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Sample records for antioxidant-rich spice added

  1. Effect of added citrus fibre and spice essential oils on quality characteristics and shelf-life of mortadella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viuda-Martos, M; Ruiz-Navajas, Y; Fernández-López, J; Pérez-Alvarez, J A

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of adding orange dietary fibre (1%), rosemary essential oil (0.02%) or thyme essential oil (0.02%) and the storage conditions on the quality characteristics and the shelf-life of mortadella, a bologna-type sausage. The moisture, fat, ash content and colour coordinates lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) were affected by the fibre content. The treatments analysed lowered the levels of residual nitrite (57.56% and 57.61%) and the extent of lipid oxidation, while analysis of the samples revealed the presence of the flavonoids, hesperidin and narirutin. No enterobacteria or psychotropic bacteria were found in any of the treatments. The treated samples stored in vacuum packaging showed the lowest aerobic and lactic acid bacteria counts. Sensorially, the most appreciated sample was the one containing orange dietary fibre and rosemary essential oil, stored in vacuum packaging. Orange dietary fibre and spice essential oils could find a use in the food industry to improve the shelf-life of meat products.

  2. The Okinawan diet: health implications of a low-calorie, nutrient-dense, antioxidant-rich dietary pattern low in glycemic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, D Craig; Willcox, Bradley J; Todoriki, Hidemi; Suzuki, Makoto

    2009-08-01

    Residents of Okinawa, the southernmost prefecture of Japan, are known for their long average life expectancy, high numbers of centenarians, and accompanying low risk of age-associated diseases. Much of the longevity advantage in Okinawa is thought to be related to a healthy lifestyle, particularly the traditional diet, which is low in calories yet nutritionally dense, especially with regard to phytonutrients in the form of antioxidants and flavonoids. Research suggests that diets associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases are similar to the traditional Okinawan diet, that is, vegetable and fruit heavy (therefore phytonutrient and antioxidant rich) but reduced in meat, refined grains, saturated fat, sugar, salt, and full-fat dairy products. Many of the characteristics of the diet in Okinawa are shared with other healthy dietary patterns, such as the traditional Mediterranean diet or the modern DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet. Features such as the low levels of saturated fat, high antioxidant intake, and low glycemic load in these diets are likely contributing to a decreased risk for cardiovascular disease, some cancers, and other chronic diseases through multiple mechanisms, including reduced oxidative stress. A comparison of the nutrient profiles of the three dietary patterns shows that the traditional Okinawan diet is the lowest in fat intake, particularly in terms of saturated fat, and highest in carbohydrate intake, in keeping with the very high intake of antioxidant-rich yet calorie-poor orange-yellow root vegetables, such as sweet potatoes, and green leafy vegetables. Deeper analyses of the individual components of the Okinawan diet reveal that many of the traditional foods, herbs, or spices consumed on a regular basis could be labeled "functional foods" and, indeed, are currently being explored for their potential health-enhancing properties.

  3. The impact of spices on vegetable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhaoping; Krak, Michael; Zerlin, Alona;

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study was conducted to evaluate the impact of spices added to broccoli, cauliflower, and spinach on amount and rate of vegetable consumption. Twenty overweight subjects who routinely ate less than three daily servings of vegetables were recruited. On six occasions, subjects were assigned...... in random order to eat broccoli, cauliflower, or spinach with or without added spices. Dishes were placed on a modified Universal Eating Monitor (UEM) that recorded rate of eating (g/sec), duration of eating (min) and total amount consumed (g). Total intake and duration of eating were increased...... significantly for broccoli with spices compared to plain broccoli, but there was no significant difference for cauliflower or spinach. No significant differences were noted in any of the visual analog scale (VAS) responses. This study suggests that adding spices may increase vegetable intake, but more studies...

  4. Packaging Attributes of Antioxidant-Rich Instant Coffee and Their Influence on the Purchase Intent

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    Marinês P. Corso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify the most important packaging attributes for purchasing a product not currently on the Brazilian market: antioxidant-rich instant coffee, a blend of roasted coffee and green coffee. Five package types of the same brand of instant antioxidant-rich coffee marketed in different countries were evaluated through a focus group. The attributes’ glass shape, glass lid color and label, information and brand were selected for the quantitative study. The purchase intent for the packaging images was evaluated with conjoint analysis. In general, an increased purchase intent was verified for more modern packages and browner labels that indicated roasted coffee. The consumers preferred the image of green and roasted coffee beans next to the cup of coffee and valued information about the product’s differentiation (the origin, type, quantity and functions of antioxidants that was presented in the form of explanatory charts on the back of the packaging.

  5. The impact of spices on vegetable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhaoping; Krak, Michael; Zerlin, Alona;

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study was conducted to evaluate the impact of spices added to broccoli, cauliflower, and spinach on amount and rate of vegetable consumption. Twenty overweight subjects who routinely ate less than three daily servings of vegetables were recruited. On six occasions, subjects were assigned...... in random order to eat broccoli, cauliflower, or spinach with or without added spices. Dishes were placed on a modified Universal Eating Monitor (UEM) that recorded rate of eating (g/sec), duration of eating (min) and total amount consumed (g). Total intake and duration of eating were increased...

  6. Efficient solvent extraction of antioxidant-rich extract from a tropical diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen Takano 1968

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Chern Foo

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Methanol was the recommended solvent for the production of antioxidant rich extract from C. calcitrans. Both carotenoids and phenolic acids were found to be positively correlated to the antioxidant capacities of C. calcitrans. Lead bioactives confirmed by subsequent high performance liquid chromatography studies were fucoxanthin, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid.

  7. SPICE and Chaos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Can we believe in the results of our circuit simulators ? Is it possible to distinguish between results due to numerical chaos and resultsdue to the eventual chaotic nature of our modelsof physical systems ?. Three experiments with SPICE are presented: (1) A "stable" active RCcircuit with poles i...... in the models of the circuits to be analyzed. If trimmed properly SPICE normally gives the correct result....

  8. Vitamin and antioxidant rich diet increases MLH1 promoter DNA methylation in DMT2 subjects

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    Switzeny Olivier J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress may lead to an increased level of unrepaired cellular DNA damage, which is discussed as one risk for tumor initiation. Mismatch repair (MMR enzymes act as proofreading complexes that maintain the genomic integrity and MMR-deficient cells show an increased mutation rate. One important gene in the MMR complex is the MutL homolog 1 (MLH1 gene. Since a diet rich in antioxidants has the potential to counteract harmful effects by reactive oxygen species (ROS, we investigated the impact of an antioxidant, folate, and vitamin rich diet on the epigenetic pattern of MLH1. These effects were analyzed in individuals with non-insulin depended diabetes mellitus type 2 (NIDDM2 and impaired fasting glucose (IFG. Methods In this post-hoc analysis of a randomized trial we analyzed DNA methylation of MLH1, MSH2, and MGMT at baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention, consisting of 300 g vegetables and 25 ml plant oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids per day. DNA methylation was quantified using combined bisulfite restriction enzyme analysis (COBRA and pyrosequencing. MLH1 and DNMT1 mRNA expression were investigated by qRT-PCR. DNA damage was assessed by COMET assay. Student’s two-tailed paired t test and one-way ANOVA with Scheffé corrected Post hoc test was used to determine significant methylation and expression differences. Two-tailed Pearson test was used to determine correlations between methylation level, gene expression, and DNA strand break amount. Results The intervention resulted in significantly higher CpG methylation in two particular MLH1 promoter regions and the MGMT promoter. DNA strand breaks and methylation levels correlated significantly. The expression of MLH1, DNMT1, and the promoter methylation of MSH2 remained stable. CpG methylation levels and gene expression did not correlate. Conclusion This vitamin and antioxidant rich diet affected the CpG methylation of MLH1. The higher methylation might be a

  9. Antioxidant-rich phytochemicals in miracle berry (Synsepalum dulcificum) and antioxidant activity of its extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liqing; Shen, Yixiao; Zhang, Xiumei; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Xu, Zhimin

    2014-06-15

    Miracle berry is known for its unique characteristic of modifying sour flavours to sweet. Twelve phenolics were identified and quantified in the miracle berry flesh at a level from 0.3 for kaempferol to 17.8 mg/100g FW for epicatechin. Lutein and α-tocopherol were also quantified at a level of 0.4 and 5.8 mg/100g FW, respectively. The TP and TF contents were 1448.3 GA and 9.9 QR mg Equiv/100g FW for the flesh, respectively, compared with 306.7 GA and 3.8 mg QR mg Equiv/100g FW of the seeds. The free radical scavenging and reducing percentage of the flesh extract was 96.3% and 32.5% in DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. Additionally, the flesh extract had a high FRAP of 22.9 mmol/100g. It significantly inhibited the oxidation of PUFA in fish oil as well. Thus, miracle berry could also serve as an antioxidant-rich fruit to provide health promoting function.

  10. The SPICE program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankinship, Ross M.; Breakwell, John A.; Dettmer, J. W.; Hamilton, Brian D.; Richardson, John M.

    The Space Integrated Controls Experiment (SPICE) testbed brings active and passive techniques together in an integrated application to a large flexible precision structure. One of the objectives of the SPICE Precision Pointing Experiment is to demonstrate a factor of 100 to 1 reduction in the root-mean-square line-of-sight jitter in the presence of specified mechanical disturbances. To accomplish this challenging task, active control is being used to achieve the principal improvement, while passive damping ensures a robustly stable system. This paper describes the integration of the various pieces that make up the SPICE Precision Pointing Experiment: the 5m telescope, the active control system, the control actuators, the passive damping approach, the optical measurement system, and the intensive system identification effort that supports the experiment. The Precision Pointing Experiment will commence during the second half of Government fiscal year 1992, so this paper will present the mature designs ready for the hardware test phase of the program.

  11. The SPICE Detector at ISAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garnsworthy A.B.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new ancillary detector system for the TIGRESS HPGe array called SPectrometer for Internal Conversion Electrons (SPICE is currently under development. SPICE consists of a segmented electron detector, photon shield and a permanent magnetic lens. SPICE will enable in-beam electron spectroscopy and, in coupling to the TIGRESS HPGe array, coincident gamma-electron spectroscopy with stable and radioactive beams.

  12. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

    2014-12-01

    Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

  13. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÉSSICA F. RODRIGUES

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1 were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3 were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1. Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

  14. Effect of powdered spice treatments on mycelial growth, sporulation and production of aflatoxins by toxigenic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Chalfoun,Sára Maria; Pereira,Marcelo Cláudio; Mario Lúcio V. Resende; Angélico,Caroline Lima; Silva,Rozane Aparecida da

    2004-01-01

    The effect of ten powdered spice plants was evaluated at the concentration of 1, 2, 3 and 4% to observe the mycelial growth and sporulation of Aspergillus niger and Eurotium repens. The spices were added to the culture media PDA and CYA20S. Clove completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the tested fungi. The other spices: cinnamon, garlic, thyme, mint, anis, oregano and onion were, in a decreasing order, promising antifungals. Bay leaf and basil did not show a pronounced fungistatic effect...

  15. Formulation of Spices mixture for preparation of Chicken Curry

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    Deogade

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the scope of utilization of processed chicken in convenient form, a study was undertaken to optimize the levels of spice mixture salt and commercial chicken masala in a spice formulation to be used for preparation of chicken curry. The sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry added with hot spice mixture containing salt and chicken masala, revealed that the flavour, juiciness, texture and overall palatability scores of chicken curry improved significantly with addition of 3.0 % salt level as compared to that of 2.5, 3.5 and 4.0 %. Spice mixture containing 1.0 % commercial chicken masala exhibited significantly higher scores for all the sensory attributes over 0.5 and 1.5%.It is thus concluded added that spice mixture added 3.0 % salt and 1.0 % commercial chicken masala was more suitable to enhance the sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(1.000: 18-20

  16. Spicing thing up: Synthetic cannabinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaderna, Max; Addy, Peter H; D’Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Recently, products containing synthetic cannabinoids, collectively referred to as Spice, are increasingly being used recreationally. Objectives The availability, acute subjective effects—including self-reports posted on Erowid—laboratory detection, addictive potential, and regulatory challenges of the Spice phenomenon are reviewed. Results Spice is sold under the guise of potpourri or incense. Unlike THC, the synthetic cannabinoids present in Spice are high-potency, high-efficacy, cannabinoid-receptor full agonists. Since standard urine toxicology does not test for the synthetic cannabinoids in Spice, it is often used by those who want to avoid detection of drug use. These compounds have not yet been subjected to rigorous testing in humans. Acute psychoactive effects include changes in mood, anxiety, perception, thinking, memory, and attention. Adverse effects include anxiety, agitation, panic, dysphoria, psychosis, and bizarre behavior. Psychosis outcomes associated with Spice provide additional data linking cannabinoids and psychosis. Adverse events necessitating intervention by Poison Control Centers, law enforcement, emergency responders, and hospitals are increasing. Despite statutes prohibiting the manufacture, distribution, and sale of Spice products, manufacturers are replacing banned compounds with newer synthetic cannabinoids that are not banned. Conclusions There is an urgent need for better research on the effects of synthetic cannabinoids to help clinicians manage adverse events and to better understand cannabinoid pharmacology in humans. The reported psychosis outcomes associated with synthetic cannabinoids contribute to the ongoing debate on the association between cannabinoids and psychosis. Finally, drug-detection tests for synthetic cannabinoids need to become clinically available. PMID:23836028

  17. CLOVE: A CHAMPION SPICE

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    Parle Milind

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Clove may be looked upon as a champion of all the antioxidants known till date. The Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity (ORAC test is a scale developed by U.S. Department of Agriculture for comparing anti-oxidant activity. The ORAC score, of clove is over 10 million. A drop of clove oil is 400 times more powerful as an anti-oxidant than wolf berries or blueberries. Health benefits from the use of clove have been known over the centuries. It is beneficial as a home remedy in curing several ailments / diseases. In addition to its culinary uses, the clove buds have an abundance of medicinal and recreational uses. The major part of the world’s consumption of the clove spice is in the home kitchens. However, commercial use of the clove is for the production of clove oil that contain active constituents, which possess antioxidant, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, anesthetic, pain reliving and insect repellent properties. Eugenol is the main constituent responsible for the medicinal properties of the clove bud. In the light of above, we thought it worthwhile to compile an up-to-date review article on clove covering its, synonyms, chemical constituents, phytopharmacology and medicinal uses.

  18. Postharvest Processing and Benefits of Black Pepper, Coriander, Cinnamon, Fenugreek, and Turmeric Spices.

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    Balasubramanian, S; Roselin, P; Singh, K K; Zachariah, John; Saxena, S N

    2016-07-26

    Spices are prime source for flavor, aroma, and taste in cuisines and play an active role as medicines due to their high antioxidant properties. As medicine or food, the importance of spices cannot be overemphasized. The medicinal values of spices are very well established in treating various ailments like cancer, fever, malaria, stomach offset, nausea, and many more. A spice may be available in several forms: fresh, whole dried, or pre-ground dried which requires further processing to be utilized in the form of value-added product. This review paper deals with the cultivation, postharvesting, chemical composition, uses, health, and medicinal benefits of the selected spice viz., black pepper, coriander, cinnamon, fenugreek, turmeric, and technological advances in processing of spices viz., super critical fluid extraction, cryogenic grinding, and microencapsulation etc. This paper also focuses on issues related to utilization of spices toward its high end-product development and characterization in pharmaceuticals and other medicinal purposes. The availability of different spices and their varietal differences and location have their pertinent characters, which are much demanding to refine postharvest and processing to assure its quality in the international market.

  19. Efficient solvent extraction of antioxidant-rich extract from a tropical diatom,Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen) Takano 1968

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Chern Foo; Fatimah Md Yusoff; Maznah Ismail; Mahiran Basri; Nicholas Mun Hoe Khong; Kim Wei Chan; Sook Kun Yau

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare thein vitro antioxidant capacity of a diatom,Chaetoceros calcitrans (C. calcitrans) extracted using six types of solvents. Methods:Each extract was evaluated in terms of extraction yield, total carotenoid, fucoxanthin content, total phenolic and antioxidant capacities (DPPH• andABTS•+ scavenging activity and iron chelating activity). Results: The methanol extract exhibited the highest yield [(22.71 ± 0.96) g/100 g dry weight (DW)], total carotenoid [(4.46 ± 0.36) mg/g DW], total phenolic [(2.49 ± 0.08) mg gallic acid equivalents/g DW] and second highest fucoxanthin content [(2.08 ± 0.03) mg fucoxanthin/g DW] as compared to other solvent extracts. Methanolic extract also exhibited significantly higher (P Conclusions: Methanol was the recommended solvent for the production of antioxidant rich extract fromC. calcitrans. Both carotenoids and phenolic acids were found to be positively correlated to the antioxidant capacities ofC. calcitrans. Lead bioactives confirmed by subsequent high performance liquid chromatography studies were fucoxanthin, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid.

  20. Efficient solvent extraction of antioxidant-rich extract from a tropical diatom,Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen) Takano 1968简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su; Chern; Foo; Fatimah; Md.Yusoff; Maznah; Ismail; Mahiran; Basri; Nicholas; Mun; Hoe; Khong; Kim; Wei; Chan; Sook; Kun; Yau

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the in vitro antioxidant capacity of a diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans(C. calcitrans) extracted using six types of solvents.Methods: Each extract was evaluated in terms of extraction yield, total carotenoid,fucoxanthin content, total phenolic and antioxidant capacities(DPPH and ABTS +scavenging activity and iron chelating activity).Results: The methanol extract exhibited the highest yield [(22.71 ± 0.96) g/100 g dry weight(DW)], total carotenoid [(4.46 ± 0.36) mg/g DW], total phenolic [(2.49 ± 0.08) mg gallic acid equivalents/g DW] and second highest fucoxanthin content [(2.08 ± 0.03) mg fucoxanthin/g DW] as compared to other solvent extracts. Methanolic extract also exhibited significantly higher(P < 0.05) scavenging(DPPH, ABTS +) and iron chelating activities.Conclusions: Methanol was the recommended solvent for the production of antioxidant rich extract from C. calcitrans. Both carotenoids and phenolic acids were found to be positively correlated to the antioxidant capacities of C. calcitrans. Lead bioactives confirmed by subsequent high performance liquid chromatography studies were fucoxanthin, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid.

  1. Search for β-Secretase Inhibitors from Natural Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Shinichi; Murata, Kazuya; Yoshioka, Yuri; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2016-04-01

    The growing number of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients prompted us to seek effective natural resources for the prevention of AD. We focused on the inhibition of β-secretase, which is known to catalyze the production of senile plaque. Sixteen spices used in Asian countries were selected for the screening. Among the extracts tested, hexane extracts obtained from turmeric, cardamom, long pepper, cinnamon, Sichuan pepper, betel, white turmeric and aromatic ginger showed potent inhibitory activities. Their active principles were identified as sesquiterpenoids, monoterpenoids, fatty acid derivatives and phenylpropanoids using GC-MS analyses. The chemical structures and IC50 values of the compounds are disclosed. The results suggest that long-term consumption'of aromatic compounds from spices could be effective in the prevention of AD.

  2. Measurement of spices and seasonings in India: opportunities for cancer epidemiology and prevention.

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    Ferrucci, Leah M; Daniel, Carrie R; Kapur, Kavita; Chadha, Puneet; Shetty, Hemali; Graubard, Barry I; George, Preethi S; Osborne, Whitney; Yurgalevitch, Susan; Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Gupta, Prakash C; Mathew, Aleyamma; Sinha, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Bioactive components of many foods added during cooking have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antibacterial and chemopreventive properties. However, epidemiologic studies generally do not collect detailed information on these items, which include spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and oils. Since India has some of the highest spice consumption in the world, we developed a computer-based food preparer questionnaire to estimate per capita consumption of 19 spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and 13 cooking oils among 3,625 participants in the India Health Study, a multicenter pilot study in three regions of India. We observed notable regional differences in consumption of spices, chilies, coconut, garlic, and onions. In Trivandrum, over 95 percent of the participants consumed 12 different spices, while in New Delhi and Mumbai, 95 percent of participants consumed only four and five spices, respectively. Cooking oil use also varied, as ghee was most common in New Delhi (96.8%) followed by mustard seed oil (78.0%), while in Trivandrum the primary oil was coconut (88.5%) and in Mumbai it was peanut (68.5%). There was some variation in consumption by education, income, and religion. Using a novel method for assessing food items primarly added during cooking, we successfully estimated per capita consumption within an epidemiologic study. Based on basic science research and suggestive ecologic level data on cancer incidence and spice consumption, improving epidemiologic assessment of these potentially chemopreventive food items may enhance our understanding of diet and cancer risk.

  3. Spectrophotometric analysis of irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josimovic, L.; Cudina, I.

    1987-01-01

    Seven different spices (thyme, cinnamon, coriander, caraway, pimento, paprika, black pepper) were treated by gamma radiation at an absorbed dose of 10 kGy, and the effect on chemical quality was determined. The effects of this dose were assessed by spectrophotometric analysis of some water-soluble constituents of spices (carbohydrates; carbonyl compounds) and on the content of water-insoluble steam-volatile oils. The colour of paprika and the content of piperine in pepper held in different packaging materials were measured in unirradiated and irradiated samples as a function of storage time. In all cases irradiation does not bring about any distinct qualitative or quantitative chemical changes based on spectrophotometric analysis of spice extracts.

  4. Kaubanduskeskus Spice Riias = Spice shopping centre in Riga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Riias Lielirbes iela 29 asuva kaubanduskeskuse Spice sisekujundus. Sisearhitekt Aivar Oja (FRA Disain OÜ), kaasa töötas Riin Luuk (Vaikla Disain). Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. 2 plaani, 7 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  5. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers.

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    Robert Musundire

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS and coupled gas chromatography (GC-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1 at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food.

  6. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musundire, Robert; Osuga, Isaac M; Cheseto, Xavier; Irungu, Janet; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS) and coupled gas chromatography (GC)-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1) at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food.

  7. Enhancing consumer liking of low salt tomato soup over repeated exposure by herb and spice seasonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Rowland, Ian; Methven, Lisa

    2014-10-01

    There is strong evidence for the link between high dietary sodium and increased risk of cardiovascular disease which drives the need to reduce salt content in foods. In this study, herb and spice blends were used to enhance consumer acceptability of a low salt tomato soup (0.26% w/w). Subjects (n = 148) scored their liking of tomato soup samples over 5 consecutive days. The first and last days were pre-and post-exposure visits where all participants rated three tomato soup samples; standard, low salt and low salt with added herbs and spices. The middle 3 days were the repeated exposure phase where participants were divided into three balanced groups; consuming the standard soup, the low salt soup, or the low salt soup with added herbs and spices. Reducing salt in the tomato soup led to a significant decline in consumer acceptability, and incorporating herbs and spices did not lead to an immediate enhancement in liking. However, inclusion of herbs and spices enhanced the perception of the salty taste of the low salt soup to the same level as the standard. Repeated exposure to the herbs and spice-modified soup led to a significant increase in the overall liking and liking of flavour, texture and aftertaste of the soup, whereas no changes in liking were observed for the standard and low salt tomato soups over repeated exposure. Moreover, a positive trend in increasing the post-exposure liking of the herbs and spices soup was observed. The findings suggest that the use of herbs and spices is a useful approach to reduce salt content in foods; however, herbs and spices should be chosen carefully to complement the food as large contrasts in flavour can polarise consumer liking.

  8. Decontamination of nuts and spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The social and economic impacts of outbreaks of foodborne illnesses and food recalls connected to consumption of microbiologically contaminated nuts, spices or their products have become important food safety concerns. Initiatives have been undertaken by regulatory and public health agencies, indust...

  9. Spices: Potential Therapeutics for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheeshkumar, N; Vijayan, R S K; Lingesh, A; Santhikumar, S; Vishnuvardhan, Ch

    2016-01-01

    India has traditionally been known to all over the world for spices and medicinal plants. Spices exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. In contemporary, Indian spices are used to rustle up delicious delicacies. However, the Indian spices are more than just adjuvant which adds aroma and fragrance to foods. A few spices are very widely used and grown commercially in many countries, contain many important chemical constituents in the form of essential oil, oleoresin, oleogum, and resins, which impart flavor, pungency, and color to the prepared dishes, simultaneously exerts diverse therapeutic benefits. Ayurveda, the traditional systems of medicine in India has many evidences for the utilization of spices to cure various diseases. Some of the activities have been scientifically proven. Among various indications central nervous system disorders are of prime importance and it has been evident in traditional books and published reports that spices in fact protect and cure neuronal ailments. Likewise there are many spices found in India used for culinary purpose and have been found to have reported specific activities against brain disorders. About 400 B.C., Hippocrates rightly said "Let food be thy medicine and medicine thy food." This review focuses on the importance of spices in therapeutics and the till date scientific findings of Indian spices in CNS pharmacology and explores the potential of Indian spices to cure CNS disorders.

  10. SPICE Supports Planetary Science Observation Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall Acton, Charles; Bachman, Nathaniel J.; Semenov, Boris V.; Wright, Edward D.

    2015-11-01

    "SPICE" is an information system, comprising both data and software, providing scientists with the observation geometry needed to plan observations from instruments aboard robotic spacecraft, and to subsequently help in analyzing the data returned from those observations. The SPICE system has been used on the majority of worldwide planetary exploration missions since the time of NASA's Galileo mission to Jupiter. Along with its "free" price tag, portability and the absence of licensing and export restrictions, its stable, enduring qualities help make it a popular choice. But stability does not imply rigidity-improvements and new capabilities are regularly added. This poster highlights recent additions that could be of interest to planetary scientists.Geometry Finder allows one to find all the times or time intervals when a particular geometric condition exists (e.g. occultation) or when a particular geometric parameter is within a given range or has reached a maximum or minimum.Digital Shape Kernel (DSK) provides means to compute observation geometry using accurately modeled target bodies: a tessellated plate model for irregular bodies and a digital elevation model for large, regular bodies.WebGeocalc (WGC) provides a graphical user interface (GUI) to a SPICE "geometry engine" installed at a mission operations facility, such as the one operated by NAIF. A WGC user need have only a computer with a web browser to access this geometry engine. Using traditional GUI widgets-drop-down menus, check boxes, radio buttons and fill-in boxes-the user inputs the data to be used, the kind of calculation wanted, and the details of that calculation. The WGC server makes the specified calculations and returns results to the user's browser.Cosmographia is a mission visualization program. This tool provides 3D visualization of solar system (target) bodies, spacecraft trajectory and orientation, instrument field-of-view "cones" and footprints, and more.The research described in this

  11. Effects of irradiation upon spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    ESR studies were performed on untreated and irradiated samples of paprika powder, ground black pepper, and a spice mixture of the following composition: paprika, 55%; black pepper, 14%; allspice, 9%; coriander, 9%; marjoram, 7%; cumin, 4%; and nutmeg, 2%. Gamma radiation doses from 0.5 to 5 Mrad were applied. In the case of paprika samples, the effect of moisture content on the formation and disappearance of radiation-induced free radicals was also investigated. Shortly after irradiation (on the day of radiation treatment) high amounts of free radicals were detected in irradiated spice samples but they diminished upon storage. After a period of 3 months the ESR signals of the irradiated samples approximated those of the controls. The free radicals found in unirradiated ground spices did not disappear during a storage period as long as one year. The formation and disappearance of radiation-induced free radicals were found to be strongly affected by the moisture content of samples. If a sample of low moisture content containing a high free radical concentration after irradiation was placed in an atmosphere of higher moisture content, the free radicals decayed rapidly.

  12. Spice Tools Supporting Planetary Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, C.; Bachman, N.; Semenov, B.; Wright, E.

    2016-06-01

    NASA's "SPICE"* ancillary information system has gradually become the de facto international standard for providing scientists the fundamental observation geometry needed to perform photogrammetry, map making and other kinds of planetary science data analysis. SPICE provides position and orientation ephemerides of both the robotic spacecraft and the target body; target body size and shape data; instrument mounting alignment and field-of-view geometry; reference frame specifications; and underlying time system conversions. SPICE comprises not only data, but also a large suite of software, known as the SPICE Toolkit, used to access those data and subsequently compute derived quantities-items such as instrument viewing latitude/longitude, lighting angles, altitude, etc. In existence since the days of the Magellan mission to Venus, the SPICE system has continuously grown to better meet the needs of scientists and engineers. For example, originally the SPICE Toolkit was offered only in Fortran 77, but is now available in C, IDL, MATLAB, and Java Native Interface. SPICE calculations were originally available only using APIs (subroutines), but can now be executed using a client-server interface to a geometry engine. Originally SPICE "products" were only available in numeric form, but now SPICE data visualization is also available. The SPICE components are free of cost, license and export restrictions. Substantial tutorials and programming lessons help new users learn to employ SPICE calculations in their own programs. The SPICE system is implemented and maintained by the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF)-a component of NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS). * Spacecraft, Planet, Instrument, Camera-matrix, Events

  13. NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS OF FOUR COMMON SPICES USED IN DENTISTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan Katyal; Deepak Prashar

    2015-01-01

    Spices are used for aroma, flavor, colour and preservation of foodstuff. Spices may be derived from many parts of the plant viz bark, buds, flowers, fruits, leaves, rhizomes, roots, seeds and the entire plant. Spices are frequently desiccated, dehydrated, processed or distilled to prepare extracts such as essential oils from the raw spice material. These processing techniques may hamper the nutritional aspect of these spices. Moreover, the pharmacological activity of these spices is also a...

  14. Sauces, spices, and condiments: definitions, potential benefits, consumption patterns, and global markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casal, Maria Nieves; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Malavé, Heber Gómez-

    2016-09-01

    Spices and condiments are an important part of human history and nutrition, and have played an important role in the development of most cultures around the world. According to the Codex Alimentarius, the category of salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, and protein products includes substances added to foods to enhance aroma and taste. Spices have been reported to have health benefits as antioxidant, antibiotic, antiviral, anticoagulant, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory agents. Health claims about the benefits of condiments for disease prevention or health improvement need to be science based and extensively supported by evidence; data on their preventive or protective potential in humans are currently limited. The condiments market has been growing continuously over the last few years, with the quantity of products sold under the category of sauces, dressings, and condiments during the period 2008-2013 increasing from 31,749,000 to 35,795,000 metric tons. About 50 of the 86 spices produced in the world are grown in India. From 2008 to 2013, the United States was the largest importer of spices, followed by Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Russia. The main buyers of fish sauce are Vietnam and Thailand, with purchases of 333,000 and 284,000 metric tons in 2013, respectively. The sauces and condiments category is dynamic, with large differences in consumption in habits and practices among countries. This paper aims to establish definitions and discuss potential health benefits, consumption patterns, and global markets for sauces, spices, and condiments.

  15. The Influence of Spices on the Volatile Compounds of Cooked Beef Patty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Samooel; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Il Suk; Nam, Ki Chang; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Kyung Heang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the influences of spices on the amounts and compositions of volatile compounds released from cooked beef patty. Beef patty with 0.5% of spice (nutmeg, onion, garlic, or ginger powder, w/w) was cooked by electronic pan until they reached an internal temperature of 75℃. A total of 46 volatile compounds (6 alcohols, 6 aldehydes, 5 hydrocarbons, 6 ketones, 9 sulfur compounds, and 14 terpenes) from cooked beef patties were detected by using purgeand- trap GC/MS. The addition of nutmeg, onion, or ginger powder significantly reduced the production of the volatile compounds via lipid oxidation in cooked beef patty when compared to those from the control. Also, the addition of nutmeg and garlic powder to beef patty generated a lot of trepans or sulfur volatile compounds, respectively. From these results, the major proportion by chemical classes such as alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, ketones, sulfur compounds, and terpenes was different depending on the spice variations. The results indicate that addition of spices to the beef patty meaningfully changes the volatile compounds released from within. Therefore, it can be concluded that spices can interact with meat aroma significantly, and thus, the character of each spice should be considered before adding to the beef patty.

  16. SPICE model of memristive devices with threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Pershin, Y V

    2013-01-01

    Although memristive devices with threshold voltages are the norm rather than the exception in experimentally realizable systems, their SPICE programming has not yet been suggested. Here, we show how to implement such systems in the SPICE environment. We expect this implementation to find widespread use in circuits design and testing.

  17. Antioxidant capacity of vegetables, spices and dressings relevant to nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninfali, Paolino; Mea, Gloria; Giorgini, Samantha; Rocchi, Marco; Bacchiocca, Mara

    2005-02-01

    Vegetables are the most important sources of phenolics in the Mediterranean diet. Phenolics, especially flavonoids, are suggested as being essential bioactive compounds providing health benefits. In this study, twenty-seven vegetables, fifteen aromatic herbs and some spices consumed in Central Italy (the Marches region) were studied to reveal total phenolic, flavonoid and flavanol content as well as their antioxidant capacity measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method. A comparison in terms of antioxidant capacity was made between different salads, as well as between salads to which aromatic herbs had been added. Lemon balm and marjoram at a concentration of 1.5 % w/w increased by 150 % and 200 % respectively the antioxidant capacity of a salad portion. A 200 g portion of a salad enriched with marjoram corresponded to an intake of 200 (SD 10) mg phenolics and 4000 (SD 300) ORAC units (micromol Trolox equivalents). Olive oils and wine or apple vinegars were the salad dressings that provided the highest increase in antioxidant capacity. Among the spices tested, cumin and fresh ginger made the most significant contribution to the antioxidant capacity. The results are useful in surveying the antioxidant parameters of vegetables, herbs and spices produced and consumed in our geographical area as well as in quantifying the daily intake of phenolics and ORAC units. The results can be used in public health campaigns to stimulate the consumption of vegetables able to provide significant health protection in order to prevent chronic diseases.

  18. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barikmo Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. Methods We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. Results The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. Conclusions This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential

  19. Properties and storage stability of whey protein edible film with spice powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ket-On, Apisada; Pongmongkol, Natkritta; Somwangthanaroj, Anongnat; Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Tananuwong, Kanitha

    2016-07-01

    The impact of spice powders on physical, mechanical, thermal and barrier properties, and on storage stability, of whey protein isolate (WPI)-based films was determined. Films with added spices were prepared from casting solution containing 10 % (w/w) heat-denatured WPI, glycerol (WPI:glycerol of 3:2 w/w), sodium chloride (0.4 g/100 g solution), garlic and pepper powders (≤3 g each/100 g solution). Water activity (aw) of all films was 0.53-0.57. Addition of spice powders increased thickness, darkness and yellowness of the WPI films. Films with added spices had lower tensile strength (TS), percent elongation (%E), and melting enthalpy of WPI matrices, but possessed higher water vapor permeability (WVP) than WPI film without sodium chloride and spices. The WPI film containing highest amount of garlic powder and lowest amount of pepper powder was selected for storage tests at 25-45 °C. Storage for up to 49 days resulted in reduced aw and %E, increased TS, and color changes at 35 and 45 °C, with few changes at 25 °C. However, film WVP and OP were not affected by storage conditions after 7 days storage. Active ingredients decreased over time with up to 81 % allicin and 37 % piperine retained in the film matrix after 47 days storage.

  20. 联发科技与Spice Digital签署投资协议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    无线通信及数字多媒体IC设计领导厂商联发科技(MediaTek)宣布,与运营范围涵盖全球近20个国家的印度移动增值服务(Mobile Value Added SerVice)领导厂商spice Digital签订投资协议。联发科技看好其市场增长潜力,未来预计将根据协议内容投资Spice Digital 2000万美元。

  1. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action. PMID:27529277

  2. Spices in the management of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xinyan; Lim, Joseph; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2017-02-15

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health care problem worldwide both in developing and developed countries. Many factors, including age, obesity, sex, and diet, are involved in the etiology of DM. Nowadays, drug and dietetic therapies are the two major approaches used for prevention and control of DM. Compared to drug therapy, a resurgence of interest in using diet to manage and treat DM has emerged in recent years. Conventional dietary methods to treat DM include the use of culinary herbs and/or spices. Spices have long been known for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic properties. This review explores the anti-diabetic properties of commonly used spices, such as cinnamon, ginger, turmeric, and cumin, and the use of these spices for prevention and management of diabetes and associated complications.

  3. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-12

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action.

  4. Medieval European medicine and Asian spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jong Kuk

    2014-08-01

    This article aimed to explain the reasons why Asian spices including pepper, ginger, and cinnamon were considered as special and valuable drugs with curative powers in the Medieval Europe. Among these spices, pepper was most widely and frequently used as medicine according to medieval medical textbooks. We analyzed three main pharmacology books written during the Middle Ages. One of the main reasons that oriental spices were widely used as medicine was due to the particular medieval medical system fundamentally based on the humoral theory invented by Hippocrates and Galen. This theory was modified by Arab physicians and imported to Europe during the Middle Ages. According to this theory, health is determined by the balance of the following four humors which compose the human body: blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm. Each humor has its own qualities such as cold, hot, wet, and dry. Humoral imbalance was one of the main causes of disease, so it was important to have humoral equilibrium. Asian spices with hot and dry qualities were used to balance the cold and wet European diet. The analysis of several major medical textbooks of the Middle Ages proves that most of the oriental spices with hot and dry qualities were employed to cure diverse diseases, particularly those caused by coldness and humidity. However, it should be noted that the oriental spices were considered to be much more valuable and effective as medicines than the local medicinal ingredients, which were not only easily procured but also were relatively cheap. Europeans mystified oriental spices, with the belief that they have marvelous and mysterious healing powers. Such mystification was related to the terrestrial Paradise. They believed that the oriental spices were grown in Paradise which was located in the Far East and were brought to the Earthly world along the four rivers flowing from the Paradise.

  5. SPICES AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Rajsekhar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The sources of drug are classified as plant, animal, minerals sources. The products from plants are used in many ways by human in there day today life. The best and the most important use are as food, and as spices. It does not matter which ever the civilization, what ever be the race and color of humans the main food comes from the plant. The spices are the vegetative substances used for to flavor the food. They are also used as preservative and are useful for the humans in many other ways. A spice could be dried seed, fruit, root, bark, or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for flavor, color, or as a preservative that kills harmful bacteria or prevents their growth. It may be used to flavor a dish or to hide other flavors. In the kitchen, spices are distinguished from herbs, which are leafy, green plant parts used for flavoring or as garnish. The above article is an effort to bring out the importance of some daily used spices as antimicrobial agents.

  6. The influence of herbs and spices on overall liking of reduced fat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, John C; Polsky, Sarit; Stark, Rebecca; Zhaoxing, Pan; Hill, James O

    2014-08-01

    Most adults consume more fat than is recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We examined whether adding herbs and spices to reduced-fat foods would improve their consumer liking. We recruited adults 18-65 years old to taste three lunch conditions: full fat (FF), reduced fat with no added spice (RF), and reduced fat plus spice (RFS). Subjects rated their liking of a meatloaf entrée, vegetable side dish, pasta side dish, and overall meal on a 9-point hedonic Likert scale. Subjects came weekly for 3 weeks to consume meals and were randomized to the condition order. We enrolled 148 subjects who were predominantly female (n = 101, 68%), had a mean age of 35.9 years, and body mass index of 24.4 kg/m2. Subjects reported habitual diets as 36% of total calories from fat (2005 Block Food Frequency Questionnaire). Reducing fat content alone significantly dropped overall liking of the meal compared with FF and RFS conditions (6.29 RF vs. 7.05 FF, P fat foods restored liking of the overall meal, meatloaf, and vegetables to that of FF conditions, and significantly improved the liking of RF pasta. Herbs and spices can be a useful tool to improve liking of foods consistent with national guidelines.

  7. Protective effect of antioxidant rich aqueous curry leaf (Murraya koenigii extract against gastro-toxic effects of piroxicam in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Benazir Firdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Piroxicam (chemically 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-2-pyridinyl-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide, a classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID is orally administered to arthritic patients. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 synthesis and subsequent free hydroxyl radical generation in vivo exert gastro-toxic side effects on piroxicam treatment. Leaves of curry plant are rich in antioxidants with prolific free radical scavenging activities. This led us to investigate the efficiency of the use of curry leaves in ameliorating piroxicam induced gastric damage. Piroxicam was orally (30 mg per kg body weight administered in male albino Wistar rats to generate gastric ulcers. These rats were orally fed with graded doses of aqueous extract of curry or Murraya koenigii leaves (Cu LE prior to piroxicam administration. Oxidative stress biomarkers, activities of antioxidant and pro-oxidant enzymes, mucin content and nature, PGE2 level, activities of mitochondrial enzymes and histomorphology of gastric tissues were studied. Piroxicam treatment altered all the above mentioned parameters whereas, curry leaf extract pre-treated animals were protected against piroxicam induced alterations. Hence, the protective action of the antioxidant rich Cu LE was investigated to propose a new combination therapy or dietary management to arthritic patients using piroxicam.

  8. Influence of heat sterilization on the organoleptic quality of spices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarse, H.; Nijssen, L.M.; Nowak, M.

    1982-01-01

    Heat sterilization and storage of food products containing spices often results in a change of their organoleptic quality. Our knowledge about the stability of individual spices, however, is low. Therefore the heat stability of 8 different spices most frequently used has been investigated: cinnamon,

  9. Zhangcha Duck (Spiced and Smoked Duck)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Preparation: Buy a ready cooked Zhangcha Duck—a kind of duck stewed in sugar, spiced with tea leaves and smoked, which can be bought at the takeout departments of many Chinese restaurants. Bring the duck home and fry in oil until the skin is crisp. Slice thickly and serve with steamed bread, sliced

  10. Experience with spice teaching power electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2009-01-01

    A free Spice version allowing general circuit simulation is used teaching power electronics. There is no lock on the circuit size, stabile and user friendly operation is experienced. A collection of transformer, converter and drive system models are implemented to investigate the usability...... of the programme in high power electronics....

  11. NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS OF FOUR COMMON SPICES USED IN DENTISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Katyal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spices are used for aroma, flavor, colour and preservation of foodstuff. Spices may be derived from many parts of the plant viz bark, buds, flowers, fruits, leaves, rhizomes, roots, seeds and the entire plant. Spices are frequently desiccated, dehydrated, processed or distilled to prepare extracts such as essential oils from the raw spice material. These processing techniques may hamper the nutritional aspect of these spices. Moreover, the pharmacological activity of these spices is also altered by these processing methods. Better nutritional prospect of any natural product helps in proper growth of gums in case of dentistry. The current review tries to focus on the nutritional aspects of four common spices used in dentistry.

  12. Mycotoxins in spices and herbs-An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabak, Bulent; Dobson, Alan D W

    2017-01-02

    Spices and herbs have been used since ancient times as flavor and aroma enhancers, colorants, preservatives, and traditional medicines. There are more than 30 spices and herbs of global economic and culinary importance. Among the spices, black pepper, capsicums, cumin, cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger, turmeric, saffron, coriander, cloves, dill, mint, thyme, sesame seed, mustard seed, and curry powder are the most popular spices worldwide. In addition to their culinary uses, a number of functional properties of aromatic herbs and spices are also well described in the scientific literature. However, spices and herbs cultivated mainly in tropic and subtropic areas can be exposed to contamination with toxigenic fungi and subsequently mycotoxins. This review provides an overview on the mycotoxin risk in widely consumed spices and aromatic herbs.

  13. Studies on development and storage stability of instant spice adjunct mix from seaweed (Eucheuma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, Amudha; Mamatha, B S; Vishwanath, Prema; Bhat, K K; Ravishankar, G A

    2011-12-01

    Seaweed is a macroscopic marine algae which has been used as human food since ancient times. Food values of seaweed are mainly due to significant amounts of protein, vitamin, mineral, trace elements and dietary fibre apart from substances of antibiotic nature. In this study edible red seaweed Eucheuma (Kappaphycus alvarezzi), was used as an ingredient in the preparation of spice adjunct. Functional properties such as soluble solids, water-holding capacity, oil holding capacity and swelling capacity of Eucheuma were studied. Steamed Eucheuma powder was added at levels of 15, 20 and 25% in the preparation of spice adjunct. Sensory analysis and consumer acceptability study of spice adjunct showed that the incorporation of Eucheuma upto 20% had high acceptability. Spice adjunct containing 20% Eucheuma had 6.2% moisture, 22.2% ash, 29.2% fat, 10.0% protein, 9.4% crude fibre and 23% carbohydrates. Based on equilibrium relative humidity studies metallized polyester was selected as the packaging material. Storage studies indicated that metallized polyester provided a shelf life of 120 days at both the ambient and accelerated conditions.

  14. The effects spicing on quality of mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Akarca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 3 different spice mixes were added just after blanching to mozzarella cheese produced by high moisture production method. The dough was kneaded and filled into to fibrous cases. After filling process, cheeses were stored for 28 days at 4 °C and 85 % of relative humidity. The following characteristics were measured: color parameters, milk acidity, total dry matter, maturation index, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliform bacteria, coagulase positive staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria, species of Lactococcus bacteria, proteolytic bacteria, lipolytic bacteria and mold /yeast count were examined on 0, 5, 15,21 and 28 days after storage. Although L* (lightness and a* (redness values decreased during storage period, while moreover b* (yellowness values increased. In addition acidity, dry matter and maturation index values increased during storage. Total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus spp., lipolytic bacteria and mold/ yeast counts decreased, but proteolytic bacteria count increased.

  15. Investigation into the effects of antioxidant-rich extract of Tamarindus indica leaf on antioxidant enzyme activities, oxidative stress and gene expression profiles in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhanani Razali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The leaf extract of Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica had been reported to possess high phenolic content and showed high antioxidant activities. In this study, the effects of the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of the T. indica on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, H2O2-induced ROS production and gene expression patterns were investigated in liver HepG2 cells. Lipid peroxidation and ROS production were inhibited and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was enhanced when the cells were treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that 207 genes were significantly regulated by at least 1.5-fold (p < 0.05 in cells treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. The expression of KNG1, SERPINC1, SERPIND1, SERPINE1, FGG, FGA, MVK, DHCR24, CYP24A1, ALDH6A1, EPHX1 and LEAP2 were amongst the highly regulated. When the significantly regulated genes were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, “Lipid Metabolism, Small Molecule Biochemistry, Hematological Disease” was the top biological network affected by the leaf extract, with a score of 36. The top predicted canonical pathway affected by the leaf extract was the coagulation system (P < 2.80 × 10−6 followed by the superpathway of cholesterol biosynthesis (P < 2.17 × 10−4, intrinsic prothrombin pathway (P < 2.92 × 10−4, Immune Protection/Antimicrobial Response (P < 2.28 × 10−3 and xenobiotic metabolism signaling (P < 2.41 × 10−3. The antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica also altered the expression of proteins that are involved in the Coagulation System and the Intrinsic Prothrombin Activation Pathway (KNG1, SERPINE1, FGG, Superpathway of Cholesterol Biosynthesis (MVK, Immune protection/antimicrobial response (IFNGR1, LEAP2, ANXA3 and MX1 and Xenobiotic Metabolism Signaling (ALDH6A1, ADH6. In conclusion, the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica inhibited lipid

  16. Effect of powdered spice treatments on mycelial growth, sporulation and production of aflatoxins by toxigenic fungi Efeito de tratamentos com condimentos em pó sobre o crescimento micelial, esporulação e produção de aflatoxinas por fungos toxigênicos

    OpenAIRE

    Sára Maria Chalfoun; Marcelo Cláudio Pereira; Mario Lúcio V. Resende; Caroline Lima Angélico; Rozane Aparecida da Silva

    2004-01-01

    The effect of ten powdered spice plants was evaluated at the concentration of 1, 2, 3 and 4% to observe the mycelial growth and sporulation of Aspergillus niger and Eurotium repens. The spices were added to the culture media PDA and CYA20S. Clove completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the tested fungi. The other spices: cinnamon, garlic, thyme, mint, anis, oregano and onion were, in a decreasing order, promising antifungals. Bay leaf and basil did not show a pronounced fungistatic effect...

  17. SPICE ROUTE: LOGISTIC JOURNEY OF SPICES IN RETAIL SUPPLY CHAIN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulrajan Rajkumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report the findings of the study of the routes and the distance traveled by spices from the farming location to the consumer in traditional and organised retailing. This research study is primarily exploratory in nature, and the research instruments include interviews and survey through questionnaires with players in the spice supply chain. The study is to track the spice routes by the retailers for assessing the current state of the supply chain management practices, and evaluate ‘food mileage’ clocked by them. ‘Food miles’ is a relatively recent concept in retailing and result of this study reveals that significant increase in food miles in the case of organised retailers. Longer food miles of spices are an indicator of the shift towards organised retailing. The speed at which spices reach their destination as well as the time taken between any two points was not observed. This is the limitation of this study, and also the scope for further research. The research study is not aimed at finding the factors related to the food mileage.

  18. [Determination of ochratoxin a in spices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiecki, Ludwik; Wilczyńska, Grazyna

    2005-01-01

    The method of determination of ochratoxin A in some spices: coriander, cloves, ginger, paprika, black pepper was described. Depending on kind of matrix, extraction with metanol/water (80/20) or with solution of 1% NaHCO3 and several variants of clean-up on IAC columns were investigated. The most useful extraction solvent appeared water solution of 1% NaHCO3. In case of cloves only, none of the methods of extraction and clean-up variants was appropriate. The mean recovery of the method, dependent on kind of sample, was 61-82% and RSD% 1.4 and 7.8. The estimated LOD and LOQ were 0.02 and 0.06 microg/kg, respectively. In samples of spice used for method preparation, ochratoxin A was detected on the level 3.4-4.6 microg/kg.

  19. SURVEY ON MEDICINAL SPICES OF THE NILGIRIS

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, K.

    1995-01-01

    A survey is made on the medicinal spices of the Nilgiris. Totally, there are 25 species available in various parts of the Nilgiris and they belong to 16 different families of angiosperms. Gudalur, Kothagiri, Kookalthorai, Aruvankadu, Coonoor, Burliar, Masinagudi and Ootacamund are some of the important places in the Nilgiris have a variety of medicinal properties that are put to use in homoeopathic and ayurvedic preparations.

  20. Survey on medicinal spices of the nilgiris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, K

    1995-04-01

    A survey is made on the medicinal spices of the Nilgiris. Totally, there are 25 species available in various parts of the Nilgiris and they belong to 16 different families of angiosperms. Gudalur, Kothagiri, Kookalthorai, Aruvankadu, Coonoor, Burliar, Masinagudi and Ootacamund are some of the important places in the Nilgiris have a variety of medicinal properties that are put to use in homoeopathic and ayurvedic preparations.

  1. Spice Modeling of the Vilnius Chaotic Oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, R D

    2005-01-01

    ``A simple chaotic oscillator for educational purposes'' was recently described in the literature [1]. In addition to their hardware description, the authors of this paper generated a bifurcation diagram from the model equations presented in their paper. In the present treatment of their circuit the `simulation program for integrated circuit engineering' (Spice) has been used to generate some insightful graphs that were not shown by the Lithuania group.

  2. MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF RETAIL HERBS AND SPICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Santoro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 80 samples of herbs and spices were analyzed for the presence of Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp., , Escherichia coli, total and fecal coliforms, Enterobacteriacaee, total mesophilic and psychrophilic aerobic organisms, and fungi. Samples were packaged in polyethylene bags or glass containers.High levels of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms were found in most of the samples. B. cereus was present in 27 samples, Clostrium perfringens was isolated from 3 samples, Salmonella spp. was not detected.

  3. Spices, herbal xenobiotics and the stomach: Friends or foes?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim; Abdulkarim; Al; Mofleh

    2010-01-01

    Spices and herbal remedies have been used since ancient times to treat a variety of disorders. It has been experimentally demonstrated that spices, herbs, and their extracts possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, lipid-lowering, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, antimutagenic and anticancer activities, besides their gastroprotective and anti-ulcer activities. Despite a number of reports on the toxicity of herbs and spices, they are generally accepted as safer alternatives to conventional...

  4. On the Electrical and Magnetic Properties of some Indian Spices

    CERN Document Server

    Baby, Samson K

    2010-01-01

    We have made experimental measurements of electrical conductivity, pH and relative magnetic susceptibility of the aqueous solutions of 24 indian spices. The measured values of electrical conductance of these spices are found to be linearly related to their ash content and bulk calorific values reported in literature. The physiological relevance of the pH and diamagnetic susceptibility of spices when consumed as food or medicine will be also discussed.

  5. Validation of InnoSPICE for technology transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Mitašiūnas, Antanas; Besson, Jeremy Daniel; Boronowsky, Michael; Woronowicz, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Innovation and technology transfer consist mainly of process-oriented activities and can be described in process-oriented terms by an innovation and technology transfer process capability model such as InnoSPICE. To verify such a thesis, an extended validation of the InnoSPICE adequacy for different factual innovation and technology transfer activities is needed. The purpose of this paper is to validate the InnoSPICE model for technology transfer led by a technology developer based on capabil...

  6. Microwave Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Four Different Spices

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Ritieni; Vincenzo Fogliano; Rosalia Ferracane; Giulia Graziani; Monica Gallo

    2010-01-01

    Spices and herbs are known not only for their taste, aroma and flavour, but also for their medical properties and value. Both spices and herbs have been used for centuries in traditional medical systems to cure various kinds of illnesses such as common cold, diabetes, cough and cancers. The aim of this work was the comparison between two different extractive techniques in order to get qualitative and quantitative data regarding bioactive compounds of four different spices (Cinnamomum zeylanic...

