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Sample records for antioxidant-rich spice added

  1. The radurisation of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spices find wide application in the food industry. Unfortunately high levels of microbial contamination in these products may lead to a limited shelf life and even health-associated problems in the foods that they are added to. Existing methods of decontamination are becoming unpopular due to regulatory pressure. Radurisation offers an attractive alternative. Results presented were used in applying for permission to have a variety of spices radurised

  2. In vitro evaluation on antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of spice extracts of ginger, turmeric and garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra V. Panpatil

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Spices like turmeric, ginger, alliums are indispensable for the preparation of our daily food and are reported to possess compounds, which have varied beneficial biological effects and also prevent the microbial spoilage of food. This study evaluates the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of spice extracts such as ginger, turmeric and garlic by 2, 2’-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH Radical Scavenging Method and also to evaluate their antimicrobial effects by Slant method. The antioxidant activities when compared among ginger, turmeric and garlic the potency of these spices was found to be in the order of Vit C > Ginger > Turmeric ≥ Dry garlic > Fresh garlic. The antimicrobial activity of these spices was found to be in the order of Turmeric > Ginger > Garlic. The study indicates that the spices like ginger, garlic and turmeric have antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Further studies are needed to study the biological effects of antioxidant-rich herbs and spices on oxidative stress related diseases.

  3. Packaging Attributes of Antioxidant-Rich Instant Coffee and Their Influence on the Purchase Intent

    OpenAIRE

    Marinês P. Corso; Marta de T. Benassi

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the most important packaging attributes for purchasing a product not currently on the Brazilian market: antioxidant-rich instant coffee, a blend of roasted coffee and green coffee. Five package types of the same brand of instant antioxidant-rich coffee marketed in different countries were evaluated through a focus group. The attributes’ glass shape, glass lid color and label, information and brand were selected for the quantitative study. The purchase inten...

  4. Packaging Attributes of Antioxidant-Rich Instant Coffee and Their Influence on the Purchase Intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês P. Corso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify the most important packaging attributes for purchasing a product not currently on the Brazilian market: antioxidant-rich instant coffee, a blend of roasted coffee and green coffee. Five package types of the same brand of instant antioxidant-rich coffee marketed in different countries were evaluated through a focus group. The attributes’ glass shape, glass lid color and label, information and brand were selected for the quantitative study. The purchase intent for the packaging images was evaluated with conjoint analysis. In general, an increased purchase intent was verified for more modern packages and browner labels that indicated roasted coffee. The consumers preferred the image of green and roasted coffee beans next to the cup of coffee and valued information about the product’s differentiation (the origin, type, quantity and functions of antioxidants that was presented in the form of explanatory charts on the back of the packaging.

  5. The impact of spices on vegetable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhaoping; Krak, Michael; Zerlin, Alona;

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study was conducted to evaluate the impact of spices added to broccoli, cauliflower, and spinach on amount and rate of vegetable consumption. Twenty overweight subjects who routinely ate less than three daily servings of vegetables were recruited. On six occasions, subjects were assigned...... in random order to eat broccoli, cauliflower, or spinach with or without added spices. Dishes were placed on a modified Universal Eating Monitor (UEM) that recorded rate of eating (g/sec), duration of eating (min) and total amount consumed (g). Total intake and duration of eating were increased...... significantly for broccoli with spices compared to plain broccoli, but there was no significant difference for cauliflower or spinach. No significant differences were noted in any of the visual analog scale (VAS) responses. This study suggests that adding spices may increase vegetable intake, but more studies...

  6. Formulation of Spices mixture for preparation of Chicken Curry

    OpenAIRE

    Deogade; A H; Zanjad; P. N.; Ambadkar; R. K. and Raziuddin; M

    2008-01-01

    Considering the scope of utilization of processed chicken in convenient form, a study was undertaken to optimize the levels of spice mixture salt and commercial chicken masala in a spice formulation to be used for preparation of chicken curry. The sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry added with hot spice mixture containing salt and chicken masala, revealed that the flavour, juiciness, texture and overall palatability scores of chicken curry improved significantly with addition of 3.0...

  7. Vitamin and antioxidant rich diet increases MLH1 promoter DNA methylation in DMT2 subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Switzeny Olivier J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress may lead to an increased level of unrepaired cellular DNA damage, which is discussed as one risk for tumor initiation. Mismatch repair (MMR enzymes act as proofreading complexes that maintain the genomic integrity and MMR-deficient cells show an increased mutation rate. One important gene in the MMR complex is the MutL homolog 1 (MLH1 gene. Since a diet rich in antioxidants has the potential to counteract harmful effects by reactive oxygen species (ROS, we investigated the impact of an antioxidant, folate, and vitamin rich diet on the epigenetic pattern of MLH1. These effects were analyzed in individuals with non-insulin depended diabetes mellitus type 2 (NIDDM2 and impaired fasting glucose (IFG. Methods In this post-hoc analysis of a randomized trial we analyzed DNA methylation of MLH1, MSH2, and MGMT at baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention, consisting of 300 g vegetables and 25 ml plant oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids per day. DNA methylation was quantified using combined bisulfite restriction enzyme analysis (COBRA and pyrosequencing. MLH1 and DNMT1 mRNA expression were investigated by qRT-PCR. DNA damage was assessed by COMET assay. Student’s two-tailed paired t test and one-way ANOVA with Scheffé corrected Post hoc test was used to determine significant methylation and expression differences. Two-tailed Pearson test was used to determine correlations between methylation level, gene expression, and DNA strand break amount. Results The intervention resulted in significantly higher CpG methylation in two particular MLH1 promoter regions and the MGMT promoter. DNA strand breaks and methylation levels correlated significantly. The expression of MLH1, DNMT1, and the promoter methylation of MSH2 remained stable. CpG methylation levels and gene expression did not correlate. Conclusion This vitamin and antioxidant rich diet affected the CpG methylation of MLH1. The higher methylation might be a

  8. Irradiation of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem faced by spice producing countries and by the food industry using these spices as ingredients are facing the problem of their high contamination with pathogenic and non pathogenic microorganisms, which create public health and product-deterioration problems. After discussing the conventional methods of decontamination, which result either in organoleptic losses (heat and extracts) or in toxic residues (fumigants), the advantages of the irradiation treatment are presented. This procedure is direct, simple to administer and control, and highly efficient. Doses of 3-7 kGy have been proven to reduce the microbial load to satisfactory levels, without affecting the organoleptic characteristics, whereas the surviving microflora is more sensitive to the subsequent food processing treatments. Irradiation can be administered in the commercial packages, which leads to considerable energy and personnel savings, while preventing subsequent recontamination. The increasing demand for high microbial quality in spices makes it easier for the food industry to afford the irradiation treatment costs. The wholesomeness of irradiated spices has been demonstrated by a group of experts of WHO, FAO and IAEA, and the treatment has been promulgated by Codex Alimentarius and been cleared by a number of national health authorities, including the U.S. F.D.A. The number of clearances is steadily increasing and so is the commercial use

  9. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  10. Bolometer Simulation Using SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis H.; Aslam, Shahid; Lakew, Brook

    2004-01-01

    A general model is presented that assimilates the thermal and electrical properties of the bolometer - this block model demonstrates the Electro-Thermal Feedback (ETF) effect on the bolometers performance. This methodology is used to construct a SPICE model that by way of analogy combines the thermal and electrical phenomena into one simulation session. The resulting circuit diagram is presented and discussed.

  11. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÉSSICA F. RODRIGUES

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1 were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3 were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1. Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

  12. Measurement of spices and seasonings in India: Opportunities for cancer epidemiology and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrucci, Leah M.; Daniel, Carrie R; Kapur, Kavita; Chadha, Puneet; Shetty, Hemali; Graubard, Barry I.; George, Preethi S.; Osborne, Whitney; Yurgalevitch, Susan; Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Gupta, Prakash C.; Mathew, Aleyamma; Sinha, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Bioactive components of many foods added during cooking have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antibacterial and chemopreventive properties. However, epidemiologic studies generally do not collect detailed information on these items which include spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and oils. Since India has some of the highest spice consumption in the world, we developed a computer-based food preparer questionnaire to estimate per capita consumption of 19 spices,...

  13. Radiation decontamination of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report effect of gamma irradiation and storage of fungal infestation and moisture of red chilies and black pepper has has been discussed. The sample were collected from local market and radiation treatment with 8 kGy of gamma rays completely inhibited fungal infestation in both the spices. It was observed that irradiated samples remained uncontaminated throughout storage period of 12 months. Moisture values increased with advanced storage. The contents were highest in the unpacked control samples and lowest irradiated packed samples. (A.B.)

  14. Irradiation of spices and herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the microbiology, chemistry, mutagenicity and sensory of spices due to gamma irradiation are discussed. This process has been shown to be safe and wholesome with no effect on product quality or flavour

  15. Inhibitory effect of antioxidant-rich marinades on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in pan-fried beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Olga; Amaro, L Filipe; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Pinho, Olívia

    2012-06-20

    The inhibitory effect of antioxidant-rich marinades containing beer and white wine (with/without alcohol) alone or mixed with herbs commonly used as meat flavoring (garlic, ginger, thyme, rosemary, and red chili pepper) on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) in pan-fried beef was studied. Radical-scavenging activity was evaluated by DPPH assay, before the addition of meat to the marinade (T0) and after 4 h of meat marinating (T4). At T0, wine with herbs possessed the highest scavenging activity (73.5%), followed by wine (72.5%), dealcoholized wine with herbs (53.4%), beer and herbs (41.7%), dealcoholized wine (39.6%), and beer (25.9%). At T4, a decrease in the radical-scavenging activity of all marinades was observed, although with a similar radical-scavenging profile. All of the six marinades under the study reduced the total amount of HAs, keeping meat with good overall sensory quality. Beer marinades were more efficient than white wine marinades, and the addition of herbs provided a superior inhibitory effect, reducing around 90% of HAs. No correlation was observed between radical-scavenging activity of marinades and total or individual HAs formation. Herbs explained around 30% of inhibition of PhIP formation, whereas alcohol increased PhIP formation. PMID:22642699

  16. Efficient solvent extraction of antioxidant-rich extract from a tropical diatom,Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen) Takano 1968

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Chern Foo; Fatimah Md Yusoff; Maznah Ismail; Mahiran Basri; Nicholas Mun Hoe Khong; Kim Wei Chan; Sook Kun Yau

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare thein vitro antioxidant capacity of a diatom,Chaetoceros calcitrans (C. calcitrans) extracted using six types of solvents. Methods:Each extract was evaluated in terms of extraction yield, total carotenoid, fucoxanthin content, total phenolic and antioxidant capacities (DPPH• andABTS•+ scavenging activity and iron chelating activity). Results: The methanol extract exhibited the highest yield [(22.71 ± 0.96) g/100 g dry weight (DW)], total carotenoid [(4.46 ± 0.36) mg/g DW], total phenolic [(2.49 ± 0.08) mg gallic acid equivalents/g DW] and second highest fucoxanthin content [(2.08 ± 0.03) mg fucoxanthin/g DW] as compared to other solvent extracts. Methanolic extract also exhibited significantly higher (P Conclusions: Methanol was the recommended solvent for the production of antioxidant rich extract fromC. calcitrans. Both carotenoids and phenolic acids were found to be positively correlated to the antioxidant capacities ofC. calcitrans. Lead bioactives confirmed by subsequent high performance liquid chromatography studies were fucoxanthin, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid.

  17. Efficient solvent extraction of antioxidant-rich extract from a tropical diatom,Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen) Takano 1968简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su; Chern; Foo; Fatimah; Md.Yusoff; Maznah; Ismail; Mahiran; Basri; Nicholas; Mun; Hoe; Khong; Kim; Wei; Chan; Sook; Kun; Yau

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the in vitro antioxidant capacity of a diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans(C. calcitrans) extracted using six types of solvents.Methods: Each extract was evaluated in terms of extraction yield, total carotenoid,fucoxanthin content, total phenolic and antioxidant capacities(DPPH and ABTS +scavenging activity and iron chelating activity).Results: The methanol extract exhibited the highest yield [(22.71 ± 0.96) g/100 g dry weight(DW)], total carotenoid [(4.46 ± 0.36) mg/g DW], total phenolic [(2.49 ± 0.08) mg gallic acid equivalents/g DW] and second highest fucoxanthin content [(2.08 ± 0.03) mg fucoxanthin/g DW] as compared to other solvent extracts. Methanolic extract also exhibited significantly higher(P < 0.05) scavenging(DPPH, ABTS +) and iron chelating activities.Conclusions: Methanol was the recommended solvent for the production of antioxidant rich extract from C. calcitrans. Both carotenoids and phenolic acids were found to be positively correlated to the antioxidant capacities of C. calcitrans. Lead bioactives confirmed by subsequent high performance liquid chromatography studies were fucoxanthin, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid.

  18. Effect of antioxidant rich diets on lipid profile and blood pressure in cardiovascular patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sample of 200 patients was randomly selected and interviewed. Various data related to their food consumption in previous weeks and other behavioral attitudes were recorded. Their blood pressure was measured and blood was analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG). Spearman's correlation coefficient was worked out between blood pressure, serum lipid parameters and tea, vitamin C and fibre intake. Tea showed significant correlation with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (-0.2373; P<0.02), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (-0.2299; P<0.02) and TC (-0.3454; P<0.01). Vitamin C showed a negatively significant correlation with TC (-0.4676; P<0.01), and LDL-C (-2661; P<0.01) and significant positive correlation with HDL-C (+0.2227; P < 0.05). The tea intake was found strongly correlated with blood pressure as compared to vitamin C, while vitamin C had stronger correlation with TC as compared to tea intake. Fibre was not found significantly correlated with any of the studied parameters. A 30-day control trial on 50 subjects revealed that antioxidant therapy during fat-restricted diet period significantly affected blood pressure and serum lipids. Comparative effect showed that lemon juice showed best results. Lemon juice decreased DBP, SBP, TC, TG and increased HDL-C, while tea added with lemon only significantly decreased DBP, SBP and TC. Salad, especially onion, only improved HDL-C and LDLC levels. Vitamin C supplement also significantly lowered DBP, SBP, TC, LDL-C and TG. Tea had negative correlation with blood pressure and TC, while vitamin C has showed relationship with TC, LDL-C and positive with HDL-C. It is conceivable, therefore, that dietary antioxidants cause a significant improvement in blood pressure and serum lipids than vitamin C supplement and simple fat-restricted diets. (author)

  19. CLOVE: A CHAMPION SPICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Clove may be looked upon as a champion of all the antioxidants known till date. The Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity (ORAC test is a scale developed by U.S. Department of Agriculture for comparing anti-oxidant activity. The ORAC score, of clove is over 10 million. A drop of clove oil is 400 times more powerful as an anti-oxidant than wolf berries or blueberries. Health benefits from the use of clove have been known over the centuries. It is beneficial as a home remedy in curing several ailments / diseases. In addition to its culinary uses, the clove buds have an abundance of medicinal and recreational uses. The major part of the world’s consumption of the clove spice is in the home kitchens. However, commercial use of the clove is for the production of clove oil that contain active constituents, which possess antioxidant, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, anesthetic, pain reliving and insect repellent properties. Eugenol is the main constituent responsible for the medicinal properties of the clove bud. In the light of above, we thought it worthwhile to compile an up-to-date review article on clove covering its, synonyms, chemical constituents, phytopharmacology and medicinal uses.

  20. Postharvest Processing and Benefits of Black Pepper, Coriander, Cinnamon, Fenugreek, and Turmeric Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S; Roselin, P; Singh, K K; Zachariah, John; Saxena, S N

    2016-07-26

    Spices are prime source for flavor, aroma, and taste in cuisines and play an active role as medicines due to their high antioxidant properties. As medicine or food, the importance of spices cannot be overemphasized. The medicinal values of spices are very well established in treating various ailments like cancer, fever, malaria, stomach offset, nausea, and many more. A spice may be available in several forms: fresh, whole dried, or pre-ground dried which requires further processing to be utilized in the form of value-added product. This review paper deals with the cultivation, postharvesting, chemical composition, uses, health, and medicinal benefits of the selected spice viz., black pepper, coriander, cinnamon, fenugreek, turmeric, and technological advances in processing of spices viz., super critical fluid extraction, cryogenic grinding, and microencapsulation etc. This paper also focuses on issues related to utilization of spices toward its high end-product development and characterization in pharmaceuticals and other medicinal purposes. The availability of different spices and their varietal differences and location have their pertinent characters, which are much demanding to refine postharvest and processing to assure its quality in the international market. PMID:25747463

  1. Search for β-Secretase Inhibitors from Natural Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Shinichi; Murata, Kazuya; Yoshioka, Yuri; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2016-04-01

    The growing number of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients prompted us to seek effective natural resources for the prevention of AD. We focused on the inhibition of β-secretase, which is known to catalyze the production of senile plaque. Sixteen spices used in Asian countries were selected for the screening. Among the extracts tested, hexane extracts obtained from turmeric, cardamom, long pepper, cinnamon, Sichuan pepper, betel, white turmeric and aromatic ginger showed potent inhibitory activities. Their active principles were identified as sesquiterpenoids, monoterpenoids, fatty acid derivatives and phenylpropanoids using GC-MS analyses. The chemical structures and IC50 values of the compounds are disclosed. The results suggest that long-term consumption'of aromatic compounds from spices could be effective in the prevention of AD. PMID:27396206

  2. Team SPICE: A SPICE-Based Teamwork Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amengual, Esperança; Mas, Antònia; Mesquida, Antoni Lluís

    Software engineering is currently paying special attention to cooperative and human aspects of software development. Within this new socio-technical perspective of software engineering, teamwork appears to be a relevant topic. This paper presents a SPICE-based Teamwork Assessment Model for software teams. This model, named Team SPICE, is composed of a Teamwork Reference Model (TRM) and a Measurement Framework, both introduced in previous works. In this paper, the assessment process to be followed to perform a teamwork assessment and the experience of its application to software teams are described.

  3. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musundire, Robert; Osuga, Isaac M; Cheseto, Xavier; Irungu, Janet; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS) and coupled gas chromatography (GC)-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1) at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food. PMID:26731419

  4. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Musundire

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS and coupled gas chromatography (GC-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1 at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food.

  5. Kaubanduskeskus Spice Riias = Spice shopping centre in Riga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Riias Lielirbes iela 29 asuva kaubanduskeskuse Spice sisekujundus. Sisearhitekt Aivar Oja (FRA Disain OÜ), kaasa töötas Riin Luuk (Vaikla Disain). Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. 2 plaani, 7 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  6. Decontamination of nuts and spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The social and economic impacts of outbreaks of foodborne illnesses and food recalls connected to consumption of microbiologically contaminated nuts, spices or their products have become important food safety concerns. Initiatives have been undertaken by regulatory and public health agencies, indust...

  7. SPICE Supports Planetary Science Observation Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall Acton, Charles; Bachman, Nathaniel J.; Semenov, Boris V.; Wright, Edward D.

    2015-11-01

    "SPICE" is an information system, comprising both data and software, providing scientists with the observation geometry needed to plan observations from instruments aboard robotic spacecraft, and to subsequently help in analyzing the data returned from those observations. The SPICE system has been used on the majority of worldwide planetary exploration missions since the time of NASA's Galileo mission to Jupiter. Along with its "free" price tag, portability and the absence of licensing and export restrictions, its stable, enduring qualities help make it a popular choice. But stability does not imply rigidity-improvements and new capabilities are regularly added. This poster highlights recent additions that could be of interest to planetary scientists.Geometry Finder allows one to find all the times or time intervals when a particular geometric condition exists (e.g. occultation) or when a particular geometric parameter is within a given range or has reached a maximum or minimum.Digital Shape Kernel (DSK) provides means to compute observation geometry using accurately modeled target bodies: a tessellated plate model for irregular bodies and a digital elevation model for large, regular bodies.WebGeocalc (WGC) provides a graphical user interface (GUI) to a SPICE "geometry engine" installed at a mission operations facility, such as the one operated by NAIF. A WGC user need have only a computer with a web browser to access this geometry engine. Using traditional GUI widgets-drop-down menus, check boxes, radio buttons and fill-in boxes-the user inputs the data to be used, the kind of calculation wanted, and the details of that calculation. The WGC server makes the specified calculations and returns results to the user's browser.Cosmographia is a mission visualization program. This tool provides 3D visualization of solar system (target) bodies, spacecraft trajectory and orientation, instrument field-of-view "cones" and footprints, and more.The research described in this

  8. Decontamination of spices by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination by gamma irradiation of minor spices such as coriander, fennel, cumin, aniseed, cardamom (large) and ajowan was studied. The bacterial load on these spices ranged from 102 - 105 cfu/g, while the fungal load ranged from 10-103 cfu/g. No microorganisms were detected in samples exposed to radiation and stored up to 12 mo. Though pathogens, such as coliforms, B. cereus and Staphylococci were detected in some samples of spices, their presence was not detected in spices exposed to radiation. A comparison of gas liquid chromatographic profiles indicated no significant change in the quality of volatile oils of these spices. Intra country transportation studies, in collaboration with two national laboratories and a multinational corporation, confirmed our earlier observations regarding retention of quality in several spices following irradiation, transport and storage. Similar results were evident from intercountry collaborative studies with Japan. (author). 10 refs, 6 figs, 10 tabs

  9. Irradiation of grains and spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of food irradiation to extend the storage life and improve the hygienic quality of rice, mungbean and spices was tested by direct involvement with related food industries. The test consisted of storage trials of irradiated rice under commercial conditions, market testing of irradiated food, and a trial irradiation of commercial products. A consumer acceptance test was conducted using a group of educated people from 3 universities. To prove the safety of food irradiation conducted under appropriately controlled conditions, additional data on vitamin B content and the physico-chemical properties of irradiated rice, as well as free radical activity in irradiated rice, mungbean and spices were collected during this study. The results indicated that rice packaged in polyethylene pouch and irradiated up to 1 kGy could be stored for more than 1 year without insect damage. The colour of irradiated rice was slightly darker than that of unirradiated control, but was still acceptable. The vitamin B content of rice irradiated with such a dose was not significantly changed. Many food companies have recognized the ability of food irradiation, but this technology is not well understood by the general public. An irradiation dose of 3 kGy can be recommended as maximum dose to decontaminate rice of certain bacteria. Free radicals produced in irradiated rice, mungbean and spice will disappear within 1 month following irradiation. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 10 tabs

  10. TURMERIC: THE GOLDEN SPICE OF LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Rathaur*, Waseem Raja, P.W. Ramteke and Suchit A. John

    2012-01-01

    Turmeric is an ancient spice derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, which is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). Also known as ‘Golden Spice of India’ turmeric has been used in India for medicinal purposes for centuries. It has been used in traditional medicine as a household remedy for various diseases, including biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorders, rheumatism and sinusitis. In addition to its use as a spice and pigment, turmeric and its con...

  11. Spice Tools Supporting Planetary Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, C.; Bachman, N.; Semenov, B.; Wright, E.

    2016-06-01

    NASA's "SPICE"* ancillary information system has gradually become the de facto international standard for providing scientists the fundamental observation geometry needed to perform photogrammetry, map making and other kinds of planetary science data analysis. SPICE provides position and orientation ephemerides of both the robotic spacecraft and the target body; target body size and shape data; instrument mounting alignment and field-of-view geometry; reference frame specifications; and underlying time system conversions. SPICE comprises not only data, but also a large suite of software, known as the SPICE Toolkit, used to access those data and subsequently compute derived quantities-items such as instrument viewing latitude/longitude, lighting angles, altitude, etc. In existence since the days of the Magellan mission to Venus, the SPICE system has continuously grown to better meet the needs of scientists and engineers. For example, originally the SPICE Toolkit was offered only in Fortran 77, but is now available in C, IDL, MATLAB, and Java Native Interface. SPICE calculations were originally available only using APIs (subroutines), but can now be executed using a client-server interface to a geometry engine. Originally SPICE "products" were only available in numeric form, but now SPICE data visualization is also available. The SPICE components are free of cost, license and export restrictions. Substantial tutorials and programming lessons help new users learn to employ SPICE calculations in their own programs. The SPICE system is implemented and maintained by the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF)-a component of NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS). * Spacecraft, Planet, Instrument, Camera-matrix, Events

  12. SPICE model of memristive devices with threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Pershin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Although memristive devices with threshold voltages are the norm rather than the exception in experimentally realizable systems, their SPICE programming is not yet common. Here, we show how to implement such systems in the SPICE environment. Specifically, we present SPICE models of a popular voltage-controlled memristive system specified by five different parameters for PSPICE and NGSPICE circuit simulators. We expect this implementation to find widespread use in circuits design and testing.

  13. NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS OF FOUR COMMON SPICES USED IN DENTISTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan Katyal; Deepak Prashar

    2015-01-01

    Spices are used for aroma, flavor, colour and preservation of foodstuff. Spices may be derived from many parts of the plant viz bark, buds, flowers, fruits, leaves, rhizomes, roots, seeds and the entire plant. Spices are frequently desiccated, dehydrated, processed or distilled to prepare extracts such as essential oils from the raw spice material. These processing techniques may hamper the nutritional aspect of these spices. Moreover, the pharmacological activity of these spices is also a...

  14. Prospecting Organic production of spices in Rajasthan

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    Low rainfall and low atmospheric humidity favours spices production in Rajasthan, the largest state of India.Details on possibilities of organic production of spices in Rajasthan are described in the paper considering the future challenges of soil, climate,social and market environment.

  15. SPICE model of memristive devices with threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Pershin, Y V

    2013-01-01

    Although memristive devices with threshold voltages are the norm rather than the exception in experimentally realizable systems, their SPICE programming has not yet been suggested. Here, we show how to implement such systems in the SPICE environment. We expect this implementation to find widespread use in circuits design and testing.

  16. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barikmo Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. Methods We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. Results The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. Conclusions This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential

  17. Biochemical and microbiological quality of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spoilage of spices is generally due to microbial contamination as well as development of off-favours due to oxidation of oils. This research was conducted to investigate the influence of irradiation doses (2-10 KGy) on bacterial and fungal contamination as well as col colour and volatile components during storage of spices. The influence of different gamma radiation doses on total mould count of spices such as turmeric, coriander, chilies, cumin and black pepper, was determined and the results are presented. The effect of irradiation on total bacterial counts of these spices is presented. The dose of 10 KGy decreased the bacterial counts to either undetectable or very low levels in various spices. (orig./A.B.)

  18. Trial intercountry shipment of irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment has been carried out to evaluate the quality of irradiated spices packaged in some indigenous packaging materials. Spices used were whole nutmeg (myristica fragrans) and whole white pepper (piper nigrum). The spice samples were packaged in tin containers with or without oxygen absorber and in woven polypropylene (PP) bags, then irradiated at 5 kGy, and despatched from Jakarta to Wagenigen by sea-freight. The shipment was performed in small and commercial size packages. The results showed that irradiation treatment could effectively disinfest and decontaminate spices without altering their chemical composition and sensory properties. PP bags, particularly the one without inner liner, were unable to withstand rough handling and to prevent reinfestation during shipment. Tin containers were able to withstand rough handling and prevent reinfestation. The oxygen absorber used had no effect on microbial count and other parameters of the spices. (author)

  19. Effect of the most common spices and herbs in typical northwestern Thai diet on human iron absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in rural Northeast (NE) region is one of the highest in Thailand. The typical NE diets are plant-based. Non-heme iron is the major form in plant source. The bioavailability of non-heme iron depends largely on the presence of enhancers, e.g. ascorbic acid, animal protein, organic acid and inhibitors, e.g. polyphenolic compounds including tannin, phytate in the food matrix of composite meals. The habitual NE Thai dishes consist of a variety of chili dips usually consumed with substantial amount of vegetables and spices. High contents of iron inhibitors such as phytate and polyphenolic compounds including tannin in these herbs and spices may profoundly influence iron bioavailability in the northeast population. However, this inhibitory effect can partially be compensated in vivo by their effect on increasing gastric emptying time and enhancing gastric acid secretion. Although spices and herbs are used in abundance in the developing world and are likely to affect iron absorption in these regions, no systematic investigations in humans have been performed to date. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of the most common herbs and spices in typical Northeast diets on human iron absorption by stable isotope techniques. A series of studies will be conducted beginning with the identification of relevant spices and herbs commonly used in Thai habitual diets by 24 hours recall together with food frequency of consumption of popular local dishes. Later, the amount of spices/herbs per serving in popular dishes will be quantified by weighing method followed by the selection of spices/herbs. Food specimens collected in dry and rainy season will be analyzed individually for ascorbic acid, phytate, polyphenol and tannin contents. The three most relevant spices/herbs in the diet will be studied individually. First, the iron absorption from a basic test meal (plain white rice) with and without added spice/herb will be determined

  20. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action. PMID:27529277

  1. Fungal and aflatoxin contamination of marketed spices

    OpenAIRE

    Hammami, Walid; Fiori, Stefano; Al Thani, Roda; Kali, Najet Ali; Balmas, Virgilio; Migheli, Quirico; Jaoua, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Fourteen spice samples were collected from local markets in Doha, Qatar, during 2012, and were surveyed for the presence of potentially harmful mycoflora and for contamination with aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Among the tested spice samples, chili powder showed the highest presence of fungal propagules, while ginger, curry and garlic samples did not present any fungal contamination. A total of 120 isolates, mostly belonging to Aspergillus and...

  2. Medieval European medicine and Asian spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jong Kuk

    2014-08-01

    This article aimed to explain the reasons why Asian spices including pepper, ginger, and cinnamon were considered as special and valuable drugs with curative powers in the Medieval Europe. Among these spices, pepper was most widely and frequently used as medicine according to medieval medical textbooks. We analyzed three main pharmacology books written during the Middle Ages. One of the main reasons that oriental spices were widely used as medicine was due to the particular medieval medical system fundamentally based on the humoral theory invented by Hippocrates and Galen. This theory was modified by Arab physicians and imported to Europe during the Middle Ages. According to this theory, health is determined by the balance of the following four humors which compose the human body: blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm. Each humor has its own qualities such as cold, hot, wet, and dry. Humoral imbalance was one of the main causes of disease, so it was important to have humoral equilibrium. Asian spices with hot and dry qualities were used to balance the cold and wet European diet. The analysis of several major medical textbooks of the Middle Ages proves that most of the oriental spices with hot and dry qualities were employed to cure diverse diseases, particularly those caused by coldness and humidity. However, it should be noted that the oriental spices were considered to be much more valuable and effective as medicines than the local medicinal ingredients, which were not only easily procured but also were relatively cheap. Europeans mystified oriental spices, with the belief that they have marvelous and mysterious healing powers. Such mystification was related to the terrestrial Paradise. They believed that the oriental spices were grown in Paradise which was located in the Far East and were brought to the Earthly world along the four rivers flowing from the Paradise. PMID:25223223

  3. Accelerating SPICE Model-Evaluation using FPGAs

    OpenAIRE

    Kapre, Nachiket; DeHon, André

    2009-01-01

    Single-FPGA spatial implementations can provide an order of magnitude speedup over sequential microprocessor implementations for data-parallel, floating-point computation in SPICE model-evaluation. Model-evaluation is a key component of the SPICE circuit simulator and it is characterized by large irregular floating-point compute graphs. We show how to exploit the parallelism available in these graphs on single-FPGA designs with a low-overhead VLIW-scheduled architecture. ...

  4. PHYSICOCHEMICAL, MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY AND OXIDATIVE STABILITY IN SPICED LAMB MEAT BURGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Cózar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of adding two powdered spices (rosemary and thyme on the pH, colour coordinates, Cooking yield (CY Cooking loss (CL, Diameter Reduction (DR, Shear Force (SF, microbiological levels and lipid oxidation (LO in two types of lamb burgers (L= leg meat; LNB= leg+neck+breast meat was assessed over a six day period. Both spices increased stability during the storage period, LO values being six times lower than those of the non-spiced control group at 6 days. L samples showed higher CY, lower CL and DR than LNB burgers, with significant differences at 6 d (P < 0.001. The length of storage only affected (P < 0.01 these parameters in L burgers. In general, SF was higher in LNB than in L burgers but did not vary with time. The colour coordinates showed lower values in L than in LNB samples. The formulation type affected TVC and Pseudomonas spp.

  5. Decontamination of spices by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination of spices (onion powder, cardamom, red pepper powder, etc.) used for special types of Bulgarian sausages was investigated. Gamma irradiation (60Co) at doses of 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy was applied. It was found that the total count of microorganisms in spices was between 1.85.105 and 3.8.107. The largest was the amount of the coliforms and the staphylococci in the onion powder. The cardamom and onion powder were free of coliforms with dose of 4 kGy. The staphylococci were eliminated with doses of 6 kGy. The number of proteolytic microorganisms was decreased but they were isolated from spices irradiated even with 10 kGy. (author)

  6. Trial intercountry shipment of irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of irradiated whole nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) and whole white pepper (Piper nigrum) packaged in locally available material was evaluated. The spice samples were packaged in tin-containers or woven polypropylene (PP) bags, with or without oxygen absorber in the package, irradiated at 5 kGy, and shipped from Jakarta to Wageningen by sea-freight. The shipment was made in small and in commercial-size packages. Irradiation effectively disinfested and decontaminated spices without altering their chemical composition and sensory properties. (PP) bags, particularly those without an inner liner, did not withstand rough handling and did not prevent reinfestation during shipment. Tin containers did withstand rough handling and prevented re-infestation. The oxygen absorber had no effect on microbial count and the other parameters of the spices. (author). 22 refs, 12 tabs

  7. Anti-oncogenic perspectives of spices/herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Naz, Ambreen; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Qayyum, Mir Muhammad Nasir

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary nutrition regime has focused the attention of the researchers on phytochemicals enriched spices to mitigate various oncological threats. Numerous chemopreventive strategies against malignancy have been developed considering the anticancer perspectives of allied nutraceutical constituents. Current evidences have proven an inverse association of spices with that of oncological incidences. The high antioxidant activity of spices derived bioactives triggers the free radicals scavengi...

  8. Sterilization of ground prepacked Indian spices by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study assessed the efficacy of irradiation for disinfection of 4 prepacked ground dry Indian spices (chilli, coriander, pepper, and turmeric) that were found to be highly contaminated with bacteria and molds. A 10-kGy irradiation dose effectively killed these contaminants without altering spice quality. The irradiated spices retained their quality over a 6-month storage period

  9. Decontamination of spices by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of gamma irradiation (8 kGy) on decontamination of pre packed (in polyethylene) and unpacked spices such as black pepper and chilli, was studied over a storage period of 12 months. Radiation dose of 8.0 kGyu completely decontaminated by the spices. Fungal packaged samples. Water content increased from a range values of 7.6-8.5% to 11.4 to 15.2% the increase was higher in red chilli than black pepper. Colour values significantly changed during storage, however the influence of radiation was not consistent. (author)

  10. FDSAC-SPICE: fault diagnosis software for analog circuit based on SPICE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yiqin; Cen, Zhao-Hui; Wei, Jiao-Long

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a novel fault diagnosis software (called FDSAC-SPICE) based on SPICE simulator for analog circuits. Four important techniques in AFDS-SPICE, including visual user-interface(VUI), component modeling and fault modeling (CMFM), fault injection and fault simulation (FIFS), fault dictionary and fault diagnosis (FDFD), greatly increase design-for-test and diagnosis efficiency of analog circuit by building a fault modeling-injection-simulationdiagnosis environment to get prior fault knowledge of target circuit. AFDS-SPICE also generates accurate fault coverage statistics that are tied to the circuit specifications. With employing a dictionary diagnosis method based on node-signalcharacters and regular BPNN algorithm, more accurate and effective diagnosis results are available for analog circuit with tolerance.

  11. Implementation of interconnect simulation tools in spice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsangi, H.; Schutt-Aine, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    Accurate computer simulation of high speed digital computer circuits and communication circuits requires a multimode approach to simulate both the devices and the interconnects between devices. Classical circuit analysis algorithms (lumped parameter) are needed for circuit devices and the network formed by the interconnected devices. The interconnects, however, have to be modeled as transmission lines which incorporate electromagnetic field analysis. An approach to writing a multimode simulator is to take an existing software package which performs either lumped parameter analysis or field analysis and add the missing type of analysis routines to the package. In this work a traditionally lumped parameter simulator, SPICE, is modified so that it will perform lossy transmission line analysis using a different model approach. Modifying SPICE3E2 or any other large software package is not a trivial task. An understanding of the programming conventions used, simulation software, and simulation algorithms is required. This thesis was written to clarify the procedure for installing a device into SPICE3E2. The installation of three devices is documented and the installations of the first two provide a foundation for installation of the lossy line which is the third device. The details of discussions are specific to SPICE, but the concepts will be helpful when performing installations into other circuit analysis packages.

  12. Zhangcha Duck (Spiced and Smoked Duck)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Preparation: Buy a ready cooked Zhangcha Duck—a kind of duck stewed in sugar, spiced with tea leaves and smoked, which can be bought at the takeout departments of many Chinese restaurants. Bring the duck home and fry in oil until the skin is crisp. Slice thickly and serve with steamed bread, sliced

  13. Experience with spice teaching power electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2009-01-01

    A free Spice version allowing general circuit simulation is used teaching power electronics. There is no lock on the circuit size, stabile and user friendly operation is experienced. A collection of transformer, converter and drive system models are implemented to investigate the usability...... of the programme in high power electronics....

  14. Microbial decontamination of spices by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality of spices was studied. It was found that the dose of 6 KGg decreases the cell count by a factor of 2-3 however complete decontamination is obtained at a dose of 10 KGg

  15. Quality control and disinfestation of spices for export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India is the largest producer, consumer and exporter of spices in the world. Other than a few, all spices are grown in this country. The production is estimated at 2.6 million tonnes with an export of about 0.22 million tonnes valued around US $ 333 million. India's share in the world trade is over 40 % in quantity and 20 % in value. Many spices produced in India face quality problems as in other countries. For identifying quality produce, grade specifications have been introduced for all the important spices. With the liberalization of government controls, compulsory pre-shipment inspection has been withdrawn unless insisted by the buyer abroad. To meet the sanitary and phytosanitary requirements, the Spices Board has taken up a massive programme for upgradation of quality of Indian spices. Logo mark and Spice House Certificates are awarded to those spice exporting units having necessary infrastructure for assuring quality. By now, 6 units have been accredited to ISO 9000. Though different chemical and non-chemical treatments are available for improving hygienic quality, irradiation appears to be a reliable method. However, its wide application in the spice industry depends upon the conviction of the consumers of its safety. Because of the comprehensive programmes taken up for quality improvement of spices, India is confident of exporting spices meeting quality specifications prescribed by the importing countries. (author)

  16. NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS OF FOUR COMMON SPICES USED IN DENTISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Katyal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spices are used for aroma, flavor, colour and preservation of foodstuff. Spices may be derived from many parts of the plant viz bark, buds, flowers, fruits, leaves, rhizomes, roots, seeds and the entire plant. Spices are frequently desiccated, dehydrated, processed or distilled to prepare extracts such as essential oils from the raw spice material. These processing techniques may hamper the nutritional aspect of these spices. Moreover, the pharmacological activity of these spices is also altered by these processing methods. Better nutritional prospect of any natural product helps in proper growth of gums in case of dentistry. The current review tries to focus on the nutritional aspects of four common spices used in dentistry.

  17. The effects spicing on quality of mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Akarca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 3 different spice mixes were added just after blanching to mozzarella cheese produced by high moisture production method. The dough was kneaded and filled into to fibrous cases. After filling process, cheeses were stored for 28 days at 4 °C and 85 % of relative humidity. The following characteristics were measured: color parameters, milk acidity, total dry matter, maturation index, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliform bacteria, coagulase positive staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria, species of Lactococcus bacteria, proteolytic bacteria, lipolytic bacteria and mold /yeast count were examined on 0, 5, 15,21 and 28 days after storage. Although L* (lightness and a* (redness values decreased during storage period, while moreover b* (yellowness values increased. In addition acidity, dry matter and maturation index values increased during storage. Total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus spp., lipolytic bacteria and mold/ yeast counts decreased, but proteolytic bacteria count increased.

  18. Turmeric and black pepper spices decrease lipid peroxidation in meat patties during cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanjun; Henning, Susanne M.; Lee, Ru-po; Huang, Jianjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Spices are rich in natural antioxidants and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation during cooking of meat. Turmeric contains unique conjugated curcuminoids with strong antioxidant activity. Piperine, one of the main constituents of black pepper, is known to increase the bioavailability of curcuminoids in mouse and human studies when consumed with turmeric. We investigated whether adding black pepper to turmeric powder may further inhibit lipid peroxidation when...

  19. SPICE ROUTE: LOGISTIC JOURNEY OF SPICES IN RETAIL SUPPLY CHAIN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulrajan Rajkumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report the findings of the study of the routes and the distance traveled by spices from the farming location to the consumer in traditional and organised retailing. This research study is primarily exploratory in nature, and the research instruments include interviews and survey through questionnaires with players in the spice supply chain. The study is to track the spice routes by the retailers for assessing the current state of the supply chain management practices, and evaluate ‘food mileage’ clocked by them. ‘Food miles’ is a relatively recent concept in retailing and result of this study reveals that significant increase in food miles in the case of organised retailers. Longer food miles of spices are an indicator of the shift towards organised retailing. The speed at which spices reach their destination as well as the time taken between any two points was not observed. This is the limitation of this study, and also the scope for further research. The research study is not aimed at finding the factors related to the food mileage.

  20. Consumer response to irradiated spices in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyses the response of the consumer about irradiated spices. The spices under investigation were black pepper, cumin and coriander. The results of the sensory test the panelists ( 136 person) failed to indicate any difference between the irradiated and unirradiated black pepper, cumin and coriander. The percentages of correct answer were 26.92 29.23, 29.23 and 27.27. Five hundred post card were issued for black pepper to test the opinion of the consumer acceptance for the irradiated black pepper. The result of their opinion were 62.2% of the consumers who would buy irradiated black pepper, 14.6% would not buy it and 23.2% were undecided

  1. Thermoluminescent dust for identification of irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeksu, H.Y.; Regulla, D.F.; Hietel, B.; Popp, G. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that most of the natural products contain minute amounts of wind blown or intruding dust which can be separated and used to identify irradiated spices by measuring its thermoluminescence (TL). The method has several advantages over the use of the whole grains of spices. There is no spurious signal due to oxidation of the organic components, therefore the samples can be heated to higher temperatures at which more stable TL peaks are accessible. As a consequence, the method provides (1) high reliability in identification, (2) an access to a quantitative assessment of the administered dose even after some years, (3) determination of the time elapsed between the food irradiation and the TL readout. Thermoluminescent dust obtained from cumin, green pepper, sage, rosemary, mugwort, lovage, thyme, dill weed, oregano, savory, marjoram and basil is investigated. (author).

  2. Spice : a circuit circulation program for physiologists

    OpenAIRE

    Cruiziat, P.; Thomas, R.

    1988-01-01

    This article presents a program named SPICE for simulation in plant physiology. It was originally developed to simulate electric and electronic circuits. For several years it has now been also used in various fields of human and animal physiology (classical physiology, membrane biophysics, pharmacokinetics...). After a short description of SPICE’s main features and capabilities, 3 simple illustrative examples are given : a whole plant water flow model, a coupling fluxes of water and solut...

  3. MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF RETAIL HERBS AND SPICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Santoro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 80 samples of herbs and spices were analyzed for the presence of Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp., , Escherichia coli, total and fecal coliforms, Enterobacteriacaee, total mesophilic and psychrophilic aerobic organisms, and fungi. Samples were packaged in polyethylene bags or glass containers.High levels of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms were found in most of the samples. B. cereus was present in 27 samples, Clostrium perfringens was isolated from 3 samples, Salmonella spp. was not detected.

  4. A Simplified Spice Model for IGBT

    OpenAIRE

    Haddi, A.; Maouad, A.; Elmazria, O.; Hoffmann, A; Charles, J. P.

    1998-01-01

    A simplified IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) SPICE macromodel, based on its equivalent circuit, is proposed. This macromodel is provided to simulate various mechanisms governing the behavior of the IGBT, and it takes into account specific phenomena limiting its SOA (Safe Operating Area), such as forward and reverse biased SOA, as well as latch-up. The validity of this model is confirmed by comparison between simulation and experimental results as well as the data sheet...

  5. Comparative study of thermoluminescence detection methods for irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermoluminescence (TL) detection methods for irradiated spices were compared using spice samples obtained on the Japanese market, irradiated at doses of 1, 5, 10 and 30 kGy and stored for 1 year before analysis. The TL intensities of irradiated spices were stable for 1 year after irradiation. Measurement with whole samples failed to identify irradiated samples. Minerals were separated from spices in sodium tungstate saturated solution and/or sodium polytungstate solution. The TL intensity of minerals which had undergone irradiation was significantly increased for all samples. However, the ranges of TL intensity of irradiated and unirradiated samples overlapped. Clear discrimination has been obtained between the TL ratios of irradiated and unirradiated spices by using normalized measurement with reirradiation. The detection limit in terms of irradiation dose is 1 kGy even in a sample that has been irradiated 1 year prior to analysis. Normalization is the best technique currently available for thermoluminescence analysis to identify irradiated spices

  6. TURMERIC: THE GOLDEN SPICE OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Rathaur*, Waseem Raja, P.W. Ramteke and Suchit A. John

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric is an ancient spice derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, which is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae. Also known as ‘Golden Spice of India’ turmeric has been used in India for medicinal purposes for centuries. It has been used in traditional medicine as a household remedy for various diseases, including biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorders, rheumatism and sinusitis. In addition to its use as a spice and pigment, turmeric and its constituents mainly curcumin and essential oils shows a wide spectrum of biological actions. These include its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, anticoagulant, antifertility, anti-diabetic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, anti-fibrotic, anti-venom, antiulcer, hypotensive and hypocholesteremic activities. Modern interest on turmeric started in 1970's when researchers found that the herb may possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Safety evaluation studies indicate that both turmeric and curcumin are well tolerated at a very high dose without any toxic effects. Thus, turmeric and its constituents have the potential for the development of modern medicine for the treatment of various diseases.

  7. The influence of herbs and spices on overall liking of reduced fat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, John C; Polsky, Sarit; Stark, Rebecca; Zhaoxing, Pan; Hill, James O

    2014-08-01

    Most adults consume more fat than is recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We examined whether adding herbs and spices to reduced-fat foods would improve their consumer liking. We recruited adults 18-65 years old to taste three lunch conditions: full fat (FF), reduced fat with no added spice (RF), and reduced fat plus spice (RFS). Subjects rated their liking of a meatloaf entrée, vegetable side dish, pasta side dish, and overall meal on a 9-point hedonic Likert scale. Subjects came weekly for 3 weeks to consume meals and were randomized to the condition order. We enrolled 148 subjects who were predominantly female (n = 101, 68%), had a mean age of 35.9 years, and body mass index of 24.4 kg/m2. Subjects reported habitual diets as 36% of total calories from fat (2005 Block Food Frequency Questionnaire). Reducing fat content alone significantly dropped overall liking of the meal compared with FF and RFS conditions (6.29 RF vs. 7.05 FF, P national guidelines. PMID:24769295

  8. Sterilization of ground spices by electron beams irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each ground spice (Black Pepper, Turmeric, Ginger, Paprika and Basil), which was packaged into polyethylene film, was irradiated by electron beams at 5 different levels: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy. Bacteriological tests for total bacterial count were carried out on spices before and after irradiation, but the tests for microfiora were carried out only before irradiation. Total bacterial count decreased in proportion to the level of electron beams. But the decreasing rate for Turmeric, Ginger and Basil was lower compared with that of other spices. The reason seems that rate of contamination by B. pumilus, which is thought as radiation resistant bacteria, was higher on these spices. (author)

  9. Sterilization of ground spices by electron beams irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashigiwa, Masayuki; Nakachi, Ayako; Kobayashi, Hiroshi [K. Kobayashi and Co., Ltd., Kako, Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Each ground spice (Black Pepper, Turmeric, Ginger, Paprika and Basil), which was packaged into polyethylene film, was irradiated by electron beams at 5 different levels: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy. Bacteriological tests for total bacterial count were carried out on spices before and after irradiation, but the tests for microfiora were carried out only before irradiation. Total bacterial count decreased in proportion to the level of electron beams. But the decreasing rate for Turmeric, Ginger and Basil was lower compared with that of other spices. The reason seems that rate of contamination by B. pumilus, which is thought as radiation resistant bacteria, was higher on these spices. (author)

  10. Irradiation of spices and frozen seafood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on the inactivation of microorganisms in spices showed that doses of 6 to 9 kGy of EB (electron beam) or gamma irradiation were required to reduce the total aerobic bacteria to below 103 per gram. However, a small increase of resistance was observed on the inactivation of total aerobic bacteria in many spices in case of EB irradiation. The difference in radiation sensitivity between EB and gamma-rays might be explained by the dose rate effect oxidative damage to microorganisms. On the other hand, a high dose rate of EB irradiation suppressed the increase of peroxide values in spices at high dose irradiation up to 80 kGy. The distribution of pathogenic bacteria in 12 samples of the imported frozen shrimps and the effect of gamma-irradiation on these bacteria were also investigated. A few Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. mimicus, V. alginolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluvialis and Listeria monocytogenes were isolated from many samples. The dose necessary to reduce the vibrio isolates and Aeromonas hydrophila at a level of below 10-4 per gram was about 3 kGy in frozen shrimps, whereas about 3.5 kGy was required for L. monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. In this study, unpleasant off-odor was clearly detected in the non-frozen shrimps irradiated at 2.5 kGy. On the other hand, off-odor was negligible in the frozen product below 5 kGy irradiation. No remarkable changes of peroxide values were also obtained up to 9 kGy of irradiation in the frozen shrimps. (author). 17 refs, 8 figs, 7 tabs

  11. A Study on Spice Usage Habits of Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Demircioglu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out on the total of 662 women to determine their habits on the use of spices. The results indicated that 94.6% of women use spices at their home. When they cook meal, they generally use black pepper, red pepper flakes, pepper mint, oregano, red pepper and cumin. Sage, peppers mint and oregano are the most used spices for herbal therapy. Most of the women buy their spices on supermarket in wrapped products (67.1%, look the production and expiration dates of spices products (44.3%, keep them in colorless glass jar (63.6%, never consume expired date spices (88.8% and add spices to meal with a spoon that they use during meal preparation (48.2%. According to the results, the consumers should buy spices in a wrapped product with production and expiration dates from reliable companies. Morover, they must be kept from light, air, moisture and temperature and they must be kept in covered and dark-color glass jars and in cool places. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 161-168

  12. Emerging Trends in Microwave Processing of Spices and Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahath Kubra, Ismail; Kumar, Devender; Jagan Mohan Rao, Lingamallu

    2016-10-01

    Today, spices are integral part of our food as they provide sensory attributes such as aroma, color, flavour and taste to food. Further their antimicrobial, antioxidant, pharmaceutical and nutritional properties are also well known. Since spices are seasonal so their availability can be extended year round by adopting different preservation techniques. Drying and extraction are most important methods for preservation and value addition to spices. There are different techniques for drying of spices with their own advantages and limitations. A novel, non-conventional technique for drying of spices is use of microwave radiation. This technique proved to be very rapid, and also provide a good quality product. Similarly, there are a number of non-conventional extraction methods in use that are all, in principle, solid-liquid extractions but which introduce some form of additional energy to the process in order to facilitate the transfer of analytes from sample to solvent. This paper reviews latest advances in the use of microwave energy for drying of spices and herbs. Also, the review describes the potential application of microwave energy for extraction of essential oil/bioactive components from spices and herbs and the advantages of microwave-assisted process over the other extraction processes generally employed for extraction. It also showcases some recent research results on microwave drying/extraction from spices and herbs. PMID:25751729

  13. Presence of moulds and mycotoxins in spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Dragica D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper there are presented the results of mycologic and mycotoxicologic analysis of seven spices which are being used for production of meat products. Using standard mycologic methods, in all the tested samples, we noticed a presence of moulds. By quality and quantity, most represented are genera: Aspergillus and Penicillium. With smaller occurrence there are presented genera: Rhizopus, Mucor, Paecylomyces and Absydia. Mycotoxins - ochratoxin, aflatoxins and zearalenon, are detected in samples of ground white pepper, ginger, cloves and ground caraway.

