,rapid eye movement sleep time,S1%,S2% and SWS% were (372.4±29.8) min,(31.6±15.2) min,(86.6±9.4)%,(37.5±16.2) min,(64.7±22.6) min,(67.5± 19.8) min,(22.8±9.6) %,(51.3± 16.9)% and (10.2±4.8) % before treatment,and (446.7±25.3) min,(24.9± 11.2) min,(94.5±7.8)%,(21.4±9.7)min,(70.3±18.5) min,(83.1±16.3) min,(11.6±5.7)%,(58.7± 5.1)% and (15.8±4.6)% after 4-week treatment in observation group,and were (462.7±21.3) min,(18.6±9.8) min,(96.3±5.2)%,(14.8±5.5) min,(90.3±14.7) min,(99.1±13.4) min,(9.2±1.7)%,(55.7±4.2)%,(16.7± 4.5)% in control group.Significant differences were found in all indexes above except S2 % between two groups (P<0.05).The total sleep time,sleep efficiency,awakening time,S1%,S2% and SWS% showed significant differences after treatment in comparison with before treatment in observation group (P<0.05).Conclusion Quetiapine fumarate can prolong the total sleep time,improve sleep efficiency,reduce awakening time,shorten slow-wave sleep stage 1,and prolong slow-wave sleep stage 2,3 and 4 for first-episode schizophrenia patients.%目的 探讨首发

  4. Supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy versus treatment as usual for first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Harder, Susanne; Knudsen, Per;

    2012-01-01

    manualized individual supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy (SPP) in addition to treatment as usual or with treatment as usual alone (TaU). Symptoms and functional outcomes were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF). The study......During recent decades, the field of treatment of schizophrenia has lacked empirical, systematic outcome studies that support psychodynamic psychotherapy as an evidence-based intervention for patients with schizophrenia. The Danish schizophrenia project (DNS) compared psychodynamic psychotherapy.......000) and GAF(symptom) (p = 0.010) significantly favored SPP in combination with TaU over TaU alone. In spite of limitations, this study speaks in favor of including supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy in the treatment for patients with schizophrenic first-episode psychoses....

  5. Efficacy and safety of paliperidone ER in the treatment of adolescent patients with first-episode schizophrenia%帕利哌酮缓释片治疗儿童期首发精神分裂症37例的疗效及安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凌; 周天红; 雷彤

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of paliperidone ER in the treatment of adolescent patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Methods: All patients ( n = 37) were treated with paliperidone ER for 6 months. The primary efficacy measure was response rate. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) , Personal and Social Performance (PSP) and Medication Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) were adopted as secondary efficacy measures. Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) and laboratory examinations were adopted as safety measures. Results: The response rate was 86.5% at end point. Total PANSS score, positive scale and general psychopathology scale scores demonstrated a significant improvement after 4-day, 1-week, 2-week, 3-month and 6-month treatment (P < 0.05). Negative scale score was significantly reduced after 1-week, 2-week, 3-month and 6-month treatment (P < 0.05 ). The adverse events were minimal and most of them were alleviated without any special intervention. Social functioning was also significantly improved. Medication satisfaction rate was 81.1%. Conclusion: Paliperidone ER is fast onset and effective in improving the symptoms of schizophrenia and social functioning. It has demonstrated a favorable safety with good compliance for adolescent patients.%目的:探讨帕利哌酮缓释片治疗儿童期首发精神分裂症患者临床疗效及安全性.方法:对37例儿童期首发精神分裂症患者应用帕利哌酮缓释片治疗,观察6个月.采用阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)、个人和社会功能量表(PSP)评定临床疗效,并通过治疗满意度调查问卷(MSQ)调查治疗满意度;采用副反应量表(TESS)评定不良反应,并进行实验室监测.结果:观察结束时总有效率为86.5%;PANSS总分、阳性症状分量表、一般精神病理分量表评分于治疗4 d起较治疗前有所下降(P<0.05),于治疗1周末、2周末、3月末、6月末,均较治疗前有显著下降(P<0.01);阴性

  6. 精神分裂症首次发病患者面孔识别事件相关电位研究%Research in facial recognition examined by event-related potentials in patients with the first-episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨程青; 陆峥; 王继军; 陈发展; 刘娜; 何磊英; 黄楠; 李惠; 唐莹莹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the characters of facial recognition in patients with the firstepisode schizophrenia.Methods In the case-control study,the experiment contained facial emotion and gender recognition tasks,which was designed using the Ekman Standard Faces Database to compare the recognition ability among patients with the first-episode schizophrenia and healthy controls.The experiment focused on the event-related potentials (ERP) such as P100,N170,N250 and P300 in their amplitudes and latency.Evoked potential data were obtained using a 64-channel EEG system.Results ( 1 ) Behavioral data:As to facial gender recognition,there were no significant differences on total accuracy (F =3.306,P =0.077) and total reaction time ( F =3.866,P =0.056) among the two groups,and as to facial emotional expression recognition,the total accuracy was lower in patient group than in the control group ] (60.5 ± 2.1 ) % vs.(44.5 ± 2.4) %,P =0.009 ],and there was no significant difference on total reaction time among the two groups ( F =3.580,P =0.066 ).(2) Electrophysiological Data:Four ERP components corresponding to the P100,N170,N250,and P300 were identified. Group differences were noted for the N170 "structure modulation" component that underlies the structure encoding of facial features.Shortened latency of the N170 (F=3.176,P =0.047) and lower amplitude of the N250 (F=4.516,P =0.015) was found in patient group than healthy control group.Conclusion Patients with schizophrenia demonstrate abnormalities in early structure encoding and affect encoding of facial features that precedes the ERP response typically associated with facial structure recognition and affect recognition,N170,N250 may be the characteristic index of schizophrenia.%目的 探讨精神分裂症首次发病患者面孔识别障碍的特点.方法 采用病例对照研究设计,对性别、年龄、文化程度匹配的精神分裂症首次发病患者组(30例)和对照组(30例),应用Ekman标准表情库中

  7. Depression and quality of life in first-episode psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Renwick, Laoise

    2012-07-01

    Quality of life (QOL) has gained recognition as a valid measure of outcome in first-episode psychosis (FEP). This study aimed to determine the influence of specific groups of depressive symptoms on separate domains of subjectively appraised QOL.

  8. First episode psychosis and psychological development in young adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    McEachran, Andrea Karen

    2006-01-01

    Despite the consistent emergence of a psychotic illness during late adolescence and young adulthood, attempts to understand first episode psychosis and psychological disturbances and needs have historically neglected this rich developmental context. When present, disturbances in a young adults' psychological functioning are likely to interfere with the successful negotiation of age-appropriate tasks and complicate the recovery process following a first episode of psychosis. The current study ...

  9. Reducing the duration of untreated first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, Ingrid; Larsen, Tor K; Haahr, Ulrik;

    2004-01-01

    Most studies on first-episode psychosis show an association between a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and poorer short-term outcome, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood.......Most studies on first-episode psychosis show an association between a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and poorer short-term outcome, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood....

  10. Serum level of interleukin-6 associated with the dose of clozapine and amelioration of symptoms in female patients with first-episode schizophrenia%女性首发精神分裂症患者血清白细胞介素6水平与氯氮平用量及症状改善的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建强; 吕路线; 石玉中

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine produced in the process of organic immune activities. The problems still need further exploration, including whether the changes of serum level of IL-6 after clozapine treatment ware induced directly by the drug, and whether IL-6 is directly correlated with the changes of the psychiatric symptoms in female patients.with first-episode schizophrenia.OBJECTIVE: To explore the changes of the serum level of IL-6 and its relation with the dose of clozapine and the amelioration of the symptoms in female patients with first-episode schizophrenia.DESIGN: A non-randomized case-control observation synchronically.SETTING: Department of Psychiatry, Second Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: Twenty female patients with first-episode schizophrenia (patient group) were selected from Henan Psychiatric Hospital. They all met the diagnostic standards of schizophrenia in the 3rd edition of Chinese Classification and diagnostic criteria of Mental Disorders (CCMD-3), their score of positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS)was above 60 points, and had not been treated or at least not taking medicine for 2 weeks during clinical treatment.Patients with physical disease, endocrine and immune system diseases, malnutrition and other mental problems, those with the history of being allergic and hormone treatment, those receiving immune pharmaceutical treatment, and recently having been vaccinated preventively, and the pregnant and breast-feeding women were excluded. Twenty healthy female volunteers, who had no significnat difference in age and gender from the subjects in the patient group,were taken as the control group, and the exclusive standards were the same as those in the patient group. All the subjects were enrolled with the approval of themselves and their guardians.METHODS: All the patients were adminsitrated with clozapine only, with the dose being added by 25-50 mg per day,and the maximal dose was reached

  11. The effect of drug maintenance therapy combined with family intervention for the first-episode schizophrenia in stable condition%药物维持治疗联合家庭干预对首发精神分裂症患者的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰芳; 李越霞; 李文锋

    2014-01-01

    To discuss the effect of drug maintenance therapy combined with family intervention with simple drug maintenance therapy for the first -episode schizophrenia in stable condition.Methods:After the treatment of acute phase,60 patients in stable condition met the study criteria were selected to be divided into intervention group and control group at ranadom .The family intervention group received drug maintenance therapy and family intervention and the control group received simple drug maintenance therapy.The patients of two groups were assessed blindly by Social Support Scale (SSRS),Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale ( BPRS) and Insight and Treatment Attitude Questionnaire ( ITAQ) at the time of enrollment and 1 year later.The obtained data were statistically analyzed.Results:The readmission rate and BPRC score of the family intervention were lower than the control group .And the subjective support,support utiliza-tion and ITAQ scores of were higher than that of control group (P0.05).Conclusion:Compared with simple drug maintenance therapy ,drug maintenance therapy combined with family intervention can effectively reduce patients readmission rates , maintain the patients in stable condition ,promote the recovery of insight and improve subjective support and support utilization .%目的:探讨药物维持治疗联合家庭干预对缓解期首发精神分裂症患者的影响。方法:选择经过急性期治疗后病情稳定的精神分裂症患者60例,将其随机等分为家庭干预组和对照组,对照组予以单纯药物维持治疗,家庭干预组予以药物维持治疗和家庭干预。采用社会支持量表( SSRS)、简明精神病量表( BPRS)及自知力与治疗态度问卷( ITAQ)分别于患者入组时和治疗1年后采用盲法评定两组患者的精神病性症状严重程度、自知力和社会支持情况。结果:1年后家庭干预组患者再住院率、BPRS评分低于对照组(P<0.05),主观支持、支

  12. The economic cost of pathways to care in first episode psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Heslin, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined the economic cost of psychoses other than schizophrenia and there have been no studies of the economic cost of pathways to care in patients with their first episode of psychosis. The aims of this study were to explore the economic cost of pathways to care in patients with a first episode of psychosis and to examine variation in costs. Data on pathways to care for first episode psychosis patients referred to specialist mental health services in south-east London and Nottingham between 1997-2000. Costs of pathway events were estimated and compared between diagnostic groups. The average costs for patients in south-east London were £54 (CI £33-£75) higher, compared to patients in Nottingham. Across both centres unemployed patients had £25 (CI £7-£43) higher average costs compared to employed patients. Higher costs were associated with being unemployed and living in south-east London and these differences could not be accounted for by any single factor. This should be considered when the National Health Service (NHS) is making decisions about funding.

  13. Prevalence of item level negative symptoms in first episode psychosis diagnoses.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyne, John

    2012-03-01

    The relevance of negative symptoms across the diagnostic spectrum of the psychoses remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to report on prevalence of item and subscale level negative symptoms across the first episode psychosis (FEP) diagnostic spectrum in an epidemiological sample, and to ascertain whether items and subscales were more prevalent in a schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses group compared to an \\'all other psychotic diagnoses\\' group. We measured negative symptoms in 330 patients presenting with FEP using the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), and ascertained diagnosis using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV. Prevalence of SANS items and subscales were tabulated across all psychotic diagnoses, and logistic regression analysis determined which items and subscales were predictive of schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses. SANS items were most prevalent in schizophrenia spectrum conditions but frequently presented in other FEP diagnoses, particularly substance induced psychotic disorder and Major Depressive Disorder. Brief psychotic disorder and bipolar disorders had low levels of negative symptoms. SANS items and subscales which significantly predicted schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses, were also frequently present in some of the other psychotic diagnoses. Conclusions: SANS items have high prevalence in FEP, and while commonest in schizophrenia spectrum conditions are not restricted to this diagnostic subgroup.

  14. Retrospective study on structural neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coentre, Ricardo; Silva-Dos-Santos, Amilcar; Talina, Miguel Cotrim

    2016-01-01

    Background. No consensus between guidelines exists regarding neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis. The purpose of this study is to assess anomalies found in structural neuroimaging exams (brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) in the initial medical work-up of patients presenting first-episode psychosis. Methods. The study subjects were 32 patients aged 18-48 years (mean age: 29.6 years), consecutively admitted with first-episode psychosis diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data and neuroimaging exams (CT and MRI) were retrospectively studied. Diagnostic assessments were made using the Operational Criteria Checklist +. Neuroimaging images (CT and MRI) and respective reports were analysed by an experienced consultant psychiatrist. Results. None of the patients had abnormalities in neuroimaging exams responsible for psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven percent of patients had incidental brain findings not causally related to the psychosis (brain atrophy, arachnoid cyst, asymmetric lateral ventricles, dilated lateral ventricles, plagiocephaly and falx cerebri calcification). No further medical referral was needed for any of these patients. No significant differences regarding gender, age, diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, in-stay and cannabis use were found between patients who had neuroimaging abnormalities versus those without. Discussion. This study suggests that structural neuroimaging exams reveal scarce abnormalities in young patients with first-episode psychosis. Structural neuroimaging is especially useful in first-episode psychosis patients with neurological symptoms, atypical clinical picture and old age. PMID:27257547

  15. Cognitive dysfunction at baseline predicts symptomatic 1-year outcome in first-episode schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, S; Krausz, M; Gottwalz, E; Lambert, M; Perro, C; Ganzer, S; Naber, D

    2000-01-01

    The present study addresses the consequences of cognitive disturbances on symptomatic outcome. Fifty-three first-episode schizophrenics were reassessed (n = 32) 1 year after admission. Simple regression analyses revealed that several self-perceived cognitive deficits at baseline as measured with the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire significantly predicted increased Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale global scores at follow-up (p = 0.05 to p = 0.005). A stepwise regression analysis proved memory dysfunction to be the strongest predictor of symptomatic worsening (p = 0.005). It is suggested that the exploration and treatment of neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia is of great clinical importance with regard to its impact on both functional and symptomatic outcome in schizophrenia. PMID:10601828

  16. 氨磺必利与奥氮平治疗首发男性精神分裂症的疗效及对糖脂代谢的影响%Efficacy of Amisulpride,Olanzapine on First-episode Male Patients with Schizophrenia and Glucolipid Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌仲民

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of amisulpride,olanzapine on first-episode male patients with schizophrenia and glucolipid metabolism.Methods:The first 64 cases of male patients with schizo-phrenia were randomly divided into amisulpride and olanzapine group.Before treatment,2,4,6,8 week-end,using the PANSS assessment of psychiatric symptoms,while collecting the data of fasting blood col-lected fasting blood glucose(FBS),total cholesterol(TC),high density lipoprotein(HDL),triglycerides (TG),low density lipoprotein(LDL).Results:61 cases were completed in 8 weeks.At 2nd weekend, olanzapine group's PANSS positive factor scored below the amisulpride group(16.19 ±4.51、19.10 ± 5.68,t=2.216,P=0.031).At 4th,6th,8th weekend,amisulpride group's PANSS negative factor scored below the olanzapine group(P<0.05).To the end of the study,there were no significance between the two groups in total psychopathology scores.Olanzapine group had higher TG in the first two weekends( P<0.05) and higher FBS, TC,TG at 4th weekend than the amisulpride group ( P <0.05 ) .Olanzapine group had higher FBS,TC,TG than before treatment whereas,there were no difference in FBS,TC,TG be-tween after and before treatment in amisulpride group .Conclusion:Olanzapine and amisulpride have the similar effect.Olanzapine has better effect on acute positive symptoms and amisulpride is suited for nega -tive symptoms and have less influence on glucolipid metabolism.%目的:对比氨磺必利、奥氮平对首发男性精神分裂症患者的疗效特点和对糖脂代谢的影响。方法:将64例首发男性精神分裂症患者采用随机分组方法,分为氨磺必利治疗组和奥氮平治疗组,于治疗前,治疗第2、4、6、8周末,使用PANSS量表对精神症状评定,同时采空腹血测定空腹血糖(FBS),总胆固醇(TC),高密度脂蛋白( HDL),三酰甘油( TG),低密度脂蛋白( LDL)。结果:8周末实际完成61例,第2周末奥氮平组PANSS

  17. Positive and negative caregiver experiences in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Lysaker, Paul H.; Harder, Susanne;

    2014-01-01

    Objectives While caregivers of persons with first-episode psychosis often report a range of negative experiences, little is known about what psychological factors are involved. The aim of this study was to examine how caregivers' general wellbeing, emotional overinvolvement and metacognition...... influenced their reports of both positive and negative caregiving experiences. Design A prospective consecutive cross-sectional study. Methods Forty caregivers of patients with first-episode psychosis were interviewed using semi-structured interview and questionnaires. Results Greater levels of distress...

  18. The Phenomenology of Emotion Experience in First-Episode Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vodušek, V V; Parnas, J; Tomori, M;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although it has been suggested that disturbances in emotion experience and regulation play a central role in the aetiology and psychopathology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, the phenomenology of emotion experience in schizophrenia remains under-researched. SAMPLING AND METHODS: ...

  19. Treatment delay and response rate in first episode psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wunderink, A; Nienhuis, FJ; Sytema, S; Wiersma, D

    2006-01-01

    Objective: There is no consistent evidence of long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) predicting long time to response (TTR) in first psychosis. This Study aims to investigate the predictors of DUP and TTR in a first episode patient population. Method: An epidemiologically representative sample o

  20. Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE in First Episode of Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Kazemi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Neurocognitive deficits are now recognized as part of the fundamental disturbances and are a major determinant of functional outcome in psychosis. A cross-sectional association between cognitive deficits and poor social and occupational outcomes has been demonstrated; and treatment of cognitive impairment at the time of the first episode may have the potential to change functional outcomes of the illness. We conducted this study to evaluate cognitive function in first episode of psychosis by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. "nMethod: Sixty two patients with first episode of psychosis were selected and underwent psychiatric interview and took MMSE test. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS-18 software. "nResults: According to MMSE scale, 47 patients (75.8% showed definite cognitive impairment, 8(12.9% showed possible impairment ,and 7(11.3% showed no cognitive impairment. According to MMSE subscale, registration (69.4% and recall (77.3% were the most impaired cognitive areas.  "nConclusions:  The results of the current study indicate significant cognitive impairment in patients with first episode of psychosis. We recommend future studies with larger sample size and control group for further evaluation of cognitive function as early treatment of cognitive impairments may have important implications in the course of illness.

  1. 首发精神分裂症患者弓形虫感染情况及其对精神症状的影响%Survey on toxoplasma infection in first episode of schizophrenia and its influence on patients' psychiatric symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠玲; 王高华; 李秋英; 舒畅; 吴建红

    2005-01-01

    亲IgG抗体阳性率、IgM抗体阳性率、IgG或IgM抗体阳性率均高于阴性组患者(P<0.05~0.01);弓形虫抗体阳性组和阴性组患者阳性与阴性症状量表、阳性症状量表、阴性症状量表、一般精神病理量表总分差异不明显.⑧弓形虫抗体阳性组阳性与阴性症状量表分量表患者兴奋、敌对、装相和作态、意志障碍、冲动控制障碍、愤怒、延迟满足困难得分明显高于弓形虫抗体阴性组(P<0.01);而多疑得分低于弓形虫抗体阴性组(P<0.01).结论:①弓形虫感染是精神分裂症的重要候选病因.②弓形虫感染与精神分裂症患者年龄、受教育情况、发病时间、病程、母亲年龄关系不大.③未感染弓形虫的精神分裂症患者有精神障碍家族史的更多,感染弓形虫的精神分裂症患者母亲感染弓形虫情况更多见.④弓形虫感染阳性的精神分裂症患者临床表现倾向于兴奋、激越和行为紊乱,对于紊乱性兴奋的精神病患者应注意其是否存在弓形虫感染.%BACKGROUND: It is hypothesized that Toxoplasma Gondii (T. gondii)may contribute to the development of partial schizophrenia at least, as is supported by several clinical and laboratory researches.OBJECTIVE: To survey the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii in patients with first episode of schizophrenia and their mothers and explore the difference in clinical symptoms between seropositive and seronegative schizophrenic patients.'DESIGN: A grouped case-control observationSETTING: Department of Psychiatry, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University.PARTICIPANTS: The schizophrenic group included 600 cases of schizophrenia of first episode, who were hospitalized at the Psychiatry Department, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University from January 2000 to December 2004. The patient's relatives agreed to participate in the investigation. The normal controls included 200 healthy people who came to the hospital to receive health examination and

  2. Service engagement in first episode psychosis: clinical and premorbid correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, Angus; Gumley, Andrew; Schwannauer, Matthias; Fisher, Rebecca

    2013-05-01

    Engagement can be understood as a multifactorial process, incorporating acceptance of treatment, therapeutic rapport, and collaboration in a shared goal of clinical and functional recovery. Difficulties in engagement with clinical services represent a risk factor for treatment discontinuation in first episode psychosis. The current study explored the associations between engagement, clinical, and preonset variables. We report the cross-sectional data on a Scottish sample with first episode psychosis, characterized in terms of psychotic symptoms, premorbid adjustment, duration of untreated psychosis, and clinician-rated engagement. Poorer clinician-rated engagement was associated with greater positive and negative symptoms, greater general psychopathology, and poorer premorbid social adjustment. In a regression analysis, only severity of negative symptoms predicted engagement. The study highlights the role of negative symptoms and impairments in social functioning as factors associated with poorer engagement with clinical services. The value of detailed assessment of social and premorbid functioning is highlighted.

  3. Evaluation of Risk Factors Associated with First Episode Febrile Seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharawat, Indar Kumar; Singh, Jitender; Singh, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Febrile seizure (FS) is the single most common type of seizure seen in children between 6 months to 5 years of age. The purpose of our study was to identify the risk factors associated with the first episode of febrile seizures, which would help in the better management and preventive measures in children at risk for FS episodes. Aim To evaluate the risk factors associated with the first episode of febrile seizures in Indian children. Materials and Methods This was a hospital based, case control study. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with the first FS episode in children. Seventy (70) children between age 6 months to 5 years with their first episode of FS were compared with 70 children with fever but without seizures based on various risk factors. Results The mean age was 24.90±16.11 months in cases and 26.34±16.93 months in controls. Male: female ratio was 2:1. A positive family history was found in 31.4% of first degree and 11.4% in second degree relatives. Mean maximum temperature was 102.06±1.1°F and URI (upper respiratory infection) was most common cause of fever. Antenatal complication was significantly higher in the case group. RBC (Red Blood Cells) indices like lower mean haemoglobin, MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume), MCH (Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin concentration) and higher RDW (Red Cell Distribution Width) values were seen in patients. Serum sodium, Serum calcium and random blood sugar values of the cases were significantly lower than those of controls (pblood sugar and microcytic hypochromic anaemia are the risk factors associated with the occurrence of first episode of febrile seizure and, thus, preventive measures in removing these risk factors could lead to a decrease in incidence of FS.

  4. Reinforcement and Reversal Learning in First-Episode Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, G. K.; Cheng, F.; Clark, L.; Barnett, J.H.; Blackwell, A. D.; Fletcher, P.C.; Robbins, T. W.; Bullmore, E. T.; Jones, P B

    2008-01-01

    Background: Abnormalities in reinforcement learning and reversal learning have been reported in psychosis, possibly secondary to subcortical dopamine abnormalities. Methods: We studied simple discrimination (SD) learning and reversal learning in a sample of 119 first-episode psychosis patients from the Cambridge early psychosis service (CAMEO) and 107 control participants. We used data on reinforcement learning and reversal learning extracted from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automat...

  5. Emotional Intelligence in a Group of Patients with First-Episode Psychosis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Pooretemad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the Emotional Intelligence (EI of a group of patients with first episode psychosis in Iran as compared with a healthy control group. A case-control design was used. EI was assessed using Persian version of Bar-On Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i administered on 25 patients with history of a single psychotic episode in the last two years, as well as 64 healthy participants. The mean (±SD of EI scores of patients and healthy controls group was 319.8 (±40.9 and 328.8 (±33.3, respectively. Two-independent sample t-test revealed no significant difference in the EI scores of two groups (P=0.29. In contrast with chronic schizophrenia, the patients with first-episode psychosis were not different from the healthy subjects in terms of emotional intelligence score. It might be implied that the low emotional intelligence of the patients with chronic psychotic disorders is an accumulative result of the underlying disease over time.

  6. Metacognition, social cognition, and symptoms in patients with first episode and prolonged psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohs, J L; Lysaker, P H; Francis, M M; Hamm, J; Buck, K D; Olesek, K; Outcalt, J; Dimaggio, G; Leonhardt, B; Liffick, E; Mehdiyoun, N; Breier, A

    2014-03-01

    While it has been documented that persons with prolonged schizophrenia have deficits in metacognition and social cognition, it is less clear whether these difficulties are already present during a first episode. To explore this issue we assessed and compared metacognition using the Metacognition Assessment Scale-Abbreviated (MAS-A) and social cognition using the Eyes, Hinting and Bell-Lysaker Emotional Recognition Tests (BLERT) in participants with first episode psychosis (FEP; n=26), participants with a prolonged psychosis (n=72), and a psychiatric control group consisting of persons with a substance use disorder and no history of psychosis (n=14). Analyses revealed that both psychosis cohorts scored lower than controls on the MAS-A total and all subscales except metacognitive mastery. Compared to the FEP group, the persons with prolonged psychosis demonstrated greater metacognitive capacities only in those MAS-A domains reflective of the ability to understand the mental state of others and to see that others may have motivations and desires separate from their own. Other domains of metacognition did not differ between psychosis groups. The Eyes, Hinting and BLERT scores of the two psychosis groups did not differ but were poorer than those produced by the control group. Exploratory correlations in the FEP group showed a pattern similar to that previously observed in prolonged psychosis. Taken together, these findings suggest that while certain domains of metacognition could improve with prolonged psychosis, difficulties with global metacognition and social cognition may be stable features of the disorder and perhaps unique to psychosis.

  7. Prospective study of the course of delusional themes in first-episode non-affective psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellersgaard, Ditte; Mors, Ole; Thorup, Anne;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The stability of delusional themes in psychotic disorders is only sparsely lit. The study aims to investigate the stability of delusional themes over a period of time in patients with first-episode non-affective psychosis. METHODS: The data were drawn from a randomized controlled trial of 547...... principal component analysis to the patients' scores on 12 items of delusions from the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms in Schizophrenia, SAPS. The course of the patients' predominant delusional themes was analysed afterwards. RESULTS: The 12 delusional themes from SAPS were converted into five...... groups using principal component analysis. At all three follow ups there were almost equal proportions of patients with the predominant delusion being from the same group of delusional themes as at baseline and of patients with the predominant delusion being from another group of delusional themes than...

  8. Psychometric evaluation of the Danish and Swedish Satisfaction with Life Scale in first episode psychosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hochwälder, Jacek; Mattsson, Maria; Holmqvist, Ragnhild;

    2012-01-01

    ," "self and present life" and "work." They correlated positively with each other, the internal consistencies of the subscales were acceptable and the means for the subscales indicated no apparent floor or ceiling effects. The four dimensions obtained seem relevant and presented good face validity......PURPOSE: To psychometrically evaluate the Satisfaction with Life Scale in two cohorts of first-episode psychosis patients in the Danish National Schizophrenia Project and in the Swedish Parachute Project. METHOD: Four properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale were examined in the Danish cohort...... with Life Scale and various life conditions were investigated in the Swedish cohort. RESULTS: For both samples, the analysis indicated that the obtained four-dimensional 11-item scale had satisfactory properties. Moderately high scores were obtained in the four subscales: "living," "social relationships...

  9. Examining the Factors Associated with Paid Employment of Clients Enrolled in First Episode of Psychosis Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn S. Dewa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating mental disorders. For a significant portion of individuals who suffer from this disorder, onset occurs in young adulthood, arresting important social and educational development that is necessary for future successful labor force participation. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature about clients enrolled in first episode psychosis programs and psychosocial outcomes by examining the factors associated with paid employment among young adults who have experienced their first psychotic episodes. In this paper, we consider the association of socioeconomic factors to employment. Our results suggest that in addition to treatment, socioeconomic factors such as receipt of public disability benefits and educational attainment are associated with employment status. These results can help to inform future directions for the enhancement of psychosocial programs in FEP models to promote paid employment.

  10. Analysis of thyroid hormone changes and related factors in first-episode schizophrenia patiens%首发精神分裂症患者血清甲状腺激素的变化及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程敏锋; 温盛霖; 钟智勇

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨首发精神分裂症患者血清甲状腺激素的变化及相关影响因素.方法:采用化学免疫发光法检测135例首发精神分裂症患者和100例健康对照组的血清游离三碘甲状腺原氨酸(FT3)、游离甲状腺素(FT4)、促甲状腺激素(TSH)的水平.同时收集患者的一般资料,进行阳性症状量表(SAPS)、阴性症状量表(SANS)的评定.结果:①病例组的血清FT4水平(17.87±3.07 pmol/L)高于对照组(15.96±2.77 pmol/L),差异具有统计学意义(t=4.773,P=0.000).②病例组不同病程和不同临床分型患者的血清FT3、FT4和TSH水平的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:首发精神分裂症患者存在血清甲状腺激素水平紊乱,与病程、临床症状关系不大,可能是素质指标.%Objective:To explore the changes of thyroid function in patients with first - onset schizophrenia patients and the related factors. Methods; 135 cases with schizophrenia (schizophrenia group) and 100 healthy subjects (control group) were recruited for the research. Thyroid functions(FT3,FT4,TSH) were tested by chemilumi-nescence immunoassay. Schizophrenia group was tested by the self - made general condition questionnaire, the assessment of positive symptoms( SAPS) , the assessment of negative symptoms(SANS). Results: 1. The level of FT4 in the schizophrenia group( 17. 87 ± 3.07 pmol/L)was higher than that of the control group( 15.96 ± 2.77 pmol/L) (t =4.773 ,P =0.000). 2. There were no difference about the different courses and different clinical subtypes in the schizophrenia group ( P > 0. 05 ). Conclusion; Thyroid functions of patients with first - onset schizophrenia were disturbed, without relationship with course and clinical signs, it may be quality mark.

  11. Very Low-Dose Risperidone in First-Episode Psychosis: A Safe and Effective Way to Initiate Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. McGorry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients experiencing a first psychotic episode have high rates of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs when treated with the doses of neuroleptics used in multiepisode or chronic schizophrenia. There is some evidence that lower doses may be equally, if not more, effective but less toxic in this population. Here, we report the results of a biphasic open label trial designed to assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of low-dose (2–4 mg/day risperidone treatment in a group of 96 first-episode nonaffective psychosis patients. At the end of the trial, 62% of patients met the response criteria although approximately 80% had achieved a response at some time during the study. Reports of EPS remained low, and there were no dystonic reactions. We conclude that even at a dose of 2 mg/day, risperidone was highly effective in reducing acute symptomatology in a real world sample of young first-episode psychosis patients.

  12. Incentive motivation in first-episode psychosis: A behavioural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackwell Andrew D

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: It has been proposed that there are abnormalities in incentive motivational processing in psychosis, possibly secondary to subcortical dopamine abnormalities, but few empirical studies have addressed this issue. Methods: We studied incentive motivation in 18 first-episode psychosis patients from the Cambridge early psychosis service CAMEO and 19 control participants using the Cued Reinforcement Reaction Time Task, which measures motivationally driven behaviour. We also gathered information on participants' attentional, executive and spatial working memory function in order to determine whether any incentive motivation deficits were secondary to generalised cognitive impairment. Results: We demonstrated the anticipated "reinforcement-related speeding" effect in controls (17 out of 19 control participants responded faster during an "odd-one-out" task in response to a cue that indicated a high likelihood of a large points reward. Only 4 out of 18 patients showed this effect and there was a significant interaction effect between reinforcement probability and diagnosis on reaction time (F1,35 = 14.2, p = 0.001. This deficit was present in spite of preserved executive and attentional function in patients, and persisted even in antipsychotic medication free patients. Conclusion: There are incentive motivation processing abnormalities in first-episode psychosis; these may be secondary to dopamine dysfunction and are not attributable to generalised cognitive impairment.

  13. Ten year neurocognitive trajectories in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Barder, Helene E.; Sundet, Kjetil;

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neurocognitive impairment is commonly reported at onset of psychotic disorders. However, the long-term neurocognitive course remains largely uninvestigated in first episode psychosis (FEP) and the relationship to clinically significant subgroups even more so. We report 10 year longitud......Objective: Neurocognitive impairment is commonly reported at onset of psychotic disorders. However, the long-term neurocognitive course remains largely uninvestigated in first episode psychosis (FEP) and the relationship to clinically significant subgroups even more so. We report 10 year...... longitudinal neurocognitive development in a sample of FEP patients, and explore whether the trajectories of cognitive course are related to presence of relapse to psychosis, especially within the first year, with a focus on the course of verbal memory. Method: Forty-three FEP subjects (51% male, 28 +/- 9...... in the course of illness. We conclude that worsening of specific parts of cognitive function may be expected for patients with on-going psychosis, but that the majority of patients do not show significant change in cognitive performance during the first 10 years after being diagnosed....

  14. Intrinsic motivation and amotivation in first episode and prolonged psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Lauren; Lysaker, Paul H; Firmin, Ruth L; Breier, Alan; Vohs, Jenifer L

    2015-12-01

    The deleterious functional implications of motivation deficits in psychosis have generated interest in examining dimensions of the construct. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding whether dimensions of motivation differ over the course of psychosis. Therefore, this study examined two motivation dimensions, trait-like intrinsic motivation, and the negative symptom of amotivation, and tested the impact of illness phase on the 1) levels of these dimensions and 2) relationship between these dimensions. Participants with first episode psychosis (FEP; n=40) and prolonged psychosis (n=66) completed clinician-rated measures of intrinsic motivation and amotivation. Analyses revealed that when controlling for group differences in gender and education, the FEP group had significantly more intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation than the prolonged psychosis group. Moreover, intrinsic motivation was negatively correlated with amotivation in both FEP and prolonged psychosis, but the magnitude of the relationship did not statistically differ between groups. These findings suggest that motivation deficits are more severe later in the course of psychosis and that low intrinsic motivation may be partially independent of amotivation in both first episode and prolonged psychosis. Clinically, these results highlight the importance of targeting motivation in early intervention services.

