Sample records for antipruritics

  1. Antipruritic effect of Cnidii Monnieri Fructus (fruits of Cnidium monnieri CUSSON). (United States)

    Matsuda, Hideaki; Ido, Yasuko; Hirata, Atsushi; Ino, Yoshiaki; Naruto, Shunsuke; Amamiya, Tsutomu; Kubo, Michinori


    Antipruritic effects of 70% ethanol extract (CM-ext) of Cnidii Monnieri Fructus (dried fruits of Cnidium monnieri CUSSON, Umberifferae) were investigated. In mice, an oral administration of CM-ext (200 and 500 mg/kg) inhibited compound 48/80-induced scratching behavior without influence on spontaneous locomotion. Isopimpinellin (3) and osthol (1), coumarin derivatives isolated from CM-ext, showed an inhibitory effect on compound 48/80-induced scratching behavior.

  2. Antipruritic effect of pretreatment with 8% topical capsaicin on histamine- and cowhage-evoked itch in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hjalte Holm; Marker, Jens Broch; Hoeck, Emil A.;


    for 24hrs on each volar forearm. After capsaicin/vehicle application, histamine (1%, administered prick test lancets) and cowhage (40-45 spicules) were applied in pretreated areas. Evoked itch and pain intensities were recorded for 10 minutes using a visual analog scale (0-10 cm), while Sensitivity......-histaminergic itch in a standard 1-hour treatment. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the clinical potential of high-concentration capsaicin as an antipruritic. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  3. Blockade of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors does not prevent the antipruritic effect of systemic paracetamol. (United States)

    Saglam, Gulis; Gunduz, Ozgur; Ulugol, Ahmet


    Cannabinoid CB1 receptors have been shown to mediate the antinociceptive, but not the hypothermic, action of the worldwide used analgesic, paracetamol. Since itch and pain sensations share many similarities, the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether blockade of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors participates in the antipruritic activity of paracetamol in mice. Scratching behavior was induced by intradermal serotonin injection into the rostral part of the back of the mice. After serotonin administration, scratching of the injected site by the hind paws were videotaped and counted for 30 min. Serotonin-induced scratching behavior was attenuated with high-dose paracetamol (300 mg/kg). The CB1 receptor antagonist, AM-251 (1 mg/kg), and the CB2 receptor antagonist, SR-144528 (1 mg/kg), did not alter the anti-scratching behavioral effect of paracetamol. Our results indicate that, in contrast to its antinociceptive action, but similar to its hypothermic effect, cannabinoid receptors are not involved in the antipruritic activity of paracetamol.

  4. Application of natural protein anti-dandruff Sl antipruritic agent in cosmetics and its prospect%天然蛋白去屑止痒剂在化妆品中的应用与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡梅; 彭巍; 李海军


    概述了头皮屑及其形成的机理,同时介绍了新型去屑止痒剂——天然蛋白去屑止痒剂的产品性能及其在日化行业中的应用情况,并对该产品在日化行业中的应用进行了展望。%This paper described dandruff and its folination mechanism firstly. Then, it introduced the performance of a new anti-dandruff & antipruritic agent, a natural protein product which aimed at anti-dandruff & antipruritic, and its current application in daily chemical products Meanwhile, it prospected the future application of this natural protein dandruff & antipruritic agent in daily chemical industry.

  5. Antipruritic effect of cold-induced and transient receptor potential-agonist-induced counter-irritation on histaminergic itch in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hjalte H.; Melholt, Camilla; Hilborg, Sigurd D.;


    (trans-cinnamaldehyde/L-menthol, respectively), on histamine-induced itch, wheal and neurogenic inflammation in 13 healthy volunteers. Histamine 1% was applied to the volar forearms using skin prick-testing lancets. Recorded outcome-parameters were itch intensity, wheal reactions and neurogenic...... inflammation (measured by laser-speckle perfusion-imaging). Homotopic thermal counter-irritation was performed with 6 temperatures, ranging from 4°C to 37°C, using a 3 × 3-cm thermal stimulator. Chemical "cold-like" counter-irritation was conducted with 40% L-menthol and 10% trans-cinnamaldehyde, while 5......% doxepin was used as a positive antipruritic control/comparator. Cold counter-irritation stimuli from 4°C to 22°C inhibited itch in a stimulus-intensity-dependent manner (p menthol...

  6. GC法测定消炎止痒醑中薄荷脑的含量%Determination of Menthol in Anti-inflammatory Antipruritic Spiritus by GC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张咏梅; 陶宇


    Objective To establish a method for the determination of menthol in anti-inflammatory antipruritic spiritus by GC. Methods GC was performed on a CP-Sil 5 CB column (25m × 0.32mm × 0.4um) using FID as the detector. Inlet temperature was set at 250 ℃ and column temperature was 280 ℃ (temperature program: initial temperature 60 ℃, maintained lmin, then rise to 280 ℃ with the rate of 12 ℃ / min, maintained 3min); detector temperature was 300 ℃ ; split injection , split ratio 20:1; injection volume 1μL. Results The standard curve was linear in the range of 50.8 ~ 609.6mg / L, r = 0.999 69, the average recovery was 99.10% with RSD of 0.87% (n = 6). Conclusion The method was simple, fast, accurate, reproducible and could be used for the determination of menthol in anti-inflammatory antipruritic spiritus.%目的 建立GC法测定消炎止痒醑中薄荷脑的含量.方法 采用CP-Sil 5 CB色谱柱(25m×0.32mm×0.4μm),FID检测器.进样口温度250℃;柱温280℃(程序升温:初始温度60℃,保持1min,再以12℃/min的速度升至280℃,保持3min);检测器温度300℃;分流进样,分流比20:1;进样量1μL.结果 薄荷脑进样量在50.8 ~ 609.6mg/L范围内与峰面积呈良好线性关系,r=0.999 69,平均回收率为99.10%,RSD为0.87%(n=6).结论 本测定方法简便、快速、准确、重复性好,可作为消炎止痒醑的含量测定方法.

  7. Anti-inflammatory and antipruritic effects of Chushizhiyang ointment%除湿止痒软膏抗炎及止痒作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾怡; 史梦琪; 杨欢; 何萍; 王有为; 杜俊蓉


    目的:探讨除湿止痒软膏的抗炎及止痒作用。方法用2,4-二硝基氟苯(DNFB)腹部致敏和背部反复激发建立 BALB/c 小鼠特应性皮炎模型。实验动物分为正常对照组(未致敏也未治疗)、模型对照组(致敏但未治疗)、氢化可的松乳膏组(致敏+氢化可的松)、除湿止痒软膏组(致敏+除湿止痒软膏)。连续用药14 d,末次给药12 h 后取背部皮肤,测定皮肤厚度及质量,进行 HE 染色和甲苯胺蓝染色,ELISA 法检测皮损组织中干扰素(IFN)γ、肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)α、白细胞介素(IL)-4、IL-5含量。利用磷酸组胺诱发 Hartley 豚鼠局部皮肤瘙痒模型,观察除湿止痒软膏对豚鼠致痒阈的影响。结果用药后第15天,与模型对照组相比,氢化可的松乳膏和除湿止痒软膏均可明显减少小鼠的背部皮肤厚度和质量(P <0.01),减少淋巴细胞和肥大细胞浸润(P <0.01)以及降低皮损组织中 IFN-γ、TNF-α、IL-4及 IL-5水平(P <0.05或 P <0.01)。与正常对照组相比,氢化可的松乳膏组小鼠背部皮肤厚度和质量减小(P <0.01),除湿止痒软膏组无明显变化。此外,除湿止痒软膏也可显著提高豚鼠耐受磷酸组胺的致痒阈(P <0.01)。结论除湿止痒软膏可明显抑制 DNFB 引起的小鼠特应性皮炎,其抗炎机制可能与恢复体内 Th1/Th2型细胞因子平衡有关。除湿止痒软膏可明显减轻磷酸组胺所致豚鼠皮肤瘙痒反应。%Objective To explore the anti-inflammatory and antipruritic effects of Chushizhiyang ointment in a mouse model. Methods A total of 40 male 8-week-old BALB/c mice were included in this study, and randomly and equally divided into 4 groups. A mouse model of atopic dermatitis (AD)was established in three groups of mice by repeated application of 2,4-dinitroflurobenzene (DNFB)to shaved abdominal skin for sensitization and to shaved dorsal skin for

  8. 复方达克罗宁薄荷脑润肤止痒水的制备及其质量控制%Preparation and Quality Control of Compound Dyclonine Menthol Antipruritic Emollients Lotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷; 李成; 张开礼; 冯廉洁; 罗意文; 陈连剑


    目的:制备复方达克罗宁薄荷脑润肤止痒水,并建立其质量控制方法.方法:以达克罗宁和薄荷脑为主药制备外用溶液;采用高效液相色谱法测定达克罗宁的含量、旋光法测定薄荷脑的含量.结果:所制制剂为无色澄明液体;达克罗宁的检测浓度线性范围为20.13~120.78μg·mL-1(γ=0.999 5),平均回收率为99.6%(RSD=0.43%);薄荷脑的检测浓度线性范围为1.13~5.65mg·mL-1(γ=0.9998),平均回收率为99.6%(RSD=0.5%).结论:该制剂制备工艺简单、质量可控.%OBJECTIVE: To prepare Compound dyclonine menthol antipruritic emollients lotion and to establish its quality control method. METHODS: Lotion for external use was prepared using dyclonine and menthol as main component. HPLC method was used to determine the content of dyclonine, and optical rotation was used to determine the content of menthol. RESULTS: Prepared lotion was colourless clear and bright liquid. The linear range of dyclonine was 20.13~120.78 μg·mL-1 (r=0.999 5) with an average recovery of 99.6% (RSD=0.43%); the linear range of menthol was 1.13~5.65 mg·mL-1 (r=0.999 8) with an average recovery of 99.6% (RSD=0.5%). CONCLUSION: The preparation technology is simple and controllable.

  9. Determination of Menthol in Compound Dyclonine Hydrochloride and Menthol Antipruritic Solution by Gas Chromatography%气相色谱法测定复方达克罗宁薄荷脑润肤止痒水中薄荷脑含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成; 张开礼; 巫小娟; 麦家慧; 颜晗


    Objective To develop a content determination method for the determination of menthol in the Compound Dyclonine Hydrochloride and menthol antipruritic solution. Methods The method of GC was applied to determine the content of menthol. The separation was performed on an Agilent DB - WAX capillary column (30 m ×0. 53 mm,1.0 μm). Split injection with a split ratio of 10 ∶ 1 was used. Injector temperature and column temperature was set at 250 ℃ and 120 ℃ ,respectively. Hydrogen flame ionization detector (F'ID) was used as the detector with temperature 250 ℃ . The carrier gas was nitrogen with a flow rate of 1. 5 mL/min. Column inlet pressure was 69. 9 Mpa. Results The calibration curve was linear within the concentration range of 0. 335 6 - 1. 678 g/L, r =0. 999 8,the average recovery rate was 99. 64% , RSD =0. 55% ( n = 6). Conclusion The developed method is simple and accurate and suitable for the determination of the menthol content in the compound dyclonine hydrochloride and menthol antipruritic solution.%目的 建立测定复方达克罗宁薄荷脑润肤止痒水中薄荷脑含量的气相色谱法.方法 色谱柱为Agilent DB-Waxetr毛细管柱(30m×0.53 mm,1.0μm),采用分流进样方式,分流比为10∶1,进样口温度和柱温分别设定为250 oc和120℃,以氢焰离子化检测器作为检测气,检测器温度设定为250℃,裁气为氮气,柱前压69.9 Mpa,流速1.5 mL/min.结果 薄荷脑质量浓度线性范围为0.335 6~1.678 g/L,r=0.999 8,平均回收率为99.64%,RSD为0.55%(n=6).结论 所用方法操作简便、准确、灵敏度高、重复性好,可用于测定制剂中薄荷脑的含量.