  7. Detection of irradiated spices by different physical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabane, S. [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Qualite des Aliments, LARQUA, CEA/DSV/DEVM, Faculte de Saint-Jerome, Marseille (France); Pouliquen-Sonaglia, I. [Laboratoire de Methodologie de la Recherche Experimentale, LMRE, Faculte de Saint-Jerome, Marseille (France); Raffi, J. [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Qualite des Aliments, LARQUA, CEA/DSV/DEVM, Faculte de Saint-Jerome, Marseille (France)

    2001-02-01

    We used thermoluminescence, electron spin resonance, and viscosimetric measurements to establish whether or not a spice had been irradiated. Thermoluminescence, using the 1788 EN official protocol with an alternative method for the extraction of mineral impurities, led to proof of irradiation or proof of no treatment. Electron spin resonance led to different spectrum shapes depending on the chemical composition of the spices; ESR could only be used as proof of irradiation up to several weeks after irradiation, and only for some spices. Viscosimetric measurements carried out on spice suspensions led to a presumption of treatment (or of no treatment) and possibly to of of irradiation. (author)

  8. Sterilization of ground spices by electron beams irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashigiwa, Masayuki; Nakachi, Ayako; Kobayashi, Hiroshi [K. Kobayashi and Co., Ltd., Kako, Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Each ground spice (Black Pepper, Turmeric, Ginger, Paprika and Basil), which was packaged into polyethylene film, was irradiated by electron beams at 5 different levels: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy. Bacteriological tests for total bacterial count were carried out on spices before and after irradiation, but the tests for microfiora were carried out only before irradiation. Total bacterial count decreased in proportion to the level of electron beams. But the decreasing rate for Turmeric, Ginger and Basil was lower compared with that of other spices. The reason seems that rate of contamination by B. pumilus, which is thought as radiation resistant bacteria, was higher on these spices. (author)

  9. Investigation into the effects of antioxidant-rich extract of Tamarindus indica leaf on antioxidant enzyme activities, oxidative stress and gene expression profiles in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Nurhanani; Abdul Aziz, Azlina; Lim, Chor Yin; Mat Junit, Sarni

    2015-01-01

    The leaf extract of Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica) had been reported to possess high phenolic content and showed high antioxidant activities. In this study, the effects of the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of the T. indica on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, H2O2-induced ROS production and gene expression patterns were investigated in liver HepG2 cells. Lipid peroxidation and ROS production were inhibited and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was enhanced when the cells were treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that 207 genes were significantly regulated by at least 1.5-fold (p FGG, FGA, MVK, DHCR24, CYP24A1, ALDH6A1, EPHX1 and LEAP2 were amongst the highly regulated. When the significantly regulated genes were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, "Lipid Metabolism, Small Molecule Biochemistry, Hematological Disease" was the top biological network affected by the leaf extract, with a score of 36. The top predicted canonical pathway affected by the leaf extract was the coagulation system (P FGG), Superpathway of Cholesterol Biosynthesis (MVK), Immune protection/antimicrobial response (IFNGR1, LEAP2, ANXA3 and MX1) and Xenobiotic Metabolism Signaling (ALDH6A1, ADH6). In conclusion, the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica inhibited lipid peroxidation and ROS production, enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities and significantly regulated the expression of genes and proteins involved with consequential impact on the coagulation system, cholesterol biosynthesis, xenobiotic metabolism signaling and antimicrobial response.

  10. Presence of moulds and mycotoxins in spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Dragica D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper there are presented the results of mycologic and mycotoxicologic analysis of seven spices which are being used for production of meat products. Using standard mycologic methods, in all the tested samples, we noticed a presence of moulds. By quality and quantity, most represented are genera: Aspergillus and Penicillium. With smaller occurrence there are presented genera: Rhizopus, Mucor, Paecylomyces and Absydia. Mycotoxins - ochratoxin, aflatoxins and zearalenon, are detected in samples of ground white pepper, ginger, cloves and ground caraway.

  11. Modelling the pulse transformer in SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewska, Malgorzata; Górecki, Krzysztof; Górski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to modelling pulse transformers in SPICE. It shows the character of the selected models of this element, points out their advantages and disadvantages, and presents the results of experimental verification of the considered models. These models are characterized by varying degrees of complexity - from linearly coupled linear coils to nonlinear electrothermal models. The study was conducted for transformer with ring cores made of a variety of ferromagnetic materials, while exciting the sinusoidal signal of a frequency 100 kHz and different values of load resistance. The transformers operating conditions under which the considered models ensure the acceptable accuracy of calculations are indicated.

  12. The SPICE Center at Bluefield State College. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David Harrill

    The writing center at Bluefield State College (West Virginia) is called the SPICE Center, SPICE being an acronym for Self Paced Instruction for Competency in English. In addition to emphasizing skill acquisition and flexibility, it stresses face-to-face evaluation of written work, and places heavy emphasis on writing as process instead of writing…

  13. Emerging Trends in Microwave Processing of Spices and Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahath Kubra, Ismail; Kumar, Devender; Jagan Mohan Rao, Lingamallu

    2016-10-02

    Today, spices are integral part of our food as they provide sensory attributes such as aroma, color, flavour and taste to food. Further their antimicrobial, antioxidant, pharmaceutical and nutritional properties are also well known. Since spices are seasonal so their availability can be extended year round by adopting different preservation techniques. Drying and extraction are most important methods for preservation and value addition to spices. There are different techniques for drying of spices with their own advantages and limitations. A novel, non-conventional technique for drying of spices is use of microwave radiation. This technique proved to be very rapid, and also provide a good quality product. Similarly, there are a number of non-conventional extraction methods in use that are all, in principle, solid-liquid extractions but which introduce some form of additional energy to the process in order to facilitate the transfer of analytes from sample to solvent. This paper reviews latest advances in the use of microwave energy for drying of spices and herbs. Also, the review describes the potential application of microwave energy for extraction of essential oil/bioactive components from spices and herbs and the advantages of microwave-assisted process over the other extraction processes generally employed for extraction. It also showcases some recent research results on microwave drying/extraction from spices and herbs.

  14. A Study on Spice Usage Habits of Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Demircioglu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out on the total of 662 women to determine their habits on the use of spices. The results indicated that 94.6% of women use spices at their home. When they cook meal, they generally use black pepper, red pepper flakes, pepper mint, oregano, red pepper and cumin. Sage, peppers mint and oregano are the most used spices for herbal therapy. Most of the women buy their spices on supermarket in wrapped products (67.1%, look the production and expiration dates of spices products (44.3%, keep them in colorless glass jar (63.6%, never consume expired date spices (88.8% and add spices to meal with a spoon that they use during meal preparation (48.2%. According to the results, the consumers should buy spices in a wrapped product with production and expiration dates from reliable companies. Morover, they must be kept from light, air, moisture and temperature and they must be kept in covered and dark-color glass jars and in cool places. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 161-168

  15. SPectrometer for Internal Conversion Electrons (SPICE) at TRIUMF-ISAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallcombe, J.; Moukaddam, M.; Evitts, L. J.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hallam, S.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Bolton, C.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Constable, M.; Cross, D. S.; Garrett, P. E.; Hackman, G.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R.; Ketelhut, S.; Kruecken, R.; Kurchaninov, L.; Park, J.; Pore, J. L.; Rand, E. T.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Smith, J. K.; Svensson, C. E.; Williams, M.

    2016-09-01

    A new ancillary detector, SPICE (SPectrometer for Internal Conversion Electrons) has been constructed and recently commissioned for use with radioactive ion beams at the TRIUMF-ISAC II facility. SPICE is designed to be operated in conjunction with the TIGRESS High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) spectrometer to perform combined in-beam γ-ray and internal-conversion-electron spectroscopy. The main feature of SPICE is high effciency over a wide range of electron energies from 100 to 3500 keV, with an effective reduction of beam-induced backgrounds. SPICE will be a powerful tool to measure conversion coeffcients and E0 transitions in atomic nuclei. A recent in-beam commissioning experiment demonstrates the effectiveness of the basic design concept of SPICE in background suppression.

  16. In vitro antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities of Ethiopian spice blend Berbere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica R; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Boselli, Emanuele; Bonesi, Marco; Menichini, Federica; Menichini, Francesco; Frega, Natale Giuseppe

    2011-11-01

    The metal chelating activity, antioxidant properties, and the effect on carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes of Ethiopian spice blend Berbere have been investigated. Berbere contains a total amount of phenols corresponding to 71.3 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent per gram of extract and a total flavonoid content of 32.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram of extract. An increase of the resistance towards forced oxidation was obtained when Berbere was added to sunflower oil. In order to evaluate the bioactivity of the non-polar constituents, an n-hexane extract was obtained from Berbere. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of 19 fatty acids constituents (98.1% of the total oil content). Among them, linoleic acid was the major component (72.0% of the total lipids). The ethanolic extract had the highest ferric-reducing ability power (35.4 μM Fe(II)/g) and DPPH scavenging activity with a concentration giving 50% inhibition (IC(50)) value of 34.8 μg/ml. Moreover, this extract exhibited good hypoglycemic activity against α-amylase (IC(50) = 78.3 μg/ml). In conclusion, Ethiopian spice blend Berbere showed promising antioxidant and hypoglycemic activity via the inhibition of carbohydrate digestive enzymes. These activities may be of interest from functional point of view and for the revalorization of the spice blend in gastronomy also outside the African country.

  17. Phage inactivation of foodborne Shigella on ready-to-eat spiced chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Ran; Bao, Hongduo

    2013-01-01

    Shigellosis, also called bacillary dysentery, is an infectious disease caused by Shigella species, including Shigella flexneri, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei, and Shigella boydii. Infection with S. flexneri can result in epidemics, and Shigella-contaminated food is often the source of infection, such as ready-to-eat spiced chicken and duck. Therefore, we investigated the ability of Shigella phages to inhibit pathogenic Shigella spp. in ready-to-eat spiced chicken. Food samples were inoculated with individual species (1 × 10(4) cfu/g) or a mixture (S. flexneri 2a, S. dysenteriae, and S. sonnei) to a total concentration of 3 × 10(4) cfu/g. Single phages or a phage cocktail were added thereafter (1 × 10(8) pfu/g or 3 × 10(8) pfu/g), respectively, and samples were incubated at 4°C for 72 h. In general, the application of more phages (3 × 10(8) pfu/g) was the most effective treatment. Phages could reduce bacterial counts by up to 2 log(10)/g after 48 h incubation when treated with the cocktail, and after 72 h the host could not be detected. Similarly, the host in spiced chicken treated with single phage was also sharply reduced after 72 h incubation. The results suggest that an obligately virulent phage cocktail, such as S. flexneri, S. dysenteriae, and S. sonnei phages, can effectively reduce potential contamination of Shigella spp. in ready-to-eat chicken products.

  18. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum: a precious spice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Francisco Cortés-Rojas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Clove (Syzygium aromaticum is one of the most valuable spices that has been used for centuries as food preservative and for many medicinal purposes. Clove is native of Indonesia but nowadays is cultured in several parts of the world including Brazil in the state of Bahia. This plant represents one of the richest source of phenolic compounds such as eugenol, eugenol acetate and gallic acid and posses great potential for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and agricultural applications. This review includes the main studies reporting the biological activities of clove and eugenol. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of clove is higher than many fruits, vegetables and other spices and should deserve special attention. A new application of clove as larvicidal agent is an interesting strategy to combat dengue which is a serious health problem in Brazil and other tropical countries. Pharmacokinetics and toxicological studies were also mentioned. The different studies reviewed in this work confirm the traditional use of clove as food preservative and medicinal plant standing out the importance of this plant for different applications.

  19. Beneficial Effects of Spices in Food Preservation and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, Davide; Bukvicki, Danka; Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been used since ancient times. Although they have been employed mainly as flavoring and coloring agents, their role in food safety and preservation have also been studied in vitro and in vivo. Spices have exhibited numerous health benefits in preventing and treating a wide variety of diseases such as cancer, aging, metabolic, neurological, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the most relevant and recent findings on spices and their active compounds in terms of targets and mode of action; in particular, their potential use in food preservation and enhancement of shelf life as a natural bioingredient.

  20. Beneficial Effects of Spices in Food Preservation and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, Davide; Bukvicki, Danka; Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K.

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been used since ancient times. Although they have been employed mainly as flavoring and coloring agents, their role in food safety and preservation have also been studied in vitro and in vivo. Spices have exhibited numerous health benefits in preventing and treating a wide variety of diseases such as cancer, aging, metabolic, neurological, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the most relevant and recent findings on spices and their active compounds in terms of targets and mode of action; in particular, their potential use in food preservation and enhancement of shelf life as a natural bioingredient. PMID:27708620

  1. [Detection of enzyme activity in decontaminated spices in industrial use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R; Theobald, R

    1995-03-01

    A range of decontaminated species of industrial use have been examined for their enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, amylase, lipase activity). The genuine enzymes remain fully active in irradiated spices, whereas the microbial load is clearly reduced. In contrast steam treated spices no longer demonstrate enzyme activities. Steam treatment offers e.g. black pepper without lipase activity, which can no longer cause fat deterioration. Low microbial load in combination with clearly detectable enzyme activity in spices is an indication for irradiation, whereas, reduced microbial contamination combined with enzyme inactivation indicate steam treatment of raw material.

  2. Quantification of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Metabolites Crocins, Picrocrocin and Safranal for Quality Determination of the Spice Grown Under Different Environmental Moroccan Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary goal of this study was to propose a sustainable substitute crop with high added value in some Moroccan agricultural areas with low and erratic rainfalls, for their socio-economical development. The quality of the saffron spice crop produced under different Moroccan environmental conditio...

  3. Microbiological quality of retail spices in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohy-Kamaly-Dehkordy, Paliz; Nikoopour, Houshang; Siavoshi, Farideh; Koushki, Mohammadreza; Abadi, Alireza

    2013-05-01

    The microbiological quality of 351 samples of nine types of spices including black pepper, caraway, cinnamon, cow parsnip, curry powder, garlic powder, red pepper, sumac, and turmeric, collected from retail shops in Tehran during 2007, was determined. The numbers of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and molds exceeded Iran's National Standard limits, at 63.2% (>5 × 10(5) CFU/g), 23.4% (>0.3 MPN/g), and 21.9% (>5 × 10(3) CFU/g) of the studied samples, respectively. Coliform contamination was more than 10(3) MPN/g in 24.8% of samples. High contamination of retail spices is considered an indication of environmental or fecal contamination due to unhygienic practices in their production. Use of spices with high microbial content could increase the chance of food spoilage and transmission of foodborne pathogens. Accordingly, application of food safety measurements to reduce microbial counts in spices is strongly recommended.

  4. Traditional spices of Dayak Kenyah society in East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI SUSIARTI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of plant in Indonesia is high, including variety of spices, which have been known by Indonesian society since long time ago. Several very popular plants are clove (Syzygium aromaticum, pepper (Piper nigrum, cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanii, and nutmeg (Myristica fragrans. Variety of spices has connection with cultures. In each region and society, they have a special spices in their traditional food. The research was conducted in villages in Pujungan district and other places in East Kalimantan Province and commonly Dayak Kenyah society. The methods used for this study was by interviewing of local society and direct observation in the fields where plant spices occurred. The results indicated that traditional Dayak in East Kalimantan used bekai (Albertisia papuana Becc., payang aka (Hodgsonia macrocarpa (Bl. Cogn., payang kurek (Aleurites moluccana (L. Willd., payang kayu (Pangium edule Reinw., payang lengu (Ricinus communis L., and payang salap (Sumbaviopsis albicans (Blume J.J.Sm. for preparing their food with certain method.

  5. Kynurenic Acid Content in Selected Culinary Herbs and Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal P. Turski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrated that kynurenic acid (KYNA is present in various types of food in varying concentrations. Therefore, the aim of the study was to check whether KYNA is present in culinary herbs and spices. Achieved results indicate that KYNA is present in all 19 selected culinary herbs and spices. The highest concentration of KYNA was found in basil and thyme, 14.08 and 8.87 μg/g, respectively, while the lowest content of KYNA was found in cumin and black pepper, 0.64 and 0.10 μg/g, respectively. This is the first report on the concentration of KYNA in culinary herbs and spices. The need for more detailed investigation of dietary supplementation with culinary herbs and spices containing KYNA is suggested.

  6. Effect of some high consumption spices on hemoglobin glycation

    OpenAIRE

    Naderi, G. H.; Narges J Dinani; S Asgary; M Taher; Nikkhoo, N.; Boshtam, M.

    2014-01-01

    Formation of glycation products is major factor responsible in complications of diabetes. Worldwide trend is toward the use of natural additives in reducing the complications of diseases. Therefore, there is a growing interest in natural antiglycation found in plants. Herbs and spices are one of the most important targets to search for natural antiglycation from the point of view of safety. This study investigated the ability of some of the spices to inhibit glycation process in a hemoglobin/...

  7. Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P

    2012-06-01

    Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation.

  8. Multitargeting by turmeric, the golden spice: From kitchen to clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Subash C; Sung, Bokyung; Kim, Ji Hye; Prasad, Sahdeo; Li, Shiyou; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2013-09-01

    Although much has been published about curcumin, which is obtained from turmeric, comparatively little is known about turmeric itself. Turmeric, a golden spice obtained from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa, has been used to give color and taste to food preparations since ancient times. Traditionally, this spice has been used in Ayurveda and folk medicine for the treatment of such ailments as gynecological problems, gastric problems, hepatic disorders, infectious diseases, and blood disorders. Modern science has provided the scientific basis for the use of turmeric against such disorders. Various chemical constituents have been isolated from this spice, including polyphenols, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenoids, sterols, and alkaloids. Curcumin, which constitutes 2-5% of turmeric, is perhaps the most-studied component. Although some of the activities of turmeric can be mimicked by curcumin, other activities are curcumin-independent. Cell-based studies have demonstrated the potential of turmeric as an antimicrobial, insecticidal, larvicidal, antimutagenic, radioprotector, and anticancer agent. Numerous animal studies have shown the potential of this spice against proinflammatory diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, depression, diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. At the molecular level, this spice has been shown to modulate numerous cell-signaling pathways. In clinical trials, turmeric has shown efficacy against numerous human ailments including lupus nephritis, cancer, diabetes, irritable bowel syndrome, acne, and fibrosis. Thus, a spice originally common in the kitchen is now exhibiting activities in the clinic. In this review, we discuss the chemical constituents of turmeric, its biological activities, its molecular targets, and its potential in the clinic.

  9. Turmeric: A spice with multifunctional medicinal properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasri Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma longa (Turmeric, belonging to Zingiberaceae family is one of the most useful herbal medicinal plants. Extensive researches have proven that most of the turmeric activities of the turmeric are due to curcumin. It has various useful properties with antioxidant activities and is useful in conditions such as inflammation, ulcer and cancer. It also has antifungal, antimicrobial renal and hepatoprotective activities. Therefore, it has the potential against various cancer, diabetes, allergies, arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease and other chronic and hard curable diseases. The purpose of this review was to provide a brief summary of the new and current knowledge of the effects of curcumin. The recently published papers in international cites such as PubMed/Medline, Science Citation Index and Google Scholar about turmeric were searched. Recent studies have authenticated the use of turmeric for various diseases especially oxidative stress induced ones such as cancer, diabetes mellitus and inflammatory disorders. It also is used as hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticoagulant and anti-HIV to combat AIDS. Curcumin, as a spice, exhibits great promise as a therapeutic agent. It has very low toxicity, too. As the global scenario is now changing towards the use of non-toxic plant products having traditional medicinal use, development of modern drugs from turmeric should be emphasized for the control of various diseases. Further evaluation needs to be carried out on turmeric in order to explore the concealed areas and their practical clinical applications, which can be used for the welfare of mankind.

  10. Traditional Indian spices and their health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Kamala

    2008-01-01

    India has been recognized all over the world for spices and medicinal plants. Both exhibit a wide range of physiological and pharmacological properties. Current biomedical efforts are focused on their scientific merits, to provide science-based evidence for the traditional uses and to develop either functional foods or nutraceuticals. The Indian traditional medical systems use turmeric for wound healing, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal symptoms, deworming, rhinitis and as a cosmetic. Studies in India have explored its anti-inflammatory, cholekinetic and anti-oxidant potentials with the recent investigations focusing on its preventive effect on precarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti atherosclerotic effects in biological systems both under in vitro and in vivo conditions in animals and humans. Both turmeric and curcumin were found to increase detoxifying enzymes, prevent DNA damage, improve DNA repair, decrease mutations and tumour formation and exhibit antioxidative potential in animals. Limited clinical studies suggest that turmeric can significantly impact excretion of mutagens in urine in smokers and regress precancerous palatal lesions. It reduces DNA adducts and micronuclei in oral epithelial cells. It prevents formation of nitroso compounds both in vivo and in vitro. It delays induced cataract in diabetes and reduces hyperlipidemia in obese rats. Recently several molecular targets have been identified for therapeutic / preventive effects of turmeric. Fenugreek seeds, a rich source of soluble fiber used in Indian cuisine reduces blood glucose and lipids and can be used as a food adjuvant in diabetes. Similarly garlic, onions, and ginger have been found to modulate favourably the process of carcinogenesis.

  11. Mycotoxigenic molds in spices from Macedonian stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kungulovski Džoko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six samples of spices most frequently occurring in the stores of the Republic of Macedonia were examined for their fungal contamination and the incidence of Aspergillus and Penicillium species and their teleomorphs. It included mainly commercial packages most frequently occurring in the stores of the Republic of Macedonia. According to the relative frequency of each of the isolated species, the typical mycoflora of these samples includes A. niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, P. chrysogenum and Eurotium sp. Fungal counts varied from log10 < 2 CFU g-1 (DG18 at 25oC; DRBC at 25oC, for a sample of paprika, to log10 6.17 CFU g-1 (DG18 at 25oC, for a sample of bay leaf. During the experiment, A. flavus was detected in 17 samples, out of which 7 isolates were capable of producing Af-B1, and 4 isolates produced Af-B2. All isolates of A. nomius and A. parasiticus, in the experimental conditions, produced Af-B1, Af-B2, Af-G1 and Af-G2.

  12. Turmeric and black pepper spices decrease lipid peroxidation in meat patties during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Henning, Susanne M; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2015-05-01

    Spices are rich in natural antioxidants and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation during cooking of meat. Turmeric contains unique conjugated curcuminoids with strong antioxidant activity. Piperine, one of the main constituents of black pepper, is known to increase the bioavailability of curcuminoids in mouse and human studies when consumed with turmeric. We investigated whether adding black pepper to turmeric powder may further inhibit lipid peroxidation when added to meat patties prior to cooking. The addition of black pepper to turmeric significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation in hamburger meat. When investigating the antioxidant activity of the main chemical markers, we determined that piperine did not exhibit any antioxidant activity. Therefore, we conclude that other black pepper ingredients are responsible for the increased antioxidant activity of combining black pepper with turmeric powder.

  13. Quantitative Scrutinization of Aflatoxins in Different Spices from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Aiza; Kanwal, Kinza; Khan, Abdul Muqeet; Abbas, Mateen

    2016-01-01

    The current research work aimed to access the contamination level of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in the household spices that are widely consumed in huge amounts. 200 different spice samples, 100 packed and 100 unpacked, were analyzed for the aflatoxins profile by HPLC with an incidence of 61.5% contamination out of which 53.66% samples exceed the EU limit. The results disclosed that the unpacked samples are more contaminated as compared to the packed samples except for white cumin seeds. Among packed and unpacked samples of spices, the maximum value of aflatoxins was detected in fennel, that is, 27.93 μg/kg and 67.04 μg/kg, respectively. The lowest concentration of aflatoxin was detected in cinnamon in packed form (0.79 μg/kg) and in the unpacked samples of white cumin seeds which is 1.75 μg/kg. Caraway seeds and coriander in its unpacked form showed positive results whereas black pepper (packed and unpacked) was found free from aflatoxins. This is the first report on the occurrence of aflatoxins in packed and unpacked samples of spices from Pakistan. To ensure safe consumption of spices, there should be constant monitoring of aflatoxin and more studies need to be executed with the intention of preventing mycotoxin accretion in this commodity. PMID:27781067

  14. Lactic acid bacteria in dried vegetables and spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säde, Elina; Lassila, Elisa; Björkroth, Johanna

    2016-02-01

    Spices and dried vegetable seasonings are potential sources of bacterial contamination for foods. However, little is known about lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in spices and dried vegetables, even though certain LAB may cause food spoilage. In this study, we enumerated LAB in 104 spices and dried vegetables products aimed for the food manufacturing industry. The products were obtained from a spice wholesaler operating in Finland, and were sampled during a one-year period. We picked isolates (n = 343) for species identification based on numerical analysis of their ribotyping patterns and comparing them with the corresponding patterns of LAB type strains. We found LAB at levels >2 log CFU/g in 68 (65%) of the samples, with the highest counts detected from dried onion products and garlic powder with counts ranging from 4.24 to 6.64 log CFU/g. The LAB identified were predominantly Weissella spp. (61%) and Pediococcus spp. (15%) with Weissella confusa, Weissella cibaria, Weissella paramesenteroides, Pediococcus acidilactici and Pediococcus pentosaceus being the species identified. Other species identified belonged to the genera of Enterococcus spp. (8%), Leuconostoc spp. (6%) and Lactobacillus spp. (2%). Among the LAB identified, Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and W. confusa have been associated with food spoilage. Our findings suggest that spices and dried vegetables are potential sources of LAB contamination in the food industry.

  15. Quantitative Scrutinization of Aflatoxins in Different Spices from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjis Naz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current research work aimed to access the contamination level of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in the household spices that are widely consumed in huge amounts. 200 different spice samples, 100 packed and 100 unpacked, were analyzed for the aflatoxins profile by HPLC with an incidence of 61.5% contamination out of which 53.66% samples exceed the EU limit. The results disclosed that the unpacked samples are more contaminated as compared to the packed samples except for white cumin seeds. Among packed and unpacked samples of spices, the maximum value of aflatoxins was detected in fennel, that is, 27.93 μg/kg and 67.04 μg/kg, respectively. The lowest concentration of aflatoxin was detected in cinnamon in packed form (0.79 μg/kg and in the unpacked samples of white cumin seeds which is 1.75 μg/kg. Caraway seeds and coriander in its unpacked form showed positive results whereas black pepper (packed and unpacked was found free from aflatoxins. This is the first report on the occurrence of aflatoxins in packed and unpacked samples of spices from Pakistan. To ensure safe consumption of spices, there should be constant monitoring of aflatoxin and more studies need to be executed with the intention of preventing mycotoxin accretion in this commodity.

  16. The occurrence of aflatoxins in selected spices and dried fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Stanisławczyk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are toxic substances formed by fungi which are a potential danger for human and animal health. The aim of this study was to determine the contamination with the aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxins sum B1, B2, G1, G2 in selected spices and dried fruits available in trade in the Podkarpackie province. The studies confirm the widespread occurrence of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxins sum B1, B2, G1, G2 in spices, spices mixtures and dried fruits, however, in none of the tested samples there was exceeded the permissible concentration of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxins sum B1, B2, G1, G2. The highest content of aflatoxin B1 was determined in red pepper and universal spices mixture while the smallest in figs and raisins. The monitoring of aflatoxins sum B1, B2, G1, G2  showed similar results. The highest level was determined in universal spices mixture and in red pepper.

  17. A simple method for identification of irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behere, A.; Desai, S.R.P.; Nair, P.M. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Food Technology and Enzyme Engineering Div.); Rao, S.M.D. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Div.)

    1992-07-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) properties of curry powder, a salt containing spice mixture, and three different ground spices, viz, chilli, turmeric and pepper, were compared with TL of table salt. The spices other than curry powder, did not exhibit characteristic TL in the absence of salt. Therefore studies were initiated to develop a simple and reliable method using common salt for distinguishing irradiated spices (10 kGy) from unirradiated ones under normal conditions of storage. Common salt exhibited a characteristic TL glow at 170{sup o}C. However, when present in curry powder, the TL glow of salt showed a shift to 208{sup o}C. It was further observed that upon storage up to 6 months, the TL of irradiated curry powder retained about 10% of the original intensity and still could be distinguished from the untreated samples. From our results it is evident that common salt could be used as an indicator either internally or externally in small sachets for incorporating into prepacked spices. (author).

  18. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  19. Heavy Metal Contents in Spices from Markets in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Huremović, J.; Badema, B.; Muhić-Šarac, T.; Selović,, A.; Memić, M.

    2014-01-01

    Spices are some of the most common foods in the human diet around the world. Spices are dried parts of plants used often as diet components to improve aroma and acceptability of food. The aim of this work was to determine the contents of seven heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in spices available at local markets in Sarajevo. Metal concentrations in six spice samples (black pepper (Piper nigrum), basil (Ocimum...

  20. SPICES: Spectro-Polarimetric Imaging and Characterization of Exoplanetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boccaletti, Anthony; Traub, Wes; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Stam, Daphne; Gratton, Raffaele; Trauger, John; Cahoy, Kerri; Snik, Frans; Baudoz, Pierre; Galicher, Raphael; Reess, Jean-Michel; Mawet, Dimitri; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Patience, Jennifer; Kuchner, Marc; Wyatt, Mark; Pantin, Eric; Maire, Anne-Lise; Verinaud, Christophe; Ronayette, Samuel; Dubreuil, Didier; Min, Michiel; Rodenhuis, Michiel; Mesa, Dino; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Tamura, Motohide; Murakami, Naoshi; Beerer, Ingrid Mary

    2012-01-01

    SPICES (Spectro-Polarimetric Imaging and Characterization of Exoplanetary Systems) is a five-year M-class mission proposed to ESA Cosmic Vision. Its purpose is to image and characterize long-period extrasolar planets and circumstellar disks in the visible (450 - 900 nm) at a spectral resolution of about 40 using both spectroscopy and polarimetry. By 2020/22, present and near-term instruments will have found several tens of planets that SPICES will be able to observe and study in detail. Equipped with a 1.5 m telescope, SPICES can preferentially access exoplanets located at several AUs (0.5-10 AU) from nearby stars ($<$25 pc) with masses ranging from a few Jupiter masses to Super Earths ($\\sim$2 Earth radii, $\\sim$10 M$_{\\oplus}$) as well as circumstellar disks as faint as a few times the zodiacal light in the Solar System.

  1. Reliable SPICE Simulations of Memristors, Memcapacitors and Meminductors

    CERN Document Server

    Biolek, D; Pershin, Y V

    2013-01-01

    Memory circuit elements, namely memristive, memcapacitive and meminductive systems, are gaining considerable attention due to their ubiquity and use in diverse areas of science and technology. Their modeling within the most widely used environment, SPICE, is thus critical to make substantial progress in the design and analysis of complex circuits. Here, we present a collection of models of different memory circuit elements and provide a methodology for their accurate and reliable modeling in the SPICE environment. We also provide codes of these models written in the most popular SPICE versions (PSpice, LTspice, HSPICE) for the benefit of the reader. We expect this to be of great value to the growing community of scientists interested in the wide range of applications of memory circuit elements.

  2. Microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from four different spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Monica; Ferracane, Rosalia; Graziani, Giulia; Ritieni, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2010-09-09

    Spices and herbs are known not only for their taste, aroma and flavour, but also for their medical properties and value. Both spices and herbs have been used for centuries in traditional medical systems to cure various kinds of illnesses such as common cold, diabetes, cough and cancers. The aim of this work was the comparison between two different extractive techniques in order to get qualitative and quantitative data regarding bioactive compounds of four different spices (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Crocus sativus). The plants were extracted employing ultrasonication and microwave-assisted extractions. The efficiency of extraction of bioactive compounds obtained with the microwave extraction process was in general about four times higher than that resulting from sonication extraction. The various extracts obtained were analyzed for their antioxidant activity using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays and for their total polyphenolic content. It can be concluded that microwave-assisted extractions provide significant advantages in terms of extraction efficiency and time savings.

  3. Low-angle X-ray scattering from spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desouky, O.S. E-mail: omardesouky@yahoo.com; Ashour, Ahmed H.; Abdullah, Mohamed I.; Elshemey, Wael M

    2002-07-01

    Low-angle scattering of X-rays is characterized by the presence of one or more peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks are due to the interference of photons coherently scattered from the molecules of the medium. Thus these patterns are closely linked to the molecular structure of the investigated medium. In this work, low-angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) profiles of five spices; pimpinella anisum (anise), coriandrum sativum (coriander), cuminum cyminum (cumin), foenculum vulgare (fennel) and nigella sativa (nigella or black cumin) are presented after extensive measurements. It is found that all spices exhibit one characteristic peak at a scattering angle around 10 deg. This is equivalent to a value x=0.0565 A{sup -1}, where x=sin({theta}/2)/{lambda}. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of this peak is found to be characteristic for each type of the investigated spices. The possibility to detect the irradiation of these spices from their LAXS profiles is also examined after 10, 20, 30 and 40 kGy doses of gamma radiation. Except for anise, coriander and cumin at 40 kGy, there are no detectable deviations from the control samples in the scattering profiles of irradiated samples. These results comply with the recommendations of the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) which defines 30 kGy as the maximum dose for irradiation of spices. The present technique could be used to detect over-irradiation, which causes damage to the molecular structure of some spices.

  4. Low-angle X-ray scattering from spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desouky, Omar S.; Ashour, Ahmed H.; Abdullah, Mohamed I.; Elshemey, Wael M.

    2002-07-01

    Low-angle scattering of X-rays is characterized by the presence of one or more peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks are due to the interference of photons coherently scattered from the molecules of the medium. Thus these patterns are closely linked to the molecular structure of the investigated medium. In this work, low-angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) profiles of five spices; pimpinella anisum (anise), coriandrum sativum (coriander), cuminum cyminum (cumin), foenculum vulgare (fennel) and nigella sativa (nigella or black cumin) are presented after extensive measurements. It is found that all spices exhibit one characteristic peak at a scattering angle around 10°. This is equivalent to a value x=0.0565 Å -1, where x=sin( θ⧸2)⧸ λ. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of this peak is found to be characteristic for each type of the investigated spices. The possibility to detect the irradiation of these spices from their LAXS profiles is also examined after 10, 20, 30 and 40 kGy doses of gamma radiation. Except for anise, coriander and cumin at 40 kGy, there are no detectable deviations from the control samples in the scattering profiles of irradiated samples. These results comply with the recommendations of the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) which defines 30 kGy as the maximum dose for irradiation of spices. The present technique could be used to detect over-irradiation, which causes damage to the molecular structure of some spices.

  5. 21 CFR 182.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...

  6. 21 CFR 582.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 582.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...

  7. Neural-Based Models of Semiconductor Devices for SPICE Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanene B. Hammouda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses a simple and fast new approach to implement Artificial Neural Networks (ANN models for the MOS transistor into SPICE. The proposed approach involves two steps, the modeling phase of the device by NN providing its input/output patterns, and the SPICE implementation process of the resulting model. Using the Taylor series expansion, a neural based small-signal model is derived. The reliability of our approach is validated through simulations of some circuits in DC and small-signal analyses.

  8. An SPICE model for phase-change memory simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xi; Song Zhitang; Cai Daolin; Chen Xiaogang; Chen Houpeng

    2011-01-01

    Along with a series of research works on the physical prototype and properties of the memory cell,an SPICE model for phase-change memory (PCM) simulations based on Verilog-A language is presented.By handling it with the heat distribution algorithm,threshold switching theory and the crystallization kinetic model,the proposed SPICE model can effectively reproduce the physical behaviors of the phase-change memory cell.In particular,it can emulate the cell's temperature curve and crystallinity profile during the programming process,which can enable us to clearly understand the PCM's working principle and program process.

  9. Kynurenic Acid Content in Selected Culinary Herbs and Spices

    OpenAIRE

    Michal P. Turski; Monika Turska; Tomasz Kocki; Turski, Waldemar A.; Piotr Paluszkiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that kynurenic acid (KYNA) is present in various types of food in varying concentrations. Therefore, the aim of the study was to check whether KYNA is present in culinary herbs and spices. Achieved results indicate that KYNA is present in all 19 selected culinary herbs and spices. The highest concentration of KYNA was found in basil and thyme, 14.08 and 8.87 μg/g, respectively, while the lowest content of KYNA was found in cumin and black pepper, 0.64 and 0.10 μg...

  10. SPICE benchmark for global tomographic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yilong; Capdeville, Yann; Maupin, Valerie; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Lebedev, Sergei; Beucler, Eric

    2008-11-01

    The existing global tomographic methods result in different models due to different parametrization, scale resolution and theoretical approach. To test how current imaging techniques are limited by approximations in theory and by the inadequacy of data quality and coverage, it is necessary to perform a global-scale benchmark to understand the resolving properties of each specific imaging algorithm. In the framework of the Seismic wave Propagation and Imaging in Complex media: a European network (SPICE) project, it was decided to perform a benchmark experiment of global inversion algorithms. First, a preliminary benchmark with a simple isotropic model is carried out to check the feasibility in terms of acquisition geometry and numerical accuracy. Then, to fully validate tomographic schemes with a challenging synthetic data set, we constructed one complex anisotropic global model, which is characterized by 21 elastic constants and includes 3-D heterogeneities in velocity, anisotropy (radial and azimuthal anisotropy), attenuation, density, as well as surface topography and bathymetry. The intermediate-period (>32 s), high fidelity anisotropic modelling was performed by using state-of-the-art anisotropic anelastic modelling code, that is, coupled spectral element method (CSEM), on modern massively parallel computing resources. The benchmark data set consists of 29 events and three-component seismograms are recorded by 256 stations. Because of the limitation of the available computing power, synthetic seismograms have a minimum period of 32 s and a length of 10 500 s. The inversion of the benchmark data set demonstrates several well-known problems of classical surface wave tomography, such as the importance of crustal correction to recover the shallow structures, the loss of resolution with depth, the smearing effect, both horizontal and vertical, the inaccuracy of amplitude of isotropic S-wave velocity variation, the difficulty of retrieving the magnitude of azimuthal

  11. SPICE modelling of the transient response of irradiated MOSFETs; Modelisation de la reponse transitoire de MOSFETs irradies avec SPICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouget, V.; Lapuyade, H.; Lewis, D.; Deval, Y.; Fouillat, P. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., IXL, 33 - Talence (France); Sarger, L. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., CPMOH, 33 - Talence (France)

    1999-07-01

    A new SPICE model of irradiated MOSFET taking into account the real response of the 4 electrodes is proposed. The component that has been simulated is an NMOS transistor issued from the AMS BiCMOS 0.8 {mu}m technology. A comparison between SPICE-generated transients and PISCES device simulation demonstrates the accuracy benefits when used in complex electronic architectures. This model could be used when designing electronic circuits able to sustain hardening due to SEE (single event effect), it will be an efficient complement to the physical simulations.

  12. Solar abundances with the SPICE spectral imager on Solar Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunta, Alessandra; Haberreiter, Margit; Peter, Hardi; Vial, Jean-Claude; Harrison, Richard; Parenti, Susanna; Innes, Davina; Schmutz, Werner; Buchlin, Eric; Chamberlin, Phillip; Thompson, William; Bocchialini, Karine; Gabriel, Alan; Morris, Nigel; Caldwell, Martin; Auchere, Frederic; Curdt, Werner; Teriaca, Luca; Hassler, Donald M.; DeForest, Craig; Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats; Philippon, Anne; Janvier, Miho; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Griffin, Douglas; Baudin, Frederic; Davila, Joseph; Fludra, Andrzej; Waltham, Nick; Eccleston, Paul; Gottwald, Alexander; Klein, Roman; Hanley, John; Walls, Buddy; Howe, Chris; Schuehle, Udo; Gyo, Manfred; Pfiffner, Dany

    2016-07-01

    Elemental composition of the solar atmosphere and in particular abundance bias of low and high First Ionization Potential (FIP) elements are a key tracer of the source regions of the solar wind. These abundances and their spatio-temporal variations, as well as the other plasma parameters , will be derived by the SPICE (Spectral Imaging of the Coronal Environment) EUV spectral imager on the upcoming Solar Orbiter mission. SPICE is designed to provide spectroheliograms (spectral images) using a core set of emission lines arising from ions of both low-FIP and high-FIP elements. These lines are formed over a wide range of temperatures, enabling the analysis of the different layers of the solar atmosphere. SPICE will use these spectroheliograms to produce dynamic composition maps of the solar atmosphere to be compared to in-situ measurements of the solar wind composition of the same elements (i.e. O, Ne, Mg, Fe). This will provide a tool to study the connectivity between the spacecraft (the Heliosphere) and the Sun. We will discuss the SPICE capabilities for such composition measurements.

  13. Spice Up Your Life: Adipose Tissue and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cells of the immune system are now recognized in the adipose tissue which, in obesity, produces proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines. Several herbs and spices have been in use since ancient times which possess anti-inflammatory properties. In this perspective, I discuss and propose the usage of these culinary delights for the benefit of human health.

  14. Hot spices influence permeability of human intestinal epithelial monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Jarolim, E; Gajdzik, L; Haberl, I; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O; Graf, J

    1998-03-01

    Indirect evidence suggests that hot spices may interact with epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract to modulate their transport properties. Using HCT-8 cells, a cell line from a human ileocoecal carcinoma, we studied the effects of spices on transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), permeability for fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextrans with graded molecular weight, and morphological alterations of tight junctions by immunofluorescence using an anti-ZO-1 antibody, a marker for tight junction integrity. Two different reactivity patterns were observed: paprika and cayenne pepper significantly decreased the TER and increased permeability for 10-, 20- and 40-kDa dextrans but not for -70 kDa dextrans. Simultaneously, tight junctions exhibited a discontinuous pattern. Applying extracts from black or green pepper, bay leaf or nutmeg increased the TER and macromolecular permeability remained low. Immunofluorescence ZO-1 staining was preserved. In accordance with the above findings, capsaicin transiently reduced resistance and piperine increased resistance, making them candidates for causing the effects seen with crude spice extracts. The observation that Solanaceae spices (paprika, cayenne pepper) increase permeability for ions and macromolecules might be of pathophysiological importance, particularly with respect to food allergy and intolerance.

  15. COMPOSITION OF MAJOR ORGANIC ACIDS IN VEGETABLES AND SPICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liga Priecina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids are one of the major phytochemicals in vegetables and responsible for food taste and odor. Different organic acids are analyzed in fruits and cereals, but least in vegetables and spices. Organic acids has been analyzed because of their high importance in the formation of other phytochemical and increased antioxidant activity. The aim of the current research was to determine the oxalic, tartaric, quinic, malic, malonic, ascorbic, citric, fumaric, succinic, salicylic and benzoic acid content in fresh and pre-treated (with steam vegetables and spices using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method. Major organic acids in highest concentrations in spices and vegetables are quinic, malic, malonic and citric acids. Spices contain higher total organic acid content than vegetables. Using steaming as pre-treatment, some of the organic acids content significantly decreased. Obtained changes could be explained by the organic acid formation into more complex chemicals in food or metabolic process. For the future, these changes will be combined with individual phenolic compound changes in analyzed samples.

  16. Isolation and Analysis of Essential Oils from Spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Stephen K.; Von Riesen, Daniel D.; Rossi, Lauren L.

    2012-01-01

    Natural product isolation and analysis provide an opportunity to present a variety of experimental techniques to undergraduate students in introductory organic chemistry. Eugenol, anethole, and carvone were extracted from six common spices using steam-distillation and diethyl ether as the extraction solvent. Students assessed the purity of their…

  17. Digestive stimulant action of three Indian spice mixes in experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platel, Kalpana; Rao, Alkananda; Saraswathi, G; Srinivasan, K

    2002-12-01

    The present study examined the favourable influence of three spice mixes derived from a few commonly consumed spices of known digestive stimulant action on digestive enzymes of pancreas and small intestine, and on bile secretion and composition in experimental rats. The common ingredients of these mixes were coriander, turmeric, red chilli, black pepper and cumin, while the spice mix II additionally had ginger, and spice mix III contained onion. All the three spice mixes favourably enhanced the activities of pancreatic lipase, chymotrypsin and amylase when consumed during the diet. In addition, these spice mixes brought about a pronounced stimulation of bile flow and of bile acid secretion. Among the three spice mixes examined, spice mix III which is customized so as to include spices that are desirable from the point of view of stimulation of digestion, had the highest stimulatory influence particularly on bile secretion, bile acid output and the activities of pancreatic enzymes. While activities of pancreatic lipase, amylase and chymotrypsin were elevated by 40, 16 and 77%, respectively, the bile volume as well as the bile acid secretion were almost doubled in spice mix III treatment. The higher secretion of bile especially with an elevated level of bile acids and a beneficial stimulation of pancreatic digestive enzymes, particularly of lipase could probably be the two mechanisms by which these combinations of spices aid in digestion.

  18. Chemoprevention of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis by Apiaceae Spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqil, Farrukh; Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash; Munagala, Radha; Ravoori, Srivani; Vadhanam, Manicka V.; Schultz, David J.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific evidence suggests that many herbs and spices have medicinal properties that alleviate symptoms or prevent disease. In this study, we examined the chemopreventive effects of the Apiaceae spices, anise, caraway, and celery seeds against 17β-estrogen (E2)-mediated mammary tumorigenesis in an ACI (August-Copenhagen Irish) rat model. Female ACI rats were given either control diet (AIN 93M) or diet supplemented with 7.5% (w/w) of anise, caraway, or celery seed powder. Two weeks later, one half of the animals in each group received subcutaneous silastic implants of E2. Diet intake and body weight were recorded weekly, and animals were euthanized after 3 and 12 weeks. E2-treatment showed significantly (2.1- and 3.4-fold) enhanced growth of pituitary gland at 3 and 12 weeks, respectively. All test spices significantly offset the pituitary growth by 12 weeks, except celery which was effective as early as three weeks. Immunohistochemical analysis for proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in mammary tissues showed significant reduction in E2-mediated mammary cell proliferation. Test spices reduced the circulating levels of both E2 and prolactin at three weeks. This protection was more pronounced at 12 weeks, with celery eliciting the highest effect. RT-PCR and western blot analysis were performed to determine the potential molecular targets of the spices. Anise and caraway diets significantly offset estrogen-mediated overexpression of both cyclin D1 and estrogen receptor α (ERα). The effect of anise was modest. Likewise, expression of CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 was inhibited by all test spices. Based on short-term molecular markers, caraway was selected over other spices based on its enhanced effect on estrogen-associated pathway. Therefore, a tumor-end point study in ACI rats was conducted with dietary caraway. Tumor palpation from 12 weeks onwards revealed tumor latency of 29 days in caraway-treated animals compared with first tumor appearance at 92 days in control

  19. Chemoprevention of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis by Apiaceae Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrukh Aqil

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Scientific evidence suggests that many herbs and spices have medicinal properties that alleviate symptoms or prevent disease. In this study, we examined the chemopreventive effects of the Apiaceae spices, anise, caraway, and celery seeds against 17β-estrogen (E2-mediated mammary tumorigenesis in an ACI (August-Copenhagen Irish rat model. Female ACI rats were given either control diet (AIN 93M or diet supplemented with 7.5% (w/w of anise, caraway, or celery seed powder. Two weeks later, one half of the animals in each group received subcutaneous silastic implants of E2. Diet intake and body weight were recorded weekly, and animals were euthanized after 3 and 12 weeks. E2-treatment showed significantly (2.1- and 3.4-fold enhanced growth of pituitary gland at 3 and 12 weeks, respectively. All test spices significantly offset the pituitary growth by 12 weeks, except celery which was effective as early as three weeks. Immunohistochemical analysis for proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in mammary tissues showed significant reduction in E2-mediated mammary cell proliferation. Test spices reduced the circulating levels of both E2 and prolactin at three weeks. This protection was more pronounced at 12 weeks, with celery eliciting the highest effect. RT-PCR and western blot analysis were performed to determine the potential molecular targets of the spices. Anise and caraway diets significantly offset estrogen-mediated overexpression of both cyclin D1 and estrogen receptor α (ERα. The effect of anise was modest. Likewise, expression of CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 was inhibited by all test spices. Based on short-term molecular markers, caraway was selected over other spices based on its enhanced effect on estrogen-associated pathway. Therefore, a tumor-end point study in ACI rats was conducted with dietary caraway. Tumor palpation from 12 weeks onwards revealed tumor latency of 29 days in caraway-treated animals compared with first tumor appearance at 92

  20. 陈府九香料酒的研发%Development of Chenfu cooking wine with nine spices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪建国; 沈玉根; 黄炎远; 周柱坚; 甘莆兵; 陆伟杰

    2011-01-01

    为了增加调味料酒的品种、给消费者提供具有安全性和特殊风味的料酒,首先确认了研发陈府九香料酒调味料的酒基,然后对各种类型黄酒在烹饪中进行试验,确立了陈年加饭酒为最佳的料酒酒基,在此基础上选用多种辛香料,以热酒浸泡提取汁液,再添加食用盐和鲜味剂,经正交试验,结果表明,最佳配比:加饭酒为0.975 kg、食盐为14 g、香辛料为40 mL/L和鲜味剂为0.25 g。%In order to enrich the types of cooking wine so as to provide more safe and special choices for consumers,Chenfu cooking wine with nine spices were developed.After the determination of the basic liquor,various yellow rice wines were tested in cooking and the aging rice-adding wine was set as the optimal basic liquor.Many types of spices were soaked in hot rice wine and then added with salt and flavor enhancer.With orthogonal test,the optimal recipe was determined as the following: rice-adding wine 0.975 kg,salt 14 g,spices 40 mL/L and flavor enhancer 0.25 g.

  1. Esterase’s properties in commonly used Indian spices for Alzheimer’s disease model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Esterase family of Hydrolases such as Acetylcholinesterase (AchE,Butyrylcholinesterase (BchE and Carboxyl esterase (CE havebeen estimated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD model, normal brain ofstriatum, frontal cortex, hippocampus and in liver. In AD a loss ofacetylcholine activity directly correlates with memory dysfunctiondue to the activation of acetylcholinesterase andbutyrylcholinesterase enzymes. Therefore the effective treatmentmethods include restoration of cholinergic function and elevation ofACh level through inhibiting AChE and BChE. Hence to inhibitthese enzymes four commonly used Indian kitchen spices viz.,Cuminum cyminum, Elettaria cardamomum, Cinnamomum verum,Syzygium aromaticum were selected because the extracts of thesespices contain cholinesterase inhibitory activity in vitro. Thesespices were extracted with cold and hot aqueous solution and theanti- cholinesterase potential was measured in vitro. Elettariacardamomum cold extract showed significant inhibition for AchE inall regions of brain for control and AD. Whereas Cinnamomumverum hot extract showed elevated activity for carboxyl esterasewhich is a neuroprotective factor. These findings suggest thatdietary supplementation of cardamom and cinnamon in moderateamounts may aid in prevention delay in onset of AD.

  2. Spice: discovery of phenotype-determining component interplays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhengzhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A latent behavior of a biological cell is complex. Deriving the underlying simplicity, or the fundamental rules governing this behavior has been the Holy Grail of systems biology. Data-driven prediction of the system components and their component interplays that are responsible for the target system’s phenotype is a key and challenging step in this endeavor. Results The proposed approach, which we call System Phenotype-related Interplaying Components Enumerator (Spice, iteratively enumerates statistically significant system components that are hypothesized (1 to play an important role in defining the specificity of the target system’s phenotype(s; (2 to exhibit a functionally coherent behavior, namely, act in a coordinated manner to perform the phenotype-specific function; and (3 to improve the predictive skill of the system’s phenotype(s when used collectively in the ensemble of predictive models. Spice can be applied to both instance-based data and network-based data. When validated, Spice effectively identified system components related to three target phenotypes: biohydrogen production, motility, and cancer. Manual results curation agreed with the known phenotype-related system components reported in literature. Additionally, using the identified system components as discriminatory features improved the prediction accuracy by 10% on the phenotype-classification task when compared to a number of state-of-the-art methods applied to eight benchmark microarray data sets. Conclusion We formulate a problem—enumeration of phenotype-determining system component interplays—and propose an effective methodology (Spice to address this problem. Spice improved identification of cancer-related groups of genes from various microarray data sets and detected groups of genes associated with microbial biohydrogen production and motility, many of which were reported in literature. Spice also improved the predictive skill of the

  3. Adding Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    Ajax can bring many advantages to an existing web application without forcing you to redo the whole thing. This book explains how you can add Ajax to enhance, rather than replace, the way your application works. For instance, if you have a traditional web application based on submitting a form to update a table, you can enhance it by adding the capability to update the table with changes to the form fields, without actually having to submit the form. That's just one example.Adding Ajax is for those of you more interested in extending existing applications than in creating Rich Internet Applica

  4. Adding SPICE to a Library Internet Site: A Recipe to Enhance Usability

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid Tonnison; Larnish Harije; Suzanne Lewis; Lisa Cotter

    2006-01-01

    Objective - To produce a highly- usable intranet site, use the project to explore the practical application of evidence-based librarianship (EBL), and refine the library's project management methodology. Methods - Evidence was gathered via a literature review, an online survey, scenario-based usability testing, and the completion of a usability checlist. Usability issues were then addressed, guided by the Research-Based Web Design and Usability Guidelines. Results - After a preliminary ...