  15. COGNITIVE AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS, WHILE THE FIRST EPISODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A EBRAHIMI

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is assumed that the process of schizophrenia effect on patient"s cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to examine and to compare cognitive profile of patients with that of control group. Methods: 40 patients with schizophrenia were selected from Isfahan Noor Hospital. 40 non-patients as control group were selected and matched on the base of age, sex, education, economic status. Cognitive functions of two groups were assessed by WAlS-R. Results: Results show that schizophrenic patients appear at a lower level of IQ than control group. Nonverbal IQ was more impaired than the other kind of IQ in patients. Cognitive profile analysis reveals that patients had low scores on all of the WAlS-R subscles except information and word subscales. Discussion: These findings show that schizophrenic patients in the first episode of theire illness reveal a remarkable impairment on inteligence performance. Cognitive profile analysis indicates that schizophrenic patients performer significatly at a lower level in comparison with control group, in: abstraction, visual - special perception, verbal and non-verbal conceptualization, social judgment, attention, motor-visual organization and mental flexibility.

  16. Cognitive effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs in first-episode drug-na?ve schizophrenic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Wang; Maorong Hu; Xiaofeng Guo; Renrong Wu; Lehua Li; Jingping Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia. The present randomized open study enrolled antipsychotic-na?ve patients who were experiencing their first episode of schizophrenia. After baseline neurocognitive tests and clinical assessment, subjects were randomly assigned to olanzapine, risperidone and aripiprazole treatment groups. A battery of neurocognitive tests showed that risperidone produced cognitive benefits in all five cognitive domains, including verbal learning and memory, visual learning and memory, working memory, processing speed, and selective attention; olanzapine improved processing speed and selective attention; and aripiprazole improved visual learning and memory, and working memory. However, the three atypical antipsychotic drugs failed to reveal any significant differences in the composite cognitive scores at the study endpoint. In addition, the three drugs all significantly improved clinical measures without significant differences between the drugs after 6 months. These results suggest that the atypical antipsychotics, olanzapine, risperidone and aripiprazole may improve specific cognitive domains with similar global clinical efficacy. In clinical practice, it may be feasible to choose corresponding atypical antipsychotics according to impaired cognitive domains.

  17. Substance abuse in first-episode non-affective psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn;

    2006-01-01

    -abusers, the drug-abusing group is characterized by the following: male gender, younger age, better premorbid social, poor premorbid academic functioning, and more contact with friends in the last year before onset. Alcohol abusers were the oldest group and they had the least contact with friends. A group...... of patients abusing both drugs and alcohol had poor premorbid academic functioning from early childhood. Overall, drug and alcohol abuse are highly prevalent in contemporary first-episode psychosis samples. In our study, substance abuse comorbidity did not generate differences on diagnosis, duration...... of untreated psychosis, psychiatric symptoms, or global functioning at onset/baseline. The premorbid profiles of the substance abusers were clearly different from the non-abusers. Drug abusers, in particular, were more socially active both premorbidly and during the year preceding the start of treatment....

  18. Integrated treatment ameliorates negative symptoms in first episode psychosis--results from the Danish OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne Amalie Elgaard; Petersen, L; Jeppesen, P;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of integrated treatment on negative, psychotic and disorganised symptoms in patients with first episode psychosis.......To investigate the effect of integrated treatment on negative, psychotic and disorganised symptoms in patients with first episode psychosis....

  19. In Vivo Measurement of GABA Transmission in Healthy Subjects and Schizophrenia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankle, W. Gordon; Cho, Raymond Y.; Prasad, Konasale M.; Mason, N. Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L.; Walker, Christopher; Lewis, David A.; Narendran, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Objective Postmortem studies in schizophrenia reveal alterations in gene products that regulate the release and extracellular persistence of GABA. However, results of in vivo studies of schizophrenia measuring total tissue GABA with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have been inconsistent. Neither the postmortem nor the MRS studies directly address the physiological properties of GABA neurotransmission. The present study addresses this question through an innovative positron emission tomography (PET) paradigm. Method The binding of [11C]flumazenil, a benzodiazepine-specific PET radiotracer, was measured before and after administration of tiagabine (0.2 mg/kg of body weight), a GABA membrane transporter (GAT1) blocker, in 17 off-medication patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy comparison subjects. Increased extracellular GABA, through GAT1 blockade, enhances the affinity of GABAA receptors for benzodiazepine ligands, detected as an increase in [11C]flumazenil tissue distribution volume (VT). Results [11C]Flumazenil VT was significantly increased across all cortical brain regions in the healthy comparison group but not in the schizophrenia group. This lack of effect was most prominent in the antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia group. In this subgroup, [11C]flumazenil ΔVT in the medial temporal lobe was correlated with positive symptoms, and baseline [11C] flumazenil VT in the medial temporal lobe was negatively correlated with visual learning. In the healthy comparison group but not the schizophrenia group, [11C]flumazenil ΔVT was positively associated with gamma-band oscillation power. Conclusions This study demonstrates, for the first time, an in vivo impairment in GABA transmission in schizophrenia, most prominent in antipsychotic-naive individuals. The impairment in GABA transmission appears to be linked to clinical symptoms, disturbances in cortical oscillations, and cognition. PMID:26133962

  20. Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schizophrenia is a serious brain illness. People who have it may hear voices that aren't there. ... job or take care of themselves. Symptoms of schizophrenia usually start between ages 16 and 30. Men ...

  1. Predictors of engagement in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Daniel; Brown, Luke; Gajwani, Ruchika; Islam, Zoebia; Jasani, Rubina; Parsons, Helen; Tah, Priya; Birchwood, Max; Singh, Swaran P

    2016-08-01

    Engagement with psychiatric services is critical for ensuring successful outcomes in patients experiencing a first episode of psychosis (FEP). However, it is not known how sociodemographic factors and patient beliefs about the causes of mental illness affect engagement. This study explored predictors of engagement in a cohort of 103 FEP patients presenting to an early-intervention service. Beliefs that mental illness is caused by social stress or thinking odd thoughts predicted higher engagement scores. Patients with no qualifications were found to have higher engagement scores than those educated to a higher level. Ethnicity, gender, age and socioeconomic factors were not significantly correlated with engagement scores. Duration of untreated illness (DUI) significantly predicted higher engagement scores, but only for values >1220days. Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) was not a significant predictor of patient engagement scores. Patient beliefs about the causes of mental illness are an important factor to be taken into consideration and may represent a target of interventions to increase engagement in FEP.

  2. Schizophrenia and Metacognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Stephen F.; Mors, Ole; Nordentoft, Merete;

    2014-01-01

    tested for relationships between course of illness and levels of specific metacognitions in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. A large cohort of people with first episode psychosis (n = 578) recruited as part the OPUS trial (1998–2000) were tested. Information about course of illness (remitted, episodic...... beliefs may also impact on positive symptoms and course of illness within schizophrenia....

  3. 六种非经典抗精神病药对首发精神分裂症患者代谢的影响%Influences of six atypical antipsychotics on metabolism in the treatment for patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓高超

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the influences of 6 atypical antipsychotics on blood triglyceride (TG), high density lipoproteins (HDL), glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbAlC) and body weight in the treatment for patients with frist-episode schizophrenia. Methods A total of 210 patients with frist-episode schizophrenia were divided into clozapine group ( 38 cases) , olanzapine group (34 cases) , quetiapine group ( 32 cases ) , risperidone group ( 37 cases ) , amisulpride group (33 cases) and aripiprazole group (36 cases) for 8 weeks treatment. The blood TG, HDL, glucose, HbA1C and body weight were measured at baseline and at the end of the treatment. Results Compared with the baseline, there were no significant differences in blood level of TG, HDL, glucose, HbAlC and body weight of patients in aripiprazole group after the 8-week treatment. All the indexes mentioned above in clozapine group and olanzapine group increased significantly after the treatment (P <0. 05 or P <0. 01). Body weight increased significantly after the treatment in patients in quetiapine group, risperidone group and amisulpride group (P<0.01), however, no significant differences were found on TG, HDL, glucose and HbA1C in the 3 groups after the treatment compared with the baseline. Conclusion Aripiprazole has no effect on metabolic markers in patients with schizophrenia, but clozapine and olanzapine can heighten the blood TG, HDL, glucose, HbAlC and body weight. Quetiapine, risperidone, amisulpride only result in body weight gain in schizophrenic patients.%目的 探讨非经典抗精神病药对精神分裂症患者血甘油三酯(TG)、高密度脂蛋白(HDL)、血糖、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1C)和体质量的影响.方法 将210例精神分裂症患者分为氯氮平组38例、奥氮平组34例、喹硫平组32例、利培酮组37例、氨磺必利组33例、阿立哌唑组36例,治疗8周.于治疗前和治疗8周测量空腹血TG、HDL、血糖、HbA1C和体质量.结果 治疗前后

  4. The prevalence, diagnostic significance and demographic characteristics of Schneiderian first-rank symptoms in an epidemiological sample of first-episode psychoses.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ihara, Kazushige

    2009-01-01

    The diagnostic significance of first-rank symptoms (FRSs) remains uncertain. Ethnic differences in FRSs may account for high rates of schizophrenia in minority groups. This study aims to examine the prevalence of FRSs in an epidemiological sample of first-episode psychoses stratified by relevant demographic variables. SAMPLING AND METHOD: We identified everyone aged 16-64 presenting with their first psychosis over 2 years in 3 UK centres.

  5. Functionally aberrant electrophysiological cortical connectivities in first episode medication-naive schizophrenics from three psychiatry centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich eLehmann‡

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional dissociation between brain processes is widely hypothesized to account for aberrations of thought and emotions in schizophrenic patients. The typically small groups of analyzed schizophrenic patients yielded different neurophysiological findings, probably because small patient groups are likely to comprise different schizophrenia subtypes. We analyzed multichannel eyes-closed resting EEG from three small groups of acutely ill, first episode productive schizophrenic patients before start of medication (from three centers: Bern N=9; Osaka N=9; Berlin N=12 and their controls. Low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA was used to compute intracortical source model-based lagged functional connectivity not biased by volume conduction effects between 19 cortical regions of interest (ROIs. The connectivities were compared between controls and patients of each group. Conjunction analysis determined six aberrant cortical functional connectivities that were the same in the three patient groups. Four of these six concerned the facilitating EEG alpha 1 frequency activity; they were decreased in the patients. Another two of these six connectivities concerned the inhibiting EEG delta frequency activity; they were increased in the patients. The principal orientation of the six aberrant cortical functional connectivities was sagittal; five of them involved both hemispheres. In sum, activity in the posterior brain areas of preprocessing functions and the anterior brain areas of evaluation and behavior control functions were compromised by either decreased coupled activation or increased coupled inhibition, common across schizophrenia subtypes in the three patient groups. These results of the analyzed three independent groups of schizophrenics support the concept of functional dissociation.

  6. Taurine and Epidermal Growth Factor Belong to the Signature of First-Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koido, Kati; Innos, Jürgen; Haring, Liina; Zilmer, Mihkel; Ottas, Aigar; Vasar, Eero

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the levels of two amino acid derivatives taurine and spermine in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and their response to antipsychotic treatment. The levels of taurine and spermine were significantly up-regulated in antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients compared to control subjects (CS). Treatment of FEP patients with antipsychotic drugs significantly reduced the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. This positive effect was accompanied by a significant reduction of taurine and spermine to the levels measured in CS. General linear model was used to establish associations of taurine and spermine with the levels of cytokines and growth factors, measured in our previous experiments using the same study sample. There was a strong association between taurine and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Both biomarkers significantly correlated with the disease symptoms as well as with the effectiveness of antipsychotic treatment. Accordingly one can conclude that taurine and EGF belong to the signature of FEP. Most probably they reflect altered oxidative stress and corrupted function of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in FEP. PMID:27471446

  7. Bangkit: The Processes of Recovery from First Episode Psychosis in Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subandi, M A

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing literature on recovery from schizophrenia. Most studies, however, focused on outcome, with insufficient attention paid to the process of recovery. The aim of this study was to explore the process of recovery from first episode psychotic illness in a Javanese cultural setting. An ethnographic method was applied where researcher conducted a field work and followed seven participants in their natural setting. This study identified three phases of recovery process in the context of Javanese culture: Bangkit, gaining insight; Usaha, struggling to achieve recovery; and Rukun, harmonious integration with family and community integration. Recovery entails regaining insight, followed by simultaneous inward and outward efforts that reconstitute one's inner and outer world, respectively. Participants also expressed their recovery in terms of a movement through physical space, from confinement in their own home to the wider spaces shared with family and community. Movements in physical space parallel movements in social space, where participants accomplish a social recovery. The Javanese phase of recovery found in this study is comparable to the phase of recovery identified by previous literatures in the Western context.

  8. Metacognitive functioning predicts positive and negative symptoms over 12 months in first episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Hamish J; Gumley, Andrew I; Macbeth, Angus; Schwannauer, Matthias; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-07-01

    The negative symptoms of schizophrenia are a major source of impairment and distress but both pharmacological and psychological treatment options provide only modest benefit. Developing more effective psychological treatments for negative symptoms will require a more sophisticated understanding of the psychological processes that are implicated in their development and maintenance. We extended previous work by demonstrating that metacognitive functioning is related to negative symptom expression across the first 12 months of first episode psychosis (FEP). Previous studies in this area have either been cross-sectional or have used much older participants with long-standing symptoms. In this study, forty-five FEP participants were assessed three times over 12 months and provided data on PANSS rated symptoms, premorbid adjustment, metacognitive functioning, and DUP. Step-wise linear regression showed that adding metacognition scores to known predictors of negative symptoms (baseline symptom severity, gender, DUP, and premorbid academic and social adjustment) accounted for 62% of the variance in PANSS negative symptom scores at six months and 38% at 12 months. The same predictors also explained 47% of the variance in positive symptoms at both six and 12 months. However, exploration of the simple correlations between PANSS symptom scores and metacognition suggests a stronger univariate relationship between metacognition and negative symptoms. Overall, the results indicate that problems with mental state processing may be important determinants of negative symptom expression from the very early stages of psychosis. These results provide further evidence that metacognitive functioning is a potentially relevant target for psychological interventions.

  9. Thalamic shape abnormalities in antipsychotic naïve schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Danivas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia states abnormal pruning as one of the pathogenetic mechanism in schizophrenia. Though thalamic volume abnormalities have been documented, the shape differences of thalamus in antipsychotic-free schizophrenia in comparison with age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers need validation. Materials and Methods: We examined antipsychotic naïve schizophrenia patients ( n=60 and age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers ( n=44. The thalamic shape abnormalities were analyzed from their coded structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data using three-dimensional automated image analysis software, FMRIB′s (Oxford Center for the functional MRI of the brain tools-FIRST (FMRIB′s Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool by creating deformable mesh model. Correlation with the psychopathology scores was carried out using F-statistics. Results: Patients with schizophrenia showed significant inward deformations in the regions corresponding to anterior, ventromedial, mediodorsal, and pulvinar nuclei. There was a direct correlation between negative syndrome score and the deformation in the right mediodorsal and right pulvinar nuclei. Conclusion: The inward deformations of thalamus in antipsychotic naive schizophrenia patients correspond to those nuclei which have reciprocal connections with frontal, superior temporal, and anterior cingulate regions and support the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia.

  10. Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008355 Efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, risperidone controlled, multicenter study. YAN Jun(闫俊), et al. Instit Mental Health, Peking Univ, Beijing 100083. Chin J Psychiat 2008;41(2):81-84.Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in treating acute exacerbation of schizophrenia.

  11. Identifying persistent negative symptoms in first episode psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovington Cindy L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although persistent negative symptoms (PNS are known to contribute significantly to poor functional outcome, they remain poorly understood. We examined the heuristic value of various PNS definitions and their respective prevalence in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP. We also contrasted those definitions to the Proxy for the Deficit Syndrome (PDS to identify deficit syndrome (DS in the same FEP cohort. Methods One hundred and fifty-eight FEP patients were separated into PNS and non-PNS groups based on ratings from the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS. PNS was defined in the following ways: 1 having a score of 3 or greater on at least 1 global subscale of the SANS (PNS_1; 2 having a score of 3 or more on at least 2 global subscales of the SANS (PNS_2; and 3 having a score of 3 or more on a combination of specific SANS subscales and items (PNS_H. For all three definitions, symptoms had to be present for a minimum of six consecutive months. Negative symptoms were measured upon entry to the program and subsequently at 1,2,3,6,9 and 12 months. Functional outcome was quantified at first assessment and month 12. Results PNS prevalence: PNS_1 (27%; PNS_2 (13.2%; PNS_H (13.2%. The prevalence of DS was found to be 3% when applying the PDS. Regardless of the definition being applied, when compared to non-PNS, patients in the PNS group were shown to have significantly worse functioning at month 12. All three PNS definitions showed similar associations with functional outcome at month 12. Conclusion Persistent negative symptoms are present in about 27% of FEP patients with both affective and non-affective psychosis. Although there has previously been doubt as to whether PNS represents a separate subdomain of negative symptoms, the current study suggests that PNS may be more applicable to FEP when compared to DS. Although all three PNS definitions were comparable in predicting functional outcome, we suggest that the

  12. Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stigma with hope. Take the Pledge Join Donate stigma free Pledge What Can I Do? Share Your Story National ... Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness that interferes with a person’s ability to think ...

  13. Selected Executive Skills in Adolescents with Recent First Episode Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyte, Zoe A.; Goodyer, Ian M.; Sahakian, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: To investigate whether recent first episode major depression in adolescence is characterised by selected executive difficulties in attentional flexibility, behavioural inhibition and decision-making. Methods: Selected executive functions were compared in adolescents with recent (past year) first episode major depression (n = 30) and…

  14. First-episode psychosis patients recruited into treatment via early detection teams versus ordinary pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Jan Olav; Joa, Inge; Auestad, Bjørn;

    2011-01-01

    To compare the 5-year course and outcome of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients recruited via active outreach detection teams (DTs) versus ordinary referral channels (not-DT).......To compare the 5-year course and outcome of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients recruited via active outreach detection teams (DTs) versus ordinary referral channels (not-DT)....

  15. Two-Year Diagnostic Stability in Early-Onset First-Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Immaculada; de la Serna, Elena; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Parellada, Mara; Graell, Montserrat; Moreno, Dolores; Otero, Soraya; Arango, Celso

    2011-01-01

    Background: Only one study has used a prospective method to analyze the diagnostic stability of first psychotic episodes in children and adolescents. The Child and Adolescent First-Episode Psychosis Study (CAFEPS) is a 2-year, prospective longitudinal study of early-onset first episodes of psychosis (EO-FEP). Aim: To describe diagnostic stability…

  16. Integrated treatment of first-episode psychosis: effect of treatment on family burden: OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone; Thorup, Anne;

    2005-01-01

    The families of patients with first-episode psychosis often play a major role in care and often experience lack of support.......The families of patients with first-episode psychosis often play a major role in care and often experience lack of support....

  17. The experience of childhood trauma and its influence on the course of illness in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Pedersen, Marlene Buch; Trauelsen, Anne Marie;

    2016-01-01

    . To examine this, we conducted in-depth interviews with 15 service users with a diagnosis of a first-episode nonaffective psychosis who had reported 1 or more childhood traumas in self-report measures. Therewas an unexpected discrepancy between the number of traumas reported in self-report measures......Persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders often report high levels of childhood trauma, which often exacerbates symptoms and impede the process of recovery. However, little is known about how these traumas are experienced by service users and how they are integrated in their life stories...... and in semistructured interviews, and many of the traumas did not seem integrated in their personal narratives. The analyses further revealed that although participants often described complicated and traumatic childhood environments, they still felt supported by their families; they reported a range of ways in which...

  18. Gender differences in first-episode psychosis at 5-year follow-up - two different courses of disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, A; Albert, Nancy; Bertelsen, M;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Gender differences in psychosis have been investigated, and the results have contributed to a better understanding of the disease, but many questions are unanswered. In clinical terms, women and men with psychosis differ in terms of access to social support, tendency of substance abuse...... clinical trial comparing 2years of intensive early-intervention programme with standard treatment. All patients were assessed with validated instruments at inclusion, and after 2 and 5years. Data were analysed for significant gender differences. RESULTS: Males have significantly higher levels of negative......, level of functioning and symptom patterns. We aimed to investigate how gender differences at onset of psychosis develop during the first 5years of treatment. METHOD: A total of 578 patients with a first-episode psychosis in the schizophrenia spectrum were included in the Danish OPUS trial - a randomized...

  19. Influence of the first episode duration on further course of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bipolar disorder has been continuously studied due to its high prevalence and incidence. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of duration of the first episode of bipolar disorder on the further course of this disorder. Material and Methods. The research was conducted as a retrospective-prospective, naturalistic study, which included 65 bipolar patients admitted to the hospital. We used Student’s t-test in addition to descriptive parameters, mean, median and standard deviation. We followed the 5-year course of the disorder after the first episode. Results. Having examined the medical records of the first episode and five-year follow-up of the course of the disease we found a statistically significant difference (2 vs 1.54; df=120; p<0.05 in the number of episodes following the first episode between the patients whose first episode was longer than 2 months and the patients whose first episode was shorter than 2 months. In addition, we found a statistically significant difference (55.42 vs 42.3; df=120; p<0.05 in duration of episodes that followed the first episode between the patients whose first episode was longer than 2 months and the patients whose first episode was shorter than 2 months. Discussion. Since these results are in accordance with the literature, we ought to point out the possibility of developing chronic syndromes in patients with longer first episodes. Conclusion. This study is a modest contribution to the trend of studying bipolar disorder. Better knowledge of the course would enable better treatment, prognosis and outcome of this disorder.

  20. Neurocognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenic patients and their first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaohong; Wang, Qiang; Sham, Pak C; Liu, Xiehe; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Sun, Xueli; Hu, Junmei; Meng, Huaqing; Chen, Wai; Chen, Eric Y H; Deng, Wei; Chan, Raymond C K; Murray, Robin M; Collier, David A; Li, Tao

    2007-06-01

    Some neuropsychological abilities, particularly those affecting memory, attention and executive function, are impaired amongst both schizophrenic patients and their unaffected relatives, implying that these deficits are at least partly genetic in origin. However neuropsychological performance can be altered by medication, and has rarely been examined in first onset, drug naive patients. The objective of this study was to determine whether selected neurocognitive abilities are impaired in first-onset schizophrenic patients and their relatives compared to controls. We examined attention and speed of information processing, memory and learning, verbal function, visuoconstructive abilities and executive function in 207 first-episode schizophrenic patients (163 of whom were drug naïve), 322 of their first-degree relatives and 133 unrelated normal controls. The data were subjected to multilevel modeling to compare neurocognitive performance between schizophrenic probands, relatives and controls while taking into account potential correlations among members of the same family; age, gender, and years of education were included as covariates. Of the three groups, schizophrenic patients performed poorest at all neuropsychological tests, suggestive of a broad range of neurocognitive deficits. Their first-degree relatives showed a narrower pattern of poor performance at Digit Symbol, Digit Span, Trail Making, Verbal Fluency test, Tower of Hanoi, and WCST-M tests. Our findings show that selected neurocognitive deficits especially attention and executive function are impaired in the families of schizophrenic patients. These patterns of neurocognitive deficits may represent "endophenotypes" denoting varying degrees of vulnerability to schizophrenia and may be of value in future molecular genetic studies. PMID:17440937

  1. Neurocognition and Duration of Psychosis: A 10-year Follow-up of First-Episode Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Evensen, Julie; Haahr, Ulrik; ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Langeveld, Johannes; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Simonsen, Erik; Sundet, Kjetil; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of schizophrenia-spectrum patients exhibit a cognitive impairment at illness onset. However, the long-term course of neurocognition and a possible neurotoxic effect of time spent in active psychosis, is a topic of controversy. Furthermore, it is of importance to find out what predicts the long-term course of neurocognition. Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), accumulated time in psychosis the first year after start of treatment, relapse rates and symptoms are potential predictors of the long-term course. In this study, 261 first-episode psychosis patients were assessed neuropsychologically on one or more occasions. Patients were tested after remission of psychotic symptoms and reassessed 1, 2, 5, and 10 years after inclusion. The neurocognitive battery consisted of California Verbal Learning Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Task, Trail Making A and B, and Finger Tapping. We calculated a composite score by adding the z-scores of 4 tests that were only moderately inter-correlated, not including Finger Tapping. Data were analyzed by a linear mixed model. The composite score was stable over 10 years. No significant relationship between psychosis before (DUP) or after start of treatment and the composite score was found, providing no support for the neurotoxicity hypothesis, and indicating that psychosis before start of treatment has no significant impact on the course and outcome in psychosis. We found no association between symptoms and the neurocognitive trajectory. Stable remission during the first year predicted neurocognitive functioning, suggesting that the early clinical course is a good predictor for the long-term course.

  2. Physical activity and anomalous bodily experiences in patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Lene; Moeller, Marianne K; Vestergaard, Claus H;

    2016-01-01

    : Both physical activity and aerobic fitness were measured. Anomalous bodily experiences were measured by selected items from the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience and The Body Awareness Scale. Psychopathological data comprising negative and positive symptoms and data on psychotropic medication....... AIM: The purpose of the study was to compare physical activity in patients with FES with healthy controls; to investigate changes in physical activity over 1 year of follow-up; and to explore the correlations of physical activity and anomalous bodily experiences reported by patients with FES. METHODS...... anomalous bodily experiences had significantly lower physical activity compared with patients with fewer such experiences (p = 0.030). In linear regression analyses only negative symptoms were significantly correlated with low physical activity (β = -0.88; 95% confidence interval = -1.48 to -0.29; p < 0...

  3. Substance abuse and first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The Danish OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia; Thorup, Anne;

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years.......To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years....

  4. Substance abuse and first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The Danish OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia; Thorup, Anne;

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years....

  5. The association between working alliance and clinical and functional outcome in a cohort of 400 patients with first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melau, Marianne; Harder, Susanne; Jeppesen, Pia;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Working alliance between patients with a first-episode psychosis and their case manager is regarded as a key element in specialized early intervention services. The impact of this patient-case manager dyad on functional and clinical outcome is unknown. We aimed to investigate if a strong...... working alliance was associated with fewer clinical symptoms and better social functioning. METHOD: In a cross-sectional design, patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders (ICD-10, F20-29) were included after 18 months of treatment (N = 400). Baseline data were collected between June...... between working alliance and better social functioning (β = 1.45; 95% CI, 0.55 to 2.36). General self-efficacy mediated the effect of working alliance, explaining 14%-18% of the variance in associated outcomes. Global level of cognitive functioning, compliance, and self-efficacy influenced clinical and...

  6. The promise of biological markers for treatment response in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fond, Guillaume; d'Albis, Marc-Antoine; Jamain, Stéphane;

    2015-01-01

    -no or only a few biomarkers for response or side effects, none of which have been implemented in daily clinical practice. Other biomarkers exploring immunoinflammatory, oxidative, and hormonal disturbances emerged as biomarkers of first-episode psychoses in the last decades, and some of them have been...... to side effects in first-episode psychosis. The present systematic review provides (1) trials that assessed biological markers associated with antipsychotic response or side effects in first-episode psychosis and (2) potential biomarkers associated with biological disturbances that may guide the choice...

  7. Using internet enabled mobile devices and social networking technologies to promote exercise as an intervention for young first episode psychosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Pamela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people with first episode psychosis are at an increased risk for a range of poor health outcomes. In contrast to the growing body of evidence that suggests that exercise therapy may benefit the physical and mental health of people diagnosed with schizophrenia, there are no studies to date that have sought to extend the use of exercise therapy among patients with first episode psychosis. The aim of the study is to test the feasibility and acceptability of an exercise program that will be delivered via internet enabled mobile devices and social networking technologies among young people with first episode psychosis. Methods/Design This study is a qualitative pilot study being conducted at Orygen Youth Health Research Centre in Melbourne, Australia. Participants are young people aged 15-24 who are receiving clinical care at a specialist first episode psychosis treatment centre. Participants will also comprise young people from the general population. The exercise intervention is a 9-week running program, designed to gradually build a person's level of fitness to be able to run 5 kilometres (3 miles towards the end of the program. The program will be delivered via an internet enabled mobile device. Participants will be asked to post messages about their running experiences on the social networking website, and will also be asked to attend three face-to-face interviews. Discussion This paper describes the development of a qualitative study to pilot a running program coupled with the use of internet enabled mobile devices among young people with first episode psychosis. If the program is found to be feasible and acceptable to patients, it is hoped that further rigorous evaluations will ultimately lead to the introduction of exercise therapy as part of an evidence-based, multidisciplinary approach in routine clinical care.

  8. Cortisol and Inflammatory Biomarkers Predict Poor Treatment Response in First Episode Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mondelli, Valeria; Ciufolini, Simone; Belvederi Murri, Martino; Bonaccorso, Stefania; Di Forti, Marta; Giordano, Annalisa; Marques, Tiago R; Zunszain, Patricia A.; Morgan, Craig; MURRAY, Robin M.; Pariante, Carmine M.; Dazzan, Paola

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cortisol and inflammatory markers have been increasingly reported as abnormal at psychosis onset. The main aim of our study was to investigate the ability of these biomarkers to predict treatment response at 12 weeks follow-up in first episode psychosis.METHODS: In a longitudinal study, we collected saliva and blood samples in 68 first episode psychosis patients (and 57 controls) at baseline and assessed response to clinician-led antipsychotic treatment after 12 weeks. Moreover, w...

  9. Prediction of first episode of panic attack among white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Tokuyama, Madoka; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to elucidate a longitudinal matrix of the etiology for first-episode panic attack among white-collar workers. A path model was designed for this purpose. A 5-year, open-cohort study was carried out in a Japanese company. To evaluate the risk factors associated with the onset of a first episode of panic attack, the odds ratios of a new episode of panic attack were calculated by logistic regression. The path model contained five predictor variables: gender difference, overprotection, neuroticism, lifetime history of major depression, and recent stressful life events. The logistic regression analysis indicated that a person with a lifetime history of major depression and recent stressful life events had a fivefold and a threefold higher risk of panic attacks at follow up, respectively. The path model for the prediction of a first episode of panic attack fitted the data well. However, this model presented low accountability for the variance in the ultimate dependent variables, the first episode of panic attack. Three predictors (neuroticism, lifetime history of major depression, and recent stressful life events) had a direct effect on the risk for a first episode of panic attack, whereas gender difference and overprotection had no direct effect. The present model could not fully predict first episodes of panic attack in white-collar workers. To make a path model for the prediction of the first episode of panic attack, other strong predictor variables, which were not surveyed in the present study, are needed. It is suggested that genetic variables are among the other strong predictor variables. A new path model containing genetic variables (e.g. family history etc.) will be needed to predict the first episode of panic attack. PMID:15823155

  10. Cost-effectiveness of early intervention in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Lene Halling; Kronborg, Christian; Bertelsen, Mette;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information about the cost-effectiveness of early intervention programmes for first-episode psychosis is limited. AIMS: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an intensive early-intervention programme (called OPUS) (trial registration NCT00157313) consisting of enriched assertive...... community treatment, psychoeducational family treatment and social skills training for individuals with first-episode psychosis compared with standard treatment. METHOD: An incremental cost-effectiveness analysis of a randomised controlled trial, adopting a public sector perspective was undertaken. RESULTS...

  11. Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008489 Establishment of a schizophrenia mouse model of deficient sensorimotor gating by MK-801. SU Yunai(苏允爱), et al. Key Lab, Ment Health, Health Ministry, Instit Ment Health Peking Univ, Beijing 100083.Chin J Nerv Ment Dis 2008;34(5):283-286. Objective To investigate the effects of MK-801, a selective non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, on

  12. Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005280 Association between polymorphism in the dopamine D4 receptor gene and qualitative and quantitative characters of schizophrenia in Chinese. ZHAO Ai-ling(赵爱玲),et al. Dept Psych, 2nd Xi-angya Hosp,Central South Univ,Changsha 410011. Chin J Psychi,2005;38(1) :3-6. Objective: To investigate the relationship between 48 bp variant number tandem repeat polymorphism in the third exon of dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene

  13. A randomised multicentre trial of integrated versus standard treatment for patients with a first episode of psychotic illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lone Bente; Jeppesen, Pia; Thorup, Anne;

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of integrated treatment for patients with a first episode of psychotic illness.......To evaluate the effects of integrated treatment for patients with a first episode of psychotic illness....

  14. Risk factors for the first episode of peritonitis in Southern Chinese continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Fan

    Full Text Available The first episode of peritonitis affects survival of the peritoneal membrane as a medium for dialysis as well as survival of patients. The aim of this study is to investigate risk factors associated with the first episode of peritonitis in Southern Chinese continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD patients.This is a single-center, retrospective, cohort study. All incident CAPD patients from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2010 were recruited, and followed up until their first episode of peritonitis or 31 December, 2012. Baseline demographic, socioeconomic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. Cox proportional model was used to determine the factors associated with the first episode of peritonitis.In a cumulative 30756.5 patient-months follow-up (the median vintage 26.1 months of 1117 CAPD patients, 309(27.7% patients presented the first episodes of peritonitis. The cumulative peritonitis-free survival was 86.2%, 78.1%, 71.4% and 57.8% at 1, 2, 3 and 5 year, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with risk for the first episode of peritonitis were elderly patients (>65 years [hazard ratio (HR = 1.427, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.051 to 1.938, P = 0.023], male(HR = 1.315, 95% CI = 1.028 to 1.684, P = 0.030, lower education level (HR = 1.446, 95% CI: 1.127 to 1.855, P = 0.004 and albumin <38g/L (HR = 1.425, 95% CI: 1.112 to 1.825, P = 0.005.Older age, male, lower educational level and hypoalbuminemia at the commencement of PD were the risk factors associated with the first episode of peritonitis in Southern Chinese CAPD patients.