  10. Development and Validation of a Methodology for Testing Topical Antipruritic Drugs Using Experimentally Induced Pruritus. (United States)


    used for experiments 1 and 2 was the Mantadil base (polawax, mineral oil, white petrolatum, methyl paraben and purified water USP) and was prepared...experiments 1 and 2 was the antadil base (polawax, mineral oil, white petrolatum, methyl paraben and purified water USP) and was prepared by the Burroughs

  11. Discovery of S-444823, a potent CB1/CB2 dual agonist as an antipruritic agent. (United States)

    Odan, Masahide; Ishizuka, Natsuki; Hiramatsu, Yoshiharu; Inagaki, Masanao; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Mitsumori, Susumu; Morioka, Yasuhide; Soga, Masahiko; Deguchi, Masashi; Yasui, Kiyoshi; Arimura, Akinori


    The optimization of a series of 3-carbamoyl 2-pyridone derivatives as CB agonists is reported. These efforts resulted in the discovery of 3-(2-(1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-2-oxo-1,2,5,6,7,8,9,10-octahydrocycloocta[b]pyridine-3-carboxamido)thiazol-4-yl)propanoic acid (21), a potent dual CB1/CB2 agonist without CNS side effects induced by CB1 receptor activation. It exhibited strong inhibition of scratching as a 1.0% acetone solution in the pruritic model.

  12. Collybolide is a novel biased agonist of κ-opioid receptors with potent antipruritic activity (United States)

    Gupta, Achla; Gomes, Ivone; Bobeck, Erin N.; Fakira, Amanda K.; Massaro, Nicholas P.; Sharma, Indrajeet; Cavé, Adrien; Hamm, Heidi E.; Parello, Joseph


    Among the opioid receptors, the κ-opioid receptor (κOR) has been gaining considerable attention as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of complex CNS disorders including depression, visceral pain, and cocaine addiction. With an interest in discovering novel ligands targeting κOR, we searched natural products for unusual scaffolds and identified collybolide (Colly), a nonnitrogenous sesquiterpene from the mushroom Collybia maculata. This compound has a furyl-δ-lactone core similar to that of Salvinorin A (Sal A), another natural product from the plant Salvia divinorum. Characterization of the molecular pharmacological properties reveals that Colly, like Sal A, is a highly potent and selective κOR agonist. However, the two compounds differ in certain signaling and behavioral properties. Colly exhibits 10- to 50-fold higher potency in activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway compared with Sal A. Taken with the fact that the two compounds are equipotent for inhibiting adenylyl cyclase activity, these results suggest that Colly behaves as a biased agonist of κOR. Behavioral studies also support the biased agonistic activity of Colly in that it exhibits ∼10-fold higher potency in blocking non–histamine-mediated itch compared with Sal A, and this difference is not seen in pain attenuation by these two compounds. These results represent a rare example of functional selectivity by two natural products that act on the same receptor. The biased agonistic activity, along with an easily modifiable structure compared with Sal A, makes Colly an ideal candidate for the development of novel therapeutics targeting κOR with reduced side effects. PMID:27162327

  13. Anti-Pruritic Efficacy of Itch Relief Lotion and Cream in Patients With Atopic History: Comparison With Hydrocortisone Cream. (United States)

    Zirwas, Matthew J; Barkovic, Sylvia


    Objective: To evaluate the speed of onset and duration of relief of two ceramide-containing formulations with 1% pramoxine hydroxide (CeraVe® Itch Relief Lotion and Cream,Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC, Irvine, CA) in patients with atopic history, including those with active flare and the comparative efficacy of CeraVe Itch Relief Cream to hydrocortisone 1% cream and night-time itch relief with continued use.

  14. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to evaluate an antipruritic shampoo for dogs with allergic pruritus. (United States)

    Schilling, J; Mueller, R S


    Shampoo therapy is frequently used on pruritic dogs. However, there are few double-blinded, placebo-controlled studies of this form of therapy. This randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of a commercial medicated shampoo (DermaTopic; Almapharm) containing chlorhexidine, lactoferrin, piroctone olamine, chitosan and essential fatty acids in 27 dogs with mild to moderate allergic pruritus without secondary skin infections. All dogs received shampoo therapy with either DermaTopic or a shampoo vehicle as placebo twice weekly for four weeks. The extent of pruritus was evaluated before the study and then on a daily basis by the owners using a visual analogue scale. Before beginning the treatment and after four weeks, the skin lesions were evaluated by an experienced clinician with a validated lesion score (Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index - CADESI). The pruritus was reduced significantly by both DermaTopic and placebo. However, there was no significant difference between both groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the CADESI scores pre- and post-treatment in either group or between the two types of treatment. This study provides further evidence of the benefit of shampoo therapy for pruritic dogs.

  15. A comparison of dexamethasone, ondansetron, and dexamethasone plus ondansetron as prophylactic antiemetic and antipruritic therapy in patients receiving intrathecal morphine for major orthopedic surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Szarvas, Szilvia


    In a prospective, double-blinded, randomized trial, we evaluated the efficacy of IV (a) dexamethasone 8 mg, (b) ondansetron 8 mg, and (c) dexamethasone 8 mg plus ondansetron 4 mg for the prevention of postoperative nausea, vomiting (PONV), and pruritus in 130 (ASA physical status I to III) patients undergoing elective major orthopedic surgery after spinal anesthesia with hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine and intrathecal morphine. After spinal anesthesia, patients were randomized to one of three groups. Failure of PONV prophylaxis in the 24-h postoperative period occurred more frequently in patients who received dexamethasone alone (29 of 40; 73%) compared with those who received either ondansetron alone (23 of 47; 49%) (P = 0.02) or dexamethasone plus ondansetron together (19 of 43; 44%)(P = 0.01). There was no difference in the incidence of failure of prophylaxis of pruritus (70%, 72%, and 70% in dexamethasone 8 mg, ondansetron 8 mg, and dexamethasone 8 mg plus ondansetron 4 mg, respectively) (P > 0.1) in the 24-h postoperative period. We conclude that the administration of dexamethasone 8 mg with ondansetron 4 mg has no added benefit compared with ondansetron 8 mg alone in the prophylaxis of PONV and pruritus. IMPLICATIONS: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and pruritus are common side effects after spinal opioid administration. In this study, dexamethasone 8 mg plus ondansetron 4 mg was as effective as ondansetron 8 mg. The administration of dexamethasone alone was associated with a frequent incidence of PONV, demonstrating a lack of efficacy. This has important cost implications.

  16. Research progress of botanical mosquito repellent and antipruritic products%植物源驱蚊止痒类产品研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The research progress of botanical mosquito and insect aversion agents such as lemon eucalyptus, citronella,diego rosemary and sweet basil and botanical insect and mosquito bites driving agents such as elsho-ltzia,dogwood,tea polysaccharide,cardamon amomum and caltrop were summarized.It was pointed out that the priorities in the trend of developing botanical mosquito repellent and antiprutic product was the strengthe-ning of mosquito aversion effect,the lengthening of protection time,the evaluation of botanical material safety and effect and the relevant factors of product transfer.%综述了柠檬桉、香茅、迷迭香、银香菊和甜罗勒等植物源蚊虫驱避剂,以及香薷、山茱萸、藤茶、白豆蔻和蒺藜等植物源蚊虫叮咬剂研究进展,指出:提高驱蚊效果、增强保护时间、对植物原料安全性和功效性加强评估,以及产品转化相关因素研究是植物源驱蚊止痒类产品研发中亟待解决的问题。

  17. Anti-pruritic activity of pioglitazone on serotonin-induced scratching in mice: possible involvement of PPAR-gamma receptor and nitric oxide. (United States)

    Shafizadeh, Milad; Rajaba, Armin; Imran khan, Muhammad; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Rastegar, Hosein; Dehpour, Ahmadreza


    Pioglitazone is a member of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists, particularly used in management of type II diabetes. However it also has effects in some dermatological disorders. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of oral administration of pioglitazone and the association of nitric oxide, in serotonin-induced scratching in mice. In order to produce the scratching activity, serotonin (141 nm/site) was administered intradermally in the nape of the neck. Pioglitazone in concentrations of 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg, was peroral administered (p.o) as a single dose, 4 h before the serotonin injection. PPAR-γ antagonist, GW9662 (2 mg/kg, i.p); a non-specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 1 mg/kg, i.p); or a nitric oxide precursor, L-arginine (100 mg/kg, i.p.); adminstrated 15 min before pioglitazone were analyzed for anti-scratching activity. Results obtained showed that pioglitazone (40 and 80 mg/kg, p.o) reduced the scratching in a dose-dependent manner. GW9662 inverted the anti-scratching effect of pioglitazone (80 mg/kg). Acute dose of L-NAME (1 mg/kg, i.p) also prevented the anti-scratching property of pioglitazone (80 mg/kg, p.o); although L-arginine was used in sub-effective dose (100 mg/kg, i.p), however it potentiated the anti-scratching behavior when co-injected with pioglitazone (20 mg/kg, p.o). The results indicate that acute pioglitazone has an anti-scratching effect on serotonin-induced scratching in mice. It is concluded that anti-scratching outcome of acute pioglitazone is initiated via activation of PPAR-γ receptor and to some extent by the NO pathway.

  18. Drug: D07853 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  19. Drug: D07196 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  20. Antipruritic and anti-inflammatory effect of Tianranshiyang Cream on experimental contact dermatitis in mice%天然湿痒霜对小鼠实验性皮炎的抗炎止痒作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 曹波; 高颖; 李覃; 张永亮; 李玉明; 陈虹



  1. Comparison of pharmacological activities of three distinct kappa ligands (Salvinorin A, TRK-820 and 3FLB) on kappa opioid receptors in vitro and their antipruritic and antinociceptive activities in vivo. (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Tang, Kang; Inan, Saadet; Siebert, Daniel; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Lee, David Y W; Huang, Peng; Li, Jian-Guo; Cowan, Alan; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan


    Salvinorin A, TRK-820 (17-cyclopropylmethyl-3,14beta-dihydroxy-4,5alpha-epoxy-6beta-[N-methyl-trans-3-(3-furyl) acrylamido]morphinan hydrochloride), and 3FLB (diethyl 2,4-di-[3-fluorophenyl]-3,7-dimethyl-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-9-one-1,5-dicarboxylate) are structurally distinctly different from U50,488H [(trans)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl]benzeneacetamide methanesulfonate], the prototypic selective kappa agonist. Here, we investigated their in vitro pharmacological activities on receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and in vivo antiscratch and antinociceptive activities in mice. All three compounds showed high selectivity for the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) over the mu opioid receptor (MOR) and delta opioid receptor (DOR) and nociceptin or orphanin FQ receptors. In the guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPgammaS) binding assay, all three were full agonists on the KOR. The rank order of affinity and potency for the KOR was TRK-820 > U50,488H approximately salvinorin A > 3FLB. TRK-820 acted as a partial agonist on MOR and DOR, whereas salvinorin A and 3FLB showed no activities on these receptors. Salvinorin A, TRK-820, and 3FLB caused internalization of the human KOR in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, although salvinorin A and U50,488H had similar potencies in stimulating [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding, salvinorin A was about 40-fold less potent than U50,488H in promoting internalization. Following 4-h incubation, all three compounds induced down-regulation of the human KOR, with salvinorin A causing a lower extent of down-regulation. Although TRK-820 was potent and efficacious against compound 48/80-induced scratching, salvinorin A showed low and inconsistent effects, and 3FLB was inactive. In addition, salvinorin A and 3FLB were not active in the acetic acid abdominal constriction test. The discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo results may be due to in vivo metabolism of salvinorin A and 3FLB and possibly to their effects on other pharmacological targets.

  2. Drug: D03285 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ICS, INCL. ANTIHISTAMINES, ANESTHETICS, ETC. D04A ANTIPRURITICS, INCL. ANTIHISTAMINES, ANESTHETICS, ETC. D04AA Antihistamines for top...ical use D04AA32 Diphenhydramine D03285 Diphenhydramine tannate (JP16) R RESPIRATOR

  3. Drug: D07197 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  4. Drug: D00494 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TC. D04A ANTIPRURITICS, INCL. ANTIHISTAMINES, ANESTHETICS, ETC. D04AA Antihistamine...Antiemetics, Other Promethazine D00494 Promethazine (JAN/INN) Respiratory Tract/Pulmonary Agents Antihistamine

  5. Drug: D01242 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NES, ANESTHETICS, ETC. D04A ANTIPRURITICS, INCL. ANTIHISTAMINES, ANESTHETICS, ETC. D04AA Antihistamine...Respiratory Tract/Pulmonary Agents Antihistamines Promethazine D01242 Promethazine teoclate (JAN/INN) Target

  6. The treatment of canine demodecosis with amitraz. (United States)

    Davis, D A


    The treatment of a series of 27 clinical cases of canine demodecosis is reported. Three of 4 applications of a wash containing 0,025% amitraz, together with antimicrobial and antipruritic therapy where necessary, were sufficient to effect clinical cure in 25 out of 26 cases mildly to severely affected. In one case, very severely affected, 9 weekly applications, together with antimicrobial and antipruritic therapy, effected clinical and parasitological cure.