  5. Adding SPICE to a Library Internet Site: A Recipe to Enhance Usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Tonnison

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - To produce a highly- usable intranet site, use the project to explore the practical application of evidence-based librarianship (EBL, and refine the library's project management methodology. Methods - Evidence was gathered via a literature review, an online survey, scenario-based usability testing, and the completion of a usability checlist. Usability issues were then addressed, guided by the Research-Based Web Design and Usability Guidelines. Results - After a preliminary revision, the site achieved a usability index of 79% after application of the "Raward Library Usability Analysis Tool". Finding the information and supporting user tasks were identified as areas of weakness. Usability testing and cleint feedback supported these findings. After these issues were addressed by a major site redeveloment, the usability index increased to 98%. Conclusions - Raward's checklist is an easy and effective tool for measuring and identifying usability issues. Its value was enhanced by scenario-based usability testing, which yielded rich, client specific information. The application of EBL and project management princples ehnanced the outcomes of the project, and the professional development of the project team.

  6. Adding Spice to Vanilla LCDM simulations: From Alternative Cosmologies to Lighting up Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan Elahi, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    Cold Dark Matter simulations have formed the backbone of our theoretical understanding of cosmological structure formation. Predictions from the Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) cosmology, in which the Universe contains two major dark components, namely Dark Matter and Dark Energy, are in excellent agreement with the Large-Scale Structures observed, i.e., the distribution of galaxies across cosmic time. However, this paradigm is in tension with observations at small-scales, from the number and properties of satellite galaxies around galaxies such as the Milky Way and Andromeda, to the lensing statistics of massive galaxy clusters. I will present several alternative models of cosmology (from Warm Dark Matter to coupled Dark Matter-Dark Energy models) and how they compare to vanilla LCDM by studying formation of groups and clusters dark matter only and adiabatic hydrodynamical zoom simulations. I will show how modifications to the dark sector can lead to some surprising results. For example, Warm Dark Matter, so often examined on small satellite galaxies scales, can be probed observationally using weak lensing at cluster scales. Coupled dark sectors, where dark matter decays into dark energy and experiences an effective gravitational potential that differs from that experienced by normal matter, is effectively hidden away from direct observations of galaxies. Studies like these are vital if we are to pinpoint observations which can look for unique signatures of the physics that governs the hidden Universe. Of course, all of these predictions are unfortunately affected by uncertain galaxy formation physics. I will end by presenting results from a comparison study of numerous hydrodynamical codes, the nIFTY cluster comparison project, and how even how purely adiabatic simulations run with different codes give in quite different galaxy populations. The galaxies that form in these simulations, which all attempt to reproduce the observed galaxy population via not unreasonable subgrid physics, can and do vary in stellar mass, morphology and gas fraction.

  7. Adding Spice to Vanilla LCDM simulations: Alternative Cosmologies & Lighting up Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan Elahi, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    Cold Dark Matter simulations have formed the backbone of our theoretical understanding of cosmological structure formation. Predictions from the Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) cosmology, where the Universe contains two dark components, namely Dark Matter & Dark Energy, are in excellent agreement with the Large-Scale Structures observed, i.e., the distribution of galaxies across cosmic time. However, this paradigm is in tension with observations at small-scales, from the number and properties of satellite galaxies around galaxies such as the Milky Way and Andromeda, to the lensing statistics of massive galaxy clusters. I will present several alternative models of cosmology (from Warm Dark Matter to coupled Dark Matter-Dark Energy models) and how they compare to vanilla LCDM by studying formation of groups and clusters dark matter only and adiabatic hydrodynamical zoom simulations. I will show how modifications to the dark sector can lead to some surprising results. For example, Warm Dark Matter, so often examined on small satellite galaxies scales, can be probed observationally using weak lensing at cluster scales. Coupled dark sectors, where dark matter decays into dark energy and experiences an effective gravitational potential that differs from that experienced by normal matter, is effectively hidden away from direct observations of galaxies. Studies like these are vital if we are to pinpoint observations which can look for unique signatures of the physics that governs the hidden Universe. Finally, I will discuss how all of these predictions are affected by uncertain galaxy formation physics. I will present results from a major comparison study of numerous hydrodynamical codes, the nIFTY cluster comparison project. This comparison aims to understand the code-to-code scatter in the properties of dark matter haloes and the galaxies that reside in them. We find that even in purely adiabatic simulations, different codes form clusters with very different X-ray profiles. The galaxies that form in these simulations, which all use codes that attempt to reproduce the observed galaxy population via not unreasonable subgrid physics, vary in stellar mass, morphology and gas fraction, sometimes by an order of magnitude. I will end with a discussion of precision cosmology in light of these results.

  8. SPICE modeling of flux-controlled unipolar memristive devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Xu-Dong; Tang Yu-Hua; Wu Jun-Jie; Zhu Xuan; Zhou Jing; Huang Da

    2013-01-01

    Unipolar memristive devices are an important kind of resistive switching devices.However,few circuit models of them have been proposed.In this paper,we propose the SPICE modeling of flux-controlled unipolar memristive devices based on the memristance versus state map.Using our model,the flux thresholds,ON and OFF resistance,and compliance current can easily be set as model parameters.We simulate the model in HSPICE using model parameters abstracted from real devices,and the simulation results show that the proposed model caters to the real device data very well,thus demonstrating that the model is correct.Using the same modeling methodology,the SPICE model of charge-controlled unipolar memristive devices could also be developed.The proposed model could be used to model resistive memory cells,logical gates as well as synapses in artificial neural networks.

  9. The importance of selected spices in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczyński, Bartosz; Gramza-Michałowska, Anna

    2016-11-14

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Literature data indicate that, due to these diseases, approximately 17.5 million people died in 2012. Types of cardiovascular disease include ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, congenital heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia. Proper nutrition is an important factor in reducing the risk of cardiovascular events. An interesting element of our diets is spices. For thousands of years, they have been used in the treatment of many diseases: bacterial infections, coughs, colds, and liver diseases. Many studies also demonstrate their antioxidant, chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. This paper focuses on discussing the importance of selected spices (garlic, cinnamon, ginger, coriander and turmeric) in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Microbiological Spoilage of Spices, Nuts, Cocoa, and Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkas, Joan M.; Battista, Karen; Morille-Hinds, Theodora

    Spices, nuts, cocoa, and coffee are raw materials that may be used alone or as ingredients in the manufacture of processed food products. The control of microbiological spoilage of these raw materials at the ingredient stage will enable the food processor to better assure the production of high-quality foods with an acceptable shelf life. While this chapter is limited to four materials, many of the spoilage control procedures recommended can also be applied to other raw materials of a similar nature.

  11. Photodiode Circuit Macro-model for SPICE Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An accurate photodiode circuit macro-model is proposed for SPICE simulation. The definition and implementation of the macro-model is based on carrier stationary continuity equation. In this macro-model, the photodiode is a device of three pins, one for light intensity input and the other two for photocurrent output, which represent the relationship between photocurrent and incident light. The validity of the proposed macro-model is demonstrated with its PSPICE simulation result compared with reported experimental data.

  12. Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freire Francisco das Chagas Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of thirteen genera of bacteria and two genera of yeasts were detected in surface sterilized and unsterilized Brazilian commodities and spices such as cashew kernels, Brazil nut kernels, black and white pepper. The genus Bacillus with eight species was by far the most common. The yeasts isolated were Pichia sp., P. guillermondii and Rhodotorula sp. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in cashew and Brazil nut kernels.

  13. SPICE Module for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggi, John; Carnright, Robert; Hildebrand, Claude

    2008-01-01

    A SPICE module for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) precisely represents complex motion and maneuvers in an interactive, 3D animated environment with support for user-defined quantitative outputs. (SPICE stands for Spacecraft, Planet, Instrument, Camera-matrix, and Events). This module enables the SOAP software to exploit NASA mission ephemeris represented in the JPL Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) SPICE formats. Ephemeris types supported include position, velocity, and orientation for spacecraft and planetary bodies including the Sun, planets, natural satellites, comets, and asteroids. Entire missions can now be imported into SOAP for 3D visualization, playback, and analysis. The SOAP analysis and display features can now leverage detailed mission files to offer the analyst both a numerically correct and aesthetically pleasing combination of results that can be varied to study many hypothetical scenarios. The software provides a modeling and simulation environment that can encompass a broad variety of problems using orbital prediction. For example, ground coverage analysis, communications analysis, power and thermal analysis, and 3D visualization that provide the user with insight into complex geometric relations are included. The SOAP SPICE module allows distributed science and engineering teams to share common mission models of known pedigree, which greatly reduces duplication of effort and the potential for error. The use of the software spans all phases of the space system lifecycle, from the study of future concepts to operations and anomaly analysis. It allows SOAP software to correctly position and orient all of the principal bodies of the Solar System within a single simulation session along with multiple spacecraft trajectories and the orientation of mission payloads. In addition to the 3D visualization, the user can define numeric variables and x-y plots to quantitatively assess metrics of interest.

  14. EPR investigation of some traditional oriental irradiated spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, Octavian G.; Georgescu, Rodica; Ali, Shaban Ibrahim

    2007-06-01

    The 9.50 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of unirradiated and 60Co γ-ray irradiated cardamom ( Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton, Zingiberaceae), ginger (( Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), and saffron ( Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) have been investigated at room temperature. All unirradiated spices presented a weak resonance line with g-factors around free-electron ones. After γ-ray irradiation at an absorbed dose of up to 11.3 kGy, the presence of EPR spectra whose amplitude increase monotonously with the absorbed dose has been noticed with all spices. A 100 °C isothermal annealing of 11.3 kGy irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components that compose initial spectra, but even after 3.6 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less then 30% of the initial ones. The same peculiarities have been noticed after 83 days storage at room temperature but after 340 days storage at ambient conditions only irradiated ginger displays a weak signal that differs from those of unirradiated sample. All these factors could be taken into account in establishing at which extent the EPR is suitable to evidence any irradiation treatment applied to these spices.

  15. Microwave Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Four Different Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ritieni

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Spices and herbs are known not only for their taste, aroma and flavour, but also for their medical properties and value. Both spices and herbs have been used for centuries in traditional medical systems to cure various kinds of illnesses such as common cold, diabetes, cough and cancers. The aim of this work was the comparison between two different extractive techniques in order to get qualitative and quantitative data regarding bioactive compounds of four different spices (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Crocus sativus. The plants were extracted employing ultrasonication and microwave-assisted extractions. The efficiency of extraction of bioactive compounds obtained with the microwave extraction process was in general about four times higher than that resulting from sonication extraction. The various extracts obtained were analyzed for their antioxidant activity using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays and for their total polyphenolic content. It can be concluded that microwave-assisted extractions provide significant advantages in terms of extraction efficiency and time savings.

  16. Natural Occurrence of Aflatoxins Contamination in Commercial Spices in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 80 sample of spices (red pepper, black pepper, turmeric and cinnamon, commercialized in Iran, was analyzed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 content using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with a fluorescence detector (FD. A mixture of acetonitrile–methanol–water (17:29:54; v/v was used as the mobile phase and an immunoaffinity column (IAC applied as a cleanup method. All kinds of spice samples were spiked with aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 at levels of 1, 10, and 30 ng/g and recovery values were determined. Results showed recoveries ranged from 76.4±5.6 to 98.3±3.2 for AFG1 in cinnamon (spiked at 1ng/g and AFB2 in turmeric (spiked at 10ng/g respectively. Thirty-two out of 80 (40% samples were contaminated with aflatoxins ranged from 0.85±0.10 to 24.60±0.12. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in all of the contaminated samples at the highest concentration as compared with other aflatoxins. Red pepper was significantly (p≤0.05 more contaminated than other spices.

  17. Antioxidant potential of spices and their active constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, K

    2014-01-01

    Excessive free radical generation overbalancing the rate of their removal leads to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of cardiovascular disease, inflammatory diseases, cancer, and other chronic diseases. Antioxidants are compounds that hinder the oxidative processes and thereby delay or suppress oxidative stress. There is a growing interest in natural antioxidants found in plants. Herbs and spices are most important targets to search for natural antioxidants from the point of view of safety. A wide variety of phenolic compounds present in spices that are extensively used as food adjuncts possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and cancer preventive activities. This paper reviews a host of spice compounds as exogenous antioxidants that are experimentally evidenced to control cellular oxidative stress, both in vitro and in vivo, and their beneficial role in preventing or ameliorating oxidative-stress-mediated diseases, from atherosclerosis to diabetes to cataract to cancer. The antioxidative effects of turmeric/curcumin, clove/eugenol, red pepper/capsaicin, black pepper/piperine, ginger/gingerol, garlic, onion, and fenugreek, which have been extensively studied and evidenced as potential antioxidants, are specifically reviewed in this treatise.

  18. Cancer cell signaling pathways targeted by spice-derived nutraceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Bokyung; Prasad, Sahdeo; Yadav, Vivek R; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research within the last half a century has revealed that cancer is caused by dysregulation of as many as 500 different gene products. Most natural products target multiple gene products and thus are ideally suited for prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases, including cancer. Dietary agents such as spices have been used extensively in the Eastern world for a variety of ailments for millennia, and five centuries ago they took a golden journey to the Western world. Various spice-derived nutraceuticals, including 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate, anethole, capsaicin, cardamonin, curcumin, dibenzoylmethane, diosgenin, eugenol, gambogic acid, gingerol, thymoquinone, ursolic acid, xanthohumol, and zerumbone derived from galangal, anise, red chili, black cardamom, turmeric, licorice, fenugreek, clove, kokum, ginger, black cumin, rosemary, hop, and pinecone ginger, respectively, are the focus of this review. The modulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, protein kinases, and inflammatory mediators by these spice-derived nutraceuticals are described. The anticancer potential through the modulation of various targets is also the subject of this review. Although they have always been used to improve taste and color and as a preservative, they are now also used for prevention and treatment of a wide variety of chronic inflammatory diseases, including cancer.

  19. EPR investigation of some traditional oriental irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duliu, Octavian G. [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, Magurele, C.P. MG-11, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania)]. E-mail: duliu@pcnet.ro; Georgescu, Rodica [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering -Horia Hulubei, C.P. MG-6, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Ali, Shaban Ibrahim [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, Magurele, C.P. MG-11, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2007-06-15

    The 9.50 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of unirradiated and {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray irradiated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton, Zingiberaceae), ginger ((Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), and saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) have been investigated at room temperature. All unirradiated spices presented a weak resonance line with g-factors around free-electron ones. After {gamma}-ray irradiation at an absorbed dose of up to 11.3 kGy, the presence of EPR spectra whose amplitude increase monotonously with the absorbed dose has been noticed with all spices. A 100 {sup o}C isothermal annealing of 11.3 kGy irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components that compose initial spectra, but even after 3.6 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less then 30% of the initial ones. The same peculiarities have been noticed after 83 days storage at room temperature but after 340 days storage at ambient conditions only irradiated ginger displays a weak signal that differs from those of unirradiated sample. All these factors could be taken into account in establishing at which extent the EPR is suitable to evidence any irradiation treatment applied to these spices.

  20. Lumped element modelling of superconducting circuits with SPICE

    CERN Document Server

    Baveco, Maurice Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In this project research is carried out aimed at benchmarking a general-purpose circuit simulation software tool (”SPICE”). The project lasted for 8 weeks, from 29 June 2015 until 21 August 2015 at Performance Evaluation section at CERN. The goal was to apply it on a model of superconducting magnets, namely the main dipole circuit (RB circuit) of the the LHC (Large Hadron Collider), developed by members of the section. Then the strengths and the flaws of the tool were investigated. Transient effects were the main simulation focus point. In the first stage a simplified RB circuit was modelled in SPICE based on subcircuits. The first results were promising but still not with a perfect agreement. After implementing more detailed subcircuits there is an improvement and promising agreement achieved between SPICE and the results of the paper (PSpice) [2]. In general there are more strengths than drawbacks of simulating with SPICE. For example, it should have a shorter simulation time than PSpice for the same mo...

  1. FDTD-SPICE for Characterizing Metamaterials Integrated with Electronic Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwei Hao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A powerful time-domain FDTD-SPICE simulator is implemented and applied to the broadband analysis of metamaterials integrated with active and tunable circuit elements. First, the FDTD-SPICE modeling theory is studied and details of interprocess communication and hybridization of the two techniques are discussed. To verify the model, some simple cases are simulated with results in both time domain and frequency domain. Then, simulation of a metamaterial structure constructed from periodic resonant loops integrated with lumped capacitor elements is studied, which demonstrates tuning resonance frequency of medium by changing the capacitance of the integrated elements. To increase the bandwidth of the metamaterial, non-Foster transistor configurations are integrated with the loops and FDTD-SPICE is applied to successfully bridge the physics of electromagnetic and circuit topologies and to model the whole composite structure. Our model is also applied to the design and simulation of a metasurface integrated with nonlinear varactors featuring tunable reflection phase characteristic.

  2. Spice: A New Legal Herbal Mixture Abused by Young Active Duty Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    kinase, serum ethanol level ᝺ mg/dL, and urine drug screen was neg- ative for amphetamines , barbiturates, benzodi- azepines, cocaine, methadone...ABSTRACT. Spice is an herbal mixture smoked for euphoria and mixed with synthetic cannabinoids that are undetected on urine drug screens. Spice use has...increased in the military because it is con- sidered legal and is not detected on urine drug screen. The authors describe 3 cases of Spice use in

  3. Antimicrobial activity of spices like cloves Cardamom and Cinnamon on Bacillus and Pseudomonas

    OpenAIRE

    Taneesha Chawla; Nida Itrat Abbasi; Aishwarya Tandon; Suneetha V

    2014-01-01

    Spices have been used in our country cuisines since times immemorial. Their use was mainly due to health benefits as herbs and for the aroma they provided in the food. However, little did we know at that time that these spices also have antimicrobial activity. Today, they stand as giants in ayurvedic medicine with substances like turmeric, cloves and cardamom being used in every house-hold. This paper pertains to the antimicrobial activity of three such spices Cloves, Cinnamon and Cardamom on...

  4. Spices: the savory and beneficial science of pungency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilius, Bernd; Appendino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Spicy food does not only provide an important hedonic input in daily life, but has also been anedoctically associated to beneficial effects on our health. In this context, the discovery of chemesthetic trigeminal receptors and their spicy ligands has provided the mechanistic basis and the pharmacological means to investigate this enticing possibility. This review discusses in molecular terms the connection between the neurophysiology of pungent spices and the "systemic" effects associated to their trigeminality. It commences with a cultural and historical overview on the Western fascination for spices, and, after analysing in detail the mechanisms underlying the trigeminality of food, the main dietary players from the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of cation channels are introduced, also discussing the "alien" distribution of taste receptors outside the oro-pharingeal cavity. The modulation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 by spices is next described, discussing how spicy sensations can be turned into hedonic pungency, and analyzing the mechanistic bases for the health benefits that have been associated to the consumption of spices. These include, in addition to a beneficial modulation of gastro-intestinal and cardio-vascular function, slimming, the optimization of skeletal muscle performance, the reduction of chronic inflammation, and the prevention of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. We conclude by reviewing the role of electrophilic spice constituents on cancer prevention in the light of their action on pro-inflammatory and pro-cancerogenic nuclear factors like NFκB, and on their interaction with the electrophile sensor protein Keap1 and the ensuing Nrf2-mediated transcriptional activity. Spicy compounds have a complex polypharmacology, and just like any other bioactive agent, show a balance of beneficial and bad actions. However, at least for moderate consumption, the balance seems definitely in favour of the positive side, suggesting that a spicy diet, a caveman

  5. We, the People of the World... Special Programs in Citizenship Education: Comparative Legal Systems. SPICE V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Julia P., Ed.; Moulden, Richard G., Ed.

    This compilation of over 40 lesson plans on various topics in law related education was written by classroom teachers from around the United States who had participated in the fifth of an annual series called Special Programs in Citizenship Education (SPICE)--weeklong institutes devoted to learning about different cultures and laws. Called SPICE V…

  6. 21 CFR 582.30 - Natural substances used in conjunction with spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Natural substances used in conjunction with spices... with spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. Natural substances used in conjunction with spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings that are generally recognized as safe for...

  7. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. 182.40 Section 182.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings that are generally recognized as safe for their...

  8. Identification of low amount of irradiated spices (red pepper, garlic, ginger powder) with luminescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong-Keun; Akram, Kashif; Kim, Cheong-Tae; Kang, Na-Roo; Lee, Jin-Won; Ryang, Jun-Hwan; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2012-08-01

    For the identification of irradiated food, current analysis methods have limitations regarding presence and stability of radiation-induced markers. In this study, different spice blends with small quantity of different irradiated (0, 1 and 10 kGy) spice powders, such as red pepper, garlic or ginger, were investigated using PSL and TL techniques. In PSL-based screening analysis, the spice blends containing 10% of irradiated materials (1 or 10 kGy) were determined as intermediate or positive. In TL results, the blends containing 1% of 1 or 10 kGy-irradiated spices showed the typical TL glow curves that could be interpreted as positive. The blends with irradiated garlic powder provided more good results where identification was possible at 0.5% mixing of irradiated sample. However, the TL ratios of all spice blends were <0.1 and only TL glow curve shape and intensity may be used to discriminate the samples having irradiated component.

  9. Alcoholic extraction enables EPR analysis to characterize radiation-induced cellulosic signals in spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-Jun; Sanyal, Bhaskar; Akram, Kashif; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2014-11-19

    Different spices such as turmeric, oregano, and cinnamon were γ-irradiated at 1 and 10 kGy. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of the nonirradiated samples were characterized by a single central signal (g = 2.006), the intensity of which was significantly enhanced upon irradiation. The EPR spectra of the irradiated spice samples were characterized by an additional triplet signal at g = 2.006 with a hyperfine coupling constant of 3 mT, associated with the cellulose radical. EPR analysis on various sample pretreatments in the irradiated spice samples demonstrated that the spectral features of the cellulose radical varied on the basis of the pretreatment protocol. Alcoholic extraction pretreatment produced considerable improvements of the EPR signals of the irradiated spice samples relative to the conventional oven and freeze-drying techniques. The alcoholic extraction process is therefore proposed as the most suitable sample pretreatment for unambiguous detection of irradiated spices by EPR spectroscopy.

  10. Possible Role of Common Spices as a Preventive and Therapeutic Agent for Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmosayyeb, Omid; Tanhaei, Amirpouya; Sohrabi, Hamid R.; Martins, Ralph N.; Tanhaei, Mana; Najafi, Mohammad Amin; Safaei, Ali; Meamar, Rokhsareh

    2017-01-01

    For centuries, spices have been consumed as food additives or medicinal agents. However, there is increasing evidence indicating the plant-based foods in regular diet may lower the risk of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer disease. Spices, as one of the most commonly used plant-based food additives may provide more than just flavors, but as agents that may prevent or even halt neurodegenerative processes associated with aging. In this article, we review the role and application of five commonly used dietary spices including saffron turmeric, pepper family, zingiber, and cinnamon. Besides suppressing inflammatory pathways, these spices may act as antioxidant and inhibit acetyl cholinesterase and amyloid β aggregation. We summarized how spice-derived nutraceuticals mediate such different effects and what their molecular targets might be. Finally, some directions for future research are briefly discussed. PMID:28250905

  11. Investigation of the Yeast and Mould Floras in Some Ground Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın Vural

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, yeast and mould floras of 60 spices samples that werecollected from different places of Diyarbakır have been investigated. Theyeast spices as Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus and A. niger and mouldspices as Candida tropicalis and C. albicans have been commonly isolatedfrom the spices samples.The ratios of yeast contamination in the samples of black pepper,cumin, allspice, ground hot red pepper, flaked pepper (red and flakedpepper (black, investigated in this study, have been found as % 70, % 80,% 90, % 90, % 60 and % 30 respectively. As a result of high amount ofyeast contamination in spices samples, it is thought that there is a high riskof aflatoxin presence.Using the good and hygienically producing techniques at the stages ofharvest, production, processing, storage and selling with decontaminationapplications as sterilization, microwave and irradiation become effectiveeither in to prove the microbiological quality of the spices and eliminatingof the probable aflatoxin risk due to highly yeast contamination.

  12. [Determination of rhodamine B in spices by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Feng; Ding, Zhaowei; Yang, Zhijian

    2012-07-01

    Rhodamine B (RB), as an unlawful colour, is forbidden to add into foods by Chinese government. A solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of RB in spices has been developed. The sample was extracted by acetonitrile and then centrifugated, purified and enriched with a strong positive ion exchange SPE column (Bond Elut Plexa PCX SPE column) after adding 10 mL 1% trichloroacetic acid solution. The HPLC separation was performed on a Pursuit C18 column (100 mm x 2.0 mm, 3 microm) by gradient elution with 0.1% (v/v) formic acid solution and methanol as the mobile phase. The analyte was detected by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The good linearity (R2 > 0.99) was obtained over the range of 0.6-6 microg/L. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for RB was 1.2 microg/kg. The average recoveries were ranged from 80% to 121% at the spiked levels of 1.197, 2.992 and 5.985 microg/L, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were not more than 15%. The conditions of mobile phase elution gradients, extraction solvents, and SPE columns were optimized. This method is highly selective and has weak matrix effect for qualitative and quantitative analyses of RB in spices.

  13. solation and Identification of Fungi from Spices and Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid M. Toma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was designed to throw light on the microbial status of some crude herbal materials. A total of 16 samples, representing different types of spices and medicinal plants were collected from common market in the Erbil city. Ten different fungal genera and 16 species were isolated and identified as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus spp., Gliocladium sp., Hyalodendron diddeus, Memmoniella sp., Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Syncephalastrum sp., Cladosporium lignicolum and Ulocladium botrytis. The total number of isolated fungi from the all sixteen selected samples was serially diluted and plated on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA medium was (203×103 cfu/g. samples. Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. were more frequently detected, while Stachybotrys sp., Syncephalastrum racemocum, Uocladium botrytis, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium lignicolum and Gliocladium catenulatum ere less frequently detected. Detection of mycotoxin on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphincol agar (DRBC for fungi isolated from spices and medicinal plant samples, A. flavus, A. Niger and A. ochraceous show positive results on the culture for mycotoxin production. Estimation of natural occurrence of Aflatoxin (AT and Ochratoxin (OT in some selected dried samples by using ELISA method, the high result of aflatoxin and ochratoxin show in Red tea (150.5, 387.3 ppb while the low result of aflatoxin and ochratoxin show in Garlic (1.4, 0 ppb respectively.

  14. Antioxidant Activities of Nine Selected Culinary Spices from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Ying; Ding Ying; Zhang Liu-juan; Liu Xian-jin

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant activities and the total phenolic contents of the water and/or ethanol extracts of the nine selected culinary spices from China were systematically investigated. Both ethanol extracts and water extracts had high ability of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2, 2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The ethanol extract of Sichuan pepper showed the highest ability of DPPH radical scavenging. The extract with the highest ABTS radical scavenging effect was that of ethanol extract of cinnamon. Both ethanol and water extracts of cinnamon possessed the high ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) with the values of 4 541.87 and 1 134.52 µmol of Fe (Ⅱ)/g. The extracts with high hydroxyl radical-mediated deoxyribose degradation were all the ethanol extracts as follows:cinnamon, bay leaf, Sichuan pepper, star anise and fennel. The extracts with high antioxidant activities also had the high contents of the phenols. The study indicated that these spices might be potentially be used as natural antioxidants in food.

  15. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum):a precious spice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego Francisco Cortés-Rojas; Wanderley Pereira Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is one of the most valuable spices that has been used for centuries as food preservative and for many medicinal purposes. Clove is native of Indonesia but nowadays is cultured in several parts of the world including Brazil in the state of Bahia. This plant represents one of the richest source of phenolic compounds such as eugenol, eugenol acetate and gallic acid and posses great potential for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and agricultural applications. This review includes the main studies reporting the biological activities of clove and eugenol. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of clove is higher than many fruits, vegetables and other spices and should deserve special attention. A new application of clove as larvicidal agent is an interesting strategy to combat dengue which is a serious health problem in Brazil and other tropical countries. Pharmacokinetics and toxicological studies were also mentioned. The different studies reviewed in this work confirm the traditional use of clove as food preservative and medicinal plant standing out the importance of this plant for different applications.

  16. Effect of some high consumption spices on hemoglobin glycation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G H Naderi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of glycation products is major factor responsible in complications of diabetes. Worldwide trend is toward the use of natural additives in reducing the complications of diseases. Therefore, there is a growing interest in natural antiglycation found in plants. Herbs and spices are one of the most important targets to search for natural antiglycation from the point of view of safety. This study investigated the ability of some of the spices to inhibit glycation process in a hemoglobin/glucose model system and compared their potency with each other. For this subject the best concentration and time to incubate glucose with hemoglobin was investigated. Then the glycosylation degree of hemoglobin in the presence of extracts by the three concentrations 0.25, 0.5 and 1 μg/ml was measured colorimetrically at 520 nm. Results represent that some of extracts such as wild caraway, turmeric, cardamom and black pepper have inhibitory effects on hemoglobin glycation. But some of the extracts such as anise and saffron have not only inhibitory effects but also aggravated this event and have proglycation properties. In accordance with the results obtained we can conclude that wild caraway, turmeric, cardamom and black pepper especially wild caraway extracts are potent antiglycation agents, which can be of great value in the preventive glycation-associated complications in diabetes.

  17. Effect of some high consumption spices on hemoglobin glycation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, G H; Dinani, Narges J; Asgary, S; Taher, M; Nikkhoo, N; Boshtam, M

    2014-01-01

    Formation of glycation products is major factor responsible in complications of diabetes. Worldwide trend is toward the use of natural additives in reducing the complications of diseases. Therefore, there is a growing interest in natural antiglycation found in plants. Herbs and spices are one of the most important targets to search for natural antiglycation from the point of view of safety. This study investigated the ability of some of the spices to inhibit glycation process in a hemoglobin/glucose model system and compared their potency with each other. For this subject the best concentration and time to incubate glucose with hemoglobin was investigated. Then the glycosylation degree of hemoglobin in the presence of extracts by the three concentrations 0.25, 0.5 and 1 μg/ml was measured colorimetrically at 520 nm. Results represent that some of extracts such as wild caraway, turmeric, cardamom and black pepper have inhibitory effects on hemoglobin glycation. But some of the extracts such as anise and saffron have not only inhibitory effects but also aggravated this event and have proglycation properties. In accordance with the results obtained we can conclude that wild caraway, turmeric, cardamom and black pepper especially wild caraway extracts are potent antiglycation agents, which can be of great value in the preventive glycation-associated complications in diabetes.

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on essential oils and lipids in spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Nobutada; Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1991-11-01

    Seven kinds of spices were irradiated with gamma-rays at the dose of 5 to 80 kGy. Studies of radiation effect on lipids in each spice were carried out by measuring peroxide value (POV), iodine value (IV), acid value (AV) and analysis of gas-chromatography (GC). POV in each spice was gradually increased with increasing absorbed doses. The increase of POV in nutmeg was higher than those of other spices, and it was suggested that those increase of POV values were related to lipid contents in spices. A little increase of IV and AV were also observed as same amount of POV by the irradiation up to 80 kGy. From the GC analysis of lipids in each spice, components were not changed even irradiated up to 50 kGy of gamma-rays. Radiation effect on components of essential oils in each spice were also analyzed by headspace-GC (HS-GC), and any degradation of components were not observed up to 50 kGy of irradiation even analyzed by GC after separation to hydrocarbon and oxygen compounds. On the contrary, essential oils of cloves sterilized by heat treatment were apparently decreased as compared with irradiated and non-irradiated cloves. (author).

  19. Ethno botany and antimicrobial perspective of Spices and Honey against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothai Nil Seshathri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In spite of obsessive use of spices in every Ethiopian meal, little has been investigated on the utilization of Ethiopian spices as a cure for oral opportunistic infections. Therefore the aim was to identify spices used in Ethiopian food through ethno botanical survey and study their antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Method: Ethno botanical survey of the selected Kebeles of Jimma, Ethiopia was conducted using a semi structured questionnaire from October 2006 to November 2007. Antifungal nature of the spices and combination of spices and honey were evaluated by agar well diffusion assay from September 2008 to July 2010. Result: Ethno botanical survey indicated fourteen species of spices and honey play a major role in Ethiopian food and beverages. Single plant extract of Trachyspermum copticum showed highest activity against C. albicans. The same plant showed antagonistic effect when combined with brown and white honey. Cinamomum zeylanicum showed highest synergistic effect with both brown and white honey when compared to Allium ursenum, Cuminum cyminum, Nigella sativa, Rosemarinus officinalis and Occimum hodiense. Conclusion: Thus spices used in Ethiopian food could be a preventive as well as a cure for oral candidiasis caused by C.albicans. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 73-80

  20. Potent Inhibitory Effect of Chinese Dietary Spices on Fatty Acid Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bing; Liang, Yan; Sun, Xuebing; Liu, Xiaoxin; Tian, Weixi; Ma, Xiaofeng

    2015-09-01

    Dietary spices have been adopted in cooking since ancient times to enhance flavor and also as food preservatives and disease remedies. In China, the use of spices and other aromatic plants as food flavoring is an integral part of dietary behavior, but relatively little is known about their functions. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) has been recognized as a remedy target, and its inhibitors might be applied in disease treatment. The present work was designed to assess the inhibitory activities on FAS of spices extracts in Chinese menu. The in vitro inhibitory activities on FAS of 22 extracts of spices were assessed by spectrophotometrically monitoring oxidation of NADPH at 340 nm. Results showed that 20 spices extracts (90.9 %) exhibited inhibitory activities on FAS, with half inhibition concentration (IC(50)) values ranging from 1.72 to 810.7 μg/ml. Among them, seven spices showed strong inhibitory effect with IC(50) values lower than 10 μg/ml. These findings suggest that a large proportion of the dietary spices studied possess promising inhibitory activities on FAS, and subsequently might be applied in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related human diseases.

  1. Extract of a spice--omum (Trachyspermum ammi)-shows antiaggregatory effects and alters arachidonic acid metabolism in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, K C

    1988-07-01

    An ethereal extract of omum (Trachyspermum ammi; Hindustani: ajwan)--a frequently consumed spice--was found to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid (AA), epinephrine and collagen; in this respect it was most effective against AA-induced aggregation. Inhibition of aggregation by omum could be explained by its effect on platelet thromboxane production as suggested by the following experimental observation. (i) Omum reduced TxB2 formation in intact platelet preparations from added arachidonate, and (ii) it reduced the formation of TxB2 from AA-labelled platelets after stimulation with Ca2+-ionophore A23187 by a direct action on cyclooxygenase as it did not affect the release of AA from labelled platelets. An increased formation of lipoxygenase-derived products from exogenous AA in omum-treated platelets was apparently due to redirection of AA from cyclooxygenase to the lipoxygenase pathway.

  2. Odor active compounds content in spices and their microencapsulated powders measured by SPME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Elżbieta; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, Renata; Adamiec, Janusz; Wąsowicz, Erwin; Przygoński, Krzysztof; Remiszewski, Marian

    2010-10-01

    Within this study, main odorants of marjoram and thyme (linalool and thymol) were determined in spices and microencapsulated powders using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Analyses were conducted on selected batches of spices before and after decontamination and on microencapsulated powders prepared for technological purposes (improvement of aroma in decontaminated spices). Conditions of SPME analyses were determined for individual compounds and matrices. Determination of total and surface contents of compounds and the percentage dependencies between encapsulated and surface aroma made it possible to identify the best powders in terms of their quality.

  3. New Antiglycative Compounds from Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) Spice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Hang; Liu, Weixi; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra P

    2015-11-25

    Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), a widely consumed food spice, has been reported to have antiglycative effects in vitro and in vivo, but there is a paucity of data on its bioactive compounds. Herein, we report the isolation and structure elucidation (by NMR, HRESIMS, and CD) of 21 (1-21) compounds from a methanol extract of cumin seeds. The isolates included five new compounds: two sesquiterpenoids, two pairs of monoterpeneoid epimers, and a chalcone, named cuminoids A-E, respectively. The isolates were evaluated for antiglycative effects using the bovine serum albumin-fructose intrinsic fluorescence assay. At equivalent concentrations, several of the isolates, including cuminoids C-E, were more potent inhibitors than the positive control, aminoguanidine, a synthetic antiglycative agent (>50 vs 35%, respectively).

  4. SPICE Modeling and Simulation of a MPPT Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miona Andrejević Stošović

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One among several equally important subsystems of a standalone photovoltaic (PV system is the circuit for maximum power point tracking (MPPT. There are several algorithms that may be used for it. In this paper we choose such an algorithm based on the maximum simplicity criteria. Then we make some small modifications to it in order to make it more robust. We synthesize a circuit built out of elements from the list of elements recognized by SPICE. The inputs are the voltage and the current at the PV panel to DC-DC converter interface. Its task is to generate a pulse width modulated pulse train whose duty ratio is defined to keep the input impedance of the DC-DC converter at the optimal value.

  5. Spices form the basis of food pairing in Indian cuisine

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Anupam; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Culinary practices are influenced by climate, culture, history and geography. Molecular composition of recipes in a cuisine reveals patterns in food preferences. Indian cuisine encompasses a number of diverse sub-cuisines separated by geographies, climates and cultures. Its culinary system has a long history of health-centric dietary practices focused on disease prevention and promotion of health. We study food pairing in recipes of Indian cuisine to show that, in contrast to positive food pairing reported in some Western cuisines, Indian cuisine has a strong signature of negative food pairing; more the extent of flavor sharing between any two ingredients, lesser their co-occurrence. This feature is independent of recipe size and is not explained by ingredient category-based recipe constitution alone. Ingredient frequency emerged as the dominant factor specifying the characteristic flavor sharing pattern of the cuisine. Spices, individually and as a category, form the basis of ingredient composition in Indian...

  6. Experimental active control results from the SPICES smart structure demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, David S.; Toth, G. K.; Chou, Kenneth C.; Heck, Larry P.; Nowlin, William C.; Titterton, Paul J., Sr.

    1996-05-01

    The final demonstrations of the ARPA SPICES (Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures) program test the control of two active vibration mounts manufactured from composites with embedded actuators and sensors. Both mount demonstrations address wide band control problems for real disturbances, one at low frequency and the other at high frequency. The control systems for both are two-level hierarchies, with an inner active damping augmentation loop and an outer vibration control loop. We first review the control design requirements for the demonstration and summarize our control design approach. Then we focus on presenting the experimental results of the final demonstrations. For the low frequency demonstration, two alternative control approaches were demonstrated, one involving finite impulse response modeling and the other state space modeling. For the high frequency demonstration only the finite impulse response modeling approach was used because of computational limitations due to the complex system dynamics.

  7. [Influence of spiced feed additives on taste of hen's eggs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Th; Braun, P; Fehlhaber, K

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the spices garlic (Allium sativum), extract from garlic, sage (Salvia officinalis), caraway (Carum carvi), peppermint (Mentha piperita), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), paprika (Capsicum annuum), marjoram (Majorana hortensis), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) and sausage-mix fed to white hybrides on the quality of eggs (n = 705) was tested by 10 qualified persons. Changes in smell or taste were partly significant; a direct improvement is hard to induce. A well seasoned taste was obtained by feeding of garlic, fennel, peppermint and marjoram. They produce an aromatic flavor. A practical application is possible but limited by higher production prices. Further, it is uncertain if there is a need for "taste-manipulated" eggs.

  8. String Theory on AdS Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.

    2000-01-01

    In these notes we discuss various aspects of string theory in AdS spaces. We briefly review the formulation in terms of Green-Schwarz, NSR, and Berkovits variables, as well as the construction of exact conformal field theories with AdS backgrounds. Based on lectures given at the Kyoto YITP Workshop

  9. Online Ad Assignment with an Ad Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Wolfgang; Henzinger, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Ad exchanges are becoming an increasingly popular way to sell advertisement slots on the internet. An ad exchange is basically a spot market for ad impressions. A publisher who has already signed contracts reserving advertisement impressions on his pages can choose between assigning a new ad impression for a new page view to a contracted advertiser or to sell it at an ad exchange. This leads to an online revenue maximization problem for the publisher. Given a new impression to sell decide whe...

  10. Detection of irradiated spices using photo-stimulated luminescence technique (PSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Ros Anita Ahmad; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Othman, Zainon; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan

    2014-09-01

    Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique was applied to detect irradiated black pepper (Piper nigrum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) after dark storage for 1 day, 3 and 6 months. Using screening and calibrated PSL, all samples were correctly discriminated between non-irradiated and spices irradiated with doses 1, 5 and 10 kGy. The PSL photon counts (PCs) of irradiated spices increased with increasing dose, with turmeric showing highest sensitivity index to irradiation compared to black pepper and cinnamon. The differences in response are possibly attributed to the varying quantity and quality of silicate minerals present in each spice sample. PSL signals of all irradiated samples reduced after 3 and 6 months storage. The results of this study provide a useful database on the applicability of PSL technique for the detection of Malaysian irradiated spices.

  11. Detection of irradiated spices using photo-stimulated luminescence technique (PSL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, Ros Anita Ahmad; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi [Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Othman, Zainon; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique was applied to detect irradiated black pepper (Piper nigrum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) after dark storage for 1 day, 3 and 6 months. Using screening and calibrated PSL, all samples were correctly discriminated between non-irradiated and spices irradiated with doses 1, 5 and 10 kGy. The PSL photon counts (PCs) of irradiated spices increased with increasing dose, with turmeric showing highest sensitivity index to irradiation compared to black pepper and cinnamon. The differences in response are possibly attributed to the varying quantity and quality of silicate minerals present in each spice sample. PSL signals of all irradiated samples reduced after 3 and 6 months storage. The results of this study provide a useful database on the applicability of PSL technique for the detection of Malaysian irradiated spices.

  12. Plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: spices as beneficial antidiabetic food adjuncts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, K

    2005-09-01

    Diet has been recognized as a corner stone in the management of diabetes mellitus. Spices are the common dietary adjuncts that contribute to the taste and flavour of foods. Besides, spices are also known to exert several beneficial physiological effects including the antidiabetic influence. This review considers all the available information from animal experimentation as well as clinical trials where spices, their extracts or their active principles were examined for treatment of diabetes. Among the spices, fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenumgraecum), garlic (Allium sativum), onion (Allium cepa), and turmeric (Curcuma longa) have been experimentally documented to possess antidiabetic potential. In a limited number of studies, cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), mustard (Brassica nigra), curry leaves (Murraya koenigii) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) have been reported to be hypoglycaemic.

  13. Monitoring in vitro antibacterial efficacy of 26 Indian spices against multidrug resistant urinary tract infecting bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibanarayan Rath

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The most effective and unique 16 spice plants recorded for the in vitro control of MDR uropathogens could further be pursued for the development of complementary and supplementary medicine against MDR bacteria.

  14. EHWPACK: An evolvable hardware environment using the SPICE simulator and the Field Programmable Transistor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keymeulen, D.; Klimeck, G.; Zebulum, R.; Stoica, A.; Jin, Y.; Lazaro, C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the EHW development system, a tool that performs the evolutionary synthesis of electronic circuits, using the SPICE simulator and the Field Programmable Transistor Array hardware (FPTA) developed at JPL.

  15. Microbiological quality of selected spices and herbs including the presence of Cronobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbowska, M; Berthold-Pluta, A; Stasiak-Różańska, L

    2015-08-01

    The cultivation of spices and herbs in parts of the world characterized by warm climate and high humidity provides excellent conditions for the development of microorganisms, including the undesirable ones. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality of spices and herbs available on the Polish market, considering the occurrence of Cronobacter species bacteria. Analyses covered 60 samples of commercial spices and herbs, including 38 samples of dried herbs (basil, bay leaves, thyme, oregano, tarragon, marjoram, dill, parsley, rosemary, lovage) and 16 samples of seasoning blends as well as 6 samples of spices seeds and fruits (pimento, black pepper, coriander). All samples were tested for the total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and for the presence of Cronobacter spp. In most of the samples of spices and herbs (60.0%), the TAMB did not exceed 10(4) CFU/g, and the level regarded as unacceptable (>10(6) CFU/g) was not identified in any of the samples. The presence of Cronobacter spp. was demonstrated in 10 (16.7%) samples of the analyzed products, however these were mainly samples of herbs (basil, tarragon, parsley) and one sample of a seasoning blend (Provence herbs). The highest microbiological contamination (TAMB) was found in samples of herbs (oregano, tarragon, basil) and in ready seasoning blends, in 21.1% and 25.0% of which the total count of aerobic mesophiles was in the range of 10(5)-10(6) CFU/g. In all samples of spices seeds and fruits (coriander, black pepper and pimento), the total count of aerobic bacteria reached spices and herbs available on the Polish market. The study demonstrated also that dried spices and herbs may be carriers of Cronobacter species bacteria, though their presence in not often detected in products of this type.

  16. Bioactive Compound Rich Indian Spices Suppresses the Growth of β-lactamase Produced Multidrug Resistant Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eadlapalli Siddhartha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidrug Resistance (MDR among bacteria become a global concern due to failure of antibiotics, is drawn attention for best antimicrobials from the spices which have been using ancient days in Indian culinary and traditional medicine. Aim and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the bioactive compounds and their antibacterial activity in routinely used culinary Indian spices against β-lactamase produced MDR bacteria. Material and Methods: Ethanolic extracts prepared from twenty spices and were evaluated for total phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, antioxidant properties, and also assayed their antibacterial activities against β-lactamase producing MDR bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. β-Lactamase and cell viability assays were performed in MDR bacteria. Results: Among twenty spices, cinnamon and clove exhibited highest levels of phenolics and terpenoids with elevated antioxidant potential and also showing greater reducing potential at lower concentrations of extract (2.3 and 4.06 µg GAE/gm, respectively. Further, the spices extracts were assessed for antimicrobial activity against β-lactamase produced tested MDR bacteria and observed higher antimicrobial activity with cinnamon, garlic, tamarind and clove at lowest concentrations of MIC and MBC at 16 - 32 µg GAE/ml, as compared to standard drug, amoxiclav (16/8 µg/ml. Spices significantly inhibited the β-lactamase activity (80–94% and also cell viability in tested MDR bacteria. Conclusion: Indian spices consist of rich bioactive profile and antioxidant activity inhibited the bacterial growth effectively by suppressing β-lactamase production in MDR bacteria. Results indicating the spices as functional foods and could be used in prevention of antibiotic resistance.

  17. Spices and Condiments in Ghana: Their Utilization in Comminuted Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    Darkwa Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Local spices were collected from seven major markets across Ghana, compiled and identified by their Scientific, Common and Local names, properties, part used and area found. Seven fresh pork sausages prepared using differing compositions of these spices were sensorily evaluated in a pre-trial and four selected and further evaluated in triplicate to determine their acceptability. A 10 member panel assessed the external appearance of uncooked products, internal colour, aroma, taste and the over...

  18. Analysis of glycation induced protein cross-linking inhibitory effects of some antidiabetic plants and spices

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, Handunge Kumudu Irani; Handuwalage, Charith Sandaruwan

    2015-01-01

    Background Protein cross-linking which occurs towards the latter part of protein glycation is implicated in the development of chronic diabetic complications. Glycation induced protein cross-linking inhibitory effects of nine antidiabetic plants and three spices were evaluated in this study using a novel, simple, electrophoresis based method. Methods Methanol extracts of thirteen plants including nine antidiabetic plants and three spices were used. Lysozyme and fructose were incubated at 37 °...

  19. Antimicrobial effectiveness of spices: an approach for use in food conservation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Evandro Leite de Souza; Tânia Lúcia Montenegro Stamford; Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima; Vinícius Nogueira Trajano; José Maria Barbosa Filho

    2005-01-01

    There has been constant an increasing the search alternative and efficient compounds for food conservation, aiming a partial or total replacement of antimicrobial chemical additives. Spices offer a promising alternative for food safety. Inhibitory activity of spices and derivatives on the growth of bacteria, yeasts, fungi and microbial toxins synthesis has been well reported, so they could be used in food conservation as main or as adjuvant antimicrobial compounds in order to assure the produ...

  20. Determination of aflatoxin B1 levels in organic spices and herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Halil; Arslan, Recep

    2013-01-01

    Organically produced spices and herbs were analyzed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by ELISA using immunoaffinity column. For this purpose 93 organic spices and 37 organic herbs were randomly selected from organic markets and organic shops in Turkey. AFB1 was detected in 58 organic spice and 32 organic herb samples. Among organic spice samples, the maximum value was detected in cinnamon sample (53 μg/kg). AFB1 was not detected in thyme samples. AFB1 levels of 41 organic spice samples were above the EU regulatory limit (5 μg/kg). Among organic herb samples the highest concentration of AFB1 (52.5 μg/kg) was detected in a rosehip sample. AFB1 levels of 21 organic herb samples were above the regulatory limits of the European Union. These results showed that more stringent measures must be taken for the prevention of mold contamination in the production of organic spices and herbs.

  1. Assessment of metal contents in spices and herbs from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddigi, Z S; Kandhro, G A; Shah, F; Danish, E; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-02-01

    In the recent years, there has been a growing interest in monitoring heavy metal contamination of spices/herbs. Spices and herbs are sources of many bioactive compounds that can improve the tastes of food as well as influence digestion and metabolism processes. In the present study, the levels of some essential and toxic elements such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd), present in common spices/herbs that were purchased from the local market in Saudi Arabia, were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy after digestion with nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Samples from the following spices/herbs were used: turmeric, cloves, black pepper, red pepper, cumin, legume, cinnamon, abazir, white pepper, ginger, and coriander. The concentration ranges for the studied elements were found as 48.8-231, 4.7-19.4, 2.5-10.5, below detection level (BDL)-1.0, 8.8-490, 1.0-2.6, and BDL-3.7 µg g(-1) for Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb, respectively, while Cd and Co levels were below the detection limit. Consumers of these spices/herbs would not be exposed to any risk associated with the daily intake of 10 g of spices per day as far as metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb are concerned.

  2. Foodborne illness outbreaks from microbial contaminants in spices, 1973-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doren, Jane M; Neil, Karen P; Parish, Mickey; Gieraltowski, Laura; Gould, L Hannah; Gombas, Kathy L

    2013-12-01

    This review identified fourteen reported illness outbreaks attributed to consumption of pathogen-contaminated spice during the period 1973-2010. Countries reporting outbreaks included Canada, Denmark, England and Wales, France, Germany, New Zealand, Norway, Serbia, and the United States. Together, these outbreaks resulted in 1946 reported human illnesses, 128 hospitalizations and two deaths. Infants/children were the primary population segments impacted by 36% (5/14) of spice-attributed outbreaks. Four outbreaks were associated with multiple organisms. Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica was identified as the causative agent in 71% (10/14) of outbreaks, accounting for 87% of reported illnesses. Bacillus spp. was identified as the causative agent in 29% (4/10) of outbreaks, accounting for 13% of illnesses. 71% (10/14) of outbreaks were associated with spices classified as fruits or seeds of the source plant. Consumption of ready-to-eat foods prepared with spices applied after the final food manufacturing pathogen reduction step accounted for 70% of illnesses. Pathogen growth in spiced food is suspected to have played a role in some outbreaks, but it was not likely a contributing factor in three of the larger Salmonella outbreaks, which involved low-moisture foods. Root causes of spice contamination included contributions from both early and late stages of the farm-to-table continuum.

  3. [Advances in research of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of common used spices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chao-nan; Zhu, Yuan; Xu, Xi-ming; Yu, Jiang-nan

    2014-11-01

    Spices have enjoyed a long history and a worldwide application. Of particular interest is the pharmaceutical value of spices in addition to its basic seasoning function in cooking. Concretely, equipped with complex chemical compositions, spices are of significant importance in pharmacologic actions, like antioxidant, antibacterial, antitumor, as well as therapeutical effects in gastrointestinal disorders and cardiovascular disease. Although increasing evidences in support of its distinct role in the medical field has recently reported, little information is available for substantive, thorough and sophisticated researches on its chemical constituents and pharmacological activities, especially mechanism of these actions. Therefore, in popular wave of studies directed at a single spice, this review presents systematic studies on the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities associated with common used spices, together with current typical individual studies on functional mechanism, in order to pave the way for the exploitation and development of new medicines derived from the chemical compounds of spice (such as, piperine, curcumin, geniposide, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, linalool, estragole, perillaldehyde, syringic acid, crocin).

  4. Irradiation of meat products, chicken and use of irradiated spices for sausages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, I.F.; Beczner, J.; Zachariev, Gy. (Central Food Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary)); Kovacs, S. (Veterinary and Food Control Centre, Budapest (Hungary))

    1990-01-01

    The shelf-life of packed minced meat has been increased at least threefold at 4{sup 0}C by applying a 2 kGy dose. Results have been confirmed by detailed quantitative microbiological examinations. Sensory evaluations show no significant difference between the unirradiated and irradiated samples. The optimal average dose was 4 kGy for packed-frozen chicken. The number of mesophilic aerobic microbes was reduced by 2, that of psychrotolerant by 2-3 and that of Enterobacteriaceae by 3-4 orders of magnitude by 4 kGy. S. aureus and Salmonella could not be detected in the irradiated samples. in 1984-1985 5100 kg irradiated chickens were marketed labelled as radiation treated. Irradiated spices (5 kGy) were used in the production of sausages (heat-treated and non-heat-treated) under industrial conditions. The microbiological contamination of irradiated spices was lower than that of ethylene oxide treated ones. The cell count in products made with irradiated spices was lower than in those made with unirradiated spices. The sausages proved to be of very good quality. In accordance with the permission, products were marketed and because of the low ratio of spices there was no need to declare them as using irradiated spices. (author).