  14. In vitro antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities of Ethiopian spice blend Berbere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica R; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Boselli, Emanuele; Bonesi, Marco; Menichini, Federica; Menichini, Francesco; Frega, Natale Giuseppe

    2011-11-01

    The metal chelating activity, antioxidant properties, and the effect on carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes of Ethiopian spice blend Berbere have been investigated. Berbere contains a total amount of phenols corresponding to 71.3 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent per gram of extract and a total flavonoid content of 32.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram of extract. An increase of the resistance towards forced oxidation was obtained when Berbere was added to sunflower oil. In order to evaluate the bioactivity of the non-polar constituents, an n-hexane extract was obtained from Berbere. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of 19 fatty acids constituents (98.1% of the total oil content). Among them, linoleic acid was the major component (72.0% of the total lipids). The ethanolic extract had the highest ferric-reducing ability power (35.4 μM Fe(II)/g) and DPPH scavenging activity with a concentration giving 50% inhibition (IC(50)) value of 34.8 μg/ml. Moreover, this extract exhibited good hypoglycemic activity against α-amylase (IC(50) = 78.3 μg/ml). In conclusion, Ethiopian spice blend Berbere showed promising antioxidant and hypoglycemic activity via the inhibition of carbohydrate digestive enzymes. These activities may be of interest from functional point of view and for the revalorization of the spice blend in gastronomy also outside the African country. PMID:21599464

  15. Improved SPICE electrical model of silicon photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work introduces an improved SPICE equivalent electrical model of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) detectors, in order to simulate and predict their transient response to avalanche triggering events. In particular, the developed circuit model provides a careful investigation of the magnitude and timing of the read-out signals and can therefore be exploited to perform reliable circuit-level simulations. The adopted modeling approach is strictly related to the physics of each basic microcell constituting the SiPM device, and allows the avalanche timing as well as the photodiode current and voltage to be accurately simulated. Predictive capabilities of the proposed model are demonstrated by means of experimental measurements on a real SiPM detector. Simulated and measured pulses are found to be in good agreement with the expected results. -- Highlights: • An improved SPICE electrical model of silicon photomultipliers is proposed. • The developed model provides a truthful representation of the physics of the device. • An accurate charge collection as a function of the overvoltage is achieved. • The adopted electrical model allows reliable circuit-level simulations to be performed. • Predictive capabilities of the adopted model are experimentally demonstrated

  16. Spice Thermal Subcircuit of Multifinger HBT derived from Ritz Vector reduction technique of 3D Thermal Simulation for electrothermal modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, D.; Sommet, R.; Quéré, R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the integration of a reduced thermal model based on tree dimensional Finite Element (FE) thermal simulation into circuit simulator for accurate prediction of electrothermal behavior of power devices. The reduced thermal model based on the Ritz vectors approach is easily usable in any kind of circuit simulator because it is described by a spice format subcircuit. The model has been successfully experimented with the ADS simulator. Electrical based thermal measurements of ...

  17. Quantification of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Metabolites Crocins, Picrocrocin and Safranal for Quality Determination of the Spice Grown Under Different Environmental Moroccan Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary goal of this study was to propose a sustainable substitute crop with high added value in some Moroccan agricultural areas with low and erratic rainfalls, for their socio-economical development. The quality of the saffron spice crop produced under different Moroccan environmental conditio...

  18. Irradiation of spices produced in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some spices produced in Argentina ground red pepper, anise, fennel, laurel, paprika, Cayenne pepper, cumin (seed), and mayoram (leaves and flowers), were irradiated to inactivate microbial lead, without causing significant chemical or sensory alterations. They were packed in polyethylene bags of 100 m thickness, and irradiated at the 60Co semi-industrial facility of the Ezeiza Atomic Center, with doses of 7 and 10 kGy, and dose rate of 93.87 Gy/min. Dosimetric data were evaluated with potassium nitrate. Control and irradiated samples were stored at room temperature. Chemical analysis were performed to verify the Argentine Alimentary Codex specifications: water content; essence; total ash; ash insoluble in acid; alcoholic, volatile ether and non-volatile ether extracts; starch; and crude fiber. Besides, colour and volatile substances were analyzed. No differences were found between control and irradiated samples, with the exception of an increase in the total amount of volatiles released by irradiated spices, and a slight colour loss in mayoram. Microbiological determinations consisted of aerobic plate count, yeasts and moulds, coliform bacteria, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, mesophilic and thermophilic sporeformers, enterococci and Clostridium perfringens. Microbial load in control samples oscillated between 103 and 106 microorganisms per gram, and was inhibited with 10 kGy to undetectable level. With 7 kGy, survivors were still detected in: cumin, anise, laurel, red pepper, fennel and paprika. So, the purpose of this work was accomplished with the dose of 10 kGy. Great improvement on the quality of those products which being stored at room temperature are consumed in the raw state, would be attained. (Author)

  19. Disinfestation of whole and ground spices by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Number of insect species were identified in chilli (Capsicum annum Linn), turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), pepper (Piper nigrum Linn) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and also in two commercial brands of prepacked ground spices. Lasioderma serricorne (Cigarette beetle), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Saw toothed grain beetle), Rhizopertha dominica (Lesser grain borer), Sitotroga cerealella (Angoumois grain moth) and Tribolium castaneum (Red flour beetle) were the predominant pest species found in these spices. Exposure of spices to Co60 gamma irradiation at 1 kGy dose level did not show adult emergence of insects in these species during storage at ambient temperature (28-30degC) indicating that the radiation dose (10 kGy) that has been shown to be effective for microbial decontamination of spices destroys insect pests as well. (author). 8 refs

  20. Traditional spices of Dayak Kenyah society in East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI SUSIARTI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of plant in Indonesia is high, including variety of spices, which have been known by Indonesian society since long time ago. Several very popular plants are clove (Syzygium aromaticum, pepper (Piper nigrum, cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanii, and nutmeg (Myristica fragrans. Variety of spices has connection with cultures. In each region and society, they have a special spices in their traditional food. The research was conducted in villages in Pujungan district and other places in East Kalimantan Province and commonly Dayak Kenyah society. The methods used for this study was by interviewing of local society and direct observation in the fields where plant spices occurred. The results indicated that traditional Dayak in East Kalimantan used bekai (Albertisia papuana Becc., payang aka (Hodgsonia macrocarpa (Bl. Cogn., payang kurek (Aleurites moluccana (L. Willd., payang kayu (Pangium edule Reinw., payang lengu (Ricinus communis L., and payang salap (Sumbaviopsis albicans (Blume J.J.Sm. for preparing their food with certain method.

  1. Neural-Based Models of Semiconductor Devices for SPICE Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Hanene B. Hammouda; Mongia Mhiri; Zièd Gafsi; Kamel Besbes

    2008-01-01

    The paper addresses a simple and fast new approach to implement Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) models for the MOS transistor into SPICE. The proposed approach involves two steps, the modeling phase of the device by NN providing its input/output patterns, and the SPICE implementation process of the resulting model. Using the Taylor series expansion, a neural based small-signal model is derived. The reliability of our approach is validated through simulations of some circuits in DC and small-...

  2. Antioxidant Activities of Hot Water Extracts from Various Spices

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Il-Suk; Yang, Mi-Ra; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kang, Suk-Nam

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the natural spices and herbs such as rosemary, oregano, and caraway have been used for the processing of meat products. This study investigates the antioxidant activity of 13 spices commonly used in meat processing plants. The hot water extracts were then used for evaluation of total phenolic content, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activities. Our results show that the hot water extract of oregano gave the highest extraction yield (41.33%) whereas mace (7.64%) gave the low...

  3. Current problems and future outlook for trade in irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JECFI recommended worldwide clearance of irradiated spices, including onion powders, up to 10 kGy in 1980. The Netherlands have been irradiating spices since 1970 and together with Belgium, have thus processed several thousand tonnes. However, since no other European country has cleared irradiated spices, there are still barriers to trade. In the U.S., the FDA regulations allow spice irradiation, up to 30 kGy. However, existing large EtO fumigation systems, and conservatism in the industry (despite stringent government regulations regarding worker exposure to EtO) as well as lack of consumer interest and acceptance due to ignorance and misinformation, have allowed only very slow progress in the U.S. Out of a total of 300,000 tons of spices and aromatic herbs, only about 3000 tons will be irradiated in 1985. In Europe it is expected that about 15-20% of the total spices and herbs will be irradiated in 1985 and about 25% in 1986. Labelling is an issue in the U.S. and may represent another impediment. However, a number of surveys have indicated that proper information and education, and in particular that of the woman consumer, are required to overcome reluctance to introduce this technology. (author)

  4. Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P

    2012-06-01

    Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation. PMID:22492273

  5. New opportunities of the application of natural herb and spice extracts in plant oils: application of electron paramagnetic resonance in examining the oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Szterk, Arkadiusz; Zawada, Katarzyna; Ząbkowski, Tomasz

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the applicability of natural water-ethanol extracts of herbs and spices in increasing the oxidative stability of plant oils and in the production of novel food. Different concentrations (0, 100, 300, 500, and 700 ppm) of spice extracts and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) (100 ppm) were added to the studied oils. The antioxidant activity of spice extracts was determined with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay. The study showed that the extracts significantly increased the oxidative stability of the examined oils when compared to one of the strongest synthetic antioxidants--BHA. The applied simple production technology and addition of herb and spice extracts to plant oils enabled enhancement of their oxidative stability. The extracts are an alternative to the oils aromatized with an addition of fresh herbs, spices, and vegetables because it did not generate additional flavors thus enabling the maintenance of the characteristic ones. Moreover, it will increase the intake of natural substances in human diet, which are known to possess anticarcinogenic properties. PMID:22900972

  6. An interlaboratory trial on the identification of irradiated spices, herbs, and spice-herb mixtures by thermoluminescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence analysis was used in an interlaboratory study to detect irradiation treatment of spices, herbs, and spice-herb mixtures in the dose range used for the reduction of microbial counts. About 3 and 9 months after irradiation, 14 participating laboratories determined the thermoluminescence of mineral contaminants that had been isolated from coded samples. A total of 18 different products (6 spices, 6 herbs, and 6 spice-herb mixtures) were examined. The method gave correct identifications as irradiated or nonirradiated in 99.1% of 317 samples. Only 3 irradiated samples were not correctly identified. This result was achieved by integration of whole glow curves. By glow curve analysis, a temperature range could be determined in which differentiation between irradiated and nonirradiated samples was even better than on the basis of the total integral values

  7. Turmeric: A spice with multifunctional medicinal properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasri Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma longa (Turmeric, belonging to Zingiberaceae family is one of the most useful herbal medicinal plants. Extensive researches have proven that most of the turmeric activities of the turmeric are due to curcumin. It has various useful properties with antioxidant activities and is useful in conditions such as inflammation, ulcer and cancer. It also has antifungal, antimicrobial renal and hepatoprotective activities. Therefore, it has the potential against various cancer, diabetes, allergies, arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease and other chronic and hard curable diseases. The purpose of this review was to provide a brief summary of the new and current knowledge of the effects of curcumin. The recently published papers in international cites such as PubMed/Medline, Science Citation Index and Google Scholar about turmeric were searched. Recent studies have authenticated the use of turmeric for various diseases especially oxidative stress induced ones such as cancer, diabetes mellitus and inflammatory disorders. It also is used as hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticoagulant and anti-HIV to combat AIDS. Curcumin, as a spice, exhibits great promise as a therapeutic agent. It has very low toxicity, too. As the global scenario is now changing towards the use of non-toxic plant products having traditional medicinal use, development of modern drugs from turmeric should be emphasized for the control of various diseases. Further evaluation needs to be carried out on turmeric in order to explore the concealed areas and their practical clinical applications, which can be used for the welfare of mankind.

  8. A simple method for identification of irradiated spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behere, Arun; Desai, S. R. Padwal; Rao, S. M. D.; Nair, P. M.

    Thermoluminescence (TL) properties of curry powder, a salt containing spice mixture, and three different ground spices, viz. chilli, turmeric and pepper, were compared with TL of table salt. The spices other than curry powder, did not exhibit characteristic TL in the absence of salt. Therefore studies were initiated to develop a simple and reliable method using common salt for distinguishing irradiated spices (10 kGy) from unirradiated ones under normal conditions of storage. Common salt exhibited a characteristic TL glow at 170°C. However, when present in curry powder, the TL glow of salt showed a shift to 208°C. It was further observed that upon storage up to 6 months, the TL of irradiated curry powder retained about 10% of the original intensity and still could be distinguished from the untreated samples. From our results it is evident that common salt could be used as an indicator either internally or externally in small sachets for incorporating into prepacked spices.

  9. A simple method for identification of irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (TL) properties of curry powder, a salt containing spice mixture, and three different ground spices, viz, chilli, turmeric and pepper, were compared with TL of table salt. The spices other than curry powder, did not exhibit characteristic TL in the absence of salt. Therefore studies were initiated to develop a simple and reliable method using common salt for distinguishing irradiated spices (10 kGy) from unirradiated ones under normal conditions of storage. Common salt exhibited a characteristic TL glow at 170oC. However, when present in curry powder, the TL glow of salt showed a shift to 208oC. It was further observed that upon storage up to 6 months, the TL of irradiated curry powder retained about 10% of the original intensity and still could be distinguished from the untreated samples. From our results it is evident that common salt could be used as an indicator either internally or externally in small sachets for incorporating into prepacked spices. (author)

  10. Development of a microbiological irradiation detection method for spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to judge whether certain spices had been irradiated or not, we examined the possibility of developing a method based on the microbiological examination of spices. We used the total bacteria count in conjunction with the ratio of B. megaterium and B. cereus to the total bacteria count. The examination results of 6 kinds of spices with or without irradiation (black pepper, white pepper, coriander, paprika, ginger and turmeric), were as follows. Total bacteria counts over 10E5 CFU/g indicated that the samples were 'unirradiated'. When the total bacteria count was less than 10E5 CFU/g, and the ratio of B. megaterium and B. cereus to the total count was more than 30%, a history of irradiation of the samples was indicated. When ratios of B. megaterium and B. cereus were less than 30% and the total bacteria count was also less than 10E5 CFU/g, 'uncertainty' of irradiation was indicated. In this case, it would be possible to confirm whether spices were 'unirradiated' or 'irradiated' by using another detection method. This detection method was applicable to other spices except for paprika. The samples judged as 'irradiated' by using this detection method, surely proved to have a history of irradiation treatment

  11. Spicing up a vegetarian diet: chemopreventive effects of phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Johanna W

    2003-09-01

    Thousands of chemical structures have been identified in plant foods. Many are found in spices. Typically, spices are the dried aromatic parts of plants-generally the seeds, berries, roots, pods, and sometimes leaves-that mainly, but not invariably, grow in hot countries. Given the wide range of botanical species and plant parts from which spices are derived, they can contribute significant variety and complexity to the human diet. In the past, the medicinal uses of spices and herbs were often indistinguishable from their culinary uses, and for good reason: people have recognized for centuries both the inherent value, as well as the potential toxicity, of phytochemicals in relation to human health. Plants have the capacity to synthesize a diverse array of chemicals, and understanding how phytochemicals function in plants may further our understanding of the mechanisms by which they benefit humans. In plants, these compounds function to attract beneficial and repel harmful organisms, serve as photoprotectants, and respond to environmental changes. In humans, they can have complementary and overlapping actions, including antioxidant effects, modulation of detoxification enzymes, stimulation of the immune system, reduction of inflammation, modulation of steroid metabolism, and antibacterial and antiviral effects. Embracing a cuisine rich in spice, as well as in fruit and vegetables, may further enhance the chemopreventive capacity of one's diet. PMID:12936952

  12. A simple method for identification of irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behere, A.; Desai, S.R.P.; Nair, P.M. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Food Technology and Enzyme Engineering Div.); Rao, S.M.D. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Div.)

    1992-07-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) properties of curry powder, a salt containing spice mixture, and three different ground spices, viz, chilli, turmeric and pepper, were compared with TL of table salt. The spices other than curry powder, did not exhibit characteristic TL in the absence of salt. Therefore studies were initiated to develop a simple and reliable method using common salt for distinguishing irradiated spices (10 kGy) from unirradiated ones under normal conditions of storage. Common salt exhibited a characteristic TL glow at 170{sup o}C. However, when present in curry powder, the TL glow of salt showed a shift to 208{sup o}C. It was further observed that upon storage up to 6 months, the TL of irradiated curry powder retained about 10% of the original intensity and still could be distinguished from the untreated samples. From our results it is evident that common salt could be used as an indicator either internally or externally in small sachets for incorporating into prepacked spices. (author).

  13. Antimicrobial effects of spices and herbs essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemet Nevena T.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spices and herbs have been used as food additives since ancient times, as flavouring agents but also as natural food preservatives. A number of spices shows antimicrobial activity against different types of microorganisms. This article gives a literature review of recent investigations considering antimicrobial activity of essential oils widely used spices and herbs, such as garlic, mustard, cinnamon, cumin, clove, bay, thyme, basil, oregano, pepper, ginger, sage, rosemary etc., against most common bacteria and fungi that contaminate food (Listeria spp., Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia spp., Pseudomonas spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp. and many others. Antimicrobial activity depends on the type of spice or herb, type of food and microorganism, as well as on the chemical composition and content of extracts and essential oils. Summarizing results of different investigations, relative antimicrobial effectiveness can be made, and it shows that cinnamon, cloves and mustrad have very strong antimicrobial potential, cumin, oregano, sage, thyme and rosemary show medium inhibitory effect, and spices such as pepper and ginger have weak inhibitory effect.

  14. The occurrence of aflatoxins in selected spices and dried fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Stanisławczyk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are toxic substances formed by fungi which are a potential danger for human and animal health. The aim of this study was to determine the contamination with the aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxins sum B1, B2, G1, G2 in selected spices and dried fruits available in trade in the Podkarpackie province. The studies confirm the widespread occurrence of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxins sum B1, B2, G1, G2 in spices, spices mixtures and dried fruits, however, in none of the tested samples there was exceeded the permissible concentration of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxins sum B1, B2, G1, G2. The highest content of aflatoxin B1 was determined in red pepper and universal spices mixture while the smallest in figs and raisins. The monitoring of aflatoxins sum B1, B2, G1, G2  showed similar results. The highest level was determined in universal spices mixture and in red pepper.

  15. Commercial demonstration plant for radiation processing of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Government of India has cleared radiation processing for preservation of 1) spices, 2) onions/potatoes and 3) frozen sea foods (exports only) in the year 1994. Process parameters for each of these categories being quite diverse, dedicated radiation processing facilities, based on 60Co, are planned by DAE to demonstrate the techno-economic viability of the radiation processing for the preservation of foods in the country. This paper describes the first such facility, being set up by BRIT for the radiation processing of spices to reduce their microbial contamination, which often is of the order of 108 CFU/g in common spices. The facility is ideally located near the wholesale spices market of Navi Mumbai. It is designed for a maximum of one million curies of 60Co and will process wide variety of spices with a throughput of ∼ 12,000 tons per annum, at an average dose of 10 kGy. Safety systems incorporated in the plant, having a wet type source storage, conform to national as well as international standards. Plant controls are built around a robust programmable logic controller with fault reporting system for safety interlocks as well as for plant operation. (author)

  16. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes. PMID:27386114

  17. Traditional Indian spices and their health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Kamala

    2008-01-01

    India has been recognized all over the world for spices and medicinal plants. Both exhibit a wide range of physiological and pharmacological properties. Current biomedical efforts are focused on their scientific merits, to provide science-based evidence for the traditional uses and to develop either functional foods or nutraceuticals. The Indian traditional medical systems use turmeric for wound healing, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal symptoms, deworming, rhinitis and as a cosmetic. Studies in India have explored its anti-inflammatory, cholekinetic and anti-oxidant potentials with the recent investigations focusing on its preventive effect on precarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti atherosclerotic effects in biological systems both under in vitro and in vivo conditions in animals and humans. Both turmeric and curcumin were found to increase detoxifying enzymes, prevent DNA damage, improve DNA repair, decrease mutations and tumour formation and exhibit antioxidative potential in animals. Limited clinical studies suggest that turmeric can significantly impact excretion of mutagens in urine in smokers and regress precancerous palatal lesions. It reduces DNA adducts and micronuclei in oral epithelial cells. It prevents formation of nitroso compounds both in vivo and in vitro. It delays induced cataract in diabetes and reduces hyperlipidemia in obese rats. Recently several molecular targets have been identified for therapeutic / preventive effects of turmeric. Fenugreek seeds, a rich source of soluble fiber used in Indian cuisine reduces blood glucose and lipids and can be used as a food adjuvant in diabetes. Similarly garlic, onions, and ginger have been found to modulate favourably the process of carcinogenesis. PMID:18296352

  18. Identification of irradiated spices with aid of scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim off the work was to determine how one can identify gamma-irradiated spices with aid of a scintillation counter (LKB/Wallac 1219 RackBeta Spectral) by chemiluminescence measurements. Even though scintillation counters are more sensitive than real luminometers they have not been capable in identifying the irradiated spices after contact with photosensitizer like luminol, isoluminol and lucigenin presumably because the actual chemiluminescence reaction took place before the sample vial reached the measuring range. Whereas it was noticed that the identification of pure, dry allspice, black pepper, white peppar and cardemom was possible without any solutions when there were also present similar unirradiated spices. The identification was possible even after 23 weeks duration depending on the dose of the irradiation (10 kGy or 50 kGy) and the weight of the samples (1 g or 9 g). The duration of the investigation was 23 weeks

  19. Reliable SPICE Simulations of Memristors, Memcapacitors and Meminductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Biolek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Memory circuit elements, namely memristive, memcapacitive and meminductive systems, are gaining considerable attention due to their ubiquity and use in diverse areas of science and technology. Their modeling within the most widely used environment, SPICE, is thus critical to make substantial progress in the design and analysis of complex circuits. Here, we present a collection of models of different memory circuit elements and provide a methodology for their accurate and reliable modeling in the SPICE environment. We also provide codes of these models written in the most popular SPICE versions (PSpice, LTspice, HSPICE for the benefit of the reader. We expect this to be of great value to the growing community of scientists interested in the wide range of applications of memory circuit elements.

  20. Reliable SPICE Simulations of Memristors, Memcapacitors and Meminductors

    CERN Document Server

    Biolek, D; Pershin, Y V

    2013-01-01

    Memory circuit elements, namely memristive, memcapacitive and meminductive systems, are gaining considerable attention due to their ubiquity and use in diverse areas of science and technology. Their modeling within the most widely used environment, SPICE, is thus critical to make substantial progress in the design and analysis of complex circuits. Here, we present a collection of models of different memory circuit elements and provide a methodology for their accurate and reliable modeling in the SPICE environment. We also provide codes of these models written in the most popular SPICE versions (PSpice, LTspice, HSPICE) for the benefit of the reader. We expect this to be of great value to the growing community of scientists interested in the wide range of applications of memory circuit elements.

  1. Low-angle X-ray scattering from spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desouky, Omar S.; Ashour, Ahmed H.; Abdullah, Mohamed I.; Elshemey, Wael M.

    2002-07-01

    Low-angle scattering of X-rays is characterized by the presence of one or more peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks are due to the interference of photons coherently scattered from the molecules of the medium. Thus these patterns are closely linked to the molecular structure of the investigated medium. In this work, low-angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) profiles of five spices; pimpinella anisum (anise), coriandrum sativum (coriander), cuminum cyminum (cumin), foenculum vulgare (fennel) and nigella sativa (nigella or black cumin) are presented after extensive measurements. It is found that all spices exhibit one characteristic peak at a scattering angle around 10°. This is equivalent to a value x=0.0565 Å -1, where x=sin( θ⧸2)⧸ λ. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of this peak is found to be characteristic for each type of the investigated spices. The possibility to detect the irradiation of these spices from their LAXS profiles is also examined after 10, 20, 30 and 40 kGy doses of gamma radiation. Except for anise, coriander and cumin at 40 kGy, there are no detectable deviations from the control samples in the scattering profiles of irradiated samples. These results comply with the recommendations of the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) which defines 30 kGy as the maximum dose for irradiation of spices. The present technique could be used to detect over-irradiation, which causes damage to the molecular structure of some spices.

  2. Low-angle X-ray scattering from spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-angle scattering of X-rays is characterized by the presence of one or more peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks are due to the interference of photons coherently scattered from the molecules of the medium. Thus these patterns are closely linked to the molecular structure of the investigated medium. In this work, low-angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) profiles of five spices; pimpinella anisum (anise), coriandrum sativum (coriander), cuminum cyminum (cumin), foenculum vulgare (fennel) and nigella sativa (nigella or black cumin) are presented after extensive measurements. It is found that all spices exhibit one characteristic peak at a scattering angle around 10 deg. This is equivalent to a value x=0.0565 A-1, where x=sin(θ/2)/λ. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of this peak is found to be characteristic for each type of the investigated spices. The possibility to detect the irradiation of these spices from their LAXS profiles is also examined after 10, 20, 30 and 40 kGy doses of gamma radiation. Except for anise, coriander and cumin at 40 kGy, there are no detectable deviations from the control samples in the scattering profiles of irradiated samples. These results comply with the recommendations of the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) which defines 30 kGy as the maximum dose for irradiation of spices. The present technique could be used to detect over-irradiation, which causes damage to the molecular structure of some spices

  3. Low-angle X-ray scattering from spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desouky, O.S. E-mail: omardesouky@yahoo.com; Ashour, Ahmed H.; Abdullah, Mohamed I.; Elshemey, Wael M

    2002-07-01

    Low-angle scattering of X-rays is characterized by the presence of one or more peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks are due to the interference of photons coherently scattered from the molecules of the medium. Thus these patterns are closely linked to the molecular structure of the investigated medium. In this work, low-angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) profiles of five spices; pimpinella anisum (anise), coriandrum sativum (coriander), cuminum cyminum (cumin), foenculum vulgare (fennel) and nigella sativa (nigella or black cumin) are presented after extensive measurements. It is found that all spices exhibit one characteristic peak at a scattering angle around 10 deg. This is equivalent to a value x=0.0565 A{sup -1}, where x=sin({theta}/2)/{lambda}. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of this peak is found to be characteristic for each type of the investigated spices. The possibility to detect the irradiation of these spices from their LAXS profiles is also examined after 10, 20, 30 and 40 kGy doses of gamma radiation. Except for anise, coriander and cumin at 40 kGy, there are no detectable deviations from the control samples in the scattering profiles of irradiated samples. These results comply with the recommendations of the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) which defines 30 kGy as the maximum dose for irradiation of spices. The present technique could be used to detect over-irradiation, which causes damage to the molecular structure of some spices.

  4. Anti-oncogenic perspectives of spices/herbs: A comprehensive review

    OpenAIRE

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Naz, Ambreen; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Qayyum, Mir Muhammad Nasir

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary nutrition regime has focused the attention of the researchers on phytochemicals enriched spices to mitigate various oncological threats. Numerous chemopreventive strategies against malignancy have been developed considering the anticancer perspectives of allied nutraceutical constituents. Current evidences have proven an inverse association of spices with that of oncological incidences. The high antioxidant activity of spices derived bioactives triggers the free radicals scavengi...

  5. 21 CFR 582.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 582.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...

  6. 21 CFR 182.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...

  7. Radiation and heat sensitivity of microflora in mixed spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spices such as coriander, cumin, turmeric, chilli collected from local market were found to be highly contaminated with bacteria and fungi. A dose of 3 kGy without heat treatment reduced the microbial load from 6 log to 3 log and from 5 log to 2 log units depending on the storage temperature whereas the same dose of radiation combined with heat treatment reduced the microbial load from 6 log to 2 log units and from 4 log to below detectable level depending on storage condition. The combination treated spices retained good organoleptic quality in comparison to that of only irradiated species with higher dose. 11 refs., 2 tables (author)

  8. Neural-Based Models of Semiconductor Devices for SPICE Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanene B. Hammouda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses a simple and fast new approach to implement Artificial Neural Networks (ANN models for the MOS transistor into SPICE. The proposed approach involves two steps, the modeling phase of the device by NN providing its input/output patterns, and the SPICE implementation process of the resulting model. Using the Taylor series expansion, a neural based small-signal model is derived. The reliability of our approach is validated through simulations of some circuits in DC and small-signal analyses.

  9. Study of the Bacillus flora of Nigerian spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antai, S P

    1988-05-01

    Bacteriological examination of 230 samples of five different unprocessed spices (aligator pepper, red pepper, black pepper, thyme and curry powder) collected randomly from Port Harcourt main markets revealed that the spices were highly contaminated, with bacterial counts ranging from 1.8 x 10(4) to 1.1 x 10(8) per gram. Bacillus cereus was isolated in high numbers in the majority of the 230 samples examined. It was also observed that other Bacillus spp. including B. subtilis, B. polymyxa and B. coagulans occurred in significant numbers. PMID:3275301

  10. SPICE as an IAU Recommendation for Planetary Ephemerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Charles; Bachman, Nathaniel; Folkner, William M.; Hilton, James

    2015-08-01

    In 2010 the IAU Commission 4 Working Group (WG) on Standardizing Access to Ephemerides and File Format Specification was formed to define a portable standard for planetary ephemeris files. The standard would have to work for all three sources of ephemerides-NASA/JPL, Institut de mécanique céleste de calcul des éphémérides (IMCCE), and Institute of Applied Astronomy (IAA). The WG decided to base its standard on the existing "SPICE"* Spacecraft/Planet kernel (SPK) format.The SPK format was created for use with the "SPICE" information system, used by many scientists and engineers worldwide to compute the geometry needed to plan and analyze data from robotic missions. SPICE is comprised of both data files and associated software, all freely available. SPICE data files, usually referred to as "kernels," provide ephemerides and size, shape and orientation of solar system bodies; spacecraft trajectory and orientation; reference frame specifications and implementations; instrument field-of-view geometry; and time system conversion data.Standard SPICE ephemeris files use the TDB time system-the WG requested SPICE be extended to accommodate ephemerides based on the TCB time system. Extensions were also needed to accommodate the IAA ephemeris representation as well as the integrated difference between coordinate time and proper time in the form of TT-TDB and TCG-TCB.Software to read the SPK kernels defined to accommodate planetary ephemerides is available in the SPICE toolkit, and also in stand-alone kernel readers available from IMCEE and IAA.SPK is also used within the SPICE community for natural satellites, asteroids, and comets. Future IAU discussions might lead to an expansion of the work done for planets to provide more general standards for these bodies.Portions of the research described in this publication was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  11. Reduction of the number of germs in spices by radappertization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterilization by fumigation with ethylene oxide and propylene oxide of ground paprika and spice mixtures used in preserves and meat industry was compared with the radappertization of the same spices. The number of germs including that of spores and moulds was determined. It can be established that irradiation with ionizing radiation (5 kGy) has the same effect on the reduction of the number of germs as sterilization by ethylene oxide. In addition, the side effects of sterilization can be avoided. (V.N.)

  12. Microbiological status and antifungal properties of irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bacterial counts of commercially available species were found to be in the range of 102-107/g, whereas the fungal counts varied between 102 and 103/g. Among the five spices studied, pepper, cardamom, and nutmeg mace had a high microbial load compared to cinnamon and clove. Exposure to γ-irradiation in the dose range of 7.5-10 kGy was adequate to sterilize all the spices. The essential oil of clove and cinnamon exhibited inhibitory properties against aflatoxin-producing aspergilli. γ-Irradiation did not affect fungal inhibitory principles present in clove, though marginal reduction was observed in that of cinnamon

  13. SPICE modelling of the transient response of irradiated MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new SPICE model of irradiated MOSFET taking into account the real response of the 4 electrodes is proposed. The component that has been simulated is an NMOS transistor issued from the AMS BiCMOS 0.8 μm technology. A comparison between SPICE-generated transients and PISCES device simulation demonstrates the accuracy benefits when used in complex electronic architectures. This model could be used when designing electronic circuits able to sustain hardening due to SEE (single event effect), it will be an efficient complement to the physical simulations

  14. An SPICE model for phase-change memory simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xi; Song Zhitang; Cai Daolin; Chen Xiaogang; Chen Houpeng

    2011-01-01

    Along with a series of research works on the physical prototype and properties of the memory cell,an SPICE model for phase-change memory (PCM) simulations based on Verilog-A language is presented.By handling it with the heat distribution algorithm,threshold switching theory and the crystallization kinetic model,the proposed SPICE model can effectively reproduce the physical behaviors of the phase-change memory cell.In particular,it can emulate the cell's temperature curve and crystallinity profile during the programming process,which can enable us to clearly understand the PCM's working principle and program process.

  15. Hairy AdS Solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Anabalon, Andres; Choque, David

    2016-01-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for planar hairy black holes within these theories.

  16. SPICE modelling of the transient response of irradiated MOSFETs; Modelisation de la reponse transitoire de MOSFETs irradies avec SPICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouget, V.; Lapuyade, H.; Lewis, D.; Deval, Y.; Fouillat, P. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., IXL, 33 - Talence (France); Sarger, L. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., CPMOH, 33 - Talence (France)

    1999-07-01

    A new SPICE model of irradiated MOSFET taking into account the real response of the 4 electrodes is proposed. The component that has been simulated is an NMOS transistor issued from the AMS BiCMOS 0.8 {mu}m technology. A comparison between SPICE-generated transients and PISCES device simulation demonstrates the accuracy benefits when used in complex electronic architectures. This model could be used when designing electronic circuits able to sustain hardening due to SEE (single event effect), it will be an efficient complement to the physical simulations.

  17. Determination of Aflatoxin B1 Levels in Organic Spices and Herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Halil Tosun; Recep Arslan

    2013-01-01

    Organically produced spices and herbs were analyzed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by ELISA using immunoaffinity column. For this purpose 93 organic spices and 37 organic herbs were randomly selected from organic markets and organic shops in Turkey. AFB1 was detected in 58 organic spice and 32 organic herb samples. Among organic spice samples, the maximum value was detected in cinnamon sample (53  μ g/kg). AFB1 was not detected in thyme samples. AFB1 levels of 41 organic spice sampl...

  18. Microbiological quality of retail spices in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohy-Kamaly-Dehkordy, Paliz; Nikoopour, Houshang; Siavoshi, Farideh; Koushki, Mohammadreza; Abadi, Alireza

    2013-05-01

    The microbiological quality of 351 samples of nine types of spices including black pepper, caraway, cinnamon, cow parsnip, curry powder, garlic powder, red pepper, sumac, and turmeric, collected from retail shops in Tehran during 2007, was determined. The numbers of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and molds exceeded Iran's National Standard limits, at 63.2% (>5 × 10(5) CFU/g), 23.4% (>0.3 MPN/g), and 21.9% (>5 × 10(3) CFU/g) of the studied samples, respectively. Coliform contamination was more than 10(3) MPN/g in 24.8% of samples. High contamination of retail spices is considered an indication of environmental or fecal contamination due to unhygienic practices in their production. Use of spices with high microbial content could increase the chance of food spoilage and transmission of foodborne pathogens. Accordingly, application of food safety measurements to reduce microbial counts in spices is strongly recommended. PMID:23643126

  19. Bacterial flora of spices and its control by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bacterial contamination was tested in 26 samples of spices. Chili, allspice and paprika were the most contaminated spices by bacteria. Five bacterial genera were isolated, namely bacillus, staphylococcus, streptococcus, micrococcus, and coccobacillus, all being gram-positive. Most isolates have been related to the genus bacillus. The bacterial isolates were identified as B. alvei, B. circulans, B. megaterium, B. pasteurii, B. pumilus, B. thuringiensis, B. sphaericus, B. incertaesedis, Micrococcus luteus, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus sp. and coccobacillus sp. Irradiation of spices led to a significant decrease in the bacterial count of all samples. The dose required to inhibit completely the natural bacterial flora was 25 KGY. The most radioresistant isolates were staphylococcus aureus and micrococcus luteus which were subjected to sublethal doses of 15 and 20 KGY respectively. The dose response curves of the 2 most radioresistant isolates showed simple exponential relationship. The D 10-value of S. aureus and M. luteus were 0.9 and 1.1 KGY, respectively. The effect of storage period on the bacterial load of, as well as, the antibacterial activity of the tested spices were investigated. (author)

  20. Thermoluminescence and photo stimulated luminescence measurements on commercial spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four kinds of commercial spices (white pepper, black pepper, garlic powder and red pepper) were subjected to a novel photo stimulated luminescence (PSL) method and results were compared with those in European Standard (CEN) PSL and thermoluminescence (TL) methods. Three samples of different makers for each spice were purchased from retailers in Tsukuba and Tokyo areas and subjected to the analysis. When the TL ratios of spice sample were greater than 0.1 and a Glow1 maximum was observed in a range of 190-200 deg C, the photon counts in a novel PSL analysis significantly raised just after LED illumination and then gradually decreased. And for these samples the PSL counts by a CEN standard analysis were greater than 5000. On the other hand, the photon counts were almost constant in the samples whose TL ratio was less than 0.1 and a PSL count in a CEN standard analysis was less than 700. The results in the novel PSL method are well consistent with other detection methods, both TL and CEN standard PSL. These results suggest that the novel PSL method is useful for the detection of irradiation in commercial spices

  1. Frozen herring as raw material for spice-salting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefansson, G.; Nielsen, H.H.; Skara, T.; Schubring, R.; Oehlenschlager, J.; Luten, J.

    2000-01-01

    One batch of herring (Clupea harengus) was spice-salted fresh and as thawed after 32 days of frozen storage at -24 °C. After salting, samples of both groups were sent to participating laboratories in Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Germany and England. The herring was kept at 5 ± 1 °C and sampled three ti

  2. Isolation and Analysis of Essential Oils from Spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Stephen K.; Von Riesen, Daniel D.; Rossi, Lauren L.

    2012-01-01

    Natural product isolation and analysis provide an opportunity to present a variety of experimental techniques to undergraduate students in introductory organic chemistry. Eugenol, anethole, and carvone were extracted from six common spices using steam-distillation and diethyl ether as the extraction solvent. Students assessed the purity of their…

  3. Thermoluminescence detection of irradiated herbs and spices: an Australasian trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (TL) is generally regarded as the detection method offering most promise for irradiated herbs and spices. The method has been developed in several laboratories, especially in the United Kingdom and Germany. This paper describes a double blind trial of the method carried out by two Australasian laboratories (GNS and ANSTO). (author)

  4. Application Of Electronic Nose And Ion Mobility Spectrometer To Quality Control Of Spice Mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the application of electronic nose (e-nose) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) to quality control and to find out product adulteration of spice mixtures. Therefore the gaseous head space phase of four different spice mixtures (spices for sausages and saveloy) was differed from original composition and product adulteration. In this set of experiments metal-oxide type e-nose (KAMINA-type) has been used, and characteristic patterns of data corresponding to various complex odors of the four different spice mixtures were generated. Simultaneously an ion mobility spectrometer was coupled also to an emission chamber for the detection of gaseous components of spice mixtures. The two main methods that have been used show a clear discrimination between the original spice mixtures and product adulteration could be distinguished from original spice mixtures.

  5. Esterase’s properties in commonly used Indian spices for Alzheimer’s disease model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Esterase family of Hydrolases such as Acetylcholinesterase (AchE,Butyrylcholinesterase (BchE and Carboxyl esterase (CE havebeen estimated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD model, normal brain ofstriatum, frontal cortex, hippocampus and in liver. In AD a loss ofacetylcholine activity directly correlates with memory dysfunctiondue to the activation of acetylcholinesterase andbutyrylcholinesterase enzymes. Therefore the effective treatmentmethods include restoration of cholinergic function and elevation ofACh level through inhibiting AChE and BChE. Hence to inhibitthese enzymes four commonly used Indian kitchen spices viz.,Cuminum cyminum, Elettaria cardamomum, Cinnamomum verum,Syzygium aromaticum were selected because the extracts of thesespices contain cholinesterase inhibitory activity in vitro. Thesespices were extracted with cold and hot aqueous solution and theanti- cholinesterase potential was measured in vitro. Elettariacardamomum cold extract showed significant inhibition for AchE inall regions of brain for control and AD. Whereas Cinnamomumverum hot extract showed elevated activity for carboxyl esterasewhich is a neuroprotective factor. These findings suggest thatdietary supplementation of cardamom and cinnamon in moderateamounts may aid in prevention delay in onset of AD.

  6. Added Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... Learn more about reading food labels . Limit your consumption of foods with high amounts of added sugars, ...

  7. Prevalence and characterization of Clostridium perfringens from spices in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Milton Osmar; Stagnitta, Patricia Virginia; Micalizzi, Blas; de Guzmán, Ana María Stefanini

    2005-12-01

    Spices can present high microbial counts and Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella and Shigella, among others have been isolated from spices. C. perfringens is an important pathogen agent causing, among other diseases, enteritis in humans caused by C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) which causes human food poisoning and enterotoxemia in domestic animals. The aims of the present work were (i) to establish the hygienic sanitary quality of some spices in San Luis, Argentina; (ii) to determine the presence of C. perfringens in these spices by means of the most probable number (MPN) and count on plate methods; (iii) to characterize the enterotoxigenic strains of C. perfringens by PCR and immunological methods such as reverse passive latex agglutination (RPLA) and (iv) to type by PCR C. perfringens strains isolated. A total of 115 samples of spices, 67 of which were purchased in local retail stores and 48 domestically collected were analysed. Total aerobe counts on tryptone glucose yeast extract agar medium of the 115 samples were between <10 and 10(6) CFU/g. The colifecal counts using Mac Conkey broth of the 115 samples were <4-10(3)CFU/g, with 28 samples (24.34%) exceeding the limit established by the Spanish Alimentary Code (10 CFU/g) while 2 samples (1.73%) had a sulfite reducing anaerobe load above standard limits. A total of 14 C. perfringens strains (12.17%) were isolated and characterized from 115 samples by the standard biochemical tests. Four of which (28.60%) turned out to be enterotoxigenic by PCR and RPLA. In order to type C. perfringens strains based on their main toxins, the 14 strains were analysed by PCR. All strains belonged to type A. All RPLA positive strains were cpe(+) by PCR. The percentage of enterotoxigenic strains was more elevated that those reported in other studies for this type of sample. These results indicate that sanitary conditions in different production stages of species must be improved to reduce health hazards. The high

  8. Spice: discovery of phenotype-determining component interplays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhengzhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A latent behavior of a biological cell is complex. Deriving the underlying simplicity, or the fundamental rules governing this behavior has been the Holy Grail of systems biology. Data-driven prediction of the system components and their component interplays that are responsible for the target system’s phenotype is a key and challenging step in this endeavor. Results The proposed approach, which we call System Phenotype-related Interplaying Components Enumerator (Spice, iteratively enumerates statistically significant system components that are hypothesized (1 to play an important role in defining the specificity of the target system’s phenotype(s; (2 to exhibit a functionally coherent behavior, namely, act in a coordinated manner to perform the phenotype-specific function; and (3 to improve the predictive skill of the system’s phenotype(s when used collectively in the ensemble of predictive models. Spice can be applied to both instance-based data and network-based data. When validated, Spice effectively identified system components related to three target phenotypes: biohydrogen production, motility, and cancer. Manual results curation agreed with the known phenotype-related system components reported in literature. Additionally, using the identified system components as discriminatory features improved the prediction accuracy by 10% on the phenotype-classification task when compared to a number of state-of-the-art methods applied to eight benchmark microarray data sets. Conclusion We formulate a problem—enumeration of phenotype-determining system component interplays—and propose an effective methodology (Spice to address this problem. Spice improved identification of cancer-related groups of genes from various microarray data sets and detected groups of genes associated with microbial biohydrogen production and motility, many of which were reported in literature. Spice also improved the predictive skill of the

  9. A review on spices. Present status of decontamination techniques such as gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of flavour-preserving conservation of spices is described and discussed with a view to their use in the food industry. A number of possible ways of spice and spice extract conservation are presented. The main problem in spice conservation is the removal of contaminating microorganisms without loss or adulteration of taste. The number of microorganisms in spices is about 103 to 108 per g spice. Among these are soil microorganisms such as aerobic spoilage organisms, spore-formers, proteolytic and gas-producing bacteria. The incorporation of 0.1-1% spices into meat products may lead to a contamination of 105 to 106 organisms/g product. Extracted spice oils, on the other hand, are free of microorganisms. A number of physical and chemical sterilisation techniques are proposed. Radiosterilisation, in particular by means of gamma rays, is dealt with in detail. Here, a dose of 0.33 to 1.5 Mrad will kill the vegetative microorganisms, and complete sterilisation is achieved at 1.5 to 2.5 Mrad. Combination with heat or chemicals may bring about a 20% reduction in the amount of ionizing radiation required. There were no quality losses in the spices. Legalisation of ionizing radiation for spice conservation will require further tests of safety to be carried out. (AJ)

  10. Wormholes in AdS

    OpenAIRE

    Maldacena, Juan; Maoz, Liat

    2004-01-01

    We construct a few Euclidean supergravity solutions with multiple boundaries. We consider examples where the corresponding boundary field theory is well defined on each boundary. We point out that these configurations are puzzling from the AdS/CFT point of view. A proper understanding of the AdS/CFT dictionary for these cases might yield some information about the physics of closed universes.

  11. Microbiological status and antifungal properties of irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, A.; Ghanekar, A.S.; Padwal-Desai, S.R.; Nadkarni, G.B.

    The bacterial counts of commercially available species were found to be in the range of 10/sup 2/-10/sup 7//g, whereas the fungal counts varied between 10/sup 2/ and 10/sup 3//g. Among the five spices studied, pepper, cardamom, and nutmeg mace had a high microbial load compared to cinnamon and clove. Exposure to ..gamma..-irradiation in the dose range of 7.5-10 kGy was adequate to sterilize all the spices. The essential oil of clove and cinnamon exhibited inhibitory properties against aflatoxin-producing aspergilli. ..gamma..-Irradiation did not affect fungal inhibitory principles present in clove, though marginal reduction was observed in that of cinnamon.

  12. Thermoluminescent characteristics of inorganic dust from black pepper spice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furetta, C.; Cruz Z, E. [ICN-UNAM, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Favalli, A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of Citizen, TP800, Via E. Fermi 21020, Ispra VA (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    Full text: The irradiation of spices is normally used for its sterilization, allowing this procedure to extend the storage time ir different needs, i.e. transportation over large distances from the production places to distribution points for commercialization. The irradiated food allows studying the behaviour and the characteristics of its inorganic content, i.e. minerals. The aim of this work is to study the main thermoluminescent (TL) characteristics of the inorganic dust extracted from Black pepper spice. TL responses as a function of the delivered gamma dose, fading at room temperature, effect of W irradiation are reported. The thermoluminescent kinetic parameters of the glow curves have been accurately analysed using the Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution (CGCD) method and results are discussed. (Author)

  13. Equivalent circuit model of semiconductor nanowire diode by SPICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, SeHan; Yu, YunSeop; Hwang, SungWoo; Ahn, Doyeol

    2007-11-01

    An equivalent circuit model of nanowire diodes is introduced. Because nanowire diodes inevitably involve a metal-semiconductor-metal structure, they consist of two metal-semiconductor contacts and one resistor in between these contacts. Our equivalent circuit consists of two Schottky diodes and one resistor. The current through the reverse-biased Schottky diode is calculated from the thermionic field emission (TFE) theory and that of the forward-biased Schottky diode is obtained from the classical thermionic emission (TE) equation. Our model is integrated into the conventional circuit simulator SPICE by a sub-circuit with TFE and TE routines. The results simulated with our model by SPICE are in good agreement with various, previously reported experimental results. PMID:18047126

  14. Contamination of spices with moulds potential producers of sterigmatocystine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of moulds, potential producers of sterigmatocystine, was investigated in 20 samples of spices (cinnamon, caraway, marjoram and clove. The following five species were isolated from the samples: Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus sydowii, Aspergillus ustus, Emericella nidulans and Eurotium herbariorum. E. herbariorum was present in all the investigated spice samples, accounting for 7.6% of total mycopopulation in caraway and 42.9% in cloves. A. versicolor was detected in cinnamon, caraway and marjoram, accounting for 0.4% of total mycopopulation in caraway and 1.5% in cinnamon; A. ustus accounted for 0.1% of total mycopopulation in caraway and 0.4% in marjoram, while A. sydowii accounted for 18.9% of total mycopopulation in marjoram and 7.1% in clove. E. nidulans was a contaminant of caraway (0.01% and marjoram (0.4%. .