  15. Visual Hallucinations in First-Episode Psychosis: Association with Childhood Trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Solesvik

    Full Text Available Hallucinations are a core diagnostic criterion for psychotic disorders and have been investigated with regard to its association with childhood trauma in first-episode psychosis samples. Research has largely focused on auditory hallucinations, while specific investigations of visual hallucinations in first-episode psychosis remain scarce.The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of visual hallucinations, and to explore the association between visual hallucination and childhood trauma in a first-episode psychosis sample.Subjects were included from TIPS-2, a first episode psychosis study in south Rogaland, Norway. Based on the medical journal descriptions of the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS, a separate score for visual and auditory hallucinations was created (N = 204. Patients were grouped according to hallucination severity (none, mild, and psychotic hallucinations and multinomial logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with visual hallucination group.Visual hallucinations of a psychotic nature were reported by 26.5% of patients. The experience of childhood interpersonal trauma increased the likelihood of having psychotic visual hallucinations.Visual hallucinations are common in first-episode psychosis, and are related to childhood interpersonal trauma.

  16. The promise of biological markers for treatment response in first-episode psychosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, Guillaume; d'Albis, Marc-Antoine; Jamain, Stéphane; Tamouza, Ryad; Arango, Celso; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Glenthøj, Birte; Leweke, Markus; Lewis, Shôn; McGuire, Phillip; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Sommer, Iris E; Winter-van Rossum, Inge; Kapur, Shitij; Kahn, René S; Rujescu, Dan; Leboyer, Marion

    2015-05-01

    Successful treatment of first-episode psychosis is one of the major factors that impacts long-term prognosis. Currently, there are no satisfactory biological markers (biomarkers) to predict which patients with a first-episode psychosis will respond to which treatment. In addition, a non-negligible rate of patients does not respond to any treatment or may develop side effects that affect adherence to the treatments as well as negatively impact physical health. Thus, there clearly is a pressing need for defining biomarkers that may be helpful to predict response to treatment and sensitivity to side effects in first-episode psychosis. The present systematic review provides (1) trials that assessed biological markers associated with antipsychotic response or side effects in first-episode psychosis and (2) potential biomarkers associated with biological disturbances that may guide the choice of conventional treatments or the prescription of innovative treatments. Trials including first-episode psychoses are few in number. Most of the available data focused on pharmacogenetics markers with so far only preliminary results. To date, these studies yielded-beside markers for metabolism of antipsychotics-no or only a few biomarkers for response or side effects, none of which have been implemented in daily clinical practice. Other biomarkers exploring immunoinflammatory, oxidative, and hormonal disturbances emerged as biomarkers of first-episode psychoses in the last decades, and some of them have been associated with treatment response. In addition to pharmacogenetics, further efforts should focus on the association of emergent biomarkers with conventional treatments or with innovative therapies efficacy, where some preliminary data suggest promising results. PMID:25759473

  17. Subjective quality of life in first-episode psychosis. A ten year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardsjord, Erlend Strand; Romm, Kristin Lie; Friis, Svein;

    2016-01-01

    patients with a first episode psychotic disorder was included from 1997 through 2000. At 10year follow-up 186 patients participated. QoL was measured by the Lehman's Quality of Life Interview. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to investigate longitudinal effects of baseline psychiatric symptoms......UNLABELLED: Subjective quality of life (S-QoL) is an important outcome measure in first episode psychosis (FEP). The aims of this study were to describe S-QoL-development the first 10-years in FEP patients and to identify predictors of this development. METHODS: A representative sample of 272...

  18. Effects on referral patterns of reducing intensive informational campaigns about first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Auestad, Bjørn;

    2007-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess referral patterns and duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) following the partial dismantling of intensive, information campaigns (IC) to help detect first-episode, non-affective psychosis via early detection teams in the TIPS study.......The primary aim of this study was to assess referral patterns and duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) following the partial dismantling of intensive, information campaigns (IC) to help detect first-episode, non-affective psychosis via early detection teams in the TIPS study....

  19. First-episode psychosis patients recruited into treatment via early detection teams versus ordinary pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Jan O; Friis, Svein; Joa, Inge;

    2007-01-01

    Within an early detection sector, to compare the 1- and 2-year course and outcome of first-episode psychosis patients coming into the treatment system via active outreach detection teams (DTs) versus those achieving help via ordinary referral channels (not-DT).......Within an early detection sector, to compare the 1- and 2-year course and outcome of first-episode psychosis patients coming into the treatment system via active outreach detection teams (DTs) versus those achieving help via ordinary referral channels (not-DT)....

  20. The quality of life among first-episode psychotic patients in the OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: From an 'objective' perspective, treatment of first-episode psychosis has improved in many ways with the development of specialised early and intensive team-based treatment like e.g. the 'OPUS' treatment. However, the patients' perspective is also important and was investigated in the...... extent and more strongly with the affective balance and level of self-esteem.......BACKGROUND: From an 'objective' perspective, treatment of first-episode psychosis has improved in many ways with the development of specialised early and intensive team-based treatment like e.g. the 'OPUS' treatment. However, the patients' perspective is also important and was investigated...

  1. IQ trajectory, cognitive reserve, and clinical outcome following a first episode of psychosis: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Verity C; Sharma, Pranev; Harrison, Masuma; Ron, Maria A; Barnes, Thomas R E; Joyce, Eileen M

    2011-07-01

    Comparison of current and estimated premorbid IQ in schizophrenia suggests that there are subgroups with low IQ, deteriorated IQ (DIQ), or preserved IQ and that this is established by psychosis onset. There are no controlled studies examining the trajectory of these IQ subgroups longitudinally or their relationship with clinical and social outcomes. Of 129 individuals with first-episode schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, 25% showed stable low IQ, 31% showed stable IQ in the average/high range, and 44% demonstrated intellectual deterioration by 10 points or more. Patients in the low and deteriorated groups were equally impaired on tests of memory and executive function compared with the preserved average/high-IQ group and controls and showed more negative and disorganization symptoms than the preserved average/high-IQ group. Sixty patients and 27 controls were assessed again 1 and 3 years later. There was no evidence that those with IQ deterioration at baseline continued on a declining cognitive trajectory or that those with preserved average/high IQ experienced subsequent IQ decline. The low IQ group showed no change in IQ, whereas both the DIQ and the preserved IQ groups improved. However, the rate of improvement of these 2 subgroups was no greater than that of the healthy controls, suggesting that this reflected practice effects. Both the low and the deteriorated groups had longer index admissions, more core negative symptoms, and worse occupational outcomes at 3 years. These data suggest that following psychosis onset, IQ is stable and that it is IQ at psychosis onset rather than premorbid IQ predicts a more severe illness. PMID:19934212

  2. Change in cannabis use, clinical symptoms and social functioning among patients with first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, L; Hjorthøj, C R; Thorup, Anne A.E.;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies indicate that cannabis use among patients with psychotic disorders is associated with worse outcome, but only a few studies have controlled for baseline condition and medication. METHOD: At 5-year follow-up, interviews were carried out with 314 first-episode psychosis ...

  3. Are multi family groups appropriate for patients with first episode psychosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossberg, Jan Ivar; Johannessen, J O; Klungsoyr, O;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare outcome over 5 years for patients who participated in multi family groups (MFGs) to those who refused or were not offered participation. METHOD: Of 301 first episode psychotic patients aged 15-65 years, 147 participated in MFGs. Outcome was measured by drop-out rates, positive...

  4. Multifamily group treatment in a program for patients with first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjell, Anne; Bloch Thorsen, Gerd Ragna; Friis, Svein;

    2007-01-01

    Psychoeducational multifamily group treatment based on the McFarlane model was implemented for adult patients experiencing a first episode of psychosis and for the families of 301 patients. Patients were participants in a research project in Norway and Denmark. Of 301 patients 246 were invited to...

  5. Early Predictors of Ten-Year Course in First-Episode Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Svein; Melle, Ingrid; Johannessen, Jan Olav;

    2016-01-01

    psychotic episode. METHODS: Between 1997 and 2000, 301 patients with DSM-IV nonorganic, nonaffective first-episode psychosis were recruited consecutively from catchment area-based sectors in Norway and Denmark. Specialized mental health personnel evaluated patients at baseline, three months, and one, two...

  6. The quality of life among first-episode psychotic patients in the OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: From an 'objective' perspective, treatment of first-episode psychosis has improved in many ways with the development of specialised early and intensive team-based treatment like e.g. the 'OPUS' treatment. However, the patients' perspective is also important and was investigated in the...... extent and more strongly with the affective balance and level of self-esteem....

  7. Criminal offending and distinguishing features of offenders among persons experiencing a first episode of psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2011-02-01

    Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) are at increased risk of criminal offending, particularly violent offending, as compared with the general population. Most offenders with SMI acquire convictions prior to contact with mental health services. This study examined offending among 301 individuals experiencing their first episode of psychosis.

  8. Regional Gray Matter Volume Deficits in Adolescents with First-Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Joost; Parellada, Mara; Moreno, Dolores; Graell, Montserrat; Fraguas, David; Zabala, Arantzazu; Vazquez, Veronica Garcia; Desco, Manuel; Arango, Celso

    2008-01-01

    The regional gray matter volumes of adolescents with first-episode psychosis are compared with those of a control group. Magnetic resonance imaging was conducted on 70 patients with early onset FEP and on 51 individuals without FEP. Findings revealed that volume deficits in the left medial frontal gray matter were common in individuals with…

  9. Predictors of acute bacterial meningitis among children with a first episode of febrile convulsion from Northern India: A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Amiraj Singh; Joginder Silayach; Geeta Gathwala; Jaya Shankar Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Context: There is limited data to support need of lumbar puncture among Indian children aged less than 5 years presenting with a first episode of fever and seizure. Aims: To determine the incidence and clinical predictors of meningitis among children aged 6-60 months presenting with a first episode of febrile convulsion. Settings and Designs: A prospective study was conducted on 35 children (6-60 months) with a first episode of febrile convulsion subjected to lumbar puncture in a tertiary car...

  10. Do stressful life events predict medical treatment outcome in first episode of depression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Camilla; Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Vinberg, Maj;

    2009-01-01

    -II) and the interview of recent life events (IRLE). Medical treatment history was assessed in detail using standardised procedures (TRAQ). Remission was defined as a score Rating Scale, 17 items and a score >or= 4 on TRAQ following (1) first trial of antidepressant treatment (2) two......BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether medical treatment outcome in first episode depression differ for patients with and without stressful life events prior to onset of depression. METHODS: Patients discharged with a diagnosis of a single depressive episode from a psychiatric in- or outpatient hospital......: Medical treatment outcome in first episode depression does not depend on the prevalence of moderate to severe stressful life events prior to symptom onset....

  11. Childhood Trauma and Hippocampal and Amygdalar Volumes in First-Episode Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoy, K.E.; Barrett, Suzanne; Shannon, Ciaran; Campbell, C; Watson, D. R.; Rushe, T; Shevlin, M.; Bai, Feng; Cooper, Stephen; Mulholland, Ciaran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A history of childhood trauma is common in individuals who later develop psychosis. Similar neuroanatomical abnormalities are observed in people who have been exposed to childhood trauma and people with psychosis. However, the relationship between childhood trauma and such abnormalities in psychosis has not been investigated. This study aimed to explore the association between the experience of childhood trauma and hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in a first-episode psychosis (FEP...

  12. Self-Determination Theory and First-Episode Psychosis: A Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Cindy Woolverton; R. Brock Frost; Nicole A. Kiewel

    2014-01-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) posits that human well-being depends on the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Although many scholars have suggested that SDT may be relevant to psychotic disorders, only one empirical study of SDT in individuals with psychosis has been completed to date by Breitborde and colleagues (2012). This study revealed that individuals with first-episode psychosis reported lower satisfaction of the three basic psychol...

  13. Is intervention necessary after a first episode of acute idiopathic pancreatitis?

    OpenAIRE

    Ballinger, A B; Barnes, E.; Alstead, E M; Fairclough, P D

    1996-01-01

    Acute idiopathic pancreatitis is a term used when no underlying cause has been identified on routine investigation. However, more specialised investigations may identify aetiological factors, biliary sludge and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction for example, in 38-72% of patients with recurrent episodes. Treatment of these abnormalities may prevent further episodes of pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to follow up and determine the outcome in patients with a first episode of idiopathic pancr...

  14. The relationship between insight and neurological dysfunction in first-episode psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hill, M

    2012-04-01

    Impaired insight is commonly seen in psychosis and some studies have proposed that is a biologically based deficit. Support for this view comes from the excess of neurological soft signs (NSS) observed in patients with psychoses and their neural correlates which demonstrate a degree of overlap with the regions of interest implicated in neuroimaging studies of insight. The aim was to examine the relationship between NSS and insight in a sample of 241 first-episode psychosis patients.

  15. Examining the clinical characteristics of individuals with first episode psychosis with sleep satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Dwyer, Edel

    2014-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed Background: Sleep is a complex yet vital process essential for energy, productivity and emotional balance. Sleep disruption has significant implications for an individual???s health, wellbeing and occupational performance. Sleep disruption is linked to many psychiatric conditions including First Episode Psychosis (FEP). Early recognition and subsequent treatment of FEP can reduce the social and occupational disruption with which it is associated. Objectives: The resear...

  16. The influence of comorbid personality disorder and neuroticism on treatment outcome in first episode depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Camilla; Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann; Vinberg, Maj;

    2010-01-01

    assessment of medical treatment history using standardised procedures (Treatment Response to Antidepressants Questionnaire, TRAQ). Remission was defined as a score of Rating Scale, 17 items, and a score of > or =4 on the TRAQ following (1) a first adequate trial......BACKGROUND: It has never been investigated whether comorbid personality disorder or neuroticism predicts a poor treatment outcome in first episode depression. METHODS: Medically treated patients discharged with a diagnosis of a single depressive episode from a psychiatric in- or outpatient hospital...

  17. Genital Self-mutilation in a Case of First Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Anuj; Chauhan, Khushboo; De Sousa, Avinash; Sonavane, Sushma; Pawar, Alka

    2016-01-01

    Genital self-mutilation (GSM) is a much rare finding and more commonly associated with psychosis when it comes to comparison with self-mutilation as a whole. There have been anecdotal case reports of GSM in psychotic disorders with most of them being in long standing psychoses. We describe herein a case of GSM during the first episode of psychosis where multiple phenomenological variables were seen responsible for the act. PMID:27570352

  18. Genital self-mutilation in a case of first episode psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Khandelwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genital self-mutilation (GSM is a much rare finding and more commonly associated with psychosis when it comes to comparison with self-mutilation as a whole. There have been anecdotal case reports of GSM in psychotic disorders with most of them being in long standing psychoses. We describe herein a case of GSM during the first episode of psychosis where multiple phenomenological variables were seen responsible for the act.

  19. Opposite effective connectivity in the posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex between first-episode schizophrenic patients with suicide risk and healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiran Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The schizophrenic patients with high suicide risk are characterized by depression, better cognitive function, and prominent positive symptoms. However, the neurobiological basis of suicide attempts in schizophrenia is not clear. The suicide in schizophrenia is implicated in the defects in emotional process and decision-making, which are associated with prefrontal-cingulate circuit. In order to explore the possible neurobiological basis of suicide in schizophrenia, we investigated the correlation of prefrontal-cingulate circuit with suicide risk in schizophrenia via dynamic casual modelling. METHOD: Participants were 33 first-episode schizophrenic patients comprising of a high suicide risk group (N = 14 and a low suicide risk group (N = 19. A comparison group of healthy controls (N = 15 were matched for age, gender and education. N-back tasking functional magnetic resonance imaging data was collected. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls group, the two patients groups showed decreased task-related suppression during 2-back task state versus baseline state in the left posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex; the hyper-connectivity from the left posterior cingulate cortex to the left medial prefrontal cortex existed in both schizophrenic patients groups, but hypo-connectivity in the opposite direction only existed in the schizophrenic patients group with high suicide risk. CONCLUSIONS: The hyper-connectivity from the left posterior cingulate cortex to the left medial prefrontal cortex may suggest that the abnormal effective connectivity was associated with risk for schizophrenia. The hypo-connectivity in the opposite direction may represent a possible correlate of increased vulnerability to suicide attempt.

  20. Improving 1-year outcome in first-episode psychosis: OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lone; Nordentoft, Merete; Jeppesen, Pia;

    2005-01-01

    Because early illness course and outcome may affect the long-term outcome of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, it is especially important to address poor outcome in this early critical period.......Because early illness course and outcome may affect the long-term outcome of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, it is especially important to address poor outcome in this early critical period....

  1. Family Functioning in First-Episode and Chronic Psychosis: The Role of Patient's Symptom Severity and Psychosocial Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutra, Katerina; Triliva, Sofia; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Basta, Maria; Lionis, Christos; Vgontzas, Alexandros N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between illness-related characteristics, such as symptom severity and psychosocial functioning, and specific aspects of family functioning both in patients experiencing their first episode of psychosis (FEP) and chronically ill patients. A total of 50 FEP and 50 chronic patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (most recent episode manic severe with psychotic features) and their family caregivers participated in the study. Family functioning was evaluated in terms of cohesion and flexibility (FACES IV Package), expressed emotion (FQ), family burden (FBS) and caregivers' psychological distress (GHQ-28). Patients' symptom severity (BPRS) and psychosocial functioning (GAS) were assessed by their treating psychiatrist within 2 weeks from the caregivers' assessment. Increased symptom severity was associated with greater dysfunction in terms of family cohesion and flexibility (β coefficient -0.13; 95 % CI -0.23, -0.03), increased caregivers' EE levels on the form of emotional overinvolvement (β coefficient 1.03; 95 % CI 0.02, 2.03), and psychological distress (β coefficient 3.37; 95 % CI 1.29, 5.45). Family burden was found to be significantly related to both symptom severity (β coefficient 3.01; 95 % CI 1.50, 4.51) and patient's functioning (β coefficient -2.04; 95 % CI -3.55, -0.53). No significant interaction effect of chronicity was observed in the afore-mentioned associations. These findings indicate that severe psychopathology and patient's low psychosocial functioning are associated with poor family functioning. It appears that the effect for family function is significant from the early stages of the illness. Thus, early psychoeducational interventions should focus on patients with severe symptomatology and impaired functioning and their families. PMID:26286079

  2. Family Functioning in First-Episode and Chronic Psychosis: The Role of Patient's Symptom Severity and Psychosocial Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutra, Katerina; Triliva, Sofia; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Basta, Maria; Lionis, Christos; Vgontzas, Alexandros N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between illness-related characteristics, such as symptom severity and psychosocial functioning, and specific aspects of family functioning both in patients experiencing their first episode of psychosis (FEP) and chronically ill patients. A total of 50 FEP and 50 chronic patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (most recent episode manic severe with psychotic features) and their family caregivers participated in the study. Family functioning was evaluated in terms of cohesion and flexibility (FACES IV Package), expressed emotion (FQ), family burden (FBS) and caregivers' psychological distress (GHQ-28). Patients' symptom severity (BPRS) and psychosocial functioning (GAS) were assessed by their treating psychiatrist within 2 weeks from the caregivers' assessment. Increased symptom severity was associated with greater dysfunction in terms of family cohesion and flexibility (β coefficient -0.13; 95 % CI -0.23, -0.03), increased caregivers' EE levels on the form of emotional overinvolvement (β coefficient 1.03; 95 % CI 0.02, 2.03), and psychological distress (β coefficient 3.37; 95 % CI 1.29, 5.45). Family burden was found to be significantly related to both symptom severity (β coefficient 3.01; 95 % CI 1.50, 4.51) and patient's functioning (β coefficient -2.04; 95 % CI -3.55, -0.53). No significant interaction effect of chronicity was observed in the afore-mentioned associations. These findings indicate that severe psychopathology and patient's low psychosocial functioning are associated with poor family functioning. It appears that the effect for family function is significant from the early stages of the illness. Thus, early psychoeducational interventions should focus on patients with severe symptomatology and impaired functioning and their families.

  3. Neuroactive Steroids in First-Episode Psychosis: A Role for Progesterone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Belvederi Murri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroactive steroids may play a role in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders, but few studies examined this issue. We compared serum levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and progesterone between a representative sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP patients and age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. Furthermore, we analyzed the associations between neuroactive steroids levels and the severity of psychotic symptom dimensions. Male patients had lower levels of progesterone than controls (p=0.03. Progesterone levels were inversely associated with the severity of positive symptoms (p=0.007. Consistent with preclinical findings, results suggest that progesterone might have a role in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders.

  4. Does bereavement-related first episode depression differ from other kinds of first depressions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla;

    2009-01-01

    (4.7%) had experienced death of a first degree relative (parent, sibling, child) or a near friend, 163 patients (54.2%) had experienced other moderate to severe stressful life events and 112 patients had not experienced stressful life events in a 6 months period prior to the onset of depression....... Patients who had experienced bereavement did not differ from patients with other stressful life events or from patients without stressful life events in socio-demographic variables or in the phenomenology of the depression, psychiatric comorbidity, family history or response to antidepressant treatment....... CONCLUSION: Bereavement-related first episode depression does not differ from other kinds of first depression....

  5. Neuroactive Steroids in First-Episode Psychosis: A Role for Progesterone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagotto, Uberto; Bonora, Elena; Triolo, Federico; Chiri, Luigi; Menchetti, Marco; Mondelli, Valeria; Pariante, Carmine; Berardi, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Neuroactive steroids may play a role in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders, but few studies examined this issue. We compared serum levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and progesterone between a representative sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. Furthermore, we analyzed the associations between neuroactive steroids levels and the severity of psychotic symptom dimensions. Male patients had lower levels of progesterone than controls (p = 0.03). Progesterone levels were inversely associated with the severity of positive symptoms (p = 0.007). Consistent with preclinical findings, results suggest that progesterone might have a role in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders. PMID:27747103

  6. Determinants of adherence to treatment in first-episode psychosis: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Leclerc

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To conduct a comprehensive review of current evidence on factors for nonadherence to treatment in individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP.Methods:MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, and SciELO databases were searched with the keywords first episode psychosis, factor, adherence, nonadherence, engagement, disengagement, compliance, and intervention. References of selected studies were consulted for relevant articles.Results:A total of 157 articles were screened, of which 33 articles were retained for full review. The factors related to nonadherence were: a patient-related (e.g., lower education level, persistent substance use, forensic history, unemployment, history of physical abuse; b environment-related (e.g., no family involved in treatment, social adjustment difficulties; c medication-related (e.g., rapid remission of negative symptoms when starting treatment, therapeutic alliance; and d illness-related (e.g., more positive symptoms, more relapses. Treatment factors that improve adherence include a good therapeutic alliance and a voluntary first admission when hospitalization occurs.Conclusion:The results of this review suggest that nonadherence to treatment in FEP is multifactorial. Many of these factors are modifiable and can be specifically targeted in early intervention programs. Very few studies have assessed strategies to raise adherence in FEP.

  7. Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis use: predictors of negative outcomes in first episode psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itxaso González-Ortega

    Full Text Available Although depressive symptoms in first episode psychosis have been associated with cannabis abuse, their influence on the long-term functional course of FEP patients who abuse cannabis is unknown. The aims of the study were to examine the influence of subclinical depressive symptoms on the long-term outcome in first episode-psychosis patients who were cannabis users and to assess the influence of these subclinical depressive symptoms on the ability to quit cannabis use.64 FEP patients who were cannabis users at baseline were followed-up for 5 years. Two groups were defined: (a patients with subclinical depressive symptoms at least once during follow-up (DPG, and (b patients without subclinical depressive symptoms during follow-up (NDPG. Psychotic symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, depressive symptoms using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17, and psychosocial functioning was assessed using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF. A linear mixed-effects model was used to analyze the combined influence of cannabis use and subclinical depressive symptomatology on the clinical outcome.Subclinical depressive symptoms were associated with continued abuse of cannabis during follow-up (β= 4.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78 to 11.17; P = .001 and with worse functioning (β = -5.50; 95% CI: -9.02 to -0.33; P = .009.Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis abuse during follow-up could be predictors of negative outcomes in FEP patients.

  8. The diagnostic yield of the first episode of a periodic health evaluation: a descriptive epidemiology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kermott Cindy A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of a periodic health evaluation remain debatable. The incremental value added by such evaluations beyond the delivery of age appropriate screening and preventive medicine recommendations is unclear. Methods We retrospectively collected data on a cohort of consecutive patients presenting for their first episode of a comprehensive periodic health evaluation. We abstracted data on new diagnoses that were identified during this single episode of care and that were not trivial (i.e., required additional testing or intervention. Results The cohort consisted of 491 patients. The rate of new diagnoses per this single episode of care was 0.9 diagnoses per patient. The majority of these diagnoses was not prompted by patients’ complaints (71% and would not have been identified by screening guidelines (51%. Men (odds ratio 2.67; 95% CI, 1.76, 4.03 and those with multiple complaints at presentation (odds ratio 1.12; 95% CI, 1.05, 1.19 were more likely to receive a clinically relevant diagnosis at the conclusion of the visit. Age was not a predictor of receiving a diagnosis in this cohort. Conclusion The first episode of a comprehensive periodic health evaluation may reveal numerous important diagnoses or risk factors that are not always identified through routine screening.

  9. Hippocampus, glucocorticoids and neurocognitive functions in patients with first-episode major depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymak, Semra Ulusoy; Demir, Başaran; Sentürk, Senem; Tatar, Ilkan; Aldur, M Mustafa; Uluğ, Berna

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there was any relationship between hippocampal volume, and glucocorticoid regulation, and cognitive dysfunctions in drug-naïve major depressive disorder (MDD) patients during their first episode. Twenty drug-free female MDD patients in their first episode and 15 healthy females as control subjects were included in the study. All subjects underwent 3.0 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), comprehensive neuropsychological testing and dexamethasone suppression tests (DST). The volumes of the right and left hippocampus of the patients were found to be significantly smaller than those of the controls. Patients were found to have significantly lower scores on measures of attention, working memory, psychomotor speed, executive functions, and visual and verbal memory fields. The performance of the patients only in the recollection memory and memory of reward-associated rules were positively correlated with hippocampal volumes. The volumes of the left and right hippocampus did not correlate with basal or post-dexamethasone cortisol levels. Our findings indicate that depressed patients have smaller hippocampi even in the earlier phase of their illness. Further research efforts are needed to explain the mechanisms that are responsible for the small hippocampus in depressed patients.

  10. Suicidal behaviour and mortality in first-episode psychosis: the OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Those with first-episode psychosis are at high-risk of suicide. AIMS: To identify predictive factors for suicidal thoughts, plans and attempts, and to investigate the rate of suicides and other deaths during the 5 years after first diagnosis and initiation of treatment. METHOD: A long...... hallucinations, predicted suicidal plans and attempts, and persistent suicidal behaviour and ideation were associated with high risk of attempted suicide. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec......BACKGROUND: Those with first-episode psychosis are at high-risk of suicide. AIMS: To identify predictive factors for suicidal thoughts, plans and attempts, and to investigate the rate of suicides and other deaths during the 5 years after first diagnosis and initiation of treatment. METHOD....... standard treatment. All participants were followed in the Danish Cause of Death Register for 5 years. Suicidal behaviour and clinical and social status were assessed using validated interviews and rating scales at entry, and at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. RESULTS: Sixteen participants died during the follow...

  11. The Treatment of Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, Iris E. C.; Slotema, Christina W.; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Derks, Eske M.; Blom, Jan Dirk; van der Gaag, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the treatment of hallucinations in schizophrenia. The first treatment option for hallucinations in schizophrenia is antipsychotic medication, which can induce a rapid decrease in severity. Only 8% of first-episode patients still experience mild to moderate hallucinations after c

  12. Social functioning in Chinese college students with and without schizotypal personality traits: an exploratory study of the Chinese version of the First Episode Social Functioning Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The First Episode Social Functioning Scale (FESFS was designed to measure social functioning of young individuals with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to validate a Chinese version of the FESFS in a sample of young Chinese adults. METHOD: The FESFS was translated to Chinese prior to being administered to 1576 college students. The factor structure, reliability, and validity of the scale were examined. RESULTS: Two items were deleted after item analysis and the internal consistency of the whole scale was .89. A six-factor structure was derived by exploratory factor analysis. The factors were interpersonal, family and friends, school, living skills, intimacy, and balance. Estimates of the structural equation model supported this structure, with Goodness of Fit Chi-Square χ(2 = 1097.53 (p<0.0001, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = 0.058, and the comparative fit index (CFI = 0.93. Scale validity was supported by significant correlations between social functioning factors scores and schizophrenia personality questionnaire (SPQ scores. Individuals with schizotypal personality features presented poorer social functioning than those without schizotypal personality features. CONCLUSIONS: The Chinese revised version of the FESFS was found to have good psychometric properties and could be used in the future to examine social functioning in Chinese college students.

  13. Assessment of posttraumatic symptoms in patients with first-episode psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder is common among patients with psychotic disorders. The present study examined the internal reliability and comparability of the Impact of Event Scale (IES) in a sample of 38 patients with first-episode psychosis and 47 controls exposed to severe physical and\\/or sexual abuse. The IES total score and both subscales showed high internal consistency in both groups (Cronbach\\'s alpha coefficients of approximately 0.9 or higher). Given their equivalent trauma reporting, the lack of differences in IES scores between patients and controls seems to indicate that patients are likely to report accurately and neither exaggerate nor minimize their posttraumatic symptoms. Overall, the findings suggest that the IES can be used to assess symptoms of posttraumatic stress in patients with psychotic disorders as in other populations.

  14. Metacognition in first-episode psychosis and its association with positive and negative symptom profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Gumley, Andrew; Jansen, Jens Einar;

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that metacognitive abilities which include the ability to synthesize knowledge regarding mental states in self and others and use this ability to solve problems are impaired in non-affective psychosis and associated with positive and negative symptom severity. We sought...... to (a) investigate the severity of metacognitive impairments in first-episode psychosis (FEP) compared to non-clinical controls and (b) explore associations with positive and negative symptom profiles. Ninety-seven people with FEP were compared to 101 control persons. Metacognition was assessed...... with interviews and the Metacognitive assessment scale-abbreviated. Four groups based on positive and negative symptoms were identified by cluster analysis and compared on metacognition, childhood adversities, duration of untreated psychosis and premorbid social and academic adjustment. Those with high levels...

  15. Urovirulence determinants in Escherichia coli isolates causing first-episode and recurrent cystitis in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, A; Moseley, S; Stamm, W E

    1991-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of urovirulence determinants among Escherichia coli isolates from women with acute uncomplicated cystitis, 121 isolates from 87 women with first-episode or recurrent cystitis and 156 fecal isolates from 52 women without recent urinary tract infection were tested using DNA probes for P fimbriae, hemolysin, aerobactin, and diffuse adhesin and for expression of hemolysin and P and F adhesins. P fimbrial genotype (P = .002), hemolysin phenotype (P = .007), and the diffuse adhesin determinant (P = .03), but not aerobactin, were found more frequently in E. coli from women with acute cystitis, and expression of the F adhesin (41%) was more common than the P adhesin (24%; P = .001). E. coli isolates that caused cystitis in women using diaphragms had fewer virulence determinants than those from nonusers (P = .04), suggesting that diaphragm use may allow infection with less virulent E. coli.

  16. Pathways to Care for Patients With First-Episode Psychosis in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesney, Edward; Abdin, Edimansyah; Poon, Lye Yin; Subramaniam, Mythily; Verma, Swapna

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we aim to describe the pathways to care for patients with first-episode psychosis in Singapore. We analyzed data from 900 individuals accepted by the Singapore Early Psychosis Intervention Programme between 2007 and 2012. The most common first contacts were specialist care (59%), primary care (27%), and the police (12%). Multivariate regression models showed that first contact with services varied according to demographic variables and diagnosis. The duration of untreated psychosis, total number of contacts before referral, and rate of referral to the Early Psychosis Intervention Programme varied according to demographic and clinical variables and first contact. We hope that this information will enable clinicians, managers, and other service providers to target interventions to streamline referrals, reduce distress, and improve the treatment of young people with psychotic illnesses.

  17. Childhood adversity specificity and dose-response effect in non-affective first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Bendall, Sarah; Jansen, Jens Einar;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reviews conclude that childhood and adolescence sexual, physical, emotional abuse and emotional and physical neglect are all risk factors for psychosis. However, studies suggest only some adversities are associated with psychosis. Dose-response effects of several adversities on risk...... of psychosis have not been consistently found. The current study aimed to explore adversity specificity and dose-response effects of adversities on risk of psychosis. METHOD: Participants were 101 persons with first-episode psychosis (FEP) diagnosed with ICD-10 F20 - F29 (except F21) and 101 non......% of the control group. Childhood and adolescent sexual, physical, emotional abuse, and physical and emotional neglect, separation and institutionalization were about four to 17 times higher for the FEP group (all ppsychosis increased two and a half times for each additional adversity. All...

  18. Integrated Treatment to Achieve Functional Recovery for First-Episode Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Valencia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an integrated treatment approach that was implemented to enhance functional recovery in first-episode psychotic patients. Patients were randomized to two treatment conditions: either to an integrated treatment approach: pharmacotherapy, psychosocial treatment, and psychoeducation (experimental group: N=39 or to medication alone (control group: N=34. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after one year of treatment. Functional recovery was assessed according to symptomatic and functional remission. At the end of treatment, experimental patients showed a 94.9% of symptomatic remission compared to 58.8% of the control group. Functional remission was 56.4% for the experimental group and 3.6% for the control group, while 56.4% of the experimental group met both symptomatic and functional remission criteria and were considered recovered compared to 2.9% of the control group.

  19. Metacognition, symptoms and premorbid functioning in a first episode psychosis sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, Angus; Gumley, Andrew; Schwannauer, Matthias; Carcione, Antonino; Fisher, Rebecca; McLeod, Hamish J; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2014-02-01

    Significant metacognitive impairments are observed in chronic psychosis samples but metacognition is less understood in first episode psychosis (FEP). The current study explored correlations between metacognition, symptoms and premorbid functioning in an FEP sample. In a cross-sectional cohort study, individuals in the first 12 months of treatment metacognition were assessed with the Metacognition Assessment Scale-Revised version (MAS-R). Psychotic symptomatology, premorbid adjustment, and clinician rated service engagement were also measured. Lower scores for metacognitive understanding of other's minds were significantly correlated with greater negative symptoms, poorer early adolescent social adjustment and poorer clinician rated help-seeking. Our findings suggest that FEP individuals with difficulties in understanding other's minds have more social deficits and may be less able to make effective use of treatment.