  5. Spices and Condiments in Ghana: Their Utilization in Comminuted Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darkwa Sarah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Local spices were collected from seven major markets across Ghana, compiled and identified by their Scientific, Common and Local names, properties, part used and area found. Seven fresh pork sausages prepared using differing compositions of these spices were sensorily evaluated in a pre-trial and four selected and further evaluated in triplicate to determine their acceptability. A 10 member panel assessed the external appearance of uncooked products, internal colour, aroma, taste and the overall acceptability of cooked products. The data was analysed as a completely randomized block design using the nonparametric analysis as employed in Friedman’s method and Wilcoxon’s signed rank test. A total of fourteen local spices were collected. A 1.52% level of inclusion of the different composite spice mixes in the products was acceptable. The prekese based product was significantly judged the most acceptable (P=.05 while the dawadawa based product the least acceptable. In conclusion, preparing Ready to use composite-spice mixes from local spices to promote comminuted meat processing among meat handlers is feasible but must be done safely in order to keep the health value of the meat products

  6. Extending Shelf Life of Chilled Pork by Combination of Chitosan Coating With Spice Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Xiufang; KONG Baohua

    2008-01-01

    The effects of spices (cinnamon, rosemary, clove) extracts and chitosan on microbiological growth, drip loss, color, and lipid oxidation of fresh chilled meat stored for 28 days at 4"C were investigated. There were four treatments: control, coated with spices(cimmamon 1.5g·L-1+rosemary 1.5·L-1+colve 1.0 g·L-1),coated with 0.5% chitosan,coated with spices and chitosan.Chitosan coating resulted in significant inhibition of microbial growth (P<0.05), while the lowest microbial counts were obtained in the samples containing both chitosan and spices, indicating a possible synergistic effect. Chitosan and its combinations with spices also showed the most intense antioxidative effect when compared to the controls (P<0.05). Meanwhile, chitosan coating could decrease water loss and keep better color of chilled meat. The combined spice extracts and chitosan coating could effectively extend the shelf life of chilled meat.

  7. Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomhoff Rune

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessment method. Thus we compared the intake estimates from the FFQ with 28 days of estimated records of herb and spice consumption as a reference method. Methods The evaluation study was conducted among 146 free living adults, who filled in the FFQ and 2-4 weeks later carried out 28 days recording of herb and spice consumption. The FFQ included a section with questions about 27 individual culinary herbs and spices, while the records were open ended records for recording of herbs and spice consumption exclusively. Results Our study showed that the FFQ obtained slightly higher estimates of total intake of herbs and spices than the total intake assessed by the Herbs and Spice Records (HSR. The correlation between the two assessment methods with regard to total intake was good (r = 0.5, and the cross-classification suggests that the FFQ may be used to classify subjects according to total herb and spice intake. For the 8 most frequently consumed individual herbs and spices, the FFQ obtained good estimates of median frequency of intake for 2 herbs/spices, while good estimates of portion sizes were obtained for 4 out of 8 herbs/spices. Conclusions Our results suggested that the FFQ was able to give good estimates of frequency of intake and portion sizes on group level for several of the most frequently used herbs and spices. The FFQ was only able to fairly rank subjects according to frequency of intake of the 8 most frequently consumed herbs and spices. Other studies are warranted

  8. Nitrite residue and malonaldehyde reduction in dendeng--Indonesian dried meat--influenced by spices, curing methods and precooking preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryati, T; Astawan, M; Lioe, H N; Wresdiyati, T; Usmiati, S

    2014-03-01

    This research was conducted to reduce nitrite residue and malonaldehyde (MDA) content of dendeng through modifying the formulation of spices, curing technique and precooking preparation. The result showed that spiced fried dendeng was likely to contain high total phenolics and antioxidant activity. Wet cured dendeng combined with spices containing 2.0% coriander and 10.0% garlic and preparation by soaking before frying was effective to produce dendeng that had no detected nitrite residue and low MDA. In conclusion, the spice formulas used in this study could reduce nitrite residue and MDA level of dendeng, and the treatment prior to frying, by soaking the dendeng briefly in water, lowered MDA of non-spiced dendeng, but no effect of soaking was observed in spiced samples due to the very low MDA found in the samples.

  9. Polarised black holes in AdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.

  10. Segmented Strings in $AdS_3$

    CERN Document Server

    Callebaut, Nele; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in $AdS_3$. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In $AdS_3$, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an $AdS_2$ subspace of $AdS_3$. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in $AdS_3$ and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in $AdS_3$ and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  11. Investigations on the detection of irradiated food by measuring the viscosity of suspended spices and dried vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, L.; Nürnberger, E.; Bögl, K. W.

    Studies on the viscosity behavior were performed with 20 different spices or dried vegetables. In nine spices (cinnamon, ginger, mustard seed, celery, onions, shallots, lemon peel, black and white pepper) differences between unirradiated and irradiated samples were observed. Further lots were investigated to estimate the variations of viscosity depending on the origin of the samples. Additional storage experiments showed that measuring the viscosity may be a simple method to identify some radiation treated spices even after years.

  12. SPICE modeling of memristors with multilevel resistance states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Xu-Dong; Tang Yu-Hua; Wu Jun-Jie

    2012-01-01

    With CMOS technologies approaching the scaling ceiling,novel memory technologies have thrived in recent years,among which the memristor is a rather promising candidate for future resistive memory (RRAM).Memristor's potential to store multiple bits of information as different resistance levels allows its application in multilevel cell (MCL) technology,which can significantly increase the memory capacity.However,most existing memristor models are built for binary or continuous memristance switching.In this paper,we propose the simulation program with integrated circuits emphasis (SPICE) modeling of charge-controlled and flux-controlled memristors with multilevel resistance states based on the memristance versus state map.In our model,the memristance switches abruptly between neighboring resistance states.The proposed model allows users to easily set the number of the resistance levels as parameters,and provides the predictability of resistance switching time if the input current/voltage waveform is given.The functionality of our models has been validated in HSPICE.The models can be used in multilevel RRAM modeling as well as in artificial neural network simulations.

  13. Antimicrobial polyphenols from small tropical fruits, tea and spice oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Sahar; Naim, Asma; Siddiqi, Rahmanullah; Naz, Shahina

    2014-06-01

    The polyphenolic fractions of fruits: Terminalia catappa, Carissa carandas, Ziziphus nummularia; spice oilseeds: thymol, mustard, fenugreek and poppy seeds; and herb: green and black teas were analyzed for their total phenolics, flavonoids and antimicrobial potential. All fractions from fruits, except anthocyanin of C. carandas, displayed substantial antibacterial activity in accordance to their phenolic contents, the difference in activity being quite significant (p carandas (MIC: 62.5-1000 microg/mL). With few exceptions, both green and black teas' fractions inhibited the tested strains, however, green tea fractions (MIC: 15.63-125 microg/mL) were more active than black (MIC: 31.25-1000 microg/mL) and neutral were more active than their corresponding acidic fractions. Oil fractions of all oilseeds were found to be more active than their polyphenolic fractions, their antibacterial action decreased in the order thymol > mustard > fenugreek > poppy seeds (p < 0.05). Though the fruits used for the study are underutilized and have been emphasized for processed products, they may potentially be important to fight against pathogenic bacteria in view of their MICs. The teas and oilseeds, though a small part of total food intake, are more functional and active against the tested bacterial species and may find potential applications in therapeutics and food preservation.

  14. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in processed spices marketed in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Norhayati; Hashim, Noor Hasani; Shuib, Nor Shifa

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) was performed in processed spices marketed in Penang, Malaysia, using immunoaffinity columns and HPLC equipped with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The processed powdered spices analysed include dried chilli, fennel, cumin, turmeric, black and white pepper, poppy seed, coriander, 'garam masala', and mixed spices for fish, meat and chicken curry. Two different studies were carried out. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01 ng g(-1) for each aflatoxin (AF) and 0.10 ng g(-1) for OTA (signal-to-noise ratio = 3:1). In the first study, 34 commercial processed spices analysed with a mean level, range and incidence of positive samples for total AF were 1.61 ng g(-1), 0.01-9.34 ng g(-1) and 85%, respectively, and for AFB1 were 1.38 ng g(-1), 0.01-7.68 ng g(-1) and 85%, respectively. The mean level, range and incidence of positive samples for OTA were 2.21 ng g(-1), 0.14-20.40 ng g(-1) and 79%, respectively. Natural co-occurrence of AF and OTA was found in 25 (74%) samples. In the second study of 24 commercial processed spices, the mean level, range and incidence of positive samples for total AF were 8.38 ng g(-1), 0.32-31.17 ng g(-1) and 88%, respectively, and for AFB1 were 7.31 ng g(-1), 0.32-28.43 ng g(-1) and 83%, respectively. Fifteen positive samples for total AF and two positive samples for OTA exceeded the permissible Malaysian limit of 5 ng g(-1). Contamination of both mycotoxins in spices may represent another route of exposure to consumers due to their frequent and prolonged consumption, as spices are common ingredients in popular dishes among Asian countries.

  15. Inhibitory activity of Asian spices on heterocyclic amines formation in cooked beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puangsombat, Kanithaporn; Jirapakkul, Wannee; Smith, J Scott

    2011-10-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are mutagenic compounds formed when foods are cooked at high temperatures. Numerous reports have shown that natural antioxidants from spices, fruits, chocolate, and tea can inhibit formation. In this study, we evaluated HCA formation in the presence of 5 of Asian spices: galangal (Alpinia galangal), fingerroot (Boesenbergia pandurata), turmeric (Curcuma longa), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), and coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum). HCA levels were compared to patties containing rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), of which the inhibitory effect is well documented. Inhibition of HCA formation by the spices was evaluated in beef patties cooked at 204 °C (400 °F) for 10 min. All spices were mixed into patties at 0.2% before cooking, and HCAs levels were measured in the final product. All patties, including the control, contained 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl -6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). The average HCA content of the control patties was 7 ng/g MeIQx and 6.53 ng/g PhIP. Turmeric (39.2% inhibition), fingerroot (33.5% inhibition), and galangal (18.4% inhibition) significantly decreased HCAs compared with the control. But, only turmeric and fingerroot were as effective as rosemary in preventing HCA formation. The HCA inhibition in patties containing spices was significantly correlated to the total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.80) and the scavenging activity (R(2) = 0.84) of the spices as measured by the 2,2-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl assay. Results of this study suggest that addition of Asian spices can be an important factor in decreasing the levels of HCAs in fried beef patties.

  16. Polarised Black Holes in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel S; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global $AdS_{4}$ with conformal boundary $S^{2}\\times\\mathbb{R}_{t}$. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic $AdS$ behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an $AdS$ soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the $AdS$ geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both $AdS$ soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawkin...

  17. The role of spices and lactic acid bacteria as antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of metata ayib (traditional Ethiopian spiced fermented cottage cheese).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremew, Tsehayneh; Kebede, Ameha; Andualem, Berhanu

    2015-09-01

    Spices and lactic acid bacteria have natural antimicrobial substances and organic compounds having antagonistic activity against microorganisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of spices and lactic acid bacteria as antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of metata ayib. Antimicrobial activities of spices and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) filtrates were determined by agar well diffusion method against E. coli, S. aureus, S. flexneri and S. peumoniae. Aantimicrobial activity of garlic was found to be the most effective against all the tested pathogens. Inhibition zones of garlic extract against all pathogens was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater than the remaining spice extracts. Inhibition zones (12.50 ± 1.00 to 15.50 ± 1.00 mm) of ginger and R. graveolens ethanol extracts against all tested pathogens were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater than the remaining solvent extracts. Inhibition zone of O. basilicum ethanol extract against all pathogenic bacteria was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater than hexane and acetone extracts. Lactobacillus isolates were shown the highest antimicrobial activity than the other LAB isolates against all pathogens. The synergistic effect of spices together with LAB might be contributed a lot to preserve and extend shelf life of metata ayib. Their antimicrobial activity can reduce the risk of spoilage and pathogenesis. The possible reason of LAB isolates was may be due to production of lactic acid, acetic acid and secondary metabolites like bacteriocins. Aseptic processing of traditional cottage cheese (ayib) is by far needed to minimize risks associated during consumption of metata ayib.

  18. Comparison of the Effect of New Spice Freon Extracts Towards Ground Spices and Antioxidants for Improving the Quality of Bulgarian-Type Dry-Cured Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balev Dessislav Kostadinov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground spices are a source of hazards for dry-fermented meat products. Since dry-cured sausages are not subjected to heat treatment, there is a high risk of microbial cross-contamination and physical impurities. The aim of this study was to determine effects of the replacement of 3 g/kg of ground black pepper (Piper nigrum L., and cumin (Cuminum cyminum with their aliquots of new freon extracts, and compare them with the effect of 0.2 g/kg antioxidant addition (taxifolin extract from Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract, and butylated hydroxytoluene on sensory properties, color stability, proximate composition, free amino nitrogen and pH of Bulgarian-type dry-cured „Sudjuk“ sausages. The replacement of natural ground spices with aliquots of their extracts improved sensory properties and stabilized the color characteristics of the final product during 30 days of storage at 0–4°C. The addition of 0.2 g/kg rosemary extract was as effective as the addition of freon extracts on the overall assessment to the 14th day of the experiment. It was determined that the addition of antioxidants or spice extracts had no significant effect on proximate composition, pH, and free amino nitrogen accumulation of the “Sudjuk”. The addition of 0.2 g/kg, taxifolin or rosemary extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene was not so efficient in improving the sensory properties and color stabilization in comparison to the new freon spice extracts. The examined spice extracts can be successfully used to improve the quality of “Sudjuk” sausages.

  19. Constructing Lifshitz solutions from AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Cassani, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Under general assumptions, we show that a gravitational theory in d+1 dimensions admitting an AdS solution can be reduced to a d-dimensional theory containing a Lifshitz solution with dynamical exponent z=2. Working in a d=4, N=2 supergravity setup, we prove that if the AdS background is N=2 supersymmetric, then the Lifshitz geometry preserves 1/4 of the supercharges, and we construct the corresponding Killing spinors. We illustrate these results in examples from supersymmetric consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity, enhancing the class of known 4-dimensional Lifshitz solutions of string theory. As a byproduct, we find a new AdS4 x S1 x T(1,1) solution of type IIB.

  20. Ad Hoc网络%Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海涛

    2005-01-01

    首先介绍了Ad Hoc网络的基本概念、技术特点以及关键技术等,然后较为全面地归纳了Ad Hoc网络的典型应用,最后讨论了Ad Hoc网络的发展趋势和有待解决的问题.

  1. Determination of Mineral Content in Indian Spices by ICP-OES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Kumaravel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian and non vegetarian Indian diet consists of various cereals and vegetables along with spices, often used in the preparation of curries. The nutritive potential of trace element has been evaluated using Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. In this study, 15 trace elements like As,Hg,Se,Zn,P,Pb,Cd,Fe,Mn,Cr,Mg,Cu,C,Na and K have been determined in Five Indian popular spices. The result shows that the spice Aniseed contains Phosphorous (2027.10±14.0 mg/kg, Iron (5.40±2.0 mg/kg, Magnesium (270.10±7.0mg/kg, Calcium (602.8±4.0 mg/kg, Sodium (365.10±3.0 mg/kg and Potassium (887.80±11.0 mg/kg. The spice Poppy seeds showed Phosphorous content of (3980.0±13.5mg/kg, Iron (5.475±2.5 mg/kg, Magnesium (287.20±14.0 mg/kg, Calcium (690.50±4.0 mg/kg, Sodium (81.16±5.0 mg/kg and Potassium (746.70±6.0 mg/kg. The spice Cloves showed that it contains Phosphorous (6355.0±20.0 mg/kg, Iron (1.699±0.2mg/kg, and Potassium (318.01±5.0 mg/kg. The spice Ajwain seeds showed the presence of Phosphorous (1764.0±16.0 mg/kg, Iron (17.87±8.0 mg/kg, Manganese (5.729±2.6 mg/kg and Calcium (1353.0±10.0 mg/kg, The spice Fenugreek seeds showed that it contains Phosphorous (2950.0±17.5 mg/kg and Potassium (124.82±2.0 mg/kg. Heavy metals As and Hg are absent in all five spices. Heavy metals Cr, Cd and Pb are absent in Cloves, Fenugreek and Ajwain species. The results showed that the spice powder is a good source of calcium, potassium, magnesium, Iron and Phosphorous.

  2. Dietary spices as beneficial modulators of lipid profile in conditions of metabolic disorders and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2013-04-25

    Spices are valued for their medicinal properties besides their use as food adjuncts to enhance the sensory quality of food. Dietary garlic, onion, fenugreek, red pepper, turmeric, and ginger have been proven to be effective hypocholesterolemics in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia. The hypolipidemic potential of fenugreek in diabetic subjects and of garlic and onion in humans with induced lipemia has been demonstrated. Capsaicin and curcumin - the bioactive compounds of red pepper and turmeric - are documented to be efficacious at doses comparable to usual human intake. Capsaicin and curcumin have been shown to be hypotriglyceridemic, thus preventing accumulation of fat in the liver under adverse situations by enhancing triglyceride transport out of the liver. Capsaicin, curcumin, fenugreek, ginger, and onion enhance secretion of bile acids into bile. These hypocholesterolemic spices/spice principles reduce blood and liver cholesterol by enhancing cholesterol conversion to bile acids through activation of hepatic cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase. Many human trials have been carried out with garlic, onion, and fenugreek. The mechanism underlying the hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic influence of spices is fairly well understood. Health implications of the hypocholesterolemic effect of spices experimentally documented are cardio-protection, protection of the structural integrity of erythrocytes by restoration of membrane cholesterol/phospholipid profile and prevention of cholesterol gallstones by modulation of the cholesterol saturation index in bile.

  3. Determination of Total Phenolics, Antioxidant Capacity and Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Aromatic Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Nagy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has been acknowledged that many spices not only have properties that make food more pleasant and tastier but they also have important preservative and antioxidant properties. The antioxidant properties of many spices are well known, while their prooxidant properties less so. The aim of this study was to perform a comparative evaluation of three selected spice (garlic, black pepper and red pepper, commercially available in Cluj-Napoca’s market, regarding their content in total phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity. The antioxidant aspects were evaluated by determination of the total phenolic content by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and by the antioxidant activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl reagent (DPPH.The total phenolic content was between 3,38 and 0,925 mg GAE/1g, while the antioxidant capacity ranged between 18,41% and 10,9% from dry spice. .Results  showed that garlic extract has the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while black pepper and red pepper were less active. In the present study piperine was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhumurium. Spices showed antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria with zone of inhibition ranged from 8-15,5 mm.

  4. Spice: a new "legal" herbal mixture abused by young active duty military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Ramirez, Sasha; Varney, Shawn M

    2012-01-01

    Spice is an herbal mixture smoked for euphoria and mixed with synthetic cannabinoids that are undetected on urine drug screens. Spice use has increased in the military because it is considered legal and is not detected on urine drug screen. The authors describe 3 cases of Spice use in military members. Case 1: 19-year-old male presented with paranoia, agitation, and visual hallucinations after smoking the "Space" brand of Spice. Urine thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were negative. Case 2: 19-year-old female presented with sedation, amnesia, and agitation. She smoked the "Space" brand. She was alert within 3 hours of arrival. Urine GC-MS detected levorphanol. Case 3: 23-year-old male presented with delusions and paranoia. He complained of "monsters on his back." His symptoms improved in the emergency department (ED). His urine TLC and GC-MS were negative. All cases were admitted and evaluated by a toxicologist; all 3 had their history corroborated by family or friends, or with drug paraphernalia. Spice is a new herbal mixture that is increasingly used in the military. Expected effects are similar to cannabis, but may include more paranoia and hallucinations, and may differ for each brand.

  5. The SPICE Spectral Imager on Solar Orbiter: Linking the Sun to the Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fludra, Andrzej; Haberreiter, Margit; Peter, Hardi; Vial, Jean-Claude; Harrison, Richard; Parenti, Susanna; Innes, Davina; Schmutz, Werner; Buchlin, Eric; Chamberlin, Phillip; Thompson, William; Gabriel, Alan; Morris, Nigel; Caldwell, Martin; Auchere, Frederic; Curdt, Werner; Teriaca, Luca; Hassler, Donald M.; DeForest, Craig; Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats; Philippon, Anne; Janvier, Miho; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Griffin, Douglas; Davila, Joseph; Giunta, Alessandra; Waltham, Nick; Eccleston, Paul; Gottwald, Alexander; Klein, Roman; Hanley, John; Walls, Buddy; Howe, Chris; Schuehle, Udo

    2016-07-01

    The SPICE (Spectral Imaging of the Coronal Environment) instrument is one of the key remote sensing instruments onboard the upcoming Solar Orbiter Mission. SPICE has been designed to contribute to the science goals of the mission by investigating the source regions of outflows and ejection processes which link the solar surface and corona to the heliosphere. In particular, SPICE will provide quantitative information on the physical state and composition of the solar atmosphere plasma. For example, SPICE will access relative abundances of ions to study the origin and the spatial/temporal variations of the 'First Ionization Potential effect', which are key signatures to trace the solar wind and plasma ejections paths within the heliosphere. Here we will present the instrument and its performance capability to attain the scientific requirements. We will also discuss how different observation modes can be chosen to obtain the best science results during the different orbits of the mission. To maximize the scientific return of the instrument, the SPICE team is working to optimize the instrument operations, and to facilitate the data access and their exploitation.

  6. How the Addition of Spices and Herbs to Virgin Olive Oil to Produce Flavored Oils Affects Consumer Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaoui, Manel; Flamini, Guido; Souid, Sondess; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Gharbi, Ines; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    With the aim to expand the olive oil market to a larger number of consumers who are not familiar with the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil, the use of novel products known as "flavored olive oils", obtained by adding different kind of spices and aromatic herbs, is spreading in many countries. In order to test consumer acceptability of this type of product, in a country (Tunisia) in which virgin olive oil is regularly consumed, flavored olive oils were prepared by adding aromatic extracts of thyme, oregano, a mix of herbs (used as pizza seasoning), rosemary, and basil to a monovarietal Chemlali virgin olive oil and a consumer test on 206 subjects was performed. Selected quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide number, oxidative stability, specific absorption at K232 nm and K270 nm) were also measured and no significant variations were detected. Slight differences were found concerning the content of minor compounds (chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols). On the other hand, notable differences were seen in the profiles of volatile compounds, which appeared to be responsible for the observed variability in consumer acceptance. Although the unflavored oil was more appreciated than the flavored ones, among the latter, thyme flavored olive oil was the most appreciated.

  7. Studies on antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of different spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Dilek; Toroglu, Sevil

    2011-03-01

    The antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract of 12 plant species were studied. The extract of Capsicum annuum (red pepper) (fruit) Zingiber officinale (ginger) (root), Cuminum cyminum (cumin), Alpinia ficinarum (galingale), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Cinnamomun zeylanicum Nees (cinnamomun), Origanum onites L. (thyme), Folium sennae (senna), Eugenia caryophyllata (cloves), Flos tiliae (lime), Folium menthae crispae (peppermint) and Piper nigrum (blackpepper) were tested in vitro against 2 fungi and 8 bacterial species by the disc diffusion method. Klebsiella pneumonia 13883, Bacillus megaterium NRS, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 27859, Staphylococcus aureus 6538 P, Escherichia coil ATCC 8739, Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 13047, Corynebacterium xerosis UC 9165, Streptococcus faecalis DC 74, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Rhodotorula rubra were used in this investigation. The results indicated that extracts of different spices has shown antibacterial activity in the range of 7-24 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Eugenia caryophyllata (clove), 7-20 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Capsicum annum (red pepper) and Cinnamomun zeylanicum (cinnamon) bark, 7-18 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium sennae (senna) leaves, 7-16 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Zingiber officinale (ginger) root, 7-15 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Cuminum cyminum (cumin) seed, 7-14 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium menthae crispae (peppermint), Origanum onites (thyme) leaves and Alpinia ficinarum (galingale) root, 7-12 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibiton zone Piper nigrum (blackpepper), 7-11 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Flos tiliae (lime) leaves, 7-8 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Coriandrum sativum (coriander) to the microorganisms tested.

  8. AdS orbifolds and Penrose limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad M.; Tatar, Radu

    2002-12-09

    In this paper we study the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} orbifolds. The orbifold can be either in the pure spatial directions or space and time directions. For the AdS{sub 5}/{Lambda} x S{sup 5} spatial orbifold we observe that after the Penrose limit we obtain the same result as the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}/{Lambda}. We identify the corresponding BMN operators in terms of operators of the gauge theory on R x S{sup 3}/{Lambda}. The semi-classical description of rotating strings in these backgrounds have also been studied. For the spatial AdS orbifold we show that in the quadratic order the obtained action for the fluctuations is the same as that in S{sup 5} orbifold, however, the higher loop correction can distinguish between two cases.

  9. [Survey of pesticide residues in imported spices and herbs (1997.4-2011.3)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Ohtsuka, Kenji; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Tomizawa, Sanae; Kinoshita, Teruaki; Kamijo, Kyoko; Iwakoshi, Keiko; Sato, Chizuko; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Takano, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    A survey of pesticide residues in 313 samples of imported spices and herbs on the Tokyo market from April 1997 to March 2011 was carried out. Thirty-seven kinds of pesticides, including organophosphorus, organochlorine, pyrethroid, carbamate and others, were detected between levels of trace (below 0.01 ppm) and 3.3 ppm from 64 samples. The rate of detection was highest in peel (100%) followed by stem (66.7%), fruit (34.5%), bark (33.3%), flower (31.3%) and leaf (14.7%). No residues were detected in root, seed or whole grass. Organochlorine pesticides were detected in all plant parts. The insecticides were detected in products from all production areas, suggesting that their use is common. Residue levels of these pesticides were calculated as less than 1% of their ADI values, based on the daily intake of spices and herbs. Therefore, these spices and herbs should be safe when consumed in customary amounts.

  10. Heavy metals in aromatic spices by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bua, Daniel Giuseppe; Annuario, Giovanni; Albergamo, Ambrogina; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2016-09-01

    Objective of this study was to determine the content of Cd, Hg, As and Pb in common spices traded in the Italian market, using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results were compared with the maximum limits established by the national Legislative Decree (LD) no. 107 implementing the Council Directive 88/388/EEC and by international organisations, such as Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO). Food safety for spices was assessed considering the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) and the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), respectively, for Cd and Hg and the 95% lower confidence limit of the benchmark dose of 1% extra risk (BMDL01) for As and Pb. Investigated elements in all samples were within the maximum limits as set by the national and international normative institutions. Nevertheless, the heavy metal content of some spices exceeded the PTWI, TWI and BMDL01, which needs attention when considering consumer's health.

  11. Circuit models and SPICE macro-models for quantum Hall effect devices

    CERN Document Server

    Ortolano, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Hall effect (QHE) devices are a pillar of modern quantum electrical metrology. Electrical networks including one or more QHE elements can be used as quantum resistance and impedance standards. The analysis of these networks allows metrologists to evaluate the effect of the inevitable parasitic parameters on their performance as standards. This paper presents a systematic analysis of the various circuit models for QHE elements proposed in the literature, and the development of a new model. This last model is particularly suited to be employed with the analogue electronic circuit simulator SPICE. The SPICE macro-model and examples of SPICE simulations, validated by comparison with the corresponding analytical solution and/or experimental data, are provided.

  12. Spice 2000制导炸弹有了小型版

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶蕾; 沈剑

    2006-01-01

    以色列拉斐尔军火局已经研制了小型spice制导炸弹。目前在以色列空军F-16战斗机上使用的Spice2000是基于标准Mk84炸弹研制的,但是新研制的Spice 1000在Mk83炸弹的基础上增加很多类似的硬件形成了一种更轻的武器。这种炸弹可以挂载在更小的飞行器或者F-35联合攻击机的武器舱上。F-15鹰式战斗机可携带7枚spice1000炸弹。

  13. Heavy metals in spices and herbs from wholesale markets in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, N; Selamat, J

    2013-01-01

    As, Cd, Pb and Hg were analysed in commonly consumed spices and herbs in Malaysia. The range of As, Cd, Pb and Hg content was 0.24-2.54, 0.23-8.07, 1.54-8.94 and 0.06-0.52 µg g(-1), respectively. The highest concentration of Cd, Pb and Hg in spices and herbs exceeded the maximum permitted proportion, which are 1, 2 and 0.05 µg g(-1), respectively. This study suggests further monitoring of Cd, Pb and Hg on daily consumption of spices and herbs and its toxicological implication for consumers since only the amount of As was lower than the permitted concentration.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of spices like cloves Cardamom and Cinnamon on Bacillus and Pseudomonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taneesha Chawla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spices have been used in our country cuisines since times immemorial. Their use was mainly due to health benefits as herbs and for the aroma they provided in the food. However, little did we know at that time that these spices also have antimicrobial activity. Today, they stand as giants in ayurvedic medicine with substances like turmeric, cloves and cardamom being used in every house-hold. This paper pertains to the antimicrobial activity of three such spices Cloves, Cinnamon and Cardamom on a gram positive and gram-negative bacteria, Bacillus and Pseudomonas respectively. It was found that clove is better with its antimicrobial activity with the zones of inhibition visible clearly on the Petri plates.

  15. Oxygen-isotope trends and seawater temperature changes across the Late Cambrian Steptoean positive carbon-isotope excursion (SPICE event)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrick, M.; Rieboldt, S.; Saltzman, M.; McKay, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The globally recognized Late Cambrian Steptoean positive C-isotope excursion (SPICE) is characterized by a 3???-5??? positive ??13C shift spanning SPICE represents a widespread ocean anoxic event leading to enhanced burial/preservation of organic matter (Corg) and pyrite. We analyzed ??18O values of apatitic inarticulate brachiopods from three Upper Cambrian successions across Laurentia to evaluate paleotemperatures during the SPICE. ??18O values range from ~12.5??? to 16.5???. Estimated seawater temperatures associated with the SPICE are unreasonably warm, suggesting that the brachiopod ??18O values were altered during early diagenesis. Despite this, all three localities show similar trends with respect to the SPICE ??13C curve, suggesting that the brachiopod apatite preserves a record of relative ??18O and temperature changes. The trends include relatively high ??18O values at the onset of the SPICE, decreasing and lowest values during the main event, and an increase in values at the end of the event. The higher ??18O values during the global extinction at the onset of the SPICE suggests seawater cooling and supports earlier hypotheses of upwelling of cool waters onto the shallow shelf. Decreasing and low ??18O values coincident with the rising limb of the SPICE support the hypothesis that seawater warming and associated reduced thermohaline circulation rates contributed to decreased dissolved O2 concentrations, which enhanced the preservation/burial of Corg causing the positive ??13C shift. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  16. 75 FR 20615 - Risk Profile: Pathogens and Filth in Spices: Request for Comments and for Scientific Data and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... frequency and levels of pathogen and/or filth contamination of spices throughout the food supply chain (e.g... Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, rm. 1061... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Risk Profile: Pathogens and Filth in Spices: Request...

  17. Application of finite element method and SPICE simulation for design optimization of oven-controlled crystal oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillerich, B; Nagler, O

    2001-11-01

    Thermal finite element method (FEM) calculations and SPICE-based dynamic thermal models are used to simulate and optimize the static and dynamic performance of miniaturized oven-controlled crystal oscillators (OCXOs). FEM can be used to generate the values of the SPICE circuit elements. Good agreement is achieved between simulation and measurement. Several application examples, including directly heated OCXOs, are discussed.

  18. 9 CFR 318.15 - Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tagging chemicals, preservatives...; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.15 Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.” When any chemical, preservative, cereal, spice, or other substance is...

  19. Beneficial effects of herbs, spices and medicinal plants on the metabolic syndrome, brain and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panickar, Kiran S

    2013-03-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to not only improve the flavor of edible food but also to prevent and treat chronic health maladies. While the scientific evidence for the use of such common herbs and medicinal plants then had been scarce or lacking, the beneficial effects observed from such use were generally encouraging. It is, therefore, not surprising that the tradition of using such herbs, perhaps even after the advent of modern medicine, has continued. More recently, due to an increased interest in understanding the nutritional effects of herbs/spices more comprehensively, several studies have examined the cellular and molecular modes of action of the active chemical components in herbs and their biological properties. Beneficial actions of herbs/spices include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, gluco-regulatory, and anti-thrombotic effects. One major component of herbs and spices is the polyphenols. Some of the aforementioned properties are attributed to the polyphenols and they are associated with attenuating the metabolic syndrome. Detrimental changes associated with the metabolic syndrome over time affect brain and cognitive function. Metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes are also risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and stroke. In addition, the neuroprotective effects of herbs and spices have been demonstrated and, whether directly or indirectly, such beneficial effects may also contribute to an improvement in cognitive function. This review evaluates the current evidence available for herbs/spices in potentially improving the metabolic syndrome, as well as their neuroprotective effects on the brain, and cognitive function in animal and human studies.

  20. Effect of irradiation on the microbiological status and flavouring materials of selected spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag, S.E.D.A. [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt); Aziz, N.H. [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt); Attia, E.S.A. [Egyptian Starch and Glucose Manufacturing Co., Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-12-31

    Spices from Egyptian local markets were irradiated with different recommended doses (0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 kGy). The spices tested included dried leaves of marjoram (Majorana hortensis Moench), rhizomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and powdered hot pepper (Capsicum annum L.). The study included the isolation and identification of micro-organisms in spices following their irradiation, as well as gas chromatographic (GLC) chemical analysis for the presence and structure of volatile oils, pungent and pigment materials. The results showed that hot pepper was contaminated more (9.2x10{sup 5}/g) than marjoram (4.2x10{sup 3}/g) and ginger (14.3x10{sup 3}/g) with respect to total aerobic bacterial content. The total contents of moulds were 4.8x10{sup 3}/g, 5.7x10{sup 3}/g and 19x10{sup 3}/g in the same spices, respectively, but the pathogenic moulds and bacterial strains differed according to the type of spice. Irradiation at 10, 20 and 30 kGy caused complete elimination of mirco-organisms, whereas 5 kGy was less effective. With the GLC method chosen 18 and 50 compounds could be detected in the extracts of marjoram and ginger, respectively; {gamma}-terpinen and zingiberen being the major compounds in marjoram and ginger, respectively. A noticeable reduction was observed in the amount of terpenes present in irradiated marjoram; they were converted to monoterpensalcohols. Ginger was more sensitive to irradiation, especially at high doses, but moderate changes were detected at low doses (5 and 10 kGy). A slight, but significant effect on the capsaicin (pungent compound) in hot pepper was observed following irradiation, whereas no changes in total pigments resulted at any dose. These results prove that 10 kGy is a sufficiently high dose to eliminate the microorganisms in spices, causing only slight changes in the flavouring materials. (orig.)

  1. Superradiant instability in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Ganchev, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of superradiance in the context of asymptotically global AdS spacetimes is investigated with particular accent on its effect on the stability of the systems under consideration. To this end, the concept of an asymptotically AdS spacetime is explained, together with its implications on the boundary conditions at $\\mathcal{I}$, as well as the Newman-Penrose-Teukolsky formalism, whereby the Teukolsky master equation in a most general form for Kerr-AdS is given. Furthermore, work done in the cases of RN-AdS and Kerr-AdS is laid out in a concise manner, putting emphasis on the important steps taken in determining the endpoint of the superradiant instability in the two configurations. For the former this turns out to be a black hole with reduced charge and a static charged scalar condensate around it, whereas for the latter two of the more probable outcomes are presented, both of which imply a violation of one of the cosmic censorships.

  2. Quality Evaluation of Herbs and Spices in The Military Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    Scoville Pungency Ratings of Cayenne Pepper» 20» 9. Profile Panel Evaluation of Spices and Herbs. 21» 10» Quality of Bay Leaves as Related to...Ground and Whole 4. B. Scoville Pungency Evaluation. Fifteen samples of cayenne pepper and one sample of red pepper were tested using the Scoville...sensory) Heat Test of Pungency of Capsicum Spices and Oleoresins (ASTA Method 21.0) modified to denote a "presence" or "absence" of heat for each

  3. Spices as a source of lead exposure: a market-basket survey in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, M P; Perera, R; Liyanaarachchi, L A; Dassanayake, M P

    2013-12-01

    We performed a laboratory analysis of spices sold in Sri Lanka for lead content. Samples of curry powder, chili powder and turmeric powder from seven provinces, collected using the market basket survey method, underwent atomic absorption spectrometry. Blanks and standards were utilised for instrument calibration and measurement accuracy. The results were validated in two different laboratories. All samples were found to have lead levels below the US Food and Drug Administration's action level of 0.5 μg/g. Spices sold in Sri Lanka contain lead concentrations that are low and within the stipulated safety standards.

  4. The effects of gamma-irradiation on some pure aroma compounds of spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjövall, O; Honkanen, E; Kallio, H; Latva-Kala, K; Sjöberg, A M

    1990-09-01

    Chemical changes due to gamma-irradiation were investigated in 11 pure aroma compounds typically found in spices. Samples were irradiated with doses of 0, 10, and 50 kGy. The irradiation source was 60Co. Irradiated samples and unirradiated controls were analyzed by gas chromatography alone and coupled with mass spectrometry. Significant changes due to the irradiation occurred only in (+/-)-linalool and alpha-terpineol, which are typical components of, for example, coriander and bay leaf. Their total amounts decreased by about 4-13% and some minor peaks increased as a result of irradiation. However, different results may be obtained when the spices themselves are irradiated.

  5. The Influence of Spices on the Volatile Compounds of Cooked Beef Patty

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Samooel; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Il Suk; Nam, Ki Chang; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Kyung Heang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the influences of spices on the amounts and compositions of volatile compounds released from cooked beef patty. Beef patty with 0.5% of spice (nutmeg, onion, garlic, or ginger powder, w/w) was cooked by electronic pan until they reached an internal temperature of 75℃. A total of 46 volatile compounds (6 alcohols, 6 aldehydes, 5 hydrocarbons, 6 ketones, 9 sulfur compounds, and 14 terpenes) from cooked beef patties were detected by using purgeand- trap GC/MS....

  6. Boson Stars in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Buchel, Alex; Lehner, Luis

    2013-01-01

    We construct boson stars in global Anti de Sitter (AdS) space and study their stability. Linear perturbation results suggest that the ground state along with the first three excited state boson stars are stable. We evolve some of these solutions and study their nonlinear stability in light of recent work \\cite{Bizon:2011gg} arguing that a weakly turbulent instability drives scalar perturbations of AdS to black hole formation. However evolutions suggest that boson stars are nonlinearly stable and immune to the instability for sufficiently small perturbation. Furthermore, these studies find other families of initial data which similarly avoid the instability for sufficiently weak parameters. Heuristically, we argue that initial data families with widely distributed mass-energy distort the spacetime sufficiently to oppose the coherent amplification favored by the instability. From the dual CFT perspective our findings suggest that there exist families of rather generic initial conditions in strongly coupled CFT ...

  7. SPICE: Sentinel-3 Performance Improvement for Ice Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Escolà, Roger; Roca, Mònica; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; McMillan, Malcolm; Escorihuela, Maria Jose; Shepherd, Andrew; Thibaut, Pierre; Remy, Frederique

    2016-07-01

    Since the launch of ERS-1 in 1991, polar-orbiting satellite radar altimeters have provided a near continuous record of ice sheet elevation change, yielding estimates of ice sheet mass imbalance at the scale of individual ice sheet basins. One of the principle challenges associated with radar altimetry comes from the relatively large ground footprint of conventional pulse-limited radars, which limits their capacity to make reliable measurements in areas of complex topographic terrain. In recent years, progress has been made towards improving ground resolution, through the implementation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), or Delay-Doppler, techniques. In 2010, the launch of CryoSat-2 by the European Space Agency heralded the start of a new era of SAR altimetry, although full SAR coverage of the polar ice sheets will only be achieved with the launch of the first Sentinel-3 satellite in February 2016. Because of the heritage of SAR altimetry provided by CryoSat-2, current SAR altimeter processing techniques have been optimized and evaluated for water and sea ice surfaces. This leaves several outstanding issues related to the development and evaluation of SAR altimetry for ice sheets, including improvements to SAR processing algorithms and SAR altimetry waveform retracking procedures. Here we will present interim results from SPICE (Sentinel-3 Performance Improvement for Ice Sheets), a 2 year project that focuses on the expected performance of Sentinel-3 SAR altimetry over the Polar ice sheets. The project, which began in September 2015 and is funded by ESA's SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) programme, aims to contribute to the development and understanding of ice sheet SAR altimetry through the emulation of Sentinel-3 data from dedicated CryoSat SAR acquisitions made at several sites in Antarctica and Greenland. More specifically, the project aims to (1) evaluate and improve the current Delay-Doppler processing and SAR waveform retracking

  8. AdS solutions through transgression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Gauntlett, J.P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.]|[Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). The Institute for Mathematical Sciences; Kim, Nakwoo [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea). Dept. of Physics and Research Inst. of Basic Science

    2008-07-15

    We present new classes of explicit supersymmetric AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity with electric four-form flux. The former are dual to two-dimensional SCFTs with (0,2) supersymmetry and the latter to supersymmetric quantum mechanics with two supercharges. We also investigate more general classes of AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity which in addition have non-vanishing three-form flux and magnetic four-form flux, respectively. The construction of these more general solutions makes essential use of the Chern-Simons or ''transgression'' terms in the Bianchi identity or the equation of motion of the field strengths in the supergravity theories. We construct infinite new classes of explicit examples and for some of the type IIB solutions determine the central charge of the dual SCFTs. The type IIB solutions with non-vanishing three-form flux that we construct include a two-torus, and after two T-dualities and an S-duality, we obtain new AdS3 solutions with only the NS fields being non-trivial. (orig.)

  9. Spicing Things up by Adding Color and Relieving Pain: The Use of "Napoleon's Buttons" in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucholtz, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    For some students, organic chemistry can be a distant subject and unrelated to any courses they have seen in their college careers. To develop a more contextual learning experience in organic chemistry, an additional text, "Napoleon's Buttons: 17 Molecules That Changed History," by Penny Le Couteur and Jay Burreson, was incorporated as a…

  10. Effect of infusion of spices into the oil vs. combined malaxation of olive paste and spices on quality of naturally flavoured virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponio, Francesco; Durante, Viviana; Varva, Gabriella; Silletti, Roccangelo; Previtali, Maria Assunta; Viggiani, Ilaria; Squeo, Giacomo; Summo, Carmine; Pasqualone, Antonella; Gomes, Tommaso; Baiano, Antonietta

    2016-07-01

    Olive oil flavouring with aromatic plants and spices is a traditional practice in Mediterranean gastronomy. The aim of this work was to compare the influence of two different flavouring techniques (infusion of spices into the oil vs. combined malaxation of olives paste and spices) on chemical and sensory quality of flavoured olive oil. In particular, oxidative and hydrolytic degradation (by routine and non-conventional analyses), phenolic profiles (by HPLC), volatile compounds (by SPME-GC/MS), antioxidant activity, and sensory properties (by a trained panel and by consumers) of the oils were evaluated. The obtained results evidenced that the malaxation method was more effective in extracting the phenolic compounds, with a significantly lower level of hydrolysis of secoiridoids. As a consequence, antioxidant activity was significantly lower in the oils obtained by infusion, which were characterized by a higher extent of the oxidative degradation. The volatile compounds were not significantly influenced by changing the flavouring method, apart for sulfur compounds that were more abundant in the oils obtained by the combined malaxation method. From a sensory point of view, more intense bitter and pungent tastes were perceived when the infusion method was adopted.

  11. Refined Holographic Entanglement Entropy for the AdS Solitons and AdS black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Masafumi; Ning, Bo

    2012-01-01

    We consider the refinement of the holographic entanglement entropy on a disk region for the holographic dual theories to the AdS solitons and AdS black holes, including the corrected ones by the Gauss-Bonnet term. The AdS soliton is dual to a gapped system with an IR fixed-point. The refinement is obtained by extracting the UV-independent piece of the holographic entanglement entropy. We then study the renormalization group (RG) flow of the refinement by tuning the linear size of the chosen disk region. Our main results are (i) the RG flow of the refinement decreases monotonically for most of the cases; (ii) there is no topological entanglement entropy for AdS$_5$ soliton even with Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iii) for the AdS black holes, the refinement obeys the volume law at IR regime, and the transition between UV and IR regimes is a smooth crossover; however, the crossover will turn into phase transition by the Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iv) for the AdS solitons, there are discontinuous phase transitions bet...

  12. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  13. An AdS Crunch in Supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    We review some properties of N=8 gauged supergravity in four dimensions with modified, but AdS invariant boundary conditions on the m2 = -2 scalars. There is a one-parameter class of asymptotic conditions on these fields and the metric components, for which the full AdS symmetry group is preserved. The generators of the asymptotic symmetries are finite, but acquire a contribution from the scalar fields. For a large class of such boundary conditions, we find there exist black holes with scalar hair that are specified by a single conserved charge. Since Schwarschild-AdS is a solution too for all boundary conditions, this provides an example of black hole non-uniqueness. We also show there exist solutions where smooth initial data evolve to a big crunch singularity. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity, and we report on a preliminary study of this.

  14. Potent Chemopreventive/Antioxidant Activity Detected in Common Spices of the Apiaceae Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash; Aqil, Farrukh; Soper, Lisa; Schultz, David J; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2015-01-01

    Spices are used worldwide, particularly in the Asian and Middle Eastern countries, and considered protective against degenerative diseases, including cancer. Here, we report the efficacy of aqueous and non-aqueous extracts of 11 Apiaceae spices for free radical-scavenging activity and to inhibit cytochrome P450s in two separate reactions involving: 1) 4-hydroxy-17ß-estradiol (4E2), DNA, and CuCl2 and 2) 17ß-estradiol, rat liver microsomes, cofactors, DNA and CuCl2. Oxidative DNA adducts resulting from redox cycling of 4E2 were analyzed by (32)P-postlabeling. Aqueous (5 mg/ml) and non-aqueous extracts (6 mg/ml) substantially inhibited (83-98%) formation of DNA adducts in the microsomal reaction. However, in nonmicrosomal reaction, only aqueous extracts showed the inhibitory activity (83-96%). Adduct inhibition was also observed at five-fold lower concentrations of aqueous extracts of cumin (60%) and caraway (90%), and 10-fold lower concentrations of carrot seeds (76%) and ajowan (90%). These results suggests the presence of 2 groups of phytochemicals: polar compounds that have free radical-scavenging activity and lipophilic compounds that selectively inhibit P450 activity associated with estrogen metabolism. Because most of these Apiaceae spices are used widely with no known toxicity, the phytochemicals from the Apiaceae spices used in foods may be potentially protective against estrogen-mediated breast cancer.

  15. An improved approach to identify irradiated spices using electronic nose, FTIR, and EPR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar; Ahn, Jae-Jun; Maeng, Jeong-Hwan; Kyung, Hyun-Kyu; Lim, Ha-Kyeong; Sharma, Arun; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2014-09-01

    Changes in cumin and chili powder from India resulting from electron-beam irradiation were investigated using 3 analytical methods: electronic nose (E-nose), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The spices had been exposed to 6 to 14 kGy doses recommended for microbial decontamination. E-nose measured a clear difference in flavor patterns of the irradiated spices in comparison with the nonirradiated samples. Principal component analysis further showed a dose-dependent variation. FTIR spectra of the samples showed strong absorption bands at 3425, 3007 to 2854, and 1746 cm(-1). However, both nonirradiated and irradiated spice samples had comparable patterns without any noteworthy changes in functional groups. EPR spectroscopy of the irradiated samples showed a radiation-specific triplet signal at g = 2.006 with a hyper-fine coupling constant of 3 mT confirming the results obtained with the E-nose technique. Thus, E-nose was found to be a potential tool to identify irradiated spices.

  16. A spectroscopic charge pumping model in spice for the low dimensional MOSFET's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahouadji, M.; Djahli, F.

    2002-01-01

    We have simulated the experimental spectroscopic charge pumping technique by the implementation of a model in the electrical simulator SPICE3F4. This model takes into account the temperature effect on the geometrical and electrical parameters of the studied transistor. The simulated results are in a good agreement with recent and different experimental results.

  17. Review of Antidiabetic Fruits, Vegetables, Beverages, Oils and Spices commonly consumed in the Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beidokhti, Maliheh Najari; Jäger, Anna K

    2017-01-01

    for patients with type 2 diabetes. The ethnopharmacological use of herbal medicines, many of them part of our diet as spices, vegetables and fruits, has been developed for the treatment of diabetes due to inexpensiveness, easy availability and few side effects. AIM OF THE STUDY: Our aim is to present a review...

  18. Prioritization of chemical hazards in spices and herbs for European monitoring programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, Van E.D.; Banach, J.L.; Fels, van der Ine

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring programs are preferably risk-based, which allows focusing on the most relevant human health risks. In this study, a risk matrix was used to identify those chemical hazards that have the highest human health risk for the following spices and herbs: paprika/chilli powder, black pepper, nutm

  19. 78 FR 66010 - Draft Risk Profile on Pathogens and Filth in Spices; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... contamination of spices throughout the food supply chain (e.g., on the farm, at primary processing/manufacturing... Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, rm. 1061... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Risk Profile on Pathogens and Filth in...

  20. Decoupling biogeochemical records, extinction, and environmental change during the Cambrian SPICE event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffbauer, James D.; Huntley, John Warren; Fike, David A.; Jeffrey, Matthew Jarrell; Gregg, Jay M.; Shelton, Kevin L.

    2017-01-01

    Several positive carbon isotope excursions in Lower Paleozoic rocks, including the prominent Upper Cambrian Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE), are thought to reflect intermittent perturbations in the hydrosphere-biosphere system. Models explaining these secular changes are abundant, but the synchronicity and regional variation of the isotope signals are not well understood. Examination of cores across a paleodepth gradient in the Upper Cambrian central Missouri intrashelf basin (United States) reveals a time-transgressive, facies-dependent nature of the SPICE. Although the SPICE event may be a global signal, the manner in which it is recorded in rocks should and does vary as a function of facies and carbonate platform geometry. We call for a paradigm shift to better constrain facies, stratigraphic, and biostratigraphic architecture and to apply these observations to the variability in magnitude, stratigraphic extent, and timing of the SPICE signal, as well as other biogeochemical perturbations, to elucidate the complex processes driving the ocean-carbonate system. PMID:28275734

  1. Nation-Based Occurrence and Endogenous Biological Reduction of Mycotoxins in Medicinal Herbs and Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Kee Hun; An, Tae Jin; Oh, Sang-Keun; Moon, Yuseok

    2015-10-14

    Medicinal herbs have been increasingly used for therapeutic purposes against a diverse range of human diseases worldwide. Moreover, the health benefits of spices have been extensively recognized in recent studies. However, inevitable contaminants, including mycotoxins, in medicinal herbs and spices can cause serious problems for humans in spite of their health benefits. Along with the different nation-based occurrences of mycotoxins, the ultimate exposure and toxicities can be diversely influenced by the endogenous food components in different commodities of the medicinal herbs and spices. The phytochemicals in these food stuffs can influence mold growth, mycotoxin production and biological action of the mycotoxins in exposed crops, as well as in animal and human bodies. The present review focuses on the occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal herbs and spices and the biological interaction between mold, mycotoxin and herbal components. These networks will provide insights into the methods of mycotoxin reduction and toxicological risk assessment of mycotoxin-contaminated medicinal food components in the environment and biological organisms.

  2. SPICE modelling of magnetic tunnel junctions written by spin-transfer torque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, W; Prenat, G; De Mestier, N; Baraduc, C; Dieny, B [SPINTEC, UMR(8191), INAC, CEA/CNRS/UJF, 17 Av. des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Javerliac, V; El Baraji, M, E-mail: guillaume.prenat@cea.f [CROCUS Technology, 5 Place Robert Schuman, 38025 Grenoble (France)

    2010-06-02

    Spintronics aims at extending the possibility of conventional electronics by using not only the charge of the electron but also its spin. The resulting spintronic devices, combining the front-end complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology of electronics with a magnetic back-end technology, employ magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) as core elements. With the intent of simulating a circuit without fabricating it first, a reliable MTJ electrical model which is applicable to the standard SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) simulator is required. Since such a model was lacking so far, we present a MTJ SPICE model whose magnetic state is written by using the spin-transfer torque effect. This model has been developed in the C language and validated on the Cadence Virtuoso Platform with a Spectre simulator. Its operation is similar to that of the standard BSIM (Berkeley Short-channel IGFET Model) SPICE model of the MOS transistor and fully compatible with the SPICE electrical simulator. The simulation results obtained using this model have been found in good accord with those theoretical macrospin calculations and results.

  3. Mycobiota and identification of aflatoxin gene cluster in marketed spices in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnonlonfin, G. J. B.; Adjovi, Y. C.; Tokpo, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    of Aspergillus were dominant on all marketed dried and milled spices irrespective of country. Gene characterization and amplification analysis showed that most of the Aspergillus flavus isolates possess the cluster genes for aflatoxin production. Aflatoxin B1 assessment by Thin Layer Chromatography showed...

  4. Identification of irradiated spices by the use of thermoluminescence method (TL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifzadeh, M.; Sohrabpour, M. (Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of))

    In this paper the results of the investigation of identification of irradiated spices by the use of thermoluminescence method is reported. The materials used were black and red peppers, turmeric, cinnamon, and garlic powder. Gamma Cell 220 was used for irradiating samples at dose values of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy respectively. The TL intensity of the unirradiated spices as well as the fading characteristics of the irradiated samples having received a dose of 10 kGy have been measured. Post-irradiation temperature treatment of the irradiated (10 kGy) and unirradiated samples at 60[sup o]C and 100[sup o]C for 24 hours have also been performed. The results show that the TL intensities of unirradiated and irradiated samples from different batches of each spice are fairly distributed. A reasonable TL intensity versus dose has been observed in nearly all cases. Based on the observation made it is possible to distinguish irradiated spices after (4-9) months post-irradiation. (author).