  15. Determination of myristicin in commonly spices applying SPE/GC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Dybowski, Michal P

    2012-07-01

    The increasing use of myristicin (a component of nutmeg) as a cheap hallucinogenic intoxicant requires from the world of science the elaboration of new methods for determination of this compound in daily-use foodstuffs. The present study describes a fast, simple and sensitive method of myristicin analysis in nutmeg and spices containing it using gas chromatography combined with ultrasonic solvent extraction and solid phase extraction processes. The developed method is characterized by high recovery (almost 100%), a low detection limit 1.35 ng g(-1) and good repeatability (average RDS value equal 2.39%). The presented analytical approach constitutes a substantial improvement on previously reported methods for myristicin analysis and seems to be the method of choice for determining the amount of the compound in spices containing nutmeg. PMID:22525861

  16. Adding Spice to Vanilla LCDM simulations: Alternative Cosmologies & Lighting up Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan Elahi, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    Cold Dark Matter simulations have formed the backbone of our theoretical understanding of cosmological structure formation. Predictions from the Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) cosmology, where the Universe contains two dark components, namely Dark Matter & Dark Energy, are in excellent agreement with the Large-Scale Structures observed, i.e., the distribution of galaxies across cosmic time. However, this paradigm is in tension with observations at small-scales, from the number and properties of satellite galaxies around galaxies such as the Milky Way and Andromeda, to the lensing statistics of massive galaxy clusters. I will present several alternative models of cosmology (from Warm Dark Matter to coupled Dark Matter-Dark Energy models) and how they compare to vanilla LCDM by studying formation of groups and clusters dark matter only and adiabatic hydrodynamical zoom simulations. I will show how modifications to the dark sector can lead to some surprising results. For example, Warm Dark Matter, so often examined on small satellite galaxies scales, can be probed observationally using weak lensing at cluster scales. Coupled dark sectors, where dark matter decays into dark energy and experiences an effective gravitational potential that differs from that experienced by normal matter, is effectively hidden away from direct observations of galaxies. Studies like these are vital if we are to pinpoint observations which can look for unique signatures of the physics that governs the hidden Universe. Finally, I will discuss how all of these predictions are affected by uncertain galaxy formation physics. I will present results from a major comparison study of numerous hydrodynamical codes, the nIFTY cluster comparison project. This comparison aims to understand the code-to-code scatter in the properties of dark matter haloes and the galaxies that reside in them. We find that even in purely adiabatic simulations, different codes form clusters with very different X-ray profiles. The galaxies that form in these simulations, which all use codes that attempt to reproduce the observed galaxy population via not unreasonable subgrid physics, vary in stellar mass, morphology and gas fraction, sometimes by an order of magnitude. I will end with a discussion of precision cosmology in light of these results.

  17. Adding Spice to Vanilla LCDM simulations: From Alternative Cosmologies to Lighting up Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan Elahi, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    Cold Dark Matter simulations have formed the backbone of our theoretical understanding of cosmological structure formation. Predictions from the Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) cosmology, in which the Universe contains two major dark components, namely Dark Matter and Dark Energy, are in excellent agreement with the Large-Scale Structures observed, i.e., the distribution of galaxies across cosmic time. However, this paradigm is in tension with observations at small-scales, from the number and properties of satellite galaxies around galaxies such as the Milky Way and Andromeda, to the lensing statistics of massive galaxy clusters. I will present several alternative models of cosmology (from Warm Dark Matter to coupled Dark Matter-Dark Energy models) and how they compare to vanilla LCDM by studying formation of groups and clusters dark matter only and adiabatic hydrodynamical zoom simulations. I will show how modifications to the dark sector can lead to some surprising results. For example, Warm Dark Matter, so often examined on small satellite galaxies scales, can be probed observationally using weak lensing at cluster scales. Coupled dark sectors, where dark matter decays into dark energy and experiences an effective gravitational potential that differs from that experienced by normal matter, is effectively hidden away from direct observations of galaxies. Studies like these are vital if we are to pinpoint observations which can look for unique signatures of the physics that governs the hidden Universe. Of course, all of these predictions are unfortunately affected by uncertain galaxy formation physics. I will end by presenting results from a comparison study of numerous hydrodynamical codes, the nIFTY cluster comparison project, and how even how purely adiabatic simulations run with different codes give in quite different galaxy populations. The galaxies that form in these simulations, which all attempt to reproduce the observed galaxy population via not unreasonable subgrid physics, can and do vary in stellar mass, morphology and gas fraction.

  18. Adding SPICE to a Library Internet Site: A Recipe to Enhance Usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Tonnison

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - To produce a highly- usable intranet site, use the project to explore the practical application of evidence-based librarianship (EBL, and refine the library's project management methodology. Methods - Evidence was gathered via a literature review, an online survey, scenario-based usability testing, and the completion of a usability checlist. Usability issues were then addressed, guided by the Research-Based Web Design and Usability Guidelines. Results - After a preliminary revision, the site achieved a usability index of 79% after application of the "Raward Library Usability Analysis Tool". Finding the information and supporting user tasks were identified as areas of weakness. Usability testing and cleint feedback supported these findings. After these issues were addressed by a major site redeveloment, the usability index increased to 98%. Conclusions - Raward's checklist is an easy and effective tool for measuring and identifying usability issues. Its value was enhanced by scenario-based usability testing, which yielded rich, client specific information. The application of EBL and project management princples ehnanced the outcomes of the project, and the professional development of the project team.

  19. Adding Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    Ajax can bring many advantages to an existing web application without forcing you to redo the whole thing. This book explains how you can add Ajax to enhance, rather than replace, the way your application works. For instance, if you have a traditional web application based on submitting a form to update a table, you can enhance it by adding the capability to update the table with changes to the form fields, without actually having to submit the form. That's just one example.Adding Ajax is for those of you more interested in extending existing applications than in creating Rich Internet Applica

  20. A Survey of Fast Analog Circuit Analysis Algorithm using SPICE

    OpenAIRE

    T.Murugajothi

    2014-01-01

    is paper presents a fast analog circuit analysis algorithm, fundamental circuit-based circuit analysis, for circuits being repeatedly modified and verified in product development. The algorithm reuses previous circuit simulation result on successive changed circuit analysis to achieve simulation operation reduction. The algorithm is implemented with SPICE simulator on linear and nonlinear circuit applications with the proposed device delta models. The experiments show that t...

  1. The Southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and climate experiment (SPICE)

    OpenAIRE

    Ganachaud, Alexandre; Cravatte, Sophie; A. Melet; Schiller, A.; Holbrook, N J; Sloyan, B.M.; Widlansky, M.J.; Bowen, M; Verron, J.; Wiles, P; K. Ridgway; Sutton, P.; Sprintall, J.; Steinberg, C.; Brassington, G.

    2014-01-01

    The Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment (SPICE) is an international research program under the auspices of CLIVAR. The key objectives are to understand the Southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) dynamics, as well as their influence on regional and basin-scale climate patterns. South Pacific thermocline waters are transported in the westward flowing South Equatorial Current (SEC) toward Australia and Papua-New Guinea. On its way...

  2. Photodiode Circuit Macro-model for SPICE Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An accurate photodiode circuit macro-model is proposed for SPICE simulation. The definition and implementation of the macro-model is based on carrier stationary continuity equation. In this macro-model, the photodiode is a device of three pins, one for light intensity input and the other two for photocurrent output, which represent the relationship between photocurrent and incident light. The validity of the proposed macro-model is demonstrated with its PSPICE simulation result compared with reported experimental data.

  3. Some chemical changes in irradiated spices (caraway and cardamom)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some alteration in the chemical composition of, e.g., essential oils, lipid fraction and sugars have been investigated in selected spices. The paper presents studies on the effect of 60Co gamma radiation in the range of 0.5x104 to 1.5x104Gy on the main components of caraway (Carum carvi L.) and cardamom (Elletaria cardamommi M.). These investigations are the continuation of our previous work on the radurization and radicidation of seasonings. (author)

  4. Some Chemical Changes in Irradiated Spices (Caraway and Cardamom)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some alteration in the chemical composition of, e.g., essential oils, lipid fraction and sugars have been investigated in selected spices. The paper presents studies on the effect of 60Co gamma radiation in the range of 0.5 x 104 to 1.5 x 104 Gy on the main components of caraway (Carum carvi L.) and cardamom (Elletaria cardamommi M). These investigations are the continuation of our previous work on the radurization and radicidation of seasonings. (author)

  5. SPICE Module for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggi, John; Carnright, Robert; Hildebrand, Claude

    2008-01-01

    A SPICE module for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) precisely represents complex motion and maneuvers in an interactive, 3D animated environment with support for user-defined quantitative outputs. (SPICE stands for Spacecraft, Planet, Instrument, Camera-matrix, and Events). This module enables the SOAP software to exploit NASA mission ephemeris represented in the JPL Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) SPICE formats. Ephemeris types supported include position, velocity, and orientation for spacecraft and planetary bodies including the Sun, planets, natural satellites, comets, and asteroids. Entire missions can now be imported into SOAP for 3D visualization, playback, and analysis. The SOAP analysis and display features can now leverage detailed mission files to offer the analyst both a numerically correct and aesthetically pleasing combination of results that can be varied to study many hypothetical scenarios. The software provides a modeling and simulation environment that can encompass a broad variety of problems using orbital prediction. For example, ground coverage analysis, communications analysis, power and thermal analysis, and 3D visualization that provide the user with insight into complex geometric relations are included. The SOAP SPICE module allows distributed science and engineering teams to share common mission models of known pedigree, which greatly reduces duplication of effort and the potential for error. The use of the software spans all phases of the space system lifecycle, from the study of future concepts to operations and anomaly analysis. It allows SOAP software to correctly position and orient all of the principal bodies of the Solar System within a single simulation session along with multiple spacecraft trajectories and the orientation of mission payloads. In addition to the 3D visualization, the user can define numeric variables and x-y plots to quantitatively assess metrics of interest.

  6. A new physics based SPICE model for NPT IGBT

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Filipe Marques Chibante; Armando Luís Sousa Araújo; Adriano da Silva Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    A physics based, Non-Punch-Through, Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (NPT-IGBT) model is presented, as well as its porting into available circuit simulator SPICE. The developed model results in a system of ODEs, from which time/space hole/electron distribution is obtained, and is based on solution of ambipolar diffusion equation (ADE) trough a variational formulation, with posterior implementation using one-dimensional simplex finite elements. Other parts of the device are modeled using stan...

  7. SPICE Model of Memristor with Nonlinear Dopant Drift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Biolek

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of the prototype of memristor, manufactured in 2008 in Hewlett-Packard Labs, is described in the paper. It is shown that the hitherto published approaches to the modeling of boundary conditions need not conform with the requirements for the behavior of a practical circuit element. The described SPICE model of the memristor is thus constructed as an open model, enabling additional modifications of non-linear boundary conditions. Its functionality is illustrated on computer simulations.

  8. A Memristor SPICE Model Accounting for Synaptic Activity Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Qingjiang Li; Alexander Serb; Themistoklis Prodromakis; Hui Xu

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a new memristor SPICE model that accounts for the typical synaptic characteristics that have been previously demonstrated with practical memristive devices. We show that this model could account for both volatile and non-volatile memristance changes under distinct stimuli. We then demonstrate that our model is capable of supporting typical STDP with simple non-overlapping digital pulse pairs. Finally, we investigate the capability of our model to simulate the activity...

  9. SPICE Model of Memristor with Nonlinear Dopant Drift

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Biolek; Biolek, D.; V. Biolkova

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical model of the prototype of memristor, manufactured in 2008 in Hewlett-Packard Labs, is described in the paper. It is shown that the hitherto published approaches to the modeling of boundary conditions need not conform with the requirements for the behavior of a practical circuit element. The described SPICE model of the memristor is thus constructed as an open model, enabling additional modifications of non-linear boundary conditions. Its functionality is illustrated on computer...

  10. Microbiological Spoilage of Spices, Nuts, Cocoa, and Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkas, Joan M.; Battista, Karen; Morille-Hinds, Theodora

    Spices, nuts, cocoa, and coffee are raw materials that may be used alone or as ingredients in the manufacture of processed food products. The control of microbiological spoilage of these raw materials at the ingredient stage will enable the food processor to better assure the production of high-quality foods with an acceptable shelf life. While this chapter is limited to four materials, many of the spoilage control procedures recommended can also be applied to other raw materials of a similar nature.

  11. Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freire Francisco das Chagas Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of thirteen genera of bacteria and two genera of yeasts were detected in surface sterilized and unsterilized Brazilian commodities and spices such as cashew kernels, Brazil nut kernels, black and white pepper. The genus Bacillus with eight species was by far the most common. The yeasts isolated were Pichia sp., P. guillermondii and Rhodotorula sp. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in cashew and Brazil nut kernels.

  12. Antibacterial and antidermatophyte activities of some essential Oils from spices

    OpenAIRE

    El Kady, I. A. [اسماعيل عبد الرزاق القاضي; El-Maraghy, S. S. Mohamed; Eman Mostafa M.

    1993-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of ten essential oil from different spices against the growth of various isolates of bacteria representing Gram-positive (seven isolates) and Gram-negative (four isolates) were studied. Eight antibacterial agents were included for comparative purposes. Results show that essential oils of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum Presl (Syn. C. zylanicum Blume) and cardamom (Elettaria cardamum White and Maton) were highly active against both Gram-negative an...

  13. solation and Identification of Fungi from Spices and Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Farid M. Toma; Nareen Q. Faqi Abdulla

    2013-01-01

    This investigation was designed to throw light on the microbial status of some crude herbal materials. A total of 16 samples, representing different types of spices and medicinal plants were collected from common market in the Erbil city. Ten different fungal genera and 16 species were isolated and identified as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus spp., Gliocladium sp., Hyalodendron diddeus, Memmoniella sp., Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Syncephalastrum sp., Cladosporium lignicolum and Ulocl...

  14. SPICE EUV spectrometer for the Solar Orbiter mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fludra, A.; Griffin, D.; Caldwell, M.; Eccleston, P.; Cornaby, J.; Drummond, D.; Grainger, W.; Greenway, P.; Grundy, T.; Howe, C.; McQuirk, C.; Middleton, K.; Poyntz-Wright, O.; Richards, A.; Rogers, K.; Sawyer, C.; Shaughnessy, B.; Sidher, S.; Tosh, I.; Beardsley, S.; Burton, G.; Marshall, A.; Waltham, N.; Woodward, S.; Appourchaux, T.; Philippon, A.; Auchere, F.; Buchlin, E.; Gabriel, A.; Vial, J.-C.; Schühle, U.; Curdt, W.; Innes, D.; Meining, S.; Peter, H.; Solanki, S.; Teriaca, L.; Gyo, M.; Büchel, V.; Haberreiter, M.; Pfiffner, D.; Schmutz, W.; Carlsson, M.; Haugan, S. V.; Davila, J.; Jordan, P.; Thompson, W.; Hassler, D.; Walls, B.; Deforest, C.; Hanley, J.; Johnson, J.; Phelan, P.; Blecha, L.; Cottard, H.; Paciotti, G.; Autissier, N.; Allemand, Y.; Relecom, K.; Munro, G.; Butler, A.; Klein, R.; Gottwald, A.

    2013-09-01

    SPICE is a high resolution imaging spectrometer operating at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, 70.4 - 79.0 nm and 97.3 - 104.9 nm. It is a facility instrument on the Solar Orbiter mission. SPICE will address the key science goals of Solar Orbiter by providing the quantitative knowledge of the physical state and composition of the plasmas in the solar atmosphere, in particular investigating the source regions of outflows and ejection processes which link the solar surface and corona to the heliosphere. By observing the intensities of selected spectral lines and line profiles, SPICE will derive temperature, density, flow and composition information for the plasmas in the temperature range from 10,000 K to 10MK. The instrument optics consists of a single-mirror telescope (off-axis paraboloid operating at near-normal incidence), feeding an imaging spectrometer. The spectrometer is also using just one optical element, a Toroidal Variable Line Space grating, which images the entrance slit from the telescope focal plane onto a pair of detector arrays, with a magnification of approximately x5. Each detector consists of a photocathode coated microchannel plate image intensifier, coupled to active-pixel-sensor (APS). Particular features of the instrument needed due to proximity to the Sun include: use of dichroic coating on the mirror to transmit and reject the majority of the solar spectrum, particle-deflector to protect the optics from the solar wind, and use of data compression due to telemetry limitations.

  15. Microwave Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Four Different Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ritieni

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Spices and herbs are known not only for their taste, aroma and flavour, but also for their medical properties and value. Both spices and herbs have been used for centuries in traditional medical systems to cure various kinds of illnesses such as common cold, diabetes, cough and cancers. The aim of this work was the comparison between two different extractive techniques in order to get qualitative and quantitative data regarding bioactive compounds of four different spices (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Crocus sativus. The plants were extracted employing ultrasonication and microwave-assisted extractions. The efficiency of extraction of bioactive compounds obtained with the microwave extraction process was in general about four times higher than that resulting from sonication extraction. The various extracts obtained were analyzed for their antioxidant activity using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays and for their total polyphenolic content. It can be concluded that microwave-assisted extractions provide significant advantages in terms of extraction efficiency and time savings.

  16. Cancer cell signaling pathways targeted by spice-derived nutraceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Bokyung; Prasad, Sahdeo; Yadav, Vivek R; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research within the last half a century has revealed that cancer is caused by dysregulation of as many as 500 different gene products. Most natural products target multiple gene products and thus are ideally suited for prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases, including cancer. Dietary agents such as spices have been used extensively in the Eastern world for a variety of ailments for millennia, and five centuries ago they took a golden journey to the Western world. Various spice-derived nutraceuticals, including 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate, anethole, capsaicin, cardamonin, curcumin, dibenzoylmethane, diosgenin, eugenol, gambogic acid, gingerol, thymoquinone, ursolic acid, xanthohumol, and zerumbone derived from galangal, anise, red chili, black cardamom, turmeric, licorice, fenugreek, clove, kokum, ginger, black cumin, rosemary, hop, and pinecone ginger, respectively, are the focus of this review. The modulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, protein kinases, and inflammatory mediators by these spice-derived nutraceuticals are described. The anticancer potential through the modulation of various targets is also the subject of this review. Although they have always been used to improve taste and color and as a preservative, they are now also used for prevention and treatment of a wide variety of chronic inflammatory diseases, including cancer. PMID:22149093

  17. EPR investigation of some traditional oriental irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 9.50 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of unirradiated and 60Co γ-ray irradiated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton, Zingiberaceae), ginger ((Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), and saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) have been investigated at room temperature. All unirradiated spices presented a weak resonance line with g-factors around free-electron ones. After γ-ray irradiation at an absorbed dose of up to 11.3 kGy, the presence of EPR spectra whose amplitude increase monotonously with the absorbed dose has been noticed with all spices. A 100 oC isothermal annealing of 11.3 kGy irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components that compose initial spectra, but even after 3.6 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less then 30% of the initial ones. The same peculiarities have been noticed after 83 days storage at room temperature but after 340 days storage at ambient conditions only irradiated ginger displays a weak signal that differs from those of unirradiated sample. All these factors could be taken into account in establishing at which extent the EPR is suitable to evidence any irradiation treatment applied to these spices

  18. EPR investigation of some traditional oriental irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duliu, Octavian G. [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, Magurele, C.P. MG-11, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania)]. E-mail: duliu@pcnet.ro; Georgescu, Rodica [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering -Horia Hulubei, C.P. MG-6, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Ali, Shaban Ibrahim [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, Magurele, C.P. MG-11, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2007-06-15

    The 9.50 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of unirradiated and {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray irradiated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton, Zingiberaceae), ginger ((Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), and saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) have been investigated at room temperature. All unirradiated spices presented a weak resonance line with g-factors around free-electron ones. After {gamma}-ray irradiation at an absorbed dose of up to 11.3 kGy, the presence of EPR spectra whose amplitude increase monotonously with the absorbed dose has been noticed with all spices. A 100 {sup o}C isothermal annealing of 11.3 kGy irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components that compose initial spectra, but even after 3.6 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less then 30% of the initial ones. The same peculiarities have been noticed after 83 days storage at room temperature but after 340 days storage at ambient conditions only irradiated ginger displays a weak signal that differs from those of unirradiated sample. All these factors could be taken into account in establishing at which extent the EPR is suitable to evidence any irradiation treatment applied to these spices.

  19. EPR investigation of some traditional oriental irradiated spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, Octavian G.; Georgescu, Rodica; Ali, Shaban Ibrahim

    2007-06-01

    The 9.50 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of unirradiated and 60Co γ-ray irradiated cardamom ( Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton, Zingiberaceae), ginger (( Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), and saffron ( Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) have been investigated at room temperature. All unirradiated spices presented a weak resonance line with g-factors around free-electron ones. After γ-ray irradiation at an absorbed dose of up to 11.3 kGy, the presence of EPR spectra whose amplitude increase monotonously with the absorbed dose has been noticed with all spices. A 100 °C isothermal annealing of 11.3 kGy irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components that compose initial spectra, but even after 3.6 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less then 30% of the initial ones. The same peculiarities have been noticed after 83 days storage at room temperature but after 340 days storage at ambient conditions only irradiated ginger displays a weak signal that differs from those of unirradiated sample. All these factors could be taken into account in establishing at which extent the EPR is suitable to evidence any irradiation treatment applied to these spices.

  20. Quality and safety of some commercial spices brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Slavica M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in order to evaluate the quality and safety of selected commercial spices brands, contents of moisture and minerals, as well as the concentration of certain heavy metals (As, Hg and Pb were determined in oregano, sweet basil, parsley and celery. The spice samples were subjected to microwave digestion, and were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS, using hydride generation AAS technique, cold vapor AAS technique, and graphite furnace AAS technique for determination of As, Hg and Pb, respectively. Maximum concentrations of As and Pb were determined in the same brand sample of celery, and are 0.75 ppm and 0.40 ppm, respectively, while the maximum concentration of Hg in various brands sweet basil samples is 0.05 ppm. According to the results, the contents of moisture and minerals, as well as the concentrations of heavy metals in all selected spices were below the maximum permissible limits declared by the national legislations, and are safe for human consumption. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172015

  1. Cancer Cell Signaling Pathways Targeted by Spice-Derived Nutraceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Bokyung; Prasad, Sahdeo; Yadav, Vivek R.; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research within the last half a century has revealed that cancer is caused by dysregulation of as many as 500 different gene products. Most natural products target multiple gene products and thus are ideally suited for prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases, including cancer. Dietary agents such as spices have been used extensively in the Eastern world for a variety of ailments for millennia, and five centuries ago they took a golden journey to the Western world. Various spice-derived nutraceuticals, including 1′-acetoxychavicol acetate, anethole, capsaicin, car-damonin, curcumin, dibenzoylmethane, diosgenin, eugenol, gambogic acid, gingerol, thymoquinone, ursolic acid, xanthohumol, and zerumbone derived from galangal, anise, red chili, black cardamom, turmeric, licorice, fenugreek, clove, kokum, ginger, black cumin, rosemary, hop, and pinecone ginger, respectively, are the focus of this review. The modulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, protein kinases, and inflammatory mediators by these spice-derived nutraceuticals are described. The anticancer potential through the modulation of various targets is also the subject of this review. Although they have always been used to improve taste and color and as a preservative, they are now also used for prevention and treatment of a wide variety of chronic inflammatory diseases, including cancer. PMID:22149093

  2. Application of Spices in Dentistry- A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Srinath

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of the oral cavity are very prevalent; they can occur in the young and the old and carries no gender prelidiction. Commonest oral diseases are dental caries, periodontitis and oral candidiasis. All these diseases are predominantly caused by micro organisms and their treatment involves anti microbials. Excessive usage of these drugs can lead to development of resistance by the microbes and also, these drugs can lead to many unnecessary side effects, like headaches, GIT disturbances, nausea, vomiting etc. Modern medicine is moving towards researching herbal remedies for medical treatment, to prevent unnecessary bacterial resistance. Spices are edible products of plants used to improve the aroma and flavor of food. In the beginning of 20th century, they were employed in various traditional medicine systems to cure various diseases. Various studies don on the property of these spices also prove their medicinal properties. This article reviews the uses of select spices like Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Piper Nigrum, Eletteria cardamom, Cinnamomum Vernum, Syzygium aromaticum Trigonella foenum graecum, Myristica fragrans and their applications in dentistry.

  3. FDTD-SPICE for Characterizing Metamaterials Integrated with Electronic Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwei Hao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A powerful time-domain FDTD-SPICE simulator is implemented and applied to the broadband analysis of metamaterials integrated with active and tunable circuit elements. First, the FDTD-SPICE modeling theory is studied and details of interprocess communication and hybridization of the two techniques are discussed. To verify the model, some simple cases are simulated with results in both time domain and frequency domain. Then, simulation of a metamaterial structure constructed from periodic resonant loops integrated with lumped capacitor elements is studied, which demonstrates tuning resonance frequency of medium by changing the capacitance of the integrated elements. To increase the bandwidth of the metamaterial, non-Foster transistor configurations are integrated with the loops and FDTD-SPICE is applied to successfully bridge the physics of electromagnetic and circuit topologies and to model the whole composite structure. Our model is also applied to the design and simulation of a metasurface integrated with nonlinear varactors featuring tunable reflection phase characteristic.

  4. Antioxidant Activity of Spice Extracts and Phenolics in Comparison to Synthetic Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, M.; Brunton, N.; Barry-Ryan, Catherine; Martin-Diana, Ana Belen; Wilkinson, M

    2008-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity of 30 spices used frequently in ready meals and a selection of key compounds from spices were investigated in the current study using ferric reducing antioxidant properties (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylebenzothiaziline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) and microsomal lipid peroxidation (MLP) assays. Antioxidant capacities of the spice extracts were compared to 5 popular synthetic antioxidants [buylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), tert-butylated hydroquinon...

  5. Contamination of common spices in Saudi Arabia markets with potential mycotoxin-producing fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem, Mohamed; Alamri, Saad

    2010-01-01

    Fifteen spices obtained from common markets were examined for their mould profile. A total of 520 fungal isolates, representing 57 species, were recovered and identified from dried and ground spice samples on three different media using standard dilution plate method. The most heavily contaminated spice samples examined were observed in ginger in order of magnitude of 5325–6800 cfu/g. The most predominant fungal genera encountered were Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Rhizopus. Relative occurren...

  6. Commercial potential of irradiated spices and dried mixes for export and domestic markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indian traders who are conventionally exporting non-sterile spices and other dry mixes to several countries, receive not only low value for their produce on account of poor microbiological quality, but also lose the benefits of value addition. Development of gamma ray hygienization facility at the export points could therefore change this scenario. The economic benefits of hygienization and value addition could justifiably be accrued by the spice producing nations like India which has the necessary expertise and technology for supplying quality spices and spice mixes to the world class consumer, besides providing quality product to a huge domestic market. 10 refs

  7. Culinary Spice Plants in Dietary Supplement Products and Tested in Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Leila G; Dwyer, Johanna T; Betz, Joseph M

    2016-03-01

    Dried plant parts used as culinary spices (CSs) in food are permitted as dietary ingredients in dietary supplements (DSs) within certain constraints in the United States. We reviewed the amounts, forms, and nutritional support (structure/function) claims of DSs that contain CS plants listed in the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) and compared this label information with trial doses and health endpoints for CS plants that were the subject of clinical trials listed in clinicaltrials.gov. According to the DSLD, the CS plants occurring most frequently in DSs were cayenne, cinnamon, garlic, ginger, pepper, rosemary, and turmeric. Identifying the botanical species, categorizing the forms used, and determining the amounts from the information provided on DS labels was challenging. CS plants were typically added as a component of a blend, as the powered biomass, dried extracts, and isolated phytochemicals. The amounts added were declared on about 55% of the labels, rendering it difficult to determine the amount of the CS plant used in many DSs. Clinicaltrials.gov provided little information about the composition of test articles in the intervention studies. When plant names were listed on DS labels and in clinical trials, generally the common name and not the Latin binomial name was given. In order to arrive at exposure estimates and enable researchers to reproduce clinical trials, the Latin binomial name, form, and amount of the CS plant used in DSs and tested in clinical trials must be specified. PMID:26980817

  8. A SPICE compatible model of permanent magnet DC motor drives

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, CC; Chau, KT

    1995-01-01

    A SPICE compatible model for the computer simulation of permanent magnet (PM) DC motor drives is presented. The key of the proposed model is to take into account the armature reaction and magnet demagnetization, hence the shift of operating point at load conditions can be considered. Making use of this model, the PSpice simulation of a typical PM DC motor drive is performed. Apart from the steady-state simulation, transient behaviours of the PM DC motor drive, including start-up, sudden load ...

  9. Microbial contamination of spices used in production of meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Klimešová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There was investigated microbial quality of spices used in production of meat products (black pepper, allspice, coriander, juniper, cumin, cinnamon, badian, mustard, bay leaf, paprika, rosemary, garlic, ginger, thyme, cardamom. The spices were analysed on the presence of total count of mesophilic, thermoresistant and coliforming microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus, methicilin resistant S. aureus (MRSA, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis and moulds. For the detection of fungal contamination was used agar with glucose, yeast extract and oxytetracyklin and dichloran-glycerol agar. The cultivation was performed at 25 ±1°C for 5 - 7 days. The microscopic method was used for species identification. The aflatoxin presence was confirmed by ELISA test in all of tested spices and was performed in ppb (pars per billion = μg/kg. TCM ranged from 200 to 5600000 cfu/g, TRM from 20 to 90000 cfu/g and coliforming bacteria from 30 to 3200 cfu/g. B. cereus was present in juniper, mustard, bay leaf, thyme and cardamom (32%, while B. licheniformis was confirmed in 58% of cases (allspice, pepper, ground juniper, badian, bay leaf, paprika, garlic, thyme and cardamom. S. aureus was detected in whole coriander, cinnamon, badian and mustard but only in law number (30, 40, 20 and 10 cfu/g respectively. No strains S. aureus was identified as MRSA. The presence of Salmonella spp. and E. coli was not confirmed. The fungal contamination was found in 14 spices and the their count varied from 0 to 1550 cfu/g. There were confirmed the presence of Aspergillus flavus (allspice whole and ground, black pepper whole and ground, whole coriander, ground cumin, ground bay leaf, Aspergillus niger (allspice whole and ground, black pepper ground, ground juniper, cumin ground, bay leaf ground, ground rosemary, ground thyme, Penicillium glaucum (allspice whole and ground, whole juniper, whole cinnamon, Penicillium claviforme (whole black pepper

  10. SPICE Mutator Model for Transforming Memristor into Meminductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The memristor (resistor with memory, as the fourth fundamental circuit element, is a nonvolatile nanoelectronic device and holds great promise for VLSI applications. It was suggested that the meminductor (ML, inductor with memory circuit can be built by memristor emulators. This paper further addresses the transformation mechanism in terms of constitutive relation from the memristor to the meminductor and then designs an MR-ML mutator to achieve MR-ML transformation. We also present the mutator’s SPICE model and analyze the simulation results.

  11. A Survey of Fast Analog Circuit Analysis Algorithm using SPICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Murugajothi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available is paper presents a fast analog circuit analysis algorithm, fundamental circuit-based circuit analysis, for circuits being repeatedly modified and verified in product development. The algorithm reuses previous circuit simulation result on successive changed circuit analysis to achieve simulation operation reduction. The algorithm is implemented with SPICE simulator on linear and nonlinear circuit applications with the proposed device delta models. The experiments show that the algorithm increases the speed of the circuit simulation five to ten times over directly simulations under the same simulation accuracy

  12. A memristor SPICE model accounting for synaptic activity dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjiang Li

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose a new memristor SPICE model that accounts for the typical synaptic characteristics that have been previously demonstrated with practical memristive devices. We show that this model could account for both volatile and non-volatile memristance changes under distinct stimuli. We then demonstrate that our model is capable of supporting typical STDP with simple non-overlapping digital pulse pairs. Finally, we investigate the capability of our model to simulate the activity dependence dynamics of synaptic modification and present simulated results that are in excellent agreement with biological results.

  13. Sterilisation of spices by means of gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors used ground paprika, black pepper and caraway (Cuminum Cyminum) and irradiated them in stages using CO60. The effect of irradiation on the total aerobic count and on sulphite-reduced clostridia was determined by quantitative total counts. Changes in flavour, aroma and colour and losses in essential oils were taken into account. It was found that irradiation with 0.8 to 1.0 Mrad ensured a satisfactory reduction in the number of organisms in the ground spices used. (orig.)

  14. 9 CFR 318.15 - Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., cereals, spices, etc., âU.S. retained.â 318.15 Section 318.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.15 Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.” When any chemical, preservative, cereal, spice, or other substance is...

  15. Investigation of the Yeast and Mould Floras in Some Ground Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın Vural

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, yeast and mould floras of 60 spices samples that werecollected from different places of Diyarbakır have been investigated. Theyeast spices as Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus and A. niger and mouldspices as Candida tropicalis and C. albicans have been commonly isolatedfrom the spices samples.The ratios of yeast contamination in the samples of black pepper,cumin, allspice, ground hot red pepper, flaked pepper (red and flakedpepper (black, investigated in this study, have been found as % 70, % 80,% 90, % 90, % 60 and % 30 respectively. As a result of high amount ofyeast contamination in spices samples, it is thought that there is a high riskof aflatoxin presence.Using the good and hygienically producing techniques at the stages ofharvest, production, processing, storage and selling with decontaminationapplications as sterilization, microwave and irradiation become effectiveeither in to prove the microbiological quality of the spices and eliminatingof the probable aflatoxin risk due to highly yeast contamination.

  16. Radiation decontamination of three local spices and khebab spice-mix and some aspects of their physiochemical and nutritional properties before and after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spices are used for seasoning, garnishing and for their therapeutic or medicinal properties. In this thesis, three local spices namely, 'pepre' (E. caryophyllata), 'Fom wisa' (A. melegueta), 'whentia' (X. aethiopica) and khebab spice-mix were tested to ascertain their storage mycroflora and moisture isotherms under tropical Ghanaian environment at (Environmental Relative Humidities, ERH's of 20, 55, 65, 75, 85 and 95%) simulated by glycerol: water mixtures with view of ascertaining their storage stability and mouldiness potential. Mouldiness was determined by the decimal serial dilution technique up to 1:104 dilutions. As background data to ascertain the importance of the spices in the Ghanaian diet, a structured rapid appraisal questionnaire was designed to provide information on the types of spices, marketing strategies and social profile of the traders. The selected spices were packaged in three different packaging materials and treated with varying doses of gamma radiation (0, 5, 10 and 20kGy). Changes in the mycroflora and some selected physiochemical parameters (pH, %, moisture, fat, ash content, crude protein, total carbohydrates) were determined using standard conventional methods from (AOAC, 2000). Elemental composition of the products were examined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Finally, the consumer preference of the khebab spice - mix was assessed by sensory evaluation of attributes such as colour, taste, smell, mouthfeel and overall acceptability. A 2X3X4 factorial experiment in a complete Randomised Design was used for the study and data was subjected to statistical analysis using microsoft Excel and Genstats softwares. Analysis was evaluated based on p<0.05 level of significance. The sellers of spices were between 10 - 70 years, but majority were between 30 - 40 years. Spices in the Accra markets were received from seven regions in Ghana and some were imported from West Africa and other foreign countries. The resident microflora in the test

  17. Antioxidant Activities of Nine Selected Culinary Spices from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Ying; Ding Ying; Zhang Liu-juan; Liu Xian-jin

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant activities and the total phenolic contents of the water and/or ethanol extracts of the nine selected culinary spices from China were systematically investigated. Both ethanol extracts and water extracts had high ability of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2, 2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The ethanol extract of Sichuan pepper showed the highest ability of DPPH radical scavenging. The extract with the highest ABTS radical scavenging effect was that of ethanol extract of cinnamon. Both ethanol and water extracts of cinnamon possessed the high ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) with the values of 4 541.87 and 1 134.52 µmol of Fe (Ⅱ)/g. The extracts with high hydroxyl radical-mediated deoxyribose degradation were all the ethanol extracts as follows:cinnamon, bay leaf, Sichuan pepper, star anise and fennel. The extracts with high antioxidant activities also had the high contents of the phenols. The study indicated that these spices might be potentially be used as natural antioxidants in food.

  18. EPR investigation of some irradiated traditional oriental spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-band EPR spectra of unirradiated and 60 Co gamma ray irradiated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton, Zingiberaceae), ginger ((Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae), and curry have been investigated at room temperature. All unirradiated spices presented a weak resonance line with g-factors around free-electron ones, most probably due to the presence of semiquinones, previously reported to have paramagnetic properties. After gamma ray irradiation at absorbed dose up to 11.3 kGy we have noticed in all spices the presence of complex EPR spectra consisting of a superposition of at last two different paramagnetic species whose amplitude increase monotonously with the absorbed dose. A 100 deg. C isothermal annealing of 11.3 kGy irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components that form the initial spectra, but even after 5 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less than 40% from the initial ones, testifying for a good thermal stability. The presences of initial EPR spectra as well as the remaining amplitude after isothermal annealing are very useful in identifying any irradiation treatment applied to this category of species. (authors)

  19. Effect of some high consumption spices on hemoglobin glycation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G H Naderi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of glycation products is major factor responsible in complications of diabetes. Worldwide trend is toward the use of natural additives in reducing the complications of diseases. Therefore, there is a growing interest in natural antiglycation found in plants. Herbs and spices are one of the most important targets to search for natural antiglycation from the point of view of safety. This study investigated the ability of some of the spices to inhibit glycation process in a hemoglobin/glucose model system and compared their potency with each other. For this subject the best concentration and time to incubate glucose with hemoglobin was investigated. Then the glycosylation degree of hemoglobin in the presence of extracts by the three concentrations 0.25, 0.5 and 1 μg/ml was measured colorimetrically at 520 nm. Results represent that some of extracts such as wild caraway, turmeric, cardamom and black pepper have inhibitory effects on hemoglobin glycation. But some of the extracts such as anise and saffron have not only inhibitory effects but also aggravated this event and have proglycation properties. In accordance with the results obtained we can conclude that wild caraway, turmeric, cardamom and black pepper especially wild caraway extracts are potent antiglycation agents, which can be of great value in the preventive glycation-associated complications in diabetes.

  20. Effect of some high consumption spices on hemoglobin glycation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, G H; Dinani, Narges J; Asgary, S; Taher, M; Nikkhoo, N; Boshtam, M

    2014-01-01

    Formation of glycation products is major factor responsible in complications of diabetes. Worldwide trend is toward the use of natural additives in reducing the complications of diseases. Therefore, there is a growing interest in natural antiglycation found in plants. Herbs and spices are one of the most important targets to search for natural antiglycation from the point of view of safety. This study investigated the ability of some of the spices to inhibit glycation process in a hemoglobin/glucose model system and compared their potency with each other. For this subject the best concentration and time to incubate glucose with hemoglobin was investigated. Then the glycosylation degree of hemoglobin in the presence of extracts by the three concentrations 0.25, 0.5 and 1 μg/ml was measured colorimetrically at 520 nm. Results represent that some of extracts such as wild caraway, turmeric, cardamom and black pepper have inhibitory effects on hemoglobin glycation. But some of the extracts such as anise and saffron have not only inhibitory effects but also aggravated this event and have proglycation properties. In accordance with the results obtained we can conclude that wild caraway, turmeric, cardamom and black pepper especially wild caraway extracts are potent antiglycation agents, which can be of great value in the preventive glycation-associated complications in diabetes. PMID:25593391

  1. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum):a precious spice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego Francisco Cortés-Rojas; Wanderley Pereira Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is one of the most valuable spices that has been used for centuries as food preservative and for many medicinal purposes. Clove is native of Indonesia but nowadays is cultured in several parts of the world including Brazil in the state of Bahia. This plant represents one of the richest source of phenolic compounds such as eugenol, eugenol acetate and gallic acid and posses great potential for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and agricultural applications. This review includes the main studies reporting the biological activities of clove and eugenol. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of clove is higher than many fruits, vegetables and other spices and should deserve special attention. A new application of clove as larvicidal agent is an interesting strategy to combat dengue which is a serious health problem in Brazil and other tropical countries. Pharmacokinetics and toxicological studies were also mentioned. The different studies reviewed in this work confirm the traditional use of clove as food preservative and medicinal plant standing out the importance of this plant for different applications.

  2. Teaching solar cell I-V characteristics using SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasia, Archana; Kurinec, Santosh K.

    2011-12-01

    The basic equivalent circuit of a p-n junction solar cell is most commonly represented as consisting of a current source in parallel with two diodes and two parasitic resistances. The output of a solar cell is measured by obtaining the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics for different illumination intensities, and various parameters are extracted from these characteristics. Because the nature of the information derived from these characteristics is not obvious to the beginning students in photovoltaics, a simulation using SPICE was utilized to explain three solar cell I-V characteristics—dark I-V, illuminated I-V, and open circuit voltage versus the short circuit current (illumination intensity). Students can construct a solar cell and study the effect of the diode and parasitic parameters on the three output I-V characteristics. Series and parallel combinations of solar cells for arrays and modules using bypass diodes are demonstrated using SPICE as educational tools for understanding the role of bypass diodes.

  3. Radiosterilization or sterilization by steam. Procedures for sterilization of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article compares two different methods for the sterilization of spices, namely radiosterilization and sterilization with steam. The first method applies ionizing radiation which can alter the chemical composition of the products. Tests have shown, however, that radiation doses up to 10 kGy will not induce the formation of carcinogenic agents in the foodstuffs, or of toxic substances, and thus are a wholesome method of preservation. Any modifications of taste, color or smell, or loss of vitamins, can be avoided by proper dose control and standard irradiation conditions. Sterilization by steam is a method achieving substantial suppression of the formation of germs, aerobic spores, yeasts, mould, and gramnegative germs, while preserving in most cases the essential oils. It may result in sensoric alterations, i.e affect the color, smell or taste, but in general the spices thus treated preserved their characteristic properties. The method is a good alternative to radiosterilization. The article adds some concluding information on mandatory labelling of irradiated food imported from third countries

  4. solation and Identification of Fungi from Spices and Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid M. Toma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was designed to throw light on the microbial status of some crude herbal materials. A total of 16 samples, representing different types of spices and medicinal plants were collected from common market in the Erbil city. Ten different fungal genera and 16 species were isolated and identified as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus spp., Gliocladium sp., Hyalodendron diddeus, Memmoniella sp., Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Syncephalastrum sp., Cladosporium lignicolum and Ulocladium botrytis. The total number of isolated fungi from the all sixteen selected samples was serially diluted and plated on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA medium was (203×103 cfu/g. samples. Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. were more frequently detected, while Stachybotrys sp., Syncephalastrum racemocum, Uocladium botrytis, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium lignicolum and Gliocladium catenulatum ere less frequently detected. Detection of mycotoxin on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphincol agar (DRBC for fungi isolated from spices and medicinal plant samples, A. flavus, A. Niger and A. ochraceous show positive results on the culture for mycotoxin production. Estimation of natural occurrence of Aflatoxin (AT and Ochratoxin (OT in some selected dried samples by using ELISA method, the high result of aflatoxin and ochratoxin show in Red tea (150.5, 387.3 ppb while the low result of aflatoxin and ochratoxin show in Garlic (1.4, 0 ppb respectively.

  5. Ethno botany and antimicrobial perspective of Spices and Honey against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothai Nil Seshathri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In spite of obsessive use of spices in every Ethiopian meal, little has been investigated on the utilization of Ethiopian spices as a cure for oral opportunistic infections. Therefore the aim was to identify spices used in Ethiopian food through ethno botanical survey and study their antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Method: Ethno botanical survey of the selected Kebeles of Jimma, Ethiopia was conducted using a semi structured questionnaire from October 2006 to November 2007. Antifungal nature of the spices and combination of spices and honey were evaluated by agar well diffusion assay from September 2008 to July 2010. Result: Ethno botanical survey indicated fourteen species of spices and honey play a major role in Ethiopian food and beverages. Single plant extract of Trachyspermum copticum showed highest activity against C. albicans. The same plant showed antagonistic effect when combined with brown and white honey. Cinamomum zeylanicum showed highest synergistic effect with both brown and white honey when compared to Allium ursenum, Cuminum cyminum, Nigella sativa, Rosemarinus officinalis and Occimum hodiense. Conclusion: Thus spices used in Ethiopian food could be a preventive as well as a cure for oral candidiasis caused by C.albicans. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 73-80

  6. Viscosity measurement - probably a means for detecting radiation treatment of spices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The viscosity of 13 different spices and dried vegetables in total was measured. Optimal conditions were first determined for each product, i.e. concentration, pH-value, temperature, particle size and soaking time. For method evaluation, examinations were primarily performed to study the effect of storage, the reproducibility and the influence of the different varieties of the same spice. In supplement, for pepper, the viscosity was measured as a function of radiation dose. In summation, significant changes in the gel forming capability after irradiation could be observed after preliminary experiments in 8 dried spices (ginger, carrots, leek, cloves, pepper, celery, cinnamon and onions). With 3 spices (ginger, pepper and cinnamon) could the results from examining all different varieties of the same spice be substantiated. An additional influence of storage time on viscosity could not be proved during the investigative period of 8 months. Generally seen, there is no possibility of being able to identify an irradiated spice on the basis of viscosity measurements alone, since the difference between the varieties of one and the same spice is considerably great. However, radiation treatment can be reliably excluded with ginger, pepper and cinnamon, if the viscosities are high (10-20 Pa x s). (orig./MG)

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on essential oils and lipids in spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven kinds of spices were irradiated with gamma-rays at the dose of 5 to 80 kGy. Studies of radiation effect on lipids in each spice were carried out by measuring peroxide value (POV), iodine value (IV), acid value (AV) and analysis of gas-chromatography (GC). POV in each spice was gradually increased with increasing absorbed doses. The increase of POV in nutmeg was higher than those of other spices, and it was suggested that those increase of POV values were related to lipid contents in spices. A little increase of IV and AV were also observed as same amount of POV by the irradiation up to 80 kGy. From the GC analysis of lipids in each spice, components were not changed even irradiated up to 50 kGy of gamma-rays. Radiation effect on components of essential oils in each spice were also analyzed by headspace-GC (HS-GC), and any degradation of components were not observed up to 50 kGy of irradiation even analyzed by GC after separation to hydrocarbon and oxygen compounds. On the contrary, essential oils of cloves sterilized by heat treatment were apparently decreased as compared with irradiated and non-irradiated cloves. (author)

  8. Thermoluminescence analysis to detect irradiated spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures - an intercomparison study. A report in English and German

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes in detail an inter-laboratory test to detect the irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures in the dose range used for reduction of the number of contaminating microorganisms. Approx. 3 months and 9 months after irradiation the 14 participating laboratories determined the thermoluminescence (TL) of mineral contaminations that were isolated from coded samples. 18 different products (six spices, six herbs and six spice-and-herb mixtures) were examined. By whole sample analysis results were obtained in the inter-laboratory test which are typical for this method: Only one non-irradiated sample was classified as irradiated. By contrast, from some spice or herb products (5) all irradiated samples were correctly identified. From other products (3) some irradiated samples could not be identified as irradiated. From the rest of products (4) the majority of the irradiated samples was not identified as irradiated. Therefore, it is not possible to state definitively whether the whole sample method can be recommended as a screening technique. The decision rests with the user. However, data analysis of whole sample measurements revealed that the TL intensities of non-irradiated samples were within the same order of magnitude. Thus, there is no further need for establishing product-specific threshold values. The results make it clear that irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures with commercially used doses can be clearly detected by determination of TL signals of contaminating minerals throughout the entire period in which the products are normally stored and that the methods described are suitable for routine analysis in food inspection laboratories. (orig./UHE)

  9. SPICE Modeling and Simulation of a MPPT Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miona Andrejević Stošović

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One among several equally important subsystems of a standalone photovoltaic (PV system is the circuit for maximum power point tracking (MPPT. There are several algorithms that may be used for it. In this paper we choose such an algorithm based on the maximum simplicity criteria. Then we make some small modifications to it in order to make it more robust. We synthesize a circuit built out of elements from the list of elements recognized by SPICE. The inputs are the voltage and the current at the PV panel to DC-DC converter interface. Its task is to generate a pulse width modulated pulse train whose duty ratio is defined to keep the input impedance of the DC-DC converter at the optimal value.

  10. Noise analysis of a pulse processor using SPICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwata, M.; Isobe, R.

    1999-12-01

    According to the application requirements for high resolution rather than high throughput, a long processing time is widely used in energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometers for detecting low-energy events. IN such cases, the major noise component that limits the spectral resolution is 1/f noise, and so the 1/f noise index of the filter should be considered. The authors describe a technique, simpler than earlier ones, for using SPICE in the computation of the 1/f, step, and delta noise indices of linear and time-valiant filters. The method is based on obtaining a weighting function from the results of simulation and is demonstrated for triangular and trapezoidal shapers. The results are compared with those obtained by direct calculation. The greatest discrepancies occur when the method is applied to gated integrators, but the errors are probably due to artifacts not related to the basic method described here.

  11. Spices form the basis of food pairing in Indian cuisine

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Anupam; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Culinary practices are influenced by climate, culture, history and geography. Molecular composition of recipes in a cuisine reveals patterns in food preferences. Indian cuisine encompasses a number of diverse sub-cuisines separated by geographies, climates and cultures. Its culinary system has a long history of health-centric dietary practices focused on disease prevention and promotion of health. We study food pairing in recipes of Indian cuisine to show that, in contrast to positive food pairing reported in some Western cuisines, Indian cuisine has a strong signature of negative food pairing; more the extent of flavor sharing between any two ingredients, lesser their co-occurrence. This feature is independent of recipe size and is not explained by ingredient category-based recipe constitution alone. Ingredient frequency emerged as the dominant factor specifying the characteristic flavor sharing pattern of the cuisine. Spices, individually and as a category, form the basis of ingredient composition in Indian...