  20. Treatment of patients with first-episode psychosis: two-year outcome data from the Danish National Schizophrenia Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Valbak, Kristian; Harder, Susanne;

    2006-01-01

    psychodynamic psychotherapy as a supplement to treatment as usual", "integrated, assertive, psychosocial and educational treatment programme", or "treatment as usual". Data on symptoms and social function and sociodemographic data were obtained at inclusion, and at year 1 and 2. The three sub-cohorts did...... patients in the treatment-as-usual group. Improvement in the intervention groups continued into the second year. Patients receiving integrated assertive treatment faired better than those being treated with the less intensive method of supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy, and the latter group improved...

  1. Depressive symptoms in first episode schizophrenic patients.%首发精神分裂症病人的抑郁症状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李献云; 费立鹏; 张培琰; 吉中孚

    2001-01-01

    Objective  To investigate the prevalence, characteristics and correlates of depressive symptoms in first episode schizophrenic patients. Methods To examine 164 first episode schizophrenic patients at the time of admission and at 3,6,9, and 12 months after starting treatment using the HAMD, BPRS, the Chinese version of SANS, CGI and GAF. Results 71% of the patients had depressive symptoms (mild or more) at damission, but the prevalence of depressive symptoms dropped to a mean of 12% during the recovery period. The most prominent depressive symptoms during the acute phase of schizophrenia were ‘cognitive disturbance’ and ‘retardation’ (the respective subscales constituted 35% and 29% of the total HAMD score on admission). Depressive symptoms improved in parallel with the schizophrenic illness. The severity of depressive symptoms was not related to gender, age of onset, educational level, duration of prodromal period or duration of illness. At admission the severity of depressive symptoms was only related to the BPRS anxiety and depression subscale score, but during the recovery period the HAMD total score was significantly correlated with all of the other clinical scales. The level of depressive symptoms at admission and at three months after starting treatment was not related to the subsequent course of positive or negative symptoms. Conclusions Depressive symptoms appeared to be a separate symptom cluster during the acute phase of first episode schizophrenia. The severity of depressive symptoms did not predict the clinical outcome of first episode schizophrenic patients.%目的探讨首发精神分裂症病人抑郁症状的发生率、特征及相关因素。方法于入院、治疗3、6、9、12月时用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、简明精神病评定量表(BPRS)、阴性症状量表中文版(SANS-CV)、临床总体印象量表(CGI)及功能总体评定量表(GAF)对164例首发精神分裂症患者进行评定。结果急性期首发精神

  2. Can insight be predicted in first-episode psychosis patients? A longitudinal and hierarchical analysis of predictors in a drug-naïve sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Manuel J; Peralta, Victor; Campos, Maria S; Garcia-Jalon, Elena

    2011-08-01

    Poor insight is a ubiquitous phenomenon in psychosis with great repercussions on clinical practise and the outcomes of patients. Poor insight comprises "state" and "trait" components. This paper targeted predictors of global insight and insight dimensions at baseline in the drug-naïve status of first-episode psychosis patients and during a 6-month follow up after episode remission. Seventy-seven consecutive and previously unmedicated patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (FESSD) completed baseline and 6-month insight, premorbid, symptomatological and neuropsychological assessments. Insight measures served as dependent variables for a set of hierarchical multiple regression models. Premorbid personality abnormalities and duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) significantly predicted 'state' and 'trait' insight global scores. Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) significantly predicted 'state' insight, measured as refusal of treatment at baseline. Moreover, premorbid personality abnormalities and DUP with minor contributions of demographic variables, cognitive functioning and psychopathological dimensions predicted 'trait insight', defined as insight after remission of the psychosis episode 'Insight improver' FESSD patients showed better late adolescent premorbid adjustment, lower personality disturbances (sociopathic, schizoid and schizotypy dimensions), shorter DUP, and lower positive, negative and disorganisation symptoms and better cognitive performance on the Trail Making B test at the 6-month follow-up assessment. Premorbid personality abnormalities and DUP were predictors of 'state' and 'trait' insight, both at global scores and dimension levels. Moreover, insight improvement in patients with FESSD was related to premorbid abnormalities (in both adjustment and personality), shorter DUP, fewer positive and negative symptoms and better performance in cognitive tests at the 6-month follow up. PMID:21632216

  3. Specific and generalized neuropsychological deficits: a comparison of patients with various first-episode psychosis presentations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zanelli, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence suggests that compromised neuropsychological function is frequently observed in schizophrenia. Neurocognitive dysfunction has often been reported in other psychotic disorders, although there are inconsistencies in the literature. In the context of four distinct diagnostic groups, the authors compared neuropsychological performance among patients experiencing their first psychotic episode.

  4. Relationship of frontal D2/3 binding potentials to cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pinborg, Lars H; Mortensen, Erik Lykke;

    2013-01-01

    Studies of in vivo dopamine receptors in schizophrenia have mostly focused on D2 receptors in striatal areas or on D1 receptors in cortex. No previous study has examined the correlation between cortical dopamine D2/3 receptor binding potentials and cognition in schizophrenia patients. The objective...... was to examine this relation in the frontal cortex in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia patients. Based on preclinical and pharmacological evidence, we specifically expected to find a relation between D2/3 receptor binding potentials and set shifting. This was a cross-sectional, case......-control study using single-photon emission computerized tomography with the D2/3-receptor ligand [123I]epidepride, co-registered with structural magnetic resonance imaging and correlated to cognitive measures. Participants were 24 antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients and 20 healthy controls...

  5. Suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Ventriglio; Alessandro Gentile; Iris Bonfitto; Eleonora Stella; Massimo Mari; Luca Steardo; Antonello Bellomo

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a relevant leading cause of death among patients affected by schizophrenia. Even if suicidal ideation may be present in different stages of disease, some differences have been described between the risk of suicide in patients experiencing first-episode of psychosis and those with long-term schizophrenia. It is particularly higher during the first year of illness and reaches a steady decline over the following years. Suicidal ideation and attempts may also be common among subjec...

  6. Five-Year Follow-Up of Supportive Psychodynamic Psychotherapy in First-Episode Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Susanne; Køster, Anne; Valbak, Kristian;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The long-term outcomes of several approaches to intervention targeting social functioning in schizophrenia are not well documented. Contemporary supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy (SPP) aims to improve social functioning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the long...... up for 5 years (N = 269). The SPP targeted interpersonal relationships, emotion regulation, social cognition, and self-coherence. RESULTS: Significant between-group effects in favor of SPP+ST on social functioning, overall symptoms, and positive psychotic symptoms were found during the period...... of active SPP intervention. These differential effects, however, were not sustained after end of additional SPP at 5-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: The findings are in line with results from other approaches targeting social functioning in schizophrenia and support SPP as a valuable treatment. Further research...

  7. Metacognitive functioning predicts positive and negative symptoms over 12 months in first episode psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, Hamish J; Gumley, Andrew I.; MacBeth, Angus; Schwannauer, Matthias; Lysaker, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    The negative symptoms of schizophrenia are a major source of impairment and distress but both pharmacological and psychological treatment options provide only modest benefit. Developing more effective psychological treatments for negative symptoms will require a more sophisticated understanding of the psychological processes that are implicated in their development and maintenance. We extended previous work by demonstrating that metacognitive functioning is related to negative symptom express...

  8. Recollection rejection of new items in individuals with first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Synthia; Lepage, Martin; Benoit, Audrey; Charbonneau, Geneviève; Hawco, Colin; Malla, Ashok K; Joober, Ridha; Brodeur, Mathieu B

    2016-01-01

    Many objects seen for the first time look familiar because they resemble known objects. To overcome this feeling of familiarity and detect novelty, memories of known objects must be recollected and compared to new objects. This experiment examines whether recollection performed when perceiving new items (i.e., recollection rejection) is abnormal in people who experienced a first episode of psychosis (FEP). Recollection of old items is impaired in this clinical population but it has not yet been demonstrated that this impairment influences the processing of new items. Eighteen FEP participants and 19 healthy controls completed an episodic memory task consisting of a study phase and a recognition phase. All the new objects looked familiar because they resembled the studied objects. Brain activity underlying false recognition and correct rejection of new objects was measured with functional resonance magnetic imaging and compared across groups. Behavioral responses to new items were not significantly different between the 2 groups. However, the between-groups analysis revealed significant differences in brain activity in the left middle frontal gyrus, the left inferior parietal lobule, the right superior parietal lobule, and the right temporal fusiform gyrus during the correct rejection of new items. This activity seems related to recollection rejection and suggests that FEP patients do not normally recollect information of past events when they process new items. PMID:26726818

  9. Effectiveness of antipsychotics used in first-episode psychosis: a naturalistic cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whale, Richard; Harris, Michael; Kavanagh, Gail; Wickramasinghe, Vijitha; Jones, Christopher I.; Marwaha, Steven; Jethwa, Ketan; Ayadurai, Nirmalan; Thompson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background One year of antipsychotic treatment from symptom remission is recommended following a first episode of psychosis (FEP). Aims To investigate the effectiveness of commonly used antipsychotic medications in FEP. Method A retrospective cohort study of naturalistic treatment of patients (N=460) accepted by FEP services across seven UK sites. Treatment initiation to all-cause discontinuation determined from case files. Results Risk of treatment discontinuation is greatest within 3 months of treatment initiation. Risperidone had longest median survival time. No significant differences were observed in time to discontinuation between commonly used antipsychotics on multivariable Cox regression analysis. Poor adherence and efficacy failure were the most common reasons for discontinuation. Conclusions Effectiveness differences appear not to be a current reason for antipsychotic choice in FEP. Adherence strategies and weighing up likely adverse effects should be the clinical focus. Declaration of interest R.W., A.T. and S.M. have received research grant, speaker honoraria and conference attendance funding from all companies marketing antipsychotics. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:27733935

  10. Metacognition in first-episode psychosis and its association with positive and negative symptom profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Gumley, Andrew; Jansen, Jens Einar; Pedersen, Marlene Buch; Nielsen, Hanne-Grethe Lyse; Trier, Christopher Høier; Haahr, Ulrik H; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-04-30

    There is growing evidence that metacognitive abilities which include the ability to synthesize knowledge regarding mental states in self and others and use this ability to solve problems are impaired in non-affective psychosis and associated with positive and negative symptom severity. We sought to (a) investigate the severity of metacognitive impairments in first-episode psychosis (FEP) compared to non-clinical controls and (b) explore associations with positive and negative symptom profiles. Ninety-seven people with FEP were compared to 101 control persons. Metacognition was assessed with interviews and the Metacognitive assessment scale-abbreviated. Four groups based on positive and negative symptoms were identified by cluster analysis and compared on metacognition, childhood adversities, duration of untreated psychosis and premorbid social and academic adjustment. Those with high levels of negative symptoms had poorer metacognitive abilities. Those with high positive and low negative symptoms did not have poorer metacognitive abilities than those with low positive and negative symptoms. None of the other predictors differed between the groups. The FEP group had poorer metacognitive abilities than the control group. Inclusion of metacognition in psychosis models may improve our understanding of negative symptoms, while previous findings of a relation with positive symptoms may have been confounded. Implications for current interventions are discussed.

  11. Metacognition in first-episode psychosis and its association with positive and negative symptom profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Gumley, Andrew; Jansen, Jens Einar; Pedersen, Marlene Buch; Nielsen, Hanne-Grethe Lyse; Trier, Christopher Høier; Haahr, Ulrik H; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-04-30

    There is growing evidence that metacognitive abilities which include the ability to synthesize knowledge regarding mental states in self and others and use this ability to solve problems are impaired in non-affective psychosis and associated with positive and negative symptom severity. We sought to (a) investigate the severity of metacognitive impairments in first-episode psychosis (FEP) compared to non-clinical controls and (b) explore associations with positive and negative symptom profiles. Ninety-seven people with FEP were compared to 101 control persons. Metacognition was assessed with interviews and the Metacognitive assessment scale-abbreviated. Four groups based on positive and negative symptoms were identified by cluster analysis and compared on metacognition, childhood adversities, duration of untreated psychosis and premorbid social and academic adjustment. Those with high levels of negative symptoms had poorer metacognitive abilities. Those with high positive and low negative symptoms did not have poorer metacognitive abilities than those with low positive and negative symptoms. None of the other predictors differed between the groups. The FEP group had poorer metacognitive abilities than the control group. Inclusion of metacognition in psychosis models may improve our understanding of negative symptoms, while previous findings of a relation with positive symptoms may have been confounded. Implications for current interventions are discussed. PMID:27086205

  12. Cannabis and First-Episode Psychosis: Different Long-term Outcomes Depending on Continued or Discontinued Use

    OpenAIRE

    González-Pinto, Ana; Alberich, Susana; Barbeito, Sara; Gutierrez, Miguel; Vega, Patricia; Ibáñez, Berta; Haidar, Mahmoud Karim; Vieta, Eduard; Arango, Celso

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the influence of cannabis use on long-term outcome in patients with a first psychotic episode, comparing patients who have never used cannabis with (a) those who used cannabis before the first episode but stopped using it during follow-up and (b) those who used cannabis both before the first episode and during follow-up. Methods: Patients were studied following their first admission for psychosis. They were interviewed at years 1, 3, and 5. At follow-up after 8 years, fu...

  13. Differences in Facial Emotion Recognition between First Episode Psychosis, Borderline Personality Disorder and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez de Artaza, Maider; Bustamante, Sonia; Orgaz, Pablo; Osa, Luis; Angosto, Virxinia; Valverde, Cristina; Bilbao, Amaia; Madrazo, Arantza; van Os, Jim; Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    Background Facial emotion recognition (FER) is essential to guide social functioning and behaviour for interpersonal communication. FER may be altered in severe mental illness such as in psychosis and in borderline personality disorder patients. However, it is unclear if these FER alterations are specifically related to psychosis. Awareness of FER alterations may be useful in clinical settings to improve treatment strategies. The aim of our study was to examine FER in patients with severe mental disorder and their relation with psychotic symptomatology. Materials and Methods Socio-demographic and clinical variables were collected. Alterations on emotion recognition were assessed in 3 groups: patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) (n = 64), borderline personality patients (BPD) (n = 37) and healthy controls (n = 137), using the Degraded Facial Affect Recognition Task. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Structured Interview for Schizotypy Revised and Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences scales were used to assess positive psychotic symptoms. WAIS III subtests were used to assess IQ. Results Kruskal-Wallis analysis showed a significant difference between groups on the FER of neutral faces score between FEP, BPD patients and controls and between FEP patients and controls in angry face recognition. No significant differences were found between groups in the fear or happy conditions. There was a significant difference between groups in the attribution of negative emotion to happy faces. BPD and FEP groups had a much higher tendency to recognize happy faces as negatives. There was no association with the different symptom domains in either group. Conclusions FEP and BPD patients have problems in recognizing neutral faces more frequently than controls. Moreover, patients tend to over-report negative emotions in recognition of happy faces. Although no relation between psychotic symptoms and FER alterations was found, these deficits could contribute to a

  14. Role of environmental confounding in the association between FKBP5 and first-episode psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya eAjnakina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Failure to account for the etiological diversity that typically occurs in psychiatric cohorts may increase the potential for confounding, as a proportion of genetic variance will be specific to exposures that have variable distribution in cases. This study investigated whether minimizing the potential for such confounding strengthened the evidence for a genetic candidate currently unsupported at the genome-wide level.Methods: 291 first-episode psychosis cases from South London UK, and 218 unaffected controls were evaluated for a functional polymorphism at the rs1360780 locus in FKBP5. The relationship between FKBP5 and psychosis was modelled using logistic regression. Cannabis use (Cannabis Experiences Questionnaire and parental separation (Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire were modelled as confounders in the analysis.Results: Association at rs1360780 was not detected until the effects of the two environmental factors had been adjusted for in the model (OR=2.81, 95% CI 1.23-6.43, p=0.02. A statistical interaction between rs1360780 and parental separation was confirmed by stratified tests (OR=2.8, p=0.02 vs. OR=0.89, p=0.80. The genetic main effect was directionally-consistent with findings in other (stress-related clinical phenotypes. Moreover, the variation in effect magnitude was explained by the level of power associated with different cannabis constructs used in the model (r=0.95.Conclusions: Our results suggest that the extent to which genetic variants in FKBP5 can influence susceptibility to psychosis may depend on the other etiological factors involved. This finding requires further validation in other large independent cohorts. Potentially this work could have translational implications, as the ability to discriminate between genetic etiologies, based on a case-by-case understanding of exposure history would confer an important clinical advantage that would benefit the delivery of personalizable treatment

  15. Inflammation and metabolic changes in first episode psychosis: preliminary results from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alice; Ciufolini, Simone; Gardner-Sood, Poonam; Bonaccorso, Stefania; Gaughran, Fiona; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M; Mondelli, Valeria

    2015-10-01

    Metabolic abnormalities are commonly observed in patients with psychosis, and may confer greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. Such abnormalities are associated with inflammation in the general population, and there is increasing evidence for elevated inflammation in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). The aim of this preliminary study is to examine the effect of changes in inflammation, as measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), on metabolic changes in a three-month longitudinal study in a FEP sample. Fifty-three FEP patients from in- and out-patient services in South London, England, were included in this longitudinal study. Social and clinical data were collected, and fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements (weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), lipid profile and gluco-metabolic parameters) were obtained at baseline and at three-month follow-up. Correlation analyses showed that those with increases in hsCRP over the three-month period also had increases in triglyceride levels (r=0.49, p=0.02). No association was observed with other lipid profile, or gluco-metabolic parameters, across the whole sample. Increases in weight and BMI were also associated with increases in triglyceride levels (r=0.33, p=0.02; and r=0.31, p=0.03, respectively); however, a multiple linear regression analysis found that the effects of inflammation on triglycerides were independent from the effect of changes in weight, and from the baseline inflammatory state. Our preliminary findings suggest that those patients experiencing greater increases in inflammation early on in the course of their illness may be at greater risk of developing short-term metabolic abnormalities, in particular dyslipidaemia, independent of weight-gain. Future work should investigate the use of inflammatory markers to identify patients in greater need of physical health interventions. PMID:26100489

  16. The development of subjective quality of life over the first 2 years in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, Ingrid; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Joa, Inge;

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine changes in subjective quality of life (general s-QoL) in patients with first-episode psychosis from baseline to 2 years follow-up. A total of 201 of 252 patients had full quality of life assessment at both baseline and at 2 years. Repeated measure analyse...

  17. Measuring trauma and stressful events in childhood and adolescence among patients with first-episode psychosis: initial factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Trauma Experiences Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofaro, Sarah L; Cleary, Sean D; Ramsay Wan, Claire; Broussard, Beth; Chapman, Colby; Haggard, Patrick J; Jananeh, Sara; Myers, Neely L; Compton, Michael T

    2013-12-15

    Past trauma and stressful events, especially in childhood and adolescence, are common among individuals with serious mental illnesses like schizophrenia. Traumatic experiences are thought to be a socio-environmental risk factor not only for poorer outcomes, but also potentially for the onset of these disorders. Because improved measurement tools are needed, we developed and studied, among 205 first-episode psychosis patients, the factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and initial validity of the Trauma Experiences Checklist (TEC), our measure of trauma and stressful events during childhood/adolescence. We assessed validity of subscales using correlations with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, Parental Harsh Discipline, Violence Exposure, and TEC-Informant Version scores. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in two internally consistent subscales (Cronbach's α=0.79 and 0.80, respectively), interpersonal abuse and family stress, and violence, death, and legal involvement. Scores from the former subscale were substantially associated with CTQ-SF physical, emotional, and sexual abuse (r=0.42-0.57, all p<0.001) and Violence Exposure (r=0.49, p<0.001). On the other hand, violence, death, and legal involvement scores were most highly correlated with Violence Exposure (r=0.49, p<0.001), and not with most CTQ-SF subscales. The TEC is a potentially useful tool in assessing diverse traumatic life events across various social contexts during childhood and adolescence.

  18. 10 year course of IQ in first-episode psychosis: relationship between duration of psychosis and long-term intellectual trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Sundet, Kjetil; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Evensen, Julie; Haahr, Ulrik; ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Langeveld, Johannes; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein P I

    2015-02-28

    A substantial proportion of patients suffering from schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSDs) exhibit a general intellectual impairment at illness onset, but the subsequent intellectual course remains unclear. Relationships between accumulated time in psychosis and long-term intellectual functioning are largely uninvestigated, but may identify subgroups with different intellectual trajectories. Eighty-nine first-episode psychosis patients were investigated on IQ at baseline and at 10-years follow-up. Total time in psychosis was defined as two separate variables; Duration of psychosis before start of treatment (i.e. duration of untreated psychosis: DUP), and duration of psychosis after start of treatment (DAT). The sample was divided in three equal groups based on DUP and DAT, respectively. To investigate if diagnosis could separate IQ-trajectories beyond that of psychotic duration, two diagnostic categories were defined: core versus non-core SSDs. No significant change in IQ was found for the total sample. Intellectual course was not related to DUP or stringency of diagnostic category. However, a subgroup with long DAT demonstrated a significant intellectual decline, mainly associated with a weaker performance on test of immediate verbal recall/working memory (WAIS-R Digit Span). This indicates a relationship between accumulated duration of psychosis and long-term intellectual course, irrespective of diagnostic category, in a significant subgroup of patients.

  19. 10 year course of IQ in first-episode psychosis: relationship between duration of psychosis and long-term intellectual trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Sundet, Kjetil; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Evensen, Julie; Haahr, Ulrik; ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Langeveld, Johannes; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein P I

    2015-02-28

    A substantial proportion of patients suffering from schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSDs) exhibit a general intellectual impairment at illness onset, but the subsequent intellectual course remains unclear. Relationships between accumulated time in psychosis and long-term intellectual functioning are largely uninvestigated, but may identify subgroups with different intellectual trajectories. Eighty-nine first-episode psychosis patients were investigated on IQ at baseline and at 10-years follow-up. Total time in psychosis was defined as two separate variables; Duration of psychosis before start of treatment (i.e. duration of untreated psychosis: DUP), and duration of psychosis after start of treatment (DAT). The sample was divided in three equal groups based on DUP and DAT, respectively. To investigate if diagnosis could separate IQ-trajectories beyond that of psychotic duration, two diagnostic categories were defined: core versus non-core SSDs. No significant change in IQ was found for the total sample. Intellectual course was not related to DUP or stringency of diagnostic category. However, a subgroup with long DAT demonstrated a significant intellectual decline, mainly associated with a weaker performance on test of immediate verbal recall/working memory (WAIS-R Digit Span). This indicates a relationship between accumulated duration of psychosis and long-term intellectual course, irrespective of diagnostic category, in a significant subgroup of patients. PMID:25535007

  20. Deficits of cognitive theory of mind and its relationship with functioning in individuals with an at-risk mental state and first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmuro, Noriyuki; Katsura, Masahiro; Obara, Chika; Kikuchi, Tatsuo; Sakuma, Atsushi; Iizuka, Kunio; Hamaie, Yumiko; Ito, Fumiaki; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Matsumoto, Kazunori

    2016-09-30

    Disturbance of theory of mind (ToM) and its relationship with functioning in schizophrenia is well documented; however, this is unclear in spectrum disorders like at-risk mental state (ARMS) and first-episode psychosis (FEP). To assess mental state reasoning ability, the total score of the Theory of Mind Picture Stories Task questionnaire was compared among 36 Japanese individuals with ARMS, 40 with FEP, and 25 healthy controls (HC). Pearson's correlations between ToM performance and global and social functioning indices were examined. ToM performance for FEP and ARMS subjects was significantly lower than that for HC, though the significance of the difference between the ARMS and HC disappeared when controlling for premorbid IQ. ToM deficits in ARMS subjects were confirmed only in the comprehension of higher-order false belief. Only among FEP subjects were ToM performance and global functioning significantly correlated, though the significance disappeared when controlling for neurocognitive performance or dose of antipsychotics. No significant correlation between ToM performance and social functioning was observed in the FEP and ARMS groups. The current findings suggest that ToM deficits emerge in ARMS subjects confined within a higher-order domain, and that the relationship between ToM impairment and functional deterioration might be established after psychosis onset. PMID:27434201

  1. Deficits of cognitive theory of mind and its relationship with functioning in individuals with an at-risk mental state and first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmuro, Noriyuki; Katsura, Masahiro; Obara, Chika; Kikuchi, Tatsuo; Sakuma, Atsushi; Iizuka, Kunio; Hamaie, Yumiko; Ito, Fumiaki; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Matsumoto, Kazunori

    2016-09-30

    Disturbance of theory of mind (ToM) and its relationship with functioning in schizophrenia is well documented; however, this is unclear in spectrum disorders like at-risk mental state (ARMS) and first-episode psychosis (FEP). To assess mental state reasoning ability, the total score of the Theory of Mind Picture Stories Task questionnaire was compared among 36 Japanese individuals with ARMS, 40 with FEP, and 25 healthy controls (HC). Pearson's correlations between ToM performance and global and social functioning indices were examined. ToM performance for FEP and ARMS subjects was significantly lower than that for HC, though the significance of the difference between the ARMS and HC disappeared when controlling for premorbid IQ. ToM deficits in ARMS subjects were confirmed only in the comprehension of higher-order false belief. Only among FEP subjects were ToM performance and global functioning significantly correlated, though the significance disappeared when controlling for neurocognitive performance or dose of antipsychotics. No significant correlation between ToM performance and social functioning was observed in the FEP and ARMS groups. The current findings suggest that ToM deficits emerge in ARMS subjects confined within a higher-order domain, and that the relationship between ToM impairment and functional deterioration might be established after psychosis onset.

  2. Diagnostic role of initial renal cortical scintigraphy in children with the first episode of acute pyelonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of the first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) in children has been the subject of debate for many years. Diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (APN) is usually based on clinical and biological data. The clinical usefulness of early Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy remains controversial, although it may influence the type and duration of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the role of initial cortical scintigraphy in the detection of early renal parenchymal damage in children highly suspected of having APN and to compare the scintigraphic findings with selected clinical/laboratory parameters and ultrasonography. A prospective study was conducted in 34 infants and young children (18 boys, 16 girls), aged 1.5-36 months (mean 9.8±8.7 months), hospitalized with a first episode of clinically suspected APN. Within the first 5 days after admission, Tc-99m DMSA renal scintigraphy, ultrasonography (US), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count (WBC) and urine analyses were performed. DMSA scintigraphy showed changes consistent with APN in 27/34 (79%) patients, with a mean age of 10.9 months, including 12 males (44%) and 15 (56%) females. Out of 9 febrile children with negative urine culture and supportive evidence of UTI, scintigraphy showed parenchymal involvement in 8 children (24% in the whole group, 30% in scintigraphically documented APN). There were no statistically significant correlations between the frequency or size of the initial scintigraphic abnormalities and age, sex, body temperature, CRP levels or ESR. A CRP level of >54 mg/L and a WBC of >13,300/mm3 had sensitivities of 56 and 59% and specificities of 86 and 71%, respectively. US showed changes consistent with APN in 7/34 (21%) in the whole group and in 7/27 (26%) patients with positive cortical scan (p<0.05). Initial DMSA renal scintigraphy is a sensitive method for the early diagnosis of APN in young children and is

  3. Individualized covariance profile of cortical morphology for auditory hallucinations in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Je-Yeon; Kim, Sung Nyun; Lee, Tae Young; Chon, Myong-Wuk; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2016-03-01

    Neocortical phenotype of cortical surface area (CSA) and thickness (CT) are influenced by distinctive genetic factors and undergo differential developmental trajectories, which could be captured using the individualized cortical structural covariance (ISC). Disturbed patterns of neocortical development and maturation underlie the perceptual disturbance of psychosis including auditory hallucination (AH). To demonstrate the utility of selected ISC features as primal biomarker of AH in first-episode psychosis (FEP) subjects experiencing AH (FEP-AH), we employed herein a support vector machine (SVM). A total of 147 subjects (FEP-AH, n = 27; FEP-NAH, n = 24; HC, n = 96) underwent T1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. The FreeSurfer software suite was used for cortical parcellation, with the CSA-ISC and CT-ISC then calculated. The most informative ISCs showing statistical significance (P < 0.001) across every run of leave-one-out group-comparison were aligned according to the absolute value of averaged t-statistics and were packaged into candidate feature sets for classification analysis using the SVM. An optimal feature set comprising three CSA-ISCs, including the intraparietal sulcus, Broca's complex, and the anterior insula, distinguished FEP-AH from FEP-NAH subjects with 83.6% accuracy (sensitivity = 82.8%; specificity = 85.7%). Furthermore, six CT-ISCs encompassing the executive control network and Wernicke's module classified FEP-AH from FEP-NAH subjects with 82.3% accuracy (sensitivity = 79.5%; specificity = 88.6%). Finally, extended sets of ISCs related to the default-mode network distinguished FEP-AH or FEP-NAH from HC subjects with 89.0-93.0% accuracy (sensitivity = 88.4-93.4%; specificity = 89.0-94.1%). This study established a distinctive intermediate phenotype of biological proneness for AH in FEP using CSA-ISCs as well as a state marker of disease progression using CT-ISCs.

  4. Predictors of recovery from psychosis Analyses of clinical and social factors associated with recovery among patients with first-episode psychosis after 5 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Nikolai; Bertelsen, Mette; Thorup, Anne;

    2011-01-01

    Introduction This paper aims to investigate the predictors of good outcome after first-episode non-affective psychosis and the clinical and social trajectories of those that recover. Methods A cohort of 255 patients with first-episode non-affective psychosis was interviewed 5 years after first......-episode psychosis, some patients can still experience psychotic symptoms, but have a job and a fairly stable life....

  5. Emotion regulation in first episode adolescent non-suicidal self-injury: what difference does a year make?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, David; Hasking, Penelope; Martin, Graham

    2014-10-01

    We examined the roles of cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression, and rumination in first episode non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents, and the impact of age-related differences in emotion regulation use. Adverse life events and psychological distress played a significant role in NSSI onset. Being male and less use of cognitive reappraisal contributed to NSSI risk but only in regard to 12-month incidence; this effect was not observed when predicting 24-month incidence. Neither expressive suppression nor rumination was related to NSSI onset in our sample. Age-related differences in emotion regulation were found, but did not modify the above relationships. Findings hint at the possible impact of developmental changes in adolescents' cognitive-emotional processing and their subsequent risk of NSSI. Results support further investigation into prevention and early intervention initiatives aimed at assisting adolescents cope with acute life stressors to prevent/delay first episode NSSI.

  6. Self-Reported Quality of Life in a Scottish First Episode Psychosis Cohort:Associations with Symptomatology and Premorbid Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    MacBeth, Angus; Gumley, Andrew; Schwannauer, Matthias; Fisher, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background.There is increased interest in quality of life as a clinically relevant factor in adjustment to, and recovery from first episode psychosis. Given the subjective nature of quality of life it is proposed that this variable may be associated with compromised functioning prior to the onset of psychosis, and may also have an impact on an individual’s adjustment to psychosis after treatment is initiated.Aim.The current study aims to explore associations between subjective quality of life...

  7. Predictors of acute bacterial meningitis among children with a first episode of febrile convulsion from Northern India: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiraj Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is limited data to support need of lumbar puncture among Indian children aged less than 5 years presenting with a first episode of fever and seizure. Aims: To determine the incidence and clinical predictors of meningitis among children aged 6-60 months presenting with a first episode of febrile convulsion. Settings and Designs: A prospective study was conducted on 35 children (6-60 months with a first episode of febrile convulsion subjected to lumbar puncture in a tertiary care teaching hospital of North India. Materials and Methods: Clinical characteristics were compared between the two groups: Children with meningitis (n = 17 and children without meningitis (n = 18. Statistical Methods: Multivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the independent predictors of meningitis. Results: A total of 120 children were screened; 35 children subjected to lumbar puncture were finally enrolled. The mean (SD age of enrolled children was 18.49 (10.79 months. The incidence of meningitis was 48.6% (17/35. Children with meningitis significantly had a higher proportion of children with high grade (temperature >104°F fever (P = 0.005, received prior antibiotics (P = 0. 041, had lower hemoglobin levels (P = 0.04 and lower blood sugar levels (P = 0.03 as compared to children with no meningitis. On multivariate logistic regression, it was observed that high-grade fever was an independent predictor of meningitis (odds ratio: 0.03 [0.001-0.86] [P = 0.04]. Conclusion: We found that the presence of high-grade fever was an important predictor of meningitis among children aged 6-60 months presenting with a first episode of febrile convulsion.

  8. Brain activation before and after cognitivebehavior therapy in first-episode patients with mildto-moderate major depressive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭雅容

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the neurobiological mechanisms underlying cognitive-behavior therapy(CBT)for major depressive disorder(MDD)by detecting the neural changes of patients following CBT.Methods Thirteen first-episode treatment-naive patients with MDD and 13 matched healthy volunteers underwent fM RI scan.All the patients were treated with 6-week CBT only and scanned again after treatment.A gender recognition task

  9. Reduced hippocampal volume and hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis function in first episode psychosis: Evidence for sex differences

    OpenAIRE

    Marita Pruessner; Martin Lepage; Louis Collins, D.; Pruessner, Jens C.; Ridha Joober; Ashok K Malla

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hippocampal volume (HV) decline is an important marker of psychosis and has been associated with hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation in various disorders. Given recent findings of sex differences in HPA axis function in psychosis, the current study investigated differences in HV in male and female first episode psychosis (FEP) patients and controls and the interaction of HV with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and symptoms. Methods: Fifty-eight patient...

  10. Cortical thinning in temporo-parietal junction (TPJ in non-affective first-episode of psychosis patients with persistent negative symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bodnar

    Full Text Available Negative symptoms represent an unmet therapeutic need in many patients with schizophrenia. In an extension to our previous voxel-based morphometry findings, we employed a more specific, vertex-based approach to explore cortical thinning in relation to persistent negative symptoms (PNS in non-affective first-episode of psychosis (FEP patients to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology of primary negative symptoms.This study included 62 non-affective FEP patients and 60 non-clinical controls; 16 patients were identified with PNS (i.e., at least 1 primary negative symptom at moderate or greater severity sustained for at least 6 consecutive months. Using cortical thickness analyses, we explored for differences between PNS and non-PNS patients as well as between each patient group and healthy controls; cut-off threshold was set at p<0.01, corrected for multiple comparisons.A thinner cortex prominently in the right superior temporal gyrus extending into the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left orbital frontal gyrus was identified in PNS patients vs. non-PNS patients. Compared with healthy controls, PNS patients showed a thinner cortex prominently in the right superior temporal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, and right cingulate; non-PNS patients showed a thinner cortex prominently in the parahippocampal gyrus bi-laterally.Cortical thinning in the early stages of non-affective psychosis is present in the frontal and temporo-parietal regions in patients with PNS. With these brain regions strongly related to social cognitive functioning, our finding suggests a potential link between primary negative symptoms and social cognitive deficits through common brain etiologies.