  5. Active vibration control testing of the SPICES program: final demonstration article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, James P.; Jacobs, Jack H.

    1996-05-01

    The Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures (SPICES) Program is a partnership program sponsored by the Advanced Research Projects Agency. The mission of the program is to develop cost effective material processing and synthesis technologies to enable new products employing active vibration suppression and control devices to be brought to market. The two year program came to fruition in 1995 through the fabrication of the final smart components and testing of an active plate combined with two trapezoidal rails, forming an active mount. Testing of the SPICES combined active mount took place at McDonnell Douglas facilities in St. Louis, MO, in October-December 1995. Approximately 15 dB reduction in overall response of a motor mounted on the active structure was achieved. Further details and results of the SPICES combined active mount demonstration testing are outlined. Results of numerous damping and control strategies that were developed and employed in the testing are presented, as well as aspects of the design and fabrication of the SPICES active mount components.

  6. Study on Sensory Quality, Antioxidant Properties, and Maillard Reaction Products Formation in Rye-Buckwheat Cakes Enhanced with Selected Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Przygodzka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected spices included in the recipe of rye-buckwheat cakes on sensory quality, nutritional value, and Maillard reaction (MR products formation was addressed in this study. The cakes with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix addition revealed the highest overall quality values. Cakes enriched with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest rutin content and almost threefold higher available lysine contents whereas cakes enhanced with mix, cloves, and cinnamon were the richest source of phenolic compounds. The highest antioxidant capacity showed cakes with cloves and spice mix. The furosine, a marker of early stage of MR, was decreased in cakes with cloves, allspice, spice mix, and vanilla whereas fluorescent intermediatory compounds were reduced in cakes enhanced with cloves, allspice, and cinnamon. In contrast, browning index was increased as compared to cakes without spices. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix addition. The presence of cloves, allspice, and vanilla in cake formula was the most efficient in acrylamide strategy. It can be suggested that cloves, allspice, and vanilla might be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  7. Adding more value to added-value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Livia

    regulation. The results of a qualitative concept test reveal positive attitudes towards the proposed production process. The discussions about fewer standards being sufficient or about options “in-between” conventional and organic standards indicate that the difference in production processes is noticed, yet...... it is probably valued less than expected. The added attributes need to be thoroughly considered when developing and marketing “organic plus” products, as their effect on other product characteristics (e.g. high prices) can detract from their added value....

  8. Probing crunching AdS cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav

    2016-02-01

    Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of {N}=8 supergravity on AdS4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor ã max. Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy Ɛ ≲ ã max, while geodesics with Ɛ > ã max terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outward" in the Penrose diagram for the deformed AdS backgrounds, and thus geodesic limits of the antipodal correlators do not directly probe the crunch. Beyond the geodesic limit, we point out that the scalar wave equation, analytically continued into the FRW patch, has a potential which is singular at the crunch along with complex WKB turning points in the vicinity of the FRW crunch. We then argue that the frequency space Green's function has a branch point determined by ã max which corresponds to the lowest quasinormal frequency.

  9. Reliability and Availability Analysis of Some Systems with Common-Cause Failures Using SPICE Circuit Simulation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Taher Abuelma'atti

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of SPICE circuit simulation program in calculating probabilities, reliability, steady-state availability and mean-time to failure of repairable systems described by Markov models is demonstrated. Two examples are presented. The first example is a warm standby system with common-cause failures and human errors. The second example is a non-identical unit parallel system with common-cause failures. In both cases recourse to numerical solution is inevitable to obtain the Laplace transforms of the probabilities. Results obtained using SPICE are compared with previously published results obtained using the Laplace transform method. Full SPICE listings are included.

  10. The political attack ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During election campaigns the political spot has a clear objective: to win votes. This message is communicated to the electorate through television and Internet, and usually presents a negative approach, which includes a direct critical message against the opponent, rather than an exposition of proposals. This article is focused on the analysis of the campaign attack video ad purposely created to encourage the disapproval of the political opponent among voters. These ads focus on discrediting the opponent, many times, through the transmission of ad hominem messages, instead of disseminating the potential of the political party and the virtues and manifesto of its candidate. The article reviews the development of the attack ad since its first appearance, which in Spain dates back to 1996, when the famous Doberman ad was broadcast, and examines the most memorable campaign attack ads.

  11. Probing crunching AdS cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, S Prem

    2015-01-01

    Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of N=8 supergravity on AdS_4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor a_{max} . Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy E \\leq a_{max}, while geodesics with E > a_{max} terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outw...

  12. Twistor methods for AdS$_5$

    CERN Document Server

    Adamo, Tim; Williams, Jack

    2016-01-01

    We consider the application of twistor theory to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. The twistor space of AdS$_5$ is the same as the ambitwistor space of the four-dimensional conformal boundary; the geometry of this correspondence is reviewed for both the bulk and boundary. A Penrose transform allows us to describe free bulk fields, with or without mass, in terms of data on twistor space. Explicit representatives for the bulk-to-boundary propagators of scalars and spinors are constructed, along with twistor action functionals for the free theories. Evaluating these twistor actions on bulk-to-boundary propagators is shown to produce the correct two-point functions.

  13. Holography of AdS vacuum bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbon, J.L.F. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica IFT UAM/CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Rabinovici, E. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2011-07-15

    We consider the fate of AdS vacua connected by tunneling events. A precise holographic dual of thin-walled Coleman-de Luccia bounces is proposed in terms of Fubini instantons in an unstable CFT. This proposal is backed by several qualitative and quantitative checks, including the precise calculation of the instanton action appearing in evaluating the decay rate. Big crunches manifest themselves as time dependent processes which reach the boundary of field space in a finite time. The infinite energy difference involved is identified on the boundary and highlights the ill-defined nature of the bulk setup. We propose a qualitative scenario in which the crunch is resolved by stabilizing the CFT, so that all attempts at crunching always end up shielded from the boundary by the formation of black hole horizons. In all these well defined bulk processes the configurations have the same asymptotics and are finite energy excitations.

  14. The study of fungal contamination in three current packed spices in the markets of Tehran: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mansouri

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The obtained results of this cross-sectional study and the available proofs in community indicate that, there are the high levels of fungal contaminations in current used spices. Therefore, it is necessary to control the production units.

  15. Skil problemerne ad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    På grundlag af evalueringer og forskning i gymnasiereformen 2005 foreslås det at skille problemerne ad i forskellige niveauer. Herved kan der arbejdes med niveaudelte løsninger.......På grundlag af evalueringer og forskning i gymnasiereformen 2005 foreslås det at skille problemerne ad i forskellige niveauer. Herved kan der arbejdes med niveaudelte løsninger....

  16. 基于 Spice 协议的云桌面视频加速

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁树华

    2014-01-01

    提出一种基于 SPICE 协议的云终端视频加速方法,通过云终端专有的硬件解码芯片,对传输到 SPICE 客户端的图像采用硬件解码,大幅度提高其解码效率,使在 ARM 架构的瘦客户机上播放高清视频成为可能。测试表明,终端视频应用性能提升60%以上,视频播放流畅。

  17. MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION OF SPICES (TURMERIC, BLACK PEPPER, AND SUMAC IN WESTERN PART OF TEHRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Imandel

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available From August to October 1996, three different statistical communities of spices, including 37, 41, 26 samples for each one of black pepper, turmeric and sumac, respectively, were taken randomly from 35 various packaged labels and 2 production centres, in the west of Tehran, and examine for assessing fungi and bacterial contamination by using EC, VRBL agar LST, Brilliant green media, and compare with National Iranian Spices Standards. The results of the experiment showed that 81.7% of all samples had somehow fungal and bacterial contaminations. Coliforms, E.coil, and also Penicillium, Mucor, Aspergillus, were recognized among the 104 samples. Turmeric, black pepper and sumac were contaminated by bacterial and fungal agents 95, 86.5 and 53.8%, respectively.

  18. Microbiological Characteristics of Some Spices Sold in Tekirdağ Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Coskun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some microbiological properties of ground black pepper, red pepper, ground red pepper and powdered cinnamon sold in Tekirdag market were investigated. The samples were supplied in packaged, unpackaged and irradiated and packaged forms. As a result of the analysis the total mesophilic aerobic bacteria counts of red pepper and ground red pepper samples are higher than those of the other spice samples. Total mesophilic aerobic spore-forming bacteria was determined in all irradiated samples. However coliform group bacteria, S. aureus and mold were determined in a few samples, E.coli and yeast were not found in none of them. As reported in previous studies, spore-forming bacteria are more resistant to irradiation than vegetative forms. S. aureus counts were higher than the limitation of spice communique in Turkish Food Codex.

  19. Spice/K2 drugs--more than innocent substitutes for marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawilska, Jolanta B; Wojcieszak, Jakub

    2014-03-01

    Smokeable herbal mixtures containing synthetic agonists of cannabinoid receptors, known under brand names such as Spice, K2 and Kronic, represent a relatively new type of designer psychoactive drugs that has recently emerged on the recreational drug market. Although the Spice packages are labelled 'not for human consumption' or 'for aromatherapy only' and declared to be purely herbal, these herbal mixtures produce cannabis-like effects after smoking. This review surveys the current state of knowledge regarding the pharmacological properties of synthetic cannabimimetics and the prevalence and pattern of their use. Special emphasis is given to the negative consequences of using these products, including, among others, hallucinations, psychoses with delusions, seizures, cardiovascular symptoms and acute kidney injury.

  20. Smell identification of spices using nanomechanical membrane-type surface stress sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Gaku; Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki

    2016-11-01

    Artificial olfaction, that is, a chemical sensor system that identifies samples by smell, has not been fully achieved because of the complex perceptional mechanism of olfaction. To realize an artificial olfactory system, not only an array of chemical sensors but also a valid feature extraction method is required. In this study, we achieved the identification of spices by smell using nanomechanical membrane-type surface stress sensors (MSS). Features were extracted from the sensing signals obtained from four MSS coated with different types of polymers, focusing on the chemical interactions between polymers and odor molecules. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the dataset consisting of the extracted parameters demonstrated the separation of each spice on the scatter plot. We discuss the strategy for improving odor identification based on the relationship between the results of PCA and the chemical species in the odors.

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on physico-mechanical properties of spice packaging films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizani, Maryam [Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14155-4933, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mizani1_2000@yahoo.com; Sheikh, Nasrin [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Radiation Application Research School, P.O. Box 11365-3486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, Samad N. [Department of Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants and Drugs Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, P.O. Box 19835-389, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gerami, Abas [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14155-6455, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tavakoli, Farnaz A. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14155-4933, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    Physico-mechanical properties of two types of laminated films, commercially used for spice packaging, are investigated after gamma irradiation at 8, 10 and 15 kGy. Data showed that polyethylene terephthalate/polyethylene terephthalate/linear low density polyethylene (PET/PET/LLDPE) was more resistant to radiation compared to biaxially oriented polypropylene/cast polypropylene (BOPP/CPP) and its barrier properties slightly improved up to 15 kGy. Oxygen transmission rate of BOPP/CPP was increased by 25%, and the melting peak temperature was decreased by 3.9% at 15 kGy, which may lead to oxidation of packaged spices and loss of their aroma/flavour, respectively.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on physico-mechanical properties of spice packaging films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizani, Maryam; Sheikh, Nasrin; Ebrahimi, Samad N.; Gerami, Abas; Tavakoli, Farnaz A.

    2009-09-01

    Physico-mechanical properties of two types of laminated films, commercially used for spice packaging, are investigated after gamma irradiation at 8, 10 and 15 kGy. Data showed that polyethylene terephthalate/polyethylene terephthalate/linear low density polyethylene (PET/PET/LLDPE) was more resistant to radiation compared to biaxially oriented polypropylene/cast polypropylene (BOPP/CPP) and its barrier properties slightly improved up to 15 kGy. Oxygen transmission rate of BOPP/CPP was increased by 25%, and the melting peak temperature was decreased by 3.9% at 15 kGy, which may lead to oxidation of packaged spices and loss of their aroma/flavour, respectively.

  3. SPICE: A Geometry Information System Supporting Planetary Mapping, Remote Sensing and Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, C.; Bachman, N.; Semenov, B.; Wright, E.

    2013-01-01

    SPICE is an information system providing space scientists ready access to a wide assortment of space geometry useful in planning science observations and analyzing the instrument data returned therefrom. The system includes software used to compute many derived parameters such as altitude, LAT/LON and lighting angles, and software able to find when user-specified geometric conditions are obtained. While not a formal standard, it has achieved widespread use in the worldwide planetary science community

  4. Concise and informative title: evaluation of selected spices in extending shelf life of paneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eresam, E Krishna Kumari; Pinto, Suneeta; Aparnathi, K D

    2015-04-01

    Black pepper, cardamom, cinnamon and clove were tested for their relative efficacy in improving shelf life of paneer. All the spices were incorporated in paneer @ 0 (control), 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 % by wt. of expected yield of paneer. Addition of black pepper, cardamom or clove at the rate of 0.6 % by weight or cinnamon at the rate of 0.4 % by weight was found to be acceptable. Therefore, paneer was prepared by incorporating black pepper, cardamom and clove i.e. Bp, Ca and Cl @ 0.6 % and cinnamon (Ci) @ 0.4 % by wt. of expected yield of paneer. All the paneer samples viz. Bp, Ca, Cl and Ci were subjected to sensory evaluation when fresh and after interval of 7 days during storage at 7 ± 1 °C up to 28 days. Results indicated that control remained acceptable up to 7 days, Bp up to 14 days of storage and Cl up to 21st day of storage. The overall acceptability score of Ca remained well above the acceptable level even on 28th day of the storage. Results of changes in chemical characteristics indicate that amongst all the spices studied, cardamom had maximum ability to control the rate of increase in acidity, free fatty acids content and soluble nitrogen content in paneer during storage. The order of the relative effectiveness in enhancing shelf life of paneer was cardamom > cinnamon > clove > black pepper. The effect of cardamom on microbial counts of paneer viz. standard plate counts (SPC), yeast and mould count and coliform count were evaluated. Among the spices studied, cardamom was found to be the best spice to improve shelf life of paneer up to 28 days of storage at 7 ± 1 °C.

  5. A Compact Spice Model with Verilog-A for Phase Change Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Dao-Lin; SONG Zhi-Tang; LI Xi; CHEN Hou-Peng; CHEN Xiao-Gang

    2011-01-01

    A compact spice model of the phase change memory with the crystalline fraction as the switching by Verilog-A language is proposed and demonstrated. The model can simulate not only the resistance change by the different electrical pulse, but also the temperature profile and crystalline fraction during programming operation. The simulated resistance as a function of the amplitude of programming voltage pulses is in good agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Natural Occurrence of Ochratoxin A Contamination in Commercial Spices in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalili

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Non-sanitary conditions during the drying, transport and storage stages in the production of spices could introduce mycotoxin contamination. The aim of the current study was to determine the concentration of ochratoxin A (OTA in 92 commercial spices (including red pepper, black pepper, turmeric and cinnamon imported to Iran. Materials and Methods: OTA levels were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detection coupled with immunoaffinity column clean-up step. Mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile–water–acetic acid (49.5:49.5:1.0, v/v/v, and the flow rate was 1 ml/min. Results: The recovery values ranged from 77.10% ± 6.66 to 94.84% ± 8.38 for spiking of cinnamon at 0.5 and 5 ng/g, respectively. Overall, 29 out of the 92 (31.5% samples were contaminated with OTA ranged from 0.45 to 18.64 ng/g. The results from statistical analysis revealed that there was significant difference (p<0.05 between the types of spices in the concentration of OTA. Conclusions: Incidence of OTA contamination in red pepper and cinnamon was significantly higher than in black pepper and turmeric. The highest concentration of OTA was detected in a sample of red pepper (18.64 ng/g. The results revealed that it is essential to continue regular monitoring for OTA in imported spices to shield consumer health. Keywords: Ochratoxin A, Black pepper, Red pepper, Turmeric, Cinnamon

  7. Examination of 1D Solar Cell Model Limitations Using 3D SPICE Modeling: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, W. E.; Olson, J. M.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.

    2012-06-01

    To examine the limitations of one-dimensional (1D) solar cell modeling, 3D SPICE-based modeling is used to examine in detail the validity of the 1D assumptions as a function of sheet resistance for a model cell. The internal voltages and current densities produced by this modeling give additional insight into the differences between the 1D and 3D models.

  8. [The importance of temperature on storage of ground natural spices (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, W D

    1976-02-27

    Several factors influencing the ingredients of volative oils of some ground natural spices have been investigated during storage. The effects on the aroma have been characterized sensorically; relations between the analytical and sensorical results are explained using anise as an example. Of the influencing factors studied such as packaging material, storage temperature and storage duration, the storage temperature must be regarded as the most important.

  9. [Toxigenic Bacillus cereus detection in lactic products with spices and dehydrated milk collected in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Walter; Arias, María Laura; Pérez, Cristian; Rodríguez, César; Chaves, Carolina

    2009-12-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram positive rod widely distributed in nature and associated to different types of food that, under some circumstances, may cause pathology to human beings. Diarrheic and emetic strains have been described based on the type of toxins produced. In order to determine the risk to health represented by this bacteria, the toxigenic potential of strains isolated from cheese with spices, spread cheese with spices and dehydrated milk, all sold in San José, Costa Rica, were determined using a multiplex PCR technique with oligonucleotides specific for the genes coding toxins HBL and Nhe. From 45 samples collected, 15 isolates of B cereus were obtained (60% coming from spread cheese with spices 7% from dehydrated milk and 13% from cheese with spices). All the strains analyzed presented at least one of the genes analyzed; six of them, coming from dehydrated milk and spread cheese, showed molecular evidence of the genes nheB, nheA, nheC, hblD, hblA y hblC, confirming the correlation described for the presence of operons codifying for HBL and Nhe. Nevertheless, the no detection of a gene cannot be considered as a definitive proof of its absence, given the existence of polymorphism in the sequences of the genes analyzed. The results obtained show that multiple of the B cereus strains found in lactic products from Costa Rica have the necessary genes for synthesizing toxins, so the correct handling of these products is very important since they can represent a risk for public health.

  10. Detection of some irradiated spices on the basis of radiation induced damage of starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, J.; Sharif, M. M.; Koncz, Á.

    Untreated and irradiated samples of spices were suspended in water, alkalized, and after heat-gelatinization, the apparent viscosity was determined by a rotational viscometer. Several spices, i.e. white pepper, black pepper, nutmeg and ginger showed considerable loss of viscosity as a function of γ-radiation dose in the dose range required for microbial decontamination of natural spices. Less promising results were obtained with spices such as allspice, garlic powder, and onion powder forming low-viscosity heat-treated suspensions even when unirradiated viscometric studies were also performed with a number of pepper samples of various origin to estimate the "natural" variation of rheological properties. Irradiation and storage studies were performed with ground black pepper samples of moisture contents in equilibrium with air of 25%, 50% and 75% R.H., respectively, either untreated or irradiated with 4, 8, 16 or 32 kGy, to study the effect of equilibrium relative humidity and storage time on detectability of radiation treatment. During the entire storage period of 100 days, statistically significant differences of the apparent viscosities of heat-gelatinized suspensions remained detectable between untreated samples and those irradiated with 8 kGy or higher doses. The apparent viscosity of high-moisture (75% E.R.H.) untreated samples was decreasing during long-term storage. Differences between viscosities of untreated and irradiated samples were enlarged when measured at elevated temperatures such as 50°C in the rotational viscometer, or in the boiling-water bath of a falling number apparatus. Other analytical indices such as onset and peak temperatures of gelatinization endotherms by DSC (damaged starch content), by colorimetry, reducing sugar content, alcohol-induced turbidity of hot water extracts of pepper samples, have been changed less dramatically by irradiation than the apparent viscosity of the gelatinized suspensions

  11. Mobile ad hoc networking

    CERN Document Server

    John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.

  12. Degradation of the natural mutagenic compound safrole in spices by cooking and irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, S E; Abo-Zeid, M

    1997-12-01

    Safrole was determined using gas-liquid chromatography in some common spices as star anise, cumin, black pepper and ginger. Safrole concentration in these spices was 9,325, 3,432, 955 and 500 mg.kg-1, respectively. Black pepper was chosen to use in the following experiments. Using Ames-test with Salmonella TA 98 and TA 100 proved high cytotoxic effects due to pure safrole and black pepper volatile oil in both of them. The degradation of safrole was obvious after drying of the washed seeds of black pepper especially at 70 degrees C for 30 min or with sun-drying. Also, high irradiation doses (20 and 30 kGy) caused high degradation of more than 90% of the initial toxic concentration in black pepper. Whereas, microwave caused same effects at 75 s, but unfortunately, the powder was burned due to moisture absence. Boiling whole seeds or powder of black pepper during cooking for few minutes (1-5 min) were more efficient in decreasing safrole content. Finally, these results proved that the mutagenicity of some spices due to presence of safrole can be destructed during drying of the washed seeds or during cooking either with or without any additional treatment as irradiation. But irradiation of these species became more necessary for using in some food industries as milk products to get more safe for human consumption.

  13. Photo- and thermally stimulated luminescence of polyminerals extracted from herbs and spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Marcazzó, J.; Chernov, V.

    2012-08-01

    Ionizing radiation processing is a widely employed method for preservative treatment of foodstuffs. Usually it is possible to detect irradiated herbs and spices by resorting to luminescence techniques, in particular photo- and thermostimulated luminescence. For these techniques to be useful, it is necessary to characterize the response to radiation of each particular herb or spice. In this work, the thermoluminescence (TL) and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) properties of inorganic polymineral fractions extracted from commercial herbs and spices previously irradiated for disinfestation purposes have been analyzed. Samples of mint, cinnamon, chamomile, paprika, black pepper, coriander and Jamaica flower were irradiated from 50 to 400 Gy by using a beta source. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has shown that the mineral fractions consist mainly of quartz and feldspars. The PSL and TL response as a function of the absorbed dose, and their fading at room temperature have been determined. The TL glow curves have been deconvolved in order to obtain characteristic kinetics parameters in each case. The results of this work show that PSL and TL are reliable techniques for detection and analysis of irradiated foodstuffs.

  14. [Food allergy: the celery-mugwort-spice syndrome. Association with mango allergy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, B; Hofer, T

    1984-06-22

    Celery allergies are commonly observed in mugwort pollen-allergic patients. This situation is frequently associated with an allergy to spices of the umbelliferous family. Thus a "celery-mugwort-spice syndrome" has been established. In 31 patients (27 females, 4 males) allergy to celery was diagnosed between 1978 and 1982. They were followed up in 1983 and complementary tests (skin and RAST) with various raw vegetables, spices and mugwort pollen were done. For specific diagnosis of allergy to celery skin testing (scratch or prick) with fresh celery bulb was reliable. In contrast, RAST was not sufficiently sensitive, 87% of patients allergic to celery had pollinosis in the form of mugwort pollen sensitisation established by skin testing and RAST. Allergy to carrots was clinically and by testing currently associated in 52%. In contrast, a clinically relevant hypersensitivity to caraway (26%), parsley (16%), fennel (13%), green pepper (10%) and aniseed (3%) was found less frequently although these allergens showed a much larger positivity in skin testing. This signifies group sensitisation within the umbelliferous plants. The association of celery-mugwort allergy with allergy to mango fruit described here for the first time cannot be explained as group sensitisation within a botanic relation, as mango, and pistachio-nut, belong to the family of anacardiaceae.

  15. The industrial potential of herbs and spices – a mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna B. Leja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbs and spices have been used for food and medicinal purposes for centuries – the first recorded evidence of their use dates back to 1500BC and the Ebers Papyrus, which mentioned spices such as anise, mustard, saffron, cinnamon, and cassia. Now, in the 21st century, a variety of secondary compounds produced by plants are used in many fields of industry, such as food production (to improve taste, to provide vitamins and macro- and microelements, and also to inhibit food spoilage caused by foodborne bacteria, in medicine (in the treatment of various diseases; in chemoprevention and cancer therapy; as a source of natural antimicrobials for the treatment of infectious disease, and in pharmacology and cosmetology (in dietary supplements, and as a result of the demand for preservative-free cosmetics, to reduce the risk of methylparaben allergies. The aim of this review is to present the major active compounds in herbs and spices and explore their potential applications in industry.

  16. Performance Measurements of the Flight Detector for SPICE on SolarOrbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. T.; Davila, J. M.; Caldwell, M.; Siegmund, O.

    2015-12-01

    The Spectral Imaging of the Coronal Environment (SPICE) instrument for theSolar Orbiter mission will make spectroscopic observations of the Sun's lowcorona to characterize the plasma properties of the source regions of the solarwind. The detector package for SPICE, provided by the NASA Goddard SpaceFLight Center, consists of two microchannel-plate (MCP) intensified ActivePixel Sensor (APS) detectors covering the short (702-792 Angstroms) and long(972-1050 Angstroms) wavelength bandpasses. The long wavelength detector willalso provide coverage in second order between 485-525 Angstroms. We previouslyreported on measurements of the engineering model detector. Here, we report onmeasurements made on the flight SPICE detector in the same vacuum tank facilityat the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Harwell, UK. These measurementsinclude the detector flat field, sensitivity, resolution, linearity, andstatistical noise. A krypton resonance lamp operating at 1236 Angstroms wasused to stimulate the detector. Results at this wavelength are combined withthe quantum efficiency measurements of the individual MCPs at this and otherwavelengths covering the entire wavelength range to provide a completecalibration curve for the instrument. A calibrated NIST photodiode was used todetermine the absolute brightness of the lamp.

  17. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in spices commercialized in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Pierre; Adanou, Ketty Michele; Ardjouma, Dembelé; Adepo, Aholia Jean Baptiste; Dano, Djédjé Sébastien

    2016-08-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced mostly by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. OTA is nephrotoxic in all animal species in which it has been tested and is cancerogenic in rodents. It is associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy. It is naturally present in many crop products such as cereals (barley, wheat, maize) and dried fruits, spices, coffee, wine, olives, and cocoa. The aim of this study was to assess the contamination of three Ivoirian spices with OTA (ginger, chili, and pepper) widely consumed by the population. A total of 90 spice samples (ginger: n = 30; chili: n = 30; pepper n = 30) was taken from various sales outlets of Abidjan. OTA was quantified using an HPLC apparatus coupled with a fluorimetric detector. The chili and ginger samples were contaminated with OTA at a mean concentration of 57.48 ± 174 and 0.12 ± 0.15 μg/kg, respectively. No contamination of the pepper samples was detected. Eight (26.67 %) of the chili samples exceeded the maximum limit of 15 μg/kg established by European regulation. These results should serve as an alert on the risk to the consumer population of these products that are highly contaminated with OTA.

  18. Antibacterial activity of natural spices on multiple drug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from drinking water, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Rezuanul

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spices traditionally have been used as coloring agents, flavoring agents, preservatives, food additives and medicine in Bangladesh. The present work aimed to find out the antimicrobial activity of natural spices on multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli isolates. Methods Anti-bacterial potentials of six crude plant extracts (Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Allium cepa, Coriandrum sativum, Piper nigrum and Citrus aurantifolia were tested against five Escherichia coli isolated from potable water sources at kushtia, Bangladesh. Results All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to undiluted lime-juice. None of them were found to be susceptible against the aqueous extracts of garlic, onion, coriander, pepper and ginger alone. However, all the isolates were susceptible when subjected to 1:1:1 aqueous extract of lime, garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone was observed with lime (11 mm. Conclusion Natural spices might have anti-bacterial activity against enteric pathogens and could be used for prevention of diarrheal diseases. Further evaluation is necessary.

  19. Towards a more accurate extraction of the SPICE netlist from MAGIC based layouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geronimo, G.D.

    1998-08-01

    The extraction of the SPICE netlist form MAGIC based layouts is investigated. It is assumed that the layout is fully coherent with the corresponding mask representation. The process of the extraction can be made in three steps: (1) extraction of .EXT file from layout, through MAGIC command extract; (2) extraction of the netlist from .EXT file through ext2spice extractor; and (3) correction of the netlist through ext2spice.corr program. Each of these steps introduces some approximations, most of which can be optimized, and some errors, most of which can be corrected. Aim of this work is the description of each step, of the approximations and errors on each step, and of the corresponding optimizations and corrections to be made in order to improve the accuracy of the extraction. The HP AMOS14TB 0.5 {micro}m process with linear capacitor and silicide block options and the corresponding SCN3MLC{_}SUBM.30.tech27 technology file will be used in the following examples.

  20. Aflatoxins in composite spices collected from local markets of Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Muhammad Asif; Zahir, Erum; Rantilal, Summan; Ahmed, Aftab; Iqbal, Javed

    2016-06-01

    This survey was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of total aflatoxins (AFs; B1+B2+G1+G2) in unpacked composite spices. A total of 75 samples of composite spices such as biryani, karhai, tikka, nihari and korma masalas were collected from local markets of Karachi, Pakistan, and analysed using HPLC technique. The results indicated that AFs were detected in 77% (n = 58) samples ranging from 0.68 to 25.74 µg kg(-1) with a mean of 4.63 ± 0.95 µg kg(-1). In 88% (n = 66) samples, AFs level was below the maximum limits (ML = 10 µg kg(-1)) as imposed by EU. Furthermore, 61% (n = 46) tested samples contained AFs level between 1 and 10 µg kg(-1), 9% (n = 7) exhibited AFs contamination ranged 10-20 µg kg(-1) and only 3% (n = 2) of the investigated samples contained AFs levels higher than the ML of 20 µg kg(-1) for total aflatoxins as set by the USA. It was concluded that there is need to establish a strict and continuous national monitoring plan to improve safety and quality of spices in Pakistan.

  1. Value Adding Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Katchamart, Akarapong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how Facilities Management (FM) can add value and develop a management concept that can assist facilities managers in implementing value adding strategies and practices. Theory: The study is based on the management model for FM included in the European FM standards, recent...... theories on added value of FM and real estate and the related concept of Value Management from building projects. The study is related to the EuroFM research group on The Added Value of FM. Design/methodology/approach: The study outlines a preliminary theoretical based management concept, which...... is investigated, tested and discussed based on a case study of an international corporation. Findings: The study shows that the management model for FM creates a relevant starting point but also that stakeholder and relationship management is an essential aspect of Value Adding Management. The case study confirms...

  2. Antiproton-Decelerator (AD)

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    When the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) was stopped in 1996, because of its costly operation, a cheaper way of continuing low-energy antiproton physics was sought. The Antiproton-Collector (AC), added in 1987 to the Antiproton Accumulator (AA) to provide a tenfold intensity increase, was converted into the Antiproton-Decelerator (AD). Antiprotons from the target at 3.5 GeV/c are decelerated to 100 MeV/c, and fast-ejected to the experiments. Major changes were necessary. Above all, the conversion from a constant-field machine to one with a magnetic cycle, modulating the field by an impressive factor 35. New systems for stochastic and electron cooling had to be added. Beam diagnostics at an intensity of only 2E7 antiprotons was a challenge. In 2000, the AD began delivery of antiprotons to the experiments.

  3. AdS_3: the NHEK generation

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; Puhm, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    It was argued in arXiv:1203.4227 that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically-AdS_3 x S^3/Z_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  4. Effect of powdered spice treatments on mycelial growth, sporulation and production of aflatoxins by toxigenic fungi Efeito de tratamentos com condimentos em pó sobre o crescimento micelial, esporulação e produção de aflatoxinas por fungos toxigênicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sára Maria Chalfoun

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ten powdered spice plants was evaluated at the concentration of 1, 2, 3 and 4% to observe the mycelial growth and sporulation of Aspergillus niger and Eurotium repens. The spices were added to the culture media PDA and CYA20S. Clove completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the tested fungi. The other spices: cinnamon, garlic, thyme, mint, anis, oregano and onion were, in a decreasing order, promising antifungals. Bay leaf and basil did not show a pronounced fungistatic effect. The antitoxigenic potential of the spices was tested against one aflatoxin-producing strain of AspergiIIus flavus. The spices were tested at the same concentrations previously mentioned and were added to the culture medium YES, appropriate for the production of those metabolites. Clove completely inhibited the mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus. Cinnamon and anis totally inhibited the production of Bl and B2 aflatoxin. Both bay leaf and basil inhibited the synthesis of aflatoxin starting from the concentration of 2%. The other spices did not have a pronounced antiaflatoxigenic effect.O efeito de dez plantas condimentares em pó foi avaliado nas concentrações de 1, 2, 3 e 4%, para observar o desenvolvimento micelial e esporulação de Aspergillus niger e Eurotium repens. Os condimentos foram adicionados aos meios de cultura BDA e CYA 20S. O cravo inibiu completamente o desenvolvimento micelial dos fungos testados. Os outros condimentos: canela, alho, tomilho, menta, erva-doce, orégano e cebola foram, em ordem decrescente, antifúngicos promissores. Louro e manjericão não apresentaram um efeito fungistático pronunciado. O potencial antitoxigênico dos condimentos foi testado contra uma cepa de Aspergillus flavus, produtora de aflatoxina. Os condimentos foram testados nas mesmas concentrações previamente mencionadas e foram adicionados ao meio de cultura YES, apropriado para a produção daqueles metabólitos. O cravo inibiu completamente o

  5. Method development and survey of Sudan I-IV in palm oil and chilli spices in the Washington, DC, area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susie; MacMahon, Shaun; Robbins, Katherine; Farris, Samantha; Shyong, Nicole; DeJager, Lowri

    2016-01-01

    Sudan I, II, III and IV dyes are banned for use as food colorants in the United States and European Union because they are toxic and carcinogenic. These dyes have been illegally used as food additives in products such as chilli spices and palm oil to enhance their red colour. From 2003 to 2005, the European Union made a series of decisions requiring chilli spices and palm oil imported to the European Union to contain analytical reports declaring them free of Sudan I-IV. In order for the USFDA to investigate the adulteration of palm oil and chilli spices with unapproved colour additives in the United States, a method was developed for the extraction and analysis of Sudan dyes in palm oil, and previous methods were validated for Sudan dyes in chilli spices. Both LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS methods were examined for their limitations and effectiveness in identifying adulterated samples. Method validation was performed for both chilli spices and palm oil by spiking samples known to be free of Sudan dyes at concentrations close to the limit of detection. Reproducibility, matrix effects, and selectivity of the method were also investigated. Additionally, for the first time a survey of palm oil and chilli spices was performed in the United States, specifically in the Washington, DC, area. Illegal dyes, primarily Sudan IV, were detected in palm oil at concentrations from 150 to 24 000 ng ml(-1). Low concentrations (spices and are most likely a result of cross-contamination during preparation and storage and not intentional adulteration.

  6. Acute effects of mustard, horseradish, black pepper and ginger on energy expenditure, appetite, ad libitum energy intake and energy balance in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture; Belza, Anita; Jensen, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    produced DIT, which tended to be larger than that of placebo (14 %, 59 (se 3) v. 52 (se 2) kJ/h, respectively, P = 0·08). No other spice induced thermogenic effects approaching statistical significance. Subjective measures of appetite (P>0·85), ad libitum EI (P = 0·63) and energy balance (P = 0·67) also...

  7. Eating ad Libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillersdal, Line

    in the context of the 'ad libitum meal'. The analytical interest is thus what kind of eaters and bodies are enacted in the meal test and what ideas of prevention and treatment are embedded in their standards. Drawing from ongoing empirical work among Danish obesity researchers performing scientific meal tests I...... ask what make up food stuff and eaters in the meal tests? More specifically I explore a scientific testing of changes in taste preferences before and after weight-loss surgery using an ad libitum buffet with a selection of different foods and another testing the effect of exercise on appetite also...... using an ad libitum meal consisting of spaghetti bolognaise. I analyse the entanglement and concurrence of different knowledge practices and show how several scalings of appetite play out, one ex explaining the aim of the test, being to ”measure what your body would want the most” and hence producing...

  8. Dynamic ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rashvand, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s

  9. Reducing costs of managing and accessing navigation and ancillary data by relying on the extensive capabilities of NASA's spice system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Boris V.; Acton, Charles H., Jr.; Bachman, Nathaniel J.; Elson, Lee S.; Wright, Edward D.

    2005-01-01

    The SPICE system of navigation and ancillary data possesses a number of traits that make its use in modern space missions of all types highly cost efficient. The core of the system is a software library providing API interfaces for storing and retrieving such data as trajectories, orientations, time conversions, and instrument geometry parameters. Applications used at any stage of a mission life cycle can call SPICE APIs to access this data and compute geometric quantities required for observation planning, engineering assessment and science data analysis. SPICE is implemented in three different languages, supported on 20+ computer environments, and distributed with complete source code and documentation. It includes capabilities that are extensively tested by everyday use in many active projects and are applicable to all types of space missions - flyby, orbiters, observatories, landers and rovers. While a customer's initial SPICE adaptation for the first mission or experiment requires a modest effort, this initial effort pays off because adaptation for subsequent missions/experiments is just a small fraction of the initial investment, with the majority of tools based on SPICE requiring no or very minor changes.

  10. Multi-institutional Quantitative Evaluation and Clinical Validation of Smart Probabilistic Image Contouring Engine (SPICE) Autosegmentation of Target Structures and Normal Tissues on Computer Tomography Images in the Head and Neck, Thorax, Liver, and Male Pelvis Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Mingyao; Bzdusek, Karl; Brink, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Clinical validation and quantitative evaluation of computed tomography (CT) image autosegmentation using Smart Probabilistic Image Contouring Engine (SPICE).......Clinical validation and quantitative evaluation of computed tomography (CT) image autosegmentation using Smart Probabilistic Image Contouring Engine (SPICE)....

  11. Karg S., D.E. Robinson (2002): Secondary food plants from medieval sites in Denmark: fruits, nuts, vegetables, herbs and spices. In: K. Viklund, R. Engelmark (eds.) Nordic Archaeobotany-NAG 2000 in Umeå.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    2002-01-01

    Secondary food plants from medieval sites in Denmark: fruits, nuts, vegetables, herbs and spices.......Secondary food plants from medieval sites in Denmark: fruits, nuts, vegetables, herbs and spices....

  12. Localization on $AdS_2\\times S^1$

    CERN Document Server

    David, Justin R; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Narain, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conformal symmetry relates the metric on $AdS_2 \\times S^{1}$ to that of $S^3$. This implies that under a suitable choice of boundary conditions for fields on $AdS_2$ the partition function of conformal field theories on these spaces must agree which makes $AdS_2 \\times S^{1}$ a good testing ground to study localization on non-compact spaces. We study supersymmetry on $AdS_2\\times S^1$ and determine the localizing Lagrangian for ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory on $AdS_2\\times S^1$. We evaluate the partition function of ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory on $AdS_2 \\times S^1$ using localization, where the radius of $S^1$ is $q$ times that of $AdS_2$. With boundary conditions on $AdS_2\\times S^1$ which ensure that all the physical fields are normalizable and lie in the space of square integrable wave functions in $AdS_2$, the result for the partition function precisely agrees with that of the theory on the $q$-fold covering of $S^3$.

  13. D-branes in Lorentzian AdS(3)

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, D

    2005-01-01

    We study the exact construction of D-branes in Lorentzian AdS(3). We start by defining a family of conformal field theories that gives a natural Euclidean version of the SL(2,R) CFT and does not correspond to H(3)+, the analytic continuation of AdS(3). We argue that one can recuperate the exact CFT results of Lorentzian AdS(3), upon an analytic continuation in the moduli space of these conformal field theories. Then we construct exact boundary states for various symmetric and symmetry-breaking D-branes in AdS(3).

  14. The antimicrobial effect of spice-based marinades against Campylobacter jejuni on contaminated fresh broiler wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakarienė, Gintarė; Rokaitytė, Anita; Ramonaitė, Sigita; Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Mulkytė, Kristina; Zaborskienė, Gintarė; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2015-03-01

    The antimicrobial effect of spice-based marinades against Campylobacter jejuni on inoculated fresh broiler wings was investigated. Experiments were carried out with 1 strain of C. jejuni and 6 marinades. Four experimental marinades were composed for the study and contained spices (thyme, rosemary, basil, marjoram, and so on) and different combination of bioactive compounds. Two marinades were commercial and contained spices (black pepper, sweet red pepper, and so on) and chemical additives (monosodium glutamate, sodium diacetate, calcium lactate), 1 commercial marinade was also enriched with bioactive compounds (linalool, cinnamaldehyde, lactic acid). Total aerobic bacterial count was examined to estimate the possible effect of tested marinades on the shelf-life of marinated broiler wings. Study revealed that thyme-based marinade was the most effective against C. jejuni on broiler wings and reduced the numbers of campylobacters by 1.04 log colony forming unit (CFU)/g (P ≤ 0.05) during storage for 168 h at 4 °C temperature. Moreover, it was more effective against C. jejuni than commercial marinade with 0.47 log CFU/g (P ≤ 0.05) reduction effect. Both experimental and commercial marinades had very similar effect on the total aerobic bacterial count. Although experimental and commercial marinades had different effect on pH of broiler wings, this parameter did not show a major impact on the antimicrobial effect of tested marinades (P ≥ 0.05). Our study shows that experimental natural thyme-based marinade can reduce numbers of C. jejuni more effectively than tested commercial marinades.

  15. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of spice extracts on the shelf life extension of raw chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha krishnan, K; Babuskin, S; Azhagu Saravana Babu, P; Sasikala, M; Sabina, K; Archana, G; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M

    2014-02-01

    The antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of different spice extracts in raw chicken meat during storage for 15 days at 4 °C were studied. Raw chicken meat was treated with BHT (positive control), Syzygium aromaticum (SA), Cinnmomum cassia (CC), Origanum vulgare (OV), and Brassica nigra (BN) extracts and the different combinations as well as the results were compared to raw chicken meat without any additive (negative control). The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of spice extracts were determined. Total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents were ranged from 14.09 ± 0.78 to 24.65 ± 0.83 mg of GAE/g and 7.07 ± 0.15 to 12.13 ± 0.24 mg of quercetin/g, respectively. The pH, instrumental color (CIE L*, a*, b*), total viable counts (TVC), Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts, Pseudomonas spp. counts and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were determined at a gap of 3 days interval for a period of 15 days. The bacterial counts of T-W-SA+T-W-CC+T-W-OV samples were lower than control samples during storage. T-W-SA+T-W-CC+T-W-OV samples maintained significantly (P<0.05) higher L*, a* and b* values while storing. The TBARS values of T-W-SA+T-W-CC+T-W-OV samples were lowest among the samples. These results show that spice extracts are very effective against microbial growth, lipid oxidation and has potential as a natural antioxidant in raw chicken meats.

  16. Studies on essential oils: part 10; antibacterial activity of volatile oils of some spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G; Kapoor, I P S; Pandey, S K; Singh, U K; Singh, R K

    2002-11-01

    The essential oils extracted from the seeds of seven spices, Anethum graveolens, Carum capticum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum and Seseli indicum have been studied for antibacterial activity against eight pathogenic bacteria, causing infections in the human body. It has been found that the oil of C. capticum is very effective against all tested bacteria. The oil of C. cyminum and A. graveolens also gave similar results. These oils are equally or more effective when compared with standard antibiotics, at a very low concentration.

  17. The Health Benefits of Selected Culinary Herbs and Spices Found in the Traditional Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Allyson; Marquez, Susan; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2016-12-01

    The Mediterranean diet is considered one of the healthiest diets in the world. This is often attributed to low saturated fat consumption, moderate wine consumption, and high vegetable consumption. However, herbs and spices associated with these diets may also play an important role in the quality of this diet. This review summarizes the most recent research regarding the anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-hypertensive properties of this collection of culinary species. Additionally, this review briefly summarizes studies performed on lesser known herbs from around the world, with the goal of identifying new culinary species that may be useful in the treatment or prevention of diseases.

  18. Dos enfoques no abordados en los modelos de calidad: CMM y SPICE.

    OpenAIRE

    Yudith Rodríguez Pérez; Lídice Alvarez Pérez

    2006-01-01

    Muchas organizaciones de software tienden a resolver sus problemas de calidad institucionalizando sus procesos a través de la certificación de un modelo de calidad, sin tener en cuenta que en estos modelos no se abordan aspectos tan importantes en la vida de una organización como son la gestión de los recursos humanos y la gestión de comercialización. Con el objetivo de señalar cuales son las deficiencias de los modelos SPICE y CMM se desarrolla este trabajo.

  19. Dos enfoques no abordados en los modelos de calidad: CMM y SPICE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudith Rodríguez Pérez

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Muchas organizaciones de software tienden a resolver sus problemas de calidad institucionalizando sus procesos a través de la certificación de un modelo de calidad, sin tener en cuenta que en estos modelos no se abordan aspectos tan importantes en la vida de una organización como son la gestión de los recursos humanos y la gestión de comercialización. Con el objetivo de señalar cuales son las deficiencias de los modelos SPICE y CMM se desarrolla este trabajo.

  20. Uranium isotopes distinguish two geochemically distinct stages during the later Cambrian SPICE event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Tais Wittchen; Boyle, Richard A.; Canfield, Donald E.

    2014-01-01

    of euxinic waters, triggering the spike in U burial, and peaking in conjunction with a well-known trilobite extinction event. During the second stage widespread euxinia waned, causing U removal to tail off, but enhanced organic carbon and pyrite burial continued, coinciding with evidence for severe sulfate...... depletion in the oceans (Gill et al., 2011). We discuss scenarios for how an interval of elevated pyrite and organic carbon burial could have been sustained without widespread euxinia in the water column (both non-sulfidic anoxia and/or a more oxygenated ocean state are possibilities). Either way, the SPICE...

  1. Design and Spice Simulation of Coupling Circuits for Powerline Communications Onboard Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, F.; Pignari, S. A.; Wolf, J.

    2012-05-01

    This paper deals with the design of coupling/decoupling circuits for application of the powerline communications (PLC) technology to spacecraft power buses. Particularly, the objective of this work is to investigate possible advantages deriving from connecting the PLC modems in series with the powerline (PL) instead of resorting to a parallel connection scheme. To this end, the channel frequency response and signal-to-noise ratio of the resulting PLC link are obtained by SPICE simulation in the frequency interval 1-20 MHz. Suitable design rules, aimed at optimizing transmission performance and warranting satisfactory immunity of the PLC link to the conducted noise affecting the PL, are derived and discussed.

  2. Ads in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Roro Retno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetics industry created the beauty myth for women through advertising. A cosmetic ad in Indonesia has spread a new concept of white skin: East Asia beauty myth. The white concept of Asia white skin basically derived from colonial legacy. The purpose of the research was analyzing the beauty myth in Indonesia ads using postcolonial perspective. The principal result brought the discourse analysis and postcolonial perspective a new insight in communication research. Particularly on media and cultural studies. Major conclusions showed that the beauty myth since the Dutch colonial period never been change. The main concept is always in colonialism’s idea: “white is better”. The West is better than the East.

  3. Adding linear orders

    CERN Document Server

    Shelah, Saharon

    2011-01-01

    We address the following question: Can we expand an NIP theory by adding a linear order such that the expansion is still NIP? Easily, if acl(A)=A for all A, then this is true. Otherwise, we give counterexamples. More precisely, there is a totally categorical theory for which every expansion by a linear order has IP. There is also an \\omega-stable NDOP theory for which every expansion by a linear order interprets bounded arithmetic.

  4. The effect of sodium reduction and the use of herbs and spices on the quality and safety of bologna sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ivone Carraro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the replacement of 50% NaCl by KCl in Bologna sausage with the addition of herbs and spice blends (coriander, onion, white pepper, cardamom, and Jamaican pepper was evaluated. The formulations tested showed a significant reduction in the sodium content with no major alterations in the emulsion stability, texture, and microbiological characteristics. The use of 50% KCl caused a reduction in the sensory quality leading to a significant decrease in the consumers' purchase intention. The formulations with the addition of herbs and spice blends presented better results in the sensory evaluation indicating that this strategy can reduce the negative effects resulting from the use of KCl.

  5. LC-PDA-ESI/MS identification of the phenolic components of three compositae spices: chamomile, tarragon, and Mexican arnica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M

    2012-06-01

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) and Mexican arnica (Heterotheca inuoides) are common compositae spices and herbs found in the US market. They contain flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates that are potentially beneficial to human health. A standardized LC-PDA-ESI/MS profiling method was used to identify 51 flavonoids and 17 hydroxycinnamates. Many of the identifications were confirmed with authentic standards or through references in the literature or the laboratory's database. More than half of the phenol compounds for each spice had not been previously reported. The phenolic profile can be used for plant authentication and to correlate with biological activities.

  6. AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alessandrini, Daniele; Li, Qiongling

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationships between closed AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles. We have a new way to construct AdS structures that allows us to see many of their properties explicitly, for example we can recover the very recent formula by Tholozan for the volumes. We also find...

  7. Diferentes condimentos vegetais: avaliação sensorial e de atividade antibacteriana em preparação alimentar com frango cozido Different spice plants: sensorial evaluation and antibacterial activity in chicken broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    , individualmente, atividade antibacteriana significativa, mesmo que sem significância quando comparados entre si. Contudo, em relação ao tempo de início da atividade antibacteriana, destacou-se a pimenta dedo-de-moça, enquanto que, em relação ao prolongamento dessa ação no tempo, destacou-se o alho nirá. As 12 plantas condimentares em estudo tiveram atestada a sensorialidade, sendo que as quatro plantas com destaque tiveram a atividade anti-coliforme termo-resistente comprovada in loco. Diferentes condimentos vegetais foram capazes de fornecer qualificação sensorial e sanitária em caldo com frango cozido, em condições domésticas de manuseio.Based on the in vitro antibacterial activity predetermined for 12 spice plants with ethnographic indicator, this feature was tested in loco in the model cooked chicken broth. First, ten evaluators were trained, according to the current legislation for Free and Informed Consent, providing previous knowledge about the plants parsley (Petroselinum sativum, marjoram (Origanum X aplii and Origanum majorana, basil (Ocimum basilicum, common sage (Salvia officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris, anis-like spice (Ocimum selloi, african basilicum (Ocimum gratissimum, nirá garlic (Allium tuberosum, leek (Allium porrum, turmeric (Curcuma longa and "dedo-de-moça" chili (Capsicum baccatum. Those spices were individually added to the chicken broth to perform a Hedonic Scale-like Acceptance Test, selecting four of the twelve spices that had higher sensory acceptance, "dedo-de-moça" chili, nirá garlic, leek and thyme. A new Acceptance Test was then performed using low, medium and high concentrations of those four spices to establish the most acceptable sensory intensities. The elected quantities (0.5 g "dedo-de-moça" chili, 15 g nirá garlic, 15 g leek and 5 g thyme were added to the chicken broth, then challenged with Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229 at a final 10 concentration of CFU/mL, the tolerated limit according to legislation. The control

  8. PRODUCTION OF BREAD–SPREAD FROM BLENDS OF SHEA BUTTER (VITELLARIA PARADOXA, GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM, GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE, SCENT LEAF (OCCIMUM GRATISSIMUM, AND SUYA SPICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice O.T. Ifesan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at production of bread-spread from blends of shea butter with spices such as ginger, garlic, scent leaf, and suya spice. Two different ratios, 70% shea butter: 30% spices and 85% shea butter:15% spices were prepared from raw shea butter and various spices. The treatments were packaged in a transparent plastic bowl and stored at room temperature for 4 weeks while samples were taken for analysis at 0, 2 and 4 weeks of storage. Samples were examined for chemical, antioxidant properties, anti-nutritional factors and sensory evaluation. Saponification value ranged from 47.7 mg KOH/g -104.5 mg KOH/g while shea butter + spices exhibited lower values compared to 100% shea butter (control. It was observed that iodine value of both the blends and control decreased as storage days increased except for samples of shea butter + ginger (SGG and shea butter + suya spice (SSS at 70:30 ratio. Addition of spices to shea butter increased the 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH values (44.96%-77.98% and total phenol content (0.36 mg TAE/g-0.51 mg TAE/g of the crude shea butter significantly. Phytate content of the blends increased upon addition of spices, whereas, a drastic reduction was observed in the alkaloid contents of the blends from 29.79% (control to 2.29% in shea butter + scent leave. The sensory evaluation result revealed that the general acceptability of shea butter treated with suya spice (70:30 and 100% shea butter were scored above average and were not different significantly.

  9. Pathologies in Lovelock AdS Black Branes and AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Tomohiro

    2011-01-01

    We study the pathologies in AdS black branes in Lovelock theory. More precisely, we examine the conditions that AdS black branes have the naked singularity, the ghost instability and the dynamical instability. From the point of view of the AdS/CFT correspondence, the pathologies in AdS black branes indicate the pathologies in the corresponding CFT. Hence, we need to be careful when we apply AdS/CFT in Lovelock theory to various phenomena such as the shear viscosity to entropy ratio in strongly coupled quantum filed theory.