  12. Detection of irradiated spices using photo-stimulated luminescence technique (PSL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique was applied to detect irradiated black pepper (Piper nigrum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) after dark storage for 1 day, 3 and 6 months. Using screening and calibrated PSL, all samples were correctly discriminated between non-irradiated and spices irradiated with doses 1, 5 and 10 kGy. The PSL photon counts (PCs) of irradiated spices increased with increasing dose, with turmeric showing highest sensitivity index to irradiation compared to black pepper and cinnamon. The differences in response are possibly attributed to the varying quantity and quality of silicate minerals present in each spice sample. PSL signals of all irradiated samples reduced after 3 and 6 months storage. The results of this study provide a useful database on the applicability of PSL technique for the detection of Malaysian irradiated spices

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on essential oils and lipids in spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four kinds of spices were irradiated with gamma-rays at a dose of 10 to 50 kGy. Studies on radiation effect on essential oils and lipids in spices were carried out by gas-chromatography (GC). The GC analysis of lipids in spices revealed that components were not changed even after irradiation up to 50 kGy of gamma-rays. Radiation effect on components of essential oils in spices were analyzed by headspace-GC (HS-GC) and GC after separation to hydrocarbon compounds and oxygen compounds, and any degradation of components was not observed up to 50 kGy of irradiation. On the contrary, essential oils of cloves sterilized by heat treatment were apparently decreased as compared with irradiated and non-irradiated cloves. (author)

  14. A first countercheck trial to identify irradiated spices with luminescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Health Office, in collaboration with 4 institutions responsible for food control analysis and 2 research facilities, for the first time conducted a countercheck trial to identify irradiated spices. This test was mainly intended to find out whether chemiluminescence (CL) and thermoluminescence (TL) techniques are appropriate for this purpose. Nine different spices were selected. Approximately 85% of the samples may be identified correctly if both methods are used. However, only 3% of all spices subjected to CL analysis were falsely identified as irradiated, and the proportion of falsely positive results is even lower than 1% if only those spices are considered for which CL analysis is well suited. If an additional procedure, such as TL, is applied, it is highly probable that false identification of non-irradiated samples may be excluded. (orig./PW)

  15. Ultra-micro trace element contents in spices from Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spices were analyzed by ICP-MS for determination of the ultra-micro trace elements in the human adult, Bi, Cd, Co, Ni, Pd, Pt, Se, Sn, Te, Tl, to complement previous results obtained by INAA and by EDXRF. The spices, originating from Sri Lanka, were curry, chilli powder and turmeric powders, coriander, cinnamon, black pepper, fennel, rampeh and curry leaves, and cumin. The analytical procedure was validated by analyzing the certified reference materials NIST SRM 1572 Citrus Leaves and NIST SRM 1573 Tomato Leaves. The results indicate that spices may contribute well to the daily optimal uptake of nutrients of a human adult. The adequacy of spices as a reference material with certified ultra micro trace elements is suggested. (author)

  16. Detection of irradiated spices using photo-stimulated luminescence technique (PSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Ros Anita Ahmad; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Othman, Zainon; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan

    2014-09-01

    Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique was applied to detect irradiated black pepper (Piper nigrum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) after dark storage for 1 day, 3 and 6 months. Using screening and calibrated PSL, all samples were correctly discriminated between non-irradiated and spices irradiated with doses 1, 5 and 10 kGy. The PSL photon counts (PCs) of irradiated spices increased with increasing dose, with turmeric showing highest sensitivity index to irradiation compared to black pepper and cinnamon. The differences in response are possibly attributed to the varying quantity and quality of silicate minerals present in each spice sample. PSL signals of all irradiated samples reduced after 3 and 6 months storage. The results of this study provide a useful database on the applicability of PSL technique for the detection of Malaysian irradiated spices.

  17. Detection of irradiated spices using photo-stimulated luminescence technique (PSL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, Ros Anita Ahmad; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi [Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Othman, Zainon; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique was applied to detect irradiated black pepper (Piper nigrum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) after dark storage for 1 day, 3 and 6 months. Using screening and calibrated PSL, all samples were correctly discriminated between non-irradiated and spices irradiated with doses 1, 5 and 10 kGy. The PSL photon counts (PCs) of irradiated spices increased with increasing dose, with turmeric showing highest sensitivity index to irradiation compared to black pepper and cinnamon. The differences in response are possibly attributed to the varying quantity and quality of silicate minerals present in each spice sample. PSL signals of all irradiated samples reduced after 3 and 6 months storage. The results of this study provide a useful database on the applicability of PSL technique for the detection of Malaysian irradiated spices.

  18. In vitro evaluation on antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of spice extracts of ginger, turmeric and garlic

    OpenAIRE

    Virendra V. Panpatil; Nirmala Kota; Kalpagam Polasa

    2013-01-01

    Spices like turmeric, ginger, alliums are indispensable for the preparation of our daily food and are reported to possess compounds, which have varied beneficial biological effects and also prevent the microbial spoilage of food. This study evaluates the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of spice extracts such as ginger, turmeric and garlic by 2, 2’-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Radical Scavenging Method and also to evaluate their antimicrobial effects by Slant method. The antioxidant...

  19. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.): A promising spice for phytochemical and pharmacological activities

    OpenAIRE

    Deepika Yadav; Shiv Kumar Yadav; Roop Krishen Khar; Mohammad Mujeeb; Mohammad Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a small rhizomatous perennial herb belonging to Zingiberaceae family originating from South-Eastern Asia, most probably from India. The plant produces fleshy rhizomes of bright yellow to orange colour in its root system, which are the source of the commercially available spice turmeric. In the form of root powder, turmeric is used for its flavouring properties as a spice, food preservative and food-colouring agent. Turmeric has a long history of use in Ayurvedic me...

  20. Prognosis of the application spices, nondecontamined and decontaminated by irradiation on the sanitary effect foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the elements of prognostic microbiology it has been shown that under conditions conductive to growth of microorganisms, the foodstuff which contains contaminated spices is characterized by lower quality. It may be the risk for human health. The prognosis has been shown, the microbiological decontamination of spices by irradiation may be one of the elements of new system - Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP). (author)

  1. Studies regarding production and use of organic medicinal and spice plants

    OpenAIRE

    Basa, Adrian Gheorghe; ROMAN, Gheorghe Valentin; Ion, Viorel; Epure, Lenuta Iuliana; TOADER, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Romania has tradition and a great potential to improve its production of medicinal and spice plants. Whether this important potential is used within the organic farming system, this will create new opportunities for small farmers. Medicinal and spice plants grown within the organic farming system could have a significant contribution to the following aspects: clean agriculture, new technologies, healthy products, environmental protection and conservation of the natural resources. ...

  2. Nation-Based Occurrence and Endogenous Biological Reduction of Mycotoxins in Medicinal Herbs and Spices

    OpenAIRE

    Kee Hun Do; Tae Jin An; Sang-Keun Oh; Yuseok Moon

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal herbs have been increasingly used for therapeutic purposes against a diverse range of human diseases worldwide. Moreover, the health benefits of spices have been extensively recognized in recent studies. However, inevitable contaminants, including mycotoxins, in medicinal herbs and spices can cause serious problems for humans in spite of their health benefits. Along with the different nation-based occurrences of mycotoxins, the ultimate exposure and toxicities can be diversely influ...

  3. Antioxidant Activities of Hot Water Extracts from Various Spices

    OpenAIRE

    Suk-Nam Kang; Ok-Hwan Lee; Il-Suk Kim; Mi-Ra Yang

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the natural spices and herbs such as rosemary, oregano, and caraway have been used for the processing of meat products. This study investigates the antioxidant activity of 13 spices commonly used in meat processing plants. The hot water extracts were then used for evaluation of total phenolic content, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activities. Our results show that the hot water extract of oregano gave the highest extraction yield (41.33%) whereas mace (7.64%) gave the low...

  4. Molecular Targets of Nutraceuticals Derived from Dietary Spices: Potential Role in Suppression of Inflammation and Tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Bharat B.; Van Kuiken, Michelle E.; Iyer, Laxmi H.; Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B.; Sung, Bokyung

    2009-01-01

    Despite the fact cancer is primarily a preventable disease, recent statistics indicate cancer will become the number one killer worldwide in 2010. Since certain cancers are more prevalent in the people of some countries than others, suggests the role of lifestyle. For instance cancer incidence among people from the Indian subcontinent, where most spices are consumed, is much lower than that in the Western World. Spices have been consumed for centuries for a variety of purposes—as flavoring ag...

  5. Irradiation detection in spices applying PSL, ESR, or iodometric starch analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation detection in spices is possible applying a combination of various methods. The method of first choice is PSL, which yields a quick result for a great variety of samples and does not require specific sample preparation. When there is need for verification of PSL test results, ESR, viscosity measurements, determination of starch contents or hydrocarbons in spices containing lipids are suitable tests. (orig./CB)

  6. Using the IDEAL Software Process Improvement Model for the Implementation of Automotive SPICE

    OpenAIRE

    Klendauer, R.; Hoffmann, A.; Leimeister, Jan Marco; Berkovich, Marina; Krcmar, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Most suppliers in the automotive industry are facing the challenge of implementing Automotive SPICE, a domain-specific model of ISO/IEC 15504, which was first published in 2005. Original equipment manufacturers have increasingly requested SPICE certifications from their suppliers in order to effectively evaluate the development processes and identify reliable partners. To support organizations in their software process improvement effort, the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) developed the...

  7. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils of Twelve Spice Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Politeo, Olivera; Jukić, Mila; Miloš, Mladen

    2006-01-01

    Chemical compositions and related total antioxidant capacities of twelve spice essential oils were analyzed. To enable a comparison of their relative antioxidant potentials, essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation from selected spice plants and their chemical compositions were determined by the GC-MS system on two fused-silica capillary columns of different polarity. Antioxidant effectiveness was examined by four different methods: the 2,2'-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical...

  8. Antibacterial activity of natural spices on multiple drug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from drinking water, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Shahedur; Parvez, Anowar Khasru; Islam, Rezuanul; Khan, Mahboob Hossain

    2011-01-01

    Background Spices traditionally have been used as coloring agents, flavoring agents, preservatives, food additives and medicine in Bangladesh. The present work aimed to find out the antimicrobial activity of natural spices on multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli isolates. Methods Anti-bacterial potentials of six crude plant extracts (Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Allium cepa, Coriandrum sativum, Piper nigrum and Citrus aurantifolia) were tested against five Escherichia coli isolated f...

  9. Online Ad Assignment with an Ad Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Wolfgang; Henzinger, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Ad exchanges are becoming an increasingly popular way to sell advertisement slots on the internet. An ad exchange is basically a spot market for ad impressions. A publisher who has already signed contracts reserving advertisement impressions on his pages can choose between assigning a new ad impression for a new page view to a contracted advertiser or to sell it at an ad exchange. This leads to an online revenue maximization problem for the publisher. Given a new impression to sell decide whe...

  10. Extending Shelf Life of Chilled Pork by Combination of Chitosan Coating With Spice Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Xiufang; KONG Baohua

    2008-01-01

    The effects of spices (cinnamon, rosemary, clove) extracts and chitosan on microbiological growth, drip loss, color, and lipid oxidation of fresh chilled meat stored for 28 days at 4"C were investigated. There were four treatments: control, coated with spices(cimmamon 1.5g·L-1+rosemary 1.5·L-1+colve 1.0 g·L-1),coated with 0.5% chitosan,coated with spices and chitosan.Chitosan coating resulted in significant inhibition of microbial growth (P<0.05), while the lowest microbial counts were obtained in the samples containing both chitosan and spices, indicating a possible synergistic effect. Chitosan and its combinations with spices also showed the most intense antioxidative effect when compared to the controls (P<0.05). Meanwhile, chitosan coating could decrease water loss and keep better color of chilled meat. The combined spice extracts and chitosan coating could effectively extend the shelf life of chilled meat.

  11. Assessment of metal contents in spices and herbs from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddigi, Z S; Kandhro, G A; Shah, F; Danish, E; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-02-01

    In the recent years, there has been a growing interest in monitoring heavy metal contamination of spices/herbs. Spices and herbs are sources of many bioactive compounds that can improve the tastes of food as well as influence digestion and metabolism processes. In the present study, the levels of some essential and toxic elements such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd), present in common spices/herbs that were purchased from the local market in Saudi Arabia, were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy after digestion with nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Samples from the following spices/herbs were used: turmeric, cloves, black pepper, red pepper, cumin, legume, cinnamon, abazir, white pepper, ginger, and coriander. The concentration ranges for the studied elements were found as 48.8-231, 4.7-19.4, 2.5-10.5, below detection level (BDL)-1.0, 8.8-490, 1.0-2.6, and BDL-3.7 µg g(-1) for Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb, respectively, while Cd and Co levels were below the detection limit. Consumers of these spices/herbs would not be exposed to any risk associated with the daily intake of 10 g of spices per day as far as metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb are concerned. PMID:24097370

  12. Effect of the dose of irradiation on the conservation of the spice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the gamma rays treatment emitted by a source of cobalt 60 in dose of 0, 3, 6 and 10 kGy on the microbiological and psycho-chemical properties of three samples of spice (hot pepper, fennel and coriander) have been studied. This study allowed us to measure the effect of these doses of irradiation on the lengthening of the lengthen conservation during storage of eight weeks to ambient temperature. The results show that the irradiation is very effective from a microbiological stand point. In fact, starting from 10 kGy the spices was not contaminated any more. The irradiation until a dose of dose 10 kGy has not generated any significant modifications, mainly in the physico-chemical parameters of the spices. But high diminishing has ac cured in water potency. Regarding colour variation, the irradiation has permitted the creation of a brighter colour for the three spices treated. A long the follow up we have an important multiplication in all bacteria existent in the three spices. Hew ever for the spices treated in 10 kGy we did not get any recontamination. (Author)

  13. Technology transfer for irradiation of spices and fishery products in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of irradiation to improve the hygiene quality and to extend the storage life of commercial spices, dried fish and frozen shrimps was tested in collaboration with food industries. These tests consisted of trial irradiation of the spices used in the food industry, quality evaluation of processed meat made with irradiated spices, market testing of the irradiated dried fish and trial irradiation of commercially frozen shrimps. It was found that irradiation at 5 kGy could reduce the microbial load of the different types of spices commonly used in the food industry from 106 to 108 per gram to less than 103 per gram. The aroma and taste of certain spices became weaker or stronger after irradiation at 5 kGy, but the change was still acceptable. Use of irradiated spices in the manufacture of corned beef was found to be effective for improving the 'keeping' quality of the product stored at -2 deg. C. Market testing of the irradiated dried fish showed that the product had a longer market life and a better quality than the untreated dried fish. The microbial load of frozen shrimps could be reduced from about 105 to 106 per gram to 103 per gram when irradiated at about 5 kGy in commercial packaging. (author). 13 refs, 6 tabs

  14. Irradiation of meat products, chicken and use of irradiated spices for sausages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, I.F.; Beczner, J.; Zachariev, Gy. (Central Food Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary)); Kovacs, S. (Veterinary and Food Control Centre, Budapest (Hungary))

    1990-01-01

    The shelf-life of packed minced meat has been increased at least threefold at 4{sup 0}C by applying a 2 kGy dose. Results have been confirmed by detailed quantitative microbiological examinations. Sensory evaluations show no significant difference between the unirradiated and irradiated samples. The optimal average dose was 4 kGy for packed-frozen chicken. The number of mesophilic aerobic microbes was reduced by 2, that of psychrotolerant by 2-3 and that of Enterobacteriaceae by 3-4 orders of magnitude by 4 kGy. S. aureus and Salmonella could not be detected in the irradiated samples. in 1984-1985 5100 kg irradiated chickens were marketed labelled as radiation treated. Irradiated spices (5 kGy) were used in the production of sausages (heat-treated and non-heat-treated) under industrial conditions. The microbiological contamination of irradiated spices was lower than that of ethylene oxide treated ones. The cell count in products made with irradiated spices was lower than in those made with unirradiated spices. The sausages proved to be of very good quality. In accordance with the permission, products were marketed and because of the low ratio of spices there was no need to declare them as using irradiated spices. (author).

  15. Irradiation of meat products, chicken and use of irradiated spices for sausages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shelf-life of packed minced meat has been increased at least threefold at 40C by applying a 2 kGy dose. Results have been confirmed by detailed quantitative microbiological examinations. Sensory evaluations show no significant difference between the unirradiated and irradiated samples. The optimal average dose was 4 kGy for packed-frozen chicken. The number of mesophilic aerobic microbes was reduced by 2, that of psychrotolerant by 2-3 and that of Enterobacteriaceae by 3-4 orders of magnitude by 4 kGy. S. aureus and Salmonella could not be detected in the irradiated samples. in 1984-1985 5100 kg irradiated chickens were marketed labelled as radiation treated. Irradiated spices (5 kGy) were used in the production of sausages (heat-treated and non-heat-treated) under industrial conditions. The microbiological contamination of irradiated spices was lower than that of ethylene oxide treated ones. The cell count in products made with irradiated spices was lower than in those made with unirradiated spices. The sausages proved to be of very good quality. In accordance with the permission, products were marketed and because of the low ratio of spices there was no need to declare them as using irradiated spices. (author)

  16. Determination of Aflatoxin B1 Levels in Organic Spices and Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Tosun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organically produced spices and herbs were analyzed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 by ELISA using immunoaffinity column. For this purpose 93 organic spices and 37 organic herbs were randomly selected from organic markets and organic shops in Turkey. AFB1 was detected in 58 organic spice and 32 organic herb samples. Among organic spice samples, the maximum value was detected in cinnamon sample (53 μg/kg. AFB1 was not detected in thyme samples. AFB1 levels of 41 organic spice samples were above the EU regulatory limit (5 μg/kg. Among organic herb samples the highest concentration of AFB1 (52.5 μg/kg was detected in a rosehip sample. AFB1 levels of 21 organic herb samples were above the regulatory limits of the European Union. These results showed that more stringent measures must be taken for the prevention of mold contamination in the production of organic spices and herbs.

  17. Identification of low amount of irradiated spices (red pepper, garlic, ginger powder) with luminescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the identification of irradiated food, current analysis methods have limitations regarding presence and stability of radiation-induced markers. In this study, different spice blends with small quantity of different irradiated (0, 1 and 10 kGy) spice powders, such as red pepper, garlic or ginger, were investigated using PSL and TL techniques. In PSL-based screening analysis, the spice blends containing 10% of irradiated materials (1 or 10 kGy) were determined as intermediate or positive. In TL results, the blends containing 1% of 1 or 10 kGy-irradiated spices showed the typical TL glow curves that could be interpreted as positive. The blends with irradiated garlic powder provided more good results where identification was possible at 0.5% mixing of irradiated sample. However, the TL ratios of all spice blends were <0.1 and only TL glow curve shape and intensity may be used to discriminate the samples having irradiated component. - Highlights: ► Sample blends with small quantities of irradiated spices were evaluated. ► The PSL was inappropriate to detect irradiated ingredient in small quantity. ► TL glow curve shape and intensity could be used as conclusive evidence of irradiation. ► TL ratios of all irradiated and nonirradiated samples were <0.1.

  18. Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomhoff Rune

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessment method. Thus we compared the intake estimates from the FFQ with 28 days of estimated records of herb and spice consumption as a reference method. Methods The evaluation study was conducted among 146 free living adults, who filled in the FFQ and 2-4 weeks later carried out 28 days recording of herb and spice consumption. The FFQ included a section with questions about 27 individual culinary herbs and spices, while the records were open ended records for recording of herbs and spice consumption exclusively. Results Our study showed that the FFQ obtained slightly higher estimates of total intake of herbs and spices than the total intake assessed by the Herbs and Spice Records (HSR. The correlation between the two assessment methods with regard to total intake was good (r = 0.5, and the cross-classification suggests that the FFQ may be used to classify subjects according to total herb and spice intake. For the 8 most frequently consumed individual herbs and spices, the FFQ obtained good estimates of median frequency of intake for 2 herbs/spices, while good estimates of portion sizes were obtained for 4 out of 8 herbs/spices. Conclusions Our results suggested that the FFQ was able to give good estimates of frequency of intake and portion sizes on group level for several of the most frequently used herbs and spices. The FFQ was only able to fairly rank subjects according to frequency of intake of the 8 most frequently consumed herbs and spices. Other studies are warranted

  19. Two AdS2 branes in the euclidean AdS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute the density of open strings stretching between AdS2 branes in the euclidean AdS3. This is done by solving the factorization constraint of a degenerate boundary field, and the result is checked by a Cardy-type computation. We mention applications to branes in the minkowskian AdS3 and its cigar coset. (author)

  20. Two AdS2 branes in the Euclidean AdS3

    CERN Document Server

    Ribault, S

    2003-01-01

    We compute the density of open strings stretching between AdS2 branes in the Euclidean AdS3. This is done by solving the factorization constraint of a degenerate boundary field, and the result is checked by a Cardy-type computation. We mention applications to branes in the Minkowskian AdS3 and its cigar coset.

  1. Study on Sensory Quality, Antioxidant Properties, and Maillard Reaction Products Formation in Rye-Buckwheat Cakes Enhanced with Selected Spices

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Przygodzka; Henryk Zieliński; Zuzana Ciesarová; Kristina Kukurová; Grzegorz Lamparski

    2015-01-01

    The effect of selected spices included in the recipe of rye-buckwheat cakes on sensory quality, nutritional value, and Maillard reaction (MR) products formation was addressed in this study. The cakes with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix addition revealed the highest overall quality values. Cakes enriched with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest rutin content and almost threefold higher available lysine contents whereas cakes enhanced with mix, cloves,...

  2. Detection of herbs and spices irradiated through optically stimulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of foods is one of the common practices in several countries of the American and European continents. In spite of the widespread use of irradiation methods and technics of nutritious products, it doesn't exist a method of general use at the present time for the detection of previously submitted foods to irradiation with pasteurization ends or sterilization. In the present work the results are presented obtained in the detection of herbs and spices exposed to radiation in the range of 0.1 - 3 KGy, by means of the photostimulation with light of 470 nm. It was used for it a RIS0 model team TL/OSL-GIVE-15 conditioned with a β ray source, 90Sr/90Y and a source of light of 50 mW/cm2. samples of chili guajillo were studied, pepper, cumin, mint and camomile; achieving you to detect exhibitions of the order of 8.33x10-4 KGy that which is indicative of the high sensitivity of the luminescence technique optically stimulated. The answer of the samples with regard to the radiation dose presents a range of lineality for low dose of the order of 0.5 KGy; and supralineal for further dose without to arrive to a saturation stage. (Author)

  3. SPICE modeling of memristors with multilevel resistance states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With CMOS technologies approaching the scaling ceiling, novel memory technologies have thrived in recent years, among which the memristor is a rather promising candidate for future resistive memory (RRAM). Memristor's potential to store multiple bits of information as different resistance levels allows its application in multilevel cell (MCL) technology, which can significantly increase the memory capacity. However, most existing memristor models are built for binary or continuous memristance switching. In this paper, we propose the simulation program with integrated circuits emphasis (SPICE) modeling of charge-controlled and flux-controlled memristors with multilevel resistance states based on the memristance versus state map. In our model, the memristance switches abruptly between neighboring resistance states. The proposed model allows users to easily set the number of the resistance levels as parameters, and provides the predictability of resistance switching time if the input current/voltage waveform is given. The functionality of our models has been validated in HSPICE. The models can be used in multilevel RRAM modeling as well as in artificial neural network simulations

  4. SPICE modeling of memristors with multilevel resistance states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Xu-Dong; Tang Yu-Hua; Wu Jun-Jie

    2012-01-01

    With CMOS technologies approaching the scaling ceiling,novel memory technologies have thrived in recent years,among which the memristor is a rather promising candidate for future resistive memory (RRAM).Memristor's potential to store multiple bits of information as different resistance levels allows its application in multilevel cell (MCL) technology,which can significantly increase the memory capacity.However,most existing memristor models are built for binary or continuous memristance switching.In this paper,we propose the simulation program with integrated circuits emphasis (SPICE) modeling of charge-controlled and flux-controlled memristors with multilevel resistance states based on the memristance versus state map.In our model,the memristance switches abruptly between neighboring resistance states.The proposed model allows users to easily set the number of the resistance levels as parameters,and provides the predictability of resistance switching time if the input current/voltage waveform is given.The functionality of our models has been validated in HSPICE.The models can be used in multilevel RRAM modeling as well as in artificial neural network simulations.

  5. Fungal Biodeterioration, Aflatoxin Contamination, and Nutrient Value of "Suya Spices".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan, Segun Gbolagade; Adeniyi, Mary Adejoke; Asemoloye, Michael Dare

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to analyze the nutrient values, examine the biodeteriorating fungi biota, and analyze the mycotoxin contents of "Suya spices." Fungi with highest percentage occurrence on all the samples are Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Fusarium sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, yeast, and Trichoderma koningii. Nutrient composition of the samples is significantly different statistically (P Aflatoxin analysis of the samples revealed that they all contain aflatoxin in varying amount but no detectible aflatoxin content in the control. 59.54% of the detected aflatoxin is aflatoxin B1 with highest recorded in Agbowo, Mokola, and Sango samples (i.e., 28.03, 22.44, and 13.8 μg/kg, resp.). 4.78% of the aflatoxin is aflatoxin B2 which is only found in Sango and Mokola samples (3.59 and 2.6 μg/kg, resp.). 32.76% of aflatoxin is aflatoxin G1 with the highest found in Agbowo and Mokola samples (i.e., 18.63 and 10.41 μg/kg, resp.). 2.93% of the aflatoxin is aflatoxin G2 which is only detected in Sango and Agbowo samples (i.e., 1.19 and 2.65 μg/kg, resp.). PMID:27092289

  6. Curcumin: From Exotic Spice to Modern Anticancer Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurisankar Sa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of defined molecular steps of tumourigenesis by natural non-toxic compounds may be an efficient means to tackle the population cancer burden. Extensive research has addressed the chemotherapeutic potential of curcumin (diferuloylmethane, a relatively non-toxic plant derived polyphenol. Curcumin is used for centuries in cuisine and indigenous medicine against several major human diseases. Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Disruption of a proper regulation of cell proliferation can ultimately cause cancer. Most human malignancies are driven by chromosomal translocations or other genetic alterations that directly affect the function of critical cell cycle proteins such as cyclins as well as tumor suppressors, e.g., p53. In this regard, curcumin, the yellow pigment of the spice turmeric, has been reported to have immense potentialility for being used in cancer chemotherapy because of its control over the cell growth regulatory mechanisms and for its anti-inflammatory, anti-toxic and anti-oxidative properties. Increasingly reports are showing that curcumin can induce apoptosis in a wide variety of cancer cells. The mechanisms implicated in the inhibition of tumorigenesis by curcumin are diverse and seem to involve a combination of cell signalling pathways at multiple levels. When curcumin is combined with some cytotoxic drugs or certain other diet-derived polyphenols, synergistic effects have been demonstrated. Taken together, this review seeks to summarise the unique properties of curcumin that may be exploited for successful clinical cancer prevention.

  7. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in processed spices marketed in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Norhayati; Hashim, Noor Hasani; Shuib, Nor Shifa

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) was performed in processed spices marketed in Penang, Malaysia, using immunoaffinity columns and HPLC equipped with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The processed powdered spices analysed include dried chilli, fennel, cumin, turmeric, black and white pepper, poppy seed, coriander, 'garam masala', and mixed spices for fish, meat and chicken curry. Two different studies were carried out. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01 ng g(-1) for each aflatoxin (AF) and 0.10 ng g(-1) for OTA (signal-to-noise ratio = 3:1). In the first study, 34 commercial processed spices analysed with a mean level, range and incidence of positive samples for total AF were 1.61 ng g(-1), 0.01-9.34 ng g(-1) and 85%, respectively, and for AFB1 were 1.38 ng g(-1), 0.01-7.68 ng g(-1) and 85%, respectively. The mean level, range and incidence of positive samples for OTA were 2.21 ng g(-1), 0.14-20.40 ng g(-1) and 79%, respectively. Natural co-occurrence of AF and OTA was found in 25 (74%) samples. In the second study of 24 commercial processed spices, the mean level, range and incidence of positive samples for total AF were 8.38 ng g(-1), 0.32-31.17 ng g(-1) and 88%, respectively, and for AFB1 were 7.31 ng g(-1), 0.32-28.43 ng g(-1) and 83%, respectively. Fifteen positive samples for total AF and two positive samples for OTA exceeded the permissible Malaysian limit of 5 ng g(-1). Contamination of both mycotoxins in spices may represent another route of exposure to consumers due to their frequent and prolonged consumption, as spices are common ingredients in popular dishes among Asian countries. PMID:25658149

  8. The role of spices and lactic acid bacteria as antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of metata ayib (traditional Ethiopian spiced fermented cottage cheese).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremew, Tsehayneh; Kebede, Ameha; Andualem, Berhanu

    2015-09-01

    Spices and lactic acid bacteria have natural antimicrobial substances and organic compounds having antagonistic activity against microorganisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of spices and lactic acid bacteria as antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of metata ayib. Antimicrobial activities of spices and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) filtrates were determined by agar well diffusion method against E. coli, S. aureus, S. flexneri and S. peumoniae. Aantimicrobial activity of garlic was found to be the most effective against all the tested pathogens. Inhibition zones of garlic extract against all pathogens was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater than the remaining spice extracts. Inhibition zones (12.50 ± 1.00 to 15.50 ± 1.00 mm) of ginger and R. graveolens ethanol extracts against all tested pathogens were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater than the remaining solvent extracts. Inhibition zone of O. basilicum ethanol extract against all pathogenic bacteria was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater than hexane and acetone extracts. Lactobacillus isolates were shown the highest antimicrobial activity than the other LAB isolates against all pathogens. The synergistic effect of spices together with LAB might be contributed a lot to preserve and extend shelf life of metata ayib. Their antimicrobial activity can reduce the risk of spoilage and pathogenesis. The possible reason of LAB isolates was may be due to production of lactic acid, acetic acid and secondary metabolites like bacteriocins. Aseptic processing of traditional cottage cheese (ayib) is by far needed to minimize risks associated during consumption of metata ayib. PMID:26344979

  9. Determination of Mineral Content in Indian Spices by ICP-OES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Kumaravel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian and non vegetarian Indian diet consists of various cereals and vegetables along with spices, often used in the preparation of curries. The nutritive potential of trace element has been evaluated using Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. In this study, 15 trace elements like As,Hg,Se,Zn,P,Pb,Cd,Fe,Mn,Cr,Mg,Cu,C,Na and K have been determined in Five Indian popular spices. The result shows that the spice Aniseed contains Phosphorous (2027.10±14.0 mg/kg, Iron (5.40±2.0 mg/kg, Magnesium (270.10±7.0mg/kg, Calcium (602.8±4.0 mg/kg, Sodium (365.10±3.0 mg/kg and Potassium (887.80±11.0 mg/kg. The spice Poppy seeds showed Phosphorous content of (3980.0±13.5mg/kg, Iron (5.475±2.5 mg/kg, Magnesium (287.20±14.0 mg/kg, Calcium (690.50±4.0 mg/kg, Sodium (81.16±5.0 mg/kg and Potassium (746.70±6.0 mg/kg. The spice Cloves showed that it contains Phosphorous (6355.0±20.0 mg/kg, Iron (1.699±0.2mg/kg, and Potassium (318.01±5.0 mg/kg. The spice Ajwain seeds showed the presence of Phosphorous (1764.0±16.0 mg/kg, Iron (17.87±8.0 mg/kg, Manganese (5.729±2.6 mg/kg and Calcium (1353.0±10.0 mg/kg, The spice Fenugreek seeds showed that it contains Phosphorous (2950.0±17.5 mg/kg and Potassium (124.82±2.0 mg/kg. Heavy metals As and Hg are absent in all five spices. Heavy metals Cr, Cd and Pb are absent in Cloves, Fenugreek and Ajwain species. The results showed that the spice powder is a good source of calcium, potassium, magnesium, Iron and Phosphorous.

  10. AdS solutions through transgression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present new classes of explicit supersymmetric AdS3 solutions of type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux and AdS2 solutions of D=11 supergravity with electric four-form flux. The former are dual to two-dimensional SCFTs with (0,2) supersymmetry and the latter to supersymmetric quantum mechanics with two supercharges. We also investigate more general classes of AdS3 solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS2 solutions of D=11 supergravity which in addition have non-vanishing three-form flux and magnetic four-form flux, respectively. The construction of these more general solutions makes essential use of the Chern-Simons or ''transgression'' terms in the Bianchi identity or the equation of motion of the field strengths in the supergravity theories. We construct infinite new classes of explicit examples and for some of the type IIB solutions determine the central charge of the dual SCFTs. The type IIB solutions with non-vanishing three-form flux that we construct include a two-torus, and after two T-dualities and an S-duality, we obtain new AdS3 solutions with only the NS fields being non-trivial. (orig.)

  11. Polarised Black Holes in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel S; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global $AdS_{4}$ with conformal boundary $S^{2}\\times\\mathbb{R}_{t}$. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic $AdS$ behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an $AdS$ soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the $AdS$ geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both $AdS$ soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawkin...

  12. Gamma irradiation technology for the preservation of spices and fruits (1991-1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of gamma irradiation technology to improve the hygienic quality of selected Sri Lankan spices including pepper, nutmeg, cardamon, cinnamon and cloves was examined. Microbial decontamination was achieved with an irradiation dose of 7.5 kGy with respect to the above spices. No microbial growth occurred in the irradiated spices during a subsequent 6 months storage. Studies on the essential oil content and volatile oil components of these spices confirmed the absence of appreciable changes in the quality of irradiated samples when treated with irradiation dosage up to 10 kGy. Satisfactory results were also obtained with respect to microbial decontamination and chemical composition in inter-country transportation and storage trials on pepper and turmeric samples shipped from India to Sri Lanka and stored for a period of 12 months. A preliminary consumer acceptance survey indicated a reluctance to use irradiated spices and a low level of awareness on the applicability and benefits of irradiation with respect to the improvement in hygienic quality. (author). 3 refs, 1 fig., 16 tabs

  13. The SPICE Spectral Imager on Solar Orbiter: Linking the Sun to the Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fludra, Andrzej; Haberreiter, Margit; Peter, Hardi; Vial, Jean-Claude; Harrison, Richard; Parenti, Susanna; Innes, Davina; Schmutz, Werner; Buchlin, Eric; Chamberlin, Phillip; Thompson, William; Gabriel, Alan; Morris, Nigel; Caldwell, Martin; Auchere, Frederic; Curdt, Werner; Teriaca, Luca; Hassler, Donald M.; DeForest, Craig; Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats; Philippon, Anne; Janvier, Miho; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Griffin, Douglas; Davila, Joseph; Giunta, Alessandra; Waltham, Nick; Eccleston, Paul; Gottwald, Alexander; Klein, Roman; Hanley, John; Walls, Buddy; Howe, Chris; Schuehle, Udo

    2016-07-01

    The SPICE (Spectral Imaging of the Coronal Environment) instrument is one of the key remote sensing instruments onboard the upcoming Solar Orbiter Mission. SPICE has been designed to contribute to the science goals of the mission by investigating the source regions of outflows and ejection processes which link the solar surface and corona to the heliosphere. In particular, SPICE will provide quantitative information on the physical state and composition of the solar atmosphere plasma. For example, SPICE will access relative abundances of ions to study the origin and the spatial/temporal variations of the 'First Ionization Potential effect', which are key signatures to trace the solar wind and plasma ejections paths within the heliosphere. Here we will present the instrument and its performance capability to attain the scientific requirements. We will also discuss how different observation modes can be chosen to obtain the best science results during the different orbits of the mission. To maximize the scientific return of the instrument, the SPICE team is working to optimize the instrument operations, and to facilitate the data access and their exploitation.

  14. Antioxidant Activities of Hot Water Extracts from Various Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Nam Kang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the natural spices and herbs such as rosemary, oregano, and caraway have been used for the processing of meat products. This study investigates the antioxidant activity of 13 spices commonly used in meat processing plants. The hot water extracts were then used for evaluation of total phenolic content, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activities. Our results show that the hot water extract of oregano gave the highest extraction yield (41.33% whereas mace (7.64% gave the lowest. The DPPH radical scavenging ability of the spice extracts can be ranked against ascorbic acid in the order ascorbic acid > clove > thyme > rosemary > savory > oregano. The values for superoxide anion radical scavenging activities were in the order of marjoram > rosemary > oregano > cumin > savory > basil > thyme > fennel > coriander > ascorbic acid. When compared to ascorbic acid (48.72%, the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of turmeric and mace were found to be higher (p < 0.001. Clove had the highest total phenolic content (108.28 μg catechin equivalent (CE/g. The total flavonoid content of the spices varied from 324.08 μg quercetin equivalent (QE/g for thyme to 3.38 μg QE/g for coriander. Our results indicate that hot water extract of several spices had a high antioxidant activity which is partly due to the phenolic and flavonoid compounds. This provides basic data, having implications for further development of processed food products.

  15. Determination of Total Phenolics, Antioxidant Capacity and Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Aromatic Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Nagy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has been acknowledged that many spices not only have properties that make food more pleasant and tastier but they also have important preservative and antioxidant properties. The antioxidant properties of many spices are well known, while their prooxidant properties less so. The aim of this study was to perform a comparative evaluation of three selected spice (garlic, black pepper and red pepper, commercially available in Cluj-Napoca’s market, regarding their content in total phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity. The antioxidant aspects were evaluated by determination of the total phenolic content by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and by the antioxidant activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl reagent (DPPH.The total phenolic content was between 3,38 and 0,925 mg GAE/1g, while the antioxidant capacity ranged between 18,41% and 10,9% from dry spice. .Results  showed that garlic extract has the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while black pepper and red pepper were less active. In the present study piperine was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhumurium. Spices showed antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria with zone of inhibition ranged from 8-15,5 mm.

  16. Effect of electron-beams irradiation for inactivation of microorganisms on spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total aerobic bacteria in spices used in this study were determined to be 1x106 to 6x107 per gram. A study on the inactivation of microorganisms in spices showed that doses of 6 to 9 kGy of EB (electron-beams) or gamma irradiation were required to reduce the total aerobic bacteria tobelow 103 per gram. However, a little increase of resistance was observed on the inactivation of total aerobic bacteria in many spices in case of EB irradiation. These difference of radiation sensitivities between EB and gamma-rays was explained by dose rate effect on oxidation damage to microorganisms from the results of radiation sensitivities of Bacillus pumilus and B. megaterium spores at dry conditions. On the other hand, these high dose rate of EB irradiation suppressed the increase of peroxide values in spices at high dose irradiation up to 80 kGy. Components of essential oils in spices were not changed even irradiated up to 50 kGy with EB and gamma-rays. (author)

  17. How the Addition of Spices and Herbs to Virgin Olive Oil to Produce Flavored Oils Affects Consumer Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaoui, Manel; Flamini, Guido; Souid, Sondess; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Gharbi, Ines; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    With the aim to expand the olive oil market to a larger number of consumers who are not familiar with the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil, the use of novel products known as "flavored olive oils", obtained by adding different kind of spices and aromatic herbs, is spreading in many countries. In order to test consumer acceptability of this type of product, in a country (Tunisia) in which virgin olive oil is regularly consumed, flavored olive oils were prepared by adding aromatic extracts of thyme, oregano, a mix of herbs (used as pizza seasoning), rosemary, and basil to a monovarietal Chemlali virgin olive oil and a consumer test on 206 subjects was performed. Selected quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide number, oxidative stability, specific absorption at K232 nm and K270 nm) were also measured and no significant variations were detected. Slight differences were found concerning the content of minor compounds (chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols). On the other hand, notable differences were seen in the profiles of volatile compounds, which appeared to be responsible for the observed variability in consumer acceptance. Although the unflavored oil was more appreciated than the flavored ones, among the latter, thyme flavored olive oil was the most appreciated. PMID:27534114

  18. Studies on antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of different spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Dilek; Toroglu, Sevil

    2011-03-01

    The antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract of 12 plant species were studied. The extract of Capsicum annuum (red pepper) (fruit) Zingiber officinale (ginger) (root), Cuminum cyminum (cumin), Alpinia ficinarum (galingale), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Cinnamomun zeylanicum Nees (cinnamomun), Origanum onites L. (thyme), Folium sennae (senna), Eugenia caryophyllata (cloves), Flos tiliae (lime), Folium menthae crispae (peppermint) and Piper nigrum (blackpepper) were tested in vitro against 2 fungi and 8 bacterial species by the disc diffusion method. Klebsiella pneumonia 13883, Bacillus megaterium NRS, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 27859, Staphylococcus aureus 6538 P, Escherichia coil ATCC 8739, Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 13047, Corynebacterium xerosis UC 9165, Streptococcus faecalis DC 74, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Rhodotorula rubra were used in this investigation. The results indicated that extracts of different spices has shown antibacterial activity in the range of 7-24 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Eugenia caryophyllata (clove), 7-20 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Capsicum annum (red pepper) and Cinnamomun zeylanicum (cinnamon) bark, 7-18 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium sennae (senna) leaves, 7-16 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Zingiber officinale (ginger) root, 7-15 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Cuminum cyminum (cumin) seed, 7-14 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium menthae crispae (peppermint), Origanum onites (thyme) leaves and Alpinia ficinarum (galingale) root, 7-12 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibiton zone Piper nigrum (blackpepper), 7-11 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Flos tiliae (lime) leaves, 7-8 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Coriandrum sativum (coriander) to the microorganisms tested. PMID:21882663

  19. Baby Skyrmions in AdS

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew; Winyard, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We study the baby Skyrme model in a pure AdS background without a mass term. The tail decays and scalings of massless radial solutions are demonstrated to take a similar form to those of the massive flat space model, with the AdS curvature playing a similar role to the flat space pion mass. We also numerically find minimal energy solutions for a range of higher topological charges and find that they form concentric ring-like solutions. Popcorn transitions (named in analogy with studies of toy...

  20. Circuit models and SPICE macro-models for quantum Hall effect devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precise electrical measurement technology based on the quantum Hall effect is one of the pillars of modern quantum electrical metrology. Electrical networks including one or more QHE elements can be used as quantum resistance and impedance standards. The analysis of these networks allows metrologists to evaluate the effect of the inevitable parasitic parameters on their performance as standards. This paper presents a concise review of the various circuit models for QHE elements proposed in the literature, and the development of a new model. This last model is particularly suited to be employed with the analogue electronic circuit simulator SPICE. The SPICE macro-model and examples of SPICE simulations, validated by comparison with the corresponding analytical solution and/or experimental data, are provided. (paper)

  1. A study on chemical composition of spices irradiated by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative changes in common organic acids and inorganic acids from spices irradiated by electron beam were studied by Dionex-4000 ion Chromatograph. The results showed that the acids content of either achilli or the five-spice powder irradiated with a dose of 9.94 kGy did not undergo significant changes in comparison with the control samples. The flavour composition in the five-spice powder irradiated by electron beam was also determined by Finnigan MAT-8230B gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, and compared to the results by heating treatment (120 C, 30 min). The comparison indicated that the effect of electron beam treatment on flavour composition was less than that of heating

  2. A study on chemical composition of spices irradiated by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative changes in common organic acids and inorganic acids from spices irradiated by electron beam were studied by Dionex-4000i ion chromatograph. The results showed that the acids content of either chilli or the five-spice powder irradiated with a dose of 9.94 kGy did not undergo significant changes in comparison with the control samples. The flavour composition in the five-spice powder irradiated by electron beam was also determined by Finnigan MAT-8230B gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, and compared to the results by heating treatment (120 deg. C, 30min). The comparison indicated that the effect of electron beam treatment on flavour composition was less than that of heating

  3. Circuit models and SPICE macro-models for quantum Hall effect devices

    CERN Document Server

    Ortolano, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Hall effect (QHE) devices are a pillar of modern quantum electrical metrology. Electrical networks including one or more QHE elements can be used as quantum resistance and impedance standards. The analysis of these networks allows metrologists to evaluate the effect of the inevitable parasitic parameters on their performance as standards. This paper presents a systematic analysis of the various circuit models for QHE elements proposed in the literature, and the development of a new model. This last model is particularly suited to be employed with the analogue electronic circuit simulator SPICE. The SPICE macro-model and examples of SPICE simulations, validated by comparison with the corresponding analytical solution and/or experimental data, are provided.

  4. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Spices and Medicinal Herbs against Selected Microbes Associated with Juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Aneja, Kamal Rai; Kaur, Manpreet

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, comparison of antimicrobial activities of different spices, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha arvensis, and medicinal herbs, such as Withania somnifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia arjuna, and Centella asiatica, was evaluated. Different extraction solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water) were used and extracts were examined against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium citrinum isolated from juices. Extracts from the medicinal herb and spices have significant activity. B. cereus was the most sensitive and R. mucilaginosa was the most resistant among the microorganisms tested. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of C. asiatica displayed maximum diameter of inhibition zone against bacteria and yeast and percentage mycelial inhibition against moulds. This study confirmed the potential of selected extracts of spices as effective natural food preservative in juices. PMID:26880927

  5. Antimicrobial activity of spices like cloves Cardamom and Cinnamon on Bacillus and Pseudomonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taneesha Chawla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spices have been used in our country cuisines since times immemorial. Their use was mainly due to health benefits as herbs and for the aroma they provided in the food. However, little did we know at that time that these spices also have antimicrobial activity. Today, they stand as giants in ayurvedic medicine with substances like turmeric, cloves and cardamom being used in every house-hold. This paper pertains to the antimicrobial activity of three such spices Cloves, Cinnamon and Cardamom on a gram positive and gram-negative bacteria, Bacillus and Pseudomonas respectively. It was found that clove is better with its antimicrobial activity with the zones of inhibition visible clearly on the Petri plates.

  6. Heavy metals in aromatic spices by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bua, Daniel Giuseppe; Annuario, Giovanni; Albergamo, Ambrogina; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2016-09-01

    Objective of this study was to determine the content of Cd, Hg, As and Pb in common spices traded in the Italian market, using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results were compared with the maximum limits established by the national Legislative Decree (LD) no. 107 implementing the Council Directive 88/388/EEC and by international organisations, such as Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO). Food safety for spices was assessed considering the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) and the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), respectively, for Cd and Hg and the 95% lower confidence limit of the benchmark dose of 1% extra risk (BMDL01) for As and Pb. Investigated elements in all samples were within the maximum limits as set by the national and international normative institutions. Nevertheless, the heavy metal content of some spices exceeded the PTWI, TWI and BMDL01, which needs attention when considering consumer's health. PMID:27074712

  7. Oxygen-isotope trends and seawater temperature changes across the Late Cambrian Steptoean positive carbon-isotope excursion (SPICE event)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrick, M.; Rieboldt, S.; Saltzman, M.; McKay, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The globally recognized Late Cambrian Steptoean positive C-isotope excursion (SPICE) is characterized by a 3???-5??? positive ??13C shift spanning <4 m.y. Existing hypotheses suggest that the SPICE represents a widespread ocean anoxic event leading to enhanced burial/preservation of organic matter (Corg) and pyrite. We analyzed ??18O values of apatitic inarticulate brachiopods from three Upper Cambrian successions across Laurentia to evaluate paleotemperatures during the SPICE. ??18O values range from ~12.5??? to 16.5???. Estimated seawater temperatures associated with the SPICE are unreasonably warm, suggesting that the brachiopod ??18O values were altered during early diagenesis. Despite this, all three localities show similar trends with respect to the SPICE ??13C curve, suggesting that the brachiopod apatite preserves a record of relative ??18O and temperature changes. The trends include relatively high ??18O values at the onset of the SPICE, decreasing and lowest values during the main event, and an increase in values at the end of the event. The higher ??18O values during the global extinction at the onset of the SPICE suggests seawater cooling and supports earlier hypotheses of upwelling of cool waters onto the shallow shelf. Decreasing and low ??18O values coincident with the rising limb of the SPICE support the hypothesis that seawater warming and associated reduced thermohaline circulation rates contributed to decreased dissolved O2 concentrations, which enhanced the preservation/burial of Corg causing the positive ??13C shift. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  8. Anti-oncogenic perspectives of spices/herbs: A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Naz, Ambreen; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Qayyum, Mir Muhammad Nasir

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary nutrition regime has focused the attention of the researchers on phytochemicals enriched spices to mitigate various oncological threats. Numerous chemopreventive strategies against malignancy have been developed considering the anticancer perspectives of allied nutraceutical constituents. Current evidences have proven an inverse association of spices with that of oncological incidences. The high antioxidant activity of spices derived bioactives triggers the free radicals scavenging ability at cellular level thereby alleviating various metabolic syndromes. Promising compounds including curcumin and curcuminoids (turmeric), limonene (cardamom), allicin, allyl isothiocyanate (garlic), cinnamic aldehyde, 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde and eugenol (cinnamon), gingerol, zingiberone, zingiberene (ginger), dipropyle disulfides and quercetin (onion), piperidine piperine, limonene, α- and β-pinene (black pepper), crocetin, crocin and safranal (saffron) have been identified as chemopreventing agents against various malignancies. Chemopreventive properties of spices are mediated by functional bioactive ingredients that arrest the activity of cytochrome P450 and isozymes CYP 1A1, cyclooxygenase-2, reducing activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) and signal transducer. They are closely associated with tumorigenesis activated by interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptors and epidermal growth factor (EGF) relate to an array of tumors. The bioactive constituents altering the expression of protein involved in cell cycle, activating caspases killer and suppressing Kappa-B activation. Alongside, they also restrain causative agents of cell structure damage as in lipid and protein membrane system and DNA that shifting healthy body towards cancerous state. Spices phytochemicals have established as carcinogenesis blockers by modulating cell proliferation pathways transformation, inflammation, metastasis etc. Furthermore, spices as functional ingredients may act as immune boosters and diminish

  9. Low-angle X-ray scattering properties of irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, A.P.G. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (LIN/COPPE), P. O. Box 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: delson@lin.ufrj.br; Braz, D. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (LIN/COPPE), P. O. Box 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil); Barroso, R.C. [Physics Institute (IF/UERJ), University of Rio de Janeiro State, 20550-900 Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (LIN/COPPE), P. O. Box 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)

    2007-09-21

    The scattering of X-rays at low angles (LAXS) is a technique dominated by the coherent scattering process. One characteristic observation of low-angle coherent scattering is the so-called molecular interference effect, being characterized by the presence of one or more peaks in the forward direction of scattering. In the present study, LAXS profiles from five different spices are carefully measured in order to establish characteristic scattering signatures. Samples of Ceylon cinnamon, cumin, nutmeg, paprika and black pepper were bought in local market in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The LAXS patterns were obtained using a Shimadzu DRX 6000 diffractometer in reflection geometry. Coherent scattering patterns are measured for the samples for {theta}=5-35{sup o}. The data were collected in 0.05{sup o} increments every 3 s. In order to evaluate the possible molecular structure changes caused to the irradiation procedure, the signatures obtained for control (non-irradiated) spices were compared with spice samples irradiated with different doses varying from 3 to 40 kGy. The LAXS patterns of all samples were obtained after 30, 60, 90, 120 days to evaluate the effect of storage period. Scattering profiles from spices irradiated with different irradiation doses were obtained and the results compared. For each spice, there is no considerable deviation in shape in function of the irradiation dose. It indicates that the molecular structure of each analyzed spices is preserved considering the dose range chosen. The results show that the molecular structure was found to be stable during storage at the ambient temperature for up to 4 months.