  11. The Impact of Substance Use on Brain Structure in People at High Risk of Developing Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, Killian A.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Dominic E. Job; Whalley, Heather; Moorhead, Thomas W.; Hall, Jeremy; Owens, David G. C.; Lawrie, Stephen M; JOHNSTONE, EVE C

    2010-01-01

    Ventricular enlargement and reduced prefrontal volume are consistent findings in schizophrenia. Both are present in first episode subjects and may be detectable before the onset of clinical disorder. Substance misuse is more common in people with schizophrenia and is associated with similar brain abnormalities. We employ a prospective cohort study with nested case control comparison design to investigate the association between substance misuse, brain abnormality, and subsequent schizophrenia...

  12. Ethnic Identity and the Risk of Schizophrenia in Ethnic Minorities: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Veling, Wim; Hoek, Hans W; Wiersma, Durk; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The high incidence of schizophrenia in immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe may be explained by social stress associated with ethnic minority status. Positive identification with one's own ethnic group is a strong predictor of mental health in immigrants. We investigated whether negative ethnic identity is related to schizophrenia risk in non-Western immigrants. Methods: Matched case-control study of first-episode schizophrenia, including 100 non-Western immigrant cases, gene...

  13. Disrupted Structural and Functional Connectivity in Prefrontal-Hippocampus Circuitry in First-Episode Medication-Naive Adolescent Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Geng

    Full Text Available Evidence implicates abnormalities in prefrontal-hippocampus neural circuitry in major depressive disorder (MDD. This study investigates the potential disruptions in prefrontal-hippocampus structural and functional connectivity, as well as their relationship in first-episode medication-naïve adolescents with MDD in order to investigate the early stage of the illness without confounds of illness course and medication exposure.Diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI data were acquired from 26 first-episode medication-naïve MDD adolescents and 31 healthy controls (HC. Fractional anisotropy (FA values of the fornix and the prefrontal-hippocampus functional connectivity was compared between MDD and HC groups. The correlation between the FA value of fornix and the strength of the functional connectivity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC region showing significant differences between the two groups was identified.Compared with the HC group, adolescent MDD group had significant lower FA values in the fornix, as well as decreased functional connectivity in four PFC regions. Significant negative correlations were observed between fornix FA values and functional connectivity from hippocampus to PFC within the HC group. There was no significant correlation between the fornix FA and the strength of functional connectivity within the adolescent MDD group.First-episode medication-naïve adolescent MDD showed decreased structural and functional connectivity as well as deficits of the association between structural and functional connectivity shown in HC in the PFC-hippocampus neural circuitry. These findings suggest that abnormal PFC-hippocampus neural circuitry may present in the early onset of MDD and play an important role in the neuropathophysiology of MDD.

  14. Service User Perspectives on the Experience of Illness and Pathway to Care in First-Episode Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Wøldike, Peter Michael; Haahr, Ulrik Helt;

    2015-01-01

    to include psychological factors such as normalisation of symptoms and fear of stigma when attempting to reduce DUP in early psychosis, in addition to initiatives to reduce service delays. Also, a greater use of the potentials inherent in Internet and social media platforms seems important in this regard....... service users (median age 20, range 15-24, 6 males, 5 females) diagnosed with a first-episode psychosis and currently enrolled in treatment for this disorder. Fear of stigma, lack of knowledge about mental illness and normalisation of symptoms were barriers to accessing appropriate treatment, while...

  15. Differing patterns of brain structural abnormalities between black and white patients with their first episode of psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, K D

    2010-07-01

    African-Caribbean and black African people living in the UK are reported to have a higher incidence of diagnosed psychosis compared with white British people. It has been argued that this may be a consequence of misdiagnosis. If this is true they might be less likely to show the patterns of structural brain abnormalities reported in white British patients. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate whether there are differences in the prevalence of structural brain abnormalities in white and black first-episode psychosis patients.

  16. Altered functional connectivity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate resting-state functional connectivity alteration of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Twenty-two first-episode MDD patients and thirty age-, gender- and education-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled. Rest state functional magnetic resonance images and structure magnetic resonance images were scanned. The functional connectivity analysis was done based on the result of voxel-based morphometry (VBM). And the right DLPFC was chosen as the seed region of interests (ROI), as its gray matter density (GMD) decreased in the MDD patients compared with controls and its GMD values were negative correlation with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores. Results: Compared to healthy controls, the MDD patients showed increased functional connectivity with right the DLPFC in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), thalamus and precentral gyrus. In contrast, there were decreased functional connectivity between the right DLPFC and right parietal lobe. Conclusions: By applying the VBM results to the functional connectivity analysis, the study suggested that abnormality of GMD in right DLPFC might be related to the functional connectivity alteration in the pathophysiology of MDD, which might be useful in further characterizing structure–function relations in this disorder.

  17. “Everyone Needs a Friend Sometimes” – Social Predictors of Long-Term Remission In First Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornestad, Jone; Joa, Inge; Larsen, Tor K.; Langeveld, Johannes; Davidson, Larry; ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Anda, Liss G.; Veseth, Marius; Melle, Ingrid; Johannessen, Jan O.; Bronnick, Kolbjorn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Predictors of long-term symptomatic remission are crucial to the successful tailoring of treatment in first episode psychosis. There is lack of studies distinguishing the predictive effects of different social factors. This prevents a valid evaluating of their independent effects. Objectives: To test specific social baseline predictors of long-term remission. We hypothesized that first, satisfaction with social relations predicts remission; second, that frequency of social interaction predicts remission; and third, that the effect of friend relationship satisfaction and frequency will be greater than that of family relations satisfaction and frequency. Material and Methods: A sample of first episode psychosis (n = 186) completed baseline measures of social functioning, as well as clinical assessments. We compared groups of remitted and non-remitted individuals using generalized estimating equations analyses. Results: Frequency of social interaction with friends was a significant positive predictor of remission over a two-year period. Neither global perceived social satisfaction nor frequency of family interaction showed significant effects. Conclusions: The study findings are of particular clinical importance since frequency of friendship interaction is a possibly malleable factor. Frequency of interaction could be affected through behavioral modification and therapy already from an early stage in the course, and thus increase remission rates. PMID:27757090

  18. Altered functional connectivity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Ting, E-mail: yeting@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Peng, Jing, E-mail: ppengjjing@sina.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Nie, Binbin, E-mail: niebb@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, Juan, E-mail: gaojuan@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Jiangtao, E-mail: Liujiangtao813@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Li, Yang, E-mail: Liyang2007428@hotmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Wang, Gang, E-mail: gangwang@gmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Ma, Xin, E-mail: lijianshe@medmail.com.cn [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Li, Kuncheng [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); and others

    2012-12-15

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate resting-state functional connectivity alteration of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Twenty-two first-episode MDD patients and thirty age-, gender- and education-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled. Rest state functional magnetic resonance images and structure magnetic resonance images were scanned. The functional connectivity analysis was done based on the result of voxel-based morphometry (VBM). And the right DLPFC was chosen as the seed region of interests (ROI), as its gray matter density (GMD) decreased in the MDD patients compared with controls and its GMD values were negative correlation with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores. Results: Compared to healthy controls, the MDD patients showed increased functional connectivity with right the DLPFC in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), thalamus and precentral gyrus. In contrast, there were decreased functional connectivity between the right DLPFC and right parietal lobe. Conclusions: By applying the VBM results to the functional connectivity analysis, the study suggested that abnormality of GMD in right DLPFC might be related to the functional connectivity alteration in the pathophysiology of MDD, which might be useful in further characterizing structure–function relations in this disorder.

  19. Dissociation of regional activity in default mode network in medication-naive, first-episode somatization disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinji Su

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with somatization disorder (SD have altered neural activity in the brain regions of the default mode network (DMN. However, the regional alteration of the DMN in SD remains unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the regional alterations of the DMN in patients with SD at rest. METHODS: Twenty-five first-episode, medication-naive patients with SD and 28 age-, sex-, education- matched healthy controls underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI scan. The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF was applied to analyze the data. RESULTS: Patients with SD showed a dissociation pattern of resting-state fALFF in the DMN, with increased fALFF in the bilateral superior medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC, BA8, 9 and decreased fALFF in the left precuneus (PCu, BA7. Furthermore, significantly positive correlation was observed between the z values of the voxels within the bilateral superior MPFC and somatization subscale scores of the Symptom Check List (SCL-90 in patients with SD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that there is a dissociation pattern of the anterior and posterior DMN in first-episode, treatment-naive patients with SD. The results provide new insight for the importance of the DMN in the pathophysiology of SD.

  20. A randomized, double-blind, comparative trial comparing high- and standard-dose oral acyclovir for first-episode genital herpes infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, A; Benedetti, J; Davis, G.; Remington, M; Winter, C; Corey, L

    1994-01-01

    Orally administered acyclovir ameliorates the clinical course and decreases the duration of viral shedding in patients with first-episode genital herpes infections. We investigated in a randomized, double-blind, comparative trial whether a higher (4 g) than standard (1 g) daily dose of oral acyclovir results in greater clinical benefit and influences the time to first recurrence. A total of 139 patients with first-episode genital herpes were randomized to receive orally 4 or 1 g of acyclovir ...

  1. Abnormal bodily experiences may be a marker of early schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ballerini, Massimo; Fusar Poli, Paolo; Cutting, John

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to answer the following question: What are the typical features of abnormal bodily experiences (ABEs) in persons affected by acute first-episode schizophrenia? Our overall objective is to contribute to enhance early diagnosis of schizophrenia, and providing supplementary diagnostic criteria especially for ultra-high risk patients. In a group of 39 patients with first-episode schizophrenia selected from a sample of 393 psychotic patients, 30 (76.9 %) reported ABEs. By means of a phenomenologically-based qualitative method of inquiry, we recognized four subtypes of ABEs whose main characteristics are dynamization of bodily boundaries and construction, morbid objectivization/devitalization, dysmorphic experiences and pain-like experiences. These four typologies of ABEs are documented through the patients' first-person self-descriptions, and then operationally defined. Two main properties emerge as tentative eidetic (defining) cores of ABEs in early schizophrenia: dynamization of bodily boundaries and construction, and morbid objectivization/devitalization. Sharpening the diagnostic sensibility for typically schizophrenic ABEs can help improve differential diagnosis between schizophrenia and other disorders entailing other types of anomalies of lived corporeality. Also, studying possible transitions from schizophrenic cenesthopathies to bodily delusions in persons with schizophrenia may refine the concept of bizarre delusions by improving its validity. Furthermore, our knowledge about the pathogenesis of schizophrenia may profit from an in-depth assessment of ABEs and their relationship with an abnormal sense of selfhood, especially in early schizophrenia. PMID:22239570

  2. The optimization of treatment and management of schizophrenia in Europe (OPTiMiSE) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leucht, Stefan; Winter-van Rossum, Inge; Heres, Stephan;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most of the 13 542 trials contained in the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's register just tested the general efficacy of pharmacological or psychosocial interventions. Studies on the subsequent treatment steps, which are essential to guide clinicians, are largely missing. This knowledge....... DISCUSSION: Current literature fails to provide basic guidance for the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia. The OPTiMiSE trial is expected to provide a basis for clinical guidelines to treat patients with a first episode of schizophrenia....... Commission sponsored "Optimization of Treatment and Management of Schizophrenia in Europe" (OPTiMiSE) trial which aims to provide a treatment algorithm for patients with a first episode of schizophrenia. METHODS: We searched Pubmed (October 29, 2014) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined...

  3. Suicide in the Early Stage of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Gentile, Alessandro; Bonfitto, Iris; Stella, Eleonora; Mari, Massimo; Steardo, Luca; Bellomo, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a relevant leading cause of death among patients affected by schizophrenia. Even if suicidal ideation may be present in different stages of disease, some differences have been described between the risk of suicide in patients experiencing first episode of psychosis and those with long-term schizophrenia. It is particularly higher during the first year of illness and reaches a steady decline over the following years. Suicidal ideation and attempts may also be common among subjects with subthreshold psychotic experiences. Factors associated with the risk of suicide in the early phase of schizophrenia are previous suicidal attempts and social aspects: the lack of social support and stable relationships, social drift after the first episode, and social impairment. Also, several psychotic symptoms (suspiciousness, paranoid delusions, mental disintegration and agitation, negative symptoms, depression and hopelessness, and command hallucinations) and substance abuse are associated with higher risk of suicide. It has been described that perfectionism and good levels of insight among individuals who have recently developed psychotic symptoms are significantly associated with higher numbers of suicidal attempts. Moreover, recent evidences show that prefrontal cortex-based circuit dysfunction may be related to suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia. This narrative review summarizes available evidences on suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia and deals with issues to be further studied and discussed. PMID:27445872

  4. Association Between Genetic Polymorphisms in the Serotonergic System and Comorbid Personality Disorders Among Patients with First-Episode Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens D; Bock, Camilla; Kessing, Lars V

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the association between genetic polymorphisms and personality disorders have provided inconsistent results. Using the "enriched sample method," the authors of the present study aimed to assess the association between polymorphisms in the serotonergic transmitter system and comorbid...... personality disorders in patients recently diagnosed with first-episode depression. A total of 290 participants were systematically recruited via the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. Diagnoses of personality disorders were assessed by a SCID-II interview, and polymorphisms in the genes encoding...... the serotonin transporter, serotonin receptors 1A, 2A, 2C, and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 were genotyped. The authors found a significant effect of the length polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) on cluster B personality disorder (mainly borderline disorder), but no influence on cluster C...

  5. First-Episode of Synthetic Cannabinoid-Induced Psychosis in a Young Adult, Successfully Managed with Hospitalization and Risperidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Aileen; Li, Kevin J.; Young, Jonathan; Pinnaka, Subhash; Lapidus, Kyle A. B.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids- (SCs-) induced psychosis is a growing public health concern. It leads to significant impairment, including emotional distress, difficulty communicating, and other debilitating symptoms. In this case report, we discuss a patient with no previous history of psychotic symptoms, presenting with first-episode psychosis in the context of progressive, acutely worsening, disorganized, psychotic thoughts and behaviors following prolonged use of SCs. We also discuss relevant literature on SCs-induced psychosis, highlighting its prevalence, presentation, diagnosis, and recommended management. It is important to diagnose and treat SCs-induced psychosis as early and efficiently as possible, in order to alleviate symptoms while limiting functional impairment and emotional distress to the patient. PMID:27429822

  6. A 2-year follow-up of involuntary admission's influence upon adherence and outcome in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opjordsmoen, S; Friis, S; Melle, I;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To see, if voluntary admission for treatment in first-episode psychosis results in better adherence to treatment and more favourable outcome than involuntary admission. METHOD: We compared consecutively first-admitted, hospitalised patients from a voluntary (n = 91) with an involuntary...... (n = 126) group as to psychopathology and functioning using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning Scales at baseline, after 3 months and at 2 year follow-up. Moreover, duration of supportive psychotherapy, medication and number of hospitalisations during the 2...... difference was found as to psychopathology and functioning between voluntarily and involuntarily admitted patients at follow-up. CONCLUSION: Legal admission status per se did not seem to influence treatment adherence and outcome....

  7. Relation between premorbid adjustment, duration of untreated psychosis and close interpersonal trauma in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Ulrik Helt; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Simonsen, Erik;

    2016-01-01

    different types of trauma, in particular close interpersonal traumas experienced before the age of 18, premorbid factors and baseline clinical characteristics in a sample of first-episode psychosis patients. METHODS: A total of 191 patients from the 'TIPS' cohort completed assessment with the Brief Betrayal...... and physical maltreatment than men. There were significant associations between early interpersonal trauma and premorbid adjustment and duration of untreated psychosis, but no significant associations with length of education, comorbid substance use or baseline clinical symptomatology. CONCLUSIONS: Close...... interpersonal trauma before the age of 18 is associated with poorer premorbid adjustment and a longer duration of untreated psychosis. This may indicate that traumatic experiences delay help-seeking behaviour....

  8. Association between genetic polymorphisms in the serotonergic system and comorbid personality disorders among patients with first-episode depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukh, Jens D; Bock, Camilla; Kessing, Lars V

    2014-06-01

    Studies on the association between genetic polymorphisms and personality disorders have provided inconsistent results. Using the "enriched sample method," the authors of the present study aimed to assess the association between polymorphisms in the serotonergic transmitter system and comorbid personality disorders in patients recently diagnosed with first-episode depression. A total of 290 participants were systematically recruited via the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. Diagnoses of personality disorders were assessed by a SCID-II interview, and polymorphisms in the genes encoding the serotonin transporter, serotonin receptors 1A, 2A, 2C, and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 were genotyped. The authors found a significant effect of the length polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) on cluster B personality disorder (mainly borderline disorder), but no influence on cluster C personality disorder, and no associations between other polymorphisms and personality disorders. The study adds evidence to the effect of the serotonin transporter gene specifically on cluster B personality disorders.

  9. The impact a first episode of major depression has on marital dissatisfaction: Is remission associated with improvement in dissatisfaction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Moyá

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Prior research suggests that marital dissatisfaction is associated with Major Depression (MD. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether remission from a first episode of MD is associated with improvement in marital dissatisfaction and whether the degree of marital dissatisfaction at the time of diagnosis has an influence on the outcome of MD. Methods: The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and the Areas of Change Questionnaire were administered to 59 married couples in which one member fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for a first Episode of MD, but her husband (or his wife did not suffer any mental disorder, and to 53 control couples at 6 outpatient clinics, at baseline and after a 6-months follow-up. Results: The level of marital dissatisfaction in couples with a persistent depressed participant decreased in comparison to couples without a depressed subject (p < 0.05 CI: -10.6 and -0.2, but there were no significant differences between couples in which the depressed spouse recovered from MD and comparison couples. Regardless of MD´s severity, high levels of satisfaction were associated with a higher probability to recover. Limitations: The follow-up period was short and we assessed the level of marital dissatisfaction using self-report measures. Conclusion: This study shows that MD has an influence on Marital Satisfaction even at a very early stage of the Depressive Disorder. What is more, changes in any of the two factors (MD or marital dissatisfaction influenced the other factor´s course; thus an effective intervention on MD may have a positive impact on marital dissatisfaction as well.

  10. Is there an optimal factor structure of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in patients with first-episode psychosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeveld, J.; Andreassen, O.A.; Auestad, B.;

    2013-01-01

    The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) is the most widely used scale to assess a variety of symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and other psychoses. The factor structure of the PANSS has been examined with confirmatory factor analyses in several studies, but not in a well-defined fi......The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) is the most widely used scale to assess a variety of symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and other psychoses. The factor structure of the PANSS has been examined with confirmatory factor analyses in several studies, but not in a well...

  11. Prospective Memory Performance in Non-Psychotic First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Schizophrenia: A Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fu-Chun Zhou; Wei-Min Hou; Chuan-Yue Wang; Ungvari, Gabor S.; CHIU, Helen F. K.; Correll, Christoph U.; Shum, David H.K.; David Man; Deng-Tang Liu; Yu-Tao Xiang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed at investigating prospective memory and its socio-demographic and neurocognitive correlates in non-psychotic, first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with schizophrenia compared to patients with first episode schizophrenia (FES), and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: Forty-seven FES patients, 50 non-psychotic FDRs (23 offspring and 27 siblings) of patients with chronic schizophrenia (unrelated to the FES group) and 51 HCs were studied. The Chinese version of the Cambridge...

  12. First Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... late teens to midtwenties. Psychosis can be a symptom of a mental illness or a physical condition. Psychosis can be caused by some medications, alcohol or drug abuse. Three out of 100 people will experience psychosis ...

  13. First-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Ulrik; Friis, Svein; Larsen, Tor K;

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic stability is important for daily clinical work and planning of treatment. The aims of this study were to measure diagnostic stability in a clinical epidemiologic sample and to identify markers of change in diagnosis....

  14. The association between pre-morbid adjustment, duration of untreated psychosis and outcome in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, P; Petersen, L; Thorup, A;

    2008-01-01

    The association between the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and outcome of schizophrenia may be confounded by other factors such as poor pre-morbid adjustment. The aim of the present study was to examine the independent contributions of DUP and of pre-morbid adjustment to the clinical...

  15. Disrupted causal connectivity anchored on the anterior cingulate cortex in first-episode medication-naive major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhan; Xu, Shunliang; Huang, Manli; Shi, Yushu; Xiong, Bing; Yang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, major depressive disorder (MDD) has been demonstrated to be associated with abnormalities in neural networks, particularly the prefrontal-limbic network (PLN). However, there are few current studies that have examined information flow in the PLN. In this study, Granger causality analysis (GCA), based on signed regression coefficient, was used to explore changes in causal connectivity in resting-state PLNs of MDD patients. A total of 23 first-episode medication-naïve MDD patients and 20 normal control participants were subjected to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) scans. Increased causal effects of the right insular cortex, right putamen and right caudate on the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and reduced causal effects of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) on the rACC were found in MDD patients compared to normal controls. The extensive reduction in the causal effect of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) demonstrates impaired top-down cognitive control in MDD patients. Changes in the causal relationship between the right insula and rACC suggest problems in coordination of the default mode network by the right anterior insular cortex (rAI). These findings provide valuable insight into MDD-related neural network disorders reported in previous RS-fMRI studies and may potentially guide clinical treatment of MDD in the future. PMID:26234517

  16. Overgeneral autobiographical memory at baseline predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yansong; Zhang, Fuquan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Leiming; Wang, Jun; Na, Aiguo; Sun, Yujun; Zhao, Xudong

    2016-09-30

    Previous studies have shown that overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a characteristic of depression. However, there are no studies to explore the association between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression (FE). This study investigated whether baseline OGM predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. We recruited 125 patients with FE. The participants were divided into remitted group and non-remitted group according to the severity of their depression at 12 months follow-up. The measures consisted of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, and Autobiographical Memory Test. Hierarchical linear regression analyses and bootstrap mediation analyses were conducted. The results showed that non-remitted patients had more OGM at baseline. Baseline OGM predicted depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. Rumination mediated the relationship between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up. Our findings highlight OGM as a vulnerability factor involved in the maintenance of depression in patients with FE. PMID:27392229

  17. Suicidal behaviour in first-episode non-affective psychosis: Specific risk periods and stage-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Alcaraz, Elisa García; Hernández, Begoña Vicente; Pérez-Iglesias, Rocío; López Moríñigo, Javier David; Duta, Rina; David, Anthony S; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto

    2015-12-01

    Suicide is a major cause of premature death in psychosis. Earlier stages have been associated with higher risk. However, such risk periods have not been specifically determined and risk factors for suicidal behaviour may change over those periods, which may have crucial implications for suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize the highest risk period for suicide in a representative sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. Suicidal behaviour prior to first presentation of psychosis and during a 3-year follow-up was examined in a sample of 397 individuals. Risk factors for suicidal behaviour during specific time periods were investigated and compared. The greatest suicide risk was found during the month before and 2 months after first contact with psychiatric services (i.e., 'early' attempts). Severity of depressive symptoms and cannabis use emerged as predominant risk factors across time. 'Early' attempters were characterized as being male, living in urban areas, having poor premorbid adjustment, requiring hospitalization, scoring higher on anxiety measures and unusual thought content than non-attempters. Greater suspiciousness and more severe depressive symptoms distinguished the 'late' attempters. In conclusion, there is a specific high risk period for suicide in FEP around the time of the first presentation. Early intervention programmes targeting phase-specific risk factors, particularly psychotic symptoms management and secondary depression prevention strategies may be useful for suicide prevention in psychosis. PMID:26475577

  18. Overgeneral autobiographical memory at baseline predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yansong; Zhang, Fuquan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Leiming; Wang, Jun; Na, Aiguo; Sun, Yujun; Zhao, Xudong

    2016-09-30

    Previous studies have shown that overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a characteristic of depression. However, there are no studies to explore the association between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression (FE). This study investigated whether baseline OGM predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. We recruited 125 patients with FE. The participants were divided into remitted group and non-remitted group according to the severity of their depression at 12 months follow-up. The measures consisted of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, and Autobiographical Memory Test. Hierarchical linear regression analyses and bootstrap mediation analyses were conducted. The results showed that non-remitted patients had more OGM at baseline. Baseline OGM predicted depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. Rumination mediated the relationship between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up. Our findings highlight OGM as a vulnerability factor involved in the maintenance of depression in patients with FE.

  19. Brain Gray Matter Abnormalities in First-Episode, Treatment-Naive Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bochao; Cai, Wu; Wang, Xiuli; Lei, Du; Guo, Yingkun; Yang, Xun; Wu, Qizhu; Gong, Jianping; Gong, Qiyong; Ning, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Although several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have been conducted in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the brain structural abnormalities in OCD, especially in children, are not yet well characterized. We aimed to identify gray matter (GM) abnormalities in the early stage of pediatric OCD and examine the relationship between these structural abnormalities with clinical characteristics. Examinations of 30 first-episode, treatment-naive pediatric OCD patients without any comorbidities and 30 matched healthy controls (HCs) were performed with 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) was used to conduct voxel-wise tests for group differences in regional gray matter volume (GMV). Compared to HCs, the patient group exhibited more GMV in the bilateral putamen and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and less GMV in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL). The GMV alternation in the right putamen of OCD patients was positively correlated with Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) scores, while the GMV alternation in the left IPL exhibited a trend to negatively correlate with HAM-A scores. Our current results suggest that the GM abnormalities were defined in the early stage of pediatric OCD. Moreover, these findings provided further evidence of brain GM abnormalities that are not only present in the classical fronto–striatal–thalamic circuit but also in the default mode network (DMN), which may represent the interaction of abnormally functional organization of both network in pediatric OCD. PMID:27445736

  20. Reduced white matter integrity and its correlation with clinical symptom in first-episode, treatment-naive generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Qian, Shaowen; Liu, Kai; Li, Bo; Li, Min; Xin, Kuolin; Sun, Gang

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore white matter microstructural alterations in the patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique, and to assess neural associations with the symptom severity. Twenty-eight first-episode, treatment-naive GAD patients without co-morbidities and 28 matched healthy controls underwent DTI acquisition and clinical symptom assessments. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to analyze white matter microstructural abnormalities in patients with GAD, as well as their associations with clinical symptom scores in a voxel-wise manner. Compared to controls, patients showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values in 7 clusters of white matter in bilateral uncinate fasciculus, body of corpus callosum, left middle cingulum (cingulate gyrus), bilateral anterior thalamic radiation and corona radiate, right anterior limb of internal capsule, bilateral inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus, bilateral superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and increased mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity in widespread white matter regions. Reduced FA values in right uncinate fasciculus, left cingulum bundle showed significantly negative correlations with clinical symptom severity for Hamilton anxiety Rating Scale scores. Our findings suggest microstructural abnormalities in uncinate fasciculus and cingulum bundle play key roles in the underlying neural basis of GAD. PMID:27515289

  1. Brain Gray Matter Abnormalities in First-Episode, Treatment-Naive Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bochao; Cai, Wu; Wang, Xiuli; Lei, Du; Guo, Yingkun; Yang, Xun; Wu, Qizhu; Gong, Jianping; Gong, Qiyong; Ning, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Although several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have been conducted in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the brain structural abnormalities in OCD, especially in children, are not yet well characterized. We aimed to identify gray matter (GM) abnormalities in the early stage of pediatric OCD and examine the relationship between these structural abnormalities with clinical characteristics. Examinations of 30 first-episode, treatment-naive pediatric OCD patients without any comorbidities and 30 matched healthy controls (HCs) were performed with 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) was used to conduct voxel-wise tests for group differences in regional gray matter volume (GMV). Compared to HCs, the patient group exhibited more GMV in the bilateral putamen and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and less GMV in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL). The GMV alternation in the right putamen of OCD patients was positively correlated with Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) scores, while the GMV alternation in the left IPL exhibited a trend to negatively correlate with HAM-A scores. Our current results suggest that the GM abnormalities were defined in the early stage of pediatric OCD. Moreover, these findings provided further evidence of brain GM abnormalities that are not only present in the classical fronto-striatal-thalamic circuit but also in the default mode network (DMN), which may represent the interaction of abnormally functional organization of both network in pediatric OCD. PMID:27445736

  2. Initial diagnosis and treatment in first-episode psychosis: can an operationalized diagnostic classification system enhance treating clinicians' diagnosis and the treatment chosen?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coentre, Ricardo

    2011-05-01

    Diagnosis during the initial stages of first-episode psychosis is particularly challenging but crucial in deciding on treatment. This is compounded by important differences in the two major classification systems, International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV). We aimed to compare the concordance between an operationalized diagnosis using Operational Criteria Checklist (OPCRIT) and treating clinician-generated diagnosis in first episode psychosis diagnosis and its correlation with treatment prescribed.

  3. The volumetric and shape changes of the putamen and thalamus in first episode, untreated major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous MRI studies confirmed abnormalities in the limbic-cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic (LCSPT network or limbic-cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (LCSTC circuits in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, but few studies have investigated the subcortical structural abnormalities. Therefore, we sought to determine whether focal subcortical grey matter (GM changes might be present in MDD at an early stage. We recruited 30 first episode, untreated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD and 26 healthy control subjects. Voxel-based morphometry was used to evaluate cortical grey matter changes, and automated volumetric and shape analyses were used to assess volume and shape changes of the subcortical GM structures, respectively. In addition, probabilistic tractography methods were used to demonstrate the relationship between the subcortical and the cortical GM. Compared to healthy controls, MDD patients had significant volume reductions in the bilateral putamen and left thalamus (FWE-corrected, p < 0.05. Meanwhile, the vertex-based shape analysis showed regionally contracted areas on the dorsolateral and ventromedial aspects of the bilateral putamen, and on the dorsal and ventral aspects of left thalamus in MDD patients (FWE-corrected, p < 0.05. Additionally, a negative correlation was found between local atrophy in the dorsal aspects of the left thalamus and clinical variables representing severity. Furthermore, probabilistic tractography demonstrated that the area of shape deformation of the bilateral putamen and left thalamus have connections with the frontal and temporal lobes, which were found to be related to major depression. Our results suggested that structural abnormalities in the putamen and thalamus might be present in the early stages of MDD, which support the role of subcortical structure in the pathophysiology of MDD. Meanwhile, the present study showed that these subcortical structural abnormalities might be

  4. Hemispheric language asymmetry in first episode psychosis and schizotypy: the role of cannabis consumption and cognitive disorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Daniela A; Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Glyn; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Drake, Richard; Evans, Jonathan; Nutt, David; Mohr, Christine

    2015-03-01

    Cannabis use has been related to an elevated psychosis risk and attenuated cognitive functioning. Cannabis-related cognitive impairments are also observed in populations along the psychosis dimension. We here investigated whether a potential behavioral marker of the psychosis dimension (attenuated functional hemispheric asymmetry) is even further attenuated in individuals using cannabis (CU) vs those not using cannabis (nCU). We tested 29 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP; 11 CU) and 90 healthy controls (38 CU) on lateralized lexical decisions assessing left-hemisphere language dominance. In patients, psychotic symptoms were assessed by Positive & Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS). In controls, self-reported schizotypy was assessed (The Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences: O-LIFE). Results indicated that nCU FEP patients had a relative reduced hemispheric asymmetry, as did controls with increasing cognitive disorganization (CogDis) scores, in particular when belonging to the group of nCU controls. Positive, disorganized and negative PANSS scores in patients and negative and positive schizotypy in controls were unrelated to hemispheric asymmetry. These findings suggest that cannabis use potentially balances rather than exacerbates uncommon hemispheric laterality patterns. Moreover, in healthy populations, the potential stabilization of typical hemispheric asymmetry in CU might be most relevant to individuals with elevated CogDis. We discuss the potential beneficial and harmful effects of cannabis use along the psychosis dimension together with propositions for future studies that should account for the mediating role of additional substances (eg nicotine), cannabis composition (eg cannabidiol content), and individual differences (eg physical health, or absence of significant polysubstance use). PMID:25543118

  5. Neurocognitive development in first episode psychosis 5 years follow-up: associations between illness severity and cognitive course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Sundet, Kjetil; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Evensen, Julie; Haahr, Ulrik; Ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Langeveld, Hans; Larsen, T K; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive deficits are documented in first-episode psychosis (FEP), but the continuing course is not fully understood. The present study examines the longitudinal development of neurocognitive function in a five year follow-up of FEP-patients, focusing on the relation to illness severity, as measured by relapses and diagnostic subgroups. The study is an extension of previous findings from the TIPS-project, reporting stability over the first two years. Sixty-two FEP patients (53% male, age 28 ± 9 years) were neuropsychologically examined at baseline and at 1, 2, and 5 year follow-ups. The test battery was divided into five indices; Verbal Learning, Executive Function, Impulsivity, Motor Speed, and Working Memory. To investigate the effect of illness severity, the sample was divided in groups based on number of relapses, and diagnostic subgroups, respectively. Impulsivity and Working Memory improved significantly in the first two years, followed by no change over the next three years. Motor Speed decreased significantly from 2 to 5 years. Number of relapses was significantly related to Verbal Learning and Working Memory, showing a small decrease and less improvement, respectively, in patients with two or more episodes. No significant association was found with diagnostic group. Neurocognitive stability as well as change was found in a sample of FEP-patients examined repeatedly over 5 years. Of potential greater importance for understanding how psychotic illnesses progress, is the finding of significant associations between neurocognition and number of relapses but not diagnostic group, indicating that neurocognition is more related to recurring psychotic episodes than to the descriptive diagnosis per se.

  6. Criticism and Depression among the Caregivers of At-Risk Mental State and First-Episode Psychosis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Hamaie

    Full Text Available Expressed emotion (EE, especially criticism, is an important predictor of outcomes for the patient for a wide range of mental health problems. To understand complex links between EE and various relevant variables in early phase psychosis, this study examined criticism, distress of caregivers, other patients', and caregivers' variables, and links between criticism and these variables in those with at-risk mental state (ARMS for psychosis and first-episode psychosis (FEP. The participants were 56 patients (mean age 18.8 ± 4.2 years with ARMS and their caregivers (49.4 ± 5.8 years and 43 patients (21.7 ± 5.2 years with FEP and their caregivers (49.3 ± 7.4 years. We investigated criticisms made by caregivers using the Japanese version of the Family Attitude Scale and caregiver depressive symptoms via the self-report Beck Depression Inventory. We also assessed psychiatric symptoms and functioning of the patients. Approximately one-third of caregivers of patients with ARMS or FEP had depressive symptoms, predominately with mild-to-moderate symptom levels, whereas only a small portion exhibited high criticism. The level of criticism and depression were comparable between ARMS and FEP caregivers. The link between criticism, caregivers' depression, and patients' symptoms were observed in FEP but not in ARMS caregivers. These findings imply that the interaction between criticism and caregivers' and patients' mental states may develop during or after the onset of established psychosis and interventions for the caregivers should be tailored to the patient's specific stage of illness. Interventions for FEP caregivers should target their emotional distress and include education about patient's general symptoms.