  10. In vitro antibacterial activity of seven Indian spices against high level gentamicin resistant strains of enterococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipin, Chapagain; Chitra, Pai (Bhat); Minakshi, Bhattacharjee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of seven ethanolic extracts of spices against high level gentamicin resistant (HLGR) enterococci isolated from human clinical samples. Material and methods Two hundred and fifteen enterococcal strains were isolated from clinical samples. High level gentamicin resistance in ethanolic extracts of cumin (Cuminum cyminum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) and black pepper (Piper nigrum) were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. The antibacterial effect of the extracts was studied using the well diffusion method. Statistical analysis was carried out by χ2 test using SPSS 17 software. Results Only cinnamon and ginger were found to have activity against all the isolates, whereas cumin and cloves had a variable effect on the strains. Fenugreek, black pepper and cardamom did not show any effect on the isolates. The zone diameter of inhibition obtained for cinnamon, ginger, cloves and cumin was in the range 31–34 mm, 27–30 mm, 25–26 mm and 19–20 mm respectively. Conclusions Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Z. officinale showed the maximum antibacterial activity against the enterococcal isolates followed by S. aromaticum and C. cyminum. The findings of the study show that spices used in the study can contribute to the development of potential antimicrobial agents for inclusion in the anti-enterococcal treatment regimen. PMID:26322099

  11. Identification of Novel Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Spices: A Molecular Docking and Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Priya; Vijayan, Ranjit

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in diabetic patients results in a diverse range of complications such as diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases. The role of aldose reductase (AR), the key enzyme in the polyol pathway, in these complications is well established. Due to notable side-effects of several drugs, phytochemicals as an alternative has gained considerable importance for the treatment of several ailments. In order to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dietary spices on AR, a collection of phytochemicals were identified from Zingiber officinale (ginger), Curcuma longa (turmeric) Allium sativum (garlic) and Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek). Molecular docking was performed for lead identification and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the dynamic behaviour of these protein-ligand interactions. Gingerenones A, B and C, lariciresinol, quercetin and calebin A from these spices exhibited high docking score, binding affinity and sustained protein-ligand interactions. Rescoring of protein ligand interactions at the end of MD simulations produced binding scores that were better than the initially docked conformations. Docking results, ligand interactions and ADMET properties of these molecules were significantly better than commercially available AR inhibitors like epalrestat, sorbinil and ranirestat. Thus, these natural molecules could be potent AR inhibitors.

  12. Oscillators simulation with SPICE%应用SPICE程序模拟振荡器电路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高燕梅; 王学成

    2001-01-01

    Based on the discussion and analysis of how to use SPICE to simulate oscillators, according to the working principle of real oscillator circuits, a method for the problems of the circuits, such as no start-up and divergence in the simulation when using SPICE, is presented. The method given here is simple and easily understood. And it proves to be applicable and valuable for the designs of power electronics.%在讨论、分析如何应用SPICE程序模拟振荡器电路的基础上,给出了解决振荡电路不起振和SPICE程序在模拟振荡电路的运算中不收敛等问题的方法。该设计方法简便易懂,在大功率电路系统的设计仿真中有良好的应用价值。

  13. Antioxidant and chemical properties of essential oil extracted from blend of selected spices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ochuko Lucky Erukainure; Funmi Olabisi Kayode; Olubanke Adetutu Adeyoju; Sunday Oluwaseun Adenekan; Godfrey Asieba; Atinuke Ajayi; Mosebolatan Victoria Adegbola; Bolanle Basirat Sarumi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the chemical properties of essential oil extracted from blends of selected Nigerian spices as well as its antioxidant protective potentials against free radicalin vitro. Methods: Essential oil was extracted from selected spices blend consisting ofMonodora myristica, Myristica fragrans, Tetrapleura tetraptera, andAframomum sceptrum using a Clevenger type apparatus. Oil obtained was subjected to phytochemical and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis as well as analyzed for antioxidant activity which covers for 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide scavenging activities and reducing property. Results: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis revealed over 50 compoundfs withα-phellandrene being the most predominant compound (27.32%), which was followed by (-)-β-bourbonene (15.78%) and 5-(1-methylethyl)-α-phellandrene (11.80%). Phytochemical analysis showed high flavonoid content and a lower phenolic content. The oil showed a dose like dependent effect on the1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide scavenging activities, these activities increased with increasing concentration. The same was also observed for the reducing power properties of the oil. Conclusions: The antioxidant activities exhibited by the essential oilin vitro signify its protective potential against free radicals. The chemical constituents,α-phellandrene in particular and the studied phytochemicals may be responsible for these effects. However,in vivo study is needed to further authenticate this potency.

  14. Identification of Novel Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Spices: A Molecular Docking and Simulation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Antony

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia in diabetic patients results in a diverse range of complications such as diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases. The role of aldose reductase (AR, the key enzyme in the polyol pathway, in these complications is well established. Due to notable side-effects of several drugs, phytochemicals as an alternative has gained considerable importance for the treatment of several ailments. In order to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dietary spices on AR, a collection of phytochemicals were identified from Zingiber officinale (ginger, Curcuma longa (turmeric Allium sativum (garlic and Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek. Molecular docking was performed for lead identification and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the dynamic behaviour of these protein-ligand interactions. Gingerenones A, B and C, lariciresinol, quercetin and calebin A from these spices exhibited high docking score, binding affinity and sustained protein-ligand interactions. Rescoring of protein ligand interactions at the end of MD simulations produced binding scores that were better than the initially docked conformations. Docking results, ligand interactions and ADMET properties of these molecules were significantly better than commercially available AR inhibitors like epalrestat, sorbinil and ranirestat. Thus, these natural molecules could be potent AR inhibitors.

  15. Inhibitory Effects of Spices on Biogenic Amine Accumulation during Fish Sauce Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuxia; Qiu, Mengting; Zhao, Dandan; Lu, Fei; Ding, Yuting

    2016-04-01

    The presence of high levels of biogenic amines is detrimental to the quality and safety of fish sauce. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of spices, including garlic, ginger, cinnamon, and star anise extracts, in reducing the accumulation of biogenic amines during fish sauce fermentation. The concentrations of biogenic amines, which include histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine, all increased during fish sauce fermentation. When compared with the samples without spices, the garlic and star anise extracts significantly reduced these increases. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the garlic ethanolic extracts. When compared with controls, the histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine contents and the overall biogenic amine levels of the garlic extract-treated samples were reduced by 30.49%, 17.65%, 26.03%, 37.20%, and 27.17%, respectively. The garlic, cinnamon, and star anise extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on aerobic bacteria counts. Furthermore, the garlic and star anise extracts showed antimicrobial activity against amine producers. These findings may be helpful for enhancing the safety of fish sauce.

  16. Identification of. gamma. -irradiated spices by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, Sadao; Kawamura, Yoko; Saito, Yukio (National Inst. of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-12-01

    The electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry spectra of white (WP), black (BP) and red (Capsicum annuum L. var. frutescerns L., RP) peppers each had a principal signal with a g-value of 2.0043, and the intensities of the principal signals were increased not only by {gamma}-irradiation but also by heating. Irradiated RP also showed a minor signal -30G from the principal one, and the intensity of the minor signal increased linearly with increasing dose from 10 to 50 kGy. Since the minor signal was observed in RP irradiated at 10 kGy and stored for one year, but did not appear either after heating or after exposure to this signal is unique to {gamma}-irradiated RP and should therefore be useful for the identification of {gamma}-irradiated spices of Capsicum genus, such as paprika and chili pepper. The computer simulation of the ESR spectra suggested that the minor signal should be assigned to methyl radical and the principal signal mainly to a combination of phenoxyl and peroxyl radicals. Such minor signals were found in {gamma}-irradiated allspice and cinnamon among 10 kinds of other spices. (author).

  17. Light-induced fading of the PSL signal from irradiated herbs and spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, A.; Corda, U.; Fuochi, P.; Bortolin, E.; Calicchia, A.; Onori, S.

    2007-08-01

    Reliability of the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique, as screening method for irradiated food identification, has been tested with three kinds of herbs and spices (oregano, red pepper and fennel), prepared in two different ways (granular: i.e. seeds and flakes, or powdered), over a long period of storage with different light exposures. The irradiated samples kept in the dark gave always a positive response (the sample is correctly classified as "irradiated") for the overall examination period. The samples kept under ambient light conditions, in typical commercial glass containers, exhibited a reduction of the PSL signal, more or less pronounced depending on the type of food and packaging. The different PSL response of the irradiated samples is to be related to the quantity and quality of the mineral debris present in the individual food. It was also found that, for the same type of food, the light-induced fading was much stronger for the flaked and seed samples than for the corresponding powder samples, the penetrating capability of light being much more inhibited in powdered than in whole seeds or flaked form samples. The observed light bleaching of the PSL signal in irradiated herbs and spices is of practical relevance since it may lead to false negative classifications.

  18. Antioxidant and chemical properties of essential oil extracted from blend of selected spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochuko Lucky Erukainure

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the chemical properties of essential oil extracted from blends of selected Nigerian spices as well as its antioxidant protective potentials against free radical in vitro. Methods: Essential oil was extracted from selected spices blend consisting of Monodora myristica, Myristica fragrans, Tetrapleura tetraptera, and Aframomum sceptrum using a Clevenger type apparatus. Oil obtained was subjected to phytochemical and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis as well as analyzed for antioxidant activity which covers for 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide scavenging activities and reducing property. Results: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis revealed over 50 compoundfs with α-phellandrene being the most predominant compound (27.32%, which was followed by (--β-bourbonene (15.78% and 5-(1-methylethyl-α-phellandrene (11.80%. Phytochemical analysis showed high flavonoid content and a lower phenolic content. The oil showed a dose like dependent effect on the1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide scavenging activities, these activities increased with increasing concentration. The same was also observed for the reducing power properties of the oil. Conclusions: The antioxidant activities exhibited by the essential oil in vitro signify its protective potential against free radicals. The chemical constituents, α-phellandrene in particular and the studied phytochemicals may be responsible for these effects. However, in vivo study is needed to further authenticate this potency.

  19. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.: A promising spice for phytochemical and pharmacological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric (Curcuma longa is a small rhizomatous perennial herb belonging to Zingiberaceae family originating from South-Eastern Asia, most probably from India. The plant produces fleshy rhizomes of bright yellow to orange colour in its root system, which are the source of the commercially available spice turmeric. In the form of root powder, turmeric is used for its flavouring properties as a spice, food preservative and food-colouring agent. Turmeric has a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine as it is credited with a variety of important beneficial properties. Turmeric constituents include the three curcuminoids: Curcumin (diferuloylmethane; the primary constituent and the one responsible for its vibrant yellow colour, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, as well as volatile oils (tumerone, atlantone and zingiberone, sugars, proteins and resins. Several studies using the modern techniques have authenticated turmeric used as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-fertility, anticancer, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, anti-venom, anti hepato-toxic, nephroprotective, anticoagulant, etc., Most importantly, the plant has shown to possess anti HIV activity which could be of great value to combat AIDS particularly in third world countries. In this present work, we make an overview of the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of turmeric, showing its importance.

  20. Commercial spices and industrial ingredients: evaluation of antioxidant capacity and flavonoids content for functional foods development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Roquim Alezandro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate spices and industrial ingredients for the development of functional foods with high phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity. Basil, bay, chives, onion, oregano, parsley, rosemary, turmeric and powdered industrial ingredients (β-carotene, green tea extract, lutein, lycopene and olive extract had their in vitro antioxidant capacity evaluated by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity and DPPH scavenging ability. Flavonoids identification and quantification were performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The results showed that spices presented a large variation in flavonoids content and in vitro antioxidant capacity, according to kind, brand and batches. Oregano had the highest antioxidant capacity and parsley had the highest flavonoid content. The industrial ingredient with the highest antioxidant capacity was green tea extract, which presented a high content of epigalocatechin gallate. Olive extract also showed a high antioxidant activity and it was a good source of chlorogenic acid. This study suggests that oregano, parsley, olive and green tea extract have an excellent potential for the development of functional foods rich in flavonoids as antioxidant, as long as the variability between batches/brands is controlled.

  1. Antioxidant activity of a salt-spice-herbal mixture against free radical induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Kavithalakshmi S; Narasimhan, Madhusudhanan; Shanmugasundaram, K Radha; Shanmugasundaram, E R B

    2006-04-21

    A combination of spices (Piper nigrum, Piper longum and Zingiber officinale), herbs (Cyperus rotundus and Plumbago zeylanica) and salts make up Amrita Bindu. The study was focused to evaluate the antioxidant property of individual ingredients in Amrita Bindu against the free radical 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS). The analysis revealed the antioxidant potential of the ingredients in the following order: Piper nigrum>Piper longum>Cyperus rotundus>Plumbago zeylanca>Zingiber officinale. Two different experiments were designed. In experiment I, rats were fed with normal diet whereas in experiment II rats were given feed mixed with Amrita Bindu for 3 weeks (4 g/kg of feed). Rats from both experimental groups were challenged against a single intraperitonial injection of phenylhydrazine (PHZ) (7.5 mg/kg body weight). At the end of 24 and 72 h, blood was analysed for free radicals and antioxidant levels. It was interesting to note that rats with Amrita Bindu pretreatment showed significantly lower levels of free radicals, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls along with significantly higher levels of antioxidants when compared with rats without Amrita Bindu pretreatment on PHZ administration. These results reveal that Amrita Bindu, a salt-spice-herbal mixture exerts a promising antioxidant potential against free radical induced oxidative damage.

  2. Integrated design and synthesis of smart material systems: an overview of the ARPA SPICES program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jack H.

    1995-05-01

    The Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures (SPICES) program is comprised of a consortium of industrial, academic and government labs to develop cost effective material processing and synthesis technologies to enable new products using active vibration suppression and control devices to be brought to market. Each team member possesses a specialty in the area of smart structures which has been focused towards the development of several actively controlled smart material systems. Since smart structures involve the integration of multiple engineering disciplines, it is the objective of the consortium to establish cost effective design processes between this multiorganizational team for future incorporation of this new technology into each members respective product lines. To accomplish this task, the disciplines of materials, manufacturing, analytical modeling, actuation, sensing, signal processing, and control had to be synthesized into a unified approach between all ten consortium members. The process developed for intelligent structural systems can truly be classified as multiorganization/multidiciplined Integrated Product Development. This process is described in detail as it applies to the SPICES development articles and smart material fabrication in general.

  3. Antimicrobial effectiveness of spices: an approach for use in food conservation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Leite de Souza

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been constant an increasing the search alternative and efficient compounds for food conservation, aiming a partial or total replacement of antimicrobial chemical additives. Spices offer a promising alternative for food safety. Inhibitory activity of spices and derivatives on the growth of bacteria, yeasts, fungi and microbial toxins synthesis has been well reported, so they could be used in food conservation as main or as adjuvant antimicrobial compounds in order to assure the production of microbiologically stable foods.Tem sido constante e crescente a busca por alternativos e eficientes compostos para conservação de total ou parcial substituição de aditivos antimicrobianos químicos tem sido crescente. As especiarias oferecem uma promissora alternativa para a segurança microbiana de alimentos. A atividade inibitória das especiarias e seus produtos derivados sobre o crescimento de bactérias, leveduras, fungos filamentosos e síntese de toxinas microbianas tem sido bem relatada, desta forma as especiarias poderiam ser utilizadas na conservação de alimentos como principais ou co-adjuvantes compostos antimicrobianos com vistas em assegurar a produção de alimentos microbiologicamente estáveis.

  4. Electromagnetic modelling of conductive or superconductive microstrip lines using spice as electromagnetic solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Thanh Vu; Cabon, Béatrice; Daoud, Nahla; Chilo, Jean

    1992-11-01

    This paper presents a simple and efficient method for calculating the propagating line parameters (actually, a microstrip one) and its magnetic fields, by simulating an original equivalent circuit with an electrical nodal simulator (SPICE). The losses in the normal conducting line (due to DC losses and to skin effect losses) and also in the superconducting one can be investigated. This allows us to integrate the electromagnetic solutions to the CAD softwares. Dans ce papier, une méthode simple et efficace pour calculer les paramètres de propagation d'une ligne microruban et les champs magnétiques qu'elle engendre est présentée; pour cela, nous simulons un circuit original équivalent à l'aide du simulateur nodal SPICE. Les pertes dans une ligne conductrice (pertes continues et par effet de peau) ainsi que dans une ligne supraconductrice peuvent être considérées. Les solutions électromagnétiques peuvent être intégrées dans les simulateurs de CAO.

  5. The effect of Ad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小艳

    2010-01-01

    There is the trend that now people appreciate those who are slim and regard slim even thin people beautiful. The thinner a person is, the more beautiful. Women, born to pursuit beauty, try various means to follow the trend. We all watch TV, and find a lot of advertisements on diet. The effect of them is tremendous. We all know the fact that it is not at all the better mouse trap will catch mouse. The sales methods are more important. If an advertisement is very interesting and seemingly effective, people will be lured by the ad and then try some of the products.

  6. Management job ads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The article asks whether it is not the responsibility of corporations to address the issue of women being underrepresented in Danish management jobs. In other words, it is argued that corporations should be encouraged to engage more actively in the recruitment of both men and women for management...... that this agreement reflects a high degree of conservatism in the system where men enjoy a considerable advantage and where procedures that ensure male dominance are perpetuated even in the linguistic and discursive construction of job ads....

  7. Value-Added Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolfs Bems; Robert C. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    This paper updates the conceptual foundations for measuring real effective exchange rates (REERs) to allow for vertical specialization in trade. We derive a value-added REER describing how demand for the value added that a country produces changes as the price of its value added changes relative to competitors. We then compute this index for 42 countries from 1970-2009 using trade measured in value added terms and GDP deflators. There are substantial differences between value-added and conven...

  8. An $xp$ model on $AdS_2$ spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Molina-Vilaplana, Javier

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we formulate the $xp$ model on the AdS$_2$ spacetime. We find that the spectrum of the Hamiltonian has positive and negative eigenvalues, equal in magnitude, given by a harmonic oscillator with a zero point energy parameterized by the AdS radius, measured in units of a fundamental length of the model. We also construct the generators of the isometry group SO(2,1) of the AdS$_2$ spacetime, and discuss the relation with conformal quantum mechanics.

  9. Review on - Recent Trends in Isolation of Antioxidantsfrom Spices and its Biological Effects ofEssential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Allwyn Sundar Raj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Spices played a dramatic role in civilization andin the history of nations. The delightful flavour and pungency of spices make them indispensable in the preparation of palatable dishes. In addition, they are reputed to possess several medicinal and pharmacological properties and hence find position in the preparation of a number of medicines. Antioxidant compounds in food play important roles as health-protecting factors. Antioxidants are also widely used as additives infats and oils and in food processing to prevent or delay spoilage of foods. Spices and some herbs have received increased attention as sources of many effective antioxidants.Since the middle ages, essential oils have been widely used for bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, antiparasitical, insecticidal, medicinal and cosmetic applications, especially nowadays in pharmaceutical, sanitary, cosmetic, agricultural and food industries. Because of the mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes and terpenoids, phenol-derived aromatic components and aliphatic components. In vitro physicochemical assays characterise most of them as antioxidants. This review presents some information about the most common and most-used spice antioxidants and its essential oils, biological effects and describes their isolation of antioxidant properties. Keywords:

  10. Mycobiota and Natural Incidence of Aflatoxins, Ochratoxin A, and Citrinin in Indian Spices Confirmed by LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punam Jeswal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine different Indian spices (red chilli, black pepper, turmeric, coriander, cumin, fennel, caraway, fenugreek, and dry ginger commonly cultivated and highly used in India were analysed for natural occurrence of toxigenic mycoflora and aflatoxins (AFs, ochratoxin A (OTA, and citrinin (CTN contamination. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were the most dominant species isolated from all types of spices. Red chilli samples were highly contaminated with aflatoxins (85.4% followed by dry ginger (77.7%. 56% Aspergillus flavus from red chilli and 45% Aspergillus ochraceus from black pepper were toxigenic and produced aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, respectively. Qualitative detection and quantitative detection of mycotoxins in spices were analyzed by ELISA and further confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Penicillium citrinum produced citrinin in red chilli, black pepper, coriander, cumin, fenugreek, and dry ginger samples. The highest amount of AFs was found in red chilli (219.6 ng/g, OTA was in black pepper (154.1 ng/g, and CTN was in dry ginger samples (85.1 ng/g. The results of this study suggest that the spices are susceptible substrate for growth of mycotoxigenic fungi and further mycotoxin production. This is the first report of natural occurrence of citrinin in black pepper and dry ginger from India.

  11. LC-PDA-ESI/MS Identification of the Phenolic Components of Three Compositae Spices: Chamomile, Tarragon, and Mexican Arnica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) and Mexican arnica (Heterotheca inuoides) are common compositae spices and herbs found in the US market. They contain flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates that are potentially beneficial to human health. A standardized LC-PDA-ESI...

  12. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chuan Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy-efficient configuration of multihop paths with automatic repeat request (ARQ mechanism in wireless ad hoc networks. We adopt a cross-layer design approach and take both the quality of each radio hop and the battery capacity of each transmitting node into consideration. Under certain constraints on the maximum tolerable transmission delay and the required packet delivery ratio, we solve optimization problems to jointly schedule the transmitting power of each transmitting node and the retransmission limit over each hop. Numerical results demonstrate that the path configuration methods can either significantly reduce the average energy consumption per packet delivery or considerably extend the average lifetime of the multihop route.

  13. Dressing phases of AdS3/CFT2

    CERN Document Server

    Borsato, Riccardo; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefanski, Bogdan; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3 x S3 x T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones appearing in AdS5/CFT4 and AdS4/CFT3. In the strongly-coupled regime, their leading order reduces to the universal Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase as expected. We also compute their sub-leading order and compare it with recent one-loop perturbative results, and co

  14. Dressing phases of AdS3/CFT2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Ohlsson Sax, Olof; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefański, Bogdan, Jr.; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3×S3×T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones appearing in AdS5/CFT4 and AdS4/CFT3. In the strongly coupled regime, their leading order reduces to the universal Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase as expected. We also compute their subleading order and compare it with recent one-loop perturbative results and comment on their weak-coupling expansion.

  15. Determination of Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenols of Wine and Spices: A Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulgentius Nelson Lugemwa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty eight bottles of red wine (Carbanet Sauvignon were randomly selected based on vintage, region, price, and age (number of months in a barrel. The total phenolic content of each wine was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau assay. The radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH assay. Apart from a few bottles that exhibited above average radical scavenging activity and phenolic content, there was no good correlation of those two quantities with region, price or vintage. The average phenolic amount was 2874 mg/L. The lowest phenolic content was found to be 1648 mg/L for an eight dollar wine. Wine with the highest amount of phenol of 4495 mg/L was a 2007, nine dollar bottle from South America. High amount of phenols did not translate into high radical scavenging activity. Barrel-aging did not increase the amount of phenols or the radical scavenging activity of wine. In order to discover new and potent sources of antioxidants from plants, the following spices were studied: ginger, cilantro, cumin, anise, linden, eucalyptus, marjoram, oregano, sage, thyme and rosemary. Whole spices were crushed and extracted for 96 h at room temperature using a combination of ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water in the ratio of 4.5:4.5:1 (v/v/v. The radical scavenging activity of extracts was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH assay. The total phenolic content of each spice was also determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Eucalyptus was found to be the most potent antioxidant with an LC50 of 324.1 mg of phenol/L, followed by marjoram with an LC50 of 407.5 mg of phenol/L, and rosemary with an LC50 of 414.0 mg/L. The least potent antioxidants were ginger and cilantro with LC50 of 7604 mg/L of phenol and 7876 mg of phenol/L, respectively.

  16. Chaos and hydrodynamics near AdS$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kristan

    2016-01-01

    We revisit AdS$_2$ holography with the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev models in mind. Our main result is to rewrite a generic theory of gravity near an AdS$_2$ throat as a novel hydrodynamics coupled to the correlation functions of a conformal quantum mechanics. This gives a prescription for the computation of $n$-point functions in the dual quantum mechanics. We thereby find that the dual is maximally chaotic.

  17. Quantum Field Theory and Unification in AdS5

    CERN Document Server

    Randall, Lisa; Randall, Lisa; Schwartz, Matthew D.

    2001-01-01

    We consider gauge bosons in the bulk of AdS5 in a two-brane theory that addresses the hierarchy problem. We show such a theory can be consistent with gauge coupling unification at a high scale. We discuss subtleties in this calculation and show how to regulate consistently in a bounded AdS5 background. Our regularization is guided by the holographic dual of the calculation.

  18. Preconcentration and determination of iron and copper in spice samples by cloud point extraction and flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Cigdem Arpa, E-mail: carpa@hacettepe.edu.tr [Hacettepe University, Chemistry Department, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Tokgoez, Ilknur; Bektas, Sema [Hacettepe University, Chemistry Department, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-09-15

    A flow injection (FI) cloud point extraction (CPE) method for the determination of iron and copper by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) has been improved. The analytes were complexed with 3-amino-7-dimethylamino-2-methylphenazine (Neutral Red, NR) and octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114) was added as a surfactant. The micellar solution was heated above 50 {sup o}C and loaded through a column packed with cotton for phase separation. Then the surfactant-rich phase was eluted using 0.05 mol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and the analytes were determined by FAAS. Chemical and flow variables influencing the instrumental and extraction conditions were optimized. Under optimized conditions for 25 mL of preconcentrated solution, the enrichment factors were 98 and 69, the limits of detection (3s) were 0.7 and 0.3 ng mL{sup -1}, the limits of quantification (10s) were 2.2 and 1.0 ng mL{sup -1} for iron and copper, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for ten replicate measurements of 10 ng mL{sup -1} iron and copper were 2.1% and 1.8%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of iron and copper in spice samples.

  19. Marine Carbon-Sulfur Biogeochemical Cycles during the Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) in the Jiangnan Basin, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Peng; Yongbo Peng; Xianguo Lang; Haoran Ma; Kangjun Huang; Fangbing Li; Bing Shen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Global occurrences of Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) during Late Cambrian recorded a significant perturbation in marine carbon cycle, and might have had profound impacts on the biological evolution. In previous studies, SPICE has been reported from the Jiangnan slope belt in South China. To evaluate the bathymetric extent of SPICE, we investigate the limestone samples from the upper Qingxi Formation in the Shaijiang Section in the Jiangnan Basin. Our results show the positive excursions for both carbonate carbon (δ13C) and organic carbon (δ13Corg) isotopes, as well as the concurrent positive shifts in sulfur isotopes of carbonate associated sulfate (CAS, δ34SCAS) and pyrite (δ34Spyrite), unequivocally indicating the presence of SPICE in the Jiangnan Basin. A 4‰increase inδ13Ccarb of the Qingxi limestone implies the increase of the relative flux of organic carbon burial by a factor of two. Concurrent positive excursions inδ34SCAS andδ34Spyrite have been attributed to the enhanced pyrite burial in oceans with extremely low concentration and spatially heterogeneous isotopic composition of seawater sulfate. Here, we propose that the seawater sulfur isotopic heterogeneity can be generated by volatile organic sulfur compound (VOSC, such as methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide) formation in sulfidic continental margins that were widespread during SPICE. Emission of 32S-enriched VOSC in atmosphere, followed by lateral transportation and aerobic oxidation in atmosphere, and precipitation in open oceans result in a net flux of 32S from continental margins to open oceans, elevatingδ34S of seawater sulfate in continental margins. A simple box model indicates that about 35%to 75%of seawater sulfate in continental margins needs to be transported to open oceans via VOSC formation.

  20. Spore prevalence and toxigenicity of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from U.S. retail spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariram, Upasana; Labbé, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    Recent incidents of foodborne illness associated with spices as the vehicle of transmission prompted this examination of U.S. retail spices with regard to Bacillus cereus. This study focused on the levels of aerobic-mesophilic spore-forming bacteria and B cereus spores associated with 247 retail spices purchased from five states in the United States. Samples contained a wide range of aerobic-mesophilic bacterial spore counts ( 10(7) CFU/g). Using a novel chromogenic agar, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis spores were isolated from 77 (31%) and 11 (4%) samples, respectively. Levels of B. cereus were thuringiensis isolates possessed at least one type of enterotoxin gene: HBL (hemolysin BL) or nonhemolytic enterotoxin (NHE). None of the 88 isolates obtained in this study possessed the emetic toxin gene (ces). Using commercially available immunological toxin detection kits, the toxigenicity of the isolates was confirmed. The NHE enterotoxin was expressed in 98% of B. cereus and 91% of B. thuringiensis isolates that possessed the responsible gene. HBL enterotoxin was detected in 87% of B. cereus and 100% of B. thuringiensis PCR-positive isolates. Fifty-two percent of B. cereus and 54% of B. thuringiensis isolates produced both enterotoxins. Ninety-seven percent of B. cereus isolates grew at 12°C, although only two isolates grew well at 9°C. The ability of these spice isolates to form spores, produce diarrheal toxins, and grow at moderately abusive temperatures makes retail spices an important potential vehicle for foodborne illness caused by B. cereus strains, in particular those that produce diarrheal toxins.

  1. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for azoxystrobin in lettuce, spinach, celery, cardoon, spices and rhubarb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, France received an application from the company Syngenta Agro SAS to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance azoxystrobin in lettuce, spinach, celery and cardoon. In order to accommodate for the intended use of azoxystrobin, France proposed to raise the existing MRLs to 15 mg/kg for spinach and similar, lettuces and other salad plants, celery and cardoon. Germany received an application from the plant protection service Landesamt für Landwirtschaft, Forsten und Gartenbau des Landes Sachesen-Anhalt to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance azoxystrobin in spices. In order to accommodate for the intended use Germany proposed to raise the existing MRLs to 0.3 mg/kg for spices/seeds and spices/fruits and berries. Belgium compiled an application to modify the existing MRL for the azoxystrobin in rhubarb. In order to accommodate for the intended use Belgium proposed to raise the existing MRLs to 0.5 mg/kg. France, Germany and Belgium drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals for lettuce, spinach and similar, cardoon, celery, rhubarb and spices. For other crops belonging to the group of lettuce and other salad plants the data were not sufficient to propose a MRL. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of azoxystrobin on the commodities under consideration at the validated LOQ of 0.01 mg/kg. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of azoxystrobin on lettuce, spinach, celery, cardoon, spices and rhubarb will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  2. Supersymmetry of AdS and flat IIB backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2015-02-01

    We present a systematic description of all warped AdS n × w M 10- n and IIB backgrounds and identify the a priori number of supersymmetries N preserved by these solutions. In particular, we find that the AdS n backgrounds preserve for n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 6 supersymmetries and for suitably restricted. In addition under some assumptions required for the applicability of the maximum principle, we demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n backgrounds can be identified with the zero modes of Dirac-like operators on M 10- n establishing a new class of Lichnerowicz type theorems. Furthermore, we adapt some of these results to backgrounds with fluxes by taking the AdS radius to infinity. We find that these backgrounds preserve for 2 < n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 7 supersymmetries. We also demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n × w M 10- n do not factorize into Killing spinors on AdS n and Killing spinors on M 10- n .

  3. Effects of culinary spices and psychological stress on postprandial lipemia and lipase activity: results of a randomized crossover study and in vitro experiments

    OpenAIRE

    McCrea, Cindy E.; West, Sheila G.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Lambert, Joshua D.; Gaugler, Trent L; Teeter, Danette L.; Sauder, Katherine A.; Gu, Yeyi; Glisan, Shannon L; Skulas-Ray, Ann C

    2015-01-01

    Background Data suggest that culinary spices are a potent, low-calorie modality for improving physiological responses to high fat meals. In a pilot study (N = 6 healthy adults), we showed that a meal containing a high antioxidant spice blend attenuated postprandial lipemia by 30% compared to a low spice meal. Our goal was to confirm this effect in a larger sample and to consider the influence of acute psychological stress on fat metabolism. Further, we used in vitro methods to evaluate the in...

  4. Biorefining of by-product streams from sunflower-based biodiesel production plants for integrated synthesis of microbial oil and value-added co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva-Candia, D E; Tsakona, S; Kopsahelis, N; García, I L; Papanikolaou, S; Dorado, M P; Koutinas, A A

    2015-08-01

    This study focuses on the valorisation of crude glycerol and sunflower meal (SFM) from conventional biodiesel production plants for the separation of value-added co-products (antioxidant-rich extracts and protein isolate) and for enhancing biodiesel production through microbial oil synthesis. Microbial oil production was evaluated using three oleaginous yeast strains (Rhodosporidium toruloides, Lipomyces starkeyi and Cryptococcus curvatus) cultivated on crude glycerol and nutrient-rich hydrolysates derived from either whole SFM or SFM fractions that remained after separation of value-added co-products. Fed-batch bioreactor cultures with R. toruloides led to the production of 37.4gL(-1) of total dry weight with a microbial oil content of 51.3% (ww(-1)) when a biorefinery concept based on SFM fractionation was employed. The estimated biodiesel properties conformed with the limits set by the EN 14214 and ASTM D 6751 standards. The estimated cold filter plugging point (7.3-8.6°C) of the lipids produced by R. toruloides is closer to that of biodiesel derived from palm oil.

  5. Inhibition of microbial growth by spice extracts and their effect of irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Meixu, G. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1994-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of black pepper, rosemary and red pepper has been tested against 12 microorganisms. Alcoholic extracts of these spices were not exhibited strong activity against gram-negative bacteria in laboratory media. The growth of Bacillus subtilis and Clostridium botulinum type A was inhibited by 1% of black pepper, 0.5% rosemary and 0.03% red pepper. A little reduction of antimicrobial activity to B. subtilis was observed on extracts of gamma-irradiated black pepper or rosemary at 10 and 50 kGy. In the case of red pepper, irradiation of 10 or 50 kGy enhanced a little of antimicrobial activity to B. subtilis. Similar effect of irradiation was also observed on the inhibition of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus in SL broth. (author).

  6. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) – A promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Policegoudra; S M Aradhya; L Singh

    2011-09-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view.

  7. Combined effects of gamma-irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging on quality of some spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkin, Celale; Mitrevski, Blagoj; Gunes, Gurbuz; Marriott, Philip J

    2014-07-01

    Thyme (Thymus vidgaris L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) in ground form were packaged in either air or 100% N2 and γ-irradiated at 3 different irradiation levels (7kGy, 12kGy, 17kGy). Total viable bacterial count, yeast and mould count, colour, essential oil yield and essential oil composition were determined. Microbial load was not detectable after 12kGy irradiation of all samples. Irradiation resulted in significant changes in colour values of rosemary and black pepper. The discolouration of the irradiated black pepper was lower in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) compared to air packaging. Essential oil yield of irradiated black pepper and cumin was lower in air packaging compared to MAP. Gamma-irradiation generally decreased monoterpenes and increased oxygenated compounds, but the effect was lower in MAP. Overall, spices should be irradiated under an O2-free atmosphere to minimise quality deterioration.

  8. Determination of antioxidant activity of spices and their active principles by differential pulse voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Alberto; Ruiz Montoya, Mercedes; Arteaga, Jesús F; Rodríguez Mellado, Jose M

    2014-01-22

    The anodic oxidation of mercury in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to determine the antioxidant (AO) character of radical scavengers. Hydroperoxide radical is formed at the potentials of the oxidation peak on mercury electrodes, such radical reacting with the antioxidants in different extension. The parameter C10 (antioxidant concentration at which the peak area decreases by 10%) is used to measure the scavenging activity of the individual antioxidants. To establish the scavenging activity of antioxidant mixtures as a whole, the parameter, μ10 as the reverse of V10, V10 being the volume necessary to decrease the peak area in DPV by 10%, was selected. Higher μ10 values correspond to higher scavenging activity. The studies have been extended to aqueous extracts of some species. The results may be useful in explaining the effect of spices in vitro and in vivo studies.

  9. Variety Is the Spice of Life,And Key to a Healthy Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈法临

    2000-01-01

    选注者言:本文的标题新颖独到。Spice的本义是“调味品”。Variety(变化)既是生活的Spice,又是Healthy Diet(健康食品)之关键(Key)。我们是否可以将这个标题译成:生活多变有滋味食品求杂得健康。“变”和“杂”是生活丰富、食品健康之魂。读者朋友,你是否体验到下句中的介词短语(regardless of…)的强调力量: Overall, a diverse diet appeared to lower the risk of developing colon cancer by35% in men and by 15% in women regardless of exercise, body mass index, familyhistory of colorectal cancer, or alcohol consumption.

  10. ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF VOLATILE OIL ISOLATED FROM SOME TRADITIONAL INDIAN SPICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuyan Anupam

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the antimicrobial activity of Volatile Oils isolated from Traditional Indian Spices, Anethum Graveolens (Umbelliferae, Foeniculum Vulgare (Umbelliferae and Coriandrum Sativum (Umbelliferae were studied. The isolated Volatile Oils in varying concentrations were studied against Staphylococcus Coagulase, E.Coli, Streptococcus fecaelis and Staphylococcus aureus, by paper disc diffusion method, using Amoxicillin as standard drug.The results indicated that all the Volatile Oil samples from Anethum Graveolens (Dill, Foeniculum Vulgare (Fennel and Coriandrum Sativum (Coriender has antimicrobial potential and were active against almost all the microorganisms but in a dose dependent manner. Foeniculum Vulgare by far was the most potent volatile oil showing the highest activity against Staphylococcus Coagulase.

  11. Labrador tea--the aromatic beverage and spice: a review of origin, processing and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampc, Anna; Luczkiewicz, Maria

    2015-06-01

    Labrador tea is a name for the dried leaves of Rhododendron groenlandicum, R. tomentosum or R. neoglandulosum (family Ericaceae, previously genus Ledum) as well as for the beverage native to North America, which is made from them. The above species are rich in the essential oil, which gives a conifer aroma to the tisane. Labrador tea is a valuable source of ascorbic acid, with tonic, improving digestion and relaxing activity. However, this beverage should not be drunk more than once daily because of the ledol and grayanotoxin toxicity. The common recipe for making Labrador tea is to add one teaspoonful of dried leaves to one cup of boiling water and to brew for 5 min. It is often sweetened or enriched with other flavors. Additionally, Labrador tea dried leaves are used to spice meat, soups, sauces, salads, beer, cakes and other dishes. In agriculture, its insecticidal properties can be useful for controlling pests.

  12. Pungent spices, ground red pepper, and synthetic capsaicin as onion fly ovipositional deterrents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, R S; Keller, J E; Miller, J R

    1989-02-01

    In laboratory choice experiments, the spices dill, paprika, black pepper, chili powder, ginger, and red pepper deterredDelia antiqua oviposition by 88-100%. Dose-response choice tests demonstrated that 1 mg of ground cayenne pepper (GCP) placed within 1 cm of artificial onion foliage reduced oviposition by 78%. A synthetic analog of capsaicin, the principal flavor ingredient of red peppers, deterred oviposition by 95% when present at 320 ppm in the top centimeter of sand (the ovipositional substrate). However, in no-choice conditions 10 mg GCP was not an effective deterrent. Sevana Bird Repellent and Agrigard Insect Repellent both use red pepper as a principal ingredient; at recommended field rates, neither of these materials was an effective ovipositional deterrent either in laboratory or field. Capsaicin-based materials do not appear to be candidates for onion maggot control via behavioral modification.

  13. Photostimulated luminescence detection and radiation effects on cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) spice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcazzó, J; Sanchez-Barrera, C E; Urbina-Zavala, A; Cruz-Zaragoza, E

    2015-10-01

    The increase of disease borne pathogens in foods has promoted the use of new technologies in order to eliminate these pathogen microorganisms and extend the shelf-life of the foodstuffs. In particular, Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) contains an important number of pathogen microorganisms and it is frequently sterilized by gamma radiation. However, it is important to develop the detection methods for irradiated food in order to keep the dose control and also to analyze the radiation effects in their chemical property. This work reports (i) the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) detection of irradiated cinnamon and thermoluminescence (TL) detection of the inorganic polymineral fraction separated from this spice, and (ii) the proximate chemical analysis carried out on fat, protein and dietetic fiber contents. The detection limits using the PSL and TL methods were 500 Gy and 10 Gy, respectively, and the fat content was increased significantly with the gamma dose that could be related to the lipid oxidation in the cinnamon.

  14. Action growth for AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Ruan, Shan-Ming; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Recently a Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture has been proposed, which relates the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state to the action of a Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk. In this paper we further investigate the duality conjecture for stationary AdS black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is supposed to be dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general D-dimensional Reissner-Nordström (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a universal formula for the action growth expressed in terms of some thermodynamical quantities associated with the outer and inner horizons of the AdS black holes. And we leave the conjecture unchanged that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  15. Marijuana, Spice 'herbal high', and early neural development: implications for rescheduling and legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychoyos, Delphine; Vinod, K Yaragudri

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug by pregnant women in the world. In utero exposure to Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC), a major psychoactive component of marijuana, is associated with an increased risk for anencephaly and neurobehavioural deficiencies in the offspring, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disabilities, and memory impairment. Recent studies demonstrate that the developing central nervous system (CNS) is susceptible to the effects of Δ⁹-THC and other cannabimimetics, including the psychoactive ingredients of the branded product 'Spice' branded products. These exocannabinoids interfere with the function of an endocannabinoid (eCB) system, present in the developing CNS from E12.5 (week 5 of gestation in humans), and required for proliferation, migration, and differentiation of neurons. Until recently, it was not known whether the eCB system is also present in the developing CNS during the initial stages of its ontogeny, i.e. from E7.0 onwards (week 2 of gestation in humans), and if so, whether this system is also susceptible to the action of exocannabinoids. Here, we review current data, in which the presence of an eCB system during the initial stage of development of the CNS is demonstrated. Furthermore, we focus on recent advances on the effect of canabimimetics on early gestation. The relevance of these findings and potential adverse developmental consequences of in utero exposure to 'high potency' marijuana, Spice branded products and/or cannabinoid research chemicals during this period is discussed. Finally, we address the implication of these findings in terms of the potential dangers of synthetic cannabinoid use during pregnancy, and the ongoing debate over legalization of marijuana.

  16. Heterocyclic aromatic amines in deep fried lamb meat: The influence of spices marination and sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Jinap; Iqbal, Shahzad Zafar; Talib, Nur Hafiza; Hasnol, N D S

    2016-03-01

    The present study was focused to investigate the effect of selected spices (turmeric, torch ginger, lemongrass and curry leaves) on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HCAs, IQx, MeIQ, MeIQx, DiMeIQx, IQ, harman, norharman, and AαC) in deep fried lamb meat. Meat samples were marinated with optimized levels of turmeric (4 %), 10 % each of torch ginger, lemon grass, curry leaves at medium (70 °C) and well done (80 °C) doneness temperatures. The concentration of HCAs in deep fried meat samples were analysed using LC-MS/MS technique. The results revealed that torch ginger (10 %) has reduced 74.8 % of Me1Qx (1.39 to 0.35 ng/g) at medium doneness, followed by the 64.7 % reduction, using curry leaves and turmeric at medium degree of doneness. Torch ginger has reduced 86.6 % of AαC (2.59 to 0.40 ng/g) at well done doneness. The most prevalence level of HCAs was found in deep fried meat i.e. DiMeIQ (3.69 ng/g) at well done doneness. The sensory evaluation, using a 7 point hedonic test design for colour and texture in deep fried meat samples were resulted in a preferred color of golden brown and slightly tough texture. The use of local spices in marinating of deep fried lamb meat samples will certainly inhibit/reduce the level of these toxic and harmful HCAs.

  17. Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Content of Some Spices and Herbs under Saudi Arabia Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Mohammed Al-Jasass

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%, black pepper (5.34% and fenugreek (4.51% seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black pepper contain higher protein contents ranging from 26.61 to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91% and clove (6.9%. Crude fiber and ash content ranged from 6.36 to 23.6% and from 3.57 to 7.1%, respectively. All seeds contain high levels of potassium (ranging from 383 to 823 mg/100g, followed by calcium (ranging from 75 to 270 mg/100g, Magnesium (ranged from 42 to 102 mg/100g and iron (ranged from 20.5 to 65 mg/100g. However, zinc, manganese and copper were found at low levels. The major fatty acids in cress and mustard were linolenic acid (48.43% and erucic acid (29.81%, respectively. The lenoleic acid was the major fatty acid in black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove oils being 68.07%, 34.85%, 33.03% and 44.73%, respectively. Total unsaturated fatty acids were 83.24, 95.62, 86.46, 92.99, 81.34 and 87.82% for cress, mustard, black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove, respectively. The differences in the results obtained are due to environmental factors, production areas, cultivars used to produce seeds and also due to the different methods used to prepare these local spices.

  18. Complexity Growth for AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-01-01

    We further investigate the Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture for stationary anti de-Sitter (AdS) black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general $D$-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Ba\\~{n}ados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a new complexity bound but leave unchanged the conjecture that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  19. AdS_5 Black Holes with Fermionic Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Burrington, B A; Sabra, W A; Burrington, Benjamin A.; Liu, James T.

    2004-01-01

    The study of new BPS objects in AdS_5 has led to a deeper understanding of AdS/CFT. To help complete this picture, and to fully explore the consequences of the supersymmetry algebra, it is also important to obtain new solutions with bulk fermions turned on. In this paper we construct superpartners of the 1/2 BPS black hole in AdS_5 using a natural set of fermion zero modes. We demonstrate that these superpartners, carrying fermionic hair, have conserved charges differing from the original bosonic counterpart. To do so, we find the R-charge and dipole moment of the new system, as well as the mass and angular momentum, defined through the boundary stress tensor. The complete set of superpartners fits nicely into a chiral representation of AdS_5 supersymmetry, and the spinning solutions have the expected gyromagnetic ratio, g=1.

  20. Constructing the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid: AdS Black holes with Dirac hair

    CERN Document Server

    \\vCubrović, Mihailo; Schalm, Koenraad

    2010-01-01

    We provide new evidence that the holographic dual to a strongly coupled charged Fermi Liquid has a non-zero fermion density in the bulk. We show that the pole-strength of the stable quasiparticle characterizing the Fermi surface is encoded in the spatially averaged AdS probability density of a single normalizable fermion wavefunction in AdS. Recalling Migdal's theorem which relates the pole strength to the Fermi-Dirac characteristic discontinuity in the number density at $\\ome_F$, we conclude that the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid is described by occupied on-shell fermionic modes in AdS. Encoding the occupied levels in the total probability density of the fermion field directly, we show that an AdS Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole in a theory with charged fermions has a critical temperature, at which the system undergoes a first-order transition to a black hole with a non-vanishing profile for the bulk fermion field. Thermodynamics and spectral analysis confirm that the solution with non-zero AdS fermion-profil...

  1. Different views of AEGIS / AD-6 Experiment (AD facility) AD-6

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    Different views of AEGIS / AD-6 Experiment (AD facility) in July of 2012. The visible parts are the positron accumulator (blue structures on top of of the antiproton extraction line) and the 5T magnet which traps the antiprotons.

  2. Global geometric properties of AdS space and the AdS/CFT correspondence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Poisson kernels and relations between them for a massive scalar field in a unit ball Bn with Hua's metric and conformal flat metric are obtained by describing the Bn as a submanifold of an (n+1)-dimensional embedding space. Global geometric properties of the AdS space are discussed. We show that the(n+1)-dimensional AdS space AdSn+1 is isomorphic to RP1×Bn and boundary of the AdS is isomorphic to RP1×Sn-1. Bulk-boundary propagator and the AdS/CFT like correspondence are demonstrated based on these global geometric properties of the RP1×Bn.

  3. Development and Preliminary Testing of a High Precision Long Stroke Slit Change Mechanism for the SPICE Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciotti, Gabriel; Humphries, Martin; Rottmeier, Fabrice; Blecha, Luc

    2014-01-01

    In the frame of ESA's Solar Orbiter scientific mission, Almatech has been selected to design, develop and test the Slit Change Mechanism of the SPICE (SPectral Imaging of the Coronal Environment) instrument. In order to guaranty optical cleanliness level while fulfilling stringent positioning accuracies and repeatability requirements for slit positioning in the optical path of the instrument, a linear guiding system based on a double flexible blade arrangement has been selected. The four different slits to be used for the SPICE instrument resulted in a total stroke of 16.5 mm in this linear slit changer arrangement. The combination of long stroke and high precision positioning requirements has been identified as the main design challenge to be validated through breadboard models testing. This paper presents the development of SPICE's Slit Change Mechanism (SCM) and the two-step validation tests successfully performed on breadboard models of its flexible blade support system. The validation test results have demonstrated the full adequacy of the flexible blade guiding system implemented in SPICE's Slit Change Mechanism in a stand-alone configuration. Further breadboard test results, studying the influence of the compliant connection to the SCM linear actuator on an enhanced flexible guiding system design have shown significant enhancements in the positioning accuracy and repeatability of the selected flexible guiding system. Preliminary evaluation of the linear actuator design, including a detailed tolerance analyses, has shown the suitability of this satellite roller screw based mechanism for the actuation of the tested flexible guiding system and compliant connection. The presented development and preliminary testing of the high-precision long-stroke Slit Change Mechanism for the SPICE Instrument are considered fully successful such that future tests considering the full Slit Change Mechanism can be performed, with the gained confidence, directly on a

  4. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans.

  5. A comprehensive study on the phenolic profile of widely used culinary herbs and spices: rosemary, thyme, oregano, cinnamon, cumin and bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Regueiro, Jorge; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Rinaldi Alvarenga, José Fernando; Leal, Leonel Neto; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M

    2014-07-01

    Herbs and spices have long been used to improve the flavour of food without being considered as nutritionally significant ingredients. However, the bioactive phenolic content of these plant-based products is currently attracting interest. In the present work, liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution/accurate mass measurement LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry was applied for the comprehensive identification of phenolic constituents of six of the most widely used culinary herbs (rosemary, thyme, oregano and bay) and spices (cinnamon and cumin). In this way, up to 52 compounds were identified in these culinary ingredients, some of them, as far as we know, for the first time. In order to establish the phenolic profiles of the different herbs and spices, accurate quantification of the major phenolics was performed by multiple reaction monitoring in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Multivariate statistical treatment of the results allowed the assessment of distinctive features among the studied herbs and spices.

  6. Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Evnin, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.

  7. Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Exact solutions to Einstein's equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution's appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.

  8. Entanglement entropy for free scalar fields in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Sugishita, Sotaro

    2016-01-01

    We compute entanglement entropy for free massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The entangling surface is a minimal surface whose boundary is a sphere at the boundary of AdS. The entropy can be evaluated from the thermal free energy of the fields on a topological black hole by using the replica method. In odd-dimensional AdS, exact expressions of the Renyi entropy S_n are obtained for arbitrary n. We also evaluate 1-loop corrections coming from the scalar fields to holographic entanglement entropy. Applying the results, we compute the leading difference of entanglement entropy between two holographic CFTs related by a renormalization group flow triggered by a double trace deformation. The difference is proportional to the shift of a central charge under the flow.

  9. Microstates at the boundary of AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, Samir D

    2011-01-01

    The bound states of the D1D5 brane system have a known gravitational description: flat asymptotics, an anti-de Sitter region, and a 'cap' ending the AdS region. We construct perturbations that correspond to the action of chiral algebra generators on Ramond ground states of D1D5 branes. Abstract arguments in the literature suggest that the perturbation should be pure gauge in the AdS region; our perturbation indeed has this structure, with the nontrivial deformation of the geometry occurring at the 'neck' between the AdS region and asymptotic infinity. This 'non-gauge' deformation is needed to provide the nonzero energy and momentum carried by the perturbation. We also suggest implications this structure may have for the majority of microstates which live at the cap.

  10. Revisiting the thermodynamic relations in AdS /CMT models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by the recent unified approach to the Smarr-like relation of anti-de Sitter (AdS) planar black holes in conjunction with the quasilocal formalism on conserved charges, we revisit the quantum statistical and thermodynamic relations of hairy AdS planar black holes. By extending the previous results, we identify the hairy contribution in the bulk and show that the holographic computation can be improved so that it is consistent with the bulk computation. We argue that the first law can be retained in its universal form and that the relation between the on-shell renormalized Euclidean action and its free energy interpretation in gravity may also be undeformed even with the hairy contribution in hairy AdS black holes.

  11. Application of microbiological method direct epifluorescence filter techique/aerobic plate count agar in the identification of irradiated herbs and spices

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Concetta Campagna; Maria Teresa Di Schiavi; Marina Foti; Maria Cristina Mosconi; Giuseppina Mattiolo; Roberta Cavallina

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation is a preservation technology used to improve the safety and hygienic quality of food. Aim of this study was to assess the applicability and validity of the microbiological screening method direct epifluorescence filter technique (DEFT)/aerobic plate count (APC) (EN 13783:2001) for the identification of irradiated herbs and spices. Tests on non-irradiated and irradiated samples of dried herbs and spices were performed. The method was based on the comparison of APC and count obtaine...

  12. Influence of ethanol concentration, addition of spices extract, and level of sweetness on physico-chemical characteristics and sensory quality of apple vermouth

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The composition of apple base wine was found to be suitable for conversion into vermouth. The spices extract contained more TSS, tannins, esters, volatile acid but lower titrable acid than apple base wine. To optimize and develop apple vermouth with different ethanol concentrations (12%, 15%, 18%), sugar content (4%, 8%) and spices extract (2.5% and 5.0%) was prepared and was evaluated. Significant differences in physico-chemical characteristics and sensory quality amongst the vermouths havin...

  13. Minimizing the total harmonic distortion for a 3 kW, 20 kHz ac to dc converter using SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollar, Louis F.; Kapustka, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the SPICE model of a transformer-rectified-filter (TRF) circuit and the Micro-CAP (Microcomputer Circuit Analysis Program) model and their application. The models were used to develop an actual circuit with reduced input current THD. The SPICE analysis consistently predicted the THD improvements in actual circuits as various designs were attempted. In an effort to predict and verify load regulation, the incorporation of saturable inductor models significantly improved the fidelity of the TRF circuit output voltage.