  10. Low-angle X-ray scattering properties of irradiated spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, A. P. G.; Braz, D.; Barroso, R. C.; Lopes, R. T.

    2007-09-01

    The scattering of X-rays at low angles (LAXS) is a technique dominated by the coherent scattering process. One characteristic observation of low-angle coherent scattering is the so-called molecular interference effect, being characterized by the presence of one or more peaks in the forward direction of scattering. In the present study, LAXS profiles from five different spices are carefully measured in order to establish characteristic scattering signatures. Samples of Ceylon cinnamon, cumin, nutmeg, paprika and black pepper were bought in local market in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The LAXS patterns were obtained using a Shimadzu DRX 6000 diffractometer in reflection geometry. Coherent scattering patterns are measured for the samples for θ=5-35°. The data were collected in 0.05° increments every 3 s. In order to evaluate the possible molecular structure changes caused to the irradiation procedure, the signatures obtained for control (non-irradiated) spices were compared with spice samples irradiated with different doses varying from 3 to 40 kGy. The LAXS patterns of all samples were obtained after 30, 60, 90, 120 days to evaluate the effect of storage period. Scattering profiles from spices irradiated with different irradiation doses were obtained and the results compared. For each spice, there is no considerable deviation in shape in function of the irradiation dose. It indicates that the molecular structure of each analyzed spices is preserved considering the dose range chosen. The results show that the molecular structure was found to be stable during storage at the ambient temperature for up to 4 months.

  11. Effect of irradiation on the microbiological status and flavouring materials of selected spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spices from Egyptian local markets were irradiated with different recommended doses (0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 kGy). The spices tested included dried leaves of marjoram (Majorana hortensis Moench), rhizomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and powdered hot pepper (Capsicum annum L.). The study included the isolation and identification of micro-organisms in spices following their irradiation, as well as gas chromatographic (GLC) chemical analysis for the presence and structure of volatile oils, pungent and pigment materials. The results showed that hot pepper was contaminated more (9.2x105/g) than marjoram (4.2x103/g) and ginger (14.3x103/g) with respect to total aerobic bacterial content. The total contents of moulds were 4.8x103/g, 5.7x103/g and 19x103/g in the same spices, respectively, but the pathogenic moulds and bacterial strains differed according to the type of spice. Irradiation at 10, 20 and 30 kGy caused complete elimination of mirco-organisms, whereas 5 kGy was less effective. With the GLC method chosen 18 and 50 compounds could be detected in the extracts of marjoram and ginger, respectively; γ-terpinen and zingiberen being the major compounds in marjoram and ginger, respectively. A noticeable reduction was observed in the amount of terpenes present in irradiated marjoram; they were converted to monoterpensalcohols. Ginger was more sensitive to irradiation, especially at high doses, but moderate changes were detected at low doses (5 and 10 kGy). A slight, but significant effect on the capsaicin (pungent compound) in hot pepper was observed following irradiation, whereas no changes in total pigments resulted at any dose. These results prove that 10 kGy is a sufficiently high dose to eliminate the microorganisms in spices, causing only slight changes in the flavouring materials. (orig.)

  12. Effect of irradiation on the microbiological status and flavouring materials of selected spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag, S.E.D.A. [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt); Aziz, N.H. [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt); Attia, E.S.A. [Egyptian Starch and Glucose Manufacturing Co., Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-12-31

    Spices from Egyptian local markets were irradiated with different recommended doses (0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 kGy). The spices tested included dried leaves of marjoram (Majorana hortensis Moench), rhizomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and powdered hot pepper (Capsicum annum L.). The study included the isolation and identification of micro-organisms in spices following their irradiation, as well as gas chromatographic (GLC) chemical analysis for the presence and structure of volatile oils, pungent and pigment materials. The results showed that hot pepper was contaminated more (9.2x10{sup 5}/g) than marjoram (4.2x10{sup 3}/g) and ginger (14.3x10{sup 3}/g) with respect to total aerobic bacterial content. The total contents of moulds were 4.8x10{sup 3}/g, 5.7x10{sup 3}/g and 19x10{sup 3}/g in the same spices, respectively, but the pathogenic moulds and bacterial strains differed according to the type of spice. Irradiation at 10, 20 and 30 kGy caused complete elimination of mirco-organisms, whereas 5 kGy was less effective. With the GLC method chosen 18 and 50 compounds could be detected in the extracts of marjoram and ginger, respectively; {gamma}-terpinen and zingiberen being the major compounds in marjoram and ginger, respectively. A noticeable reduction was observed in the amount of terpenes present in irradiated marjoram; they were converted to monoterpensalcohols. Ginger was more sensitive to irradiation, especially at high doses, but moderate changes were detected at low doses (5 and 10 kGy). A slight, but significant effect on the capsaicin (pungent compound) in hot pepper was observed following irradiation, whereas no changes in total pigments resulted at any dose. These results prove that 10 kGy is a sufficiently high dose to eliminate the microorganisms in spices, causing only slight changes in the flavouring materials. (orig.)

  13. Anti-oncogenic perspectives of spices/herbs: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Naz, Ambreen; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Qayyum, Mir Muhammad Nasir

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary nutrition regime has focused the attention of the researchers on phytochemicals enriched spices to mitigate various oncological threats. Numerous chemopreventive strategies against malignancy have been developed considering the anticancer perspectives of allied nutraceutical constituents. Current evidences have proven an inverse association of spices with that of oncological incidences. The high antioxidant activity of spices derived bioactives triggers the free radicals scavenging ability at cellular level thereby alleviating various metabolic syndromes. Promising compounds including curcumin and curcuminoids (turmeric), limonene (cardamom), allicin, allyl isothiocyanate (garlic), cinnamic aldehyde, 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde and eugenol (cinnamon), gingerol, zingiberone, zingiberene (ginger), dipropyle disulfides and quercetin (onion), piperidine piperine, limonene, α- and β-pinene (black pepper), crocetin, crocin and safranal (saffron) have been identified as chemopreventing agents against various malignancies. Chemopreventive properties of spices are mediated by functional bioactive ingredients that arrest the activity of cytochrome P450 and isozymes CYP 1A1, cyclooxygenase-2, reducing activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) and signal transducer. They are closely associated with tumorigenesis activated by interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptors and epidermal growth factor (EGF) relate to an array of tumors. The bioactive constituents altering the expression of protein involved in cell cycle, activating caspases killer and suppressing Kappa-B activation. Alongside, they also restrain causative agents of cell structure damage as in lipid and protein membrane system and DNA that shifting healthy body towards cancerous state. Spices phytochemicals have established as carcinogenesis blockers by modulating cell proliferation pathways transformation, inflammation, metastasis etc. Furthermore, spices as functional ingredients may act as immune boosters and diminish

  14. Current status of AdS instability

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    arXiv:1403.6471 and thoroughly developed in arXiv:1407.6273. On the other hand the negative cosmological constant allows for the existence of stable, time-periodic, asymptotically AdS solutions of Einstein equations [arXiv:1303.3186].

  15. Eternal Black Holes in AdS

    OpenAIRE

    Maldacena, Juan M.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a dual non-perturbative description for maximally extended Schwarzschild Anti-de-Sitter spacetimes. The description involves two copies of the conformal field theory associated to the AdS spacetime and an initial entangled state. In this context we also discuss a version of the information loss paradox and its resolution.

  16. AdS braneworld with Backreaction

    OpenAIRE

    Bilić Neven; Tupper Gary

    2013-01-01

    We review the tachyon model derived from the dynamics of a 3-brane moving in the AdS5 bulk. The bulk geometry is based on the Randall-Sundrum II model extended to include the radion. The effective tachyon Lagrangian is modified due to the back-reaction of the brane on the bulk geometry.

  17. AdS braneworld with Backreaction

    CERN Document Server

    Bilic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    We review the tachyon model derived from the dynamics of a 3-brane moving in the AdS5 bulk. The bulk geometry is based on the Randall-Sundrum II model extended to include the radion. The effective tachyon Lagrangian is modified due to the back-reaction of the brane on the bulk geometry.

  18. Economics of irradiation of spices and vegetable seasonings in comparison with other methods of treatment used commercially

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spices are known to be contaminated with organisms such as pathogenic bacteria, moulds, yeasts and also insect and animal residues. Post-harvest examinations of certain spices have demonstrated very high microbial contamination, thus even when these spices are used sparingly in the food processing industry, if the end product, e.g. fresh sausages, salad dressings, has not been precooked, spoilage of such products reduces their values in the market-place. Proper cleaning techniques are therefore essential in removing or reducing infestations. Spices can be treated by one of three such techniques available in the USA. These use ethylene oxide gas (ETO), steam, and sterilization by irradiation, respectively. The paper investigates the economics of using irradiation on spices (including dehydrated vegetable seasonings) in comparison with ETO treatment. (author). 2 refs, 2 tabs

  19. Antioxidant activity of spice extracts in a liposome system and in cooked pork patties and the possible mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Baohua; Zhang, Huiyun; Xiong, Youling L

    2010-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to assess the antioxidant efficacy of spice extracts in cooked meat. In experiment 1, antioxidant activity of 13 common spice extracts was screened in a liposome system. Six of the extracts (clove, rosemary, cassia bark, liquorice, nutmeg, and round cardamom), identified to have the greatest total phenolic contents, were strongly inhibitory of TBARS formation. In experiment 2, 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing power, and metal chelation of these six spice extracts were evaluated. Clove exhibited the greatest reducing power, and all had strong DPPH scavenging activity. In experiment 3, clove, rosemary, and cassia bark extracts were further tested for in situ antioxidant efficacy. Cooked pork patties containing these spice extracts had markedly reduced TBARS formation and off-flavour scores but a more stable red colour, during storage. The results demonstrated strong potential of spice extracts as natural antioxidants in cooked pork products. PMID:20430533

  20. Tuotemerkin imago sekä ilmeuudistus kuluttajan kokema‎na, esimerkkinä Spice Up! -tuotemerkki

    OpenAIRE

    Kaikko, Kirsi-Riikka

    2011-01-01

    Ajatus opinnäytetyöhön syntyi työskennellessäni Fine Foods Oy Ltd:ssä, jossa yrityksen Spice Up! -‎tuotemerkin ilmettä uudistettiin. Prosessissa mukana olo ja uudistuksen herättämä keskustelu ‎synnytti idean tutkia kuluttajien näkemystä tuotemerkin imagosta ja uudistuneesta ilmeestä. ‎Kuinka kuluttajat näkevät Spice Up! -tuotemerkin imagon ja kuinka se vastaa yrityksen ‎tuotemerkille hahmottelemaa identiteettiä? ‎ Työn teoriaosuus koostuu Aakerin luomasta brändi-identiteetistä ja Kapferer...

  1. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of selected local spices used in “Kunun” beverage in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajibola Abisoye Dada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Kunun-zakiis an indigenous non alcoholic beverage in Nigeria which has been reported to contain high nutritional values because of the raw materials from which it is made. Therefore, this research was carried out to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts of some of the spices used in the production of the beverage. Material  and method. The spices; Xylopia aethiopica (Eru, Syzgium aromaticum (Kanafuru, Monodora myristica(Ariwo, Piper guineensis (Iyere and Piper guineense (Uziza leaf were purchased from local market in Akure, Nigeria. Crude extracts were obtained from the spices using three solvents which include; ethanol, hexane and water. Twenty five g of each spice was soaked in 50 mls of solvent respectively. After evaporation filtrate of water extract and dry extracts of hexane and ethanol were obtained and stored at 4°C until use. The extracts from each of the spices were subjected to screening for their total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial assay using standard methods. Results. Syzgium aromaticum exhibited the highest total phenol content for both the ethanolic (8.75 TAE/g and hexanolic extract (10.73 TAE/g while no phenol was detected from the water extract. The ability of the extracts to bleach the free radical 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH revealed that the water extracts of the spices possessed better antioxidant properties with values ranged from 58.17-77.53% compared to hexane extracts (44.79-73.87% and ethanol extracts (23.10-47.05%. Contrastly, ethanolic extracts of the spices exhibited best antibacterial activities with inhibition zones of 10.0-27.0 mm and the antifungal activity (11.0-34.0 mm against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus except for M. myristica that produced no inhibition against A. flavus. Conclusion. It can be deduced from this study that water extracts of the spices investigated may be good antioxidant while ethanol extracts

  2. Chemical constituents of pungent spice pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) from Macedonian origin

    OpenAIRE

    Rafajlovska, Vesna; Slaveska-Raicki, Renata; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Mitrev, Sasa; Srbinoska, Marija

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the chemical constituents of the pungent spice pepper Capsicum annuum L.ssp. Microcarpum from Macedonian origin are estimated. Content of moisture, proteins and soluble sugar is 9.60% and 20.33%, respectively. Color capacity of the pungent spice pepper is 5.60g capsanthin/kg pepper dry matter. The influence of organic solvents on the pepper oleoresin extraction and contents of colored components and capsaicin content in it is also studied. The highest quantity of pepper oleor...

  3. Stability of cellulose radicals produced by radiation in spices as studied by the EPR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented of EPR measurements on the stability of cellulose radicals produced in 26 popular spices irradiated with a dose of 7 kGy of gamma rays. EPR measurements were done with the use of an EPR spectrometer EPR-10 MINI at X band (microwave radiation of frequency 9.5 GHz), produced by St. Petersburg Instruments Ltd. The aim of the work was to prove the applicability of the EPR method for the control of irradiation in the investigated spices. (author)

  4. Superradiant instability in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Ganchev, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of superradiance in the context of asymptotically global AdS spacetimes is investigated with particular accent on its effect on the stability of the systems under consideration. To this end, the concept of an asymptotically AdS spacetime is explained, together with its implications on the boundary conditions at $\\mathcal{I}$, as well as the Newman-Penrose-Teukolsky formalism, whereby the Teukolsky master equation in a most general form for Kerr-AdS is given. Furthermore, work done in the cases of RN-AdS and Kerr-AdS is laid out in a concise manner, putting emphasis on the important steps taken in determining the endpoint of the superradiant instability in the two configurations. For the former this turns out to be a black hole with reduced charge and a static charged scalar condensate around it, whereas for the latter two of the more probable outcomes are presented, both of which imply a violation of one of the cosmic censorships.

  5. Effect of infusion of spices into the oil vs. combined malaxation of olive paste and spices on quality of naturally flavoured virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponio, Francesco; Durante, Viviana; Varva, Gabriella; Silletti, Roccangelo; Previtali, Maria Assunta; Viggiani, Ilaria; Squeo, Giacomo; Summo, Carmine; Pasqualone, Antonella; Gomes, Tommaso; Baiano, Antonietta

    2016-07-01

    Olive oil flavouring with aromatic plants and spices is a traditional practice in Mediterranean gastronomy. The aim of this work was to compare the influence of two different flavouring techniques (infusion of spices into the oil vs. combined malaxation of olives paste and spices) on chemical and sensory quality of flavoured olive oil. In particular, oxidative and hydrolytic degradation (by routine and non-conventional analyses), phenolic profiles (by HPLC), volatile compounds (by SPME-GC/MS), antioxidant activity, and sensory properties (by a trained panel and by consumers) of the oils were evaluated. The obtained results evidenced that the malaxation method was more effective in extracting the phenolic compounds, with a significantly lower level of hydrolysis of secoiridoids. As a consequence, antioxidant activity was significantly lower in the oils obtained by infusion, which were characterized by a higher extent of the oxidative degradation. The volatile compounds were not significantly influenced by changing the flavouring method, apart for sulfur compounds that were more abundant in the oils obtained by the combined malaxation method. From a sensory point of view, more intense bitter and pungent tastes were perceived when the infusion method was adopted. PMID:26920288

  6. Spicing Things up by Adding Color and Relieving Pain: The Use of "Napoleon's Buttons" in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucholtz, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    For some students, organic chemistry can be a distant subject and unrelated to any courses they have seen in their college careers. To develop a more contextual learning experience in organic chemistry, an additional text, "Napoleon's Buttons: 17 Molecules That Changed History," by Penny Le Couteur and Jay Burreson, was incorporated as a…

  7. Adding New Spices to Development Cooperation. Brazil, India, China and South Aftrica in Health, Agrciulture and Food Security

    OpenAIRE

    De Bruyn, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a literature review of what is known about the characteristics of development cooperation in the sectors health and agriculture and food security (AFS) of four so-called emerging powers or economies: Brazil, India, China and South Africa. This is the first paper in a series within the four year research project (2012-2015) 'Challenging the status-quo? The impact of the emerging economies on the global governance of development cooperation'.

  8. Instability corners in AdS space

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrakopoulos, Fotios V; Lippert, Matthew; Yang, I-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether arbitrarily small perturbations in global AdS space are generically unstable and collapse into black holes on the time scale set by gravitational interactions. We argue that current evidence, combined with our analysis, strongly suggests that a set of nonzero measure in the space of initial conditions does not collapse on this time scale. On the other hand, existing results do not provide an equally strong indication whether the unstable solutions also form a set of nonzero measure. We perform an analysis in position space to address this puzzle, and our formalism allows us to directly address the vanishing-amplitude limit. We show that gravitational self-interaction leads to tidal deformations which are equally likely to focus or defocus energy, and we sketch the phase diagram accordingly. We also clarify the connection between gravitational evolution in global AdS and holographic thermalization.

  9. Baby Skyrmions in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We study the baby Skyrme model in a pure AdS background without a mass term. The tail decays and scalings of massless radial solutions are demonstrated to take a similar form to those of the massive flat space model, with the AdS curvature playing a similar role to the flat space pion mass. We also numerically find minimal energy solutions for a range of higher topological charges and find that they form concentric ring-like solutions. Popcorn transitions (named in analogy with studies of toy models of holographic QCD) from an n layer to an n+1-layer configuration are observed at topological charges 9 and 27 and further popcorn transitions for higher charges are predicted. Finally, a point-particle approximation for the model is derived and used to successfully predict the ring structures and popcorn transitions for higher charge solitons.

  10. Boson Stars in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Buchel, Alex; Lehner, Luis

    2013-01-01

    We construct boson stars in global Anti de Sitter (AdS) space and study their stability. Linear perturbation results suggest that the ground state along with the first three excited state boson stars are stable. We evolve some of these solutions and study their nonlinear stability in light of recent work \\cite{Bizon:2011gg} arguing that a weakly turbulent instability drives scalar perturbations of AdS to black hole formation. However evolutions suggest that boson stars are nonlinearly stable and immune to the instability for sufficiently small perturbation. Furthermore, these studies find other families of initial data which similarly avoid the instability for sufficiently weak parameters. Heuristically, we argue that initial data families with widely distributed mass-energy distort the spacetime sufficiently to oppose the coherent amplification favored by the instability. From the dual CFT perspective our findings suggest that there exist families of rather generic initial conditions in strongly coupled CFT ...

  11. Conformal Mass in AdS gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Jatkar, Dileep P; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    We show that the Ashtekar-Magnon-Das (AMD) mass and other conserved quantities are equivalent to the Kounterterm charges in the asymptotically AdS spacetimes that satisfy the Einstein equations, if we assume the same asymptotic fall-off behavior of the Weyl tensor as considered by AMD. This therefore implies that, in all dimensions, the conformal mass can be directly derived from the bulk action and the boundary terms, which are written in terms of the extrinsic curvature.

  12. Identification of irradiated spices by the use of thermoluminescence method (TL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifzadeh, M.; Sohrabpour, M.

    1993-07-01

    In this paper the results of the investigations of identification of irradiated spices by the use of thermoluminescence method is reported. The materials used were black and red peppers, turmeric, cinnamon, and garlic powder. Gamma Cell 220 was used for irradiating samples at dose values of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy respectively. The TL intensity of the unirradiated spices as well as the fading characteristics of the irradiated samples having received a dose of 10 kGy have been measured. Post-irradiation temperature treatment of the irradiated (10 kGy) and unirradiated samples at 60°C and 100°C for 24 hours have been also performed. The results show that the TL intensities of unirradiated and irradiated samples from different batches of each spice are fairly distributed. A reasonable TL intensity versus dose has been observed in nearly all cases. Based on the observations made it is possible to distinguish irradiated spices after (4-9) months post-irradiation.

  13. Identification of irradiated spices by the use of thermoluminescence method (TL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the results of the investigation of identification of irradiated spices by the use of thermoluminescence method is reported. The materials used were black and red peppers, turmeric, cinnamon, and garlic powder. Gamma Cell 220 was used for irradiating samples at dose values of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy respectively. The TL intensity of the unirradiated spices as well as the fading characteristics of the irradiated samples having received a dose of 10 kGy have been measured. Post-irradiation temperature treatment of the irradiated (10 kGy) and unirradiated samples at 60oC and 100oC for 24 hours have also been performed. The results show that the TL intensities of unirradiated and irradiated samples from different batches of each spice are fairly distributed. A reasonable TL intensity versus dose has been observed in nearly all cases. Based on the observation made it is possible to distinguish irradiated spices after (4-9) months post-irradiation. (author)

  14. Regulation of acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) in beef by spice marination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopu, Venkadesaperumal; Shetty, Prathapkumar Halady

    2016-06-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a signaling mechanism used by bacteria to communicate each other through the release of auto-inducing signaling molecules. Despite the fact that bacteria regulate its phenotypes by QS mechanism, their potential role in meat spoilage is not yet elucidated. In the current study, beef samples were analyzed for its microbial association and for the presence of N-acyl-homoserine-lactone (AHLs) throughout the storage experiments. Isolates were screened for AHLs production and selected spices were screened for their quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activity. In addition, effect of spices on AHLs production of Y. enterocolitica was quantified through high performance thin layer chromatography (HP-TLC). Outcome showed that microbial association of beef mainly consists of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Enterobacteriaceae. Samples stored at both aerobic and modified atmospheric packaging (MAP) exhibited higher counts whereas; marinated samples stored at MAP exhibited the lowest. It was found that out of 35 isolates Y. enterocolitica induced reporter strain CV026 and its cell-free supernatant contained 26.36 nM/100 ml of AHLs when compared to standard. Among the tested spices, C. cyminum exhibited pronounced results by significantly reducing the AHLs concentration up to 47.75 %. Findings revealed the presence of quorum molecules (AHLs) in beef meat throughout the spoilage process and spices can acts as quorum quenchers to influence the spoilage rate by reducing AHLs production. PMID:27478224

  15. Oregano and Paprika Spices: Their Thermoluminescent Characteristics for Food Irradiation Dose Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cruz-Zaragoza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The polyminerals content from commercial dust oregano and paprika were extracted and selected by sizes of < 10, 10-53, 53-74 and 74-149 µm and exposed to gamma radiation at different doses in the range 0.5-45 kGy. The glow curves from these polyminerals show an abroad TL band, centered around 450 K and composed of 9-10 glow peaks as calculated by a deconvolution procedure. The XRD analysis shows a composition of mainly quartz and feldspar, including albite, ortose and clay. The fading behavior can be mainly related to the low temperature peaks of the various minerals contained in the spices. The intensity the TL emission increases as the grain size increases for both spices. The TL properties of the polymineral contain of the spices were analyzed and it is possible to conclude that the polymineral content of both oregano and paprika can be used as efficient and practical way to determine the thermoluminescence dose assessment in herbs and spices exposed to ionizing radiation.

  16. 21 CFR 101.22 - Foods; labeling of spices, flavorings, colorings and chemical preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Food... from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root... juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or similar plant...

  17. Identification of irradiated spices by the use of thermoluminescence method (TL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifzadeh, M.; Sohrabpour, M. (Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of))

    In this paper the results of the investigation of identification of irradiated spices by the use of thermoluminescence method is reported. The materials used were black and red peppers, turmeric, cinnamon, and garlic powder. Gamma Cell 220 was used for irradiating samples at dose values of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy respectively. The TL intensity of the unirradiated spices as well as the fading characteristics of the irradiated samples having received a dose of 10 kGy have been measured. Post-irradiation temperature treatment of the irradiated (10 kGy) and unirradiated samples at 60[sup o]C and 100[sup o]C for 24 hours have also been performed. The results show that the TL intensities of unirradiated and irradiated samples from different batches of each spice are fairly distributed. A reasonable TL intensity versus dose has been observed in nearly all cases. Based on the observation made it is possible to distinguish irradiated spices after (4-9) months post-irradiation. (author).

  18. Spices, condiments and medicinal plants in Ethiopia, their taxonomy and agricultural significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.C.M.

    1981-01-01

    The book is the third in a series of publications on useful plants of Ethiopia. It describes 12 spices and condiments and 13 medicinal plants, both from a taxonomic and an agricultural viewpoint.The extensive botanical description of each taxon is accompanied by a full-page drawing, relevant photogr

  19. SPICE modelling of magnetic tunnel junctions written by spin-transfer torque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spintronics aims at extending the possibility of conventional electronics by using not only the charge of the electron but also its spin. The resulting spintronic devices, combining the front-end complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology of electronics with a magnetic back-end technology, employ magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) as core elements. With the intent of simulating a circuit without fabricating it first, a reliable MTJ electrical model which is applicable to the standard SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) simulator is required. Since such a model was lacking so far, we present a MTJ SPICE model whose magnetic state is written by using the spin-transfer torque effect. This model has been developed in the C language and validated on the Cadence Virtuoso Platform with a Spectre simulator. Its operation is similar to that of the standard BSIM (Berkeley Short-channel IGFET Model) SPICE model of the MOS transistor and fully compatible with the SPICE electrical simulator. The simulation results obtained using this model have been found in good accord with those theoretical macrospin calculations and results.

  20. The Effect of Repeated Heating on Fatty Acid Profile of Beef and Spices of Rendang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Yenrina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rendang is a traditional Minangkabau cuisine with the main ingredient of beef or buffalo meat which is cooked using coconut milk and some spices. Rendang is cooked more than 2 hours, and after that do the repeated heating. This study aimed to determine the effect of repeated heating on fatty acid profiles of beef and spices of rendang. The analysis carried out at Chemistry Lab. and Biochemistry Lab. In  Fateta Unand and Integrated Lab in IPB Bogor. This  study   designed  used a completely  randomized  design  with 5 treatments and 3 replications.  The treatments that used in this study were A (raw beef, B (freshly cooked rendang, C (first heating, D (second heating, E (third heating where the heating was done every 2 days. Data were collected for  fatty acids profile of beef and spices of rendang. Analysis of the Type of  Fatty Acid by HPLC method (AOAC, 1984. The results shown that repeated heating of beef and spice of rendang had significantly different effect on the type of fatty acids and an increased trans fatty Acid of rendang.

  1. Heavy Metal Contents in Spices from Markets in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huremović, J.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Spices are some of the most common foods in the human diet around the world. Spices are dried parts of plants used often as diet components to improve aroma and acceptability of food. The aim of this work was to determine the contents of seven heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in spices available at local markets in Sarajevo. Metal concentrations in six spice samples (black pepper (Piper nigrum, basil (Ocimum basilicum, oregano (Oreganum vulgaris, paprika (Capsicum annuum, parsley (Petroselinum crispum and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The content of chromium and nickel in all samples was below 5 mg kg-1 . Copper levels were in the range of 2.36-19.47 mg kg-1 , iron 6.80-785.56 mg kg-1 , manganese 6.14-59.36 mg kg-1 , lead 0.74-20.35 and zinc 6.93-85.44 mg kg-1 . These results were in agreement with other published data except in the case of Pb which content was slightly higher. Daily intake of different metals was calculated and compared with the MRL values given by ATSDR (2013. The content of lead in most of the samples was above the maximum permitted concentrations recommended by WHO and national regulations of Bosnia and Herzegovina.  

  2. Childhood lead poisoning in 2 families associated with spices used in food preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Alan D; Woolf, Nicholas T

    2005-08-01

    Although most cases of childhood lead poisoning are caused by contaminated paint and dust in older homes, a variety of unusual sources of lead exposure are occasionally found. We report here 2 families whose children were poisoned by lead-contaminated spices that were purchased in foreign countries, brought to the United States, and then used in the preparation of the family's food. Six children (2-17 years old) in a family from the Republic of Georgia were poisoned by swanuri marili (lead content: 100 and 2040 mg/kg in separately sampled products) and kharchos suneli (zafron) lead content: 23,100 mg/kg) purchased from a street vendor in Tbilisi, Georgia. The second family had purchased a mixture of spices called kozhambu (lead content: 310 mg/kg) while traveling in India. Both the parents and their 2-year-old child subsequently suffered lead poisoning. The young children in both families required short-term chelation to bring their blood lead levels down to a safer range. Clinicians should be vigilant for all sources of lead contamination, including spices, when whole families are found to have elevated blood lead levels despite a confirmed lead-safe home environment. Families traveling abroad should be aware of the potential health risks associated with the purchase and use of spices that have not been tested for purity. PMID:16061585

  3. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Spices and Medicinal Herbs against Selected Microbes Associated with Juices

    OpenAIRE

    Romika Dhiman; Neeraj Aggarwal; Kamal Rai Aneja; Manpreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, comparison of antimicrobial activities of different spices, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha arvensis, and medicinal herbs, such as Withania somnifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia arjuna, and Centella asiatica, was evaluated. Different extraction solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water) were used and extracts were examined against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Aspergillus flavus, and Penic...

  4. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of herbs & spices and their phytochemical determination

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Kumar Singh; Namita Singh

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of crude methanolic extracts of five spices and herbs viz. Cuminum Cyminum (Family: Apiaceae), Nigella sativa (Family: Ranunculaceae), Pimpinella anisum (Family: Apiaceae), Trachyspermum copticum (Family: Umbelliferae), and rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Family: Zingiberaceae) were investigated by agar well diffusion method against gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudo...

  5. Study on Sensory Quality, Antioxidant Properties, and Maillard Reaction Products Formation in Rye-Buckwheat Cakes Enhanced with Selected Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Przygodzka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected spices included in the recipe of rye-buckwheat cakes on sensory quality, nutritional value, and Maillard reaction (MR products formation was addressed in this study. The cakes with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix addition revealed the highest overall quality values. Cakes enriched with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest rutin content and almost threefold higher available lysine contents whereas cakes enhanced with mix, cloves, and cinnamon were the richest source of phenolic compounds. The highest antioxidant capacity showed cakes with cloves and spice mix. The furosine, a marker of early stage of MR, was decreased in cakes with cloves, allspice, spice mix, and vanilla whereas fluorescent intermediatory compounds were reduced in cakes enhanced with cloves, allspice, and cinnamon. In contrast, browning index was increased as compared to cakes without spices. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix addition. The presence of cloves, allspice, and vanilla in cake formula was the most efficient in acrylamide strategy. It can be suggested that cloves, allspice, and vanilla might be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  6. Refined holographic entanglement entropy for the AdS solitons and AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the refinement of the holographic entanglement entropy for the holographic dual theories to the AdS solitons and AdS black holes, including the corrected ones by the Gauss–Bonnet term. The refinement is obtained by extracting the UV-independent piece of the holographic entanglement entropy, the so-called renormalized entanglement entropy which is independent of the choices of UV cutoff. Our main results are: (i) the renormalized entanglement entropies of the AdSd+1 soliton for d=4,5 are neither monotonically decreasing along the RG flow nor positive-definite, especially around the deconfinement/confinement phase transition; (ii) there is no topological entanglement entropy for AdS5 soliton even with Gauss–Bonnet correction; (iii) for the AdS black holes, the renormalized entanglement entropy obeys an expected volume law at IR regime, and the transition between UV and IR regimes is a smooth crossover even with Gauss–Bonnet correction; (iv) based on AdS/MERA conjecture, we postulate that the IR fixed-point state for the non-extremal AdS soliton is a trivial product state

  7. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz;

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  8. Effect of spices commercial mixture with GDL on the quality of fermented dry-cured sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kročko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main fermented meat products are fermented sausages in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB are the essential agents of the ripening process. Their application as starter organisms ensures the dominance of the starter during the whole ripening process. However, when no starter cultures are used, direct addition of acids like a glucono-delta-lactone (GdL is preferred. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of commercial spices mixtur (containing GdL on selected technological parameters of fermented dry-cured sausages - Danube sausage in comparison with currently available conventional spices. Comparison was evaluated also with addition of starter cultures. Determinations of technological (value of pH, water activity, color and microbiological properties (count of Lactobacillus spp., Enterobacteriaceae family, yeasts and moulds were realized after 24 hours, 5 and 30 days. The sensory analysis of sausages was carried out after 30 days of ripening process. In sausages with the addition of commercial spice mixture in combination with starter culture were determined the lowest values of pH and aw at the end of ripening process (30 days. Bacteria of Enterobacteriaceae family were occurred in the samples with the addition of currently available conventional spices at the beginning of ripening, but after 5 days of ripening were bacteria of this family not detected. The counts of yeasts in analyzed samples were not detected. Counts of LAB at the end of ripening proccess (30 days were lower in coparison with result obtained after 5 days; however their count was comparable with count determined at the beginig of the ripening. Our results show, that the combination of starter culture and commercial spice mixture containig GdL may cause excesive sour taste and sensory defect of dry fermented meat products.

  9. Lead, mercury and arsenic content in spices: Black, white and green pepper, black cumin and ginger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Slavica M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the safety of selected commercial spices brands, concentration of lead, mercury and arsenic, as well as moisture and mineral contents were analyzed in samples of dried black and white pepper powders, black, white and green peppercorns, black cumin seeds and ginger powder. Lead (Pb, mercury (Hg and arsenic (As concentrations in spice samples purchased from local markets in Belgrade were determined, after a microwave digestion of the samples, by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS, using the graphite furnace AAS technique (Pb, cold vapor AAS technique (Hg and hydride generation AAS technique (As. Trace levels of Pb, Hg and As in the selected dried spices samples were in the range 0.10 ppm - 0.79 ppm, 0.01 ppm - 0.10 ppm and 0.01 ppm - 0.51 ppm, respectively. The maximum Pb concentration was determined in the sample of ginger and it was 0.79 ppm, the maximum concentration of Hg was 0.10 ppm, determined in green peppercorns samples, while the maximum concentration of As in powdered black pepper sample was 0.51 ppm. The moisture and mineral contents in the different analyzed spices were in the range 1.70-13.10% and 3.40-6.50%, respectively. According to the obtained results, the concentrations of the analyzed toxic elements, as well as the moisture and mineral content in selected spices, were below the maximum permissible limits declared by the national legislations deemed safe for human consumption. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172015

  10. Reliability and Availability Analysis of Some Systems with Common-Cause Failures Using SPICE Circuit Simulation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Taher Abuelma'atti

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of SPICE circuit simulation program in calculating probabilities, reliability, steady-state availability and mean-time to failure of repairable systems described by Markov models is demonstrated. Two examples are presented. The first example is a warm standby system with common-cause failures and human errors. The second example is a non-identical unit parallel system with common-cause failures. In both cases recourse to numerical solution is inevitable to obtain the Laplace transforms of the probabilities. Results obtained using SPICE are compared with previously published results obtained using the Laplace transform method. Full SPICE listings are included.

  11. Winding Strings in AdS_3

    CERN Document Server

    Minces, P; Minces, Pablo; Nunez, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Correlation functions of one-unit spectral flowed states in string theory on AdS_3 are considered. We present a formalism which allows to explicitly find the modified Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov and null vector equations to be satisfied by amplitudes of states in w=1 sectors. We give a precise prescription to solve this system of linear differential equations in cases that are relevant to obtain three and four point functions involving spectral flowed string states. We specifically compute three point functions with two and three one-unit spectral flowed operators and also discuss four point functions.

  12. Probing crunching AdS cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav

    2016-02-01

    Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of {N}=8 supergravity on AdS4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor ã max. Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy Ɛ ≲ ã max, while geodesics with Ɛ > ã max terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outward" in the Penrose diagram for the deformed AdS backgrounds, and thus geodesic limits of the antipodal correlators do not directly probe the crunch. Beyond the geodesic limit, we point out that the scalar wave equation, analytically continued into the FRW patch, has a potential which is singular at the crunch along with complex WKB turning points in the vicinity of the FRW crunch. We then argue that the frequency space Green's function has a branch point determined by ã max which corresponds to the lowest quasinormal frequency.

  13. Accumulation of some heavy metals in spice herbs in open-air hydroponics and soil cultures of the Ararat valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculiarities of some heavy metals (HM), (Mn, Ni, Ti, V, Co, Cu, Pb, Mo, Cr, Zr) accumulation have been studied in spice herbs (basil, dill, coriander, savory) grown in open-air hydroponics and soil cultures of the Ararat Valley. It turned out that the amount of HM content in spice herbs grown in open-air hydroponic conditions was less than in the ones grown in soil conditions. The content of Pb and Ni in spice herbs exceeded the allowed concentration limits (ACL), especially in soil plants. Practical recommendations on obtaining ecologically safe agricultural products have been prepared. The biotechnological hydroponics method of producing spice herbs in the Ararat Valley is ecologically more beneficial than the soil method. Practical proposals of obtaining ecologically safe agricultural products have been developed

  14. The study of fungal contamination in three current packed spices in the markets of Tehran: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mansouri

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The obtained results of this cross-sectional study and the available proofs in community indicate that, there are the high levels of fungal contaminations in current used spices. Therefore, it is necessary to control the production units.

  15. Collaborative study of a method for the extraction of light filth from whole, cracked, or flaked and ground spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, L E

    1975-05-01

    An improved method has been developed for the extraction of light filth from whole, cracked, or flaked spices (basil, bay leaves, clery leaves, chervil, chives, dill weed, mint flakes, parsley, rosemary, sage, tarragon, thyme, and vegetable flakes) and from ground spices (cloves, cumin, marjoram, mustard seed, oregano, sage, and thyme). The method involves a chloroform or isopropanol defatting, followed by a direct flotation from 40% isopropanol with Tween 80-EDTA (1+1) and mineral oil-heptane (85+15). Collaborative results show that the proposed method is more rapid to perform and yields better filth recoveries than the official first action methods for ground spices, 44.116, and whole, cracked, or flaked spices, 44.129. The method has been adopted as official first action. PMID:1170162

  16. Adding Flavor to AdS4/CFT3

    CERN Document Server

    Ammon, Martin; Meyer, Rene; O'Bannon, Andy; Wrase, Timm

    2009-01-01

    Aharony, Bergman, Jafferis, and Maldacena have proposed that the low-energy description of multiple M2-branes at a C4/Zk singularity is a (2+1)-dimensional N=6 supersymmetric U(Nc) x U(Nc) Chern-Simons matter theory, the ABJM theory. In the large-Nc limit, its holographic dual is supergravity in AdS4 x S7/Zk. We study various ways to add fields that transform in the fundamental representation of the gauge groups, i.e. flavor fields, to the ABJM theory. We work in a probe limit and perform analyses in both the supergravity and field theory descriptions. In the supergravity description we find a large class of supersymmetric embeddings of probe flavor branes. In the field theory description, we present a general method to determine the couplings of the flavor fields to the fields of the ABJM theory. We then study four examples in detail: codimension-zero N=3 supersymmetric flavor, described in supergravity by Kaluza-Klein monopoles or D6-branes; codimension-one N=(0,6) supersymmetric chiral flavor, described by...

  17. Studies on Effect of Different Extraction Methods on The Quality of Pomegranate Juice And Preparation of Spiced Pomegranate Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka P; Sayed H.M; Joshi, A. A.; Jadhav B.A; Chilkawar P.M

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to standardize the method of extraction of juice and to study the effect of extraction method on yield and quality of pomegranate juice. Also the efforts were also made to standardize the recipe for preparation of spiced pomegranate juice by using selected processing techniques and explore the prepared product for commercial use. Further efforts were made to evaluate the chemical quality of prepared pomegranate juice enriched with spice...

  18. Spice paprika volatiles as affected by different postharvest ripening treatments of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) variety aleva NK

    OpenAIRE

    Kevrešan Žarko S.; Mastilović Jasna S.; Sinadinović-Fišer Snežana; Hrabovski Nataša Č.; Radusin Tanja I.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of post-harvest ripening conditions of pepper Aleva NK picked in red maturity stage on the composition of volatiles in spice paprika was investigated by GCMS. The post-harvest ripening in the dark and under daylight was conducted under semicontrolled conditions for two weeks. The obtained chromatograms indicated that the aroma of investigated spice paprika consisted of a large number of volatile compounds regardless of the application and cond...

  19. Effect of the most common spices and herbs in typical northwestern Thai diet on human iron absorption. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron deficiency anaemia is highly prevalent among rural population of Northeast Thailand. The habitual diets are plant-based. Several herbal vegetables and spices such as lead tree leaves, ivy gourd, Thai basil, chilli peppers etc are consumed in a substantial in common Northeast dishes. High contents of phytate and polyphenol compounds including tannin in these herbs and spices may profoundly influence iron bioavailability in the northeast population

  20. Review on - Recent Trends in Isolation of Antioxidantsfrom Spices and its Biological Effects ofEssential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    A. Allwyn Sundar Raj; Sam Aaron I

    2014-01-01

    Spices played a dramatic role in civilization andin the history of nations. The delightful flavour and pungency of spices make them indispensable in the preparation of palatable dishes. In addition, they are reputed to possess several medicinal and pharmacological properties and hence find position in the preparation of a number of medicines. Antioxidant compounds in food play important roles as health-protecting factors. Antioxidants are also widely used as additives infats a...

  1. Antibacterial activity of natural spices on multiple drug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from drinking water, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Islam Rezuanul; Parvez Anowar; Rahman Shahedur; Khan Mahboob

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Spices traditionally have been used as coloring agents, flavoring agents, preservatives, food additives and medicine in Bangladesh. The present work aimed to find out the antimicrobial activity of natural spices on multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli isolates. Methods Anti-bacterial potentials of six crude plant extracts (Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Allium cepa, Coriandrum sativum, Piper nigrum and Citrus aurantifolia) were tested against five Escherichia coli i...

  2. Scientific Evaluation of Edible Fruits and Spices Used for the Treatment of Peptic Ulcer in Traditional Iranian Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hosein Farzaei; Mohammad Reza Shams-Ardekani; Zahra Abbasabadi; Roja Rahimi

    2013-01-01

    In traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), several edible fruits and spices are thought to have protective and healing effects on peptic ulcer (PU). The present study was conducted to verify anti-PU activity of these remedies. For this purpose, edible fruits and spices proposed for the management of PU in TIM were collected from TIM sources, and they were searched in modern medical databases to find studies that confirmed their efficacy. Findings from modern investigations support the claims of T...

  3. Holography of AdS vacuum bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the fate of AdS vacua connected by tunneling events. A precise holographic dual of thin-walled Coleman-de Luccia bounces is proposed in terms of Fubini instantons in an unstable CFT. This proposal is backed by several qualitative and quantitative checks, including the precise calculation of the instanton action appearing in evaluating the decay rate. Big crunches manifest themselves as time dependent processes which reach the boundary of field space in a finite time. The infinite energy difference involved is identified on the boundary and highlights the ill-defined nature of the bulk setup. We propose a qualitative scenario in which the crunch is resolved by stabilizing the CFT, so that all attempts at crunching always end up shielded from the boundary by the formation of black hole horizons. In all these well defined bulk processes the configurations have the same asymptotics and are finite energy excitations.

  4. Twistor methods for AdS$_5$

    CERN Document Server

    Adamo, Tim; Williams, Jack

    2016-01-01

    We consider the application of twistor theory to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. The twistor space of AdS$_5$ is the same as the ambitwistor space of the four-dimensional conformal boundary; the geometry of this correspondence is reviewed for both the bulk and boundary. A Penrose transform allows us to describe free bulk fields, with or without mass, in terms of data on twistor space. Explicit representatives for the bulk-to-boundary propagators of scalars and spinors are constructed, along with twistor action functionals for the free theories. Evaluating these twistor actions on bulk-to-boundary propagators is shown to produce the correct two-point functions.

  5. Probing crunching AdS cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, S Prem

    2015-01-01

    Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of N=8 supergravity on AdS_4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor a_{max} . Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy E \\leq a_{max}, while geodesics with E > a_{max} terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outw...

  6. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  7. Method development and survey of Sudan I–IV in palm oil and chilli spices in the Washington, DC, area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susie; MacMahon, Shaun; Robbins, Katherine; Farris, Samantha; Shyong, Nicole; DeJager, Lowri

    2016-01-01

    Sudan I, II, III and IV dyes are banned for use as food colorants in the United States and European Union because they are toxic and carcinogenic. These dyes have been illegally used as food additives in products such as chilli spices and palm oil to enhance their red colour. From 2003 to 2005, the European Union made a series of decisions requiring chilli spices and palm oil imported to the European Union to contain analytical reports declaring them free of Sudan I–IV. In order for the USFDA to investigate the adulteration of palm oil and chilli spices with unapproved colour additives in the United States, a method was developed for the extraction and analysis of Sudan dyes in palm oil, and previous methods were validated for Sudan dyes in chilli spices. Both LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS methods were examined for their limitations and effectiveness in identifying adulterated samples. Method validation was performed for both chilli spices and palm oil by spiking samples known to be free of Sudan dyes at concentrations close to the limit of detection. Reproducibility, matrix effects, and selectivity of the method were also investigated. Additionally, for the first time a survey of palm oil and chilli spices was performed in the United States, specifically in the Washington, DC, area. Illegal dyes, primarily Sudan IV, were detected in palm oil at concentrations from 150 to 24 000 ng ml−1. Low concentrations (adulteration. PMID:26824489

  8. Method development and survey of Sudan I-IV in palm oil and chilli spices in the Washington, DC, area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susie; MacMahon, Shaun; Robbins, Katherine; Farris, Samantha; Shyong, Nicole; DeJager, Lowri

    2016-01-01

    Sudan I, II, III and IV dyes are banned for use as food colorants in the United States and European Union because they are toxic and carcinogenic. These dyes have been illegally used as food additives in products such as chilli spices and palm oil to enhance their red colour. From 2003 to 2005, the European Union made a series of decisions requiring chilli spices and palm oil imported to the European Union to contain analytical reports declaring them free of Sudan I-IV. In order for the USFDA to investigate the adulteration of palm oil and chilli spices with unapproved colour additives in the United States, a method was developed for the extraction and analysis of Sudan dyes in palm oil, and previous methods were validated for Sudan dyes in chilli spices. Both LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS methods were examined for their limitations and effectiveness in identifying adulterated samples. Method validation was performed for both chilli spices and palm oil by spiking samples known to be free of Sudan dyes at concentrations close to the limit of detection. Reproducibility, matrix effects, and selectivity of the method were also investigated. Additionally, for the first time a survey of palm oil and chilli spices was performed in the United States, specifically in the Washington, DC, area. Illegal dyes, primarily Sudan IV, were detected in palm oil at concentrations from 150 to 24 000 ng ml(-1). Low concentrations (adulteration. PMID:26824489

  9. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTI OXIDANT PROPERTIES IN COMMON INDIAN SPICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asha Devi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the anti-oxidant potential of the methanolic extract of three spices Syzygium aromaticum, Elettaria cardamom, Piper nigrum. The total phenolic content was high 36.63 mg GAE/g in the Syzygium aromaticum extract where as flavanoids, proanthocynidins contents was high in Piper nigrum 9.16 mg QE/g, and 3.13 mg CE/g respectively. The Syzygium aromaticum extract exhibited stronger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, ability of chelating ferrous ions and reducing power, whereas Elettaria cardamom extract displayed the striking superoxide anion-scavenging activity. These activities of spices extracts were comparable to the standard antioxidants used. Syzygium aromaticum might be considered as potential antioxidant compared to Elettaria cardamom and Piper nigrum.

  10. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the phenolic acids of some Indian spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five commercially important spices, namely cinnamon, clove, cardamom, nutmeg and mace, were subjected to gamma-irradiation using a dose of 10 kGy, which is recommended for microbial decontamination. Various phenolic acids present in these spices were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In clove and nutmeg, quantitatively significant changes were noted in some of the phenolic acids upon irradiation. The content of gallic and syringic acids in irradiated clove increased by 2.2- and 4.4-fold respectively, whereas in irradiated nutmeg many of the phenolic acids showed wide increases and decreases in the range of two- to sixfold compared with the control samples. No qualitative and major quantitative changes were, however, observed in the phenolic acids of cinnamon, cardamom and mace upon irradiation. The possibility that gamma-radiation induced breakdown of tannins could be responsible for the changes in phenolic acids content of clove and nutmeg is discussed

  11. A new OLED SPICE model for pixel circuit simulation in OLED-on-silicon microdisplay design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new equivalent circuit model of organic-light-emitting-diode (OLED) is proposed. As the single-diode model is able to approximate OLED behavior as well as the multiple-diode model, the new model will be built based on it. In order to make sure that the experimental and simulated data are in good agreement, the constant resistor is exchanged for an exponential resistor in the new model. Compared with the measured data and the results of the other two OLED SPICE models, the simulated I—V characteristics of the new model match the measured data much better. This new model can be directly incorporated into an SPICE circuit simulator and presents good accuracy over the whole operating voltage. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  12. SPICES a small space coronagraph to characterize giant and telluric planets in reflected light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudoz Pierre

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available SPICES (Spectro-Polarimetric Imaging and Characterization of Exoplanetary Systems was proposed in 2010 for a a five-year M-class mission in the context of ESA Cosmic Vision. Its purpose is to image and characterize long-period extrasolar planets located at several AUs (0.5-10 AU from nearby stars (<25 pc with masses ranging from a few Jupiter masses down to Super-Earths (∼2 Earth radii, ∼10M⊕, possibly habitable. In addition, circumstellar disks as faint as a few times the zodiacal light in the Solar System can be studied. SPICES is based on a 1.5-m off-axis telescope and can perform spectro-polarimetric measurements in the visible (450–900 nm at a spectral resolution of about 40. This paper summarizes the top science program and the choices made to conceive the instrument. The performance is illustrated for a few emblematic cases.