  7. 消炎止痒洗剂合并复方当归薄荷膏治疗血液透析患者合并皮肤瘙痒的临床观察%Clinical observation of antiphlogistic and antipruritic lotion combined with Compound Angelica Mentholatum in hemodialysis patients with pruritus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安海文; 李燕林; 黄琳; 李锦山; 庞捷


    Objective To investigate the combination therapy effects of anti - inflammatory and itching lotion and compound angelica mint cream on uremic pruritus( UP). Method 80 cases of UP patients with hematodialysis treatment were randomly divided into two groups,the control group(38 patients)and the treatment group(42 patients),and treatment group’s patients were administrated with anti- inflammatory and itching lotion and compound angelica mint cream;meanwhile,the control group’s patients were administrated with warm water washing. Itching index were recorded before and after the treatment. Results The therapy effects on the treatment group were signifi-cantly better than the control group,the difference was statistically significant(P ﹤ 0. 01). Conclusion The combination therapy of anti -inflammatory and itching lotion and compound angelica mint cream is a effective method for UP curing,which is deserved to generalized in clinical.%目的:探讨消炎止痒洗剂合并复方当归薄荷膏治疗血液透析患者皮肤瘙痒的临床疗效。方法:将80例进行血液透析治疗的皮肤瘙痒症患者随机分为对照组38例和观察组42例,观察组的患者给予消炎止痒洗剂盆浴结合复方当归薄荷膏外涂治疗,对照组患者采用温水浴后使用橄榄油外涂,通过对瘙痒指数评分比较两组的临床疗效。结果:治疗组患者的临床疗效较对照组更好,差异有统计学意义(P ﹤0.01)。结论:消炎止痒洗剂合并复方当归薄荷膏可显著改善血液透析患者的皮肤瘙痒症状。

  8. Experimental research of compound xylocaine cream on anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-allergic and anti-pruritic effects%复方利多卡因乳膏的抗炎镇痛和抗过敏止痒的实验观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  9. Observation on Treatment of Senile pruritus with Shen Qing Antipruritic Lotion steam treatment Combined with the Western medicine%中药汽疗联合西药治疗老年性皮肤瘙痒症55例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷雯霓; 刘兰; 吴波


    目的 观察中药汽疗联合西药治疗老年性皮肤瘙痒症的疗效.方法 将103例患者随机分成两组,对照组48例采用口服盐酸左西替利嗪片及外用本院制剂5%尿素霜+卤米松乳膏;治疗组55例在对照组治疗基础上予以中药汽疗(药物组成:当归10克,白藓皮30克,蛇床子30克,姜黄10克,没药5克,地肤子30克,土茯苓20克,银花15克,千里光15克,苦参15克).结果 治疗组和对照组痊愈率分别为49.09%和12.50%;总显效率分别为74.55%和43.75%;两组比较差异有显著性意义(P<0.01),治疗组疗效优于对照组.结论 中药汽疗联合西药治疗老年性皮肤瘙痒症疗效显著.

  10. Botulinum toxin type A reduces histamine-induced itch and vasomotor responses in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gazerani, Parisa; Pedersen, N. S.; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr


    BACKGROUND: Clinical evidence has revealed the antipruritic effect of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A). BoNT/A is believed to be effective against itch as it inhibits the release of acetylcholine as well as some other substances that may be involved in itch. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect...

  11. Drug: D03854 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Tract/Pulmonary Agents Antihistamines Diphenhydramine D03854 Diphenhydramine citrate (USP) Target-based cla...ANTIHISTAMINES, ANESTHETICS, ETC. D04A ANTIPRURITICS, INCL. ANTIHISTAMINES, ANESTHETICS, ETC. D04AA Antihi...stamines for topical use D04AA32 Diphenhydramine D03854 Diphenhydramine citrate (US...(USP) Antiparkinson Agents Anticholinergics Diphenhydramine D03854 Diphenhydramine citrate (USP) Respiratory

  12. Drug: D03535 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04A ANTIPRURITICS, INCL. ANTIHISTAMINES, ANESTHETICS, ETC. D04AA Antihistamines for topical use D04AA14 Cl...(USAN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Respiratory Tract/Pulmonary Agents Antihistamines Clemastine D03

  13. Drug: D00300 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 26 Epidermides 264 Analgesics, anti-itchings, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2642 Antihistamine... D04A ANTIPRURITICS, INCL. ANTIHISTAMINES, ANESTHETICS, ETC. D04AA Antihistamines...s Diphenhydramine D00300 Diphenhydramine (JP16/INN) Respiratory Tract/Pulmonary Agents Antihistamines Diphen

  14. Drug: D03360 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 26 Epidermides 264 Analgesics, anti-itchings, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2642 Antihistamine...ICS, ETC. D04A ANTIPRURITICS, INCL. ANTIHISTAMINES, ANESTHETICS, ETC. D04AA Antihistamine... Tract/Pulmonary Agents Antihistamines Diphenhydramine D03360 Diphenhydramine laurylsulfate (JAN) Target-bas...Antiparkinson Agents Anticholinergics Diphenhydramine D03360 Diphenhydramine laurylsulfate (JAN) Respiratory

  15. Drug: D00739 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) C17H27NO3. HCl 329.1758 329.8621 D00739.gif Anesthetic [topical] ATC code: C05AD07 D04AB07 Anatomical Ther...HISTAMINES, ANESTHETICS, ETC. D04A ANTIPRURITICS, INCL. ANTIHISTAMINES, ANESTHETICS, ETC. D04AB Anesthetics for topica

  16. Betamethasone: A dermatological clinical evaluation. (United States)



    The purpose of this study was to determine under carefully controlled clinical conditions the relative anti-inflammatory and anti-pruritic action of betamethasone as compared with prednisone and a placebo. A total of 130 consecutive patients with atopic dermatitis, primary irritant dermatitis, nummular eczema, allergic eczematous contact dermatitis, sweat retention, seborrheic dermatitis and pruritus were selected for study. Under the conditions of this clinical trial, the samples indicated a difference in anti-inflammatory and anti-pruritic response to the therapeutic agents used. The difference between betamethasone and the placebo was highly significant, and the difference in these measured responses was studied on the basis of a careful evaluation and statistically. The result of this study corroborates statistically our clinical impression regarding the therapeutic effect of betamethasone.

  17. Thalidomide for the treatment of chronic refractory pruritus. (United States)

    Sharma, Divya; Kwatra, Shawn G


    Pruritus is a common and often times difficult to treat symptom in many dermatologic and systemic diseases. For pruritus with an inflammatory or autoimmune origin, therapies such as topical corticosteroids and antihistamines are often initiated. However, in the case that these and additional systemic therapies are ineffective, thalidomide, an immunomodulator and neuromodulator, may be a useful alternative treatment. Considerable relief of chronic pruritus has been demonstrated with thalidomide in case reports, case series, and controlled trials. Double-blind controlled studies demonstrated thalidomide's efficacy as an antipruritic agent in patients with uremic pruritus, primary biliary cirrhosis, and prurigo nodularis. In case reports, case series, and open-label trials, thalidomide significantly reduced pruritus associated with conditions such as actinic prurigo and paraneoplastic pruritus. Because of variations in study design and evaluation of antipruritic effect, it is difficult to fully understand thalidomide's role based on the evidence described to date in the medical literature. In this review, we provide an overview of the reported findings and evaluate thalidomide's utility in managing refractory pruritus in the context of its adverse risk profile. We propose that thalidomide can be an alternative or combination antipruritic treatment for patients who do not obtain enough relief from conservative therapy.

  18. Polidocanol inhibits cowhage - but not histamine-induced itch in humans. (United States)

    Hawro, Tomasz; Fluhr, Joachim W; Mengeaud, Valérie; Redoulès, Daniel; Church, Martin K; Maurer, Marcus; Metz, Martin


    Polidocanol is a local anaesthetic and antipruritic compound that is used in the treatment of itching skin conditions such as eczema. Its mechanisms of action are largely ill defined. This study has compared the antipruritic efficacy of topical polidocanol in histamine-induced itch and a histamine-independent, cowhage-induced model of pruritus. Polidocanol (3%) or vehicle was applied topically under occlusion for 1 h to the forearms of 45 healthy volunteers before itch was provoked by rubbing in 40-45 spicules of cowhage or skin prick testing with 10 mg/ml histamine. Itch was recorded at 1-min intervals for 30 min on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Polidocanol significantly reduced the area under the curve for cowhage-induced itch by 58% (P < 0.05), but had no significant effect on histamine-induced itch. This result underlines the importance of histamine-independent itch models in the development of topical antipruritic agents.

  19. 肤舒止痒膏联合西替利嗪口服液治疗儿童湿疹的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彤; 张江安


    Objective:To observe the efficacy and safety of Shu Antipruritic Skin Cream combined with Cetirizine oral liquid in treatment of children with eczema. Methods:60 cases were randomly divided into the treatment group and 62 cases in the control group,.The treatment group was treated with Shu Antipruritic Skin Cream with Cetirizine oral liquid ,and the control group with Cetirizine oral liquid and Hydrocortisone Butyrate. The response was evaluated at 1 month .Results:The effective rate of the treatment group was 83.05%, 66.67% in the control group. There was a significant difference between the two groups’ effective rate (P=0.034) .Conclusion:The effective rate of Shu Antipruritic Skin Cream combined with Cetirizine oral liquid is high in treatment of children with eczema , and has no side effect of steroids.%目的:观察肤舒止痒膏联合西替利嗪口服液治疗儿童湿疹的疗效和安全性。方法:随机分为治疗组60例和对照组62例,两组均口服西替利嗪口服液,治疗组外用肤舒止痒膏,对照组外用丁酸氢化可的松软膏,治疗1月后判效。结果:治疗组有效率为83.05%,对照组为66.67%,二者差异有统计学意义(P=0.034)。结论:肤舒止痒膏联合西替利嗪口服液治疗儿童湿疹临床痊愈率高,且无激素副作用。

  20. Reduction of severity of pruritus after elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia with subarachnoid morphine: a randomised comparison of prophylactic granisetron and ondansetron.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tan, T


    BACKGROUND: The incidence of pruritus after elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia with subarachnoid morphine may be 60-100%, and is a common cause of maternal dissatisfaction. Ondansetron has been shown to reduce pruritus but the effect is short-lived. The objective of this randomized double-blind trial was to evaluate the anti-pruritic efficacy of granisetron compared with ondansetron. METHODS: Eighty ASA I or II women undergoing elective caesarean section received spinal anaesthesia with 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 10 mg, fentanyl 25 microg and preservative-free morphine 150 microg. After delivery of the baby and clamping of the umbilical cord, they were randomised to receive granisetron 3mg i.v. (group G) or ondansetron 8 mg i.v. (group O). RESULTS: The two groups were similar for age, gestational age, height and weight. According to visual analogue pruritus scores, patients in group G experienced less pruritus at 8h (P=0.003) and 24h (P=0.01). Fewer patients in group G (n=8) than group O (n=18) required rescue anti-pruritic medication (P=0.03). Satisfaction scores were also higher in group G than in group O (P=0.03). There was no difference in overall incidence of pruritus, nausea and vomiting, and visual analogue pain scores between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of granisetron 3mg i.v. reduces the severity of pruritus and the use of rescue anti-pruritic medication, and improves satisfaction but does not reduce the overall incidence of pruritus in women who have received subarachnoid morphine 150 microg compared to ondansetron 8 mg i.v.

  1. Drug: D00733 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00733 Drug Dibucaine (USP); Cinchocaine (INN); Nupercaine (TN) C20H29N3O2 343.226 ...l anesthetics C05AD04 Cinchocaine D00733 Dibucaine (USP); Cinchocaine (INN) D DERMATOLOGICALS D04 ANTIPRURIT...AB Anesthetics for topical use D04AB02 Cinchocaine D00733 Dibucaine (USP); Cinchocaine (INN) N NERVOUS SYSTE...M N01 ANESTHETICS N01B ANESTHETICS, LOCAL N01BB Amides N01BB06 Cinchocaine D00733...l anesthetics S01HA06 Cinchocaine D00733 Dibucaine (USP); Cinchocaine (INN) S02 OTOLOGICALS S02D OTHER OTOLO

  2. Seizures due to high dose camphor ingestion. (United States)

    Tekin, Hande Gazeteci; Gökben, Sarenur; Serdaroğlu, Gül


    Camphor is a cyclic ketone of the hydro aromatic terpene group. Today it is frequently used as a prescription or non-prescription topical antitussive, analgesic, anesthetic and antipruritic agent. Camphor which is considered an innocent drug by parents and physicians is a common household item which can lead to severe poisoning in children even when taken in small amounts. Neurotoxicity in the form of seizures can ocur soon after ingestion. A two-year old female patient who presented with a complaint of generalized tonic-clonic seizures after oral ingestion of camphor is presented.