  14. Diffusion and Chaos from near AdS$_2$ horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Blake, Mike

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the thermal diffusivity $D = \\kappa/c_{\\rho}$ and butterfly velocity $v_B$ in holographic models that flow to AdS$_2 \\times R^{d}$ fixed points in the infra-red. We show that both these quantities are governed by the same irrelevant deformation of AdS$_2$ and hence establish a simple relationship between them. When this deformation corresponds to a universal dilaton mode of dimension $\\Delta = 2$ then this relationship is always given by $D = v_B^2/(2 \\pi T)$.

  15. An $xp$ model on $AdS_2$ spacetime

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we formulate the $xp$ model on the AdS$_2$ spacetime. We find that the spectrum of the Hamiltonian has positive and negative eigenvalues, whose absolute values are given by a harmonic oscillator spectrum, which in turn coincides with that of a massive Dirac fermion in AdS$_2$. We extend this result to generic $xp$ models which are shown to be equivalent to a massive Dirac fermion on spacetimes whose metric depend of the $xp$ Hamiltonian. Finally, we construct the generators of t...

  16. Mapping AdS to dS and back

    CERN Document Server

    Di Dato, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    We derive a map between Einstein spaces of positive and negative curvature. Starting from a space of positive curvature with some dimensions compactified on a sphere and analytically continuing the number of compact dimensions, we obtain a space of negative curvature with a compact hyperbolic subspace, and vice versa. Prime examples of such spaces are de Sitter and Anti-de Sitter space, as well as black hole spacetimes with (A)dS asymptotics and perturbed versions thereof, which play an important role in holography. This map extends work done by Caldarelli et.al., who map asymptotically AdS spaces to Ricci-flat ones. A remarkable result is that the boundary of asymptotically AdS spaces is mapped to a brane in the bulk of de Sitter, and perturbations near the AdS boundary are sourced by a stress tensor confined to this brane. We also calculate the Brown-York stress tensor for the perturbed AdS metric, which turns out to be the negative of the stress tensor on the de Sitter brane.

  17. Accurate SPICE Modeling of Poly-silicon Resistor in 40nm CMOS Technology Process for Analog Circuit Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lijie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the SPICE model of poly resistor is accurately developed based on silicon data. To describe the non-linear R-V trend, the new correlation in temperature and voltage is found in non-silicide poly-silicon resistor. A scalable model is developed on the temperature-dependent characteristics (TDC and the temperature-dependent voltage characteristics (TDVC from the R-V data. Besides, the parasitic capacitance between poly and substrate are extracted from real silicon structure in replacing conventional simulation data. The capacitance data are tested through using on-wafer charge-induced-injection error-free charge-based capacitance measurement (CIEF-CBCM technique which is driven by non-overlapping clock generation circuit. All modeling test structures are designed and fabricated through using 40nm CMOS technology process. The new SPICE model of poly-silicon resistor is more accurate to silicon for analog circuit simulation.

  18. SPICE modelling of a coupled piezoelectric-bimetal heat engine for autonomous Wireless Sensor Nodes (WSN) power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughaleb, J.; Monfray, S.; Vine, G.; Cottinet, P. J.; Arnaud, A.; Boisseau, S.; Duret, A. B.; Quenard, S.; Puscasu, O.; Maitre, C.; Trochut, S.; Hasbani, F.; Di Gilio, T.; Heinrich, V.; Urard, P.; Grasset, J. C.; Boeuf, F.; Guyomar, D.; Skotnicki, T.

    2014-11-01

    This paper deals with an electrical modelling and optimization of a thermal energy harvester dedicated to power autonomous systems. Such devices based on bimetal strips and piezoceramics turn thermal gradients into electricity by a two-step conversion mechanism. This work focuses first on a demonstration of a ST-WSN (GreenNet demonstration platform) supplied by the harvester to validate, for the first time, the harvesters viability. That demonstration focuses attention on the need for an optimized power management circuit for piezoelectric generators able to reach output voltages up to 20 V. The work deals then with the proposal of an equivalent lumped element model of the piezoelectric transducer with its SPICE implementation to enable the optimization of a dedicated power management circuit based on the Pulsed Synchronous Charge Extractor (PSCE). Simulations using the SPICE model and the power management circuit lead to an increased extracted power by 144%.

  19. Penrose inequality for asymptotically AdS spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itkin, Igor [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Oz, Yaron, E-mail: yaronoz@post.tau.ac.il [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2012-02-28

    In general relativity, the Penrose inequality relates the mass and the entropy associated with a gravitational background. If the inequality is violated by an initial Cauchy data, it suggests a creation of a naked singularity, thus providing means to consider the cosmic censorship hypothesis. We propose a general form of Penrose inequality for asymptotically locally AdS spaces.

  20. Internet Advertising. Google AdWords versus Facebook Ads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul PAŞCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how to use the applications for Internet advertising, Google AdWords and Facebook Ads. Our attempt is to present the advantages and disadvantages of each of them, the costs and benefits, a useful aspect for companies that plan to start advertising campaigns on the Internet.

  1. [Decontamination of some spices by ethylene oxide. Development of 2-chloroethanol and ethylene glycol during the preservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaigneau, M; Muraz, B

    1993-01-01

    After the disinfection by ethylene oxide and storage by ethylene oxide in definite conditions of 16 spices (parsley, chervil, tarragone, chive, thyme, rosemary, coriander, nutmeg, mace, cinnamon, allspices, clove, pepper), the authors observed the fast loss of residual ethylene oxide and ethyleneglycol. On the contrary, the persistence of 2-chloroethanol was followed up for 6 months. They turn their attention to the toxicity of this compound to ensure the protection of customers.

  2. Predicting AD conversion: comparison between prodromal AD guidelines and computer assisted PredictAD tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawu Liu

    Full Text Available To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA on MRI and CSF biomarkers.Altogether 391 MCI cases (158 AD converters were selected from the ADNI cohort. All the cases had baseline cognitive tests, MRI and/or CSF levels of Aβ1-42 and Tau. Using baseline data, the status of MCI patients (AD or MCI three years later was predicted using current diagnostic research guidelines and the PredictAD software tool designed for supporting clinical diagnostics. The data used were 1 clinical criteria for episodic memory loss of the hippocampal type, 2 visual MTA, 3 positive CSF markers, 4 their combinations, and 5 when the PredictAD tool was applied, automatically computed MRI measures were used instead of the visual MTA results. The accuracies of diagnosis were evaluated with the diagnosis made 3 years later.The PredictAD tool achieved the overall accuracy of 72% (sensitivity 73%, specificity 71% in predicting the AD diagnosis. The corresponding number for a clinician's prediction with the assistance of the PredictAD tool was 71% (sensitivity 75%, specificity 68%. Diagnosis with the PredictAD tool was significantly better than diagnosis by biomarkers alone or the combinations of clinical diagnosis of hippocampal pattern for the memory loss and biomarkers (p≤0.037.With the assistance of PredictAD tool, the clinician can predict AD conversion more accurately than the current diagnostic criteria.

  3. AdS5 backgrounds with 24 supersymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2016-06-01

    We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS 5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D = 11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS 5 × S 5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if gravitational duals for strictly mathcal{N}=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, they are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.

  4. Coset construction of AdS particle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Heinze, Martin; Megrelidze, Luka

    2016-01-01

    We analyze dynamics of the AdS$_{N+1}$ particle realized on the coset SO$(2,N)/$SO$(1,N)$. Hamiltonian reduction provides the physical phase space in terms of the coadjoint orbit obtained by boosting a timelike element of ${\\frak so}(2,N)$. We show equivalence of this approach to geometric quantization and to the SO$(N)$ covariant oscillator description, for which the boost generators entail a complicated operator ordering. As an alternative scheme, we introduce dual oscillator variables and derive their algebra at the classical and the quantum level. This simplifies the calculations of the commutators for the boost generators and leads to unitary irreducible representations of ${\\frak so}(2,N)$ for all admissible values of the mass parameter. We furthermore discuss a SO$(N)$ covariant supersymmetric extensions of the oscillator quantization, with its realization for superparticles in AdS$_2$ and AdS$_3$ given by recent works.

  5. Snowfall Measurements at a Boreal Forest Site in Saskatchewan/Canada: Contribution to WMO Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (SPICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D.

    2015-12-01

    Snowfall is important to cold region climate and hydrology including Canada. Large uncertainties and biases exist in gauge-measured precipitation datasets and products. These uncertainties affect important decision-making, water resources assessments, climate change analyses, and calibrations of remote sensing algorithms and land surface models. Efforts have been made at both the national and international levels to quantity the errors/biases in precipitation measurements, such as the WMO Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (WMO-SPICE). As part of Canada's contribution to the WMO SPICE project, a test site has been set up in the southern Canadian Boreal forest to compare the DFIR and bush gauge and test other instruments. Snowfall and meteorological data have been collected over the past 2 winters. This presentation will summarize the results of recent data analyses, evaluate the performance of various gauges for snowfall observations in the northern regions, and discuss future perspectives regarding cold/mountain region precipitation research. The methods and results of this research will improve precipitation measurements and data quality over the cold and mountain regions, directly supporting the WMO SPICE and the MOUNTerrain projects.

  6. 理想开关SPICE宏模型的设计%SPICE macro-model for ideal switches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高燕梅

    2000-01-01

    讨论了SPICE程序对于电流控制开关电路模拟的问题。模拟DC-DC转换器、大功率开关和大功率电路系统的关键在于找出SPICE程序能接受的代替开关元件,文章给出了建立理想开关SPICE宏模型的方法和多种电压控制开关、电流控制开关的子电路模型。该方法简便易懂,在电路系统的设计仿真中有良好的应用价值。%Simulation problems of current mode control switch in SPICE are discussed.Switches description by applying acceptable elements in SPICE is important for thesimulation of DC-DC converters, switching mode power supplies, and power electroniccircuits. Several methods for the construction of ideal switch in SPICE macro-model andsub-circuits models of voltage control switch and current control switch are presented. Thesemethods are simple, effective, and practical

  7. Occurrence of toxigenic fungi and determination of mycotoxins by HPLC-FLD in functional foods and spices in China markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weijun; Wei, Riwei; Logrieco, Antonio F; Wei, Jianhe; Wen, Jing; Xiao, Xiaohe; Yang, Meihua

    2014-03-01

    Twenty-four samples including 14 functional foods and 10 spices obtained from Chinese markets were examined for their mould profile. The mycotoxin contamination levels were also determined by an optimized HPLC-FLD method. 124 fungal isolates belonging to four different genera were recovered with Aspergillus and Penicillium as predominant fungi, with an incidence of 66.1% and 15.3%, respectively. In functional foods Aspergillus niger section (57.1%) was isolated more frequently, followed by Aspergillus flavi section (50.0%) and Aspergillus ochraceus section (21.4%), with the most contaminated samples being Coix seeds. Similar fungal presence and frequency were encountered in spice with A. niger section group (60.0%) and A. flavi section (40.0%) as main fungi. Cumin and Pricklyash peel samples showed the highest fungal contamination. Four functional foods and three spices were found to be positive at low levels for mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 (up to 0.26μg/kg) and ochratoxin A (OTA) (5.0μg/kg). The more frequently detected mycotoxin was AFB1 (16.7%).

  8. Improvement of the safety of the red pepper spice with FMEA and post processing EWMA quality control charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozilgen, Sibel; Bucak, Seyda; Ozilgen, Mustafa

    2013-06-01

    Although there are numerous decades-old studies drawing attention to the presence of aflatoxins in spices, and particularly in red pepper spice, the problem has not been eradicated. In the present study, information presented in the literature, about production method of red pepper spice, its contamination with aflatoxin, and the uncertainty about the data are assessed to find out the points where improvement may be achieved. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) are performed to assess the risk. The highest total risk attributable to chemical plus physical plus biological causes is associated with the washing stage (RPN=363), which is followed by the receiving (RPN=342) and the storage (RPN=342) stages. The highest risk attributable to biological causes (RPN=180) is associated with microbial growth and aflatoxin production due to insufficient control of drying conditions. The highest chemical risk (RPN=144) is found for the presence of unintentional food additives, such as pesticides, herbicides, hormones, and heavy metals in fresh red pepper fruits. EWMA (exponentially weighted average) charts are employed to monitor aflatoxin production during storage. They successfully distinguished between the batches, which turned to be unsafe. Risk associated with unintentional additives may be reduced by using certified additives only. Better drying control will definitely reduce the risk associated with the drying process. Codex Alimentarius plan has worldwide acceptance for assessing safety of the nuts. Risk of accepting the batches contaminated with aflatoxin may be eliminated by applying the Codex Alimentarius sampling plan before putting the dry pulverized red pepper into the storage facility.

  9. Synthesis and processing of intelligent cost-effective structures phase II (SPICES II): smart materials aircraft applications evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, James P.; Jacobs, Steven W.; Baumann, Erwin W.

    1998-06-01

    The second phase of the synthesis and processing of intelligent cost effective structures (SPICES II) program sought to identify high payoff areas for both naval and aerospace military systems and to evaluate military systems and to evaluate the benefits of smart materials incorporation based on their ability to redefine the mission scenario of the candidate platforms in their respective theaters of operation. The SPICES II consortium, consisting of The Boeing Company, Electric Boat Corporation, United Technologies Research Center, and Pennsylvania State University, surveyed the state-of-the-art in smart structures and evaluated potential applications to military aircraft, marine and propulsion systems components and missions. Eleven baseline platforms comprising a wide variety of missions were chosen for evaluation. Each platform was examined in its field of operation for areas which can be improved using smart materials insertion. Over 250 smart materials applications were proposed to enhance the platforms. The applications were examined and, when possible, quantitatively analyzed for their effect on mission performance. The applications were then ranked for payoff, risk, and time frame for development and demonstration. Details of the efforts made in the SPICES II program pertaining to smart structure applications on military and transport aircraft will be presented. A brief discussion of the core technologies will be followed by presentation of the criteria used in ranking each application. Thereafter, a selection of the higher ranking proposed concepts are presented in detail.

  10. Sub-AdS Scale Locality in AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Belin, Alexandre; Jefferson, Robert A; Kabir, Laurens

    2016-01-01

    We investigate sub-AdS scale locality in a weakly coupled toy model of the AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$ correspondence. We find that this simple model has the correct density of states at low and high energies to be dual to Einstein gravity coupled to matter in AdS$_3$. Bulk correlation functions also have the correct behavior at leading order in the large $N$ expansion, but non-local effects emerge at order $1/N$. Our analysis leads to the conjecture that any large $N$ CFT$_2$ that is modular invariant and has the right low-energy density of states is dual to a gravitational theory with sub-AdS scale locality.

  11. Ultraviolet asymptotics for quasiperiodic AdS_4 perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Craps, Ben; Jai-akson, Puttarak; Vanhoof, Joris

    2015-01-01

    Spherically symmetric perturbations in AdS-scalar field systems of small amplitude epsilon approximately periodic on time scales of order 1/epsilon^2 (in the sense that no significant transfer of energy between the AdS normal modes occurs) have played an important role in considerations of AdS stability. They are seen as anchors of stability islands where collapse of small perturbations to black holes does not occur. (This collapse, if it happens, typically develops on time scales of the order 1/epsilon^2.) We construct an analytic treatment of the frequency spectra of such quasiperiodic perturbations, paying special attention to the large frequency asymptotics. For the case of a self-interacting phi^4 scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, we arrive at a fairly complete analytic picture involving quasiperiodic spectra with an exponential suppression modulated by a power law at large mode numbers. For the case of dynamical gravity, the structure of the large frequency asymptotics is more complicated....

  12. Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum in AdS gravitational collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, H P; Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A; Rodrigues, E L

    2013-08-01

    We study black hole formation during the gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field in asymptotically D-dimensional anti-de Sitter AdS(D) spacetimes for D = 4, 5. We conclude that spherically symmetric gravitational collapse in asymptotically AdS spaces is turbulent and characterized by a Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum. Namely, we find that after an initial period of weakly nonlinear evolution, there is a regime where the power spectrum of the Ricci scalar evolves as ω(-s) with the frequency, ω, and s ≈ 1.7 ± 0.1.

  13. Evaluation of coriander spice as a functional food by using in vitro bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuan-Rui; Dissanayake, Amila A; Kevseroğlu, Kudret; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2015-01-15

    Coriander leaves and seeds are widely used as a condiment and spice. The use of roasted coriander seeds in food and beverage is very common. In this study, we investigated raw and roasted coriander seeds for their functional food quality using antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and human tumour cell proliferation inhibitory assays. The hexane and methanolic extracts of raw and roasted coriander seeds showed identical chromatographic and bioassay profiles. Chromatographic purification of the roasted seed extracts afforded tripetroselinin as the predominant component. Other isolates were petroselinic acid, 1,3-dipetroselinin, 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol, 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and linalool. Hexane and methanolic extracts of both raw and roasted seeds and pure isolates from them showed comparable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities to the positive controls used in the assays, and inhibited the growth of human tumour cells AGS (gastric carcinoma), DU-145 and LNCaP (prostate carcinoma), HCT-116 (colon carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast carcinoma) and NCI-H460 (lung carcinoma) by 4-34%, respectively.

  14. Survey on medicinal plants and spices used in Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelhalim A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to identify medicinal plants and spices used for medicine by the community of Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt. Methods Ethnobotanical data from local people was collected using direct interviews and a semi-structured questionnaire. Results Forty-eight plant species belonging to twenty-seven families and forty-seven genera were encountered during the study. Their botanical and vernacular names, plant parts used and medicinal uses are given. Results of the study were analyzed using two quantitative tools. The factor informant consensus indicated the agreement in the use of plants and the fidelity level indicated the ratio between the number of informants who independently suggested the use of a species for the same major purpose and the total number of informants who mentioned the plant for any use. The results of the factor informant consensus showed that the cardiovascular category has the greatest agreement, followed by the immunological, gastrointestinal and respiratory categories. The most important species according to their fidelity are: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. for the cardiovascular category; Trigonella foenum-graecum L. for the immunological category; Mentha piperita L. for the gastrointestinal category and Pimpinella anisum L. for the respiratory category. Conclusions Medicinal plants are still used for treatment in Beni-Sueif community despite the availability of prescribed medications. Documentation of this ethnomedicinal knowledge is important. Evaluation of pharmacological activity for the promising medicinal plants is suggested.

  15. Optimization of finger spacing for concentrator photovoltaic cells under non-uniform illumination using SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pratibha; Walker, Alex; Wheeldon, Jeff; Schriemer, Henry; Hinzer, Karin

    2013-10-01

    Concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) technology has come a long way, with multi-junction solar cell efficiencies now reaching up to 44.4%. Front contact grid design, crucial for improving efficiency, is typically performed for uniform illumination, but this does not account for the real world conditions of non-homogeneous irradiance distributions. In this work, we aim to optimize finger spacing for a linear grid under non-uniform illumination by using Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) analysis. A two-dimensional distributed resistance model is used to simulate a lattice matched, triple-junction solar cell whose design parameters are determined by curve-fitting current-voltage curves from each sub-cell to a two-diode equivalent-circuit model. Cell efficiency is considered to be a unimodal function that varies with finger spacing so a golden-section search optimization algorithm is used to determine the optimal spacing. Various Gaussian profiles are used to simulate non-uniform illumination and their effects on device performance. Designs based on optimal spacing for non-uniform illumination show an efficiency increase of more than 0.5% absolute at concentrations greater than 500 suns.

  16. Radiosensitivity of toxigenic Aspergillus isolated from spices and destruction of aflatoxins by gamma-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Ito, Hitoshi; Soedarman, Harsono; Ishigaki, Isao

    Radiosensitivities of Aspergillus flavus var columnaris isolated from spices were investigated. The D10 values and induction doses were 267-293 Gy and 75-165 Gy in wet conditions, respectively. In dry conditions, the survival curves were exponential and D10 values were 538-600 Gy. The survival curves of standard strain of A. parasiticus IFO 30179 were similar both in wet and dry conditions. The necessary dose of 8 kGy for the destruction of these toxigenic Aspergillus was calculated from these values. Two of 11 strains of A. flavus var columnaris produced aflatoxins and the content of B 1 was especially high. In the study of irradiation effect on aflatoxins produced on polished rice, aflatoxins G 1 and B 1 were more radiosensitive than G 2 and B 2. However, these aflatoxins were very stable to radiation and the dose required for destruction was found to be more than 500 kGy. It is therfore concluded that the decontamination of molds by irradiation is necessary prior to their production of aflatoxins.

  17. Tastes of the 'Mongrel' City: Geographies of Memory, Spice, Hospitality and Forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Duruz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines cultural fragments – local places, people’s gestures, stories, tastes, affective landscapes – to map geographies of ‘Africa’ in a historically ‘mixed’ urban Australian neighbourhood. Focusing on a small Ethiopian business, Addis Ababa Café, the article develops an analysis framed by economies of nostalgic flavours and intimations of transnational belonging. Conceptually, the article approaches the question of how different people manage the task of living together in ‘our mongrel cities’ from two directions. Firstly, it reworks Giard’s celebrations of ‘doing-cooking’ as embedded knowledge to argue that, in the postcolonial city, memories and spices together constitutes significant cultural capital for identity-based trading. Secondly, it worries at Derrida’s arguments that hospitality and forgiveness are paradoxical. Do their contradictions actually preclude productive analytical connections, even when connections are haunted by ambivalence? Commensality based on alliances of ‘others’ might question at least ethnocentric assumptions of who offers hospitality, who forgives.

  18. Relationship between total phenolic content, antioxidant potential, and antiglycation abilities of common culinary herbs and spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkissoon, Jugjeet S; Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi; Ahmed, Nessar; Subratty, Anwar H

    2012-12-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts and oxidative stress contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. The total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant, and antiglycation properties of crude ethanolic extracts of 10 common culinary herbs and spices from Mauritius were investigated in vitro. Fluorescence at 370 nm/440 nm was used as an index of albumin glycation. Allium sativum had the highest TPC (3.1 mg GAE/mL), whereas Allium cepa L. showed the highest radical scavenging capacity (72%) and Zingiber officinale had the most potent ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP; 2.99 mg AAE/mL). In contrast, Thymus vulgaris and Petroselinum crispum had the most potent antiglycation activity with IC(50) values of 21.8 and 200 mg/mL, respectively. There was no significant correlation between TPC (r=0.001), FRAP (r=0.161), and the antiglycation activity (r=0.034) for the extracts studied. Therefore, the results showed that antiglycation properties of plant-derived extracts cannot always be attributed to their phenolic content or antioxidant potential.

  19. Curcumin: An Anti-Inflammatory Molecule from a Curry Spice on the Path to Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purusotam Basnet

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage and inflammation have been pointed out in preclinical studies as the root cause of cancer and other chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, Alzheimer’s disease, etc. Epidemiological and clinical studies have suggested that cancer could be prevented or significantly reduced by treatment with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory drugs, therefore, curcumin, a principal component of turmeric (a curry spice showing strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, might be a potential candidate for the prevention and/or treatment of cancer and other chronic diseases. However, curcumin, a highly pleiotropic molecule with an excellent safety profile targeting multiple diseases with strong evidence on the molecular level, could not achieve its optimum therapeutic outcome in past clinical trials, largely due to its low solubility and poor bioavailability. Curcumin can be developed as a therapeutic drug through improvement in formulation properties or delivery systems, enabling its enhanced absorption and cellular uptake. This review mainly focuses on the anti-inflammatory potential of curcumin and recent developments in dosage form and nanoparticulate delivery systems with the possibilities of therapeutic application of curcumin for the prevention and/or treatment of cancer.

  20. Radiosensitivity of toxigenic Aspergillus isolated from spices and destruction of aflatoxins by gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Soedarman, Harsono (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Centre for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation)

    1989-01-01

    Radiosensitivities of Aspergillus flavus var columnaris isolated from spices were investigated. The D{sub 10} values and induction doses were 267-293 Gy and 75-165 Gy in wet conditions, respectively. In dry conditions, the survival curves were exponential and D{sub 10} values were 538-600 Gy. The survival curves of standard strain of A. parasiticus IFO 30179 were similar both in wet and dry conditions. The necessary dose of 8 kGy for the destruction of these toxigenic Aspergillus was calculated from these values. Two of 11 strains of A. flavus var columnaris produced aflatoxins and the content of B{sub 1} was especially high. In the study of irradiation effect on aflatoxins produced on polished rice, aflatoxins G{sub 1} and B{sub 1} were more radiosensitive than G{sub 2} and B{sub 2}. However, these aflatoxins were very stable to radiation and the dose required for destruction was found to be more than 500 kGy. It is therefore concluded that the decontamination of molds by irradiation is necessary prior to their production of aflatoxins.

  1. Studies on genetic divergence among Indian varieties of a spice herb, Coriandrum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S K; Kakani, R K; Meena, R S; Pancholy, Anjly; Pathak, Rakesh; Raturi, Aparna

    2012-07-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is an annual spice herb that belongs to umbel family Apiaceae with diversified uses. We investigated the extent of variability among 22 Indian varieties of coriander using phenotypic and genetic markers. Multilocus genotyping by nine RAPD primers detected an average of intraspecific variations amounting to 66.18% polymorphism in banding patterns. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that a greater proportion of total genetic variation exists within population (98%) rather than among populations (2%). Higher values of Nei's gene diversity (h) and Shannon Information Index (i) and genetic distance analysis validate wider genetic diversity among Indian coriander varieties. Besides total internal transcribed spacer (ITS) length variations and single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions/deletions (INDELS) were detected at seven sites in ITS-1 region. Multiple sequence alignment of 12 sequenced varieties revealed cent per cent identities of 5.8S gene region (162 bp) that validates its conserved nature. Multiple sequence alignment of ITS-1 region may be of phylogenetic significance in distinguishing and cataloguing of coriander germplasm. The representative sequences of each subgroup and all distinct varieties of RAPD clusters have been submitted to NCBI database and assigned Gen Accession numbers HQ 377194-377205. The measures of relative genetic distances among the varieties of coriander did not completely correlate the geographical places of their development. Eventually, the knowledge of their genetic relationships and DNA bar coding will be of significance.

  2. Thermodynamics of Einstein-Proca AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hai-Shan; Pope, C N

    2014-01-01

    We study static spherically-symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Proca equations in the presence of a negative cosmological constant. We show that the theory admits solutions describing both black holes and also solitons in an asymptotically AdS background. Interesting subtleties can arise in the computation of the mass of the solutions and also in the derivation of the first law of thermodynamics. We make use of holographic renormalisation in order to calculate the mass, even in cases where the solutions have a rather slow approach to the asymptotic AdS geometry. By using the procedure developed by Wald, we derive the first law of thermodynamics for the black hole and soliton solutions. This includes a non-trivial contribution associated with the Proca "charge." The solutions cannot be found analytically, and so we make use of numerical integration techniques to demonstrate their existence.

  3. Universal isolation in the AdS landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Danielsson, U H; Vargas, S C

    2016-01-01

    We study the universal conditions for quantum non-perturbative stability against bubble nucleation for pertubatively stable AdS vacua based on positive energy theorems. We also compare our analysis with the pre-existing ones in the literature carried out within the thin-wall approximation. The aforementioned criterion is then tested in two explicit examples describing massive type IIA string theory compactified on $S^3$ and $S^3\\,\\times\\,S^3$, respectively. The AdS landscape of both classes of compactifications is known to consist of a set of isolated points. The main result is that all critical points respecting the Breitenlohner-Freedaman (BF) bound also turn out be stable at a non-perturbative level. Finally, we speculate on the possible universal features that may be extracted from the above specific examples.

  4. Perturbative entanglement thermodynamics for AdS spacetime: Renormalization

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of charged excitations in the AdS spacetime on the first law of entanglement thermodynamics. It is found that `boosted' AdS black holes give rise to a more general form of first law which includes chemical potential and charge density. To obtain this result we have to resort to a second order perturbative calculation of entanglement entropy for small size subsystems. At first order the form of entanglement law remains unchanged even in the presence of charged excitations. But the thermodynamic quantities have to be appropriately `renormalized' at the second order due to the corrections. We work in the perturbative regime where $T_{thermal}\\ll T_E$.

  5. The Mixed Phase of Charged AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyabut Burikham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the mixed phase of charged AdS black hole and radiation when the total energy is fixed below the threshold to produce a stable charged black hole branch. The coexistence conditions for the charged AdS black hole and radiation are derived for the generic case when radiation particles carry charge. The phase diagram of the mixed phase is demonstrated for both fixed potential and charge ensemble. In the dual gauge picture, they correspond to the mixed phase of quark-gluon plasma (QGP and hadron gas in the fixed chemical potential and density ensemble, respectively. In the nuclei and heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies, the mixed phase of exotic QGP and hadron gas could be produced. The mixed phase will condense and evaporate into the hadron gas as the fireball expands.

  6. Note on classical string dynamics on AdS3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañados, Máximo; Ritz, Adam

    1999-12-01

    We consider bosonic strings propagating on Euclidean anti-de Sitter space (AdS3), and study in particular the realization of various worldsheet symmetries. We give a proper definition for the Brown-Henneaux asymptotic target space symmetry, when acting on the string action, and derive the Giveon-Kutasov-Seiberg worldsheet contour integral representation simply by using Noether's theorem. We show that making identifications in the target space is equivalent to the insertion of an (exponentiated) graviton vertex operator carrying the corresponding charge. Finally, we point out an interesting relation between 3D gravity and the dynamics of the worldsheet on AdS3. Both theories are described by an SL(2,C)/SU(2) Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) model, and we prove that the reduction conditions determined on one hand by worldsheet diffeomorphism invariance, and on the other by the Brown-Henneaux boundary conditions, are the same.

  7. Observing quantum gravity in asymptotically AdS space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, Slava

    2015-12-01

    The question is studied of whether an observer can discover quantum gravity in the semiclassical regime. It is shown that it is indeed possible to probe a certain quantum gravity effect by employing an appropriately designed detector. The effect is related to the possibility of having topologically inequivalent geometries in the path-integral approach at the same time. A conformal field theory (CFT) state which is expected to describe the eternal anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole in the large-N limit is discussed. It is argued under certain assumptions that the black hole boundary should be merely a patch of the entire AdS boundary. This leads then to a conclusion that that CFT state is the ordinary CFT vacuum restricted to that patch. If existent, the bulk CFT operators can behave as the ordinary semiclassical quantum field theory in the large-N limit in the weak sense.

  8. Universal isolation in the AdS landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, U. H.; Dibitetto, G.; Vargas, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    We study the universal conditions for quantum nonperturbative stability against bubble nucleation for pertubatively stable AdS vacua based on positive energy theorems. We also compare our analysis with the preexisting ones in the literature carried out within the thin-wall approximation. The aforementioned criterion is then tested in two explicit examples describing massive type IIA string theory compactified on S3 and S3×S3, respectively. The AdS landscape of both classes of compactifications is known to consist of a set of isolated points. The main result is that all critical points respecting the Breitenlohner-Freedman (BF) bound also turn out be stable at a nonperturbative level. Finally, we speculate on the possible universal features that may be extracted from the above specific examples.

  9. Smoothed Transitions in Higher Spin AdS Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Shamik; Hellerman, Simeon; Hijano, Eliot; Lepage-Jutier, Arnaud; Maloney, Alexander; Shenker, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We consider CFTs conjectured to be dual to higher spin theories of gravity in AdS_3 and AdS_4. Two dimensional CFTs with W_N symmetry are considered in the lambda=0 (k --> infinity) limit, where they are conjectured to be described by continuous orbifolds. The torus partition function is computed, using reasonable assumptions, and equals that of a free field theory. We find no phase transition at temperatures of order one; the usual Hawking-Page phase transition is removed by the highly degenerate light states associated with conical defect states in the bulk. Three dimensional Chern-Simons-matter CFTs with vector-like matter are considered on T^3, where the dynamics is described by an effective theory for the eigenvalues of the holonomies. Likewise, we find no evidence for a Hawking-Page phase transition at large level k.

  10. N=2 supersymmetric sigma-models in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Butter, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We construct the most general N=2 supersymmetric nonlinear sigma-model in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space in terms of N=1 chiral superfields. The target space is shown to be a non-compact hyperkahler manifold restricted to possess a special Killing vector field. A remarkable property of the sigma-model constructed is that the algebra of OSp(2|4) transformations is closed off the mass shell.

  11. N=2 AdS supergravity and supercurrents

    CERN Document Server

    Butter, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We consider the minimal off-shell formulation for four-dimensional N=2 supergravity with a cosmological term, in which the second compensator is an improved tensor multiplet. We use it to derive a linearized supergravity action (and its dual versions) around the anti-de Sitter (AdS) background in terms of three N=2 off-shell multiplets: an unconstrained scalar superfield, vector and tensor multiplets. This allows us to deduce the structure of the supercurrent multiplet associated with those supersymmetric theories which naturally couple to the supergravity formulation chosen, with or without a cosmological term. Finally, our linearized N=2 AdS supergravity action is reduced to N=1 superspace. The result is a sum of two N=1 linearized actions describing (i) old minimal supergravity; and (ii) an off-shell massless gravitino multiplet. We also derive dual formulations for the massless N=1 gravitino multiplet in AdS. As a by-product of our consideration, we derive the consistent supergravity extension of the N=1 ...

  12. Optimization technology of spices-smoked Scophthalmus maximus%五香型冷熏大菱鲆工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彩理; 苑德顺; 孙爱华; 李辉; 滕瑜

    2014-01-01

    大菱鲆是食疗滋补品,也是理想的保健和美容食品。本文研究了大菱鲆的冷熏加工工艺,结果表明:烟熏时间为7 h、盐度为10%、浸渍时间为18 h、五香粉浓度为1.0%时,冷熏大菱鲆色泽好、熏香浓郁、组织紧密、苯并(a)芘和肉毒梭菌的含量符合相关标准。烟熏是一种传统的集加热、熏制和干燥共同进行的复杂加工和贮藏方法,可以提高产品的风味和附加值,是值得推广的熏制技术。%Scophthalmus maximus was a kind of dietary supplement and ideal health and beauty food. The cold-smoked processing technology of Scophthalmus maximus was studied, and the results showed that the product in best taste had a better colour,thicker odour,more compact tissue,less 3,4-Benzo(a)pyrene and Clostridum botulinum in the condition of smo-king time of 7 h,salt content of 10%,pickling time of 18 h and spices content of 1.0%. The smoking,worthy of promotion,was a complex processing and storing method which joints heating,smoking and drying at the same time to raise its flavour and added value.

  13. Intellectual mobile Ad Hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sova, Oleg; Romanjuk, Valeriy; Bunin, Sergey; Zhuk, Pavlo

    2012-01-01

    In this article intellectualization of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks resources management is offered. It was proposed decomposition of the primary goal of MANET functioning into easy subgoals, and fragment of the MANET node target structure is presented.

  14. Supergravity one-loop corrections on AdS7 and AdS3, higher spins and AdS/CFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Beccaria

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As was shown earlier, the one-loop correction in 10d supergravity on AdS5×S5 corresponds to the contributions to the vacuum energy and 4d boundary conformal anomaly which are minus the values for one N=4 Maxwell supermultiplet, thus reproducing the subleading term in the N2−1 coefficient in the dual SU(N SYM theory. We perform similar one-loop computations in 11d supergravity on AdS7×S4 and 10d supergravity on AdS3×S3×T4. In the AdS7 case we find that the corrections to the 6d conformal anomaly a-coefficient and the vacuum energy are again minus the ones for one (2,0 tensor multiplet, suggesting that the total a-anomaly coefficient for the dual (2,0 theory is 4N3−9/4N−7/4 and thus vanishes for N=1. In the AdS3 case the one-loop correction to the vacuum energy or 2d central charge turns out to be equal to that of one free (4,4 scalar multiplet, i.e. is c=+6. This reproduces the subleading term in the central charge c=6(Q1Q5+1 of the dual 2d CFT describing decoupling limit of D5–D1 system. We also present the expressions for the 6d a-anomaly coefficient and vacuum energy contributions of general-symmetry higher spin field in AdS7 and consider their application to tests of vectorial AdS/CFT with the boundary conformal 6d theory represented by free scalars, spinors or rank-2 antisymmetric tensors.

  15. Entanglement Temperature and Perturbed AdS$_3$ Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    In analogy to the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entanglement entropy $\\delta S$ of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy, $\\delta E$, of the subsystem divided by an effective entanglement temperature, $T_E$. Extending this analogy, we study entanglement entropy when the subsystem is perturbed by applying an external field, expressed as a coupling to a local marginal operator in the CFT. We show that the resulting entropy change is associated with a change in the entanglement temperature itself, leading to an equation analogous to the Clausius relation. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature, $\\delta T_E(x)$ of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. Using the AdS$_3$ minimal surface as a probe, we can construct bulk metric perturbations from an exact numerical computation of the entanglement temperature in a two dimensional $c=1$ boundary theory deformed by a marginal perturbati...

  16. Free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extracts from herbs and spices commercialized in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Regina Barros Mariutti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from 23 different dried herbs and spices commercialized in Brazil were investigated for their free radical scavenging properties using the stable free radicals 2,2'-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+, and Trolox as reference (TEAC for both radicals. The kinetic curves for both radicals showed to follow the first order kinetics model and the decay rate constant (k obs was calculated. For all the samples, the two methods showed a good linear TEAC correlation, indicating that the average reactivity of the compounds present in the ethanolic extracts was similar. Sage and rosemary extracts showed the highest free radical scavenging capacities, while onion showed negligible activity and colorifico, one of the most consumed spices in Brazil, showed low ABTS•+ scavenging activity. Three distinct situations were found for the extracts concerning the DPPH• scavenging capacities: (1 extracts, like rosemary and laurel, that presented the same efficient concentrations (EC50 but differed in the TEAC values and velocities of action (k obs, (2 extracts, such as garlic and basil, that showed similar EC50 and TEAC values, but different k obs values and (3 extracts that reacted at the same velocities but completely differed in the free radical scavenging capacities, like black pepper, savory, nutmeg, rosemary and sage. Similar considerations could be done for the ABTS•+ results. For the first time the ABTS•+ scavenging activity for allspice, basil, cardamom, chives, colorifico, cumin, dill, laurel, marjoram, parsley and tarragon was reported.Extratos etanólicos de 23 ervas e condimentos desidratados comercializados no Brasil foram analisados quanto as suas propriedades antioxidantes utilizando os radicais 2,2'-difenil-β-picrilhidrazil (DPPH• e ácido 2,2'-azino-bis(3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico (ABTS•+, Trolox foi usado como referência para ambos radicais

  17. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of herbs & spices and their phytochemical determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activities of crude methanolic extracts of five spices and herbs viz. Cuminum Cyminum (Family: Apiaceae, Nigella sativa (Family: Ranunculaceae, Pimpinella anisum (Family: Apiaceae, Trachyspermum copticum (Family: Umbelliferae, and rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Family: Zingiberaceae were investigated by agar well diffusion method against gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were assessed by the diameter of zone of inhibition against test strains. The extract of N. sativa showed the best inhibition against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. The extract of Z. officinale and P. anisum showed same minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC against all the test strains. The extract showed significant inhibitory activity against B. amyloliquefaciens, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus. The extract of C. cyminum significantly inhibited S. aureus, B. amyloliquefaciens, and P. aeruginosa. The extract of T. copticum was effective against E. coli, B. amyloliquefaciens, and P. aeruginosa, while the highest MIC obtained against S. aureus. The diameters of zone of inhibition obtained for standard antibiotics viz. ampicillin, erythromycin, and tetracycline at MIC values of the extracts were compared with the crude methanolic extracts and found equally or more effective against the test strains. Phytochemical analysis showed carbohydrates, inulin, alkaloids, and glycosides in all the five extracts. Flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, reducing sugars, soluble phenols, and saponin glycosides were also detected. Steroids were absent. The organoleptic properties of the extracts were determined. The study indicated the great potential of these extracts as effective antimicrobial agents.

  18. Analysis of Indonesian Spice Essential Oil Compounds That Inhibit Locomotor Activity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Subarnas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Some fragrance components of spices used for cooking are known to have an effect on human behavior. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of the essential oils of basil (Ocimum formacitratum L. leaves, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates L. herbs, ki lemo (Litsea cubeba L. bark, and laja gowah (Alpinia malaccencis Roxb. rhizomes on locomotor activity in mice and identify the active component(s that might be responsible for the activity. The effect of the essential oils was studied by a wheel cage method and the active compounds of the essential oils were identified by GC/MS analysis. The essential oils were administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that the four essential oils had inhibitory effects on locomotor activity in mice. Inhalation of the essential oils of basil leaves, lemongrass herbs, ki lemo bark, and laja gowah rhizomes showed the highest inhibitory activity at doses of 0.5 (57.64%, 0.1 (55.72%, 0.5 (60.75%, and 0.1 mL/cage (47.09%, respectively. The major volatile compounds 1,8-cineole, α-terpineol, 4-terpineol, citronelol, citronelal, and methyl cinnamate were identified in blood plasma of mice after inhalation of the four oils. These compounds had a significant inhibitory effect on locomotion after inhalation. The volatile compounds of essential oils identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation.

  19. Nigella Sativa and Oriental Spices with Protective Role in Iron Intoxication: in vivo Experiments on Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Ahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Homeostasis of hematological parameters is essential for assuring a general health status for any living organism. Iron is one of the essential mineral, involved in many vital processes – mainly in blood cells production, but in the same way it can become toxic in very high concentration. Hemoglobin and red blood cells are directed related with the iron ion, due to the high quantity (70% of total iron from organism being part of the blood (hemoglobin and muscle (myoglobin cells. Ferrous ion is part of hemoglobin structure, and red blood cells. But, the administration of high doses of iron can negatively affect the general health status, because the iron alters the enzymatic system in the vital organs. The aim of our experimental study was to verify the hypothesis that in rabbit’s organism, after intraperitoneal administration of 15g Fe2+/body weight as ferrous-gluconate hydro solution, a special diet based on a complex, fresh, organic vegetables (roots and leaves protects the organism by iron intoxication and help the hematological homeostasis. The research experiment was conducted during 43 days in summer time, on German Lop Eared breed young rabbits, which were protected with a diet that consisted of administration of Nigella sativa, some oriental spices (Allium ampeloprasum, Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Eruca sativa, Cucumis sativus, Raphanus sativus, Trigonella foenum-graecum and other vegetables (Trifolium, Petroselinum crispum, Dacus carrota subsp.sativus and Cucumis sativus. At the final of experiment we collected blood samples for hematological test and we evaluated the erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and red cell distribution width. The results were analytical evaluated and only for hemoglobin we obtained significant increase value in experimental rabbits compared to control group of rabbits.

  20. SPICE Work Package 3: Modelling the Effects of Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Simon

    2015-04-01

    This talk presents the results of the SPICE Work Package 3. There is an obvious need for methods to verify the accuracy of geoengineering given no observations of a geoengineering programme. Accordingly, model ability in reproducing the observed dynamical response to volcanic eruptions is discussed using analysis of CMIP5 data and different configurations of the HadGEM2 model. With the HadGEM2-L60 model shown to be substantially better in reproducing the observed dynamical response to volcanic eruptions, simulations of GeoMIP's G4 scenario are performed. Simulated impacts of geoengineering are described, and asymmetries between the immediate onset and immediate cessation ('termination') of geoengineering are analysed. Whilst a rapid large increase in stratospheric sulphate aerosols (such as from volcanic eruptions) can cause substantial damage, most volcanic eruptions in general are not catastrophic. One may therefore suspect that an 'equal but opposite' change in radiative forcing from termination may therefore not be catastrophic, if the climatic response is simulated to be symmetric. HadGEM2 simulations reveal a substantially more rapid change in variables such as near-surface temperature and precipitation following termination than the onset, indicating that termination may be substantially more damaging and even catastrophic. Some suggestions for hemispherically asymmetric geoengineering have been proposed as a way to reduce Northern Hemisphere sea ice, for example, with lesser impacts on the rest of the climate. However, HadGEM2 simulations are performed and observations analysed following volcanic eruptions. Both indicate substantial averse consequences from hemispherically asymmetric loading of stratospheric loading on precipitation in the Sahelian region - a vulnerable region where drought has caused hundreds of thousands of deaths and created millions of refugees in the past.

  1. AdS Chern-Simons Gravity induces Conformal Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Aros, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    The leitmotif of this paper is the question of whether four- and higher even-dimensional Conformal Gravities do have a Chern-Simons pedigree. We show that Weyl gravity can be obtained as dimensional reduction of a five-dimensional Chern-Simons action for a suitable (gauged-fixed, tractor-like) five-dimensional AdS connection. The gauge-fixing and dimensional reduction program admits a readily generalization to higher dimensions for the case of certain conformal gravities obtained by contractions of the Weyl tensor.

  2. Reentrant Phase Transitions in Rotating AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Altamirano, Natacha; Mann, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics of higher-dimensional singly spinning asymptotically AdS black holes in the canonical (fixed J) ensemble of extended phase space, where the cosmological constant is treated as pressure and the corresponding conjugate quantity is interpreted as thermodynamic volume. Along with the usual small/large black hole phase transition, we find a new phenomenon of reentrant phase transitions for all d>5 dimensions, in which a monotonic variation of the temperature yields two phase transitions from large to small and back to large black holes. This situation is similar to that seen in multicomponent liquids.

  3. Internal Structure of Charged AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.

  4. Duality invariance of s≥32 fermions in AdS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deser

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that in D=4 AdS, s≥3/2 partially massless (PM fermions retain the duality invariances of their flat space massless counterparts. They have tuned ratios m2/M2≠0 that turn them into sums of effectively massless unconstrained helicity ±(s,⋯,32 excitations, shorn of the lowest (non-dual helicity ±12-rung and — more generally — of succeeding higher rung as well. Each helicity mode is separately duality invariant, like its flat space counterpart.

  5. M-Theory solutions with AdS factors

    CERN Document Server

    Gauntlett, J P; Pakis, S; Waldram, D; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Kim, Nakwoo; Pakis, Stathis; Waldram, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Solutions of D=7 maximal gauged supergravity are constructed with metrics that are a product of a n-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, with n=2,3,4,5, and certain Einstein manifolds. The gauge fields have the same form as in the recently constructed solutions describing the near-horizon limits of M5-branes wrapping supersymmetric cycles. The new solutions do not preserve any supersymmetry and can be uplifted to obtain new solutions of D=11 supergravity, which are warped and twisted products of the D=7 metric with a squashed four-sphere. Some aspects of the stability of the solutions are discussed.

  6. M-theory solutions with AdS factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Kim, Nakwoo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Pakis, Stathis [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Waldram, Daniel [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2002-08-07

    Solutions of D=7 maximal gauged supergravity are constructed with metrics that are a product of an n-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, with n=2, 3, 4, 5, and certain Einstein manifolds. The gauge fields have the same form as in the recently constructed solutions describing the near-horizon limits of M5-branes wrapping supersymmetric cycles. The new solutions do not preserve any supersymmetry and can be uplifted to obtain new solutions of D=11 supergravity, which are warped and twisted products of the D=7 metric with a squashed four-sphere. Some aspects of the stability of the solutions are discussed.

  7. Most general AdS_3 boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Grumiller, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We consider the most general asymptotically anti-de Sitter boundary conditions in three-dimensional Einstein gravity with negative cosmological constant. The metric contains in total twelve independent functions, six of which are interpreted as chemical potentials (or non-normalizable fluctuations) and the other half as canonical boundary charges (or normalizable fluctuations). Their presence modifies the usual Fefferman-Graham expansion. The asymptotic symmetry algebra consists of two sl(2)_k current algebras, the levels of which are given by k=l/(4G_N), where l is the AdS radius and G_N the three-dimensional Newton constant.

  8. Coherent Cascade: Collapsing Solutions in Global AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Freivogel, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the gravitational dynamics of a classical scalar field that sometimes leads to blackhole formation in asymptotically AdS spacetime at the shortest nonlinear time scale. We present strong evidence that the dynamics is governed by a "coherent cascade", with all modes remaining in phase as the energy flows to higher frequencies into a power-law spectrum. Using a coherent phase ansatz, we analytically find these power-law solutions. We show how the particular power is determined by the scaling properties of the interaction coefficients. Our result agrees with existing numerical results in 4+1 dimensions, and makes predictions in higher dimensions.

  9. Heavy quark potential from deformed AdS5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-qiang; Hou, De-fu; Chen, Gang

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the heavy quark potential in some holographic QCD models. The calculation relies on a modified renormalization scheme mentioned in a previous work of Albacete et al. After studying the heavy quark potential in Pirner-Galow model and Andreev-Zakharov model, we extend the discussion to a general deformed AdS5 case. It is shown that the obtained potential is negative definite for all quark-antiquark separations, differs from that using the usual renormalization scheme.

  10. Juice blends--a way of utilization of under-utilized fruits, vegetables, and spices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Raju Lal; Pandey, Shruti

    2011-07-01

    The post-harvest shelf life of maximum of fruits and vegetables is very limited due to their perishable nature. In India more then 20-25 percent of fruits and vegetables are spoiled before utilization. Despite being the world's second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, in India only 1.5 percent of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed. Maximum amounts of fruit and vegetable juices turn bitter after extraction due to conversion of chemical compounds. In spite of being under utilized, the utilization of highly nutritive fruits and vegetables is very limited due to high acidity, astringency, bitterness, and some other factors. While improving flavor, palatability, and nutritive and medicinal value of various fruit juices such as aonla, mango, papaya, pineapple, citrus, ber, pear, apple, watermelon, and vegetables including bottle gourd, carrot, beet root, bitter gourd, medicinal plants like aloe vera and spices can also be used for juice blending. All these natural products are valued very highly for their refreshing juice, nutritional value, pleasant flavor, and medicinal properties. Fruits and vegetables are also a rich source of sugars, vitamins, and minerals. However, some fruits and vegetables have an off flavor and bitterness although they are an excellent source of vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Therefore, blending of two or more fruit and vegetable juices with spices extract for the preparation of nutritive ready-to-serve (RTS), beverages is thought to be a convenient and economic alternative for utilization of these fruits and vegetables. Moreover, one could think of a new product development through blending in the form of a natural health drink, which may also serve as an appetizer. The present review focuses on the blending of fruits, under-utilized fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, and spices in appropriate proportions for the preparation of natural fruit and vegetable based nutritive beverages.

  11. Introducing ADS 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  12. Rindler-AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Parikh, Maulik

    2012-01-01

    In anti-de Sitter space a highly accelerating observer perceives a Rindler horizon. The two Rindler wedges in AdS_{d+1} are holographically dual to an entangled conformal field theory that lives on two boundaries with geometry R x H_{d-1}. For AdS_3, the holographic duality is especially tractable, allowing quantum-gravitational aspects of Rindler horizons to be probed. We recover the thermodynamics of Rindler-AdS space directly from the boundary conformal field theory. We derive the temperature from the two-point function and obtain the Rindler entropy density precisely, including numerical factors, using the Cardy formula. We also probe the causal structure of the spacetime, and find from the behavior of the one-point function that the CFT "knows" when a source has fallen across the Rindler horizon. This is so even though, from the bulk point of view, there are no local signifiers of the presence of the horizon. Finally, we discuss an alternate foliation of Rindler-AdS which is dual to a CFT living in de Si...

  13. Isolation and amplification of genomic DNA from recalcitrant dried berries of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)--a medicinal spice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, K; Kizhakkayil, Jaleel; Syamkumar, S; Sasikumar, B

    2007-10-01

    Black pepper is an important medicinal spice traded internationally. The extraction of high quality genomic DNA for PCR amplification from dried black pepper is challenging because of the presence of the exceptionally large amount of oxidized polyphenolic compounds, polysaccharides and other secondary metabolites. Here we report a modified hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol by incorporating potassium acetate and a final PEG precipitation step to isolate PCR amplifiable genomic DNA from dried and powdered berries of black pepper. The protocol has trade implication as it will help in the PCR characterization of traded black peppers from different countries.

  14. Occurrence of antioxidant and radical scavenging proanthocyanidins from the Indian minor spice nagkesar (Mammea longifolia planch and triana syn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Lingamallu Jagan Mohan; Yada, Hiroshi; Ono, Hiroshi; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Yoshida, Mitsuru

    2004-01-02

    Nagkesar (buds of Mammea longifolia) is extensively used in culinary preparations especially in spice blend in India. Previously thirteen compounds were identified from the medium polar fractions of methanol extract of buds of M. longifolia. In continuation of the study, the polar fraction of methanol extract exhibited stronger antioxidative and radical scavenging activities. An attempt was made to separate and identify the active compounds and found that those were proanthocyanidin oligomers with mean degree of polymerisation ranges from 2 to 10. This is the first report to indicate that Mammea buds contain antioxidant and radical scavenging procyanidin oligomers.

  15. Modulatory effects of essential oils from spices on the formation of DNA adduct by aflatoxin B1 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, S; Aboobaker, V S; Madhubala, R; Bhattacharya, R K; Rao, A R

    1994-01-01

    Essential oils from common spices such as nutmeg, ginger, cardamom, celery, xanthoxylum, black pepper, cumin, and coriander were tested for their ability to suppress the formation of DNA adducts by aflatoxin B1 in vitro in a microsomal enzyme-mediated reaction. All oils were found to inhibit adduct formation very significantly and in a dose-dependent manner. The adduct formation appeared to be modulated through the action on microsomal enzymes, because an effective inhibition on the formation of activated metabolite was observed with each oil. The enzymatic modulation is perhaps due to the chemical constituents of the oils, and this could form a basis for their potential anticarcinogenic roles.