  7. Criticism and Depression among the Caregivers of At-Risk Mental State and First-Episode Psychosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaie, Yumiko; Ohmuro, Noriyuki; Katsura, Masahiro; Obara, Chika; Kikuchi, Tatsuo; Ito, Fumiaki; Miyakoshi, Tetsuo; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Matsumoto, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    Expressed emotion (EE), especially criticism, is an important predictor of outcomes for the patient for a wide range of mental health problems. To understand complex links between EE and various relevant variables in early phase psychosis, this study examined criticism, distress of caregivers, other patients’, and caregivers’ variables, and links between criticism and these variables in those with at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis and first-episode psychosis (FEP). The participants were 56 patients (mean age 18.8 ± 4.2 years) with ARMS and their caregivers (49.4 ± 5.8 years) and 43 patients (21.7 ± 5.2 years) with FEP and their caregivers (49.3 ± 7.4 years). We investigated criticisms made by caregivers using the Japanese version of the Family Attitude Scale and caregiver depressive symptoms via the self-report Beck Depression Inventory. We also assessed psychiatric symptoms and functioning of the patients. Approximately one-third of caregivers of patients with ARMS or FEP had depressive symptoms, predominately with mild-to-moderate symptom levels, whereas only a small portion exhibited high criticism. The level of criticism and depression were comparable between ARMS and FEP caregivers. The link between criticism, caregivers’ depression, and patients’ symptoms were observed in FEP but not in ARMS caregivers. These findings imply that the interaction between criticism and caregivers’ and patients’ mental states may develop during or after the onset of established psychosis and interventions for the caregivers should be tailored to the patient’s specific stage of illness. Interventions for FEP caregivers should target their emotional distress and include education about patient’s general symptoms. PMID:26918629

  8. A nutrition intervention is effective in improving dietary components linked to cardiometabolic risk in youth with first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, Scott B; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Watkins, Andrew; Curtis, Jackie; Kalucy, Megan; Samaras, Katherine

    2016-06-01

    Severe mental illness is characterised by a 20-year mortality gap due to cardiometabolic disease. Poor diet in those with severe mental illness is an important and modifiable risk factor. The present study aimed to (i) examine baseline nutritional intake in youth with first-episode psychosis (FEP), (ii) evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of nutritional intervention early in FEP and (iii) to evaluate the effectiveness of early dietary intervention on key nutritional end points. Participants were recruited over a 12-month period from a community-based programme specifically targeting young people aged 15-25 years with newly diagnosed FEP. Individual dietetic consultations and practical group sessions were offered as part of a broader lifestyle programme. Dietary assessments were conducted before and at the end of the 12-week intervention. Participants exceeded recommended energy and Na intakes at baseline. Retention within the nutrition intervention was 67 %, consistent with other interventions offered to FEP clients. There was a 47 % reduction in discretionary food intake (-94 g/d, P<0·001) and reductions in daily energy (-24 %, P<0·001) and Na (-26 %, P<0·001) intakes. Diet quality significantly improved, and the mean change was 3·6 (95 % CI 0·2, 6·9, P<0·05), although this finding was not significant after Bonferroni's correction. Increased vegetable intake was the main factor contributing to improved diet quality. Nutrition intervention delivered shortly after initiation of antipsychotic medication is feasible, acceptable and effective in youth with FEP. Strategies to prevent weight gain and metabolic decline will contribute to prevent premature cardiometabolic disease in this vulnerable population. PMID:27153205

  9. Altered activation of innate immunity associates with white matter volume and diffusion in first-episode psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Mäntylä

    Full Text Available First-episode psychosis (FEP is associated with inflammatory and brain structural changes, but few studies have investigated whether systemic inflammation associates with brain structural changes in FEP. Thirty-seven FEP patients (median 27 days on antipsychotic medication, and 19 matched controls were recruited. Serum levels of 38 chemokines and cytokines, and cardiovascular risk markers were measured at baseline and 2 months later. We collected T1- and diffusion-weighted MRIs with a 3 T scanner from the patients at baseline. We analyzed the association of psychosis-related inflammatory markers with gray and white matter (WM volume using voxel-based morphometry and WM diffusion using tract-based spatial statistics with whole-brain and region-of-interest (ROI analyses. FEP patients had higher CCL22 and lower TGFα, CXCL1, CCL7, IFN-α2 and ApoA-I than controls. CCL22 decreased significantly between baseline and 2 months in patients but was still higher than in controls. The association between inflammatory markers and FEP remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, smoking and BMI. We did not observe a correlation of inflammatory markers with any symptoms or duration of antipsychotic treatment. Baseline CCL22 levels correlated negatively with WM volume and positively with mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity bilaterally in the frontal lobes in ROI analyses. Decreased serum level of ApoA-I was associated with smaller volume of the medial temporal WM. In whole-brain analyses, CCL22 correlated positively with mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity, and CXCL1 associated negatively with fractional anisotropy and positively with mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity in several brain regions. This is the first report to demonstrate an association between circulating chemokine levels and WM in FEP patients. Interestingly, CCL22 has been previously implicated in autoimmune diseases associated with WM pathology. The results suggest that an

  10. Effectiveness of antipsychotics in first-episode schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder on response and remission : An open randomized clinical trial (EUFEST)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boter, Han; Peuskens, Joseph; Libiger, Jan; Fleischhacker, W. Wolfgang; Davidson, Michael; Galderisi, Silvana; Kahn, Rene S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Predefined response and remission criteria may hold more clinical relevance than mean scores on rating scales. We compared the effectiveness of low doses of haloperidol and regular doses of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) on >= 50% response and remission. Methods: In an open rand

  11. Striatal D2/3 Binding Potential Values in Drug-Naïve First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients Correlate With Treatment Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Sanne; Pinborg, Lars Hageman; Svarer, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    of treatment with the D(2/3) receptor antagonist amisulpride. There was a significant negative correlation between striatal D(2/3) receptor BP(p) at baseline and improvement of positive symptoms in the total group of patients. Comparing patients responding to treatment to nonresponders further showed...

  12. Effect of integrated treatment on the use of coercive measures in first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. A randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlenschlæger, Johan; Nordentoft, Merete; Thorup, Anne;

    2008-01-01

    assertive community treatment, psycho-educational multi-family groups, and social skills training. Data on coercion were extracted from the register from the National Board of Health, and data on continuity from medical records. Even though the level of continuity seemed higher in integrated treatment, this...

  13. Global Micro- and Macro-structural White Matter Alterations and the reward circuit in First-episode Antipsychotic-naïve Schizophrenia Patients. Preliminary Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghava, Jayachandra Mitta; Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard;

    hypothalamus separately. All tracking was performed using PROBTRACKX. Results Baseline: Voxel-wise statistics performed on the probabilistic WM fiber maps for whole brain identified deficiencies in patients, showing reduced macro-structural connectivity in: thalamus, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, forceps......-lwise statistics performed on the probabilistic WM fiber maps for whole brain showed significant interaction, indicating improvement in the connectivity within the patients in Forceps major, right Cingulum (hippocampus), right Anterior thalamic radiation. Conclusions These preliminary results indicate...

  14. The study of First-episode schizophrenia cognitive function%首发精神分裂症患者认知功能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马继东; 于文斗; 潘赞

    2010-01-01

    目的:研究首发精神分裂症患者的认知功能损害程度及范围.方法:选取我院2005年1月至2008年10月门诊及住院的首发精神分裂症患者52例、选取我院职工45例为对照组,采用修订韦氏成人智力测验(WAIS-RC)、修订韦氏记忆量表(WMS-R)、字色串扰测验(Stroop Test)、连线测验(Trail Making Test, TMT)、HANOI塔(HANOI Tower)、威斯康星卡片分类测验-改良版(M-WCST),从智力、记忆力、注意力、执行功能进行对照分析.结果:智力测验患者组与对照组有极显著性差异(P<0.001),记忆测验患者组与对照组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),注意测验患者组与对照组有极显著性差异(P<0.001);执行功能患者组与对照组之间各项均存在极显著性差异(P<0.001) .结论:首发精神分裂症患者在有关智力、注意、记忆、言语功能和执行功能等神经认知功能领域存在广泛的损害.

  15. Effect of integrated treatment on the use of coercive measures in first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. A randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlenschlaeger, Johan; Nordentoft, Merete; Thorup, Anne;

    2008-01-01

    of assertive community treatment, psycho-educational multi-family groups, and social skills training. Data on coercion were extracted from the register from the National Board of Health, and data on continuity from medical records. Even though the level of continuity seemed higher in integrated treatment...

  16. Ten-Year Follow-up of the OPUS Specialized Early Intervention Trial for Patients With a First Episode of Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Rikke Gry; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Austin, Stephen F;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Specialized early intervention programs such as The Danish OPUS treatment are efficient in treating patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) at least after 2 and 5 years. Few studies have examined long-term outcomes of these interventions. AIM: To examine the effect of 2 yea...

  17. The course of neurocognitive functioning in first-episode psychosis and its relation to premorbid adjustment, duration of untreated psychosis, and relapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Melle, Ingrid; Friis, Svein;

    2007-01-01

    The aim was to determine the post-onset longitudinal course of cognitive functioning in first-episode psychoses and to examine how premorbid adjustment, duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), and clinical variables such as relapse are associated with that course. Consecutive patients with a DSM-IV...

  18. Cerebral and cerebellar gray matter reduction in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate cerebral and cerebellar gray matter abnormalities in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Materials and methods: We examined the structural difference in regional gray matter density (GMD) between 22 first-episode MDD patients and 30 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls by optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based on magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Compared with healthy controls, MDD patients showed decreased GMD in the right medial and left lateral orbitofrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilateral temporal pole, right superior temporal gyrus, bilateral anterior insular cortex, left parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum. In addition, in MDD patients, there was a negative correlation between GMD values of the right DLPFC and the score of the depression rating scale. Conclusions: Our findings provided additional support for the involvement of limbic-cortical circuits in the pathophysiology of MDD and preliminary evidence that a defect involving the cerebellum may also be implicated.

  19. Cerebral and cerebellar gray matter reduction in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Jing, E-mail: ppengjjing@sina.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Liu Jiangtao, E-mail: Liujiangtao813@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Nie Binbin, E-mail: niebb@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Yang, E-mail: Liyang2007428@hotmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Shan Baoci, E-mail: shanbc@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Gang, E-mail: gangwang@gmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: likuncheng1955@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate cerebral and cerebellar gray matter abnormalities in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Materials and methods: We examined the structural difference in regional gray matter density (GMD) between 22 first-episode MDD patients and 30 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls by optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based on magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Compared with healthy controls, MDD patients showed decreased GMD in the right medial and left lateral orbitofrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilateral temporal pole, right superior temporal gyrus, bilateral anterior insular cortex, left parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum. In addition, in MDD patients, there was a negative correlation between GMD values of the right DLPFC and the score of the depression rating scale. Conclusions: Our findings provided additional support for the involvement of limbic-cortical circuits in the pathophysiology of MDD and preliminary evidence that a defect involving the cerebellum may also be implicated.

  20. Non-linear Dynamics of Speech in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Simonsen, Arndis; Weed, Ethan;

    (discriminant function) to classify speech production as either belonging to the control or the schizophrenia group, based solely on acoustic features. Methods We analyze the speech production of 57 Danish adults with first-episode of schizophrenia (23F 34M, Mean Age=22.93 SD=3.46) and 57 matched controls. All......Background The speech of patients with schizophrenia is often described as monotonous, flat and without emotion. Distinctive speech patterns are qualitatively assessed in the diagnostic process and deeply impact the quality of everyday social interactions. In this project, we investigate and model...... speech patterns of people with schizophrenia contrasting them with matched controls and in relation to positive and negative symptoms. We employ both traditional measures (pitch mean and range, pause number and duration, speech rate, etc.) and 2) non-linear techniques measuring the temporal structure...

  1. Evidence for trait related theory of mind impairment in first episode psychosis patients and its relationship with processing speed: a three year follow-up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa eAyesa-Arriola

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to confirm whether first-episode psychosis patients present a stable trait impairment in theory of mind (ToM and to examine the potential relationship between ToM and clinical symptomatology and neurocognition. Patients with a first episode of psychosis (N = 160 and healthy controls (N = 159 were assessed with an extensive neuropsychological test battery, which included a mental state decoding task known as The Reading the Mind in the Eyes (Eyes test, at baseline and reassessed after 1 and 3 years. The clinical group performed below healthy controls on the Eyes test while not showing test-retest differences between baseline and follow-up administrations. Analyses revealed age, education and premorbid IQ as potential moderators. Poorer performance on the Eyes test was not linked to clinical symptomatology but was associated with greater neurocognitive deficit, particularly related to processing speed. The persistence of ToM deficits in patients suggests that there are trait related mentalising impairments in first episode psychosis. This study shows the influence of processing speed and moderator variables on efficient ToM.

  2. Evidence for Trait Related Theory of Mind Impairment in First Episode Psychosis Patients and Its Relationship with Processing Speed: A 3 Year Follow-up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Setién-Suero, Esther; Neergaard, Karl D.; Ferro, Adele; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Ríos-Lago, Marcos; Otero, Soraya; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Jose M.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to confirm whether first-episode psychosis patients present a stable trait impairment in theory of mind (ToM) and to examine the potential relationship between ToM and clinical symptomatology and neurocognition. Patients with a first episode of psychosis (N = 160) and healthy controls (N = 159) were assessed with an extensive neuropsychological test battery, which included a mental state decoding task known as “The Reading the Mind in the Eyes” (Eyes test), at baseline and reassessed after 1 and 3 years. The clinical group performed below healthy controls on the Eyes test while not showing test-retest differences between baseline and follow-up administrations. Analyses revealed age, education and premorbid IQ as potential moderators. Poorer performance on the Eyes test was not linked to clinical symptomatology but was associated with greater neurocognitive deficit, particularly related to processing speed. The persistence of ToM deficits in patients suggests that there are trait related metalizing impairments in first episode psychosis. This study shows the influence of processing speed and moderator variables on efficient ToM. PMID:27199826

  3. Patterns and Correlates of Expressed Emotion, Perceived Criticism, and Rearing Style in First Admitted Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    von Polier, Georg G.; Meng, Heiner; Lambert, Martin; Strauss, Monika; Zarotti, Gianni; Karle, Michael; Dubois, Reinmar; Stark, Fritz-Michael; Neidhart, Sibylle; Zollinger, Ruedi; Bürgin, Dieter; Felder, Wilhelm; Resch, Franz; Koch, Eginhard; Schulte-Markwort, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess patterns and correlates of family variables in 31 adolescents treated for their first episode of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (early-onset schizophrenia [EOS]). Expressed emotion, perceived criticism, and rearing style were assessed. Potential correlates were patient psychopathology, premorbid adjustment, illness duration, quality of life (QoL), sociodemographic variables, patient and caregiver "illness concept," and caregiver personality traits and su...

  4. Five-year follow-up of a randomized multicenter trial of intensive early intervention vs standard treatment for patients with a first episode of psychotic illness: the OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone;

    2008-01-01

    Intensive early treatment for first-episode psychosis has been shown to be effective. It is unknown if the positive effects are sustained for 5 years.......Intensive early treatment for first-episode psychosis has been shown to be effective. It is unknown if the positive effects are sustained for 5 years....

  5. Psychologic status and health education of parents of female first episode schizophrenic patients%首发女精神分裂症患者父母的心理状况及健康教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石玉中; 李荣娓; 吕路线

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨父母在女儿患精神分裂症后的心理状况及健康教育的效果.方法对住院的首发女精神分裂症患者的98位父母采用焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)和自编的定式调查表进行测评,并根据测评存在的心理问题给予健康教育.结果多数精神分裂症患者的父母存在明显的焦虑及抑郁情绪,经健康教育后她们的SAS和SDS评分随之下降.结论针对患者父母的心理问题,应主动做好她们的健康教育工作,提高她们的心理承受能力.%Objective To investigate the effect of those parents psychologic status and health education when their daughters had schiz ophrenia. Methods 98 parents whose children were of the female first episode schizophrenia inpatients were tested with SAS, SDS and self-made investigating scale. Health education was given according to psychological questions. Results Most parents had significant anxiety and depression mood Their SAS and SDS scores decreased relevantly after health education. Conclusions According to the psychological questions of these parents, we should give them health education and improve their psychological ability of facing difficulty.

  6. Surface-Based Regional Homogeneity in First-Episode, Drug-Naïve Major Depression: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jie Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous volume-based regional homogeneity (ReHo studies neglected the intersubject variability in cortical folding patterns. Recently, surface-based ReHo was developed to reduce the intersubject variability and to increase statistical power. The present study used this novel surface-based ReHo approach to explore the brain functional activity differences between first-episode, drug-naïve MDD patients and healthy controls. Methods. Thirty-three first-episode, drug-naïve MDD patients and 32 healthy controls participated in structural and resting-state fMRI scans. MDD patients were rated with a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression prior to the scan. Results. In comparison with the healthy controls, MDD patients showed reduced surface-based ReHo in the left insula. There was no increase in surface-based ReHo in MDD patients. The surface-based ReHo value in the left insula was not significantly correlated with the clinical information or the depressive scores in the MDD group. Conclusions. The decreased surface-based ReHo in the left insula in MDD may lead to the abnormal top-down cortical-limbic regulation of emotional and cognitive information. The surface-based ReHo may be a useful index to explore the pathophysiological mechanism of MDD.

  7. Frontal D2/3 Receptor Availability in Schizophrenia Patients Before and After Their First Antipsychotic Treatment: Relation to Cognitive Functions and Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Nørbak-Emig, Henrik; Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Svarer, Claus; Rasmussen, Hans; Friberg, Lars; Allerup, Peter N.; Rostrup, Egill; Pinborg, Lars H; Glenthøj, Birte Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We have previously reported associations between frontal D2/3 receptor binding potential positive symptoms and cognitive deficits in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients. Here, we examined the effect of dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade on cognition. Additionally, we explored the relation between frontal D2/3 receptor availability and treatment effect on positive symptoms. Methods: Twenty-five antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients were examined with the Posi...

  8. [The Spatial-Frequency Characteristics of the Visual System in Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshina, I I; Shelepin, Y E; Vershinina, E A; Novikova, K O

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the spatial-frequancy characteristics of the visual system of healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia, we used the contrast comparison of two Gabor gratings with sinusoidal distribution of brightness. The Gabor gratings have low, medium or high spatial frequencies; the neurons of magnocellular and parvocellular channels are sensitive to these frequencies to different extents. We found an increase in sensitivity to the contrast when comparing the gratings with low frequencies (to which magnocellular channels are most sensitive) in the patients with first-episode schizophrenia who had not receive long-term antipsychotic treatment, as compared with the control group. On the contrary, the sensitivity to the gratings with medium and high spatial frequencies in this group of patients was lower, as well as in patients with first-episode schizophrenia who had received long-term treatment. The patients with chronic schizophrenia showed a decrease in contrast sensitivity in all tested ranges of frequencies. We obtained supplementary evidence of the enhancement of internal noise in the visual system of the patients with schizophrenia. The results help us to explain the clinical data on the development of visual perceptual diorders at different stages of schizophrenia.

  9. A history of childhood trauma is associated with slower improvement rates: Findings from a one-year follow-up study of patients with a first-episode psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Aas, Monica; Andreassen, Ole A; Aminoff, Sofie R; Færden, Ann; Romm, Kristin L.; Nesvåg, Ragnar; Berg, Akiah O; Simonsen, Carmen; Agartz, Ingrid; Melle, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether childhood trauma was associated with more severe clinical features in patients with first-episode psychosis, both at the initial assessment and after one year. Methods Ninety-six patients with a first-episode of a DSM-IV diagnosis of psychosis, in addition to 264 healthy controls from the same catchment area, were recruited to the TOP NORMENT...

  10. Are variations in whole blood BDNF level associated with the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in patients with first episode depression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann; Bennike, Bente;

    2013-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems to play an important role in the pathophysiology of affective disorders. The current study investigated whether blood level BDNF is correlated with the severity of depressive symptoms and recent (six months prior to onset of depression) experience......). Symptomatology was rated using Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and Becks Depression Inventory (BDI 21). No differences in whole blood BDNF was seen in relation to the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and no significant correlations between whole blood BDNF and HAMD-17 or BDI 21 scores were found....... No significant associations between the experiences of SLE before onset of depression and BDNF level were observed. Finally, peripheral BDNF differentiated between patients and healthy control persons. In the current sample of first episode depressed patients, the Val66Met polymorphism was not associated...

  11. Comprehensive early intervention for patients with first-episode psychosis in Japan (J-CAP: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harima Hirohiko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Comprehensive approaches for patients with psychotic symptoms play essential roles in the symptomatic and functional outcomes of patients, especially during disease onset. In Japan, the shortage of mental health services, particularly for outpatients, and community-based supports has been a major problem. The purpose of this trial is to investigate the effectiveness and affordability of 18-month comprehensive early intervention services for patients with first-episode psychosis compared with typical treatment. Methods This interventional, parallel, single-blinded (open but blinded raters trial was effectively designed. The participants are patients with a diagnosis of F2 or F3 (International Classification of Disease, 10 th revision, with psychotic symptoms. The inclusion criteria were an age of 15-35 years, onset of psychotic symptoms within 5 years, first-episode psychosis, and residence in the catchment area of each site. Allocation will be conducted equally between case management and standard care groups. After enrollment, standard care will be provided for both groups, and community-based care to promote recovery for 18 months will be provided for the comprehensive approach group. The primary outcome will be the function domain of the global assessment of functioning scores at 18 months after enrollment. Data assessment will be performed at enrollment and 18, 36, and 60 months after enrollment. The target sample size will be 150, and registration will occur from March 1, 2011, to September 30, 2012. Discussion This trial will provide promising results about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of early intervention services in Japan to improve the quality and quantity of community mental health services. Trial registration This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (No. UMIN000005092.

  12. A follow-up study of first episode major depressive disorder. Impairment in inhibition and semantic fluency – potential predictors for relapse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Therese Schmid

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the Executive Functions (EF of inhibition, mental flexibility and phonemic and semantic fluency in a one-year follow-up assessment of patients diagnosed with first episode Major Depressive Disorder (MDD. In the acute phase, the patient group performed significantly poorer compared to the control group in inhibition and semantic fluency. The present study pursued these findings from the acute phase to see if the impairment seen in inhibition and semantic fluency in the acute phase normalized or persisted in the follow-up assessment. In addition, the present study investigated the association between poor inhibition and semantic fluency performance and the experience of relapse during the one-year period. Twenty eight patients and 28 individually matched control subjects were included. EF was reassessed using three tests from the Delis Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS. Results: There was a significant decrease in depression severity score from the acute phase, showing that most of the patients were in remission in the follow-up assessment. Results showed a sustained impairment in inhibition and semantic fluency in the patient group. However, the performance in inhibition was more severe when an additional requirement of mental flexibility was included. There were no group differences in the other EF functions measured. Further, patients with a relapse in the course of one year performed significantly poorer in inhibition/switching at inclusion compared to patients that did not relapse and the control group. This relationship was not found for semantic fluency. Poor performance in inhibition and semantic fluency are prolonged despite symptom reduction in patients with a first episode of MDD. Moreover, although based on a small sample of patients, the present study showed that there may be a relationship between impaired ability in the EF of inhibition/switching and vulnerability for the experience of relapse.

  13. The Relative Importance of Family History, Gender, Mode of Onset, and Age at Onset in Predicting Clinical Features of First-Episode Psychotic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Michael T; Berez, Chantal; Walker, Elaine F

    2014-11-01

    Objective: Family history of psychosis, gender, mode of onset, and age at onset are considered prognostic factors important to clinicians evaluating first-episode psychosis; yet, clinicians have little guidance as to how these four factors differentially predict early-course substance abuse, symptomatology, and functioning. We conducted a "head-to-head comparison" of these four factors regarding their associations with key clinical features at initial hospitalization. We also assessed potential interactions between gender and family history with regard to age at onset of psychosis and symptom severity.Methods: Consecutively admitted first-episode patients (n=334) were evaluated in two studies that rigorously assessed a number of early-course variables. Associations among variables of interest were examined using Pearson correlations, ÷2 tests, Student's t-tests, and 2x2 factorial analyses of variance.Results: Substance (nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis) abuse and positive symptom severity were predicted only by male gender. Negative symptom severity and global functioning impairments were predicted by earlier age at onset of psychosis. General psychopathology symptom severity was predicted by both mode of onset and age at onset. Interaction effects were not observed with regard to gender and family history in predicting age at onset or symptom severity.Conclusions: The four prognostic features have differential associations with substance abuse, domains of symptom severity, and global functioning. Gender and age at onset of psychosis appear to be more predictive of clinical features at the time of initial evaluation (and thus presumably longer-term outcomes) than the presence of a family history of psychosis and a more gradual mode of onset. PMID:25367167

  14. 首发及复发精神分裂症的性激素水平比较%Compare the levels of sex hormones of first episode schizophrenia with relapse schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢国军; 刘锐; 吴小霞; 雷素珍; 徐彩霞

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较首发与复发精神分裂症的性激素水平,探讨精神分裂症与性激素的关系.方法:选取符合条件的首发及复发精神分裂症患者95例,使用利培酮治疗,疗程6周,分别于治疗前和治疗后进行雌二醇(E2)、孕酮(Prog)、睾酮(T)、催乳素(PRL)、促卵泡激素(FSH)、黄体生成素(LH)检测和BPRS评定.结果:与首发男性患者相比,复发男性患者的基线Prog水平较高,T水平较低,治疗后T水平仍低于首发患者;与首发女性患者相比,复发女性患者的基线E2、T水平较低,PRL水平较高,治疗后E2、Prog、LH水平低于首发患者,PRL水平仍高于首发患者.上述差异均有显著性(P<0.05).结论:无论治疗前还是治疗后,首发与复发精神分裂症的性激素水平均有差异,影响因素较多.

  15. Altered circadian clock gene expression in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anne-Sofie; Owe-Larsson, Björn; Hetta, Jerker; Lundkvist, Gabriella B

    2016-07-01

    Impaired circadian rhythmicity has been reported in several psychiatric disorders. Schizophrenia is commonly associated with aberrant sleep-wake cycles and insomnia. It is not known if schizophrenia is associated with disturbances in molecular rhythmicity. We cultured fibroblasts from skin samples obtained from patients with chronic schizophrenia and from healthy controls, respectively, and analyzed the circadian expression during 48h of the clock genes CLOCK, BMAL1, PER1, PER2, CRY1, CRY2, REV-ERBα and DBP. In fibroblasts obtained from patients with chronic schizophrenia, we found a loss of rhythmic expression of CRY1 and PER2 compared to cells from healthy controls. We also estimated the sleep quality in these patients and found that most of them suffered from poor sleep in comparison with the healthy controls. In another patient sample, we analyzed mononuclear blood cells from patients with schizophrenia experiencing their first episode of psychosis, and found decreased expression of CLOCK, PER2 and CRY1 compared to blood cells from healthy controls. These novel findings show disturbances in the molecular clock in schizophrenia and have important implications in our understanding of the aberrant rhythms reported in this disease. PMID:27132483

  16. Altering the course of schizophrenia: progress and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, Mark J; Andrieux, Annie; Bartzokis, George; Cadenhead, Kristin; Dazzan, Paola; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Gallinat, Jürgen; Giedd, Jay; Grayson, Dennis R; Heinrichs, Markus; Kahn, René; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Leboyer, Marion; Lewis, David; Marin, Oscar; Marin, Philippe; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; McGorry, Patrick; McGuire, Philip; Owen, Michael J; Patterson, Paul; Sawa, Akira; Spedding, Michael; Uhlhaas, Peter; Vaccarino, Flora; Wahlestedt, Claes; Weinberger, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Despite a lack of recent progress in the treatment of schizophrenia, our understanding of its genetic and environmental causes has considerably improved, and their relationship to aberrant patterns of neurodevelopment has become clearer. This raises the possibility that 'disease-modifying' strategies could alter the course to - and of - this debilitating disorder, rather than simply alleviating symptoms. A promising window for course-altering intervention is around the time of the first episode of psychosis, especially in young people at risk of transition to schizophrenia. Indeed, studies performed in both individuals at risk of developing schizophrenia and rodent models for schizophrenia suggest that pre-diagnostic pharmacotherapy and psychosocial or cognitive-behavioural interventions can delay or moderate the emergence of psychosis. Of particular interest are 'hybrid' strategies that both relieve presenting symptoms and reduce the risk of transition to schizophrenia or another psychiatric disorder. This Review aims to provide a broad-based consideration of the challenges and opportunities inherent in efforts to alter the course of schizophrenia. PMID:26939910

  17. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in first episode psychosis and in subjects at ultra high risk for developing psychosis; onset and relationship to psychotic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Sterk; K. Lankreijer; D.H. Linszen; L. de Haan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and obsessive compulsive disorder in patients with schizophrenia or related disorders or subjects at ultra high risk for development of psychosis. Secondly, to determine the time of occurrence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms re

  18. Psilocybin induces schizophrenia-like psychosis in humans via a serotonin-2 agonist action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollenweider, F X; Vollenweider-Scherpenhuyzen, M F; Bäbler, A; Vogel, H; Hell, D

    1998-12-01

    Psilocybin, an indoleamine hallucinogen, produces a psychosis-like syndrome in humans that resembles first episodes of schizophrenia. In healthy human volunteers, the psychotomimetic effects of psilocybin were blocked dose-dependently by the serotonin-2A antagonist ketanserin or the atypical antipsychotic risperidone, but were increased by the dopamine antagonist and typical antipsychotic haloperidol. These data are consistent with animal studies and provide the first evidence in humans that psilocybin-induced psychosis is due to serotonin-2A receptor activation, independently of dopamine stimulation. Thus, serotonin-2A overactivity may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and serotonin-2A antagonism may contribute to therapeutic effects of antipsychotics.

  19. 首发和慢性精神分裂症脑白质的弥散张量成像%Diffusion tensor imaging findings in first-episode and chronic schizophrenics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏钦令; 康庄; 吴小立; 张晋碚; 李雷俊; 郑俩荣; 国效峰; 赵靖平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the integrity of white matters in first-episode and chronic schizophrenics. Methods For this study, 39 first-episode and 38 chronic schizophrenics, 69 healthy controls (age, gender and years of received education no significantly different from those of the patients)underwent diffusion weighted images with a single-shot echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence aligned to the straight axial plane. The fractional anisotropy (FA) images of three groups underwent one-way ANOVA with the methods of voxel-based morphometric (VBM) analysis. Results ( 1 ) There were three brain regions where the FA values of white matter were different among three groups: right caudate nucleus ( MNI:20, 12,14; cluster = 432 voxels; FA value :0. 36 ± 0. 18 vs 0. 35 ± 0. 24 vs 0. 38 ± 0. 17 ), left insula ( MNI: - 32,18, 2; cluster =204 voxels; FA value:0. 35 ±0.31 vs 0.33 ±0.24 vs 0.36 ±0.21) and right anterior cingulated( MNI: 16, 36, 12; cluster = 132 voxels;FA value:0. 35 ±0. 29 vs 0. 34 ±0. 31 vs 0. 37 ±0. 25).(2)The mean FA values of the three brain regions of two patients groups decreased versus those of healthy controls (P <0. 05 ). (3)The mean FA values of left insular region in chronic patients decreased versus those of the first-episode patients ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The reduced integrity of white matter may play an etiological role in schizophrenia and the changes are probably progressive.%目的 分析首发精神分裂症和慢性精神分裂症脑白质完整性变化.方法 2009年8月至2011年2月在中山大学附属第三医院精神科住院部或门诊部就诊的39例首发精神分裂症患者、38例慢性精神分裂症患者和广告招募的69名健康对照进行脑磁共振弥散张量成像,3组图像以基于体素的分析方法进行单因素方差分析,提取阳性结果区平均FA值再进行多重比较.结果 (1)首发精神分裂症、慢性精神分裂症和健康对照在以下脑区的白质FA值存在

  20. A study of theory of mind deficit in first-episode schizophrenic patients%首发精神分裂症患者心灵理论损伤的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪永光; 汪凯; 朱春燕; 汪辉

    2006-01-01

    成绩呈显著正相关.结论 首发、未服药的精神分裂症患者存在心灵理论能力的损害,并且这种损害可能与其额叶功能的障碍有关.两种不同亚型的精神分裂症患者可能存在着不同形式的心灵理论的损害.%Background The disability of theory of mind (ToM) has been confirmed in chronic or acute medicated schizophrenic patients.The role of ToM ability in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenic patients was investigated in this study.Methods ToM was assessed with the Eyes task and Faux pas task in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenic patients( n =52)compared with healthy controls ( n =64). Verbal Fluency Test (VFT) and Digit Span Test (DST) were also examined in two groups. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).Results The tests that involved the ToM ability (I. E. Mind reading and Faux pas questions) were impaired in the schizophrenic group. The schizophrenia performed worse than the normal controls on the VFT. The schizophrenic negative subgroup performed worse than the positive subgroup in Mind reading and VFT. There was a significantly positive correlation between the performances of the tests that involved the ToM ability and the scores of VFT in schizophrenic patients. There was a significantly negative correlation between the performances of the tests that involved the ToM ability and negative symptom scores in the patients.Conclusions The patients with schizophrenia exhibit ToM deficit that is probably associated with the frontal lobe dysfunction.The performance of ToM dysfunction might be different between negative subjects and positive ones.