  3. The excimer lamp induces cutaneous nerve degeneration and reduces scratching in a dry-skin mouse model. (United States)

    Kamo, Atsuko; Tominaga, Mitsutoshi; Kamata, Yayoi; Kaneda, Kazuyuki; Ko, Kyi C; Matsuda, Hironori; Kimura, Utako; Ogawa, Hideoki; Takamori, Kenji


    Epidermal hyperinnervation, which is thought to underlie intractable pruritus, has been observed in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). The epidermal expression of axonal guidance molecules has been reported to regulate epidermal hyperinnervation. Previously, we showed that the excimer lamp has antihyperinnervative effects in nonpruritic dry-skin model mice, although epidermal expression of axonal guidance molecules was unchanged. Therefore, we investigated the antipruritic effects of excimer lamp irradiation and its mechanism of action. A single irradiation of AD model mice significantly inhibited itch-related behavior 1 day later, following improvement in the dermatitis score. In addition, irradiation of nerve fibers formed by cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons increased bleb formation and decreased nerve fiber expression of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase 2, suggesting degenerative changes in these fibers. We also analyzed whether attaching a cutoff excimer filter (COF) to the lamp, thus decreasing cytotoxic wavelengths, altered hyperinnervation and the production of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), a DNA damage marker, in dry-skin model mice. Irradiation with COF decreased CPD production in keratinocytes, as well as having an antihyperinnervative effect, indicating that the antipruritic effects of excimer lamp irradiation with COF are due to induction of epidermal nerve degeneration and reduced DNA damage.

  4. A randomized controlled pilot study comparing aqueous cream with a beeswax and herbal oil cream in the provision of relief from postburn pruritus. (United States)

    Lewis, Peter A; Wright, Kay; Webster, Anne; Steer, Matthew; Rudd, Michael; Doubrovsky, Anna; Gardner, Glenn


    Postburn itch is reported to affect up to 87% of the burn population. Although treatments for postburn itch are multimodal, they remain consistently ineffective. However, recent anecdotal evidence from several outpatients at a tertiary referral hospital suggests that a cream combining beeswax and several herbal oils may be effective in the minimization of postburn itch. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of beeswax and herbal oil cream against the standard treatment of aqueous cream in the provision of relief from the symptoms of postburn itch. A randomized controlled trial compared two groups using a visual analog scale, frequency of cream application, itch recurrence after cream application, use of antipruritic medications, and sleep disturbance to determine the effect of itch severity and duration. Fifty-two participants were enrolled in the study (84% male) with a mean age of 35 years (SD = 16) and mean burn TBSA of 7.2% (SD = 7.7). Study results found that the beeswax and herbal oil cream reduce itch after application more frequently than aqueous cream (P = .001). In addition, when managed with beeswax and herbal oil cream, participants found that their itch recurred later (P ≤ .001) and their use of antipruritic medications was lower (P = .023). Findings of this study suggest beeswax and herbal oil cream to be more effective in the minimization of postburn itch than aqueous cream. Given this, a larger study examining the efficacy of beeswax and herbal oil cream appears warranted.

  5. Lactase deficiency: a potential novel aetiological factor in chronic pruritus of unknown origin. (United States)

    Grundmann, Sonja A; Stratmann, Ewelina; Brehler, Randolf; Luger, Thomas A; Ständer, Sonja


    Chronic pruritus, which is associated with a wide variety of underlying diseases, represents a challenge in diagnostics and treatment in dermatology and general medicine. The cause of pruritus remains unknown in up to 45% of patients. In this study, 718 patients with chronic pruritus were analysed concerning lactase deficiency, demographic data, aetiology, duration and intensity of pruritus. A total of 154 patients were tested positive for lactase deficiency and 38.3% showed a significant anti-pruritic response to a lactose-free diet (minimum 4 weeks). The best results were observed in patients with pruritus of mixed or unknown origin (n = 91; 64% response). Age, sex, localization or duration had no significant influence on the anti-pruritic effect of a lactose-free diet. Lactase deficiency might be an independent causal factor in the elicitation of chronic pruritus. Thus, screening for lactase deficiency represents a rational step in the diagnostic work-up of chronic pruritus. In case of a positive test result, a lactose-free diet offers a low-cost, efficient and specific therapy in patients with chronic pruritus.

  6. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology


    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  7. Oleanolic acid and related derivatives as medicinally important compounds. (United States)

    Sultana, Nighat; Ata, Athar


    Oleanolic acid has been isolated from chloroform extract of Olea ferruginea Royle after removal of organic bases and free acids. The literature survey revealed it to be biologically very important. In this review the biological significance of oleanolic acid and its derivatives has been discussed. The aim of this review is to update current knowledge on oleanolic acid and its natural and semisynthetic analogs, focussing on its cytotoxic, antitumer, antioxidant, anti-inflamatory, anti-HIV, acetyl cholinesterase, alpha-glucosidase, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, spasmolytic activity, anti-angiogenic, antiallergic, antiviral and immunomodulatory activities. We present in this review, for the first time, a compilation of the most relevant scientific papers and technical reports of the chemical, pre-clinical and clinical research on the properties of oleanolic acid and its derivatives.

  8. Gabapentin and pregabalin for the treatment of chronic pruritus. (United States)

    Matsuda, Kazuki M; Sharma, Divya; Schonfeld, Ariel R; Kwatra, Shawn G


    Chronic pruritus is a distressing symptom that is often refractory to treatment. Patients frequently fail topical therapies and oral over-the-counter antihistamines, prompting the clinician to consider alternative therapies such as neuroactive agents. Herein, the use of gabapentin and pregabalin, 2 medications well known for treating neuropathic pain and epilepsy that are occasionally used for relieving chronic pruritus is explored. The findings from original sources published to date to evaluate the use of gabapentin and pregabalin as antipruritic agents are explored. They are found to be promising alternative treatments for the relief of several forms of chronic pruritus, particularly uremic pruritus and neuropathic or neurogenic itch, in patients who fail conservative therapies.

  9. Drug: D08183 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08183 Drug Mepyramine (INN) C17H23N3O 285.1841 285.384 D08183.gif Antiallergic; Hi...A ANTIPRURITICS, INCL. ANTIHISTAMINES, ANESTHETICS, ETC. D04AA Antihistamines for topical use D04AA02 Mepyramine D08183... USE R06A ANTIHISTAMINES FOR SYSTEMIC USE R06AC Substituted ethylene diamines R06AC01 Mepyramine D08183 Mepy...Histamine H1-receptor [HSA:3269] [KO:K04149] Mepyramine [ATC:D04AA02 R06AC01] D08183... Mepyramine (INN) CAS: 91-84-9 PubChem: 96024873 LigandBox: D08183 NIKKAJI: J4.645K ATOM 21 1 C8x C 20.51

  10. Niacinamide - mechanisms of action and its topical use in dermatology. (United States)

    Wohlrab, Johannes; Kreft, Daniela


    Niacinamide, an amide of vitamin B3 (niacin), is a hydrophilic endogenous substance. Its effects after epicutaneous application have long been described in the literature. Given a sufficient bioavailability, niacinamide has antipruritic, antimicrobial, vasoactive, photo-protective, sebostatic and lightening effects depending on its concentration. Within a complex metabolic system niacinamide controls the NFκB-mediated transcription of signalling molecules by inhibiting the nuclear poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Niacinamide is a well-tolerated and safe substance often used in cosmetics. Clinical data for its therapeutic use in various dermatoses can increasingly be found in the literature. Although the existing data are not sufficient for a scientifically founded evaluation, it can be stated that the use of niacinamide in galenic preparations for epicutaneous application offers most interesting prospects.

  11. Recent development of CB2 selective and peripheral CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor ligands. (United States)

    Nevalainen, Tapio


    Cannabinoids have potential therapeutic value e.g. in pain relief, cancer therapy, control of nausea and vomiting, and appetite stimulation, but their therapeutic benefits are limited by unwanted central nervous system (CNS) side-effects. Separating the therapeutic effects of cannabinoid agonists from their undesired CNS effects can be achieved by either increasing the selectivity of the ligands for the CB2 receptor or by developing peripherally restricted CB1/CB2 ligands. A vast number of structurally diverse CB2 ligands have been developed during the past 3 years, stemming from the screening hits, which are further optimized towards lead compounds and drug candidates. Some of CB2 ligands may ultimately enter into clinical use as pain relief, anticancer, or antipruritic agents. This review focuses on the recent literature dealing with selective CB2 receptor ligands, with a particular emphasis on the CB2 agonists developed from 2009 onwards.

  12. Preclinical and human surrogate models of itch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeck, Emil August; Marker, Jens Broch; Gazerani, Parisa;


    Pruritus, or simply itch, is a debilitating symptom that significantly decreases the quality of life in a wide range of clinical conditions. While histamine remains the most studied mediator of itch in humans, treatment options for chronic itch, in particular antihistamine-resistant itch, are lim...... currently applied in animals and humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......Pruritus, or simply itch, is a debilitating symptom that significantly decreases the quality of life in a wide range of clinical conditions. While histamine remains the most studied mediator of itch in humans, treatment options for chronic itch, in particular antihistamine-resistant itch......, are limited. Relevant preclinical and human surrogate models of non-histaminergic itch are needed to accelerate the development of novel antipruritics and diagnostic tools. Advances in basic itch research have facilitated the development of diverse models of itch and associated dysesthesiae. While...

  13. 阴炎净凝胶对大鼠细菌性阴道炎的药效学研究%Pharmacodynamics Studies of Yinyanjing Gel in the Treatement of Bacterial Vaginitis in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李子珊; 王蓉蓉; 李瑞莲; 吴雅莉


    目的::观察阴炎净凝胶的抑菌、抗炎和止痒作用。方法:采用倍比稀释法测定本品的体外抑菌效果;采用大鼠造模法观察本品对细菌性阴道炎的治疗作用;采用豚鼠止痒实验观察本品的止痒作用。结果:阴炎净凝胶对金黄色葡萄球菌的MIC为47.39 mg·ml-1;对大肠埃希菌的MIC为189.59 mg·ml-1;对细菌性阴道炎具有明显的治疗作用;对磷酸组织胺所致豚鼠具有明显止痒作用。结论:阴炎净凝胶具有抑菌、消炎和止痒作用。%To study the bacteriostat, anti-inflammatory and relieving itching effects of Yinyanjing gel. Methods: A double dilution method was used to detect the in vitro bacteriostat effect of Yinyanjing gel. The therapeutic effects of Yinyanjing gel on bacterial vaginitis were observed in rats. The antipruritic effect of Yinyanjing gel was observed in guinea pigs. Results:MIC for Staphy-lococcus aureus was 47. 39 mg·ml-1 , and that for Escherichia coli was 189. 59 mg·ml-1 . The therapeutic effects of Yinyanjing gel on bacterial vaginitis were significant. Yinyanjing gel showed notable antipruritic effect on the itching induced by histamine phosphate in guinea pigs. Conclusion:Yinyanjing gel exhibits significant effects of bactriostasis,anti-inflammation and relieving itching.