  13. Phytoliths in pottery reveal the use of spice in European prehistoric cuisine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Hayley; Madella, Marco; Fischer, Anders; Glykou, Aikaterini; Hartz, Sönke; Craig, Oliver E

    2013-01-01

    Here we present evidence of phytoliths preserved in carbonised food deposits on prehistoric pottery from the western Baltic dating from 6,100 cal BP to 5750 cal BP. Based on comparisons to over 120 European and Asian species, our observations are consistent with phytolith morphologies observed in modern garlic mustard seed (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb) Cavara & Grande). As this seed has a strong flavour, little nutritional value, and the phytoliths are found in pots along with terrestrial and marine animal residues, these findings are the first direct evidence for the spicing of food in European prehistoric cuisine. Our evidence suggests a much greater antiquity to the spicing of foods than is evident from the macrofossil record, and challenges the view that plants were exploited by hunter-gatherers and early agriculturalists solely for energy requirements, rather than taste. PMID:23990910

  14. Presence of Bacillus cereus in Packaged Some Spices and Herbs Sold in Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Aksu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-three samples of packaged spices and herbs were collected from different retail shops in Istanbul, Turkey. They were examined for the presence and number of Bacillus cereus. It was determined that fifty-nine samples (63.44% contained more 100 cfu/g of B.cereus, with counts ranging from 102 to 3.2x103 cfu/g. In the 34 samples (36.56%, B.cereus were less 102 cfu/g. Only 5 samples (5.38% had counts between 103-104 cfu/g. The results suggest that incidence of B.cereus was very high in spices and herbs, and therefore should not be ignored in food industry, especially in the meat industry and mass catering establishments.

  15. Spice/K2 drugs--more than innocent substitutes for marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawilska, Jolanta B; Wojcieszak, Jakub

    2014-03-01

    Smokeable herbal mixtures containing synthetic agonists of cannabinoid receptors, known under brand names such as Spice, K2 and Kronic, represent a relatively new type of designer psychoactive drugs that has recently emerged on the recreational drug market. Although the Spice packages are labelled 'not for human consumption' or 'for aromatherapy only' and declared to be purely herbal, these herbal mixtures produce cannabis-like effects after smoking. This review surveys the current state of knowledge regarding the pharmacological properties of synthetic cannabimimetics and the prevalence and pattern of their use. Special emphasis is given to the negative consequences of using these products, including, among others, hallucinations, psychoses with delusions, seizures, cardiovascular symptoms and acute kidney injury. PMID:24169044

  16. Microbiological Characteristics of Some Spices Sold in Tekirdağ Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Coskun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some microbiological properties of ground black pepper, red pepper, ground red pepper and powdered cinnamon sold in Tekirdag market were investigated. The samples were supplied in packaged, unpackaged and irradiated and packaged forms. As a result of the analysis the total mesophilic aerobic bacteria counts of red pepper and ground red pepper samples are higher than those of the other spice samples. Total mesophilic aerobic spore-forming bacteria was determined in all irradiated samples. However coliform group bacteria, S. aureus and mold were determined in a few samples, E.coli and yeast were not found in none of them. As reported in previous studies, spore-forming bacteria are more resistant to irradiation than vegetative forms. S. aureus counts were higher than the limitation of spice communique in Turkish Food Codex.

  17. Bibliographic review of works accomplished about irradiated chicken, fish and fish products , spices and condiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Table of foods that can be irradiated and its respective nominal doses are shown. Bibliographic reviews of works performed about irradiated chicken, fish and fish products, spices and condiments are shown. The irradiation purpose in chicken were to increase the shelf-life and to eliminate the pathogenic microorganism in chicken stored below 100 C; in fish and fish products the purposes were to control the insect infestation in dry-fish during the storage and the sell exposure to reduce the macrobian charge in packed and non packed fish and in fish products. To reduce pathogenic microorganism in packing and unpacking fish; in spices and condiments to control the insect infestation, to reduce the microbial contamination. (L.M.J.)

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on physico-mechanical properties of spice packaging films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physico-mechanical properties of two types of laminated films, commercially used for spice packaging, are investigated after gamma irradiation at 8, 10 and 15 kGy. Data showed that polyethylene terephthalate/polyethylene terephthalate/linear low density polyethylene (PET/PET/LLDPE) was more resistant to radiation compared to biaxially oriented polypropylene/cast polypropylene (BOPP/CPP) and its barrier properties slightly improved up to 15 kGy. Oxygen transmission rate of BOPP/CPP was increased by 25%, and the melting peak temperature was decreased by 3.9% at 15 kGy, which may lead to oxidation of packaged spices and loss of their aroma/flavour, respectively.

  19. Comparing effects of washing, thermal treatments and gamma irradiation on quality of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of 5 selected spices, black pepper (Piper nigrum), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and anise (Pimpinella anisum) seeds, and turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes, obtained from the local market, were washed with pure tap water then dried at room temperature, subjected to a thermal treatment at 70 degrees C for 15 minutes or exposed to a gamma radiation source (5.0 or 10 kGy). The treatments were evaluated using microbiological and chemical studies

  20. SPICE: A Geometry Information System Supporting Planetary Mapping, Remote Sensing and Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, C.; Bachman, N.; Semenov, B.; Wright, E.

    2013-01-01

    SPICE is an information system providing space scientists ready access to a wide assortment of space geometry useful in planning science observations and analyzing the instrument data returned therefrom. The system includes software used to compute many derived parameters such as altitude, LAT/LON and lighting angles, and software able to find when user-specified geometric conditions are obtained. While not a formal standard, it has achieved widespread use in the worldwide planetary science community

  1. Concise and informative title: evaluation of selected spices in extending shelf life of paneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eresam, E Krishna Kumari; Pinto, Suneeta; Aparnathi, K D

    2015-04-01

    Black pepper, cardamom, cinnamon and clove were tested for their relative efficacy in improving shelf life of paneer. All the spices were incorporated in paneer @ 0 (control), 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 % by wt. of expected yield of paneer. Addition of black pepper, cardamom or clove at the rate of 0.6 % by weight or cinnamon at the rate of 0.4 % by weight was found to be acceptable. Therefore, paneer was prepared by incorporating black pepper, cardamom and clove i.e. Bp, Ca and Cl @ 0.6 % and cinnamon (Ci) @ 0.4 % by wt. of expected yield of paneer. All the paneer samples viz. Bp, Ca, Cl and Ci were subjected to sensory evaluation when fresh and after interval of 7 days during storage at 7 ± 1 °C up to 28 days. Results indicated that control remained acceptable up to 7 days, Bp up to 14 days of storage and Cl up to 21st day of storage. The overall acceptability score of Ca remained well above the acceptable level even on 28th day of the storage. Results of changes in chemical characteristics indicate that amongst all the spices studied, cardamom had maximum ability to control the rate of increase in acidity, free fatty acids content and soluble nitrogen content in paneer during storage. The order of the relative effectiveness in enhancing shelf life of paneer was cardamom > cinnamon > clove > black pepper. The effect of cardamom on microbial counts of paneer viz. standard plate counts (SPC), yeast and mould count and coliform count were evaluated. Among the spices studied, cardamom was found to be the best spice to improve shelf life of paneer up to 28 days of storage at 7 ± 1 °C. PMID:25829584

  2. Recent Developments in Delivery, Bioavailability, Absorption and Metabolism of Curcumin: the Golden Pigment from Golden Spice

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K.; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a yellow pigment present in the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa) that has been associated with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and antibacterial activities as indicated by over 6,000 citations. In addition, over one hundred clinical studies have been carried out with curcumin. One of the major problems with curcumin is perceived to be the bioavailability. How curcumin should be delivered in vivo, how bioavailable is it, how well curcumin is...

  3. Novel IGBT SPICE Model with Non-destructive Parameter Extraction and Comparison with Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A subcircuit-based model for the insulated gate bipolar transistor(IGBT) is proposed and optimized. The IGBT wide base conductivity modulated resistor is effectively equivalent by using a voltage controlled resistor. Based on analytical equation describing the semiconductor physics, the model parameters are extracted accurately via measured data without device destruction. Employing the MOS-level-8 SPICE model, the proposed IGBT subcircuit model gives more simulation accuracy and easy convergence, the simulation results are verified by comparison with measured results.

  4. Prognostic Factors for Patients with Congestive Heart Failure - An Extended Evaluation of the SPICE-Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Benjamin; Holubarsch, Christian; Muche, Rainer; Gaus, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Controlled clinical trials collect huge amounts of high quality data. It is a waste of information to evaluate these data only for the efficacy and safety of the investigational medication. We propose extended evaluations of large trials for scientific purposes, especially to find the most important risk factors of the disease or variables which are associated with risk to have the disease. Methodology: The SPICE study is a controlled, randomised, completely masked trial that has invest...

  5. Spice paprika oleoresin extraction under different conditions involving acetone and ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Rafajlovska, Vesna; Slaveska-Raicki, Renata; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Klopceska, Jana

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the oleoresin extraction from the spice paprika under different extraction conditions that involves acetone and ethanol as an extracting solvent in percolatory system. Moreover, the influence of paprika particle size, solvent flow rate and the temperature on the extraction procedure was also studied. It was revealed that better extraction efficiency was achieved with 2 ml/min solvent flow rate. The particle size is more important when acetone for paprika oleoresin extract...

  6. Survey on medicinal plants and spices used in Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Abdelhalim A; AbouZid Sameh F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This study was conducted to identify medicinal plants and spices used for medicine by the community of Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt. Methods Ethnobotanical data from local people was collected using direct interviews and a semi-structured questionnaire. Results Forty-eight plant species belonging to twenty-seven families and forty-seven genera were encountered during the study. Their botanical and vernacular names, plant parts used and medicinal uses are given. Results of the s...

  7. Commercial spices and industrial ingredients: evaluation of antioxidant capacity and flavonoids content for functional foods development

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Roquim Alezandro; Maria Cristina Youn Lui; Franco Maria Lajolo; Maria Inés Genovese

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate spices and industrial ingredients for the development of functional foods with high phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity. Basil, bay, chives, onion, oregano, parsley, rosemary, turmeric and powdered industrial ingredients (β-carotene, green tea extract, lutein, lycopene and olive extract) had their in vitro antioxidant capacity evaluated by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity and DPPH scavenging ability. Flavonoids identification and quant...

  8. The development of technology of nanoextracts and nanopowders from herbal spices for healthful products

    OpenAIRE

    Павлюк, Раїса Юріївна; Погарська, Вікторія Вадимівна; Радченко, Людмила Олексіївна; Юр’єва, Ольга Олексіївна; Гасанова, Ганна Едуардівна; Абрамова, Тетяна Сергіївна; Коломієць, Тетяна Миколаївна

    2015-01-01

    The content of biologically active substances in industrially dried natural spices has been studied and the technology of nanoextracts from them has been developed. The nanoextracts were obtained with the use of cryogenic mechanical fine-dispersed processing of raw materials before extraction as modification that allowed to increase getting of healthful extractive substances during water-spirit extraction (1,5...2 times) and reduce the term of extraction in 4...5 times due to quick diffusion ...

  9. Corrosion of orthodontic brackets in different spices:In vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedi, T. P.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Moist environment in the mouth varies and causes variable amounts of corrosion of dental materials. This is of concern particularly when metallic implants, metallic fillings, orthodontic appliances are placed in the hostile electrolytic environment in the human mouth. Components of diet rich in salt and spices are important factors influencing the corrosion of metallic appliances placed in the oral cavity. Aims: To study in vitro corrosion of orthodontic metallic brackets immerse...

  10. A Compact Spice Model with Verilog-A for Phase Change Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Dao-Lin; SONG Zhi-Tang; LI Xi; CHEN Hou-Peng; CHEN Xiao-Gang

    2011-01-01

    A compact spice model of the phase change memory with the crystalline fraction as the switching by Verilog-A language is proposed and demonstrated. The model can simulate not only the resistance change by the different electrical pulse, but also the temperature profile and crystalline fraction during programming operation. The simulated resistance as a function of the amplitude of programming voltage pulses is in good agreement with the experimental data.

  11. Characterization of Phenolics Composition in Lamiaceae Spices by LC-ESI-MS/MS

    OpenAIRE

    HOSSAIN, Mohammad; Rai, Dilip; Brunton, Nigel; Martin-Diana, Ana Belen; Barry-Ryan, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    A total of 38 phenolic compounds in the solid/liquid extracts of five Lamiaceae spices such as rosemary, oregano, sage, basil and thyme were identified in the present study using LC-ESI-MS/MS. These compounds were distributed in four major categories namely hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives, flavonoids and phenolic terpenes. Among them, the category of flavonoids was the largest with 17 compounds. Identification of the phenolic compounds was carried out by comp...

  12. Conservation by irradiation of vacuum packed spices (black pepper and curcuma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has been carried out to study the effectiveness of the irradiation gamma and its influence on the conservation of the black pepper and curcuma. The latter are used for culinary seasoning and conservation. Moreover, they have phytotherapic properties but remain very contaminated for a use without treatment. Accordingly, after packing them in vacuum plastic films, the powder of the black pepper and the one of curcuma are irradiated at a different doses (3, 6, 10 and 12 kGy). The results show that the irradiation is very effective from a microbiological point of view. indeed, from 10 kGy the spices became sterile. Admittedly, this dose radically inhibited the development of the micro-organisms which were present at very high rates in the non treated spices; and eliminated the agents of toxi-infections ( salmonella, staphylococcus aureus). Moreover, the irradiation doses not have a significant effect on the physicochemical and organoleptic parameters, except for the viscosity which decreased. Concerning the black pepper, it proved that the irradiation does have a significant effect on the piperine whose value is maintained almost stable. As for the curcuma the irradiation improves its color; it actually changed from dark yellow to bright yellow. For the packing the amounts used do not generate significant modification of polyethylene. Throughout the follow-up a significant proliferation of all the germs present in nontreated spices was observed. μIn contrast, there was no recontamination for spices treated with 10 kGy. At the end of storage the contents of piperine and curcuminoids decreased but they remain higher that their corresponding standards. Consequently, we conclude that the irradiation increases the shelf life. (Author)

  13. In vitro antibacterial activity of seven Indian spices against high level gentamicin resistant strains of enterococci

    OpenAIRE

    Revati, Sharma; Bipin, Chapagain; Chitra, Pai (Bhat); Minakshi, Bhattacharjee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of seven ethanolic extracts of spices against high level gentamicin resistant (HLGR) enterococci isolated from human clinical samples. Material and methods Two hundred and fifteen enterococcal strains were isolated from clinical samples. High level gentamicin resistance in ethanolic extracts of cumin (Cuminum cyminum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), fenugreek (Trigonella foenu...

  14. Distribution of microorganisms in spices and their decontamination by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of microorganisms in 15 samples of selected spices and the effects of irradiation of them were studied. The total aerobic bacteria in black pepper, white pepper, turmeric, rosemary and basil were determined to be 3 x 103 to 5 x 107 per gram. Coliforms were also determined in 8 samples to be 2 x 102 to 2 x 106 per gram. The main aerobic-spore-formers were identified as Bacillus pumilus and B. subtilis. Molds were determined in 10 samples to be 1 x 102 to 2 x 104 per gram which consisted mainly of the Aspergillus glaucus, A. restrictus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger groups and Penicillium. A study on the inactivation of microorganisms in spices showed that gamma-irradiation doses of 1.2 to 1.5 Mrad were required to reduce the total aerobic bacteria to below a detectable level, while doses of below 1.0 Mrad were required to decrease the spore-forming bacteria to below 103 per gram, the Japanese hygenic standard. Coliforms were eliminated with 0.4 to 1.0 Mrad irradiation. In the storage study, at humidity levels higher than 84 % at 30 or 35 0C, mold counts increased more than 106 per gram in many kinds of powdered spices in polyethylene pouches during 1 to 2 months of storage, while samples subjected to 0.4 Mrad irradiation were free from molds. (author)

  15. Detection irradiated shallot (Allium Cepa) and spices using technique of Photo Stimulated Luminescence (PSL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of Photo Stimulated Luminescence (PSL) in detecting the food that has been irradiated qualitatively and quantitatively. The samples used were onions (Allium Cepa) and spices. The shallots which are from India and Thailand was irradiated using Gamma Cell at dose of 0 kGy, 0.2 kGy, 0.4 kGy and 1.0. While for the spices, there were 10 types of spices used such as powder of paprika, parsley, turmeric, tarragon, coriander, mint leaves, basil, rosemary flower, chives and herbs mixture which was irradiated at the dose of 0 kGy and 8.7 kGy respectively. The result shows that the PSL method could differentiate samples which are irradiated and not irradiated. Even though the PSL value increases proportionally to the radiation dose, the relationship between these two means are not that clearly clarified and needed to be studied furthermore.(author)

  16. Effect of packaging materials on the quality of irradiated ground spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These experiments were carried out to determine the suitable packaging materials to be used for irradiated ground spices produced in Indonesia. The materials used were white pepper (Piper album), black pepper (Piper nigrum) nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), turmeric (Curcuma domestica), and ginger (Zangiber officinale R.) packaged in transparent polypropylene bottles, in pouches made of cellophane-aluminum foil and lithopaper-polyethylene laminates. The samples were irradiated at 5 kGy, stored at ambient conditions, and then examined every 3 months from 0 up to 9 months of storage. The parameters observed were total bacterial counts, total moulds and yeast counts, water activity (Aw), moisture content, and organoleptic scores of the samples. Piperine content of white pepper and black pepper, colour of turmeric extract, and rancidity of ginger were also determined. The results showed that the packaging materials used had no significant effect on bacterial load of the samples. Prolonged storage, however, could reduce the microbial load of the ground spices. Irradiation at 5 kGy could effectively increase the hygienic condition as well as storage life of the ground spices under investigation without affecting their organoleptic properties. (author). 8 refs

  17. Analysis of the Detection Characteristics of Irradiated Dried Spices and Herbs by Photostimulated Luminescence (PSL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempted to determine whether Photostimulated Luminescence (PSL) is applicable for the detection of post-irradiated foods by measuring the PSL photon counts of unirradiated and irradiated dried spices and herbs. A total of 19 dried spices and herbs was irradiated with a ∨60Co γ-ray source at 1, 5 and 10 kGy followed by measurement of PSL photon. The photon counts of unirradiated samples below 700 correspond to negative. Fifteen samples irradiated over 1 kGy showed photon counts of more than 5,000, indicating irradiation treatment. Intermediate counts (photon count 700-5,000) were observed in irradiated white/black pepper, nutmeg and cinnamon bark at 10 kGy. These results suggest that it is possible to detect whether dried spices and herbs were irradiated by analyzing PSL, with the exception of white/black pepper, nutmeg and cinnamon bark. Irradiated white/black pepper, nutmeg and cinnamon bark containing low levels of minerals were not sensitive to PSL. Therefore, further investigation is suggested to be performed by Thermoluminescence (TL) analysis or another validated or standardized method

  18. Aflatoxins in composite spices collected from local markets of Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Muhammad Asif; Zahir, Erum; Rantilal, Summan; Ahmed, Aftab; Iqbal, Javed

    2016-06-01

    This survey was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of total aflatoxins (AFs; B1+B2+G1+G2) in unpacked composite spices. A total of 75 samples of composite spices such as biryani, karhai, tikka, nihari and korma masalas were collected from local markets of Karachi, Pakistan, and analysed using HPLC technique. The results indicated that AFs were detected in 77% (n = 58) samples ranging from 0.68 to 25.74 µg kg(-1) with a mean of 4.63 ± 0.95 µg kg(-1). In 88% (n = 66) samples, AFs level was below the maximum limits (ML = 10 µg kg(-1)) as imposed by EU. Furthermore, 61% (n = 46) tested samples contained AFs level between 1 and 10 µg kg(-1), 9% (n = 7) exhibited AFs contamination ranged 10-20 µg kg(-1) and only 3% (n = 2) of the investigated samples contained AFs levels higher than the ML of 20 µg kg(-1) for total aflatoxins as set by the USA. It was concluded that there is need to establish a strict and continuous national monitoring plan to improve safety and quality of spices in Pakistan. PMID:26883485

  19. Towards a more accurate extraction of the SPICE netlist from MAGIC based layouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geronimo, G.D.

    1998-08-01

    The extraction of the SPICE netlist form MAGIC based layouts is investigated. It is assumed that the layout is fully coherent with the corresponding mask representation. The process of the extraction can be made in three steps: (1) extraction of .EXT file from layout, through MAGIC command extract; (2) extraction of the netlist from .EXT file through ext2spice extractor; and (3) correction of the netlist through ext2spice.corr program. Each of these steps introduces some approximations, most of which can be optimized, and some errors, most of which can be corrected. Aim of this work is the description of each step, of the approximations and errors on each step, and of the corresponding optimizations and corrections to be made in order to improve the accuracy of the extraction. The HP AMOS14TB 0.5 {micro}m process with linear capacitor and silicide block options and the corresponding SCN3MLC{_}SUBM.30.tech27 technology file will be used in the following examples.

  20. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in spices commercialized in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Pierre; Adanou, Ketty Michele; Ardjouma, Dembelé; Adepo, Aholia Jean Baptiste; Dano, Djédjé Sébastien

    2016-08-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced mostly by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. OTA is nephrotoxic in all animal species in which it has been tested and is cancerogenic in rodents. It is associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy. It is naturally present in many crop products such as cereals (barley, wheat, maize) and dried fruits, spices, coffee, wine, olives, and cocoa. The aim of this study was to assess the contamination of three Ivoirian spices with OTA (ginger, chili, and pepper) widely consumed by the population. A total of 90 spice samples (ginger: n = 30; chili: n = 30; pepper n = 30) was taken from various sales outlets of Abidjan. OTA was quantified using an HPLC apparatus coupled with a fluorimetric detector. The chili and ginger samples were contaminated with OTA at a mean concentration of 57.48 ± 174 and 0.12 ± 0.15 μg/kg, respectively. No contamination of the pepper samples was detected. Eight (26.67 %) of the chili samples exceeded the maximum limit of 15 μg/kg established by European regulation. These results should serve as an alert on the risk to the consumer population of these products that are highly contaminated with OTA. PMID:27040819

  1. Antibacterial activity of natural spices on multiple drug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from drinking water, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Rezuanul

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spices traditionally have been used as coloring agents, flavoring agents, preservatives, food additives and medicine in Bangladesh. The present work aimed to find out the antimicrobial activity of natural spices on multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli isolates. Methods Anti-bacterial potentials of six crude plant extracts (Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Allium cepa, Coriandrum sativum, Piper nigrum and Citrus aurantifolia were tested against five Escherichia coli isolated from potable water sources at kushtia, Bangladesh. Results All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to undiluted lime-juice. None of them were found to be susceptible against the aqueous extracts of garlic, onion, coriander, pepper and ginger alone. However, all the isolates were susceptible when subjected to 1:1:1 aqueous extract of lime, garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone was observed with lime (11 mm. Conclusion Natural spices might have anti-bacterial activity against enteric pathogens and could be used for prevention of diarrheal diseases. Further evaluation is necessary.

  2. Consumer acceptance, market test and market development of irradiated rice, dehydrated vegetables and spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishment of irradiation processing parameters, a quality assurance system, consumer acceptance, market test and market development of irradiated rice, dehydrated vegetables and spices were the activities carried out in this project by the Chinese Agricultural Irradiation Center. The results of the studies showed that the process dose for rice was 0.2-0.5 kGy when the non-uniformity was lower than 2.5, dose range for dehydrated vegetables was 5-7 kGy, dose for spices was 7-8 kGy. The system for quality assurance was established. The processing standards for several irradiated food items were set up. Market test showed that more than 70-80% of consumers accepted irradiated food. Industrial companies also accepted irradiated dehydrated vegetables and spices. The latter were successfully introduced to the markets and successful commercialization of irradiated garlic was followed. The economic benefit of operating the Chinese Agricultural Irradiation Center was analyzed and found attractive, especially for low dose irradiation of foods in sufficient supply. (author)

  3. Thermoluminescent dependence with the particle size of polyminerals in food irradiated of Mexican spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of grain size on Tl was analysed in poly minerals extracted from Mexican spices as Origanum vulgare L. (oregano) y Capsicum annun (chile guajillo). The poly minerals size were selected by Zimmerman method up to 10 μm and exposed to 0.5-10 kGy range from 60Co. The glow curves were centered at 166 C for Capsicum annun and at 126 C for Origanum vulgare l. In both cases was observed at 5 kGy a weak saturation for Tl response. This behaviour is attributed to feldspar and quartz are present in the samples and this results is in agreement with other european spices obtained. For >10 μm particle size the Tl response increased respect to the doses, and it is possible that increase the organic impurities quantities are present in the samples and contributed to the Tl when the samples were thermally excited. The aim of this work is provide more ideas with regard to the behaviour of luminescence emission as dependent of the size particle in the irradiated spices. The methodology might useful for quality control also in radiation processing. (Author)

  4. Irradiation control of toxigenic isolates from fungal flora contaminating spices on zagazig markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen fungal species were isolated from six kinds of spices (namely black pepper, chilli, cumin, aniseed, caraway and cinnamon) belonging to the genera aspergillus, penicillium, paecilomyces, epicoccum and trichoderma. The production of aflatoxins were detected for all fungal isolates (121 isolates) in synthetic medium (sabouroud's yeast extract medium) by thin layer chromatography and biological method. A. flavus (isolated from black pepper) A. niger (isolated from chilli) A. ochracues (isolated from cumin) and penicillium notatum (isolated from caraway) produced aflatoxins B2, B1,B2 and G1 respectively. The highest amount of toxins was produced by A. flavus. It has been found that irradiation dose 5 kGy completely inactivated the fungal flora contaminated all kinds of spices, Whereas the irradiation dose 3 kGy was the inhibitory dose for growth of toxigenic fungi and completely inhibited the production of aflatoxins. On the other hand the inhibitory effect of tested spices on the growth of toxigenic fungus A. flavus as well as on the production of aflatoxins was also investigated. It has been found that 2% of cinnamon or cumin completely inhibited the production of aflatoxin produced by A. flavus

  5. VO Tools variety is the spice of VO life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, P.

    2009-07-01

    The VO realm allows building of different clients to support the already vast amount of available data, for discovery, analysis, exploitation, mining, etc. The presence of an increasing amount of clients giving service to the VO community has been seen by some to be an added problem to the promotion of the VO. However, in real daily world IT activities, we find fair competing applications here and there, in an ever improving synergy that allows growing and perfecting. In this paper, we make a parallelism of some usual daily IT activities with VO ones, and we emphasize how different applications implement the same standards, both in our daily computer based activities and in the VO, and how this benefits evolution in the field.

  6. ADS National Programmes: India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial preliminary studies in India on ADS concepts were aimed toward applications such as, one way coupled booster reactor concept, thorium burner concept, enhancement of breeding rate of thorium– fueled fast reactors, and to incinerate Pu and minor actinides discharged from heavy water and fast reactors. These studies led to a roadmap on development of ADS subsystems in India, which was chalked out initially in June 2001. It was realized in these studies that the most challenging subsystem in terms of technology development and capital investment for ADS in India would be the high intensity proton accelerator, and that it must be accomplished in phased manner. Of the two alternative accelerator types, viz. the cyclotron and linear accelerator (linac), it is concluded that only linac would provide the necessary intense beam current for ADS applications. The energy amplifier (EA) scheme, with lead (45.5%) bismuth (55.5%) eutectic (LBE) as target & coolant, which was proposed in the early nineties would be one of the desired configurations of ADS for Indian applications. Additionally, subcritical reactor core of Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR), with advantages of its low fission power density, and neutron economy is also a candidate among various ADS reactor configurations. These options of ADS configurations for thorium utilization are based on the neutronic properties of 233U isotope as fissile fuel, which are more or less similar in thermal and in moderately fast neutron spectra

  7. Effect of powdered spice treatments on mycelial growth, sporulation and production of aflatoxins by toxigenic fungi Efeito de tratamentos com condimentos em pó sobre o crescimento micelial, esporulação e produção de aflatoxinas por fungos toxigênicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sára Maria Chalfoun

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ten powdered spice plants was evaluated at the concentration of 1, 2, 3 and 4% to observe the mycelial growth and sporulation of Aspergillus niger and Eurotium repens. The spices were added to the culture media PDA and CYA20S. Clove completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the tested fungi. The other spices: cinnamon, garlic, thyme, mint, anis, oregano and onion were, in a decreasing order, promising antifungals. Bay leaf and basil did not show a pronounced fungistatic effect. The antitoxigenic potential of the spices was tested against one aflatoxin-producing strain of AspergiIIus flavus. The spices were tested at the same concentrations previously mentioned and were added to the culture medium YES, appropriate for the production of those metabolites. Clove completely inhibited the mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus. Cinnamon and anis totally inhibited the production of Bl and B2 aflatoxin. Both bay leaf and basil inhibited the synthesis of aflatoxin starting from the concentration of 2%. The other spices did not have a pronounced antiaflatoxigenic effect.O efeito de dez plantas condimentares em pó foi avaliado nas concentrações de 1, 2, 3 e 4%, para observar o desenvolvimento micelial e esporulação de Aspergillus niger e Eurotium repens. Os condimentos foram adicionados aos meios de cultura BDA e CYA 20S. O cravo inibiu completamente o desenvolvimento micelial dos fungos testados. Os outros condimentos: canela, alho, tomilho, menta, erva-doce, orégano e cebola foram, em ordem decrescente, antifúngicos promissores. Louro e manjericão não apresentaram um efeito fungistático pronunciado. O potencial antitoxigênico dos condimentos foi testado contra uma cepa de Aspergillus flavus, produtora de aflatoxina. Os condimentos foram testados nas mesmas concentrações previamente mencionadas e foram adicionados ao meio de cultura YES, apropriado para a produção daqueles metabólitos. O cravo inibiu completamente o

  8. Antiproton-Decelerator (AD)

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    When the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) was stopped in 1996, because of its costly operation, a cheaper way of continuing low-energy antiproton physics was sought. The Antiproton-Collector (AC), added in 1987 to the Antiproton Accumulator (AA) to provide a tenfold intensity increase, was converted into the Antiproton-Decelerator (AD). Antiprotons from the target at 3.5 GeV/c are decelerated to 100 MeV/c, and fast-ejected to the experiments. Major changes were necessary. Above all, the conversion from a constant-field machine to one with a magnetic cycle, modulating the field by an impressive factor 35. New systems for stochastic and electron cooling had to be added. Beam diagnostics at an intensity of only 2E7 antiprotons was a challenge. In 2000, the AD began delivery of antiprotons to the experiments.

  9. Value Adding Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Katchamart, Akarapong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how Facilities Management (FM) can add value and develop a management concept that can assist facilities managers in implementing value adding strategies and practices. Theory: The study is based on the management model for FM included in the European FM standards, recent...... theories on added value of FM and real estate and the related concept of Value Management from building projects. The study is related to the EuroFM research group on The Added Value of FM. Design/methodology/approach: The study outlines a preliminary theoretical based management concept, which...... is investigated, tested and discussed based on a case study of an international corporation. Findings: The study shows that the management model for FM creates a relevant starting point but also that stakeholder and relationship management is an essential aspect of Value Adding Management. The case study confirms...

  10. Coopetitive Ad Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Hoy, Darrell; Jain, Kamal; Wilkens, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    A single advertisement often benefits many parties, for example, an ad for a Samsung laptop benefits Microsoft. We study this phenomenon in search advertising auctions and show that standard solutions, including the status quo ignorance of mutual benefit and a benefit-aware Vickrey-Clarke-Groves mechanism, perform poorly. In contrast, we show that an appropriate first-price auction has nice equilibria in a single-slot ad auction --- all equilibria that satisfy a natural cooperative envy-freen...

  11. AdS_3: the NHEK generation

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; Puhm, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    It was argued in arXiv:1203.4227 that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically-AdS_3 x S^3/Z_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  12. Hadronization at the AdS wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe hadronization events, using the AdS/CFT Correspondence, which display many of the qualitative features expected in QCD. In particular we study the motion of strings with separating end points in a back-reacted hard wall geometry. The solutions show the development of a linear QCD-like string. The end points oscillate in the absence of string breaking. We introduce string breaking by hand and evolve the new state forward in time to observe the separation of two string segments. A kink associated with this breaking evolves to the end points of the string inducing rho meson production. We explicitly compute the rho meson production at the end point.

  13. AdS backgrounds from black hole horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We utilize the classification of IIB horizons with 5-form flux to present a unified description for the geometry of AdSn, n = 3, 5, 7 solutions. In particular, we show that all such backgrounds can be constructed from eight-dimensional 2-strong Calabi–Yau geometries with torsion which admit some additional isometries. We explore the geometry of AdS3 and AdS5 solutions but we do not find AdS7 solutions. (paper)

  14. Effect of dose rate on inactivation of microorganisms in spices by electron-beams and gamma-rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total aerobic bacteria in spices used in this study were determined to be 1 x 106 to 6 x 107 per gram. A study on the inactivation of microorganisms in spices showed that doses of 6-9 kGy of EB (electron-beams) or γ-irradiation were required to reduce the total aerobic bacteria to below 103 per gram. However, a little increase of resistance was observed on the inactivation of total aerobic bacteria in many spices in case of EB irradiation. These differences of radiation sensitivities between EB and γ-rays was explained by dose rate effect on oxidation damage to microorganisms from the results of radiation sensitivities of Bacillus pumilus and B. megaterium spores at dry conditions. On the other hand, these high dose rate of EB irradiation suppressed the increase of peroxide values in spices at high dose irradiation up to 80 kGy. However, components of essential oils in spices were not changed even irradiated up to 50 kGy with EB and γ-rays. (author)

  15. ADS National Programmes: Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a preliminary design developed in 1998, based on the Energy Amplifier concept proposed by CERN, a first configuration of a lead-bismuth Eutectic cooled Experimental ADS (LBE-XADS) was worked out in the period 1999–2001, under the aegis of MURST, by a group of Italian organizations led by Ansado Nucleare, with the aim of assessing the feasibility of a small sized (80 MWth) ADS. At the end of 1997 a joint effort of ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) and INFN (National Institute for Nuclear Physics) led to the approval of a national programme by MURST (Minister for University and Scientific and Technological Research) named TRASCO (TRAsmutazione SCOrie) aiming at the study of physics and technologies needed to design an ADS for radioactive waste transmutation. The programme consisted of research subprogrammes on accelerator, neutronics, thermalhydraulics analysis, beam window technology, and material technology and compatibility with Pb and Pb-Bi. At now, most of the activities in support to the ADS development carried out at national level are part of EU-funded Projects. These activities are complemented by the programme agreement (AdP -Accordo di programma), signed between ENEA and the Ministry of Economic Development, which provides in general a range of activities aimed at the development of sustainable nuclear fission systems. Several universities and the national industry are involved, besides ENEA, in the activities

  16. Value Adding Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Katchamart, Akarapong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how Facilities Management (FM) can add value and develop a management concept that can assist facilities managers in implementing value adding strategies and practices. Theory: The study is based on the management model for FM included in the European FM standards, recent...... impacts and strategic importance of FM for organisations and can be a practical tool for facilities managers in implementing value adding strategies and practices....... investigated, tested and discussed based on a case study of an international corporation. Findings: The study shows that the management model for FM creates a relevant starting point but also that stakeholder and relationship management is an essential aspect of Value Adding Management. The case study confirms...

  17. Multi-institutional Quantitative Evaluation and Clinical Validation of Smart Probabilistic Image Contouring Engine (SPICE) Autosegmentation of Target Structures and Normal Tissues on Computer Tomography Images in the Head and Neck, Thorax, Liver, and Male Pelvis Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Mingyao; Bzdusek, Karl; Brink, Carsten; Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Hansen, Olfred; Jensen, Helle Anita; Gay, Hiram A; Thorstad, Wade; Widder, Joachim; Brouwer, Charlotte L; Steenbakkers, Roel J H M; Vanhauten, Hubertus A M; Cao, Jeffrey Q; McBrayne, Gail; Patel, Salil H; Cannon, Donald M; Hardcastle, Nicholas; Tomé, Wolfgang A; Guckenberg, Matthias; Parikh, Parag J

    2013-01-01

    Clinical validation and quantitative evaluation of computed tomography (CT) image autosegmentation using Smart Probabilistic Image Contouring Engine (SPICE).......Clinical validation and quantitative evaluation of computed tomography (CT) image autosegmentation using Smart Probabilistic Image Contouring Engine (SPICE)....

  18. ADS National Programmes: China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China the conceptual study of an ADS concept which lasted for about five years ended in 1999. As one project of the National Basic Research Programme of China (973 Programme) in energy domain, which is sponsored by the China Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), a five year programme of fundamental research of ADS physics and related technology was launched in 2000 and passed national review at the end of 2005. From 2007, another five year 973 Programme Key Technology Research of Accelerator Driven Subcritical System for Nuclear waste Transmutation started. The research activities were focused on HPPA physics and technology, reactor physics of external source driven subcritical assembly, nuclear data base and material study. For HPPA, a high current injector consisting of an ECR ion source, LEBT and an RFQ accelerating structure of 3.5 MeV has been built and were being improved. In reactor physics study, a series of neutron multiplication experimental study has been carrying out. The VENUS I facility has been constructed as the basic experimental platform for neutronics study in ADS blanket. VENUS I a zero power subcritical neutron multiplying assembly driven by external neutron produced by a pulsed neutron generator or 252Cf neutron source. The theoretical, experimental and simulation studies on nuclear data, material properties and nuclear fuel circulation related to ADS are carried out in order to provide the database for ADS system analysis. China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) and other Chinese institutes carried out the MOST project together. Besides CIAE, China Academy of Science (CAS) pays more and more attention to Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (ANFC). A large programme of ANFC, including ADS and Th based nuclear fuel cycle, has been launched by CAS

  19. Dynamic ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rashvand, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s

  20. EPR study of the free radicals in the spices and pigments turmeric and saffron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The spices Turmeric (curcuma longa) and Saffron (crocus sativus) have also been used as pigments. The EPR spectrum of each shows a readily detectable free radical signal. EPR spectra of the available pure chief active colorants in solid form also give free radical signals. Curcumin (turmeric) is a 'linear' symmetric phenolic, so is expected to do so. The peptide turmerin (commercially unavailable), containing sulphur, may also contribute to the ESR signal. Crocetin (saffron) is a 'linear' molecule, related to the beta-carotenes, which do not give free radical signals: but it does, presumably because of its particular resonant structure properties

  1. Evaluation of sensory attributes and some-quality indices of irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground pepper, chilli, coriander, cumin, turmeric and a spice mix (sambar powder) exposed to an absorbed dose of 10 kGy of gamma irradiation were studied for microbial and sensory quality changes, if any, on storage for 3 months. No significant differences between the irradiated and non-irradiated samples could be observed in their sensory qualities. While no increase in microbial load in sealed irradiated samples could be observed, those that were irradiated but opened repeatedly for daily use did show a marginal increase in microbial load. (author). 8 refs., 1 tab

  2. Uranium isotopes distinguish two geochemically distinct stages during the later Cambrian SPICE event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Tais Wittchen; Boyle, Richard A.; Canfield, Donald E.;

    2014-01-01

    euxinic waters, triggering the spike in U burial, and peaking in conjunction with a well-known trilobite extinction event. During the second stage widespread euxinia waned, causing U removal to tail off, but enhanced organic carbon and pyrite burial continued, coinciding with evidence for severe sulfate...... depletion in the oceans (Gill et al., 2011). We discuss scenarios for how an interval of elevated pyrite and organic carbon burial could have been sustained without widespread euxinia in the water column (both non-sulfidic anoxia and/or a more oxygenated ocean state are possibilities). Either way, the SPICE...

  3. Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Content of Some Spices and Herbs under Saudi Arabia Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Fahad Mohammed Al-Jasass; Mohammed Saud Al-Jasser

    2012-01-01

    Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%), black pepper (5.34%) and fenugreek (4.51%) seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black pepper contain higher protein contents ranging from 26.61 to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91%) and clove (6.9%). Crude fiber and ash content ranged from 6.36 to 23.6% and from 3.57 to 7.1%, resp...

  4. Visualisierung analoger Schaltungen durch 3-D Animation von transienten SPICE-Simulationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Becker

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Für das Zeichnen analoger Schaltpläne wird oft versucht, die Potentialverteilung in der entsprechenden Schaltung auszunutzen, um eine Platzierung der Bauteile nach abfallendem Potential vorzunehmen. Mit Hilfe von Computerunterstützung gelingt es, eine verallgemeinerte dreidimensionale Platzierungsstrategie anzuwenden, die allein auf Grund der Potentialwerte einer Schaltung die automatische Generierung einer technisch exakten Potentialdarstellung erlaubt. Somit ist es möglich, die Ergebnisse von transienten SPICE-Simulationen in jedem Zeitschritt darzustellen und eine Animation des zeitlichen Verhaltens zu erzeugen. Die Umsetzung dieser Methode zur Einbettung in eine webbasierte Lern – und Arbeitsplattform wird im Folgenden erläutert.

  5. ADS National Programmes: Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian activities in the field of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are mainly related to the MYRRHA project development. MYRRHA is an accelerator driven, multi purpose fast neutron spectrum facility for R&D, cooled by a lead-bismuth eutectic. SCK•CEN has started the MYRRHA project as a national programme with several national & international bilateral collaboration agreements; the project has now evolved as an European integrated project in the frame of the IPEUROTRANS (European Commission, Sixth Framework Programme). The MYRRHA ‘Draft-2’ predesign file (completed in the early 2005) has been proposed to the partners as a basis for the XT-ADS machine. After a detailed investigation of potential alternatives, the MYRRHA concept (for the subcritical core, the primary coolant system, the accommodation of experimental rigs, the reactor vessel and the spallation target) has been kept with some modifications to achieve the XT-ADS objectives. The most recent version of the XT-ADS design was presented in the 2007 TWG meeting

  6. Development of the method to snipe the microbeam at cell nucleus and cytoplasm with SPICE, the single particle irradiation system to cells. (I) Preparation of human HCT116 cell specimen for the irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SPICE can snipe the ion particle of any number at cell nucleus automatically with its positioning program but cannot at cytoplasm yet. The present study describes strategies to irradiate the particle to the small, protean cytoplasm alone of the cell in the title after its fluorescent staining with Cell Tracker Orange or Cyto-Red and to expand its area with dibutyryl-cAMP added at culturing. The former strategy essentially stands on the idea that the sniping point can be defined at the position with the desired distance (in mc-m) from the nucleus previously stained with Hoechst 3342, and is to be conducted for programming. The latter was actually performed by culturing cells in the medium containing 1 mM dibutyryl-cAMP on a small (diameter 24 mm) SPICE dish, of which, after staining the nucleus and cytoplasm, microscopic fluorescent imaging and measuring with the software Image J revealed the enlargement of the mean cytoplasmic area 305 to 409 mc-m2. No significant toxicity of dibutyryl-cAMP was observed on cell doubling time. Thus the method in the title is almost established at present. (T.T)

  7. The effect of sodium reduction and the use of herbs and spices on the quality and safety of bologna sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ivone Carraro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the replacement of 50% NaCl by KCl in Bologna sausage with the addition of herbs and spice blends (coriander, onion, white pepper, cardamom, and Jamaican pepper was evaluated. The formulations tested showed a significant reduction in the sodium content with no major alterations in the emulsion stability, texture, and microbiological characteristics. The use of 50% KCl caused a reduction in the sensory quality leading to a significant decrease in the consumers' purchase intention. The formulations with the addition of herbs and spice blends presented better results in the sensory evaluation indicating that this strategy can reduce the negative effects resulting from the use of KCl.

  8. Levels of trace elements of few Indian spices by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr were determined in Indian spices namely, pepper, clove, cardamom, cinnamon and cumin by radioisotope excited energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence method. The levels of K and Ca were highest in cinnamon and cumin and that of Mn was highest in clove and cinnamon. Rubidium and strontium were found in all spices except cinnamon. Chromium and titanium were found only in pepper. The level of toxicity and the significance of the above trace elements in the human diet are discussed. (author)

  9. Inhibition of DNA virus: Herpes-1 (HSV-1) in cellular culture replication, through an antioxidant treatment extracted from rosemary spice

    OpenAIRE

    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini; Rosângela Pavan Torres; José Ricardo Pinto; Jorge Mancini-Filho

    2009-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate antiviral properties in antioxidants from spices. Phenolic compounds extracted from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinallis, L) by hot water, had their antioxidant activity determined by spectrophotometry using β carotene/linoleic acid system. The rosemary extract was evaluated by antiviral assay of Herpes Virus type-1 (HSV-1) replication in VERO cells, in the presence or absence of the spice. 10,000 TCID50/mL of the HSV-1 was kept for 3 h at 4º C, with 300 ppm of r...

  10. ADS National Programmes: Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, the research and development (R&D) activities on partitioning and transmutation (P&T) technology had been promoted under the OMEGA programme since 1988. The main institutes involved in these activities were the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI). Among these institutes, JAERI had mainly conducted the R&D on ADS. In 1999 and 2000, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) of Japan implemented the check and review (C&R) on the P&T technology, and the ADS was considered as one of candidates for transmutation systems together with fast reactors. In 2005, JAERI and JNC were merged and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was established. In JAEA, the R&D activities on both ADS and fast reactors have been continued. In August, 2008, the AEC of Japan launched the Technical Subcommittee on P&T Technology under the Advisory Committee on R&D, and conducted the discussion about the current state of the art concerning P&T technology in Japan and the future R&D programme. The Subcommittee issued the final report in April, 2009. The final report covered the impact of the P&T technology, the state of the art of the technology, evaluation on the progress of the R&D, and the recommendations of the future R&D. As the basic policy on the P&T technology, the report stated that the R&D should not aim at only the improvement of the P&T performance, but at the achievement of the requirements for whole performance of nuclear power generation. This means that the performance of the Double strata fuel cycle concept should be evaluated from viewpoints of safety, economy, environmental friendliness, saving resource, and non-proliferation of the first stratum as well as those of the second stratum. The Double strata concept, therefore, should be studied as a part of the whole nuclear system both in the transient phase of LWR to FBR and the equilibrium

  11. PRODUCTION OF BREAD–SPREAD FROM BLENDS OF SHEA BUTTER (VITELLARIA PARADOXA, GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM, GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE, SCENT LEAF (OCCIMUM GRATISSIMUM, AND SUYA SPICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice O.T. Ifesan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at production of bread-spread from blends of shea butter with spices such as ginger, garlic, scent leaf, and suya spice. Two different ratios, 70% shea butter: 30% spices and 85% shea butter:15% spices were prepared from raw shea butter and various spices. The treatments were packaged in a transparent plastic bowl and stored at room temperature for 4 weeks while samples were taken for analysis at 0, 2 and 4 weeks of storage. Samples were examined for chemical, antioxidant properties, anti-nutritional factors and sensory evaluation. Saponification value ranged from 47.7 mg KOH/g -104.5 mg KOH/g while shea butter + spices exhibited lower values compared to 100% shea butter (control. It was observed that iodine value of both the blends and control decreased as storage days increased except for samples of shea butter + ginger (SGG and shea butter + suya spice (SSS at 70:30 ratio. Addition of spices to shea butter increased the 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH values (44.96%-77.98% and total phenol content (0.36 mg TAE/g-0.51 mg TAE/g of the crude shea butter significantly. Phytate content of the blends increased upon addition of spices, whereas, a drastic reduction was observed in the alkaloid contents of the blends from 29.79% (control to 2.29% in shea butter + scent leave. The sensory evaluation result revealed that the general acceptability of shea butter treated with suya spice (70:30 and 100% shea butter were scored above average and were not different significantly.

  12. Management job ads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2014-01-01

    jobs by discursively constructing job ads that appeal to both sexes. This argument is part of the broader field of corporate social responsibility, corporate citizenship, and stakeholder management, which involves discussions of the obligations of corporations to acknowledge and mitigate the......The article asks whether it is not the responsibility of corporations to address the issue of women being underrepresented in Danish management jobs. In other words, it is argued that corporations should be encouraged to engage more actively in the recruitment of both men and women for management...... increasingly widespread impact that their activities have on communities and social structures. The article emphasises the need for more active engagement on the part of corporations by analysing the discursive construction of preferred candidates in a small sample of Danish management job ads. By means of...

  13. Adding linear orders

    CERN Document Server

    Shelah, Saharon

    2011-01-01

    We address the following question: Can we expand an NIP theory by adding a linear order such that the expansion is still NIP? Easily, if acl(A)=A for all A, then this is true. Otherwise, we give counterexamples. More precisely, there is a totally categorical theory for which every expansion by a linear order has IP. There is also an \\omega-stable NDOP theory for which every expansion by a linear order interprets bounded arithmetic.