  1. Satisfaction with inpatient treatment for first-episode psychosis among different ethnic groups: A report from the UK AeSOP study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boydell, Jane

    2010-09-17

    BACKGROUND: There is concern about the level of satisfaction with mental healthcare among minority ethnic patients in the UK, particularly as black patients have more compulsory admissions to hospital. AIMS: To determine and compare levels of satisfaction with mental healthcare between patients from different ethnic groups in a three-centre study of first-onset psychosis. METHOD: Data were collected from 216 patients with first-episode psychosis and 101 caregivers from South London, Nottingham and Bristol, using the Acute Services Study Questionnaire (Patient and Relative Version) and measures of sociodemographic variables and insight. RESULTS: No differences were found between ethnic groups in most domains of satisfaction tested individually, including items relating to treatment by ward staff and number of domains rated as satisfactory. However, logistic regression modelling (adjusting for age, gender, social class, diagnostic category and compulsion) showed that black Caribbean patients did not believe that they were receiving the right treatment and were less satisfied with medication than white patients. Black African patients were less satisfied with non-pharmacological treatments than white patients. These findings were not explained by lack of insight or compulsory treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The study found that black patients were less satisfied with specific aspects of treatment, particularly medication, but were equally satisfied with nursing and social care. Understanding the reasons behind this may improve the acceptability of psychiatric care to black minority ethnic groups.

  2. First-episode bipolar disorder is associated with erythrocyte membrane docosahexaenoic acid deficits: Dissociation from clinical response to lithium or quetiapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Tso, Patrick; Blom, Thomas J; Welge, Jeffrey A; Strawn, Jeffrey R; Adler, Caleb M; DelBello, Melissa P; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2015-12-15

    Deficits in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may be associated with the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. However, LCn-3 fatty acid status at the initial onset of mania and its association with treatment response are not known. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was determined in first-episode bipolar manic or mixed (n=40) and healthy (n=40) subjects. Mood symptom ratings were obtained with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Erythrocyte fatty acid composition and clinical ratings were also determined within a sub-group of bipolar subjects following 8-week (n=19) or 52-week (n=11) open-label treatment with lithium or quetiapine. At baseline bipolar subjects exhibited significantly lower erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition compared with healthy subjects (-23%, pYMRS and HDRS total scores decreased significantly whereas erythrocyte fatty acids including DHA did not change. These data indicate that selective erythrocyte DHA deficits coincide with the initial onset of manic symptoms, and reductions in mood symptoms following treatment are not mediated by changes in fatty acid status. PMID:26477955

  3. Neural correlates of aberrant emotional salience predict psychotic symptoms and global functioning in high-risk and first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modinos, Gemma; Tseng, Huai-Hsuan; Falkenberg, Irina; Samson, Carly; McGuire, Philip; Allen, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Neurobiological and behavioral findings suggest that psychosis is associated with corticolimbic hyperactivity during the processing of emotional salience. This has not been widely studied in the early stages of psychosis, and the impact of these abnormalities on psychotic symptoms and global functioning is unknown. We sought to address this issue in 18 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP), 18 individuals at ultra high risk of psychosis (UHR) and 22 healthy controls (HCs). Corticolimbic response and subjective ratings to emotional and neutral scenes were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The clinical and functional impact of corticolimbic abnormalities was assessed with regression analyses. The FEP and UHR groups reported increased subjective emotional arousal to neutral scenes compared with HCs. Across groups, emotional vs neutral scenes elicited activation in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula and amygdala. Although FEP and UHR participants showed reduced activation in these regions when viewing emotional scenes compared with controls, this was driven by increased activation to neutral scenes. Corticolimbic hyperactivity to neutral scenes predicted higher levels of positive symptoms and poorer levels of functioning. These results indicate that disruption of emotional brain systems may represent an important biological substrate for the pathophysiology of early psychosis and UHR states.

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Clinician-Supported Problem-Solving Bibliotherapy for Family Caregivers of People With First-Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wai Tong; Thompson, David R.; Lubman, Dan I.; McCann, Terence V.

    2016-01-01

    Family interventions for first-episode psychosis (FEP) are an integral component of treatment, with positive effects mainly on patients’ mental state and relapse rate. However, comparatively little attention has been paid to the effects of family interventions on caregivers’ stress coping and well-being, especially in non-Western countries. We aimed to test the effects of a 5-month clinician-supported problem-solving bibliotherapy (CSPSB) for Chinese family caregivers of people with FEP in improving family burden and carers’ problem-solving and caregiving experience, and in reducing psychotic symptoms and duration of re-hospitalizations, compared with those only received usual outpatient family support (UOFS). A randomized controlled trial was conducted across 2 early psychosis clinics in Hong Kong, where there might be inadequate usual family support services for FEP patients. A total of 116 caregivers were randomly selected, and after baseline measurement, randomly assigned to the CSPSB or UOFS. They were also assessed at 1-week and 6- and 12-month post-intervention. Intention-to-treat analyses were applied and indicated that the CSPSB group reported significantly greater improvements in family burden and caregiving experience, and reductions in severity of psychotic symptoms and duration of re-hospitalizations, than the UOFS group at 6- and 12-month follow-up. CSPSB produces moderate long-term benefits to caregivers and FEP patients, and is a low-cost adjunct to UOFS. PMID:27147450

  5. Frontal lobe volumes in schizophrenia: effects of stage and duration of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Preethi; Kumari, Veena; Corr, Philip J J; Sharma, Tonmoy

    2006-10-01

    While the changes in the volume of the temporal lobe and its sub-regions over the course of illness have been studied in patients with schizophrenia, few studies have examined changes in the frontal lobe between the first episode and the chronic stage. In this study, we focussed on the effect of illness stage and duration of illness on the volume of frontal lobe regions, though we also examined several other regions to establish the specificity of any effects, if observed, in this region. We compared the volumes of brain regions among 34 first-episode schizophrenia patients, 49 chronic schizophrenia patients, 18 healthy controls matched, on average, to the first-episode patients and 21 healthy controls matched, on average, to the chronic patients. Logarithmic regression analyses examined the relationships between the duration of illness and the brain regional volumes in the patient group. The results showed that chronic patients had smaller prefrontal cortical grey matter volumes, but larger premotor cortical and putamen volumes compared to first-episode patients and matched healthy controls. Although there were significant patient-by-control group interactions in the cerebellum and sensori-motor cortical grey matter volumes, these did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. There was a significant exponential relation between the duration of illness and the volumes of prefrontal cortex, parieto-occipital cortex grey matter, thalamus and putamen, suggesting that these regions are susceptible to change as the disorder persists. The enlargement of the premotor cortex and putamen are likely to be a result of antipsychotic medication. PMID:16901506

  6. Genetics Home Reference: schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions schizophrenia schizophrenia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Schizophrenia is a mental health disorder classified as a ...

  7. Polysomnographic study in first-episode schizophrenics%首发未服药的精神分裂症患者多导睡眠图特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊清; 林以环; 江丽芸; 翁壁兰; 许崇涛; 卓永宁; 章杰; 陈曲亮

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the feature of polysomnography( PSG) in acute first-episode schizophrenics.Methods PSG and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Scale ( PSQIS) were used to evaluate subjective and objective sleep in twenty-two first-episode schizophrenics ( patient group) and 18 normal controls ( control group) . Results Compared with control group, the patient group had significantly prolonged sleep latency, shortened total sleep time, decreased sleep efficiency, increased awake time in sleep continuity, and increased Nl stage, decreased N2 . N3 and rapid eye movement stage in sleep structure ( ρs< 0. 05 ) . Patients also had subjective sleep disturbances including prolonged sleep latency, shortened total sleep time and decreased sleep efficiency compared with those of objective sleep( ρ< 0. 05 ) . Conclusions The firstepisode schizophrenics have both sleep continuity and sleep structure deficits. and tend to overrate the severitv of their insomnia problem.%目的 探索首次发病的精神分裂症患者多导睡眠图(Polysomnography PSG)的特征.方法 对22例首发精神分裂症患者和18名正常对照进行整夜PSG监测,采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数量表评估主观睡眠,比较两组PSG及主客观睡眠的差异.结果 与对照组比较,患者组表现入睡潜伏期延长[(67.26±13.02)min vs(28.73±10.47)min],总睡眠时间减少[(271.46±25.14)min vs (357.81±22.83)min]、睡眠效率下降[(61.58±11.62) vs (89.71±9.44)]、睡眠期觉醒时间[(67.84±13.76)min vs (26.94±8.67)min]和觉醒次数[(34.58±9.49) vs (13.46±4.03)]增多、N1期睡眠增加[(81.29±12.41)min vs (39.51±8.63)min],N2期、N3期睡眠减少[(94.23±16.53)min vs (162.84±18.93)min; (39.78±7.64)min vs (84.15±11.39)min],REM睡眠减少[(47.52±7.64)min vs (73.56±9.43)min],上述组间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).与PSG值比较,患者组主观评估睡眠潜伏期延长、睡眠时间减少、睡眠效率下降(P<0.05).结论 首发精神分裂症

  8. Free thyroxine levels are associated with cognitive changes in individuals with a first episode of psychosis: A prospective 1-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labad, J; Barbero, J D; Gutiérrez-Zotes, A; Montalvo, I; Creus, M; Cabezas, Á; Solé, M; Algora, M J; Garcia-Parés, G; Vilella, E

    2016-03-01

    The results of previous cross-sectional studies suggest that free thyroxine (FT4) levels are associated with cognitive abilities (particularly attention/vigilance) during the early stages of psychosis. We aimed to explore whether hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid hormones predict cognitive changes in a 1-year longitudinal study following first episodes of psychosis (FEP). We studied 36 FEP patients and a control group of 50 healthy subjects (HS). Plasma levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and FT4 were measured. Cognitive assessment was performed with the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). FEP patients were assessed twice (baseline and after 1year), whereas HS were assessed only once. We compared cognitive changes at 1year between three groups based on baseline FT4 levels: 1) lowest quartile (Q1, FT41.54ng/dL). No differences in TSH or FT4 levels were found between HS and FEP patients. All participants had FT4 levels within the normal range. HS outperformed FEP patients in all cognitive tasks. In relation to the relationship between FT4 levels and cognitive changes, a U-shaped pattern was observed: FEP patients from the middle quartiles (Q2-Q3) improved in attention/vigilance, whereas both extreme quartiles (Q1 and Q4) showed a worsening in this cognitive domain over time. Patients with lower FT4 (Q1) showed poorer baseline attention; therefore, lower baseline FT4 levels predicted a poorer prognosis in terms of attention performance. Our study suggests that baseline FT4 levels are associated with changes in attention and vigilance performance over one year in FEP patients. PMID:26805411

  9. Frontal D2/3 Receptor Availability in Schizophrenia Patients Before and After Their First Antipsychotic Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbak-Emig, Henrik; Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Fagerlund, Birgitte;

    2016-01-01

    the relation between frontal D2/3 receptor availability and treatment effect on positive symptoms. METHODS: Twenty-five antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients were examined with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, tested with the cognitive test battery Cambridge Neuropsychological Test.......56, P=.003; D2/3 receptor binding potential right frontal cortex rho = 0.48, P=.016). CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the hypothesis of a negative influence of D2/3 receptor blockade on specific cognitive functions in schizophrenia. This is highly clinically relevant given the well-established association...

  10. Distinct facial processing related negative cognitive bias in first-episode and recurrent major depression: evidence from the N170 ERP component.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: States of depression are associated with increased sensitivity to negative events. For this novel study, we have assessed the relationship between the number of depressive episodes and the dysfunctional processing of emotional facial expressions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a visual emotional oddball paradigm to manipulate the processing of emotional information while event-related brain potentials were recorded in 45 patients with first episode major depression (F-MD, 40 patients with recurrent major depression (R-MD, and 46 healthy controls (HC. Compared with the HC group, F-MD patients had lower N170 amplitudes when identifying happy, neutral, and sad faces; R-MD patients had lower N170 amplitudes when identifying happy and neutral faces, but higher N170 amplitudes when identifying sad faces. F-MD patients had longer N170 latencies when identifying happy, neutral, and sad faces relative to the HC group, and R-MD patients had longer N170 latencies when identifying happy and neutral faces, but shorter N170 latencies when identifying sad faces compared with F-MD patients. Interestingly, a negative relationship was observed between N170 amplitude and the depressive severity score for identification of happy faces in R-MD patients while N170 amplitude was positively correlated with the depressive severity score for identification of sad faces in F-MD and R-MD patients. Additionally, the deficits of N170 amplitude for sad faces positively correlated with the number of depressive episodes in R-MD patients. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide new evidence that having more recurrent depressive episodes and serious depressive states are likely to aggravate the already abnormal processing of emotional facial expressions in patients with depression. Moreover, it further suggests that the impaired processing as indexed by N170 amplitude for positive face identification may be a potentially useful biomarker for predicting

  11. Schizophrenia patients differentiation based on MR vascular perfusion and volumetric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, A. B.; Joskowicz, L.; Moshel, S.; Israeli, D.

    2015-03-01

    Candecomp/Parafac Decomposition (CPD) has emerged as a framework for modeling N-way arrays (higher-order matrices). CPD is naturally well suited for the analysis of data sets comprised of observations of a function of multiple discrete indices. In this study we evaluate the prospects of using CPD for modeling MRI brain properties (i.e. brain volume and gray-level) for schizophrenia diagnosis. Taking into account that 3D imaging data consists of millions of pixels per patient, the diagnosis of a schizophrenia patient based on pixel analysis constitutes a methodological challenge (e.g. multiple comparison problem). We show that the CPD could potentially be used as a dimensionality redaction method and as a discriminator between schizophrenia patients and match control, using the gradient of pre- and post Gd-T1-weighted MRI data, which is strongly correlated with cerebral blood perfusion. Our approach was tested on 68 MRI scans: 40 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 28 matched controls. The CPD subject's scores exhibit statistically significant result (P schizophrenia with MRI, the results suggest that the CPD could potentially be used to discriminate between schizophrenia patients and matched control. In addition, the CPD model suggests for brain regions that might exhibit abnormalities in schizophrenia patients for future research.

  12. Comparison of Plasma Neurosteroid and Prolactin Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Riahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The present study aimed to compare plasma levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, and prolactin in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. Method. A total of 100 patients with schizophrenia disorder (69 men and 31 women and 190 healthy individuals (94 men and 96 women participated in this cross-sectional study. They were tested for hormone levels and completed demographic questionnaires. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and one-way analysis of variance. Results. Serum testosterone level was significantly higher in men with schizophrenia than in healthy men. Women with schizophrenia had a significantly higher level of testosterone and lower level of prolactin compared to healthy women. There were no significant differences in hormone levels across various subtypes of schizophrenia. No significant differences also were observed in hormones levels in patients with first-episode schizophrenia disorder compared to those in patients with recurrent episodes. Conclusion. This study indicated that abnormal testosterone and prolactin levels might be associated with pathophysiology of schizophrenia disorder.

  13. Comparison of Plasma Neurosteroid and Prolactin Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia and Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Forough; Izadi-Mazidi, Maryam; Ghaffari, Ali; Yousefi, Elham; Khademvatan, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Background. The present study aimed to compare plasma levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and prolactin in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. Method. A total of 100 patients with schizophrenia disorder (69 men and 31 women) and 190 healthy individuals (94 men and 96 women) participated in this cross-sectional study. They were tested for hormone levels and completed demographic questionnaires. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and one-way analysis of variance. Results. Serum testosterone level was significantly higher in men with schizophrenia than in healthy men. Women with schizophrenia had a significantly higher level of testosterone and lower level of prolactin compared to healthy women. There were no significant differences in hormone levels across various subtypes of schizophrenia. No significant differences also were observed in hormones levels in patients with first-episode schizophrenia disorder compared to those in patients with recurrent episodes. Conclusion. This study indicated that abnormal testosterone and prolactin levels might be associated with pathophysiology of schizophrenia disorder. PMID:27293968

  14. [Integrative neuroimaging for schizophrenia targeting early intervention and prevention (IN-STEP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Kiyoto

    2010-11-01

    The editorial of the new-year issue of Nature 2010 features "A decade for psychiatric disorders". The DALY estimation clearly shows that psychiatric disorders are the top source for burden of diseases to the individual life and society. Schizophrenia is a most devastating psychiatric disorder in which the onset is usually at youth and the cognitive dysfunction persists for life-long in some patients. Schizophrenia is associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities. It has been unknown whether post-onset progressive pathology is also present in schizophrenia until the recent sophistication of in vivo neuroimaging techniques. Longitudinal neuroimaging studies on first-episode schizophrenia have shown a progressive deterioration of structure and function of neocortical regions in the early stage of the disorder. Insult to dendritic spines through glutamatergic dysfunction may underlie this process, which may in turn be a promising molecular target for intervention to improve the functional outcome of schizophrenia. More recently, the question of whether early intervention can be targeted at prodromal stage of schizophrenia has called special attention in psychiatry. In University of Tokyo, the integrative neuroimaging studies for schizophrenia targeting early intervention and prevention (IN-STEP) is ongoing. Through these efforts, we would like to contribute to the establishment of "youth mental health", where every youth in the community can know, prevent, and have easy access to needs- and value-based services, and pursue mental well-being and recovery. PMID:21921453

  15. Correlations between hormone levels and psychiatric symptoms as well as cognitive function in drug-free first-episode schizophrenics%首发未用药精神分裂症患者血清性激素与精神症状及认知功能的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁秀霞; 朱琦玥; 梁怀斌; 黑钢瑞; 李雪; 庞礼娟; 李慧慧; 李红; 宋学勤

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore hormone such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH),luteinizing (LH),prolactin (PRL),estradiol (E2),progesterone (PROG) and testosterone (TESTO) levels in first-episode drug-free schizophrenics,and the relationship between clinical symptoms and sex hormones,in order to further study the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.Methods Eighty-one first-episode drug-free schizophrenics including thirty-nine male and forty-two female from First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University and seventy healthy subjects (thirty male and forty female) were enrolled.Serum levels of hormone were measured using electrical chemiluminescence immunoassay,and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to evaluate the mental symptoms and Matrics Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) was used to evaluate cognitive function.Results (1) The serum levels of PRL in male patients group ((24 ± 9) ng/ml) was higher than that of control group ((10 ± 3) ng/ml) (P < 0.05),the serum levels of E2,TESTO of male patients group ((29 ± 10) ng/ml),((3.2 ± 1.7) ng/ml) was lower than that of control group ((35 ± 11) ng/ml),((4.4 ± 1.6) ng/ml) (P < 0.05);The serum levels of PRL,TESTO of female patients group ((29 ± 16) ng/ml),((0.5 ±0.4) ng/ml) were dramatically higher than that of control group ((13 ± 5) ng/ml),((0.3 ± 0.1) ng/ml) (P < 0.05),the serum levels of E2 of female patients group ((51 ± 40) ng/ml) was lower than that of control group ((63 ± 66) ng/ml) (P =0.05).(2) The serum levels of PRL,E2,TESTO in male patients group were negatively associated with negative symptoms (r =-0.478,-0.443,-0.576,P < 0.05),PRL were negatively related to positive symptoms (r =-0.542,P < 0.05);In female patients group,the serum levels of PRL were negatively associated with negative symptoms (r =-0.343,P < 0.05),the serum levels of E2 was negatively related to positive symptoms,general psychopathology grade,total PANSS grade (r =-0.351,-0.487,-0.405,P < 0.05),TESTO had a

  16. Regional Abnormality of Grey Matter in Schizophrenia: Effect from the Illness or Treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yue

    Full Text Available Both schizophrenia and antipsychotic treatment are known to modulate brain morphology. However, it is difficult to establish whether observed structural brain abnormalities are due to disease or the effects of treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of illness and antipsychotic treatment on brain structures in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia based on a longitudinal short-term design. Twenty antipsychotic-naïve subjects with first-episode schizophrenia and twenty-four age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent 3T MRI scans. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to examine the brain structural abnormality in patients compared to healthy controls. Nine patients were included in the follow-up examination after 8 weeks of treatment. Tensor-based morphometry (TBM was used to identify longitudinal brain structural changes. We observed significantly reduced grey matter volume in the right superior temporal gyrus in antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls. After 8 weeks of treatment, patients showed significantly increased grey matter volume primarily in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, insula, right thalamus, left superior occipital cortex and the bilateral cerebellum. In addition, a greater enlargement of the prefrontal cortex is associated with the improvement in negative symptoms, and a more enlarged thalamus is associated with greater improvement in positive symptoms. Our results suggest the following: (1 the abnormality in the right superior temporal gyrus is present in the early stages of schizophrenia, possibly representing the core region related to schizophrenia; and (2 atypical antipsychotics could modulate brain morphology involving the thalamus, cortical grey matter and cerebellum. In addition, examination of the prefrontal cortex and thalamus might facilitate an efficient response to atypical antipsychotics in terms of symptom improvement.

  17. The validity of dysthymia to predict clinical depressive symptoms as measured by the Hamilton Depression Scale at the 5-year follow-up of patients with first episode depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In long-term follow-up studies on depression, the Eysenck Neuroticism Scale (ENS) at the score level of dysthymia has been found to be valid at predicting poor outcome. AIMS: The ENS dysthymia level was compared with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) level to predict the prevalence...... as measured by the two self-rating scales ENS and BDI can be considered part of a 'double depression' in patients with first episode depression, implying an existence of depressive symptoms at the 5-year follow-up. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Evaluation of dysthymia or neuroticism is important to perform, even...... of depressive symptoms at the 5-year follow-up of patients initially diagnosed with first episode depression using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) to express depressive symptoms. METHODS: A total of 301 in- or outpatients aged 18-70 years with a recent single depressive episode were assessed by ENS, BDI...

  18. Atypical visual and somatosensory adaptation in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, G N; Butler, J S; Peters, G A; Molholm, S; Foxe, J J

    2016-01-01

    Neurophysiological investigations in patients with schizophrenia consistently show early sensory processing deficits in the visual system. Importantly, comparable sensory deficits have also been established in healthy first-degree biological relatives of patients with schizophrenia and in first-episode drug-naive patients. The clear implication is that these measures are endophenotypic, related to the underlying genetic liability for schizophrenia. However, there is significant overlap between patient response distributions and those of healthy individuals without affected first-degree relatives. Here we sought to develop more sensitive measures of sensory dysfunction in this population, with an eye to establishing endophenotypic markers with better predictive capabilities. We used a sensory adaptation paradigm in which electrophysiological responses to basic visual and somatosensory stimuli presented at different rates (ranging from 250 to 2550 ms interstimulus intervals, in blocked presentations) were compared. Our main hypothesis was that adaptation would be substantially diminished in schizophrenia, and that this would be especially prevalent in the visual system. High-density event-related potential recordings showed amplitude reductions in sensory adaptation in patients with schizophrenia (N=15 Experiment 1, N=12 Experiment 2) compared with age-matched healthy controls (N=15 Experiment 1, N=12 Experiment 2), and this was seen for both sensory modalities. At the individual participant level, reduced adaptation was more robust for visual compared with somatosensory stimulation. These results point to significant impairments in short-term sensory plasticity across sensory modalities in schizophrenia. These simple-to-execute measures may prove valuable as candidate endophenotypes and will bear follow-up in future work. PMID:27163205

  19. Correlation between serum levels of homocysteine and folate and cognitive dysfunction in first-episode schizophrenics%首发精神分裂症患者血清叶酸、同型半胱氨酸水平及其与认知功能的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭梅; 朱琪玥; 张伟; 李雪; 郝以辉; 李幼辉; 吕路线; 宋学勤

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨首发精神分裂症患者血清叶酸、同型半胱氨酸水平及其与认知功能之间的关系.方法 选取2012年10月至2013年6月就诊于郑州大学第一附属医院的60例首发未用药精神分裂症患者(患者组)和同期的健康对照者(对照组)60名,采用电化学免疫发光法和循环酶法分别测定受试者血清叶酸和同型半胱氨酸水平,阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS)评定患者组入组时精神症状,精神分裂症认知功能成套测验(MCCB)评估患者入组时的认知功能.结果 患者组血清叶酸水平[(4.1 ±1.9) ng/ml]低于对照组[(7.5±1.9)ng/ml] (P <0.001);同型半胱氨酸水平患者组[(27 ±9)μmol/L]高于对照组[(18±6)μmol/L] (P =0.006);相关分析显示,患者组叶酸水平和同型半胱氨酸水平呈负相关(r=-0.38,P=0.002),患者组血清叶酸水平与阴性症状呈负相关(r=-0.25,P<0.05),患者血清同型半胱氨酸水平与连线测验分呈正相关(r=0.28),与霍普金斯词语学习测验分、简易视觉记忆测验分、Stroop色词测验分和持续操作测验评分呈负相关(r=-0.38,r=-0.33,r=-0.30,r=-0.30,均P<0.05).结论 首发精神分裂症患者血清叶酸水平降低,同型半胱氨酸水平升高,与患者精神症状和认知功能的损害程度存在一定相关性.%Objective To explore the correlation between serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and folate and cognitive function in first-episode drug-naǐve schizophrenics.Methods A total of 60 first-episode schizophrenics (schizophrenia group) from our hospital and 60 healthy individuals (control group) were enrolled.Serum levels of folate and Hcy were measured with electrochemical luminescence method and enzymatic cycling assay respectively.Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to evaluate the mental symptoms and Matrics Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) was used to evaluate the cognitive function.Results Serum level of folate in schizophrenia group (4.1

  20. Prevalence of diabetes, metabolic syndrome and metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenia over the course of the illness: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wampers M

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with schizophrenia are at high risk of developing metabolic abnormalities. Method A prospective study focusing on metabolic disturbances in patients with schizophrenia, including an oral glucose tolerance test, is currently ongoing at our University Hospital and affiliate services. The prevalence of metabolic abnormalities at baseline was assessed in a cohort of 415 patients with schizophrenia. The sample was divided into 4 groups according to duration of illness: first-episode patients (20 years. Results Metabolic abnormalities were already present in first-episode patients, and considerably increased with increasing duration of illness. When compared to the general population matched for age and gender, much higher rates of the metabolic syndrome (MetS and diabetes were observed for patients with schizophrenia. For MetS, the increase over time was similar to that of the general population. In contrast, the difference in the prevalence of diabetes in patients with schizophrenia and the general population dramatically and linearly increased from 1.6% in the 15–25 age-band to 19.2% in the 55–65 age-band. Conclusion Thus, the current data suggest that on the one hand metabolic abnormalities are an inherent part of schizophrenic illness, as they are already present in first-episode patients. On the other hand, however, our results suggest a direct effect of the illness and/or antipsychotic medication on their occurence. The data underscore the need for screening for metabolic abnormalities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, already starting from the onset of the illness.

  1. Implications of epigenetic modulation for novel treatment approaches in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Danielle S; Kudlow, Paul A; Baskaran, Anusha; Mansur, Rodrigo B; McIntyre, Roger S

    2014-02-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous and complex mental disorder with high rates of disability, non-recovery, and relapse. The primary pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia are antipsychotics. Notwithstanding the efficacy of antipsychotics in ameliorating positive symptoms and reducing relapse rates, cognitive deficits and negative symptoms are not sufficiently treated with available pharmaceutical agents. Moreover, schizophrenia is associated with consistent, replicable, and clinically significant deficits in cognition. The importance of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is emphasized by reports indicating that the severity of cognitive deficits is predictive of treatment compliance, adherence, and risk of relapse among first-episode individuals. Taken together, this review highlights epigenetic modulations involving histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as a potential avenue for novel treatment toward improvements in cognition and functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. The combination of epigenetic modulation with pharmacological interventions that engage multiple disparate physiological systems implicated in schizophrenia are discussed, and may represent a more effective strategy in ameliorating cognitive deficits and mitigating symptoms for improved functionality.

  2. Autistic disorders and schizophrenia: related or remote? An anatomical likelihood estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlton Cheung

    Full Text Available Shared genetic and environmental risk factors have been identified for autistic spectrum disorders (ASD and schizophrenia. Social interaction, communication, emotion processing, sensorimotor gating and executive function are disrupted in both, stimulating debate about whether these are related conditions. Brain imaging studies constitute an informative and expanding resource to determine whether brain structural phenotype of these disorders is distinct or overlapping. We aimed to synthesize existing datasets characterizing ASD and schizophrenia within a common framework, to quantify their structural similarities. In a novel modification of Anatomical Likelihood Estimation (ALE, 313 foci were extracted from 25 voxel-based studies comprising 660 participants (308 ASD, 352 first-episode schizophrenia and 801 controls. The results revealed that, compared to controls, lower grey matter volumes within limbic-striato-thalamic circuitry were common to ASD and schizophrenia. Unique features of each disorder included lower grey matter volume in amygdala, caudate, frontal and medial gyrus for schizophrenia and putamen for autism. Thus, in terms of brain volumetrics, ASD and schizophrenia have a clear degree of overlap that may reflect shared etiological mechanisms. However, the distinctive neuroanatomy also mapped in each condition raises the question about how this is arrived in the context of common etiological pressures.

  3. Clinical efficacy and safety of olanzapine and risperidone in the treatment of first episode schizophrenia%奥氮平与利培酮治疗首发精神分裂症的疗效及安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨老虎; 魏昆岭; 苏顺英; 高良会; 成玉敏

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价奥氮平与利培酮治疗首发精神分裂症的疗效及安全性.方法 96例首发精神分裂症患者随机分为奥氮平组与利培酮组,分别治疗8周.采用阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)及副反应量表(TESS)评定疗效及副反应.结果 奥氮平组与利培酮组的总有效率分别为81.67%和79.36%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).2组不良反应发生率低、程度轻,奥氮平组体质量增加比例高于利培酮组;利培酮组锥体外系反应比例高于奥氮平组.结论 2种药物均为疗效好、安全性高的抗精神病药.

  4. Compare safety of amisulpride and olanzapine in the treatment of first-episode schizophrenia%氨磺必利与奥氮平治疗精神分裂症患者安全性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程万良; 朱文礼; 王伟; 王继轩; 储贝贝; 杨永春

    2016-01-01

    目的 比较氨磺必利与奥氮平治疗首发精神分裂症的安全性.方法 对80例使用氨磺必利或奥氮平的精神分裂症患者病案资料回顾性调查分析,统计一般人口学资料、副反应、精神症状测评、实验室检查结果.结果 全部80例病例中,氨磺必利组(amisulpride group,AG)性激素异常25例,奥氮平组(olanzapine group,OG)18例,差异有统计学意义(X2=4.220,P=0.40).进一步研究发现AG组在血清泌乳素水平高于OG组[(63.12±38.74) ng/mL;(37.84±36.50) ng/mL];差异有统计学意义(t=-3.003,P=0.004).AG组与OG组在一般人口学资料、副反应、精神症状测评等方面差异无统计学意义.结论 氨磺必利对治疗首发精神分裂症安全性与奥氮平相当,需注意氨磺必利对精神分裂症患者内分泌的影响.

  5. Deinstitutionalization revisited: a 5-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial of hospital-based rehabilitation versus specialized assertive intervention (OPUS) versus standard treatment for patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Øhlenschlæger, Johan; Thorup, Anne Amalie Elgaard;

    2010-01-01

    in a special part of the Copenhagen OPUS trial and randomized to either the specialized assertive intervention program (OPUS), standard treatment or hospital-based rehabilitation. RESULTS: It was a stable pattern that patients randomized to hospital-based rehabilitation spent more days in psychiatric wards...... and in supported housing throughout the 5-year follow-up period compared with the two other groups. Patients in OPUS treatment spent significantly fewer days in psychiatric wards and supported housing in the first 3 years compared with patients in hospital-based rehabilitation. Due to attrition and small sample...... size, differences in level of psychotic and negative symptoms at 5-year follow-up could not be evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that hospital-based rehabilitation together with weekly supportive psychodynamic therapy was associated with a continued increased use of psychiatric bed days...

  6. Cognitive training plus a comprehensive psychosocial programme (OPUS) versus the comprehensive psychosocial programme alone for patients with first-episode schizophrenia (the NEUROCOM trial): a study protocol for a centrally randomised, observer-blinded multi-centre clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Lone; Christensen, Torben Østergaard; Olsen, Birthe B;

    2011-01-01

    as practical everyday tasks and calendar training. It takes place twice a week, and every other week the patient and trainer engage in a dialogue on the patient’s cognitive difficulties, motivational goals, and progress in competence level. Cognitive training relies on errorless learning principles...... training integrated in a comprehensive psychosocial programme versus the comprehensive psychosocial programme alone. The cognitive training consists of four modules focusing on attention, executive functioning, learning, and memory. Cognitive training involves computer-assisted training tasks as well...

  7. Altered functional connectivity links in neuroleptic-naïve and neuroleptic-treated patients with schizophrenia, and their relation to symptoms including volition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidan Pu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze functional connectivity in untreated and treated patients with schizophrenia, resting-state fMRI data were obtained for whole-brain functional connectivity analysis from 22 first-episode neuroleptic-naïve schizophrenia (NNS, 61 first-episode neuroleptic-treated schizophrenia (NTS patients, and 60 healthy controls (HC. Reductions were found in untreated and treated patients in the functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus, and this was correlated with the reduction in volition from the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS, that is in the willful initiation, sustenance, and control of thoughts, behavior, movements, and speech, and with the general and negative symptoms. In addition in both patient groups interhemispheric functional connectivity was weaker between the orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala and temporal pole. These functional connectivity changes and the related symptoms were not treated by the neuroleptics. Differences between the patient groups were that there were more strong functional connectivity links in the NNS patients (including in hippocampal, frontal, and striatal circuits than in the NTS patients. These findings with a whole brain analysis in untreated and treated patients with schizophrenia provide evidence on some of the brain regions implicated in the volitional, other general, and negative symptoms, of schizophrenia that are not treated by neuroleptics so have implications for the development of other treatments; and provide evidence on some brain systems in which neuroleptics do alter the functional connectivity.

  8. CNVs conferring risk of autism or schizophrenia affect cognition in controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefansson, Hreinn; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Steinberg, Stacy;

    2014-01-01

    to another. Controls carrying the chromosome 15q11.2 deletion between breakpoints 1 and 2 (15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion) have a history of dyslexia and dyscalculia, even after adjusting for IQ in the analysis, and the CNV only confers modest effects on other cognitive traits. The 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion...... affects brain structure in a pattern consistent with both that observed during first-episode psychosis in schizophrenia and that of structural correlates in dyslexia....