  14. 内源性大麻素系统调节瘙痒的研究进展%Progress of the regulation of endocannabinoid system on pruritus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀兰; 上官王宁


    Background Pruritus can be caused by numerous drugs and diseases,but the pathogenesis of pruritus is still not clearly elucidated.It has been shown that the endocannabinoid system plays an important role in regulating pruritus and influences the occurrence and development of pruritus.Objective To review home and abroad literatures relating to the regulation of endocannabinoid system on pruritus in recent years. Content Cannabinoid receptor 1 agonist reduces pruritus while its antagonist induces pruritus.Cannabinoid receptor 2 antagonist,endocannabinoids simiar compounds and fatty acid amide hydrolase indirectly inhibit pruritus.Furthermore the antipruritic effect of endocannabinoids may be partly mediated by transient receptor potential vanilloid type. Trend The endocannabinoid system could serve as antipruritic targets for different etiology of itch,but the mechanisms via which the endocannabinoid system regulate pruritus remains unclear,requiring further study and discussion.%背景 很多药物和疾病都能引起瘙痒,但目前有关瘙痒的病理生理学还不完全清楚.研究发现,内源性大麻素系统在调节瘙痒中起着重要的作用,影响着瘙痒的发生与发展.目的 就近年来国内外有关内源性大麻素系统调节瘙痒的文献作一综述. 内容 大麻素受体1 (cannabinoid receptor 1,CB1)激动剂缓解瘙痒,拮抗剂诱发瘙痒.大麻素受体2(cannabinoid receptor 2,CB2)拮抗剂、内源性大麻素类化合物和脂肪酰胺水解酶(fatty acid amide hydrolase,FAAH)间接抑制瘙痒.此外,内源性大麻素的止痒作用可能部分是通过瞬时受体电位香草类受体(transient receptor potential vanilloid type,TRPV)介导的.趋向 内源性大麻素系统可能成为将来各种病因学全身性瘙痒的止痒靶点,但其调节瘙痒的机制还不十分清楚,需要进一步的研究和探讨.

  15. 法国梧桐树叶提取物体外抗癣菌作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何刚; 陈辉芳; 曹华; 易建华


      目的观察法国梧桐树叶提取物对红色毛癣菌等皮肤癣菌的抗菌作用.红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌是皮肤浅部真菌感染常见菌[1].方法采用体外抑菌、杀菌试验法对红色毛癣菌等皮肤癣菌测定了最小抑菌浓度和最小杀菌浓度;并采用豚鼠止痒试验观察了法国梧桐树叶提取物对豚鼠磷酸组胺致痒反应的影响.结果法国梧桐树叶提取物对红色毛癣菌、须癣毛癣菌、絮状表皮癣菌、石膏样毛癣菌等皮肤癣菌均有较强的抑菌和杀菌效果.仅50%原药浓度的药液在1小时内将上述癣菌全部杀死.法国梧桐树叶提取物对豚鼠有明显的止痒作用,给药组与对照组相比有非常显著的差异(P<0.01).%  Objective: To observe the French phoenix tree's leaves extract of Trichophyton rubrum and other dermatophytes’s antibacterial effect Methods :using the in vitro bacteriostatic, bactericidal test method of Trichophyton rubrum and other dermatophytes to get determination of minimal inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration; and the use of the guinea pig antipruritic experimental observation on Platanus leaves extracts of guinea pig histamine induced itch responses. The results : the French phoenix tree's leaf extract against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and other dermatophytes have strong bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect. Only 50% of drug concentration in the liquid in the 1 hours of the dermatophytes kil al. French phoenix tree's leaves extracts has antipruritic effect on guinea pig , there was very significant difference drug treatment group compared with the control group. (P < 0.01)

  16. The sensory response to capsaicin during repeated topical exposures: differential effects on sensations of itching and pungency. (United States)

    Green, B G; Shaffer, G S


    Changes in sensory irritation were measured during repeated topical exposures to capsaicin over 2 days. The perceived intensities of itching and pungent sensations, predominantly burning and stinging/pricking, were assessed every 60 sec during 5 applications of capsaicin at inter-stimulus intervals (ISI) of 90 min (Exp. 1) or 15 min (Exp. 2) and in follow-up tests 24 h later. Psychophysical measurements were obtained with a hand-held dynamometer in conjunction with the method of magnitude production. When the ISI was 90 min, itching and pungency were both significantly reduced (i.e., desensitization occurred) by the fifth exposure; however, the reduction occurred more rapidly and dramatically for itching. After 24 h, desensitization remained significant only for itching. When the ISI was 15 min, the sensations on day 1 first intensified in a manner consistent with sensitization, then declined in a manner consistent with desensitization; compared to pungency, itch exhibited less sensitization and more desensitization. On day 2, overall intensity was less for both categories of sensation, primarily because of a reduction in sensitization. Marked individual differences were observed in the overall sensitivity to capsaicin, the time course of sensation, the susceptibility to capsaicin-induced itch, and the rate and duration of sensitization and desensitization. The results are discussed in terms of current hypotheses about the sensory mechanisms that underlie chemically induced itch and the use of capsaicin as a topical analgesic and antipruritic.

  17. Treatment outcome of Paederus dermatitis due to rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) on guinea pigs. (United States)

    Fakoorziba, M R; Eghbal, F; Azizi, K; Moemenbellah-Fard, M D


    Linear dermatitis (or dermatitis linearis, DL) is a skin blistering inflammatory lesion caused by exposure to the pederin toxin from rove beetles. Although it is prevalent in many countries of the Middle East region, this is not a notifiable disease. In recent years, a number of clinical symptoms outbreaks of DL has been reported from a few neighboring countries of Iran, but no report of experimental treatment among small laboratory rodents is known. This is a prerequisite to ascertain the nature of the best treatment strategy in cases of infestation with these beetles, as it occurs among local settlers during hot seasons in certain parts of the southern Iranian province of Fars. Live Paederus beetles were collected, identified to species level, sexed apart and partly processed to obtain their hemolymph toxin pederin in ethanol for dermal application on guinea pigs. Two Paederus species were found. Paederus ilsae (Bernhauer) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) was more abundant than P. iliensis (Coiffait). Recovery from DL due to live P. ilsae beetles was quicker and less complex than that of pederin in ethanol on guinea pigs. The application of potassium permanganate with calamine to heal DL was also more effective than fluocinolone treatment. This topical corticosteroid is thus considered less able to avert the cytotoxic action of pederin on the skin of guinea pigs than the antipruritic and cleansing agents. It seems likely that fluocinolone has certain effects which delays the recovery period for the treated skin.

  18. Therapeutic Potential of Tea Tree Oil for Scabies. (United States)

    Thomas, Jackson; Carson, Christine F; Peterson, Greg M; Walton, Shelley F; Hammer, Kate A; Naunton, Mark; Davey, Rachel C; Spelman, Tim; Dettwiller, Pascale; Kyle, Greg; Cooper, Gabrielle M; Baby, Kavya E


    Globally, scabies affects more than 130 million people at any time. In the developed world, outbreaks in health institutions and vulnerable communities result in a significant economic burden. A review of the literature demonstrates the emergence of resistance toward classical scabicidal treatments and the lack of effectiveness of currently available scabicides in reducing the inflammatory skin reactions and pyodermal progression that occurs in predisposed patient cohorts. Tea tree oil (TTO) has demonstrated promising acaricidal effects against scabies mites in vitro and has also been successfully used as an adjuvant topical medication for the treatment of crusted scabies, including cases that did not respond to standard treatments. Emerging acaricide resistance threatens the future usefulness of currently used gold standard treatments (oral ivermectin and topical permethrin) for scabies. The imminent development of new chemical entities is doubtful. The cumulative acaricidal, antibacterial, antipruritic, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing effects of TTO may have the potential to successfully reduce the burden of scabies infection and the associated bacterial complications. This review summarizes current knowledge on the use of TTO for the treatment of scabies. On the strength of existing data for TTO, larger scale, randomized controlled clinical trials are warranted.

  19. Harnessing the Therapeutic Potential of Capsaicin and Its Analogues in Pain and Other Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaherin Basith


    Full Text Available Capsaicin is the most predominant and naturally occurring alkamide found in Capsicum fruits. Since its discovery in the 19th century, the therapeutic roles of capsaicin have been well characterized. The potential applications of capsaicin range from food flavorings to therapeutics. Indeed, capsaicin and few of its analogues have featured in clinical research covered by more than a thousand patents. Previous records suggest pleiotropic pharmacological activities of capsaicin such as an analgesic, anti-obesity, anti-pruritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, and neuro-protective functions. Moreover, emerging data indicate its clinical significance in treating vascular-related diseases, metabolic syndrome, and gastro-protective effects. The dearth of potent drugs for management of such disorders necessitates the urge for further research into the pharmacological aspects of capsaicin. This review summarizes the historical background, source, structure and analogues of capsaicin, and capsaicin-triggered TRPV1 signaling and desensitization processes. In particular, we will focus on the therapeutic roles of capsaicin and its analogues in both normal and pathophysiological conditions.

  20. Psychotropics in different causes of itch: systematic review with controlled studies* (United States)

    Brasileiro, Lízie Emanuelle Eulalio; Barreto, Dayanna Patrícia de Carvalho; Nunes, Emerson Arcoverde


    Among the wide range of symptoms neglected or resistant to conventional treatments in clinical practice, itch is emerging gradually as a theme to be studied. Itch complaints and the negative effects in the quality of life are observed in several medical fields. Although the partially obscure pathophysiology, some researchers decided to check and test the use of psychotropic drugs in resistant itch to conventional topical treatments and antihistamines. The objective of this study was to evaluate scientific evidence in psychotropic use in the treatment of itch of various causes. This is a systematic review of scientific literature. The following databases were used: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Scielo. Randomized controlled trials that should focus on treatment with psychotropic drugs of pruritus of various causes were the inclusion criteria. All articles were analyzed by the authors, and the consensus was reached in cases of disagreement. Fifteen articles were included after analysis and selection in databases, with the majority of clinical trials focusing on psychopharmacological treatment of itch on account of chronic kidney disease. Clinical trials with psychotropic drugs mostly indicated significant improvement in the itching. In most trials of chronic kidney disease as basal disease for itch, greater effectiveness was observed with the use of psychotropic drugs compared with placebo or other antipruritic. However, the small amount of controlled trials conducted precludes the generalization that psychiatric drugs are effective for itch of various causes. PMID:28099602

  1. Topical cholecystokinin depresses itch-associated scratching behavior in mice. (United States)

    Fukamachi, Shoko; Mori, Tomoko; Sakabe, Jun-Ichi; Shiraishi, Noriko; Kuroda, Etsushi; Kobayashi, Miwa; Bito, Toshinori; Kabashima, Kenji; Nakamura, Motonobu; Tokura, Yoshiki


    Cholecystokinin (CCK) serves as a gastrointestinal hormone and also functions as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system (CNS). CCK may be a downregulator in the CNS, as represented by its anti-opioid properties. The existence of CCK in the peripheral nervous system has also been reported. We investigated the suppressive effects of various CCKs on peripheral pruritus in mice. The clipped backs of ICR mice were painted with CCK synthetic peptides and injected intradermally with substance P (SP). The frequency of SP-induced scratching was reduced significantly by topical application of sulfated CCK8 (CCK8S) and CCK7 (CCK7S), but not by nonsulfated CCK8, CCK7, or CCK6. Dermal injection of CCK8S also suppressed the scratching frequency, suggesting that dermal cells as well as epidermal keratinocytes (KCs) are the targets of CCKs. As determined using real-time PCR, mRNA for CCK2R, one of the two types of CCK receptors, was expressed highly in mouse fetal skin-derived mast cells (FSMCs) and moderately in ICR mouse KCs. CCK8S decreased in vitro compound 48/80-promoted degranulation of FSMCs with a transient elevation of the intracellular calcium concentration. These findings suggest that CCK may exert an antipruritic effect via mast cells and that topical CCK may be clinically useful for pruritic skin disorders.

  2. Investigation of in vitro Opioid Receptor Binding Activities of Some Turkish Salvia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Gündüz Çınar


    Full Text Available Kappa Opioid Peptide Receptor (KOPr activation produces analgesic, psychotomimetic, diuretic and antipruritic effects. KOPr ligands are investigated for their potential roles in the treatment of addiction, depression, feeding behavior, psychosis and schizophrenia. In this study the methanolic extracts of a number of Salvia species which are native to Turkey (S. tomentosa, S. tchihatcheffii , S. rosifolia, S. dichroantha and S. sclarea were tested for their potential binding to opioid receptors in rat brain membranes and Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells expressing human KOPr (CHO-KOPh. [ 3H]Diprenorphine, an unselective opioid antagonist, was utilized in the radioligand receptor binding assays. All extracts (0.11 mg/ml inhibited the [ 3H]Diprenorphine binding with ranging KOPr binding affinities. More than 50% inhibition of diprenorphine binding was shown only with Salvia dichroantha and Salvia sclarea both in rat brain membranes and CHO-KOPh membranes.Among them Salvia sclarea deserves further investigation for its active component(s and its pharmacological characterization. This study clearly demonstrates the potential opioid receptor binding activities of several Turkish Salvia species. This work constitutes the first study on in vitro opioid receptor binding activities of Salvia species from the Turkish flora.