  14. ADS National Programmes: France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies related to nuclear reactors and radioactive waste started at the French National Centre for Scientific research, CNRS, as a result of the French law on radioactive waste that was published in 1991. They were initially organized around the programme PACE (Physique pour l’Aval du Cycle Electronucléaire = physics of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle), which became PACEN (Physique pour l’Aval du Cycle et production d’Energie Nucléaire = Physics of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and production of nuclear energy) in 2006. Research on accelerator driven systems was from the beginning part of this programme. This research is mainly funded by the National Institute for Nuclear end Particle Physics (IN2P3) of CNRS and within the EURATOM European programmes (FP5, 6 and 7). The programme took place in several stages, and covered various scientific fields, benefitting from expertise of CNRS in the field. More specifically, it aimed and still aims to: – Test and verify the feasibility and design of the ADS concept, in terms of neutronics, physics of materials, design of the accelerator and tests of its prototypical components that have been built (or are at present under construction); – Measure and-or improve nuclear data related to radioactive waste transmutation. Today, most of the activities in support to ADS development carried out by CNRS focus on accelerator developments, GUINEVERE (Generator of Uninterrupted Intense NEutron at the lead VEnus REactor) experiment, ADS core studies, deployment scenarios and nuclear data measurements. The CEA R&D programmes on ADS are mainly focused on the European project EUROTRANS of the 6th Framework programme (2005–2010) and continued in the FREYA project of the 7th Framework Programme

  15. Combined effect of gamma irradiation and heat treatment on microflora of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation sensitivity of the aerobic bacterial flora was similar both in the ground paprika and the whole black pepper (D10 values calculated from the exponential survival curves were 1.44 and 1.29 kGy, respectively). The survival rates of the microflora of non-irradiated samples were compared with those of the 1.6-4 kGy irradiated samples as a function of the heating time at various temperature levels, applied to aqueous suspensions of spices. The mesophilic aerobic bacterial flora of black pepper proved to be more heat-resistant than that of paprika powder. The heat resistance of the surviving microflora of irradiated spices was significantly decreased. The heat sensitization effect tended to increase as the radiation dose increased. The heat sensitization by irradiation was greater in the case of the more heat-resistant microflora of black pepper. The heat sensitization quotient at 900C (i.e. the ratio of the 90% destruction time for unirradiated versus irradiated samples) was approximately 4 for paprika and 9 for black pepper at the 4-kGy dose level. (author)

  16. Combined Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Heat Treatment on Microflora of Spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation sensitivity of the aerobic bacterial flora was similar both in the ground paprika and the whole black pepper (D10 values calculated from the exponential survival curves were 1.44 and 1.29 kGy, respectively). The survival rates of the microflora of non-irradiated samples were compared with those of the 1.6-4 kGy irradiated samples as a function of the heating time at various temperature levels, applied to aqueous suspensions of spices. The mesophilic aerobic bacterial flora of black pepper proved to be more heat-resistant than that of paprika powder. The heat resistance of the surviving microflora of irradiated spices was significantly decreased. The heat sensitization effect tended to increase as the radiation dose increased. The heat sensitization by irradiation was greater in the case of the more heat resistant microflora of black pepper. The heat sensitization quotient at 90°C (i.e. the ratio of the 90% destruction time for unirradiated versus irradiated samples) was approximately 4 for paprika and 9 for black pepper at the 4-kGy dose level. (author)

  17. Antioxidant and chemical properties of essential oil extracted from blend of selected spices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ochuko Lucky Erukainure; Funmi Olabisi Kayode; Olubanke Adetutu Adeyoju; Sunday Oluwaseun Adenekan; Godfrey Asieba; Atinuke Ajayi; Mosebolatan Victoria Adegbola; Bolanle Basirat Sarumi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the chemical properties of essential oil extracted from blends of selected Nigerian spices as well as its antioxidant protective potentials against free radicalin vitro. Methods: Essential oil was extracted from selected spices blend consisting ofMonodora myristica, Myristica fragrans, Tetrapleura tetraptera, andAframomum sceptrum using a Clevenger type apparatus. Oil obtained was subjected to phytochemical and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis as well as analyzed for antioxidant activity which covers for 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide scavenging activities and reducing property. Results: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis revealed over 50 compoundfs withα-phellandrene being the most predominant compound (27.32%), which was followed by (-)-β-bourbonene (15.78%) and 5-(1-methylethyl)-α-phellandrene (11.80%). Phytochemical analysis showed high flavonoid content and a lower phenolic content. The oil showed a dose like dependent effect on the1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide scavenging activities, these activities increased with increasing concentration. The same was also observed for the reducing power properties of the oil. Conclusions: The antioxidant activities exhibited by the essential oilin vitro signify its protective potential against free radicals. The chemical constituents,α-phellandrene in particular and the studied phytochemicals may be responsible for these effects. However,in vivo study is needed to further authenticate this potency.

  18. Inhibitory Effects of Spices on Biogenic Amine Accumulation during Fish Sauce Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuxia; Qiu, Mengting; Zhao, Dandan; Lu, Fei; Ding, Yuting

    2016-04-01

    The presence of high levels of biogenic amines is detrimental to the quality and safety of fish sauce. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of spices, including garlic, ginger, cinnamon, and star anise extracts, in reducing the accumulation of biogenic amines during fish sauce fermentation. The concentrations of biogenic amines, which include histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine, all increased during fish sauce fermentation. When compared with the samples without spices, the garlic and star anise extracts significantly reduced these increases. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the garlic ethanolic extracts. When compared with controls, the histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine contents and the overall biogenic amine levels of the garlic extract-treated samples were reduced by 30.49%, 17.65%, 26.03%, 37.20%, and 27.17%, respectively. The garlic, cinnamon, and star anise extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on aerobic bacteria counts. Furthermore, the garlic and star anise extracts showed antimicrobial activity against amine producers. These findings may be helpful for enhancing the safety of fish sauce. PMID:26953496

  19. Commercial spices and industrial ingredients: evaluation of antioxidant capacity and flavonoids content for functional foods development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Roquim Alezandro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate spices and industrial ingredients for the development of functional foods with high phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity. Basil, bay, chives, onion, oregano, parsley, rosemary, turmeric and powdered industrial ingredients (β-carotene, green tea extract, lutein, lycopene and olive extract had their in vitro antioxidant capacity evaluated by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity and DPPH scavenging ability. Flavonoids identification and quantification were performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The results showed that spices presented a large variation in flavonoids content and in vitro antioxidant capacity, according to kind, brand and batches. Oregano had the highest antioxidant capacity and parsley had the highest flavonoid content. The industrial ingredient with the highest antioxidant capacity was green tea extract, which presented a high content of epigalocatechin gallate. Olive extract also showed a high antioxidant activity and it was a good source of chlorogenic acid. This study suggests that oregano, parsley, olive and green tea extract have an excellent potential for the development of functional foods rich in flavonoids as antioxidant, as long as the variability between batches/brands is controlled.

  20. Identification of γ-irradiated spices by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry spectra of white (WP), black (BP) and red (Capsicum annuum L. var. frutescerns L., RP) peppers each had a principal signal with a g-value of 2.0043, and the intensities of the principal signals were increased not only by γ-irradiation but also by heating. Irradiated RP also showed a minor signal -30G from the principal one, and the intensity of the minor signal increased linearly with increasing dose from 10 to 50 kGy. Since the minor signal was observed in RP irradiated at 10 kGy and stored for one year, but did not appear either after heating or after exposure to this signal is unique to γ-irradiated RP and should therefore be useful for the identification of γ-irradiated spices of Capsicum genus, such as paprika and chili pepper. The computer simulation of the ESR spectra suggested that the minor signal should be assigned to methyl radical and the principal signal mainly to a combination of phenoxyl and peroxyl radicals. Such minor signals were found in γ-irradiated allspice and cinnamon among 10 kinds of other spices. (author)

  1. Phytochemistry and gastrointestinal benefits of the medicinal spice, Capsicum annuum L. (Chilli): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Amal K; Banerji, Pratim

    2016-06-01

    Dietary spices and their active constituents provide various beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal system by variety of mechanisms such as influence of gastric emptying, stimulation of gastrointestinal defense and absorption, stimulation of salivary, intestinal, hepatic, and pancreatic secretions. Capsicum annuum (Solanaceae), commonly known as chilli, is a medicinal spice used in various Indian traditional systems of medicine and it has been acknowledged to treat various health ailments. Therapeutic potential of chilli and capsaicin were well documented; however, they act as double-edged sword in many physiological circumstances. In traditional medicine chilli has been used against various gastrointestinal complains such as dyspepsia, loss of appetite, gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric ulcer, and so on. In chilli, more than 200 constituents have been identified and some of its active constituents play numerous beneficial roles in various gastrointestinal disorders such as stimulation of digestion and gastromucosal defense, reduction of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, inhibition of gastrointestinal pathogens, ulceration and cancers, regulation of gastrointestinal secretions and absorptions. However, further studies are warranted to determine the dose ceiling limit of chilli and its active constituents for their utilization as gastroprotective agents. This review summarizes the phytochemistry and various gastrointestinal benefits of chilli and its various active constituents. PMID:26756096

  2. In vitro antibacterial activity of seven Indian spices against high level gentamicin resistant strains of enterococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipin, Chapagain; Chitra, Pai (Bhat); Minakshi, Bhattacharjee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of seven ethanolic extracts of spices against high level gentamicin resistant (HLGR) enterococci isolated from human clinical samples. Material and methods Two hundred and fifteen enterococcal strains were isolated from clinical samples. High level gentamicin resistance in ethanolic extracts of cumin (Cuminum cyminum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) and black pepper (Piper nigrum) were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. The antibacterial effect of the extracts was studied using the well diffusion method. Statistical analysis was carried out by χ2 test using SPSS 17 software. Results Only cinnamon and ginger were found to have activity against all the isolates, whereas cumin and cloves had a variable effect on the strains. Fenugreek, black pepper and cardamom did not show any effect on the isolates. The zone diameter of inhibition obtained for cinnamon, ginger, cloves and cumin was in the range 31–34 mm, 27–30 mm, 25–26 mm and 19–20 mm respectively. Conclusions Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Z. officinale showed the maximum antibacterial activity against the enterococcal isolates followed by S. aromaticum and C. cyminum. The findings of the study show that spices used in the study can contribute to the development of potential antimicrobial agents for inclusion in the anti-enterococcal treatment regimen. PMID:26322099

  3. Light-induced fading of the PSL signal from irradiated herbs and spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberti, A. [ISOF-CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Corda, U. [ISOF-CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Fuochi, P. [ISOF-CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: fuochi@isof.cnr.it; Bortolin, E. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Calicchia, A. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Onori, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2007-08-15

    Reliability of the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique, as screening method for irradiated food identification, has been tested with three kinds of herbs and spices (oregano, red pepper and fennel), prepared in two different ways (granular: i.e. seeds and flakes, or powdered), over a long period of storage with different light exposures. The irradiated samples kept in the dark gave always a positive response (the sample is correctly classified as 'irradiated') for the overall examination period. The samples kept under ambient light conditions, in typical commercial glass containers, exhibited a reduction of the PSL signal, more or less pronounced depending on the type of food and packaging. The different PSL response of the irradiated samples is to be related to the quantity and quality of the mineral debris present in the individual food. It was also found that, for the same type of food, the light-induced fading was much stronger for the flaked and seed samples than for the corresponding powder samples, the penetrating capability of light being much more inhibited in powdered than in whole seeds or flaked form samples. The observed light bleaching of the PSL signal in irradiated herbs and spices is of practical relevance since it may lead to false negative classifications.

  4. Identification of. gamma. -irradiated spices by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, Sadao; Kawamura, Yoko; Saito, Yukio (National Inst. of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-12-01

    The electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry spectra of white (WP), black (BP) and red (Capsicum annuum L. var. frutescerns L., RP) peppers each had a principal signal with a g-value of 2.0043, and the intensities of the principal signals were increased not only by {gamma}-irradiation but also by heating. Irradiated RP also showed a minor signal -30G from the principal one, and the intensity of the minor signal increased linearly with increasing dose from 10 to 50 kGy. Since the minor signal was observed in RP irradiated at 10 kGy and stored for one year, but did not appear either after heating or after exposure to this signal is unique to {gamma}-irradiated RP and should therefore be useful for the identification of {gamma}-irradiated spices of Capsicum genus, such as paprika and chili pepper. The computer simulation of the ESR spectra suggested that the minor signal should be assigned to methyl radical and the principal signal mainly to a combination of phenoxyl and peroxyl radicals. Such minor signals were found in {gamma}-irradiated allspice and cinnamon among 10 kinds of other spices. (author).

  5. In vivo effect of some home spices extracts on the Toxoplasma gondii Tachyzoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najia A Al-Zanbagi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis drugs have the longest history and are still the first choice for most conditions. Alternative drugs such as Co-trimoxazole and Tetracycline have been tried and acclaimed successful. The lack of general acceptance, however, is an indication that the results are not very convincing. A wide range of antibiotics is urgently needed for patients with drug reaction or resistance problems. The anti-toxoplasmic activity of water and ethanol extracts as well as the oil of some home spices (Piper nigrum, Capsicum frutescens, Cinnamomum cassia and Curcuma longa, were evaluated in murine models of intraperitoneal infection using the RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii. Female mice were infected with 2x10 [2] tachyzoites/ml, and then treated intraperitoneally with the home spices at 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for seven days. The tested extracts reduced the mean number of tachyzoites present in the peritoneal fluid of the experimental mice. The most effective extract was Curcuma longa ethanol extract which showed a 98.6% and 99.2% inhibition of the growth of Toxoplasma tachyzoites in 100 and 200 doses respectively compared to the control infected untreated mice.

  6. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.: A promising spice for phytochemical and pharmacological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric (Curcuma longa is a small rhizomatous perennial herb belonging to Zingiberaceae family originating from South-Eastern Asia, most probably from India. The plant produces fleshy rhizomes of bright yellow to orange colour in its root system, which are the source of the commercially available spice turmeric. In the form of root powder, turmeric is used for its flavouring properties as a spice, food preservative and food-colouring agent. Turmeric has a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine as it is credited with a variety of important beneficial properties. Turmeric constituents include the three curcuminoids: Curcumin (diferuloylmethane; the primary constituent and the one responsible for its vibrant yellow colour, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, as well as volatile oils (tumerone, atlantone and zingiberone, sugars, proteins and resins. Several studies using the modern techniques have authenticated turmeric used as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-fertility, anticancer, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, anti-venom, anti hepato-toxic, nephroprotective, anticoagulant, etc., Most importantly, the plant has shown to possess anti HIV activity which could be of great value to combat AIDS particularly in third world countries. In this present work, we make an overview of the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of turmeric, showing its importance.

  7. Integrated design and synthesis of smart material systems: an overview of the ARPA SPICES program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jack H.

    1995-05-01

    The Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures (SPICES) program is comprised of a consortium of industrial, academic and government labs to develop cost effective material processing and synthesis technologies to enable new products using active vibration suppression and control devices to be brought to market. Each team member possesses a specialty in the area of smart structures which has been focused towards the development of several actively controlled smart material systems. Since smart structures involve the integration of multiple engineering disciplines, it is the objective of the consortium to establish cost effective design processes between this multiorganizational team for future incorporation of this new technology into each members respective product lines. To accomplish this task, the disciplines of materials, manufacturing, analytical modeling, actuation, sensing, signal processing, and control had to be synthesized into a unified approach between all ten consortium members. The process developed for intelligent structural systems can truly be classified as multiorganization/multidiciplined Integrated Product Development. This process is described in detail as it applies to the SPICES development articles and smart material fabrication in general.

  8. AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alessandrini, Daniele; Li, Qiongling

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationships between closed AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles. We have a new way to construct AdS structures that allows us to see many of their properties explicitly, for example we can recover the very recent formula by Tholozan for the volumes. We also find...

  9. Evaporation of large black holes in AdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AdS/CFT correspondence offers a new perspective on the long-standing black hole information paradox. However, to be able to use the available gauge/gravity machinery one is forced to consider so-called 'large' black holes in AdS, and these objects are thermodynamically stable - they do not evaporate. We describe a simple toy model that allows large AdS black holes to decay, by coupling the emitted radiation to an external scalar field propagating in an auxiliary space. This effectively changes the properties of the boundary of AdS, making it partly absorbing. We demonstrate that the evaporation process never ceases by explicitly presenting (a) the transmission coefficient for a wave scattering from the bulk into auxiliary space and (b) the greybody factor for a black 3-brane in an AdS background. Therefore, the model provides an interesting framework to address the information paradox using AdS/CFT techniques.

  10. The effect of Ad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小艳

    2010-01-01

    There is the trend that now people appreciate those who are slim and regard slim even thin people beautiful. The thinner a person is, the more beautiful. Women, born to pursuit beauty, try various means to follow the trend. We all watch TV, and find a lot of advertisements on diet. The effect of them is tremendous. We all know the fact that it is not at all the better mouse trap will catch mouse. The sales methods are more important. If an advertisement is very interesting and seemingly effective, people will be lured by the ad and then try some of the products.

  11. Eating ad Libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillersdal, Line

    in the context of the 'ad libitum meal'. The analytical interest is thus what kind of eaters and bodies are enacted in the meal test and what ideas of prevention and treatment are embedded in their standards. Drawing from ongoing empirical work among Danish obesity researchers performing scientific...... producing an eater who: ”shouldn't restrain herself”. Practices of food and eating in the test meal I suggest, will allow us to tackle reductionism by showing the complex cultural context shaping clinical intervention....

  12. Public acceptance and trade development of irradiated food in Sri Lanka with special reference to spices and onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Lankan spices, onion, shallots and dried chillies suffer considerable storage losses due to inadequate preservation method. Irradiation to a dose 7 kGy was found to be effective technique to reduce storage losses and improve quality of different spices. Preliminary results showed prospect of using irradiation for large scale preservation of dried chillis. But due to lack of irradiation, facility scaled- up irradiation and storage trials could not be undertaken. Based on study conducted by the Ceylon Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, a report was submitted to the Atomic Energy Authority of Sri Lanka on the current demand for a multi-purpose irradiation facility. The food items identified for irradiation processing include spices, desiccated coconut, shrimps for export; and onions, chillies and dried fish products, foliage plants and medical products for local trade. The volume of products for commercial processing has also been indicated in the survey report. Steps for approval of the Harmonised Regulations on Food Irradiation as adopted in the RCA Workshop in Seoul, 1998 are at the processing level for submission as a parliamentary bill. A consumer acceptance survey was carried out in 1997; the outcome showed a low acceptance for irradiated spices. About 200 participants comprising private exporters, govt. officials and students were made aware of the irradiation process and benefits of irradiation treatment through the training programmes on post-harvest management at the CISIR. (author)

  13. Biorefining of by-product streams from sunflower-based biodiesel production plants for integrated synthesis of microbial oil and value-added co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva-Candia, D E; Tsakona, S; Kopsahelis, N; García, I L; Papanikolaou, S; Dorado, M P; Koutinas, A A

    2015-08-01

    This study focuses on the valorisation of crude glycerol and sunflower meal (SFM) from conventional biodiesel production plants for the separation of value-added co-products (antioxidant-rich extracts and protein isolate) and for enhancing biodiesel production through microbial oil synthesis. Microbial oil production was evaluated using three oleaginous yeast strains (Rhodosporidium toruloides, Lipomyces starkeyi and Cryptococcus curvatus) cultivated on crude glycerol and nutrient-rich hydrolysates derived from either whole SFM or SFM fractions that remained after separation of value-added co-products. Fed-batch bioreactor cultures with R. toruloides led to the production of 37.4gL(-1) of total dry weight with a microbial oil content of 51.3% (ww(-1)) when a biorefinery concept based on SFM fractionation was employed. The estimated biodiesel properties conformed with the limits set by the EN 14214 and ASTM D 6751 standards. The estimated cold filter plugging point (7.3-8.6°C) of the lipids produced by R. toruloides is closer to that of biodiesel derived from palm oil. PMID:25930941

  14. Dirac operator on fuzzy AdS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we construct the chirality and Dirac operators on fuzzy AdS2. We also derive the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator which is important in the study of the spectral triple associated to AdS2. It is shown that the degeneracy of the spectrum present in the commutative AdS2 is lifted in the noncommutative case. The way we construct the chirality operator is suggestive of how to introduce the projector operators of the corresponding projective modules on this space. (author)

  15. Dirac Operator on Noncommutative AdS_2

    CERN Document Server

    Fakhri, H

    2003-01-01

    In this article we construct the chirality and Dirac operators on noncommutative AdS_2. We also derive the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator which is important in the study of the spectral triple associated with AdS_2. It is shown that the degeneracy of the spectrum present in the commutative AdS_2 is lifted in the noncommutative case. The way we construct the chirality operator is suggestive of how to introduce the projector operators of the corresponding projective modules on this space.

  16. Dirac operator on fuzzy AdS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Hossein; Imaanpur, Ali

    2003-03-01

    In this article we construct the chirality and Dirac operators on noncommutative AdS2. We also derive the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator which is important in the study of the spectral triple associated to AdS2. It is shown that the degeneracy of the spectrum present in the commutative AdS2 is lifted in the noncommutative case. The way we construct the chirality operator is suggestive of how to introduce the projector operators of the corresponding projective modules on this space.

  17. Dirac Operator on Fuzzy AdS_2

    OpenAIRE

    H. Fakhri; Imaanpur, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we construct the chirality and Dirac operators on noncommutative AdS_2. We also derive the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator which is important in the study of the spectral triple associated with AdS_2. It is shown that the degeneracy of the spectrum present in the commutative AdS_2 is lifted in the noncommutative case. The way we construct the chirality operator is suggestive of how to introduce the projector operators of the corresponding projective modules on this space.

  18. Radius-dependent gauge unification in AdS5

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kiwoon; Kim, Hyung Do; Kim, Ian-Woo

    2002-01-01

    We examine the relation of the 4-dimensional low energy coupling of bulk gauge boson in a slice of AdS5 to the 5-dimensional fundamental couplings as a function of the orbifold radius R. This allows us to address the gauge coupling unification in AdS5 by means of the radius running as well as the conventional momentum running. We then compute the radius dependence of 1-loop low energy couplings in generic AdS5 theory with 4-dimensional supersymmetry, and discuss the low energy predictions whe...

  19. Open Strings on AdS_2 Branes

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Peter; Ooguri, Hirosi; Park, Jongwon; Tannenhauser, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    We study the spectrum of open strings on AdS_2 branes in AdS_3 in an NS-NS background, using the SL(2,R) WZW model. When the brane carries no fundamental string charge, the open string spectrum is the holomorphic square root of the spectrum of closed strings in AdS_3. It contains short and long strings, and is invariant under spectral flow. When the brane carries fundamental string charge, the open string spectrum again contains short and long strings in all winding sectors. However, branes w...

  20. Thermodynamics of Asymptotically Locally AdS Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Papadimitriou, I; Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Skenderis, Kostas

    2005-01-01

    We formulate the variational problem for AdS gravity with Dirichlet boundary conditions and demonstrate that the covariant counterterms are necessary to make the variational problem well-posed. The holographic charges associated with asymptotic symmetries are then rederived via Noether's theorem and `covariant phase space' techniques. This allows us to prove the first law of black hole mechanics for general asymptotically locally AdS black hole spacetimes. We illustrate our discussion by computing the conserved charges and verifying the first law for the four dimensional Kerr-Newman-AdS and the five dimensional Kerr-AdS black holes.

  1. Killing spinors and supersymmetry on AdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we construct several supersymmetric theories on AdS5 background. We discuss the proper definition of the Killing equation for the symplectic Majorana spinors required in AdS5 supersymmetric theories. We find that the symplectic Killing spinor equation involves a matrix M in the USp(2N) indices whose role was not recognized previously. Using the correct Killing spinors we explicitly confirm that the particle masses in the constructed theories agree with the predictions of the AdS/CFT correspondence. Finally, we establish correct O(d - 1,2) isometry transformations required to keep the Lagrangian invariant on AdSd

  2. Determination of Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenols of Wine and Spices: A Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulgentius Nelson Lugemwa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty eight bottles of red wine (Carbanet Sauvignon were randomly selected based on vintage, region, price, and age (number of months in a barrel. The total phenolic content of each wine was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau assay. The radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH assay. Apart from a few bottles that exhibited above average radical scavenging activity and phenolic content, there was no good correlation of those two quantities with region, price or vintage. The average phenolic amount was 2874 mg/L. The lowest phenolic content was found to be 1648 mg/L for an eight dollar wine. Wine with the highest amount of phenol of 4495 mg/L was a 2007, nine dollar bottle from South America. High amount of phenols did not translate into high radical scavenging activity. Barrel-aging did not increase the amount of phenols or the radical scavenging activity of wine. In order to discover new and potent sources of antioxidants from plants, the following spices were studied: ginger, cilantro, cumin, anise, linden, eucalyptus, marjoram, oregano, sage, thyme and rosemary. Whole spices were crushed and extracted for 96 h at room temperature using a combination of ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water in the ratio of 4.5:4.5:1 (v/v/v. The radical scavenging activity of extracts was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH assay. The total phenolic content of each spice was also determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Eucalyptus was found to be the most potent antioxidant with an LC50 of 324.1 mg of phenol/L, followed by marjoram with an LC50 of 407.5 mg of phenol/L, and rosemary with an LC50 of 414.0 mg/L. The least potent antioxidants were ginger and cilantro with LC50 of 7604 mg/L of phenol and 7876 mg of phenol/L, respectively.

  3. Determination of Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenols of Wine and Spices: A Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugemwa, Fulgentius Nelson; Snyder, Amanda L; Shaikh, Koonj

    2013-01-01

    Thirty eight bottles of red wine (Carbanet Sauvignon) were randomly selected based on vintage, region, price, and age (number of months in a barrel). The total phenolic content of each wine was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau assay. The radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Apart from a few bottles that exhibited above average radical scavenging activity and phenolic content, there was no good correlation of those two quantities with region, price or vintage. The average phenolic amount was 2874 mg/L. The lowest phenolic content was found to be 1648 mg/L for an eight dollar wine. Wine with the highest amount of phenol of 4495 mg/L was a 2007, nine dollar bottle from South America. High amount of phenols did not translate into high radical scavenging activity. Barrel-aging did not increase the amount of phenols or the radical scavenging activity of wine. In order to discover new and potent sources of antioxidants from plants, the following spices were studied: ginger, cilantro, cumin, anise, linden, eucalyptus, marjoram, oregano, sage, thyme and rosemary. Whole spices were crushed and extracted for 96 h at room temperature using a combination of ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water in the ratio of 4.5:4.5:1 (v/v/v). The radical scavenging activity of extracts was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The total phenolic content of each spice was also determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Eucalyptus was found to be the most potent antioxidant with an LC50 of 324.1 mg of phenol/L, followed by marjoram with an LC50 of 407.5 mg of phenol/L, and rosemary with an LC50 of 414.0 mg/L. The least potent antioxidants were ginger and cilantro with LC50 of 7604 mg/L of phenol and 7876 mg of phenol/L, respectively. PMID:26784340

  4. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for azoxystrobin in lettuce, spinach, celery, cardoon, spices and rhubarb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, France received an application from the company Syngenta Agro SAS to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance azoxystrobin in lettuce, spinach, celery and cardoon. In order to accommodate for the intended use of azoxystrobin, France proposed to raise the existing MRLs to 15 mg/kg for spinach and similar, lettuces and other salad plants, celery and cardoon. Germany received an application from the plant protection service Landesamt für Landwirtschaft, Forsten und Gartenbau des Landes Sachesen-Anhalt to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance azoxystrobin in spices. In order to accommodate for the intended use Germany proposed to raise the existing MRLs to 0.3 mg/kg for spices/seeds and spices/fruits and berries. Belgium compiled an application to modify the existing MRL for the azoxystrobin in rhubarb. In order to accommodate for the intended use Belgium proposed to raise the existing MRLs to 0.5 mg/kg. France, Germany and Belgium drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals for lettuce, spinach and similar, cardoon, celery, rhubarb and spices. For other crops belonging to the group of lettuce and other salad plants the data were not sufficient to propose a MRL. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of azoxystrobin on the commodities under consideration at the validated LOQ of 0.01 mg/kg. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of azoxystrobin on lettuce, spinach, celery, cardoon, spices and rhubarb will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  5. Conical singularities in AdS space time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In recent years, the study of conformal gauge theories from 10-D has been motivated by the AdSd+1/CFTd correspondence, first conjectured by J. Maldacena. The aim of this work is to consider the d = 4 case by analysing the configuration of the N coincident D3 branes. In this context, the work shows that there is a duality between type IIB string theory in AdS5 x S5 and N = 4 SU(N) Super Yang-Mills Theory in the IR. The AdS5/CFT4 correspondence brought also new approaches to the strong coupling problem in QCD. Nowadays, there is a whole line of works that focus on the low dimensional correspondence AdS4/CFT3, like the application to graphene and topological insulators, and the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence, related with the entanglement entropy. In this work, we consider the vortex configuration solution to the AdS4 and AdS3 space-time. The most important motivation is to discuss the boundary theory resulting from these solutions. We have examined a straightforward approach to a holographic computation of the graphene and entanglement entropy in the presence of the conical singularity. After this analysis, we consider the scalar field in the bulk in the presence of this metrics and work out the compactification modes. Taking the holographic point of view, we study and discuss the resulting Green function. (author)

  6. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chuan Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy-efficient configuration of multihop paths with automatic repeat request (ARQ mechanism in wireless ad hoc networks. We adopt a cross-layer design approach and take both the quality of each radio hop and the battery capacity of each transmitting node into consideration. Under certain constraints on the maximum tolerable transmission delay and the required packet delivery ratio, we solve optimization problems to jointly schedule the transmitting power of each transmitting node and the retransmission limit over each hop. Numerical results demonstrate that the path configuration methods can either significantly reduce the average energy consumption per packet delivery or considerably extend the average lifetime of the multihop route.

  7. Thermodynamics of large AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider leading order quantum corrections to the geometry of large AdS black holes in a spherical reduction of four-dimensional Einstein gravity with negative cosmological constant. The Hawking temperature grows without bound with increasing black hole mass, yet the semiclassical back-reaction on the geometry is relatively mild, indicating that observers in free fall outside a large AdS black hole never see thermal radiation at the Hawking temperature. The positive specific heat of large AdS black holes is a statement about the dual gauge theory rather than an observable property on the gravity side. Implications for string thermodynamics with an AdS infrared regulator are briefly discussed

  8. Supersymmetric Kaluza-Klein reductions of AdS backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, J M; Farrill, Jos\\'e Figueroa-O'; Sim\\'on, Joan

    2004-01-01

    This paper contains a classification of smooth Kaluza--Klein reductions (by one-parameter subgroups) of the maximally supersymmetric anti de Sitter backgrounds of supergravity theories. We present a classification of one-parameter subgroups of isometries of anti de Sitter spaces, discuss the causal properties of their orbits on these manifolds, and discuss their action on the space of Killing spinors. We analyse the problem of which quotients admit a spin structure. We then apply these results to write down the list of smooth everywhere spacelike supersymmetric quotients of AdS_3 x S^3 (x R^4), AdS_4 x S^7, AdS_5 x S^5 and AdS_7 x S^4, and the fraction of supersymmetry preserved by each quotient. The results are summarised in tables which should be useful on their own. The paper also includes a discussion of supersymmetry of singular quotients.

  9. ADS National Programmes: Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ADS related activities within the Netherlands are concentrated at NRG. From 2000 to 2006, NRG supported SCK•CEN in their development of MYRRHA. The support was mainly devoted to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations for the windowless target option. This collaboration was prolonged within the framework of the EU FP6 EUROTRANS project. Eventually this lead to a solution strategy for the hydraulic (without heat transfer) evaluation of a windowless target with one free surface using an Eulerian-Eulerian modeling approach. As a second free surface was added to the target design later, this approach would need to be revisited. The developed approach was applied to an assess the feasibility of a three feeder windowless target design. This preliminary assessment confirmed that there were no serious show stoppers for a three feeder design. Another study undertaken using related to the windowless target was a preliminary assessment of the risk of lead-bismuth splashing in case of a sudden heat deposition by the beam, e.g. at beam startup or beam interuptions. Within the framework of the EU FP7 CDT project, a window target is currently being assessed thermalhydraulicly in collaboration with SCK•CEN. Within the EU FP5 ASCHLIM project, the state of the art with regard to turbulence modelling for CFD approaches was determined. It was concluded that accurate simulation of heat transport in HLM was not feasible, especially in natural or mixed convection regimes. Within the EU FP7 THINS project this issue is currently being treated. NRG assists the commercial CFD code vendor CD adapco in implementing and testing a promising, academically tested, algebraic heat flux model

  10. Chaos and hydrodynamics near AdS$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kristan

    2016-01-01

    We revisit AdS$_2$ holography with the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev models in mind. Our main result is to rewrite a generic theory of gravity near an AdS$_2$ throat as a novel hydrodynamics coupled to the correlation functions of a conformal quantum mechanics. This gives a prescription for the computation of $n$-point functions in the dual quantum mechanics. We thereby find that the dual is maximally chaotic.

  11. Minisuperspace limit of the AdS3 WZNW model

    CERN Document Server

    Ribault, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    We derive the three-point function of the AdS3 WZNW model in the minisuperspace limit by Wick rotation from the H3+ model. The result is expressed in terms of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of the Lie algebra sl(2,R). We also introduce a covariant basis of functions on AdS3, which can be interpreted as bulk-boundary propagators.

  12. Simulated performance of the in-beam conversion-electron spectrometer, SPICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelhut, S., E-mail: ketelhut@triumf.ca [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Evitts, L.J.; Garnsworthy, A.B.; Bolton, C.; Ball, G.C.; Churchman, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Dunlop, R. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Hackman, G.; Henderson, R.; Moukaddam, M. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Rand, E.T.; Svensson, C.E. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Witmer, J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The SPICE spectrometer is a new in-beam electron spectrometer designed to operate in conjunction with the TIGRESS HPGe Clover array at TRIUMF-ISAC. The spectrometer consists of a large area, annular, segmented lithium-drifted silicon electron detector shielded from the target by a photon shield. A permanent magnetic lens directs electrons around the photon shield to the detector. Experiments will be performed utilising Coulomb excitation, inelastic-scattering, transfer and fusion–evaporation reactions using stable and radioactive ion beams with suitable heavy-ion detection. Good detection efficiency can be achieved in a large energy range up to 3500 keV electron energy using several magnetic lens designs which are quickly interchangeable. COMSOL and Geant4 simulations have been used to maximise the detection efficiency. In addition, the simulations have guided the design of components to minimise the contributions from various sources of backgrounds.

  13. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) – A promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Policegoudra; S M Aradhya; L Singh

    2011-09-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view.

  14. Photostimulated luminescence detection and radiation effects on cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) spice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcazzó, J; Sanchez-Barrera, C E; Urbina-Zavala, A; Cruz-Zaragoza, E

    2015-10-01

    The increase of disease borne pathogens in foods has promoted the use of new technologies in order to eliminate these pathogen microorganisms and extend the shelf-life of the foodstuffs. In particular, Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) contains an important number of pathogen microorganisms and it is frequently sterilized by gamma radiation. However, it is important to develop the detection methods for irradiated food in order to keep the dose control and also to analyze the radiation effects in their chemical property. This work reports (i) the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) detection of irradiated cinnamon and thermoluminescence (TL) detection of the inorganic polymineral fraction separated from this spice, and (ii) the proximate chemical analysis carried out on fat, protein and dietetic fiber contents. The detection limits using the PSL and TL methods were 500 Gy and 10 Gy, respectively, and the fat content was increased significantly with the gamma dose that could be related to the lipid oxidation in the cinnamon. PMID:26133665

  15. Variety Is the Spice of Life,And Key to a Healthy Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈法临

    2000-01-01

    选注者言:本文的标题新颖独到。Spice的本义是“调味品”。Variety(变化)既是生活的Spice,又是Healthy Diet(健康食品)之关键(Key)。我们是否可以将这个标题译成:生活多变有滋味食品求杂得健康。“变”和“杂”是生活丰富、食品健康之魂。读者朋友,你是否体验到下句中的介词短语(regardless of…)的强调力量: Overall, a diverse diet appeared to lower the risk of developing colon cancer by35% in men and by 15% in women regardless of exercise, body mass index, familyhistory of colorectal cancer, or alcohol consumption.

  16. The Health Benefits of Selected Culinary Herbs and Spices Found in the Traditional Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Allyson; Marquez, Susan; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2016-12-01

    The Mediterranean diet is considered one of the healthiest diets in the world. This is often attributed to low saturated fat consumption, moderate wine consumption, and high vegetable consumption. However, herbs and spices associated with these diets may also play an important role in the quality of this diet. This review summarizes the most recent research regarding the anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-hypertensive properties of this collection of culinary species. Additionally, this review briefly summarizes studies performed on lesser known herbs from around the world, with the goal of identifying new culinary species that may be useful in the treatment or prevention of diseases. PMID:25749238

  17. Temperature Characteristics Analysis of Triple-Junction Solar Cell under Concentrated Conditions using Spice Diode Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurada, Yuya; Ota, Yasuyuki; Nishioka, Kensuke

    2011-12-01

    Using spice diode model, the temperature characteristics of an InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell under concentrated light conditions were analyzed in detail. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the single-junction solar cells (InGaP, InGaAs, and Ge solar cells) were measured at various temperatures. From dark I-V characteristics of each single-junction solar cell, the diode parameters and temperature exponents were extracted. The extracted diode parameters and temperature exponents were applied to the equivalent circuit model for the triple-junction solar cell, and the solar cell performance was calculated with considering the temperature characteristics of series resistance. There was good agreement between the measured and calculated I-V characteristics of the triple-junction solar cell at various temperatures under concentrated light conditions.

  18. ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF VOLATILE OIL ISOLATED FROM SOME TRADITIONAL INDIAN SPICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuyan Anupam

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the antimicrobial activity of Volatile Oils isolated from Traditional Indian Spices, Anethum Graveolens (Umbelliferae, Foeniculum Vulgare (Umbelliferae and Coriandrum Sativum (Umbelliferae were studied. The isolated Volatile Oils in varying concentrations were studied against Staphylococcus Coagulase, E.Coli, Streptococcus fecaelis and Staphylococcus aureus, by paper disc diffusion method, using Amoxicillin as standard drug.The results indicated that all the Volatile Oil samples from Anethum Graveolens (Dill, Foeniculum Vulgare (Fennel and Coriandrum Sativum (Coriender has antimicrobial potential and were active against almost all the microorganisms but in a dose dependent manner. Foeniculum Vulgare by far was the most potent volatile oil showing the highest activity against Staphylococcus Coagulase.

  19. Mycobiota and identification of aflatoxin gene cluster in marketed spices in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnonlonfin, G. J. B.; Adjovi, Y. C.; Tokpo, A. F.;

    2013-01-01

    only garlic (1 sample) and ginger (4 samples) were naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 ranging from 390 mu g/kg to 1045 mu g/kg respectively. Previous reports have mostly highlighted the risk of mycotoxin exposure from staple crops and vegetables in Africa, but such risks now need to be evaluated......Fungal infection and aflatoxin contamination were evaluated on 114 samples of dried and milled spices such as ginger, garlic and black pepper from southern Benin and Togo collected in November 2008 -January 2009. These products are dried to preserve them for lean periods available throughout the...... year. Fungal contamination was evaluated after plating on selective media with a total of 20 fungal genera identified, ranging from 7 in garlic to 14 in ginger. Ginger and pepper showed high incidence of fungal contamination compared to garlic that had lower levels of fungal contamination. Species of...

  20. Interlaboratory trials of the EPR method for the detection of irradiated spices, nutshell and eggshell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectrometry detection method for irradiated foods is based on the measurement of free radicals produced in the rigid matrices of foods (e.g. bones, shell, seeds). For certain foods, these free radicals are stable over part of all of the shelf-life of the food. As part of the International Atomic Energy Agency coordinated research programme ADMIT (Analytical Detection Methods for Irradiation Treatment of Foods), two trials of an EPR method for spices and nutshell were undertaken. In the second of these trials eggshell was included for testing. This work describes the two ADMIT trials and identifies some essential elements of a protocol for implementation of the EPR method. (author)

  1. Is variety the spice of life? It all depends on the rate of consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Galak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Is variety of the spice of life? The present research suggests that the answer depends on the rate of consumption. In three experiments, we find that, whereas a variety of stimuli is preferred to repetition of even a better-liked single stimulus when consumption is continuous, this preference reverses when the satiation associated with repetition is reduced by slowing down the rate of consumption. Decision makers, however, seem to under-appreciate the influence of consumption rate on preference for (and satisfaction with variety. At high rates of consumption, they correctly anticipate their own, high, desire for variety, but at low rates of consumption people tend to overestimate their own desire for variety. These results complicate the picture presented by prior research on the ``diversification bias'', suggesting that people overestimate their own desire for variety only when consumption is spaced out over time.

  2. Extraction of light filth from oriental fish products containing spice: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, L E

    1993-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to validate a new method for the extraction of light filth from oriental fish products containing spice. A 100 g test portion is digested by boiling in a mixture of HCl, Igepal DM-710, and CO-730. Light filth is isolated by wet-sieving on a No. 230 plain-weave sieve with Tergitol, deaeration boiling in 40% isopropanol, and extracting with mineral oil-heptane (85 + 15) and 40% isopropanol in a Wildman trap flask. Three spiking levels for rat hairs and insect fragments were used in the study. For rat hairs, recoveries at the low, medium, and high levels averaged 80.0, 71.6, and 88.0%, respectively. Recoveries of insect fragments for low, medium, and high levels averaged 87.8, 83.7, and 89.4%, respectively. The method was adopted first action by AOAC International. PMID:8448443

  3. Extraction of light filth from oriental sauces containing soy sauce, thickeners, and spices: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, M J

    1993-01-01

    Results are reported for a collaborative study of a method for the extraction of light filth from oriental sauces containing soy sauce, thickeners, and spices. A 100 g test portion is pretreated in a 2% solution of Tergitol Anionic 4 over a steam bath, and oils are removed by wet-sieving on No. 230 sieve. Filth is isolated from 40% isopropanol by using Na4EDTA and mineral oil. Average recoveries by 9 collaborators for 3 spike levels of rat hairs (5, 10, and 15) were 84, 78, and 79%, respectively; for insect fragments (5, 15, and 30), recoveries were 92, 95, and 96%, respectively. The method was adopted first action by AOAC International. PMID:8448444

  4. Irradiation of onions, spices and enzyme solutions in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive research work in the field of food irradiation has been carried out in the German Democratic Republic in recent years. Technological and economic parameters were studied with the purpose of deciding on the most successful processes and the foods most suitable for irradiation. The main topics of this work were the irradiation of onions, spices and technical enzyme solutions. Different types of gamma irradiation facilities for bulk cargo irradiation, for batch-processing of enzyme solutions and for multipurpose use have been built or are under construction. Technological and economic data obtained by pilot experiments from 1981 to 1984 with 2000 t of onions demonstrate that irradiation is most suitable for sprouting inhibition and as a substitute for the cooling process during storage. Drastic reductions in storage losses and savings of energy are the most important advantages of this new technology. Germ-count reduction in spices and enzyme solutions by irradiation provides better product quality, reduction of product losses, and energy reduction. Over the past four years extensive work has been done in the field of food irradiation as a result of the recommended acceptance of food irradiation up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food (JECFI) in October 1980. The conclusion of JECFI that the irradiation of food up to this dose presents no toxicological hazards is very important for work on the radiation preservation of foods. On the basis of JECFI's recommendations, extensive research work has been carried out in the German Democratic Republic in recent years. On the basis of scientific results obtained by the Institute of Vegetable Production of the Academy of Agricultural Sciences of the German Democratic Republic in co-operation with the Central Institute of Isotope and Radiation Research, onion irradiation was launched in 1981. (author)

  5. Heterocyclic aromatic amines in deep fried lamb meat: The influence of spices marination and sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Jinap; Iqbal, Shahzad Zafar; Talib, Nur Hafiza; Hasnol, N D S

    2016-03-01

    The present study was focused to investigate the effect of selected spices (turmeric, torch ginger, lemongrass and curry leaves) on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HCAs, IQx, MeIQ, MeIQx, DiMeIQx, IQ, harman, norharman, and AαC) in deep fried lamb meat. Meat samples were marinated with optimized levels of turmeric (4 %), 10 % each of torch ginger, lemon grass, curry leaves at medium (70 °C) and well done (80 °C) doneness temperatures. The concentration of HCAs in deep fried meat samples were analysed using LC-MS/MS technique. The results revealed that torch ginger (10 %) has reduced 74.8 % of Me1Qx (1.39 to 0.35 ng/g) at medium doneness, followed by the 64.7 % reduction, using curry leaves and turmeric at medium degree of doneness. Torch ginger has reduced 86.6 % of AαC (2.59 to 0.40 ng/g) at well done doneness. The most prevalence level of HCAs was found in deep fried meat i.e. DiMeIQ (3.69 ng/g) at well done doneness. The sensory evaluation, using a 7 point hedonic test design for colour and texture in deep fried meat samples were resulted in a preferred color of golden brown and slightly tough texture. The use of local spices in marinating of deep fried lamb meat samples will certainly inhibit/reduce the level of these toxic and harmful HCAs. PMID:27570265

  6. Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Content of Some Spices and Herbs under Saudi Arabia Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Mohammed Al-Jasass

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%, black pepper (5.34% and fenugreek (4.51% seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black pepper contain higher protein contents ranging from 26.61 to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91% and clove (6.9%. Crude fiber and ash content ranged from 6.36 to 23.6% and from 3.57 to 7.1%, respectively. All seeds contain high levels of potassium (ranging from 383 to 823 mg/100g, followed by calcium (ranging from 75 to 270 mg/100g, Magnesium (ranged from 42 to 102 mg/100g and iron (ranged from 20.5 to 65 mg/100g. However, zinc, manganese and copper were found at low levels. The major fatty acids in cress and mustard were linolenic acid (48.43% and erucic acid (29.81%, respectively. The lenoleic acid was the major fatty acid in black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove oils being 68.07%, 34.85%, 33.03% and 44.73%, respectively. Total unsaturated fatty acids were 83.24, 95.62, 86.46, 92.99, 81.34 and 87.82% for cress, mustard, black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove, respectively. The differences in the results obtained are due to environmental factors, production areas, cultivars used to produce seeds and also due to the different methods used to prepare these local spices.

  7. Antimicrobial effect of Thai spices against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium DT104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongson, Chitsiri; Davidson, P Michael; Mahakarnchanakul, Warapa; Vibulsresth, Preeya

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential antimicrobial activity of extracts and essential oils of spices from Thailand against foodborne pathogenic bacteria. The antimicrobial efficacy of ginger (Zingiber officinale), fingerroot (Boesenbergia pandurata), and turmeric (Curcuma longa) was evaluated against five strains of Listeria monocytogenes and four strains of Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104. Antimicrobial activity was investigated in microbiological media by using an agar dilution assay and enumeration over time and a model food system, apple juice, by monitoring growth over time. In the agar dilution assay, water extracts of the three spices had no effect on L. monocytogenes. Similarly, 50% ethanol extracts of ginger or turmeric had no effect. In contrast, ethanolic fingerroot extracts at 5 to 10% (vol/ vol) inhibited most L. monocytogenes strains for 24 h in the agar dilution assay. Commercial essential oils (EO) of ginger or turmeric inhibited all L. monocytogenes at < or = 0.6 or < or = 10%, respectively. Fingerroot EO inhibited all strains at < or = 0.4%. In the enumeration-over-time assay, a 5% fingerroot ethanol extract reduced ca. 4 log CFU/ml Listeria by around 2 log in 24 h while 10% inactivated the microorganism in 9 h. Fingerroot EO at 0.2% inactivated 4 log CFU/ml L. monocytogenes in 6 to 9 h. Neither extracts nor commercial EO had any effect on Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 with the exception of fingerroot EO, which inhibited all strains at < or = 0.7%. Addition of 0.2% fingerroot EO to apple juice reduced 4 log of L. monocytogenes Scott A and both strains of Salmonella Typhimurium to an undetectable level within 1 to 2 days. It was concluded that fingerroot EO and extract have potential for inhibiting pathogens in food systems. PMID:16245707

  8. ADS National Programmes: Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belarus activities in the field of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are mainly related to the investigations performed at the subcritical facility YALINA. Yalina is a zero power subcritical facility to study neutronics of ADS and the transmutation reaction rates. The first assembly YALINA-T was put into operation in 2000. YALINA-T is a multiplying system (kmax<0.98), located inside a graphite reflector of parallelepiped configuration that is arranged of high purity reactor graphite blocks. The core of the assembly is of parallelepiped configuration too and consists of bare polyethylene subassemblies where fuel rods of EK-10 type (UO2 of 10% enrichment by U235) are located. At the core center a neutron producing Pb target is located that reminds fuel subassembly by shape and size. Graphite reflector is covered from outside by Cd. At the distances R=50 mm, 100 mm, 150 mm from the core center three experimental channels (D=25 mm) are situated for location of samples of radioactive targets and various detectors for measurement of neutron flux density functionals. For the same purpose two axial channels (D=25 mm) are located in graphite reflector at the distances 250 mm and 358 mm; by Z=H/2 one more radial channel (D=25 mm) is located. YALINA-B core is arranged of rectangular parallelepipeds too. The fast (booster) zone consists of lead subassemblies, the thermal one of polyethylene subassemblies. Central part of the booster zone, containing highly enriched (90%) metallic uranium fuel and Pb target is encased into a separate stainless steel frame. The absorber zone is located at the outer boundary of the booster zone. It consists of inner layer of rods with metallic natural uranium fixed in lead blocks, as in the previous cases, and of an outer layer of rods filled by boron carbide powder, B4C. Boron carbide rods are located in the same lattice as the uranium fuel pins in the booster zone with pin pitch 16.00 mm. This absorber zone enables fast neutrons to

  9. Discrimination in Online Ad Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Latanya

    2013-01-01

    A Google search for a person's name, such as "Trevon Jones", may yield a personalized ad for public records about Trevon that may be neutral, such as "Looking for Trevon Jones?", or may be suggestive of an arrest record, such as "Trevon Jones, Arrested?". This writing investigates the delivery of these kinds of ads by Google AdSense using a sample of racially associated names and finds statistically significant discrimination in ad delivery based on searches of 2184 racially associated person...

  10. Complexity Growth for AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-01-01

    We further investigate the Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture for stationary anti de-Sitter (AdS) black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general $D$-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Ba\\~{n}ados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a new complexity bound but leave unchanged the conjecture that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  11. Constructing the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid: AdS Black holes with Dirac hair

    CERN Document Server

    \\vCubrović, Mihailo; Schalm, Koenraad

    2010-01-01

    We provide new evidence that the holographic dual to a strongly coupled charged Fermi Liquid has a non-zero fermion density in the bulk. We show that the pole-strength of the stable quasiparticle characterizing the Fermi surface is encoded in the spatially averaged AdS probability density of a single normalizable fermion wavefunction in AdS. Recalling Migdal's theorem which relates the pole strength to the Fermi-Dirac characteristic discontinuity in the number density at $\\ome_F$, we conclude that the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid is described by occupied on-shell fermionic modes in AdS. Encoding the occupied levels in the total probability density of the fermion field directly, we show that an AdS Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole in a theory with charged fermions has a critical temperature, at which the system undergoes a first-order transition to a black hole with a non-vanishing profile for the bulk fermion field. Thermodynamics and spectral analysis confirm that the solution with non-zero AdS fermion-profil...