  16. Natural occurrence of fumonisins and ochratoxin A in some herbs and spices commercialized in Poland analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Beszterda, Monika; Bocianowski, Jan; Goliński, Piotr

    2013-12-01

    Unsanitary conditions during harvesting, drying, packing and storage stages in production and processing of spices and herbs could introduce mycotoxin contamination. The occurrence of ochratoxin A and fumonisins in popular spices and herbs was studied, using liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry. Apart from mycotoxins, ergosterol as a factor indicating fungal development was also analysed. A total of 79 different samples commercialized in Poland were randomly purchased from popular markets were tested for mycotoxins. The frequency of samples with fumonisins was lower (31%) than ochratoxin A (49%). Free from mycotoxins were samples of bay leaf and white mustard. ERG content - in spice samples with high concentration level of mycotoxins - was also significantly higher than in samples with little to no mycotoxins.

  17. AdS twistors for higher spin theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cederwall, M

    2004-01-01

    We construct spectra of supersymmetric higher spin theories in D=4, 5 and 7 from twistors describing massless (super-)particles on AdS spaces. A massless twistor transform is derived in a geometric way from classical kinematics. Relaxing the spin-shell constraints on twistor space gives an infinite tower of massless states of a ``higher spin particle'', generalising previous work of Bandos et al. This can generically be done in a number of ways, each defining the states of a distinct higher spin theory, and the method provides a systematic way of finding these. We reproduce known results in D=4, minimal supersymmetric 5- and 7-dimensional models, as well as supersymmetrisations of Vasiliev's Sp-models as special cases. In the latter models a dimensional enhancement takes place, meaning that the theory lives on a space of higher dimension than the original AdS space, and becomes a theory of doubletons. This talk was presented at the XIXth Max Born Symposium ``Fundamental Interactions and Twistor-Like Methods''...

  18. AdCell: Ad Allocation in Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Alaei, Saeed; Liaghat, Vahid; Pei, Dan; Saha, Barna

    2011-01-01

    With more than four billion usage of cellular phones worldwide, mobile advertising has become an attractive alternative to online advertisements. In this paper, we propose a new targeted advertising policy for Wireless Service Providers (WSPs) via SMS or MMS- namely {\\em AdCell}. In our model, a WSP charges the advertisers for showing their ads. Each advertiser has a valuation for specific types of customers in various times and locations and has a limit on the maximum available budget. Each query is in the form of time and location and is associated with one individual customer. In order to achieve a non-intrusive delivery, only a limited number of ads can be sent to each customer. Recently, new services have been introduced that offer location-based advertising over cellular network that fit in our model (e.g., ShopAlerts by AT&T) . We consider both online and offline version of the AdCell problem and develop approximation algorithms with constant competitive ratio. For the online version, we assume tha...

  19. Quantum cat map dynamics on AdS$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Axenides, Minos; Nicolis, Stam

    2016-01-01

    We present a toy model for the chaotic unitary scattering of single particle wave packets on the radial AdS$_2$ geometry of extremal BH horizons. Based on our recent work for the discretization of the AdS$_2$ space-time, which describes a finite and random geometry, by modular arithmetic, we investigate the validity of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH), as well as that of the fast scrambling time bound conjecture (STB), for an observer with time evolution operator the quantum Arnol'd cat map (QACM). We find that the QACM, while possessing a linear spectrum, has eigenstates, which can be expressed in closed form, are found to be random and to satisfy the assumptions of the ETH.The implications are that the dynamics is described by a chaotic, unitary, single particle S-matrix, which completely delocalizes and randomizes initial gaussian wave packets . Applying results obtained by Dyson and Falk for the periods of the Arnol'd Cat Map(ACM),which are related to its mixing time, we also find that the t...

  20. A special road to AdS vacua

    CERN Document Server

    Cassani, Davide; Marrani, Alessio; Morales, Jose F; Samtleben, Henning

    2010-01-01

    We apply the techniques of special Kaehler geometry to investigate AdS_4 vacua of general N=2 gauged supergravities underlying flux compactifications of type II theories. We formulate the scalar potential and its extremization conditions in terms of a triplet of prepotentials P_x and their special Kaehler covariant derivatives only, in a form that recalls the potential and the attractor equations of N=2 black holes. We propose a system of first order equations for the P_x which generalize the supersymmetry conditions and yield non-supersymmetric vacua. Special geometry allows us to recast these equations in algebraic form, and we find an infinite class of new N=0 and N=1 AdS_4 solutions, displaying a rich pattern of non-trivial charges associated with NSNS and RR fluxes. Finally, by explicit evaluation of the entropy function on the solutions, we derive a U-duality invariant expression for the cosmological constant and the central charges of the dual CFT's.

  1. The CFT dual of AdS gravity with torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Dietmar

    2007-01-01

    We consider the Mielke-Baekler model of three-dimensional AdS gravity with torsion, which has gravitational and translational Chern-Simons terms in addition to the usual Einstein-Hilbert action with cosmological constant. It is shown that the topological nature of the model leads to a finite Fefferman-Graham expansion. We derive the holographic stress tensor and the associated Ward identities and show that, due to the asymmetry of the left- and right-moving central charges, a Lorentz anomaly appears in the dual conformal field theory. Both the consistent and the covariant Weyl and Lorentz anomaly are determined, and the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions for the former are verified. Moreover we consider the most general solution with flat boundary geometry, which describes left-and right-moving gravitational waves on AdS_3 with torsion, and shew that in this case the holographic energy-momentum tensor is given by the wave profiles. The anomalous transformation laws of the wave profiles under diffeomorphisms p...

  2. AdS nonlinear instability: moving beyond spherical symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Óscar J. C.; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-12-01

    Anti-de Sitter (AdS) is conjectured to be nonlinear unstable to a weakly turbulent mechanism that develops a cascade towards high frequencies, leading to black hole formation (Dafermos and Holzegel 2006 Seminar at DAMTP (University of Cambridge) available at https://dpmms.cam.ac.uk/~md384/ADSinstability.pdf, Bizon and Rostworowski 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 031102). We give evidence that the gravitational sector of perturbations behaves differently from the scalar one studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. In contrast with Bizon and Rostworowski, we find that not all gravitational normal modes of AdS can be nonlinearly extended into periodic horizonless smooth solutions of the Einstein equation. In particular, we show that even seeds with a single normal mode can develop secular resonances, unlike the spherically symmetric scalar field collapse studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. Moreover, if the seed has two normal modes, more than one resonance can be generated at third order, unlike the spherical collapse of Bizon and Rostworowski. We also show that weak turbulent perturbative theory predicts the existence of direct and inverse cascades, with the former dominating the latter for equal energy two-mode seeds.

  3. Smooth Causal Patches for AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Suvrat

    2016-01-01

    We review the paradox of low energy excitations about an AdS black hole. An appropriately chosen unitary operator in the boundary theory can create a locally strong excitation near the black hole horizon, whose global energy is small as a result of the gravitational redshift. The paradox is that this seems to violate a general rule of statistical mechanics, which states that an operator with energy parametrically smaller than $k T$ cannot create a significant excitation in a thermal system. When we carefully examine the position dependence of the boundary unitary operator that produces the excitation and the bulk observable necessary to detect the anomalously large effect, we find that they do not both fit in a single causal patch. This follows from a remarkable property of position space AdS correlators that we establish explicitly, and resolves the paradox in a generic state of the system, since no combination of observers can both create the excitation and observe its effect. As a special case of our analy...

  4. Online Ad Slotting With Cancellations

    CERN Document Server

    Constantin, Florin; Muthukrishnan, S; Pal, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Many advertisers buy advertisements (ads) on the Internet or on traditional media and seek simple, online mechanisms to reserve ad slots in advance. Media publishers represent a vast and varying inventory, and they too seek automatic, online mechanisms for pricing and allocating such reservations. In this paper, we present and study a simple model for auctioning such ad slots in advance. Bidders arrive sequentially and report which slots they are interested in. The seller must decide immediately whether or not to grant a reservation. Our model allows a seller to accept reservations, but possibly cancel the allocations later and pay the bidder a cancellation compensation (bump payment). Our main result is an online mechanism to derive prices and bump payments that is efficient to implement. This mechanism has many desirable properties. It is individually rational; winners have an incentive to be honest and bidding one's true value dominates any lower bid. Our mechanism's efficiency is within a constant fractio...

  5. Adding momentum to supersymmetric geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunin, Oleg, E-mail: olunin@albany.edu [Department of Physics, University at Albany (SUNY), Albany, NY 12222 (United States); Mathur, Samir D., E-mail: mathur.16@osu.edu [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Turton, David, E-mail: turton.7@osu.edu [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-03-11

    We consider general supersymmetric solutions to minimal supergravity in six dimensions, trivially lifted to IIB supergravity. To any such solution we add a traveling wave deformation involving the additional directions. The deformed solution is given in terms of a function which is harmonic in the background geometry. We also present a family of explicit examples describing microstates of the D1-D5 system on T{sup 4}. In the case where the background contains a large AdS region, the deformation is identified as corresponding to an action of a U(1) current of the D1-D5 orbifold CFT on a given state.

  6. Adding momentum to supersymmetric geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Lunin, Oleg; Turton, David

    2012-01-01

    We consider general supersymmetric solutions to minimal supergravity in six dimensions, trivially lifted to IIB supergravity. To any such solution we add a travelling-wave deformation involving the additional directions. The deformed solution is given in terms of a function which is harmonic in the background geometry. We also present a family of explicit examples describing microstates of the D1-D5 system on T^4. In the case where the background contains a large AdS region, the deformation is identified as corresponding to an action of a U(1) current of the D1-D5 orbifold CFT on a given state.

  7. Functional Foods for Health: The Interrelated Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Role of Fruits, Vegetables, Herbs, Spices and Cocoa in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mauro; Peluso, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    The health benefits of plant food-based diets could be related to both integrated antioxidant and antiinflammatory mechanisms exerted by a wide array of phytochemicals present in fruit, vegetables, herbs and spices. Therefore, there is mounting interest in identifying foods, food extracts and phytochemical formulations from plant sources which are able to efficiently modulate oxidative and inflammatory stress to prevent diet-related diseases. This paper reviews available evidence about the effect of supplementation with selected fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices and their extracts or galenic formulation on combined markers of redox and inflammatory status in humans.

  8. Holographic properties in three-dimensional AdS soliton using $AdS_3/CFT_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Yan

    2016-01-01

    We study the holographic description of a superconductor by the $AdS_{3}/CFT_{2}$ correspondence. The system is constructed with a Maxwell field and a charged scalar field coupled in the (2+1)-dimensional AdS soliton background. With analytical methods, we obtain the exact expression for the critical chemical potential as $\\mu_{c} = 1 + \\sqrt{1+m^2}$, which has also been generalized to higher dimensions as $\\mu_c \\thickapprox a + \\sqrt{m^2-m_{BF}^2}$ in this work. Around the phase transition points, we find a correspondence between the value of the scalar field at the tip and the scalar operator at infinity. We also arrive at the classical second order phase transition threshold exponent $\\beta=\\frac{1}{2}$ as the same as the mean field theory near the critical chemical potential. As the condensation becomes heavier, we show surprisingly that superconducting phases exist only in a certain range of the chemical potential, which is very different from higher-dimensional cases. And for the small enough negative ...

  9. Ad valorem versus unit taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Sørensen, Allan

    2010-01-01

    a general equilibrium monopolistic competition model with heterogeneous firms and intra-industry reallocations. We show that the welfare superiority of ad valorem over unit taxes under imperfect competition is not only preserved but amplified. The additional difference between the tools arises because unit...

  10. Brownian motion in AdS/CFT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Hubeny, V.E.; Rangamani, M.; Shigemori, M.

    2009-01-01

    We study Brownian motion and the associated Langevin equation in AdS/CFT. The Brownian particle is realized in the bulk spacetime as a probe fundamental string in an asymptotically AdS black hole background, stretching between the AdS boundary and the horizon. The modes on the string are excited by

  11. An Investigation of AdS2 Backreaction and Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Engelsöy, Julius; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski and develop an 1D effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1D version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  12. Supersymmetry Properties of AdS Supergravity Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Samuel; Gutowski, Jan; Papadopoulos, George

    2017-01-01

    Anti-de Sitter supergravity backgrounds are of particular interest in light of the AdS/CFT correspondence, which relates them to dual conformal field theories on the boundary of the anti-de Sitter space. We have investigated the forms of the supersymmetries these backgrounds preserve by solving the Killing spinor equations on the anti-de Sitter components of these spaces. We have found that a supersymmetric AdSn background necessarily preserves 2⌊n/2⌋ k supersymmetries for n 0 . Additionally, we have found that the Killing spinors of each background are exactly the zeroes of a Dirac-like operator constructed from the Killing spinor equations.

  13. Jet physics from static charges in AdS space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yang-Ting; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Stewart, Iain W.

    2012-02-01

    Soft interactions with high-energy jets are explored in radial coordinates which exploit the approximately conformal behavior of perturbative gauge theories. In these coordinates, the jets, approximated by Wilson lines, become static charges in Euclidean AdS. The anomalous dimension of the corresponding Wilson line operator is then determined by the potential energy of the charges. To study these Wilson lines we introduce a “conformal gauge” which does not have kinetic mixing between radial and angular directions, and show that a number of properties of Wilson lines are reproduced through relatively simple calculations. For example, certain nonplanar graphs involving multiple Wilson lines automatically vanish. We also discuss the linear growth of the charges’ imaginary potential energy with separation, and a relationship between Wilson line diagrams and Witten diagrams.

  14. Jet Physics from Static Charges in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Chien, Yang-Ting; Simmons-Duffin, David; Stewart, Iain W

    2011-01-01

    Soft interactions with high-energy jets are explored in radial coordinates which exploit the approximately conformal behavior of perturbative gauge theories. In these coordinates, the jets, approximated by Wilson lines, become static charges in Euclidean AdS. The anomalous dimension of the corresponding Wilson line operator is then determined by the potential energy of the charges. To study these Wilson lines we introduce a "conformal gauge" which does not have kinetic mixing between radial and angular directions, and show that a number of properties of Wilson lines are reproduced through relatively simple calculations. For example, certain non-planar graphs involving multiple Wilson lines automatically vanish. We also discuss the linear growth of the charges' imaginary potential energy with separation, and a relationship between Wilson line diagrams and Witten diagrams.

  15. Bootstrapping Pure Quantum Gravity in AdS3

    CERN Document Server

    Bae, Jin-Beom; Lee, Sungjay

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional pure quantum gravity with negative cosmological constant is supposed to be dual to the extremal conformal field theory of central charge $c=24k$ in two dimensions. We employ the conformal bootstrap method to analyze the extremal CFTs, and find numerical evidence for the non-existence of the extremal CFTs for sufficiently large central charge ($k \\ge 20$). We also explore near-extremal CFTs, a small modification of extremal ones, and find similar evidence for their non-existence for large central charge. This indicates, under the assumption of holomorphic factorization, the pure gravity in the weakly curved AdS$_3$ do not exist as a consistent quantum theory.

  16. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasobh, C.B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V.C. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Cochin (India)

    2016-04-15

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime. (orig.)

  17. On Information Loss in AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, A Liam; Li, Daliang; Wang, Junpu

    2016-01-01

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS$_3$, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT$_2$ correlators at large central charge $c$: 'forbidden singularities' arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite $c$, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior of correlators at times $t \\sim S_{BH}$, the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the $1/c$ expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify 'information-restoring' effects from heavy states that should correspo...

  18. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasobh, C. B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V. C.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime.

  19. SORPTION OF CO2-EXTRACTS OF SPICES TO THE TOMATO PASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gadzhieva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the production of products without the preservatives, the fillers, the chemical, undesirable aromatic substances and other additives is one of the prime advantages of technologies, based on the use of СO2- extraction. There is great theoretical and practical interest in the study of the absorption of СO2- extracts on the tomato carriers with the production of ketchup. There are examined the principles of the optimization of the process of absorbing the СO2- extracts of anise, ginger and amaranth on the tomato paste with the production of ketchup. There are examined the principles of the optimization of the process of absorbing the СO2- extracts of anise, ginger and amaranth on the tomato paste with the production of ketchup. The miscella of the extracts of spices is brought to the tomato paste. This was reached by the selection of СO2- miscella from the extractor under the pressure to 6 MPa. Then solvent due to a pressure decrease in the apparatus to the atmospheric instantly was moved away from the obtained material. The degrees of the absorption of the СO2- extracts of anise, ginger, amaranth and sea buckthorn are determined. Calculations were performed through the program of that composed in medium of the mathematical packet “Of mathCAD 14”. As a result conducted investigations are obtained the equations of regression for absorbing of anise, amaranth and ginger on the tomato paste depending on the concentration of individual extracts in the miscella. The possibilities of the method of complete factor experiment are shown. In the utilized method of the mathematical planning of experiment adapt the dimensionless coded composition factors x1 and x2. In the experiment is realized plan 23. Was used the central composition plan, which corresponds to the requirement of rotatable, i.e., the plan, which makes it possible to obtain the model, capable of predicting the value of the parameter of optimization with the

  20. Evaluation of Synergistic Antibacterial and Antioxidant Efficacy of Essential Oils of Spices and Herbs in Combination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwesa Bag

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the possible synergistic interactions on antibacterial and antioxidant efficacy of essential oils of some selected spices and herbs [bay leaf, black pepper, coriander (seed and leaf, cumin, garlic, ginger, mustard, onion and turmeric] in combination. Antibacterial combination effect was evaluated against six important food-borne bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium using microbroth dilution, checkerboard titration and time-kill methods. Antioxidant combination effect was assessed by DPPH free radical scavenging method. Total phenolic content was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Bioactivity -guided fractionation of active essential oils for isolation of bioactive compounds was done using TLC-bioautography assay and chemical characterization (qualitative and quantitative of bioactive compounds was performed using DART-MS and HPLC analyses. Cytotoxic potential was evaluated by brine shrimp lethality assay as well as MTT assay using human normal colon cell line. Results showed that among the possible combinations tested only coriander/cumin seed oil combination showed synergistic interactions both in antibacterial (FICI : 0.25-0.50 and antioxidant (CI : 0.79 activities. A high positive correlation between total phenolic content and antibacterial activity against most of the studied bacteria (R2 = 0.688 - 0.917 as well as antioxidant capacity (R2 = 0.828 was also observed. TLC-bioautography-guided screening and subsequent combination studies revealed that two compounds corresponding to Rf values 0.35 from coriander seed oil and 0.53 from cumin seed oil exhibited both synergistic antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The bioactive compound corresponding to Rf 0.35 from coriander seed oil was identified as linalool (68.69% and the bioactive compound corresponding to Rf 0.53 from cumin seed oil was

  1. Evaluation of Synergistic Antibacterial and Antioxidant Efficacy of Essential Oils of Spices and Herbs in Combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Anwesa; Chattopadhyay, Rabi Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the possible synergistic interactions on antibacterial and antioxidant efficacy of essential oils of some selected spices and herbs [bay leaf, black pepper, coriander (seed and leaf), cumin, garlic, ginger, mustard, onion and turmeric] in combination. Antibacterial combination effect was evaluated against six important food-borne bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) using microbroth dilution, checkerboard titration and time-kill methods. Antioxidant combination effect was assessed by DPPH free radical scavenging method. Total phenolic content was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Bioactivity -guided fractionation of active essential oils for isolation of bioactive compounds was done using TLC-bioautography assay and chemical characterization (qualitative and quantitative) of bioactive compounds was performed using DART-MS and HPLC analyses. Cytotoxic potential was evaluated by brine shrimp lethality assay as well as MTT assay using human normal colon cell line. Results showed that among the possible combinations tested only coriander/cumin seed oil combination showed synergistic interactions both in antibacterial (FICI : 0.25-0.50) and antioxidant (CI : 0.79) activities. A high positive correlation between total phenolic content and antibacterial activity against most of the studied bacteria (R2 = 0.688 - 0.917) as well as antioxidant capacity (R2 = 0.828) was also observed. TLC-bioautography-guided screening and subsequent combination studies revealed that two compounds corresponding to Rf values 0.35 from coriander seed oil and 0.53 from cumin seed oil exhibited both synergistic antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The bioactive compound corresponding to Rf 0.35 from coriander seed oil was identified as linalool (68.69%) and the bioactive compound corresponding to Rf 0.53 from cumin seed oil was identified as p

  2. Public health risk associated with the co-occurrence of mycotoxins in spices consumed in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogendrarajah, Pratheeba; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Lachat, Carl; Walpita, Chaminda Niroshan; Kolsteren, Patrick; De Saeger, Sarah; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    A quantitative risk assessment of mycotoxins due to the consumption of chilli (Capsicum annum L.) and black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) was performed in Sri Lanka. A food frequency questionnaire was administered in order to collect the data on consumption of spices by households in the Northern and Southern region (n = 249). The mean chilli consumption in the North was significantly higher (p spices were estimated. Margin of exposure estimations at the mean exposure to AFB1 were remarkably lower due to chilli (45-78) than for pepper (2315–10,857). Moreover, the hepato cellular carcinoma (HCC) risk associated with the mean AFB1 exposure through chilli at the lower bound was 0.046 and 0.028 HCC cases/year/100,000 based on the North and South consumption, respectively. AFB1 exposure via chilli should be considered as a great public health concern in Sri Lanka due to both high mycotoxin concentration and high consumption.

  3. Application of the OSL dosimetry technique in the identification of irradiated foods, such as condiments and spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Catherine C.O.; Alencar, Marcus A.V. de, E-mail: vallim@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The use of ionizing radiation in food preservation is considered a well-established technique, so many countries, including Brazil, now allow the use of irradiated foods. Many methods have been tested for dosimetry and identification of irradiated foods including thermoluminescence, electron paramagnetic resonance, and others based on microbiological changes and in viscosity, and which requires a sample processing. The technique of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) presents an advantage over other methods mentioned: The samples may be used without the need for a prior processing. This work aims to study the OSL properties of condiments and spices irradiated, in order to verify the possibility of the application of the OSL technique in identifying and dosimetry of irradiated foods. The samples used were of four kinds of spices: cumin, oregano, white pepper and black pepper. All samples were subjected to gamma irradiation from a Co-60 source with dose values of kerma in air of 100 Gy to 35 kGy. The samples of cumin presents the OSL signal, however, is only possible to identify whether the condiment was irradiated or not. The sample of oregano also presents the OSL signal, and for this condiment is possible to identify addition to its irradiation, the value of dose. The black pepper and white pepper samples don't presents the OSL signal. The results obtained in this study indicate the possibility of using the OSL technique for the identification and dosimetry of irradiated foods. (author)

  4. Determination of curcumin in biologically active supplements and food spices using a mesofluidic platform with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Anastasiia; Dar'in, Dmitriy; Ivanov, Aleхander; Moskvin, Leonid; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko; Bulatov, Andrey

    2016-10-01

    A mesofluidic platform (MP) with fluorescence detection based on a stepwise injection analysis (SWIA) was used for the determination of curcumin in biologically active supplements and food spices. The main units of the MP are a mixing chamber (MC) and an optical channel with a quartz capillary inside. The MC provides rapid and complete mixing solutions by gas bubbling. The proposed method is based on the new rapid and sensitive reaction of curcumin with a fluorescence reagent - 4-(2,3,3-trimethyl-3H-indolium-1-yl)butane-1-sulfonate (TIBS). The fluorescence intensity of TIBS is greatly quenched in the presence of curcumin in an alkaline medium. The linear range was from 1 to 10µM of curcumin, and the limit of detection, calculated as 3σ of a blank test (n=5), was found to be 0.3µM. The sample throughput was 24h(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of curcumin in biologically active supplements and samples of food spices. The obtained data were in good agreement with those measured by a HPLC-UV method.

  5. Spice paprika volatiles as affected by different postharvest ripening treatments of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. variety aleva NK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevrešan Žarko S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of post-harvest ripening conditions of pepper Aleva NK picked in red maturity stage on the composition of volatiles in spice paprika was investigated by GCMS. The post-harvest ripening in the dark and under daylight was conducted under semicontrolled conditions for two weeks. The obtained chromatograms indicated that the aroma of investigated spice paprika consisted of a large number of volatile compounds regardless of the application and conditions of the post-harvest ripening. The main volatiles of the analyzed paprika samples were fatty acids and their esters, terpenes and terpenoides and aldehydes and ketones. The share of fatty acids and their esters decreased during the post-harvest ripening, and the ripening in the dark favored the decrease. The share of terpenes and terpenoides and the share of aldehydes and ketones in the total volatiles increased during the post-harvest ripening. The post-harvest ripening in the dark favored the increase of the share of terpenes and terpenoides, while the ripening under daylight favored the increase of the share of aldehydes and ketones. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46001

  6. Inhibition of glucose- and fructose-mediated protein glycation by infusions and ethanolic extracts of ten culinary herbs and spices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jugjeet Singh Ramkissoon; Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally; Anwar Hussein Subratty; Nessar Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the inhibitory activity of ten culinary herbs and spices namely on glucose-mediated glycation (GMG) and fructose-mediated glycation (FMG) of bovine serum albumin. Methods: Fluorescence was used as an index of albumin glycation using glucose and fructose as substrates in the presence of infusions and ethanolic extracts of ten culinary herbs and spices. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using reducing power, metal ion chelating and superoxide radical scavenging assays. Phytochemicals profile was analysed using 13 standard methods. Results: FMG was found to be significantly higher than GMG (95 and 84 AU, respectively; P 0.05) was found in the percentage glycation inhibitory activity of infusions compared to ethanolic extracts. The mean percentage inhibitory activity of the extracts for GMG (45.9%) and for FMG (45.1%) was not significantly different (P > 0.05). Qualitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, fla-vonoids, tannins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, steroids, reducing sugars, proteins, phenols, saponins, phlobatannins, and cardiac glycosides. Conclusions: The higher rate of fluorescence generation by fructation suggests that glycation by fructose deserves much attention as a glycating agent. Data herein showed that the extracts inhibited GMG and FMG. Thus, these edible plants could be a natural source of antioxidants and anti-glycation agent for preventing advanced glycation end-products-mediated complications.

  7. AdS/CFT Duality User Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Natsuume, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    This is the draft version of a textbook on "real-world" applications of the AdS/CFT duality for beginning graduate students in particle physics and for researchers in the other fields. The aim of this book is to provide background materials such as string theory, general relativity, nuclear physics, nonequilibrium physics, and condensed-matter physics as well as some key applications of the AdS/CFT duality in a single textbook. Contents: (1) Introduction, (2) General relativity and black holes, (3) Black holes and thermodynamics, (4) Strong interaction and gauge theories, (5) The road to AdS/CFT, (6) The AdS spacetime, (7) AdS/CFT - equilibrium, (8) AdS/CFT - adding probes, (9) Basics of nonequilibrium physics, (10) AdS/CFT - nonequilibrium, (11) Other AdS spacetimes, (12) Applications to quark-gluon plasma, (13) Basics of phase transition, (14) AdS/CFT - phase transition.

  8. Facilities Management and Added Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This paper aims to present different models of the concept of the added value of Facilities Management (FM), including the FM Value Map, which forms the basis of research group in EuroFM, and to present some of the results of this research collaboration. Approach and methodology: The paper...... on the aimed output) and the internal resource based view (with a focus on the input from FM and RE). Good relationship management and building on trust shows to be equally important as delivering the agreed services. In order to measure the multi-dimensional components of adding value both qualitative...... is based on literature reviews of the most influential journals within the academic fields of FM, Corporate Real Estate Management and Business to Business Marketing and discussions between participants of the research group working on a further exploration and testing of the FM Value Map. Conclusions...

  9. The PredictAD project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antila, Kari; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Thurfjell, Lennart;

    2013-01-01

    can be managed. Today the significance of early and precise diagnosis of AD is emphasized in order to minimize its irreversible effects on the nervous system. When new drugs and therapies enter the market it is also vital to effectively identify the right candidates to benefit from these. The main...... candidates and implement the framework in software. The results are currently used in several research projects, licensed to commercial use and being tested for clinical use in several trials....

  10. Scattering States in AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; /Boston U.; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-02-14

    We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

  11. THE VARIATION OF SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS FROM FRESH COW CHEESE CREAM TYPE WITH ADDED AROMATIC PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANA DIACONESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advanced studies in the field of cheese fabrication technology include, amongother, the usage of aromatic plants and spices as a mean of improving theorganoleptic properties and as a mean of decreasing the lipidic peroxidationphenomenon. For this purpose, three types of fresh cow cheese produced by S.C.Marion Invest Trade 94 SRL, experimentally added with dill, savory and rosemary,were comparatively studied from a chemical point of view (pH, acidity, humidity, ashand a biochemical point of view(raw fat, total proteins, total cholesterol, acidphosphatase’s enzymatic activity, superoxide dismutase’s enzymatic activity, calciumcontent.From a chemical point of view, no significant differences appeared between the creamcheese types analyzed, excepting the pH( lower in the cheeses with dill and rosemaryFrom a biochemical point of view, two phenomenon can be observed: a significantdecrease of the acidic phosphatase activity in the cheeses with added dill androsemary ( positively correlating with the pH value and decreased values of the SODactivity in all cheese types.

  12. Towards Timelike Singularity via AdS Dual

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmick, Samrat

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that Kasner geometry with spacelike singularity can be extended to bulk AdS-like geometry, furthermore one can study field theory on this Kasner space via its gravity dual. In this paper, we show that there exists a Kasner-like geometry with timelike singularity for which one can construct a dual gravity description. We then study various minimal surfaces including spacelike geodesics. Finally, we compute correlators of highly massive operators in the boundary field theory with a geodesic approximation.

  13. Holography in 3D AdS gravity with torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Blagojević, Milutin; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Basic aspects of the AdS/CFT correspondence are studied in the framework of 3-dimensional gravity with torsion. After choosing a consistent holographic ansatz, we formulate an improved approach to the Noether--Ward identities for the boundary theory. The method is applied first to the topological Mielke--Baekler model, and then to the more interesting (parity-preserving) 3-dimensional gravity with propagating torsion. In both cases, we find the finite holographic energy-momentum and spin currents and obtain the associated (anomalous) Noether--Ward identities.

  14. Canonical energy and hairy AdS black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    We propose the modified version of the canonical energy which was introduced originally by Hollands and Wald. Our construction depends only on the Euler-Lagrange expression of the system and thus is independent of the ambiguity in the Lagrangian. After some comments on our construction, we briefly mention on the relevance of our construction to the boundary information metric in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We also study the stability of three-dimensional hairy extremal black holes by using our construction.

  15. On modular properties of the AdS3 CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Baron, Walter

    2010-01-01

    We study modular properties of the AdS3 WZNW model. Although the Euclidean partition function is modular invariant, the characters on the Euclidean torus are ill-defined and their modular transformations are unknown. We reconsider the characters defined on the Lorentzian torus, focusing on their structure as distributions. We find a generalized S matrix, depending on the sign of the real modular parameters, which has two diagonal blocks and one off-diagonal block, mixing discrete and continuous representations, that we fully determine. We then explore the relations among the modular transformations, the fusion algebra and the boundary states. We explicitly construct Ishibashi states for the maximally symmetric D-branes and show that the generalized S matrix defines the one-point functions associated to point-like and H2 branes as well as the fusion rules of the degenerate representations of SL(2,R) appearing in the open string spectrum of the point-like D-branes, through a generalized Verlinde theorem.

  16. The ADS All Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Alyssa

    We will create the first interactive sky map of astronomers' understanding of the Universe over time. We will accomplish this goal by turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource, into a data resource. GIS and GPS systems have made it commonplace to see and explore information about goings-on on Earth in the context of maps and timelines. Our proposal shows an example of a program that lets a user explore which countries have been mentioned in the New York Times, on what dates, and in what kinds of articles. By analogy, the goal of our project is to enable this kind of exploration-on the sky-for the full corpus of astrophysical literature available through ADS. Our group's expertise and collaborations uniquely position us to create this interactive sky map of the literature, which we call the "ADS All-Sky Survey." To create this survey, here are the principal steps we need to follow. First, by analogy to "geotagging," we will "astrotag," the ADS literature. Many "astrotags" effectively already exist, thanks to curation efforts at both CDS and NED. These efforts have created links to "source" positions on the sky associated with each of the millions of articles in the ADS. Our collaboration with ADS and CDS will let us automatically extract astrotags for all existing and future ADS holdings. The new ADS Labs, which our group helps to develop, includes the ability for researchers to filter article search results using a variety of "facets" (e.g. sources, keywords, authors, observatories, etc.). Using only extracted astrotags and facets, we can create functionality like what is described in the Times example above: we can offer a map of the density of positions' "mentions" on the sky, filterable by the properties of those mentions. Using this map, researchers will be able to interactively, visually, discover what regions have been studied for what reasons, at what times, and by whom. Second, where

  17. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for fosetyl in potato, kiwi and certain spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, France, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State France (EMS France, received an application from Bayer CropScience to modify the existing MRL for fosetyl-Al in kiwi. In order to accommodate the intended use in Italy, the EMS France proposed to raise the MRL in kiwi to 150 mg/kg. Spain (EMS Spain, received an application from Probelte S.A. to modify the existing MRL for fosetyl-Al in potatoes. In order to accommodate the intended use in the SEU and to account for resulting residues in animal commodities, the EMS Spain proposed to raise the MRL in potatoes to 70 mg/kg and in ruminant`s kidney to 0.6 mg/kg. Germany (EMS Germany compiled an application to modify the existing MRL for fosetyl-Al in several spices. The EMS Germany proposed to raise the existing MRL for fosetyl in several seeds of spices and in caraway and cardamom to 300 mg/kg. The EMSs drafted evaluation reports in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which were submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals for the crops under consideration in support of the new intended uses for the residue definitions proposed in the Article 12 MRL review. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of fosetyl-Al on kiwi and certain spices will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values for fosetyl and phosphonic acid and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk. The intended use on potatoes cannot be supported due to data gaps identified regarding the magnitude of phosphonic acid residues in livestock commodities. A new feeding study in ruminants is required to adequately estimate residues of phosphonic acid in food of animal origin.

  18. 基于SPICE的半实物模拟训练系统%Semi-physical Simulation Training System Based on SPICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    摆卫兵; 杜新生; 宋志军

    2011-01-01

    For improving the reality of semi-physical simulation training system, SPICE circuit simulation technique is integrated into semi-physical simulation training systems by standard modularization design. The simulation training system of a ground-to-air missile guidance station is developed. Operation of physical components in panels is read by control to rewrite the specified SPICE file. The file is used as the input of SPICE in the simulation system. A main control program runs SPICE to simulate the file. The result of SPICE running is converted into output of physical components in panels. The simulation system can simulate normal operation and fault state.%为了提高半实物仿真模拟训练系统的操作真实程度,采用标准模块化设计的方法,将成熟的SPICE电路仿真技术集成到基于以太网的丰实物模拟训练设备中,研制了某型地空导弹制导站模拟训练系统.该模拟训练系统读取外部实物元件操作,改变预设SPICE电路文件的参数,并将其作为SPICE仿真输入.由主控程序运行SPICE仿真程序,并将仿真的结果转化为外部实物元件的输出.系统可以对正常的操作进行模拟,也可以时故障状态进行模拟.

  19. Entanglement Entropy of AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Melis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We review recent progress in understanding the entanglement entropy of gravitational configurations for anti-de Sitter gravity in two and three spacetime dimensions using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We derive simple expressions for the entanglement entropy of two- and three-dimensional black holes. In both cases, the leading term of the entanglement entropy in the large black hole mass expansion reproduces exactly the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, whereas the subleading term behaves logarithmically. In particular, for the BTZ black hole the leading term of the entanglement entropy can be obtained from the large temperature expansion of the partition function of a broad class of 2D CFTs on the torus.

  20. Culinary herbs and spices: their bioactive properties, the contribution of polyphenols and the challenges in deducing their true health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Elizabeth I; Chohan, Magali

    2014-10-22

    Herbs and spices have been used for both culinary and medicinal purposes for centuries. Over the last decade, research into their role as contributors of dietary polyphenols, known to possess a number of properties associated with reducing the risk of developing chronic non-communicable diseases, has increased. However, bearing in mind how these foods are consumed, normally in small quantities and in combination with other foods, it is unclear what their true benefit is from a health perspective. The aim of this review is to use the literature to discuss how preparative and digestive processes, bioavailability and interactions between foods may influence the bioactive properties of these foods, and whether or not polyphenols are responsible for these properties. Furthermore, this review aims to highlight the challenges that need to be addressed so as to determine the true benefits of these foods and the mechanisms of action that underpin their purported efficacy.

  1. The effect of visitor number and spice provisioning in pacing expression by jaguars evaluated through a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Vidal

    Full Text Available Abstract Captive animals exhibit stereotypic pacing in response to multiple causes, including the inability to escape from human contact. Environmental enrichment techniques can minimize pacing expression. By using an individual-based approach, we addressed whether the amount of time two males and a female jaguar (Panthera onca devote to pacing varied with the number of visitors and tested the effectiveness of cinnamon and black pepper in reducing pacing. The amount of time that all jaguars engaged in pacing increased significantly with the number of visitors. Despite the difference between the males regarding age and housing conditions, both devoted significantly less time to pacing following the addition of both spices, which indicates their suitability as enrichment techniques. Mean time devoted to pacing among the treatments did not differ for the female. Our findings pointed out to the validity of individual-based approaches, as they can reveal how suitable olfactory stimuli are to minimizing stereotypies irrespective of particular traits.

  2. The effect of visitor number and spice provisioning in pacing expression by jaguars evaluated through a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, L S; Guilherme, F R; Silva, V F; Faccio, M C S R; Martins, M M; Briani, D C

    2016-06-01

    Captive animals exhibit stereotypic pacing in response to multiple causes, including the inability to escape from human contact. Environmental enrichment techniques can minimize pacing expression. By using an individual-based approach, we addressed whether the amount of time two males and a female jaguar (Panthera onca) devote to pacing varied with the number of visitors and tested the effectiveness of cinnamon and black pepper in reducing pacing. The amount of time that all jaguars engaged in pacing increased significantly with the number of visitors. Despite the difference between the males regarding age and housing conditions, both devoted significantly less time to pacing following the addition of both spices, which indicates their suitability as enrichment techniques. Mean time devoted to pacing among the treatments did not differ for the female. Our findings pointed out to the validity of individual-based approaches, as they can reveal how suitable olfactory stimuli are to minimizing stereotypies irrespective of particular traits.

  3. Isolation and identification of ingredients inducing cancer cell death from the seeds of Alpinia galanga, a Chinese spice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiao-hui; Lu, Chuan-Li; Zhang, Xue-wu; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2015-02-01

    This study was carried out to isolate ingredients from the seeds of a Chinese spice (Alpinia galangal) and to evaluate their cytotoxic activity on cancer cell lines. Isolation and purification of the phytochemical constituents were conducted using silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and ODS columns. After extraction using 95% ethanol, the total extracts were re-extracted, resulting in petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EA) and water fractions, respectively. Activity tests showed that the EA fraction exhibited obvious (p galangal for the first time. Moreover, compounds I, II, IV and V were the main active ingredients for inducing death of the tested cancer cells, and their IC50 values ranged from 60 to 90 μg mL(-1), indicating that these compounds possessed a wide anti-cancer capability. Therefore, A. galangal seeds could be a potential source of healthy food for tumor prevention.

  4. Effects of gamma-irradiation on the free radical and antioxidant contents in nine aromatic herbs and spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calucci, Lucia; Pinzino, Calogero; Zandomeneghi, Maurizio; Capocchi, Antonella; Ghiringhelli, Silvia; Saviozzi, Franco; Tozzi, Sabrina; Galleschi, Luciano

    2003-02-12

    Nine spice and aromatic herb samples (i.e., basil, bird pepper, black pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, oregano, parsley, rosemary, and sage) were gamma-irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy according to commercial practices. The effects of the disinfection treatment on the content of organic radicals and some nutrients (namely, vitamin C and carotenoids) in the samples were investigated by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Irradiation resulted in a general increase of quinone radical content in all of the investigated samples, as revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The fate of these radicals after storage for 3 months was also investigated. The cellulose radical was clearly observed in a few samples. Significant losses of total ascorbate were found for black pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, oregano, and sage, whereas a significant decrease of carotenoids content was observed for cinnamon, oregano, parsley, rosemary, bird pepper, and sage.

  5. Synthesis and processing of intelligent cost-effective structures: a final review of the ARPA SPICES program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jack H.

    1996-05-01

    The Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures (SPICES) program is comprised of a consortium of industrial, academic and government labs working to develop cost effective material processing and synthesis technologies to enable new products using active vibration suppression and control devices to be brought to market. Since smart structures involve the integration of multiple engineering disciplines, it has been the objective of the consortium to establish cost effective design processes between this multi-organizational team for future incorporating of this new technology into each members respective product lines. Over the twenty-four month program many new improvements in sensors, actuators, modeling, manufacturing/integration and controls have been realized. The paper outlines the four phases of development in the program and the impact some of the key technologies will have on the smart structure development process in the future.

  6. Spice up the hypertension diet - curcumin and piperine prevent remodeling of aorta in experimental L-NAME induced hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janega Pavol

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase of blood pressure is accompanied by functional and morphological changes in the vascular wall. The presented study explored the effects of curcuma and black pepper compounds on increased blood pressure and remodeling of aorta in the rat model of experimental NO-deficient hypertension. Methods Wistar rats were administered for 6 weeks clear water or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day dissolved in water, piperine (20 mg/kg/day, curcumin (100 mg/kg/day or their combination in corn oil by oral gavage. The systolic blood pressure was measured weekly. Histological slices of thoracic aorta were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Mallory's phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin (PTAH, orcein, picrosirius red and van Gieson staining and with antibodies against smooth muscle cells actin. Microscopic pictures were digitally processed and morphometrically evaluated. Results The increase of blood pressure caused by L-NAME was partially prevented by piperine and curcumin, but the effect of their combination was less significant. Animals with hypertension had increased wall thickness and cross-sectional area of the aorta, accompanied by relative increase of PTAH positive myofibrils and decrease of elastin, collagen and actin content. Piperine was able to decrease the content of myofibrils and slightly increase actin, while curcumin also prevented elastin decrease. The combination of spices had similar effects on aortic morphology as curcumin itself. Conclusions Administration of piperine or curcumin, less their combination, is able to partially prevent the increase of blood pressure caused by chronic L-NAME administration. The spices modify the remodeling of the wall of the aorta induced by hypertension. Our results show that independent administration of curcumin is more effective in preventing negative changes in blood vessel morphology accompanying hypertensive disease.

  7. Mosquito larvicidal activity of some common spices and vegetable waste onCulex quinquefasciatus andAnopheles stephensi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Someshwar Singha; Goutam Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the larvicidal activities of crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extracts of some common spices (Cuminum cyminum, Allium sativum, Zingiber offinale, Curcuma longa) and vegetable waste (Solanum tuberosum germinated tuber) againstAnopheles stephensiandCulex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae.Methods:Larval mortality of above mosquito species were observed after 24, 48 and72 h of exposure to five concentrations of aqueous extract (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4% and0.5%) and four concentrations (25, 50, 75 ppm) of chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extract. The lethal concentration of individual spices or vegetable waste was determined by log-probit analysis (at95%confidence level) and effect of crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extracts were recorded on non target organisms.Results:Relative mortality rate of both larval mosquito species were recorded in the following sequences:Cuminum cyminum>Allium sativum>Zingiber offinale, Curcuma longa > Solanum tuberosum germinated tuber for crude extract, and efficacy of chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extract were as follows:Curcuma longa > Zingiber offinale > Solanum tuberosum germinated tuber >Cuminum cyminum>Allium sativum.Conclusions: Crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extract of Cuminum cyminum, Allium sativum, Zingiber offinale, Curcuma longa andSolanum tuberosum germinated tuber can be recommended effectively in mosquito control programmes at very low concentrations. No mortality and other abnormalities were noticed on non target organisms and further studies are needed to investigate the chemical structure of active principal which are responsible for larvicidal activity.

  8. The K2/Spice phenomenon: emergence, identification, legislation and metabolic characterization of synthetic cannabinoids in herbal incense products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brents, Lisa K; Prather, Paul L

    2014-02-01

    In 2008, the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) detected unregulated, psychoactive synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) in purportedly all-natural herbal incense products (often known as K2 or Spice) that were being covertly abused as marijuana substitutes. These drugs, which include JWH-018, JWH-073 and CP-47,497, bind and activate the cannabinoid receptors CB1R and CB2R with remarkable potency and efficacy. Serious adverse effects that often require medical attention, including severe cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and psychiatric sequelae, are highly prevalent with SCB abuse. Consequently, progressively restrictive legislation in the US and Europe has banned the distribution, sale and use of prevalent SCBs, initiating cycles in which herbal incense manufacturers replace banned SCBs with newer unregulated SCBs. The contents of the numerous, diverse herbal incense products was unknown when SCB abuse first emerged. Furthermore, the pharmacology of the active components was largely uncharacterized, and confirmation of SCB use was hindered by a lack of known biomarkers. These knowledge gaps prompted scientists across multiple disciplines to rapidly (1) monitor, identify and quantify with chromatography/mass spectrometry the ever-changing contents of herbal incense products, (2) determine the metabolic pathways and major urinary metabolites of several commonly abused SCBs and (3) identify active metabolites that possibly contribute to the severe adverse effect profile of SCBs. This review comprehensively describes the emergence of SCB abuse and provides a historical account of the major case reports, legal decisions and scientific discoveries of the "K2/Spice Phenomenon". Hypotheses concerning potential mechanisms SCB adverse effects are proposed in this review.

  9. MUSICAL ARRANGEMENT OF MEDIA ADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The music-compositional principles of commercial and political advertising and also the self-promotion of electronic media (radio, television, Internet are considered in this mediatext: from the elementary beeps, symbolic functions, emblems/logos and musical brands to the sound engineering technology to underscore the product's name and the complex synthesis between music and intra movements and color-light design of frames. Simultaneously examines, how the musical arrangement of ethereal advertising is involved in creation the emotional drama or bravado which reach the level of explicit or associative counterpoint 'music with the advertised object or subject' and which extend to expression of cultural image of all the broadcast channel. The article explores the works of the next genres like infomercial, teleshopping, film-ad, and autonomous commercials that have been produced in European countries or USA.

  10. Stringy Membranes in AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Axenides, Minos; Linardopoulos, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    We study membrane configurations in AdS_{7/4}xS^{4/7}. The membranes are wrapped around the compact manifold S^{4/7} and are dynamically equivalent to bosonic strings in AdS_5. We thus conveniently identify them as "stringy membranes". For the case of AdS_7xS^4, their construction is carried out by embedding the Polyakov action for classical bosonic strings in AdS_5, into the corresponding membrane action. Therefore, every string configuration in AdS_5 can be realized by an appropriately chosen stringy membrane in AdS_7xS^4. We discuss the possibility of this being also the case for stringy membranes in AdS_4xS^7/Z^k (k > 1 or k = 1). By performing a stability analysis to the constructed solutions, we find that the (membrane) fluctuations along their transverse directions are organized in multiple Lam\\'{e} stability bands and gaps in the space of parameters of the configurations. In this membrane picture, strings exhibit a single band/gap structure. Since the spectrum of quadratic fluctuations is important fo...

  11. Soy protein isolate added to vacuum-packaged chorizos: effect on drip loss, quality characteristics and stability during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcella, M I; Sánchez, G; Vaudagna, S R; Zanelli, M L; Descalzo, A M; Meichtri, L H; Gallinger, M M; Lasta, J A

    2001-04-01

    Chorizo is a raw sausage, which is manufactured with beef, pork meat and pork fat, additives and spices. In Argentina, the expenditure of chorizo is through butchery and supermarkets where the product can be found packaged in both polyethylene films and vacuum sealed pouches. In the latter type of packaging an appearance problem has been detected in relation to drip loss. The aim of the work was to solve such problem through the incorporation of soy protein isolate (SPI). The sensory, microbiological and chemical stability of the product and its drip loss during a storage period of 14 days were studied. By adding a 2.5% SPI, the drip loss was prevented without introducing any change in the flavour, aroma and juiciness characteristics of the product. These sensory attributes were kept stable during the storage period studied. Chemical composition, oxidative and microbiological stability were not affected by the addition of SPI during the storage period, being similar for added and non-added SPI samples. Finally, SPI can be used in chorizos to improve their overall appearance during refrigerated storage while the product quality characteristics are not altered.

  12. TASI lectures on AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Penedones, Joao

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the AdS/CFT correspondence as a natural extension of QFT in a fixed AdS background. We start by reviewing some general concepts of CFT, including the embedding space formalism. We then consider QFT in a fixed AdS background and show that one can define boundary operators that enjoy very similar properties as in a CFT, except for the lack of a stress tensor. Including a dynamical metric in AdS generates a boundary stress tensor and completes the CFT axioms. We also discuss some applications of the bulk geometric intuition to strongly coupled QFT. Finally, we end with a review of the main properties of Mellin amplitudes for CFT correlation functions and their uses in the context of AdS/CFT.

  13. Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Overview: ReADS can analyze text reports, such as aviation reports and problem or maintenance records. ReADS uses text clustering algorithms to group loosely related...

  14. The AdS/CFT/Unparticle Correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Terning, John

    2009-01-01

    We examine the correspondence between the anti-de Sitter (AdS) description of conformal field theories (CFTs) and the unparticle description of CFTs. We show how unparticle actions are equivalent to holographic boundary actions for fields in AdS, and how massive unparticles provide a new type of infrared cutoff that can be simply implemented in AdS by a soft breaking of conformal symmetry. We also show that processes involving scalar unparticles with dimensions d_s<2 or fermion unparticles with dimensions d_f<5/2 are insensitive to ultraviolet cutoff effects. Finally we show that gauge interactions for unparticles can be described by bulk gauge interactions in AdS and that they correspond to minimal gauging of the non-local effective action, and we compute the fermion unparticle production cross-section.

  15. TV Snack Ads Make Preschoolers Snack More

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sesame Street" interrupted by TV ads for a salty snack food ended up eating more of that ... watched the show with commercials for a popular salty snack. The ads depicted kids happily playing and ...

  16. Security Ads in Mobile Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasvi Kalra,

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The apps consist of advertisements to promote their products. Not all of them are appropriate to resume. Therefore various algorithms have been used in order to block those apps from existence but none of them is completely successful. In our app we are using an antivirus which can by default block those spy apps and remove them from the web page. The algorithm which has been used makes use of various ant viruses in the background which detect irrelevant and intimate apps and then our algorithm will demolish them. Certain apps are non-trustworthy where one click can spy all the mobile data. They block those apps and works on security. We are working on secure ads for mobile apps. It can also work as a basic antivirus where it detects the viruses like malwares in any of your installed apps or downloads. It will create a popup of discarding or keeping it. Mobile applications can be downloaded from anywhere like amazon, googleplay, apps store etc. There is no rigorous verification of an application when it is uploaded to the market. One can easily develop a malicious application and upload it to the app market. The user itself is responsible for accepting the risk of an app available from secondary markets. Therefore, we have decided to develop this app to make the market more secure and bounded. In future, It will take the mobile market while consuming minimal additional resources and preserving user privacy.

  17. Material Developing for ADS Beam Window

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUYong-li; XUYuan-chao; LIHua-qing; NINGGuang-sheng; WANFa-rong; ZHAOFei

    2003-01-01

    The irradiation damage and the chemical interaction with the coolant for the ADS target and the structure materials are the key issues in ADS engineering. The developing of the materials that are irradiation and corrosion resistance is the important topic in ADS program in many countries. In this case,a topic of the material developing for the beam window has been proposed in our ADS program.

  18. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation...

  19. Automated Experiments on Ad Privacy Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datta Amit

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To partly address people’s concerns over web tracking, Google has created the Ad Settings webpage to provide information about and some choice over the profiles Google creates on users. We present AdFisher, an automated tool that explores how user behaviors, Google’s ads, and Ad Settings interact. AdFisher can run browser-based experiments and analyze data using machine learning and significance tests. Our tool uses a rigorous experimental design and statistical analysis to ensure the statistical soundness of our results. We use AdFisher to find that the Ad Settings was opaque about some features of a user’s profile, that it does provide some choice on ads, and that these choices can lead to seemingly discriminatory ads. In particular, we found that visiting webpages associated with substance abuse changed the ads shown but not the settings page. We also found that setting the gender to female resulted in getting fewer instances of an ad related to high paying jobs than setting it to male. We cannot determine who caused these findings due to our limited visibility into the ad ecosystem, which includes Google, advertisers, websites, and users. Nevertheless, these results can form the starting point for deeper investigations by either the companies themselves or by regulatory bodies.

  20. Analysing the robustness of spice chains in Nepal from a smallholder perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salil Bhattarai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the performance of supply chains for ginger and large cardamom, two major export crops produced in Nepal. In particular, it aims to identify factors that constrain marketing choices available to smallholders, so limiting the chain’s robustness from their perspective. A qualitative case study method was used to gather and analyse data on farmer-buyer dyads in the ginger and cardamom chains. These case studies were informed by a conceptual model based on Transaction Cost Economics. The analysis included a cross-case comparison to identify the effects of external attributes on the modes of engagement available to smallholders. Informal market trading was the only mode of smallholder engagement observed in both chains. However, there was evidence that smallholders had previously engaged in relational contracts in the ginger chain, and in ‘captive’ relational contracts in the cardamom chain. The analysis suggests that access to other modes of engagement is constrained mainly by under-investment in value-adding assets. Traditional cooperatives can and do help to resolve problems of asymmetric information and high unit transaction costs, but more innovative cooperative models are required to encourage the investment needed to finance value-adding assets and activities.