  3. Topical royal jelly alleviates symptoms of pruritus in a murine model of allergic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Yamaura


    Full Text Available Background: Royal jelly is widely used as a health tonic, especially in Asia. Royal jelly is commonly used in cosmetics as well as in dietary supplements and beverages. Little is known, however, about the pharmacologic efficacy of topical royal jelly. Therefore, we investigated the antipruritic activity of topical royal jelly on chronic pruritus in experimental allergic contact dermatitis in mice. Materials and Methods: Hairless mice (HOS: HR-1, with chronic allergic contact dermatitis induced by 5 weeks of repeated application of 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB to the entire back skin were treated topically with royal jelly (0.01% or 1% for 5 weeks after sensitization with TNCB. The effects of royal jelly on pruritus and inflammation were evaluated by measurement of scratching behavior and skin inflammation score, respectively. Results: Repeated application of TNCB to the back skin of mice elicited frequent scratching behavior immediately and 24h after challenge. Topical royal jelly (0.01% or 1% and betamethasone (0.01% significantly ameliorated this chronic pruritus throughout the experimental period. The level of nerve growth factor mRNA in back skin was increased in the mice with dermatitis and reduced by betamethasone, but not by royal jelly. Conclusion: The inhibitory effect of royal jelly on chronic pruritus may occur through different mechanisms from those of betamethasone. Topical application of royal jelly, as used in cosmetics, might be beneficial for the alleviation of chronic pruritus.

  4. The efficacy of a commercial shampoo and whirlpooling in the treatment of canine pruritus - a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. (United States)

    Löflath, A; von Voigts-Rhetz, A; Jaeger, K; Schmid, M; Kuechenhoff, H; Mueller, R S


    Twenty-two dogs with a history of at least 4 weeks pruritus were studied to determine the effect of whirlpool use on the efficacy of topical therapy with an antipruritic shampoo (Allermyl, Virbac; Bad Oldesloe, Germany). Dogs in group 1 received initially topical therapy with conventional shampooing (2 mL shampoo per kilogram bodyweight) once weekly for 4 weeks. Dogs in group 2 received the same therapy using a whirlpool (Sanwhirl, Peter Aschauer GmbH; Gräfelfing, Germany). The treatments were crossed between the groups resulting in each dog in groups 1 and 2 receiving both therapies. Group 3 was the control group and was treated once weekly in the whirlpool without any shampoo during the 8 weeks of study. Prior to each therapy, dogs were evaluated by a clinician not aware of the type of treatment using a clinical scoring system (Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index - CADESI). Owners evaluated the pruritus daily on a visual analogue scale. There was a significant difference in pruritus scores but not CADESI scores after therapy between the control treatment and the conventional shampoo therapy or shampoo treatment in the whirlpool. These results provide evidence for the short-term benefit of shampoo therapy for canine pruritus.

  5. Clinical Applications of Saffron (Crocus sativus) and its Constituents: A Review. (United States)

    Moshiri, M; Vahabzadeh, M; Hosseinzadeh, H


    Commonly known as saffron, Crocus sativus L and its active components have shown several useful pharmacological effects such as anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, radical scavenger effects, learning and memory improving effects, etc. There has been an increasing body of data on saffron use in medical databases within the last 20 years. In the current review, the strengths and weaknesses of some of the clinical trials about different pharmacological effects of saffron will be discussed C. sativus extract has been studied in 8 anti-depressant clinical trials in comparison to placebo or some antidepressant drugs, in which saffron showed effectiveness as an antidepressant drug. Clinical trials on anti-Alzheimer effect of saffron demonstrated that it was more effective than the placebo, and as effective as donepezil. 2 clinical trials on antipruritic and complexion promoter in skin care effects of saffron both confirmed that saffron was more efficient than the placebo. In another clinical trial, it was proved that in addition to the weight loss treatment, saffron could reduce snacking frequency. Clinical trials conducted on women with premenstrual syndrome showed that saffron could reduce suffering symptoms more than the placebo and similar to standard treatments.Furthermore, additional clinical trials on effects of saffron on erection dysfunction, allergies, cardiovascular and immune system as well as its safety, toxicity and human pharmacokinetics are reviewed herein.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Cipto


    Full Text Available Lichen planus (LP is an inflammation skin and mucous membrane disease that has characteristic clinical and pathologic features. Typical lesion of LP are small, flat-topped, polygonal, violaceous papules on the skin or reticular, white patch or plaque on mucous membrane. Nail involvement is manifested by longitudinal ridging, thinning and distal splitting and hair involvement is atrophic cicatrical alopesia. There was an increased risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma in the leasion of mucous membrane of oral cavity. Pathology of LP is the prototype of lichenoid interface dermatitis, which shows damage to the basal cell layer and a band-like dental lymphocytic infiltrate in close approximation to the epidermis. Other pathologic findings are compact orthokeratosis, wedge-shape hypergranulosis and irregular acanthosis. The treatment of LP in the main is largely symptomatic like antipruritic for itching. Therapies to suppress immune responses are commonly effective in treating LP, such as corticosteroid and cyclosporine topical or systemic. Other treatment are psoralene ultra violet A (PUVA or steroids.

  7. Development of low-alcohol floral water mixed with extract from mugwort%复合型艾叶低醇驱蚊露的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岳花; 曾平; 谢维跃; 汤志球; 李帜红; 黄向辉


    Objective To develop a low-alcohol floral water with long repellent time and low irritation. Meth-ods Using dimethyl phthalate 1,2- Benzenedicarboxylic acid ( BAAPE) as a mosquito repellent with addition of extracts from mugwort, mint and lavender in order to give the products antipruritic effect. The mixed problem was resolved with introduction of the PEG - 40 hydrogenated castor oil as a solubilizer. Results A low-alcohol floral water mixed with mugwort and the ethanol content below 25% was prepared. Tests showed that the mosquito repellent time of the product was more than 4. 7 hours,and the physical and chemical properties were in line with our company' s enterprise standards. Conclusion The product is suitable for using in home and travel because of its long repellent time and high safety.%目的 开发一种驱蚊时效长、刺激性低的低醇驱蚊露产品.方法 使用驱蚊酯作为蚊虫驱避剂,同时添加艾叶、薄荷、薰衣草天然植物提取物以赋予产品止痒健肤的功效,在配方中引入PEG-40氢化蓖麻油作为增溶剂解决混溶问题.结果 研制出一款乙醇含量在25%以下的复合型艾叶低醇驱蚊露,有效驱蚊时间达4.7h以上,各项理化指标均符合已制定的企业标准.结论 产品具有驱蚊时间长、安全性高的优点,适合各类人群居家及旅行使用.

  8. 组胺H4受体在特应性皮炎发病中的作用%Roles of histamine H4 receptor in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璋; 窦侠; 李建军


    组胺是免疫反应中的重要介质,组胺H4受体是近年来新发现的组胺受体,主要表达于免疫器官及细胞上.研究表明,组胺H4受体参与特应性皮炎发病过程中的免疫炎症调节、瘙痒反应及表皮增殖.组胺H4受体的特应性拮抗剂也能影响特应性皮炎的病程发展,通过T细胞、抗原提呈细胞、角质形成细胞等发挥抗炎、调节免疫及其抗瘙痒作用,减轻了特应性皮炎的湿疹样皮炎、顽固性瘙痒的临床症状,有望成为一种新型治疗特应性皮炎的有效手段.%Histamine is an important mediator in inflammatory responses,and histamine H4 receptor is a newly discovered histamine receptor mainly expressed on immune organs and cells.Recent researches have indicated that histamine H4 receptor participates in immunoregulation,pruritus and epidermal proliferation in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis.Specific antagonists of histamine H4 receptor can affect the development and attenuate clinical symptoms of atopic dermatitis,such as eczematoid dermatitis and intractable itch,byexerting anti-inflammatory,immunoregulatory and anti-pruritic effects via T-lymphocytes,antigen-presenting cells and keratinocytes.Hence,histamine H4 receptor antagonists are expected to be a novel and effective approach to the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

  9. Topical antihistamines display potent anti-inflammatory activity linked in part to enhanced permeability barrier function. (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Kai; Man, Mao-Qiang; Santiago, Juan-Luis; Park, Kyungho; Roelandt, Truus; Oda, Yuko; Hupe, Melanie; Crumrine, Debra; Lee, Hae-Jin; Gschwandtner, Maria; Thyssen, Jacob P; Trullas, Carles; Tschachler, Erwin; Feingold, Kenneth R; Elias, Peter M


    Systemic antagonists of the histamine type 1 and 2 receptors (H1/2r) are widely used as anti-pruritics and central sedatives, but demonstrate only modest anti-inflammatory activity. Because many inflammatory dermatoses result from defects in cutaneous barrier function, and because keratinocytes express both Hr1 and Hr2, we hypothesized that H1/2r antagonists might be more effective if they were used topically to treat inflammatory dermatoses. Topical H1/2r antagonists additively enhanced permeability barrier homeostasis in normal mouse skin by the following mechanisms: (i) stimulation of epidermal differentiation, leading to thickened cornified envelopes; and (ii) enhanced epidermal lipid synthesis and secretion. As barrier homeostasis was enhanced to a comparable extent in mast cell-deficient mice, with no further improvement following application of topical H1/2r antagonists, H1/2r antagonists likely oppose mast cell-derived histamines. In four immunologically diverse, murine disease models, characterized by either inflammation alone (acute irritant contact dermatitis, acute allergic contact dermatitis) or by prominent barrier abnormalities (subacute allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis), topical H1/2r agonists aggravated, whereas H1/2r antagonists improved, inflammation and/or barrier function. The apparent ability of topical H1r/2r antagonists to target epidermal H1/2r could translate into increased efficacy in the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, likely due to decreased inflammation and enhanced barrier function. These results could shift current paradigms of antihistamine utilization from a predominantly systemic to a topical approach.

  10. Menthol: a simple monoterpene with remarkable biological properties. (United States)

    Kamatou, Guy P P; Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro M; Lawrence, Brian M


    Menthol is a cyclic monoterpene alcohol which possesses well-known cooling characteristics and a residual minty smell of the oil remnants from which it was obtained. Because of these attributes it is one of the most important flavouring additives besides vanilla and citrus. Due to this reason it is used in a variety of consumer products ranging from confections such as chocolate and chewing gum to oral-care products such as toothpaste as well as in over-the-counter medicinal products for its cooling and biological effects. Its cooling effects are not exclusive to medicinal use. Approximately one quarter of the cigarettes on the market contain menthol and small amounts of menthol are even included in non-mentholated cigarettes. Natural menthol is isolated exclusively from Mentha canadensis, but can also be synthesised on industrial scale through various processes. Although menthol exists in eight stereoisomeric forms, (-)-menthol from the natural source and synthesised menthol with the same structure is the most preferred isomer. The demand for menthol is high and it was previously estimated that the worldwide use of menthol was 30-32,000 metric tonnes per annum. Menthol is not a predominant compound of the essential oils as it can only be found as a constituent of a limited number of aromatic plants. These plants are known to exhibit biological activity in vitro and in vivo such as antibacterial, antifungal, antipruritic, anticancer and analgesic effects, and are also an effective fumigant. In addition, menthol is one of the most effective terpenes used to enhance the dermal penetration of pharmaceuticals. This review summarises the chemical and biological properties of menthol and highlights its cooling effects and toxicity.

  11. Functional textiles for atopic dermatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Lopes, Cristina; Silva, Diana; Delgado, Luís; Correia, Osvaldo; Moreira, André


    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a relapsing inflammatory skin disease with a considerable social and economic burden. Functional textiles may have antimicrobial and antipruritic properties and have been used as complementary treatment in AD. We aimed to assess their effectiveness and safety in this setting. We carried out a systematic review of three large biomedical databases. GRADE approach was used to rate the levels of evidence and grade of recommendation. Meta-analyses of comparable studies were carried out. Thirteen studies (eight randomized controlled trials and five observational studies) met the eligibility criteria. Interventions were limited to silk (six studies), silver-coated cotton (five studies), borage oil, and ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) fiber (one study each). Silver textiles were associated with improvement in SCORAD (2 of 4), fewer symptoms, a lower need for rescue medication (1 of 2), no difference in quality of life, decreased Staphyloccosus aureus colonization (2 of 3), and improvement of trans-epidermal water loss (1 of 2), with no safety concerns. Silk textile use was associated with improvement in SCORAD and symptoms (2 of 4), with no differences in quality of life or need for rescue medication. With borage oil use only skin erythema showed improvement, and with EVOH fiber, an improvement in eczema severity was reported. Recommendation for the use of functional textiles in AD treatment is weak, supported by low quality of evidence regarding effectiveness in AD symptoms and severity, with no evidence of hazardous consequences with their use. More studies with better methodology and longer follow-up are needed.