  12. ADS National Programmes: Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German R&D programme for ADS development is related to the partitioning and transmutation of spent fuel. This programme is implemented mainly by the three national research centres belonging to the Helmholtz Association, i.e. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) in cooperation with the Technical University of Aachen (RWTH Aachen) and the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf (HZDR). The main purpose of this R&D programme is the prospect to manage the high level radioactive waste such as to reduce the burden on a final repository. P&T does not eliminate the need for a final repository whatever the strategy, but it allows the reduction of the radio-toxicity associated with radioactive waste, the increase of the repository capacity as a consequence of the reduction of masses to be stored and their associated residual heat load. Different fuel cycle scenarios to implement P&T can be envisaged. These scenarios have been evaluated to identify the impact of P&T on the characteristics, number and deployment pace of the installations of the fuel cycle (reprocessing, fuel fabrication, storage etc). Almost all activities conducted in the R&D programme are embedded in European and international projects and initiatives. In the following more details on the relevant components of the R&D programme are summarized

  13. AdS-Carroll Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, T E

    2016-01-01

    Coset methods are used to determine the action of a co-dimension one brane (domain wall) embedded in (d+1)-dimensional AdS space in the Carroll limit in which the speed of light goes to zero. The action is invariant under the non-linearly realized symmetries of the AdS-Carroll spacetime. The Nambu-Goldstone field exhibits a static spatial distribution for the brane with a time varying momentum density related to the brane's spatial shape as well as the AdS-C geometry. The AdS-C vector field dual theory is obtained.

  14. Influence of ethanol concentration, addition of spices extract, and level of sweetness on physico-chemical characteristics and sensory quality of apple vermouth

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi Vinod K.; Sandhu Danwant K.

    2000-01-01

    The composition of apple base wine was found to be suitable for conversion into vermouth. The spices extract contained more TSS, tannins, esters, volatile acid but lower titrable acid than apple base wine. To optimize and develop apple vermouth with different ethanol concentrations (12%, 15%, 18%), sugar content (4%, 8%) and spices extract (2.5% and 5.0%) was prepared and was evaluated. Significant differences in physico-chemical characteristics and sensory quality amongst the vermouths havin...

  15. Using Spice Circuit Simulation Program in Reliability Analysis of Redundant Systems with Non-Repairable Units and Common-Cause Failures

    OpenAIRE

    Isa Salman Qamber; Muhammad Taher Abuelma'atti

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) in calculating probabilities, reliability, steady-state availability and mean-time to failure of redundant systems with non-repairable units and common-cause failures described by Markov models is demonstrated. General equations and procedure for constructing the equivalent circuit for N parallel units are presented. Results obtained, for N=1,2,3, using SPICE are compared with previously published results obtaine...

  16. Logarithmic AdS waves and Zwei-Dreibein gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the parameter space of Zwei-Dreibein Gravity (ZDG) in AdS3 exhibits critical points, where massive graviton modes coincide with pure gauge modes and new ‘logarithmic’ modes appear, similar to what happens in New Massive Gravity. The existence of critical points is shown both at the linearized level, as well as by finding AdS wave solutions of the full non-linear theory, that behave as logarithmic modes towards the AdS boundary. In order to find these solutions explicitly, we give a reformulation of ZDG in terms of a single Dreibein, that involves an infinite number of derivatives. At the critical points, ZDG can be conjectured to be dual to a logarithmic conformal field theory with zero central charges, characterized by new anomalies whose conjectured values are calculated

  17. Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Exact solutions to Einstein's equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution's appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.

  18. Null warped AdS in higher spin gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Breunhoelder, Veronika; Grumiller, Daniel; Prohazka, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We equip three-dimensional spin-3 gravity in the principal embedding with a new set of boundary conditions that we call "asymptotically null warped AdS". We find a chiral copy of the Polyakov-Bershadsky algebra as asymptotic symmetry algebra, reminiscent of the situation in topologically massive gravity with strict null warped AdS boundary conditions. We prove the invertibility of the map between zuvielbein and metric variables and construct a global gauge transformation to half of AdS spin-3 gravity in the diagonal embedding. This explains why the theory is chiral and why the Polyakov-Bershadsky algebra arises. We then introduce chemical potentials, derive the entropy, free energy, and the holographic response functions, and conclude with a discussion.

  19. Branes in the euclidean AdS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we propose an exact microscopic description of maximally symmetric branes in a euclidean AdS3 background. As shown by Bachas and Petropoulos, the most important such branes are localized along a euclidean AdS2 is contained in AdS3. We provide explicit formulas for the coupling of closed strings to such branes (boundary states) and for the spectral density of open strings. The latter is computed in two different ways first in terms of the open string reflection amplitude and then also from the boundary states by world-sheet duality. This gives rise to an important Cardy type consistency check. All the results are compared in detail with the geometrical picture. We also discuss a second class of branes with spherical symmetry and finally comment on some implications for D-branes in a 2D back hole geometry. (author)

  20. New Massive Gravity and AdS4 Counterterms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS4). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS4 Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS3 gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory.

  1. Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Evnin, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.

  2. All AdS7 solutions of type II supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In M-theory, the only AdS7 supersymmetric solutions are AdS7×S4 and its orbifolds. In this paper, we find and classify new supersymmetric solutions of the type AdS7×M3 in type II supergravity. While in IIB none exist, in IIA with Romans mass (which does not lift to M-theory) there are many new ones. We use a pure spinor approach reminiscent of generalized complex geometry. Without the need for any Ansatz, the system determines uniquely the form of the metric and fluxes, up to solving a system of ODEs. Namely, the metric on M3 is that of an S2 fibered over an interval; this is consistent with the Sp(1) R-symmetry of the holographically dual (1,0) theory. By including D8 brane sources, one can numerically obtain regular solutions, where topologically M3≅S3

  3. Entanglement entropy for free scalar fields in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Sugishita, Sotaro

    2016-01-01

    We compute entanglement entropy for free massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The entangling surface is a minimal surface whose boundary is a sphere at the boundary of AdS. The entropy can be evaluated from the thermal free energy of the fields on a topological black hole by using the replica method. In odd-dimensional AdS, exact expressions of the Renyi entropy S_n are obtained for arbitrary n. We also evaluate 1-loop corrections coming from the scalar fields to holographic entanglement entropy. Applying the results, we compute the leading difference of entanglement entropy between two holographic CFTs related by a renormalization group flow triggered by a double trace deformation. The difference is proportional to the shift of a central charge under the flow.

  4. New massive gravity and AdS(4) counterterms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatkar, Dileep P; Sinha, Aninda

    2011-04-29

    We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory. PMID:21635026

  5. Towards integrability for AdS3/CFT2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the recent progress towards applying worldsheet integrability techniques to the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence to find its all-loop S matrix and Bethe–Yang equations. We study in full detail the massive sector of AdS3×S3×T4 superstrings supported by pure Ramond–Ramond (RR) fluxes. The extension of this machinery to accommodate massless modes, to the AdS3×S3×S3×S1 pure-RR background and to backgrounds supported by mixed background fluxes is also reviewed. While the results discussed here were found elsewhere, our presentation sometimes deviates from the one found in the original literature in an effort to be pedagogical and self-contained. (topical review)

  6. Optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy technique-based immunosensor development for aflatoxin B1 determination in spice paprika samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majer-Baranyi, Krisztina; Zalán, Zsolt; Mörtl, Mária; Juracsek, Judit; Szendrő, István; Székács, András; Adányi, Nóra

    2016-11-15

    Optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) technique has been applied to label-free detection of aflatoxin B1 in a competitive immunoassay format, with the aim to compare the analytical goodness of the developed OWLS immunosenor with HPLC and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods for the detection of aflatoxin in spice paprika matrix. We have also assessed applicability of the QuEChERS method prior to ELISA measurements, and the results were compared to those obtained by traditional solvent extraction followed by immunoaffinity clean-up. The AFB1 content of sixty commercial spice paprika samples from different countries were measured with the developed and optimized OWLS immunosensor. Comparing the results from the indirect immunosensor to that obtained by HPLC or ELISA provided excellent correlation (with regression coefficients above 0.94) indicating that the competitive OWLS immunosensor has a potential for quick determination of aflatoxin B1 in paprika samples. PMID:27283719

  7. Accurate SPICE Modeling of Poly-silicon Resistor in 40nm CMOS Technology Process for Analog Circuit Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lijie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the SPICE model of poly resistor is accurately developed based on silicon data. To describe the non-linear R-V trend, the new correlation in temperature and voltage is found in non-silicide poly-silicon resistor. A scalable model is developed on the temperature-dependent characteristics (TDC and the temperature-dependent voltage characteristics (TDVC from the R-V data. Besides, the parasitic capacitance between poly and substrate are extracted from real silicon structure in replacing conventional simulation data. The capacitance data are tested through using on-wafer charge-induced-injection error-free charge-based capacitance measurement (CIEF-CBCM technique which is driven by non-overlapping clock generation circuit. All modeling test structures are designed and fabricated through using 40nm CMOS technology process. The new SPICE model of poly-silicon resistor is more accurate to silicon for analog circuit simulation.

  8. SPICE modelling of a coupled piezoelectric-bimetal heat engine for autonomous Wireless Sensor Nodes (WSN) power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with an electrical modelling and optimization of a thermal energy harvester dedicated to power autonomous systems. Such devices based on bimetal strips and piezoceramics turn thermal gradients into electricity by a two-step conversion mechanism. This work focuses first on a demonstration of a ST-WSN (GreenNet demonstration platform) supplied by the harvester to validate, for the first time, the harvesters viability. That demonstration focuses attention on the need for an optimized power management circuit for piezoelectric generators able to reach output voltages up to 20 V. The work deals then with the proposal of an equivalent lumped element model of the piezoelectric transducer with its SPICE implementation to enable the optimization of a dedicated power management circuit based on the Pulsed Synchronous Charge Extractor (PSCE). Simulations using the SPICE model and the power management circuit lead to an increased extracted power by 144%

  9. SPICE modelling of a coupled piezoelectric-bimetal heat engine for autonomous Wireless Sensor Nodes (WSN) power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughaleb, J.; Monfray, S.; Vine, G.; Cottinet, P. J.; Arnaud, A.; Boisseau, S.; Duret, A. B.; Quenard, S.; Puscasu, O.; Maitre, C.; Trochut, S.; Hasbani, F.; Di Gilio, T.; Heinrich, V.; Urard, P.; Grasset, J. C.; Boeuf, F.; Guyomar, D.; Skotnicki, T.

    2014-11-01

    This paper deals with an electrical modelling and optimization of a thermal energy harvester dedicated to power autonomous systems. Such devices based on bimetal strips and piezoceramics turn thermal gradients into electricity by a two-step conversion mechanism. This work focuses first on a demonstration of a ST-WSN (GreenNet demonstration platform) supplied by the harvester to validate, for the first time, the harvesters viability. That demonstration focuses attention on the need for an optimized power management circuit for piezoelectric generators able to reach output voltages up to 20 V. The work deals then with the proposal of an equivalent lumped element model of the piezoelectric transducer with its SPICE implementation to enable the optimization of a dedicated power management circuit based on the Pulsed Synchronous Charge Extractor (PSCE). Simulations using the SPICE model and the power management circuit lead to an increased extracted power by 144%.

  10. Logarithmic conformal field theories and AdS correspondence

    OpenAIRE

    Khorrami, A. M. Ghezelbash. M.; Aghamohammadi, A

    1998-01-01

    We generalize the Maldacena correspondence to the logarithmic conformal field theories. We study the correspondence between field theories in (d+1)-dimensional AdS space and the d-dimensional logarithmic conformal field theories in the boundary of $AdS_{d+1}$. Using this correspondence, we get the n-point functions of the corresponding logarithmic conformal field theory in d-dimensions.

  11. AdS black holes as reflecting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use the identification between null singularities of correlators in the bulk with time singularities in the boundary correlators to study the analytic structure of time-dependent thermal Green functions using the eikonal approximation for classical solutions in the AdS black hole background. We show that the location of singularities in complex time can be understood in terms of null rays bouncing on the boundaries and singularities of the eternal black hole, giving the picture of a 'reflecting cavity'. We can then extract the general analytic expression for the asymptotic values of the frequencies of quasinormal modes in large AdS black holes.

  12. AdS black holes as reflecting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Amado, Irene

    2008-01-01

    We use the identification between null singularities of correlators in the bulk with time singularities in the boundary correlators to study the analytic structure of time-dependent thermal Green functions using the eikonal approximation for classical solutions in the AdS black hole background. We show that the location of singularities in complex time can be understood in terms of null rays bouncing on the boundaries and singularities of the eternal black hole, giving the picture of a `reflecting cavity'. We can then extract the general analytic expression for the asymptotic values of the frequencies of quasinormal modes in large AdS black holes.

  13. Smoothed Transitions in Higher Spin AdS Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Shamik; Castro, Alejandra; Hellerman, Simeon; Hijano, Eliot; Lepage-Jutier, Arnaud; Maloney, Alexander; Shenker, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We consider CFTs conjectured to be dual to higher spin theories of gravity in AdS_3 and AdS_4. Two dimensional CFTs with W_N symmetry are considered in the lambda=0 (k --> infinity) limit, where they are conjectured to be described by continuous orbifolds. The torus partition function is computed, using reasonable assumptions, and equals that of a free field theory. We find no phase transition at temperatures of order one; the usual Hawking-Page phase transition is removed by the highly degen...

  14. Small black holes in global AdS spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Jokela, Niko; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2015-01-01

    We study finite temperature correlation functions and quasinormal modes in a strongly coupled conformal field theory holographically dual to a small black hole in global Anti-de Sitter spacetime. Upon variation of the black hole radius, our results smoothly interpolate between known limits corresponding to large black holes and thermal AdS space, implying that a non-Hermitian eigenvalue problem gets continuously transitioned into a Hermitian one. This provides justification for the use of small black holes as regulators in studies of black hole formation in global AdS spacetime.

  15. Phases of Global AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Pallab; Subramanian, P N Bala

    2016-01-01

    We study the phases of gravity coupled to a charged scalar and gauge field in an asymptotically Anti-de Sitter spacetime ($AdS_4$) in the grand canonical ensemble. For the conformally coupled scalar, an intricate phase diagram is charted out between the four relevant solutions: global AdS, boson star, Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and the hairy black hole. The nature of the phase diagram undergoes qualitative changes as the charge of the scalar is changed, which we discuss. We also discuss the new features that arise in the extremal limit.

  16. Phases of global AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Pallab; Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P. N. Bala

    2016-06-01

    We study the phases of gravity coupled to a charged scalar and gauge field in an asymptotically Anti-de Sitter spacetime ( AdS 4) in the grand canonical ensemble. For the conformally coupled scalar, an intricate phase diagram is charted out between the four relevant solutions: global AdS, boson star, Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and the hairy black hole. The nature of the phase diagram undergoes qualitative changes as the charge of the scalar is changed, which we discuss. We also discuss the new features that arise in the extremal limit.

  17. Branes in AdS and pp-wave spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Skenderis, K; Skenderis, Kostas; Taylor, Marika

    2002-01-01

    We find half supersymmetric AdS-embeddings in AdS_5 x S^5 corresponding to all quarter BPS orthogonal intersections of D3-branes with Dp-branes. A particular case is the Karch-Randall embedding AdS_4 x S^2. We explicitly prove that these embeddings are supersymmetric by showing that the kappa symmetry projections are compatible with half of the target space Killing spinors and argue that all these cases lead to AdS/dCFT dualities involving a CFT with a defect. We also find an asymptotically AdS_4 x S^2 embedding that corresponds to a holographic RG-flow on the defect. We then consider the pp-wave limit of the supersymmetric AdS-embeddings and show how it leads to half supersymmetric D-brane embeddings in the pp-wave background. We systematically analyze D-brane embeddings in the pp-wave background along with their supersymmetry. We construct all supersymmetric D-branes wrapped along the light-cone using operators in the dual gauge theory: the open string states are constructed using defect fields. We also fin...

  18. Positivity of energy for asymptotically locally AdS spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, M C N; Cheng, Miranda C.N.; Skenderis, Kostas

    2005-01-01

    We derive necessary conditions for the spinorial Witten-Nester energy to be well-defined for asymptotically locally AdS spacetimes. We find that the conformal boundary should admit a spinor satisfying certain differential conditions and in odd dimensions the boundary metric should be conformally Einstein. We show that these conditions are satisfied by asymptotically AdS spacetimes. The gravitational energy (obtained using the holographic stress energy tensor) and the spinorial energy are equal in even dimensions and differ by a bounded quantity related to the conformal anomaly in odd dimensions.

  19. Perturbative entanglement thermodynamics for AdS spacetime: renormalization

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Rohit; Singh, Harvendra

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of charged excitations in the AdS spacetime on the first law of entanglement thermodynamics. It is found that `boosted' AdS black holes give rise to a more general form of first law which includes chemical potential and charge density. To obtain this result we have to resort to a second order perturbative calculation of entanglement entropy for small size subsystems. At first order the form of entanglement law remains unchanged even in the presence of charged excitations. ...

  20. Genetic and Epigenetic Approaches for the Possible Detection of Adulteration and Auto-Adulteration in Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Spice

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Soffritti; Matteo Busconi; Rosa Ana Sánchez; Jean-Marie Thiercelin; Moschos Polissiou; Marta Roldán; José Antonio Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is very expensive and, because of this, often subject to adulteration. Modern genetic fingerprinting techniques are an alternative low cost technology to the existing chemical techniques, which are used to control the purity of food products. Buddleja officinalis Maxim, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Curcuma longa L., Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. are among the most frequently-used adulterants in saffron spice. Three commercial kits were compare...

  1. LC-PDA-ESI/MS Identification of the Phenolic Components of Three Compositae Spices: Chamomile, Tarragon, and Mexican Arnica

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) and Mexican arnica (Heterotheca inuoides) are common compositae spices and herbs found in the US market. They contain flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates that are potentially beneficial to human health. A standardized LC-PDA-ESI/MS profiling method was used to identify 51 flavonoids and 17 hydroxycinnamates. Many of the identifications were confirmed with authentic standards or through references in the literature or the l...

  2. Characterization of the phenolic and antioxidant profiles of selected culinary herbs and spices: caraway, turmeric, dill, marjoram and nutmeg

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Vallverdú-Queralt; Jorge Regueiro; José Fernando Rinaldi de Alvarenga; Miriam Martinez-Huelamo; Leonel Neto Leal; Rosa Maria Lamuela-Raventos

    2015-01-01

    Culinary herbs and spices have long been considered essentially as flavor enhancers or preservatives, with little attention given to their potential health-promoting properties. Nevertheless, recent research has shown them to be significant dietary sources of bioactive phenolic compounds. Despite noteworthy efforts performed in recent years to improve our knowledge of their chemical composition, a detailed phenolic profile of these plant-based products is still lacking. In the present work, a...

  3. Materials of seminar ''Problem of microbiologic infection of spices and methods for improvement of their hygienic state''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation methods for food preservation by reduction of initial microbiologic infection have been presented on example of spices. The technical aspects of food irradiation, dose control, microbiologic infection control have been shown. The legal aspects and international regulations have been performed. Biological radiation effects in irradiated food have been discussed also from the view point of consumer health hazard. The false public opinion have been rectified by scientific explanation of some basic effects connected with irradiation of food and agriculture products

  4. Reliability and Availability Analysis of Some Systems with Common-Cause Failures Using SPICE Circuit Simulation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Isa Salman Qamber; Muhammad Taher Abuelma'atti

    1999-01-01

    The effectiveness of SPICE circuit simulation program in calculating probabilities, reliability, steady-state availability and mean-time to failure of repairable systems described by Markov models is demonstrated. Two examples are presented. The first example is a warm standby system with common-cause failures and human errors. The second example is a non-identical unit parallel system with common-cause failures. In both cases recourse to numerical solution is inevitable to obtain the Laplace...

  5. Mixed-symmetry fields in AdS(5), conformal fields, and AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Metsaev, R R

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-symmetry arbitrary spin massive, massless, and self-dual massive fields in AdS(5) are studied. Light-cone gauge actions for such fields leading to decoupled equations of motion are constructed. Light-cone gauge formulation of mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows in 4d flat space is also developed. AdS/CFT correspondence for normalizable and non-normalizable modes of mixed-symmetry AdS fields and the respective boundary mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows is studied. We demonstrate that the light-cone gauge action for massive mixed-symmetry AdS field evaluated on solution of the Dirichlet problem amounts to the light-cone gauge 2-point vertex of mixed-symmetry anomalous shadow. Also we show that UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massive AdS field with some particular value of mass parameter evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of long mixed-symmetry conformal field, while UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massless AdS fi...

  6. SPICE-NIRS microbeam: a focused vertical system for proton irradiation of a single cell for radiobiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Teruaki; Oikawa, Masakazu; Suya, Noriyoshi; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Maeda, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Alisa; Shiomi, Naoko; Kodama, Kumiko; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Homma-Takeda, Shino; Isono, Mayu; Hieda, Kotaro; Uchihori, Yukio; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki

    2013-07-01

    The Single Particle Irradiation system to Cell (SPICE) facility at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) is a focused vertical microbeam system designed to irradiate the nuclei of adhesive mammalian cells with a defined number of 3.4 MeV protons. The approximately 2-μm diameter proton beam is focused with a magnetic quadrupole triplet lens and traverses the cells contained in dishes from bottom to top. All procedures for irradiation, such as cell image capturing, cell recognition and position calculation, are automated. The most distinctive characteristic of the system is its stability and high throughput; i.e. 3000 cells in a 5 mm × 5 mm area in a single dish can be routinely irradiated by the 2-μm beam within 15 min (the maximum irradiation speed is 400 cells/min). The number of protons can be set as low as one, at a precision measured by CR-39 detectors to be 99.0%. A variety of targeting modes such as fractional population targeting mode, multi-position targeting mode for nucleus irradiation and cytoplasm targeting mode are available. As an example of multi-position targeting irradiation of mammalian cells, five fluorescent spots in a cell nucleus were demonstrated using the γ-H2AX immune-staining technique. The SPICE performance modes described in this paper are in routine use. SPICE is a joint-use research facility of NIRS and its beam times are distributed for collaborative research. PMID:23287773

  7. Characterization of the phenolic and antioxidant profiles of selected culinary herbs and spices: caraway, turmeric, dill, marjoram and nutmeg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vallverdú-Queralt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Culinary herbs and spices have long been considered essentially as flavor enhancers or preservatives, with little attention given to their potential health-promoting properties. Nevertheless, recent research has shown them to be significant dietary sources of bioactive phenolic compounds. Despite noteworthy efforts performed in recent years to improve our knowledge of their chemical composition, a detailed phenolic profile of these plant-based products is still lacking. In the present work, antioxidant activities and phenolic composition of five herbs and spices, namely caraway, turmeric, dill, marjoram and nutmeg, have been studied. The use of liquid chromatography coupled to LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry enabled the identification of up to 42 phenolic compounds. To the best of our knowledge, two of them, apigenin-C-hexoside-C-pentoside and apigenin-C-hexoside-C-hexoside have not been previously reported in turmeric. Qualitative and quantitative differences were observed in polyphenol profiles, with the highest phenolic content found in caraway. Multivariate statistical treatment of the results allowed the detection of distinctive features among the studied herbs and spices.

  8. AdS (instability: Lessons from the scalar field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallab Basu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We argued in arXiv:1408.0624 that the quartic scalar field in AdS has features that could be instructive for answering the gravitational stability question of AdS. Indeed, the conserved charges identified there have recently been observed in the full gravity theory as well. In this paper, we continue our investigation of the scalar field in AdS and provide evidence that in the Two-Time Formalism (TTF, even for initial conditions that are far from quasi-periodicity, the energy in the higher modes at late times is exponentially suppressed in the mode number. Based on this and some related observations, we argue that there is no thermalization in the scalar TTF model within time-scales that go as ∼1/ϵ2, where ϵ measures the initial amplitude (with only low-lying modes excited. It is tempting to speculate that the result holds also for AdS collapse.

  9. Penrose inequality for asymptotically AdS spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itkin, Igor [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Oz, Yaron, E-mail: yaronoz@post.tau.ac.il [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2012-02-28

    In general relativity, the Penrose inequality relates the mass and the entropy associated with a gravitational background. If the inequality is violated by an initial Cauchy data, it suggests a creation of a naked singularity, thus providing means to consider the cosmic censorship hypothesis. We propose a general form of Penrose inequality for asymptotically locally AdS spaces.

  10. BRST Quantization of String Theory in AdS(3)

    CERN Document Server

    Pakman, A

    2003-01-01

    We study the BRST quantization of bosonic and NSR strings propagating in AdS(3) x N backgrounds. The no-ghost theorem is proved using the Frenkel-Garland-Zuckerman method. Regular and spectrally-flowed representations of affine SL(2,R) appear on an equal footing. Possible generalizations to related curved backgrounds are discussed.

  11. Internet Advertising. Google AdWords versus Facebook Ads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul PAŞCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how to use the applications for Internet advertising, Google AdWords and Facebook Ads. Our attempt is to present the advantages and disadvantages of each of them, the costs and benefits, a useful aspect for companies that plan to start advertising campaigns on the Internet.

  12. Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .

  13. AdS5 backgrounds with 24 supersymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2016-06-01

    We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS 5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D = 11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS 5 × S 5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if gravitational duals for strictly mathcal{N}=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, they are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.

  14. AdS5 Backgrounds with 24 Supersymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, S W; Papadopoulos, G

    2016-01-01

    We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D=11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS_5 * S^5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if strictly N=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, their gravitational dual backgrounds are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.

  15. Study of bioactive compounds in spices (Syzygium aromaticum L, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and Myristica fragrans Houtt) processed by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spices and aromatic herbs are divided into leaves, flowers, bud, seeds bark or dry roots from different plants and it is possible to define them as products of highly flavored vegetal origin that volatize easily when incorporated in small quantities to food products and contribute to its aroma, flavor, color or even to its preservation. Nowadays, people look for its functional properties, bioactive compounds and sensory qualities. A big problem is the reduction of the quantity of these compounds throughout the production chain from the harvest process, storage and distribution. For a long time researchers and industries have concentrated on perfecting the processes of the production chain seeking to guarantee the sanitary and food safety, preserving foodstuffs for a long period and an increase in its lifespan without drastically altering its properties. Due to homemade products and the lack of compliance with good practices in its production chain, the spices can contain a high amount of microbiology causing serious complications to the health of the consumer and the radiation processing is often used for reduce these problems. With this finding, the objectives of this work were: Analyze the oil antifungal properties of spices irradiated with average doses (2.5; 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy); Study the average doses (5 and 10 kGy) and high dose (20 and 30 kGy) effects of gamma radiation 60Co in the bioactive compounds of the spices - cloves, cinnamon and nutmeg; Identify the oils compounds; Identify the volatile compounds in the headspace of the oils and the in natura spices. Identify the compounds of the nonvolatile part of the nutmeg; Identify the chiral compounds of the cinnamon. Comparing the control samples (not irradiated) with the processed at the described doses, regarding the oil antifungal properties it was possible to verify the efficiency and later that the irradiation did not interfered in its efficiency; Regarding to the others tests in this work, the compounds

  16. Tastes of the 'Mongrel' City: Geographies of Memory, Spice, Hospitality and Forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Duruz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines cultural fragments – local places, people’s gestures, stories, tastes, affective landscapes – to map geographies of ‘Africa’ in a historically ‘mixed’ urban Australian neighbourhood. Focusing on a small Ethiopian business, Addis Ababa Café, the article develops an analysis framed by economies of nostalgic flavours and intimations of transnational belonging. Conceptually, the article approaches the question of how different people manage the task of living together in ‘our mongrel cities’ from two directions. Firstly, it reworks Giard’s celebrations of ‘doing-cooking’ as embedded knowledge to argue that, in the postcolonial city, memories and spices together constitutes significant cultural capital for identity-based trading. Secondly, it worries at Derrida’s arguments that hospitality and forgiveness are paradoxical. Do their contradictions actually preclude productive analytical connections, even when connections are haunted by ambivalence? Commensality based on alliances of ‘others’ might question at least ethnocentric assumptions of who offers hospitality, who forgives.

  17. Radiosensitivity of toxigenic Aspergillus isolated from spices and destruction of aflatoxins by gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Soedarman, Harsono (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Centre for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation)

    1989-01-01

    Radiosensitivities of Aspergillus flavus var columnaris isolated from spices were investigated. The D{sub 10} values and induction doses were 267-293 Gy and 75-165 Gy in wet conditions, respectively. In dry conditions, the survival curves were exponential and D{sub 10} values were 538-600 Gy. The survival curves of standard strain of A. parasiticus IFO 30179 were similar both in wet and dry conditions. The necessary dose of 8 kGy for the destruction of these toxigenic Aspergillus was calculated from these values. Two of 11 strains of A. flavus var columnaris produced aflatoxins and the content of B{sub 1} was especially high. In the study of irradiation effect on aflatoxins produced on polished rice, aflatoxins G{sub 1} and B{sub 1} were more radiosensitive than G{sub 2} and B{sub 2}. However, these aflatoxins were very stable to radiation and the dose required for destruction was found to be more than 500 kGy. It is therefore concluded that the decontamination of molds by irradiation is necessary prior to their production of aflatoxins.

  18. Biological studies using mammalian cell lines and the current status of the microbeam irradiation system, SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Iso, H.; Yasuda, N.; Oikawa, M.; Higuchi, Y.; Kato, T.; Hafer, K.; Kodama, K.; Hamano, T.; Suya, N.; Imaseki, H.

    2009-06-01

    The development of SPICE (single-particle irradiation system to cell), a microbeam irradiation system, has been completed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The beam size has been improved to approximately 5 μm in diameter, and the cell targeting system can irradiate up to 400-500 cells per minute. Two cell dishes have been specially designed: one a Si 3N 4 plate (2.5 mm × 2.5 mm area with 1 μm thickness) supported by a 7.5 mm × 7.5 mm frame of 200 μm thickness, and the other a Mylar film stretched by pressing with a metal ring. Both dish types may be placed on a voice coil stage equipped on the cell targeting system, which includes a fluorescent microscope and a CCD camera for capturing cell images. This microscope system captures images of dyed cell nuclei, computes the location coordinates of individual cells, and synchronizes this with the voice coil motor stage and single-particle irradiation system consisting of a scintillation counter and a beam deflector. Irradiation of selected cells with a programmable number of protons is now automatable. We employed the simultaneous detection method for visualizing the position of mammalian cells and proton traversal through CR-39 to determine whether the targeted cells are actually irradiated. An immuno-assay was also performed against γ-H2AX, to confirm the induction of DNA double-strand breaks in the target cells.

  19. Relationship between total phenolic content, antioxidant potential, and antiglycation abilities of common culinary herbs and spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkissoon, Jugjeet S; Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi; Ahmed, Nessar; Subratty, Anwar H

    2012-12-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts and oxidative stress contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. The total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant, and antiglycation properties of crude ethanolic extracts of 10 common culinary herbs and spices from Mauritius were investigated in vitro. Fluorescence at 370 nm/440 nm was used as an index of albumin glycation. Allium sativum had the highest TPC (3.1 mg GAE/mL), whereas Allium cepa L. showed the highest radical scavenging capacity (72%) and Zingiber officinale had the most potent ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP; 2.99 mg AAE/mL). In contrast, Thymus vulgaris and Petroselinum crispum had the most potent antiglycation activity with IC(50) values of 21.8 and 200 mg/mL, respectively. There was no significant correlation between TPC (r=0.001), FRAP (r=0.161), and the antiglycation activity (r=0.034) for the extracts studied. Therefore, the results showed that antiglycation properties of plant-derived extracts cannot always be attributed to their phenolic content or antioxidant potential. PMID:23134460

  20. Radiosensitivity of toxigenic Aspergillus isolated from spices and destruction of aflatoxins by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiosensitivities of Aspergillus flavus var columnaris isolated from spices were investigated. The D10 values and induction doses were 267-293 Gy and 75-165 Gy in wet conditions, respectively. In dry conditions, the survival curves were exponential and D10 values were 538-600 Gy. The survival curves of standard strain of A. parasiticus IFO 30179 were similar both in wet and dry conditions. The necessary dose of 8 kGy for the destruction of these toxigenic Aspergillus was calculated from these values. Two of 11 strains of A. flavus var columnaris produced aflatoxins and the content of B1 was especially high. In the study of irradiation effect on aflatoxins produced on polished rice, aflatoxins G1 and B1 were more radiosensitive than G2 and B2. However, these aflatoxins were very stable to radiation and the dose required for destruction was found to be more than 500 kGy. It is therefore concluded that the decontamination of molds by irradiation is necessary prior to their production of aflatoxins. (author)

  1. Photostimulated luminescence detection and radiation effects on cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) spice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase of disease borne pathogens in foods has promoted the use of new technologies in order to eliminate these pathogen microorganisms and extend the shelf-life of the foodstuffs. In particular, Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) contains an important number of pathogen microorganisms and it is frequently sterilized by gamma radiation. However, it is important to develop the detection methods for irradiated food in order to keep the dose control and also to analyze the radiation effects in their chemical property. This work reports (i) the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) detection of irradiated cinnamon and thermoluminescence (TL) detection of the inorganic polymineral fraction separated from this spice, and (ii) the proximate chemical analysis carried out on fat, protein and dietetic fiber contents. The detection limits using the PSL and TL methods were 500 Gy and 10 Gy, respectively, and the fat content was increased significantly with the gamma dose that could be related to the lipid oxidation in the cinnamon. - Highlights: • Samples of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) were studied by TL and PSL methods. • The cinnamon was detected as irradiated at a dose of 500 Gy using PSL. • TL method shows an excellent linear response for doses lesser than 500 Gy. • A proximate chemical analysis was carried out on fat, protein and dietetic fiber. • The TL and PSL responses can be used for dose control in commercial cinnamon

  2. Spice oils for the control of co-occurring mycotoxin-producing fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juglal, S; Govinden, R; Odhav, B

    2002-04-01

    The effect of nine different oils was evaluated on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and Fusarium moniliforme. The experimental design to examine the inhibition of mycotoxins involved the incorporation of each of seven oils into broth and patty cultures. The fungal mycotoxin was identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Clove oil (eugenol) was the most inhibitory to the growth of A. parasiticus and F. moniliforme, followed by cinnamon (cinnamic aldehyde), oregano (thymol and carvacol) and mace oils (myristin). Neem and eucalyptus oil (cineole) did not affect fungal growth. The feasibility of implementing the results of this study to control mycotoxin toxicity was examined by costoring whole and ground cloves with mycotoxin-infected grain. Addition of both whole and ground cloves markedly reduced the aflatoxin contamination of the grain. These results clearly suggest that commonly occurring mycotoxigenic fungi can be controlled with clove oil (eugenol), thus spice oil successfully inhibited the growth of A. parasiticus and F. moniliforme, regulated the production of fumonisins. and prevented the formation of aflatoxins. The social implication of this finding is that rural communities can prevent the formation of fungal toxins in contaminated grain by simple measures. PMID:11952220

  3. Survey on medicinal plants and spices used in Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelhalim A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to identify medicinal plants and spices used for medicine by the community of Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt. Methods Ethnobotanical data from local people was collected using direct interviews and a semi-structured questionnaire. Results Forty-eight plant species belonging to twenty-seven families and forty-seven genera were encountered during the study. Their botanical and vernacular names, plant parts used and medicinal uses are given. Results of the study were analyzed using two quantitative tools. The factor informant consensus indicated the agreement in the use of plants and the fidelity level indicated the ratio between the number of informants who independently suggested the use of a species for the same major purpose and the total number of informants who mentioned the plant for any use. The results of the factor informant consensus showed that the cardiovascular category has the greatest agreement, followed by the immunological, gastrointestinal and respiratory categories. The most important species according to their fidelity are: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. for the cardiovascular category; Trigonella foenum-graecum L. for the immunological category; Mentha piperita L. for the gastrointestinal category and Pimpinella anisum L. for the respiratory category. Conclusions Medicinal plants are still used for treatment in Beni-Sueif community despite the availability of prescribed medications. Documentation of this ethnomedicinal knowledge is important. Evaluation of pharmacological activity for the promising medicinal plants is suggested.

  4. Antiplatelet principles from a food spice clove (Syzygium aromaticum L) [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, K C

    1993-05-01

    In continuation of our studies on the oil of cloves--a common kitchen spice and a drug for home medicine--we have isolated and identified two antiplatelet components, eugenol and acetyl eugenol. They inhibited arachidonate-, adrenaline- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation; they were more potent in inhibiting aggregation by the first two agonists. Their inhibitory effect was reversible. These components were antiaggregatory by a combination of at least two effects: (i) inhibition of platelet thromboxane formation, and (ii) increased formation of 12-lipoxygenase products (12-HPETE). Though the presence of plasma proteins would reduce the effective concentration of these substances due to binding, the relatively lower amounts of these components which inhibited arachidonate-induced aggregation when compared to their effects on thromboxane production was intriguing. The answer might partly lie in an increased formation of 12-HPETE facilitated by albumin which acts as a 'conduit' to divert free arachadonic acid (AA) from the platelet cyclooxygenase (CO) to the lipoxygenase pathway (22). Based on their IC50 values, it was found that both eugenol and acetyl eugenol were more potent than aspirin in inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by arachidonate, adrenaline and collagen. In arachidonate-induced aggregation eugenol was on a par with indomethacin. It was found that eugenol and acetyl eugenol when used in combination potentiated inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by arachidonate, adrenaline and collagen. This effect was, however, not evident from the metabolism of AA in platelets; when used in combination the two compounds produced an additive effect. PMID:8321872

  5. The PredictAD project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antila, Kari; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Thurfjell, Lennart;

    2013-01-01

    objective of the PredictAD project was to find and integrate efficient biomarkers from heterogeneous patient data to make early diagnosis and to monitor the progress of AD in a more efficient, reliable and objective manner. The project focused on discovering biomarkers from biomolecular data...

  6. Self-dual warped AdS3 black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Ning, Bo

    2010-12-01

    We study a new class of solutions of three-dimensional topological massive gravity. These solutions can be taken as nonextremal black holes, with their extremal counterparts being discrete quotients of spacelike warped AdS3 along the U(1)L isometry. We study the thermodynamics of these black holes and show that the first law is satisfied. We also show that for consistent boundary conditions, the asymptotic symmetry generators form only one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge cL=(4νℓ)/(G(ν2+3)), with which the Cardy formula reproduces the black hole entropy. We compute the real-time correlators of scalar perturbations and find a perfect match with the dual conformal field theory (CFT) predictions. Our study provides a novel example of warped AdS/CFT correspondence: the self-dual warped AdS3 black hole is dual to a CFT with nonvanishing left central charge. Moreover, our investigation suggests that the quantum topological massive gravity asymptotic to the same spacelike warped AdS3 in different consistent ways may be dual to different two-dimensional CFTs.

  7. String theory in AdS3 background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis we study string theory in AdS3 background in the context of AdS/CFT correspondence. We discuss unitarity, modular invariance and closure of operator product expansion (OPE) in the theory. A construction of spacetime conformal field theory from worldsheet affine symmetry due to Giveon, Kutasov and Seiberg is presented. The spacetime CFT has the meaning boundary CFT in AdS/CFT correspondence. The knowledge of two dimensional N extended superconformal algebras is used to construct superstrings on AdS3 x N with extended spacetime supersymmetry. A classification of vacua of superstrings on AdS3 is proposed from the knowledge of superconformal algebras in two dimensions. We present some exact solutions of Kniznik-Zamolodochikov (KZ) equation for SL(2, R) WZNW model for four point functions, which have logarithmic singularities of conformally invariant cross ratios, from a simple ansatz. Some asymptotic solutions with logarithmic behaviour are also presented. We analyze the logarithmic solutions and show that they can give rise to logarithmic operators in the theory. It has been shown by OPE analysis and otherwise that representation with SL(2, R) quantum number j = -1/2 play a very special role. The possibility of contribution oj logarithmic operators to the OPE is discussed. We find that OPE can not close or unitary representations if we include the logarithmic operators in the theory. We discuss the implications of logarithmic operators about the unitarity of the theory. The role of singleton representation is clarified in the context of logarithmic operators in AdS/CFT correspondence. (author)

  8. Hyperchaos, adaptive control and synchronization of a novel 5-D hyperchaotic system with three positive Lyapunov exponents and its SPICE implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidyanathan Sundarapandian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, a twelve-term novel 5-D hyperchaotic Lorenz system with three quadratic nonlinearities has been derived by adding a feedback control to a ten-term 4-D hyperchaotic Lorenz system (Jia, 2007 with three quadratic nonlinearities. The 4-D hyperchaotic Lorenz system (Jia, 2007 has the Lyapunov exponents L1 = 0.3684,L2 = 0.2174,L3 = 0 and L4 =−12.9513, and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension of this 4-D system is found as DKY =3.0452. The 5-D novel hyperchaotic Lorenz system proposed in this work has the Lyapunov exponents L1 = 0.4195,L2 = 0.2430,L3 = 0.0145,L4 = 0 and L5 = −13.0405, and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension of this 5-D system is found as DKY =4.0159. Thus, the novel 5-D hyperchaotic Lorenz system has a maximal Lyapunov exponent (MLE, which is greater than the maximal Lyapunov exponent (MLE of the 4-D hyperchaotic Lorenz system. The 5-D novel hyperchaotic Lorenz system has a unique equilibrium point at the origin, which is a saddle-point and hence unstable. Next, an adaptive controller is designed to stabilize the novel 5-D hyperchaotic Lorenz system with unknown system parameters. Moreover, an adaptive controller is designed to achieve global hyperchaos synchronization of the identical novel 5-D hyperchaotic Lorenz systems with unknown system parameters. Finally, an electronic circuit realization of the novel 5-D hyperchaotic Lorenz system using SPICE is described in detail to confirm the feasibility of the theoretical model.

  9. Observing quantum gravity in asymptotically AdS space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, Slava

    2015-12-01

    The question is studied of whether an observer can discover quantum gravity in the semiclassical regime. It is shown that it is indeed possible to probe a certain quantum gravity effect by employing an appropriately designed detector. The effect is related to the possibility of having topologically inequivalent geometries in the path-integral approach at the same time. A conformal field theory (CFT) state which is expected to describe the eternal anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole in the large-N limit is discussed. It is argued under certain assumptions that the black hole boundary should be merely a patch of the entire AdS boundary. This leads then to a conclusion that that CFT state is the ordinary CFT vacuum restricted to that patch. If existent, the bulk CFT operators can behave as the ordinary semiclassical quantum field theory in the large-N limit in the weak sense.

  10. Smoothed transitions in higher spin AdS gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider CFTs conjectured to be dual to higher spin theories of gravity in AdS3 and AdS4. Two-dimensional CFTs with WN symmetry are considered in the λ = 0 (k → ∞) limit where they are conjectured to be described by continuous orbifolds. The torus partition function is computed, using reasonable assumptions, and equals that of a free-field theory. We find no phase transition at temperatures of order 1; the usual Hawking–Page phase transition is removed by the highly degenerate light states associated with conical defect states in the bulk. Three-dimensional Chern–Simons matter CFTs with vector-like matter are considered on T3, where the dynamics is described by an effective theory for the eigenvalues of the holonomies. Likewise, we find no evidence for a Hawking–Page phase transition at a large level k. (paper)

  11. AdS nonlinear instability: moving beyond spherical symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Oscar J C

    2016-01-01

    Anti-de Sitter (AdS) is conjectured to be nonlinear unstable to a weakly turbulent mechanism that develops a cascade towards high frequencies, leading to black hole formation [1,2]. We give evidence that the gravitational sector of perturbations behaves differently from the scalar one studied in [2]. In contrast with [2], we find that not all gravitational normal modes of AdS can be nonlinearly extended into periodic horizonless smooth solutions of the Einstein equation. In particular, we show that even seeds with a single normal mode can develop secular resonances, unlike the spherically symmetric scalar field collapse studied in [2]. Moreover, if the seed has two normal modes, more than one resonance can be generated at third order, unlike the spherical collapse of [2]. We also show that weak turbulent perturbative theory predicts the existence of direct and inverse cascades, with the former dominating the latter for equal energy two-mode seeds.

  12. Ambitwistors, oscillators and massless fields on $AdS_5$

    CERN Document Server

    Uvarov, D V

    2016-01-01

    Positive energy unitary irreducible representations of $SU(2,2)$ can be constructed with the aid of bosonic oscillators in (anti)fundamental representation of $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R$ that are closely related to Penrose twistors. Starting with the correspondence between the doubleton representations, homogeneous functions on projective twistor space and on-shell $SL(2,\\mathbb C)$ generalized Weyl curvature spinors and their low-spin counterparts, we study in the similar way the correspondence between the massless representations, homogeneous functions on ambitwistor space and, via the Penrose transform, with the gauge fields on Minkowski boundary of $AdS_5$. The possibilities of reconstructing massless fields on $AdS_5$ and some applications are also discussed.

  13. The Mixed Phase of Charged AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyabut Burikham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the mixed phase of charged AdS black hole and radiation when the total energy is fixed below the threshold to produce a stable charged black hole branch. The coexistence conditions for the charged AdS black hole and radiation are derived for the generic case when radiation particles carry charge. The phase diagram of the mixed phase is demonstrated for both fixed potential and charge ensemble. In the dual gauge picture, they correspond to the mixed phase of quark-gluon plasma (QGP and hadron gas in the fixed chemical potential and density ensemble, respectively. In the nuclei and heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies, the mixed phase of exotic QGP and hadron gas could be produced. The mixed phase will condense and evaporate into the hadron gas as the fireball expands.

  14. Semiclassical Virasoro Blocks from AdS$_3$ Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Hijano, Eliot; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River

    2015-01-01

    We present a unified framework for the holographic computation of Virasoro conformal blocks at large central charge. In particular, we provide bulk constructions that correctly reproduce all semiclassical Virasoro blocks that are known explicitly from conformal field theory computations. The results revolve around the use of geodesic Witten diagrams, recently introduced in arXiv:1508.00501, evaluated in locally AdS$_3$ geometries generated by backreaction of heavy operators. We also provide an alternative computation of the heavy-light semiclassical block -- in which two external operators become parametrically heavy -- as a certain scattering process involving higher spin gauge fields in AdS$_3$; this approach highlights the chiral nature of Virasoro blocks. These techniques may be systematically extended to compute corrections to these blocks and to interpolate amongst the different semiclassical regimes.

  15. Semiclassical Virasoro blocks from AdS3 gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River

    2015-12-01

    We present a unified framework for the holographic computation of Virasoro conformal blocks at large central charge. In particular, we provide bulk constructions that correctly reproduce all semiclassical Virasoro blocks that are known explicitly from conformal field theory computations. The results revolve around the use of geodesic Witten diagrams, recently introduced in [1], evaluated in locally AdS3 geometries generated by backreaction of heavy operators. We also provide an alternative computation of the heavy-light semiclassical block — in which two external operators become parametrically heavy — as a certain scattering process involving higher spin gauge fields in AdS3; this approach highlights the chiral nature of Virasoro blocks. These techniques may be systematically extended to compute corrections to these blocks and to interpolate amongst the different semiclassical regimes.

  16. Perturbative entanglement thermodynamics for AdS spacetime: Renormalization

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of charged excitations in the AdS spacetime on the first law of entanglement thermodynamics. It is found that `boosted' AdS black holes give rise to a more general form of first law which includes chemical potential and charge density. To obtain this result we have to resort to a second order perturbative calculation of entanglement entropy for small size subsystems. At first order the form of entanglement law remains unchanged even in the presence of charged excitations. But the thermodynamic quantities have to be appropriately `renormalized' at the second order due to the corrections. We work in the perturbative regime where $T_{thermal}\\ll T_E$.

  17. Universal isolation in the AdS landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Danielsson, U H; Vargas, S C

    2016-01-01

    We study the universal conditions for quantum non-perturbative stability against bubble nucleation for pertubatively stable AdS vacua based on positive energy theorems. We also compare our analysis with the pre-existing ones in the literature carried out within the thin-wall approximation. The aforementioned criterion is then tested in two explicit examples describing massive type IIA string theory compactified on $S^3$ and $S^3\\,\\times\\,S^3$, respectively. The AdS landscape of both classes of compactifications is known to consist of a set of isolated points. The main result is that all critical points respecting the Breitenlohner-Freedaman (BF) bound also turn out be stable at a non-perturbative level. Finally, we speculate on the possible universal features that may be extracted from the above specific examples.

  18. Supersymmetric AdS6 solutions of type IIB supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the general requirement for supersymmetric AdS6 solutions in type IIB supergravity. We employ the Killing spinor technique and study the differential and algebraic relations among various Killing spinor bilinears to find the canonical form of the solutions. Our result agrees precisely with the work of Apruzzi et al. (JHEP 1411:099, 2014), which used the pure spinor technique. Hoping to identify the geometry of the problem, we also computed four-dimensional theory through the dimensional reduction of type IIB supergravity on AdS6. This effective action is essentially a non-linear sigma model with five scalar fields parametrizing SL(3,ℝ)/SO(2,1), modified by a scalar potential and coupled to Einstein gravity in Euclidean signature. We argue that the scalar potential can be explained by a subgroup CSO(1,1,1) ⊂SL(3,ℝ) in a way analogous to gauged supergravity

  19. Supersymmetric AdS6 solutions of type IIB supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the general requirement for supersymmetric AdS6 solutions in type IIB supergravity. We employ the Killing spinor technique and study the differential and algebraic relations among various Killing spinor bilinears to find the canonical form of the solutions. Our result agrees precisely with the work of Apruzzi et al. (JHEP 1411:099, 2014), which used the pure spinor technique. Hoping to identify the geometry of the problem, we also computed four-dimensional theory through the dimensional reduction of type IIB supergravity on AdS6. This effective action is essentially a non-linear sigma model with five scalar fields parametrizing SL(3,R)/ SO(2,1), modified by a scalar potential and coupled to Einstein gravity in Euclidean signature. We argue that the scalar potential can be explained by a subgroup CSO(1,1,1) is contained in SL(3,R) in a way analogous to gauged supergravity. (orig.)

  20. One loop gauge couplings in AdS5

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kiwoon; Kim, Ian-Woo

    2002-01-01

    We calculate the full 1-loop corrections to the low energy coupling of bulk gauge boson in a slice of AdS5 which are induced by generic 5-dimensional scalar, Dirac fermion, and vector fields with arbitrary Z_2 times Z_2' orbifold boundary conditions. In supersymmetric limit, our results correctly reproduce the results obtained by an independent method based on 4-dimensional effective supergravity. This provides a nontrivial check of our results and assures the regularization scheme-independen...