  9. Can structural neuroimaging be used to define phenotypes and course of schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, John G; Lauriello, John

    2012-09-01

    This article examines whether structural neuroimaging measures have been found to predict outcome in schizophrenia and whether changes in neuroimaging measures have been found to correlate with poor outcome in the disorder. Overall, there is little compelling evidence that structural neuroimaging measures in either first-episode or chronic patients predict future outcome. Progressive brain changes might reflect a neuroimaging phenotype associated with a worse course of the disorder. At the same time, there are many fruitful avenues that future research could take in an attempt to better predict future outcome or to identify specific imaging phenotypes associated with outcome. PMID:22929870

  10. The ABC Schizophrenia Study: a preliminary overview of the results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, H; Maurer, K; Löffler, W; an der Heiden, W; Munk-Jørgensen, P; Hambrecht, M; Riecher-Rössler, A

    1998-08-01

    The ABC Schizophrenia Study, a large-scale epidemiological and neurobiological research project commenced in 1987, initially pursued two aims: (1) to elucidate the possible causes of the sex difference in age at first admission for schizophrenia and (2) to analyse the early course of the disorder from onset until first contact and its implications for further course and outcome. First, transnational case-register data (for Denmark and Germany) were compared, second, a population-based sample of first-episode cases of schizophrenia (n = 232) were selected and third, the results obtained were compared with data from the WHO Determinants of Outcome Study by using a systematic methodology. A consistent result was a 3-4 years higher age of onset for women by any definition of onset, which was not explainable by social variables, such as differences in the male-female societal roles. A sensitivity-reducing effect of oestrogen on central D2 receptors was identified as the underlying neurobiological mechanism in animal experiments. Applicability to humans with schizophrenia was established in a controlled clinical study. A comparison of familial and sporadic cases showed that in cases with a high genetic load, the sex difference in age of onset disappeared due to a clearly reduced age of onset in women, whereas in sporadic cases it increased. To analyse early course retrospectively, a semistructured interview, IRAOS, was developed. The early stages of the disorder were reconstructed in comparison with age- and sex-matched controls from the same population of origin. The initial signs consisted mainly of negative and affective symptoms, which accumulated exponentially until the first episode, as did the later emerging positive symptoms. Social disability appeared 2-4 years before first admission on average. In early-onset cases, social course and outcome, studied prospectively over 5 years, was determined by the level of social development at onset through social stagnation

  11. Xanthurenic Acid Activates mGlu2/3 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors and is a Potential Trait Marker for Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Francesco; Lionetto, Luana; Curto, Martina; Iacovelli, Luisa; Cavallari, Michele; Zappulla, Cristina; Ulivieri, Martina; Napoletano, Flavia; Capi, Matilde; Corigliano, Valentina; Scaccianoce, Sergio; Caruso, Alessandra; Miele, Jessica; De Fusco, Antonio; Di Menna, Luisa; Comparelli, Anna; De Carolis, Antonella; Gradini, Roberto; Nisticò, Robert; De Blasi, Antonio; Girardi, Paolo; Bruno, Valeria; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Simmaco, Maurizio

    2015-12-08

    The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism has been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. We report here that the kynurenine metabolite, xanturenic acid (XA), interacts with, and activates mGlu2 and mGlu3 metabotropic glutamate receptors in heterologous expression systems. However, the molecular nature of this interaction is unknown, and our data cannot exclude that XA acts primarily on other targets, such as the vesicular glutamate transporter, in the CNS. Systemic administration of XA in mice produced antipsychotic-like effects in the MK-801-induced model of hyperactivity. This effect required the presence of mGlu2 receptors and was abrogated by the preferential mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist, LY341495. Because the mGlu2 receptor is a potential drug target in the treatment of schizophrenia, we decided to measure serum levels of XA and other kynurenine metabolites in patients affected by schizophrenia. Serum XA levels were largely reduced in a large cohort of patients affected by schizophrenia, and, in patients with first-episode schizophrenia, levels remained low after 12 months of antipsychotic medication. As opposed to other kynurenine metabolites, XA levels were also significantly reduced in first-degree relatives of patients affected by schizophrenia. We suggest that lowered serum XA levels might represent a novel trait marker for schizophrenia.

  12. Psychotherapy and Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Peter F.; LYS, CHRISTINE

    1996-01-01

    Psychotherapy for patients with schizophrenia, although almost universally practiced in some form with clinical management of schizophrenia, has not been the present focus of such rigorous scientific inquiry as has been afforded to other current treatment modalities. This review highlights areas of potential progress and opportunities for clearer definition of psychotherapies for schizophrenia.

  13. Metamemory in schizophrenia: retrospective confidence ratings interact with neurocognitive deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifler, Sarah; Rausch, Franziska; Schirmbeck, Frederike; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Mier, Daniela; Esslinger, Christine; Englisch, Susanne; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kirsch, Peter; Zink, Mathias

    2015-02-28

    Prior studies with schizophrenia patients described a reduced ability to discriminate between correct and false memories in terms of confidence compared to control groups. This metamemory bias has been associated with the emergence and maintenance of delusions. The relation to neuropsychological performance and other clinical dimensions is incompletely understood. In a cross-sectional study, metamemory functioning was explored in 32 schizophrenia patients and 25 healthy controls. Metamemory was assessed using a verbal recognition task combined with retrospective confidence level ratings. Associations of metamemory performance with six neuropsychological domains (executive functioning/problem solving, speed of processing, working memory, verbal and visual learning, and attention/vigilance) and psychopathological measures were analyzed. Results revealed a significantly smaller discrepancy between confidence ratings for correct and incorrect recognitions in the patient group. Furthermore, patients showed significantly lower recognition accuracy in the metamemory task and marked deficits in all neuropsychological domains. Across all participants, metamemory performance significantly correlated with executive functioning and working memory. No associations with delusions were found. This data confirms prior findings of metamemory biases in schizophrenia. Selective neuropsychological abilities seem to be modulating factors of metamemory functioning. Longitudinal studies in at risk mental state and first-episode patients are needed to reveal causal interrelations. PMID:25530415

  14. Evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia: recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Thomas R E

    2011-05-01

    These guidelines from the British Association for Psychopharmacology address the scope and targets of pharmacological treatment for schizophrenia. A consensus meeting, involving experts in schizophrenia and its treatment, reviewed key areas and considered the strength of evidence and clinical implications. The guidelines were drawn up after extensive feedback from the participants and interested parties, and cover the pharmacological management and treatment of schizophrenia across the various stages of the illness, including first-episode, relapse prevention, and illness that has proved refractory to standard treatment. The practice recommendations presented are based on the available evidence to date, and seek to clarify which interventions are of proven benefit. It is hoped that the recommendations will help to inform clinical decision making for practitioners, and perhaps also serve as a source of information for patients and carers. They are accompanied by a more detailed qualitative review of the available evidence. The strength of supporting evidence for each recommendation is rated.

  15. Mismatch negativity and P3a/reorienting complex in subjects with schizophrenia or at-risk mental state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko eHiguchi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Shorter duration of untreated psychosis has been associated with better prognosis in patients with schizophrenia. In Introduction: In this study, we measured duration mismatch negativity (dMMN, P3a and reorienting negativity (RON in subjects with at-risk mental state (ARMS, patients with first-episode or chronic schizophrenia, and healthy volunteers. The main interest was to determine if these event-related potentials provide a biomarker associated with progression to overt schizophrenia in ARMS subjects.Methods: Seventeen ARMS subjects meeting the criteria of the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental State, 38 patients with schizophrenia (19 first-episode and 19 chronic, and 19 healthy controls participated in the study. dMMN, P3a and RON were measured with an auditory odd-ball paradigm at baseline. Results: During the follow-up period (2.2 years, 4 out of the 19 ARMS subjects transitioned to schizophrenia (Converters while 15 did not (non-Converters. dMMN amplitudes of Converters were significantly smaller than those of non-Converters at frontal and central electrodes before onset of illness. dMMN amplitudes of non-Converters did not differ from those of healthy controls, while Converters showed significantly smaller dMMN amplitudes compared to control subjects. RON amplitudes were also reduced at frontal and central electrodes in subjects with schizophrenia, but not ARMS. Converter subjects tended to show smaller RON amplitudes compared to non-Converters. Conclusions: Our data confirm that diminished dMMN amplitudes provide a biomarker which is present before and after the development of psychosis. In this respect, RON amplitudes may also be useful, as suggested for the first time in this study.

  16. Comparison of overgeneral autobiographical memory between first-episode and recurrent depressive patients%首发与复发抑郁症患者的过度概括化自传体记忆比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳艳松; 王军; 张付全; 王国强; 陈新宇; 王志强

    2013-01-01

    Object To explore the difference of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) between first-episode and recurrent depressive patients,and whether the overgeneral autobiographical memory can affect the symptoms of depression or not.Methods 34 first-episode depression patients and 31 recurrent depression patients were enrolled.All patients were measured by autobiographical memory test (AMT),Hamilton Depression Scale-17 (HAMD-17) and Beck depression rating scale(BDI).Results ①The OGM score was higher in recurrent depressive group than that in first-episode group (respectively,(3.90 ± 1.65),(3.10± 1.57),t =2.035,P<0.05).②The positive OGM score was higher in recurrent depressive group than that in first-episode group(respectively,(2.40± 1.36),(1.70± 1.08),t =2.308,P< 0.05).③The correlation coefficient (r value) between the total score of OGM and total score of BDI,total score of HAMD,two subfactors (cognitive disorder and slow)scores of HAMD in recurrent depressive group were 0.497,0.552,0.631,and 0.553 respectively,which significantly correlated.Conclusion Compared with first-episode depressive patients,the OGM in recurrent depressive patients is more severe.The OGM can increase the symptoms of depression,the cognitive disorder and slow.%目的 探索复发性抑郁症与首发抑郁症患者过度概括化自传体记忆(OGM)的差异,以及过度概括化自传体记忆对抑郁症状的影响.方法 对34例首发性抑郁症患者以及31例复发性抑郁症患者,采用自传体记忆测评(autobiographical memory test,AMT)评定过度概括化自传体记忆水平、汉密尔顿抑郁量表测评(HAMD-17)及贝克抑郁量表(BDI)评定抑郁严重程度.结果 ①复发性抑郁症组OGM总分显著高于首发抑郁症组[分别为(3.90± 1.65)分,(3.10±1.57)分,t=2.035,P<0.05];②复发性抑郁症组积极线索词诱导的OGM总分显著高于首发抑郁症组[分别为(2.40± 1.36)分,(1.70±1.08)分,t=2.308,P<0.05];③OGM与BDI总分

  17. 首发、复发和双相抑郁患者精神症状的比较%Comparison of the mental symptoms in patients with first episode depression, recurrent depression and bipolar depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任志斌; 马永春; 金卫东; 王鹤秋; 王乃信

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨首发、复发及双相抑郁患者精神症状的差异. 方法:对首次抑郁发作患者(首发组,24例)、复发性抑郁症患者(复发组,57例)及双相抑郁患者(双相组,25例)进行汉密尔顿抑郁评定量表(HAMD)、汉密尔顿焦虑评定量表(HAMA)、杨氏躁狂评定量表(YMRS)以及阳性和阴性症状评定量表(PANSS)评定和比较. 结果:HAMD、HAMA评分在3组间差异无统计学意义;YMRS评分3组间差异有统计学意义(F=5.2,P=0.007);双相组(6.6±9.0)显著高于首发组(2.8±3.4)和复发组(2.2±3.2)(q =3.86,g =4.40;P均<0.05).双相组HAMD中的躯体焦虑因子分、体重因子分均显著低于复发组(P<0.05或P<0.01);双相组精神病理学症状评分如意志活动、愤怒、幻觉、易激惹、激越、思维联想加快、破坏或攻击行为、活动增加显著高于首发组及复发组(P<0.05或P<0.01). 结论:双相障碍患者抑郁发作时可出现与躁狂相关精神症状.%Objective:To explore the difference in mental symptoms among depressive patients with first episode,recurrent and bipolar episode.Method:The evaluations of Hamilton depression scale (HAMD),Hamilton anxiety scale(HAMA),Young mania rating scale (YMRS) and positive and negative symptoms rating scale (PANSS) were preformed in 24 patients with first episode (first episode group),57 patients with recurrence depression (recurrence group) and 24 patients with bipolar depression (bipolar group).The results were compared among the three groups.Results:The scores of HAMD,HAMA among the three groups were no significant difference,but score of YMRS among the three groups were significantly different (F =5.2,P =0.007).The score of YMRS in bipolar group (6.6 ± 9.0) was significantly higher than first episode group (2.8 ± 3.4) and recurrence group (2.2 ± 3.2) (q =3.86,q =4.40 ; all P < 0.05).The scors of somatic anxiety factor and weight factor of HAMD in bipolar group were significantly lower than those in

  18. SCHIZOPHRENIA: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia continues to be a mysterious disease fascinating the minds of psychiatrists, pharmacologists and neuroscientists all over the world for more than a century. The crucial welfare of the millions afflicted with schizophrenia is at stake. The cause of schizophrenia is not yet identified. However, it appears from the available reports that schizophrenia results from genetic, occupational and environmental risk factors, which act independently or combine synergistically to develop schizophrenia. In any case, schizophrenia should not be confined to split personality or multiple personality- disorder. Typically, a schizophrenic patient shows both, positive symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations or cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms such as social withdrawal, inability to articulate or loss of emotional tone. Some psycho-active drugs such as Cocaine, Heroin, LSD, Prozac, and Ketamine produce positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Brain regions affected in schizophrenia are amygdala, ventral striatum, frontal cortex, temporal cortex, hippocampus and thalamus. The levels of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine, serotonin and nor-epinephrine are significantly altered in schizophrenia. The enigma of schizophrenia has fascinated neuroscientists all over the world to develop parallel animal models in an attempt to discover new medicines for the effective management of this psychiatric disorder.

  19. 氨磺必利治疗首发精神分裂症的泌乳素水平与临床疗效分析%The effect of amisulpride on prolactin level and clinical efficacy in first-episode schizophrenic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲照希; 吕路线

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨氨磺必利对首发精神分裂症患者血清泌乳素水平的影响及其与症状的关系.方法 对符合DSM-IV精神分裂症诊断标准的45例患者和年龄、性别相匹配的45例健康对照,用阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS)进行症状评定,利用酶联免疫法进行泌乳素水平测定,用配对t检验比较患者氨磺必利治疗前后血清泌乳素水平,用相关性分析研究血清泌乳素水平与症状的关系.结果 首发精神分裂症患者氨磺必利治疗后血清泌乳素水平较治疗前显著升高[(12.52±8.85) ng/ml,(52.60±22.93) ng/ml,t=12.165,P<0.001];患者治疗后血清泌乳素水平与阴性症状分减分率呈正相关(r=0.24,P<0.05).结论 氨磺必利能引起血清泌乳素升高;血清泌乳素升高与阴性症状改善密切相关.%Objective To discuss the effect of amisulpride on the prolactin level in serum of first-episode schizophrenic patients and its relationship with symptoms.Methods 45 patients who met the DSM-IV schizophrenia diagnostic criteria and 45 age-and gender-matched healthy controls were assessed the clinical symptoms using positive and negative syndrome scale(PANSS) and pmlactin level in serum was detected using enzymelinked immunosorbent assay.Student's t test was used to compare the prolactin level before and after amisulpride treatment and correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationship between prolactin level in serum and symptoms with P<0.05 were considered significantly different.Results There was significant increase in prolactin level in serum after amisulpride treatment in first-episode schizophrenic patients((12.52±8.85) ng/ml,(52.60±22.93 ng/ml,t=12.165,P<0.001).There was a positive correlation between prolactin level in serum and reduction rate of negative symptoms (r=0.24,P<0.05).Conclusion Amisulpride can increase prolactin level in serum;and the rise of serum prolactin is closely related to the improvement of negative symptoms.

  20. Bipolar disorder first episode and suicidal behavior: are there differences according to type of suicide attempt? A polaridade do primeiro episódio no transtorno bipolar é um preditor para tentativa de suicídio (violenta e não violenta) futura?

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Silva Neves; Leandro Fernandes Malloy-Diniz; Izabela Guimarães Barbosa; Paulo Marcos Brasil; Humberto Corrêa

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the polarity of the first mood episode may be a marker for suicidal behavior, particularly the violent subtype. METHOD: One hundred and sixty-eight patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (DSM-IV) were grouped according to type of first episode: depression or manic/hypomanic. Groups were compared for demographic and clinical variables. We performed logistic regression in order to test the association between first episode...

  1. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Yoshio Arturo; Matcheri S Keshavan

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are pervasive, severe, and largely independent of the positive and negative symptoms of the illness. These deficits are increasingly considered to be core features of schizophrenia with evidence that the extent of cognitive impairment is the most salient predictor of daily functioning. Unfortunately, current schizophrenia treatment has been limited in addressing the cognitive deficits of the illness. Alterations in neuroplasticity are hypothesized to underp...

  2. Demodex Parazytes in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Demodex parazytes are commonly present all over the world, especially in facial region of humans. Demodex spp. are assumed to be more common in schizophrenia due to partial suppression of immune system and lack of good self-care. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Demodex ectoparasites in schizophrenia patients. Material and Method: In the study, 31 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 30 subjects without any psychiatric disorder or skin disease were subje...

  3. No change in N-acetyl aspartate in first episode of moderate depression after antidepressant treatment: 1H magnetic spectroscopy study of left amygdala and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajs Janović M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Maja Bajs Janović,1,3 Petra Kalember,2 Špiro Janović,1,3 Pero Hrabač,2 Petra Folnegović Grošić,1 Vladimir Grošić,4 Marko Radoš,5 Neven Henigsberg2,61University Department of Psychiatry, Clinical Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb, 2Polyclinic Neuron, Croatian Institute for Brain Research, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, 3University North, Varaždin, 4Psychiatric Hospital Sveti Ivan, Zagreb, 5University Department of Radiology, Clinical Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb, 6Psychiatric Clinic Vrapče, Zagreb, CroatiaBackground: The role of brain metabolites as biological correlates of the intensity, symptoms, and course of major depression has not been determined. It has also been inconclusive whether the change in brain metabolites, measured with proton magnetic spectroscopy, could be correlated with the treatment outcome. Methods: Proton magnetic spectroscopy was performed in 29 participants with a first episode of moderate depression occurring in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left amygdala at baseline and after 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment with escitalopram. The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and the Beck Depression Inventory were used to assess the intensity of depression at baseline and at the endpoint of the study. At endpoint, the participants were identified as responders (n=17 or nonresponders (n=12 to the antidepressant therapy. Results: There was no significant change in the N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratio (NAA/Cr after treatment with antidepressant medication. The baseline and endpoint NAA/Cr ratios were not significantly different between the responder and nonresponder groups. The correlation between NAA/Cr and changes in the scores of clinical scales were not significant in either group. Conclusion: This study could not confirm any significant changes in NAA after antidepressant treatment in the first episode of moderate depression, or in

  4. Aqueduct stenosis and schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Dewan, M J; Bick, P

    1983-01-01

    Three patients with hydrocephalus and aqueduct stenosis are described, who also have schizophrenia defined according to strict diagnostic criteria. There are no previous reports of such an association.

  5. Bilingualism and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Mary V

    2016-06-22

    Although a bilingual advantage has been described for neurodegenerative disease in general, it is not known whether such an advantage could accrue to individuals suffering from schizophrenia, since language networks are known to be disrupted in this condition. The aim of this minireview was to scan the existing literature to determine: (1) whether individuals with schizophrenia are able to learn a second language as adults; (2) whether clinical assessment, both for the purpose of accurate diagnosis and for the prediction of treatment response, should be carried out in both languages in bilinguals with schizophrenia; (3) whether psychotherapy in schizophrenia is affected by bilingualism; and (4) whether speaking a second language improves outcome in schizophrenia. The literature to date is too sparse to make definitive statements, but: (1) individuals with schizophrenia appear to be capable of learning a new languages as adults; and (2) it is possible that teaching a foreign language may serve as a form of cognitive rehabilitation for this condition. This literature review recommends research into the effects of bilingualism on the outcome of schizophrenia. Included in this review is a retrospective pilot study conducted in Canada, which suggests that employment opportunities for patients with schizophrenia are improved when they speak more than one language. This is important to note because employment is generally problematic in the context of schizophrenia while, at the same time, the ability to obtain work contributes significantly to quality of life. PMID:27354960

  6. Exploring rationality in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth;

    2015-01-01

    Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method...... Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence...... differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality....

  7. Vitamin therapy in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating and poorly understood disease for which the only accepted therapy is nonspecific antipsychotic and anti-seizure medication. This article summarizes the evidence that certain vitamin deficiencies likely worsen the symptoms of schizophrenia, and the evidence that large doses of certain vitamins could improve the core metabolic abnormalities that predispose some people to develop it; it recounts the history of a controversial vitamin-based therapy for schizophrenia called orthomolecular psychiatry; and it concludes by advocating a process for discovering promising new schizophrenia therapies that involves small, carefully conducted clinical trials of nutrient combinations in appropriately selected patients. PMID:18587164

  8. Discordant patterns of bacterial translocation markers and implications for innate immune imbalances in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severance, Emily G.; Gressitt, Kristin L.; Stallings, Cassie R.; Origoni, Andrea E.; Khushalani, Sunil; Leweke, F. Markus; Dickerson, Faith B.; Yolken, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of inflammation in psychiatric disorders is not well understood. The translocation of commensal microbiota across the gastrointestinal barrier can result in a persistent state of low-grade immune activation and/or inflammation. We measured serological surrogate markers of bacterial translocation (soluble CD14 (sCD14) and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP)) in two psychiatric cohorts and compared these levels to C-reactive protein (CRP), body mass index (BMI), and food-related and autoimmune antibodies. The two cohorts were composed of the following: (1) n=141 schizophrenia, n=75 bipolar disorder, n=78 controls; (2) n=78 antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia, n=38 medicated first-episode schizophrenia. sCD14 seropositivity conferred a 3.1-fold increased odds of association with schizophrenia (multivariate regressions, OR=3.09, p<0.0001) compared to controls. Case-control differences in sCD14 were not matched by LBP. Quantitative levels of LBP, but not sCD14, correlated with BMI in schizophrenia (R2=0.21, p<0.0001). sCD14 and LBP also exhibited some congruency in schizophrenia with both significantly correlated with CRP (R2=0.26-0.27, p<0.0001) and elevated in females compared to males (p<0.01). Antipsychotic treatment generally did not impact sCD14 or LBP levels except for significant correlations, especially sCD14, with gluten antibodies in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia (R2=0.27, p<0.0001). In bipolar disorder, sCD14 levels were significantly correlated with anti-tissue transglutaminase IgG (R2=0.37, p<0.001). In conclusion, these bacterial translocation markers produced discordant and complex patterns of activity, a finding that may reflect an imbalanced, activated innate immune state. Whereas both markers may upregulate following systemic exposure to Gram-negative bacteria, non-lipopolysaccharide-based monocyte activation, autoimmunity and metabolic dysfunction may also contribute to the observed marker profiles. PMID:23746484

  9. Important components of a short-term family group programme. From the Danish National Multicenter Schizophrenia Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buksti, Ann Staerk; Munkner, Runa; Gade, Inger Lise;

    2006-01-01

    Clinicians from three psychiatric departments have established family groups as a specific intervention for the relatives of patients with first-episode psychosis. The intervention manual is combining the psychoeducational model with psychodynamic understanding and principles. The aim of this study...... of 15 specific items. More than 95% of the relatives appreciated the gained knowledge about schizophrenia as well as the possibility of sharing thoughts and feelings with others. Two specific elements had the highest rating as important factors for the learning condition: 1) to listen to others...

  10. 青少年期首发抑郁患者前瞻性记忆对照分析%Compare Analysis of Prospective Memory of Adolescents with First Episode Major Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰; 郭田友; 赵永忠; 陈宏; 王维千; 易艳红; 郭晗峰; 杨闯

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristics of event-based and time-based prospective memory in the First Episode Major Depressio(FEMD) in Adolescents. Methods: A battery of neuropsychological tests including event-based prospective memor(EBPM) and time-based prospective memory(TBPM) were conducted in 31 un-medicated FEMD patients and 22 age and IQ matched health controls(HC). Results: There were statistic differences between the FEMD group and the health controls in TBPM(P0.05).Con-clusion: This study indicated that First Episode Major Depression in Children and Adolescents show deficit in specific domain of prospective memory.%目的:探讨儿童青少年期首发抑郁患者基于时间前瞻记忆(Time-based Prospective Memory,TBPM)和基于事件前瞻记忆(Event-based Prospective Memory,EBPM)的特点.方法:对31例青少年期首次发作符合DSM-Ⅳ的抑郁障碍(Major Depression Disorder,MDD)患者及22例年龄和智商匹配健康对照进行成套神经心理测试,测试内容包括TBPM和EBPM作业操作.结果:MDD组(3.06±1.12)TBPM测验成绩差于HC组(5.05±0.90),差异有统计学意义(P< 0.05);而两组间EBPM测验成绩比较,无统计学意义.结论:青少年首发抑郁患者TBPM存在缺陷,而EBPM损害不明显.

  11. Rationale and Baseline Characteristics of PREVENT: A Second-Generation Intervention Trial in Subjects At-Risk (Prodromal) of Developing First-Episode Psychosis Evaluating Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Aripiprazole, and Placebo for the Prevention of Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechdolf, Andreas; Müller, Hendrik; Stützer, Hartmut; Wagner, Michael; Maier, Wolfgang; Lautenschlager, Marion; Heinz, Andreas; de Millas, Walter; Janssen, Birgit; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Michel, Tanja Maria; Schneider, Frank; Lambert, Martin; Naber, Dieter; Brüne, Martin; Krüger-Özgürdal, Seza; Wobrock, Thomas; Riedel, Michael; Klosterkötter, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Antipsychotics, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and omega-3-fatty acids have been found superior to control conditions as regards prevention of psychosis in people at-risk of first-episode psychosis. However, no large-scale trial evaluating the differential efficacy of CBT and antipsychotics has been performed yet. In PREVENT, we evaluate CBT, aripiprazole, and clinical management (CM) as well as placebo and CM for the prevention of psychosis in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with regard to the antipsychotic intervention and a randomized controlled trial with regard to the CBT intervention with blinded ratings. The hypotheses are first that CBT and aripiprazole and CM are superior to placebo and CM and second that CBT is not inferior to aripiprazole and CM combined. The primary outcome is transition to psychosis. By November 2010, 156 patients were recruited into the trial. The subjects were substantially functionally compromised (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale mean score 52.5) and 78.3% presented with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition axis I comorbid diagnosis. Prior to randomization, 51.5% of the participants preferred to be randomized into the CBT arm, whereas only 12.9% preferred pharmacological treatment. First, assessments of audiotaped treatment sessions confirmed the application of CBT-specific skills in the CBT condition and the absence of those in CM. The overall quality rating of the CBT techniques applied in the CBT condition was good. When the final results of the trial are available, PREVENT will substantially expand the current limited evidence base for best clinical practice in people at-risk (prodromal) of first-episode psychosis. PMID:21860040

  12. Neuroimmune biomarkers in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Jakub; Rahmoune, Hassan; Guest, Paul C; Bahn, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with a broad spectrum of clinical and biological manifestations. Due to the lack of objective tests, the accurate diagnosis and selection of effective treatments for schizophrenia remains challenging. Numerous technologies have been employed in search of schizophrenia biomarkers. These studies have suggested that neuroinflammatory processes may play a role in schizophrenia pathogenesis, at least in a subgroup of patients. The evidence indicates alterations in both pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules in the central nervous system, which have also been found in peripheral tissues and may correlate with schizophrenia symptoms. In line with these findings, certain immunomodulatory interventions have shown beneficial effects on psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia patients, in particular those with distinct immune signatures. In this review, we evaluate these findings and their potential for more targeted drug interventions and the development of companion diagnostics. Although currently no validated markers exist for schizophrenia patient stratification or the prediction of treatment efficacy, we propose that utilisation of inflammatory markers for diagnostic and theranostic purposes may lead to novel therapeutic approaches and deliver more effective care for schizophrenia patients. PMID:25124519

  13. [Dreams and schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tögel, C

    1983-08-01

    This paper deals with the internal relationship between dream and schizophrenia, which has been a subject of discussion in philosophy and medicine since Kant and Griesinger, and shows that it can be supported by Marxist epistemology. A psychological theory of dream and schizophrenia would therefore have an integrative function with regard to psychotherapy and psychiatry. PMID:6635036

  14. Diabetes and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvisaari, Jaana; Keinänen, Jaakko; Eskelinen, Saana; Mantere, Outi

    2016-02-01

    People with schizophrenia have 2- to 5-fold higher risk of type 2 diabetes than the general population. The traditional risk factors for type 2 diabetes, especially obesity, poor diet, and sedentary lifestyle, are common in people with schizophrenia already early in the course of illness. People with schizophrenia also often have low socioeconomic status and income, which affects their possibilities to make healthy lifestyle choices. Antipsychotic medications increase the risk of type 2 diabetes both directly by affecting insulin sensitivity and indirectly by causing weight gain. Lifestyle modification interventions for prevention of diabetes should be an integral part of treatment of patients with schizophrenia. In the treatment of type 2 diabetes in patients with schizophrenia, communication and collaboration between medical care and psychiatric treatment providers are essential. PMID:26803652

  15. Schizophrenia and Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Cetin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is one of the major causes of premature death among patients with schizophrenia. Follow-up studies have estimated that 4-5% of these patients die by suicide. Reducing the high rates of suicide in schizophrenia is possible with understanding of predictive risk factors. Various studies have identified risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia patients. Clinical risk factors include previous suicide attempts, comorbid depression, feelings of hopelessness, concept of insight and substance abuse. Biopsychosocial factors, such as a high intelligence quotient and high level of premorbid functioning, have also been associated with an increased risk of suicide in patients with schizophrenia. The risk of suicide is considered to be highest in the early course of illness. Antipsychotic drugs, in particular clozapine and antidepressants may be helpful in reducing the risk of suicide in schizophrenia.

  16. Demodex Parazytes in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Demodex parazytes are commonly present all over the world, especially in facial region of humans. Demodex spp. are assumed to be more common in schizophrenia due to partial suppression of immune system and lack of good self-care. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Demodex ectoparasites in schizophrenia patients. Material and Method: In the study, 31 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 30 subjects without any psychiatric disorder or skin disease were subjected to standard superficial skin biopsy technique to determine Demodex spp. Results: Demodex spp. were found positive in nine schizophrenia patients and it was found positive in two healthy controls. Considering the prevalence of Demodex spp., a significant relationship is found between schizophrenia patients and normal controls (p

  17. Schizophrenia in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Elizabeth; Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2011-11-01

    Although the number of people older than 55 with schizophrenia is expected to double during the next 20 years, the research data on older adults with schizophrenia are limited. This appears to be because until the middle of the 20th century, it was assumed that mental illness in older adults was a part of the aging process and because older adults are often excluded from research investigations. Nursing research is needed to explore how people with schizophrenia learn to manage their problems as they age, as well as how those who are first diagnosed with schizophrenia in later life adapt to their illness. Mental health nurses need to be cautious in assigning premature labels to older adults with mental illness that may lead to unsubstantiated assumptions about levels of disability. Instead, nurses should realize individual potential regarding undiscovered strengths and should attempt to create interventions that recognize and foster personal development for older adults with schizophrenia.

  18. Reduced activation in ventral striatum and ventral tegmental area during probabilistic decision-making in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Franziska; Mier, Daniela; Eifler, Sarah; Esslinger, Christine; Schilling, Claudia; Schirmbeck, Frederike; Englisch, Susanne; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kirsch, Peter; Zink, Mathias

    2014-07-01

    Patients with schizophrenia suffer from deficits in monitoring and controlling their own thoughts. Within these so-called metacognitive impairments, alterations in probabilistic reasoning might be one cognitive phenomenon disposing to delusions. However, so far little is known about alterations in associated brain functionality. A previously established task for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which requires a probabilistic decision after a variable amount of stimuli, was applied to 23 schizophrenia patients and 28 healthy controls matched for age, gender and educational levels. We compared activation patterns during decision-making under conditions of certainty versus uncertainty and evaluated the process of final decision-making in ventral striatum (VS) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). We replicated a pre-described extended cortical activation pattern during probabilistic reasoning. During final decision-making, activations in several fronto- and parietocortical areas, as well as in VS and VTA became apparent. In both of these regions schizophrenia patients showed a significantly reduced activation. These results further define the network underlying probabilistic decision-making. The observed hypo-activation in regions commonly associated with dopaminergic neurotransmission fits into current concepts of disrupted prediction error signaling in schizophrenia and suggests functional links to reward anticipation. Forthcoming studies with patients at risk for psychosis and drug-naive first episode patients are necessary to elucidate the development of these findings over time and the interplay with associated clinical symptoms. PMID:24831391

  19. Changing the name of schizophrenia: patient perspectives and implications for DSM-V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Tranulis

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of schizophrenia is increasingly contested by researchers, clinicians, patients and family members. Preeminent researchers proposed its replacement with the salience syndrome concept, arguing for increased validity and less stigmatizing potential. This is the first study exploring the effects on stigma of this nosological proposal. METHODS: TWO STUDIES WERE CONDUCTED: one with 161 undergraduate students regarding their stigmatizing attitudes linked to the label of schizophrenia or salience syndrome, the other involved in-depth qualitative interviews with 19 participants treated in a first episode psychosis program. The interviews explored the subjective validity, acceptability and effects on stigma of a diagnosis of schizophrenia or salience syndrome. RESULTS: Overall, no significant differences were found between labels in study 1. For study 2, the majority of participants preferred a diagnosis of salience syndrome, considering it less stigmatizing mostly because of its novelty and the concealing potential of the new diagnostic entity, though many found it hard to relate to and somewhat difficult to understand. DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that the label change does not impact the stigmatizing potential for individuals who are not familiar with mental illness - they appear to base their attitudes on descriptions rather than the label alone. For those suffering from mental illness, a name change for schizophrenia to "salience syndrome" might offer only a temporary relief from stigma. Claims of de-stigmatizing effects should be grounded in sound scientific models of stigma and ideally in empirical data.

  20. Cognitive deficits and levels of IQ in adolescent onset schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, A Katrine; Hemmingsen, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive deficits have been found to be prevalent in early onset schizophrenia. Whether these deficits also characterise other early onset psychotic disorders to a similar degree is unclear, as very few comparative studies have been done. The primary purpose of this study was to compare the prof...... after illness onset. Compared to the deficits of adult schizophrenia described in the literature, the results suggest relatively spared simple reaction times in early onset patients.......Cognitive deficits have been found to be prevalent in early onset schizophrenia. Whether these deficits also characterise other early onset psychotic disorders to a similar degree is unclear, as very few comparative studies have been done. The primary purpose of this study was to compare...... the profile and severity of cognitive impairments in first-episode early onset psychotic patients who received the schizophrenia diagnosis to those diagnosed with other non-organic, non-affective psychotic disorders. The secondary purpose was to examine whether the profile of cognitive deficits, in terms...