  12. Pathogenesis and Management of Pruritus in PBC and PSC. (United States)

    Kremer, Andreas E; Namer, Barbara; Bolier, Ruth; Fischer, Michael J; Oude Elferink, Ronald P; Beuers, Ulrich


    Pruritus is a preeminent symptom in patients with chronic cholestatic liver disorders such as primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. More than two-thirds of these patients experience itching during the course of their disease. This symptom is also frequently observed in patients with other causes of cholestasis such as cholangiocarcinoma, inherited forms of cholestasis and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, but may accompany almost any other liver disease. The pathogenesis of pruritus of cholestasis remains largely elusive. Increased concentrations of bile salts, histamine, serotonin, progesterone metabolites and endogenous opioids have been controversially discussed as potential pruritogens. However, for these molecules, neither a correlation with itch intensity nor a causative link could be established. The G protein-coupled receptor for bile salts, TGR5, has been shown to be expressed in dorsal root ganglia and give rise to itch in rodents, albeit upon stimuli with suprapathological concentrations of bile salts. The potent neuronal activator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and its forming enzyme, autotaxin (ATX), could be identified in the serum of patients with cholestatic pruritus. ATX activity correlated with itch severity and effectiveness of several anti-pruritic therapeutic interventions in cholestatic patients. Thus, the ATX-LPA-axis may represent a key element in the pathogenesis of this agonizing symptom. Treatment options for pruritus of cholestasis remain limited to a few evidence-based and several experimental medical and interventional therapies. The current guideline-based recommendations include the anion exchange resins colestyramine, the pregnane X receptor-agonist and enzyme inducer rifampicin, the μ-opioid antagonist naltrexone, and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors sertraline. Still, a considerable part of patients is unresponsive to these drugs and requires experimental approaches including phototherapy

  13. Preparation of Green Tea Function Type Hair Shampoo%绿茶功能型洗发香波的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗孟君; 熊海蓉; 蒋利华; 黄忠良; 陈宗高; 熊远福


    Using the water - soluble and efficacy of green tea effective composition, adding green tea hot water soaking extract to hair shampoo, through single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment, the op- timum material ratio and the technology process are abtained. By means of microbial detection and the feedback of voluntary reception test patients use, shows this hair shampoo not only can clean hair, also has the functions such as stop chip, antipruritic, soft hair, conditioning. The process is simple, convenient operation, has higher performance - price ratio, suitable for the production of many enterprise.%利用绿茶有效成分的水溶性和功效,将绿茶热水浸提液添加到洗发香波中,通过单因素实验和正交实验,得到了绿茶洗发香波的最佳原料配比和制备的工艺流程。通过微生物检测和自愿受试者使用情况的反馈,表明本研究所制的洗发香波不仅能清洗头发、头皮,还具有去屑、止痒、软发、调理等功能的洗发香波。该制备工艺简单、操作方便、性价比高,适合大小工厂、企业的生产。

  14. Cowhage-induced itch as an experimental model for pruritus. A comparative study with histamine-induced itch.

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    Alexandru D P Papoiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histamine is the prototypical pruritogen used in experimental itch induction. However, in most chronic pruritic diseases, itch is not predominantly mediated by histamine. Cowhage-induced itch, on the other hand, seems more characteristic of itch occurring in chronic pruritic diseases. OBJECTIVES: We tested the validity of cowhage as an itch-inducing agent by contrasting it with the classical itch inducer, histamine, in healthy subjects and atopic dermatitis (AD patients. We also investigated whether there was a cumulative effect when both agents were combined. METHODS: Fifteen healthy individuals and fifteen AD patients were recruited. Experimental itch induction was performed in eczema-free areas on the volar aspects of the forearm, using different itch inducers: histamine, cowhage and their combination thereof. Itch intensity was assessed continuously for 5.5 minutes after stimulus application using a computer-assisted visual analogue scale (COVAS. RESULTS: In both healthy and AD subjects, the mean and peak intensity of itch were higher after the application of cowhage compared to histamine, and were higher after the combined application of cowhage and histamine, compared to histamine alone (p<0.0001 in all cases. Itch intensity ratings were not significantly different between healthy and AD subjects for the same itch inducer used; however AD subjects exhibited a prolonged itch response in comparison to healthy subjects (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Cowhage induced a more intense itch sensation compared to histamine. Cowhage was the dominant factor in itch perception when both pathways were stimulated in the same time. Cowhage-induced itch is a suitable model for the study of itch in AD and other chronic pruritic diseases, and it can serve as a new model for testing antipruritic drugs in humans.

  15. 7,8,4'-Trihydroxyisoflavone attenuates DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in NC/Nga mice.

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    Heejung Kim

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is characterized by chronic highly pruritic and relapsing inflammatory skin lesions. Despite its growing prevalence, therapeutic treatments remain limited. Natural immune modulators from herbal extracts or derivatives may be useful for treating AD symptoms. This study examined the effect of 7,8,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone (7,8,4'-THIF, a metabolite of soy isoflavone daidzin, on AD-like symptoms. Repeated epicutaneous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB was performed on the ear and dorsal skin of NC/Nga mice to induce AD-like symptoms and skin lesions, and 7,8,4'-THIF (200 and 400 nmol or tacrolimus (100 µg was applied topically for 3 weeks to assess their anti-pruritic effects. We found that 7,8,4'-THIF alleviated DNCB-induced AD-like symptoms as quantified by skin lesion, dermatitis score, ear thickness, and scratching behavior. Histopathological analysis demonstrated that 7,8,4'-THIF decreased DNCB-induced eosinophil and mast cell infiltration into skin lesions. We also found that 7,8,4'-THIF significantly alleviated DNCB-induced loss of water through the epidermal layer. In addition to reducing the DNCB-induced increase in serum IgE, 7,8,4'-THIF also lowered skin lesion levels of the chemokine thymus and activation regulated chemokine; Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13; and Th1 cytokines IL-12 and interferon-γ. These results suggest that 7,8,4'-THIF might be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

  16. Study on Magnolia Cream Prescription Screening and Preparation%厚朴乳膏处方筛选及制备工艺的研究与开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁德会; 毛淑芳; 程弘夏; 许腊英


    Abstracts:Objective Puepose honokiol components has bactericidal, anti -inflammatory, eliminating dampness, antipruritic effect, through the preparation of cream on the extract was developed using.Methods on the basis of characteristics and cream base of magnolol and honokiol, the prescription composition, screening, and the preparation technology was studied, through the inspection of appearance, the drug transdermal, consistency and stability index, screening the best prescription composition, and preparation of Magnolia officinalis cream. Results Magnolia cream consists of the proportion of preparation, good reproducibility, cream Kizawa Jung, even delicate, consistency is appropriate, easy coating, good stability, absorption through the skin is good, can be regarded as the best proportion to prepare the Magnolia cream.Conclusions It can be used as a new preparation for the development and utilization.%目的:厚朴酚性成分具有杀菌、消炎、燥湿、止痒等作用,通过制备乳膏对其提取物进行开发利用。方法根据厚朴酚、和厚朴酚的特点及乳膏基质的特点,筛选处方组成,并对制备工艺进行研究,通过对乳膏的外观性状、透皮、稠度和稳定性等指标进行考察,筛选最佳的处方组成,并制备厚朴乳膏。结果由该比例的组成制备的厚朴乳膏,重现性好,乳膏色泽较纯正,均匀细腻,稠度适宜,易涂布,稳定性好、透皮吸收等均较好,可以作为最佳配比来制备厚朴乳膏。结论厚朴乳膏可以作为一种新制剂进行开发利用。

  17. The Histamine H4 Receptor: From Orphan to the Clinic

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    Robin L. Thurmond


    Full Text Available The histamine H4 receptor (H4R was first noted as a sequence in genomic databases that had features of a G-protein coupled receptor. This putative receptor was found to bind histamine consistent with its homology to other histamine receptors and thus became the fourth member of the histamine receptor family. Due to the previous success of drugs that target the H1 and H2 receptors, an effort was made to understand the function of this receptor and determine if it represented a drug target. Taking advantage of the vast literature on histamine, a search for histamine activity that did not appear to be mediated by the other three histamine receptors was undertaken. From this asthma and pruritus emerged as areas of particular interest. Histamine has long been suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma, but antihistamines that target the H1 and H2 receptors have not been shown to be effective for this condition. The use of selective ligands in animal models of asthma has now potentially filled this gap by showing a role for the H4R in mediating lung function and inflammation. A similar story exists for chronic pruritus associated with conditions such as atopic dermatitis. Antihistamines that target the H1 receptor are effective in reducing acute pruritus, but are ineffective in pruritus experienced by patients with atopic dermatitis. As for asthma, animal models have now suggested a role for the H4R in mediating pruritic responses, with antagonists to the H4R reducing pruritus in a number of different conditions. The anti-pruritic effect of H4R antagonists has recently been shown in human clinical studies, validating the preclinical findings in the animal models. A selective H4R antagonist inhibited histamine-induced pruritus in health volunteers and reduced pruritus in patients with atopic dermatitis. The history to date of the H4R provides an excellent example of the deorphanization of a novel receptor and the translation of this into

  18. A randomised trial evaluating the effects of the TRPV1 antagonist SB705498 on pruritus induced by histamine, and cowhage challenge in healthy volunteers.

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    Rachel A Gibson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 is a non-selective cation channel widely expressed in skin tissues, and peripheral sensory nerve fibres. Activation of TRPV1 releases neuropeptides; the resulting neurogenic inflammation is believed to contribute to the development of pruritus. A TRPV1 antagonist has the potential to perform as an anti-pruritic agent. SB705498 is a TRPV1 antagonist that has demonstrated in vitro activity against cloned TRPV1 human receptors and when orally administered has demonstrated pharmacodynamic activity in animal models and clinical studies. OBJECTIVES: To select a topical dose of SB705498 using the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin; to confirm engagement of the TRPV1 antagonistic action of SB705498 and assess whether the dose selected has an effect on itch induced by two challenge agents. METHODS: A clinical study was conducted in 16 healthy volunteers to assess the effects of 3 doses of SB705498 on skin flare induced by capsaicin. Subjects with a robust capsaicin response were chosen to determine if the selected topical formulation of SB705498 had an effect on challenge agent induced itch. RESULTS: Following capsaicin challenge the greatest average reduction in area of flare was seen for the 3% formulation. This dose was selected for further investigation. Itch intensity induced by two challenge agents (cowhage and histamine was assessed on the Computerised Visual Analogue Scale. The difference in average itch intensity (Weighted Mean Over 15 Mins between the 3% dose of SB705498 and placebo for the cowhage challenge was -0.64, whilst the histamine challenge showed on average a -4.65 point change. CONCLUSIONS: The 3% topical formulation of SB705498 cream was clinically well tolerated and had target specific pharmacodynamic activity. However there were no clinically significant differences on pruritus induced by either challenge agent in comparison to placebo. SB705498 is unlikely to be of symptomatic

  19. In vivo Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of the Extracts and Chemical Constituents of an Endemic Turkish Plant, Salsola grandis

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    Nurgün Küçükboyacı


    Full Text Available Salsola is one of the largest and most important genera in the family Chenopodiaceae. Salsola species are used for their anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anthelmintic and antipruritic effects and also as diuretic in traditional medicines worldwide. The aim of the present study is to assess the activity potential of the extracts, subextracts and isolated compounds from the aerial parts of and Salsola grandis, an endemic species in Turkey in a scientific platform. The effects of the extracts, subextracts and isolated compounds were investigated using in vivo experimental models of inflammation and pain in mice, and also total phenolic content of the plant was determined. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced paw edema and for the assessment of antinociceptive activity, p-benzoquinone-induced nociception tests in mice were employed. The crude ethanol extract of the plant was sequentially fractionated into five subextracts, namely n-hexane, CHCl 3, EtOAc, n-BuOH and remaining water subextracts. Further studies were carried out on the bioactive n -BuOH subextract. Through bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation procedures from active fraction , ten flavonoids, i sorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside(1, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (2,quercetin-3-O-metylether (3,tiliroside (4, isorhamnetin-3-glucuronide (5, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside (6,quercetin-3-O-galactoside (7, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (8,quercetin (9 and manghaslin (10, and two oleanane-type saponins, momordin II b (11 andmomordin II c (12, and one amino acid derivative compound, N-acetyltryptophan (13 were isolated, and their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic techniques. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of 1 , 4, 6, 7 and 12 were investigated firstly in this study, and 4 and 7 were found to have the most potent inhibitory activity in used models. The present study demonstrates the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive

  20. Study on Pharmacological Action of Aqueous Extract from Melaleuca Ahemifolia%互叶白千层水提物药理作用研究*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕婧; 钟正贤; 林霄; 刘布鸣


      目的:观察互叶白千层水提物的药理作用。方法:采用巴豆油致小鼠耳廓肿胀法、微量2倍稀释法、小鼠热板法、小鼠被动皮肤过敏试验、豚鼠磷酸组胺致痒试验等试验方法观察互叶白千层水提物的药理作用,并对其进行急性毒性试验。结果:互叶白千层水提物能抑制巴豆油引起小鼠耳廓肿胀;提高小鼠热刺激疼痛的痛阈值;对金黄色葡萄球菌、表皮葡萄球菌、大肠埃希杆菌、白色念珠菌有较强抑菌作用;抑制小鼠被动皮肤通透性;增加豚鼠耐受磷酸组胺的致痒阈;互叶白千层水提物的最大给药量为225.62 g生药/kg。结论:互叶白千层水提物具有抗炎、镇痛、抗菌、抗过敏、止痒等药理作用,且毒性小。%Objective: To observe the pharmacological action of aqueous extract from Melaleuca Ahemifolia. Methods: The experiments concluded mice ear-swollen induced by croton oil, double broth dilution method, hot plate test, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA)in mouse, cavy itch test by histamine phosphate and acute toxicity test to observe the pharmacological action of aqueous extract from Melaleuca Ahemifolia. Results: Aqueous Extract from Melaleuca Ahemifolia can inhibit the mice ear-swollen induced by croton oil, enhance the threshold of pain in mice due to hot stimulation, provide obvious bacteriostatic ac-tion on staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus epidermidis, bacillus coli and albicans Saccharomyces, reduce the PCA and im-prove cavy itch-threshold by histamine phosphate. The acute toxicity test showed that maximum tolerance of water extract of melaleuca alternifolia was 225.62 g crude drug/kg. Conclusion: Aqueous Extract from Melaleuca Ahemifolia can provide obvious anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-allergic and antipruritic effects, with low toxicity.

  1. Comparative assessment of the efficacy and safety of sertaconazole (2% cream versus terbinafine cream (1% versus luliconazole (1% cream in patients with dermatophytoses: A pilot study

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    H R Jerajani


    Full Text Available Background : Sertaconazole is a new, broad spectrum, fungicidal and fungistatic imidazole with added antipruritic and anti-inflammatory activity that would provide greater symptomatic relief and hence would be beneficial in improving the quality of life for the patient with dermatophytoses. Aims and Objectives : To compare efficacy and safety of sertaconazole, terbinafine and luliconazole in patients with dermatophytoses. Materials and Methods : 83 patients with tinea corporis and tinea cruris infections were enrolled in this multicentre, randomized, open label parallel study. The initial ′Treatment Phase′ involved three groups receiving either sertaconazole 2% cream applied topically twice daily for four weeks, terbinafine 1% cream once daily for two weeks, luliconazole 1% cream once daily for two weeks. At the end of treatment phase, there was a ′Follow-up Phase′ at end of 2 weeks, where the patients were assessed clinically and mycologically for relapse. Results : Of the 83 patients, 62 completed the study, sertaconazole (n = 20, terbinafine (n = 22 and luliconazole (n = 20. The primary efficacy variables including change in pruritus, erythema, vesicle, desquamation and mycological cure were significantly improved in all the three groups, as compared to baseline, in the Treatment and Follow-up phase. Greater proportion of patients in sertaconazole group (85% showed resolution of pruritus as compared to terbinafine (54.6%; and luliconazole (70%, (P < 0.05 sertaconazole vs terbinafine. There was a greater reduction in mean total composite score (pruritus, erythema, vesicle and desquamation in sertaconazole group (97.1% as compared to terbinafine (91.2% and luliconazole (92.9%. All groups showed equal negative mycological assessment without any relapses. All three study drugs were well tolerated. Only one patient in sertaconazole group withdrew from the study due to suspected allergic contact dermatitis. Conclusion : Sertaconazole was

  2. Study on the literature information of laws of medication about sores per-ifocal area%基于文献整理的疮疡四畔用药规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张幼雯; 刘明


    Objective To explore suitable for the herbs and external treatment prescriptions of sores perifocal area, based on the modern traditional Chinese medicine surgical literature information. Methods Taking"Superstar electronic books database"and"China Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Database"as an information platform, drug databas-es of sores perifocal area was built. The laws of medication about sores perifocal was discussed by data mining of fre-quency analysis, cluster analysis. Results Through sorting 237 literatures, according to the frequency in descending or-der, the frequency of the top 10 herbal medicine were cortex phellodendri, borneol, rhubarb, radix angelica dahurica, calomel, dragon's blood, angelica, frankincense, sesame oil, coptis, which showed that the drug use was concentrated;the main class was antipyretic drugs, blood circulation drugs. Supporting role was played by poison attack insect an-tipruritic drug, purgating drug, resuscitation drugs; cluster analysis resulted that five categories of external treatment prescriptions were represented for Jinhuangsan and Wuweixiaoduyin. Conclusion The base herbs are antipyretic drugs, blood circulation drugs. Jinhuangsan and Wuweixiaoduyin represent for external treatment prescriptions. Through data mining techniques, overall grasps the drug laws of sores perifocal area provides the basis for clinical research.%目的:基于现代中医外科文献,探讨适用于疮疡四畔的常用药物及外治方剂。方法以“超星电子图书数据库”和“中国中医药期刊数据库”作为信息平台,建立疮疡四畔外治药物数据库,应用频数分析、聚类分析等挖掘疮疡四畔的潜方用药规律。结果通过对237篇文献的整理,使用频数最多的前10味药物,按频率递减顺序排列分别为黄柏、冰片、大黄、白芷、轻粉、血竭、当归、乳香、麻油、黄连,可见文献中的药物使用比较集中;主要药类为清热药

  3. 胡椒醇提物的药理学实验研究%Experimental Study of Alcohol Extract from Pepper on Pharmacology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓永坤; 董寿堂; 王银辉; 李辉


    Objective To investigate the pharmacological effect of alcohol extract from pepper on topical application. Methods Two experimental models including xylene - induced ear edema in mice and histamine phosphate induced - foot pruritus in guinea pigs were employed to evaluate topically anti-inflammatory and antipruritic action of 70% alcohol extract from pepper. Internal diameters of auric arterioles and venules in mice were measured initially and then 5,10 and 20min after application of 70% alcohol extract from pepper and again 5,10,15 and 20 min after ip Adrenaline with image analysis system. Simultaneously blood flow state in auric venules was observed. Results Topical administration of 70% alcohol extract from pepper significantly inhibited ear edema induced by xylene, significantly increased threshold quantity of histamine phosphate with which elicited pruritus in guinea pigs, significantly dilated auric arterioles and venules in mice, speeded up blood flow rate of venules. Furthermore, it inhibited adrenaline - induced contraction of arterioles and venules as well as the reduction of blood flow rate of venules. Conclusion 70% alcohol extract of pepper has pharmacological activities of anti-inflammation, alleviating itching and improving micro-circulation.%目的 探讨胡椒醇提物局部外涂的药理作用.方法 分别采用二甲苯致小鼠耳廓肿胀炎症模型和磷酸组胺致豚鼠足部瘙痒模型测试胡椒70%乙醇提取液的局部抗炎止痒作用;利用图像分析系统测定小鼠耳廓局部应用胡椒70%乙醇提取液前与应用后5,10,20 min及腹腔注射肾上腺素后5,10,15,20 min耳廓细动、静脉口径和细静脉血流态,由此评价其对小鼠耳廓正常微循环和肾上腺素引起的微循环障碍的作用.结果 胡椒70%乙醇提取液局部外涂能显著抑制二甲苯所致小鼠耳廓肿胀;显著提高豚鼠足部磷酸组胺致痒阈;显著增加正常小鼠细动、静脉口径及细静脉血流速度,并

  4. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of Aquaphilus dolomiae extract on in vitro models

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    Aries MF


    Full Text Available Marie-Françoise Aries,1 Hélène Hernandez-Pigeon,1 Clémence Vaissière,1 Hélène Delga,1 Antony Caruana,1 Marguerite Lévêque,1 Muriel Bourrain,1,2 Katia Ravard Helffer,1 Bertrand Chol,3 Thien Nguyen,1 Sandrine Bessou-Touya,1 Nathalie Castex-Rizzi1 1Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique, Centre de Recherche & Développement Pierre Fabre, Toulouse, 2Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire de Biodiversité et Biotechnologies Microbiennes (LBBM, Observatoire Océanologique, Banyuls/Mer, France; 3Centre d’Immunologie Pierre Fabre, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois, France Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common skin disease characterized by recurrent pruritic inflammatory skin lesions resulting from structural and immune defects of the skin barrier. Previous studies have shown the clinical efficacy of Avène thermal spring water in AD, and a new microorganism, Aquaphilus dolomiae was suspected to contribute to these unique properties. The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, and immunomodulatory properties of ES0, an original biological extract of A. dolomiae, in immune and inflammatory cell models in order to assess its potential use in the treatment of AD.Materials and methods: An ES0 extract containing periplasmic and membrane proteins, peptides, lipopolysaccharides, and exopolysaccharides was obtained from A. dolomiae. The effects of the extract on pruritus and inflammatory mediators and immune mechanisms were evaluated by using various AD cell models and assays.Results: In a keratinocyte model, ES0 inhibited the expression of the inflammatory mediators, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin (IL-18, IL-4R, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-3, macrophage inflammatory protein-3α, and macrophage-derived chemokine and induced the expression of involucrin, which is involved in skin barrier keratinocyte terminal differentiation. In addition, ES0 inhibited protease-activated receptor-2 activation in

  5. An open, self-controlled study on the efficacy of topical indoxacarb for eliminating fleas and clinical signs of flea-allergy dermatitis in client-owned dogs in Queensland, Australia (United States)

    Fisara, Petr; Sargent, Roger M; Shipstone, Michael; von Berky, Andrew; von Berky, Janet


    Background Canine flea-allergy dermatitis (FAD), a hypersensitivity response to antigenic material in the saliva of feeding fleas, occurs worldwide and remains a common presentation in companion animal veterinary practice despite widespread availability of effective systemic and topical flea-control products. Hypothesis/Objectives To evaluate the clinical response in dogs with FAD treated topically with indoxacarb, a novel oxadiazine insecticide. Animals Twenty-five client-owned dogs in Queensland, Australia diagnosed with pre-existing FAD on the basis of clinical signs, flea-antigen intradermal and serological tests. Methods An open-label, noncontrolled study, in which all dogs were treated with topical indoxacarb at 4 week intervals, three times over 12 weeks. Results Twenty-four dogs completed the study. Complete resolution of clinical signs of FAD was observed in 21 cases (87.5%), with nearly complete resolution or marked improvement in the remaining three cases. Mean clinical scores (Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index-03) were reduced by 93.3% at week 12. Mean owner-assessed pruritus scores were reduced by 88% by week 12. Mean flea counts reduced by 98.7 and 100% in weeks 8 and 12, respectively. Conclusions and clinical importance Topical indoxacarb treatment applied every 4 weeks for 12 weeks, without concomitant antipruritic or ectoparasiticide therapy, completely alleviated flea infestations in all dogs and associated clinical signs of FAD in a high proportion of this population of dogs in a challenging flea-infestation environment. Résumé Contexte La dermatite par allergie aux piqures de puces (FAD), une hypersensibilité aux antigènes salivaires des puces, est décrite dans le monde entier et reste une présentation fréquente en médicine vétérinaire des animaux de compagnie malgré une large gamme d'antiparasitaires topiques et systémiques efficaces disponibles. Hypothèses/Objectifs Estimer la réponse clinique des chiens